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Full text of "Elocution ; or, Mental and vocal philosophy:"

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ELOCUTION; 



OR, 



MENTAL AND VOCAL PHILOSOPHY: 

INVOLVING THE PRINCIPLES OF 

READING AND SPEAKING; 



AND DESIGNED 



FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND CULTIVATION 



OF 



BOTH BODY AND MIND, 



IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE 



NATURE, USES, AND DESTINY OF MAN: 



ILLUSTRATED BY 



TWO OR THREE HUNDRED CHOICE ANECDOTES ; 

THREE THOUSAND ORATORICAL AND POETICAL READINGS; FIVE THOUSAND 

PROVERBS, MAXIMS AND LACONICS, AND SEVERAL HUNDRED 

ELEGANT ENGRAVINGS. 



BY C. P. BRONSON, A. M., M. D. 



24th EDITION—TWENTY FIFTH THOUSAND. 



LOUISVILLE : MORTON & GRISWOLD. 

NEW YORK*. A. S. BARNES & CO. PHILADELPHIA : THOMAS, 

COWPERTHWAITE & CO., AND GRIGG & ELLIOTT. 
BOSTON : OTIS BROADEES & ~CtP. / 






ADVERTISEMENT. 



THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF THIS SYSTEM. 

Some years ago, the Author was extensively engaged as a Public .Speaker ; 
and, in consequence of the habit of speaking, principally, with the muscles of 
the throat and breast, he finally broke down, — falling senseless, after speaking 
about an hour and a half: that was followed by a protracted illness; during 
which, he providentially discovered the Causes, and also the Remedies, of the dif- 
ficulties under which he had labored ; and now, for months in succession, by the 
aid of these principles, he often speaks from six to ten hours a day, without the 
least inconvenience: the principal cause of which is, that the effort is made 
from the dorsal and abdominal region. Few are aware of the comprehensive 
nature of the principles here partially unfolded ; and probably the Author would 
now be in a similar state, had it not been for the teachings afforded by children 
and Indians. To secure a perfectly healthy distribution of the vital fluids 
throughout the body, and a free and powerful activity of the mind, there must 
be a fall and synchronous action in the brain, the lungs, and the viscera of the 
abdomen; the soul operating, naturally, on the dorsal and abdominal muscles, 
and thus setting in motion the whole body. 

That he was the first to teach the specific use of those muscles, for a healthy 
breathing, and the exercise of the vocal organs, as well as blowing on wind in- 
struments for hours together, without injury, he has not the least doubt; and, if 
any person will produce evidence to the contrary, from any medical writer, or 
teacher of elocution, previous to 1830, he shall be handsomely rewarded. The 
time is fast approaching, when this, and its kindred subjects, will be duly ap- 
preciated ; and it will be seen and felt, that without a practical knowledge of 
these important principles, no one can become a successful speaker, or teacher : 
and the opinion is advisedly expressed, that they will produce as great a revo- 
lution in regard to the promotion of health, the art of reading and speaking with 
science and effect, and the perfect development and cultivation of mind, voice, 
and ear, — as the discovery of the mariner's compass, or the invention of the 
steam engine, in navigation, manufacture, and travel ; — and, to be the medium 
of introducing such a system, by which so many thousands have been greatly 
benefited, and hundreds of lives saved, is the occasion of devout gratitude to the 
Infinite Author of all that is good and true. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1845, by C. P. Bro^son, 
In the Clerk's office for the District Court of Kentucky. 



Stereotyped by J. A. James, Cincinnati. 
Printed by Morton & Griswold, Louisville, Ky 



See the last Page. 



sH 



3 

Testimonials and References. Ition, combined with other causes, produced branch 

Five classes were formed in the Academical de- ti9 ' **>*» wh / ich T hav . e b f. en suffering more than 18 

partmcnt of Yale College, and tbree in the Theolog- month;.. By your ^directions I can speak and sing 

ical Department. The following is an extract from | [^7 without irritating my threat. My voice has 

the testimonials of the latter 



Resolved, That we consider his system exceeding- 
ly well adapted to develop and train the voice, and 
give expression to the passions ; and we believe it 
calculated to promote the health of public speakers. 
Being persuaded that we have derived essential ad- 
vantage from his instructions, we hereby express 
our thanks for the assiduity and skill with which he 
has directed us in our practice, and most cordially 
recommend him to the patronage of all who would 
cultivate their voices with a view to public speaking. 
Extract — From Professors of Princeton College 
and Theological Seminary, N. J. — We have had good 
opportunities for witnessing the success ofMr. Bran- 
son. His method of using the organs of speech with 
most advantage, is preferable to any we have known. 
He is distinguished from other teachers of elocution 
by the fact, that instead of trying to impart his own 
style of declamation, he aims at cultivating the voice, 
and then leaves the pupil to nature. 

Extract. — From the Rev. Mr. Bingham, Marietta, 
O. to Professor Stuart, Andover, Mass. — " Will you 
permit me to introduce to your acquaintance, Prof. 
Branson, a popular and successful Lecturer on Elo- 
cution. He has been for some time past, lecturing 
to the Professors and students in this College. As 
a Lecturer on Elocution I have never seen his supe 
rior. Our Professors, who have been under the in 
struction of Dr Barber, say the same. He has made 
his subject one of very thorough study — and, what 
is best of all, he has studied Nature. 

Extract — From the Facultv of Marietta College 
Ohio.—" Prof. Branson has just closed a very suc- 
cessful course of instruction on Elocution in this in- 
stitution. The principles which he teaches appear 
to be founded on a philosophical view of man. His 
illustrations are copious and pertinent ; and in his la 
bors to train the voice and develop and cultivate 
the affections and passions he is indefatigable. His 
whole course of instruction is marked by a rigid 
deference to Natnre, and is truly simple and unaf- 
fected. We take pleasure in recommending him to 
an intelligent community. 

Prof Bronson is a gentleman of much original- 
ity of thought, extensive reading and remarkable 
powers. His Lectures, beyond the charm of novel- 
ty, are very interesting. — Albany Evening Journal 
We warmly recommend Prof. Branson's reading 
and recitations to the attention of all those who are 
partial to effectual and powerful elocution. They 
are an excellent substitute for dramatic exhibitions 
—Daily Signal, N. Y 

We feel anxious that a knowledge of Mr. Branson's 
pecular views should be extended, believing them 
highly important, not only in juvenile education, 
bat to the professional speaker. — National Gazette, 
Philadelphia. 

Prof. Bronson's new theory in relation to the sci- 
ence of Elocution, is, in our judgment, founded in 
truth, the author being a practical illustration of the 
soundness of his doctrine. — Oneida Whig, (Utica) 
N. Y. 

From the Philadelphia Daily World. 
We render no more than justice in pronouncing 
Prof Bronsoa's Recitations the best we ever heard. 
His recitation of •' The Maniac, " by Lewis, was 
terrific. We never before saw confirmed, hopeless 
raving insanity so thorougly counterfeited by any 
actor. In the course of his recitations he explains 
his discoveries (for such they are,) in Elocution. 

From the Rev. Mr. Cook, of Hartford, Conn , 
who received only twelve lessons. 

Prop. Bronson — Dear Sir — My Physician, Dr. 
Sherwood, of N. Y., directed me to you for aid in 
recovering the use of my voice. A habit of speaking 
solely with the muscles of my breast and throat, 
attributable in part at least to Dr. Barbers instruc- 



its natural tone and compass ; and I have the de- 



lightful prospect of soon resuming my accustomed 
labors 

" Professor Bronson's Recitations are the best we 
ever heard."— National Intelligencer. 

Prof Bronson's Lectures and Recitations, have 
given universal delight. — Louisville Journal. 

" The Recitations of Mr. Bronson, are almost per- 
fect." — Baltimore Atheneum and Visitor. 

" Mr. Bronson's success has been most complete. 
— U. S. Gazette. 



" Mr. B. exhibits with surprising ease and power 
the wonderful capabilities of the human voice, and 
illustrates convincingly the practibitity and impor- 
tance of cultivating its powers. — Teachers, public 
speakers, and the youth of both sexes, should avail 
themselves of this opportunity.'' — Newark Adv. 

" His superior as a speaker, we have yet to meet, 
either at the bar, in the pulpit, or on the floor of a 
legislative body." — Ohio Stale Journal, Columbus, 

A lady, (Mrs. G. of Boston,) says — "Having been 
much injured by tight lacing when very young and 
also by keeping in a bent position at school for years, 
I was bent forward in such a manner as to suppose 
I was afflicted with permanent distortion of the spine. 
Still I resolved to join the class, and prove the truth 
or falsehood of professor B's. predictions, that I 
should become straight by faithfully attendiner to 
the principles. In a few days lwas restored.'' 

.Extract. — Letter from a distinguished lady in 
Boston. "Prof. Bronson ; Sir— I wish to express to 
you my grateful acknowledgements for the great 
benefit! have received from your system. I have 
for many years been afflicted with extreme weakness 
of the lungs, which fatigue, either in exercise, con- 
versation or reading, produced not only hoarseness, 
but loss of voice I have found, upon . trial, my ex- 
pectations more than realized. I can how, with per« 
feet ease, converse, or read aloud, hour after hour 
without the least fatigue. 

At the close of his Lectures in the Apollo, the 
following resolution was unanimously adopted by a 
crowded house of ticket-holders : 

Resolved, That the thanks of the members ofthi3 
meeting be presented to Prop. Bronson for his 
successful efforts (in connection with Mr. F. H. 
Nash, his Assistant,) to interest; amuse and instruct 
them. They conclude, by expressing their high ad- 
miration of Prof Branson's sincerity, zeal and abi- 
lity in the cause of truth and humanity, and tende- 
ring to him their best wishes, that success and 
prosperity may attend him in his noble and gene- 
rous enterprise. AMOS BELDEN, Chairman. 

E. Parmly, Secretary.* 1 

At a meeting of the Classes, the Rev. Charles 
G. Sommers, Chairman, and Dr. Amos Johnson, 
Secretary, the following Resolution was unani- 
mously adopted : 

Resolved, That the Ladies and Gentlemen, who 
have attended a series of Lessons and Lectures, by 
Prof. Bronson, on Elocution, Music and Physiolo- 
gy, feel great pleasure in expressing their high 
sense of his urbanity, uncompromising regard for 
truth, as the basis of Religion and sound Philoso- 
phy ; as well as their entire belief that his method 
of imparting knowledge is as natural and interest- 
ing, as it is novel; and that it is admirably calcula- 
ted to promote the health of the Body, and the im- 
provement of the Mind. The Classes desire also to 
express their indebtedness to Mr. Nash, Prof. B.'s 
accomplished Associate, whose critical knowledge 
of Vocal Science, so happily connected with un- 
usual Melody and Power of Voice, eminently qua! 
fies him for an Instructor in Music. 



PREFACE 
TO THE FIFTH EDITION 



In this work, the Author has given some of the results of his study and 
practice, in the department of Mental and Vocal Philosophy, for the last 
fifteen yqars. Persons, who are familiar with the subjects discussed, can 
see how much he is indebted to books, and how much to investigation and 
experience. "Whatever is good and true in it, belongs to all ; for it is 
from above. If there be anything false and evil, the Author holds him- 
self responsible for it. His endeavor has been, to furnish a book, which 
may be useful to every one. He believes that a greater variety will be 
found in this, than in any other work on the subject ; — a variety, too, which 
will induce deep and careful thinking, and right feeling ; and which tends 
directly, to the end in view, to wit : the development and application, of 
those principles of Mind and Voice, which the Author has been engaged 
in practicing and teaching, in our principal towns and cities, and Institutions 
of Learning : notices of which may be seen among the accompanying tes- 
timonials. 

This work is an abridgment of what the Author has written, in three 
connected, yet separate volumes, as yet unpublished, embracing the sub- 
jects of Body and Mind, their natures, relations, and destinies : the work, 
next in order, is Physiology and Psychology, which, it is expected, will 
be published the coming year. 

One reason why no more quotations are made from the Bible is, that the 
Sacred Volume is nearly ready for the press, — prepared with such a no- 
tation as will aid the reader, to pronounce and emphasize it, at sight — it 
being both a Pronouncing and Rhetorical Bible : it was commenced sev- 
eral years ago, at the request of clergymen and others, who have attended 
the Author's Biblical Readings and Recitations ; and would probably have 
been laid before the public before this, but for the destruction of a portion 
of it by fire. 

The following work is now " cast upon the waters," in a stereotyped 
form, not likely soon to be changed. An affectionate Teacher's kindest 
regards to his Pupils, and respects to a candid and generous public. 

New York, 1845. 



PHYSIOLOGICAL INTRODUCTION. 



1. E-7ery Art, and Science, has its Externals, 
and its Internals, its Generals and Particulars; 
which must be understood Analytically, and Syn- 
thetically, if we would practice either successful- 
ly. The Internals of Elocution, are Thoughts 
and Feelings, and its Externals comprise all that 
is addressed to our five senses : its Generals are 
Mind and Body, with their various Languages, 
or modes of manifestation. Comparatively, Lan- 
guage—is the Tune, Body— the Instrument, and 
Mind— the Performer: hence, the necessity of 
becoming acquainted, theoretically and practi- 
cally, with their Natures, Relations and Uses. 
H. As the subjects of Mind and Language, 
are partially unfolded in the following work, in 
this part, something must be said of the Body, 
the harp of ten thousand strings : particularly in 
regard to structure, position, and the organs to be 
used for the production and modification of 
sounds, in Speech and Song : also of Gestures, 
or Actions ; illustrated by appropriate Engravings, 
which may be imitated by the Pupil, for the pur- 
pose of bringing the Body into subjection to the 
Mind; without, however, any reference to spe- 
cific Recitations, — lest he should become artifi- 
cial, instead of natural. 

3. The more we contemplate Man, the more 
we see and feel the truth, that he is a Microcosm 
indeed ; a minature-world, — an abstract of crea- 
tion, — an epitome of the universe, — a finite repre- 
sentation of the Infinite Deity ! Well saith the 
heathen motto, " Know thyself !" and the poet— 
" The proper study of mankind— is Man." 
And it may truly be said, that there is nothing 
in the Mineral, Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms, 
that cannot be found, essentially, in the human 
body ; and nothing in the world of Mind, that is 
not shadowed forth in his spiritual nature : hence, 
the grandeur, the magnificence — of our subjects, 
and our objects. 

4r. The three grand essentials of the Body pro- 
per, are the Osseus, or bony system, which fixes 
its form, and gives it stability : the Muscular, or 
fleshy system, which is designed to act on the 
Osseus ; and Nervous system, acting on the Mus- 
cular : while the Mind, acts on and through the 
Nervous ; receiving its life and power from Him, 
who is emphatically "THE LIFE : : ' thus, we can 
look through Nature, up to Nature's God. Ob- 
serve, the Analytical course is from outermosts to 
innermosts, from effects to causes ; and the Syn- 
thetical progress from innermosts to outermosts ; 
or from causes to effects. 

5. Nerves of Organic Life. Every thing 
must have a beginning : and nothing is made per- 
fect at once. Now in the body, there is a cer- 
tain portion, called Nerves of Organic Life ; be- 
cause they are the first formed, and constitute 
the grand medium, through which the soul builds 

A 



up the Body, with the materials, furnished by the 
external world. The Soul is the architect, and 
the body its 
workmanship. 
Here is a good 
representation of 
this nervous 
mass, which is a 
kind of brain, 
(or series of 
brain,) that pre- 
sides over those 
glands, or work- 
shops, that take 
charge of the 
food, digest it, 
and watch over 
its changes, till 
it is made into 
blood, and then 
appropriated to 
the body. The 
nervous centre, 
called Semilunar 
Ganglion and So 
lar Plexus, may 
be seen at a, a, a, 
a; it is situated 
under the dia- 
phragm and part- 
ly behind the 
stomach : other 
subordinate cen- 
tres may be seen 
at e, e, e, e; also 
in other places, 
that need not be 
designated, as 
they are very 
numerous : these 
centres are like 
miner posts in a 
state, or king- 
dom. At *, ia 
seen a pair of 
chords, called trisplanchnic nerves : and at o, o, 
are seen other nerves, with their little brains, oi 
centres, where they come together, forming a lino 
along the spine, from the bottom of the chest, tc 
the top of the neck. From this large collection 
of Organic Nerves, others proceed to every pan 
of the system, uniting in smaller centres, and 
forming ganglions in the palms of the hands, 
balls of the fingers, &c. Our Astronomical sys- 
tem is called the Solar System, because the Sun 
is its centre, watching over our planets ; so, of 
these nervous centres of the grand and smaller 
departments of our miniature-universe. Owing 
to the intimate connection of these nerves with 




VI 



PHYSIOLOGICAL INTRODUCTION. 



their numerous centres, and with the nerves of 
the whole body, they are sometimes called the 
Great Sympathetic Nerves, and Nerves of Vege- 
table Life. There are three orders of these 
Nerves : one going to the blood-vessels and other 
parts of the vascular system ; one to the contrac- 
tile tissues or muscles of involuntary motion: 
and one to the nerves of organic sensation, con- 
veying the impressions made on the organs. 




6. In this view of the Nerves of Respiration, 
(originating in the Medulla Oblongata, which is an 
extension of the Cerebellum, (&,) or seat of Volun- 
tary Motion, and of the Cerebrum, (a,) or seat of 
Rationality,) may be seen the nerve (c.) that goes 
to the Diaphragm (f ,) and is concerned in the office 
of breathing, which generally acts without the aid 
of the Will ; but yet is controllable by the Will, to 
a certain extent; for we may breathe fast or slow, 
long or short. Next above this, is the Spinal Ac- 
cessory Nerve, used in moving the breast, &c, in 
respiration; one of its fellow roots goes to the 
tongue,^,) and is concerned in mastication, swal- 
lowing, speaking, &c. [Some nerves are thrown 
back, the better to be seen.] Next in order is the 
pneumosgastric, or lungs-and-stomach nerve (/, 
g, h,) which sends a branch to the meat-pipe, la- 
rynx and wind-pipe, («,) also to the cardiac, or 
heart plexus, just above, and a little at the right 
of (g) ; a recurrent branch goes to the larynx, &c; 
sther branches go to the face, to exhibit the feelings. 
All interweave, and bring the vocal organs into 
important relations with the heart and lungs, with 
feelings and thoughts ; while the main body goes 
o the stomach, and unites with the great centre 



of organic life, or solar plexus. The roots of these 
nerves are in the cerebellum, the seat of motion, 
a receptacle of life. Now, we see why intensity 
of thought, carking cares, &c, impede respiration, 
and infringe on the laws of health, for want of the 
proper co-operation with the nerves of organic 
life ; inducing dyspepsia, and even consumption ; 
hence, the painful mode of teaching children to 
read by a book : away with this false system, un- 
less you would inhumanly sacrifice the rising gen- 
eration on the altar of evil ; let the ear, or right 
feeling predominate : please work out the whole ; 
for you can do it : a hint is sufficient for those who 
think. 




7. Here is an excellent representation of the 
Nerves of Voluntary Motion, and of Sense, which, 
with the nerves of Organic Life, and the Respira- 
tory Nerves, constitute the inmosts of the body; 
also, a posterior, or back view, of the two brains, 
which is the seat of the Mind, the constituents of 
which, are Will and Understanding. The letter 
c, indicates the cerebrum, or large brain, where 
the Understanding, Rationality, or thought is lo- 
cated; and cv, the cerebellum, or little brain, 
under, and adjoining the cerebrum, where the 



PHYSIOLOGICAL INTRODUCTION. 



Vll 



Horizontal black line is: here is the seat of the 
Will, Affections, Passions or Emotions ; also the 
seat of the Motive power of the body ; and from 
these proceed the spinal marrow, {me,) enveloped 
in three different membranes, lying in the hollow 
of the back bone, and branching off by thirty pairs 
of spinal nerves into a great many ramifications 
over every part of the body; pb, the brachial 
plexus, a reunion or assemblage of the different 
nerves distributed to the arms, or upper extremities; 
and ps, the plexus, or folds of nerves, that form 
the great sciatic nerves, descending to the legs, 
or lower extremities. From the spinal marrow, 
tire nerves arise by two sets, or bundles of roots ; 
the front (anterior,) one serving for motion, and 
the back (posterior,) are the nerves of feeling, or 
sensibility. Now, in all voluntary actions of the 
body, whether reading, speaking, singing, or 
working, there should be a perfect harmony and 
co-operation of the Organic Nerves, Respiratory 
Nerves, and Motary Nerves; hence, the volun- 
tary effort must be made from the abdomen, where 
is the great centre of Organic Nerves, in connec- 
tion with those of Respiration. 

8. Here is a 
striking view 
of the Muscu- 
lar, or fleshy 
portions, that 
form the me- 
dium of com- 
munication 
between the 
Nerves and 
the Bones : 
there are sev- 
eral hundreds, 
acting on the 
bones like 
ropes on the 
masts of ships: 
let them be 
trained in per- 
fect subjection 
to the Soui, 
through ths 
Mind ; so thai 
whatever is 
felt & thought, 
may be bodied 
forth to the life. 
Now let us put 
these three 
systems, the 
Nerves, Mus- 
cles and 
Bones, togeth- 
er, and con- 
template the 
whole as a 
unit, bound up 
in the skin, 
and acting in 
obedience to its rightful owner, the Mind; while 
that mind is subservient to the Creator of mind. 




9. We now descend to the hard parts of the 
body, which have the least of life in them. This 
is a very correct representation of the Osseous 
system, or the bony parts which may be aptly 




called the basis, or foundation, of the splendid 
temple we live in; which is three stories high; 
viz. the cavity below the diaphragm, the one above 
it, and the skull. Examine, minutely, each part, 
the situation and attachment of the different bones 
of the head, the five short ribs, and the seven long 
ones, the breast-bone, &c. In a complete human 
frame, there are 250 bones: they afford us the 
means of locomotion. Do you see any analogy 
between the body and language ? 

10. Zoology— (the doctrine or science of life,) 
is a necessary element of education. Whose cu- 
riosity has not been excited by the innumerable 
living beings, and things, with which we are sur- 
rounded? Is it not desirable to scrutinize their 
interiors, and see how they are made, and under- 
stand their various uses? Look at a man, a fish, 
a spider, an oyster, a plant, a stone ; observe their 
differences, in many respects, and their similari- 
ties in others: they all have essence, form, use. 
The tendency of the study of the three kingdoms 
of nature, the Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral, 



Vlll 



PHYSIOLOGICAL INTRODUCTION. 



is to emancipate the human mind from the dark- 
d slavery of ignorance, into the light and 
liberty of rational humanity. The things of the 
Animal kingdom live, and move from an interior 
power: those of the "Vegetable kingdom grow; 
and those, of the Mineral kingdom do not live or 
grow ; they simply exist. 

11. Three objects are designed by this engra- 
ving : first, to show the body, clothed in its own 
beautiful envelop, the skin, which is the conti- 
nent of our most wonderful piece of Mechanism : 
second, to call attention to the fact, that it is full 
of pores, or little holes, through which passes out 
oi" our systems more than half of what we eat 




Ah 
In 



and drink, in the" form of what is called insensi- 
ble perspiration, which is indicated by the cloudy 
mist, emanating from every part of the surface ; 
and as our bodies wear out, by degrees, and are 
renewed every seven years, and the skin being 
the principal evacuating medium for the worn-out 
particles of the system; the great importance 
of keeping it in a clean, and consequent healthy 
condition, by daily washing in soft cold water, 
must be evident to every one of reflection, it be- 
ing the safety-valve of the body : and thirdly, to 
indicate a higher truth, that of the passing off of 
a subtle and invisible fluid from the mind, in ac- 
cordance with its state ; which is often perceived 
when certain persons are present; also when 
powerful speakers are pouring forth their highly 
wrought affections, and brilliant thoughts ; so as 
to give the mind a kind of ubiquity, co-extensive 
with their tones and audible words, ruling im- 
mense audiences with absolute sway, and de- 
monstrating the power of truth and eloquence. 

Animals and Plants increase by nutrition: 
Minerals by accretion. In infancy, we weigh 
but a few pounds : at adult age, we exceed one 
hundred pounds. Whence, but from foreign sub- 
stances, are the materials of which our organs 
are composed? In sickness, extreme emaciation 
proves that our bodies may lose a portion of their 
bulk, and give back to the world what was once 
itB own. Thus, conrposition and decomposition, 



constituting the nutritive function of which living 
bodies are the centre, are revealed to us by evi- 
dences too plain to be misunderstood : may we have 
power to appreciate them, being assured that all 
truths are in perfect harmony with each other. 

13. Here is a representation of the Human 
Form clothed and engaged in some of the uses 
of Elocution. But it is necessary to enter more 




into the particulars of our subject ; which is done 
in the succeeding parts of this introduction : how- 
ever, let the reader bear in mind, that only the out- 
lines of subjects are given in the book, designed 
for such as are determined to dig for truth and 
eternal principles, as for hidden treasures ; 
whose motto is " Press On." 

Animals and Plants endure for a time, and 
under specific forms, by making the external 
world a part of their own being ; i. e. they have 
the power imparted to them of self-nourishment, 
and when this outward supply ceases they die, 
having completed their term of duration : hence, 
death, to material existences, is a necessary con- 
sequence of life. Not so with minerals: they ex- 
ist so long as external forces do not destroy them : 
and if they increase, it is simply by the juxtapo- 
sition of other bodies ; and if they diminish, it is 
by the action of a force, or power, from with- 
out. Has not every thing its circle? How in- 
teresting must be the history of all things, ani- 
mate and inanimate ! Oh that we had eyes to see, 
and ears to hear, every thing that is manifested 
around us, within us, and above us ! 

13. If we would have the Mind act on the 
Body, and the Body react on the Mind, in an or- 



PHYSIOLOGICAL INTRODUCTION. 



IX 



derly, and, consequently, beneficial manner, it is 
necessary that the body be in a natural and up- 
right position. The following engraving repre- 
sents the Thorax, or Chest, which contains the 
Heart and Lungs ; and reason teaches, that no or- 
gans should be in the least infringed upon, either 
by compressions, or by sitting in a bent position. 
The Lungs are reservoirs for the air, out of which 
we make sounds, by condensation. All are fami- 
liar with the hand-bellows: observe the striking 
analogy between it and the body, in the act of 
speaking, singing and blowing. The wind-pipe is 
like its nosle, the lungs like the sides, and the ab- 
dominal and dorsal muscles, like its handles ; of 
course, to blow with ease and power, one must 
take hold of the handles; to speak and sing right, 
the lower muscles must be used ; for there is only 
one right way of doing anything. 

Larynx, . . . 



Wind-pipe, . . . 

Collar bone, . . 
Bronchia, . . , 
Heart & Lungs, 

7 Long Ribs, . . 
Diaphragm, . . , 
5 Short Ribs, . , 
Dorsal and 
Abdominal 
Muscles 




14t. This is a view of a well developed and 
naturally proportioned chest ; with space for the 
lungs, the short ribs thrown outwardly, affording 
ample room for the free action of the organs : it is 
the true model of the form of one who would live 
to a good old age. 

15. Tight Dressing. No one can enjoy good 
health, or perform any kind of labor with ease, or 
read, speak, or sing, when the thorax is habitual- 
ly compressed. It diminishes the capacity of the 
lungs, for receiving the necessary quantity of air 
to purify the blood, and prevents the proper action 
of the diaphragm. The following engraving shows 
the alarming condition of the chest, when com- 
pressed by tight lacing ; a practice that has hur- 
ried, and is now hurrying, hundreds of thousands 
to a premature grave ; besides entailing upon the 
offspring an accumulation of evils, too awful to 
contemplate. What is the difference between 
killing one's self in five minutes with a razor, and 
doing it in five years by tight lacing, or any other 
bad habit? Our clothing should never be so tight 
as to prevent the air from coming between it and 
the body. 

16. Here follows an outline of the chest, or 
thorax of a female, showing the condition of the 
bones of the body, as they appear after death, in 
every one who has habitually worn stays and 
corsets, enforced by tight lacing. ' But,' says one, 
' I do not lace too tight.' If you lace at all, you 
most certainly do, and will, sooner or later, expe- 

2 





rience the dreadful consequences. Observe, all 
the short ribs, from the lower end of the breast- 
bone, are unnaturally cramped inwardly toward 
the spine, so that 
the liver, stomach, 
and other digestive 
organs in that vici- 
nity, are pressed 
into such a small 
compass, that their 
functions are great- 
ly interrupted, and 
all the vessels, 
bones and viscera are more or less distorted and 
enfeebled. Cease to do evil, and learn to do well. 

17. This engraving, 
of a bell-shaped glass, 

C, C, shows how the 
air gets into the lungs, 
and some of its effects. 
A head is placed on 
the cork, T, represent- 
ing the wind-pipe, and 
having a hole through 
it. L, represents a 
bladder, tied to the 
lower end of the cork, 
to indicate a lung. At 

D, is seen the dia- 
phragm. The cavity 
of the bell represents 

the inside of the thorax, where the heart and lungs 
are : there is no communication with the external 
air, except through the hole in the cork ; air, en- 
tering through that hole, can go only into the blad- 
der. Now, when the centre of the diaphragm is 
raised to D, the bladder will be flaccid and devoid 
of air ; but when it is dropped, to the situation of 
the dotted line, a tendency to a vacuum will be 
the consequence, which can Be supplied with air, 
only through the hole in the cork ; the air expand- 
ing the bladder to its full extent, is shown by the 
dotted circle, around L ; and when the diaphragm 
is elevated again, the air will be forced from the 
bladder ; thus, the lungs are inflated and exhaus- 
ted by this alternate operation of the diaphragm, 
and of the contraction and elongation of the ab- 
dominal muscles ; hence, the comparison between 
the vocal organs proper, and a pair of bellows, is 
distinctly seen. 

Muscular Action. These 
two engravings represent some 
muscular fibres in two states: 
the upper one at rest, with a re- 
laxed nervous filament ramified through the fibres, 
as seen under the microscope ; and the lower one in 
a state of contraction, and the fi- 
bres in zigzag lines, with a simi- 
lar nervous filament passing over 
them: apply the principle to all 
muscles. The subject might be greatly extended ; 
but for further information, see the Author's large 
work on Physiology and Psychology, which will 
be published as soon as convenient. 





PHYSIOLOGICAL INTRODUCTION. 



18. Here is a representation of the Air Cells 
in the Lungs, laid open and highly magnified. 
The body is formed by Blood, which consists of the 
nutritious portions 
of our food, and 
is in the form of 
very small glob- 
ules, or little 
round balls : a 
representation of 
which is here pre- 
sented as seen 
through a micro- 
scope, magnified 
one thousand 

• times. 
Every 
three 
or four 
•minutes, as a gen- 
eral rule, the 
blood flows thro'- 
out the whole 
body ; and, of 
course, through 
the lungs, where 
it undergoes a purification : hence may be seen 
the importance of an upright position, and perfect 
inflation of the lungs ; no one can live out his 
days without them. 

19. Here are two attitudes, sitting, and stand- 
ing, passive and active. Beware of too much 






stiffness, and too much laxity, of the muscles ; be 
natural and easy. Avoid leaning backwards or 
forwards, to the right or left : and especially, of 
resting your head on your hand, with the elbow 
on something else : by which practice, many 
have caused a projection of one shoulder, indu- 
ced spinal affections, &c. Beware of every thing 
that is improper : such as trying how much you 
can lift with one hand, &c. 

20. Here follows a representation of the position 
of the diaphragm, and illustrations of its actions, 
in exhaling and inhaling. Figure 1, in the left 
engraving, represents the diaphragm in its great- 
est descent, when we draw in our breath : 2, mus- 
cles of the abdomen, when protruded to their full 
extent, in inhaling : 1, in the right engraving, the 
diaphragm in its greatest ascent in expiration: 2, 
the nuscles of the abdomen in action, forcing the 



viscera and diaphragm upwards: the lungs co- 
operate with the diaphragm and abdominal mus- 
cles ; or rather, the soul, mind, nerves and mus- 
cles act unitedly, and thence with ease, grace and 
effect. Observe, the Stomach, Liver, &c. are be- 
low the diaphragm, and are dependent on it, in a 
measure, for their actions. 




21. Here is a view of the Heart, nearly sur- 
rounded by the Lungs, with the different blood- 
vessels going to, and from them : these organs are 
shown partially separated ; tho' when in their nat- 
ural positions, they are quite compact together, 




and wholly fill up the cavity of the chest : every 
one has two hearts, for the two different kinds of 
blood, and each heart has two rooms: a, right 
auricle, that receives all the blood from every part 
of the body, through the vena cava, or large vein, 
which is made up of the small veins, e, e, e, e, e; 
it thence passes into the right ventricle, i, thence 
into both lungs, where it is purified; after which 
it passes into the left auricle, and left ventricle, 
then into the aorta, o, and the carotid and subcla- 
vian arteries (u, and v.) to every part of the body; 
returning every three or four minutes. 



ORATORICAL AND POETICAL GESTURES. 



XI 



22. This engraving represents the larynx, or 
vocal box, at 1, near the top of the wind-pipe, 2 ; 
the bronchial 
tubes, or 

branches of 
the trachea, 
3, 4, going to 
each lung ; 
the left lung is 
whole ; the 
substance of 
the right one 
/s removed, to 
show the ra- 
mifications ot 
the bronchial 
twigs, termi- 
nating in the 
air-cells, 7, 7, 
8, like leaves 
on the trees. 
The bronchi- 
al tubes are 
the three 
branches of 
the wind- 
pipe, and enter the lungs about one third of the 
distance from the upper end : hence, how foolish 
for persons having a sore throat, or larynx, to sup- 
pose they have the bronchitis ; which consists in 
a diseased state of the bronchia ; generally brought 
on by an improper mode of breathing, or speak- 
ing, &c, with exposure. The remedy may be 
found in the practice here recommended, with a 
free use of cold soft water over the whole body, 
and bandages wet with the same, placed about 
the chest and neck, to be removed every few 
hours, as they become dry. 





23. Here is a horizontal view of the Glottis : 
N, F, are the arytenoid cartilages, connected 
with the chordae vocales, (vocal cords, or liga- 
ments,) T, F, stretching across from the top of the 
arytenoid to the point of the thyroid cartilage : 
these cords can be elongated, and enlarged to pro- 
duce lower sounds, and contracted and diminished 
for higher ones: and, at the same time, separated 
from each other, and allowing more conden- 
sed air to pass for the former purposes ; or brought 
nearer together, to favor the latter : there are a 
great many muscles attached to the larynx, to 
give variety to the modifications of voice in 
speech and song 



24:. Here is a front view of the Vocal Organs : 
e is the top of the wind-pipe, and within and a 
little above d is the larynx, or vocal box, where 
all voice sounds are 
made : the two 
horns at the top, rep- 
resent the upper ex- 
tremities of the thy- 
o^™iii™ii ro ^ cartilage: tho 

tubes up and domi> 
and transverse, are 
blood-vessels : be- 
ware of having 
anything tight 
around the neck, 
also of bending the 
neck much, impeding the free circulation of the 
blood, and determining it to the head. 

ORATORICAL AND POETIC AL^CTTON^ 

Positions of Feet and Hands. 











Xll 



ORATORICAL AND POETICAL GESTURES. 














ORATORICAL AND POETICAL GESTURES. 



Xlll 













XIV 



ORATORICAL AND POETICAL GESTURES. 



M 











ORATORICAL AND POETICAL GESTURES. 



XV 




XVI 



ORATORICAL AND POETICAL GESTURES. 







Notes. The Elocutionary Engravings are de- 
signed for studies; they involve every variety of 
Thought and Feeling, and their modes of manifes- 
tation : some are to be imitated , others avoided, 
because of their awkwardness : judge ye. The 
dotted lines show the directions the hands have 
taken, till brought to their present position. Some 
paragraphs are transposed, and extra ones intro- 
duced, the better to accommodate the engravings. 
See the Passions, &c, for further information. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



17 




[A in ALE.] 



1. This ststem unfolds the true Philoso- 
phy of Mind and Voice, in accordance with 
the nature of Man, and the structure of Lan- 
guage. The Elements are first presented ; 
then, the common combinations, followed by 
the more difficult ones; all of which are to be 
practiced in concert, and individually, after 
the Teacher. These exercises essentially aid 
in cultivating the Voice and Ear, for all the 
objects of Speech and Song : while the Prin- 
ciples and Practice tend to develop and per- 
fect both mind and body, agreeably to the 
Laws, that should govern them. The Vowels 
must first be mastered, then the Consonants ; 
and the exercises interspersed with reading, 
and rigid criticism on the Articulation and 
Pronunciation. 

N. B. The words printed in italics and CAPITALS, are more or 
less emphatic; though other words may be made so, according to 
the desired effect : the dash ( — ) indicates a pause for inhalation : 
connecting words are sometimes excepted. 

2. A lias four regular sounds : First, 
Name sound, or long : ALE ; 
ate, a-zure; rare a-pri-cots; 
scarce #a-tri-ots; fair brace- 
lets for Za-tent mus-fa-ches; 
hai-ry ma-gi and sa-pi-ent lit- 
er-a-tiforpa-trons ; wa-tion-al 
ca-ter-er for ra-di-a-ted sta- 
mens, and sa-li-ent pas-try with the ha-lo 
gra-tis ; the ra-tion-al plain-tiff tears the cam- 
bric, and dares the stairs for the so-vor of 
rai-sins ; they drain the cane-brakes and take 
the bears by the nape of the neck ; the may-or's 
pray-er to Mayn-ton Sayre is — to be-ware of 
the snares pre-par'd for the matron's shares : 
o-men has both syllables accented; but it 
should never be pronounced ah-nxeu (2d a,) 
nor aw-men. 

3. Position. Sit, or stand erect, with the 
shoulders thrown back, so as to expand the 
chest, prevent the body from bending, and 
fecihtate full and deep breathing. Open the 
mouth wide enough to admit two fingers, 
side-wise, between the teeth, and keep the 
lips free and limber, that the sounds may 
flow with clearness and precision ; nor let 
there be too much, nor too little moisture in 
the mouth. A piece of hard wood, or ivory, 
an inch, or an inch and a half long, of the 
size of a pipe-stem, with a notch in each end, 
if placed between the teeth, perpendicularly, 
w nile practicing, will be found very useful in 
acquiring the habit of opening wide the mouth. 

4. E has this sound in certain words; among 
which are the following : ere, ere-long ; feint 
heirs; the Aei-nous Bey pur-veys a bo-quet; 
(po-ka ;) they rein their prey in its ey-ry, and 
pay their freight by weight ; hey-dey ! o-bey the 
eyre, and do o-6ei-sance to the Dey ; they sit 
tefe-a-tate (ta-tah-tate,) at trey: also, there 
and where, in all their compounds,— there-a«, 
there-fty, there-fore, there-ira, there-on, there- 
vAtA; where-at, vvhere-6y, toAcre-fore, where- 



in, where-on, where-with, &c. : also, in the con- 
traction of ever and never, — as where-e'er I go, 
where-e'er I am, I ne'er shall see thee more. 
" How blest is he, who ne'er consents, By ill ad- 
vice to walk." 

Anecdote. Plato — defines man — "An 
animal, having two legs, and no feathers." 
This very imperfect description attracted the 
ridicule of Di-og-e-nes ; who, wittily, and in 
derision, introduced to his school — a fowl, 
stripped of its feathers, and contemptuously 
asked, — " Is this Plato's man ?" 

Notes. 1. Dont caricature this sound of a and e before 
r, by giving it undue stress and quantity, in such words as — air, 
(ay-ur,) pa-rent, (pae-rent,) dare, (day-ur,) chair, there, where, &c., 
nor give it a flat sound, as some do to e in bleat, pronouncing it 
bloat. To give this sound properly, separate the teeth an inch, 
project the lips, and bring forward the corners of the mouth, like 
a funnel. 2. It would be just as proper in prose, to say, where- 
eever I go, where-eeuer I am, I neever shall see thee more ; as to 
say in poetry, where-ear I am, I near shall see thee more. 3. £ in 
weight, whey, (i, y, gh are silent,) and a in age, whale, &c, are 
just alike in sound; and as this sound of e does not occur among 
its natural, or regular sounds, as classed by our orthoepists, it is 
called "irregular ;" i. e. it borrows this name sound of a; or is 
sounded like it 4. Some try to make a distinction between a in 
fate, and a in fair, calling it a medial sound : which error is ow- 
ing to t being an abrupt element, and r, a. prolonged one : but no 
one can make a good sound of it, either in speech or song, when 
thus situated, by giving it a sound unlike the name soufid of a ; be- 
ware of unjust prejudices and prepossessions. I say na-shun-al, 
ra-shun-al, &c, for the same reason that I say no-tional and de-uo- 
tional ; because of analogy and effect. 

Proverbs. 1. Accusing — is proving, when 
malice and power sit as judges. 2. Adversity — 
may make one wise, but not rich. 3. Idle folks 
—take the most pains. 4. Every one is architect 
of his own fortune. 5. Fine feathers make fine 
birds. 6. Go into the country to hear the news 
of the town. 7. He is a good orator — who con- 
vinces himself. 8. If you cannot bite, never show 
your teeth. 9. Lawyers' houses — are built on the 
heads of fools. 10. Little, and often, fill the purse. 
11. Much, would have more,~and lost all. 12. 
Practice — makes perfect. 

The Bible — requires, in its proper deliv- 
ery, the most extensive practical knowledge 
of the principles of elocution, and of all the 
compositions in the world; a better impres- 
sion may be made, from its correct reading, 
than from the most luminous commentary. 

Varieties. 1. Love what you ought to do, 
and you can easily do it ; — oiled wheels run 
freely. 2. Cicero says, that Roscius, a Ro- 
man orator, could express a sentence in cs 
many different ways by his gestures, as he 
himself could by his words. 3. Why is the 
letter A, like a honey-suckle 1 Because a B 
follows it. 4. Never speak unless you have 
something to say, and always stop when you 
have done. 5. The most essential rule in de- 
livery is — Be natural and in earnest. 6. Our 
education should be adapted to the full de- 
velopment of body and mind. 7. Truth can 
never contradict itself; but is eternal and im- 
mutable — the same in all ages •• the states of 
men's reception of it — are as various as the 
principles and subjects of natural creation. 



b2 



As good have no time, as make bad use of it. 



18 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



5. Elocution-is an Art, that teaches me how 
to manifest my feelings and thoughts to 
others, in such a way as to give them a true 
ulect, and expression of how, and what, I feel 
and think,- and, in so doing, to make them 
feci and think, as I do. Its object is, to enable 
me to communicate to the hearers, the whole 
truth, just as it is ; in other words, to give me 
the ability, to do perfect justice to the subject, 
to them, and to myself : thus, involving the 
philosophy of end, cause, and effect -the cor- 
respondence of affection, thoughts Midwords. 

6. The second sound of A is grave, 
or Italian. Ah; alms, far; pa- 
pa calms ma -ma, and com- ^j^_-A»A 
mands Charles to craunch the / 
aZ-monds in the haun-ted paths ; I 
his ma - ster de - man - ded a [ V^—-/" 
haunch of par -txidge of fa- \ V^Py 
ther; aunt taun-ted the laun- [A hi far.] 
dress for salve from the ba- 

na-na tree; Jar-vis farms sar-sa-pa-riZ-la in 
A-mcr-i-ca', ma-mZ-la balm is a charm to 
halve the qualms in Ra-um-na ;. he abides in 
Chi-na, and vaunts to have sarm-tered on 
the a-re-na, to guard the vil-\a hearths from 
harm-fvd ef^u-vi-a ; they faun-ted on the so- 
fa, ar-gu-ing for Quarles' psalms, and for-mu- 
la for jaun-dice in Mec-ca or Me-rZi-na; a 
calf got the chol-e-ra in Cu-ba, and a.-rose to 
run the gaunt-let for the ayes and noes in A- 
c€Z-da-ma. 

7. In making the vowel sounds, by expel- 
ling them, great care must be taken, to con- 
vert all the breath that is emitted, into pure 
sound, so as not to chafe the internal surface 
of the throat, and produce a tickling, or 
hoarseness. The happier and freer from re- 
straint, the better: in laughing, the lower 
muscles are used involuntarily; hence the 
adage, ' laugh, and be fat.'' In breathing, 
reading, speaking, and singing, there should 
be no rising of the shoulders, or heaving of 
the bosom ; both tend to error and ill health. 
Beware of using the lungs, as it is said; let 
them act, as they axe acted upon by the lower 
muscles. 

Notes. I. This, strictly speaking, is the only natural 
sound in all languages, and is the easiest made : it merely requires 
the under jaw to be dropped, and a vocal sound to be produced : 
ill other vowels are derived from it ; or, rather, are modifications 
■ >t it. 2. When a is an article, i. e. when used by itself, it always 
•las this sound, but must not be accented ; as, "a man saw a horse 
.ii.: a sheep in a meadow :" except as contrasted with the; as, " I 
.*i J the nun, not a man." 3. When a forms an unaccented syl- 
.a:.'le, it has this sound : as, a-wake, a-bide, a-like, a-ware, a-tone, 
■> '.oiJ, a-wav, &c. 4. It has a similar sound at the end of words, 
either with, or without an A: as, No-ah, //an-nah, So-rah, Af-ri- 
ca. A-rner-i-ca, i-o-ta, dog-ma, &c. Beware of saying, No-er, Sa- 
ry. &c. 5. It generally has this sound, when followed by a single 
- m the tame syllable: as, ar-son, ar-tist, &c. ; also in star-ry, (full 
at stars,) and tar-ry, (besmeared with tar.) 

education. The derivation of this word 
—will assist us in understanding its mean- 
ing; it being composed of the Latin word 
e»du-co, to lead or draw out. All develop- 
ments, both of matter and spirit, axe from 



within — out; not from without — in. The 
beautiful rose — does not grow by accretion, 
like the rocks ,• its life flows into it through 
the nutriment, imbibed from the earth, the 
air, and the water, which are incorporated 
with the very Zi/e-blood of the plant as a me- 
dium : it is a manifestation of the Life that 
fills all things, and flows into all tilings, ac- 
cording to their various forms. The analogy 
holds good as it respects the human mind,' 
tho' vegetables axe matter, and mind — i3 
spirit ; the former is of course much more 
confined than the latter. The powers of the 
mind — must be developed by a power from 
within, and above itself; and that is the best 
education, which will accomplish this most 
rapidly, and effectually, in accordance with 
the laws of God, — which always have refer- 
ence to the greatest good and the most truth. 

Anecdote. A clergyman, whose turn it 
was to preach in a certain church, happening 
to get wet, was standing hefore the session- 
room fire, to dry his clothes ; and when his 
colleague came in, he asked him to preach for 
him ; as he was very wet. " No Sir, I thank 
you;" was the prompt reply : "preach your- 
self; you will be dry enough in the pulpit." 

Proverbs. 1. A burden that one chooses, is 
not felt. 2. A guilty conscience needs no accu- 
ser. 3. Jlfter-xvit is every body's wit. 4. Enough 
— is as good as a feast. 5. All is but lip wisdom, 
that wants experience- 6. Better bend, than break. 
7. Children and fools often speak the truth. 8. 
Out of debt, out of danger. 9. Wade not in un- 
known waters. 10. Do what you ought, and let 
come what will. 11. Empty vessels make the 
greatest sound. 12. Pause, before you follow an 
example. 

Natural and Spiritual. Since we are 
possessed of both body and soul, it is of the 
first importance that we make use of natural 
and spiritual means for obtaining good ; i. e. 
natural and spiritual truths. Our present 
and eternal destinies-should ever be kept in 
mind; and that, which is of the greatest mo- 
ment, receive the principal attention: and, 
since death-is only a continuation of life, our 
education should be continuous : both states 
of being will be best attended to, when seen 
and attended to in connection. 

Varieties. 1. Horses will often do more 
for a whistle, than a ivhip : as some youth are 
best governed by a rod of love. 2. Why is a 
bankrupt like a clock? Because he must 
either stop, or go on tick. 3. True reading 
is true exposition. 4. Conceive the inten- 
tions of the author, and enter into the charac- 
ter. 5. The sciences and mechanical arts are 
the ministers of wisdom, not the end. 6. Do 
we love our friends more when present, or 
absent ? 7. All natural truths, which respect 
the works of God in creation, are not ordy real . 
natural truths, but the glasses and containing 
principles of spiritual ones. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



19 



8. The means to be used, thus to make 
known my feelings and thoughts, are tones, 
words, looks, actions, expression, and silence : 
whence it appears, that the body is the grand 
medium of communication between myself 
and others; for by and through the body, are 
tones, words, looks, and gestures produced. 
Thus I perceive, that the mind, is the active 
agent, and the body, the passive agent ; that 
this is the instrument, and that the perfor- 
mer : here I see the elements of mental and 
vocal philosophy. 

9. The third sound of A is broad: 
ALL, wall, aKc-tion, aws-pice ; vl_JL/ 
his vaul-ting daugh-tex haul'd / ^ 
the dau-phm in the sawce-pan ; / 

the pal-try sauce-box waltz 'd / l£ ! 

in the iea-sau-cer; al-6e-it, the \ 
nv/wk-isb. aw-thor, dined on \ 
nau-se-ous sau-sa-ges ; the au- [A in all.] 
burn pal-frey drew Zaw-rel plau-dits ; his 
naugh-ty dwarf got the groat through the 
fau-cit ; he thwar-ted the /aZ-chion and sal- 
ted the shawl in false wa-ter ; the Zaw-less 

§aw-ky got in-staZZVZ in the aw-tumn, and 
e-/raw-ded the green sward of its ftaZ-dric 
awn-'xng. 

10. Ctjrras, a celebrated Irish orator, pre- 
sents us with a signal instance, of what can 
be accomplished by assiduity and persever- 
ance : his enunciation was so precipitate and 
confused, that he was called " stuttering Jack 
Curran." To overcome his numerous de- 
fects, he devoted a portion of every day to 
reading and reciting aloud, slowly, and dis- 
tinctly, some of the most eloquent extracts in 
our language : and his success was so com- 
plete, that among his excellencies as a speak- 
er, was the clearness of his articulation, and 
an appropriate intonation, that melodized 
every sentence. 

Notes. 1. To make this sound, drop and project the jaw, 
and shape the mouth as in the engraving: and when you wish to 
produce a very grave sound, in speech or song, in addition to the 
above, swell the windpipe, (which will elongate and enlarge the 
vocal chords,) and form the voice as low as possible in the larynx; 
for the longer and larger these chords are, the graver will be the 
voice : also, practice making sounds, while exhaling aud inhaling, 
to deepen the tones. This sound is broader than the German a. 
2. sometimes has this sound : I thought he caught the cough, 
when he bought the cloth ; he wrought, fought, and sought, but 
talked naught. 3. Beware of adding an r after w, as lawr, jawr, 
fawr, &c. 4. The italic a in the following, is broad. .#11 were 
ap-palled at the thral-dom of Wal-ter Ra-leigh, who was al-most 
scald-ed in the cal-dron of boiling wa-ter. 

Habits of thought. Thinking is to the 
mind what digestion is to the body. We 
may hear, read, and talk, till we are gray ,- 
but if we do not think, and analyze our sub- 
jects, and look at them in every aspect, and 
see the ends, causes, and effects, they will be 
of little use to us. In thinking, however, we 
must think clearly and without confusion, as 
we would examine objects of sight, in order 
to get a perfect idea of them. Thinking— is 
spiritually seeing,- and we should always 
think of things so particularly, as to be able 



to describe them to others with as much ac- 
curacy as we do any external objects, which 
we have seen with our material eyes. 

Anecdote. Wild Oats. After the first 
speech, made by the younger Pitt, in the House 
of Commons, an old member sarcastically re- 
marked,-"! apprehend that the young gentle- 
man has not yet sown all his wild oats." To 
which Mr. Pitt politely replied, in the course 
of an elaborate and eloquent rejoinder, "Age 
— has its privilege,- and the gentleman him- 
self — affords an ample illustration, that I re- 
tain food enoUgh for geese to picfc." 

Proverbs. 1. A calumny, tho' known to be 
such, generally leaves a stain on the reputation. 
2. A blow from a frying pan, tho' it does not 
hurt, sullies. 3. Fair and softly, go sure and far. 
4. Keep your business and conscience well, and 
they will be sure to keep you well. 5. A man 
knoics no more, to any purpose, than he practices. 
6. Bells call others to church, but enter not them- 
selves. 7. Revenge a wrong by forgiving it. 8. 
Venture not all you have at once. 9. Examine 
your accounts and your conduct every night. 10. 
Call me cousin, but don't cozen me. 11. Eagles — 
fly alone, but sheep flock together. 12. It is good 
to begin well, but better to end well. 

Theology — includes all religions, both 
heathen and christian,- and comprehends 
the study of the Divine Being, his laws 
and revelations, and our duty towards Him 
and our neighbor. It may be divided into 
four grand divisions ; viz. Paganism, Mahom- 
edanism, Judaism, and Christianity. The 
study of Theology is the highest and noblest 
in which we can be engaged: but a mere 
theoretical knowledge, like the sunbeam on 
the mountain glacier, may only dazzle — to 
blind; for, unless the heart is warmed with 
love to God, and love to man, the coldness 
and barrenness of eternal death will reign in 
the soul : hence, the all of Religion relates to 
life ,- and the life of Religion is — to do good 
— for the sake of good. 

Varieties. He, who studies books alone, 
will know how things ought to be ; and he 
who studies men, will know how things are. 

2. If you would relish your food, labor for it ; 
if you would enjoy your raiment, pay for it 
before you wear it ; if you wonld sleep sound- 
ly, take a clear conscience to bed with you, 

3. The more we follow nature, and obey her 
laws, the longer shall we live ,- and the far- 
ther we deviate from them, the sooner we 
shall die. 4. Always cany a few iiroverbs 
with you for constant use. 5. Let compul- 
sion be used when necessary ,- but deception 
— never. 6. In China, physicians are always 
under pay, except when their patrons are 
sick ,- then, their salaries are stopped till health 
is restored. 7. All things speak ,- note well 
the language, and gather wisdom from it. 

Nature — is but a name for an effect, 
Whose cause— is God. 



20 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 




11. Wards, T Bee, are among the principal 
means used for these important purposes; 
and they are formed by the organs oi voice : 
these two thing?, men, demand my first and 
particular attention, words and voice ; words 
are composed of letters ; and the voice, is the 
effect 01 the proper actions of certain parts of 
the body, called vocal organs, converting air 
into sound ; which two mighty instruments, 
words and voice, must be examined analyti- 
cally, and synthetically ; without which pro- 
cess I cannot understand a?iy thing. 

12. The fourth, sound of A is short : 
AT, aft, add ; I had rath-ex 
have a&ar-rel of as-par-a-gus, 
than the en-am-el and ag-ate ; 
the ca-6aZ for-oade the mal-e- 
fae-tor his ap-par-el-and jave- 
lin ; C7«ar-i-ty danc'd in the 
gra?i-a-ry with Cap-ri-corn ; [A in AT,] 
the nvd\-con-tents pass'd thro 1 Ath-ens in 
-Fei-ru-ar-y ; his cam-els quaff'd the As- 
phal-tic can-aZ with fa-ciZ-i-ty ; pZas-ter the 
/aZ-low-ground a/-ter Jaw-u-ar-y ; the ad- 
age an-swers on the com-rade's staff; the 
plaid tassel is man-u-/ac-tur 1 d in France ; 
he at-tack'd the tar-in with rai'Z-le-ry, af- 
ter he had scath'd the block and tack-le with 
his ac-id pag--en-try. 

13. The more perfect the medium, the 
better will it subserve the uses of communi- 
cation. Now, by analyzing the constituents 
of words and voice, I can ascertain whether 
they are in a condition, to answer the varied 
purposes for which they were given ; and 
fortunately for me, while I am thus analyz- 
ing the sounds, of which words are com- 
posed, I shall, at the same time, become 
acquainted with the organs of voice and 
hearing, and gradually accustom them to the 
performance of their appropriate duties. 

Notes. 1. To give the exact sounds of any of the 
vowels, take words, in which they are found at the beginning, and 
proceed as if you were going to pronounce the whole word, but 
stop the instant you have produced the vowel sound ; and that is the 
true one. 2. Beware of clipping this, or any other sound, or 
c/ianging it : not, Ikn go, you'kn see, they'kn come ; but, I can go ; 
you can see ; they can come. 3. A, in ate, in verbs, is generally 
long; but in other parts of speech of more than one syllable, it is 
usually short; unless under some accent : as — intimate that to my 
intimate friend ; educate that delicate and obstinate child ; he calcu- 
late* to aggravate the case of bis affectionate and unfortunate wife ; 
the compassionate son meditates how he may alleviate the condition 
of his disconsolate mother; vindicate your consulate's honor ; depre- 
cate an unregenerate heart, by importunate prayer; the prel-nte 
and primate calculate to regulate the ultimates immediately. 4. 
Observe — !hat often the sounds of vowels are sometimes modified, 
or clulngu], by letters immediately preceding or ntcceeding; which 
may be seen, as it respects a, for instance, in rm-e-gade, mmi-brane, 
rep-ro-bate, can-did-ate, yo-ten-tate, night-in-gale, &c. : some hav- 
ing a slight accent on the last syllable ; and others having the a 
preceded, or followed by a vocal consonant : see previous Note 3. 
5. A letter is called short, when it cannot be prolonged in Speech, 
(though it can in Song,) without altering its form ; and long, when 
it can be prolonged without such change : therefore, we call a 
sound long, or short, because it is seen and felt to be so : as, cold, 
hot; pale, mat : in making a long sound the glottis is kept open in- 
definitely; and in making a short one, it is closed suddenly, produ- 
cing an abrupt sound, like some of the consonants. 

Anecdote. Saving Fuel. Some time ago, 
when modern stoves were first introduced, 
and offered for sale in a certain city, the ven- 
der remarked, by way of recommending them, 



that one stove would save half the fueU 

Mr. Y being present, replied, " Sir, I will 

buy two of them, if you please, and then I 
shall save the whole." 

Proverbs. 1. All truths must not be told at 
all times. 2. A good servant, makes a good mas- 
ter. 3. A man in distress, or despair, does as 
much as ten. 4. Before you make a friend, eat 
a peck of salt with him. 5. Passion— will master 
you, if you do not master your passion. 6. Form 
—is good, but not formality. 7. Every tub must 
stand on its own bottom. 8. First come, first served, 
Friendship — cannot stand all on one side. 10. 
Idleness — is the hot-bed of vice and ignorance 
11. He that will vSteal a pin, will steal a better 
thing. 12. If you lie upon roses when young, you 
will lie upon thorns when old. 

Qualifications of Teachers. Inas 
much as the nature of no one thing can be 
understood, without a knowledge of its origin, 
and the history of its formation, the qualifi- 
cations of teachers are seen and felt to be so 
great, as to induce the truly conscientious to 
exclaim, in view of his duties, " Who is suffi- 
cient for these things?" How can we edu- 
cate the child in a way appropriate to his state 
and relations, without a knowledge of his 
mental and physical structure? Is not a 
knowledge of psychology and physiology as 
necessary to the educator, as the knowledge 
of mechanics is to the maker or repairer of 
a watch ? Who would permit a man even 
to repair a watch, (much less hire a man to 
make one,) who had only seen its externals? 
Alas ! how poorly qualified are nine-tenths 
of our teachers for the stations they occupy ! 
almost totally ignorant of the nature and ori- 
gin of the human mind, and the science of 
physiology, which teaches us the structure 
and uses of the body. But how little they 
understand their calling, when they suppose 
it to be merely a teaching of &oofc-knowledge ; 
without any regard to the development of 
mind and body. A teacher should possess a 
good moral character, and entire self-control ; 
a fund of knowledge, and ability to commu- 
nicate it ; a uniform temper, united with de- 
cision and firmness ; a mind to discriminate 
character, and tact to illustrate simply the 
studies of his pupils; he should be patient 
and forbearing ; pleasant and affectionate, and 
be capable of overcoming all difficulties, and 
showing the uses of knowledge. 

Varieties. 1. If one were as eloquent as 
an angel, he would please some folks, much 
more by listening, than by speaking. 2. An 
upright politician asks — what recommends a 
man ; a corrupt one — who recommends him. 
3. Is any law independent of its maker? 4. 
Kind words — cost no more than wrckind ones. 
5. Is it not better to be wise than rich ? 6. 
The power of emphasis — depends on concen- 
tration. 7. Manifested wisdom — infers de- 
sign. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



21 




[E in EEL.] 



14. There are then, it appears, two kinds 
of language; an artificial, or conventional 
language, consisting of words; and a natu- 
ral language, consisting of tones, looks, ac- 
tions, expression, and silence; the former is 
addressed to the eye, by the book, and to the 
ear, by speech, and must thus be learned ; the 
latter — addresses itself to both eye and ear, at 
the same moment, and must be thus acquired, 
so far as they can be acquired. To become 
an Elocutionist, I must learn both these lan- 
guages ; that of art and science, and that of 
the passions, to be used according to my sub- 
ject and object. 

15. E lias two regular sounds j first, 
its name sound, or long: 
EEL ; e-ra, e-vil ; wei-ther 
de-ceive nor in-vei-gle the 
*ecm-stress ; the sleek ne-gvo 
bleats like a sheep ; Cce-sar's 
e-dict pve-cedes the e-poch of 
Zre-mors ; the sheik's beard 
stream'd like a wie-te-or ; the ea-gle shriek'd 
his pce-an on the lea ; the e-go-tist seemed 
pleas'd with his pZe-na-ry leis-ure to see the 
co-te-He ; JE-ne-as Leigh reads Mo-sheim 
on the e-dile's heath ; the peo-ple txe-panii'd 
the fiend for jeer-ing his prem-ier ; his liege, 
at the or-gies, gave ce-z'Z-iads at my niece, 
who beat him with her oe-som, like a cav- 
a-lier in Greece. 

16. Since the body is the grand medium, 
for communicating feelings and thoughts, 
(as above mentioned,) I must see to it, that 
each part performs its proper office, without 
infringement, or encroachment. By observa- 
tion and experience, I perceive that the 
mind uses certain parts for specific pur- 
poses ; that the larynx is the place where 
vocal sounds are made, and that the power 
to produce them, is derived from the com- 
bined action of the abdominal and dorsal 
muscles. Both body and mind are rendered 
healthy and strong, by a proper use of all 
their organs and faculties. 

IT. Irregular Sounds. I and Y often 
have this sound; as — a.n-tique, ton-tine ; the 
no-lice of the bas-#Ze seized the man-da-n/z 
for his ca.-price at the ma.g-a.-zine ; the u- 
nique fi-nan-cier, fa.-tigued with his bom-ba- 
zine va,-lise, in his re-treat from Mo-bile, lay 
by the ma.-rines in the ra-vine, and ate ver- 
di-gris to re-lieve him of the cri-tique. Sheri- 
dan, Walker and Perry say, yea yea, and nay 
nay, making the e long ; but Johnson, En- 
tick, Jamieson and Webster, and the author, 
pronounce yea as if spelled yay. Words de- 
rived immediately from the French, according 
to the genius of that language, are accented 
on the last syllables ; — ca-pnce, izAigue, no- 
lice, &c. 

Sorrow— treads heavily, and leaves behind 
A deep impression, e'en when she departs : 
While Joy— trips by, with steps, as light as wind, 
And scarcely leaves a trace upon our hearts 
Of her faint foot-falls. 



18. That the body may be free, to act in 
accordance with the dictates of the mind, all 
unnatural compressions and contractions must 
be avoided ; particularly, cravats and stocks 
so tight around the neck, as to interfere with 
the proper action of the vocal organs, and 
the free circulation of the blood ; also, tight 
waistcoats ; double suspenders, made tight- 
er with straps ; elevating the feet to a point 
horizontal with, or above, the seat; and 
lacing, of any description, around the waist, 
impeding the freedom of breathing natural* 
ly and healthfully. 

Anecdote. True Modesty. When Wash- 
ington had closed his career, in the French 
and English war, and become a member of 
the House of Burgesses, in Virginia, the 
Speaker was directed, by a vote of the house, 
to return thanks to him, for the distinguished 
services he had rendered the country. As 
soon as Washington took his seat, as a mem- 
ber, Speaker Robinson proceeded to discharge 
the duty assigned him ; which he did in such 
a manner as to confound the young hero ; 
who rose to express his acknowledgments ; 
but such was his confusion, that he was 
speechless ; he blushed, stammered, and trem- 
bled for a short time ; when the Speaker re- 
lieved him by saying — " Sit down, Mr. Wash- 
ington ; your modesty is equal to your valor ; 
and that — surpasses the power of any lan- 
guage that /possess." 

Proverbs. 1. A blythe heart makes a bloom- 
ing visage. 2. A deed done has an end. 3. A 
great city, a great solitude 4. Desperate cuts — 
must have desperate cures. 5. Jill men are not 
men. 6. A stumble— may prevent a fall. 7. A fool 
always comes short of his reckoning. 8. Beggars 
must not be choosers. 9. Better late, than never. 
10. Birds of a feather flock together. 11. Nothing 
is lost in a good market. 12. All is well, that ends 
well. 13. Like priest, like people. 

Varieties. 1 . The triumphs of truth — are 
the most glorious, because they are bloodless ; 
deriving their highest lustre — from the num- 
ber of the saved, instead of the slain. 2. Wis- 
dom — consists in employing the best means, 
to accomplish the most important ends. 3. 
He, who would take you to a place of vice, or 
immorality, is not your real friend. 4. If 
gratitude — is due from man — to man, how 
much more, from man — to his Maker ! 5. 
Arbitrary power — no man can either give, or 
hold; even conquest cannot confer it : hence, 
law, and arbitrary power — are at eternal en- 
mity. 6. They who take no delight in vir- 
tue, cannot take any — either in the employ- 
ments, or the inhabitants of heaven. 7. Be- 
ware of violating the laws of Life, and you 
will always be met in mercy, and not in 
judgment. 

The calm of that old reverend brow, the glow 

Of its thin silver locks, was like a flash 

Of sunlight — in the pauses of a storm. \ 



22 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



ou.; 




[E in ELL.] 



19. Having examined the structure of the 
body, I see the necessity of standing, at 
first, on i he left foot, and the right loot a 
few inches from it, (where it will naturally 

fall, when raised up.) and pointing its heel 
toward the hollow of the Z</£ foot ; of throw- 
ing the shoulders back, so as to protrude the 
attest, that the air may have free ac-cess to 
the air-cells of the lungs ; of having the 
upper part of the body quiescent, and the 
mind concentrated on the lower muscles, 
until they act voluntarily. 

30. The second sound of E is short: 
ELL ; edge, en ; the dem-o- 
crat's e^-i-page was a leath- 
er eph-od ; the es-quire leap'd 
from the ped-es-tal in the ket- 
tle of eggs ; a lep-er clench'd 
the eph-a, zeal-ous of the eo-on 
feath-ex, and held it stead-y ; 
get the non-pa-mZ weap-ons for the rec- 
on-dite Aer-o-ine ; the ap-prera-tice for-gets 
the shek-els lent the deal prel- ate for his 
ker-o-ine ; the clean-\y leg-ate held the tep- 
id mead-ow for a spe-cial home-stead ; ster- 
e-o-type the pref-a.ee to the ten-ets as a prel- 
ude to our ed-i-b\e re-tro-spec-tions ; yes- 
ter-day I guess'd the fet-id yeast es-caped 
with an ep-i-sode from the ep-ic into the 
pei-als of the sen-na ; the pres- age is im- 
press'd on his ref-i-na instead of the keg of 
phlegm. 

31. In these peculiar exercises of voice — 
are contained all the elements, or principles 
of articulation, accent, emphasis and expres- 
sion ; and, by their aid, with but little ex- 
ertion, I shall be enabled to economize my 
breath, for protracted vocal efforts, and im- 
part all that animation, brilliancy and force, 
that reading, speaking and singing ever re- 
quire. 

33. Irregulars. A, I, U, and Y, some- 
times have this sound : as — an-y, or man-y 
pan-e-gyr-ists of Mar-y-land said, — the bur- 
y-ing ground a- gainst the world; says the 
lan-cet to the trum-vet — get out of my way 
n-gain, else the 6wr-i-al ser-vice will be said 
over you in the black-ness of dark-ness ; there 
is sick-ness in the &a.se-ment of our plan-et, 
from the use of as-sa-/o?/-i-da, in-stead oflter- 
rings: never say sws-pect for ea:-pect, busi- 
niss for busi-ness, pay-munt for pay-ment, 
nor gar-munts for gar-ments. 

33. As much depends on the qualdty of 
which any thing is made, I must attend to 
the manner, in which these sounds are pro- 
duced, and see that they are made j'ms* right; 
each having its appropriate weight, form, 
and quantity. Taking the above position, 
and opening the mouth wide, turning my 
lips a little out all round, trumpet fashion, 
and keeping my eyes on a horizontal level, 
and inhaling full breaths, I will expel these 
sixteen vowel sounds into the roof of my 
mouth, with a suddenness and force similar 
to the crack of a thong, or the sound of a gun. 
An ape — is an ape, a varlet — is a varlet, 
Let them be clothed in silk, or scarlet. 



Notes, l. To mike this sound of E, dropjhe under jaw, 
open the mouth wide, as indicated by the engraving, so as to pre- 
vent it from becoming in the least nasal. 2. E, in cnt, ence, and 
ess, generally has this sound ; tho' sometimes it slides into short 
u. 3. When e precedes two r's (rr,) it should always have this 
sound : as err, er-ror, mer-it, cher-ry, wher-ry : but when followed 
by only one r, it glides into short u, tho' the under jaw should be 
much depressed: as — the mer-chant heard the clerk calling on the 
ser-geant for mer-cy ; let the ter-ma-gant learn that the pearls were 
jerked from the rob-ber in the tav-ern. / is similarly situated in 
certain words : the girls and birds in a mirth-ful cir-cle, sang dir- 
ges to the virgin : see short u. 4. E is silent iu the last syllable of— 
e-ven the shov-els are broken in the overt; a weasel opens the nov- 
el, with a sick-cning sniv-el ; driv-en by a deaf-ening ti-tle from 
heav-en, he was of-ten taken and shakeri till he was softened and 
ri-pened seven, e-levcn or a doz-en times. 5. The long vowels are 
open and continuous ; the short ones are shut, abrupt, or discrete, 
and end as soon as made. 

Anecdote. A lawyer, to avenge himself 
on an opponent, wrote "Rascal " in his hat. 
The owner of the hat took it up, looked rue- 
fully into it, and turning to the Judge, ex- 
claimed, "I claim the protection of this hon- 
orable court ; — for the opposing counsel has 
written his name in my hat, and I have strong 
suspicion that he intends to make off with it." 

Proverbs. 1. Make both ends meet. 2. Fair 
play — is a jewel. 3. Proverbs existed before books. 
All blood is alike ancient. 5. Beauty — is only skin 
deep. 6. Handsome is, that handsome does. 7. 
One fool makes many. 8. Give every one his due. 
9. No rose without a thorn. 10. Always have a 
few maxims on hand for change. 

Sublimity and Pathos. As weak lights 
— are obscured, when surrounded by the daz- 
zling rays of the sun, so, sublimity, poured 
around on every side, overshadows the arti- 
fices of rhetoric • the like of which occurs in 
painting; for, tho' the light and shade, lie 
near each other, on the same ground, yet, the 
light first strikes the eye, and not onty ap- 
pears projecting, but much nearer. Thus, 
too, in composition, the sublime and pathetic 
— being nearer our souls, on account of some 
natural connection and superior splendor, are 
always more conspicuous than figures ; they 
conceal their art, and keep themselves veiled 
from our view. 

Sounds. 1. The whole sound made is not in 
the whole air only ; but the whole sound is in 
every particle of air : hence, all sound will enter a 
small cranny unconfused. 2. At too great a dis- 
tance, one may hear sounds of the voice, but not 
the words. 3. One articulate sound confounds 
another ; as when many speak at once. 4. Ar- 
ticulation requires a mediocrity of loudness. 

Varieties. 1. See how we apples swim. 
2. He carries two faces. 3. Strain at a gate 
and swallow a saw-mill. 4. Who is the true 
gentleman 1 He whose actions make him 
such. 5. A sour countenance is a manifest 
sign of a froward disposition. 6. Speak — as 
you mean ,- do — as you profess, and perform 
what you promise. 7. To be as nothing, is 
an exalted state: the omnipotence of the 
heavens— exists in the truly humbled heart. 
Whatever way you wend, 
Consider well the end. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



23 




34. 1 observe that there are three distinct 
principles involved in oral words, which 
are their essences, or vowel sounds; their 
forms, or the consonants attached to them, 
and their meaning, or uses. By a quick, 
combined action of the lower muscles upon 
their contents, the diaphragm is elevated so 
as to force the air, or breath, from the lungs 
into the windpipe, and through the larynx, 
where it is converted into vowel sounds; 
which, as they pass out through the mouth, 
the glottis, epiglottis, palate, tongue, teeth, 
lips, and nose, make into words. 

35. I has two regular sounds: First, 
its NAME sound, orlong: ISLE ; 
ire, z-o-dine : Gen-tiles o-blige 
their wines to lie for sac-cha- 
rine Zi-lacs to ez-pe-dite their/e- 
line gibes; the ob-lique grind- 
stone lies length-Wise on the ho- 
ri-zon ; a t i-ny le-vi-a-than, on [I in ISLE -1 
the heights of the en-tu'-rons of Ar-gives, 
as-pires to sigh through the mi-cxo-scope ; 
the e-dile likes spike-nard for his he-li-a- 
cal ti-a-ra ; the mice, in tri-ads, hie from the 
aisle, si-ne di-e, by a vi-va vo-ce vote ; the 
bi-na-xy di-gest .of the chrys-ta-Zme ma-gi, 
was hir'd by the choir, as a si-ne-cure, for 
a Zi-vre. 

36. These vocal gymnastics produce as- 
tonishing power and flexibility of voice, 
making it strong, clear, liquid, musical and 
governable ; and they are as healthful as 
they are useful and amusing. As there is 
only one straight course to any point, so, 
there is but one right way of doing any 
thing, and every thing. If I wish to do any 
thing well, I must first learn how; and if I 
begin right, and keep so, every step will 
carry me forward in accomplishing my 06- 
jects. 

STotes. 1. p; m some words, has this sound ; particularly, 
when accented, and at the end of certain nouns and verbs: the ly- 
ce-um's sl-ly propk-e-cy to the dy-nas-ty to mag-m-iy other's faults, 
hut mm-i-fy its own. 2. This first dip-thongal sound begins 
nearly like 21 A, as the engraving indicates, and ends with the 
name sound of e (a—e.) 3. /is not used in any purely English word 
as a final letter ; y being its representative in such a position. 4. 
When /commences a word, and is in a syllable by itself, if the ac- 
cent be on the succeeding syllable, it is generally long: as, i-de-a, 
i-cfcn-ti-fy, i-rf.;7-a-try, i-ras-ci-ble, i-ron-i-cal, i-tal-ic, i-iin-e-rant, 
&c. It is long in the first syllables of vi-ZaZ-i-ty, di-am-e-ter, di-ur- 
nal, di-Zem-ina, bi-en-ni-al, cri-ie-ri-on, chi-me-ra, bi-og--ra-phy, li- 
cen-tiyus, gi-gwn-tic, pri-me-val, vi-ira-tion, &c. 5. In words de- 
rived from the Greek and Latin, the prefixes bi, (twice,) and tri, 
(thrice,) the / is generally long. 

Anecdote. Seeing a Wind. "I never 
saw such a wind in all my life ,-" said a man, 
during a severe storm, as he entered a tem- 
perance hotel. "Saw a wind!" observed 
another,—" What did it Zoofc like?" "Like!" 
said the traveller, " why, like to have blown 
my hat off." 

On a Mummy. 
Why should this worthless tegument— endure, 

If its undying guest — be lost forever % 
O let us keep the soul — embalmed and pure 

In living virtue ; that when loth must sever, 
Although corruption — may our frame consume, 
Th' immortal spirit— in the skies may bloom. 



Proverbs. 1. A crowd, is not company. 2. 
A drowning man will catch at a straw. 3. Half 
a loaf is better than no bread. 4. An ill work- 
man quarrels with his tools. 5. Better be alone 
than in bad company. 6. Count not your chick- 
ens before they are hatched. 7. Every body's 
business, is nobody's business. 8. Fools — make 
feasts, and wise men eat them. 9. He that will 
not be counselled, cannot be helped. 10. If it were 
not for hope, the heart would break. 11. Kind- 
ness will creep, when it cannot walk. 12. Oil and 
truth will get uppermost at last. 

General Intelligence. It is a signal 
improvement of the present day, that the ac- 
tions and reactions of froofc-learning, and of 
general intelligence — are so prompt, so in- 
tense, and so pervading all ranks of society. 
The moment a discovery is made, a principle 
demonstrated, or a proposition advanced, 
through the medium of the press, in every 
part of the world; it finds, immediately, a 
host, numberless as the sands of the sea, pre- 
pared to take it. up, to canvass, confirm, re- 
fute, or pursue it. At every water-fail, on 
the line of every canal and miZ-road, in the 
counting-room of every factory and mercan- 
tile establishment; on the quarter-deck of 
every ship that navigates the high seas ; on 
the farm of every intelligent husbandman ; 
in the workshop of every skillful mechanic ; 
at the desk of every sc/woZ-master ; in the of- 
fice of the lawyer ; in the study of the physi- 
cian and clergyman ; at the fireside of every 
man who has the elements of a good educa- 
tion, not less than in the professed retreats of 
learning, there is an intellect to seize, to 
weigh, and to appropriate the suggestions, 
whether they belong to the world of science, 
of tenets, or of morals. 

Varieties. 1. Ought women be allowed 
to vote ? 2. Nothing is troublesome, that we 
do willingly. 3. There is a certain Mnd of 
pleasure in weeping ,- grief — is soothed and 
alleviated, by tears. 4. Labor hard in the 
field of observation, and turn every thing to a 
good account. 5. What is a more lovely sight, 
than that of a youth, growing up under the 
heavenly influence of goodness and truth ? 

6. To speak ill, from knowledge, shows a 
want of character ; to speak ill — upon sus* 
picion, shows a want of honest principle 

7. To be perfectly resigned in the whole ife 
and in its every desire, to the will and govern- 
ance of the Divine Providence, is a worship 
most pleasing in the sight of the Lord. 

To me, tho' bath'd in sorrow's dew, 

The dearer, far, art thou : 
I lov'd thee, when thy woes were few : 

And can I alter — now ? 
That face, in joy's bright hour, was fair ; 
More beauteous, since grief is there ; 

Tho' somewhat pale thy brow ; 
And be it mine, to soothe the pain, 
Thus pressing on thy heart and brain. 



24 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 




37. Articulation is the cutt'mg out and 
shaping, in a perfectly distinct and appro- 
priate manner, with the organs of speech, 
all the simple and compound sounds which 
our twenty-six letters represent. It is to 
the ear what a fair hand-writing is to the 
eye, and relates, of course, to the sounds, 
not to the names, of both vowels and conso- 
nants. It depends on the exact positions 
and correct operations, of the vocal powers, 
and on the ability to vary them with rapid- 
ity, precision and effect: thus, articulation 
is purely an intellectual act, and belongs 
not to any of the brute creation. 

38. Tlie second sound of I is sliort: 
IL j ; inn, imp ; the ser-vile 

spir-it of a rep-tile Z?6-er-tine is 
fos-tile to fem-i-nine fi-del-i- / 
ty; the pu-er-ile eZ/s-ci-pline / 
of mer-can-tile chi-carce-ry, is \ 
the ar-e?/-i-cer of raiZ-i-ta-ry 
<fes-po-tism ; the fer-tile eg- [I in ILL,] 
lan-tine iscZes-tin'd for a jK-ve-nile gift; the 
gen-u-me pro-file of Cap-tain White-held is 
the an-fip-o-des of in-di-vi-si-friZ-i-ty ; the 
wind, in the vi-ciVi-i-ty of mount Lio-a-nus, 
is a me-di-ci-nal for the con-spir-a-cy of the 
brig-and ; the pris-tine foun-tains of the 
ad-a-maw-tine spring is swZ-lied with the 
guil-ty guil-o- tine ; man is an ea>quis-ite 
e-pi'f-o-me of the zVt-fi-nite Di-vm-i-ty, and 
should be sZwcZ-ied as <Ze/-i-nite-ly as pos- 
sible. 

39. Two grand objects are, to correct bad 
habits, and form good ones ; which may be 
done by the practice of a?ialysis and syn- 
thesis : that is, taking compound sounds, 
syllables, words, and sentences into pieces ; 
or, resolving them into their component 
parts, and then recombining, or putting them 
together again. Error must be eradicated, 
or truth cannot be received ; we must cease 
to do evil, and learn to do well : what is 
true can be received only in proportion as 
its opposite false is removed. 

30. Irregulars. A, E, 0, IT, and Y, in a 
few words, have this sound : as— the horn-age 
ffiv-en to pret-ty wom-en has been the rich-est 
bus-'ness of pet-ty tyr-an-ny, since the English 
proph-e-cy of Py-t/tao--o-rus ; the styg-i-an fur- 
nace of bus-y Wal-lace, in Hon-ey al-ley, is a 
med-ley of pyr-i-tes, and the treb-le cyn-o-sme 
of cyg-nets, hyssop, and syn-o-nyms. 

IVoteS. 1. Beware of Mr. Walker's error, in giving the 
sound of lon» E to the final unaccented / and Y of syllables and 
words, which is always short: as,— ao-per-ee-tee, for as-per-i-ty, 
•nee-nor-ee-tee, for mi-nor-i-ty; c/wr-ee-tee for char-i-iy; pos-see- 
* 1-ee-tee, for pos^i-WZ-i-ty, &c. 2. Some give the short sound of 
J to A in the unaccented syllables of— ad-age, cafc-bage, pos-tage, 
fcon-dage, u-sage, &c., which is agreeable to the authorities, and to 
give the a as in at, savors of affectation. 3. / is silent in evil, de- 
\il, cousin, basin, &c. 4. /, in final unaccented syllables, not 
ending a word, is generally short; si-miH-tude, fi-deM-ty. mi- 
nw-i-ty. 

A hark, at midnight, sent alone — 
To drift upon a moonless sea, — 

A lute, whose leading chord — is gone, 

A wounded bird, that has but one 

Imperfect wing — to soar upon, — 
Is like what /am— wi hout thee. 



Anecdote. Accommodating. A Physi- 
cian — advertised, that at the request of his 
friends, he had moved near the church-yard, 
and trusted that his removal would accom- 
modate many of his patients. No doubt of it. 

Proverbs. 1. A thousand probabilities will 
not make one truth. 2. A ftantf-saw is a good 
thing, but not to shave with. 3. Gentility, with- 
out ability, is worse than beggary. 4. A man 
may talk like a wise man, and yet act like a fool. 
5. If we would succeed in any thing, we must use 
the proper means. 6. A liar should have a good 
memory. 7. Charity begins at home, but does 
not end there. 8. An ounce of mother wit is 
worth a pound of learning. 9. Short reckonings 
make long friends. 10. Custom is the plague of 
wise men, and the idol of fools. 11. Everyone 
knows best where his own shoe pinches. A faint 
heart never won a fair lady. 

Freedom. When freedom is spoken of, 
every one has an idea of what is meant ; for 
every one has known what it is to live in 
freedom, and also what it is to live, and act 
under restraint. But then it is obvious 
that different persons feel in freedom, ac- 
cording to circumstances ; things which re- 
strain and infringe upon the freedom of 
some, have no such effect upon others. So 
that in the same situation in which one 
would feel free, another would feel himself 
in bondage. Hence, it is evident that tho 1 
all have a general idea of what freedom is, 
yet all have not the same idea of it. For 
as different persons would not all be free in 
the same circumstances, it follows, that free- 
dom itself is not the same thing to all. Of 
course, the kinds of freedom are as many 
and various as the kinds of love are by which 
we are all governed: and our freedom is 
genuine or not genuine, according as our 
ruling love is good or evil. 

Varieties. 1. Did you ever consider how 
many millions of people — live, and die, igno- 
rant of themselves and the world ? 2. Stin- 
giness soon becomes a confirmed habit, and 
increases with our years. 3. The man, who 
is just, and firm in his purpose, cannot be 
shaken in his determined mind, either by 
threats or promises. 4. By continually scot- 
ding children and domestics, for small faults, 
they finally become accustomed to it, and de- 
spise the reproof. 5. Good books — are not 
only ^.nourishment to the mind, but they en- 
lighten and expand it. 6. Why do we turn 
from those living in this world, to those who 
have left it, for the evidences of genuine love ? 
7. All principles love their nearest relatives, 
and seek fellowship and conjunction with 
them. 
There are some bosoms— dark and drear, 
Which an unwater'd desert are ; 
Yet there, a curious eye, may trace 
Some smiling spot, some verdant place, 
Where little flowers, the weeds between 
Spend their soft fragrance— all unseen. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



25 




31. The organs of speech are, the dorsal 
and abdominal muscles, the diaphragm and 
intercostal muscles, the thorax or chest, 
the lungs, the trachea or wind-pipe, the 
larynx, (composed of five elastic cartilages, 
the upper one being the epiglottis,) the glot- 
tis, folate, tongue, teeth, lips and nose : 
but, in all efforts, we must use the whole 
body. All vowel sounds are made in the 
larynx, or vocal box, and all the consonant 
sounds above this organ. 

33. O has tliree regular sounds : first, 
its name sound, or long: OLD ; 
the sloth-ful doge copes with the 
Jlo-vist before PAa-raoh, and 
sows on-ly yeZ-low oats and o- 
sier ; the home-\y por-trait of the 
a-*ro-cious goldsmith is the yeo- 
man-ry's pU-\ow ; Job won't go [o "» old.] 
to Rome and pour taZ-low o-ver the broach 
of the pre-co-cious wid-ow Gross; the 
whole corps of /or-gers tore the tro-yhy 
from the /eZ-low's nose, and told him to 
store it under the po-ten-tate's so-fa, where 
the de-co-rus pa-t rol pour 1 d the hoa-ry min- 
nows. 

33, A correct and pure articulation, is 
indispensable to the public speaker, and es- 
sential in private conversation : every one, 
therefore, should make himself master of it. 
All, who are resolved to acquire such an 
articulation, and faithfully use the means, 
(which are here furnished in abundance,) 
will most certainly succeed, though opposed 
by slight organic defects ; for the mind may 
obtain supreme control over the whole body. 

34. Irregulars. Au, Eau, and Ew, have 
this sound in a few words : The beau Ros- 
seau, with mourn-ful hau-Zmr, stole the haut- 
boy, bu-reau, cha-teau and flam-beaua;, and 
poked them into his port-manteau, before the 
belle sowed his toe to the har-row, for strew- 
ing the shew-bTea.d on the plat-eaw. 

Anecdote. A Narrow Escape. A pedan- 
tic English traveler, boasting that he had been 
so fortunate, as to escape Mr. Jefferson's ce- 
lebrated non-importation law, was told by a 
Yankee lady, " he was a very lucky man : for 
she understood that the non-importation law 
prohibited the importing of goods, of which 
brass — was the chief composition. 11 

Proverbs. 1. Affairs, like salt-fish, should 
b* a long time soaking-. 2. A fool's tongue, like 
a joonkey's tail, designates the animal. 3. Ml 
are not thieves that dogs bark at. 4. An ant may 
work its heart out, hut it can never make honey. 
5. Better go around, than fall into the ditch. 6. 
Church work generally goes on slowly. 7. Those, 
whom guilt contaminates, it renders equal. 8. 
Force, without forecast, is little worth. 9. Gen- 
tility, without ability, is worse than plain beg- 
gary. 10. Invite, rather than avoid labor. 11. 
He'll go to law, at the wagging of a straw. 12. 
Uobson's choice, — that, or none. 

'Tis not, indeed, my talent— to engage 
In lofty trifles ; or, to swell my page — 
With wind, and noise. 

4 C 



Natural Philosophy — includes all sub- 
stances that affect our five senses, — hearing, 
seeing, tasting, smelling and feeling ; which 
substances are called matter, and exist in 
three states, or conditions, — solid, when the 
particles cohere together, so as not to be easily 
separated ,- as rocks, wood, trees, &c. : liquid, 
when they cohere slightly, and separate 
freely ; as water : and gaseous, or aeriform 
state, when they not only separate freely, 
but tend to recede from each other, as far as 
the space they occupy, or their pressure will 
permit, — as air, &c. 

Educators, and Education. We all 
must serve an apprenticeship to the five 
senses ; and, at every step, we need assist- 
ance in learning our trade : gentleness, pa- 
tience, and love — are almost every thing in 
education : they constitute a mild and bless- 
ed atmosphere, which enters into a child's 
soul, like sunshine into the rosebud, slowly, 
but surely expanding it into vigor and 
beauty. Parents and Teachers must govern 
their own feelings, and keep their hearts 
and consciences pure, following principle, 
instead of impulse. The cultivation of the 
affections and the development of the body's 
senses, begin together. The first effort of 
intellect is to associate the names of objects 
with the sight of them ; hence, the neces- 
sity of early habits of observation — of pay- 
ing attention to surrounding things and 
events ; and enquiring the whys and where- 
fores of every thing; this will lead to the qual- 
ities, shapes, and states of inanimate sub- 
stances ; such as hard, soft, round, square, 
hot, cold, swift, slow, &c. ; then of vegeta- 
bles, afterwards of animals ; and finally, of 
men, a?igels, and God. In forming the 
human character, we must not proceed as 
the sculptor does, in the formation of a sta- 
tue, working sometimes on one part, then 
on another ; but as nature does in forming 
a flower, or any other production ; throwing 
out altogether the whole system of being, 
and all the rudiments of every part. 

Varieties. 1. The just man will flourish 
in spite of envy. 2. Disappointment and 
suffering, are the school of wisdom. 3. Is 
corporeal punishment necessary in the school, 
army and navy ? 4. Every thing within the 
scope of human power, can be accomplished 
by well-directed effoiis. 5. Womajt — the 
morning-star of our youth, the day-star of 
our manhood, and the evening-star of our age. 
6. When Newton was asked — by what means 
he made his discoveries in science ,- he replied, 
" by thinking." 7. Infinity — can never be 
received fully — by any recipient, either in 
heaven, or on earth. 
The silver eel, in shining volumes roll'd, 
The yellow carp, in scales bedropp'd with gold ; 
Round broken columns, clasping ivy twin'd, 
And o'er the ruins— stalk'd the stately hind. 

O cursed thirst of gold ! when, for thy sake, 
The fool— throws up his interest in both worlds ; 
First, starved in this, then, damn 'd— in that to com*. 



26 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 




35. Attend to die quant it 11 and quality of 
the sounds, which you and others make ; 
that is, the volume and purity of voice, the 
time occupied, and the manner of enuncia- 
ting letters, words, and sentences : also, 
learn their differences and distinctions, and 
make your voice produce, and your ear ob- 
serve them. Get clear and distinct ideas 
and coticeptions of tilings and principles, 
both as respects apirit, and matter ; or you 
will grope in dark?iess. 

36. The second sound of O is close : 

OOZE; do stoop, and choose 
to ac-cott-tre the gour-nmnd ^ 
and trou-ba-dour, with boots >{ 
and shoes; the soot-y cou-\i-er ' " 
broods a youth-ful boor to gam- 
boge the goose for a dou-cem ; 
Brougham, (Broom,) proves the 
uncouth dra-g-0071 to be a wound-ed Zow-rist 
by his droop-mg sur -tout ; it be-ftoves the 
600-by to shoot his bou-sy woo-dle soon, 
lest, 6j*o-yant with soup, the fool moor his 
poor ca-rcoe to the roof of the moon. 

31. The difference between expulsion 
and explosion is, that the latter calls into 
use, principally, the lungs, or thorax : i. e. 
the effort is made too much above the dia- 
phragm : the former requires the combined 
action of the muscles below the midriff; this 
is favorable to voice and health ; that is de- 
leterious, generally, to both: many a one has 
injured his voice, by this unnatural process, 
and others have exploded their health, and 
some their life ; beware of it. 

IVoteS. 1. Au, in some French words, have this sound ; 
a3 — chef-d'eau-vre, (she-doovr, a master stroke ;) also, Eu ; as — ma- 
neu-vre; coup-d'aeil, (poo-dale, first, or slight view;) coup-de- 
771am, (a sudden attack ;) and coup-de-grace, (coo-de-gras, the fin- 
ishing stroke). 2. Beware of Walker's erroneous notation in pro- 
nouncing oo in booh, cook, took, look, &c, like the second sound of o, 
.ii in boon, pool, tooth, &c. In these first examples, the oo is like u in 
pull ; and in the latter the o is close. In the word to, in the following, 
when it constitutes a part of the verb, the o is close: as — "in the 
examples alluded to;" "attend t' the exceptions." 3. In concert 
practice, many will let out their voices, who would read so low as 
not to be heard, if reading individually. 

Proverbs. 1. A fog— cannot be dispelled 
with a fan. 2. A good tale — is often marr'd in 
telling. 3. Diligence— makes all things appear 
easy. 4. A good name — is better than riches. 5. 
A man may even say his prayers out of time. 6. 
A-peZ-les— was not a painter in a day. 7. A plas- 
ter is a small amends for a broken head. 8. All 
are not saints that go to church. 9. A man may 
live upon little, but he cannot live upon nothing 
at all. 10. A rolling stone gathers no moss. 11. 
Patience— is a bitter seed; but it yields sweet 
fruit. 12. The longest life must have an end. 

There is a pleasure— in the pathless woods, 
There is a rapture— on the lonely shore, 
There is society, where none intrudes, 
By the deep Sea, and music — in its roar : 
I love not Man— the less, but Nature— more, 
From these our interviews, in which I steal 
From all I may be, or have been before, 
To mingle— with the Universe, and feel— 
What I can jx^qx' express, yet cannot all conceal. 



Causes of Greek Perfection. All Greek 
Philologists have failed to account satisfac- 
torily, for the form, harmony, power, and 
superiority of that language. The reason 
seems to be, that they have sought for a thing 
where it is not to be found; they havelo«Wd 
into books, to see — what was never written 
in books ; but which alone could bp heard. 
They learned to read by ear, and not by Hes- 
ters ; and, instead of having manuscripts be- 
fore them, they memorized their contents, and 
made the thoughts their own, by actual appro- 
priation. When an author wished to have 
his work published, he used the living voice 
of himself, or of a public orator, for the prin- 
ter and bookseller : and the public speaker, 
who was the best qualified for the task, would 
get the most business : the greater effect they 
produced, the higher their reputation. The 
human voice, being the grand instrument, 
was developed, cultivated, and tuned to the 
highest perfection. Beware of dead book 
knowledge, and seek for living, moving na- 
ture : touch the letter — only to make it alive 
with the eternal soul. 

Anecdote. / hold a wolf by the ears : 
which is similar to the phrase — catching 
a Tartar ; supposed to have arisen from a 
trooper, meeting a Tarter in the woods, 
and exclaiming, that he had caught one : to 
which his companion replied, — " Bring him 
along, then; —he answered, "I can't;" 
"Then come yourself;''' 1 — "He won't let 
me." The meaning of which is, to repre- 
sent a man grappling with such difficulties, 
that he knows not how to advance or recede. 
Varieties. 1. Is it not strange, that 
such beautiful flowers — should spring from 
the dust, on which we tread ? 2. Patient, 
persevering thought — has done more to en- 
lighten and improve mankind, than all the 
sudden and brilliant efforts of genius. 3. It 
is astonishing, how much a little added to a 
little, will, in time, amount to. 4. The hap- 
piest state of man — is — that of doing good, 
for its own sake. 5. It is much safer, to 
think — what we say, than to say — what we 
think. 6. In affairs of the heart, the only 
trafic is — love for love ,- and the exclmnge — 
all for all. 7. There are as many orders of, 
truth, as there are of created objects of order 
in the world ; and as many orders of good — 
proper to such truth. 

There is a spell— in every flower, 
A sweetness — in each spray, 

And every simple bird — hath power — 
To please me, with its lay. 

And there is music — on the breeze, 
Th't sports along the glade, 

The crystal dew-drops— on the trees, 
Are gems — by fancy made. 

O, there is joy and happiness— 
In every thing I see, 

Which bids my soul rise up, and bless 
The Ood, th't blesses me. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



27 




38. Oratory — in all its refinement, and 
necessary circumstances, belongs to no par- 
ticular people, to the exclusion of others; 
nor is it the gift of nature alone ; but, like 
other acquirements, it is the reward of ardu- 
us efforts, under the guidance of consummate 
skill. Perfection, in this art, as well as in all 
others, is the work of time and labor, prompt- 
ed by true feeling, and guided by correct 
thought. 

39. Tlie third sound of O is short: 
ON ; /ore-head, prod-uce ; the 
doZ-o-rous coZZ-ier trode on the 
bronz'd o5-e-lisk, and his sol- 
ace was a corn-bat for owi-lets 
made of gor-geous cor-als ; the 
coZ-a-tile pro-cess of making [OinON.] 
ros-in glob-ules of trop-i-ca\ mon-ades is ex- 
*raor-di-na-ry ; the doc-i\e George for-got 
thejoc-und copse in his som-bre prog-vess 
to the moss broth in yon-dev trough of 
knowl-edge ; beyond the flor-id frosts of 
morn-ing are the sop-o-r(/"-ic prooJ-ucts of 
the AoZ-y-days. 

4.-0. Dean Kirwan, a celebrated pulpit ora- 
tor, was so thoroughly convinced of the im- 
portance of manner, as an instrument of do- 
ing good, that he carefully studied all his 
tones and gestures ; and his well modulated 
and commanding voice, his striking attitudes, 
and his varied emphatic action, greatly aided 
bis wing-ed words, in instructing, melting, 
inflaming, terrifying and overwhelming his 
auditors. 

4:1. Irregulars. A sometimes has this 
sound : For what was the wad-d\mg swan 
quar-rel-mg with the wasp wan-der-ing and 
u>a&-bling in the swamp ? it was in a quan- 
da-ry for the quan-ti-ty of wars be-tween 
the squash and wash-tub, I war-rant you. 

Notes. 1. The o in nor is like o in on and or : and the rea- 
son why it appears to be different, is that the letterr, when smooth, 
being formed the lowest in the throat of any of the consonants, 
partakes more of the properties of the vowel than the rest. 2. 
is silent in the final syllables of pris-on, bi-son, dam-son, ma-son, 
par-son, sex-ton, ar-son, bla-zon, glut-ton, par-don, but-ton, rea-son, 
mut-ton, ba-con, trea-son, reck-on, sea-son, u-ni-son, ho-ri-zon, crim- 
son, les-son, per-son, Mil-toD, John-son, Thomp-son, kc. 

Proverbs. 1. A man of gladness— seldom 
tails into madness. 2. A new broom sweeps 
clean. 3. A whetstone — can't itself cut, yet it 
makes tools cut. 4. Better go around, than fall 
into the ditch. 5. Religion— is an excellent ar- 
mor, but a bad cloke. 6. The early bird — catches 
the worm. 7. Every one's faults are not written 
in their fore-heads. 8. Fire and water — are ex- 
cellent servants, but bad masters. 9. Fools and 
obstinate people, make lawyers rich. 10. Good 
counsel— has no price. 11. Great barkers— are 
no biters. 12. Regard the interests of others, as 
well as your own. 
'Tis liberty, alone, that gives the flower 
Of fleeting life its lustre, and perfume ; 
And we are weeds without it. 
Man's soul— in a perpetual motion flows, 
And to no outward cause— that motion owes. 



Analogies. Light — is used in all lan- 
guages, as the representative of truth in its 
power of illustrating the understanding. 
Sheep, lambs, doves, &c, are a?ialogous to, 
or represent certain prijiciples and affections 
of the mind, which are pure and innocent; 
and hence, we select them as fit representa- 
tives of such affections: while, on the other 
hand, bears, wolves, serpents, and the like, 
are thought to represent their like affections. 
In painting and sculpture it is the artist's 
great aim, to represent, by sensible colors, 
and to embody under material forms, cer- 
tain ideas, or principles, which belong to the 
mind, and give form to his conceptions on 
canvass, or on marble : and, if his execu- 
tion be equal to his conception, there will 
be a perfect correspondence, or analogy, be- 
tween his picture, or statue, and the ideas, 
which he had endeavored therein to express. 
The works of the greatest masters in poe- 
try, and those which will live the longest, 
contain the most of pure correspondences ; 
for genuine poetry is identical with truth; 
and it is the truth, in such works, which is 
their living principle, and the source of their 
power over the mind. 

Anecdote. Ready Wit. A boy, having 
been praised for his quickness of reply, a 
gentleman observed, — ' ' When children are 
so keen in their youth, they are generally 
stupid when they become advanced in 
years.'''' " What a very sensible boy you 
must have been, sir," — replied the lad. 

Varieties. 1. Why is a thinking person 
like a mirror ? because he reflects. 2. Self- 
sufficiency — is a rock, on which thousands 
perish ; while diffidence, with a proper sense 
of our strength, and worthiness, generally 
ensures success. 3. Industry — is the law of 
our being ; it is the demand of nature, of rea- 
son, and of God. 4. The generality of man- 
kind — spend the early part of their lives in 
contributing- to render the latter part misera- 
ble. 5. When we do wrong, being convinc- 
ed of it — is the first step towards amend- 
ment. 6. The style of writing, adopted by 
persons of equal education and intelligence, 
is the criterion of correct language. 7. To 
go against reason and its dictates, when pure, 
is to go against God -• such reason — is the di- 
vine governor of man's life : it is the very 
voice of God. 

THE EVENING BELLS. 

Those evening bells, those evening bells ! 
How many a tale — their music tells 
Of youth, and home, and native clime, 
When I last heard their soothing chime. 
Those pleasanf hours have passed away, 
And many ? heart, that then was gay, 
Within tbt tomb -now darkly dwells, 
And hear" n more those evening bells. 
And so it will be when /am gone; 
That funeful peal— will still ring on, 
When other bards— shall walk these dells, 
And sing your praise, sweet evening bells. 



28 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



42. Yield implicit obedience to all rules 
and principles, that are founded in nature 
and science ; because, ease, gracefulness, and 
efficiency, always follow accuracy ; but rules 
may be dispensed with, when you have be- 
come divested of bad habits, and have per- 
fected yourself in this useful art. Do not, 
however, destroy the scaffold, until you have 
erected the building; and do not raise the 
super-struct-me, till you have dug deep, and 
laid its foundation stones upon a rock. 

43. U lias three regular sounds : first, 
xame sound, or long : MUTE; 

June re-/u-ses as-tute Ju-ly the / Tj^ \ 
juice due to ra-cum-ber; this/eu- j Jf^2\ \ 
dal con-nois-sieur is a suit-a.-b\e I \ \ J 

co-ad^/'u-tor for the cu -ri-ous * V / 

man-tua-ma-ker ; the a-gue and C u in mute.] 
/e-ver is a st7i-gu-lar nui-sance to the a-cu- 
men of the mu-to/-to; the cu-rate caZ-cu- 
lates to ed-u-cate this lieu-/en-ant for the tri- 
&u-nal of the Duke's^u-di-cat-ure. 

44. Elocution, is reading, and speaking, 
with science, and effect. It consists of two 
parts : the Science, or its true principles, and 
the Art, or the method of presenting them. 
Science is the knowledge of Art, and Art 
is the practice of Science. By science, or 
knowledge, we know how to do a thing ; and 
the doing of it is the art. Or, science is the 
parent, and art is the offspring ,• or, science 
is the seed, and art the plant. 

45. Irregulars. Ew, has sometimes this 
diphthongal sound, which is made by com- 
mencing with a conformation of organs much 
like that required in short e, as in ell, termi- 
nating with the sound of o, in ooze; see the 
engraving. Ke-view the dew-y Jew a-wew, 
while the cat mews for the stew. In pro- 
nouncing the single sounds, the mouth is in 
one condition ; but, in giving the diphthong, 
or double sound, it changes in conformity to 
them. 

Rotes. 1. U, when long, at the beginning of a word, or 
15- liable, is preceded by the consonant sound of y : i. e. it has this 
consonant and its own vowel sound : as ; u-ni-verse, (yu-ni-verse,) 
yen-u-ry, (pen-yu-ry,) rtat-u-a-ry, (stat-yu-a-ry,) ewe, (yu,) vol-ume, 
(vol-yume,) jia-ture, (nat-yure,) &c: but not in coi-umn, al-um, 
kc, where the u is short 2. Never pronounce duty, dooty; tune, 
toon; news, noo); blue, Uoo; slew, sloo; dews, duos; Jews, Joos ; 
Tuesday, Toosday; gratitude, gratitoode, &c. 3. Sound all the 
syllables full, for a time, regardless of sense, and make every let- 
ter that i* not silent, tell truly aiid fully on the ear : there is no 
danger that you will not clip them enough in practice. 

Anecdote. A Dear Wife. A certain ex- 
travagant speculator, who failed soon after, 
informed a relation one evening, that he 
had that day purchased an elegant set of 
jewels for his dear wife, which cost him 
two thousand dollars. " She is a. dear wife, 
indeed,'''' — was the laconic reply. 

Knowledge— dwells 

In heads, replete with thoughts of other men ; 

Wisdom, in minds attentive to their own. 



Proverbs. 1. Fools — make fashions, and 
other people follow them. 2. From -nothing, 
nothing can come. 3. Give but rope enough, and 
he will hang himself. 4. Punishment — may be 
tardy, but it is sure to overtake the guilty. 5. 
He that plants trees, loves others, besides him- 
self. 6. If a fool have success, it always ruins 
him. 7. It is more easy to threaten, than to do. 
8. Learning — makes a man fit company for him- 
self, as well as others. 9 Little strokes fe. £~ eat 
oaks. 10. Make the best of a bad bargain. 11 
The more we have, the more we desire. 12. Gen- 
teel society— is not always good society. 

The Innocent and Guilty. If those, 
only, who sow to the wind — reap the whirl- 
wind, it would be well : but the mischief 
is — that the blindness of bigotry, the mad- 
ness of ambition, and the miscalculation of 
diplomacy — seek their victims, principally, 
amongst the innocent and unoffending. 
The cottage — is sure to suffer, for every er- 
ror of the court, the cabinet, or the camp. 
When error — sits in the seat of power and 
authority, and is generated in high places, 
it may be compared to that torrent, which 
originates indeed, in the mountain, but 
commits its devastation in the vale below. 

Eternal Joy. The delight of the soul — 
is derived from love and wisdom from the 
Lord ; and because love is effective through 
wisdom, they are both fixed in the effect, 
which is use : this delight from the Lord 
flows into the soul, and descends through 
the superiors and inferiors of the mind — in- 
to all the senses of the body, and fulfills it. 
self in them ; and thence joy — becomes joy, 
and also eternal— from the Eternal. 

Varieties. 1. Gaming, like quicksand, 
may swallow up a man in a moment. 2. 
Real independence — is living within our 
means. 3. Envy — has slain its thousands ,- 
but neglect, its tens of thousands. 4. Is not 
a sectarian spirit — the devil's wedge — to sep- 
arate christians from each other? 5. That 
man is little to be envied, whose patriotism — 
would not gain force on the plains of Mara- 
thon; or whose piety would not grow vjarm- 
er among the ruins of Ionia. 6. Rational 
evidence — is stronger than any miracle 
whenever it convinces the understanding ,- 
which miracles do not. 7. Man, in his saU 
vation, has the power of an omnipotent Gou 
to fight for him; but in his damnation, he 
must fight against it, as being ever in the ef- 
fort to save him. 

THE SEASONS. 

TTiese, as they change, Almighty Father! thes« 
Are but the varied God. The rolling year 
Is full of thee. Forth in the pleasing spring 
Thy beauty walks, thy tenderness and love. 
Wide flush the fields ; the soft'ning air is balm ; 
Echo the mountains round ; the forest smiles, - 
And ev'ry sense, and ev'ry heart is joy. 
Even from the body's purity— the mind- 
Receives a secret, sympathetic aid. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



29 




46. By Analysis — sounds, syllables, 
words, and sentences are resolved into then- 
constituent parts ; to each is given its own 
peculiar sound, force, quality, and meaning; 
and thus, every shade of vocal coloring, of 
thought and feeling, may be seen and felt. 
By Syitthesis, these parts are again re-uni- 
ted, and presented in all their beautiful and 
harmonious combinations, exhibiting all the 
varieties apperception, thought, and emotion, 
that can he produced by the human mind. 

4T. The second sound of TJ is sliort : 
UP; an «Z-tra ««m6-skull is a .\^l^. 
mur-ky scuZ-lion; she wrged / 
her cowr-te-ous hus-ba.nd to 
coup-le himself to a tre-men- H 
dous tur-ile ; the coun-try ur- \ 
chin pwr-chased a bunch of [UinUP.] 
mush and tar-nips, with an ei-ful-gent duc- 
at, and burst with the bulk of fun, because 
the um-oire de-mwrr-ed at the sKC-co-tash. 

48. Lord Mansfield, when quite young, 
used to recite the orations of Demosthenes, 
on his native mountains ; he also practised 
before Mr. Fope, the poet, for the benefit of 
his criticisms ; and the consequence was, his 
melodious voice and graceful diction, made 
as deep an impression, as the beauties of his 
style and the excellence of his matter; 
which obtained for him the appellation of 
" the silver-toned Murray." 

49. Irregulars. A, E, I, 0, and Y, 
occasionally have this sound : the uw-man's 
fais-band's clerk whirled his cow-rade into a 
bloody flood for mirth and mon-ey; sir 
squir-rel does noih-'mg but shove ow-ions up 
the coZ- lan-der ; the sov-reign monk has just 
come to the coZ-ored mow-key, quoth my 
wxm-dering mother; this swr-geon bumbs 
the Aor-ror-stricken &edMam-ites, and cov- 
ets the coOT-pa-ny of mar-tyrs and roo-bers, 
to plun-dex some tons of cows-ins ot their 
gloves, com-fort, and hon-ey ; the bird en- 
veZ-ops some worms and pome-gran-ates 
in its stom-ach, a-hove the myr-tle, in front 
of the tav-ern, thus, rres-pass-ing on the 
cow-er-ed in-ands ; the wan-ton sex-ton en- 
com-pass-es the earth with gi-ant whirl- 
winds, and pZzm-ges its sons into the bot- 
tom-less o-cean with his shov-el. 

Notes. 1. E and U, final, are silent in such words as, 
bogue, vague, eclogue, synagogue, plague, catalogue, rogue, dema- 
gogue, &c. 2. Do justice to every letter and word, and as soon 
think of stepping backward and forward in walking, as to repro- 
nounce your words in reading: nor should you call the words in- 
correctly, any sooner than you would put on your shoes for your 
hat, or your bonnet for your shawl. 3. When e or t precedes one 
r, in the same syllable, it generally has this sound : berth, mirth, 
heard, vir-gin, &c, see N. p. 18. 4. Sometimes r is double in sound, 
•hough written single. 

Could we — with ink — the ocean fill, 

Were earth — of parchment made ; 
Were every single stick — a quill, 

Each man — a scribe by trade ; 
To write the tricks— of half the sex, 

Would drink the ocean dry : — 
Gallants, beware, look sharp, take care, 

The blind — eat many a fly. 



Proverbs. 1. Like the dog in the manger; 
he will neither do, nor let do. 2. Many a slip be- 
tween the cup and lip. 3. No great loss, but 
there is some small gain. 4. Nothing venture, 
nothing have. 5. One half the world knows not 
how the other half lives. 6. One story is good 
till another is tcld. 7. Pride— goes before, and 
shame — follows after. 8. Saying and doing, are 
two things. 9. Some — are wise, and some — are 
otherwise. 10. That is but an empty purse, that 
is full of other folk's money. 11. Common fame 
is generally considered a liar. 12. No weapon, 
but truth ; no law, but love. 

Anecdote. Lawyer's Mistake. When the 
regulations of West Boston bridge were drawn 
up, by two famous lawyers, — one section, it 
is said, was written, accepted, and now stands 
thus : " And the said proprietors shall meet 
annually, on the first Tues-day of June; 
provided, the same does not fall on Sunday." 

Habits. If parents — only exercised the 
same forethought, and judgment, about the 
education of their children, as they do in 
reference to their shoemaker, carpenter, join- 
er, or even gardener, it would be much bet- 
ter for these precious ones. In all cases, 
what is learned, should be learned well : to 
do which, good teachers — should be preferred 
to cheap ones. Bad habits, once learned, 
are not easily corrected : it is better to learn 
one thing toeZZ, and thoroughly, than many 
things wrong, or imperfectly. 

Varieties. 1. Is pride — an indication of 
talent? 2. A handsome woman — pleases 
the eye ; but a good woman the heart : the 
former — is a. jewel; the latter — a living trea- 
sure. 3. An ass — is the gravest beast ; an 
owl — the gravest bird. 4. What a pity it is, 
when we are speaking of one who is beauti- 
ful and gifted, that we cannot add, that he 
or she is good, happy, and innocent! 5. 
Don't rely too much on the torches of others ; 
light one of your own. 6. Ignorance — is 
like a blank sheet of paper, on which we may 
write ; but error — is like a scribbled one. 7. 
All that the natural sun is to the natural 
world, that — is the Lord — to his spiritual 
creation and world, in which are our minds — 
and hence, he enlightens every man, that 
cometh into the world. 

Our birth — is but a sleep, and a forgetting; 

The soul, th't rises with us, our life's star. 

Hath had elsewhere — its setting, 

And cometh from afar ; 

Not in entire forgetfulness, 

And not in utter nakedness, 

But trailing clouds of glory— do we come 

Prom God, who is our home. 

And 'tis remarkable, that they 

Talk most, that have the least to soy. 

Pity— is the virtue of the law,. 

And none but tyrants— use it cruelly. 

'Tis the first sanction, nature gave to man. 

Each other to assist, in what they can. 
c2 



30 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



\jJ*J 




50. It is not the quantity read, but the 
manner of reading, and the acquisition of 
correct and efficient rules, with the ability 
to apply them, accurately, gracefully, and 
involuntarily, that indicate progress in these 
arts : therefore, take one principle, or com- 
Una! ion of principles, at a time, and prac- 
tice it till the object is accomplished : in this 
way, yon may obtain a perfect mastery over 
your vocal powers, and all the elements of 
language. 

51. The third sound of U is full: 
FULL ; cru-el J5r«-tus rued the 
crude fruit bruised for the pud- 
ding ; theprw-dent rw-ler wound- 
ed this youth-m\ cuck-oo, be- 
cause he would, could, or should 
not im-brue his hands in Ruth's 
gru-e\, nve-par'd for a faith-(u\ ro in full.] 
dru-id ; the butch-er's bul-iet push-ed poor 
puss on the sm-ful cws^-ion, and grace- 
ful-ly put this tru-ant Prussian into the 
puZ-pit for cru-ci-^x-ion. 

52. Avoid rapidity and indistinctness 
of utterance ; also, a drawling, mincing, 
harsh, mouthing, artificial, rumbling, mo- 
notonous, whining, stately, pompous, un- 
varied, wavering, sleepy, boisterous, labor- 
ed, formal, faltering, trembling, heavy, 
theatrical, affected, and self-complacent 
manner ; and read, speak, sing, in such a 
clear, strong, melodious, flexible, winning, 
bold, sonorous, forcible, round, full, open, 
brilliant, natural, agreeable, or mellow tone, 
as the sentiment requires ; which contains 
in itself so sweet a charm, that it almost 
atones for the absence of argument, sense, 
and fancy. 

53. Irregulars. Ew, 0, and Oo, occa- 
sionally have this sound: the shrewd wo- 
man es-chewed the wolf, which stood pul- 
ling Ruth's wol-sey, and shook Tru-man 
W'or-ces-ter's crook, while the brew-ex and 
his bul-\y crew huz-za'd for all ; you say it 
is your truth, and / say it is my truth ; you 
may take care of your-'self, and / will take 
care of my-self. 

Notes. 1. Beware of omitting vowels occurring between 
consonants in unaccented syllables : as hist'ry, for his-to-ry; lit'ral 
fat lit-e-rcd; voi'ry, (oTvo-ta-ry ; past'ral, for ■pa.i-to-ral ; numb'ring, 
for num-bar~ing ; corp'ral, for cor-po-ral; genVal, for gen-e-ral; 
mem'ry, for raem-o-ry, &c. Do not pronounce this sound of u 
like oo in boon, nor like u in mute ; but like u in full : as, chew, 
not choo, &c. 2. The design of the practice on the forty-four sounds 
of our letters, each in its turn, is, besides developing and training 
the voice and ear for all their duties, to exhibit the general laws 
and analogies of pronunciation, showing how a large number of 
v.onls should be pronounced, which are often spoken incorrectly. 

Anecdote. Stupidity. Said a testy law- 
yer, — "I believe the jury have been inocula- 
ted for stupidity." " That may be," replied 
his opponent,- "but the bar, and the court, 
are of opinion, that you had it the natural 
way." 

O there are hours, aye moments, that contain 

Feelings, that years may pass, and never bring. 

The soul's dark cottage, battered, and decayed. 

Still lets in light,lhro' chinks, that time has made. 



Proverbs. 1. .Qway goes the devil, when the 
door is shut against him. 2. A liar is not to be 
believed when he speaks the truth. 3. Never 
speak ill of your neighbors. 4. Constant occu- 
pation, prevents temptation. 5. Courage — ought 
to have eyes, as well as ears. 6. Experience — 
keeps a dear school ; but fools will learn in no 
other. 7. Follow the wise few, rather than the 
foolish many. 8. Good actions are the best sacri- 
fice. 9. He who avoids the temptation, avoids 
the sin. 10. Knowledge — directs practice, yet' 
practice increases knowledge. 

Duties. Never cease to avail yourself of 
information: you must observe closely — 
read attentively, and digest what you read, — 
converse extensively with high and loiu, rich 
and poor, noble and ignoble, bond and free, — 
meditate closely and intensely on all the 
knowledge you acquire, and have it at per- 
fect command. Obtain just conceptions of 
all you utter — and communicate every thing 
in its proper order, and clothe it in the most 
agreeable and effective language. Avoid all 
redundancy of expression,- be neither too 
close, nor too diffuse, — and, especially, be as 
perfect as possible, in that branch of oratory, 
which Demosthenes declared to be the first, 
second, and third parts of the science, — ac- 
tion, — god-like action, — which relates to 
every thing seen and heard in the orator. 
Elocution, — enables you, at all times, to 
command attention : its effect will be electric, 
and strike from heart to heart ; and he must 
be a mere declaimer, who does not feel him- 
self inspired — by the fostering meed of such 
approbation as mute attention, — and the re- 
turn of his sentiments, fraught with the sj-m- 
pathy of his audience. 

Varieties. 1. Have steamboats — been 
the occasion of more evil, than good? 2. 
Those that are idle, are generally troublesome 
to such as are industrious. 3. Plato says — 
God is truth, and light — is his shadow. 4. 
MaZ-information — is more hopeless than non- 
information ; for error — is always more diffi- 
cult to overcome than ignorance. 5. He, 
that will not reason, is a bigot ; he, that can- 
not reason, is a fool; and he, who dares not 
reason, is a slave. 6. There is a great differ- 
ence between a well-spoken man and an ora- 
tor. 7. The Word of God — is divine, and, 
in its principles, infinite : no part can really 
contradict another part, or have a meaning 
opposite — to what it asserts as true ; although 
it may appear so in the letter: for the letter — 
killeth ; but the spirit — giveth life. 

They are sleeping! Who are sleeping 1 

Pause a moment, softly tread ; 
Anxious friends— are fondly keeping 

Vigils — by the sleeper's bed ! 
Other hopes have all forsaken, — 

One remains, — that slumber deep; 
Speak not, lest the slumberer waken 
From that sweet, that saving sleep. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



31 




54. A Diphthong, or double sound, is the 
union of two vowel sounds in one syllable, 
pronounced by a single continuous effort of 
the voice. There are four diphthongal 
sounds, in our language ; long i as in isle ; 
oi, in oil ; the pure, or long sound of a in 
lure, and ou in our ; which include the same 
sounds under the forms of long y in rhyme; 
of oy in coy; of ew in pew; and ow in how. 
These diphthongs are called pure, because 
they are all heard ; and in speaking and 
singing, only the radical, (or opening full- 
ness of the sound,) should be prolonged, or 
iung. 

55. Diphthongs. Oi and Oy : OIL ; 
broil the joint of loin in poison \ (^ 
and oint-meni ; spoil not the oys- / V *|Tf^ \ 
ters for the hoy-den ; the boy / 
pitch-es quoits a-droit-\y on the 
soil, and sub-joins the joists to \ 
the pur-loins, and em-ploys the on 
destroyed toi-let to soil the res- 
er-voir, lest he be cloy'd with his me-moirs. 

56. The late Mr. Pitt, (Lord Chatham,) 
was taught to declaim, when a mere boy ; 
and was, even then, much admired for his 
talent in recitation : the result of which 
was, that his ease, grace, power, self-pos- 
session, and imposing dignity, on his first 
appearance in the British Parliament, "drew 
audience and attention, still as night ;" and 
the irresistible force of his action, and the 
power of his eye, carrried conviction with 
his arguments. 

Notes. 1. The radical, or root of this diphthong, com- 
mences nearly with 3d a, as in all, and its vanish, or terminating 
point, with the name sound of e, as in eel ; the first of which is in- 
dicated by the engraving above. 2. Avoid the vulgar pronuncia- 
tion of ile, for oil; jice, for joist ; pint, for point; bile, for boil; 
jint, for joint; hist, for hoist; spile, for spoil; quate, for quoit; 
pur-line, for yur-loin ; yt'-zen, foryoi-son; brile, for broil; Clyde, 
for cloyed, &c: this sound, especially, when given with the jaw 
much dropped, and rounded lips, has in it a captivating nobleness; 
but beware of extremes. 3. The general rule for pronouncing the 
vowels is — they are open, continuous, or long, when final in ac- 
cented words and syllables : as a-ble, /a-ther, aio-ful, me-tre, ii-ble, 
tio-ble, ?noo-ted, ht-mult, frra-tal, poison, ow-ter-most ; but they 
are shut, discrete, or short, when followed in the same syllable by 
a consonant ; as, ap-ple, sev-er, lit-Qe, pot-tei, but-toD, 4T/m-pa-thy. 
Examples of exceptions — ale, are, all, file, note, tune, &c. 4. An- 
other general rule is — a vowel followed by two consonants, that 
are repeated in the pronunciation, is short : as, maf-ter, ped-lar, 
Ui ter, but-ler, &c. 

Anecdote. The king's evil. A student 
of medicine, while attending medical lec- 
tures in London, and the subject of this evil 
being on hand, observed — "that the king's 
evil had been but little known in the Unit- 
ed States, since the Revolution. 

They are sleeping ! Who are sleeping 1 

Misers, by their hoarded gold ; 
And, in fancy — now are heaping 

Gems and pearls— of price untold. 
Golden chains — their limbs encumber, 

Diamonds — seem before them strown ; 
But they waken from their slumber, 

And the splendid dream — is flown. 

Compare each phrase, examine every line, 
Weigh every word, and every thought refine. 



Proverbs. 1. Home is home, if it be ever so 
homely. 2. It is too late to complain when a thing 
is done. 3. In a thousand pounds of law, there is 
not an ounce of love. 4. Many a true word is 
spoken in jest. 5. One man's meat is another 
man's poison. 6. Pride, perceiving humility — 
honorable, often borrows her cloke. 7. Say- 
well— is good ; but do-well— is better. 8. The 
eye, that sees all things, sees not itself. 9. The 
crow — thinks her own birds the whitest. 10. The 
tears of the congregation are the praises of the 
minister. 11. Evil to him that evil thinks. 12. 
Do good, if you expect to receive good. 

Our Food. The laws of man's constitu- 
tion and relation evidently show us, that the 
plainer, simpler and more natural our food 
is, the more pefectly these laws will be ful- 
filled, and the more healthy, vigorous, and 
long-lived our bodies will be, and consequent- 
ly the more perfect our senses will be, and 
the more active and powerful may the intel- 
lectual and moral faculties be rendered by 
cultivation. By this, is not meant that we 
should eat grass, like the ox, or confine our- 
selves to any one article of food : by simple 
food, is meant that which is not compounded, 
and complicated, and dressed with pungent 
stimulants, seasoning, or condiments ,- such 
kind of food as the Creator designed for us, 
and in such condition as is best adapted to 
our anatomical and physiological powers. 
Some kinds of food are better than others, 
and adapted to sustain us in every condition ; 
and such, whatever they may be, (and we 
should ascertain what they are,) should con- 
stitute our sustenance ■• thus shall we the 
more perfectly fulfil the laws of our being, 
and secure our best interests. 

Varieties. 1. Was Em, literally, made 
out of Adam's rib ? 2. He — is doubly a 
conqueror, who, when a conqueror, can con- 
quer himself. 3. People may be borne down 
by oppression for a time ; but, in the end, 
vengeance will surely overtake their oppres- 
sors. 4. It is a great misfortune — not to be 
able to speak well ; and a still greater one, 
not to know when to be silent. 5. In the 
hours of study, acquire knowledge that will 
be useful in after life. 6. Nature — reflects 
the light of revelation, as the moon does 
that of the sun. 7. Religion — is to be as 
much like God, as men can be like him : 
hence, there is nothing more contrary to 
religion, than angry disputes and conten 
tions about it. 
The pilgrim fathers— where are they 1 

The waves, that brought them o'er, 
Still roll in the bay, and throw their spray,. 

As they break along the shore : — 
Still roll in the bay, as they roll'd that day, 

When the May Flower moor'd below ; 
When the sea around, was black with storms, 

And white the shore — with snow. 

By reason, man — a Godhead can discern : 
But how he should be worship'd, cannot learn* 



32 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 




57. There are no impure diphthongs or 
triphthongs, in which two or three vowels 
represent, or unite, in one sound ; for all are 
silent except one ; as in a?r, awnt, awl, plaid, 
steal, lead, curtain, soar, good, your, cowgh, 
feu-dal, dun-geon, beau-ty, a-dieu, view-ing. 
These silerit letters, in connection with the 
vocals, should be called di- graphs and tri- 
graphs ; that is, doubly and triply written : 
they sometimes merely indicate the sound 
of the accompanying vowel, and the deriva- 
tion of the word. Let me beware of believ- 
ing anything, unless I can see that it is true: 
and for the evidence of truth, I will look at 
the truth itself. 

58. Diphthongs; Ou, and Ow: OUR; 
Mr. Brown wound an ounce of 
sound a-round a cloud, and 
drowned a mouse in a pound of / 
sour chow-der; a drow-sy' • 
mouse de-vour^d a house and 
howl'd a po«;-wow a-bout the 
motttt-tains; the gou-ty owl 
crouched in his tow-er, and the scoioZ-ing 
cow bowed down de-vout-ly in her 6oio-er ; 
the giour (jower) en-shroud-ed in pow-er, 
en-cfoio-ed the count's prou>-ess with a re- 
novm'd trow-el, and found him with a stout 
gown in the coun-ty town. 

59. Demosthenes, the Grecian orator, 
paid many thousands to a teacher in Elocu- 
tion; and Cicero, the Roman orator, after 
having completed his education, in other 
respects, spent two whole years in recitation, 
under one of the most celebrated tragedi- 
ans of antiquity. Brutus declared, that he 
would prefer the honor, of being esteemed 
the master of Roman eloquence, to the glo- 
ry of many triumphs. 

60. Notes. 1. Ou and ow are the only representatives 
of this dipththongal sound ; the former generally in the middle 
of words, and the latter at the end : in blow, show', and low, w 
is silent. 2. There are 12 tnono-thongal vowels, or single voice 
sounds, and 4 dtpft-thongal vowels, or double voice sounds : these 
ire heard in isle, tune, oil and out. 5. There is a very incorrect 
and offensive sound given by some to this diphthong, particularly 
in. the Northern states, in consequence of drawing the corners of 
the mouth back, and keeping the teeth too close, while pronouncing 
it ; it may be called a flat, nasal sound : in song it is worse 
than in speech. It may be represented as follows — ieou, neou, 
geoun, peour, deoun, keounty, shewoer, SfC Good natured, 
laughing people, living in cold climates, where they wish to keep 
the mouth nearly closed, when talking, are often guilty of this vul- 
garity. It may be avoided by opening the mouth wide, projecting 
the under jaw and making the sound deep in the throat. 

Anecdote. Woman as she should be. A 
young woman went into a public library, in 
a certain town, and asked for "Man as he is." 
"That is out, Miss," said the librarian; "but 
we have 'Woman as she should be. ,,y She 
took the book and the hint too. 
Where are the heroes of the ages past : [ones 
Where the brave chieftains — where the mighty 
Who flourish'd in the infancy of days ? 
All to the grave gone down!— On their fall'n fame, 
Exultant, mocking at the pride of man, 
Sits grim Forgetfulness. The warrior's arm 
Lies nerveless on the pillow of its shame : 
HusWdva his stormy voice, and quenched the blaze 
Of bis red eye-hall. 



Proverbs. 1. As you make your bed, so must 
you lie in it. 2. Be the character you would be 
called. 3. Choose a calling, th't is adapted to youi 
inclination, and natural abilities. 4. Live — and 
let live ; i. e. do as you would be done by. 5. 
Character — is the measure of the man. 6. Zeal- 
ously keep down little expenses, and you will 
not be likely to incur large ones. 7. Every one 
knows how to find fault. 8. Fair words and 
foul play cheat both young and old. 9. Give a 
dog an ill name, and he will soon be shot. 10. He 
knows best what is good, who has endured evil. 
11. Great pains and little gains, soon make man 
weary. 12. The fairest rose will wither at last. 

Cause and Effect. The evils, which 
afflict the country, are the joint productions 
of all parties and all classes. They have 
been produced by over-banking, over-trad- 
ing, over-spendi7ig, oxer-dashing, over-dri- 
ving, over -reaching, over -borrowing, over- 
eating, over-drinking, over-thinking, over- 
playing, over-riding, and over-acting of 
every kind and description, except over- 
working. Industry is the foundation of so- 
ciety, and the corner-stone of civilization. 

Recipients. We receive according to our 
states of mind and life : if we are in the love 
and practice of goodness and truth, we be- 
come the receivers of them in that propor- 
tion ; but if otherwise, we form receptacles 
of their opposites,— -falsity and evil. When 
we are under heavenly influences, we know 
that all things shall work together for our 
happiness ; and when under infernal influ- 
ences, they will work tog-ether for our mis- 
ery. Let us then choose, this day, whom we 
will serve ; and then shall we know — where- 
in consists the art of happiness, and the art 
of misery. 

Varieties. 1. Is not the single fact, that 
the human mind has thought of another 
world, good proof that there is one ? 2. Tol- 
eration — is good for all, or it is good for 
none. 3. He who swallows up the sub- 
stance of the poor, will, in the end, find that 
it contains a bone, which will choke him. 4. 
The greatest share of happiness is enjoyed 
by those, who possess affluence, without su- 
perfluity, and can command the comforts of 
life, without plunging into its luxuries. 5. Do 
not suppose that every thing is gold, which 
glitters; build not your hopes on a sandy 
foundation. 6. The world seems divided 
into two great classes, agitators and the non- 
agitators : why should those, who are estab- 
lished on the immutable rock of truth, fear 
agitation? 7. True humiliation — is a pearl 
of great price ; for where there is no resist- 
ance, or obstacle, there, — heaven, and its in- 
fluences must enter, enlighten, teach, purify, 
create and support. 

The only prison, th't enslaves the soul, 
Is the dark habitation, where she dwells, 
As in a noisome dungeon. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



33 



59. Reading — by vowel sounds only, is 
analagous to singing by note, instead of by 
word. This is an exceedingly interesting 
and important exercise : it is done, simply, 
by omitting the consonants, and pronounc- 
ing the vowels, the same as in their respec- 
tive words. First, pronounce one or more 
words, and then re-pronounce them, and 
leave off the consonants. The vowels con- 
stitute the essence of words, and the conso- 
nants give that material the proper form. 

60 All the vowel sounds, thrice told, — 
James Parr; Hall Mann; EvePrest; Ike Sill; 
Old Pool Forbs; Luke Munn Bull; Hoyle 
Prout — ate palms walnuts apples, peaches 
melons, ripe figs, cocoas goosberries hops, 
cucumbers prunes, and boiled sour-crout, to 
their entire satisfaction. Ale, ah, all, at; 
eel, ell; isle, ill; old, ooze, on; mute, 
up, fall ; oil, ounce. Now repeat all these 
vowel sounds consecutively, : A, A, A, A ; 
E, E; I, I; 0, 0, O; U,U,U; Oi. Ou. 

61, Elocution — comprehends Expulsion of 
Sound, Articulation, Force, Time, Pronunci- 
ation, Accent, Pauses, Measure and Melody 
of Speech, Rhythm, Emphasis, the Eight 
Notes, Intonation, Pitch, Inflexions, Circum- 
flexes, Cadences, Dynamics, Modulation, 
Style, the Passions, and Rhetorical Action. 
Reading and Speaking are inseparably con- 
nected with music ; hence, every step taken 
in the former, according to this system, will 
advance one equally in the latter : for Music 
is but an elegant and refined species of Elo- 
cution. 

63. Certain vowels to be pronounced 
separately. In reading the following, be 
very deliberate, so as to shape the sounds per- 
fectly, and give each syllable clearly and dis- 
tinctly ; and in all the ex-ara-ples, here and 
elsewhere, make those sounds, that are ob- 
jects of attention, very prominent. J5a-al, 
the o-ri-ent a-e-ro-naut and cham-pi-on of fi- 
er-y scor-pi-ons, took his a-e-ri-al flight into 
the ge-o-we^-ri-cal em-py-re-an, and drop- 
ped a beau-t\-fu\. ri-o-let into the _4p-pi-i Fo- 
rum, where they sung hy-me-ne-al re-qui- 
ems ; Be-eZ-ze-bub w-o-lent-ly rent the va-ri- 
e-ga-ted di-a-dem from his zo-o-log-i-csil cra- 
m-urn, and placed it on the Eu-ro-pe-an ge- 
ni-i, to we-li-o-rate their in-cho-ate i-de-a. of 
cu-ring the p#-e-ous in-val-ids of Mm-tu-a 
and Pora-pe-i, with the tri-m-ni-al pan-a-ce-a 
of no-oZ-o-gy, or the Zm-e-a-ment of a-ri-es. 

Notes. 1. The constituent diphthongal sounds of /are near- 
ly 3d a, and lste; those of u, approach to 2d e, and 2d o : those of 
oi, to 3d a, and 2d i : and those of ou to 3d o, and 2d o : make and 
analyze them , and observe the funnel shape of the lips, which 
change with the changing sounds in passing from the radicals to 
their vanishes. 2. Preventives and curatives of incipient disease, 
may be found in these principles, positions and exercises. 

Loveliness — 
Needs not the aid of foreign ornament ; 
But is, when unadorned, adorned the most. 
5 



Proverbs. 1. A man is no better for liking 
himself, if nobody else likes him. 2. A white 
glove often conceals a dirty hand. 3. Better pass 
at once, than to be always in danger. 4. Misun- 
derstandings — are often best prevented, by pen 
and ink. 5. Knowledge is treasure, and memory 
is the treasury.. 6. Crosses — are ladders, lead- 
ing to heaven. 7. Faint praise, is disparagement. 
8. Deliver me from a person, who can talk only 
on one subject. 9. He who peeps throgh a key- 
hole may see what will vex him. 10. If shrewd 
men play the foal, they do it with a vengeance. 
11. Physicians rarely take medicines. 12.Curses, 
like chickens, generally come home to roost. 

Anecdote. A get-off. Henry the Fourth 
was instigated to propose war against the 
Protestants, by the importunity of his Par- 
liament ; whereupon, he declared that he 
would make every member a captain of a 
company in the army : the proposal was 
then unanimously negatived. 

Contrasts. Our fair ladies laugh at the 
Chinese ladies, for depriving themselves 
of the use of their feet, by tight shoes and 
bandages, and whose character would be 
ruined in the estimation of their associates, 
if they were even suspected of being able 
to walk : — while they, by the more danger- 
ous and destructive habits of tight-lacing, 
destroy functions of the body far more im- 
portant, not only to themselves, but to their 
offspring ; and whole troops of dandies, 
quite as taper-waisted, and almost as mas- 
culine as their mothers, are the natural re- 
sults of such a gross absurdity. If to be 
admired — is the motive of such a custom, it 
is a most paradoxical mode of accomplish- 
ing this end ; for that which is destructive 
of health, must be more destructive of beau- 
ty — that beauty, in a vain effort to preserve 
which, the victims of this fashion have de- 
voted themselves to a joyless youth, and a 
premature decrepitude, 

Varieties. 1 . Is it best to divulge the truth 
to all, whatever may be their state of mind 
and life 1 2. A good tale — is never the worse 
for being twice told. 3. Those who do not 
love any thing, rarely experience great enjoy- 
ments ; those who do love, often suffer deep 
griefs. 4. The way to heaven is delightful 
to those who love to walk in it ; and the diffi- 
culties we meet with in endeavoring to keep 
it, do not spring from the nature of the way, 
but from the state of the traveler. 5. He, 
who wishes nothing, will gain nothing. 6. It 
is good to know a great deal ; but it is better 
to make a good use of what we do know. 7. 
Every day — brings forth something for the 
mind to be exercised on, either of a mental, 
or external character ; and to be faithful in 
it, and acquit ourselves with the advantage 
derived thereby, is both wisdom and duty. 
Whether he knew things, or no, 
His tongue eternally would go ; 
For he had impudence— at will. 



34 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



63. Elocution and Music being insepar- 
able in their nature, every one, of common 
organization, whether aware of it, or not, 
uses all the elements of Music in his daily 
intercourse with society. When we call to 
one at a distance, we raise the voice to the 
upper pitches: when to one ?iear by, we 
drop it to the lower pitches ; and when at a 
medium distance, we raise it to the middle 
pitches : that is, in the first case, the voice 
is on, or about the eighth note : in the sec- 
ond, on, or about the first note : and in the 
last place, on, or about the third or fifth 
note. In commencing to read Or speak in 
public, one should never commence above 
his fifth note, or below his third note : and, 
to ascertain on what particular pitch the 
lowest natural note of the voice is, pro- 
nounce the word awe, by prolonging it, 
without feeling ; and to get. the upper one, 
sound eel, strongly. 

64. Vocal Music. In the vowel sounds 
of our language, are involved all the ele- 
ments of music ; hence, every one who 
vnshes, can learn to sing. These eight 
vowels, when naturally sounded, by a de- 
veloped voice, will give the intonations of 
the notes "in the scale, as follows, com- 
mencing at the bottom. 

1st e in eel, 8 



1st i in Isle, 7 — O— 

2d o in ooze, 6 — O— 

1st o in old, 5 

4:th a in at, 4 — < 
1st a in ale, 3 — O 

2d a in ar, 2 



C note O-8-la-iJ^/ 
Half tone. 

B note 



Tone. 

A note 

Tone. 

Gnote 0-5 -la-Medium. 
Tone. 



F note 

Half tone. 

Enote O-3-la.-Medium. 



Tone. 

D note- 
Tone* 



3d a in all, 1 — O— C note O-1-la-Low, 
G5. This Diatonic Scale. of eight notes, 
(though there are but seven, the eighth being 
a repetition of the first,) comprehends five 
v>kole tones, and two semi, or half tones. 
An erect ladder, with seven rounds, is a 
good representation of it ; it stands on the 
ground, or floor, which is the tonic, or first 
note ; the first round is the second note, or 
supertonic ; the second round is the third 
note, or mediant ; the third round, is the 
fourth note, or subdominant ; between 
which, and the second round, there is a 
semitone ; the fourth round is the fifth note, 
or dominant ; the, fifth round is the sixth 
note, or submediant ; the sixth round is the 
seventh note, or sublonic ; and the seventh 
round is the eighth note, or octave. 
Keep one consistent plan — from end — to end. 



Notes. 1. In Song, as well as in Speech, the Articulation, 
Pitch, Force, and Time, must be attended to ; i. e. in both arts, mas 
ter the right form of the elements, the degree of elevation and de- 
pression of the voice, the kind and degree of loudness of sounds, 
and their duration : there is nothing in ringing that may not be 
found in speaking. 

Anecdote. Musical Pun. A young Mu- 
sician, remarkable ft 7 ,., his modesty and si?r~ 
cerity, on his first appearance before the pub- 
lic, finding that he could not give the trills, 
effectively, assured the audience, by way of 
apology, " that he trembled so, that he could 
not shake. 

Proverbs. 1 . A word — is enough to the wise. 
2. It is easier to resist our bad passions at first, 
than after indulgence. 3. Jokes — are bad coin 
to all but the jocular. 4. You may find your 
worst enemy, or best friend — in yourself. 5. Ev- 
ery one has his hobby. 6. Fools— have liberty to 
say what they please. 7. Give every one his due. 
8. He who wants content, cannot find it in an 
easy chair. 9. IU-vtiW never spoke well. 10. 
Lawyer's gowns are lined with the wilfulness of 
their clients. 11. Hunger — is an excellent sauce. 
12. I confide, and am at rest. 

True "Wisdom. All have the faculty 
given them of growing wise, but not equal- 
ly wise : by which faculty is not meant the 
ability to reason about truth and goodness 
from the sciences, and thus of confirming 
whatever any one pleases ; but that of dis- 
cerning what is true, choosing what is suit- 
able, and applying it to the various uses of 
life. He is not the richest man, who is able 
to comprehend all about making money, and 
can count millions of dollars ; but he, who 
is in possession of millions, and makes a 
proper use of them. 

"Varieties. 1. Does not life — beget life, 
and death — generate death? 2. The man, 
who is always complaining, and bewailing 
his misfortunes, not only feeds his own wits - 
ery, but wearies and disgusts others. 3. 
We are apt to regulate our mode of living — 
more by the example of others, than by the 
dictates of reason and common sense. 4. 
Frequent recourse to artifice and cunning — 
is a proof of a want of capacity, as well as 
of an illiberal mind. 5. Every one, who 
does not grow better, as he grows older, is a 
spendthrift of that time, which is more pre- 
cious than gold. 6. Do what you know, 
and you will know what to do. 7. As is 
the reception of truths, such is the percep- 
tion of them in all minds. 8. Do you see 
more than your brother? then be more 
humble and thankful ; hurt not him with 
thy meal, and strong food : when a man, he 
will be as able to eat it as yourself, and, 
perhaps, more so. 

Walk with thy fellow creatures : note the hush 
And whisperings amongst them. Not a spring 
Or leaf— but hath his morning hymn ; each bush 
And oak— doth know I am. Canst thou not sing ? 
O leave thy cares and follies I go this way, 
And thou art sure to prosper— all the day. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



35 



le, bid; A (, \ 
h bliss, (f^^\ 



66. The twenty-eignt consonant 
sounds. For the purpose of still farther 
developing and training the voice, and ear, 
for reading, speaking, and singing, a system- 
atic, and thorough practice, on the twenty- 
eight consonants, is absolutely essential ; in 
which exercises, it is of the first importance, 
to make the effort properly, and observe the 
exact positions of the wgans. These conso- 
nants are either single, double, or triple,- 
and some of them are vocal sounds, {sub-ton- 
ics, or sub-vowels,) others, merely aspirates, 
breath sounds or atonies : let them be analy- 
zed and presented according to their natures, 
and uses. 

67. B lias Imt one sound, which is 
its name sound: BA ; baa, \JlLj 
ball, bat; be, beg; bide, bid ; 
bode, boon, boss ; bute 
brute ; boil, bound ; a ro6-in im- 
bibed blub-bers from a bob-bin, [B in ba.] 
and gob-b\ed for ca6-bage ; the rob-ber blab- 
bed 6ar-ba-rous-ly, and bam-Soo-zled the 
tab-by 7m-bob ; Ja-cob dab-bled in rib- 
bons, and played 7io&-nob with a cooler ; 
the bab-oore 6a-by gab-b\ed its g?6-ber-ish, 
and made a hub-bub for its bib and black- 
berries ; the ra6-ble"s hob-by is, to brow- 
beat the bram-b\e bicshes for ftiZ-ber-ries, and 
bribe the 6oo-by of his bom-fas-tic black- 
bird. 

68. By obtaining correct ideas of the 
sounds of our letters, and their influences 
over each other ; of the meaning and pro- 
nunciation of words, and their power over 
the understanding and will of man, when 
properly arranged into sentences, teeming 
with correct thought and genuine feeling, 
I may, with proper application and exercise, 
become a good reader, speaker, and writer. 

Notes. 1. To get the vocal sound of b, speak its name, 
be, and then make a strong effort to pronounce it again, compress- 
ing the lips closely ; and the moment you give the sound of fie, 
when you get to e, stop, and you will have the right sound ; or, 
pronounce ub, in the usual way, then, with the teeth shut, and the 
Ups very close, prolonging the last sound ; and, in both cases, let 
none of the sound of b, come into the mouth, or pass through the 
nose. 2. It was in analyzing and practicing the sounds of the let- 
ters, and the different pitches and qualities of voice, that the author 
became acquainted with the principles of VENTRILOQUISM, (or 
vocal modulaticrn, as it should be called,) which art is perfectly 
simple, and can be acquired and practiced by almost any one of 
common organization. Begin by swallowing the sound, suppress- 
ing and depressing it. 3. B is silent in deit, suit-le, douit, lamb, 
comb, dwnb, thumfi, limi, crumi, su&t-le-ty, suc-cunii, fcdell-ium. 

Anecdote. A beautiful English countess 
said, that the most agreeable compliment she 
ever had paid her, was from a sailor in the 
street ; who looked at her, as if fascinated, 
and exclaimed, "Bless me ! let me light my 
pipe at your eyes." 

We rise — in glory, as we sink — in pride ; 
Where boasting — ends, there dignity — begins. 
The true, and only friend— is he, 
Who, like the Arbor-vita true, 
Will bear our image— on his heart. 
Whatever is excellent, in art, proceeds 
From labor and endurance. 



Proverhs. 1. Gentility, sent to market, will 
not buy even a peck of corn. 2 He, that is 
warm, thinks others so. 3. A true friend — should 
venture, sometimes, to be a little offensive. 4. It 
is easy to take a man's part ; but the difficulty is 
to maintain it. 5. J\[isf or tunes— seldom come 
alone. 6. Never quit certainty — for hope. 7. One 
— beats the bush, and another— catches the bird- 
8. Plough, or not plough,— you must pay your 
rent. 9. Rome — was not built in a day. 10. Seek 
till you find, and you will not lose your labor. 
11. An oak — is not felled by one stroke. 12. A 
display of courage — often causes real cowardice. 

Party Spirit. The spirit of party — un- 
questionably, has its source in some of the 
native passions of the heart ; and free gov- 
ernments naturally furnish more of its ali- 
ment, than those under which liberty of 
speech, and of the press is restrained, by the 
strong arm of power. But so naturally does 
party run into extremes ; so unjust, cruel, 
and remorseless is it in its excess ; so ruthless 
is the war which it wages against private 
character ; so unscrupulous in the choice 
of means for the attainment of selfish ends ,- 
so sure is it, eventually, to dig the grave of 
those free institutions of which it pretends 
to be the necessary accompaniments ; so inev- 
itably does it end in military despotism, and 
unmitigated tyrany ,• that I do not know 
how the voice and influence of a good man 
could, with more propriety, be exerted, than 
in the effort to assuage its violence: 

Varieties. 1 . Are our ideas innate, or ac- 
quired ? 2. The mind that is conscious of 
its own rectitude, disregards the lies of com- 
mon report. 3. Some — are very liberal, 
even to profuseness, when they can be so at 
the expense of others. 4. There are pure 
loves, else, there were no white lilies. 5. The 
glory of wealth and external beauty — is 
transitory ; but virtue — is everlasting. 6. 
We soon acquire the habits and practices, of 
those we live with ; hence the importance of 
associating with the best company, and of 
carefully avoiding such as may corrupt and 
debase us. 7. The present state is totally 
different from what men suppose, and make, 
of it; the reason of our existence — is out- 
growth in the life of heaven ,- and all things 
are moved and conspire unto it ; and great 
might be the produce, if we were faithful to 
the ordinances of heaven. 

In eastern lands, they talk in flower's, 
And they tell, in a garland, their love and cares ; 

Each blossom, th't blooms in their garden bow- 
ers, 
On its leaves, a mystic language bears ; 

Then gather a wreath from the garden bowers, 

And tell the wish of thy heart— in flowers. 

Praise, from a friend, or censure, from a FOE, 

Is lost— on hearers th't our merits know. 
As full as an egg is of meat, 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



69. These arts, like all others, are made 
up of many little things ; if I look well to 
them, all difficulties will vanish, or be easily 
overcome. Every youth ought to blush at 
the thought, of remaining ignorant, of the 
first principles of his native language. I 
can do almost any thing, if I only think so, 
and try ; therefore, let me not say I can't ; 
but I WILL. 

70. C lias four regular sounds : first, 
name, sound, or that of s, be- \J^Lj s 
fore e, i, andy ; cede, ci-on, cy- / 
press; rec-i-pe for ceZ-i-ba-cy 
in the cit-y of Cin-cin-wa-ti is 
a/as-ci-nat-ing soZ-ace for civ-il [c in cede.] 
so-ci-e-ty; Cic-e-ro and Ce-ci'Z-i-as, with 
tac-it re-ci-proc-i-ty di-Zac-er-ate the a-cid 
pum-ice with the /a-cile pin-cers of the 
vice-g-e-rency ; the a-ces-cen-cy of the cit- 
rons in the pla-cid ceZ-lar, and the im-oec-ile 
Zic-o-rice on the cor-nice of the jprec-i-pice 
ex-cite the <Zis-ci-pline of the doc-ile di-oc- 
e-san. 

71. Lisping — is caused by permitting the 
tongue to come against, or between the front 
teeth, when it should not; thus, substituting 
the breath sound of th for that of s or sh. 
This bad habit may be avoided or overcome 
by practicing the above and similar com- 
binations, with the teeth closely and firmly 
set ; not allowing the tongue to press against 
the teeth, nor making the effort too near the 
front part of the mouth. The object to be 
attained is worthy of great efforts : many 
can be taught to do a thing, in a proper 
manner, which they would never find, out 
of themselves. 

73. Irregulars. S often has this sound ; 
rise and pro-gress. The pre-cwe Sal-lust, 
starts on stilts, and assists the earths in the 
u-ni-verse for con-science' sake : he spits 
base brass and subsists on stripes ; the 
ma-gw-trates sought ; &o-lus boasts he 
twists the texts and suits th© several 
sects ; the strong masts stood still in the fi- 
nest streets of Syr-a-cwse ; Se-sos-tris, still 
strutting, persists the Swiss ship is sunk, 
while sweetness sits smiling on the lips. 
Svian swam over the sea; well swum 
swan ; swan swam back again ; well swum 
swan. Sam Slick sawea six sleek slim 
slippery saplings. Amidst the mists he 
thrust his nsts against the posts, and in- 
sists he sees the ghosts in Sixth street. 

JVotes. 1. 5 has the above sound, at the beginning of 
words, and other situations, when preceded or followed by an 
aorupt, or a breath consonant. 2. To make this aspirate, place 
the organs as in the engraving, and begin to whisper the word see; 
but give none of the sound of e. Never permit sounds to coalesce, 
that ought to be heard distinctly ; hosts, costs, &c. 4. Don't let 
the teeth remain together an instant, after the sound is made ; 
rather not bring them quite together. 5. C is silent in the follow- 
ing: Czar, arbuscles, victuals, Czarina, ( t long e,) muscle, indicta- 
ble, and second c in Connecticut. 

Hear, then, my argument ; confess we must, 

A Ood there is— supremely just ; 

If so, however things affect our sight, 

( As sings the bard, ) " whatever is— is right." 

As the wind blows, you must set your sail. 

Good measure, pressed down and running over. 



Proverbs. 1. Building— is a sweet impov- 
erishing. 2. Unmanliness— is not so impolite, as 
over-politeness. 3. Death— is deaf, and hears 
no denial. 4. Every good scholar is not a good 
schoolmaster. 5. Fair words break no bones ; 
but foul words many a one. 6. He, who has 
not bread to spare, should not keep a dog. 7. If 
you had fewer pretended friends, and more ene- 
mies, you would have been a better man. 8. 
Lean liberty — is better than fat slavery. 9. 
Much coin— much care ; much meat— much mal- 
ady. 10. The submitting to one wrong— often 
brings another. 11. Consult your purse, before 
you do fancy. 12. Do what you ought, come 
what will 

Anecdote. The Psalter. The Rev. Mr. 
M — , paid his devoirs to a lady, who was pre- 
possessed in favor of a Mr. Psalter : her par- 
tiality being very evident, the former took 
occasion to ask, (in a room full of company,) 
" Pray Miss, how far have you got in your 
Psalter ?" The lady archly replied, — As far 
as " Blessed is the man." 

Book Keeping — is the art of keeping 
accounts by the way of debt and credit. It 
teaches us all business transactions, in an 
exact manner, so that, at any time, the true 
state of our dealings may be easily known. 
Its principles are simple, its conclusions nat- 
ural and certain, and the proportion of its 
parts complete. The person, who buys or 
receives, is Dr. {Debtor,) the one who sells, or 
parts with any thing, is Cr. {Creditor:) that 
is, Dr. means your charges against the per- 
son ; and Cr. his against you : therefore, when 
you sell an article, in charging it, say, " To 
so and so," ( mentioning the article, weight, 
quantity, number, amount, &c. ) " so much :" 
but when you buy, or receive any thing, in 
giving credit for it, say, By so and so ; men- 
tioning particulars as before. A knowledge 
of Book-keeping is important to every one 
who is engaged in any kind of business ; 
and it must be evident, that for the want of 
it — many losses have been sustained, great 
injustice done, and many law-suits entailed. 

Varieties. 1. Ought lotteries to be abol- 
ished 1 ? 2. Carking cares, and anxious ap- 
prehensions are injurious to body and mind, 
3. A good education — is a young man's best 
capital. 4. He, that is slow to wrath, is better 
than the mighty. 5. Three difficult things 
are — to keep a secret, to forget an injury, 
and make good use of leisure hours. 6. If 
one speaks from an evil affection, he may 
influence, but not enlighten ; he may cause 
blind acquiescence, but not action from a 
conscious sense of right. 7. Men have just 
so much of life in them, as they have of pure 
truth and its good— implanted and growing 
in them. 

Would you live an angeVs days % 
Be honest, just, and wise, always. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



37 



\ 



73. A perfect knowledge of these ele- 
mentary and combined sounds, is essential to 
my becoming a good elocutionist, and is an 
excellent preparation for studying any of 
the modern languages : I must master 
them, or I cannot succeed in acquiring a 
distinct, appropriate, graceful and effective 
enunciation ; but resolution, self-exertion 
and perseverance are almost omnipotent : I 
will try them and see. 

74> The second sound of C, is hard, 
or like k, before a, o, u, k, I, r, -^ 
t ; and generally at the end of / Ji ' 
words and syllables. Came, car, I fi 
call, cap; cove, coon, cot; cute ( A ^aixt^ J 
cut, crude ; coil, cloud ; Clark ' 

comes to catch clams, crabs and [C ** CAR] 
craw-fish to cram his cow ; the croak-ing 
*cep-tic, in ra.c-coon moc-a-sins, suc-cumbs 
to the arc-tic spec-ta-cle, and ac-cowi-mo- 
dates his ac-counts to the oc-cult stuc-co of 
the e-cZip-tic ; the crowd claims the clocks, 
and climbs the cliffs to clutch the crows that 
craunched the bu-coZ-ics of the wii-cro-cosm. 

75. The chest should be comparatively 
quiescent, in breathing, speaking and sing- 
ing ; and the dorsal and abdominal muscles 
be principally used for these purposes. All 
children are naturally right, in this particu- 
lar ; but they become perverted, during 
their primary education : hence, the author 
introduces an entirely new mode of learning 
the letters, of spelling, and of teaching to 
read without a book, and then with a book ; 
the same as we learn to talk. The effort — 
to produce sounds, and to breathe, must be 
made from the lower muscles, above alluded 
to : thus by the practice of expelling, ( not 
exploding) the vowel sounds, we return to 
truth and nature. 

76. Irregulars. Oh often have this 
sound ; (the h is silent ; ) also q and k — always 
when not silent; the queer co -quette kicks 
the chi-mer-i-cal dr-chi-tect, for ca£-e-chi- 
sing the crif-i-cal choir about the char- 
ac-ter of the chro-7raaf-ic cho-rus ; Tich-i- 
cus Schenck, the quid-nunc me-chan-'ic of 
.Mtt-nich, Otti-et-ly quits the ar-chieves 
of the TW-can mosque, on ac-count of the 
ca-chex-y of cac-o-tech-ny ; the piq-uant 
crit-ic quaked at the quilt-ing, and asked 
owes-tions of the quorum of quil-ters. 

77. The expression of affection is the 
legitimate function of sound, which is an el- 
ement prior to, and within language. The 
affections produce the varieties of sound, 
whether of joy or of grief ; and sound, in 
speech, manifests both the quality and quan- 
tity of the affection : hence, all the music is 
in the vowel sounds : because, all music is 
from the affectuous part of the mind, and 
vowels are its only mediums of manifesta- 
tion. As music proceeds from affection and 
is addressed to the affection, a person does 
not truly sing, unless he sings from affec- 
tion ; nor does a person truly listen, and 
derive the greatest enjoyment from the mu- 
sic, unless he yields himself fully to the af- 
fection, which the music inspires. 



Notes- 1. To produce this gutteral aspirate, -whisper the 
imaginary word huh, (u short;) or the word book, in a whisper- 
ing voice, and the last sound is the one required : the posterior, or 
root of the tongue being pressed against the uvula, or veil of the 
palate. 2. Observe the difference between the names of letters, 
and their peculiar sounds. In giving the names of consonants, 
we use one, or more vowels, which make no part of the consonant 
sound ; thus, we call the letter C by the name see ; but the ee 
make no part of its sound, which is simply a hiss, made by forc- 
ing the air from the lungs, through the teeth, when they are shut, 
as indicated by the engraving ; similar facts attend the other conso- 
nants. 3. H, is silent before n ; — as the fenavish Anight knuckle i 
and ineeled to the fenit ftnobs of the ftnees' Anick-fenacks, &c. ; 
Gh, have this sound in lough, ( lock, a lake ; Irish ; ) hough, ( hock, 
joint of a hind leg of a beast ) 

Proverbs. 1. Every dog has his day, and 
every man his hour. 2. Forbid a fool a thing, 
and he'll do it. 3. He must rise betimes, that 
would please every body. 4. It is a long lane 
that has no turning. 5. Judge not of a ship, 
as she lies on the stocks. 6. Let them laugh 
that win. 7. No great loss but there is some 
small gain. 8. Never too old to learn. 9. No 
condition so low, but may have hopes ; and none 
so high, but may have fears. 10. The wise man 
thinks he knows but little; the fool— thinks he 
knows all. 11. Idleness— is the mother of vice. 
12. When liquor is in, sense — is out. 

Anecdote. William Penn — and Thomas 
Story, on the approach of a shower, took 
shelter in a tobacco -house ; the owner of 
which — happened to be within : he said to 
the traveler, — "You enter without leave,- — 
do you know who I am ? I am a Justice of 
the Peace." To which Mr. Story replied — 
"My friend here — makes such things as 
thee ; — he is Governor of Pennsylvania." 

Sternal Progress. It is not only com- 
forting, but encouraging, to think that 
mind — is awaking ; that there is universal 
progress. Men are borne onward, — wheth- 
er they will or not. It does not matter, 
whether they believe that it is an impulse 
from withi?i, or above, that impels them for- 
ward ; or, whether they acknowledge that 
it is the onward tendency of things, con- 
trolled by Divine Providence : onward they 
must go ; and, in time, they will be blessed 
with a clearness of vision, that will leave 
them at no loss for the whys and the where- 
fores. 

Varieties. 1. To pay great attention to 
trifles, is a sure sign of a little mind. 2. 
Which is worse, a bad education, or no edu- 
cation 1 3. The mind must be occasionally 
indulged with relaxation, that it may return 
to study and reflection with increased vigor. 

4. Love, and love only, is the loan for love, 

5. To reform measures, there must be a 
change of men. 6. Sudden and violent 
changes — are not often productive of advan- 
tage — to either church, state or individual 
7. True and sound reason — must ever ac- 
cord with scripture : he who appeals to one, 
must appeal to the other,- for the word 
within us, and the word without us — are 
one, and bear testimony to each other. 



38 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



■J 8. These principles must be faithfully 
I and practiced, with a particular refer- 
ence to the expulsion of the short vowel 
sounds, and the prolongation of the long 
ones ; which exhibit quantity in its elementa- 
ry state. I must exercise my voice and mind, 
in every useful way, and labor to attain an 
ultimate knowledge of my vocal and mental 
capacity ; then I shall be able to see any de- 
fects, and govern myself accordingly. 

? 9. The third sound of C, is like that 
of Z : suffice ; the discerner at k^Lj. 
sice, dis-cem-i-bly dis-cerns dis- /J~~xA 



cern-i-ble things with dis-certt-ing i >■ 
dis-eem-ment, and dis-cmi-i-ble- 



ness ; the sac-ri-fi-cer, in sac-ri-fi- ic in sice.] 
cing, sac-ri-ii-ees the sac-ri-fice on the altar 
of sac-ri-fice, and suf-fi-ceth the law of sac- 
ri-flce. These are nearly all the words in 
our language, in which c, sounds like z. 

SO. Vowels — are the mediums of convey- 
ing the affections, which impart life and 
warmth to speech ; and consonants, of the 
thoughts, which give light and form to it ; 
hence, all letters that are not silent, should 
be given fully and distinctly. The reason — 
why the brute creation cannot speak, is, be- 
cause they have no understanding, as men 
have; consequently, no thoughts, and of 
course, no articulating organs: therefore, 
they merely sound their affections, instead 
of speaking them ; being guided and influ- 
enced by instinct, which is a power given 
them for their preservation and continuance. 

81. Irregulars. S, Z, and A", sometimes 
are thus pronounced ; as, the pres-i-dent re- 
signs his is-o-la-ted houses, and absolves the 
greasy hussars of is -lam-ism ; the puz-zler 
puz-zles his brains with nasal pains, buz-zes 
about the trees as much as he pleases, and 
resumes the zig-zag giz-zards of Xerx-es 
with dis-soZ-ving huz-zas ,• Xan-thus and 
A"e?7-o-phon d\s-band the jJs-mires, which 
dis-da.in to dis-guise their dis-mal phiz-es 
with their gris-ly beards ; Zion'szeal breathes 
zephyrs upon the paths of truths, where re- 
sides the soul, which loves the tones of mu- 
sic coming up from IVaMire's m-o-nant 
tem-ples. 

Notes. 1. This vocal diphthongal sound is made by clos- 
ing the teeth, as in making the name sound of C, and producing 
ih'. 21 sound of o in the larynx, ending with a hissing sound; or it 
may be made by drawing out the sound of z in z- - -est. 2. 5, 
following a vocal consonant, generally sounds like Z: tubs, adds ; 
eg^» ; needs ; pens; cars, &c. ; but following an aspirate, or breath 
consonant, it sounds like c in cent, facts, tips, muffs, cracks, &c. 

Would you taste the tranquil scene f 
Be sure — your bosom be serene : 
Devoid of hate, devoid of strife, 
Devoid of all, th't poisons life. 
And much it 'vails you— in their place, 
To graft the love of human race. 

Be always as merry as ever you can, 
For *>.' one delights in a sorrovjful man. 



82. The perfection of music, as well as 
of speech, depends upon giving the full and 
free expression of our thoughts and affec- 
tions, so as to produce corresponding ones in 
the minds of others. This is not the work of 
a day, a month, or a year ; but of a life ; for 
it implies the full development of mind and 
body. The present age presents only a faint 
idea, of what music and oratory are capable 
of becoming ; for we are surrounded, and 
loaded, with almost as many bad habits 
(which prevent the perfect cultivation of hu- 
manity,) as an Egyptian mummy is of folds 
of linen. Let the axe of truth, of principle, 
be laid at the root of every tree that does not 
bring forth good fruit. Which do we like 
better — error, or truth ? 

Proverbs. 1. A man maybe strong, and 
not mow well. 2. It is easier to keep out a bad 
associate, than to get rid of him, after he has 
been admitted. 3. Consider well what you do, 
whence you come, and whither you go. 4. Ev- 
ery fool can find faults, that a great many wise 
men cannot mend. 5. He who follows his own 
advice, must take the consequences. 6. In giv- 
ing, and taking, it is easy mistaking. 7. Letters 
do not blush. 8. Murder — will out. 9. Nothing 
that is violent — is permanent. 10. Old foxes want 
no tutors. 11. The first chapter of fools is, to 
esteem themselves wise. 12. God — tempers the 
wind— to the shorn lamb. 

Anecdote. Doctor-'em. A physician, 
having been out gaming, but without success, 
his servant said, he would go into the next 
field, and if the buds were there, he would 
' doctor-'' 'em.'' "Doctor-'em, — what do you 
mean by that!" inquired his master: 
"Why, kill 'em, to be-sure," — replied the 
servant. 

Varieties. 1. Which has caused most 
evil, intemperance, war, or famine ? 2. 
Power, acquired by guilty means, never 
was, and never will be exercised — to pro- 
mote good ends. 3. By applying ourselves 
diligently to any art, science, trade, or pro- 
fession, we become expert in it. 4. To be 
fond of a great variety of dishes — is a sure 
proof of a perverted stomach. 5. Prosperity 
— often leads persons to give way to their 
passions, and causes them to forget whence 
they came, what they are, and whither they 
are going. 6. Evil persons — asperse the 
characters of the good, by malicious tales 
7. Every man and woman have a good — 
proper to them, which they are to perfect 
and fill up. To do this — is all that is re- 
quired of them ; they need not seek to be 
in the state of another. 

In pleasure's dream, or sorrow's hour, 
In crowded hall, or lonely bow'r, 
The bus'ness of my soul— shall be — 
Forever — to remember thee. 

Who more than he is worth doth rpend, 
Ev"n makes a rope — his life to end. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



39 



83. Elocution or vocal delivery, relates 
to the propriety of utterance, and is exhib- 
ited by a proper enunciation, inflection and 
emphasis; and signifies — the manner of de- 
livery. It is divided into two parts ; the cor- 
rect, "which respects the meaning of what is 
read or spoken ; that is, such a clear and ac- 
curate pronunciation of the ivords, as will 
render them perfectly intelligible ; and the 
rhetorical, which supposes feeling ; whose 
object is fully to convey, and enforce, the 
entire sense, with all the variety, strength, 
and beauty, that taste and emotion demand. 

Si. The fourth sound of C is SH ; 
after the accent, followed by ea,_ \_Xj[^j 
ia.ie, eo, eou, and ion ; O-CEAN; / "j^/A 
ja-^t'-t-ious Fho-ci-on, te-rca-cious/ f'^gjl^yj 

of his Zws-cious spe-cies, ap-pre-\^ N ^V 

ci-ates his con-sci-erc-tious as-so- [CinCLM 
ci-ate, who e-rcwra-ci-ates his sap-o-raa-cious 
pre-science : a 6?re-cian pro-^-cient, with 
ca-pa-cious sw-per-fi-cies and AaZ-cy-on pro- 
nun-ci-a-tion, de-pre-ci-ates the fe-ro-cious 
gZa-ciers, and ra-pa-cious pro-Din-cial-isms 
of Cap-a-cZo-cia. 

85. The business of training youth in 
Elocution, should begin in childhood, before 
the contraction of bad habits, and while the 
character is in the rapid process of formation. 
The first school is the nursery : here, at 
least, may be formed a clear and distinct ar- 
ticulation ; which is the first requisite for 
good reading, speaking and si?iging: nor can 
ease and grace, in eloquence and music, be 
separated from ease and grace in private life, 
and in the social circle. 

86. Irregulars. 5, t, and ch, in many 
words, are thus pronounced : the lus-cious 
rao-tion of Cham-pagne and prec-ious su- 
gar, in re-ver-sion for pa-tients, is suf-_/F- 
cient for the ex-pwZ-sion of Uan-sienl ir-ra- 
tion-aZ-i-ty from the ju-di-cial chev-a-Ziers 
oi 2Iich-i-gan. in Chi-ca-go ; ( She-caw-go,) 
the ?*a«-se-a-ting ra-ci-oc-i-rca-tions of sen- 
su-al cftar-la-tans to pro-p/-ti-ate the pas- 
sion-ate mar-chion-ess of Che-mung . are 
mi-rcw-ti-a for ra-tion-al Jis-ures to make 
E-a-yp-tian op-a-cians of. 

Notes. 1. This aspirate diphthongal sound may be made, 
ging the letters th, in a whisper, sh — ow, See engraving. 
2. Beware of prolonging this sound too much. 3. Exercise all the 
r fleshy parts of the body, and let your efforts be made 
f mm the dorsal region : i. e. the small of the back ; thus girding up the 
''•ins of the mind 4. If you do not feel refreshed and invigorated 
by these exercises, after an hour's practice, rest assured you are not 
in nature's path: if you meet with difficulty, be particular to in- 
form your teacher, who will point out the cause and the remedy. 
5. C is siteni in Czar, indict, Cne-us, Ctes-i-phon, science, muscle, 
scene, sceptre, kc: S, do. in We, vis-count, island, Sc: CA, in 
scnism, yacAt, (yot,) dnchm. 

True love's the gift, which God has given 

To man alone, beneath the heaven. 

It is the secret sijmpathy, 

The silver chord, the silken tie, 

Which, heart — to heart, and mind — to mind, 

In body, and in soul — can bind. 

Pleasant the sun, 
When first on this delightful land he spreads 
His orient beams. 



Proverbs. 1. He who sows brambles, must 
not go barefoot. 2. It is better to do well, than 
to say well. 3. Look before you leap. 4. JV'otA- 
ing is so bad as not to be good for so7ne-thing. 5. 
One fool in a house is enough. 6. Put off your 
armor, and then show your courage. 7. A right 
choice is half the battle. 8. The fox— is very 
cunning; but he is more cunning, that catches 
him. 9. When a person is in fear, he is in no 
state for enjoyment. 10. When rogues fall out, 
honest men get their due. 11. Reicard — is certair 
to the faithful. 12. Deceit — shows a little mini. 

Anecdote. A gentleman, who had lis- 
tened attentively to a long, diffuse and high- 
ly ornamented prayer, was asked, by one 
of the members, " if he did not think their 
minister , was very gifted in prayer." 
" Yes ;" he replied, " I think it as good ? 
prayer as was ever offered to a congrega- 
tion.' 1 ' 1 

Our Persons. If our knowledge of the 
outlines, proportions, and symmetry of the 
human form, and of natural attitudes and 
appropriate gestures were as general as it 
ought to be, our exercises would be deter- 
mined by considerations of health, grace 
and purity of mind ; the subject oi clothing 
would be studied in reference to its true 
purposes — protection against what is with- 
out, and a tasteful adornment of the person ; 
decency would no longer be determined by 
fashion, nor the approved costumes of the 
day be at variance with personal comfort 
and ease of carriage ; and in the place of 
fantastic figures, called fashionably dressed 
persons, moving in a constrained and artifi- 
cial manner,, we would be arrayed in vest- 
ments adapted to our size, shape, and undu- 
lating outline of form, and with drapery 
flowing in graceful folds, adding to the 
elasticity of our steps, and to the varied 
movements of the whole body. 

Varieties. 1. The true statesman will 
never flatter the people ; he will leave that 
for those, who mean to betray them. 2. 
Will dying for principles — prove any thing 
more than the sincerity of the martyr? 3. 
Which is the stronger passion, love, or an- 
ger ? 4. Public speakers — ought to live 
longer, and enjoy better health, than others ; 
and they will, if they speak right. 5. 
Mere imitation — is always fruitless ; what 
we get from others, must be inborn in us, 
to produce the designed effects. 6. Times 
of general calamity, and revolution, have 
ever been productive of the greatest minds. 
7. All mere external worship, in which the 
senses hear, and the mouth speaks, but in 
which the life — is unconcerned, is perfectly 
dead, and profiteth nothing, 
Habitual evils — change not on a sudden ; 
But many days, and many sorrows, 
Conscious remorse, and anguish — must be felt, 
To curb desire, to break the stubborn icill, 
And work a second nature in the soul, 
Ere virtue— can resume the place she lost. 
Let the tenor of my life— speak for me. 



40 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 




[ D in DO. ] 



87. Good reading and speaking is mu- 
sic ; and he who can sit unmoved by their 
charms, is a stranger to correct taste, and 
lost in i?isensibilily. A single exhibition 
of natural eloquence, may kindle a love of 
the art, in the bosom of an aspiring youth, 
which, in after life, will impel and ani- 
mate him — through a long career of useful- 
ness. Self-xtiade men are the glory of the 
world. 

88. D lias two sounds ; first, its name 
sound ; DAME ; dart, dawn, 
dab ; deed, dead ; die, did ; dole, 
do, dog ; duke, duck, druid ; 
doit, doubt ; a dan-dy de-fraud- 
ed his dad-dy of his sec-ond- 
hand-ed sad-die, and dubbed the 
had-dok a Za-dy-bird ; the doub-\e hea.d-ed 
pad-dy, nod-ding at noon-day, de-£er-mined 
to rid-dle ted-ded hay in the fields till dooms- 
day ; the dog-ged dry-ads ad-dict-ed to dep- 
re-da-tions, robbed the daw-dawn of its 
dread-ad di-a-dem, and erred and strayed a 
good deal the down-ward road to ad-en- 
dum. 

89. I must give all the sounds, particularly 
the final ones, with great care, and never 
run the words together, making one, out of 
three. And — is pronounced six different 
ways ; only one of which is right. Some 
call it an, or en ; others, un, ''nd, or n ; 
and a few — and ; thus good-an-bad caus- 
en-effect ; loaves-en-fishes, hills-un groves ; 
pen-un-ink, you-nd I, or youn-I ; an-de- 
said ; hooks-en-eyes, wor-sen-worse, pleas- 
ure-un-pain ; cakes-n-beer, to-un-the ; roun- 
d'n-round, ol-d'n-young, voice-n-ear ; bread- 
en-butter ; vir-tu-n-vice ; Jame-zen- John : 
solem-un-sub-lime, up-'n-down, pies' -n- 
cakes. I will avoid such glaring faults, and 
give to each letter its appropriate sound. 

Notes. 1. Here the delicate ear may perceive the aspirate 
after the vocal part of d, as after b, and some other letters. The 
vocal is made, (see engraving, ) by pressing the tongue against the 
gums of the upper fore-teeth, (the incisors,) and the roof of the 
mouth, beginning to say d, without the e sound ; and the aspirated 
part, by removing the tongue, and the organs taking their natural 
positions ; but avoid giving the aspirate of the vocal consonants, 
any vocality. 2. By whispering the vocal consonants, the aspi- 
rate only is heard. 3. D is silent in hand-se], Aand-saw, hand- 
some, /umct-ker-chief, and the first d in Wednes-day, stadt-holder, 
and in Dnie-per, ( iVee-per, ) and Dnies-ter, ( iVees-ter ). 4. Do not 
give the sound of j to d in any word; as — grand-eur, sold-ier, 
verd-ure, ed-u-cate, ob-du-rate, cred-u-lous, mod-u-late, &c. ; but 
speak them as though written grand-yur, sold-yur, &c. ; the same 
analogy prevails in na-ture, fort-une, &c. 5. The following parti- 
cipial* and adjectives, should be pronounced without abridgment; 
a bless-ed man gives unfeign-ed thanks to his learn-ed friend, and 
belov-ed lady ; some wing-ed animals are curs-ed things; you say 
he curs'd and blcss'd him, for he feign'd that he had learn'd his 
leasson. 6. Pronounce words in the Bible, the same as in other 
books. 

Anecdote. Blushing. A certain fash- 
ionable and dissipated youth, more lamed 
for his red nose, than for his wit, on ap- 
proaching a female, who was highly rouged, 
said ; "Miss; you blush from modesty.'" 
" Pardon me Sir, 1 ' — she replied, " I blush 
from reflection.''* 

Kindness— in woman, not their beauteous looks 
Shall win my love. 



90. As practicing on the gutterals very 
much improves the voice, by giving it depth 
of tone, and imparting to it smoothness and 
strength, I will repeat the following, with 
force and energy, and at the same time con- 
vert all the breath into sound: the discar- 
ded hands dread-ed the sounds of the muf- 
fled drums, that broke on the sad-den'd 
aVeam-er's ears, »iad-dened by des-pair ; 
the blood ebb'd and flow'd from their doub- 
le dy'd shields, and worlds on worlds, and 
friends on friends by thousands roll'd. 

Proverbs, 1. An irritable and passionate 
man— is a downright drunkard. 2. Better go to 
heaven in rags, than to hell, in embroidery. 3. 
Common sense — is the growth of all countries, 
but very rare. 4. Death has nothing terrible in 
it, but what life has made so. 5. Every vice 
fights against nature. 6. Folly — is never long 
pleased with itself. 7. Ouilt — is always jealous. 
8. He that shows his passion, tells his enemy 
where to hit him. 9. It is pride, not nature, that 
craves much. 10. Keep out of broils, and you 
will neither be a principal nor a witness. 11. 
One dog barking, another soon joins him. 12. 
Money — is a good servant, but a bad master. 

Changes. We see that all material ob- 
jects around us are changing ; their colors 
change just as the particles are disturbed in 
their relations. This result is not owing to 
any natural cause, but to the Divine Power. 
And are there not higher influences more po- 
tent, tho' invisible, acting on man's moral 
nature, pervading the deepest abysses of his 
affection, and the darkest recesses of his 
thoughts ; to purify the one, and enlighten 
the other, and from the chaos of both — to 
educe order, beauty and happiness ? And 
why is it not changed? Shall we deny to 
his moral nature, the powers and capacities 
which we assign to stocks and stones ? Or, 
is the Almighty less inclined to bring the 
most highly endowed of his creatures into 
the harmony and blessedness of his own Di- 
vine Order ? To affirm either would be 
the grossest reflection on the character of 
God, and the nature of his works. If man, 
then, be not changed, so as to reflect the 
likeness and image of his Creator and Re- 
deemer, it must be in consequence of his 
own depraved will, and blinded understand- 
ing. 

Varieties. 1. Why is the letter D like 
a sailor X because it follows the C. 2. 
Books, ( says Lord Bacon, ) should have no 
natrons, but truth and reason. 3. Who fol- 
lows not virtue in youth, cannot fly vice in 
old age. 4. Never buy — what you do not 
want, because it is cheap ; it will be a dear 
article to you in the end. 5. Those — bear 
disappointments the best, who have been 
most used to them. 6. Confidence — produces 
more conversation than either wit or talent. 
7. Attend well to all that is said ; for noth- 
ing — exists in vain, either in outward cre- 
ation, in the mind, in the speech, or in the 
actions. 

Authors, before they write, should read. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



41 



91. Do not hurry your enunciation of 
words, precipitating syllable over syllable, 
and word over word ; nor melt them together 
into a mass of confusion, in pronouncing 
them ; do not abridge or -prolong them too 
much, nor swallow nor force them ; but de- 
liver them from your vocal and articulating 
organs, as golden coins from the mint, ac- 
curately impressed, perfectly finished, neatly 
and elegantly struck, distinct, in due suc- 
cession, and of full weight. 

93. The second sound of I>, is tliat 
of T; when at the end of words, ^J«s 
after c, /, ss, p, q, o, x, ch, and / 
sh, with silent e, under the ac- // 
cent; FAC'D : he curs'd his 
stuff 'd shoe, and dipp'd it in fl>. in facd.] 
poach'd eggs, that escap'd from the vex 1 d 
cook, who watch'd the spic'd food with 
arch'd brow, tripp'd his crisp'd feet, and 
dash'd them on the mash'd hearth ; she pip'd 
and wisp'd a tune for the watch'd thief who 
jump'd into the sack'd pan, and scratched 
his blanch'd face, which eclips'd the chaf 'd 
horse, that was attach'd and wrapp'd for a 
tax'd scape-grace. 

93. To read and speak with ease, accu- 
racy, and effect, are great accomplishments ; 
as elegant and dignified as they are useful, 
and important. ISIany covet the art, but 
few are willing to make the necessary ap- 
plication: and this makes good readers and 
speakers, so very rare. Success depends, 
principally, on the student's own exertions, 
uniting correct theory with faithful practice. 

94. Irregulars. T — generally has this 
sound ; the lit-tle tat-\er tit-tered at the 
taste-ixA tea-oot, and caught a tempt-ing 
tar-tar by his sa-ti-e-ty ; the stout TY-tan 
took a *eZZ-tale ier-ma-gant and thrust her 
against the tot-ter-ing tow-ers, for twist-ing 
the frit-ters ; Ti-tus takes the pet-u-\ent 
out-casts, and tos-ses them into na-ture's 
pas~tures with the fur-ties; the guests of 
the hosts at-tract a great deal of at-£e»-tion, 
and sw&-sti-tute their pre-texts for tem- 
pests; the cou-et-ous part-ner, des-ti-tute of 
fort-xxne, states that when the steed is stol- 
en, he shuts the sta-ble door, lest the grav- 
i-ty of his ro-tu?i-di-ty tip his tac-tics into 
non-ew-ti-ty. 

When a twister, a twisting, will twist him a twist, 
For twisting his twist, he three twines doth intwist ; 
But if one of the twines of the twist do untwist, 
The twine that untwisteth imtwisteth the twist. 

Votes. 1. This dento-lingual sound may be made by 
whispering the imaginary word tuh, (short u) the tongue being 
pressed against the upper front teeth, and then suddenly removed, 
as indicated by the engraving. 2. T is silent when preceded by 
s, and fol'.owed by the abbreviated terminations en, le. Apostle, 
glisten, fasten, epistle, often, castle, pestle, soften, whistle, chasten, 
bustle, christen ; in eclat, bil-let-doux, debut, haui-boy, currants, 
die-pot, hostler, mortgage, Christmas, Tmolus, and the first t, in 
chesi-nut and mis-tle-toe. 3. The adjectives, blessed, cursed, &c 
are exceptions to the rule for pronouncing d. 4. Consonants are 
sometimes double in their pronunciation, although not found in 
the name spelling; pit-ied, (pit-ted,) river, (riv-var,) mon-ey 
(mon-ney,) etc. Beware of chewing your words, as vir-chu, 
na-chure, etc. 

Self— alone, in nature rooted fast, 
Attends ns— -first, and leaves us — last 



Proverbs. 1. None of you know where the 
shoe pinches. 2. One may live and learn. 3. 
Remember the reckoning. 4. Such as the tree is, 
such is the fruit. 5. The biggest horses are not 
the best travelers. 6. What cannot be cured, 
must be endured. 7. You cannot catch old birds 
with chaff. 8. Argument — seldom convinces any 
one, contrary to his inclinations. 9. A horse — is 
neither better, nor worse, for hi3 trappings. 10. 
Content — is the philosopher's stone, that turns al! 
it touches into gold. 11. Never sport, with the 
opinions of others. 12. Be prompt in every thing. 

Anecdote. President Harrison, in his 
last out-door exercise, was assisting the gard- 
ner in adjusting some grape-vines. The gard- 
ner remarked, that there would be but little 
use in trailing the vines, so far as any fruit 
was concerned ; for the boys would come on 
Sunday, while the family was at church, and 
steal all the grapes; and suggested to the 
general, as a guard against such a loss, that 
he should purchase an active watch-dog. 
Said the general, "Better employ an active 
Sabbath-school teacher ; a dog may take care 
of the grapes, but a good Sa&bath-school 
teacher will take care of the grapes and the 
boys too." 

Home. Wherever we roam, in whatever 
climate or land we are cast, by the accidents 
of human life, beyond the mountains or be- 
yond the ocean, in the legislative halls of the 
Capitol, or in the retreats and shades of pri- 
vate life, our hearts turn, with an irresistible 
instinct, to the cherished spot, which ushered 
us into existence. And we dwell, with de- 
lightful associations, on the recollection of 
the streams, in which, during our boyish 
days, we bathed, the fountains at which we 
drank, the piney fields, the hitls and the val- 
leys where we sported, and the friends, who 
shared these enjoyments with us. 

Varieties. 1. If we do well, shall we n.jt 
be accepted ? 2. A guilty conscience — para- 
lyzes the energies of the boldest mind, and 
enfeebles the stoutest heart. 3. Persons in 
love, generally resolve— first, and reason af- 
terward. 4. All contingencies have a Prov- 
idence in them. 5. If these principles of El- 
ocution be correct, practicing them as here 
taught, will not make one formal and ar- 
tificial, but natural and effectuous. 6. Be 
above the opinion of the world, and act from 
your own sense of right and wrong. 7. All 
christians believe the soul of man to be im- 
mortal : if, then, the souls of all, who have 
departed out of the body from this world, are 
in the spiritual world, what millions of in- 
habitants must exist therein ! 

The man, who consecrates his powers, 
By vigorous effort, and an honest aim t 
At once, he draws the sting of life, and death ; 
He walks with Nature ; and her paths— are 
peace. 
D2 



42 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



95. Let the position be erect, and the body 
balanced on the foot upon which you stand: 
banish all care and anxiety from the mind ; 
let the forehead be perfectly smooth, the 
lungs entirely quiescent, and make every ef- 
fort from the abdominal region. To expand 
the thorax and become straight, strike the 
palms of the hands together before, and the 
backs of them behind, turning the thumbs 
upward : do all with a united action of the 
body and mind, the center of exertion being 
in the small of the back ; be in earnest, but 
husband your breath and strength; breathe 
often, and be perfectly free, easy, indepen- 
dent, and natural. 

96. F lias two sounds: first, name 

sound : FIFE ; off with the scarf ,\y, 
from the calf's head; the a/-fa- / l! \\ 
ble b\if-foon,faith-ful to its gqf-(.^g?K- 
fer, lifts his wife's /a-ther from k -- 
the co/-fin, and puts in the fret- I F ia FIFE - 3 
ful cuf-fy; fear-ful of the ef-fects, the fright- 
ful f 'el-low prof-fexs his hand-ker-chief to fire 
oft the dan-draff from thefit-M fool's offen- 
sive fowl-ing-ipiece. 

97. If you read and speak slow, and ar- 
ticulate well, you will always be heard with 
■attention,- although your delivery, in other 
respects, may be very faulty : and remem- 
ber, that it is not necessary to speak very 
loud, in order to be understood, but very dis- 
tinctly, and, of course, deliberately. The 
sweeter, and more musical your voice is, the 
better, and the farther you may be heard, 
the more accurate will be your pronuncia- 
tion, and with the more pleasure and profit 
will you be listened to. 

98. lrregnlars, Gh and Ph frequently 
have this sound; Phil-ij> Brough, laugh'd 
enough at the phantoms of the her-maph-ro- 
dite phi-tos-o-phy, to make the nymph Saph- 
t-ra have a phthis-i-cal hic-cough ; the ser- 
aph's draught of the proph-e-cy was lith-o- 
graph'd for an eph-a. of phos-pho-m-ent 
naph-tha., and a spher-i-cal trough of tough 
phys-ic. 

Notes. 1. To make this dento-labial aspirate, press the 
under lip against the upper fore teeth, as seen in the engraving, 

and blow out the first sound of the word / ire ! 2. Gh, are 

silent in drougM, burrougft, nig-ft, higA, brought, dough, Right, 
tic; and Ph and h in pAtAis-i-cal. 3. The difficulty of applying 
ruUs, to the pronunciation of our language, may be illustrated by 
ths two following lines, where ough is pronounced in different 
ways ; as o, ujf, off, ow, oo, and ock. Though the tough cough 
and hiccough plough me through, O'er life's dark lough my course 
I will pursue. 

Anecdote. Natural Death. An old man, 
who had been a close observer all his life, 
when dangerously sick, was urged by his 
friends, to take advice of a quack ; but objec- 
ted, saying, — "I wish to die a natural 
death." 

The patient mind, by yielding— overcomes. 



Proverbs. 1. Hope— is a good breakfast, but 
a bad supper. 2. It is right to put every thing to 
its proper use. 3. Open confession — is /rood for 
the soul. 4. Pride — must have a fall. 5. The 
lower mill-stone— grinds as well as the upper 
one. 6. Venture not all in one vessel. 7. What 
one ardently desires, he easily believes. 8. Yield- 
ing — is sometimes the best way of succeeding. 
9. A man that breaks his word, bids others be 
false to him. 10. Amendment — is repentance. 11. 
There is nothing useless to a person of sense. 
12. The hand of the diligent— maketh rich. 

Patience and Perseverance. Let any 

one consider, with attention, the structure 
of a common engine to raise water. Let 
him observe the intricacy of the machinery, 
and behold in what vast quantities one of 
the heaviest elements is forced out of its 
course ; and then let him reflect how many 
experiments must have been tried in vain, 
how many obstacles overcome, before a frame 
of such wonderful variety in its parts, could 
have been successfully put together : after 
which consideration let him pursue his en- 
terprise with hope of success, supporting 
the spirit of industry, by thinking how much 
may be done by patience and perseverance. 

Varieties. Was the last war with Eng- 
land—justifiable? 2. In every thing you 
undertake, have some definite object in mind. 

3. Persons of either sex — may captivate, by 
assuming a feigned character; but when the 
deception is found out, disgrace and unhap- 
piness will be the consequences of the fraud. 

4. All truths — are the forms of heavenly 
loves ; and all falsities — are the forms of in- 
fernal loves. 5. While we co-operate with 
Nature, we cannot labor too much — for the 
development and perfection of body and 
mind; but when we force or contradict her, 
so far from mending and improving "the 
human form divine," we actually degrade 
it below the brute. 6. How ridiculous some 
people make themselves appear, by giving 
their opinions for or against a thing, with 
which they are unacquainted I 7. The law 
of God is divine and eternal, and no person 
has a right to alter, add, or diminish, one 
word: it must speak for it$elf, and stand by 
itself. 

Who needs a teacher — to admonish him, [mist ? 
That flesh— is grass ? That earthly things— are 
What are our joys — but dreams ? and what our 
But goodly shadows in the summer cloud ? [hopes, 
There's not a wind that blows, but bears with it 
Some rainbow promise. Not a moment flies, 
But puts its sickle— in the fields of life, [cares- 
And mows its thousands, with their joys and 
Our early days l — How often — back 
We turn— on Life's bewildering track, - 
To where, o'er hill, and valley, plays 
The sunlight of our early days ! 
A monkey, to reform the times, 
Resolved to visit foreign climes- 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



43 



99. He who attempts to make an inroad 
on the existing state of things, though evi- 
dently for the better, will find a few to en- 
courage and assist him, in effecting a use- 
ful reform ; and many who will treat his 
honest exertions with resentment and con- 
tempt, and cling to their old errors with a 
fonder pertinacity, the more vigorous is the 
effort to tear them from their arms. There 
is more hope of a fool, than of one wise in 
his own conceit. 

100. The second sound of F, is that 
of V: OF; (never off, noruv;) 
there-of here-of, where-oi; the /)*XT? 
only words in our language, in L ' 
which F, has this sound: a \[ 
piece of cake, not a piece-u- 
cake, nor a piece-ur-cake. t F in of.] 

101. Muscle Breakers. Thou wafVd'st 
the rickety skiff over the mountain height 
cliffs, and clearly saw'st the full orb'd moon, 
in whose silvery and effulgent light, thou 
reefd'st the haggled sails of the ship- wreck- 
ed vessel, on the rock-bound coast of Kam- 
scat-kz. He was an unamiable, disrespect- 
ful, incommunicative, disingenuous, formi- 
dable, unmanageable, intolerable and pusi- 
Zanimous old bachelor. Get the latest 
amended edition of Charles Smith's Thu- 
cyd-i-des, and study the colonist's best in- 
terests. 

102. Irregulars. V has this vocal aspi- 
rate ; also Fh in a few words ; my vain neph- 
ew, »Sie-phen Fcm-de-ver, be-lieves Fe-nus 
a -ues-tal vi'r-gin, who viv-i-i\es his shiv-ex- 
ed liv-ex, and im-proves his vel-wet voice, 
so as to speak with viv-\& viv-ac-i-ty ; the 
brave chev-a-Zier he-haves like a roZ-a-tile 
eon-ser-va-tive, and says, he loves white 
wine vin-e-gox with veal vict-uals every 
warm day in the vo-cai vales of Vu-co-var. 

103. Faults in articulation, early con- 
tracted, are suffered to gain strength by hab- 
it, and grow so inveterate by time, as to be 
almost incurable. Hence, parents should 
assist their children to pronounce correctly, 
in their first attempts to speak, instead of 
permitting them to pronounce in a faulty 
manner : but some, so far from endeavoring 
to correct them, encourage them to go on in 
their baby talk ; thus cultivating a vicious 
mode of articulation. Has wisdom fed from 
men ; or was she driven away ? 

Notes. 1. This diphthongal sound, is made like that of /, 
with the addition of a voice sound in the larynx : see engraving. 2. 
A modification of this sound, with the upper lip over-lapping the un- 
der Me, and blowing down on the chin, gives a very good imita- 
tion of the humble-bee. 3. Avoid saying gim me some, for give 
me some ; I haint got any, for I have not got any ; I don't luff to 
go; for, I don't love, (like rather,) to go ; you'll haffio do it; for 
you will have to do it 

What is a man, 
If his chief good and market of his time, 
Be but to sleep and feed ? A beast, no more. Sure, 
He, th't made us, with such large discourse, 
Looking before, and after, gave us not 
That capability — and god-like reason, 
To rust in us— unused. 



Proverbs. 1. A good cause makes a stout 
heart, and a strong arm. 2. Better ten guilty 
persons escape, than one innocently suffer. 3. 
Criminals— are punished, that crime may be pre- 
vented. 4. Drunkenness — turns a man out of 
himself, and leaves a beast in his room. 5. He 
that goes to church, with an evil intention, goes 
on the devil's errand. 6. Most things have han- 
dles ; and a wise man takes hold of the best. 7. 
Our flatterers — are our most dangerous enemies ; 
yet they are often in our own bosom. 8. Pover- 
ty—makes a man acquainted with strange bed- 
fellows. 9. Make yourself all honey, and the 
flies will be sure to devour you. 10. Many talk 
like philosophers, and live like fools. 11. A stitch 
in time— saves nine. 12. The idle man's head, is 
the devil's workshop. 

Anecdote. School master and pupil. A 
school master — asked a boy, one very cold 
winter morning, what was the Latin — for 
the word cold: at which the boy hesitated, 
— saying, I have it at my finger's ends. 

Ourselves and Others* That man — 
deserves the thanks of his country, who con- 
nects with his own — the good of others. 
The philosopher — enlightens the would ; 
the manufacturer — employs the needy ; and 
the merchant — gratifies the rich, by procu- 
ring the varieties of every clime. The mi- 
ser, altho' he may be no burden on society, 
yet, thinking only of himself, affords no one 
else — either profit, or pleasure. As it is not 
of any one — to have a very large share of 
happiness, that man will, of course, have the 
largest portion, who makes himself — a part- 
ner in the happiness of others. The bestev- 
ole:f t — are sharers in every one's joys. 

Varieties. 1. Ought not the study of our 
language be made part of our education ? 

2. He who is slowest in making a promise, is 
generally the most faithful in performing it. 

3. They who are governed by reason, need 
no other motive than the goodness of a thing, 
to induce them to practice it. 4. A reading 
people — will become a thinking people ; and 
then they are capable of becoming a ration- 
al and a great people. 5. The happiness of 
every one — depends more on the state of his 
own mind, than on any external circum- 
stance; nay, more than all external things 
put together. 6. There is no one so despica- 
ble, but may be able, in some way, and at 
some time, to revenge our impositions. 7. 
Desire — seeks an end : the nature of the de- 
sire, love and life, may be known by its end. 

When lowly Merit — feels misfortune's blow, 

And seeks relief from penury and wo, 

Hope fills with rapture— every generous heart, 

To share its treasures, and its hopes impart ; 

As, rising o'er the sordid lust of gold, 

It shows the impress — of a heavenly mould ! 

Whose nature is — so far from doing harm, 
That he suspects none. 



44 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 




104, In all schools, one leading object 
should be, to teach the science and art of 
reading and speaking with effect : they ought, 
indeed, to occupy seven-fold more time than 
at present. Teachers should strive to improve 
themselves, as well as their pupils, and feel, 
that to them are committed the future orators 
of our country. A first-rate reader is much 
more useful than a first-rate performer on a 
piano, or any other artificial instrument. 
Nor is the voice of song sweeter than the 
voice of eloquence: there may be eloquent 
readers, as well as eloquent speakers. 

103. G lias three sounds : first, name 
sound, or that of J, before e, i, 
and y, generally : GEM ; Gen-er- 
al Ghent, of gi-ant ge-nius, sug- 
gests that the o-rig-i-nal mag-ic 
of the /rag-ile gip-sey has gen- 
er-a-ted the gen-e-aZ-o-gy of Geor- [G m GEM] 
gi-um Si-dus ; the geor-gics of George Ger- 
man are ex-ag-er-a-ted by the pan-e-g^/r-ics 
of the Zog-i-cal ser-geant ; hy-dro-gen, og-y- 
gen and gmg-seng, ger-min-ate gen-teel gin- 
ger-bread for the o-rig-i-nal ab-o-Hg-i-nes of 
Ge-ne-va. 

106. It is of the first importance, that the 
reader, speaker and singer be free and unre- 
strained in his manner ; so as to avoid using 
the chest as much as possible, and also of 
being monotonous in the flow of his words : 
thus, there will be perfect correspondence — 
of the feelings, thoughts and actions. Look 
out upon Nature; all is free, varied, and ex- 
pressive ; such should be our delivery. Na- 
ture — abhors monotony, as much as she does 
a vacuum. 

107. Irregulars, J generally has this 
sound. The je-june judge just-ly jeal-oxxs 
of Ju-lia's joy, joined her toju-ba James in 
June or July; the t /zi-ry > ;'w,s-ti-fy the joke, in 
jerk-ins; the jave-l'm. of Ju-pi-ter from the 
jol-\y Jes-u-it, and jam-mlng it into the jov- 
i-al Jew, to the jeop-ax-dy of the jeer-mg 
jock-ey. 

If OteS. L This triphthongal sound, as are most of the other 
vocal consonants, is composed of a vocal and aspirate. To make 
it, compress the teeth, and begin to pronounce the word judge, 
very loud ; and when you have made a sound, e. i. got to the u, 
stop instantly, and you will perceive the proper sound;. or be- 
frin to pronounce the letter g, but put no e to it : see engraving. 
2. The three sounds, of which this is composed, are that of the 
Dame sound of d, and those of e, and h, combined. 3. Breath as 
well as voice sounds, may be arrested, or allowed to escape, ac- 
cording to the nature of the sound to be produced. 

Anecdote. A pedlar — overtook another 
of his tribe on the road, and thus accosted 
him: " Hallo, friend, what do you carry?" 
" Rum and Whisky," — was the prompt re- 
ply. " Good," said the other ; " you may go 
ahead; I carry gravestones." 

The quiet sea, 
Th't, like a giant, resting from his toil, 
Sleeps in the morning sun. 



Proverbs. 1. He that seeks trouble, it were 
a pity he should miss it. 2. Honor and ease— are 
seldom &cd-fellows. 3. It is a miserable sight to 
see a poor man proud, and a rich man avaricious. 
4. One cannot Jly without wings. 5. The fairest 
rose at last is withered. 6. The best evidence of 
a clegyman's usefulness, is the holy lives of his 
parishoners. 7. We are rarely so unfortunate, 
or so happy, as we think we are. 8. A friend in 
need, is a friend indeed. 9. Bought wit is the 
best, if not bought too dear. 10. Disputations — 
leave truth in the middle, and the parties at both 
ends. 11. We must do and live. 12. A diligent 
pen supplies many thozights. 

Authority and Truth.. Who has not 

observed how much more ready mankind are 
to bow to the authority of a name, than 
yield to the evidence of truth? However 
strong and incontestible — the force of rea- 
soning, and the array of facts of an individ- 
ual, who is unknown to fame, a slavish world 
— will weigh and measure him by the obscu- 
rity of his name. Integrity, research, sci- 
ence, philosophy, fact, truth, and goodness — 
are no shield against ridicule, and misrepre- 
sentation. Now this is exceedingly humilia- 
ting to the freed mind, and shows the great 
necessity of looking at the truth itself fox the 
evidence of truth. Hence, we are not to be- 
lieve what one says, because he says it, but 
because we see that it is true : this course is 
well calculated to make us independent rea- 
soners, speakers, and writers, and constitute. 
us, as we were designed to be — freemen, in 
feeling, thought and act. 

"Varieties. 1. How long was it, from the 
discovery of America, in 1492, by Columbus, 
to the commencement of the Revolutionary 
War, in 1775 ? 2. Most of our laws would 
never have had an existence, if evil action? 
had not made them necessary. 3. The grand 
secret — of never failing — in propriety of 
deportment, is to have an intention — of al- 
ways doing what is right. 4. Only that. 
which is sown here, will be reap'd hereafter. 
5. Is there more than one God ? 6. The hu- 
man race is so connected, that the well inten- 
tioned efforts of each individual — are never 
lost; but are propagated to the mass,- so 
that what one — may ardently desire, another 
— may resolutely endeavor, and a third, or 
tenth, may actually accomplish. 7. All 
thought is dependent on the will, or volun- 
tary principle, and takes its quality there- 
from : as is the will, such is the thought ; for 
the thought — is the will, in form ; and the 
state of the will — may be known by that 
form. 

Go abroad, upon the paths of Nature, and when 
Its voices whisper, and its silent things [all 

Are breathing the deep beauty of the world, 
Kneel at its simple altar, and the Ood, 
Who hath the living waters— shall be there. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



45 




108. Elocution — is not, as some errone- 
ously suppose, an art of something- artificial 
in tones, looks and gestures, that may be 
learned by imitation. The principles teach 
us — to exhibit truth and nature dressed to 
advantage : its objects are, to enable the rea- 
der, and speaker, to manifest his thoughts, 
and feelings, in the most pleasing, perspic- 
uous, and forcible manner, so as to charm the 
affections, enlighten the understanding, and 
leave the deepest, and most permanent im- 
pression, on the mind of the attentive hearer. 

109. The second sound of G, is hard, 
or gutteral, before a, o, u, I, r, 
and often before e, and i ,• also, 
at the end of monosyllables, and 
sometimes at the end of dissyl- 
lables, and their preceding sylla- 
bles. GAME; a giddy goose [Gin game.] 
got a ci-gar, and gave it to a gan-grene beg- 
gar: Scrog-gins, of Brob-dig-nag, growls 
over his green-glass gog-gles, which the big 
ne-gro gath-er-ed from the bog-gy quag-mtie ; 
i gid-dy gig-gling girl glides into the grog- 
.;e-ry, and gloats over the grw-el in the great 
pig-gin. of the rag--ged grand-mother, ex- 
ciaim-ing, dig or beg, the game is gone. 

110. Foreigners and natives may derive 
essential aid from this system of mental and 
vocal philosophy ; enabling them to read and 
speak the language correctly; which they 
most certainly ought to do, before they are 
employed in our schools -• for whatever chil- 
dren learn, they should leam correctly. Good 
teachers are quite as necessary in the pri- 
mary school, as in the Academy or College : at 
least, so thought Philip, king of Macedon, 
when he sent his son Alexander to Aristotle, 
the great philosopher, to learn his letters : 
and Alexander says, he owed more to his 
teacher, than to his father. 

111. Irregulars. Gh, in a few words, 
has this sound : tho', strictly speaking, the h 
is silent. The ghast-ly bur-gher stood a- 
ghast to see the ghost of the ghyll, eat the 
ghas-tly gher-kms in the ghos-tly burgh. 
They are silent in — the neighbors taught 
their daugA-ters to plough with de-light, 
though they caught a fnr-loug-^ ,• &c. 

IVoteS. 1. This vocal sound is made, by pressing the roots 
ol' the tongue against the uvula, so as to close the throat, and beginning 
to say go, without the o; the sound is intercepted lower down than 
that of first d, and the jaw dropped more ; observe also the vocal 
and aspirate; the sound is finished, however, in this, as in all oth- 
er instances of making the vocal consonants, by the organs re- 
suming their natural position, either for another effort, or for 
silence. 2. If practice enables persons with half the usual num- 
ber of finders to accomplish whatever manual labor they under- 
take ; think, how much may be done in this art, by those who pos- 
sess their vocal organs complete, provided they pursue the course 
here indicated, — there is nothing like these vocal gymnastics. 

'Tis autumn. Many, and many a fleeting age 
Hath faded, since the primal morn of Time ; 
And silently the slowly journeying years, 
All redolent of countless seasons, pass. 



112. Freedom of Thought. Beware 
of pinning your faith to another's sleeve — of 
forming your own opinion entirely on that 
of another. Strive to attain to a modest inde- 
pendence, of mind, and keep clear of leading- 
strings: follow no one, where you cannot 
see the road, in which you are desired to 
walk : otherwise, you will have no confidence 
in your own judgment, and will become a 
changeling all your days. Remember the 
old adage — " let every tub stand on its own 
bottom /" And, " never be the mere shadow 
of another." 

Proverbs. 1. He dies like a least, who has 
done no good while he lived. 2. 'Tis a base 
thing to betray a man, because he trusted you. 3 
Knaves — imagine that nothing can be done with- 
out knavery. 4. He is not a wise man, who pays 
more for a thing than it is worth. 5. Learning — 
is a sceptre to some, and a bauble — to others. 6. 
No tyrant can take from you your knowledge. 7. 
Only that which is honestly got — is true gain. 
8. Pride— is as loud a beggar as want ; and a 
great deal more saucy. 9. That is a bad child, 
that goes like a top ; no longer than it is whip- 
ped. 10. It is hard for an empty bag to stand up- 
right. 11. Learn to bear disappointment cheer- 
fully. 12. Eradicate your prejudices. 

Anecdote. A sharp Eye. A witness, 
during the assizes, at York, in England, 
after several ineffectual attempts to go on 
with his story, declared, "he could not 
proceed in his testimony, if Mr. Brougham 
did not take his eyes off from him." 

Varieties. 1. Which does society the 
most injury, the robber, the slanderer, or the 
murderer ? 2. In every period of life, our tal- 
ents may be improved, and our mind expan- 
ded by education. 3. The mind is powerful, 
in proportion as it possesses powerful trut hs, 
reduced to practice. 4. Give not the meats 
and drinks of a man, to a child ; for how 
should they do it good ? -5. A proverb, well 
applied at the end of a phrase, often makes 
a very happy conclusion : but beware of 
using such sentences too often. 6. Extrav- 
agant — and misplaced eulogiums — neither 
honor the one, who bestows them, nor the 
person, who receives them. 7. Apparent 
truth — has its use, but genuine t-»-th a 
greater use : and hence, it is the p* \ &i 
wisdom — to seek it. 

'Tis midnight's holy hour — and silence now 
Is brooding, like a gentle Spirit, o'er 
The still and pulseless world. Hark ! on the winou 
The bell's deep tones are swelling, — 'tis the knell 
Of the departed year. No funeral train 
Is sweeping past, — yet, on the stream, and wood, 
With melancholy light, the moonbeams rest. 
Like a pale, spotless shroud, — the air is stirred, 
As by a mourner's sigh — and on yon cloud, 
That floats on still and placidly through heaven, 
The Spirits — of the Seasons — seem to stand ; 
Young Spring, bright Summer, Autumn's solemn form, 
And Winter, with his aged locks, and breathe, 
In mournful cadences, that come abroad 
Like the far un'nd-harp's wild and touching wail, 
A melancholy dirge — o'er the dead year- 
Gone, from the Earth, forever. 



46 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



113. These principles of oratory — are 

well calculated to accustom the mind to the 

investigation and reasoning; thus, 

affording a better discipline for the scientific, 

rational, and affect nous faculties of the mind, 
than even the study of the mathematics: for 
the whole man is here addressed, and all his 
mental powers, and all his acquirements, are 
called into requisition. This system is a 
fieri/ ordeal ; and those who pass through it, 
understandinglu, and practically, will come 
out purified as by fire: it solves difficulties, 
and leads the mind to correct conclusions, 
respecting what one is to do, and what one 
is not to do. 

114:. The third sound of G is that of 
Zh; which, tho' common to s 
and s, is derived to this letter ^*L^ 
from the French; or, perhaps /-y-H-v-V 
we should say, the words in (f^SS^>) 
which G has this sound, are VV zrv/ 
French words not Anglicised rr ; „ pnnrn 

j ■ , T" t l nil [G in ROUGE.] 

— or made into hnglish. 1 he 
pro-te-ge (pvo-ta-zha, a person protected, or 
patronized,) during his bad-e-nage, (bad-e- 
nazh, light or playful discourse,) in the me- 
nag-e-ry, (a place for the collection of wild 
animals, or their collection,) on the mi-rage, 
(me-razh, an optical illusion, presenting an 
image of water in sandy deserts,) put rouge, 
(roozh, red paint for the face,) on the char- 
g-e-d'af-fair, (shar-z/ia-dif-fare, an ambassa- 
dor, or minister of secondary rank.) 

115. This work informs the pupil, as the 
master workman does the apprentice : it 
teaches the principles, or rules, and the w r ay 
to apply them ; and when they are thus ap- 
plied to practice, he has no more use for 
them : indeed, its rules and directions serve 
him the same purpose as the guide-yost 
does the traveler ; who, after visiting the 
place, towards which it directs, has no fur- 
ther need of of it. 

116. Irregulars. Soften has this sound, 
and Z, generally. The az-ure ad-Zte-sion to 
the am-6ro-sial en-c/o-sures is a ro-se-ate 
treas-Mxe of ms-ions of pleas-wees ; the sei- 
zure of the tn'z-ier's en-^w-si-asm is an in- 
ua-sion of the #Za-zier's di-tn-sions of the 
scis-sors ; the hosier takes the ora-zier's 
cro-sier with a-ora-sions and cor-ro-sions by 
ex-^po-sure, and Jreas-ures it up without e- 

Iig-10T1B. 

Kotes. 1. This vocal triphthongal consonant sound may be 
made, by placing the organs, as if to pronounce sh in show, and ad- 
dEng a voice sound, from the larynx ; or, by drawing out the sound 

of the imaginary word zhure, zh ure. 2. Analyze these sounds 

thus ; give the first sound of c, keep the teeth still compressed, add 
the aspirate of h, and then prefix the vocality ; or reverse the pro- 
cess. G is silent in— the ma-lign phlegm of the poignant gnat, im- 
pregus the en-sign's cft-a-phragm, and gnaws into Char-le-niagne's 
se-ragi-io. 71 j • ■ 

Anecdote. A considerate Minister. A 
very dull clergyman, whose delivery was 
monotonous and uninteresting to his hearers, 
putting many of the old folks asleep — said to 
the boys, who were playing in the gallery ; 
"Don't make so much noise there; you 
will awake your parents below." 

For me, my loU- was what I sought; to be, 
In lift, or death, the fearUv,— and the/ree. 



Proverbs. 1. Impudence, and wit, are vastly 
different. 2. Keep thy shop, and thy shop will 
keep thee. 3. Listeners — hear no good of them- 
selves. 4. Make hay while the sun shines. 5. An 
ounce of discretion is worth a pound of wit. 6. 
Purposing, without performing, is mere fooling. 

7. Quiet persons — are welcome every where. 

8. Some have been thought brave, because they 
were afraid to run away. 9. A liar— is a bravo 
towards God, and a coward towards men. 10. 
Without a friend, the world is a wilderness 11. 
A young man idle, — an old man — needy. 12. Re- 
solution, without action, is a slothful folly. 

Reading Rooms. Incalculable good 
might be done to the present and the rising 
eeneraiion, by the establishment, in every 
town and village in our country, of Public 
Reading Rooms, to be supported by volun- 
tary subscription: indeed, it would be wise 
in town authorities to sustain such institu- 
tions of knowledge by direct taxation. Oh! 
when shall we wake up to a consideration 
of things above the mere love of money-ma- 
king. 

Varieties. 1. Did Napoleon — do more 
evil than good — to mankind? 2. A neces- 
sary part of good manners — is a punctual 
observation of time; whether on matters of 
civility, business, or pleasure. 3. It is ab- 
surd — to expect that your friends will re- 
member you, after you have thought proper 
to forget them. 4. How much pain has bor- 
rowed trouble cost us. 5. Adversity — has 
the effect of eliciting talents, which, in pros- 
perous circumstances, would have lain dor- 
mant. 6. When the infidel would persuade 
you to abandon the Bible, tell him you will, 
when he will bring you a better book. 7. 
When the mind becomes persuaded of the 
truth of a thing, it receives that thing, and it 
becomes a part of the person's life : what 
men seek, they find. 

The spacious firmament — on high, 

With all the blue etherial sky, 

And spangled heavens, a shining frame, 

Their great original proclaim. 

Th' unwearied sun— from day to day. 

Does his Creator's power display ; 

And publishes — to evWy land, 

The work — of an Almighty hand. 

Soon as the evening shades prevail, 

The TOoow takes up the wond'rous tale 

And, nightly, to the list'ning earth, 

Repeats the story of her birth ; 

Whilst all the stars, that round her burn, 

And al! the planets in their turn, 

Confirm the tidings as they roll, 

And spread the truth, from pole to pole. 

What, though, in solemn silence, all 

Move round the dark terrestrial ball ? 

What, though no real voice nor sound 

Amid these radiant orbs be found ? 

In reason's ear they all rejoice, 

And utter forth a glorious voice, 

Forever singing, as they shine, 

" The hand that made us— is divined 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



47 




117. Be very particular in pronouncing 
the jaw, or voice-breakers, and cease not, 
till you can give every sound fully, correctly 
and distinctly. If your vocal powers are 
well exercised, by faiihful practice on the 
more difficult combinations, they will acquire 
a facility of movement, a precision of action, 
a flexibility, grace, and force truly surprising. 

118. H lias tout one sound; which is 
an aspirate, or forcible breathing, 
made in the glottis : HALE : 
his high-ness holds high his/ 
haugh-ty head, and ex-hib-hsl 4 
his shrunk shanks to the ho-ly 
horde in the hu-m\d hall; the C H in hale.] 
hard-heart-ed hedge-hog, heed-\ess of his 
hav-oc of the house-wife's ham, hies him- 
self home, hap-py to have his head, his 
hands, and his heart whole ; the harm-fw\ 
£iZ7ra-ble-bee hur-tles through the hot-house, 
and ex-horts his ex-haust-ed hive-Wngs to 
hold their house-hold-smff for a hob-hy -horse 
till fozr-vest-home. 

119. It is said, that no description can 
adequately represent Lord Chatham : to 
comprehend the force of his eloquence, it 
was necessary to see and to hear him : his 
whole delivery was such, as to make the 
orator a part of his own eloquence: his mind 
was view'd in his countenance, and so em- 
bodied was it in his every look, and gesture, 
that his words were rather felt than follow- 
ed ; they invested his hearers ; the weapons 
of his opponents fell from their hands ; he 
spoke with the air and vehemence of inspi- 
ration, and the very atmosphere flamed 
around him. 

120. H is silent at the beginning and 
end of many words. The Aon-est shep- 
herd's ca-tarrA, Aum-bles the Aeir-ess in her 
disA-a-billes, and ftu-mors the tAy-my r7tet- 
o-ric of his rAymes to rMp-so-dy ; the hu- 
mor-some TAom-as ex-plained dip/i-thongs 
and trip7«-thongs to A-bi-jah, Be-h-ah — Ca- 
la/i, Di-nah, E-li-jah,~ Ge-rah, Hul-daA, I- 
«a-ia/i, Jonah, Han-nah, Nin-e-vah, O-ba- 
di-ah, Pis-gah, Ru-mah, Sa-rah, Te-raA, 
TJri-ah, Ya-ni-ah, and Ze-lah. 

Notes. 1. This sound is the material of which all sounds 
are made, whether vowel or consonant, either by condensation, 
or modification. To demonstrate this position, commence any 
sound in a whisper, and proceed to a vocality ; shaping the organs 
to form the one required, if a vowel or vocal consonant, and in a 
proper way to produce any of the aspirates. 2. Those who are 
a the jabit of omitting the h, when it ought to be pronounced, can 
practice on the preceding and similar examples : and also correct 
guch sentences as this; Hi took my 'orse hand went houtto'unt 
my 'ogs, hand got hoff my 'orse, hand 'iched im to a hoak tree, 
hand gave 'im some hoats. 3. It requires more breath to make 
this sound, than any other in our language ; as in producing it, 
even mildly, the lungs are nearly exhausted of air. It may be 
made by whispering the word huh: the higher up, the more scat- 
tering, the lower in the throat, the more condensed, till it becomes 
Tocal. 

I am well aware, that what is base, 

JVo polish — can make sterling— and that vice, 

Though well -perfumed, and elegantly dressed, 

Like an unburied carcass,— trick'd with flowers, 

Is hut a garnished nuisance,— fitter far 

For cleanly riddance,— than for fair attire. 



Proverbs. I. When the cat is away, the 
mice will play. 2 One may be a wise man, and 
yet not know how to make a watch. 3. A wicked 
companion invites us to hell. 4. All happiness 
and misery — is in the mind. 5. A good conscience 
is excellent divinity. 6. Bear and forbear — is 
good philosophy. 7. Drunkenness — is a voluntary 
madness. 8. Envy shoots at others, and wounds 
herself. 9. Fools lade out the water, and wise 
men catch the fish. 10. Good preachers give 
fruits, rather than flowers. 11. Actions are the 
raiment of the man. 12. Faith is the eye of love. 

Anecdote. Frederick the Great, of Prus- 
sia, an ardent lover of literature and the fine 
arts, as well as of his people, used to rise at 
three or four o'clock in the morning to get 
more time for his studies ; and when one of his 
intimate friends noticed how hard he work- 
ed, he replied, — " It is true, I do work hard,- 
but it is in order to live ; for nothing has 
more resemblance to death, than idleness : of 
what use is it, to live, if one only vegetates?" 

Wrong Choice. How miserable some 
people make themselves, by a wrong choice, 
when they have all the good things of earth 
before them, out of which to choose! If good 
judgment be wanting, neither the greatest 
monarch, nor the repeated smiles of fortune, 
can render such persons happy ; hence, a 
prince — may become a poor wretch, and the 
peasant — completely blessed. To know 
one's self — is the first degree of sound judg- 
ment; for, by failing rightly to estimate our 
own capacity, we may undertake — not only 
what will make us unhappy, but ridiculous. 
This may be illustrated by an unequal mar- 
riage with a person, whose genius, life and 
temper — will blast the peace of one, or both, 
forever. The understanding, and not the 
will — should be our guide. 

"Varieties. 1. What can the virtues of 
our ancestors profit us, unless we imitate 
them ? 2. Why is it, that we are so unwilling 
to practice a little self-denial for the sake of a 
future good ? 3. The toilet of woman — is too 
often an altar, erected by self-love — to vanity. 
4. Half the labor, required to make a first-rate 
musician, would make an accomplished rea- 
der and speaker. 5. Learn to unlearn what 
you have learned amiss. 6. A conceit of 
knowledge — is a great enemy to knowledge, 
and a great argument for ignorance. 7. Of 
pure love, and pure conception of truth, we 
are only receivers: God only is the giver; 
and they are all His fromfirst to last. 

It is a beautiful belief, that ever — round our head, 

Are hovering, on noisless wing, the spirits of the dead. 

It is a beautiful belief, when ended our career, 

That it will be our ministry to watch o'er others here; 

To lend a moral to the flower ; breathe wisdom on the wind; 

To hold commune, at nighVs pure noon, with the imprison'd mind, 

To bid the mourner — cease to mourn, the trembling be forgiven; 

To bear away, from ills of clay, the infant — to its heaven. 

Ah ! when delight — was found in life, and joy — in every breath, 

I cannot tell how terrible — the mystery of death. 

But now, the past is bright to me, and all (he future— clear: 

For 'tis my faith, that after death, I still shall linger here. 



4S 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 




121. Important Remarks. Every pupil 
should be required to notice, distinctly, not 
only all the specific sounds of our language, 
simple and compound, but also the different 
and exact positions of the vocal organs, ne- 
cessary to produce them. The teacher 
should, unyieldingly, insist upon having 
these two things faithfully attended to : for 
success in elocution, and music, absolutely 
demands it: no one, therefore, should wish 
to be excused from a full and hearty com- 
pliance. Master these elementary princi- 
ples, and you will have command of all the 
mediums for communicating your thoughts 
and feelings. 

122. Ia has only one sound, which is 
its name sound. LAY ; the 
laird's little fool loudly lauds the 
lil-y white lamb the live-long 
day ; Zem-u-el Ly-ell loves the 
/ass-lorn ZmZ- la-by of the land- 
lord's love-ly la-dy, and, with [LinLAT.] 
bliss-ful daZ-li-ance, gen-^eeZ-ly Zis-tens to 
the low-ly ZoZ-lard's live-ly song; the law- 
yer Ze-gal-ly, and plain-ly tells his luck-less 
cli-ent, that he Zi«-er-al-ly re-pels the il-Zo^- 
i-cal re-ply of the nul-ly-fy-ing leg-is-Za- 
tor, who, in list-less lan-guor, lies, and re- 
gales Aim-self over the eZ-der blow tea: (not 
I-oo-t loot.) 

123. Pronounce my, you, your, and that, 
when emphatic, with the vowels full and 
open. My harp is as good as yours. He 
told you, but would not tell me. I said he 
was my friend, not yours. That man re- 
lated that story. When these words are not 
emphatic, the sounds of y and u are short- 
ened, the o silent, and u having its second 
sound, while the a is entirely suppressed. 
My pen is as bad as my paper. How do 
you do ? Very well ; and how do you do ? 
Have you got your book ? This is not your 
book ; it is my book. I said that you said, 
that you told him so. 

Notes. 1. This vocal lingual dental sound (from the 
larynx, tongue and teeth,) is made by pressing the tongue against the 
upper gums and the roof of the mouth : pronounce the word to, 
by prolonging the sound of I; 1 o. 2. Do not let the eye mis- 
lead the ear in the comparison of sounds ; gay and gkay are 
alike to the ear, tho' unlike to the eye: so are ph in philosophy 
and / in folly : the same may be observed of th in thine and thou 

3. Never forget the difference between the names of letters, and 
their respective sounds ; weigh their natures, powers and qualities. 

4. Notice the dissimilarity between the letters o-n-e, and the word 
owe (voun;) also e-i-g-h-t, and eight {ate ;) e-n-o-u-g-h, and enuff. 
Is there not a better way ? and is not this that way ? 5. £ is silent 
in bairn, saive, could, psalm, would, chaZk, shouZd, taik, haj-ser 
(haw-ver,) faZ-con (faw-k'n,) sa7m-on, foZks, maZm-sey (2da) ai- 
monds, &c 

Anecdote. One Tongue. Milton, the au- 
thor of Paradise Lost and Regained, was one 
day asked, by a friend of female education, 
if he did not intend to instruct his daughter 
in the different languages : "NoSir,-" re- 
plied Milton, " one tongue is sufficient for a 
woman. 

Ye despott, too long— did your tyranny hold as 

In a vassalage vile — ere its weakness we knew ; 

But we learn'd, that the links of the chain, that enthraVd us, 

Were forg'd by the fears of the captive alone. 



Proverbs. 1. Almost, and very nigh, save 
many a lie. 2. A man may buy even gold too 
dear. 3. He, that waits for dead men's shoes, 
may long go barefoot. 4. It is an ill cause, that 
none dare speak in. 5. If pride were an art, 
there would be many teachers. 6. Out of sight, 
out of mind. 7. The whole ocean is made of 
single drops. 8. There would be no great ones, 
if there were no little ones. 9. Things unreason- 
able— ■o.re never durable. 10. Time and tide wait 
for mo man. 11. An author's writings are a mir- 
ror of his mind. 12. Every one is architect of 
his own character. 

In the Trntli. How may a person be 
said to be in the truth ? This may be un- 
derstood, rationally, by a comparison : we 
say — such a man is in the mercantile busi- 
ness ; by which we mean, that his life — is 
that of merchandizing, and is regulated by 
the laws of his peculiar calling. In like 
manner, we say of a christian, that he is in 
the truth, and in the Lord, when he is in the 
true order of his creation; which is — to love 
the Lord, with all his heart, and his neighbor 
as himself ; and to do unto others — as he 
would they should do unto him : such a one 
is, emphatically, in the truth, and the truth 
makes him free; and this is the only freedom 
on earth, or in heaven; and any other state is 
abject slavery. 

Varieties. 1. Why is the L, in the word 
military, like a man's nose? Because, it is 
between two i i. 2. No one is wise at all 
times; because every one is finite, and of 
course, imperfect. 3. Money — is the servant 
of those, who know how to use it ; but the 
master of those, who do not. 4. Rome — 
was built, 753 years before the christian era; 
and the Roman empire — terminated 476 
years after it; what was its duration? 5. 
The tales of other times — are like the calm 
dew of the morning, when the sun is faint 
on its side, and the lake is settled and blue 
in the vale. 6. As is the state of mind, such 
is the reception, operation, production, and 
manifestation — of all that is received. 7. 
Ends of actions show the quality of life ; 
natural men ever regard natural ends ; but 
spiritual men — spiritual ones. 

Changing, forever changing '.—So depart 

The glories— of the old majestic wood: 

So — pass the pride, and garniture of fields; 

The growth of ages, and the bloom of days, 

Into the dust of centuries; and so — 

Are both— renewed. The scattered tribes of men, 

The generations of the populous earth, 

Ml have their seasons too. And jocund Youth 

Is the green spring-time — Manhood's lusty strength 

Is the maturing summer— hoary Age 

Types well the autumn of the year — and Death 

Is the real winter, which forecloses all. 

And shall the forests — have another spring, 

And shall the fields — another garland wear, 

And shall the worm — come forth, renew'd in life, 

And clothed with highest beauty, and not MAN ? 

Nol — in the Book before me now, I read 

Another language ; and my faith is sure, 

That though the chains of death may hold it long, 

This mortal — will o'ermaster them, and break 

Away, and put on immortality. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



49 



la*. Read, and speak, in such a just and 
impressive manner, as will instruct, interest 
and affect your hearers, and reproduce in 
them all those ideas and emotions, which you 
wish to convey. Remember, that theory — 
is one thing, and practice — anot/ier ,• and that 
there is a great difference, between knowing 
how a sentence should be read or spoken, 
and the ability to read or speak it : theory — 
is the result of thought ; practice — of actual 
experience. 

125. M has only one sound; MAIM : 
meek men made mum-mies out 

of gam-mon, and moon-beams W»>»A 
of gum-my am-mo-ni-a, for a pre- (x^^^^S^ 
mi-um on dum-my som-nam- »> ^' 

bu-lism: mind, man-ners and [M in maim.] 
mag-na-nim-i-ty, make a migh-ty man, to 
a-maZ-ga-mate m-blems and w;am-pum for 
an om-ni-um gath-er-um : the malt-man cir- 
cum-am-bu-lates thecim-me-ri-an fozra-mock, 
and tum-bles the mur-mur-ing mid-ship- 
man into a mm-i-mum and rara-i-mum of a 
mam- mi-form di-lem-ma. 

126. Cicero and Demosthenes, by their 
words, lives, maxims, and practice, show the 
high estimation, in which they held the sub- 
ject of oratory ; for they devoted years to the 
study and practice of its theory and art, un- 
der the most celebrated masters of antiquity. 
Most of the effects of ancient, as well as of 
modern eloquence, may be attributed to the 
manner of delivery: we read their words, 
but their spirit is gone; the body remains, 
beautiful indeed, but motionless — and dead; 
true eloquence — revivifies it 

Notes. To produce this labio-nasal sound, close the lips 
and make a sound through the nose, resembling the plaintive low- 
ing of an ox, with its mouth closed ; or, a wailing sound through 
your nose. 2. This is called a nasal sound, because it is made 
through the nose ; and not because it does not pass through it, as 
many imagine : which may become evident, by producing the 
sound when the nose is held between the thumb and forefinger. 3. 
Avoid detaching letters from preceding words, and attaching them 
to succeeding ones ; as — his cry moved me ; for, his crime moved 
me. 4. M is silent before n, in the same syllable ; as, .Jfnason, 
and mne-mon-ics. 

12*. That is th' man, th't said that you 
savj him. I say th't that, th't that man said, 
is not that, th't that man told him. That th't 
I say is this : th't that, th't that gentleman 
advanced, is not that, th't he should have 
spoken ; for he said, th't tliat that, th't that 
man pointed out, is not that that, th't that la- 
dy insisted th't it was ; but is another that. 

THE PATHS OF LIFE. 

Go forth — the world is very wide, 
And many paths — before you lie, 

Devious, and dang'rous, and untried ; 
Go forth with wary eye ! 

Go ! with the heart — by grief unbow' d ! 

Go ! ere a shadow, or a cloud 
Hath dimm'd the laughing sky! 

But, lest your wand'ring footsteps stray, 

Choose ye the straight, the narrow way. 

E 



| 128. By the aid of the principles here in- 
culcated, children can be taken, before they 
have learned the names of the letters, and, in 

j a few months, become better readers than 
one in fifty of those taught in the usual 
way ; and they may have their voices so de- 
veloped and trained, by the natural use of 
the proper organs and muscles, as to be able 
to read, speak, and sing, for hours in succes- 
sion, without hoarseness, or injurious ex- 
haustion. It is a melancholy reflection, that 
children learn more bad habits than good 
ones, in most of our common schools. 

Proverbs. 1. He, that does you an ill turn, 
will never forgive you. 2. It is an ill wind that 
blows nobody any good. 3. The proof of the 
pudding — is in eating. 4. None so deaf, as they 
that will not hear. 5. Time — is a. file, that wears, 
and makes no noise. 8. When every one takes 
care of himself, care is taken of all. 7. Without 
pains, there can be no gains. 8. One may as 
well expect to be at ease, without money, as to be 
happy, without virtue. 9. A man, like a watch, 
is valued according to his going. 10. The gov- 
ernment of the will is better than an increase 
of knowledge. 11. Character — is every thing — tc 
both old and young. 12. War brings scars. 

Anecdote. Long Enough. A man, up- 
on the verge of bankruptcy . having purchased 
an elegant coal, upon credit, and being told 
by one of his acquaintances, that the cloth 
was very beautiful, though the coat was too 
short; replied, — with a sigh — "It will be 
long enough before I get another. 

Honor — was the virtue of the pagan ; 
but Christianity — teaches a more enlarged 
and nobler code ; calling into activity — all 
the best feelings of our nature, — illuminat- 
ing our path, through this world, with deeds 
of mercy and charity, mutually done and re- 
ceived, — and sustaining us, amidst difficul- 
ties and temptations — by the hope of a 
glorious immortality, — in" which peace — 
shall be inviolable — and joy — eternal. 

Varieties. 1. Why is a fashionably 
dressed lady, like a careful housewife? Be- 
cause her waist (waste), is always as small 
as she can make it. 2. Literature and 
Science, to produce their full effect, must 
be generally diffused, like the healthful 
breeze. 3. The elements, so mixed in him. 
that Nature might stand up, and say to all 
the world, "This is a man /" 4. All mind3 
are influenced every moment ; and there is 
a providence in every feeling, thought and 
word. 5. The excesses of our youth, are 
drafts on our old age, payable with interest ; 
though sometimes^they are payable at sight. 
6. I will not only know the way, but vmlk in 
it. 7. As it is God's will to fill us with his 
life, let us exert every faculty we possess, 
to be filled with it; and that with all sin- 
cerity and diligence. 

The man, th't's resolute, and just, 
Firm to his principles and trust, 
Nor hopes, nor fears — can bind. 
7 



50 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



129. Distinctness of articulation demands 
special attention, and requires that you should 
pronounce the vocal letters, as well as every 
word, audibly and correctly, giving to each, 
its appropriate force and quantity. Unless 
these principles are perfectly understood, 
your future acquirements will be more or 
less faulty : for, in proportion as one is ig- 
norant of what ought to be felt, thought, and 
done, will he be liable to err. 

130. N lias two sounds;^ its name 
90u?id: NINE; the tend-man's ^_^ 
nin-ny, neg-li-gent of the hunts- , ' ,-iuA 
man's en-cAan/-ments, con-tarn- //-^ ^^^ j\ 
i-nates the wo-hle-man's nine- \ ^ — ^ I 
pins with his an-ti-??o-mi-an non- [N in nine.] 
sense : TXa-hant, and FZan-ni-gan, joint-/e?z- 
ants of nine-ty-nme itfan-i-kins, u-raan-i- 
mous-ly en-chain with u;m-ning tones, the 
be-nig-nant du-m-na, while they are con-ven- 
ed to wom-i-nate con-di-ments for the so-cin- 
i-an con-yen-tion of the non-m-i-dents ; he 
knows his nose ; I know he knows his nose : 
he said I knew he knows his nose : and if he 
says he knows I know he knows his nose, 
of course, he knows I know he knows his 
nose. 

131. Some public speakers, in other re- 
spects inferior, from the ease, grace, dignity 
and power of their delivery, axe followed and 
applauded ,- while others, however sound in 
matter, and finished in language, on account 
of their deficiency of manner, are passed by 
almost unnoticed. All experience teaches us 
the great importance of manner, as a means 
of inculcating truth, and persuading others 
to embrace it. Lord Bacon says, it is as ne- 
cessary for a public speaker, as decorum for 
a gentleman. 

Notes. 1. This vocal nasal sound is made, by pressing the 
tongue against the roof of the mouth, and thus preventing the sound 
from passing through the mouth, and emitting all of it through the 
nose: see engraving. 2. In comparing sounds, be guided solely by 
the ear; beware of going by sight in the science of accowslics. 3. 
Remember, when there is a change in the position of the organs, 
there is a corresponding change in the sounds. 4. In words where 
J and n precede ch, the sound of t intervenes in the pronunciation : 
filch, blanch, wencb, inch, bench, &c. 5. Beware of omissions 
and additions; Boston notion, not Boston ocean. Regain either, 
not regain neither. 

Anecdote. The Rev. Mr. Whitfield— 
was once accused, by one of his hearers, of 
wandering in his discourse ; to which he re- 
plied : "If you will ramble like a lost sheep, 
/must ramble after you." 

Truth— 
Comes to us with a slow — and doubtful step ; 
Measuring the ground she treads on, and forever 
Turning her curious eye, to see that all 
la right — behind ; and, with keen survey, 
Choosing her onward path. 

Seize upon truth, — wherever found, 

On christian, — or on heathen ground ; 

Among your friends, — among your foes ; 

The plant's divine, — where'er it grows. 



Proverbs. 1. It is not the burthen, but the 
orcr-burthen, that kills the beast. 2. The death 
of youth is a shipwreck. 3. There is no disput- 
ing of tastes, appetites, and fancies. 4. When the 
fox preaches, let the geese beware. 5. Alms- 
giving—never made a man poor ; nor robbery- 
rich ; nor prosperity — wise. 6. A lie, begets a lie, 
till they come to generations. 7. Anger— is often 
more hurtful than the injury that caused it. 8. 
Better late ripe, and bear, than blossom, and blast. 
9. Experience — is the mother of science. 10. He 
that will not be counselled, can not be helped. 
11. Expose one's evils, and he will either forsake 
them, or hate you for the exposure. 12. Do not 
hurry a. free horse. 13. Every thing would liva. 

Gradations. The dawn, the deep light, 
the sun-rise, and the blaze of day ! what 
softness and gentleness ! all is graduated, 
and yet, all is decisive. Again, observe 
how winter — passes into spring, — each — 
weakened by the struggle ; then, steals on 
the summer, which is followed by the matu- 
rity of autumn. Look also at the gradations 
and commingling of infancy, childhood, 
youth, manhood and age : how beautiful the 
series ! and all this may be seen — in the 
successive developments of the human mind: 
— there is first sense, then fancy, imagina- 
tion and reason, — each ol which — is the 
ground, or continent, of all that succeed : 
sense — is the rude germ, or crust of tht- 
fancy, which is the full-fledged bird, freed 
from its confinement and limited notices, 
and soaring aloft, unrestrained, in the luxu- 
ries of its new being ; then, succeeds imagi- 
nation, a well regulated fancy, that emulates 
the work of reason, while it borrows the 
hues — of its immediate parent : and reason 
— is the full and perfect development — of all 
that sense — originally contained, fancy — de- 
corated, and imagination — designed — in a 
thousand forms: thus reason — combines the 
whole, and from the whole, thro' the light 
of the Supreme Mind, deduces her conclu- 
sions : thus, shall the gradations, or series 
of developments, continue in the good, and 
the true — to all eternity .' 

Varieties. 1. How many years inter- 
vened — between the discovery of the mar- 
iner's compass, in 1302, and the discovery 
of America ? 2. The covetous man — is as 
much deprived of what he has, as of what 
he has not ; for he enjoys neither. 3. Ah ! 
who can tell, how hard it is to climb the 
steep, where Fame's proud temple shines 
afar, checked by the scoff of Pride, by En- 
vy's frown, and Poverty's unconquerable 
bar ! 4. A man of cultivated mind, can 
converse with a picture, and find an agree- 
able companion in a statue. 5. Little men — 
triumph over the errors of great ones, as an 
owl — rejoices at an eclipse of the sun. 6. 
The eternal and natural worlds are so unit- 
ed, as to make but one ; like the soul and 
the body. 7. What is the difference between 
good sense, and wit ? 

A villain, when he most seems kind, 

Is most to be suspected. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



51 




133. Be perfectly distinct in your articu- 
lation, or you cannot become an easy, grace- 
ful, effective and natural elocutionist ; there- 
fore, practice on the vowels and consonants, 
as here recommended, separately and com- 
bined. If your utterance is rapid, and indis- 
tinct, your reading and speaking, will not 
be listened to with much pleasure, or profit. 
A hint — to those who would be wise, is suf- 
ficient 

133. The second sound of N, is that 
of Ng, before hard g, and often 
before hard c, k and q under the / 
accent. BANK; con-gress co?i- (j 
quers the strang-ling don-key, ' "^±^7 
and sanc-tions the lank con-clave in in bank.) 
in punc-^iZ-ious con -course: the san-guine 
un-cle, anx-ious to ling-ex much long-ex 
among the tink-ling in-gots, Jin-gles his rin- 
kled fin-gex over the lin-guist's a?z-gu-lar 
shrunk shanks. 

134. The common mode of teaching elo- 
cution is considered the true one, because it 
has been so long admitted and practiced : 
the old have hecome familiar with it, and fol- 
low it from habit, as their predecessors did ; 
and the rising generation receive it on trust : 
thus, they pass on, striving to keep each oth- 
er in countenance : hence it is, that most of 
our bad habits, in this important art, are born 
in the primary school, brought up in the 
academy, and graduated in the college,- if 
we proceed so far in our education. Is not 
an entire revolution necessary. 

135. Irregulars. Ng have generally this 
sound. In cultivating and strength-en-ing 
the nn-dex-stand-ing, by stud-y-mg, read-ing, 
wri-tmg, cy-nhex-ing, and speak-ing, I am 
thi7ik-ing of con-tend-ing for go-ing to sing- 
ing meet-ing ; in re-Kn-quish-ing your stand- 
ing in the crisp-ing fry-ing nan,byjump-ing 
o-ver the wind-ing rail-ing, you may be sail- 
ing on the boil-'mg o-cean, where the limp-ing 
her-x'mgs are skip-ping, and danc-ing, around 
some-thing that is laugh-ing and cry-ing, 
sleep-ing and iva-king, Zot'-ing and smi-Wng. 

Notes. 1. This nasal diphthongal vocal consonant sound, 
may be made by drawing the tongue back, closing the passage 
from the throat into the mouth, and directing flie sound through 
(he nose ; as in giving the name sound of N; it can be distinctly 
perceived by prolonging, or singing the ng sound in the word sing. 
2. If the accent be on the syllable beginning with g and c hard, 
and ft, and q, the n may take its name sound ; as, con-graf-u-late 
ccn-cur, con-elude, &c. 3. The three sounds of m and n, are the 
only nasal ones in our language. 4. Some consonant sounds are 
continuous: the 1st, 31, and 4th of c ; the 2nd of/, the third of 
g, 1, m, n, r, &c. are examples ; others are abrupt or discrete ; as, 
b, d, p, ft, t, &c : so we have continuous sounds, (the long ones, ) 
ind abrupt or discrete ones, (the short.) 

Anecdote. Equality. When Lycurgus, 
king of Sparta, was to reform and change 
the government, one advised him, that it 
should be reduced to an absolute popular 
equality : " Sir, 11 — said the lawgiver, " be- 
gin it in your own house first. 

Love — reckons hours — for months, — and days — for years ; 
And every little absence— is an age. 



Proverbs. 1. A miss, is as good as a mile. 
2. A man is a lion in his own cause. 3. He that 
has too many irons in the fire, will find that some 
of them will be apt to burn. 4. It is not an art to 
play; but it is a very good art to leave off play. 
5. Beyond the truth, there is nothing but error; 
and beyond error, there is madness 6. He, who 
deals with a blockhead, has need of much brains. 
7. The burnt child dreads xhefire. 8. When one 
will not, two cannot quarrel. 9. Words from the 
mouth, die in the ears ; but words from the heait 
— stay there. 11. Young folks — think old folks 
fools; but old folks know that young ones are. 

11. First know what is to be done, then do it. 

12. The tongue, without the heart, speaks an un- 
known tongue. 13. Remember the reckoning. 

The three essentials — of every exist- 
ence are an inmost, a middle and an outmost: 
i. e. an end, a cause, and an effect: the end 
is the inmost, the cause is the middle, and 
the effect the outmost, or ultimate. Ex. 
Man is one existence, and yet consists of a 
soul, or inmost principle, a body, or middle 
principle, and an activity, or ultimate prin- 
ciple. In his soul are ends, or motives to 
action; in his body are causes, or ways and 
means of action ; and in his life are effects, 
or actions themselves : if either were want- 
ing, he could not be a man : for, take away 
his soul, and his body would die for want of 
a first principle to live from ; take away his 
body, and his soul could not act in the natu- 
ral world, for want of a suitably organized 
instrument ; take away his life, or the acti- 
vity of his body from his soul, and both 
soul and body would cease to exist for lack 
of exercise. In other words, man consists 
of will, or inmost ; understanding, or inter- 
mediate ; and activity, or ultimate. It is 
evident, that without willing, his under- 
standing would never think, and devise 
means of acting ; and without understand- 
ing, his will — could not effect its purpose ; 
and without action — that willing and under- 
standing would be of no use. 

Varieties. 1. The thief — is sorry he is 
to be punished, but not that he is a thief. 

2. Some — are atheists — only in fair weather. 

3. Is the casket — more valuable than the 
jewel it contains ? 4. Indolence — is a stream 
that flows slowly on ; yet it undermines ev- 
ery virtue. 5. All outward existence — is 
only the shadow of that, which is truly real ; 
because its very correspondence. 6. Should 
we act from policy, or from principle ? 7. 
The prayer of the memory is a reflected light, 
like that of the moon ; that of the under- 
standing alone, is as the light of the sun in 
winter ; but that of the heart, like the light 
and heat united, as in spring or summer ; 
and so also, is all discourse from them, and 
all worship. 

THE FLIGHT OF VEAHS. 

Gone 1 gone forever /—Like a rushing wave 
Another year— has burst upon the shore 
Of earthly being— and its last low tones, 
Wandering in broken accents on the air, 
Are dying— to an echo. 



52 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



13G. In ancient .Rome, an orntor's educa- 
tion began in infancy ; so should it be noto ; 
the seeds of eloquence may be sown, when 
the child is on the maternal bosum ; the voice 
should be developed with the mind. If the 
child has good examples set him, in reading 
and speaking, and the youth is attentive to 
his every day language, and is careful to im- 
prove his mind and voice together, he will 
become a good elocutionist, without scarcely 
knowing it. Connection and association — 
have as much to do with our manner of 
speaking, as with our cast of thinking. 

137. P has but one sound: PAP; 
pale, par, pall, pap; peep, pet; . 
pipe, pip; pope, pool, pop; /^; \ 
pule, pup, puss ; point, pound ; , dgF^£\ 
peo-ple put pep-iper in pep-per- ^ , — . ' 
box-es, ap-ple-pies in cup- dp in pap.] 
boards, and whap-ping pap-poo-ses in wrap- 
pers ; the hap-xyy pi-per placed his peer-less 
pup-jty in Pora-pey's sZop-shop, to be pur- 
chased for a peck of pap-j>y pip-pins, or a 
pound of pul-ver-iz-ed pop-pies; a pad-Ay 
picked a peck of pick-led pep-pers, and put 
them on a broad brimed pew-ter plat-ter. 

138. Muscle Breakers. Peter Prickle 
Prandle picked three pecks of prickly pears, 
from three prickly prangly pear trees: if 
then, Peter Prickle Prandle, picked three 
pecks of prickly pears from three prickly 
prangly pear trees; where are the three pecks 
of prickly pears, that Peter Prickle Prandle 
picked, from the three prickly prangly pear 
trees] Success to the successful prickly 
prangly pear picker. 

Notes. 1. To give this aspirate labial, whisper the word 
pugh, (u short,) or pop out the candle ; see the engraving : it is 
all of the word up, except the u : but the sound is not finished till 
the lips are separated, or the remaining breath exhaled : remember 
the remarks in reference to other abrupt elements. 2. The prin- 
cipal difference between b and p is, that b is a vocal, and p, only a 
breath sound. P, H, T, are called, by some, sharp mutes ; and B, 
G, D, flat mutes. 3. Germans find it difficult to pronounce cer- 
tain vocal consonants at the ends of words, tho' correctly at the be- 
ginning : hence, instead of saying dog, mad, pod, &c. they say, at 
first, doh, mat, pot, &c. 4. In pronouncing m, and t together, p is 
very apt to intervene ; as in Pam-ton &c. 5. P is silent in psal-ter, 
pshaw, pneu-mat-ics, Ptols-my, Psy-che, rasp-ber-ry, (3d a,) corps 
(o long,) re-ceipt, etc. 6. Not deiths, but depths ; not clai-board, 
but clap-board; not Ja-ccp, but Ja-coi; not bai-tism, but bap- 
ism, etc. 

Anecdote. A Check. Soon after the 
sattle of Leipsic, a wit observed, — " Bona- 
part must now be in funds ; for he has re- 
ceived a check on the bank of the Elbe* 
Hidden, and deep, and never dry, 
Or flowing, or at rest, 
A living spring of love — doth lie 
In every human breast. 
All else— may fail, th't soothes the heart, 
All, save that fount alone ; 
With that, and life, we never part ; 
For life, and love— ire one. 

He seemed 
For dignity composed, — and high exploit ; 
But all was false— and hollow. 



Proverbs. 1. He, who thinks he knows the 
most, knows the least. 2. Take every thing as it 
comes, and make the best of it. 3. Three removes 
are as bad as a fire. 4. Tread on a worm, and he 
will turn. 5. Two things we should never be 
angry at, — what we can, and what we cannot 
help. 6. When the bow is too much bent, it 
breaks. 7. A wise man — is a great wonder. 8. 
Kwicked man — is his own hell ; and his evil lusts 
and passions the fiends that torment him. 9 
Blushing — is virtue's color. 10. Evil communi- 
cations corrupt good manners. 11. Gain — is un- 
certain, but the pain is sure. 12. Never court, 
unless you intend to marry. 

Amusements. Ever since the fall, 
mankind have been prone to extremes ; not 
only the religious, but the irreligious por- 
tion of the world. It is greatly to be regret- 
ted, that we are all so much at the mercy 
of passion and prejudice, and so little — un- 
der the guiding influence of reason and in- 
telligence. In our creation, the Divine 
Being — has manifested infinite love and in- 
finite wisdom: for we are made in "his 
image and likeness ; " the former, we 
still retain, but the latter, sad to relate, we 
have lost. The will, or voluntary principle 
of the mind, constitutes our impelling power, 
and the understanding, or reasoning facul- 
ties, under the light of truth, is our govern- 
ing power : if, therefore, we find ourselves 
loving — what is not good and true, our ra- 
tionality, enlightened by wisdom, must be 
our guide. Hence, our rule is this ; what- 
ever amusements — tend to fit us for our va- 
rious duties, and give us zest in faithfully 
performing them, are perfectly proper ; but, 
amusements, whose tendency is the reverse 
of this, are entirely improper; and we should 
not hesitate a moment in abstaining from 
them, however they may be approved by 
others, or sanctioned by long usage : we 
must never compromise the interests of 
eternity — for those transitory enjoyments of 
time and sense, which are at variance with 
the principles of truth and goodness. Both 
worlds are best taken care of, when they are 
cared for together, and each has its attention, 
according to its importance. 

Varieties. 1. There are some, who live 
— to eat and drink ; and there are others, 
who eat and drink, to live. 2. The perfec- 
tion of art is — to conceal the art : i. e. to be 
the thing, instead of its representative. 3. 
Let every one sweep the snow from his own 
door, and not trouble himself about the frost 
on his neighbor's tiles. 4. Galileo, the great 
astronomer, was imprisoned for life, because 
he declared that Venus — shone with a bor- 
rowed light, and from the sun, as the centre 
of our system. 5. There are abuses — in all 
human governments. 6. He, whose virtues, 
exceed his talents, is the good man ; but he, 
whose talents exceed his virtues, is the bad 
man. 7 All we perceive, understand, will, 
love, and practice, is our own ; but nothing 
else. 

Suspicion — always haunts the guilty mind ; 
The thief— still fears each bush— an officer. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



53 



139. Written language consists of letters, 
and, consequently, is more durable than spo- 
ken language, which is composed of articu- 
late sounds. Our written alphabet contains 
twenty-six letters, which make syllables and 
words,- words make sentences,- sentences 
paragraphs, which make sections and chap- 
ters,- these constitute an essay, discourse, ad- 
dress, oration, poem, dissertation, tract or 
book .- but our vocal alphabet has forty-/owr 
letters, or sounds, which make up the whole 
of spoken language. 

140. R has two sounds ; first, its name 
sound ; ARM ; the 6cr-bers were, v ; 

in former years, the ar-bi-ters of , "y^K 
the wmr-der-ers of their fore-fa- / /S-Sx > 
thers : the Tar-tars are gar-blers ( "Wto^ 
of hard-ware and per-yer-ters of 
the er-rors of North-em-ers and ptoim] 
Sou^-ern-ers ; thefar-mers are dire search- 
ers af-ter burnt ew-bors, and store the cor- 
ners of their lar-ders with dv-vers sorts of 
quar-tex doZ-lars ; Charles Bur-ser goes to the 
far-ther barn, and gets lar-ger ears of hard 
corn, for the mr-ter's horses. 

141. Dr. Franklin says, (of the justly cel- 
ebrated Whitfield,) that it would have been 
fortunate for his reputation, if he had left no 
written works behind him ; his talents would 
Jhen have been estimated by their effects : in- 
deed, his elocution was almost faultless. 
But whence did he derive his effective man- 
ner? We are informed, that he took lessons 
of Garrick, an eminent tragedian of Eng- 
land, who was a great master in Nature's 
school of teaching and practicing this useful 
art. 

Notes. 1. To make this smooth vocal sound, pronounce 
the word arm, and dwell on the r sound ; and you will perceive 
that the tongue is turned gently to the roof of the mouth, and at 
the same time drawn back a little. 2. Avoid omitting this letter, as 
it never is silent, except it is doubled in the same syllable; not 
staw-my, but stor-my ; not ZiS-ah-ty, but Ki-er-ty ; not bust, but 
burst ; not waw-um, but warm ; not aft-gu-ment, but or-gu-ment ; 
not hosses, but Ztcr-ses ; not haM stawm, but hard storm ; etc. 3. Re- 
member that short e and t before r, in the same syllable, when ac- 
cented, sound like short u, unless followed by another r, as mercy, 
(mer-it,) ser-geant, (ser-rate,) ter-ma-gant, (ter-ror,) mirth-ful, 
(mir-ror,) ver-ses, (ver-y) (here the r is re-echoed ;) and spirits, &c. : 
the exceptions are in parentheses: see p. 22d. 4. Some words, 
(where e, t, and r, are peculiarly situated, as above,) have, in their 
pronunciation, a reverberation, or repetition of the r, although 
there may be but one in the word; as — ver-y ; being followed by a 
vowel. 

Anecdote. Who Rules ? A schoolmas- 
ter, in ancient Rome, declared, that he ruled 
the world. He was asked to explain : which 
he did in the following manner. " Rome — 
rules the world ; the women rule those who 
govern Rome ; the children control their mo- 
thers, and J rule the children.'''' 

So— we grew together, 
Like to adouble cherry, seeming— parted; 
But yet a union— in partition, 
Two lowly berries,— moulded on one item : 
So, with two seeming bodies, but one. heart: 
Two—oi the first, like coats, in heraldry, 
Due but to one, and crowned— with one crest. 

S2 



Proverbs. 1. He that is ill to himself, will 
be good to nobody. 2. The remedy — is worse than 
the disease. 3. Who is so deaf, as he that will 
not hear? 4. All vice infatuates and corrupts the 
judgment. 5. A fool, may, by chance, put some- 
thing into a wise man's head. 6. After praying 
to God, not to lead you into temptation, do not 
throw yourself into it. 7. Evil gotten, evil spent. 
8. He, that knows useful things, and not he that 
knows many things, is the wise man. 9. He — 
preaches well, that lives well. 10. It is always 
term time in the court of conscience. 11. We may 
be ashamed of our pride, but not proud of our 
shame. 12. Historical faith — precedes saving 
faith. 13. Stolen waters are sweet. 

The True Christian Character. The 
three essentials of a christian — are — a good 
will — flowing through a true understanding, 
into a uniform life of justice and judgment. 
It is not enough, that we mean well, or 
know our duty, or try to do right ; for good 
intention is powerless, without truth to 
guide it aright ; and truth — in the intellect. 
alone, is mere winter-WghX, without the 
summer-heat of love to God — and love to 
man ; and blundering efforts — to do our 
duty — are poor apologies for virtuous ener- 
gies, well directed and efficiently applied : 
the three alone — can constitute ustrue chris- 
tians; i.e. our will, understanding and life, 
must be brought into harmonious and effi- 
cient unity, in order that we may be entitles 
to this high and holy appellation. Things 
must not only be thought of, and desired, 
purposed, and intended ; but they must be 
done, from love to the Lord ; that He, as a 
principle of goodness, and a principle of 
truth — may be flowing, constantly, from 
the centre — to the circumference of actions : 
we must practice what we know of the truth; 
we must live the life of our heavenly Fa- 
ther's commandments ; so as to have his 
goodness and truth implanted in us, that we 
may strive to walk before Him, and become 
perfect. 

Varieties. I. A certain apothecary — has 
over his door, this sign — " All kinds of dy- 
ing stuff sold here." 2. Does wealth — exert 
more influence than knowledge? 3. A 
pretty shepherd, indeed, a wolf would make ! 
4. At some taverns — madness — is sold by 
the glass ; at others, by the bottle. 5. So- 
briety, without sullenness, and mirth with 
modesty, are commendable. 6. Even an or- 
dinary composition, well delivered, is better 
received, and of course does more good, 
than a superior one, badly delivered. 7. 
Where order — cannot enter, it cannot exist. 

What is beauty ? Not the show 

Of shapely limbs, and features. No : 

These — are butfowers, 

That have their dated hours, 

To breathe their momentary sweets, then go; 

'Tis the stainless soul — icit.hin — 

That outshines— the fairest skin. 

Appearances — deceive ; 
And this one maxim — is a standing rule, — 
Men are not— what they seem. 



54 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



14ft. Many persons take great pains in 
their dress, to appear well and receive atten- 
tion ,- ami so far as personal appearance can 
exert an influence, they attain their end: but 
if thoy would cultivate their language, and 
the proper way of using it, so as not to de- 
form themselves in reading and conversation, 
they might accomplish the object at which 
thoy aim. 

113. The second sound of R, is rough, 
trilled, or burred; when it \\JLs 
comes before vowel sounds in / fi \ 
the same syllable : RAIL ROAD ; ^SSS^N 
the roc-ring rep-ro-bate re-ver- ■ ^±^ 
bo-rates his ran-cor-ous rib-aid- [R « rail.] 
ry and re-treats from his re-gal throne, to his 
ri-val rec-re-a-tion in the rook-e-ry : the op- 
pro-bri-ous li-frra-ri-an, rec-re-ant-ly threw 
the great grid-i-ron among the crock-e-ry with 
ir-re-proac/i-a-ble ef-front-e-ry ; the re-sults 
of which were, ro-man-tic dreams, bro-ken 
ribs, and a hun-dred prime cit-rons for the 
throng of cry-ing chil-dren: round and round 
the rug-ged rock the rag-ged ras-cal drags the 
strong rhi-rcoc-e-ros, while a rat in a ra/-trap 
ran through the rain on a rail, with a raw 
lump of red liv-er in its mouth. 

144. Written language — is used for com- 
municating information respecting persons 
distant from each other, and for transmitting, 
to succeeding ages, knowledge, that might 
otherwise be lost, or handed down by erring 
tradition. Spoken language — is used to con- 
vey the thoughts and feelings of those who 
^re present, and are speaking, or conversing 
together : the former is, of course, addressed 
to our eyes, and the latter, to our ears ,• each 
itind having its own particular alphabet, 
which must be mastered. 

Notes. 1. This vocal trilled diphthongal sound, consists 
of the aspirate sound of h, modified between the end of the tongue 
i.nd the roof of the mouth, combined with a vocal. 2. Or, make 
<he name sound of r, and mix it with the aspirate, by clapping 
the tongue against the roof of the mouth ; practice prolonging her, 
or purr in a whisper, trilling the r, then add the voice sound; af- 
Jerwards prefix the i, and exercise as above. 3. Demosthenes, in 
'he early part of bis career, was reproached for not being able to 
pronounce, correctly, the first letter of his favorite art — Rhetoric: 
i. e. he could not trill it for some time. 4. Give only one trill or 
■clap of the tongue, unless the sentiment be very animating ; as — 
Rise— brothers, rise! etc "Strike! till the last armed foe ex- 
pires." 

14-5. Another. The riven rocks are 
rudely rent asunder, and the rifted trees 
rush along the river, while hoa-ry &o-re-as 
rends the robes of spring, and rat-tling thun- 
der roars around the rock-y re-giona : Robert 
Rowley rolled a round roll round ; a round 
roll, Robert R.owley rolled round ; where roll- 
ed the round roll, Robert Rowley rolled 
round ? 

Didst ever see 
Two gentle vines, each — round the other twined, 
So fondly, closely, that they had become, 
Ere their growth, blended together 
Into one single tree 1 



Proverbs. 1. He, who resolves to amend, 
has Qod on his side. 2. Honest men are soon 
bound ; but you can never bind a knave. 3. If 
the best man's faults were written on his fore- 
head, it would make him pull his hat over his 
eyes. 4. Life is half spent, before we know what 
it is. 5. Of the two evils, choose the least. 6. 
One bad example spoils many good precepts. 7. 
Patience — is a plaster for all sores. 8. He who 
serves well — need not be afraid to ask his wages. 
9. If you will not hear reason, she will rap you 
over your knuckles. 10. Prayer — should be the 
key of the day, and the lock of the night. 11. 
Foul water will quench fire. 12. From nothing 
— nothing can come. 

Anecdote. Spinster. Formerly, it was 
a maxim, that a young woman should never 
be married, till she had spun, herself, a full 
set of linen. Hence, all unmarried women 
have been called spinsters : an appellation 
they still retain in certain deeds, and law 
proceedings ; though many are not entitled 
to it. 

Mathematics — includes the study of 
numbers and magnitudes : hence, it is called 
the science of gravity ; and is applicable to 
all quantities, that can be measured — by a 
standard unit, and thus expressed by num- 
bers and magnitude. Feeling and thought, 
though they vary immensely, cannot be 
measured : we cannot say, with strict pro- 
priety, that we love one — exactly twice as 
much as another,' nor, that one — is three 
times as wise as another : because love and 
wisdom are not mathematical quantities: 
but we can measure time by seconds, min- 
utes, hours, days, weeks, months, years, and 
centuries; space by inches, feet, yards, rods, 
and miles ; and motion, by the space passed 
over in a given time. 

Varieties. 1. Was the world created 
out of nothing ? 2. Fools — draw false con- 
clusions, from just principles : and mad- 
men draw just conclusiojis , from false prin- 
ciples. 3. The discovery of what is true, 
and the practice of what is good, are the two 
most important objects of life. 4. Associa- 
tions — between persons of opposite tempera- 
ments, can neither be durable, nor produc- 
tive of real pleasure to either party. 5. 
Where grace cannot enter, sin increases 
and abounds. 6. The spontaneous gifts of 
heaven, are of high volue ; but perseverance 
— gains the prize. 7. When the will— be- 
comes duly resigned to God, in small things, 
as well as great ones, all the affections will 
be reduced into their proper state, in their 
proper season. 

The wretch, condemn'd with life to part, 
Still, still on hope relies, 

And every pang, that rends his heart, 
Bids expectation rise. 

Hope, like the glimmering taper's light, 
Adorns — and cheers hi3 way, 

And still, as darker grows the night, 
Emits a brighter ray. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



55 



146. Keep a watchful and jealous eye 
over common opinions, prejudices and bad 
school instruction, until the influence of rea- 
son, nature and truth, is so far established 
over the ear and taste, as to obviate the dan- 
ger of adopting ox following, unquestionable 
errors, and vicious habits of reading and 
speaking: extended views, a narrow mind 
extend. To judge righteously of all things, 
preserve the mind in a state of perfect equi- 
librium, and let a love of truth and goodness 
govern all its decisions and actions. 

147. W, lias Irat one consonant 
sound 5 and one vowel sound; 
WOO ; a wan-ton wag, with wo- 
ful words, be-wail-ed the well 
wish-er of the wig-warn ; the 
dwarf dwells in the wea-ry west, tw in woo.] 
where wom-en weave well the warp of life, 
and ivin-ter winds wan-der in the wild 
swamps, that wail and weep : the wa-ter- 
witch, al-ways war-worn in the u;aa;-works, 
war-bles her watch-word to the tveath-er- 
wise, and re-ivards the iv ick-ed with weep- 
ing, wail-ins; and worm-wood. 

148. By separating these elements of lan- 
guage, and practicing on them, each by itself, 
the exact position and effort of the vocal or- 
gans, may be distinctly observed ; and in this 
way, the true means of increasing and im- 
proving the force and quality of every one 
ascertained. Be not discouraged at the ap- 
parent mechanical, artificial and constrained 
modes of giving the sounds, and pronoun- 
cing the words : acquire accuracy, and ease 
and gracefulness will inevitably follow. 

149. Irregulars, U has this sound in 
certain words : the an-guish of the an-ti-qua- 
ry is as-sua-ged with lan-guid man-sue-tude, 
for the con-quest over his dis-tin-guish-ed 
per-sua-sion : the guide dls-gui-ses his as- 
sue-tude of per-swa-ding the dis-sua-der. 

IVoteS. 1. To produce this sound, shape the mouth and lips 
as for whistling, and make a voice sound ; or, pronounce the word 
do, and when the o is about to vanish, commence this vocal conso- 
nant, thus, do was. 2. When w is initial, i. e. begins a word or 

syllable, it is a consonant ; but when it ends one, it is equivalent to 
2i o in ooze; new, how, now, pow-er, etc. 3. In sword, two, an- 
swer, it is silent : w also before r, wrap, wrack, wreath, wrist, 
loroDg, etc blow, who, knowledge, whom, whose, whole, xohoop, 
etc. 4. Practice changes onw and u, as found under 21 f. 5. He 
who a watch would wear, two things must do, pocket his watch, 
and watch his pocket too. 

Anecdote. A Scold. Foote, a celebrated 
comic actor, being scolded by a woman, said, 
in reply, " I have heard of tartar — and 
brimstone ; — you are the cream of the one, 
and the flower of the other." 

" Ask for what e?itf — the heavenly bodies shine ? 
Earth — for whose use P — Man answers, 'Tis for mine; 
For me— kind nature wakes her genial power, 
Suckles eachfteri, and spreads out every flower; 
Annual for me— the grape, the rose renew 
The juice nectareous, and the balmy dew: 
For me — health — gushes from a thousand springs ; 
For me — the mine — a thousand treasures brings, 
Seas roll— to waft me, suns— to light me rise, 
iily footstool — earth, my canopy —the shies." 



Proverbs. 1. It is easier to praise poverty, 
than to bear it. 2. Prevention — is belter than 
cure. 3. Learn wisdom by the follies of others. 
4. Knowledge, without -practice, makes but half 
an artist. 5. When you want any thing, always 
ask the price of it. 6. To cure idleness, count the 
tickings of a clock. 7. It costs more to revenge 
injuries, than to endure them. 8. Conceited men 
think nothing can be done without them. 9. He, 
that kills a man, when he is drunk, must be hung 
when he is sober. 10. An idle man's head, is the 
devil's work-shop. 11. God makes, and apparil 
shapes. 12. Good watch prevents harm. 

The Difference. Two teachers apply 
for a school ; one — is ignorant, but offers to 
teach for twelve dollars a month ; the other 
— is well qualified for the station, and asks 
twenty-five dollars a month. The fathers — 
weigh the souls of their children against 
money, and the twelve dollar teacher is em- 
ployed. A man in search of work asks a 
farmer, if he does not want to hire a hand ? 
" If I can find one to suit me," — the farmer 
replies : and then he puts a variety of ques- 
tions to him; such as, — "Can you mow? 
reap? chop? cradle? hoe? dress flax? &c." 
Soon after, another stranger calls, and asks 
whether they wish to hire a teacher in their 
district ? But the pri?icipol question in this 
case, is — ' ' How much do you ask a month?" 
Now, just observe the difference — in the 
catechising of the two applicants. Again, 
the father — will superintend the hired man, 
and have things so arranged — as not to lose 
a moment's time, — and see that nothing 
goes to waste ; but the same watchful parent 
— will employ a teacher, and put him into 
the school, and never go near him. 

Varieties. 1. If a man begin a fool, he 
is not obliged to persevere. 2. Ought cir- 
cumstantial evidence to be admitted in cri- 
minal cases ? 3. Suspicion — is always worse 
than fact. 4. No duty, imposed by neces- 
sity, should be considered ^burthen. 5. To 
act from order, is to act from heaven. 6. 
Truth, however little, doe's the mind good. 
7. True love always gives forth true light ; 
false light agrees not with the truth, but 
lightly esteems it ; and also, seems to itself, 
to be better than truth. 

Great were the hearts, and strong the minds f 
Of those, who framed, in high debate, 

The immortal league of love, that binds 
Our fair, broad Empire, State with State 

And deep the gladness of the hour, 

When, as the auspicious task was done, 
In solemn trust, the sword of power, 

Was giv'n to glory's unspoil'd son. 
That noble race is gone ; the suns 

Of fifty years — have risen, and set ; 
But the bright links, those chosen one3 

So strongly forged, are brighter yet. 
Wide — as our own free race increase — 

Wide shall extend the elastic chain, 
And hind, in everlasting peace, 

State after State, a mighty train. 



56 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



150. Two grand objects are to be accom- 
plished by those lessons and exercises: the 
acquiring a knowledge of the vowel and con- 
sonant sounds, and a facdity in pronoun- 
cing them : by means of which, the voice is 
partially broken, and rendered flexible, as 
well as control/able, and the obstacles to a 
clear and distinct articulation removed : there- 
fore, practice much, and dwell on every ele- 
mentary sound, taking the letters separately, 
and then combining them into syllables, 
words and sentences. 

151. Two of the three sounds of X: 
first, name sound,- or ks, when v v , 

at the end of accented syllables, / tlL 
and often when it precedes them ; >' S- ^ lJ l£^ ) ) 
if followed by an abrupt conso- * — • 
nant AXE: the coz-comb ex- [XmAXE.i 
pe-ri-en-ces the lux-u-ry of ex-pa-ti-a-ting on 
the ex-pZo-sion of his ex-ces-sive ex-al-ta-tion 
of the buxom fair sex ; being ana>ious to 
ex-plain the or-tho-dox-y and M-o-dox-y of 
Ex-ffg-o-nus, the ex-pos-i-ter ex-po-ses the 
ex-ploit, of ex-ped-ing to ex-plain how to 
ex-crete ex-cel-lent texts by ex-cru-ci-a-ting 
the wax of the ex-c&eg-uer. 

153. A good articulation — consists in giv- 
ing to every letter in a syllable, its due propor- 
tion of sound, according to the best pronun- 
ciation,- and, in making such a distinction 
between the syllables, of which words are 
composed, as that the ear, without difficulty, 
shall acknowledge their number, and per- 
ceive, at once, to which syllable each letter 
belongs. When these things are not observed, 
the articulation is in that proportion, defec- 
tive: the great object is — to articulate so well, 
that the hearer can perfectly understand 
what is read or spoken, without being obliged 
to have recourse to a painful attention. A 
good articulation is the foundation of good 
delivery: as the sounding of the musical 
notes with exactness, is the foundation of 
good singing. 

153. Play upon Xes. Charles X. x-king 
of France, was xtravagantly xtolled, but is 
xceedingly xecrated. He xperienced xtra- 
ordinary xcellence in xigencies ,- hewasxcel- 
lent in xternals, but xtrinsic in xtacy ; he was 
xtatic in xpression, xtreme in xcitement, and 
xtraordinary in xtempore xpression. He was 
xpatriated for his xcesses, and, to xpiate his 
xtravagance, was xcluded, and xpired in 
xpulsion. 

Notes. 1. To produce this diphthongal aspirate sound, 
whisper the word kits, and then repeat it, and leave out the »'; k'w: 
one of the most unpleasant sounds in our language. 2. Since the 
word diphthong merely signifies a double sound, there is no impro- 
priety in calling double consonants, diphthongs, as we do certain 
votoels. 3. All critical skill in the sound of language, has its foun- 
dation in the practical knowledge of the nature and properties of 
these elements : remember this and apply yourself accordingly. 
4. In all cases, get the proper sounds of letters, as given in the 
keywords, or first examples. 

To err— is human ; to forgive—divine. 



Proverbs. 1. If letter were within, better 
would come out. 2. Jests, like sweetmeats, have 
often sour sauce. 3. Keep aloof from quarrels ; 
be neither a icitness, nor a party. 4. Least said, 
the soonest mended. 5 Little boats should keep 
near shore ; greater ones may venture more. 6. 
Some — are more nice than icise. 7. Make a wrong 
step, and down you go. 8. We all live and learn. 
9. Riches, (like manure,) do no good, till they are 
spread. 19. Silks and satins often put out the 
kitchenjire. 11. Some— would go to the devil, if 
they had authority for it. 12. Love virtue, and 
abhor vice- 13. Good counsel has no price. 

Anecdote. Matrimony. A father, wish- 
ing to dissuade his daughter from all thoughts 
oi matrimony , quoted the words : " She whe 
marries, doeth well ; but she who marries 
not, doeth better.'''' The daughter, meekly 
replied, " Father, Jam content to do well; 
let those do better, who can." 1 " 1 

Boundaries of Knowledge. Human 
reason — very properly refuses to give its 
assent to any thing, but in proportion as it 
sees how that thing is, or is done. Now, 
there are three directions — in natural science, 
which are attended with their difficulties. 
The astronomer — sees — and feels a diffi- 
culty — in getting from the solar system — to 
the universe ; the chemist, in proceeding 
from matter — to its mysterious essence; 
and the physiologist, in advancing from the 
body — to the soul ; three kingdoms of know- 
ledge — bordering on kingdoms — unknown to 
natural science. Without reason, man could 
never become elevated above his senses, and, 
consequently, could not become a rational 
and intellectual being, and, of course, not 
man, in the true sense of the term. But 
our minds are so constituted, that after hav- 
ing traversed the material creation, and 
perceived, scientifically, the very boundaries 
of matter, where it is adjoined by spirit, it 
can elevate itself, by a power, constantly 
given by God, to the lower boundaries of 
spirit, where it touches upon matter, and 
then, by its derived powers, ascend step by 
step, to the great I Am; whom to know 
aright, and whom to love supremely, is the 
chief good of man. 

Varieties. 1. When man sins, angels 
weep, and devils rejoice. 2. True polite- 
ness, springs from the heart. 3. What is 
that, which makes even/ body sick, except 
those who swallow it ? Flattery. 4. Science 
has no enemy, but ignorance. 5. Be not too 
brief in conversation, lest you be not under- 
stood ; nor too diffuse, lest you be trouble- 
some. 6. Simplicity, and modesty, are 
among the most engaging qualities of every 
superior mind. 7. We live in two worlds, 
a natural and a spiritual one. 

I would never kneel at a gilded shrine, 

To worship the idol— gold; 

I would never fetter this heart of mine, 

As a thing — for fortune sold : 

But I'd bow— to the light thl God hath given, 

The nobler light— of mind ; 

The only light, save that of Heaven, 

That should free-will homage find. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



57 



154. Reading— should be a perfect fac- 
simile of correct speaking ; and both exact 
copies of real life : hence, read just as you 
would naturally speak on the same subject, 
and under similar circumstances : so, that if 
any one should hear you, without seeing you, 
he could not tell whether you were reading 
or speaking. Remember that nothing is de- 
nied to industry and perseverance ,• and that 
nothing valuable can be obtained without 
them. 

155. The second sound of X is that 
of gz ; generally, when it imme- v i^, 
diately precedes the accent, and / -iU. \ 
is followed by a vowel sound, or i C^JH^v ' 
the letter h, in words of two or v- — 'I 
more syllables; EXIST ; the ex- [X in exist.] 
hor-ter is ex-haust-ed by his ex-u-ber-ant ex- 
or-di-um, and desires to be ex-orc-er-a-ted 
from ex-o?n-in-irig the ux-o-ri-ous ex-ec-u- 
tive; an ex-act ex-ara-in-a-tion into the ex-ag- 
ger-a-tions of the aux-i/-li-a-ries ex-M&-its a 
lux-w-ri-ant ex-ile, who ex-ist-ed an ex-o/-ic 
in ea>em-pla-ry ex-al-fa-tion. 

156. The letters o, and e, in to and the, are 
long, before vowels, but abbreviated before 
consonants, ( unless emphatic, ) to prevent 
a hiatus. Th' man took the instrument and 
began t' play th' tune, when th' guests were 
ready to eat. I have written to Obadiah t' 
send me some of th' wheat, that was brought 
inth' ship Omar, and which grew on th' land 
belonging t' th' family of the Ashlands. Are 
you going from town! No I am going to 
town. Th' vessel is insured to, at and from 
London. 

Notes. 1. To make this diphthongal vocal sound, close the 
teeth as if to give the sound of C, and then bring into contact the 
posteriors, or the roots of the tongue, and back parts of the throat, 
and pronounce the imaginary word guz, several times ; then omit 
the u, and pronounce the g, z, by themselves : g — z. 2. For the 3d 
sound of X, see the third sound of C. 3. These elemental sounds 
was the favorite study among the ancients, of the greatest ability. 

157. Sight Reading. To become a good 
reader, and a reader at sight, one must al- 
ways let the eyes precede the voice a number 
of words ; so that the mind shall have time, 
clearly, and distinctly, to conceive the ideas to 
be communicated ,• and also feel their influ- 
ence : this will give full play to the tlwughts, 
as well as impart power from the ajfectuous 
part of the mind, to the body, for producing 
the action, and co-operation, of the right 
muscles and organs to manufacture the 
sounds and words. In walking, it is always 
best to see where we are about to step ; it is 
equally so in reading, when the voice walks. 
Indeed, by practice, a person will be able to 
take in a line or two, in anticipation of the 
vocal effort : always look before you leap. 

The high, the mountain-majesty — of worth — 
Should be, and shall, survive its woe ; 
And, from its immortality, — look forth— 
In the sun's face, — like yonder Alpine snow, 
Imperishably pure— beyond all things below. 
8 



Proverbs. 1. If you would lend a man 
money, and make him your enemy, ask him for it 
again. 2. He that goes a borrowing; goes a sor- 
rowing. 3. The innocent— often suffer through 
the indolence and negligence of others. 4. Two of 
a trade seldom agree. 5. When the Lord revives 
his work, the Devil revives his. 6. He that 
swells in prosperity, will shrink in adversity. 7. 
It is human to err ; but diabolical to persevere in 
error. 8. For a cure of ambition, go in the church- 
yard, and read the gravestones. 9. Better get in 
the right path late, than never. 10. A real friend 
— is discerned in a trying case. 11. Every one 
can acquire a right character. 12. Two wrongs — 
don't make a right. 

Anecdote. Zeno — was told, that it was 
disreputable for a philosopher to be in love. 
"If that were true," said the wise man, 
" the fair sex are indeed to be pitied ; for 
they would then receive the attention of 
fools alone.' 1 ' 1 

Mental Violence. Everything which 
tends to discompose or agitate the mind, 
whether it be excessive sorrow, rage or fear, 
envy, or revenge, love or despair — in short, 
whatever acts violently on our mental facul- 
ties — tends to injure the health. 

Varieties. 1. Washington — was born 
Feb. 22d, 1732, and died Dec. 14th, 1799 ; 
how old was he ? 2. We cannot love those, 
whom we do not respect. 3. Order — is the 
same in the world, in man, and in the 
church ; and man is an epitome of all the 
principles of order. 4. In factions, the most 
ignorant are always the most violent. 5. 
The good man has God in his heart, when 
he is not in his mouth : but the hypocrite — 
has God in his mouth, without having him 
in his heart. 6. It is some hope of good- 
ness, not to grow worse ; but it is a part of 
badness, not to grow better. 7. Why should 
we seek — that love, that cannot profit us, or 
fear — that malice, that cannot hurt us ? 

WARREN'S ADDRESS AT THE BUNKER HILL BATTLE. 

Stand ! the ground's your own, my braves ! 
Will ye give it up to slaves ? 
Will ye look for greener graves ? 

Hope ye mercy still ? 
TVhafs the mercy despots feel ! 
Hear it — in that battle peal ! 
Read it — on yon bristling steel ! 

Ask it — ye who will. 
Fear ye foes who kill for hire ? 
Will ye to your homes retire ? 
Look behind you ! they're afire I 

And before you, see 
Who have done it ! — From the vale — 
On they come ! — and will ye quail ? 
Leaden rain and iron hail 

Let their welcome be ! 
In the God of battles trust ! 
Die we may — and die we must : — 
But, O ! where — can dust— to dust 

Be consigned so well, 
As where heavens-its dews shall shed 
On the martyr'd patriot's bed, 
And the rocks shall raise their head, 

Of his deeds to tell J [pierpont. 



58 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



■^ 



158. An accurate knowledge of these ele- 
mentary sounds, which constitute our vocal 
alphabet, and the exact co-operation of the 
appropriate organs to give them truly, are 
essential to the attainment of a good and ef- 
ficient elocution. Therefore, he resolved to 
understand them thoroughly; and, in your 
various efforts to accomplish this important 
object, give precision and full force to every 
sound, and practice faithfully, and often, the 
difficult and rapid changes of the vocal pow- 
ers, required by the enunciation of a quick 
succession of the muscZe-breakers. 

159. The sound of Y, when a conso- 
nant ; YE : the year-ling young- 
ster, yelled for the yel-low yolk, 
?/es-ter-night, and yearn-ed in the 
yard o-ver the year-book till he 
yex'd: the yoke yields to your [Yin ye.] 
year-ling, wliich yearns for the yar-row in 
the yawls ; you yerk'd your yeast from the 
yawn-ing yeo-man yes-tex-day, and yet your- 
self, of yore, yea, tho' young, yearn-ed o-ver 
the yes-ty yawn: Mr. Yew, did you say, or 
did you not say, what I said you said 1 be- 
cause Mr. Yewyaw said you never said what 
I said you said : now, if you say that you 
did not say, what I said you said, then pray 
what did you say 1 

160. The first step to improvement is, to 
awaken the desire of improvement : whatev- 
er interests the heart, and excites the imagi- 
nation, will do this. The second is a clear 
and distinct classification of the principles, 
on which an art is based, and an exact ex- 
pression of them, in accordance with this 
classification ; indeed, all the arts and scien- 
ces should be seen in definite delineations, 
thro' a language which cannot well be mis- 
understood. 

161. Irregulars. E, I, J, and U, occa- 
sionally have this sound ; .Eu-rope aZ-ien-ates 
the con-spic-u-ous cult-ure of her na-iads, 
and, like a dis-guised creat-ure, ew-lo-gi-ses 
hetju-nioT court-iers for their ftnWiant gen- 
ius : the virt-u-ous christ-ian sold-ier, in spir- 
it-u-al im-ion with the mill-ions of Nat-ure, 
shouts with eu-cha-ris-tic grand-exxx, eu-pho- 
ni-ous hal-le-lu-jahs, which are fa-miZ-iar-ly 
read, throughout the vol-ume of the U-ni- 
verse. 

Notes. To give this vocal sound, nearly close the teeth, 
witu the lips turned out as in making long c, (see engraving,) and 
drawlingly pronounce the word yet, protracting the sound of the 

y thus, y et ; y on. 2. For the two other sounds of y, see 

the two sounds of t ; rhyme, hymn ; isle, ile. 3. Fis a consonant at 
the beginning of a word or syllable, except in y-clad, (e-clad,) y- 
dept, (t-clept) y-ri-a, (tf-ri-a,) Yp-si-tora-ti, (Ip-si-tare-ti,) the name 
of a town in Michigan. 4. In prod-uce, u has its name sound ; 
and in ooZ-ume, it has this ccm-«>-«arat sound of y preceding it ; 
in Qmfirtt, it is preceded by an abrupt element : in the second, by 
in open one. 

If I could find some cave unknown, 
Where human feet have never trod, 

Even there— I could not be alone, 
On every side— there would be God. 



Proverbs. 1. The shorter answer— is doing 
the thing. 2. You cannot quench fire with tow. 

3, There is no general rule without exceptions. 

4. Happiness— is not in a cottage, nor in a palace, 
nor in riches, nor in poverty, nor in learning, nor 
in ignorance, nor in active, nor in passive life ; 
but in doing right, from right motives. 5. Good 
intention — is not reformation. 6. It is se\(-co7iceit, 
that makes a man obstinate. 7. To cure a fit of 
passion, walk out in the open air. 8. Idle men 
are dead, all their lives long. 9. If you would 
know the value of money, earn it. 10. Hearts 
may agree, tho' heads — differ. 11. Beware of 
flirting and coquetry. 12. There is no place like 
home. 13. He that is warm, thinks others so. 

Anecdote. A Vain Mother. As a lady 
— was viewing herself in a looking-glass, 
she said to her daughter: " What would 
you give — to be as handsome as I am?" 
" Just as much, (replied the daughter,) as 
you would, to be as young as i" am." 

The Poor. How few, even of professing 
christians, are aware of the pleasure, arising 
from contributing to the support of the poor ! 
Is it not more blessed to give — than to re- 
ceive ? But there are alms for the mind — as 
well as for the body. If we duly considered 
our relations, and our destinies, instead of 
giving grudgingly, or wanting to be called 
upon, we should go out in search of the des- 
titute and ignorant, and feel that we were per- 
forming the most acceptable service to God, 
while sharing the gifts of his providence with 
our /eZZow-beings, who are as precious in his 
sight — as we fancy ourselves to be: for he 
does not regard any from their external situ- 
ation, but altogether from their internal state. 

Varieties. 1. American independence — 
was acknowledged by Great Britain, Jan. 
19, 1783 ; and the treaty of Ghent signed, 
Dec. 24, 1814. 2. Never do an act, of 
which you doubt the justice. 3. Nothing 
can be a real blessing, or curse, to the soul, 
that is not made its own by appropriation. 

4. Let every man be the champion of right. 

5. How sharper — than a serpenfs tooth it is 
to have a thankless child. 6. All science has 
its foundation in experience. 7. Happy are 
the miseries that end in joy; and blessed are 
the joys, that have no end. 

Ay, I have planned full many a sanguine scheme 
Of earthly happiness; * * * 

And it is hard 
To feel the hand of death— arrest one's steps, 
Throw a chill Might — on all one's budding hopes, 
And hurl one's soul, untimely, to the shades, 
Lost in the gaping gulf of blank oblivion. 
—Fifty years hence, and who will think of Henry? 
Oh, none!— another busy brood of beings 
Will shoot up in the interim, and none 
Will hold him in remembrance. — 

/shall sink, 
As sinks a stranger — in the crowded streets 
Of busy London : — some short bustle's caused, 
A few inquiries, and the crowd close in, 
And alV 3 forgotten. [h. k. whitb. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



59 



162. Many consider elocution merely as an 
accomplishment, and that a desultory, in- 
stead of a systematic attention, is all that is 
necessary. A regular, scientific and progres- 
sive course, in this as well as every thing else, 
is the only correct, effectual, and rapid mode 
of proceeding. If improvement be the object, 
whether we devote little, or much attention, 
to a pursuit, be it mental or manual, system 
and method are absolutely essential : order — 
is heweri'sfirst, and last law. 

163. One of the three sounds of Ch ; 
which may be represented by tch : \ L, 
CHANGE ; the cheat choked a / T£ \ 
child for choos-mg to chop a chump l(jgS&&\ 
of chives for the arch-deacon of \\<~^s)l 
Green-wich: a chap chased a [ch in chip.] 
chick-en into the church, and the churl-ish 
chap-la.in check'd it for char-i-ty; the Sa- 
chem of Wool-wich, chuck-led over the ur- 
chin's chit-chat, and snatched his rich peach- 
es, and pinch'd them to chow-dex ; the chief 
of JVbr-wich, charm'd by the chaunt-ing of 
the chirp- ing chough, chafed his chil-ly chin 
by touch-ing it on the chal-ky chim-ney: 
three chub-by chil-dien, in Richfield, were 
each choked with choice chunks of cheese, 
much of which Sancho Panza purchased of 
Charles Chickering on Chimborazo. 

164. In all cases of producing sounds, ob- 
serve the different positions of the organs, 
and remember, that the running through with 
the forty-four sounds of our language, is 
like running up the keys of an instrument, 
to see if all is right: be satisfied with nothing, 
short of a complete mastery over the whole 
subject. Be very particular in converting all 
the breath that escapes into sound, when rea- 
ding or singing; and remember, that the 
purer the sound, the easier it may be made ; 
the less will be the injury to the vocal organs, 
the farther it will be heard, and with the 
more pleasure will it be listened to. Do not 
forget the end, the cause, and the effect. 

Notes. 1. To produce this most unpleasant triphthongal 
sound in our language, close the teeth, and, as you suddenly separ- 
ate them, whisper chu, (u short,) and you will accomplish the ob- 
ject. 2. In dracftm, the ch, are silent. 3. Always try to improve 
the sounds as well as your voice. 4. Quinctilian says, in recom- 
mending a close attention to the study of the simple elements, 
"whoever will enter into the inmost recesses of this sacred edifice, 
will find many things, not only proper to sharpen the ingenuity of 
children, but able to exercise the most profound erudition, and the 
deepest ucience :" indeed, they are the fountains in the science of 
»und and vocal modulation. 

Anecdote. Principal — Interest. A 
debtor, when asked to pay his creditor, ob- 
served to him : that " it was not his interest 
to pay the principal, nor his principle to pay 
the interest.'''' What do you think of such 
a man? 

Unhappy he, who lets a tender heart, 
Bound to him— by the ties of earliest love, 
Fall from him, by his own neglect, and die, 
Because it met no kindness. 



Proverbs. 1. Humility — gains more than 
pride. 2. Never be weary in well-doing. 3. Ex- 
pect nothing of those who promise a great deal. 
4. Grieving for misfortunes, is adding gall to 
mormwood. 5. He, who would catch Jish, must 
not mind getting wet. 6 He that by the plow 
would thrive, must either hold, himself, or drive. 
7. Idleness — is the greatest prodigality in the 
world. 8. If the counsel be good, no matter who 
gave it. 9. Occupation — cures one half of life's 
troubles, and mitigates the other. 10. We bear 
no afflictions so patiently as those of others. 11. 
Let Nature have her perfect work. 12. Soft 
hands, and soft brains, generally go together. 

To speak of Howard, the philanthropist, 
without calling to mind the eloquent eulo- 
gium, in which Burke has embalmed his 
memory, would be as impossible — as it would 
be to read that eulogium without owning that 
human virtue never received a more illus- 
trious manifestation. " Howard" said the 
orator, ' ' was a man, who traversed foreign 
countries, not to survey the sumptuousness 
of palaces, or the stateliness of temples ; not 
to make accurate measurements of the re- 
mains of ancient grandeur, nor to form a 
scale of the curiosity of modern art ; not to 
collect medals, or manuscripts ; but, to dive 
into the depths of dungeons ; to plunge in 
the infection of hospitals ; to survey the 
mansions of sorrow and pain ; to take the 
guage and dimensions of misery, depression, 
and contempt ; to remember tne forsaken ; 
and to compare and collate the distresses of 
all men, under all climes." In the prose- 
cution of this godAike work, Howard made 
" a voyage of discovery, a circumnavigation 
of charity," and at last — fell a victim to his 
humanity; for, in administering medicine to 
some poor wretches in the hospital at Cher- 
son, in the Crimea, he caught a malignant 
fever, and died in the glorious work of bene- 
volence. Thus fell the man who — 

" Girding creation — in one warm embrace, 
' Outstretch'd his savior-arm— from pole to pole, 
And felt akin — to all the human race." 

Varieties. 1. To promote an unworthy 
person — disgraces humanity. 2. Read not 
boo ks alone, but men; and, especially, thy- 
self. 3. The human mind is a mirror — of 
the incomprehensible Divinity. 4. No one 
need despair of being happy. 5. The rea- 
son, that many persons want their desires, 
is — because their desires want reason. 6. 
Passions — act as wind, to propel our vessel ; 
and our reason — is the pilot that steers her : 
without the wind, we could not move, and 
without the pilot, we should be lost. 7. 
The more genuine — the truths are, which 
we receive, the purer will be the good, that 
is found in the life ; if the truths are applied 
to their real and proper uses. 

What, then, remains, but well our power to use, 

And keep good humor still, whatever we lose ? 

And trust me, dear, good humor can prevail, 

When airs, and flights, and screams, and scolding— fail : 

Beauties— in vain, their pretty eyes may roll ; 

Charms— strike the sight ; but merit— wins the soul. 



60 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



165. Vowel sounds are all formed in the 
iahtnx ; and, on their emission, the articu- 
lating organs modify them into words. 
These words constitute language, which is 
used, by common consent, as signs of ideas ; 
or as mediums for the manifestation of 
thought and feeling ; it may be written, or 
spoken ,• and the natural results are — books, 
papers and conversation : by means of which, 
the conceptions and affections of human 
minds are made known and perpetuated. 

166. Tli have two sounds ; first a lisp- 
ing sound ; THIN : a thief thirst- \Xj^, 
eth for the path of death, and / \Jj^\ 
tt'in-keth at his thank-less thefts, f^ggg^) 
as the a-the-ist doth of the-o-ret- * ' 
l-cal truth; forth-with the thrift- [TH in thin.] 
less throng, threw thongs over the mouth of 
Frith of Fourth, and thwar-ted the wrath of 
the thril-ling thun -der; faith, quoth the 
youth, to the Pro-Morc-o-ta-ry, the bath is my 
berth, the hearth is my cloth, and the heath 
is my throne. 

167. Ventriloquism. In analyzing the 
sounds of our letters, and practicing them 
upon different pitches, and with different 
qualities of voice, the author ascertained that 
this amusing art can be acquired and prac- 
ticed, by almost any one Of common organi- 
zation. It has been generally supposed that 
ventriloquists possessed a different set of or- 
gans from most people ; or, at least, that they 
were differently constituted ; but this is alto- 
gether a misapprehension : as well might we 
say that the singer is differently constituted 
from one who does not sing. They have the 
same organs, but one has better command of 
them than the other. It is not asserted that 
all can become equally eminent in these arts; 
for there will be at least, three grand divis- 
ions; viz, good, better and BEST. 

168. The Thistle Sifter. Theophilus This- 
tle, the successful thistle sifter, in sifting a 
sieve full of unsifted thistles, thrust three 
thousand thistles thro' the thick of his 
thumb : if then Theophilus Thistle, the suc- 
cessful thistle sifter, in sifting a sieve full of 
unsifted thistles, thrust three thousand this- 
tles thro' the thick of his thumb; see that 
thou, in sifting a sieve full of unsifted this- 
tles, dost not thrust three thousand thistles 
through the thick of thy thumb : success to 
the successful thistle sifter, who doth not get 
the thistles in his tongue. 

Notes. 1. To make this lisping diphthongal sound, press 
the tongue against the upper front teeth, aDd let the breath pass 
between them : or pronounce the word path, and dwell on the th 
«ound; see engraving. 2. To avoid lisping, draw the tongue back 
so as not to touch the teeth, and take words beginning with t, or tt; 
see the first sound of C for examples. 3. Why should this sound be 
called tharp, rather than dull? 4. Exactness in articulating every 
vocal letter, is more important than correct spelling in composi- 
tion; for the former is addressed to hundreds at the same instant, 
while the latter is submitted to one or a few it a time. 



Proverbs. 1. Youth— indulges in hope ; old 
age — in remembrance. 2. One half of the world 
delights in uttering slander, and the other— in 
hearing it. 3. Virtue— is the only true nobility. 

4. To bless, is to be bless'd. 5. Pleasures— are 
rendered bitter, by being abused. 6. Quarrels- 
would not last long, if the faults all lay on one 
side. 7. True merit— is dependent, neither on 
season, nor on fashion. 8. Hypocrisy — is the 
homage, which vice— renders to virtue. 9. The 
law — imposes on no one impossibilities. 10. Con- 
tempt of injuries, is proof of a great mind. 11. 
What ! hope for honey from a nest of wasps ? 
12. Shall we creep like snails, or fly like eagles ? 

Anecdote. A stranger — went into a 
church-yard, where two children were set- 
ting out flowers on some graves. " Whose 
graves are these?" said he. "Father, mo- 
ther, and little Johnny lie here." " Why do 
you set the flowers here ?" said the stranger. 
They looked at him with tears, and said — 
" We do love them so." 

Human ambition and human policy — labor 
after happiness in vain; — goodness — is the 
only foundation to build on. The wisdom 
of past ages — declares this truth ; — our own 
observation confirms it ; — and all the world 
acknowledge it ; — yet how few, how very 
few — are willing to act upon it ! If the in- 
ordinate love of wealth — and parade — be not 
checked among us, it will be the ruin of our 
country — as it has been, and will be, the 
ruin of thousands of others. But there are 
always two sides to a question. If it is per- 
nicious — to make money and style — the 
standard of respectability, — it is injurious — 
and wrong — to foster prejudice against the 
wealthy and fashionable. Poverty — and 
wealth — have different temptations ; but they 
are equally strong. The rich — are tempted 
to pride — and insolence ; the poor — to jeal- 
ousy — and envy. The envious and discon- 
tented poor, invariably become haughty — 
and over-bearing, when they become rich ; 
for selfishness — is equally at the bottom — of" 
these opposite evils. 

Varieties. 1. The battle of New Or- 
leans, was fought Jan. 8th, 1815. 2. A 
flatterer, is the shadow of a fool. 3. You 
cannot truly love, and ought not to be loved, 
if you ask any thing, that virtue condemns. 

5. Do men exert a greater influence on so- 
ciety than women ? 5. Self- exaltation, is the 
worst posture of the spirit. 6. A principle 
of unity, without a subject of unity, cannot 
exist. 7. Where is the wisdom, in saying to 
a child, be a man ? Attempt not what God 
cannot countenance; but wait, and all things 
will be brought forth in their due season. 

Deceit ! thy reign is short : Hypocrisy, 
However gaily dress'd — in specious garb. 
In witching eloquence, or winning smiles, 
Allures— but for a time : Truth— lifts the veil, 
She lights her torch, and places it on high, 
To spread intelligence — to all around. 
How shrinks the fawning slave— hypocrisy — 
Then, when the specious veil— is rent in twain, 
Which tcreen'd the hideous monster— from our view t 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



61 




169. Enunciation— is the utterance and 
combination of the elements of language, and 
the consequent formation of syllables, wards, 
&c, as contradistinguished from the tones, 
and tuning of the voice, and all that belongs 
to the melody of speech. A perfect enuncia- 
tion — consists in the accurate formation of 
the sounds of the letters, by right motions 
and positions of the organs, accompanied by 
a proper degree of energy, to impress those 
elements fully and distinctly on the ear ; and 
the act of combining and linking those to- 
gether, so as to form them into words, capa- 
ble of being again combined into clauses 
andsentenr.es, for the fall conveyance of our 
ideas and determinations. 

170. The seeond sound of th, is the 
vocal lisping: THAT; thou 
saidst the truths are thine, and 
the youths say they are theirs 
who walk therein ; fath-er and 
moth-ex bathe dai-ly, and their 
clothes and hearths are wor-thy [THinTHAT.i 
of them ; broth-er says, where-with-al shall I 
smoothe the scythe, to cut the laths to stop 
the mouths of the moths with-out be-ing both- 
ered 1 they gath-er wreaths be-neath the baths, 
and sheathe their swords with swath-ing 
bands, rather than make a blith-some pother. 

171. Jaw-breakers. Thou wreath'd'st 
and muzzPd'st the far-fetched ox, and im- 
prison^d'st him in the volcanic Mexican 
mountain of Pop-o-cai-a-pefl in Co-ti-paa>i. 
Thou prob'd'st my racked ribs. Thou tri- 
fl'd'st with his acts, that thou black'n'st and 
contaminated' 'st with his filch'd character. 
Thou lov'd'st the elves when thou heard'st 
and quick' 'd'n'st my heart's tuneful harps. 
Thou ivagg^d'st thy prop'd up head, because 
thou thrusfd'st three hundred and thirty 
three thistles thro' the thick of that thumb, 
that thou cur'd'st of the barb'd shafts. 

Notes. 1. To make this diphthongal vocal sound, place 
the organs as in the preceding th, and then add the voice sound, 
which can be made only in the larynx. 2. The terms sharp and 
flat, as applied to sound, are not sufficiently definite; we might as 
well speak of square, round and dull sounds ; at the same time it is 
often convenient to use such terms, in order to convey our ideas. 
S. If you have imperfections of articulation, set apart an hour eve- 
ryday for practice, indirect reference to your specific defects ; and 
go of every other fault ; particularly, of rapid utterance : this can 
be done either alone, or in company of those who can assist you. 

Sky, mountains, rivers, winds, lakes, lightnings ! — Ye, 
With night, and clouds, and thunder, and a soul 
To make these felt and feeling ; the far roll 
Of your departing voices — is the knell 
Of what in me is sleepless — if I rest. 

* * * 

Could I imbody and unbosom now 
That which is most within me— could I wreak 
My thoughts upon expression, and thus throw 
Soul, heart, mind, passions, feelings strong or weak, 
All that I would have sought, and all I seek, 
Sear, know, feel, and yet breathe, — into one word, 

And that one word were lightning, I would speak ! 

But — as it is — I live, and die, unheard, 

With a most voiceless thought, sheathing it as a sword. 



Proverbs. 1. A promise performed, is pre- 
ferable to one made. 2. It will not always be 
summer. 3. Make hay, while the sun shines. 
4. Cut your coat according to the cloth. 5. Pride 
— costs us more than hunger, thirst, or cold. 6. 
Never spend your money before you have it. 7. 
Never trouble another, for what you can do your- 
self. 8. Slanderers — are the Devil's bellows, to 
blowup contention. 9. The loquacity of fools — 
is a lecture to the wise. 10. Vows made in 
storms, are forgotten in calms. 11. We must form 
our characters for both worlds. 12. Progress — 
is the great law of our being. 

A Pnzzle. Here's a health to all those 
that we love ; and a health to all those that 
love us ; and a health to all them, that love 
those, that love them, that love them that love 
those that love us. 

Anecdote. Half Mourning. A little 
girl, hearing her mother observe to another 
lady, that she was going into half mourning; 
inquired, whether any of her relations were 
half dead ? 

What is Ours. It is not those, who 
have riches in their possession, that are real- 
ly rich ; but they, who possess, and use them 
aright, and thereby enjoy them. Is he a 
true christian, who has a Bible in his posses- 
sion, but does not live by the Bible ? Is 
he a genuine christian, who reads, but does 
not understand the word, and, from under- 
standing, practice it? As well may one 
say, that they are rich, who have borrowed 
money from others, or have the property of 
others in their possession. What do we 
think of those, who go dressed in fine clothes, 
or ride in splendid carriages, while none of 
these things are their own property ? Know- 
ledges, or truths — stored up in the memory, 
are not ours, really and truly, unless we re- 
duce them to practice : they are like hear- 
says of great travelers, of which nothing 
more than the sound reaches us. Under- 
standing — does not make the man, but un- 
derstanding and doing, or living accordingly. 
There must be an appropriation of know- 
ledge and truth — by the affections, in deeds, 
or they are of no avail: "Faith, without 
works, is dead:" the same principle applies 
to a society, and to a church. 

Varieties. 1. Burgoyne — surrendered, 
Oct. 17, 1777, and Comwallis, Oct. 19, '81. 
2. Happy is that people whose rulers — rule 
in the fear of God. 3. Remember the past, 
consider the present, and provide for the fu- 
ture. 4. He, who marries for wealth, sell? 
his happiness for half price. 5. The covet- 
ous person is always poor. 6. If you would 
avoid wants, attend to every thing below you, 
around you, within you. and above you. 7. 
All the works of natural creation, are ex- 
hibited to us, that we may know the nature 
of the spiritual, and eternal; all things 
speak, and are a language. 
He was not born — to shame ; 
Upon his broxo — shame — is ashamed to sit j 
For 'tis a throne, where honor — may be crowned 
Sole monarch — of the universal earth. 



62 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



172. The chief source of indistinctness is 
precipitancy; which arises from the bad 
method of teaching to read: the child not be- 
ing taught the true beauty and propriety of 
reading, thinks all excellence consists in 
quickness and rapidity: to him the prize 
seems destined to the swift; for he sets out 
at a gallop, and continues his speed to the 
end, regardless of how many letters, or sylla- 
bles, he omits by the way, or how many 
words he runs together. " reform it alto- 
gether." 

173. Wh hare one sound; WHALE ; 
wherefore are whet-stones made ^ , 

of w hir /-winds, and whip-lashes ( 

of whirl-pools ] Why does that /^r*~^> 

whimsical whis-tler whee-dle the \ v ^\^£yy 

whip-por-wills with wheat 1 

Whi-lom the wheels wliipped [WH in whip.] 

the whif-fie-tree, and i6<Air-tle-ber-ries were 

white-washed for wheat ; the whim-per-mg 

whi-ning whelp, which the wliigs whi-ten- 

ed on the wharf was whelmed into a ivhirl- 

i-gig as a whim-wham for a wheel-harrow of 

whis-ky. 

174. Causes of Hoarseness. Hoarseness, 
in speaking, is produced by the emission of 
more breath than is converted into sound; 
which may be perceived by whispering a few 
minutes. The reason, why the breath is not 
converted into sound, in thus speaking, is, 
that the thorax, (or lungs,) is principally 
used ; and when this is the case, there is al- 
ways an expansion of the chest, and conse- 
quently, a lack of power to produce sounds 
in a natural manner : therefore, some of the 
breath, on its emission through the glottis, 
over the epiglottis, and through the back 
part of the mouth, chafes up their surfaces, 
producing a swelling of the muscles in those 
parts, and terminating in what is called 
hoarseness. 

Notes. 1. This diphthongal aspirate may be easily made, 
by whispering the imaginary word toftu, (u short,) prolonging it a 
little. 2. Since a diphthong is a double sound and a triphthong a 
triple sound, there is as much propriety in applying the term to 
consonant?, as to vowels. 3. Let the pupil, in revising, point out 
all the Monotbongs, Diphthongs, Triphthongs, and Polythongs. 4. 
Make and keep a list of all your deficiencies in speech and song, 
aud practice daily for suppressing them : especially, in articulation, 
and false intonations ; and never rest satisfied unless you can per- 
ceive a progress towards perfection at every exercise, — for all 
principles are immortal, and should be continually developing 
themselves. 

How sleep the brave, who sink to rest 
With all their country's wishes blest ! 
When Spring, with dewy fingers cold, 
Returns — to deck their hallow'd mould, 
She there shall dress a sweeter sod 
Than Fancy's feet have ever trod : 
By Fairy hands— their knell is rung, 
By forms unseen— their dirge is sung ; 
There — Honor comes, a pilgrim gray, 
To bless the turf, that wraps their clay ; 
And Freedom— shall a while repair 
To dwell, a weeping hermit, there. 



Proverbs. 1. Self -exaltation — is the fooVi 
paradise. 2. That, which is bitter to endure, may 
be sweet to remember. 3. The fool — is busy in 
every one's business but his own. 4. We may 
give advice, but we cannot give conduct. 5. 
Where reason — rules, appetite — obeys. 6. You 
will never repent of being patient and sober. 7. 
Zeal, without knowledge, is Ukefire without light. 
8. Law-makers, should not be laic- breakers. 9. 
Might— does not make right. 10. The greater 
the man, the greater the crime. 11. JVo one lives 
for himself. 12. No one can tell how much he 
can accomplish, till he tries. 

Anecdote. Wine. Said a Rev. guest to 
a gentleman, with whom he was dining, and 
who was a temperance, man: ''I always 
think a certain quantity of wine does no 
harm, after a good dinner.'" " O no sir," 
replied mine host; "it is the wwcertain 
quantity that does the mischief. 

Winter Evenings. This seems pro- 
vided, as if expressly for the purpose — of 
furnishing those who labor, with ample op- 
portunity for the impiovement of their minds. 
The severity of the weather, and the short- 
ness of the day, necessarily limit the pro- 
portion of time, which is devoted to out-door 
industry; and there is little to tempt us 
abroad — in search of amusement. Every 
thing seems to invite us — to employ an 
hour or two — of this calm and quiet season, 
in the acquisition of useful knowledge, and 
the cultivation of the mind. The noise of 
life is hushed ; the pavement ceases to re- 
sound with the din of laden wheels, and the 
tread of busy men ; the glowing sun has 
gone down, and the moon and the stars are 
left to watch in the heavens, over the slum- 
bers of the peaceful creation. The mind of 
man — should keep its vigils with them ; and 
while his body — is reposing from the labors 
of the day, and his feelings — are at rest from 
its excitements, he should seek, in some 
amusing and instructive page, substantial 
food — for the generous appetite for know- 
ledge. 

Varieties. 1. The poor — may be con- 
tent ; and the contented are rich. 2. Hypo- 
crisy — desires to seem good, rather than to 
be good. 3. It is better to be beaten with 
few stripes, than with many stripes. 4. He 
who swears, in order to be believed, does not 
know how to counterfeit a man of truth. 5. 
Who was the greater monster, Nero, or Ca- 
taline ? 6. Let nothing foul, or indecent, 
either to the eye, or ear, enter within the 
doors where children dwell. 7. We wor- 
ship God best, and most acceptably, when 
we resemble him most in our minds, lives 
and actions. 

Home ! how that blessed word — thrills the can 
In it — what recollections blend ! 

It tells of childhood's scenes so dear, 

And speaks— of many a cherished friend. 

O ! through the world, where'er we roam, 
Though souls be pure — and lips be kind ; 

The heart, with fondness, turns to home, 
Still turns to those— it left behind. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



63 



175. The pupil, in Elocution and Music, 
is strongly urged to attend to the right and 
the wrong method of producing the sounds 
of our letters, as well as in enunciating 
words. By all means, make the effort entire- 
ly below the diaphragm, while the chest is 
comparatively quiescent ; and, as you value 
health and life, and good natural speaking, 
avoid the cruel practice of exploding the 
sounds, by whomsoever taught or recom- 
mended. The author's long experience, and 
practice, with his sense of duty, justify this 
protest against that unnatural manner of 
coughing out the sounds, as it is called. 
Nine-tenths of his hundreds of pupils, whom 
he has cured of the Bronchitis, have induced 
the disease by this exploding 'process, which 
ought itself to be exploded. 

176. The 44 sounds of our Language, 
in their alphabetical order. A 4; Ale, are, 
all, at: B 1 ; bribe: C 4; cent, clock, suffice, 
ocean: D 2 ; did, fac'd: E 2 ; eel, eU: F 2; 
fife, of: G 3; gem, go, rouge: H 1; hope: 
I 2 ; isle, ill : J 1 •, judge .- K 1 ; kirk .-LI; 
lily : M 1 ; mum : N 2 ; nun, bank : 3 ; 
old, ooze, on : PI; pipe : Q 1 ; queen : R 2 ; 
arm, rough : S 4 ; so, is, sure, treasury .- T 2 ; 
pit , nation : U 3 ; mute, up, full : V 1 ; viv- 
id: W 2 ; wall, bow : X 3 ; flax, exist, beaux : 
Y 3 ; youth, rhyme, hymn : Z 2 ; zigzag, 
azure : Ch 3 ; church, chaise, chasm : Gh 3 ; 
laugh, ghost, lough : Ph2; sphere, nephew : 
Th2; thin, that: Wh 1; whale: Oi 1; oil: 
Ou 1 ; sound : the duplicates, or those hav- 
ing the same sound, are printed in italics. 

17T. " Bowels of compassion, and loins of 
the mind." In the light of the principles 
here unfolded, these words are full of mean- 
ing. All the strong affections of the human 
mind, are manifested thro' the dorsal and ab- 
dominal region. Let any one look at a boy, 
when he bids defiance to another boy, and 
challenges him to combat: "Come on, I am 
ready for you :" and at the soldier, with his 
loins girded for battle : also, observe the ef- 
fect of strong emotions on yourself, on your 
body, and where,- and you will be able to 
see the propriety of these words, and the 
world of meaning they contain. If we were 
pure minded, we should find the proper stu- 
dy of physiology to be the direct natural 
road to the mind, and to the presence of the 
Deity. 

Notes. 1. Make these 44 sounds, which constitute our 
vocal alphabet, as familiar to the ear, as the shapes of our 26 
letters are to the eye ; and remember, that success depends on 
your mastery of them ; they are the «, b, c, of spoken language ; 
and the effort to make them has a most beneficial effect on the 
health and voice. 2. Keep up the proper use of the whole body, 
and you need not fear sickness. 3. The only solid foundation for 
elocution is, a perfect knowledge of the number and nature of these 
44- simple elements: error here will carry a taint throughout. 

Virtue— 
Stands like the sun, and all, which rolls around, 
Drinks life, and light, and glory— from her aspect, 



Proverbs. 1. Truth— may be blamed, but 
never shamed. 2. What soberness — conceals, 
drunkenness — reveals. 3. Be you ever so high, 
the law is above you. 4 A mob — has many heads, 
but no brains. 5. A poor man's debt makes a 
great noise. 6. .Busy-bodies — are always med- 
dling. 7. Crows — are never the whiter, for 
washing themselves. 8. Good words — cost no- 
thing, and are worth much. 9. He, who pays 
well, is master of every-body's purse. 10. Our 
knowledge — is as the rivulet ; our ignorance — as 
the sea. 11. Consider well, before you promise. 
12. Dare to do right. 

Anecdote. Candor. A clergyman — once 
preached, during the whole of Lent, in a 
parish, where he was never invited to dine , 
and, in his farewell sermon, he said to his 
hearers, "I have preached against every 
vice, except good living ; which, I believe, 
is not to be found among you ; and, there- 
fore, needed not my reproach." 

Society owes All a Living. Every one 
must and will — find a livelihood ; nor has 
society the choice, whether or not to provide 
for its members : for if an individual is not 
put in a way to earn a living, he will seek 
it by unlawful means : if he is not educated 
— to lead a sober and industrious life, he will 
lead a life oi dissipation ; and if society re- 
fuse to take care of him, in his minority, he 
will force it to notice him — as an object of 
self-defence. Thus, society cannot avoid 
giving a livelihood to all, whom providence 
has placed in its bosom ; nor help devoting 
time and expense to them ; for they are by 
birth, or circumstances, dependent on its as- 
sistance. While, then, it has the power — 
to make every one — available — as an honest, 
industrious and useful citizen, would it not 
be the best policy, (to say nothing of prin- 
ciples,) to do so ; and attach all to society, 
by ties oi gratitude, rather than put them in 
a condition to become enemies ; a condition 
in which it will be necessary to punish them 
— for an alienation, which is the natural 
consequence of destitution ."" Schools, found- 
ed on true christian principles, would, in the 
end, be much cheaper, and better — than to 
support our criminal code, by the prosecu 
tions, incident to that state, in which many 
come up, instead of being brought up ; and the 
consequent expenses attending our houses 
of correction, penitentiaries, &c. (of which 
many seem to be proud,) on the score of 
public justice, but of which, on the score of 
christian love, we have reason to be deeply 
ashamed. 

Varieties. 1. Will not our souls — con- 
tinue in being forever? 2. He — is not so 
good as he should be, who does not strive to 
be better than he is. 3. Genius — is a plant, 
whose growth you cannot stop, without de- 
stroying it. 4. In doing nothing we learn 
to do ill. 5. Neither wealth, nor power, can 
confer happiness. 6. In heaven, (we have 
reason to believe.) no one considers anything 
as good, unless others partake of it. 7. No- 
thing is ours, until we give it away. 
Ill doers— are ill thinkers. 



64 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



ITS. Orthography or Right Spelling. As 
we have two kinds of language, iv7-itten and 
spoken, so, there are two modes of spelling ,• 
one addressed to the eye, and exhibited by 
naming the letters; the other addressed to 
the car, and spelled by giving the sounds, 
which the letters represent: the former meth- 
od, winch is the common one, tends to the pre- 
dominant use of the throat, and lungs, and is 
one of the fruitful sources of consumption ,- 
the latter, which is the new one, serves to 
keep up the natural use of the appropriate 
muscles, and tends to prevent, as well as cure, 
dyspepsia, liver and lung complaints, and 
diseases of the throat. 

179. Classification of the Conso?iants. 
The first natural division of the consonants 
is into Vocal and Aspirate. Of the Vocal 
there are, as they stand in the alphabet, and 
their combinations, twenty-six ,• but deduct- 
ing the duplicates, there are but seventeen ,- 
viz : b, as in bib ; c, as in suffice ; d, as in 
dead ,- f, as in of,- g, as in gem, go, rouge ; 
I, as in ill ,- m, as in me ; n, as in none, bank ; 
r, as in err, pride ; w, as in ivo ; a;, as in ex- 
ist; y, as in yet', and th as in this; all of 
which should be given separately, as well as 
combined, and their differences observed. 

180. After the pupil has become familiar 
with reading by vowel sounds and spelling, 
as above recommended, let him be exercised 
in reading by the vowel and consonant 
sounds: i. e. by giving a perfect analysis 
of all the sounds, found in any of the words 
of the sentence before him ; which involves 
every thing relating to sounds, whether sin- 
gle, double, or triple,- and to articulation, 
accent, pronunciation, and emphasis. No 
one should wish to be excused from these 
very useful and important exercises ; for they 
are direrctly calculated to improve the voice, 
the ear, and the manner, while they impart 
that kind of knowledge of this subject, which 
will be felt to be power, and give one confi- 
dence in his own abilities. 

Notes. 1. It is not a little amusing and instructive too, to 
examine the great variety of names, used by different authors, to 
designate the sounds of our letters, their classifications, &c. against 
-which the charge of simplicity cannot be brought : in every thing, 
let us guard against learned and unlearned ignorance. 2. There 
are those, who ought, from their position before the world, to be 
standard authorities in the pronunciation of letters and words, and 
in general delivery ; but, unfortunately, on account of their sad de- 
fects and inaccuracies, in all those particulars, they constitute a court 
of Errors, instead of Appeal: consequently, we must throw our- 
selves upon the first principles and our own resources} using, how- 
ever, such true lights as a kind Providence has vouchsafed us for 
our guidance. 

To him, who, in the love of nature, holds 
Communion with her visible forms, she speaks 
A various language ; for his gayer hours, 
She has a voice of gladness, and a smile, 
And eloquence of beauty ; and she glides 
Into h\e darker musings— with a mild 
And gentle sympathy, that steals away 
Their sharpness— ere he is aware. 



Proverbs. 1. As we act towards others, we 
may expect others to act towards us. 2. A good 
orator is pointed, and zjehement. 3. Idleness — i8 
the rust of the mind, and the blight of genius. 4. 
Assist yourself, and heaven will assist you. 5. 
We should estimate man's character, by his^-ood- 
ness ; not by his wealth. 6. Knowledge — is as es- 
sential to the mind, as food is to the body. 7. A 
good word is as soon said, as an ill one. 8. No 
temptation of emolument, can induce an honest 
man to do wrong. 9. Virtue — is the best, and 
safest helmet we can wear. 10. Against the 
fickleness of fortune, oppose a bold heart. 11. 
Never profess — what you do not practice. 12. 
Treat everyone with kindness. 

Anecdote. Keeping Time — from Eter- 
nity. Chief Justice Parsons, of Massachu- 
setts, having been shown a watch, that was 
looked on as well worthy of notice, as it had 
saved a man's life, in a duel, remarked, — 
"It is, indeed, a very astonishing watch, 
that has kept time — from eternity.' 1 '' 

The Difference. Why is it, that many 
professors of religion — are so reluctant, to 
have the reading of the Bible, as well as 
speaking and singing, conducted in a cor- 
rect and proper manner? Should not the 
greatest and most glorious truths — be deliv- 
ered in an appropriate style ? Do they 
think to exalt religious truth, in the eyes of 
the well-informed, by communicating it in 
a way that is not only repulsive to correct 
taste, but slovenly, and absolutely wrong ? 
Is it calculated to recommend devotional ex- 
ercises to their consideration, by offering up 
prayer in a language and manner, unbecom- 
ing man when addressing man ; and per- 
forming the singing, regardless of proper 
time and tune? Will they present their of- 
ferings in a maimed, halt and blind manner, 
upon the altar of religion ; while they have 
it in their power, to provide a way in ac- 
cordance with the subject and object of their 
devotion? Is it well — to despise a good 
style and manner — of elocution and music, 
because we have not the ability, and are too 
indolent to labor for it, to do justice to our- 
selves and others ? What course does true 
wisdom dictate ? 

"Varieties. 1. Men — will never feel like 
women, nor women — think, like men. 2. 
In too eager disputation, the truth is often 
lost sight of. 3. Woman — is not degraded, 
but elevated, by an earnest, daily applica- 
tion — to her domestic concerns. 4. How 
wretched is his condition, who depends for 
his daily support, on the hospitality of others. 
5. An evil-s^ea/cer — differs from an evil- 
doer, only in opportunity. 6. The use of 
hnowledge is — to communicate to others, that 
they may be the better for it. 7. They who 
deny a God, either in theory, or practice, de 
stroy man's nobility. 

Till youth's delirious dream is o'er, 
Sanguine with hope, we look before, 

The future good to find ; 
In age, when error charms no more, 
For bliss— we look behind. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



65 



181. Orthography, being to the Elocution- 
ist, especially, a subject of incalcuable im- 
portance, it is presumed a few observations, 
illustrated by examples, will not be out of 
place. The author introduces an entirely 
new mode of learning the letters, by the use 
of sounds, before the characters are exhib- 
ited; also, a new way of spelling, in which 
the words are spelt by giving the different 
sounds of the letters, instead of their names : 
and finally, a new method of teaching chil- 
dren to read, by dictation ; instead of by the 
book : i. e. to read without a book, the same 
as we all learn to speak our mother tongue ; 
and afterwards, with a book: thus making 
the book talk just as we should, when speak- 
ing on the same subject. 

182. Aspirates. There are, according to 
their representatives, 21 aspirate, or breath 
sounds : omitting the duplicates, (or letters 
having the same sound,) there are only elev- 
en ; viz : c, as in cent, clock, ocean ; d, as in 
fac'd/ /, as in fife ; h, as in hoe ; p, as in pipe ; 
x, as in mix ,• ch, as in church ; th, as in thin ; 
and ivh, as in where : whence it appears, by 
actual analysis, that we have sixteen vowel 
sounds, and twenty-eight consonant sounds ; 
making in all forty-four; some authors, 
however, give only thirty-eight. 

183. The common mode of teaching all 
three, is no better policy, (setting every thing 
else aside,) than to go from America to Chi- 
na to get to England : in other words, per- 
fectly ridiculous : and were we not so much 
accustomed to this unnatural and dementing 
process, we should consider it one of the 
most self-evident humbugs, not of the age 
only, but of the world. Examples of the old 
mode : p, (pe,) h, (aytch,) i, (eye,) s, (ess,) 
tis, i, (eye,) c, (see,) k, (kay,) ick, tistck ; 
fifteen sounds: of the new; t,i,z, tis, i, k,ik, 
tis-ik; giving nothing but the five sounds: 
the old: g, (je,) e, (e,) w, (doubleyou,) gtt, 
g, (je,) a, (a,) w, (doubleyou,) gaw, gf.w- 
gaw ; eighteen sounds, and not one sound in 
spelling is found in the word after it is spelt : 
the new mode; g, u,g, aw, gew-gaw, giv- 
ing only the four sounds of the letters, in- 
stead of their names. 

Notes. 1. We never can succeed in accomplishing one 
half of the glorious purposes of language, so long as we apply our- 
selves to what is written, and neglect what is spoken. 2. A new 
field presents itself ; and when we shall have entered it, in the 
right place and manner, a new era will dawn upon us, leading us 
more to the cultivation of the living language and the living voice : 
the compass and harmony of the best instrument can never be per- 
ceived, by touching the keys at random, or playing a few simple 
tunes upon it, learned by the ear. 

When sailing — on this troubled sea 

Of pain, and tears, and agony ; 

Though wildly roar the waves around, 

With restless and repeated sound, 

'Tis sweet — to think, that on our eyes, 

A lovelier clime — shall yet arise ; 

That we shall wake — from sorrow's dream, 



Beside a pure — and living stream. 



F2 



Proverbs. 1. Estimate persons more by 
their hearts, than by their heads. 2. A people 
who have no amusements, have no manners. 3. 
Jill are not saints, who go to church ; all is not 
gold that glitters. 4. Advice — is soldom welcome ; 
those who need it most, generally like it least. 
5. Do not spend your words to no purpose ; but 
come to the facts. 6. Great things — cannot be 
accomplished without proper means. 7. We reap 
the consequences of our actions — both here, and 
hereafter. 8. God gives to all, the power of be- 
coming what they ought to be. 9. Infringe on 
no one's rights. 10. If we are determined to suc- 
ceed, we shall succeed. 11. Better do well, than 
say well. 12. Better be happy than rich. 

Anecdote. If men would confine their 
conversation to such subjects as they under- 
stand, how much better it would be for both 
speaker and hearer. Hally, the great ma- 
thematician, dabbled not a little in infidelity; 
he was rather too fond of introducing this 
subject in his social intercourse ; and once, 
when he had descanted somewhat freely on 
it, in the presence of his friend, Sir Isaac 
Newton, the latter cut him short with this 
observation. " I always attend to you, Dr. 
Hally, with the greatest deference, when 
you do us the honor to converse on astro- 
nomy, or the mathematics ; because, these 
are subjects that you have industriously in- 
vestigated, and which you well understand : 
but religion — is a subject on which I hear 
you with great pain ; for this is a subject 
which you have not seriously examined, and 
do not understand ; you despise it, because 
you have not studied it ; and you will not 
study it, because you despise it. 

Laconics. In the scale of pleasure, the 
lowest are sensual delights, which are suc- 
ceeded by the more enlarged views and gay 
portraitures of a lively imagination ; and 
these give way to the sublimer pleasures of 
reason, which discover the causes and de- 
signs, the form, connection, and symmetry 
oi things, and fill the mind with the contem- 
plation of intellectual beauty, order, and 
truth. 

Varieties. 1. The greatest learning — is 
to be seen in the greatest simplicity. 2. 
Prefer the happiness and independence of a 
private station, to the trouble and vexation 
of a public one. 3. It is very foolish — for 
any one, to suppose, that he excels all others 
— in understanding. 4. Never take the 
humble, nor the proud, at their own valu- 
ation ; the estimate of the former — is too 
little, and that of the latter — too much. 5. 
Every order of good — is found by an order 
of truth, agreeing with it. 6. As there is 
much to enjoy in the world, so is there much 
to endure ; and wise are they, who enjoy 
gratefully, and endure patiently. 7. What 
is the meaning of the expression, in the first 
chapter of Genesis, — " Let us make man, 
in our image, and after our likeness ?" 
Jill farewells— should be sudden, when forever ; 
Else, they make an eternity — of moments, — 
And clog the last— sad sands of life— with tears. 



66 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



18*. In teaching spelling to children, ex- 
ercise them on the forty-four sounds of the 
letters ; then in speaking in concert, after the 
preceptor, and also individually, interspers- 
ing the exercises with analyzing words, by 
giving the various sounds of which they are 
composed. At first, let them give each sound 
in a syllable by itself, (after you ,•) then let 
them give all the sounds in a sijllable be- 
fore pronouncing it; and finally, let them 
give all the sounds in a word, and then pro- 
nounce it: thus, there are three modes of 
spelling by ear ,- easy, difficult, and more dif- 
cult. Those, however, taught in the old way, 
must expect that their younger pupils, espe- 
cially, will soon get ahead of them ; unless 
they apply themselves very closely to their 
work. 

185. The second division of the Conso- 
nants is into simple, and compound ; or 
single and double : of the former, there are 
twenty, including the duplicates : viz : c, in 
city; c, cab; d, do; d, pip'd; /, fifty; g, 
gull; h, hope; k, make ; I, bill; m, mile; n, 
no \ P> P°P '. 9? quote ; r, corn ; s, see ; t, 
time; ch, chyle; gh, tough; gh, ghastly; 
and ph, epha : omitting the duplicate repre- 
sentatives, there are but eleven ,• viz : c, (cy- 
press;) c, (ac-me;) d, (day;) d, (tripp'd;) 
/, (foe;) g-, (give;) I, (lay;) m, (mote;) 
n, ( nine ; ) p, ( passed ;)?*,( more : ) com- 
pare, and see. 

186. Origin of Language. Plato says, 
that language — is of Divine institution ; that 
human reason, from a defect in the knowl- 
edge of natures and qualities, which are in- 
dicated by names, could not determine the 
cog-rcora-i-na of things. He also maintains, 
that names are the vehicles of substances : 
that a fixed analogy, or correspondence, ex- 
ists between the name and thing ,- that lan- 
guage, therefore, is not arbitrary in its ori- 
gin, but fixed by the laws of analogy ,• and 
that God alone, who knows the nature of 
things, originally imposed names, strictly 
expressive of their qualities. Zeno, Cle-an- 
thes, Chry-sip-pus, and others, were of the 
same opinion. 

Notes. 1. This work is not designed to exhibit the whole 
subject of Oratory ; which is as boundless and profound as are the 
thoughts and feelings of the human mind ; but to present in a plain 
and familiar form, the essentials of this God-like art ; in the hopes 
of being useful in this day and generation. In the course of anoth- 
er twelve years, there may be a nearer approach to truth and na- 
ture.. 2. Observe the difference between the sounds, heard in spel- 
ling the following words, by the names of the letters, and those 
tounds, beard in the words after being spelt : a,-g,-e ; if the 
sounds heard in calling the letters by name, are pronounced, the 
word is ay-je-u; i,-s, in like manner, spell eye-ess ; c,-o,-r,-n, 
gpell, see o-ar-en ; oo,-z,-e, spell doub-te-o-ze-ee ; a,-l,-m-,s, spell, 
a,-el-em-ess ; o,-n, spell — ow-en ; &c. 3. The common arrange- 
ment of words in columns, without meaning, seems at variance 
with common sense ; but this mode is perfectly mathematical, as 
well as philosophical; and of course, in accordance with nature, 
science, and the structure of mind. 4. The proper formation of 
words, out of letters, or sounds, is word-making. 5. Abcdari-ans 
should first be taught the tound* of letters, and then their uses, and 



then their shapes, and names, together with their uses ; the same 
course should be pursued in teaching music, the ear, always 
predominating; aDd then there will be ease, grace, and power 
combined. 

Proverbs. 1. Virtue — grows under every 
weight imposed on it. 2. He, who envies the 
lot of another, must be discontented with his 
own. 3. When fortune fail3 us, the supposed 
friends of our prosperous days — vanish. 4. The 
love of ruling— is the most powerful affection of 
the human mind. 5. A quarrelsome man — must 
expect many wounds. 6. Many condemn, what 
they do not understand. 7. Property, dishoiiestly 
acquired, seldom descends to the third genera- 
tion. 3. He, who has well begun, has half done 
his task. 9. The difference between hypocrisy 
and sincerity— is infinite. 10. When our atten- 
tion is directed to two objects, we rarely succeed 
in either. 11. Recompence every one for his la- 
bor. 12. Zealously pursue the right path. 

Anecdote. Patience. The priest of a 
certain village, observing a man, (who had 
just lost his wife,) very much oppressed 
with grief, told him, — " he must have Pa- 
tience ;" whereupon, the mourner replied, 
" I have been trying tier sir, but she will 
not consent to have me." 

The range of knowledge — is divided 
into three classes, corresponding to the scien- 
tific, rational and affecluous faculties of man. 
The first, is knowledge of the outward 
creation, — involving every thing material, 
— all that is addressed to our five senses ; 
the second, is knowledge of human exist- 
ences, as it respects man's spiritual, or im- 
mortal nature : and the third, knowledge of 
the Divine Being, including his nature, and 
laws, and their modes of operation. There 
is a certain point where matter — ends, and 
spirit — begins : i. e. a boundary, where they 
come in contact, where spirit — operates on 
matter : there is a state, where finite spirit- 
ual existences — receive life and light — front 
the Infinite, who is the Lord of all ; that 
Spirit, 

" That warms— in the sun ; refreshes— in the breeze; 
Glows— in the stars; and blossoms— in the trees.' 1 ' 1 

The omniscient, omnipotent and omnipresent 
Being, that 

" Lives— through all life, extends thro' all extent ; 
Spreads — undivided — operates— unspent : 
Whose body nature is,— and God— the soul." 

Varieties. 1. Are monopolies — consist- 
ent with republican institutions ? 2. Love 
— often makes the most clever persons act 
like fools, and the most foolish, act like wise 
ones. 3. Patience is the surest remedv 
against calumny : time, sooner or later, will 
disclose the truth. 4. The fickleness of 
fortune — is felt all over the world. 5. It is 
easy to criticise the productions of art, tho' 
it is difficult to make them. 6. Do not de- 
fer till to-morrow, what ought to be done 
to-day. 7. The precepts and truths of the 
word of God, — are the very laws of divine 
order ; and so far as our minds are receptive 
of them, we are so far in the divine order, 
and the divine order in us, if in a life agree- 
ing with them. 

Guard well thy thoughts ;— our thoughts are heard in heaven. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



67 



187. The method, here recommended, of 
giving the sounds, of spelling, and of teach- 
ing children to read without a hook, and then 
with a book, will save three-fourths of the la- 
bor of both teacher and pupil,- and, in addi- 
tion to these important considerations, there 
will be an immense amount of time and ex- 
pense saved; and the young prevented from 
contracting the common bad habits of read- 
ing unnaturally ; which not only obstructs 
the proper development of body and mind, 
but sows the seeds of sickness and premature 
death. Our motto should be, " cease to do 
evil, and learn to do we//." 

188. Modes of Spelling. In the old, or 
common mode of spelling, there are many 
more sounds introduced, than the words con- 
tain : this always perplexes new beginners, 
whose ear — has had much more practice, in 
reference to language, than their eye. The 
great difficulty seems to be — to dispose of the 
parts, which amount to more than the whole : 
for, in philosophy, it is an acknowledged 
principle, that the parts — are only equal to 
the whole. Hence, spelling by sounds of 
letters, instead of by names is vastly prefera- 
ble : the former being perfectly philosophical, 
involving orderly, analysis and synthesis, and 
it is also mathematical, because the parts — 
are just equal to the whole : while the latter 
mode is the very reverse of all this ; and in- 
stead of aiding, essentially, in the develop- 
ment of body and mind, tends directly to 
prevent both. 

189. Of the compound, or diphthongal and 
triphthongal consonants, we have twenty- 
three } viz : c, (z,) discern ; c, (sh,) social ; /, 
(v,) thereof,- g, (dg,) gibe ; g, (zh,) badinag-e ; 
j, (dg,) judge ; n, (ng,) bank ; r, (burr'd,) 
trill ; s, (z,) was ; s, (sh,) sure ; s, (zh,) leisure ; 
t, (sh,) ra/ional ; v, m'acity ; w, wist ; x, (ks,) 
ox; x, (z,) Zenia; y, 7/outh; z, zigzag; ch, 
(tch,) such; ch, (sh,) chagrin ; ph, (v,) neph- 
ew ; th, thick ; th, tho? ; wh, why : deduct- 
ing the duplicates, we have but twelve ,• c, 
(z,) c, (sh,)/, (v,) g, (zh,) n, (ng,) r, (trill'd,) 
x, (ks,) x, (gz,) ch, (tch,) th, (think,) th, 
(that,) and wh, (when:) let them be exem- 
plified. 

190. It has previously been remarked, 
that, strictly speaking, a, in far, is the only 
natural vowel sound in our language ; and 
that the other fifteen are modifications of it ; 
also, that on the same principle, the aspirate, 
or breath sound, heard in pronouncing the 
sound of h, {huh, in a whisper,) is the mate- 
rial, out of which all sounds are made ; for 
it is by condensing the breath, in the larynx, 
through the agency of the vocal chords, that 
the voice sound, of grave a is made ; and, by 
the peculiar modification, at certain points 
of interception, that any aspirate consonant 
sound is produced ; hence, it may be said, 



that a, in far, is the original element of all 
the vowel and vocal consonant sounds, and 
the aspirate h, is the original element, out 
which all the aspirate consonant sounds are 
made, as well as the vocal sounds ; thus, that 
which the letter h represents, seems to in- 
volve something of infinity in variety, so 
far as sounds, and their corresponding affec- 
tions are concerned ; for breath — is air t and 
without air, there can be no sound. Why 
was the letter h, added to the names of Abram 
and Sarai ? 

Proverbs. 1. He, who reckons without his 
host, must reckon again. 2. When we despise 
danger, it often overtakes us the sooner. 3. 
They, who cross the ocean, may change climate, 
but their minds are still the same. 4. The cor- 
ruption, or perversion of the best things — pro- 
duces the worst. 5. We must not judge of persons 
by their clothing, or by the sanctity of their ap- 
pearance. 6. If we indulge our passions, they 
will daily become more violent. 7. Light grief- 
may find utterance ; but deeper sorrow can find 
none. 8. The difference is great — between words 
and deeds. 9. Poverty — wants many things; 
avarice — every thing. 10. Let us avoid having 
too many irons in the fire. 11. Faithfully per- 
form every duty, small and great 12. Govern 
your thoughts, when alone, and your tongue, 
when in company. 13. Ill got, — ill spent. 

Anecdote. Finishing our Studies. Sev- 
eral young physicians were conversing, in 
the hearing of Dr. Rush, and one of them 
observed, " When I have finished my stu- 
dies,''' " When you have finished your 

studies /" said the doctor, abruptly ; " why, 
you must be a happy man, to have finished 
them so young : I do not expect to finish 
mine while I live." 

Laconics. The kind?iesses, which most. 
men receive from others, are like traces 
drawn in the sand. The breath of every 
passion sweeps them away, and they are re- 
membered no more. But -injuries are like 
inscriptions on monuments of brass, or pil- 
lars of marble, which endure, unimpaired, 
the revolutions of time. 

Varieties. 1. We rarely regret — having 
spoken too little ; but often — of saying too 
much. 2. Which is the more extensively 
useful, — fire, or water ? 3. A speaker, who 
expresses himself with fluency and discre- 
tion, will always have attentive liste?iers. 
4. The spirit of party, sometimes leads even 
the greatest men — to descend to the mean- 
ness of the vulgar. 5. Without virtue, hap- 
piness — can never be real, or permanent. 
6. When we are convinced that our opinions 
are erroneous, it is always right to acknow- 
ledge it, and exchange them for truths. 7. 
Every love — contains its own truth. 
Serve God before the world ! let him not go, 
Until thou hast a blessing ; then, resign 
The whole unto him, and remember who 
Prevailed by wrestling— ere the sun did shine ; 
Pour oil upon the stones, weep for thy sin, 
Then journey on, and have an eye to heaven. 



68 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



191. Here a new field is open for the clas- 
sification of our letters, involving the struc- 
ture of all languages, and presenting us 
with an infinite variety, terminating in uni- 
ty, — all languages being merely dialects of 
the original one ; but in this work, nothing 
more is attempted, than an abridgment of 
the subject As every effect must have an 
adequate cause, and as in material things, 
such as we see, hear, taste, smell, and feel, 
there can be no primary, but only secondary 
causes, we must look to the mind for the 
feelings and thoughts, that have given rise to 
all the peculiarities and modifications of lan- 
guage; being assured, that in the original 
language, each state of the ivill and the un- 
derstanding, had its external sign, as a medi- 
um of manifestation. 

193. Uses of Spelling. The object of spel- 
ling, in the manner here recommended, is 
two-fold ; to spell by sound, in order to be 
able to distinguish the sounds, of which 
words are composed, and to pronounce 
them correctly : thus developing and train- 
ing the voice and ear to the highest pitch 
of perfection. The use of spelling hy the 
names of letters is, to make us acquain- 
ted with them, and the order in which they 
are placed in the words, so as to be able, not 
only to read, hut to write the language: 
hence, we must become acquainted with both 
our spoken and written language, if we 
would avail ourselves of their wonderful ca- 
pabilities, and the treasures of which they 
are possessed. 

193. In partially applying this doctrine, 
we may say, B, (bib,) represents a gutteral 
labial sound; 1st. c, (cent,) a dental aspi- 
rate: 2d. c, (clock,) a gulteral aspirate: 3d. 
c, (sacrifice,) a dental vocal consonant : 4th. 
c, (ocean,) a dental aspirate : lstf, (if,) a sub- 
labial and super-dental aspirate : 2df, (of,) a 
sub-labial super-dental, vocal: 1st g, (gem,) 
a posterior lingual dental vocal, terminating 
in an aspirate; 2d g, (go,) a glottal vocal 
consonant: 3d g, (rouge,) a. vocal dental as- 
pirate : h, a pure aspirate, with open mouth 
and throat ; I, a lingual dental ; and so on to 
the end of our sounds, of analysis and syn- 
thesis, of which a volume might be written ; 
and although the writer has practiced on 
them many thousands of times, he never has 
done it once, without learning something 
new. 

Notes. 1. Don't forget to understand and master every 
thing that relates to the subject of study and practice : the only 
royal highway to truth is the straight way. 2. Become as familiar 
with the sounds of our language as you are with the alphabet. 3. 
As you proceed, acquire more ease and grace in reading and 
speaking. 

An honest man— is still an unmoved rock, 
Wash'd whiter, but not shaken— with the shock; 
Whose heart — conceives no sinister device ; 
Fearless — he plays with flames, and treads on ice. 



Proverbs. 1. Do as much good as you can 
and make but little noise about it. 2. The Bible. 
is a book of laws, to show us what is right, and 
what is wrong. 3. What maintains one vice, 
would bring up two children. 4. A little wrong 
— done to another, is a great wrong done to our- 
selves. 5. Sermons — should be steeped in the 
heart — before they are delivered. 6. A life of 
attractive industry is always a happy one. 7. 
Drive your business before you, and it will go 
easily. 8. Good fences — make good neighbors. 
9. Pride wishes not to owe; self-love — wishes not 
to pay. 10. The rotten apple injures its compan- 
ion. 11. Make a virtue of necessity. 12. You 
can't make an auger hole with a gimblet. 

Anecdote. Mathematical Honor. A stu- 
dent — of a certain college, gave his fellow- 
student the lie ; and a challenge followed. 
The mathematical tutor — heard of the diffi- 
culty, and sent for the young man that gave 
the challenge, who insisted, that he must 
fight — to shield his honor. " Why," said 
the tutor? " Because he gave me the lie.™ 
" Very well ; let him prove it : if he prove 
it, — you did lie ; but if he does not prove it, 
then he lies. Why should you shoot one 
another ? Will that make a lie — any more 
honorable V 

Cicero says, the poet — is born such; the 
orator is made such. But reading books of 
rhetoric, and eloquent extracts — choice mor- 
sels of poetry and eloquence — will never 
make one an orator : these are only the ef- 
fects of oratory. The cause of eloquence 
is to be sought for, only in the depths of the 
human mind — the true philosophy of man, and 
the practice of unadulterated goodness and 
truth. You must feel rightly, think wisely, 
and act accordingly : then gracefulness of 
style and eloquence will fit you; otherwise, 
you will be like the ass, clothed with the 
lion's skin. Accomplishment should not be 
an end, but a means. Seek, then, for the 
■philosophy of oratory, where it is to be found, 
in the study of geometry, language, physics, 
theology, and the human mind profound, if 
you would attain that suavity of graceful 
periods, engaging looks and gestures, which 
steal from men their hearts, and reason, and 
make them, for the time being, your willing 
captives. 

Varieties. 1. Is there any line of de- 
marcation between temperance and ^tem- 
perance ? 2. We rarely repent — of eating 
too little; but often— o{ eating too much. 

3. Truth — is clothed in white ; but a lie — 
comes forth in all the colors of a rainbow. 

4. St. Augustin says, "Love God ; and then 
do what you wish." 5. We must not do 
evil, that good may come of it ; the means — 
must answer, and correspond to — the end. 
6. Assumed qualities — may catch the fancy 
of some, but we must possess those that are 
good, to fix the heart- 7. When a thing is 
doubtful, refer it to the Word in sincerity ; if 
it is not clear to you, let it alone, for the pre- 
sent, at least, till it is made so. 

Mind, not money— makes the man. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



69 



194. Accent — means either stress, or 
quantity of voice, on a certain letter, or let- 
ters in a word : it is made by concentrating 
the voice, on that particular place in the 
word, heavy, at first, then gliding into silence. 
There are two wats of making it ; first, 
by stress, when it occurs on short vowels ; 
as, wfc-stand : secondly, by quantity, when 
it occurs on long ones ; as, o-ver : i. e. when 
the word is short, we pronounce it with 
force ; and when it is long, with quanti- 
ty, and a. little force too : thus, what we lack 
in length of sound, we make up by stress, or 
force, according to circumstances. These en- 
gravings present to the eye an idea of accent 
by stress, or a concentration of voice, with 
more or less abruptness. 



The first — indicates that the accented vow- 
el is near the beginning of the word ; as in 
ac-cent, ewz-pha-sis, m-dus-try, ow-ward, up- 
ward : the second, that it is at, or near the 
end : as in ap-pre-^md, su-per-in-£md, in-di- 
vis-i-MZ-i-ty. In music, the first represents 
the diminish ; the second — the swell of the 
voice. 

195. The first use of accent — is to convert 
letters, or syllables — into words, expressive 
of our ideas ; i. e. to fasten the letters to- 
gether, so as to make a word-medium for 
manifesting our feelings and thoughts: and 
the second use is — to aid us in acquiring a 
distinct articulation, and melody of speech, 
and song. Exs. 1. Accent by stress of 
voice. He am-pli-fies his ad-rer-tise-ment, 
di-win-ish-es its iw-pe-tus, and op-e-rates on 
the wZ-ti-mates. 2. The ac-cu-ra-cy of the 
cer-e-mo-ny is jftg-u-ra-tive of the cora-pe- 
ten-cy of his wp-right-ness : 3. The cat-e- 
pil-lar for-gets the no-6iZ-i-ty of or-a-to-ry 
xm-just-ly; 4. The math-e-mat-ics are su- 
per-in-fcrcd-ed with af-fa-&i£-i-ty, cor-res- 
po7id-ent to in-s^rwc-tions. 

Notes. I. Observe, there are but FIVE SHORT vowels in 
our language ; the examples above contain illustrations of all of 
them, in their alphabetical order ; they are also found in these 
words — at, et, it, ot, ut ; and to give them with purity, make as 
though you were going to pronounce the whole word, but leave off 
at the t. 2. This is a very important point in our subject; if you 
fail in understanding accent, you cannot succeed in emphasis. 

Anecdote. Holding One's Own. A very 
fat man was one day met by a person whom 
lie owed, and accosted with — " How do you 
do ?" Mr. Adipose replied, " Pretty well ; 
I hold my own;" — "and mine too, to my 
sorrow,' 1 '' — rejoined the creditor. 
Hail, to thee, filial love, source of delight, 
Of everlasting joy ! Heaven's grace supreme 
Shines in the duteous homage of a child I 
Religion, manifested, stands aloft, 
Superior— to the storms of wayward fate. 
When children— suffer in a parent's cause, 
And glory — in the lovely sacrifice, 
'Tie heavenly inspiration fills the breast — 
And angels — waft their incense to the skies. 



196. Some persons may wish for more 
specific directions, as to the method of bring- 
ing the lower muscles into use, for producing 
sounds, and breathing : the following will 
suffice. Take the proper position, as above 
recommended, and place the hands on the 
hips, with the thumbs on the small of the 
back, and the fingers on the abdominal mus- 
cles before ; grasp them tightly ; i. e, try to 
press in the abdomen, and, at the same time, 
to burst off the hands, by an internal effort, 
in the use of the muscles to produce the vow- 
el sounds of the following words, at, et, it, ot, 
ut; then leave off the t, giving the vowels 
the same sound as before : or imagine that 
you have a belt tied around you, just above 
the hip bones, and make such an effort as 
would be required to burst it off; do the 
same in breathing, persevere, and you will 
succeed : but do not make too much effort. 

Proverbs. 1. A man under tbe influence 
of anger — is beside himself. 2. Poverty, with 
honesty, is preferable to riches, acquired by dis- 
honest means. 3. The wolf casts his hair, but 
never changes his ferocious disposition. 4. To 
wicked persons— the virtue of others — is always a 
subject of envy. 5. Flies — cannot enter a mouth 
that is shut. 6. No plea of expediency — should 
reconcile us to the commission of a base act. 7. 
Power, unjustly obtained, is of short duration. 

8. Every mad-man — believes all other men mad. 

9. The avaricious man — is kind to none ; but least 
kind to himself. 10. The beginning of knowledge 
—is the fear of God. 11. Of all poverty, that of 
the mind— is the most deplorable. 12. He only is 
powerful, who governs himself. 

Varieties. 1. What was it — that made 
man miserable, and what — alone can make 
him happy ? 2. Diffidence — is the mother of 
safety; while self-confidence — often involves 
us in serious difficulties. 3. He is not rich, 
who has much, but he who has enough, and 
is contented. 4. It is absurd — for parents to 
preach sobriety to their children, and yet in- 
dulge in all kinds of excess. 5. Nature — 
never says, what wisdom contradicts ; for 
they are always in harmony. 6. Save some- 
thing — against a day of trouble. 7. With 
such as repent, and turn from their evils, 
aud surrender their wills to the Lord's will, 
all things they ever saw, knew, or expe- 
rienced, shall be made, in some way or 
other, to serve for good. 

I do remember an apothecary, — 
And hereabouts he dwells, — whom late I noted 
In tatter'd weeds, with overwhelming brows, 
Culling of simples ; meagre were his looks, 
And in his needy shop— a. tortoise hung. 
Sharp misery — had worn him to the bones : 
An alligator stuff'd, and other skins 
Of ill-shap'd fishes ; and about his shelves 
A beggarly account of empty boxes, 
Green earthen pots, bladders, and musly seeds, 
Remnants of packthread, and old cakes of roses, 
Were thinly scatter'd, to make up a show. 



70 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION* 



197. Accent — is made, secondly, by 
u utitv | or r.-oiongt'iiioi) of sound, with 

expulsive fonr' f on ipng accented vowels; 

which may b< d either by this en- 

" indicative of a 

c<ontinit'ous cq)uci moveme nt of t he voice; or, 

by this "one, ■ — — ^-^ 

which shows tnc swell, continuous and di- 
Mibination ; or, the unequal con- 
tinuous. Exs. 1. The a-gent, with ar-dent 
<>c-\\\\ e-i&fctism, i-dol-i-zed the o-di-ous oo-iy 
:/-ni-form, which was fruit-fal in oi-li-ness, 
from the ou-ter-mosts. 2. The 6owe-ment of 
the a/--mo-ry, au'fe-ward-ly e-qual to the i-ro- 
ny of the o-U-o, was, to the moo7i-shme of the 
u-ni-verse, as an un-ob-Zru-sive moi-e-ty of a 
poun-cet-box. 

198. Prolongation of Sound. Let the pu- 
pil take a lesson of the ferryman. A travel- 
er arrives at the brink of a wide river, 
which he wishes to cross; one ferry-man is 
on the other side, and, by chance, one is on 
this side: the traveler halloos, in the com- 
mon speaking voice, using principally the 
chest i of course his voice soon becomes dis- 
sipated. He is informed that his call cannot 
be heard : listen to me, says this son of na- 
ture,- "0 ver, ver, 

ver:" making each accented vowel two sec- 
onds long : try it and see ,- extending your 
eye and mind at a distance,- which will aid 
the prolongation. 

199. In exercising on accent, for a time 
at least, go to extremes, and make the ac- 
cented vowels as prominent to the ear, as 
the following ones are to the eye; a-bAse- 
ment, im-pE-ri-ous, I-dol-ize, O-ver-throw, 
beaU-ti-ful, Oil-mill, OU-ter-most. Ex. 
1. The Za-na-tic a-bode at the ca-ZZie-dral, 
till the an-nun-ci-rt-tion, that the an-te-di- 
Za-vi-ans — had con-vey'd the hy-dro-pZio-bia 
to Di-a-na of the E-^e-sians. 2. The pa- 
m-ots and ma-trons of the rev-o-Zw-tion, by 
their har-mo-ni-ous co-op-e-ra-tion, de- 
tkron'd the ty-r&nts that were ru-\ing our 
peo-ple with an un-Zio-ly rod of t-ron. 

Anecdote. Raisi?ig Rent. " Sir, I in- 
tend to raise your rent," — said a land-holder 
— to one of his tenants : to which he replied, 
— " I am very much obliged to you, — for I 
cannot raise it myself.'" 

Notes. 1. As vowels are either long or short, different de- 
crees of length do not affect any one of the long ones, so far as 
'be quality of the sound is concerned ; the e in tie-vise, and the o, 
m do-matn— are the same as to lengQi, (not force,) as they are in 
■ii-cent, do-tard ; thus we have Ion- oc-cented vowels, and long 
U7i-acccnted ones. 2. We make accent hy quantity, when the 
accented vowels are long, and by at. iss when they are short. 3. 
The short vowels are of the same length, but not so the long ones. 
" Blessed is the man, 
Who hears the voice of nature; who, retired 
Frombustling life, can feel thegladdeping beam, 
The hope, that breathes of Paradise. Thy deeds, 
Sweet Peace, are rnuric— to the exulting mind ; 
Thy prayer, like incense— wafted on the gale 
Of morning spreads ambrosia, as the cloud 
Of spicy svxets— perfumes the whispering breeze, 
That scents Arabia's wild." 



Proverbs. 1. Men of 'limited, attainments— 
generally condemn every thing they cannot 

comprehend. 2. IVit— should flow spontaneously; 
it cannot be produced by study. 3. Buoyancy of 
spirit— greatly diminishes the pressure of misfor- 
tune. 4. The surest method of being deceived is 
— to consider ourselves — more cunning than 
others. 5. Envious persons— always view, with 
an evil eye, the prosperity of others. 6. It is a 
proof of mediocrity of intellect — to be addicted to 
story-telling. 7. When we give way to passion, 
we do every thing amiss. 8. Truth — needs no 
disguise, nor does she want embellishment. 9. A 
mind diseased — cannot bear any thing harsh. 
10. Never utter what is false, nor hesitate to 
speak what is true. 11. Trifles — often discover 
a character — more than actions of importance. 
12. The Bible— is a perfect body of divinity. 

Body and Mind. The science of hu- 
man nature — is valuable, as an introduction 
to the science of the Divine nature ; for 
man — was made " in the image, and after 
the likeness," of his Maker: a knowledge 
of the former — facilitates that of the latter ; 
and to knov), revere, and humbly adore, is 
the first duty of man. To obtain just and 
impartial views of human nature, we must 
not disconnect the object of our study, and 
consider the mind, body, and actions, each 
by itself, but the whole man. together ; which 
may be contemplated under two different 
aspects, — of spirit and of matt er-.; on the 
body — shines the sun of nature, and on the 
mind — that better light, which is the true 
light: here, is a real man, having essence, 
form, and use, which is clad in the habili- 
ments of beauty, and majesty ; .meeting us 
now, and which will meet us hereafter, as a 
purely spiritual being, in every possible 
stage of his future existence. 

Varieties. 1. Can we be a friend, and 
an enemy — at the same time ? 2. Every one 
should be considered innocent, till he is 
proved guilty. 3. It is not sufficient that you 
are heard, you must be heard with pleasure. 
4. There is a great difference between poetry 
and rhymetry ; the former grows, the latter 
— is made. 5. If your money is your God, 
it will plague you like the Devil. 6. Order 
■rr'is one, in revelation, man, creation, and 
the itniverse ; each — respects the other, ani 
is a resemblance of it. 
Man— is dear to man ; the poorest poor 
Long for some moments, in a weary life, 
When they can know, and feel, that they have been 
Themselves — the fathers, and the dealers out 
Of some small blessings — have been kind to such 
As needed kindness ;— for this single cause, 
That we have all of us — a human heart. 

Such pleasure — is to one kind being known, 
My neighbor, when, with punctual care, each week, 
Duly as Friday comes, though press'd herself 
By her own wants, she, from her store of meal, 
Take3 one unsparing handful for the scrip 
Of this old mendicant ; and, from her door, 
Returning with exhilarated heart, 
Sits by her fire, and builds her hopes in heaven. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



71 



200. Accent. The intentions of the 
mind — are manifested by the accent of the 
voice, as are those of a tailor, when he makes 
a gentleman's coat ; or of a mantuamaker, 
when she makes' a lady's gown ; there is a 
meaning, an end, in all. The three great 
categories of knowledge are end, cause and 
effect ; reflection and experience will convince 
those who would be wise, that the end or pur- 
pose, is the first thing, — the cause or medium, 
the second, and the effect, or ultimation of 
the co-operation of end and cause, the third 
tiling. Now the feeling, or affection, is the 
first thing ; the thought — is the second thing : 
and the action — the third thing : the affection 
and the vowel sound are connected, the 
thought and the consonant, and all become 
manifest, when the word is properly made, 
by the application of accent, and enuncia- 
tion. 

201. Now, as the affectuous part of the 
mind operates, especially, on those lower 
nerves and muscles, that are combined to 
produce the vowel sounds, and the intellectual 
part of the niind co-operates with the lungs, 
to form the consonant sounds, and the two 
unite — to make the word, by the use of the 
accent, through the agency of which, feelings 
and thoughts are convej^ed, — it will be per- 
ceived, that whenever there is a change of the 
seat of accent, there may be a corresponding 
change of the meaning of the word: or 
rather, a change of feeling produces a change 
of thought, and the two produce a correspon- 
ding change in the seat of accent : as — au- 
gust, an-gust ; prod-u.ee, prod-uce; gal- 
lant, ga\-lant. 

202. Change of the scat of accent accord- 
ing to sense. They bom-bard the town, with 
?wm-bards, and ce-ment their cannon with 
eem-ent, and call upon their coZ-leagues to 
col-league together, eoWec^ their soldiers, and 
offer up their collects. He com-ments upon 
their com-ments, while they com-merce about 
the com-merce, and com-mon-ptace their com- 
mon-place business. The cow-pact was en- 
tered into in a corn-pact manner, while the 
soldiers corn-plot together in a corn-plot, and 
corn-port themselves with a becoming com- 
port. The farmer corn-posts his fields with 
excellent corn-post, and out of the com-pound 
he com-pounds a fruitful soil ; which, when 
coxa-pressed, makes a very fine com.-pi - ess for 
the grain. 

My hirthday ! what a different sound 
That word had — in my youthful ears ! 
And how, each time — the day came round, 
Less, and less white — its mark appears ! 
When first — our scanty years are told, 
It seems like pastime — to grow old. 
And as youth — counts the shining links, 
That time — around him binds so fast, 
Pleased with the task, he little thinks, 
How hard that chain will press— at last. 



Anecdote. When Lieutenant O Brien 
was blown up, in the Edgar, and thrown on 
board the Admiral, all black and wet, he 
said to the commander, with pleasantry. ' ' I 
hope sir, you will excuse my dirty appear- 
ance ; for I left the ship in so great a hurry, 
that I had not time to change my dress.' 1 '' 

Proverbs. 1. Every thing great — is com- 
posed of minute particles. 2. Nothing — bears a 
stronger resemblance to a mad-man than a drun- 
kard. 3. Pleasure, purchased by pain, is always 
injurious. 4. The act is to be judged of, by the 
intention of the person, who does it. 5. Theory, 
without practice, however plausible, seldom 
tends to a successful issue. 6. Reflect well, be- 
fore you say yes, or no. 7. Be cautious— in giv- 
ing advice, and consider — before you follow it. 
8. A man, fond of disputing, will, in time, have 
few friends to dispute with. 9. Young people 
are apt to think themselves wise enough ; as 
drunkards — think themselves sober enough. 10. 
Injustice — cannot exist without agents. 11. No 
great loss, but some small gain. 12. No smoke, 
without some fire. 

Reading Discourses. As the reading- 
of written discourses is so common, it is very 
desirable, that the speaker should unite. the 
advantages of written, or printed composi- 
tion, with extemporaneous speaking ; which 
can be done by mastering the principles of 
this system ; then, though the essay be a 
month, or a year old, the orator may give it 
all the appearance and freshness of ora^dis- 
course. Many public men have injured 
their health by slavishly reailuig their dis- 
courses, instead of speglin'g them ; there 
being such an "inseparable connec-tion be- 
tween thbikingaxxi-breathiiig, that the effort 
to read, especially from a manuscript, tends 
to the use 'oi the thorax, or lungs. If we 
were taught to read by ear, instead of by 
sight, there would be no difficulty in this 
exercise: there must be a revolution — in 
regard to teaching and learning this impor- 
tant art, or sad will continue to be the con- 
sequences. 

Varieties. 1. Were the Texians right, 
in rebelling against Mexico ? 2. If woman 
taught the philosophy of love, who would 
not learn? 3. Do not yield to misfortunes; 
but resist them, with unceasing firmness. 
4. Procrastination — is the thief of time. 5. 
No one is qualified to command, who has 
not learned to obey. 6. A laugh — costs too 
much, if purchased at the expense of pro- 
priety. 7. Words, fitly spoken from a life 
of love, are exceedingly sweet, and profitable 
to all. 

Beioare, ye slaves of vice and infamy, 
Beware — choose not religion's sacred name, 
To sanctify your crimes — your falsehood shield. 
Profane not your Creator's boundless power, 
Or lest his vengeance— fall upon, and crush ye. 

It is an awful height— of human pride, 
When we dare — robe ourselves in sanctity, 
While all is dark impiety within 1 
This, surely, is the aggregate of sin, 
The last— to be forgiven— by heaven, or man. 



72 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



203, The subject of accent, being of pri- 
mary importance, should be dwelt upon, till 
Ha principles, and their application, are per- 
fectly familiar. Remember, it is the principal 
external means, of making words — out of let- 
ters and syllables: comparatively, it is the 
thrtad with which we make the garments 
for our thoughts, and thus manifest the ob- 
jects which the mind has in view in clothing 
them in different ways, and making them 
alive with feeling. The mental power of ac- 
cent, is in the will, or voluntary principle, 
and the physical force is from the combined 
action of the lower muscles, in connection 
with the diaphragm, ; hence, it may be per- 
ceived, that in simply expelling vowel sounds, 
as always insisted upon, we at the same time, 
acquire the power of making the accent; for 
expulsion — is accent, radical, or stress. If 
you do not master accent, you cannot suc- 
ceed in becoming an elocutionist. 

SO*. Change of the seat of accent. On 
her en-trance, she was en-tranced at being 
es-cort-ed by a grand es-cort: I essay to 
make an essay to ex-ile the or-iles : ex-port 
the ex-norts, with-out ex-tract-ing the ex- 
tracts for the ex-tract-crs : the a&-ject fel-lows 
ab-ject the gifts, and the ao-sent minded ab- 
sent themselves from the party : he abstracts 
the abstracts and aWri&-utes the ctf-tri-butes 
to others : I lay the ac-cent on the ac-cent-ed 
vowel, and af-fix the af-t\x to the final sylla- 
ble, and make aug-ment in the right place 
and ang-ment the word in Au-gnst, and thus 
make the idea au-gust. 

Wotes. 1. Be careful in placing the accent on the right 
syllable : ad-«er-tise-ment, al-lies, com-pen-sate, in-gut'-ry, de-co-rus, 
or-tho-e-py, ar-is-ioc-ra-cy, ac-cepf-a-ble, Ar.e-op-a.-gus, ac-cey-so- 
ry, wp-right-ly : for if you place the accent on the wrong vowel, 
you partially pervert the meaning, or render it ridiculous : as, I 
law an au-gust spectacle in Au-gust. 2. In singing, accent is al- 
ways made by stresi : and the first note of each full measure ac- 
cented. 

Laconics. Labor is honorable in all, from 
the king on the throne to the mendicant in 
the street ; and let him or her, who is a- 
shamed to toil for themselves, or the benefit 
of their race, be more ashamed to consume 
the industry and labor of others, for which 
they do not render an equivalent. 

The rare had been washed, just washed in a shower, 

Which Mary— to Anna — conveyel ; 
The plentiful moisture— encumbered the flower, 

And weighed down its beautiful head. 
The cup was all filled, and the leaves were all wet, 

And it seemed, to a fanciful view, 
To weep for the buds — it had left with regret, 

On the flourishing bush — where it grew. 
I hastily seized it, unfit as it was 

For a nosegay, so dripping and drowned 
And swinging it rudely, too rudely, alas ! 

I snapped it,— it fell to the ground. 
And such, I exclaimed, is the pitiless part, 

Some act — by the delicate mind, 
Regardless of wringing— and breaking a heart, 

Already to sorrow resigned. 
This elegant rose, had I Bhaken it lest, 

Might have bloomed with its owner awhile : 
And the tear, that is wiped, with a little 

May be followed, perhaps, by a smile. 



Proverbs. 1. Beware of reading, without 
thinking of the subject. 2. A man rarely deceives 
another but once. 3. A good paymaster is lord of 
another man's purse. 4. He is most secure from 
danger, who, even when conscious of safety, is 
on his guard. 5. The pitcher may go often to the 
well, and be broken at last. 6. A good companion, 
makes good company. 7. Let every one choose, 
according to his own fancy. 8. A comparison — is 
no reason- 9. Your Joo/ctn^-glass — will tell you 
what none of your friends will. 10. The human 
heart wants something to be kind to. 11. Many 
hands make light work. 12. Ask your purse — 
what you shall buy. 

Anecdote. Blundering on the Truth. 
An ignorant fellow, who was about to be 
married, resolved to make himself perfect in 
the responses of the marriage service ; but, 
by mistake, he committed the office of bap- 
tism for those of riper years : so, when the 
clergyman asked him, in the church, — 
" Wilt thou have this woman to thy wedded 
wife ?" The bridegroom answered, in a 
very solemn tone ; " I renounce them all.' 1 '' 
The astonished minister said — " I think you 
are a fool :" — to which he replied, "All this 
I steadfastly believe.'''' 

Analogies. As, in the succession of the 
seasons, each, by the invariable laws of na- 
ture, affects the productions of what is next 
in course ; so, in human life, every period 
of our age, — according as it is well or ill 
spent, influences the happiness of that which 
is to follow. Virtuous youth — generally 
brings forward accomplished and flourishing 
manhood; and such manhood passes off, 
without uneasiness, into respectable and 
tranquil old age. When nature — is turned 
out of its regular course, disorder takes 
place — in the moral, just as in the vegetable 
world. If the spring — put forth no blossoms, 
in summer — there will be no beauty, and in 
the autumn — no fruit. If youth — be trifled 
away without improvement, manhood will be 
contemptible — and old age — miserable. If 
the beginnings of life — have been vanity, — 
its latter end can be no other than vexation 
of spirit. 

Varieties. 1. Is there any such thing as 
time and space, in the world of mind ? 2. 
Any book that is worth reading once, is 
worth reading twice. 3. Most misfortunes 
— may be turned into blessings, by watching 
the tide of affairs. 4. When the wicked are 
in power, innocence and integrity are sure 
to be persecuted. 5. Give people proper 
books, and teach them how to read them, 
and they will educate themselves. 6. Un- 
limited powers — should not be trusted in the 
hands of any one, who is not endowed with 
perfection, — more than human. 7. The 
truths of the Bible are the seeds of order : 
and as is the reception, such will be the 
produce. 

Faults— in the life, breed errors in the brain, 
And these, reciprocally, those again : 
The mind, and conduct — mutually imprint, 
And stamp their image— in each other's mint. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



73 



205. To accomplish the objects in view, 
the development and perfection of the voice 
for reading, speaking and singing, a great 
variety of exercises and examples, are intro- 
duced, containing sense and nonsense ; and 
attention can be given to both kinds, accord- 
ing to their icses. Let it be remembered, that 
the forty-four sounds of the language are the 
fountains, from which are to flow every stream 
of elocution and music : and these are con- 
tinually before us. No one can succeed in 
silently reading, or thinking over the sub- 
jects: practice is the great thing; therefore, 
frequently repeat the sounds, read by vowels, 
spell by sounds, and exercise in accent and 
emphasis, with all the other modifications. 

206. They con-cert a plan to get up a con- 
cert, and as they con-cord the con-cords of the 
notes, they con-crefe the con-crete tones with 
such admirable con-duct, as to con-duct the 
whole to the satisfaction of the audience. He 
con-fecfs the sugar with delicious con-fects, 
although he con-fines his efforts to the con- 
fines of the room ; and without con^ic-ting 
in any serious con- flict, he con-serves the con- 
serves in such a way as to con-sort with his 
con-sort without con-test-ing with any seri- 
ous con-test. I will con-text the con-text, so 
as to con-tract the con-tract-ing in a strong 
con-tract, the con-vent, so as to con-vent its 
inmates, while they con-verse in familiar con- 
verse. 

207. Among the more difficult acquisi- 
tions, is the ability to prolong sounds in 
strongly marked accented and emphatic 
words, involving the kindlier feelings of our 
nature ; to succeed in which, practice single 
long vowel sounds in separate words, and al- 
so in short and long phrases; as a Ie; 

Id ; oo ze ; mu te ; pu ss ; oi 1 ; 

ou r ; also, old armed chair ; wheel to the 

right; roll the flames and join *he mwse; 
glowing hope ; praise the lofty dome. 

Notes. 1. The attempt is not made any where, to give a 
perfect notation of the manner in which one is to read ; and some 
words are more or less emphatic, that are printed in common 
type ; while certain words, which are not very important as to 
meaning, are printed in italics. 2. Never mind the rough appear- 
once of the examples ; but make them smooth in your delivery. 

Anecdote. Self-love. The first consid- 
eration of a knave is — how to help himself ; 
and the second, how to do it with an appear- 
ance of helping others. Dionysius. the ty- 
rant, stripped the statue of Jupiter Olympus, 
of a robe of massy gold, and substituted a 
cloak of wool, saying — " Gold is too cold in 
winter, and too heavy in the summer — it be- 
hooves us to take care oi Jupiter.'''' 

When was public virtue to be found, 

Where private was not 1 

Can he love the whole, 

Who loves no part ? 

He— he a nation's friend, 

Who, in truth, is the friend of no man there ? 
10 



Proverbs. 1 . Instead of say ing " I can't," say 
"I will." 2. Acquire knowledge that may be 
useful. 3. If possible, remove your own difficul- 
ties. 4. Husband your time, and waste neither 
that, nor your money. 5. Try to exert a good 
influence, wherever you are. 6. A little stone can 
make a great bruise. 7. Unwearied diligence 
the point will gain. 8. Cultivate good domestic 
habits. 9. Some rather reflect truth than practice 
it. 10. Man is a ?/u-cro-cosm, or little world. 
11. Winter finds what Smrnner conceals. 12. Two 
of a trade seldom agree. 

Important. Let the orator consider him- 
self the connecting link, or medium, between 
the mental and natural world: i. e. that the 
spiritual world is progressing down into the 
material world ; and that all his muscles and 
vocal powers are the proper organs, thro'' 
which it is to flow. Hence, the necessity of 
developing and training, perfectly, those me- 
diums of communication, that every thing in 
the matter, may tell, effectually, in the man- 
ner. Much, very much depends upon the 
state of his own mind ; for, according to that 
— will be the influence shed abroad on the 
minds of others. Conceive yourself the rep- 
resentative of a vast concourse of associated 
minds, and be the true representative of your 
constituents. 

Varieties. 1 . Are fictitious writings bene- 
ficial? 2. U-go-tism (or self-commendation,) 
is always disgusting, and should be carefully 
avoided. 3. A man cannot call a better phy- 
sician than himself, if he will take all the 
good advice he gives to others. 4. Why is the 
human mind like a garden 1 because you can 
sow what seeds you please in it. 5. Good 
and bad fortune are necessary, to prepare us 
to meet the contingencies of life. 6. Be not 
too much afraid of offending others, by tell ing 
the truth : nor stoop to flattery nor mean- 
ness, to gain their favor. 7. The whole out- 
ward creation, with its every particular and 
movement, is but a theatre and scene of ef- 
fects, brought forth into existence, and mov- 
ed by interior spiritual causes, proper to the 
spiritual world. 

To the curious eye 
A little monitor — presents her page 
Of choice instruction, with her snowy bells— 
The lily of the vale. She, not affects 
The public walk, nor gaze of mid-day sun: 
She — to no state or dignity aspires, 
But, silent and alone, puts on her suit, 
And sheds her lasting per-fnme, but for which 
We had not known— there was a thing — so sweet 
Hid — in the gloomy shade. So, when the blast 
Her sister tribes confounds, and, to the earth 
Stoops their high heads, that vainly were exposed, 
She feels it not, but flourishes anew, 
Still sheltered and secure. And so the storm, 
That makes the huge elm couch, and rends the oak. 
The humble lily spares. A thousand blows, 
That shake the lofty monarch, on his throne, 
We lesser folks feel not Keen are the pains 
Advancement often brings. To be secure, 
Be Jntmble ; to be happy y be content. 
G 



74 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



208, The question is often asked — which 
receives the accent, the vowel or the conso- 
nant ? The reply is, sometimes one, and at 
others, both, when they are connected. In a- 
ble, the accent is all on a ; in no-ble, the n 
and o receive the accent, but principally the 
O; in presume, the accent is mostly on u ; 
and is imparted to s and m, terminating on 
the ra. Although this fact is perfectly obvi- 
ous, yet one book that purports to have pass- 
ed through seven editions, insists that vowels 
are never accented. I would ask that author, 
what letter receives the accent of the proper 
name A-i in the Bible, since it has two sylla- 
bles, and yet there are no consonants. Let 
us beware of wrong guides as well as blind 
ones. 

309. Half accented vowel sounds. There 
is an inferior, or half accent, on certain words 
of three or more syllables, which should be 
observed; and, although given distinctly, 
must be kept within the vanish of the accent- 
ed ones. The dem-o-cRAT-ic con-ver-SA-tion 
re-spect-ing the ti-x-ra was het-e-ro-Gv-ne-us 
to a dem-on-STRA-tion ; a met-a-vms-i-cal 
hyp-o-CHOs-dria. is rec-om-MEN-da-to-ry of su- 
per-a-Buir-dant prod-i-GXJ.-i-ty : the m-com- 
pre-HEN-si-ble ^Jm-i-po-TEif-ti-a-ry is an am- 
pli-fi-c A-tion of %-dro-PHo-bi-a ; the joer-pen- 
dic-u-LAR-i-ty of the g-m-er-al-is-si-mo, and 
the mag-na-Niw-i-ty of thejp^iZ-an-THROP-i- 
cal re-ca-pit-u-EA-tion was efozr-ac-ter-is-tic 
of the m-cor-rup-ti-BiL-i-ty of his m-con- 
s i d -er-a-ble-ness. 

310. The mere mention of Oratory, reminds 
us of the early times of Egypt, Greece, and 
Rome ; when there flourished a Le vite, who 
was an important instrument in delivering an 
ancient people from captivity; one of whose 
qualifications for his high office, was, that he 
could "speak well;" — a Demosthenes, the 
magic, music, and witchery of whose ele- 
quence, it is impossible to translate or de- 
scribe ; — a Cicero, whose oratory was copious, 
correct, ornate, and magnificent; — each of 
whom was pre-eminent in his own style and 
manner, — the Grecian — carrying the citadel 
by storm, and the Roman taking it after a 
regular and most beautifully conducted siege ; 
—of a Peter, and Paul, pleading in the 
cause of Heaven, and holding vast multitudes 
in breathless silence, making even Judges 
tremble in their high places ; — of more mod- 
ern times, whose history presents us the name 
of a Chatham, a Burke, and a Fox, in the as- 
sembly ; and those of a Bourdaloue, Massil- 
lon, Bridane, and Whitfield, in the pulpit ; 
also the orators of our own time and land ; 
some of whom, in many respects, will not 
suffer by a comparison with any of their il- 
lustrious predecessors. 

Praising 1 — what is lost, 
Makes the remembrance — dear. 



Proverbs. 1. Show me a liar, and 1 will 
show you a thief. 2. The best mode of instruc- 
tion is — to practice what we teach. 3. Vain glo- 
ry blossoms, but never bears. 4. Well to judge, 
depends on well to hear. 5. He who is wicked 
in the country, will be wicked in the town. 6. 
He who preaches war, is the devil's chaplain. 
7. You will never have a friend, if you must 
have one without failings. 8. A bad man in of- 
fice, is a public calamity. 9. That war only is 
just, which is necessary. 10. The worst of law 
is, that one suit breeds twenty. 11. Be not ruin- 
ed by your neglect. 12. Ignorance is a misfortune 

Anecdote. An Unwelcome Visitor. A 
person, who often intruded himself hi a read- 
ing-room, and library, to which he was not a 
subscriber, had his pet dog turned out by the 
crusty old sexton ; who gave him a kick, say- 
ing — "you are not a subscriber at any rate." 
The intruder took the hint; and never ap- 
peared again in the establishment, till he be- 
came a patron. 

Horace, a celebrated Roman poet, relates, 
that a countryman, who wanted to pass a 
river, stood loitering on the banks of it, in the 
foolish expectation, that a current so rapid 
would soon discharge its waters. But the 
stream still flowed, (increased perhaps by 
fresh torrents from the mountains,) and it 
must forever flow ; because the source from 
which it is derived, is inexhaustible. Thus, 
the idle and irresolute youth, trifles over his 
books, or squanders, in childish pursuits, his 
precious moments, deferring the business of 
improvement, (which at first might be render- 
ed easy and agreeable, but which, by delay, 
becomes more and more difficult,) until the 
golden sands of opportunity have all run, anct 
he is called to action, without possessing the 
requisite ability. 

Varieties. 1 . Has the invention of gunpow- 
der been beneficial to the world 1 The mind, 
like the soil, rises in value, according to the 
nature and degree — of its cultivation. 3. 
Labor and prudence, relieve us from three 
great evils, — vice, want, and indolence. 4. 
A wise man reflects, before he speaks; a 
foolish one speaks, and then reflects on what he 
has said. 5. Our toppiness does not consist 
in being without passions, but in having 
command of them. 6. Good — is never more 
effectually accomplished, than when produced 
by slow degrees. 7. True charity — cannot 
be conjoined to a persuasion of falsity, flow- 
ing from evil. 

There's quiet — in the deep : — 
Above, let tides— and tempests rave, 
And earth-born whirlwinds— wake the wave; 
Above, let care — and fear contend 
With sin and sorrow — to the end: 
Here, far beneath the tainted foam, 
That frets — above our peaceful home, 
We dream in joy, and wake in love, 
Nor know the rage — tnat yells above I 

There's quiet in the deep i 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



75 



311. Unaccented Vowels. There is great 
beauty in pronunciation, where each letter, 
that is not silent, tells upon the ear its true 
character, and all contribute to produce the 
desired effect : hence, the great necessity of 
giving to all letters, syllables, and loords, 
their proper sounds; especially, the vowels, 
whether long or short, accented or unaccent- 
ed : as, — on the pres-ent oc-ca-sion I shall not 
ot-tempt to pref-u-dice your o-pin-ions or e- 
wio-tions to ac-com-plish my objects ; is it 
pos-si-ble, the fer-ri-ble of-fence of the gen-er- 
al, in re/-er-ence to the ?warc-u-scripts, is par- 
ftc-u-lar-ly con-spic-u-ons in the red-o-lent 
can-o-py of heav-en ! the del-e-gate re-quests 
me to give an oc-cu-lar ed-u-ca-tion to his del- 
i-cate child, and be par-ftc-u-lar in its e-nun- 
ci-a-tion and ^>ro-nun-ci-a-tion. 

31 2. A con-vert is one, who is con-werl-ed 
from one side to another, and a cwi-vict is one 
who has been con-vic-ted of some crime. The 
con-voy con-voyed the king to his throne, and 
placed a cor-o-nal on his co-ro-nal brow. I 
will coun-ter-oaZ-ance that cotm-ter-bal-ance, 
and coun-ter-6wJf the enemy's cown-ter-bufF. 
They will coun-ter-cAarg-e the coun-ter-charge 
on England, and coun-ter-cfozrm the broker's 
cotm-ter-charm, while we coun-ter-c&ecfc the 
private's courc-ter-check. The general coun- 
Xex-mands his officer's cotm-ter-mand, as 
we coun-ter-raarcA our cotm-ter-march. We 
will coun-ter-pZo£ your couw-ter-plots, and 
coun-ter-miwe your cown-ter-mines. He coun- 
ter-poised their coim-ter-poise, and coun-ter- 
vailed their coim-ter-vail. 

Notes. 1. Different words, as well as the same words, 
may be accented on different vowels, according to the object con- 
templated ; thus — m-brate, pro-pose, brig-ade, Aui-band, au-gvst, 
axx-gust, corn-pound. 2. The accent is generally on the root, or 
theme of the word ; but sometimes on the subordinate part 3. 
In reading poetry, the accent may be different from what it would 
be in prose, for the sake of the melody of the verse. 4. Remem- 
ber, vowels must be prolonged on their radical parts, not on their 
vanishing movements. 5. Observe how lively, varied and inter- 
esting a passage is, when pronounced with proper accentual force ; 
and see how insipid and monotonous without it 6. Always let 
your accent be well marked and sustained ; then your delivery will 
be brilliant, sprightly and effective. 

Anecdote. Undergoing a great hard- 
ship. During a trial in Court, where judge 
Parsons presided, a lawyer desired to know 
what a witness meant by keel-hauling. " Do 
you not knowl" replied the judge; "he 
means that it is undergoing a great hard 
ship, to be sure!" 

Fare thee -well ! the ship is ready, 
And the breeze — is fresh and steady. 
Hands are fast the anchor weighing ; 
High in air — the streamer's playing. 
Spread the sails — the waves are swelling 
Proudly round thy buoyant dwelling; 
Fare thee well ! and when at sea, 
Think of those who sigh for thee. 

Acquaintance grew ; the acquaintance they improved 
To friendship ; friendship— ripenend into love. 



Proverbs. 1. Our best security consists in 
innocence, and the cheering influence of approv- 
ing conscience. 2. Tardiness and precipitation 
are extremes equally to be avoided. 3. The 
brave may fall, but never yield. 4. Books alone 
can never teach the use of books. 5. Common 
fame — is often a common liar. 6. Words — are 
leaves ; deeds are fruits. 7. Deserve success, and 
you shall command it. 8. False friends are 
worse than open enemies. 9. Goodness alone, 
enriches the possessor. 10. He who avoids the 
temptation, avoids the sin. 11. Knowledge is no 
burden. 12. Man proposes, and God disposes. 

Woman. What a consoler is woman! 
None but her presence can so win a man 
from his sorrow, make placid the knit brow, 
and WTeathe the stern Up into a smile. The 
soldier — becomes a lightsome boy at her feet ; 
the anxious statesman — smiles himself back 
to free-hearted youth beside her ; and the still 
and shaded countenance of care — brightens 
beneath her influence, as the closed flower 
blooms in the sunshine. 

Varieties. 1 . What is truth ? Heaven and 
earth, are interested in this momentous ques- 
tion. 2. Flee from sloth ; for the indolence 
of the soul, is the decay of the body. 3. Elo- 
quence is of two kinds, — that of the heart, 
which is called divine ; and that of the head, 
which is made up of conceit and sophistry. 
4. It is no small grief to one's good nature, 
to try his friends. 5. Talk not of the love 
that outlives adversity ; the love, that remains 
with it, is a thousand times more rare. 6. 
Deliberate with caution, and act with preci- 
sion ; yield with grace, and oppose with 
firmness. 7. The internal man is formed in 
the body, as a tree in the ground, or a seed in 
the fruit. 

AUTUMN EVENING. 
Behold. — the western evening light ! 

It melts — in deepening gloont; 
So calmly — Christians sink away, 

Descending — to the tomb. 
The winds— breathe low, the withering leaf 

Scarce whispers — from the tree; 
So gently— flows the parting breath, 

When good men — cease to be. 
How beautiful^- on all the hills, 

The crimson light is shed ! 
'Tis like the peace— the Christian gives 

To mourners— round his bed. 
How mildly — on the wandering cloud, 

The sunset beam — is cast ! 
'Tis like the memory— left behind, 

When loved ones — breathe their last. 
And now, above the dews of night, 

The yellow star— appears ; 
So— faith springs in the heart of those, 

Whose eye*— are bathed in tears. 
But soon— the morning's happier light 

Its glory shall restore ; 
And eyelids, that are sealed in death 

Shall wake— to close no more. 

True religion- 
Is always mild, propitious, and humane; 
Plays not the tyrant, plants no faith in blood; 
But stoops to succor, polish, and redress, 
And builds her grandeur— on the public good. 



76 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



213. A too frequent recurrence of accent- 
ed vowels, occasions a heavy utterance, in 
consequence of the almost continual succes- 
sion of vocal elTorts : it is seen and felt in 
words, particularly the monosyllables, and in 
sentences, or members of sentences, and is the 
cause of the slow rate in the movement of the 
voice. Exs. " And ten low words oft creep in 
one dull line. O'er hills, o'er dales, o'er crags, 
o'er rocks, they go. Up the high hill he heaves 
a huge round stone." Whenever accent oc- 
curs frequently, there is always a predomi- 
nance of quantity ; and the delivery, of neces- 
sity, is much slower. Now here we have posi- 
tive evidence that monosyllables have accent. 
Our best authors use the shortest words, 
which are usually of Saxon origin; hence, 
the charm, the witchery of certain speakers 
and writers. 

214. He des-cants upon the des-cant of 
the preacher, who de-se7'ts his post, and goes 
into the des-ert, to live on spicy desserts. 
I will di-gest the di-gest, although I dis-cord 
every thing like dis-cord; I will also dis- 
count '.'.in note for a reasonable dis-count, be- 
cause he asked me down-right, in a down- 
Tight manner. 

315. Education means the development, 
perfection, and proper use of the body and 
mind : it relates to the training and guardi- 
anship of youth, from infancy to mature age 
— to the influencing of the character and 
prospects, not only of individuals, but of 
nations. The highest powers and noblest 
sentiments of our nature might remain for- 
ever dormant, were they not developed and 
matured by the instruction and example of 
the wise and good. In a still wider sense, 
education may mean the whole training of 
the thoughts and affections by inward reflec- 
tion and outward events and actions, by in- 
tercourse with men, " by the spirits of the 
just made perfect" — by instruction from the 
word, and the training the whole man for 
life and immortality. 

Notes. 1. It would be extremely difficult, considering the 
partially developed and cultivated state of the voice, ear, and lan- 
guage, to give definite rules for pronouncing the unaccented vow- 
els, in consequence of their verging towards each other in many 
words ; of course, we must avoid too much stiffness on the one 
band, and vulgarity on the other ; the time will come, however, 
when every thing with regard to elocution will be as fixed and cer- 
tain as in the science of music ; which is as perfect as the science 
of numbers. 2. Never forget that without a good articulation, no 
one can become a correct reader, or speaker ; and whatever other 
defects one may have, if be possess this excellence, he will be lis- 
tened to with pleasure and profit : there is something very attrac- 
tive and winning, in a clear, distinct and correct enunciation, 
which delights and captivates the soul. Let no one excuse himself 
from becoming perfect in this essential requisite. 

What— cannot patience do ? 

A great design — h seldom match'd at once : 

Tis patience heaves it on. 

From savage nature, 

Tis patience, that has built up human life, 

The nurse of arts ; and Rome exalts ber head, 

An everlasting monument to patience. 



Proverbs. 1. Make provision for want in 
time of plenty. 2 Live and let live— is a good 
motto. 3. Of all flatterers, self-love is the 
greatest. 4. Perspicuity is inseparable from elo- 
quence. 5. Restraint from ill is the best kind ol 
freedom. 6. Sin and sorrow are inseparable 
companions. 7. Speech is the gift of all ; thought 
of but few. 8. That which opposes right, must 
be wrong. 9. Undutiful children — make wretch- 
ed parents. 10. No one can tell how much he can 
accomplish, till he tries. 11. The hand of the 
diligent maketh rich. 12. Ill got — ill spent. 

Anecdote. Dangerous Biting. Dioge- 
nes, of old, being one day asked, the biting of 
what beasts is the most dangerous, replied, — 
" If you mean wild beasts, it is that of the 
slanderer; if tame ones, of the flatterer •." 

True Empire. It is pleasant to be virtu- 
ous and good ; because, that is to excel many 
others; — it is pleasant to grow better; be- 
cause that is to excel ourselves ; it is pleas- 
ant to mortify and subdue our lusts, because 
that is victory ; — it is pleasant to command 
our appetites and passions, and to keep them 
in due order, witlun the bounds of reason and 
religion, — because — that is empire. 

Varieties. 1. Are Rail-Roads and Car 
nals, a benefit to the country ? 2. He, who 
is slowest in making a promise, is generally 
the most faithful in performing it. 3. When 
a teacher is to be hired, there is generally a 
terrible pressure in the money market. 4. 
Un-educated mind is ed-ucated vice. 5. 
They, who love flattery, are in a fair way to 
repent of their weakness; yet how few are 
proof against its attacks. 6. If others attrib- 
ute more to us than is our due, they are 
either designing or mistaken ; and, if they 
allow us less, they are envious or ignorant ,• 
and, in both cases should be disregarded. 
7. The Lord is ever present in the human 
soul, and we are tried every moment in all 
we will, think, do, hear, or say. 

CURRAN"S DAUGHTER-E.AGHET'S BETROTHED. 
She is far from the land— where her young hero sleeps, 

And lovers — around her are sighing ; 
But coldly she turns from their gaze, and weeps, 

For her heart — in his grave — is lying. 
She sings the wild songs— of her dear native plains, 

Every note, which he lov'd — awaking, — 
Ah ! little they think, who delight in her strains, 

How the heart of the minstrel— is breaking. 
He had liv'd— for his love — for his country — he died ; 

They were all — that to life had intioin'd him — 
Nor soon — shall the tears of his country be dried, 

Nor long— will his love stay behind him 
Oh ! make her a grave— where the sunbeams rest, 

When they promise a glorious morrow: 
They'll shine o'er her sleep — like a smile from the west, 
From her own lov'd island of sorrow. 
Oft I hear, 
Upon the silence of the midnight air, 
Celestial voices — swell in holy chorus; 
That bears the soul — to heaven. 

Impartial — as the grave, 
Sleep, — robs the cruel tyrant — of his power, 
Gives rest and freedom to the o'erwrought slave, 
And steals the wretched beggar— from his want. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



77 



216. A too wn-frequent occurrence of ac- 
cent, produces indistinctness ; because of the 
rapidity with which the unaccented sounds 
must be pronounced ; depending, as they do, 
on the radical or accented vowels: in pro- 
nouncing such words, be particular to con- 
centrate the voice, strongly, on the accented 
vowels ; and that will give you sufficient im- 
pelling power, to carry you easily through 
the word. Ex. His dis-in-ter-est-ed-ness and 
in-tel-li-gi-Jn/-i-ty are ai-so-lute-ly in-ea>pli- 
ca-ble ; I un-Aes-i-ta-ting-ly say, that the un- 
rm-son-a-ble-ness of that tri-per-son-al-ist's 
scheme is an ir-re/-ra-ga-ble proof of lat-i-tu- 
di-na-ri-an-ism ; he spoke com-mw-ni-ca-tive- 
ly of his in-efe-so-lu-ble stou-en-li-ness, which 
he, hi-e-ro-gZz/pA-i-cal-ly and per-emp-to-ri-ly 
declared, was neither an-ti-pes-ti-Zen-tial, con- 
gra£-u-la-to-ry, nor in-con-tro-'uer-ti-ble. 

317. Pay particular attention, not only to 
the errors of foreigners, in pronunciation, but 
also to those of our own countrymen: let 
nothing of importance escape your critical 
observation: in this way, your voice, taste, 
and ear, will be cultivated, and you will be 
saved from such defects as would, if indulged 
in, impede your progress in these arts, and 
prevent you from being extensively useful in 
your day and generation. 

218. He in-lays the table with silver in- 
lays. Instinct is the power derived from 
above, that determines the will of the brute 
creation, while all nature is instinct with life 
from the same source. The in-sult returned 
insults the man, as it inter-dicts the inter- 
change which invalids inter-chang'd for an 
in-val-id m-terdict. His mi-nute mis-con-duct 
every min-ute that he miscon-ducts, mi-nute- 
ly affects the lady nun-utely. 

219. Laughing Scientifically. The fol- 
lowing suggestions are given for the forma- 
tion of laughing glee clubs; in the hope that 
this remarkably healthful and anti-melan- 
choly exercise, may aid in accomplishing its 
very beneficial effects in old and young, male 
and female. Let a number of persons, say 
six, or eight, form a circle, sitting, or stand- 
ing, erectly, with the shoulders thrown back, 
and the leader commence, by giving one 
laugh, in the use of the syllable huh : then, let 
the one at his right hand repeat it, which is 
to be reiterated by each one till it comes 
round ; then, without any loss of time, let the 
leader repeat the word, adding another, (huh, 
huh,) which is to be taken up as before by 
the club ; and, as it comes to him the third 
time, let him add another, (huh, hull, huh,) 
and so on, till there follows a complete round 
of shouts, and roars of laughter. 

t Again — I feel my bosom bound, 
My heart sits lightly on its neat; 
My cares — are all in rapture drown'd, 
In every pulse — new pleasures beal . 1 



Proverbs. 1. Want of punctuality is a spe- 
cies of falsehood. 2. Youth — is the best season for 
improvement. 3. No confidence can be placed in 
those, who are in the habit of telling lies. 4. Good, 
and bad habits, formed during youth, generally go 
with us during life. 5. Our best friends are those, 
who tell us our faults, and teach us to correct them. 
6. A kind word, or even a kind look, often affords 
great comfort to the afflicted. 7. 'Tis not those 
who read the most, that know the most; but, those 
who reflect and practice the most. 8. The sun — is 
never the worse for shining on a dunghill. 9. True 
valor— As fire; bullying— -is smoke. 10. Wealth is 
not his, who gets it; but his who enjoys it. 11. Dy- 
ing — is as natural as living. 12. All covet — all lose. 

Anecdote. Sea-Lawyers. A member of 
the bar, on his passage to Europe in a 
steam vessel, observed a shark near them; 
and not knowing what it was, asked one of 
the sailors; who replied, with much gravity, 
" Here, we call 'em sea-lawyers." 

Known toy oiir Fruits. A man — is 

known by his words — as a tree — by its fruit; 
and if we would be apprised of the nature 
and qualities of any one, let him but dis- 
course, and he will speak them to us, better 
than another can describe them. We may 
therefore perceive how proper it is — for those 
to hold their tongues, who would not discover , 
the shallowness of their understandings. 
Empty vessels — make the greatest sound, and 
the deepest rivers — are most silent. It is a 
true observation, that those who are weakest 
in understanding, and slowest of apprehen 
sion, are, generally, the most precipitate — in 
uttering their crude conceptions. 

Varieties. 1. Why is an egg — un-done, 
like an egg o^er-done'? Because, both are 
hardly done. 2. A prying disposition — into 
what does not concern one, and a tailing 
tongue — are two very common evils. 3. The 
bones of birds are hollow, and filled with air, 
instead of marrow ; hence their power of 
making sound. 4. Unprofitable speech — is like 
the cypress, which is great and tall, yet bears 
no fruit. 5. Nature, in too many instances, 
is pushed from her throne; the world having 
lost its relish for her truth and purity. 6. 
Swift — dedicated one volume of his works to 
" Prince Posterity;" ondthere ismanliness in 
the act. 7. Every advancement in good, is a 
delivery from evil influences; and every fall 
in evil, is a victory, obtained by them over 
the soul. 
If we are wise — and judge aright, there's scarce 
An ill of life (however keen or hard 
To bear), but good may be extracted thence ! 
'Tis so by Providence ordained, to those 
Who seek for light— amid the shade of gloom. 
It is, indeed, a sombre sky, where not 
One cheerful speck appears. Why gaze alone 
On that, which doth appal the soul, and pass 
The cheering ray, which, constant gazing on, 
Might so expand, to chase the sombre cloud? 



78 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



220. There are words, as we hove seen, 
that are spelt alike, but pronounced aijfcrcnl- 
ly> by changing the seat of accent : because 
the meaning is different: and there are words, 
spelt nearly alike, and pronounced by some 
alike, though incorrectly; and the conse- 
quence often is, a complete perversion of the 
sense. A minister took for his text, the fol- 
lowing very comprehensive words ; " He that 
feareth God, and worketh righteousness, is 
accepted of him." But instead of reading it 
as contained in the Bible, he perverted it, by 
saying: "He that feareth God, and worketh 
righteousness, is &r-cepted of him :" that is 
left out ; excluded. 

'2-21. Practice on the following, and simi- 
lar words, and distinguish the vowel sounds 
by their appropriate pronunciation. The ab- 
o-Z?'-tion move-ment is ac-cept-ed by some, 
and ex-cept-ed by others. 2. Being confi- 
dent of his con-n-dant, the ^er-son-age work- 
ed the j^-na-ry, by the jpar-son-age of his 
./i-na-ry. 3. The rad-ish pen-dant, looking 
red-ish, was pen-dent in the nose of the 
bar-on whose lands were bar-ten. 4. His 
saZ-a-ry was ce/-e-ry, because he lived under 
the cap-i-tdl in the cap-i-tal of the state, op- 
po-site the office that was ap-po-site to his 
purpose. 

222. Telling Stories. Who has not ob- 
served the intense interest, manifested by 
children, in hearing one another tell stories ? 
They will sit up till midnight, without being 
sleepy; and are generally driven to their 
homes, or their bed. How readily they re- 
member, and relate interesting stories to their 
companions, days, weeks, and monttis, and 
even years, after first hearing them : the rea- 
son is, they not only see and understand these 
tales, but feel them intensely ; and hence, 
they easily get them by heart, as it is called. 
Why have not teachers long since taken a 
hint of the mode, in which to communicate 
all the varieties of scientific, and useful knowl- 
edge to their pupils ! Let them take turns in 
telling stories after their teachers ; and if their 
exercises are judiciously managed, as they 
may be, they will be found exceedingly amus- 
ing, and promotive of a very rapid devel- 
opment of mind. 

Anecdote. Double Meaning. An illiter- 
ate personage, who always volunteered — to 
go round with his hat, was suspected of spa- 
ring his own pocket. Overhearing, one day 
a remark to that effect, he made the follow- 
ing reply : " Other gentlemen puts down 
what they think proper, and so do I. Chari- 
ty's a private concern, and what I give is 
nothing to nobody." 
Dost thou know the fate of soldiers? 
They're but ambition's tools — to cut a way 
To her unlawful ends ; and when they're worn, 
Hacked, hewn — with constant service, thrown aside, 
To rust — in pease, or rot — in hospitals. 



Proverbs. 1 . Be punctual— in all your ap- 
pointments, and honest — in all your dealings. 2. 
Always ftce so that the world may be the better, for 
your living in it. 3. Never make sport of sua in- 
sane, or intoxicated person. 4. Let the law of 
kindness—he ever on your tongue. 5. In conver- 
sation, seek out acceptable words. 6. Never re- 
quire favors, but ask for them. 7. Avoid doing 
things, that are calculated to excite attention. 8. 
Learn to practice self-denial, when it will promote 
the happiness of others. 9. Kindly and faithfully 
remind your friends and companions, of their 
faults. 10. Be accurate in every thing. 11. No 
rose without a thorn. 12. Pride— will have a fall. 

Discovery of Glass. Pliny informs us, 
that the art of making glass — was acciden- 
tally discovered by some merchants, who 
were traveling with nitre, and stopped near a 
river, issuing from Mount Carmel. Not find 
ing anything to rest their kettles on, the$ 
used some pieces of nitre for that purpose 
The nitre gradually dissolving by the heal, 
mixed with the sand, and a transparent mat- 
ter flowed, which was in fact glass. It is cer- 
tain that we are often more indebted to appa- 
rent chance, than genius — for many of the 
most valuable discoveries: therefore every 
one should keep his eyes and ears open, — his 
thoughts and feelings awake and active. 

Varieties. 1. Why should any one think 
it a disgrace — to work for his living 7 2. In- 
vestigate every subject, with which you be- 
come acquainted, until you understand it 
thoroughly. 3. "I'll try," is a plant, that 
would flourish in the frigid zone ; " I can't," 
would be barren any where. 4. Never con- 
demn another, for not knowing- what you 
have just learned ; or perhaps do not clearly 
understand. 5. No tongue can tell, or intel- 
lect perceive, the full import of the word 
home. 6. The true christian religion — is a 
divine wardrobe, containing garments for all 
kinds and orders of wearers. 7. As the soul 
advances in true resignation of its own will, 
to the will of God, every principle and facul- 
ty of mind — becomes sanctified, even down 
into the life of the senses. 

Weep not, that Time 
Is passing on, — it will — ere long, reveal 
A brighter era to the nations. Hark! 
Along the vales — and mountains of the earth 
There is a deep, portentous murmuring, 
Like the swift rush — of subterranean streams ; 
Or like the mingled sounds of earth and air, 
When the fierce Tempest, with sonorous wing, 
Heaves his deep folds upon the rushing winds, 
And hurries onward — with his night of clouds 
Against the eternal mountains. 'Tis the Voice 
Of infant Freedom. — and her stirring call 
Is heard — and answered — in a thousand tones, 
From every hill-lop of her Western home, — 
And lo, it breaks across old Ocean's flood,— [shout. 
And "Free/lorn! Freedom!" is the answering 
Of nations, starting from the spell of years. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



79 



223. When accented and unaccented syl- 
lables are agreeably interspersed through the 
words, neither a heavy utterance, nor indis- 
tinctness occurs. Ex. "Not so, when swift 
Camilla scours the plain, Flies o'er the un- 
bending corn, and skims along the main" 
Now, compare the movement of the voice in 
this, with the following, and see and feel the 
difference : " And ten low words oft creep in 
one dull line." The former is like a nag, that 
gallops off in fine style ; the latter, one that 
creeps, like a snail. The reason is, as you 
perceive, in one case, there is life and light ; 
in the other, nothing but words. 

224:. Neither teachers nor parents, can be 
too wisely careful of the influence, exerted 
upon their pupils and children : for principles 
apply to both matter and spirit. " Just as 
the twig is bent, the tree's inclined." Again, 
since thoughts are imperishable existences, 
we should be careful in entertaining and 
cherishing any other, than such as we are 
willing to have for our companions on earth, 
and during our eternal state of being in the 
future world. Here, then, is something for 
all of us to attend to ; and unspeakable con- 
sequences are depending on the performance 
of duty. Are we of the number of those, who 
turn back in the day of battle 7 or, of those 
who gird on their armor, to do, or die ? 

235. Position in Bed. There is no doubt, 
that the habit of forming round or humped 
shoulders, (which is rarely, if ever, natural,) 
is contracted in infancy, and childhood. The 
incautious mother, not understanding the 
principles of physiology, lays the infant on a 
pillow of feathers, instead of on a good mat- 
tress, or straw bed, without pillows; thus, 
elevating the head far too much above the le- 
vel of the body ; and this practice is continued 
in after-life, very much to the detriment of 
health, and beauty of form. If necessary, 
raise the Amd-posts of the bedstead a few 
inches, instead of using pillows. 

Notes. 1. Observe, that when the accent is at, or near, the 
beginning of the word, it materially aids the expulsive stress of 
voice, carrying us more easily through the word, than when it is 
placed near the last end : the genius of our language is in favor of 
the former ; hence, the tendency is to place the accent at the be- 
ginning ; which makes language more powerful and effective. 2. 
In running, the impetus of preceding efforts carries us on after 
tkose efforts have ceased. 

Anecdote. A Tough Animal. "The con- 
stitution of our females must be excellent," 
says a celebrated physician; "for, take an 
ox, or a horse, and enclose his sides with cor- 
sets, — and he would labor indeed, — but it 
would be for breath." 

Nothing — is lasting— on the world's wide stage, 

As sung, and wisely sung, the Grecian sage ; 

And man, who, through the globe — extends his sway, 

Reigns— but the sovereign creature — of a day; 

One generation comes, another — goes, 

Time— blends the happy — with the man of woes; 

A different face of things— each age appears, 

And all things— alter— in a course of year*. 



Proverbs. 1. He who marries for wealth, sells 
his liberty. 2. A friend, which you buy with pre- 
sents, may be bought from you. 3. Ladies — will 
sooner pardon want of sense, than want of good 
manners. 4. The remedy for love is — land between. 
5. You may know a foolish woman— by her fin- 
ery. 6. Temperance, employment, and a cheerful 
spirit — are great preservers and restorers of health. 
7. Many a one digs his grave with his teeth. 8. 
The epicure — puts his purse in his stomach; and 
the miser — his stomach in his purse. 9. Change of 
weather is the discourse of fools. 10. We hate de- 
lay; but it often makes us wiser. 11. Talking — 
does no work. 12. Past labor is pleasant. 

Laconics. Never mystify science; but, 
if possible, always elucidate it. Knowledge 
— is too important — to be made the subject 
of a silly Joke. 

Varieties. 1. If content does not remove 
the disquietudes of life, it will at least alleviate 
them. 2. Can matter ever be annihilated? 
3. Every sentence we read under standingly, 
is like a cast of the weaver's shuttle, adding 
another thread to the web of life. 4. They, 
who are governed by reason, need no other 
motive than the goodness of an act, to excite 
them to practice it. 5. A reading people will 
become a thinking people ; and then, they 
are capable of becoming a great people. 6. 
A diligent pen supplies many thoughts. 7. 
Nothing but divine love, and divine wisdom, 
can proceed from God, the centre of all beings. 

DEATH OF A HEART-FRIEND. 

If I had thought — thou couldst have died, 

I might not weep for thee ; 
But 1 forgot, when by thy side, 

That thou couldst mortal be. 
It never through my mind had passed, 

The time would e'er be o'er, 
And I on thee — should look my last, 

And thou shouldst smile — no more! 
And still— upon that /ace I look, 

And think — Hwill smile again ; 
And still the thought — I will not brook, 

That I must look in vain! 
But when I speak, — thou dost not say, 

W hat thou ne'er left'st unsaid ; 
And now I feel, as well I may, 

Sweet Mary! thou art dead! 
If thou wouldst stay, e'en as thou art. 

All cold — and all serene, — 
I still might press thy silent heart, 

And where thy smiles have been ! 
While e'en thy chill, bleak corse I have, 

Thou seemest still my own ; 
But there I lay thee — in thy grave, — 

And I am now — alone ! 
I do not think, where'er thou art, 

Thou hast forgotten me ; 
And I, perhaps, may soothe this heart 

In thinking, too, of thee. 
Yet there was round thee — such a dawn 

Of light, ne'er seen before, 
As fancy — never could have drawn. 

And never— can restore! 



80 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



2*26. Revisions. The great practical im- 
portance of this subject, demands a passing 
remark. In revising, we not only gather up 
the fragments, but refresh our minds with a 
reproduction of what we previously had 
learned. By reviewing our studies, we often 
find the materials, with which we can over- 
come difficulties, that seem almost insur- 
mountable ; hence, revisions frequently serve 
as a key, to unlock the casket, that contains 
invaluable treasures. And we must guard 
against thinking of the principles, as being 
contained in the book ; unless they are un- 
derstood and felt in the mind, and by the 
mind, and through the body are reduced to 
pi-aciice, they are, so far as we are concerned, 
valueless and dead. Seeing food, or think- 
ing of it, will impart no nourishment to the 
body ; it must be eaten, digested, and appro- 
priated. 

227. Now repeat all the sounds of the let- 
ters, in their alphabetical order, as found on 
page 63 ; omitting those that are duplicates ; 
then give the vowels and consonants, by them- 
selves: afterwards, give the shwt vowels, 
and the long ones by themselves, and read 
several paragraphs by vowel sounds; after 
which, give the vocal consonants, and aspi- 
rates, by themselves: then the single, dou- 
ble, and triple ones, and analyze words, 
spelling them by their sounds; also, raise 
and fall the eight vowels, according to the di- 
atonic scale, in article 64; then revise the 
two modes of making accent', practice on 
the changes of its seat, and realize the impor- 
tant use of every exercise. 

22S. The pre-corc-tract pre-con-/racte the 
pre-tlx which is pre-fixed to the prel-xxde, 
with which the speaker pre-ludes the pres- 
ent pres-age, that he pre-sag'd the man would 
present. The prod-uce of the land was such 
as to pro-duce a pro-]ect to pro-test against 
the man who pxo-jects the infamous prot-est 
against the reb-el that re-bels against the 
law. I re-fuse to re-cord either the r<?/-use or 
the rec-ord, or re-tail them by wholesale or 
re- tail. 

229. A Dandy of some use. Let the pu- 
pil impress on his mind the absolute necessi- 
ty, for awhile, of keeping jhis shoulders 
thrown back, so as to make the breast as 
round and prominent as possible: and then, 
after a few days, or weeks at farthest, he will 
feel very uncomfortable to sit, stand, or labor, 
in a bent position. But, says one, " I should 
look so much like a dandy." Never mind 
that, provided it be right; and if you can 
make this much use of so superfluous an ar- 
ticle, it may serve to show you, that nothing 
exists in vain : think of the wisdom and in- 
dustry of the bee. 

This smooth discourse,— and mild behavior, oft 

Conceals— a traitor. 



Proverbs. 1. Never repulse an associate with 
unkindness. 2. Love one another with a pun 
heart fervently. 3. The morality of the christian 
religion, is not national, hut universal. 4. Pru- 
dence says— take time by Xheforetop. 5. A bird in 
the hand, is worth two in the bush. 6. The dili- 
gent soul, shall be made rich. 7. Knowledge — is 
power; ignorance — is weakness. 8. An egg to 
day. is better than a hen to-morrow. 9. Worldly 
reputation and sensual pleasure, are destructive to 
virtue. 10. The history and wisdom of the world, 
can only be known by reading. 11. We are to be 
saved from our sins, not in our sins. 12. What- 
ever is •worth reading at all. is worth reading well. 
Anecdote. Afraid of Work. A person 
once said to a father, whose son was noted 
for his laziness, that he thought his son was 
very much afraid of work. "Afraid of 
work . ? " replied the father, " not at all, — he 
will lie down, and go to sleep close by the 
side of it." 

Right "Views. The more we ascribe all 
goodness and truth — to the Lord, the more 
— will the interiors of the mind, be open to- 
wards heaven, the only source of happiness : 
for by thus doing, we acknowledge that noth- 
ing good and true is from ourselves ; and, in 
proportion as this is heartily confessed, the 
love of self — departs, and with it — the thick 
darkness, which arises from that which is 
false and evil : thus it is evident, how one — 
becomes wiser than another. As the exhala- 
tions from the earth — rise and form clouds, 
more or less dense, thus obscuring the atmos- 
phere, and preventing the clear light of the 
sun ; so, do the exhalations of se//-love — arise 
and obscure the light of Divine truth, — of 
that Sun, which rules the world of mind. 

Varieties. 1. Does pain or pleasure — 
predominate in human life 7 2. Weddedftfe, 
says a happy husband, is a perpetual foun- 
tain of domestic sweets. 3. Drinking water 
— neither makes a man sick, nor runs him in 
debt, nor makes his wife a widow : can as 
much be said of ardent spirits ? 4. He, who 
peeps through a keyhole, may see something 
to vex him. 5. That gentleness, which is 
characteristic of a good man, like every other 
virtue, has its seat in the heart : and nothing 
but what flows from the heart — can render 
even external manners, truly pleasing. 6. 
The Lord came to seek and save those who 
are lost .- and he saves all who are willing to 
be saved. 7. Love - principles and genuine 
truth, respect each other according to degrees 
of affinity : and the greater the affinity, the 
greater is the attraction between them. 

Morning— hath her songs of gladness, 
Sultry noon — its ferved glare, 

Evening hours, their gentle sadness, 
Night — its dreams, and rest from care; 

But the pensive twilight— ever 
Gives its own sweet fancies birtli, 

Waking visions, that may never 
Know reality — on earth. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



81 



830. Orthography — relates to the right 
placing of the letters in words, and Orthoepy 
— to the right pronouncing of words, accord- 
ing to the sounds of the letters, — the former 
— respects written language, and is addressed 
to the eye ; and the latter, spoken language, 
and is addressed to the ear ; the first supposes 
the second. We may infer the perfection, 
which the ancient Greeks attained, in o?--tho- 
e-py, from this fact, that when a public spea- 
ker — even pronounced a word incorrectly, the 
whole audience simultaneously hissed him. 
Whence did they acquire such accuracy of 
ear 1 ? Doubtless, in spelling by the sounds 
of their letters, instead of by their names. 
When we adopt this method, which nature 
and science dictate, we shall attain like excel- 
lency in pronunciation, and our language 
will then be found to contain more power and 
sweetness than any other in the world. 

231. Pronunciation — is orthoepy, or the 
right utterance of words ; i. e. pronouncing 
words according to euphony, analogy and 
custom, which constitute the standard. The 
principal rule is, pronounce in the easiest and 
most effectual manner : and, when words are 
introduced from other languages, they should 
be pronounced according to the principles of 
our language ; that is, they must conform to 
the genius of the English language, as for- 
eigners do to that of our constitution, when 
they become naturalized, — abjuring foreign, 
uncongenial influences and principles, and 
submitting to ours. 

333. Our Orthography and Orthoepy. 
Many foreigners and natives find it difficult 
to speak our language, in consequence of the 
great difference between its spelling and its 
pronunciation, and the various sounds given 
to the same letters in similar, and in different 
combinations ; and, although, for the last two 
centuries, our orthography has remained 
nearly stationary, yet our ortheopy has been 
very much changed ; which may be seen in 
comparing the Bible, translated under James 
I., with the common edition. Different per- 
sons have proposed different means, for over- 
coming these difficulties, and nearly all 
without much success ; which is the less to 
be regretted, when we consider how little the 
voice and ear have been developed and culti- 
vated, and thereby prepared to meet the exi- 
gencies of the case. It is now seen, on a 
faithful analysis and synthesis of their labors 
to revolutionize our language in these re- 
spects, that each reformer's system is found 
to be very imperfect ; but the good work is 
going on slowly ; and, in process of time, 
it will be accomplished ; very much to the 
disappointment of fcoofc-worms, and to the 
gratification of that spirit of the age, which 
looks more to the uses of things, than to their 



U 



Proverbs. 1. Reprove mildly, and correct 
with caution. 2. Let us creep before we walk, and 
walk before we/t/. 3. One book, well read, is 
worth twenty skimmed over. 4. The greatest 
wealth — is contentment with a little. 5. A letter — 
is half a meeting. 6. We may read much, with- 
out understanding much. 7. Presence of mind, 
is necessary at all times. 8. Little boats should 
keep near shore; great ones — may venture more. 
9. I confide, and am at rest. 10. While there is 
life, there is hope. 11. He attains whatever he 
aims at. 12. A good story, is none the worse for 
being twice told. 

Anecdote. Dying but Once. When Ce- 
sar was advised, by some of his friends, to be 
more cautious as to the security of his per- 
son, and not to walk among the people with- 
out arms, or any one to protect him; he 
replied, — " He, who lives in the fear of death, 
every moment feels its torture; I will die 
but once? 

I. a conies. A life of deceit — is one of un- 
mitigated torture — a living hell, which should 
deserve our pity for the unhappy beings who 
submit to it. 

Varieties. 1. Are not the unity and trin- 
ity of God, the elemental and fundamental 
principles of christian theology ? 2. Charac- 
ter, based on goodness and truth, is a source 
of eternal hajipiness. 3. We are made what 
we are, by what is from above, within, and 
around us. 4. God gives to all, the power 
of becoming what they ought to be. 5. A 
full persuasion of our ability to do well, is a 
powerful motive to excellence, and a sure 
pledge of success. 6. It is our duty, and our 
happiness, to feel for others, and take an in- 
terest in their welfare. 7. The action of life, 
is desire ; as is the desire and delight, with its 
consequent actions, such is the life. 

THE GOODNESS OF PROVIDENCE. 

The Lord — my pasture shall prepare, 
And feed me — with a shepherd's care ; 
His presence — shall my wants supply, 
And guard me — with a watchful eye; 
My noon-day walks — he shall attend, 
And all my midnight hours — defend. 
When, in the sultry glebe — I faint, 
Or, on the thirsty mountains pant ; 
To fertile vales, and dewy meads, 
My weary. %vand r ring steps he leads, 
Where peaceful rivers, soft and slow, 
Amid the verdant landscape flow. 
Though — in the paths of death — I tread, 
With gloomy horrors — overspread, 
My steadfast heart — shall fear no ill ; 
For thou, O Lord, art with me still : 
Thy friendly crook — shall give me aid. 
And guide me — through the dreadful shade. 
Though in a bare — and rugged way, 
Through devious — lonely wilds I stray, 
Thy bounty — shall my pains beguile ; 
The barren wilderness — shall smile. 
With sudden greens — and herbage crowned* 
And streams— shall murmur all around. 



82 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



333. Pronunciation — should be so sys- 
tematic, as to render it capable of being stu- 
died from its elementary principles, and be- 
come an Qbject of methodical acquirement. 
Every thing involved in producing sounds, 
in the conformation of the organs in articu- 
lation, the application of all that belongs to 
accented, tut //-accented, and wn-accented 
vowels, and every principle of melody and 
euphony — are included in pronunciation, 
and tends to its perfection : but the ancients 
included also Emphasis, Intonation, Inflec- 
tion, Circumflexes and the other essentials of 
delivery. 

234. If the great object of pronunciation 
be, to produce the designed effect, in the best 
manner, we shall find it necessary to attend 
not only to the preceding principles, and 
their application, but to watch over useless 
innovations, and inclinations to senseless 
changes, — desires to be what is called fash- 
ionable — regardless of reason, and ambitious 
to shine as a leader in some peculiar pronun- 
ciation : then, our language will bear a rigid 
comparison with any other, either ancient or 
modern, when ends, causes and effects are ta- 
ken into consideration. Let us not, then, de- 
viate from established principles, and rules, 
without good and satisfactory reasons. 

235. Action and Reaction. Have you 
ever particularly noticed, the reciprocal ac- 
tion between the voice and the mind, the 
tongue and the heart ? Well might the apos- 
tle exclaim, "How great a matter a little 
fire kindleth !'' The tongue is full of pow- 
er for weal, or for wo, according to the state 
of the heart, that impels it to action. What 
is there, that cannot be talked up, or talked 
down by it 1 It is full of blessing, or curs- 
ing — love or hatred; and oh! how it can 
sting the soul, when it has been dipped in 
the gall and wormwood of hell ; and how lift 
it to heaven, when fired with celestial love. 

Notes. Always infill, perfectly, the accented vowel, and 
more so, in proportion as the word is important; i. e. shape the 
vowel sound completely, by the appropriate organs, and give it all 
its necessary power, filling it full of the influence of the mind, in 
the proportion as you wish your ideas to be impressive and abiding. 
Mind possesses a magnifying power over words, making them 
mean more than they naturally do : which will be perfectly obvi- 
ous in the specific practice of the principles which we are gradu- 
ally approaching. 

Anecdote. "I suppose," (said an arrant 
quack, while feeling the pulse of his patient,) 
u that you think me afoot." " Sir," (replied 
the sick man,) " I perceive you can discover 
a man's thoughts by his pulse." 

If all our hopes and all our fears, 

Were prisoned in life's narrow bound; 
If, travelers through this vale of tears, 

We saw no better world beyond; 
Oh! what could check the rising sigh? 

What earthly thing, could pleasures give? 
Oh I who would venture then, to die, 
Or who would venture then, to live ? 



Proverbs. 1. The conduct of men is an in- 
dex to their hearts ; for by Xheh fruits ye shall know 
them. 2. In arduous and trying circumstances 
preserve equanimity ; and in prosperous hours, 
restrain the ebullitions of excessive joy. 3. Those 
things that belong to others generally please us ; 
while those that are our own are more valued by 
others. 4. Attach yourself to good company and 
you will be respected as one of them. 5. The 
most distinguished men, of all ages, have had 
their imperfections. 6. Cutting jests, when the sa- 
tire is true, inflicts a wound that is not soon forgot- 
ten. 7. Nothing is more disgusting, than a low- 
bred fellow, when he suddenly attains an elevated 
station. 3. Either never attempt a thing, or accom- 
plish it. 9. Fortune — favors the bold, and aband- 
ons the timid. 10. Acts of kindness, shown to 
good men, are never thrown away. 11. War — is 
death's jest. 12. Of two evils — choose the least. 

Varieties. 1. If you make a present, 
give what will be useful. 2. Do not the 
wings, that form the butterfly, he folded in 
the worm] 3. Language — should first be 
learned by imitation. 4. One of the greatest 
obstacles, in the road to excellence, is indo- 
lence. 5. Humility — is that low, sweet root, 
from which all heavenly virtues shoot. 6. 
Acquire a thorough knowledge of all your 
duties. 7. God — is an infinite abyss of wis- 
dom: which is not comprehensible — either 
by men or angels, as to one millionth of its 
parts : of its infinite store, they are to receive 
fresh supplies to all eternity. 

THE MOTHER'S INJUNCTION, ON PRESENTING HER SON 
WITH A BIBLE. 

Remember love, who gave thee this, 

When other days shall come : 
When she, who had thy earliest kiss, 

Sleeps — in her narrow home, 
Remember, 'twas amother — gave 
The gift to one — she'd die to save. 
That mother — sought a pledge of love, 

The holiest — for her son ; 
And, from the gifts of God above, 

She chose a goodly one. 
She chose, for her beloved boy, 
The source of light, and life, and joy. 
And bade him keep the gift, — that, when 

The parting hour would come, 
They might have hope — to meet again, 

In an eternal home. 
She said — his faith in that — would be 
Sweet incense — to her memory. 
And should the scoffer, in his pride, 

Laugh that fond faith to scorn, 
And bid him cast the pledge aside, 

That — he from youtli had borne ; 
She bade him pause, and ask his breast, 
If he, or she, had loved him best? 
A. parent's blessing on her son 

Goes with this holy thing; 
The love, that would retain the one, 

Must to the other cling. 
Remember! 'tis no idle toy, 
A mooter's gift, Remember, boy! 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



83 



236. The only way that provincialisms, 
foreign accents and brogues, can be removed, 
is by individual attention to the first princi- 
ples of our language, as here exhibited, and, 
at the same time, following- a teacher who 
can give the true English pronunciation; 
for sounds can only be learned by imitation ; 
and this is the way in which Elocution and 
Music must be taught. Our language has 
suffered, and is suffering, greatly, by being 
improperly taught by foreigners, who can- 
not pronounce one half of our words with 
propriety. But a teacher may be able to pro- 
nounce single words with a good degree of 
correctness, and yet be unable to deliver sen- 
tences, in a proper manner. A few minutes 
every day, for a few weeks, devoted to the 
study and practice of these principles, will 
enable almost any one to discover and amend 
his errors and defects in articulating our for- 
ty-four sounds, and pronouncing correctly, 
the words in common use ; and if spelling by 
sounds and by sight, be faithfully practiced, 
one may secure another rare excellence, — 
that of writing our words with correctness 
and despatch. 

337. Every thing in the universe, both of 
mind and of matter, exists in reference to cer- 
tain fixed principles, winch are called laws 
of order, originating in the Great First 
Cause, and thence emanating throughout all 
creation, animate and inanimate: and so 
long and so far, as these laws are obeyed, we 
are shielded from all evils, physical and spiri- 
tual : hence, if a man suffers, either in mind, 
or body, from within, or without, the cause 
of the suffering is an infringement of the 
Laws of Life. Such, then, are our constitu- 
tions, and relations, that we cannot will, 
think, or act, without obeying, or violating, 
these laws of Life, of Being, of God. Oh the 
lengths, the breadths, the heighths, and the 
depths of the wisdom and love of God, as 
manifested in the creation, redemption, and 

SAXVATIOiST of man. 

Anecdote. Pity. A would-be orator, of 
very moderate abilities, after a long- ha- 
rangue, asked a real friend, if he did not ex- 
cite much compassion. He replied, "most 
certainly, you did sir ; every one of the au- 
dience pitied you most heartily?'' 

" The way was long, the wind was cold, 
The minstrel — was infirm, and old; 
His wither'd cheek— and tresses gray, 
Seem'd to have known a better day. 
The harp, his sole remaining joy, 
Was carried — by an orphan boy." 

Me — let the tender office long engage, 

To rock the cradle of reposing age ; 

With lenient arts — extend a mother's breath, 

Make languor smile, and smooth the bed of death ; 

Explore the thought, explain the asking eye, 

And keep, a while, one parent from the sky I 



j Proverbs. 1. Neither great poverty, nor 
great riches will hear reason. 2. Wine — is a turn- 
coat ; first a. friend, then an enemy. 3. Diet and 

\ exercise are the two physicians of nature. 4. 

; There is many a good house-wife that can't sing, 

! or dance. 5. Love — can neither be bought, nor 
sold. 6. He, that is a wise man, by day, is no 
fool by night. 7. The society of ladies — is a 
school of politeness. 8. An enemy to beauty is 

! a foe to nature. 9. When a man's coat is thread- 
bare, it is easy to pick a hole in it. 10. The study 
of vain things — is laborious idleness. 11. No 
mine equal to saving. 12. Dependence is a poor 
trade. 13. All is good that is useful. 

Contextment — produces, in some meas- 
ure, all those effects, which the alchymist 
usually ascribes to what he calls the philoso- 
pher's stone ; and if it does not bring riches, 
it does the same thing, by banishing the de- 
sire of them. If it cannot remove the dis- 
quietudes, arising from a man's mind, body 
or fortune, it makes him easy under them. 
It has indeed, a kindly influence on the soul 
of man, in respect of every being to whom he 
stands related. It extinguishes all murmur, 
repining, and ingratitude, towards that Be- 
ing, who has allotted him his part to act in 
this world. It destroys all inordinate ambi- 
tion, and every tendency to corruption, with 
regard to the community wherein he is plac- 
ed. It gives sweetness to his conversation, 
and a perpetual serenity — to all his thoughts. 

Varieties. Is it not strange, that nations 
of men could ever have admitted into their 
weed, the idea of a plurality of Gods ; when 
the whole of Nature bears on it so distinctly, 
the impress of oxe mind 1 2. He is not the 
best reader, who speaks his words most rapid- 
ly ; but he who does justice to them, by pro- 
nouncing them correctly, and effectively. 3. 
If a person delights in telling you the faults 
of others, be sure he intends to tell others 
your faults. 4. Never be a minute too late. 
5. Avoid loud talking and laughing in the 
streets. 6. The moral and intellectual man, 
seems to mould and modify the physical 
man. 7. We are filled with the life of heaven, 
just so far as we are emptied of our own, and 
find in us an utter inability to do good, with- 
out divine assistance. 
A cloud lay cradled — near the setting sun — 

A gleam of crimson — tinged its braided snow; 
Long had I watched the glory — moving on, 

O'er the still radiance — of the lake below. 
Tranquil its spirit seemed — and floated slow; 

Ee'n in its very motion— there was rest, 
While every breath of eve, that chanced to blow, 

Wafted the traveler— to the beauteous west- 
Emblem, methought, of the departed soul, 

To whose white robe, the gleam of bliss is given, 
And by the breath of mercy — made to roll 

Right onward— to the golden gates of heaven; 
Where, to the eye of faith, it peaceful lies, 
And tells to man— his glorious destinies. 



84 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



»3S. Pronunciation, as has been observed, 
had a very comprehensive meaning among 
the ancients, taking in the whole compass of 
delivery, and involving every thing we see 
and hear in modern elocution : it is now con- 
fined within narrower limits, and has refer- 
ence only to the manner of sounding words. 
It is much to be regretted, that there is not 
more agreement, even among literary and 
scientific men, with regard to this important 
branch of our subject : but when we reflect, 
that not one in a hundred, takes it up syste- 
matically, and masters its principles, it is not 
su .'prising that there is so much discrepancy. 
This consideration of inattention to the sub- 
ject should put us on our guard against fol- 
lowing their examples in every respect, and 
of yielding implicit obedience to their whims 
and oddities. There is so much self-love and 
pride of intelligence, as well as passion for 
novelty, prevalent in the world, that the stu- 
dent in elocution, as well as in every thing 
else, should cleave to acknowledged and well 
established principles; and regard what is 
most useful instead of what is new. 

239. There are general as well as specific 
rules, for pronunciation: a partial idea of 
which, may be obtained from this manual of 
Elocution. The author has been engaged, 
for many years, in compiling a Dictionary, 
on an entirely new plan, so arranged, that 
when one has learned the definitions of a few 
hundred words, he can accurately define as 
many thousands; and with the use of his 
perfect alphabet, he will know the sound of 
every letter, the instant he sees it, and how 
to pronounce each word, without re-spelling, 
with the same facility. All things are gov- 
erned by fixed principles, when they are in 
true order; and when the principles of Pro- 
nunciation are properly developed, and ap- 
plied, they will be found as simple and effec- 
tive, as those of Elocution and Music. 

Notes. 1. As the voice is often affected, by a derangement 
of the respiratory and articulating organs : a few observations are 
made on some of their causes and remedies. 2. Colds and Coughs 
— are the effects of sudden exposure to a cold atmosphere, by 
which the pores of the skin, (which is an exhalent surface,) be- 
comes constringed and obstructed ; which obstructions may be re- 
moved, by restoring to the skin, (which is the fa/ety-valve of the 
system,) its usual offices. When one has taken cold, the mucus 
membrane of the lungs, and air passages, (which are also exha- 
lents,) emit a new fluid — to compensate for the interruption in the 
office of the surface of the body ; and, as this new secretion con- 
■ists of humors, which can be of no further use to the system, it 
excites a muscular effort, called a Cough ; by which it is detached 
from the surface of this inner skin, and expectorated. One of the 
best remedies is a Vapor Bath, with an application of cold water, 
and friction immediately after. 

Anecdote. A parish clerk, having, accor- 
ding to custom, published the banns of matri- 
mony, between a loving couple, was followed 
by the minister, who gave out the hymn, 
commencing with these words — "Mistaken 
souls! that dream of Heaven." 

Reason gains all men,— by compelling— none. 



Proverbs. 1. Endeavor to improve in con- 
versation. 2. He who i3 wise in small matters, 
will be wise in large ones. 3. Never say a fool- 
ish thing. 4. None can speak so feelinsly of an 
advantage, as he who has suffered by neglecting 
it. 5. Let not the sun go down on your wrath. 
6. Our minds are moulded and fashioned by the 
books we read. 7. Better be good, and not seem 
so, than seem good, and not be so. 8. A pleasant 
journey is dearly bought, with the loss of home. 
9. He, only, is a man, who governs himself. 10. 
All have power to distinguish between right, 
and wrong. 11. Turn a deaf ear to obscene 
words 12. Ml things are proven by contrast. 

Good Sense. It will preserve us from cen- 
soriousness; will lead us to distinguish cir- 
cumstances; keep us from looking after vis- 
ionary perfection, and make us see things in 
their proper light. It will lead us to study 
dispositions, peculiarities, accommodations; 
to weigh consequences; to determine what 
to observe and what to pass by; when to be 
immoveable, and when to yield. It will pro- 
duce good manners, keep us from taking 
freedoms, and handling things roughly; will 
never agitate claims of superiority, but teach 
us to submit ourselves one to another. Good 
sense — will lead persons to regard their own 
duties, rather than to recommend those of 
others. 

"Varieties. 1. Is not a true knowledge of 
the Divine Being, the foundation of religion, 
and the corner-stone of the church? 2. 
Every improper indulgence of the passions, 
increases their strength for evil. 3. Few 
seem to be aware, how much depends on the 
culture of our social nature. 4. It is a great 
happiness — to be free from suspicion; but a 
greater, to be free from offence. 5. To be 
without passion, is worse than a beast; and 
to be without reason, is worse than a man. 
6. The refined pleasures of a truly pious 
mind, are far superior to the coarse gratifica- 
tions of sense. 7. God gave no faculty of 
mind, or body, to men, but those which he 
meant should be exerted, and honor him in 
his design; the perversion of those faculties, 
and acting from, in, and by them, contrary 
to God's design, makes the evil, disease, and 
death. 

THE DAY OF LIFE. 

The morning hours — of cheerful light, 
Of all the day— are best ; 

But, as they speed their hasty flight, 

If every hour — be spent aright, 

We sweetly sink — to sleep— at night, 
And pleasant — is our rest. 

And life — is like a summer's day, 
It seems so quickly past : 

Youth — is the morning, bright, and gay ; 

And, if 'tis spent in wisdom's way, 

We meet old age— without dismay, 
And death — is sweet — at last. 
Oft, the cloud, that wraps the present hour, 
Lives— but to brighten— all out future dayt. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



85 



240. Pattses, are indications of silence; 
they were introduced with the art of printing ; 
and it is questionable, whether they have aid- 
ed us much in learning to read or speak : for 
if there were no pauses, we should be com- 
pelled to exercise the mind, so far as neces- 
sary to understand the author. Pauses in 
speech, are analagous to rests in music ; and 
there are seven different kinds in each art; all 
of which must be thoroughly understood, in 
their essence, to read, write, or sing correctly. 
The true principles of notation, or pauses, 
are found only in the measure of speech, 
which is based on the philosophy of mind, 
involving the exercise of thinking and feel- 
ing. The use of pauses is to aid in making 
the sense clearer, and should be only just long 
enough to answer their end. 

34:1. There are two kinds of pauses, — 
Grammatical and Rhetorical. Grammatical 
pauses are distinguished by characters, and 
are addressed to the eye, as well as to the ear. 
The shortest pause is called a comma, (>) 
which indicates a silence of one second. The 
teacher is recommended to count, at every 
pause, while the pupil reads ; the same as is 
done at the rests in music ; this exercise, is 
the surest to accomplish the object. Ex. 1. 
Do to others, as you would they should do to 
you. 2. None can be a disciple of the graces, 
but in the school of virtue. 3. Be armed 
with courage, against thyself, against thy 
passions, and against thy flatterers. 4. Every 
leaf, every twig, and every drop of water, 
teems with life. 5. The colors of the rain- 
bow are — violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, 
orange and red. 

243. Examples to Illustrate the Pauses. 
The three grand degrees of all existences are 
— what is natural, human and DIVINE. 
The three grand divisions of all natural 
things are — earths, loaters and atmospheres. 
The three kingdoms of nature are — the min- 
eral, the vegetable, and the animal. The 
three divisions of the mineral kingdom are — 
the soils, the rocks, and the precious stones. 
The three divisions of the vegetable kingdom 
are — grasses, plants and shrubs, and trees. 
The three divisions of the animal kingdom 
are — into those that creep and walk on the 
earth, those that swim, and those that fly. 
Each of these divisions is divided in trines ; 
according to which, all things exist, and sub- 
sist. 

Anecdote. An agent, soliciting subscri- 
bers for a book, showed the prospectus to a 
man, who, after reading- — u one dollar in 
boards, and one dollar and twenty-five cents 
in sheep,'''' — declined subscribing, as he might 
not have boards or sheep on hand, when call- 
ed upon for payment. 

The humble man, when he receives a wrong, 

Refers revenge— to whom it doth belong. 



Proverbs.. 1. A bird is known by his note, 
— and a man by his talk. 2. There are many, 
who glory in their shame. 3. A good character — 
is a badge of excellence, that cannot long be con- 
cealed. 4. Never more, or less, than enough. 5. 
Some — rather imitate greatness, than goodness. 

6. There is misery in want, and danger in excess. 

7. Good sayings, belong to all; evil actions only 
to their authors. 8. A knowledge of the way, is a 
good part of the journey. 9. If we go wrong, the 
farther we go, the farther we are from home. 10. 
Reform yourself first, and then, others. 11. The 
fool — wanders; the wise — travel. 12 Words are 
wind ; seeing is believing. 

Inadequacy of Language. Words — 
are poor weapons. The most beautiful verses 
— are those which we cannot express. The 
diction of every language is insufficient; and 
every day, the heart of man finds, in the de- 
licacy of his sentiments, and the imagination 
discovers — in the impressions of visible na- 
ture,things,\fhich the mouth cannot embody 
for want of words. The Zieart, and the 
thought of man — are like a musician — driven 
to play infinitely varied music — on an organ, 
which has but few notes. It is sometimes 
more advisable to be silent than to speak. 
Silence — is felt by the soul, and appreciated 
by God ; and that is enough. 

Varieties. 1. Is not the doctrine of the 
divinity, and humanity — of the Lord Jesus 
Christ, the touch-stone, by which the chris- 
tian church is to be tried ? 2. The life of a 
christian — is his walk; Christ is his way, 
and heaven — his home. 3. A coward in the 
field, is like a wise man's fool ; he does not 
know what he professes ; but a coward in the 
faith, is like a. fool, in his wisdom, he does not 
profess what he knows. 4. Virtue — consists 
in the faithful performance of our duty, from 
love to God, and love to manj and vice — in 
the neglect of our duty from a love of self 
and a love of the world. 5. The heart of a 
worthless man — is as unfixed, and change- 
able, as the fitful wind. 6. The tongue may 
speak the loudest ; but the heart — the truest. 
7. Look at the form, consider the desire, and 
act, and mark the end; for thereby you may 
know the nature of all created beings. 

This world's not " all a fleeting show, 

For man's illusion given ;" — 
He that hath sooth'd a widoiv's wo, 
Or wip'd an orphan's tear, doth know 

There's something here of Heaven. 

And he, that walks life's thorny way, 

With feelings calm and even, 
Whose path is lit, from day to day, 
By virtue's bright and steady ray, 

Hath something felt of Heaven. 

He, that the christian's course hath run, 

And all bis foes forgiven, 
Who measures out life's little span 
In love to God— and love to man, 

On earth, hath tasted Heaven. 



86 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



343. The Semicolon — is an indication that 
we should pause long enough to count two, 
deliberately; and while we are thus resting, 
from physical effort, we can carry on our 
mental effort, for the purpose of producing 
the desired effect : for it is of the first impor- 
tance, in reading and speaking, to keep the 
mind employed with the thoughts and feel- 
ings ; even when there is no external act; 
except it may he the play of the facial mus- 
cles. 1. Envy not the appearance of happi- 
ness in any one ; for you know not his secret 
grief. 2. The sign without the substance, is 
nothing ; the substance without the sign, is 
all things. 3. None are so innocent, as not 
to be evil spoken of; none so wicked, as to 
want all commendation. 4. We may know 
what we will not utter ; but we should never 
utter, what we do not know. 

244. The following lines afford a good ex- 
ercise, in the placing and use of the gram- 
matical pause. 

I saw a peacock with a fiery tail 
I saw a blazing star that dropt down hail 
I saw a cloud begirt with ivy round 
I saw a sturdy oak creep on the ground 
I saw a pismire swallow up a whale 
I saw the brackish sea brim full of ale 
I saw a phial glass sixteen yards deep 
I saw a well full of men's tears to weep 
I saw man's eyes all on a flame of fire 
I saw a house high as the moon or higher 
I saw the radiant sun at deep midnight 
I saw the man who saw this dreadful sight. 
345. Natural History — involves the 
study of all the productions of nature, ani- 
mal, vegetable and mineral; their qualities, 
relations and origin. It is divided into three 
kingdoms, giving rise to the corresponding 
sciences of Zoology, Botany and Mineralogy ; 
which are divided into classes, orders, genera, 
and species, founded on prominent distinc- 
tions ; in which, what most resembles the 
earth, are placed nearest in relation to it. 

Anecdote. " How do you know," (said a 
traveler to a poor wandering Arab of the des- 
ert,) " That there is a God ?" " In the same 
manner," (he replied,) " that I trace the foot- 
steps of an animal, — by the prints it leaves 
upon the sand." 

Nor let soft slumber — close your eyes, 
Before you've recollected thrice 
The train of actions — through the day ; 
Where have my feet — chose out the way? 
What have I learned, where'er I've been, 
From all I've heard, from all I've seen ? 
What know I more, that's worth the knowing? 
What have I done, that's worth the doing? 
What have I sought, that I should shun? 
What duty — have I left undone ? 
Or into what new follies run? 
These ^elf-inquiries — are the road, 
That leads to virtue— and to God. 



Proverbs. 1. Prosperity — engenders sloth. 
2. Laziness— grows on people ; it begins in cob- 
webs, and ends in chains. 3. Many have done a 
wise thing ; more a cunning thing ; but very few — 
a generous thing. 4. What cannot be told, had 
better not be done. 5. No patience, no true wis- 
dom. 6. Those that are careless of themselves, can 
hardly be mindful of others. 7. Contentment gives 
a crown, where fortune hath denied it. 8. He, 
who lives disorderly one year, does not enjoy him- 
self for five. 9. Public men, should have pubSc 
minds : or private ends will be served, at the pub- 
lic cost. 10. Mildness — governs better than anger. 
11. While there is life, there is hope. 12. Good 
men — are a public good. 

Importance of Observation. The ex- 
ternal world is designed, by its Creator, to 
aid essentially in developing the human 
mind. Ten thousand objects appeal to our 
observation ; and each one is a book — of the 
most interesting character, which can be had 
without money, and without price. But we 
must attend to the animate, as well as to the 
t?z-animate world, — to men, as well as to 
things. We should not be ashamed to ask 
for information, when we do not understand 
the whys and wherefores ; nor fail of con- 
versing with every one, who can impart to us 
useful knowledge. 

Varieties. 1. Are christians prohibited 
the proper use of any natural good] 2. 
When the honor and interest of truth are 
concerned, it is our duty to use all lawful 
means — for its support and defence. 3. Tol- 
eration — is odious to the intolerant ; free- 
dom — to oppressors; property to robbers; 
and all kinds of prosperity to the envious. 
4. General Washington was born, Feb. 22nd, 
(0. S.) 1732 ; and died, Dec. 14th, 1797, aged 
67; 21 years after the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. 5. What is the most perfect Gov- 
ernment'.' that, where an injury done the 
meanest citizen, is considered an insult upon 
the constitution. 6. Grammar — speaks; Di- 
alectics — teach truth ; Rhetoric — gives color- 
ing to our speech ; Music — sings ; Arithme- 
tic — numbers : Geometry — weighs ; and As- 
tronomy — teaches us to know the stars. 7. 
As the Apostle saith, so it is, viz : The in- 
visible things of God, and Divine Order, 
may be seen, and understood by those thing s 
which are made, in outward creation ; even 
his eternal power and God-head. 
Words are like leaves ; and where they most abound, 
Much fruit of sense beneath— is rarely found. 
False eloquence, like the prismatic glass, 
Its gaudy colors spreacls-on ev^ry place ; 
The face of Nature — we no more survey ; 
All glares alike, without distinction — gay : 
But true expression, like th' unchanging sun, 
Clears, and improves, whate'er it shines upon : 
It gilds — all objects, but it alters — none. 
Expression — is the dress of thought, and still 
Appears more decent — as more suitable 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



87 



246, A Colon, (:) marks a pause of three 
seconds ; or while one can count three, delib- 
erately. Principles — are tested by their ap- 
plication ; but even then, we must think, as 
well as feel, and ascertain the whys and 
wherefores. 1. Read the sacred Scriptures: 
they are the dictates of divine wisdom. 2. 
Harbor no malice in thy heart : it will be a 
viper in thy bosom. 3. Do not insult a poor 
man : his situation entitles him to our pity. 
4. He, that studies only man, will get the 
body without the soul: he that studies only 
books, will get the sou I, without the body: 
wisdom says, study both. 5. Partially deaf 
persons, more easily hear a moderately loud 
voice with a clear articulation, than a very 
loud one, that is rapid and indistinct: so it 
is with a weak voice, in addressing a large 
assembly. 

347. Coincidence. Washington — was 
born, Feb. 22d, 1732, was inaugurated, 
1789 ; and his term of service expired in the 
66th year of his age : John Adams was born, 
Oct 19, 1735; inaugurated, 1797; term ex- 
pired in the 66th year of his age : Thomas 
Jefferson was born, April 2d, 1743 ; inaugu- 
rated, 1801 ; term expired in the 66th year of 
his age: Madison was born, March 5th, 1751 ; 
inaugurated, 1809 ; term expired in the 66th 
year of his age : Monroe was born, April 2d, 
1759; inaugurated, 1S17; term expired in 
the 66th year of his age : all these five presi- 
dents were men of the Revolution, and ended 
their term of service in the 66th year of their 
age. 

348. Breathing. When we sit at our 
ease, and are not exercising the voice, our 
breathing is slow and regular ; and the more 
we speak, work, or sing, the more frequently 
must we inhale fresh air ; because the expen- 
diture is greater at such times : many persons 
fall victims to this neglect ; and little is our 
primary instruction in reading calculated to 
aid us in appropriate breathing; the results 
of which are, exceedingly bad habits, induc- 
ing impediments in vocal efforts, disease and 
death' Oh, when shall we be wise, and un- 
derstand these things 1 How hard to learn, 
even by experience ! 

Anecdote. A Mutual Mistake. Two 
gentlemen were riding in a stage-coach ; when 
one of them, missing his handkerchief, rashly 
accused the other of having stolen it; but 
soonfinding it, had the good manners to beg 
pardon for the affront ; saying it was a mis- 
take : to which the other replied, with great 
readiness, and kind feeling, " Don : t be un- 
easy; it was a mutual mistake: you took 
me for a thief; and I took you, for a gentle- 
man." 

It is a vain attempt 

To bind the ambitious and unjust, by treaties ; 

These— they elude — a thousand specious ways. 



Proverbs. 1. Religion says — love all; and 
hate none. 2. Observe all those rules of politeness 
at home, that you would among strangers. 3. At 
the close of each day, carefully review your con- 
duct. 4. Avoid unpleasant looks. 5. Be not over 
anxious for money. 6. Acquire the useful— first ; 
the brilliant — afterwards. 7. A virtuous youth, 
will make a happy old age. 8. One ill example — 
spoils many good precepts. 9. It costs more to re- 
venge injuries, than to bear them. 10. For the 
evidence of truth, look at the truth itself. 11. A 
friend is known, when needed. 12. Who robs a 
scholar, robs the public. 

Experience. In early youth, while yet 
we live among those we love, we love without 
restraint, and our hearts overflow in every 
look, word and action. But when we enter 
the vjorld, and are repulsed by strangers, 
and forgotten by friends, we grow more and 
more timid in our approaches, even to those 
we love best. How delightful to us, then, 
are the caresses of children .' All sincerity, 
all affection, they fly into our arms,- and 
then only, we feel the renewal of our first 
confidence, and first pleasure, 

Varieties. 1. What is more revolting — 
than the idea of a plurality of Gods ? 2. An 
evil habit, in the beginning, is easily sub- 
dued ; but being often repeated, it acquires 
strength, and becomes inveterate. 3. The 
bee and the serpent — often extract the same 
juices ; but, by the serpent, they are conver- 
ted into poison ; while by the bee, they are 
converted into honey. 4. He, that aims at the 
sun, will not hit it, — but his arrow will fly 
higher, than if he aimed at an object on a le- 
vel with himself. 5. Is there not a place and 
state, for every one, and should not every one 
be in his proper state and place ? 6. Those 
little words, " try," and " begin," have been 
great in their results: "leant" — never did 
anything, and never will: "III try" — has 
done wonders. 7. The mini stry of an gels — 
is that of supplying us with spiritual reasons, 
truths, and /ore-principles, whensoever we 
stand in need of them. 

Gold — many hunted, sweat — and bled for gold ; 

Waked all the night, and labored all the day : 

And what teas this allurement, dost thou ask ? 

A dust, dug from the bowels of the earth, 

Which, being cast into the ./ire. came out 

A shining thing, that fools admired, and called — 

A god ; and, in devout and humble plight, 

Before it kneeled, the greater — to the less. 

And on its altar — sacrificed ease, peace, 

TruHi. faith, integrity ; good conscience, friends, 

Love, charity, benevolence, and all 

The sweet and tender sympathies of life; 

And to complete the horrid — murderous rite, 

And signalize their folly, offered up 

Their souls, and an eternity of bliss, 

To gain them— what? an hour of dreaming joy • 

A. feverish hour — that hasted to be done, 

And ended — in the bitterness of wo. 



88 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



349. A Period, (.) shows that we should 
pause four seconds; or while wc can count 
four, deliberately. 1. Envy no man. 2. 
Know thyself. 3. Guard against idleness. 4. 
Vilify no person's reputation. 5. Abhor a 
falsehood. 6. Blessed are the poor in spirit. 
7. Jesus icept. 8. Hurt not thyself. 9. Cher- 
ish the spirit of benevolence. 10. Perform 
your duty faithfully. 11. Make a proper 
use of time. 12. Cultivate the affections. 
13. Do good to all. 14. Be punctual in 
your engagements. 15. Love humanity. 

6. Obey the commandments. 17. Live the 
Lord's Prayer. 18. Be holy and J ust. 19. 
Be perfect. 20. Live for immortality. 

250. Pythagorus, about five hundred 
years before the Christian era, called the visi- 
ble universe — by the very expressive Greek 
name, ho kosmos — the order, which we 
translate — the world. The Platonic school, 
afterwards, withdrawing attention from gen- 
eral nature, and fixing it on the epitome — 
Man — began to call him — ho mikros kosmos, 
the miniature world ; or, order in miniature. 
How much useful and instructive history 
there is in the origin of vmds! and it is 
gratifying to know, that these same subjects 
employed such minds as Plato^, more than 
two thousand years ago. 

251. The intellectual physiognomy of 
Chatham — was of a severe, and commanding 
order ; his genius — was eminently practical : 
and while no person — ever surpassed him, 
in the lofty aspiration and generous enthusi- 
asm of patriotism, few have equalled him, in 
their calm and christian application. His 
private character, — shone with a lustre, very 
different from the unhealthy glare of political 
fame. His correspondence — presents him un- 
der an engaging aspect, and enables the rea- 
der to admire the husband and father, not 
less than the statesman and the orator. 

Anecdote. The Far West. "Pray sir," 
said one gentleman to another, " Is not In- 
diana — the Far West ?" " Oh no sir," was 
the reply. " Well, is not Illinois ?" " Very 
far from it." " Surely then, when we cross 
the Mississippi, you are in the Far West .'" 
" No, not exactly." " Where, then, is the Far 
West !" " Why sir, it is about a half a mile 
this side of sunset." 

Beware, proud man, the first approach to crime. 
Indulgence — is most dangerous — nay, fatal, — 
Resist, or soon resistance is in vain. 
The first — leads to the second, then to the third 
The fourth succeeds, until, familiar grown 
With vice, we start not — at our own misdeeds. 
Temptation comes, so clothed in speciousness, 
So full of seeming, we behold her not 
With apprehension, till her baneful pow'r 
Has wrestled with our virtue: dreadful state! 
When vice steals in, and, like a lurking thief, 
Saps — the foundation of integrity. 



Proverbs. 1. Put not off repentance— till an- 
other day. 2. Rashness— is the fruitful parent of 
misfortune. 3. Se{/"-exaltation— is the fooPs para- 
dise. 4. Sweet is the memory — of departed worth. 
5. The covetous man — is his own tormentor. 6. 
Avail yourself of the wisdom and experience of 
others. 7. Be ambitious of excelling, that you 
may do and get the greater good. 8. The first step 
to greatness is — to be honest. 9. Truth — is the ba- 
sis of all excellence. 10. Unlauful love — general- 
ly ends in bitterness. 11. They that hide, can find. 
12. A penny spared, is twice got. 

The Gentleman and his Tenant. 
A country gentleman — had an estate of 
two hundred pounds a year, which he kept 
in his own hands, till he found himself so 
much in debt, that he was obliged to sell one 
half to satisfy his creditors, and let the re- 
mainder to a farmer for one and twenty 
years. Before the expiration of his lease, the 
farmer asked the gentleman, when he came 
one day to pay his rent, whether he would 
sell the land he occupied. " Why, will you 
purchase it'.'" said the gentleman. " If you 
will part with it, and we can agree," replied 
the farmer. "That is exceeding strange," 
said the gentleman. " Pray, tell me how it 
happens, that I could not live upon twice as 
much land, for which I paid no rent, and that 
you, after regularly paying me a hundred a 
year for the half, are able, so soon, to pur- 
chase it." " The reason is plain," answered 
the farmer. " You sat still, and said, Go. I 
stood up, and said, Come. You lay in bed, 
and enjoyed your ease. J rose in the morn- 
ing, and minded my business." 

Varieties. 1. Who should be more vir- 
tuous and intelligent, than the Teacher, who 
is to educate, and form characters — for time 
and eternity? 2. The happiness of every 
one — depends more on the state of his own 
mind, than any external circumstance : nay 
more than all external things put together. 
3. Borrowed money — makes time short. 4. 
The lowest condition of life, with prudence, 
is better than the most exalted station, with- 
out it. 5. How absurd, to be complaining, 
and tormenting ourselves, for what it is im- 
possible to avoid, or attain. 6. Pause, awhile, 
ye travelers on earth, and candidates for eter- 
nity, and contemplate the universe, and the 
Wisdom and Love of Him who made it. 7. 
Where there is no unison with God, the only 
source of order, love and light, there is nei- 
ther order, or love, or light, but their oppo- 
sites. 8. Art — is long, life — is short. 
How terrible — is passion / how our reason 
Falls down before it; while the tortured/ra?we. 
Like a ihip — dashed by fierce encountering tides, 
And of her pilot spoil'd, drives round and round, 
The sport of wind— and wave. 
Our passions — always fatal counsel give ; 
Through a fallacious glass — our wrongs — appear 
Still greater— than they are. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



89 



353. The Interrogation, (?) indicates a 
pause, equal to the Colon, or Period, accord- 
ing to circumstances. It is generally used as 
a sign of asking questions: though sometimes, 
it is one of the strongest modes of affirmation. 
1. Can you see? 2. Can you hear? 3. Can 
you taste ? 4. Can you smell ? 5. Can you 
feel ? 6. Who are you 1 7. What are you 
doing? 8. Where are you going ? 9. What 
is youi destiny? 10. Who made you] 11. 
Of what are you thinking? 12. Whom do 
"Xi love? 

353. Among the examples above, are, the 
first five questions, that are direct : because 
they admit the answer, yes, or no ; all such 
interrogations require the voice to glide up- 
vjard, in asking them ; the last seven questions 
are indirect; because they do not admit the 
answer yes, or no ; all such interrogations re- 
quire the voice to glide downward,m asking 
them. You can test the theory thus: Can 
you see ? Yes ; or no. Who are you 1 Yes ,• 
or no. The former — makes sense ; the latter 
nonsense. Can you hear? Yes. Can you 
taste? No. What are you doing? Yes. 
Where are you going? No. However, it 
will be seen hereafter, that the slides of the 
voice, up, or down, may be reversed — in every 
instance, and yet make good sense. 

354. Direct Question in reference to our 
Living Temples. Is not the house, in which 
we live, a very curious building? Can we 
conceive of any form — more beautiful than 
the human form, when it has not been per- 
verted, or deformed? Who knows best, we, 
or our Creator, what is the proper shape in 
which we should be? Can we mend his 
works 1 Is any thing beautiful — that is not 
useful ? Were we not made right, and have 
we not, in a measure, unmade ourselves ] Is 
not our house a very convenient one, and 
its furniture admirably adapted to the wants 
of its occupant? Would it not be well — fre- 
quently to take a view of the form, covering, 
apartments, furniture, employments, uses 
and abuses of this wonderful house of ours 1 

Anecdote. A Challenge. After the battle 
of Actium, Mark Antony — challenged Au- 
gustus, — who disarmed him in the following 
words. " If Antony — is weary of his life, 
there are other ways of despatch, besides 
fighting him; and for my part, I shall not 
trouble myself to be his executioner." 

There are some — heart-entw'mmg hours in life, 
With sweet seraphic inspiration rife; 
When mellowing thoughts, like music on the ear, 
Melt through the soul, and revel in a tear ; 
And such are they, when, tranquil and alone, 
We sit — and ponder — on long periods flown ; 
And, charmed by fancy's retrospective gaze, 
Live in an atmosphere— of other days; 
Till friends and faces, flashing on the mind, 
Conceal the havoc— time has left behind 

12 H2 



Proverbs. 1. Manifest no excitement, when a 
mistake is made. 2. Be sincere — in your profes- 
sions of friendship. 3. Cultivate a pure heart, and 
you will have a pleasant countenance. 4. Never 
speak to the disadvantage of any one, unless duty 
— requires it. 5. Avoid light and trifling conversa- 
tion. 6. A civil answer, to a rude speech — costs but 
little, and is worth a good deal. 7. Dispel corrod- 
ing care; and consider it sinful — to give way to 
passion. 8. Charms — strike the sight; but merit- 
wins the soul. 9. Persons are to be estimated, ac- 
cording to their goodness, — not according to their 
dress. 10. The sincere and candid man, — has no- 
thing to conceal; for he speaks nothing but the 
truth. 11. Turn a deaf ear to angry words. 12. 
He who promises — runs in debt. 

Laconics. We esteem most things according 
to their intrinsic merit ; it is strange man should be 
an exception. We prize ahorse for his strength and 
courage, — not for his furniture. We prize a man 
for his sumptuous palace, his great train, his vast 
revenue; yet these are his furniture, not his mind. 

Varieties. 1. Which is the more impor- 
tant — and useful discovery, the balloon, or 
the telegraph? 2. What is the cause of sea- 
currents 1 3. Will it take ages — to discover 
the truth; or ages — to acknowledge it, when 
it is discovered'? 4. What is meant by the 
words, a pure state of nature ? Do they not 
mean that state, in which the condition, cir- 
cumstances, and habits of men — are in strict 
accordance with the laws of his nature ? 5. 
Is not Hip-poc-ra-tes called the Father of 
Medicine ? 6. If we are not happy, is it be- 
cause our Creator has not endowed us with 
the capability of becoming so '.' 7 What is 
the difference — in reasoning from. facts and 
experience, and reasoning from a mixture of 
truth and falsehood? Do jiotmany — reason 
from the latter, instead of from the former ? 

THE BEACON. ^ 

The scene — was more beautiful— -far to my eye 

Than if day — in its pride — had arrayed it ; 
Thekmd-breezeblewmj'M, and the azure arch'dsifcy 

Look'd pure — as the Spirit that made i* 
The murmur rose soft, as I silently gaz'd 

On the shadowy wavers playful motion, 
From the dim distant hill, till the beacon-iire blaz'd 

Like a star — in the midst of the ocean. 
No longer the joy of the sailor boy's breast 

Was heard in his wildly breath'd numbers, 
The sea-bird — had flown to her ivave-g'fidled nest, 

The fisherman — sunk to his slumbers. 
One moment I look'd — from the hill's gentle slope, 

All hushed — was the billow's commotion, 
And thought — that the beacon look'd lovely as hope., 

That star — on life's tremulous ocean. 
The time — is long past, and the scene — is afar, 

Yet, when my head — rests on its pillow, 
Will memory- sometimes — rekindle the star 

That blazed — on the breast of the billow. 
In life's closing hour, when the trembling soul fliea, 

And death — stills the heart's — last emotion, 
O then— may the seraph of mercy arise! 

Like a star — on Eternity's ocean. 



90 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



255. The exclamation Point (!) indicates 
about the same length of silence, as the In- 
terrogation : but the slide of the voice, is gen- 
erally downward, from the 6th or 8th note, 
because there is a kind of an outflowing, and 
then an indrawing of the mind, — an inflow- 
ing of the affections, that give rise to this man- 
ifestation. 1. What a beautiful Lake! 2. How 
delightful the music is ! 3. What a splendid 
piece of workmanship ! 4. How charming 
is the prospect! 5. What a majestic scene! 

6. How inimitable those strains are! 7. 
What a piece of work is man ! 8. How glo- 
rious are all the works of God! 9. What 
splendid views of heaven ! 10. How majes- 
tically — the Sun — wheels his mighty round ! 

256. Examples of Exclamation. 1. Fa- 
thers! Senators of Rome ! the arbiters of na- 
tions ! to you I fly for refuge ! 2. Eternity ! 
thou pleasing, dreadful thought ! 3. Behold 
the daughter of innocence ! what a look ! 
what beauty! what sweetness! 4. Behold 
— a great, a good man ! what majesty ! how 
graceful ! how commanding ! 5. 0, vener- 
able shade ! O, illustrious hero ! 6. Fare- 
well ! a long farewell — to all my greatness ! 

7. It stands — solid and entire ! but it stands 
alone — and it stands amidst ruins ! 8. I am 
stripped of all my honor ! I lie prostrate on 
the earth! 9. Leave me! oh! leave me to 
repose ! 10. Hear me, Lord ! for thy lov- 
ing kindness is great ! 

357. Nattiral Theology. From the ex- 
ternal and internal evidences afforded us, from 
creation, and the modes of existence, we as- 
sume, that man — is naturally a religious be- 
ing : the stamp of the Deity is upon him 
even before his birth; and in every subse- 
quent stage of his existence, no matter what 
may be his social, moral or civil condition, 
that stamp — remains with him. It is not to 
be found on the Jew and Christian only, but 
on all men, in all ages, climes, and conditions 
of life. 

Anecdote. A Lawyer and Physician, 
having a dispute about precedence, referred 
the case to Di-og-e-nes, the old philosopher ; 
who gave judgment in favor of the Lawyer, 
in these words : " Let the thief go before, and 
let the executioner follow after." 
The rill — is tuneless — to his ear, who feels 
No harmony within ; the south wind — steals 
As silent — as unseen — among the leaves. 
Who has no inward beauty, none perceives, 
Though all around is beautiful. Nay, more— 
In nature's calmest hour — he hears the roar 
Of winds, and flinging waves— put out the light, 
When high— and angry passions meet in fight ; 
And, his own spirit into tumult hurled, 
He makes a turmoil — of a quiet world : 
The fiends of his own bosom — people air 
With kindred fiends, that hunt him— to despair. 
Not rural sights alone— but rural sounds 
Exhilarate the spirits. 



Proverbs. 1. Great desig^ns, and small 
means — have been the ruin of many. 2. He, is 
a slave to the greatest slave, who serves none but 
himself. 3. Correct the errors of others, when you 
can, and inspire them with the love of goodness 
and truth. 4. It is the act of a base mind, to de- 
ceive, by telling a lie. 5. Liberality — consists less 
in giving profusely, than in giving judiciously. 6. 
The head and feet cool ; the rest will take little harm. 
7. We know well, only what has cost us trouble to 
learn. 8. " Haste not, rest not ;" was the motto on 
Goethe's ring. 9. Keep your thoughts — close, and 
your coun-tenace — open, and you may go safely 
through the world. 10. With the humble, there is 
perpetual peace. 11. Long is the arm of the needy. 
12. Poverty is an evil counsellor. 13. Delay — often 
makes one wise. 

War and Truth. A wise minister would 
rather preserve peace, than gain a victory ; 
because he knows that even the most success- 
ful war leaves a nation poor, and always more 
profligate, than before it. There are real evils 
that cannot be brought into a list of indemni- 
ties, and the demoralizing influence of war is 
not among the least of them. The triumphs 
of truth are the more glorious, chiefly, be- 
cause they are the most bloodless of all victo- 
ries, deriving their highest lustre from the 
saved, not from the slain. 

Varieties; 1. It is the nature of truth, 
— never to force. 2. Is not the science of 
human nature, very comprehensive, as well 
as complicated and profound? 3. How can 
the mere knowledge of historical events — 
avail to the salvation of the soul? 4. What 
is meant by the martyr Stephen, seeing the 
heavens opened ; and, John's being in the 
spirit, on the Lord's day ? 5. To see spirit- 
ual existences, must not the eyes of the un- 
derstanding be opened"? 6. There is but 
one law in being, which the Lord fulfilled, 
and went through, in the world : He passed 
through the whole circle — of both spiritual 
and natural order, and assumed all states, 
possible for man to be in, when in progression 
from the state of nature, — to that of perfect 
grace ; and by virtue thereof, can touch us — 
in all states of trial, we can possibly be in. 
'Tis the quiet hour — of feeling, 

Now — the busy day is past, 
And the twilight shadows — stealing, 

O'er the world — their mantle cast ; 
Now, the spirit, worn and saddened, 

Which the cares of day had bowed, 
By its gentle influence — gladdened, 

Forth emerges from the cloud; 
While, on Memory's magic pages, 

Rise our long lost joys to light, 
Like shadowy forms— of other ages, 

From the oblivious breast of night; 
And the loved— and lost— revisit 

Our fond hearts, their place of yore, 
Till we long with them to inherit 

Realms above— to part— no more. 
The patient mind, by yielding, overcomes. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



91 



258. The Parenthesis ( — ) show s, that the 
words included within it, must be read, or 
spoken, on a lower pitch, and with a quicker 
movement, than the other parts of the sen- 
tence; as though anxious to get through with 
the explanation, or illustrative matter — con- 
tained in it; and the parenthetical clause, 
generally, has the same slide, or inflexion of 
voice, as the last word of the sentence, imme- 
diately preceding it. 1. An honest man, 
(says Mr. Pope,) is the noblest work of God. 
2. Pride, (as the Scripture saith,) was not 
made for man. 3. The Tyrians were the 
first, (if we are to believe — what is told us by 
writers of the highest authority,) who learned 
the art of navigation. 4. Know ye not, 
brethren, (for I speak to them that know the 
law,) how that the law — hath dominion over 
a man — as long as he liveth ? 

259. That strong, hyperbolical manner, 
which we have long been accustomed to call 
the Oriental style of poetry, (because some 
of the earliest poetical productions — came to 
us from the East,) is, in truth, no more Ori- 
ental, than Oc-ci-den-tal ; it is characteristic 
of an age, rather than of a country, and be- 
longs, in some manner, to all nations, at that 
period, which gave rise to music and song. 

260. Mineraiogt — treats of minerals; 
their properties, composition, classification., 
and uses. A mineral — is an organic natural 
substance, either gaseous, as air ; liquid, as 
water; or solid, as earth and stones : it is in- 
separably connected with Geology, which 
treats of the structure of the earth, and the 
masses that compose it ; also, of the changes 
it has undergone, and to which it is still ex- 
posed; while its practical importance is re- 
cognized in Agriculture, Mining, and En- 
gineering, it ranks with Botany and Chemis- 
try in its recondite developments, and with 
Astronomy — in the sublimity of its themes 
and results, as one of the most profound and 
interesting of the sciences. 

Anecdote. Fashion's Sake. Lord Mans- 
field, being willing to save a man, who had 
stolen a watch, directed the jury — to bring it 
in value — ten pence. " Ten pence, my Lord !" 
said the prosecutor; " why, the very fashion 
of it cost fifty shillings." His lordship re- 
plied, " Perhaps so ; but we cannot hang a 
man for fashion's sake." 

I venerate — the pilgrim's cause, 
Yet, for the red man — dare to plead: 

We — bow to Heaven's recorded laws, 
He — turn'd to Nature — for a creed ; 

Beneath the pillar'd dome, 
We — seek our God in prayer ; 

Through boundless woods — he loved to roam, 
And the Great Spirit — worshiped there. 
But one, one fellow-throb with us he felt ; 
To one Divinity — with us he knelt — 
Freedom! the self-same freedom — we adore, 
Bade him — defend his violated shore. 



Proverbs. 1. Discord— reduces strength— to 
weakness. 2. No sweety without some sweat: no 
pains, without some gains. 3. Whatever you do, 
do it to some purpose; whether conquering, or 
conquered. 4. We are inclined to believe thosewe 
do not know, because they have never deceived us. 
5. Gentleness — often disarms the fierce, and melts 
the stubborn. 6. Stake even life, if necessary, in 
the support of truth. 7. Listen — to the voice of 
experimental truth, and confide — in her opinion. 
8. A good appetite — gives relish to the most hum- 
ble fare. 9. There is no secret in the heart, that 
our actions do not disclose. 10. Where there is a 
will, there is a way. 11. True valor — is fire; 
boasting — is smoke. 

Tlie Telescope. A spectacle-makefs boy, 
amusing himself in his father's shop, by hold- 
ing two glasses between his finger and thumb, 
and varying the distance, the weathercock of 
the church spire, (opposite them,) seemed 
to be much longer than ordinary, and appa- 
rently much nearer, and turned upside down. 
This excited the wonder of the father, and led 
him to additional experiments; and thence 
resulted that astonishing instrument, the tel- 
escope, as invented by Gal-i-Ze-o, and per- 
fected by Herschell. This is only one instance, 
among thousands, that show great effects may 
result from small causes. 

Varieties. 1. Is not prejudice — invete- 
rate, in proportion to its irrationality? 2. 
The most delicate, and the most sensible, of 
all pleasures — consists in promoting the hap- 
piness of others. 3. Wit — sparkles as a me- 
teor, and like it, is transient; but genius — 
shines like a splendid luminary, marking 
its course in traces that are immortal. 
4. Men can have no principles, unless they 
are revealed to them by Deity. 5. Is there 
anything that melts — and conquers — like 
love? 6. Confessing a folly, or crime, is 
an act of judgment: a compliment — we 
rarely pass on ourselves. 7. Spiritual truth, 
is the light of heaven: the good — proper to it, 
is the heat, or love thereof; to be filled with 
both, is the perfection of life, and true salva- 
tion; conferable, only, by the Lord Jesus 
Christ, the giver of eternal life, and our Re- 
deemer and Savior. 

Besides,sc/iooZ-friendships are not always to be found 
Though fair in promise, permanent and sound; 
The most disinterested and virtuous minds, 
In early years connected, time unbinds : 
New situations — give a diff'rent cast 
Of habit, inclination, temper, taste; 
And he, that seem'd our counterpart at first, 
Soon shows the strong similitude reversed. 
Young heads are giddy, and young hearts are warm, 
And make mistakes — for manhood to reform. 
Boys are at best, but pretty buds unblown, [known; 
Whose scent and hties — are rather guessed than 
Each — dreams that each — is just what he appears, 
But learns his error — in maturer years, 
When disposition, like a sa il unfurl 'd, 
Shows all its rents and patches to the world. 



92 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



361* The Rhetorical Pause — is dictated 

by the thought and feeling, and is usually 
addressed only to the ear; it is here indicated 
generally, by a dash ( — ,) and its length — 
must be determined by the subject, and occa- 
sion ; it is usually, however, about the length 
of a Semicolon, or Colon: and one thing 
must be distinctly observed, that the reader 
and speaker — is always to inhale breath — at 
every Rhetorical Pause, and generally, at 
each Grammatical Pause ; if the system be re- 
laxed, inhalation will be almost sure to take 
place. Indeed, one of the great secrets of 
reading, speaking and singing — for hours in 
succession, with effect, and without injurious 
exhaustion, consists in the proper manage- 
ment of the breath: not that there should be 
anything stiff and mechanical in the act ; for 
all must be the result of the perfect freedom 
of nature. 

263. The Rhetorical Pause always occurs 
either before or after — the important word, 
or words, of a sentence : if the significant 
word or phrase, is at the beginning, this 
pause is made immediately after it; but if 
such word or phrase, is at the end of the 
sentence, the pause occurs before it. The 
design of the pause is, in the first instance, 
to produce a retrospection of mind ; and in 
the second, to excite attention and expecta- 
tion. Ex. 1. Industry — is the guardian of 
innocence. 2. Imagery — is the garb of poe- 
try. 3. To err — is human ; to forgive — Di- 
vide. 4. Prosperity — gains friends ; adver- 
sity — tries them. 5. Feelings — generate 
thoughts', and thoughts — reciprocate feel- 
ings. 6. Vanity — is pleased with admira- 
tion ; Pride — with self-esteem. 7. Dancing 
— is the poetry of motion. 8. Some — place 
the bliss in action ; some — in ease ; Those 
call it pleasure ; and contentment, these. 9. 
To hope for perfect happiness — is vain. 10. 
And now — abideth Faith, Hope, Charity ; 
these three ; but the greatest of these is — 
Charity. 

263. Individuals of both sexes, often com- 
plain of a very unpleasant sensation at the 
pit of the stomach ; some call it a " death-like 
feeling ;" others speak of it as if " the bottom 
had fallen out :" one of the principal causes is 
a want of the proper action of the breathing 
apparatus: the abdominal and dorsal mus- 
cles become relaxed, by wrong positions and 
want of appropriate exercise and food; when 
their contents fall by their own weight, and 
the diaphragm does not, consequently, act in 
a healthy manner. The remedy is a return 
to the laws of life and being, as here exhi- 
bited. 

Conscience— distasteful truths may tell, 
But mark her sacred dictate — well ; 
Whoever— with her— lives at strife, 
Loses their better friend— for life. 



Proverbs. 1. Pride— is the offspring of folly, 
and the plague of fools. 2. A bad man's dislike, 
is an honor. 3 The censure — of some persons — 
is praise; and their praise, is condemnation — in 
the eyes of the world. 4. It is a base thing — to lie ; 
truth — alone, becomes the ingenuous mind. 5. 
Riches — either serve or rule, every one who posses- 
ses them ; and thus, they are either blessings, or 
curses. 6. In cases where doubt exists, always 
lean to the side of mercy. 7. Poets — are born such ; 
orators — are made such. 8. Malice — is a mean, 
and deceitful engine of mischief. 9. Nature — is 
superior to Art : have faith in her, and success is 
yours. 10. All rules and principles, to be of use, 
must be understood, and practiced. 11. The offen- 
der — rarely pardons. 12. Might too often makes 
right. 13. Truth has a good basis. 

Anecdote. When the painter, Leo-nar- 
di da Vinci, lay upon his death-bed, the king 
came to see him ; and out of respect, he rais- 
ed himself from the pillow ; but the effort 
being too great, he fell back ; when the king 
caught him, and he expired in his arms. 
The king was much affected with the event, 
and left the chamber in tears ; when his no- 
bles — endeavored to soothe him, saying, — 
" Consider, he was only a painter." " Yes, 
yes," replied the monarch, " I do ; and though 
I could make a thousand — such as you, yet 
God alone can make such a painter, as Leo- 
nardi." 

Justice . How many tedious and ruinous 
law-suits — might have been avoided, had the 
parties concerned — patiently examined the 
facts, with coolness and deliberation; in- 
stead of giving way to the blindness of inter- 
est and to passion, by which mutual hatreds 
have been generated, or b lood spilled, — when 
a generous search after truth, and a love of 
justice — would have prevented all the evil. 

Varieties. 1. What is requisite — for the 
right formation of character ? 2. The true 
disciples of nature — are regardless who ac- 
companies them, provided she be the leader .- 
for nature, like truth, is immutable. 3. 
There is no pride — equal to theirs, who rise 
from poverty — to riches ; for some — have 
even forgotten their own relations. 4. That 
form of government is best, which is best 
adapted to the state of the people, and best 
administered. 5. Cyrus, when young, be- 
ing asked — what was the first thing to be 
learned; replied, — To speak the truth. 6. 
The orator's field — is the universe of mind 
— and matter : and his subjects — all that U 
— and can be known — of God — and man. 
7. Every aspiration, desire, and thought — is 
heard and accepted — in heaven, when we sur- 
render our whole life to the Lord's govern- 
ment and providence. 

Gather the rose-buds — while ye may, 

Old Time — \s still a-flying; 
And that same flower, that blooms to-day, 
To-morrow, —shall be dying. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



93 



264. Miscellaneous Examples of all 
the Pauses. The pupil must not rely too 
much on these external indications of silence ; 
for they are only general rules : hence the 
necessity of being governed by the prompt- 
ings and guidance of his own feelings and 
thoughts, after bringing them in subjection 
to goodness and truth ; of which reason — 
always approves. 1. The ostestatious , fee- 
ble, harsh, or obscure style, is always faulty; 
and perspicuity, strength, neatness, and sim- 
plicity — are beauties — ever to be aimed at. 

2. Be wise to-day, 'tis madness to defer ; 
next day — 'the fatal precedent will plead. 
Thus on, till wisdom — is pushed out of life. 

3. How noble 'tis, to own a fault ; how ge- 
nerous, — and divine — to forgive it ! 4. Who 
can forbear to smile with nature ? Can the 
stormy passions — in the bosom roll, while eve- 
ry gale — is peace, and ev'ry grove — \smelody ? 

265. 1. The evidence — that truth carries 
with it, is superior to all argument, and mira- 
cles : and it wants neither the support, nor 
dreads the opposition, of the greatest abil- 
ities. 2. True modesty is ashamed to do 
what is repugnant to reason, and common 
sense ; false modesty — to do what is oppos- 
ed to the humor of the company ; true mo- 
desty avoids whatever is criminal ; false 
modesty — whatever is unfashionable. 3. 
Some — live within their means ; some live up 
to their means — and some — live beyond their 
means. 4. " To what party do you be- 
long?" said a noisy politician, to one whose 
soul — grasped the interests of his whole coun- 
try. " To what party do I belong ?" replied 
the patriot; " I belong to no party, but my 
country's party." 

Punctuate the following, by reading it correctly. 
There is a lady in this land 
Has twenty fingers on each hand 
Five and twenty on hands and feet 
All this is true without deceit. 

266. Botany — treats of plants — their 
structure, growth, classification, description, 
localities and uses. They are organized bo- 
dies, and endowed with life; but they dif- 
fer from animals, in wanting sensation and 
voluntary motion : they differ from minerals, 
in possessing life ; and they contain organs, 
by which they assimilate new matter to in- 
crease their substance, and promote their 
grov)th. The study of botany is highly in- 
teresting and useful ; not only on account 
of the beauty and variety of plants, but of the 
important purposes to which they may be 
applied in sustaining life and curing disease: 
it is necessary to aid in the development of 
body and mind. 

Anecdote. One day, when the moon 
was under an eclipse, she complained thus 
to the sun for the discontinuance of his fa- 
vor; "My dearest friend," said she, "why do 
you not shine upon me as you used to do ?" 
"Do I not shine upon thee ?" said the sun ; 
" I am very sure I intend it." " O no," re- 
plied the moon : " but now I see the reason; 
that dirty planet, the earth, has got between 



Proverbs. 1. By deferring our repentance — 
we accumulate our sorrows. 2. Complaisance — 
renders a superior — amiable, an equal — agreea- 
ble, and an inferior — acceptable. 3. A wound giv- 
en by a word, is often harder to be cured, than one. 
made by the sword. 4. The human form is the 
noblest, and most perfect, of which we can con- 
ceive. 5. Intentions, as well as actions, must be 
good, to be acceptable. 6. Every scene in life, is a 
picture; of which some part is worthy of atten- 
tion. 7. Receive instruction with gratitude. 8. To 
such as are opposed to truth, it seems harsh and 
severe. 9. Never reproach another for doing wrong; 
unless you are sure he has done it. 10. Knowledge, 
to be a good thing, must be rightly applied. 11. lie- 
plies — are not always answers. 12. A chaste eye 
— banishes evil desires. 13. Respect and contempt, 
spoil many a one. 

Refinement. It is a doubt, whether the 
refnements of modern times have, or have 
not, been a drawback upon our happiness: 
for plainness and simplicity of manners have 
given way to etiquette, formality, and de- 
ceit; whilst the ancient hospitality has now 
almost deserted our land ; and what we ap- 
pear to have gained in head, we seem to 
have lost in heart. 

Varieties. 1 . What is the difference be- 
tween the mternal and external' man? be- 
tween an internal and external state of mind ? 
2. Love to God and love to man, — is the 
life and soul, of all sound philosophy; con- 
sequently, no one can become a philosopher, 
who is not a good, man. 3. Riches, and 
cares, are generally inseparable; and whoever 
would get rid of one, must become divested 
of the other. 4. The acquirement of useful 
knowledge, — is often difficult and trouble- 
some ; but perseverance — will reward us for 
our toil. 5. [f we regard our present views 
— as an infallible test of truth, whatever 
does not conform to them, we set down as 
false, and reject it. 6. Ignorance of a fact 
— may excuse; but not ignorance of the law 
— w T hich every one is supposed to be ac- 
quainted with. 7. Man's will, and under- 
standing, — are receptacles of life, not life 
itself; as is the reception, such is the persua- 
sion, faith, wisdom, light, and love. 
I care not, Fortune ! what you me deny ; 
You cannot rob me of free nature's grace; 
You cannot shut the windows of the sky, 
Thro' which Aurora shows her bright'ning face : 
You cannot bar my constant feet — to trace 
The wood and lawns, by living stream at eve: 
Let health my nerves and finer fibres brace, 
And I their toys— to the great children leave : 
Of fancy, reason, virtue — nought can me bereave. 
Another day — is added to the mass 
Of buried ages. Lo ! the beauteous moon, 
Like a fair shepherdess, now comes abroad, 
With her full flock of stars, that roam around 
The azure meads of heaven. And O how charmed. 
Beneath her loveliness, creation looks ! 
Far-gleaming hills, and light-inweaving streamt, 
And sleeping boughs, with dewy lustre clothed, 
And green-haired valleys— all in glory dressed,— 
Make up the pageantry of night. 



94 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



267. Deuvkuv and Painting. There 
is a striking analogy or correspondence, be- 
tween nainting madelivery. We have, what 
are called, seven primary colors, and seven 
pitches of sound — though strictly speaking, 
but three of each. Letters are like compound- 
ed paints; words like -paints, prepared for use; 
and, when these words are arranged into pro- 
per sentences, they form pictures on the 
canvas of the imagination. Let the follow- 
ing beautiful landscape be sketched out in 
the mind : " On a mountain, (stretched be- 
neath a hoary willow) lay a shepherd swain, 
—and view'd the rolling billow.' 1 Now 
review it; and see every thing as it is — the 
mountain covered with trees ; the shepherd, 
reclining under the willow tree, with his 
flock nearby, some feedi?ig , and some lying 
down; and what is he doing ? Looking out 
upon the ocean, covered with pleasure boats, 
vessels, &c. In this way, you may behold, 
with the mind^s eye, (for the mind has its 
eye, as well as the body,) the ideas of the au- 
thor ; and then picture out whatever you 
hear and read, and give to it life, habitation, 
and a name; thus you will see the thoughts, 
receive the light, and catch, or draw out their 
latent heat; and having enlightened and warm- 
ed your own mind, you will read and speak 
from your own thoughts and feelings, — and 
transfer the living, breathing landscapes of 
your mind to others, and leave a perfect 
daguerreotype likeness on the retina of their 
mind's eye : you feel and think, and there- 
fore speak ; and thus you can memorize, so 
as not to forget : for you will have it by 
heart. 

268. La Fayfette. I see the marshals 
of Napoleon (gorged with the plunder of Eu- 
rope, and stained with its blood) borne on their 
flashing cAan'oi-wheels — through the streets 
of Paris. I see the ministers of Napoleon 
filling the highest posts of trust and honor — 
under Louis the XVIII. ; and I see the friend 
of Washington, {La Fayette,) glorious in his 
noble poverty, looking down from the calm 
and placid height of his consistency and his 
principles, — on their paltry ambition, and its 
more paltry rewards. 

Anecdote. Means of Happiness. Socra- 
tes, when asked his opinion of the king of 
Persia, and whether he judged him happy, — 
replied, " he could not tell what to think 
of him ; because, he knew not how much he 
was furnished with virtue and learning.' 1 '' 

Magic, wonder-beaming eye ; 
In thy narrow circle — lie 
All our varied hopes — and fears, 
Sportive smiles — and graceful tears; 
Eager wishes, — wild alarm*, 
Rapid feelings, — potent charms, 
Wit and genius, taste and sense, 
Shed through thee— their influence. 

When lovers meet— in adverse hour, 

Tislike the sun-glimpse — through the shower, 

A watery ray — an instant seen, 

The darkly changing clouds — between. 



Proverbs. 1. The act — does not constitute 
guilt in the eye of the law so much as the design. 2. 
A certain degree of modesty and reserve, in young 
persons, is a sure passport to the good will of their 
superiors. 2. The diligent and industrious — ge- 
nerally prosper; while the indolent — pine in want. 
4. Keep your passions in subjection; for unless 
they obey you, they will govern you. 5. In im- 
parting to a friend — a knowledge of our misfor- 
tunes, we often feel them lightened. 6. The body 
may be enslaved; but no human power can con- 
trol the mind, without its consent. 7. A. fowery 
path — is not that which conducts us to glory. 8. 
Let us use, not abuse — the good things of life. 9. 
A good reputation — is preferable to a girdle of gold. 

10. Lofty towers — tumble with a tremendous crash. 

11. Dig not your grave with the teeth. 12. April 
showers, make Mayflowers. 

Enjoyment. When I walk the streets, 1 
use the following natural maxim, viz. that he 
is the true possessor of a thing who enjoys it, 
and not he that owns it without the enjoy- 
ment of it ; to convince myself that I have a 
property in the gay part of all the gilt chari- 
ots that I meet, which I regard as amuse- 
ments, designed to delight my eyes, and the 
imagination of those kind of people, who sit 
in them, gaily attired, only to please me. 1 
have a real, and they only an imaginary, plea- 
sure from their exterior embellishments. 
Upon the same principle, I have discovered 
that I am the natural proprietor of all the 
diamond necklaces, the crosses, stars, bro- 
cades, and embroidered clothes, which I see 
at a play or birth-night, as giving more natu- 
ral delight to the spectator, than to those that 
wear them. And I look on the beaux and 
ladies, as so many paroquets in an aviary, or 
tulips in a garden, designed purely for my 
diversion. A gallery of pictures, a cabinet, 
or library, that I have free access to, I think 
my own. In a word, all that I desire is the 
use of things, let who will have the keep- 
ing of them. By which maxim I am grown 
one of the richest men in the world ; with 
this difference, that I am not a prey to my 
own cares, or the envy of others. 

Varieties. 1. Can we be responsible, 
without being endowed with freedom, and ra- 
tionality? 2. Perfect freedom is the birth- 
right of man, and heaven forbid that any hu- 
man authority should infringe upon it ; but 
in the exercise of this right, let us be humble 
and discreet, and never do wrong. 3. If the 
roots be left, the grass will grow again. 4. 
Brutes — have a language peculiar to them- 
selves ; so have deaf and dumb persons. 5. 
There are merchants— with the sentiments, 
and abilities, of statesmen; and there are per- 
sons in the ranks of statesme?i, with the con- 
ceptions and characters ot pedlars. 6. The 
natural world is a world of dreams; for no- 
thing is — as it appears ; but the spiritual 
world — is a world of realities, where we shall 
see as we are seen, and know — as we are 
known. 7. The granary— of all heavenly 
seed, is the Word of God; the ground — is 
our will, in which that seed must be sown. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



95 



269. This Word - Painting, being a sub- 
ject of such great importance, and one that 
is inseparably connected with emphasis, we 
will dwell upon it a little longer, and apply 
it practically; for — unless we get into the in- 
ternals of the subject, all our efforts will be 
nearly unavailing. A very good way to 
perfect ourself in this style of painting, is — to 
close the eyes, after having memorized the 
words, (or get some one to read them delibe- 
rately,) and infix the thoughts and feelings 
of the author in the mind, and let there be a 
commingling of them with your own, in such 
a way, that there will be an entire re-produc- 
tion, and re-formation of them, — a new crea- 
tion. The effect of this kind of exercise on 
the mind, will be like that of the warm sun, 
and refreshing rain, in developing and per- 
fecting vegetation. 

THUNDER STORM ON THE ALPS. 

Far along 
From 'peak to peak, the rattling crags among, 
Leaps the live thunder ! not from one lone cloud, 
But every mountain — now, hath found a tongue, 
And Jura — answers through her misty shroud, 
Back to the joyous Alps, who called aloud. 
Thy spirit — Independence, — let me share, 
Lord of the lion heart — and eagle eye ! 
Thy steps I follow, with my bosom bare, 
Nor heed the storms that howl across the sky. 

Tis greatly wise — to talk with our past hours, 
And ash Ihem— what report — they bore to heaven; 
And how they might have borne — more welcome news ; 
Their answers— form — what men— experience call. 

870. Chemistry — treats of the composi- 
tion of all material substances, their sensible 
properties and relations, and the effects pro- 
duced upon them — by cohesion, affinity, light, 
heat, and electricity. Its study — reflects light 
upon all these effects, and is subsidiary to the 
natural and medical sciences : indeed, its ap- 
plication extends throughout the wider range 
of all the physical arts; and hence, ranks 
among the most useful of the sciences. If the 
fair sex — would understand this subject, only 
so far as it relates to /wwse-keeping, they 
would see, that there is no necessity of hav- 
ing poor soap, or bad bread, or of making 
other mistakes in their culinary preparations. 

Anecdote. Mad Man. A man, who was 
apparently more of a wit — than a mad-man, 
but who, notwithstanding, was confined in a 
mad-house, being asked how he came there, 
answered — "Merely a dispute of words; I 
said that all men were mad; and all said 
I was mai ; the majority — carried the point, 
and here 1 am." 

Walls of brass — resist not 
A noble undertaking,— nor can vice — 
Raise any bulwark— to make good a place, 
Where virtue — seeks to enter. 

Lovers say, the heart— hath treble wrong, 
When it i3 barred — the aidance of the tongue. 



Proverbs. 1 . He, whose expenditure is more 
than his income, must be poor; but he that receives 
more than he spends, must be rich. 2. What 
some speakers fail in, as to depth, they make up 
as to length. 3. Money, earned with little labor, is 
generally spent with little consideration. 4. We 
often lose those things that are certain, while we 
pursue others that are doubtful. 5. He, who 
knows nothing, doubts nothing. 6. Many per- 
sons feel an irreconcilable enmity — towards those 
whom they have injured. 7. Without sweat and 
labor, no work is perfected. 8. Accumulated 
wealth — brings care, and a thirst for increasing 
riches. 9. Whether in prosperity, or adversity, 
we should always endeavor to preserve equa- 
nimity. 10. Do not grieve for that which is irre- 
coverably lost. 11. Use soft tcords, and hard 
arguments. 12. A full purse never lacks friends. 

Dissimulation. Dissimulation in youth, 
is the forerunner of perfidy in old age ; its 
first appearance — is the fatal omen of grow- 
ing depravity, and future shame. It degrades 
parts and learning, obscures the lustre of 
every accomplishment, and sinks us into con- 
tempt. The path of falsehood is a perplexing 
maze. After the first departure from sin- 
cerity, it is not in our power to stop ; one ar- 
tifice unavoidably leads on to another; till, 
as the intricacy of the labyrinth increases, we 
are left entangled in our snare. 
varieties. 

Pain— is perfect misery, the worst of evils ; 

And excessive, overturns all patience. 

'Tis base — to change with fortune, and deny 

A faithful friend, because in poverty. 

Who lives to nature, — rarely can be poor ; 

Who lives to fancy, never can be rich. 

Music — resembles poetry ; in each — 

Are nameless graces, which no methods teach, 

And which a master's hand alone — can reach. 

Bright-eyed fancy— hovering o'er, 

Scatters — from her picturecTwrn, 

Thoughts — that breathe, and words — that burn. 

If good — we plant not, vice — will fill the place, 

And rankest weeds — the richest soil — deface. 

But the good man, whose soul is pure, 

Unspotted, and of pardon — sure, 

Looks thro' the darkness of the gloomy night, 

And sees the dawning — of a glorious light. 

Would you taste the tranquil scene ? 
Be sure your bosom — be serene ; 
Devoid of hate, devoid of strife, 
Devoid of all that poisons life. 
Andmuch it 'vails you — in their place, 
To graft the love— of human race. 
How deep — yon azure— dyes the sky, 
Where orbs of gold— unnumbered lie, 
While, through their ranks, in silver pride, 
The nether crescent— seems to glide/ 

Thou sun, said I, fair light ! 
And thou, enlightened earth, so fresh and gay I 
Ye hills and dales, ye rivers, woods, and plains, 
And ye that live, and move, fair creatures, tell,, 
Tell if you cun, how came I thus, how here ? 



96 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



271. Rythm — poetical measure, or verse; 
of which there are various kinds. Prose — is 
man's natural language, which is rather 
loose and un confined. Poetry — originates in 
the affections, prose in the thoughts, of the 
human mind ; tho' some poems are occasion- 
ally prosaic, and some prose — poetic: feel- 
ing predominates in the former, — thought, 
in the latter. Our rules for reading and 
speaking are the same, whether in prose or 
poetry : for in all cases, the manner must he 
adapted to the matter ; the sound to the 
sense: in other words, the mind's perception 
and feeling of the matter, must dictate the ap- 
propriate manner ; " suit the action to the 
word, the word to the action ; and o'erstep 
not the modesty of nature.'''' 
Yon cloud is bright, and beautiful— it floats 
Alone in God's horizon; on its edge 
The stars seem hung like pearls : it looks as pure 
As 'twere an angel's shroud,— the white cymar 
Of purity, just peeping through hs folds 
To give a pitying look — on this sad world. 
Go visit it, and find, that all is false ; 
Its glories — are but fog, and its white form 
Is plighted to some coining ihunder-gust ; — 
The rain, the wind, the lightning, have their source 
In such bright meetings. Gaze not at the clouds, 
However beautiful. Gaze at the sky, 
The clear, blue, tranquil, fixed, and glorious sky. 

%7iZ. Agriculture — is the art of cultiva- 
ting the ground; it includes, also, the rear- 
ing and management of domestic animals; 
it is sometimes called Farming, and Hus- 
bandry: and, although simple in its opera- 
tions, it derives great benefit from Machinery, 
— whence it takes its implements ; from 
Chemistry, — whence it derives a knowledge 
of soils, and the means of fertilizing them ; 
from Botany, — which teaches a knowledge of 
the plants — to be cultivated or destroyed; 
and from Zoology — which teaches the habits 
and peculiarities of the animals it rears, and 
the means of improving them for use — and 
profit. 

Anecdote. Kosciusko, the hero of Poland, 
wishing to make a present to a Clergyman, 
sent it by a young man, and desired him to 
take the horse, which he himself usually rode. 
On his return, the young man said — he 
would never ride his horse again, unless he 
gave his purse at the same time ; for, said he, 
" as soon as a poor man on the road takes off 
his hat, and asks charity, the horse immedi- 
ately stops, and will not stir, till something- 
is given the petitioner ; and as I had but lit- 
tle money with me, I was obliged, when it 
was gone,\x> feign giving something, in order 
to satisfy the horse.'" 

Cursed be your senate ; cursed your constitution; 
The curse of growing factions — and divisions — 
Still vex your councils, shake your public safety, 
And make the robes of government — you wear, 
Hateful to you, as these chains are — to me. 



Proverbs. 1. Truth— is but another name— for 
fact. 2. There is a mental, as well as civil com- 
monwealth. 3. The end of learning, is usejul- 
ness, — not reputation. 4. Study the principles of 
things, — as well as their uses. 5. Common sense 
—which is very im-common, is the best sense 
in the world. 6. No one can hit a mark, without 
aiming at it ; and skill is acquired, by repeated 
attempts. 7. Never do anything with indifference; 
and do everything as perfectly as possible. 8. 
Never cut out a piece of a newspaper, till you 
have looked on the other side. 9. In prosperity, 
— prepare for a change; in adversity, — hope for 
one. 10. Haste — is a poor apology ; take time, and 
do your work well. 11. Personal effort— seldom 
fails to obtain its object. 12. Some people never 
have enough. 

Autumn. It was a glorious day in au- 
tumn. The sky, of unsullied blue, glowed 
like a sapphire. The universal air — was fill- 
ed with stillness. Not a breeze whispered — 
not a bird flapped its wing. It was the tri- 
umph of repose — when the undying energies 
of man — slumbered for a moment, — when 
even the conflict of his passions was suspend- 
ed. Beautiful, melancholy autumn ! whose 
ruddy ripeness — whispers of decay,- whose 
richest tints — mingle with the " sear and yel- 
low leaf," as if the lusty year — had toiled 
through youth and manhood for wealth, 
which overflows, just when waning life — in- 
dicates, that the power of enjoyment — is pass- 
ing away. 

Varieties, 1. What is the difference — 
between reading and reflection ? 2. To look 
away from principles, and see only their ap- 
plication, tends to idolatry. 3. Suspicion is 
the effect — of the association of ideas — mis- 
directed by the imagination; it never exists 
— without a shade of insanity. 
Tho ; deep, yet. clear ; tho' gentle, yet not dull ; 
Strong, without rage, — without overflowing— full. 
5. In what manner — is uniformity in events 
— depending, apparently, on contingent cir- 
cumstances, to be accounted for? 6. Only 
by appealing to first principles — can we re- 
cover, or maintain — the spirit and essence, 
of genuine wisdom, and intelligence. 7 The 
greatest degree — of self-abasement, if real, is 
the nearest approach to the Divine Presence. 
Nay, shrink not — from the word "Farewell," 
As if 'twere Friendship's final knell : 

Such fears — may prove but vain: 
So changeful— is life's fleeting day, 
Whene'er we sever, Hope may say, 

We part, to meet again. 
Even the last parting — earth can know, 
Brings not unutterable wo 

To souls, that heavenward soar ; 
For humble Faith, with steadfast eye, 
Points to a brighter world on high, 
Where hearts, that here— at parting sigh, 

May meet,— to part no more. 
Duties — are ours; consequences — are God's. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



97 



273. The three philosophical divisions of 
Poetry (as well as of Prose) in relation to the 
mind, are — RELIGIOUS, having reference 
to the supreme Being, and what is above us 
in the scale of creation; the social and ci- 
vil, or middle; what is around us, and 
within, relating to the great family of man : 
and the external,which refers, principally, to 
the kingdom of Nature, which is below us ; 
viz. the animal, vegetable, and mineral : (do 
not include mankind in the animal king- 
dom; they are human; it is sensualism 
which has degraded man to rank with ani- 
mals.) The common divisions of Poetry are 
— Pastoral, Lyric, Didactic, Satire, Sonnets, 
Descriptive, Epic, Tragic, and Comic; towhich 
some add, Sacred, Classic, Romantic, Elegiac, 
Mythologic, Eclogue, Ballad, and Epitaph. 

27*. Management of the Breath. From 
what we have said, you see the importance 
of attending to this subject. Very few per- 
sons — breathe sufficiently often, when read- 
ing, speaking, or singing. All the directions 
the author has seen on this subject — are at 
variance with truth and nature. There are 
a few instances, when a long breath is neces- 
sary ; but they are very rare. To acquire a 
long breath, exercise on all the difficulties of 
respiration, — and pursue a similar course 
for strengthening a weak voice ; also, practice 
long quantity, walking up hill, and running, 
when reciting. In the following, breathe at 
least once, while reading each period. "He 
died young, (breathe,) hut he died happy. 
His friends have not had him long, (breathe,) 
but his death — (breathe) is the greatest 
trouble and grief, (breathe,) they ever had. 
He has enjoyed the sweets of the world — 
(breathe,) only for a little while, (breathe,) 
but he never tasted its bitters.''' The writer 
is aware of being, in this respect, in opposi- 
tion to authorities ; but he cannot be influ- 
enced by that, so long as he is persuaded that 
truth and nature are with him. If one does 
not breathe sufficiently often, he will be al- 
most sure to speak too rapidly : and, as the 
object of Elocution is — to convince and per- 
suade, how can one expect to do this, if he 
does not give his hearers time to think, or 
reason, about what he says? How can a 
jury — keep pace with a lawyer, whose lan- 
guage rides post-haste 1 ? If his reason, and 
arguments, are hurled upon the ear, like 
dashes of lightning upon the eye, how can 
they be remembered, or produce the intended 
effect ? If one does not breathe at the proper 
times and places, the sense is not fully con- 
veyed, and the lungs are injuriously affected. 
Too unfrequent breathing, and rapid speak- 
ing, must be avoided; but beware of the op- 
posite extreme, unless you wish to lull your 
hearers to sleep. 

Ask of mother earth — why oaks — were made — 
Taller and stronger— than the weeds they shade. 
13 



Proverbs. 1. Never begin things, and then 
leave them unfinished. 2. Have a place for every 
thing: and when you have used it, put it back 
again. 3. Proverbs — bear age ; and he, who would 
do well, may see himself in them, as in a looking- 
glass. 4. Politeness — costs nothing, and may do 
much good. 5. Tediousness — is often fatal to our 
object. 6. Where there is no hope, there is no en- 
deavor. 7. Unequal friendships — are easily dis- 
solved. 8. Sloth — consumes faster than labor. 9- 
Lost lime — is never found again ; and time enough 
yet, is always little enough. 10. Industry — pays 
debts ; despair — increases them. 11. Troops of fu- 
ries — march in the drunkard's triumph. 12. Suc- 
cess — consecrates the foulest crimes. 

Anecdote. The Boys and Frogs. VEs- 
trange tells us, in his fables, that a number 
of boys were one day watching frogs at the 
side of a pond ,• and that when any of them 
put their heads above the water, the boys 
pelted them down again, with stones. One 
of the frogs, appealing to the humanity of 
the boys, made this striking observation, — 
"Children, you do not consider, that though 
this may be sport to you, it is death to us." 

Folly and. Wisdom. Many parents — 
labor hard, and live sparingly, that they may 
give their chddren a start in the world : but 
setting a son afloat with money left to him — 
is like tying bladders under the arms of one 
who cannot swim ; and ten to one he will 
drown ,• but teach him to swim, and he will 
never need bladders : give a child a good edu- 
cation, and it will give him such a start — as 
will secure usefulness and victory in the race 
he is to run. 

Varieties. 1. Is it possible — for a created 
being to merit any thing — at the hands of 
God ? 2. The instincts of animals — are their 
laws of life ; they seem to be sensible of their 
ends of being, and the means of attaining 
them. 3. Truth — is that resemblance to, or 
conformity with Nature, that is presented to 
the mind, by the relation of ideas, whether 
simple, or complex. 4. There is a divinity — 
shapes our ends, rough hew them as we will. 
5. 'Tis better, to be lowly born, and range 
with humble livers — in content, than to be 
pricked up — in glittering grief, and wear a 
golden sorrow. 6. Whatever is seen, by the 
bodily eye, or perceived by the outward senses, 
is but an effect — from the spiritual world, and 
a true representative of some principle there- 
in, and proper to it ; for that world is in the 
human soul, — and mind. 

I ramble — by the evening sea 

The light-house — glimmering from afar, 
And fleecy clouds — are scouring free 

O'er rising moon, and twinkling star; 
In distance — floats the waning sail, 

Or brightly gleams the plashing oar, 
And mingles — with the shining gale 

The billow — murmuring on the shore; 
But one thing wants the wanderer there^ 
A kindred soul, the scene to share. 



98 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



275. Emphasis. This is a very impor- 
tant part of our subject ; and unless the pu- 
pil is certain, that he perfectly understands 
Accent, he is advised to review it again. Ac- 
cented syllables, are to other syllables, in the 
same ward, what emphatic syllables, are to 
words in the same sentence, — hence, it may- 
be seen, that as the idea — is always associa- 
ted with the accented vowel, and changes, 
when the seat of accent is changed ; as in 
,4«-gust, and au-gust ; so, the mind's eye — 
always accompanies the emphatic word. Ex. 
Doctor Johnson, (says Cicero,) was a great 
orator. Thus emphasised, we make Cicero 
say, that Dr. Johnson — was a great orator. 
Corrected, thus: Dr. Johnson says — Cicero 
was a great orator. Practice on this sentence, 
till every thing appertaining to correct em- 
phasis is familiar. All the words in this 
book, printed in different type, are more or 
less emphatic: and some are emphatic that 
are in the common type. 

276. Emphasis — is an increase of accent 
on the accented vowels of important words, 
the more perfectly to convey the sense of the 
author. There are only two ways of ma- 
king it : which are the same as in accent ; viz : 
by stress and quantity. First, by stress : 
Ex. 1. The difference — between what is true 
— and false, good — and evil, is very great. 

2. Some reports — are true: others — are false. 

3. Truth tells us, that certain affections — 
are evil : but False says, they are good. 4. 
Good men — love, and practice, what is good 
and true ; but wicked men — love, and prac- 
tice, what is false, and evil. 5. Heaven — 
consists of all that is good and true; but 
Hell — consists of all that is false, and evil. 

277. Horticulture — or Gardening, is 
the art of preparing and cultivating gardens, 
including pleastire-grounds, and ornamental 
shrubbery : its close relation to Agriculture, 
renders it difficult to distinguish between 
them. As involving principles of taste, and 
elements of beauty, it may be classed with 
the Fine Arts; but its connection with the 
Useful Arts — presents a stronger relation; 
and, whether considered in reference to use- 
fulness, or ornament, it deserves much at- 
tention, and exerts a salutary influence over 
its votaries. 

Anecdote. Working a Passage. An 
Irishman, having applied to work his passage 
on a canal-boat, and being employed to lead 
the horses on the tow-path ; on arriving at the 
place of destination, declared he would sooner 
go on foot, than work his passage in America. 
Honest index — of the soul, 
Nobly scorning all control, 
Silent language — ever flowing, 
Every secret thought avowing, 
Pleasure's seat, — Lovers favorite throne, 
Every triumph— is thy own. 



Proverbs. 1. Every act of violence — leads 
to difficult results. 2. The house of a true friend- - 
is always a sure asylum. 3. It is sweet — to soothe 
the wretched, and mitigate their misfortunes. 4 He 
has done the mischief, and I bear the blame. 5. 
It is common to fools — to mention their neighbor's 
faults; while they are forgetful of their oivn. 6 
Endeavor to conquer adverse circumstances ; and 
not submit to them. 7. It is wise — to derive know- 
ledge, even from an enemy. 8. He, who flies from 
judgment, confesses the crime imputed to him. 9. 
We are generally willing to believe — what we 
ivish to be true. 10. Let justice be done, tho' the 
heavens fall. 11. The more riches a fool has, the 
foolisher he is. 12. When the heart— is past hope., 
the. face — is past shame. 13. Despair— has ruined 
many a one. 

Philosophy of Mind. No philosophy of 
the mind can be valuable, that does not pro- 
pose an inquiry into the connection between 
mind and matter. Attention to the subject 
of our own consciousness, alone, excludes the 
possibility of their being well observed, be- 
cause the conditions of their being well seen 
— are neglected. That there is a direct con- 
nection between mind and matter, the soul 
and body, is an indisputable fact ; and it is 
perfectly idle, to pretend to examine the qual- 
ities of the former, without reference to the 
latter. The comprehension of the action of 
mind and the reaction of matter, involve? 
the true principles of Intellectual Philosophy 
and Psychology. 

Varieties. 1. Which is the most desira- 
ble, to know and understand much; or, to 
make a right use of what we know and un- 
derstand? 2. The Jew — asks a sign; the 
Greeks — seek after wisdom. 3. Do not the 
shadows of great thoughts, sometimes fall 
on our minds ? 

Who friendship — with a knave has made, 
Is judged a partner — in the trade ,* 
Tis thus, that on the choice of friends, 
Our good, or evil name — depends. 

5. Envy no man's good, or truth : seek not 
to be him. If less than thee, give that which 
he asketh of thee, at all times ; if more than 
thee, envy not: neither seek to depreciate,- 
and beware of rashly condemning what is 
above thee, — lest thou materially hurt thyself. 
6. We may as soon take fire — into the bo- 
som., without being burned, or touch tar, 
without being defiled, as to frequent and de- 
light in — bad company, without a stain upon 
our moral character. 

MY SISTER. 

Mine eyes — have seen the beautiful, 

Mine ears — have heard their thrilling voice, 
My hearts- has felt their potent rule— 

The fears of hope, the hope of joys— 
But never— has my sight approved 

A fairer — than my sister — no ! 
None other sound — so much hath movei 

As, her u dear brother," spoken Ion. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



99 



378. In'Toittntaut Efforts. Let no one 
imagine, that it is the design of this system to 
make arbitrary readers, and speakers; far 
from it : if the system were not founded in 
xatcre. such might he the result. By mak- 
ing use of the principles here developed, we 
return to truth and nature ; provided we have 
wandered from them; consequently, the ef- 
fort becomes involuntary : as was the case 
with the whistling of little Jimmy, in school ; 
who, when his teacher was about to correct 
him, exclaimed, " No, no ; it was not I that 
whistled, it whistled itself.' 11 No one can be 
a good reader, or speaker, till the effort be- 
comes involuntary ; he must will, and it shall 
be done. Unfortunately, some think they 
must do some great thing; whereas, they 
have only to wash, and be clean. 

379. Epic, or heroic poetry, has for its sub- 
ject the exploits of some hero, or heroes, of 
national celebrity ; Lyric poetry is designed 
to be set to music, as psalms, hymns, odes 
and songs ; Elegiac poetry involves solemn, 
or mournful subjects; Epitaphs are inscrip- 
tions on tomb-stones ; Pastoral poetry treats 
of rural affairs, and the social affections; it is 
appropriate to shepherds ; Didactic poetry is 
designed to convey instruction; Satyric 
poetry is for reproving the vices, errors and 
follies of the world, by holding them up to 
ridicule; Descriptive poetry describes inter- 
esting subjects, mental or natural; and 
Romantic poetry has for its subjects, tales, 
romances, and novels, probable, or supernat 

ural. 

380. Cause and Effect. Such are the de- 
fects of our education, that we are brought up 
almost as ignorant of our bodies and minds, 
as of the man in the moon : the consequence 
is, we are imposed upon by the s^oe-maker, 
the tailor, the mantua-m.ak.er, the carpenter 
and joiner, the cabinet-maker, the miller and 
baker, the cook and the washer, and by al- 
most every body else : we are a race of abusers 
of one another. When we get a pair of shoes, 
the first question is, how well do they look 1 
So also of the coat and dress, the house, the 
chair, the flour, and bread, &c, &c. Oh, 
when shall we be wise, and understand the 
things that so nearly concern our temporal 
welfare 1 ? Having eyes, we see not aright; 
having ears, we hear wrong : our feelings, 
taste, and smell — betray us, because they are 
perverted. The enemy comes in upon us like 
a. flood, and who will lift up a standard against 
him"? 

GENERATIONS OF MAN. 

Like leaves on trees — the race of man is found, 

Now, green in youth, now, withering on the ground. 

Another race the following spring supplies ; 

They fall successive, and successive rise: 

So — generations — in their course decay, 

So — flourish these, when those — are passed away. 



Proverbs. 1. It is well not only to seem pure ; 
but, to 6e pure. 2. Aim at desert, rather than re- 
ward. 3. If you are in a thriving way. slick to it, 
and let well enough, alone. 4. Trifles — often de- 
cide much — concerning the character of a person. 

5. Believe yourself capable of learning what others 
have learned. 6. Avoid all extremes; and live, 
and act, in the golden medium. 7. The loaded 
tree — always bends with its fruits ; nsvirli* — 
stoops beneath humility. 8. Without frugal.. y, 
none can be rich; and with it — few can be poor. 
9. The used key— is always bright. 10. Man is a 
being who makes bargains ; one dog never ex- 
changes bones with another dog. 11. You can do 
it, if you only think so, and try. 12. Quick be- 
lievers — need broad shoidders. 

Anecdote. New Character. Lord Ha?'dy, 
who was so much addicted to the bottle, as to 
be always under the influence of liquor, pre- 
vious to a masquerade night, inquired of Foot, 
" what new character he ought to appear in !" 
"New character," said the other, — "suppose 
you go sober, my lord." He took the hint of 
the comedian, and actually reformed. 

Industry. If industry is no more than 
habit, 'tis at least an excellent one. " If you 
ask me, which is the real hereditary sin of 
human nature, do you imagine I shall answer 
pride, or luxury, or ambition, or egotism ? 
No ; I shall say — indolence. Who conquers 
indolence, will conquer all the rest." Indeed, 
all good principles must stagnate, without 
mental activity. 

Varieties. 1. A prime minister — was 
asked, how he could perform such a vast 
amount of business, and yet, have so much 
leisure ? He replied, I do every thing at the 
time. 2. Would wings — be folded in the 
worm, if they were not one day to enable it 
to fly ? 3. The perfection of religion and 
science — will be united ; their sphere of ope- 
ration ascertained, and their periods of vicis- 
situdes known in that better age, which is 
approaching. 

Let fools — the studious despise ; 
There's nothing lost, by being wise. 
Whatever perils — may alarm us, 
Kind words — will never harm us. 

6. Pure, and undeflled religion, is the sheet- 
anchor of happiness, the perfection and glory 
of human nature ,- its essence — is a conscience 
void of offence toward God, and man. 7. 
There is a providence in every pulsation, and 
in all the particulars that concern it : as the 
sun — never ceases to shine, so the Lord — 
never ceases to bless. 

There is a voice — I shall hear no more — 
There are tones, whose music, for me, is o'er, 
Sweet as the odors of spring were they, — 
Precious and rich — but, they died away ; 
They came like peace to my heart and ear — 
Never again will they murmur here; 
They have gone— like the blush of a summer morn, 
Like a crimson cloud — through the sunset borne. 



100 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



281. Emphasis. Words are emphatic, 
when opposition is expressed, or understood ,• 
thai is, when our words are conti-asted, and 
when we wish to enforce our ideas, so as to 
produce their desired effects. As, Oratory — 
involves feelings, thoughts and words ; so, 
does it also involve ends, or purposes, causes, 
and effects; beyond which, human minds 
cannot travel. We may illustrate emphasis, 
by what is called lever-power ; the resistance 
to be overcome, or the effect to be produced ; 
the lever as a medium, and the weight : thus, 
I will, or desire, to accomplish a certain ob- 
ject : here, is the region of ends, or pur- 
poses ; then, I devise ways and means, and 
determine how it is to be done ; here, is the 
region of causes: and, finally, I put the pur- 
pose in operation, through the means, and 
thus accomplish my object ; which, of course, 
is the region of effects. Here is the philoso- 
phy of oratory. 

282. Examples of Emphasis bt Stress. 
1 . It is not so easy to hide our faults, as to con- 
fess — and avoid them. 2. Never attempt to 
raise yourself, by depreciating the merits of 
others. 3. As fools — make a mock at sin, so 
do the ignorant — often make a mock at 
knowledge. 4. They are generally most ri- 
diculous themselves, who see most to ridicule 
in others. 5. Wherever education is neg- 
lected, — depravity, and every kind of action, 
that degrades mankind, are most frequent. 
6. The first three volumes ; not, the three first 
volumes ; there is only one— first. 7. The 
first three, and the last two verses ; not, the 
three first, and two last. 8. To be truly — 
happy, man must be good, and renounce such 
enjoyments as are grounded in the love of 
evil. 9. There is a natural body, and there 
is a spiritual body. 10. Flesh — and blood — 
cannot inherit the kingdom of God. 

283. Rule. Emphasize the important 
word, or words, with such a degree and kind 
of stress, or expulsive prolongation of sound, 
as to convey the entire sense and feeling, in 
the best manner, and give each idea its rela- 
tive importance. Example and definition. 
" Emphasis — is the index of my meaning, 
and shows more exactly, what I wish the 
hearers to attend to — particularly." Indeed, 
it is to the mind what the finger is to the eye : 
when we wish a person to see any thing, we 
naturally point to it : thus, are the manifesta- 
tions of the mind made by the emphasis, or 
pointing of the voice. 

They are sleeping! Who are sleeping? 

Mortals, compassed round with woe, — 
Eyelids, wearied out with weeping, 

Close for very weakness now: 
And that short relief from sorrow, 

Harassed nature — shall sustain, 
Till they wake again — to-morrow, 

Strengthened— to contend withyotn.' 



Proverbs. 1. We must submit to authority, 
till we can discover, or see — reasons. 2. Be not sat- 
isfied with the results and applications of know- 
ledge ; but search for lis fountains. 3. Youth — is 
not a time to cast away stone*, but to gather them. 
4. Instead of naturalizing nature, we should nat- 
uralize art. 5. The understanding — is a refining 
vessel, in which knowledge is purified. 6. En- 
deavor to acquire such knowledge, as will enable 
you to judge correctly yourself. 7. Time — de- 
stroys the speculations of man, but confirms the 
judgments of Nature. 8. No evil propensity is so 
powerful, but that it may be subdued, by proper 
means. 9. No one is so great, or so small, but 
that he is capable of giving, or receiving— benefits. 
10. Be civil — to the great, — but intimate — with the 
food. 11. No religion — is better than an unnatu- 
ral one. 12. Immoderate sorrow — is a species of 
suicide. 13. Pay what you owe. 14. Grea Z thieves 
punish little ones. 15. The absent party is al- 
w&ysfaulty. 

Anecdote. If a private gentleman, in 
Cheshire England, about the year 1730, had 
not been overturned in his carriage ,• it is 
possible, that the United States, instead of 
being a free Republic, might have remained 
a dependent colony: that gentleman — was 
Augustus Washington, who was thus thrown 
out of his carriage, into the company of a 
lady, who afterwards became his wife, emi- 
grated with him to Virginia, and, in 1732, be- 
came the mother — of General Washington. 

Laconics. When we see birds, at the 
approach of rain, anointing their plumage 
with oil — to shield off the drops, should it 
not remind us, when the storms of conten- 
tion threaten us, to apply the oil of for 
bearance, and thus — prevent the chilling 
drops from entering our hearts? 

"Varieties. 1. Did mankind fall sudden- 
ly, or by degrees ? 2. While freedom — is true 
to itself, every one becomes subject to it; and 
even its adversaries are instruments in its 
hands. 3. The preservation of health — de- 
pends, principally, on proper diet, early re- 
tiring, and early rising, temperance in eat- 
ing, and drinking, proper exercise, and per- 
fect cleanliness. 4. By a vicious action, we 
injure our mind, as we should our body, by 
drinking poison, or inflicting a wound upon 
it. 5. What is liberty? Willing, thinking, 
speaking, and doing — what we understand ; 
provided, we violate no law, or principle. 
6. Mental pleasures — never cloy; unlike 
those of the body, they are increased by repe- 
tition, approved by reason, and strengthened 
by enjoyment. 7. Evil action, contrivance 
and speech, is but the manifestation of the 
nature of evil ; and that it should be made 
manifest, is consistent with divine inten- 
tions. 

Freedom — is- 
The brilliant gift of heaven ; 'tis reason's self, 
The kin— to Deity. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



101 



284. Emphasis. There are only /wo ways 
of making emphasis, but as many ways of 
exhibiting it, as there are pitches, qualities, 
and modifications of voice — in Speech and 
Song : all of which are very simple, and a 
knowledge of them easily acquired, by the 
persevering student. In every sentence, there 
is a word, or words, on which the sense de- 
pends, as the body — on the heart; the voice and 
gestures, only, can exhibit it. Emphasis, not 
only illustrates, but often amplifies the sense 
of the author ; and that is the best emphasis, 
which does this the most effectively; indeed, 
there are times when, through the emphasis, 
one may make words mean — more than they 
were designed to mean by the author. 

285. Emphasis by expulsive stress. 1. He 
who cannot bear a joke — should never give 
one. 2. Avoid a slanderer, as you would a 
scorpion. 3. A wager — is a. fool's argument. 
4. He that is past shame, is past hope. 5. 
What is worth doing at all, is worth doing 
well. 6. Men of principle, ought to be prin- 
cipal men. 7. Aim at nothing higher, till 
you can read and speak, deliberately, clearly, 
and distinctly, and with proper emphasis: all 
other graces will follow. 8. The head, with- 
out the heart, is like a steam engine, without 
a boiler. 9. As love — thinks no evil, so envy 

-speaks no good. 10. Variety, delights; 
and perfection, delights in variety. 

2S6. Music. The cultivation, and frequent 
practice of music, in schools of every grade, will 
have a strong, and decidedly beneficial influ- 
ence on the habits of the pupils. By using 
the same words, and singing the same pieces 
in concert, their thoughts will be directed in 
the same channel, and their affections eleva- 
ted together ; and they will naturally be led 
into closer association and sympathy with 
each other. Well chosen music may be made 
an efficient auxiliary, guiding and controlling 
the feelings and actions in the school-room, 
and contribute essentially, to the proper man- 
agement of its concerns. It was in accord- 
ance with this principle, that a certain poet 
wisely said, " Let me make the songs of the 
nation, and I care not who makes its Zav;s." 
287. Geography — comprises a general de- 
scription of the earth ; and, especially of the 
nations, by which it is inhabited, in reference 
to their position and extent ; their produc- 
tions and resources ; their institutions and 
improvements ; their manners and customs ; 
including the subject of statistics, voyages, 
and travels. It is a term, that admits of al- 
most indefinite extension; for in describing 
a nation, allusion must be made to its lan- 
guage, laws, religion, arts, and literature ; 
and in treating of the earth, and its produc- 
tions, we may include the whole range of the 
physical sciences. 

True love— is never idle. 

12 



Proverbs. 1. It is a fraud— to conceal fraud. 
2. Never attempt to do two things — at once. 3. 
He, labors in vain, who endeavors to please every 
body. 4. To the resolute and persevering- — noth- 
ing is difficult. 5. Thieves — are game for the 
penitentiary, and often, for the gallows. 6. Kind- 
ness — begets kindness, and love — begets love. 7. 
The drop — hollows the stone, not by its force, but 
by falling often on the same spot. 8. A man who 
aspires to be an orator., must study by night, as 
well as by day. 9. There is no sauce equal to % 
good appetite. 10. To wicked persons — the vir- 
tue of others — is always a subject of envy. 11. A 
man would not be alone, even in paradise. 12. 
Weigh right, if you sell dear. 

Anecdote. Br. Johnson — observed to 
Macklin, in a sneering manner, that literary 
men — should converse in the learned lan- 
guages ; and immediately addressed the dra- 
matist in Latin ; after which, Macklin — ut- 
tered a long sentence in Irish. The Doctor 
again returned to the English tongue, saying, 
" You may speak very good Greek ; but I am 
not sufficiently versed in that dialect — to con- 
verse with you fluently." 

Of Dress, &>c. A creature, who spends 
its time in dressing, gaming, prating, and 
gadding, is a being originally, indeed, of the 
rational make ; but who has sunk itself be- 
neath its rank, and is to be considered, at 
present, as nearly on a level with the mon- 
key-species. 

Varieties. 1. What was the design of 
God, in making man? 2. How absurd, to 
have half a dozen children, with different dis- 
positions, and capabilities, and yet, give them 
all — the same education ! 3. Are not bigot- 
ry, and intolerance — as destructive to no 
ratify, as they are to common sex_ <? 4. 
Observations, made in the cloister, or in the 
desert, will generally be as obscure — as the 
one, and barren — as the other ; to become 
orators, or painters, we must study o?'igi?ials. 
5. Which side of a pitcher has the handle ? 
The outside, of course. 6. If a book really 
needs the patronage of a great man ; it is a 
bad book ; and if it be a good book, it does 
not need it. 7. To sow the seeds of order — 
we must be just ; and so, also, to water them ; 
but beware that self — enter not into the ac- 
tion. 

Before the gate there sat, 
On either side, a formidable shape. 
The one seemed woman — to the toaist, and fair ; 
But ended foul, in many a scaly fold, 
Voluminous and vast ; — a serpent arm'd 
With mortal stings. 

The other shape, 
If shape it might be caWd, that shape had none, 
Or substance might be call'd, that shadow seeme<? 
For each seem'd each, black it stood as night, 
Fierce as ten furies, — terrible as hell, 
And shook a dreadful dart. 

You think this cruel ; take it for a rule, 

JW> creature — smarts so Utile— as a fool. 



102 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



388. Remember, that Emphasis — is to 
words, in a senfence,vfhat accent is to letters 
or syllables, in a word,- and, as proper ac- 
cent — on a right vowel, will impart an impe- 
tus to the voice, in going through the word; 
so, true emphasis on the same, will give an 
iwpetus in delivering the sentence, so as to 
ultimate the end you have in view. Again, 
the length of long vowel sounds, in emphatic 
words, is, to the same vowels, in accented 
words, what accented long ones are, to un ac- 
cented long ones : similar observations might 
be made in reference to force — on emphatic 
short vowels, and accented and unaccented 
short ones. 

289. The various effects, produced by 
changing the seat of Emphasis, from one 
word to another, may be seen in the follow- 
ing sentence, of emphatic memory ; provided 
it be read according to the notation. " Will 
you ride to town to-day?" That is: will 
you ride, or will you not ? " Will you ride 
to town to-day 1 ?" That is: will you ride, or 
will you send some one. " Will you ride to 
town to-day?" That is: will you ride, or 
walk? "Will you ride to town to-day?" 
That is : will you ride to town, or will you 
ride somewhere else? "Will you ride to 
town to-day?" That is: will you ride to 
town to-day, or to-morrow ; or, next week ? 
By using other modifications of voice, as many 
shades of meaning may be given, even to this 
short sentence, as there are letters in it. 

290. Application. It is incredible, how 
much may be accomplished by diligence, and 
industry. The present state of the world, en- 
lightened by the arts and sciences, is a living 
proof, that difficulties, seemingly insuperable, 
may finally be overcome. This considera- 
tion ought to stimulate us to industry and 
application. We do not know our own 
strength, till we try it; nor to what extent 
our abilities will carry us, till we put them to 
the test. Those who want resolution, often 
desist from useful enterprises, when they 
have more than half effected their purposes : 
they are discouraged by difficulties and dis- 
appointments, which ought rather to excite 
their ardor, and cause them to redouble their 
e (Torts to succeed. 

Anecdote. While Athens — was governed 
by the thirty tyrants, Socrates, the philoso- 
pher, was ordered to assist in seizing one 
Leon, a man- of rank and fortune, whom 
they determined to put out of the way, that 
they might enjoy his estate,- but Socrates 
positively refused: saying, "I will not wil- 
lingly assist — in an unjust act." "Dost 
thou think," (said one of them,) "to talk in 
this high tone, and not to suffer?" "Far 
from it," replied he; "I expect to suffer a 
thousand ills; but none so great — as to do 
unjustly." 



Proverbs. 1. Wisdom — excelleth folly, as 
much as light excels darkness. 2. Opinion -is 
free ; and conduct alone — amenable to the law. 
3. Some — affect to despise — what they do not un- 
derstand. 4. In trying to avoid one danger, we 
sometimes fall into another. 5. Decency — is the 
natural characteristic of virtue, and the decep- 
tive coloring of vice. 6. Never despair ; speak 
the commanding word, " I will," and it is done. 
7. Never chase a lie ; for if you keep quiet, truth 
— will eventually overtake it. 8. A punctual 
man, is rarely a poor man ; and never — a man of 
doubtful credit. 9. Persons of fashion, starve 
their happiness, to feed their vanity ; and their 
love, to feed their pride. 10. There is a great 
difference — between repeating a maxim, or pro- 
verb, and a practical observance of it. 11. Dis- 
eases — are the interest of sensual pleasures. 12. 
The half is often better than the whole. 13. Jus- 
tice — should rule over all. 

Bigots. Bigots, who are violent, positive, 
and intolerant, in their religious tenets, ought 
to feel very much humbled, when they reflect, 
that they would have been equally so for any 
other religion, had it been the religion of their 
parents, or of the country in which they had 
been born and educated. 

Varieties. 1. Why is a tote-bearer — like a 
ftncfc-layer? Because he raises stories. 2. 
When you have nothing to say, say nothing; 
for a weak defence — strengthens your oppo- 
nent: and silence — is better than a bad re- 
ply. 3. We might enjoy much peace, and 
happiness, if we would not busy ourselves, 
with what others say and do. 4. Never think 
of yourself, when reading, speaking, or 
singing ; but of your subject ; and avoid an 
artificial, and grandiloquent style of delivery. 
5. It is not enough — to be left to the tuition 
of Nature, unless we know what lessons she 
teaches. 6. Morals — too often come from 
the pulpit, in the cold abstract; but men 
smart under them when good lawyers are 
the preachers. 7. When we become perfect- 
ly rational, and act wholly from ourselves — 
in consequence of it, we are accountable for 
all our actions, and they are then imputed to 
us, if evil, — but not before. 

Where the gentle streamlets flow, 
Where the morning dew-drops glow, 
Where the zephyrs — wing their flight, 
In the cool and welcome night, 
Whispering through the fragrant grove 
To the heart, that " God is love," 
Where the light cloud skims the sky, 
Worship I "God is passing by !" 
Hoary forest, rugged rock, 
Roaring torrents, earthquake's shock, 
Mighty tempests, lightning's glare, 
Ocean, raging in despair, 
And the desert — lone and drear, 
Wake the soul of man to fear ; 
And when thunder rends the sky, 
Tremble! "God is passing!" 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



103 



391. Emphasis. If your articulation, 
and pronunciation, be clear and correct, and 
you are free from all unnatural tones, and 
other bad habits, nothing can prevent your 
succeeding in this important art, if you per- 
fect yourself in Emphasis : hence, the reason 
of dwelling on the subject so long, and of 
giving such a variety of examples. But re- 
member, that books, rules, teachers, or all 
combined, cannot make orators of you, with- 
out you tlirow your whole heart and soul 
into the exercises, and let your zeal be ac- 
cording to knowledge. Become independent 
of your book, and speak from memory, as 
soon as possible ; then, you will be left to the 
promptings and guidance of your own mind, 
and become free. 

393. 1. Men live, and prosper, but in mu- 
tual trust, and confidence of one another's 
truth. 2. Those, who are teaching our youth 
— to read with science and effect, are doing 
much to increase the power, and extend the 
influence — of standard authors. 

Peace — is the happy, natural state of man; 

War — his corruption, and disgrace. 
To native genius— would you prove a friend ! 
Point out his faults — and teach him how to mend. 

Let us 
Act with prudence, and with manly temper, 
As well as manly./?rwmess ; 
TTis God-like magnanimity — to keep, 
When most provoked, our reason — cabn, and clear. 

Notes. The ancients very properly called man a micro- 
cosm, or little world. But what were this world— without a sun, 
to impart to it light and heat? Of what use the body— without 
the soul ? Of what use the house, without the inhabitant? and 
of what use words, without thought and feeling ? And of what 
use are all these, if they cannot be made manifest ? The body- 
is the mind's servant, and depends on its care, as the mind itself 
does on the Father of mind. Body, and soul— are best taken care 
of, when both are minded together. 

393. Architecture — teaches the art of 
building; and is one of the most useful, as 
well as ancient, of all the arts: it demands 
much more attention, than it has ever re- 
ceived ; especially, in this country : and many 
— would save time, labor and money, and 
have better houses, as to comfort and appear- 
ance, if they would make themselves ac- 
quainted with this important art. Most 
persons will find it much to their benefit, to 
call upon an architect, when about to erect a 
building of importance. 

Anecdote. King James L, of England, 
went out of his way one day, to hear a noted 
preacher. The clergyman, seeing the Idng 
enter, left histext — to declaim against swear- 
ing; for which vile practice — the king was 
notorious. After service, the king thanked 
him for his sermon; and asked him, what 
connection swearing had with his text. The 
minister replied, " Since your majesty came 
out of your way, thro' curiosity, /could not, 
in compliance, do less than go out of mine — 
to meet you" 



Proverbs. 1. Temperance — and intemperance 
— reicard, and punish themselves. 2. Riches — are 
servants to the wise, — but tyrants to fools. 3. None 
can be great, who have ceased to lie virtuous. 4. 
Money — does no good, till it is distributed. 5. If 
you have one true friend, think yourself happy. 6. 
Silks, and satins, often put out the kitchen fire. 7. 
Hanger — looks into the working-man's house ; but 
dare not enter. 8. When the well is dry, people 
know the worth of water. 9. Business — makes a 
man, as well as tires him. 10. For the evidence of 
truth, look at the truth itself. 11. Better go away 
longing, than loathing. 12. Of saving — cometh 
having. 13. God — never made a hypocrite. 

Reading, Writing, and Speaking. 
Habits of literary conversation, and still more, 
habits of extempore discussion in a popular 
assembly, are peculiarly useful in giving us 
a ready and practical command of our know- 
ledge. There is much good sense in the fol- 
lowing aphorism of Bacon : "Reading makes 
a full man, writing a correct man, and speak- 
ing a ready man." 

"Varieties. 1. Through an affected con- 
tempt — for what some call little things, many 
remain ignorant — of what they might easily 
know. 2. A harmless hilarity, and buoyant 
cheerfulness — are not unfrequent concomi- 
tants of genius ; and we are never more de- 
ceived, than when we mistake gravity — for 
greatness, solemnity — for science, and pom- 
posity for erudition. 3. It is better to have 
recourse to a quack, who can cure our dis- 
ease, tho' he cannot explain it, than to one 
who can explain, but cannot cure it. 4. Ear- 
ly rising — not only gives us more life, in the 
same number of years, but adds to the num- 
ber ; and not only enables us to enjoy more 
of existence, in the same measure of time,hvX 
increases also their measure. 5. For hi3 
honesty, there was no winter^irit ; an au- 
tumn 'twas, that grew the more, by reaping. 
6. Let us admire the results of truth, while 
we ascend to the source of truth. 7. Look 
first inwardly, for the coming of the Lord. 
and of Ms kingdom; and when certainly 
found there, then look in outward nature, for 
a harmony agreeing with it ; but not before. 

Tell me not, in mournful numbers, 
Life — is but an empty dream ! 

For the soul is dead, that slumbers, 
And things are not — what they seem. 

Life is real! Life is earnest ! 
And the grave — is not its goal ; 

Lust thou art, to dust returnest, 
Was not spoken — of the soul. 

Not enjoyment, and not sorrow, 
Is our destined end. or way ; 

But to act, that each to-morrow 
Finds ns farther — than to-day. 

Let us, then, be up and doing, 
With a heart for any fate ; 

Still achieving, still pursuing, 
Learn to labor, and to wait. 



104 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



294> Emphasis— is sometimes exhibited 
by changing the seat of accent. 1. What is 
done, cannot be undone. 2. If he did not do 
it directly, he did it indirectly. 3. There are 
probably as many invisible as risible things. 
4. Did he act tioncsily, or dishonestly'! 5. 
There is a difference between giving, and/w- 
giving. 6. Does he speak distinctly, or in- 
distinctly? 7. Better be untaught than ill- 
taught; and better be alone, than in bad 
company. 8. He that ascended, is the same 
as he that descended. 9. Pure religion rais- 
es men above themselves; irreligion — sinks 
them to the brute. 10. SimiZitude— -joins ; 
dissimilitude — separates. 

295. Emphasis — by changing the seat of 
accent, in words of the same structure, and 
of different structure, to convey the full 
meaning. 1. To do, and to un-do — is the 
common business of the world. 2. Reason, 
truth, and virtue — are the proper measures 
of praise, and dis-praise. 3. Mind, and voice 
— act, and ?-e-act upon one another. 4. We 
may have sm-sibility, without manifesting ir- 
ritability. 5. Some things are con-rement ; 
while others are in-convenient. 6. It is ne- 
cessary to observe the division, and the sub- 
division. 7. In the suitableness or wn-suit- 
ableness, in the proportion or dis-proportion, 
which the desire bears to the cause, and the 
object, consists the propriety, or ira-propriety, 
the de-cency, or m-decency — of the conse- 
quent action. 

296. Dyspepsia. Many persons of the 
present day do not chew their food like a man, 
but bolt it whole, like a boa-constrictor : they 
neither take the trouble to dissect, nor the 
time to masticate it. It is no wonder they 
lose their teeth, for they rarely use them ; and 
their power of digestion, for they exhaust it 
by overeating. They load their stomachs, 
as a drayman does his cart, as full as it will 
hold, and as fast as they can pitch it in ; and 
then complain that their load is too heavy. 

267. Zo-ol-o-gt. Almost every child — is 
a naturalist : hence, among the earliest plays 
of childhood, the observation of the habits of 
different animals, holds a prominent place. 
How delighted are they with dogs, cats, calves, 
lambs, sheep, oxen, and horses! What a 
pity, that so much pains should be taken in 
an imperfect education, to sever their young 
minds from these interesting objects ; so well 
calculated to induce close observation, and 
open new fountains in the youthful mind ! 
But how greatly are these studies increased 
in value, by adding the treasures of Botany, 
and Mineralogy, beautiful pjwers, and pre- 
cious stones .' What a glorious world, and 
how admirably designed — to aid in the de- 
velopment of body and mind. 

Eye nature's walks, shoot y "alley, as it flies, 
And catch the manners— living, as they rise. 



Proverbs. 1. Many, who possess much, en- 
joy bul little. 2. Nevei sound the trumpet of your 
ownfame. 3. Faction — is the banc of society. 
4. Religious contention — is Satan's harvest. 5. 
Sell not virtue to purchase wealth. 6. The dis- 
course of flatterers, is like a rope of Ixonexj. 7. 
Truth may languish, but it never dies. 8. Under- 
take — no more than you can perform. 9. Value a 
good conscience more than praise. 10. We are 
bound to be honest, but not to be rich. 11. He is 
idle, that might be better employed. 12. The more 
laios — the more offenders. 

Anecdote. Sailor and Highwayman. A 
stage — was once stopped by a highwayman, 
who, being informed by the driver, that there 
were no inside passengers, and only one on 
the outside, and he a sailor, — the robber pro- 
ceeded to exercise his functions upon the 
bold and honest tar ; when, waking him up, 
Jack demanded to know what he wanted : to 
which the son of plunder replied, — " Your 
money ;" " You shan't have it," says Jack. 
" No ?" rejoined the robber, '* then I'll blow 
your brains out." " Blow away, then ; I may 
as well be without brains, as without money. 
Drive on, coachee .'" 

Independence. Always form your own 
opinion of a person, and never allow anoth- 
er, even your most intimate friend, to judge 
for you ; as he may not have half the power 
of discriminating character, that you yourself 
possess. Never allow yourself to be talked 
out of any thing — against your better judg- 
ment; nor talked into any thing ; unless you 
see clearly, that the reasons advanced — are 
more powerful than your own. 

Varieties. 1 . If your principles are false, 
no apology can make them right ,- if founded 
in truth, no censure can make them wrong. 
2. Do your best to do your best, and what 
you lack in power, supply with will. 3. Ev- 
ery plant that is produced, every child that is 
born, is a new idea ; a fresh expression of the 
wisdom and goodness of our Creator. 4. 
When I see a tight laced girl, or woman, I 
think, — well, there goes another fool. 5. Can 
one passion, though it predominate, act with- 
out assistance of the other passions 'I 6. The 
state of the three kingdoms in nature, speak 
the same at all times ; as also the state of ev- 
ery nation, and what is passing in it ; all 
these things are a language, as are also 
many smaller particulars, tho' attended by 
none. 

There will come, 
Alike, the day of trial— unto all, 
And the rude world— will buffet us aliire : 
Temptation— hath a music— for all ears ; 
And mad ambition— trumpeteth to all ; 
And ungovernable thought, within, 
Will be in every bosom— eloquent : 
But, when the silence — and the calm come on, 
And the high seal— of character— is set, 
We shall not all— be similar. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



105 



398. Emphasis, by changing the seat of 
Accent, and, of course, the Emphasis too. 
1. Does he pronounce correctly, or incorrect- 
ly 1 2. In some kinds of composition, plaus- 
ibility is deemed as essential as pro&ability. 
3. Does that man speak rationally, or irra- 
tionally] 4. We are not now to inquire 
into the justice, or the injustice, the honor, 
or the dishonor of the deed ; nor whether it 
was lawful, or unlawful, wise, or wnwise ; 
but, whether it was actually committed. 5. 
He who is good before invisible witnesses, is 
eminently so before visible ones. 6. This 
corruptible — must put on incorruption, and 
this mortal— immortality, 7. What fellow- 
ship hath righteousness, with unrighteous- 
ness ? or what communion hath light — with 
darknessl 8. We naturally love what is 
agreeable, and hate what is disagreeable. 

299. It is surprising, how few, even of our 
better readers, emphasize the right words, in 
a proper manner ; this is more especially the 
case in reading, than in speaking ; and yet 
children emphasize, correctly, everything that 
is the result of their own feelings and 
thoughts. Incorrect emphasis, always per- 
verts the sense ; and, to the hearer, it is like 
directing a traveler in the wrong road. Ex. 
1. "Dr. Syntax told Jack, to saddle his horse; 
and Jack saddled him" Thus emphasized, 
there is no possibility of doubt, but that Jack 
— put the saddle on the Doctor. Place the 
emphasis on saddled, and you will get the 
true meaning. 2. Now, therefore, the said 
John, (says the said Thomas,) is a thief. 3. 
Now, therefore, the said John, says the said 
Thomas is a thief. Apply emphasis in a va- 
riety of ways, to other examples. 

300. Construction of Houses. How 
little attention is paid to the construction 
of our dwellings! They seem to be built, 
principally, for their looks; and without 
regard to health, and comfort. Our sleep- 
ing apartments — appear to be of second- 
ary consideration : they are generally made 
small ; are poorly ventilated, with low 
ceilings, while all ingress and egress of air 
is carefully prevented. It would be much 
better to reverse this arrangement, and have 
our dwelling apartments constructed like our 
sleeping apartments ; for the former are often 
ventilated through the day. Beware of low 
stories, or low ceilings : houses with attic 
stories, or half stories, or garrets, used for 
sleeping or study rooms, are hot-beds of dis- 
ease and death; excellent places, with the 
addition of highly seasoned/ood, and a plenty 
of coffee, to generate bilious and other fevers. 
Fine economy this ! and then pay the physi- 
cian a few hundred dollars a year, to cure, or 
kill you ! 

The best— sometimes, from virtue's path recede; 
But if the intent be good, excuse the deed. 
14 



Proverbs. 1. One may have a thousand ac- 
quaintances, and not one real friend among them 
all. 2. The richer a country is in talent, and good 
sense, the happier will it be. 3. Always to speak 
— what we think, is a sure way— to acquire the 
habit of thinking and acting with propriety. 4. 
All finery— is a sign of littleness. 5. In proportion 
as we know ourselves, we are enabled to know 
others. 6. The government — and people — should 
never regard each other, as opposite parties. 7. 
Time and labor — charge a mulberry-]ea.f into satin. 
8. As virtue — is its own reward; so vice — is its 
own punishment. 9. It is torture, to enemies, to re- 
turn their injuries with kindness. 10. Cast thy 
bread upon the waters ; for thou shalt find it, after 
many days. 11. He, may find fault, who cannot 
mend. 1 2. A bird is known by its note, and a man 
— by his talk. 

Anecdote. No rank in life — precludes the 
efficacy — of a well-timed compliment. When 
Queen Elizabeth, who was highly accom- 
plished, both in mind and person, asked an 
embassador, how he liked her ladies, who at- 
tended on her ; he replied, " It is hard to judge 
of stars — in presence of the sun." 

An Honest Means of getting aLiving- 
There seems to be but three ways for a nation 
to acquire wealth ; the first is by war, as the 
Romans did, in plundering their conquered 
neighbors, — this is robbery ; the second, by 
commerce, which is generally cheating ; the 
third, by agriculture, the only honest way, 
wherein a man receives a real increase of the 
seed thrown into the ground, in a kind of 
continual miracle, wrought by the hand of 
God in his favor, as a reward for his innocent 
life and his virtuous industry. 

Varieties. 1. Should not every one be- 
ware of the evils, attendant on his own con- 
dition 1 2. Children, as well as adults, are 
benefitted by their own conjectures and reas- 
onings ; even about things and principles, 
that they cannot as yet comprehend. 3. 
What does education mean, but the regene- 
ration of the mind ? 4. The present families 
of mankind — seem but the wrecks and ruins 
of men ; like the continents, that compose the 
earth. 5. How apt we are — to make our- 
selves — the measure of the universe; and 
with the span of one life, or the world's his- 
tory, to crowd the magnitude, and extent of 
the works of God ; these are but parts — of 
one stupendous whole. 6. Our bodies are 
new;-formed every seven years. 7. Only, that 
external worship is profitable, in which an 
internal feeling, and a sense of what is said 
and done, exists ; for without such sense, it 
must needs be merely external. 

Lo ! like a glorious pile of diamonds bright 
Built on the steadfast cliff, the xoaterfall 

Pours forth its gems of pearl and silver light; 
They sink, they rise, and, sparkling, cover all 

With infinite refulgence : while its song, 

Sublime as thunder, rolls the woods along. 



106 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



301. Emphasis — may be exhibited by 
stress, and higher pilch : that is, force and 
loudness of voice, and elevation to the upper 
notes of the scale. 1. Little minds — are 
tamed — and subdued — by misfortunes; but 
gi'eat ones — rise above them. 2. Virtue 
— leads to happiness,- vice — to misery. 3. 
True liberty — can exist — only where jus- 
tic e — is impartially administered. 4. Tyr- 
anny — is detestable — in every shape ; but in 
none so formidable, as when assumed and 
exercised, by a num b er of tyrants. 5. Froivn 

INDIGNANTLY, Upon the first DAWNING Of 

an attempt, to alienate any portion of this 
Union from the rest: the Union — it must 
be preserved. 6. Drunkenness — destroys 
more of the human race, and alienates more 
property, than all the other crimes on earth. 
7. A day, an hour — of virtuous liberty, is 
worth a whole eternity in bondage. 8. I tell 
you,tho' (5) you,- tho' all the (6) world; tho' 
an angel from (8) HEAVEN — declare the 
truth of it, I could not believe it. N. B. The 
words in small capitals have both stress and 
elevation. 

302. Strong Poo ts. There are, in all 
kinds of sentences, paragraphs, speeches, 
&c, what may be called strong points, which 
are to be shown, principally, by the voice: 
hence, the importance of throwing all weak 
parts into the ftocfc-ground, and bringing out 
the strong ones — into the /ore-ground. Now 
if the little words, that are insignificant, are, 
in their pronunciation and delivery, made 
significant, the proper effect will be destroy- 
ed. Therefore, we should never make prom- 
inent such words as are not emphatic ; and 
especially, such words as at, by, of, for, from 
in, on, up, with, &c, unless they are contras- 
ted with their opposites: as — of, ox for; by, 
or through; from or to ; in or out ; on, or 
under g up, or down, &c. 

303. Recitations. Frequent recitations, 
from memory, are very useful, as they oblige 
the speaker to dwell on the ideas, which he 
wishes to express, discern their particular 
meanings, and force, and give him a know- 
ledge of emphasis, tones, &c, which the 
pieces require : and they will especially re- 
lieve him from the influence of school-boy hab- 
its — of reading differently from conversation, 
on similar subjects, and afford far greater 
scope for expression and gestures. 

304. Ethics. Moral Philosophy, — treats 
of our duties to our Maker, to our fellow- 
men, and to ourselves; and the reasons by 
which those duties are enforced. Its great 
object seems to be — to promote the cause of 
virtue, by showing its reasonableness, excel- 
lence and beauty, and the melancholy effects 
of neglecting or forsaking it. 

Honor — is an isle, — whose rocky coast 
When once abandoned, is forever lost. 



Proverbs. 1. He, who goes no further tnan 
hare justice, stops at the beginning of virtue. 2. 
The blameless— should not bear the effects of vice. 
3. The faults, and misfortunes of others, should 
serve as beacons, to warn us against the causes, 
by which they have been overwhelmed. 4. Somt 
—have such a love for contention, that they will 
quarrel, even with a. friend, for a matter devoid of 
all importance. 5. The human mind— can ac- 
complish almost any tiling that it determines to ef- 
fect ; for patience, and perseverance, surmount every 
surmountable difficulty. 6. Keep your appetite— 
under the control of reason. 7. The indulgence 
of a satirical disposition — is always dangerous : 
it betrays a malicious spirit, a bad heart, and of- 
ten creates enmities, and dislikes, that no lapse of 
years can soften, and death— can hardly extinguish. 
8. While the tongue and expression of some — 
seem to be honied, their heart — abounds with vine- 
gar. 9. Superfluity — often leads to profusion. 10. 
Characters — in every other respect virtuous and 
amiable, if tinged with haughtiness and reserve, 
become odious. 11. Solitude — dulls thought; too 
much society — dissipates it. 12. The longest life — 
is but a parcel of moments. 13. Without pru- 
dence, fortitude is mad. 

Anecdote. A paver, who had often dun- 
ned a Doctor, was one day answered by him, 
— " Do you pretend to be paid for such work ? 
You have spoiled my pavement, and covered 
it with earth — to hide its defects." " Mine is 
not the only bad work, that the earth hides; 
as your practice abundantly proves," — re- 
joined the man. 

Iiegendary Tales. In countries, where 
education and learning abound, legendary 
and miraculous tales lose ground; exciting 
but little interest, and less belief, and at last 
almost becoming a dead letter. Mankind, in 
a state of ignorance, with little education, 
are credulous, and fond of the marvellous ; 
and there have not been wanting, in all ages, 
men of craft and invention, to gratify that 
passion in others, and turn it to their own 
advantage. 

Varieties. 1. The Bible — has truth for 
its subject, the mind for its object, and the 
Father of mind for its Author. 2. Such is the 
arrangement of Divine Order, in the govern- 
ment of the universe, that ra> evil can be prac- 
ticed, or intended, without eventually falling 
on the contriver. 3. A knowledge of mans 
physical organization, as well as mental, is 
essentially requisite for all, who would suc- 
cessfully cultivate the field of education. 4. 
Experience — is the knowledge of every thing 
in the natural world, that is capable of be- 
ing received through the medium of the senses. 
5. Where liberty dwells, there — is my coun- 
try. 6. Intemperance — drives wit out of the 
head, money out of the pocket, elboivs out of 
the coat, and health out of the body. 7. In 
the choice of a wife, take the obedient daugh- 
ter of a good mother. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



107 



305. Emphasis — is made, secondly, by 
quantity and force -, i. e. prolongation of 
sound, and stress of voice, on either high, low, 
or medium pitches. 1. Roll on, — thou dark 
— and deep blue ocean — roll ; Ten thous- 
and fleets sweep — over thee in vain. 2. 
Let our object be — our country ; our whole 
country; and nothing but — our country. 
3. I warn you — do not dare — to lay your 
hand on the constitution. 4. Hail ! Univer- 
sal Lord ! Be bounteous still — to give us 
only good ; and if the night — have gathered 
— aught of evil — or concealed — disperse it 
now, as light — dispels the dark. 5. A Deity 
— believed — is joy begun,- a Deity — adored 
— is joy advanced, — a Deity — beloved — 
is joy matured. 6. Prayer — ardent — opens 
heaven,- lets down a stream of glory — on 
the consecrated hours of man, — in audience 
—with the Deity. N. B. The first Ex. is 
an instance of the lowest division of subjects 
— the Natural; the second and third, of the 
middle division — the Human ,- and the fourth 
and fifth, of the upper — the Divine : see pre- 
vious article on this subject. 

306. Sheridan, of whose oratorical pow- 
ers, every elocutionist has heard, after having 
excited a great interest among his friends, 
who were filled with hope at his prospects, 
made a signal failure, on his first appearance 
in Parliament; insomuch, that he was en- 
treated never to make another attempt. He 
nobly replied — " I will ; for by Heaven, it is 
in me, and it shall come out." He did try, 
and his efforts were crowned with success. 
In like manner, almost every orator failed at 
first ; but perseverance made them more than 
conquerors. It is not unfrequent that the 
most abashed, and ill-omened, succeed the 
best. Take courage ,- let your motto be " on- 
ward and upward, and true to the line." 

My crown is in my heart, — not on my head ; 
Nor decked with diamonds, and Indian stones : 
Nor to be seen ; my crown — is called — Content; 
A crown it is — that seldom kings enjoy. 
If there is a Power above us, 
(And that there is — all Nature — cries aloud, 
Thro' all her works,) He — must delight in virtue ; 
And that which He delights in — must he happy. 
He hath a heart — as sound as a bell, 
And his tongue — is the clapper ; 
For what his heart — thinks, his tongue — speaks. 
Where'er thou journey est — or whate'er thy care, 
My heart shall follow, and my spirit — share. 
5. American Literature — will find, that the 
intellectual spirit — is her tree of life ; and 
the union of the states, — her garden of 
Paradise. 6. God — is our Father ; and al- 
though we, as children, may be ever so 
guilty, his compassion towards us— fails not ; 
and hewiU pity, forgive, and counsel, advise, 
teach, and lead us out of evil, whenever we 
sincerely wish it. 



Proverbs. 1. A desire to resist oppression — 
is implanted in the nature of man. 2. The faults 
and errors of others, are lessons of caution — to our- 
selves. 3. No shield is so impenetrable, no security 
so effectual, as a mind — conscious of its innocence. 

4. Our most delightful enjoyments — are always 
liable to interruption. 5. If our passions are not 
kept under control, they will soon master us. 6. 
Those things that are unbecoming, are unsafe. 7. 
Ardent spirits— have drowned more people, than 
all the waters in the world. 8. He, is never tired 
of listening, who wishes to gain wisdom. 9. All 
true religion relates to life; and the life of that re- 
ligion is — to do good from a love of it. 10. A wise 
man is a great wonder. 11. Be courteous to all, 
and intimate with few. 12. Defile not your mouth 
with swearing. 

Anecdote. Law Practice. A lawyer told 
his client, that his opponent — had removed 
his suit to a higher court : " Let him remove 
it where he pleases, (quoth the client ;) my 
attorney will fo How it — for money." 

Common Sense. It is in the portico of 
the Greek sage, that that phrase has received 
its legitimate explanation ,- it is there we are 
taught, that " common sense" signifies " the 
sense of the common interest." Yes ! it is the 
most beautiful truth in morals, that we have 
no such thing as a distinct or divided interest 
from our race. In their welfare is ours, and 
by choosing the broadest paths to effect their 
happinesss, we choose the surest and the 
shortest to our own. 

Varieties. 1. The universe — is an em- 
pire,- and God — its sovereign. 2. The smooth- 
ness of flattery — cannot now avail, — cannot 
save us, in this rugged and awful crisis. 3. 
I had much rather see all — industrious and 
enlightened, — than to see one half of man- 
kind — slaves to the other, and these — slaves 
to their passions. 4. The condition of scof- 
fers, is of all — the most dangerous ; as well 
from the particular state of mind, that consti- 
tutes their character, as because they are in- 
capable of conviction — by argument ; who- 
ever knew such a one converted to the truth? 

5. Watch against, and suppress — the first 
motions of spiritual pride ; such as — prone- 
ness to think too highly of yourselves, or a 
desire to have others think highly of you, on 
account of your spiritual attainments. 6. 
How many villains — walk the earth with 
credit, from the mere fulfilment of negative 
decencies. 7. Study history, not so much for 
its political events, as for a knowledge of hu- 
man nature. 

Away ! away to the mountain's brow, 

Where the trees are gently waving; 
Away ! away to the mountain's brow, 

Where the stream is gently laving. 
Away ! away to the rocky glen, 

Where the deer are wildly bounding ; 
And the hills shall echo in gladness again 

To the hunter's bugle sounding. 



108 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



397. Quantity and Rhetorical 

Pav se. 1 . Dwell on such words as are expres- 
sive of the kindlier affections, with a slow 
and adhesive movement of voice, as if you 
parted with the ideas reluctantly. 2. Very 
deliberate subjects require more or less of 
quantity in their emphasis: so also do the 
sublime, the grand, and the solemn ; partic- 
ularly, the reverential, the grave ; so also do 
earnest entreaty, prayer, deep pathos, &c. 
Ex. "Join — all ye creatures — to extol — Him 
— first; Him — last; Him — midst, and — 
without end:" 1 " Mary ! dear — departed 
shade, Where is thy place of blissful rest? 
Seest thou thy lover — lowly laid'! Hear'st 
thou the groans, that rend his breast?" 

308. Read, or rather speak from memory, 
these lines with quantity, and on the lower 
pitches of voice. 

Night, (sable goddess) from her ebon throne, 
[u rayless majesty, now stretches/ar 
Her leaden sceptre — o'er a slumbering world. 
Silence — how dead .' and darkness — bow profound : 
Nor eye, nor listening ear, an object finds. 
Creation — sleeps. 'Tis — as if the general pulse 
Of life — stood still, — and Nature — made & pause. 
An awful pause, — prophetic of her end. 

309. Important Considerations. If 
the evils of tight lacing, and tight dressing 
could only stop with the guilty, pne consola- 
tion would still be left us ; but even this is 
denied us : no ! there is not even one drop 
of joy to be cast into our cup of bitterness — 
the draught is one of unmingled gall : the 
human form divine is sadly deformed; the 
fountain of innumerable evils and diseases is 
opened by this suicidal practice; and thous- 
ands of human beings are yearly coming 
into life, cursed from head to foot, from mind 
to body, with the awful effects of this infer- 
nal fashion, which originated in the basest 
passions of the human heart. Oh, who can 
measure the accumulating woe, which this 
accursed custom has entailed, and is yet en- 
tailing on the human race ! 

Anecdote. To prevent Suicide. A Hi- 
bernian. Senator, speaking on the subject of 
preventing suicide, said, — " The only way I 
can conceive, of stopping the business, is, — 
to make it a capital offence, punishable with 
death:' 

O how weak 
Is mortal man .' How tri/ling — how confin'd 
IJis scope of vision ! — Puff'd with confidence, 
His phrase — grows big with immortality; 
And he, poor insect of a summers day, 
Dreams of eternal honors to his name ; 
Of endless glory, and perennial bays. 
He idly reasons of Eternity, 
As of the train of ages,— when, alas! 
Ten thousand thousand of his centuries 
Are, in comparison, a little point, 
Too trivial for account. 

Unlearn the evils you have learned. 



Proverbs. 1. You cannot appease envy. 
even by sacrificing virtue. 2. The envious man 
grows base, by contemplating the success of an- 
other. 3. A government, that undervalues the af- 
fections of the people, and expects to find a firm 
basis in terrors, will be mistaken, and short-lived. 
4. He, who passes over a crime, unreproved, or 
unpunished, encourages its repetition. 5. He. 
who controls his passions, subdues his greatest 
enemy. 6. He, alone is wise, that can adapt him- 
self to all the contingencies of life; but the fool—- 
vainly contends, and struggles against the stream. 
7. The ways of the lazy — are as a hedge of 
thorns. 8. To a lazy man — every exertion is pain- 
ful, and every movement a labor. 9. Innocence — 
and mysteriousness — seldom dwell together. 10. It 
is folly — to expect justice — at the hands of the 
unjust. 11. Great are the charms of novelty. 12. 
Custom — is no small matter. 13. Consider thy 
ways, and be wise. 

Humbugs. All new developments of 
truth — are called, by many, who do not ap- 
preciate them, or dare to think and act for 
themselves — " Humbugs :'' and this dreadful 
name — has no doubt had the effect^-to lead 
some — to condemn them, without further in- 
quiry. But the worst of all humbugs, the 
most deplorable of all delusions — is that, 
which leads men to shut their eyes to the 
truth, lest they should be laughed at — for 
acknowledging it. 

Varieties. 1. Is not this world — a world 
of dreams, and the spirit-world — a world of 
realities ? 2. Some are only in the love of 
knowing what is good, and true; others, of 
understanding them ; and others — of living 
according to them; to which class do I be- 
long ] 3. Xerxes — whipped the sea, because 
it would not obey him. 4. That, which some 
people pride themselves in, often becomes 
the cause of their undoing ; and what they 
very much dislike, becomes the only thing 
that saves them. 5. Possession — is eleven 
points of the law : hence, never let a valua- 
ble thing go out of your possession, without 
an ample security. 6. The world below — 
is a glass, in which we may see the world 
above : remove the vail, and see where spirit, 
and matter are connected. 7. The ftear/-felt 
prayer, only, is available ; and to produce it, 
there must be deep-Mt want ; and the strong- 
er it operates, the more perfect, and accept a,- 
ble must be the prayer. 

" Oh ! tell me, step-dame Nature, tell, 
Where shall thy wayward child abide? 

On what fair strand his spirit dwell, 
When life has spent its struggling tide ? 

Shall hope no more her taper burn, 

Quenched — in the tears that sorrow sends? 

Nor from the feast, misfortune spurn 
The wishful wretch, that o'er it bends ?" 

u Can storied urn, or animated bust, 

Back to its mansion, call the fleeting breath? 

Can honor's voice — provoke the silent dust? 
Or flat try soothe the dull, cold ear of death ? 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



109 



310. Emphasis— by prolongation, and de- 
pressed monotone : that is, quantity of voice 
on the first, second, or third note : it is some- 
times used in the grave and sublime, and pro- 
duces astonishing effects. Monotony— occurs 
when the voice is inflected neither up nor 
down, but is confined to a few words. The 
figures refer to the notes of the diatonic 
scale. The following free translation of a 
paragraph from one of Cicero's orations, will 
serve as a good illustration : but no one 
should attempt it, without committing it to 
memory. 

311* (Commence on the fourth note.) 
** I appeal to you — ye hills, and groves of 
(5) Alba, and your demolished (6) altars! I 
call you to (8) witness! (4) whether your 
(5) altars, your (6) divinities, your (S) pow- 
ers ! (5) which Clodius had polluted with all 
kinds of (€) wickedness, (5) did not (4) avenge 
themselves, when this wretch was (3) extir- 
pated. (1) And thou, holy (2) Jupiter! (3) 
from the (4) height of this (5) sacred (6) 
mount, whose lakes — and groves — he had so 
often (3) contaminated" 

COLUMBIA ! Columbia 1 to glory arise, 

The quetn of the voorld, and the child of the shies ; 

Thy genius cemmande thee ; with rapture behold, 

While ages — on ages thy splendors unfold. 

Thy reign is the last— and the noblest of time; 

Most fruitful thy soil, most inviting thy clime; 

Let the crimes of the east— ne'er encrimson thy name ; 

Be freedom, mi. science, tnd virtue— thy fame. 

31*i. The only way in which children, or 
adults, can be taught to read, or speak, natu- 
rally, is — to memorize short or longer sen- 
tences, and deliver them in a perfectly intelli- 
gent, impressive, and unrestrained manner. 
Abcdarians: first teach them the sounds of 
the vowels; then of the consonants, inter- 
spersing the exercises with select, or original 
sentences. Ex. u Time and tide — wait for 
no man." Or, if it is a rainy day, " This is 
a very rainy day." If pleasant, "This is a 
delightful day." Which sentences, after be- 
ing recited in concert, should be spoken by 
the class individually. In this way, even 
small children may be taught a great variety 
of things, natural and spiritual ; and an im- 
mense field of usefulness opened before the 
mind of the real teacher : i. e. one who teach- 
es from the love of teaching ; and no others 
should engage in it. 

Notes. 1. Remember— the figures, placed before words in 
sentences, indicate the pitch of voice, and have reference to the 
iiatonic note ; thsy are aids to break up the monotonous delivery. 
2. Still continue your efforts to smooth the apparent roughness of 
the notations, in regard to the dash, (—) pauses, (,;:?!) and 
Emphasis : glide out of the mechanical into the natural. 

There is, in every human heart, 

Some — not completely barren part, 

Where seeds of truth— and love might grow, 

And flowers — of generous virtue blow ; 

To ■plant, to watch, to water there — 

This— be our duty, and our care. 



Proverbs. 1. A mind conscious of its integ- 
rity, — is a most noble possession. 2. In acquir- 
ing knoivledge, consider how you may render it 
useful to society. 3. Avoid undue excitement on 
trivial occasions. 4 When engaged in a good 
cause, never look back. 5. Poverty — is no excuse 
for sinning. 6. Never repeat in one company, 
what is said in another; for all conversation, is 
tacitly understood — to be confidential. 7. Let 
reason — go before every enterprise, and counsel — 
before every action. 8. Look on slanderers — as 
enemies to society ; as persons destitute of honor, 
honesty, and humanity. 9. Divisions, and con- 
tentions — are upheld by pride, and self-love. 10. 
Patience, when subjected to trials that are too 
severe, is sometimes converted into rage. 11. 
Avoid niateA-makers. 12. Virtue — is often 
laughed at. 

Anecdote. Lord Albermarle — was the 
lover of Mademoiselle Gaucher, (Gaw-shay.) 
As they were walking together one evening, 
he perceived her eyes fixed on a star, and 
said to her "Do not look at it, my dear,- I 
cannot give it you." "Never," says Mar- 
montel, " did love — express itself more deli- 
cately." 

!Law — is law — law — is law; and as in 
such, and so forth, and hereby, and aforesaid, 
provided always, nevertheless, notwithstand- 
ing. Law — is like a country dance ; people 
are led up and down in it, till they are tired. 
Law — is like a book of surgery ,• there are a 
great many desperate cases in it. It is also 
like physic ; they that take the least of it, are 
best off. Law — is like a homely gentlewo- 
man, very well to follow. Law — is also like 
a scolding wife, very bad when it follows us. 
Law — is like a new fashion, people are be- 
witched to get into it: it is also like bad 
weather, most people are glad when they get 
out of it. 

Varieties. 1. Are we not apt to be proud 
of that, which is not our own P 2. It is a less 
crime — to gnaw a man's fingers with your 
teeth, than to mangle his reputation with 
your tongue. 3. It is better to yield grace- 
fully, than to be held up as a spectacle of 
vanquished, yet impertinent obstinacy. 4. 
Really learned persons — never speak of hav- 
ing finished their education: for they con- 
tinue students, as long as they live. 5. Equivo- 
cation — is a mere expedient — to avoid telling 
the truth, without verbally telling a lie. 6. 
True philosophy and contempt of the Deity, 
are diametrically opposed to each other. 7. 
Sensual good, has sensual truth for its object; 
natural good has an order of natural truth, 
and spiritual good has spiritual truth, agree- 
ing with the spiritual sense of the Bible. 

No flocks, that range the valley free, 

To slaughter — do I condemn : 
Taught by that power, that pities me, 

I learn to pity them. 



110 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



313. RlTi.ES. It is impossible to give 

-for reading every sentence, or indeed 
an:: sentence ; much more is left to the jntpi!, 
than can be written. All that is here at- 
tempted — is, a meagre outline of the subject; 
enough, however, for every one who is deter- 
mined to succeed, and makes the necessary 
application ,- and too much for such as are 
of an opposite character. The road is point- 
ad out, and all the necessaries provided for 
Hhe journey ; but each must do the traveling, 
or abide the consequences. Be what ought 
to be, and success is yours. 

(3) No radiant pearl, which crested fortune wears, 

(4) No gem, that twinkling, hangs fiom beauty's ears: 

(5) Nor the bright stars, which night's blue arch adom, 

(6) Nor rising sun — that gilds the eternal morn, — 
(8) Shine— with such lustre, as the tear that breaks, 
(6) For other's woe, down virtue's manly cheek. 

In reading, (rather reciting) these beautiful 
lines, the voice commences, as indicated by 
the figures, gradually rises, then yields a lit- 
tle; till it comes to the word 'shine,' which 
is on the 8th note; and then it gradually de- 
scends to the close; because such are the 
thoughts, and the feelings. Get the inside. ; 
never live out of doors ; grasp the thoughts, 
and then let the words flow from feeling. 

314. Opening the Mouth. This is 
among the most important duties of the elo- 
cutionist, and singer ; more fail in this par- 
ticular, than in any other : indistinctness and 
stammering are the sad effects of not open- 
ing the mouth wide enough. Let it be your 
first object to obtain the proper positions of 
the vocal organs: for which purpose, practice 
the vocal analysis, as here presented. The 
first effort is — separating the lips and teeth ; 
which will not only enable you to inhale and 
exhale freely, through the nose, when speak- 
ing and singing, but avoid uneasiness in the 
chest, and an unpleasant distortion of the fea- 
tures. The second is, a simultaneous action 
of the lips, teeth, and tongue: let these re- 
marks be indelibly stamped upon your 
memory ; for they are of immense practical 
importance. 

Anecdote. Alexander and the Pirate. 
We too often judge of men — by the splendor, 
and not the merit of their actions. Alexan- 
der — demanded of the Pirate, whom he had 
taken, by what right — he infested fee seas? 
"By the same right," replied he boldly, 
" that you enslave the world. I — am called a 
robber, because I have only one small vessel ,• 
but you — are called a con queror, because you 
command great fleets and navies.'''' 
The best contrived deceit- 
Will hurt its own contriver; 
And perfi/ly — doth o r ten cheat — 
Its author's purse— of every stiver. 
The man, that's resolute, and just, 
Firm to his principles — and trust, 
Nor hopes, nor fears,— can bind. 



Proverbs. 1. A great fortune, in the hands 
of a fool, is a great mis-fortune. 2. Too many 
resolve, then re resolve, and die the same. 3. 
Never give the tongue full Hberiy. but keep it 
under control. 4. C/iaractir — is the measure of 
man and woman. 5. We may die of a surfeit, as 
well as of hunger. 6. Truth— is an ornament, 
and an instrument. 7. If we meet evil company, 
it is no reason we should keep it. 8. Provide 
for the worst, but hope for the best. 9. Though 
he is wise, that can teach the most, yet he, that 
learns, and practices what he learns, is wiser. 
10. Never be without good books. 11. Time — 
is the herald of truth. 12. Manners make the 
man. 13. Dissembled holiness, is double ini- 
quity. 14. Conscience — is in the chamber of 
justice. 

Oratory. Eloquence — may be considered 
as the soul, or animating principle of dis- 
course; and is dependent on intellectual 
energy, and intellectual attainments. Elo- 
cution — is the embodying form, or represen- 
tative power ; dependent on exterior accom- 
plishments, and on the cultivation of the or- 
gans. Oratory — is the complicated and vital 
existence, resulting from the perfect harmony 
and com bination of Eloquence and Elocution , 

Varieties, 1 . Is there not the same dif- 
ference — hetween actual and hereditary evil, 
as between an inclination to do a thing, and 
the commission of the act? 2. Whoever has 
flattered his friend successfully, must at once 
think himself a. knave, and his friend a fool. 

3. Unfriended, indeed, is he, who has no 
friend good enough — to tell him his faults. 

4. If those, who are called good singers, 
were as sensible of their errors in reading, as 
they would be, if similar ones were made 
in their singing, they would be exceedingly 
mortified, and chagrined. 5. The sacred 
light of Scripture — should be shed upon the 
canvas of the world's history, as well as on 
that of humanity. 6. The theology of crea- 
tion — was revealed to the earliest ages; and 
the science of creation, is now beginning to 
be revealed to us. 7. What is most spiritual 
— is most rational, if rightly understood ; 
and it also admits of a perfect illustration — 
by rational and natural things: to follow 
God, and to follow right — and pure reason, 
is all one ; and we never give offence to Him, 
if we do that, which such a reason requires. 

THE PROGRESS OF LIFE. 
I dreamed— 1 saw a little rosy child, 

With flaxen ringlets— in a garden playing; 

Now stopping here, and then afar off straying, 
Asflower, or butterfly — his feet beguiled. 

Twas changed. One summer's day I stept aside, 
To let him pass ; his face— and manhood seeming, 
And that full eye of blue— was fondly beaming 

On a fair maiden, whom he called " his Bride .'" 
Once more ; 'twas autumn, and the cheerful fire 

I saw a group — if youthful forms surrounding, 

The room — with harmless pleasantry resounding, 
And, in the midst, I marked the smiling Sire, 

The heavens were clouded ! and I heard the tone, 

Of a slow— moving bell— the white haired man was gone. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



Ill 



315. As Emphasis is the same thing as 
Accent, only more of it ; so, it is inseparably 
connected with the Pauses; indeed, what- 
ever distinguishes one word from the others, 
may be called Empfiasis ; which is some- 
times only another name for Expression : it 
is, at least, one of the mediums of expression. 
Hence, Emphasis is often exhibited in con- 
nection with a Rhetorical Pause, placed be- 
fore, or after, emphatic words, which may 
he elevated, or depressed, with force and quan- 
tity, according to sentiment. When this 
pause is made after the important word, or 
words, it causes the mind to revert to what 
was last said; and when it is made before 
such word, the mind is led to anticipate 
something worthy of particular attention. 
The book is full of illustrations. 

316. Ex. 1. Benevolence — is one of the 
brightest gems— in the crown of christian per- 
fection. 2. Melody — is an agreeable succes- 
sion of sounds; Harmony — an agreeable 
con cor dan ce of sounds. 3. Homer — was the 
greater genius ; Virgil — the better artist : 
in one, we most admire the man,- in the other 
— the work ; Homer — hurries us with com- 
manding impetuosity ; Virgil — leads us with 
an attractive majesty. Homer — scatters with 
a generous profusion ; Virgil — bestows, with 
a careful magnificence. 4. What man could 
do, is done already ,• (8) Heaven — and (5) 
earth — will witness, — if — R-o-m-e — m-u-s-t 
f-a-ll, — that we are innocent. 

IVote. Prolong the words with the hyphens between the 
letters. 

317. Political Economy — teaches us 
to investigate the nature, sources, and proper 
uses of national wealth ; it seems to bear the 
same relation to the whole country, that Do- 
mestic Economy does to an individual fa mi- 
ly : for, tho' it generally relates to the wealth 
of nations, it leads us to examine many points 
of comfort and well-being, that are closely 
connected with the acquisition, and expendi- 
ture of property. Its connection with legis- 
lation and government are self-evident ; yet 
every one may derive important lessons, from 
a knowledge of its facts and principles. 

Anecdote. All have their Care. Two 
merchants, conversing together about the 
hardness of the times, and observing a flock 
of pigeons, one said to the other, — "How 
happy those pigeons are ! they have no bills 
and acceptances to provide for." "Indeed," 
said the other, " you are much mistaken ; for 
they have their bills to provide for as well as 
we." 

When adverse loinds — and waves arise, 
And in my heart — despondence sighs; 
When life — her throng of cares reveals, 
And weakness — o'er my spirit steals, 
Grateful — I hear the kind decree, 
" That, as my day, my strength — shall be." 



Proverbs. 1. Nothing overcomes passion— 
sooner than silence. 2. Precepts — may lead, but 
examples — draw. 3. Rebel not against the dictate* 
of reason and conscience. 4. Sincerity — is the pa- 
rent of truth. 5. The loquacity of fools — is a lec- 
ture to the wise. 6. Unruly passions — destroy the 
peace of the soul. 7. Valor — can do but little, 
without discretion. 8. Modesty — is one of the chief 
ornaments of youth. 9. Never insult the poor ; 
poverty — entitles one to our pity. 10. Our reputa- 
tion, virtue,- and happiness — greatly depend on the 
choice of our companions. 11. Wisdom — is the 
greatest wealth. 12. Pride — is a great thief. 

Laconics. No more certain is it, that the 
flower was made to waft perfume, than that 
woman's destiny — is a ministry of love, a life 
of the affections. 

Varieties. 1. Those authors, (says Dr. 
Johnson,) are to be read at school, that supply 
most axioms of prudence, and most principles 
of moral truth. 2. The little and short say- 
ings of wise and excellent men, (saith Bishop 
Tillotson,) are of great value ; like the dust 
of gold, or, the least sparks of diamonds. 3. 
The idle, who are wise rather for this world 
than the next, are fools at large. 4. Let all 
your precepts be succint, and clear, that 
ready wits may comprehend them. 5. None 
— better guard against a cheat, than he, who 
is a knave complete. 6. Scarcely an ill — to 
human life — belongs; but what out follies 
cause, or mutual wrongs. 7. What our Lord 
said to all, is applicable to all, at all times; 
namely, " watch,'' — and it appears to relate 
to the admission of every thought and desire, 
into the mind. 

THE MOTHER PERISHING IN A SNOW-STORM. 
" In the year 1821, a Mrs. Blake perished in a snow-storm in the 
night-time, while traveling over a spur of the Green Mountains 
in Vermont. She had an infant with her, which was found alive 
and well in the morning, being carefully wrapped in the mother's 
clothing." ^ 

The cold winds — swept the mountain's height, 

And pathless — was the dreary wild, 
And, 'mid ihe cheerless hours of night, 

A mother wander'd — with her child : 
As through the drifting snow she press'd, 
The babe — was sleeping — on her breast. 
And colder still the winds did blow, 

And darker hours of night came on, 
And deeper grew the drifting snow : 

Her limbs — were chiWd, her strength — was gone ; 
"Oh, God!" she cried, in accents wild, 
" If /must perish, save my child!" 
She stripp'd her mantle from her breast, 

And bared her bosom to the storm, 
And round the child — she wrapp'd the vest, 

And smiled — to think her babe was warm. 
With one cold kiss — one tear she shed, 
And sunk — upon her snowy bed. 
At dawn — a traveler passed by, 

And saw her — 'ueath a snowy vail; 
The frost of death— was in her eye, 

Her cheek was cold, and hard, and pale; 
He moved the robe from off the child, 
The babe look'd up— and sweetly smiled » 



112 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



318. Emphasis, in connection with the 
Rhetorical Pause. 1. A friend — cannot be 
known — in prosperity ; and an enemy can- 
not be hidden — in adversity. 

Passions — ur<> winds — to urge us o'er the wave, 
Reason — the rudder — to direct — or save. 

He — raised a mortal — to the skies, 

Sue — drew an angel — down. 
4. Charity — suffereth long, and is (3) kind : (4) 
charity — envieth not; (5) charity — vaunteth 
not itself; (3) is not puffed up,- (4) doth not 
behave itself (5) unseemly ,• (6) sceketh not 
her own ; (5) is not easily (4) provoked ; (3) 
thinketh no evil; (5) rejoiceth — not in (4) 
iniquity, but (5) rejoiceth in the truth ; (4) 
beareth all things ; (5) believeth all things, (6) 
hopeth all things; (7) endureth all things; 
(6) charity — (8) never faileth. 

319. The Three Degrees of Speech. 
There are three different modes in which one 
may read and speak ; only two of which, un- 
der any circumstances, can be right. The 
first is — reading and speaking by word, 
without having any regard to the sentiment ; 
the second is — reading or speaking only by 
word and thought ; and the third is — read- 
ing and speaking by word, thought and feel- 
ling — all combined, and appropriately man- 
ifested. In the Greek language, we find these 
three modes definitly marked by specific 
words, such as lalleo, eipo and EIRO. Chil- 
dren are usually taught the first, instead of 
the third, and then the second and third — 
combined: hence, very few of them ever 
have any conception of the meaning of the 
words they use, or of the subject matter about 
which they are reading : they seem to regard 
these as something foreign to the object. 
Here we again see the natural truth of an- 
other scripture declaration : " The letter kil- 
leth : the spirit giveth life." 

And from the prayer of want, the plaint of uoe; 
Oh ! never, never — turn away thine ear : 
Forlorn, in this bleak wilderness below, [hear. 

Ah ! what were man, should Heaven — refuse to 
To others do — (the law is not severe;) 
What — to thyself— thou wishest to be done; 
Forgive thy/oes, and love thy parents dear, 
And friends and native land; nor those alone, [own. 
All human weal, or woe, learn thou to make thine 
Anecdote. Mahomet — made his people 
believe, that he would call a hill to him ; and, 
from the top of it, offer up his prayers for the 
observers of his law. The people assembled ; 
Mahomet called the hill again and again to 
come to him ; and the hill not moving, he 
was not at all abashed at it ; but put it off 
■with a jest; saying — "If the hill will not 
-come to Mahomet, he — will go to the hill." 

When people — once are in the wrong, 

Each line they add — is much too long ; 

Who fastest walks, but walks astray, 

Is only furthest— from his way. 



Proverbs. 1. Every thing— tends to educate 
us. 2. Always have a good object in view. 3. Ac- 
tions — should be led by knowledge ; and knowledge 
followed by actions. 4. It is better to be saved with- 
out a precedent, than damned by example. 5. There 
is no security among evil companions. C. Never be 
unwilling to teach, if you know ; nor ashamed to 
learn, if you can. 7. Better yourself when young; 
you will want rest in old age. S. When you find 
yourself inclined to be angry, speak in a low tone 
of voice. 9. Bear — and forbear — is excellent phi- 
losophy. 10. Seek — and practice — the truth, and 
you are made— forever. 11. Lookers on see, more 
than players. 12. Wake not a sleeping lion. 

Laconics. Sincerity — should be the pru- 
ning-knife of friendship, and not the mon- 
ster scythe — of an unfeeling rudeness, which, 
for one weed that it eradicates, mows down a 
dozen of those tender flowers, which bloom — 
only on our affections. 

"Varieties. 1. Our Orators, (says Cicero,) 
are, as it were, the actors of truth itself; 
and the players are the imitators of truth. 
2. Whence this disdain of life, in every 
breast, but from a notion — on their minds 
impress'd, that all, who, for their country die, 
are blessed. 3. You'll find the friendship of 
the world — is show; all — outward show. 
4. Errors, like straws upon the surface flow : 
He, who would search for pearls — must dive 
below. 5. What you keep by you, you may 
change and mend; but words, once spoke, 
can never be recalled. 6. Let thy discourse 
be such, that thou mayest give profit to oth- 
ers, or, from them receive. 7. Beware of ever 
exceeding the boundaries of truth, in any 
form ; for the mind loses strength, whenev- 
er it puts its foot beyond the circle, or passes 
the boundaries. 

THE HARVEST MOON. 

All hail! thou lovely queen of night, 

Bright empress of the stary sky ! 
The meekness — of thy silvery light 

Beams gladness — on the gazer's eye, 
While, from thy peerless throne on high 

Thou shinest bright — as cloudless noon, 
And bidd'st the shades of darkness fly- 
Before thy glory — Harvest moon ! 
In the deep stillness of the night, 

When weary labor is at rest, 
How lovely is the scene ! — how bright 

The wood — the lawn — the mountain's breast. 
When thou, fair moon of Harvest, hast 

Thy radiant glory all unfurled, 
And sweetly smilest in the west, 

Far down — upon the silent world. 
Shine on. fair orb of light! and smile 

Till autumn months — have passed away. 
And labor — hath forgot the toil 

He bore — in summer's sultry ray; 
And when the reapers — end the day, 

Tired with the burning heat of noon, 
They'll come — with spirits light and gay, 

And bless thee— lovely Harvest Moon! 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



113 



330. Emphasis — by a pause just before, 
or after, the important word. The pause be- 
fore — awakens curiosity, and excites expec- 
tation ; after — carries back the mind to what 
was last said. How would a tyrant, after 
having ruled with a rod of iron, and shown 
compassion to none, speak of his own death, 
in allusion to the setting sun, in a tropical 
climate ; where the sun is severely hoi as long 
as it shines, and when it sets, it is very soon 
dark? 1. (5) "And now — my race — of ter- 
ror — run, (6) Mine — be the eve — of tropic (6) 
sun; No pale (6) gradations — quench his 
ray ; (5) No twilight (7) dews — his wrath al- 
lay : (4) With (5) disk, (like battle target) — 
red, (6) He rushes — t' his burning bed, (5) 
Dyes the wide wave — with bloody (6) light ; 
Then sinks — at once — (2) and all is (1) 
night." The last clause, pronounced in a 
deep monotone, and a pause before it, adds 
much to its beauty and grandeur. 2. " Will 
all great Neptune's ocean — wash — this blood 
— clean — from my hands 1 Nor these, my 
hands, will rather the multitudinous sea — in- 
carnadine: making the green— (1) one red." 
Macbeth's hands are so deeply stained, that, 
to wash them in the ocean, would make it red 
with blood. 

SATAN, LAMENTING THE LOSS OP HEAVEN, AND 
INVOKING HELL. 

■' Is this the region, this the soil, the clime,''' — 
Said then the lost archangel, " this the seat, 
That we must change — for heaven ? 
This the mournful gloom — 

For that celestial light ? Farewell, happy fields, 
Where joy— forever dwells. Hail, horrors, — hail 
Infernal world ! And thou — profoundest hell, 
Receive — thy new — possessor !" 

the drunkard. 
" Hand me the bowl — ye jocund band,"'* — 

He said, " 'twill rouse my mirth;' 1 '' 
But conscience — seized his trembling hand, 

And dashed the cup — to earth. 

He looked around, he blushed, he laugh'd, — 

He sipped the sparkling wave; 
In it, he read, — " who drinks this draught, 

Shall fill — a murderer's grave." 

He grasped the bowl,— to seek relief- 
No more — his conscience said; 

His bosom-friend — was sunk in grief, 
His children — begged for bread. 

Thro' haunts of horror — and of strife, 

He passed down — life's dark tide; 
lie cursed — his beggared babes — and wife; 

He cursed his God, — and died ! 

321. Creation. If we studied creation 
more, our minds would much sooner become 
developed; then, the heavens, the earth, the 
water, with their respective, various, and nu- 
merous inhabitants, the productions, natures, 
sympathies, antipathies ; their uses, benefits 
and pleasures, would be better understood by 
us: and eternal wisdom, power, majesty and 
goodness, would be very conspicuous, thro' 
15 



their sensible and passing forms ; the world, 
wearing the marks of its Maker, whose stamp 
is everywhere visible, and whose character 
is legible to all, who are willing to under- 
stand, and would become happy. 

Proverbs. 1. An oak tree — is not felled with 
a blow. 2. Beware of him, who is obliged to 
guard his reputation. 3. Concealing faults — is 
but adding to them. 4. Defile not your mouth with 
impure words. 5. Envy— preys on itself; flattery 
— is nauseous — to the truly wise. 6. Gluttony — 
kills more than the sword. 7. Hasty resolutions 
seldom speed well. 8. Inconstancy — is the attend- 
ant of a weak mind. 9. Keep good company, 
and be one of the number. 10. While o?ie is base, 
none can be entirely free and noble. 11. Sin — is 
the parent of disease. 12. Oflener ask, than decide 
questions. 13. Avoid all superfluities. 

Anecdote. Witty Reply. A gentleman 
lately complimented a lady, on her improved 
appearance. "You are guilty of flattery" 
said the lady. "Not so," replied he; "for 
you are as plump as a partridge." "At 
first," said she,—" I thought you guilty of 
flattery only ; but I now find you actually 
make game of me." 

Mark, to Hit. Never forget, that by your 
advancement, you have become an object of 
envy — to those whom you have outstripped 
— in the race of life, and a tacit reproach — to 
their want of energy or capacity, which they 
never forgive. You must, therefore, lay your 
account — to be made a mark for " envy, ha- 
tred, and malice, and all uncharitableness." 
Varieties. 1. We have three orders, or 
degrees of faculties ; the religious, aivil and 
scientific ; the first, regards the Deity ; the 
second, Humanity ; and the third, Nature ; 
i. e. the Workman and his works. 2. It is 
the object of the Bible— -to teach religious, ra- 
ther than scientific truths.' 3. Cannot our 
minds — be imbued with the spirit of heaven ; 
or tainted with the breath of Hell ? 4. In 
man, we see blended the geological, the vege- 
table, and animal : to which is superadded, 
the human ,- all harmonizing, and yet each 
successive series predominates over the pi*e- 
ceding one; till at length, the human rises 
above every thing ; earth — passes away, and 
heaven— is, all in all. 5. Let your trust be so 
implicit— in the Divine Providence, that all 
things will be disposed for the best, after you 
have done the part assigned, that your only 
care shall be, how you may perform the 
greatest amount of good, of which your being 
is capable. 

This world's a hive, you know, His said, 
Whose bees — are men, ('tis true as funny,) 

And some — fill cells — with bitter bread, 
While others gather sweetest honey ; 

Yet each, alike, his duty does, 

Each — brings what's needful for the other: 

Though divers ways— they hum and buz, 
Yet all obey the common mother. 



114 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



3*33. Emphasis. On every page may be 
found nearly all the principles of elocution ; 
and in aiming at a compliance with the rules 
given, groat care must be taken to avoid a 
stiff, and formal mode of reading and speak- 
ing. We must never become enslaved to 
thought alone, which rules with a rod of iron : 
but yield to feeling, when it is to predomi- 
nate : in a perfect blending of feeling, thought 
and action, there is all the freedom and grace- 
fulness of nature ; provided they are in har- 
mony with nature. It is better to be natural, 
than mechanically correct. Every thought 
and feeling has its peculiar tone of voice, by 
which it is to be expi-essed, and which is ex- 
actly suited to the degree of internal feeling : 
in the proper use of these tones, most of the 
life, spirit, beauty, and effect of delivery con- 
sists. Hence, emphasis, or expression, is al- 
most infinite in variety ; yet none should be 
discouraged; because we cannot do every 
thing, is no reason why we should not try to 
do something. 

323. Miscellaneous. 1. In your con- 
versation, be cautious what you speak, to 
whom you speak, hoiu you speak, when you 
speak; and what you speak, speak wisely, 
and truly. 2. & fool's heart — is in his tongue ; 
but a wise man r s tongue — is in his heart. 3. 
Few things — engage the attention — and af- 
fections of men — more than a handsome ad- 
dress, and a graceful conversation. 4. For 
one — great genius, who has written a little 
book, we have a thousand — little geniuses, 
who have written great books. 5. Words — 
are but air ; and both — are capable of much 
condensation. 6. Nature — seldom inspires 
a strong desire for any object, without fur- 
nishing the ability — to attain it. 7. All — is 
not gold — that glitters. 8. If I were an 
American — as I am an Englishman, while 
a foreign troop — was landed in my country, 
I never — would lay down my arms ; no, — (5) 
never! (4) never! (2) never! 9. The price 
of Liberty — is eternal vigilance. 10. The 
true disciples of Nature, are regardless who 
conducts them, provided she be the leader ; 
for Nature, like truth — is immutable. 
There is a tide — in the affairs of men, 
Which, taken at the food, — leads on to fortune ; 
Omitted, all the voyage of their life — 
Is bound in shallows — and in miseries : 
On such a full sea — are we — now afloat, 
And we must take the current, when it serves, 
Or lose our ventures. 

Anecdote. One thing at a time. The 
famous pensioner of Holland, who was the 
greatest genius of his time, and a famous pol- 
itician, on being asked, how he could trans- 
act such a variety of business, without con- 
fusion, replied, that he never did but one 
thing at a time. 

Face to face—the truth comes out. 



Proverbs. 1. The foreknowledge of an ap- 
proaching evil, is a benefit of no small magnitude 
2. We may get a world of false love, for a little 
honesty. 3. The love of mankind — may be good 
while it lasts; but the love of God— is everlasting. 
4. Too many condemn the just, and not a few 
justify the wicked. 5. Some people's threats— ait 
larger than their hearts. 6. Discreet stages-make 
short journeys. 7. Imitate the good, but avoid the 
evil. 8. Rather do good, without a pattern, than 
evil, by imitation. 9. Prize a good character above 
any other good. 10. Well qualified teachers — are 
benefactors of their race. 11. Plain dealing is a 
jewel. 12. Perfect love — eastern out fear. 

Science. Science, the partisan of no coun- 
try, but the beneficent patroness of all, has 
liberally opened a temple, where all may 
meet. She never inquires about the country, 
or sect, of those who seek admission; she 
never allots a higher, or a lower place, from 
exaggerated national claims, or unfounded 
national antipathies. Her influence on the 
mind, like that of the sun on the chilled 
earth, has long been preparing it for higher 
cultivation and farther improvement. The 
philosopher of one country should not see an 
enemy in the philosopher of another ,• he 
should take his seat in the temple of science. 
and ask not who sits beside him. 

Varieties. 1. Is not the innocence of 
flowers enough to make wicked persons blush 
— to behold it 1 2. Are there not as many 
beautiful flowers in the other world, as there 
are in this ? 3. Those are the best diversions, 
that relieve the mind, and exercise the body, 
with the least expense of time and money. 
4. Give us knowledge of our own, and we 
will persevere. 5. Let us call tyrants — ty- 
rants : and maintain, that freedom comes 
only, by the grace of God. 
Truth — needs no champion; in the infinite deep 
Of everlasting Soul — her strength abides: 
From Nature's heart — her mighty pulses leap, — 
Through Nature's veins, her strength, undying, tides. 
Peace — is more strong than war; and gentleness, 
When force were vain, makes conquests o'er the 
And love lives on, and hath a power to bless, [wave ; 
When they, who loved, are hidden — by the grave. 

Tis not a century — since they, 
The red men, traversed here, 

And o'er these pleasant hills and vales, 
Pursued the bounding deer; 

Here, too, that eloquence was poured 
Around the council light, 

That made the sturdy warrior bold, 
And ready for the fight! 

And oft they came— exulting back, 
The husband, sire and son. 

To vaunt before their savage shrines, 

* The ill — their hands had done \ 

Yet. of their mortal weal or woe, 
No trace is left to-day ; 

For, like thefoam upon the wave, 
They all have passed away I 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



115 



324. Shouting, or High and Loud — im- 
plying force of utterance. The last words of 
Marmion afford excellent means, when me- 
morized, for the student to try the compass of 
his voice upwards, as well as its power on 
high pitches. It is not often that these high 
and almost screaming notes are required in 
public speaking: yet. there are times, espe- 
cially in the open air. when they may be in- 
troduced with great effect. And it is always 
well to have an inexhaustible capital of voice, 
as of money ; indeed, there is no danger of 
having too much of either, provided we make 
a proper use of them. In giving the word of 
command, on occasions of fire, erecting build- 
ings, on the field of battle, martial exercise, 
&c, power and compass of voice are very 
desirable. 

3:25. 1. " The war. that for a space did 
fail. Now. trebly thundering, swell'd the 
gale. And (10) lk Stanley V (6) was the cry: 
A light on Marmion s visage spread, and 
fired his glazing eye : With dying hand, 
above his head, he shook the fragment of 
his blade, and shouted (8) " VICTORY !" 
(9) Charge ! Chester, (10) charge ! On, 
(11) STANLEY— (12) OiV/"(3) Were the 
last words of Marmion. 2. (6) Liberty ! 
(8) FREEDOM ! (5) Tyranny is dead ! 
(6) Run 17) hence 1 proclaim it about the 
streets! 3. The combat deepens: (4) 
"ON ! ye brave ! Who rush — to (6) glo- 
ry, — or the (3) grave; (9) Wave — Munich ! 
all thy (10) banners wave ! (8) And charge — 
with all thy (3) chivalry." 

926. Constitutional Law, in its ex- 
tended sense, includes the study of the con- 
stitutions, or fundamental laws of the vari- 
ous Nations: i. e. the structure, and mechan- 
ism of their government, and the appoint- 
ments, powers, and duties of their officers. 
The United Stales Constitutional Law, may 
be considered under five different heads ; 
viz : Legislative Power, Executive Power, 
Judicial Power, State Rights Restrictions, 
and United States Statutes and Treaties. 
The Legislative power is vested in a Con- 
gress, consisting of a Senate and House of 
Representatives, elected by the people, or 
their State Legislatures ; the Executive pow- 
er, in a President, who holds his office four 
years ; the Judicial power, in a Supreme 
Court, which consists of one Chief Justice, 
and eight Associate Justices, and in such 
inferior courts, as Congress may ordain, or 
establish. State rights and restrictions — are 
powers not delegated by the Constitution to 
the United States, nor prohibited by it to the 
States, but reserved to the States, respect- 
ively, or to the people. 

Anecdote. Patience. A youth, who was 
a pupil of Zeno, on his return home, was ask- 
ed by his father, " what he had learned?" 
The lad replied, " that will appear hereaf- 
ter.' 1 '' On this, the father, being enraged, beat 
his son ; who. bearing it patiently, and with- 
out complaining, said, " This have I learn- 
ed, to endure a parent's anger." 

Rather suffer wrong than do wrong. 



Proverbs. 1. A bitter jest— is the poison of 
friendship. 2. Be ever vigilant, but never suspi- 
cious. 3. Cheerfulness — is perfectly consistent 
with true piety. 4. Demonstration — is the best 
mode of instruction. 5. Entertain not sin. lest you 
like its company. 6. Finesse — is univorthy of a 
liberal mind. 7. Good counsel — is above all price. 
3. Hearts — may agree, tho' heads — differ. 9. Idle- 
ness — is the parent of want, shame, and misery. 
10. Learn to live, as you would wish to die. 11. 
Content — is the highest bliss. 12. Vex not yourself, 
when ill spoken of. 

Force of Habit. Habit — hath so vast a 
prevalence over the human mind, that there 
is scarcely any thing too strange, or too 
strong, to be asserted of it. The story of 
the miser, who, from long accustoming to 
cheat others, came at last to cheat himself, 
and with great delight and triumph picked 
his ow7i pocket of a guinea, to convey to his 
hoard, is not impossible or improbable. In 
like manner it fares with the practisers of 
deceit, who, from having long deceived 
their acquamtance, gain at last a power of 
deceiving themselves, and acquire that very 
ophiion, however false, of their ow7i abili- 
ties, excellences, and virtues, into which 
they have for years, perhaps, endeavored to 
betray their neighbors. 

Varieties. 1. Eternity, (wrote a deaf 
and dumb boy.) is the lifetime of the Deity. 
2. No evil can be successfully combatted, or 
removed, but from the opposite good, from a 
desire for it. and an attachment to it ; i. e. 
till the mind is perfectly willing to relinquish 
the evil. 3. A man's ruling love — governs 
him ; because, what he loves, he continue? 
to will. 4. Sweet harmonist, and beautiful 
as sweet, and young as beautiful, and soft as 
young, and gay as soft, and innocent as gay. 
5. Had Caesar genius? he was an orator! 
Had Caesar judgment ? he was a politician t 
Had Caesar valor? he was a conqueror! 
Had Caesar feeling? he was a friend ! 6. 
Music — is one of the sweetest flowers of the 
intellectual garden; and, in relation to its 
power — to exhibit the passions, it may be 
called — the universal language of nature. 
7. Whatever the immediate cause may be, 
the effect is so far good, as men cease to do 
evil, they learn to do well. 

THE FISHERMAN. 

A perilous life, and sad — as life may be, 
Hath the lone fisher — on the lonely sea; 
In the wild waters laboring, far from home, 
For some poor pittance, e'er compelled to roam! 
Feio friends to cheer him — in his dangerous life, 
And none to aid him — in the stormy strife. 
Companion of the sea and silent air, 
The lonely fisher thus must ever fare ; 
"Without the comfort, hope — with scarce a, friend, 
He looks through life, and only sees — its end! 

" Thou art, O God! the life and light 
Of all this wondrous world we see; 

Its glow by day, its smile by night, 
Are but re/lections — caught from thee! 

Where'er we turn, thy glories shine, 

And all things bright and fair—axe thint." 



116 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



3*27. Speaking the Gauntlet. We 
have all hoard of the practice, l hat prevails 
■mong sonic tribes of Indians, called "run- 
ning the gauntlet;' 1 '' when a company ar- 
range themselves in two rows, a few yards 
apart, and their prisoner is obliged to run 
between them ; when each throws his hatchet 
at him ; and if he passes through without 
being killed, he is permitted to live. In the 
important exercise, here recommended, each 
member of the class, after making some 
proficiency, memorizes and recites, astro?ig 
and powerful sentence, and the others try to 
put out, or break down, the one that is 
speaking, by all sorts of remarks, sounds, 
looks, and actions; tho' without, touching 
him : and the gauntlet speaker, girds up ihe 
loins of his mind, and endeavors to keep the 
fountain of feeling higher than the streams: 
and so long, he is safe; but alas for him, 
that shrinks into himself, and yields- to his 
opponents . 
But this,— and ills severer— he sustains ; 
As gold — ihe fire, and, as unhurt remains : 
When most reviled, altho' he feels the smart, 
It wakes — to nobler deeds — the wounded heart. 
The noble mind — unconscious of a fault, 
No fortune's frown — can bend, or smiles — exalt: 
Like the firm rock — that in mid-ocean — braves 
The war of whirlwinds, and the dash of waves : 
Or, like a tower — he lifts his head on high — 
A.ndfortune , s arrows — far below him fly. 
328. Mouthin&. Some — think that 
words are rendered more distinct, to large 
assemblies, by dwelling longer on the sylla- 
bles ; others, that it adds to the pomp and 
solemnity of public declamation, in which 
they think every thing must be different 
from private discourse. This is one of the 
vices of the stage, and is called theatrical, 
in opposition to what is natural. By "trip- 
pingly on the tongue," Shakspeare probably 
means — the bounding of the voice from ac- 
cent to accent ; trippingly along from word 
to word, without resting on syllables by the 
way. And, by "mouthing,'''' dwelling on 
syllables, that have no accent, and ought 
therefore to be pronounced as quickly as is 
consistent with a proper e?iunciation. Avoid 
an artificial air, and hold, as it were, the 
mirror up to nature. See the difference in 
the following, by pronouncing them with 
the accent, extending thro' the whole word, 
in a drawling tone, and then, giving them 
properly: con-7'ec-ture, en-croac/t-ment. hap- 
pi-ness, grat-i-tude, /or-tu-nate-ly ; which 
is very far from true solemnity, which is in 
the spirit; not alone in the manner. 

Anecdote. A student in college — carried 
a manuscript poem, of his own composition, 
to his tutor, for his inspection. The tutor, 
after looking it over, inquired the author's 
reason, for beginning every line with a capi- 
tal letter, "Because it is poetry,' 1 said the 
student. " It is.'" said the teacher, "I de- 
clare, I should not have thought it." 
By frequent use — experience — gains its growth, 
But knowledge— flies from laziness and sloth. 



Proverbs. 1. Soft hands, and soft brains — 
generally go together. 2. Let time be the judge, 
and common sense the jury. 3. Cherish an ar- 
dent love of nature and of art. 4. The region 
beyond the grave, is not a solitary one. 5. Each 
night — is the past day's funeral: and each morn — 
its resurrection. 6. Better be exalted by humility, 
than brought low by exaltation. 7. Tight-lacing — 
is a gradual suicide, and tends to enkindle im- 
pure desires. 8. Good manners — are always be- 
coming. 9. The candid man has nothing to con- 
ceal ; he speaks nothing but truth. 10. Plato 
said — read much; but read not many books. 11. 
Marry in haste; repent at leisure. 12. If you will 
not keep, you cannot have. 13. Prune off useless 
branches. 

Government. It is time that men should 
learn to tolerate nothing ancient, that reason 
does not respect, and to shrink from no nov- 
elty, to which reason may conduct. It is 
time that the human powers, so long occu- 
pied by subordinate objects and inferior arts, 
should mark the commencement of a new 
era in history, by giving birth to the art of 
improving government, and increasing the 
civil happiness of man. It is time, that le- 
gislators, instead of that narrow and das- 
tardly coasting, which never ventures to 
lose sight of usage and precedent, should, 
guided by the polarity of reason, hazard a 
bolder navigation, and discover, in unex- 
plored regions, the treasure of public feli- 
city. 

Varieties. 1. Did not Mr. Pitt, by the 
force of his eloquence, raise himself to be 
the prime minister of England ? 2. A rich 
man's son — generally begins — where his 
father left off; and ends — where his father 
began — pennyless. 3. A proneness to talk 
of persons, instead of things, indicates a 
narrow, and superficial mind. 
The world — may scorn me, if they choose ; I care 
But little for their scoffings : I may sink 
For moments ; but I rise again, nor shrink 
From doing — what the faithful heart inspires : 
I will not fatter, fawn, nor crouch, nor wink 
At what high mounted wealth, or power desires; 
I have a loftier aim — to which my soul aspires. 

Be humble — learn thyself to scan; 

Know — pride — was never made for man. 
6. Where there is emulation — there will be 
vanity; and where there is vanity, there 
will be folly. 7. Each man has his proper 
standard to fight under, and his peculiar duty 
to perform: one tribe's office — is not that 
of another: neither is the inheritance the 
same. 

I wander — by the mountain's side, 
Whose peaks — reflect the parting day, 

Or stoop — to view the river glide 
In silvery ripples — on its way. 

The turf is green, the sky is blue, 
The sombre trees — in silence rest, 

Save where a songster — rustles through 
The drooping/oZirtge — to his nest; 

Yet one thing — wants the pilgrim there — 

A kindred soul, the scene to share. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



117 



329. Revi ;ion. Before entering on a con- 
sideration of the Inflections, and other higher 
modifications of voice, the pupil is again ear- 
nestly solicited— to review all the principles, 
that have been brought forward ; especially 
all that relates to Accent, Pauses, Emphasis, 
and the alphabet of music, or the eight notes ; 
and, in this revision, be careful not to con- 
found one principle with another,- as stress 
with quantity, high sounds with loud ones, 
and low ones with feeble. Remember, that 
stress is a quick blow, or ick-tus of the voice ; 
quantity— length of sound ; high sounds— on, 
or above the sixth note; loud ones— halloo- 
ing ; low sounds— on, or below the third note ; 
feeble ones, softly, as from weakness. Prac- 
tice the examples, till you make them jW you, 
and produce on yourselves and others, the de- 
sired effects. 

330. I came to the place of my birth, and 
said ; " The friends of my youth— where are 
they!" And echo answered, — " Where?'' 
2. When the Indians were solicited to emi- 
grate to the West , they replied ; What ! shall 
we say, to the bones of our fathers— Arise ! 
and go with us into a foreign land? 

The truly lovely — 
Are not the fair, who boast but of outward grace, 
The nought, but beautiful of form and face; 
Tliey — are the lovely — they, in whom unite, [light, 
Earth's fleeting charms — with virtue's heavenly 
Who, tho' they wither, — yet, with faded bloom — 
Bear their all of sweetness— to the tomb. 

Notes. 1. Such is the careless and ignorant manner in 
which many have been permitted to come up, instead of being 
brought up, that it will often be found necessary to use a variety of 
means to become divested of bad habits and their consequences. 
2. Probably the lungs suffer more than any other part of the 
Lody, by being cooped up in a small cavity. To enlarge the chest, 
side-wise, practice the elevation of the elbows to a horizontal plane 
nearly level with the shoulders, and commence gently tapping the 
breast between the shoulders, the ends of the fingers of both hands 
being nearly together; and then, during the exercise, strike back 
fr^m the sternum toward each shoulder, drawing the hands far- 
ther and farther apart, till the ends of the finders reach the arm- 
pits, and even out on the arm, without depressing the elbows: 
try it, and you will see and know. 

Anecdote. Flying To; not From. Some 
years ago, a person requested permission of the 
Bishop of Salisbury, in England, to fly from 
the spire of his church. The good bishop, 
with an anxious concern for the man's spiri- 
tual, as well as temporal safety, told him, he 
v/as very welcome to fly to the church ; but 
he would encourage no one to Ay from it. 

THE BUTTERFLY. 

Child of the sun! pursue thy rapturous flight, 
Ming! ing with her thou lov'st — in fields of light ; 
And, where the flowers of Paradise unfold, 
Quaff fragrant nectar — from their cups of gold, 
There shall thy wings, rich as an evening sky, 
Expand— and shut — in silent ecstasy. 
Yet, wert thou once a worm, a thing, that crept 
On the bare earth, then wrought a tomb, and slept; 
And such— is man; soon, from his cell of clay, 
To burst a seraph— in the blaze of day. 



Proverbs. 1. Pride— is the greatest enemy 
lo reason ; and discretion — the great opposite of 
pride. 2. The Wise — shape their apparel to the 
body; the proud — shape their body to their appa- 
rel. 3. A sound and vigorous mind, in a healthy 
body, is an invaluable possession. 4. Experience — 
is the mother of the arts. 5. He, is never tired of 
listening, who wishes to gain knowledge. 6. Bet- 
ter consider for a day, than repent for a year. 7. 
Economy — is the foundation of liberality, and the 
parent oiindependence. 8. Use no tobacco, if you 
would be decent, clean, and healthy. 9. The path 
of literature is more difficult, than that whicli leads 
to fortune. 10. That which is well done, is twice 
done. 11. Of a little— tote a little. 12. A hasty 
man — never wants woe. 

Providence. If a man lets his hand lie 
in the ice, it is highly probable Providence 
will ordain it to be frozen ; or if he holds it 
in the fire, to be burnt. Those who go to sea, 
Providence will sometimes permit to be 
drowned ; those, on the other hand, who ne- 
ver quit dry ground, Providence will hardly 
suffer to perish in the sea. It is therefore 
justly said, " Help yourself, and Heaven will 
help you." The truth is, that God has helped 
us from the beginning; the work of the 
master is completed ; and, so far as it was 
intended to be so, perfect ; it requires, there- 
fore, no further extraordinary aids and cor- 
rections from above ; its further development 
and improvement in this world is placed in 
our own hands. We may be good or bad, 
wise or foolish, not always perhaps in the 
degree which we, as individuals, might 
choose, were our wills perfectly free, but so 
far as the state of the human race, imme- 
diately preceding us, has formed us to decide. 

"Varieties. 1. Is animal, or human mag- 
netism, true ? 2. When the spirit is deter- 
mined, it can do almost anything ; therefore, 
never yield to discouragement in doing, or 
getting, what is good and true. 3. What 
temptation is greater, than permitting young 
persons, and especially young men, in this 
degenerate world, to handle much money, 
that is not their own. 4. Exhibit such an 
example in your dress, conversation, and 
temper, as will be worthy of imitation. 5. 
We often hear it said, "that people, and 
things, are changed." Is it not oursel'W 
that have changed? The heart— makes all 
around, a mirror of itself. 

Real glory — 

Springs from the silent conquest of ourselves, 

And, without that — the conqueror is nought 

But the first slave. 
7. Every word, spoken from affection, leaves 
an everlasting impression in the mind ; every 
thought, spoken from affection, becomes a 
living creation ; and the same also, if not 
spoken,— if it be fully assented to by the mind. 
When the stem dies, the leaf, that grew 
Out of its heart, must perish too. 



118 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



331. Evert emotion of the mind has its 
own external manifestation i so that wo one 

emotion can be accommodated to another. 
Observe the native eloquence of a hungry 
child, when asking for a piece of bread and 
buffer ; especially, the third or fourth time ,- 
and mark its emphasis, and tones : also the 
qualifies of voice, with which it expresses its 
grief, anger, joy, &c. The manner of each 
passion is entirely different ; nor does it ever 
apply one for another,- indeed, children in 
their orcn efforts, always make the proper 
emphasis, inflections, and gestures ; and they 
are graceful in all, when under the sole influ- 
ence of nature. Thus, from nature, unso- 
phisfocated, may be derived the whole art of 
speaking. The author is free to acknow- 
ledge, that he has learned more about true 
eloquence, from children, and the Indians, 
and his consequent practice, than from all 
other sources. 

332. Cicero — copied, and imitated, every 
body ; he was the very mocfcmg-bird of el- 
oquence, which is his greatest distinction, 
and glory : for who so various as he ,- who so 
sweet, so powerful, so simply eloquent, or so 
magnificently flowing, and each, and all, by 
turns '.' His mind was a perfect pan-harmon- 
icon. Your original writer, — your original 
character, has no sympathies ; he is heart- 
oound, brain-bouwd and Zip-bound ; he is tru- 
ly an oddity ,- he is like no-body, and wo-body 
is hke him ; he feeds on self-adoration, or 
the adulation of fools; who mistake the ora- 
cles of pride and vanity, for the inspirations 
of genius. 

333* There are some, even in this enlight- 
ened age, who affect to despise the acquisi- 
tion of elocution, and other important and 
useful accomplishments; but such persons 
are generally very awkward themselves, and 
dislike the application and practice, that are 
necessary to render them agreeable and im- 
pressive speakers. It is an old adage — that 
many — despise that, which they do not pos- 
sess, and which they are too indolent to at- 
tain. Remember the fox and the grapes. 

Anecdote. A colonel was once com- 
plaining, that from the ignorance, and inat- 
tention of the officers, he was obliged to do the 
whole duty of the regiment. Said he, " I am 
my own captain, my own lieutenant, my own 

cornet, and" "Your own trumpeter," 

said a lady present. 

NOW came still evening on, and twilight gray 
Had, in her sober livery, all things clad. 
Silence — accompanied ; for beast, and bird, 
They, to their grassy couch, these— to their nest 
Were sunk, all, but the wakeful nightingale ; 
Site, all night long, her amorous descant sung j 
Silence — was pfeas'd. Now glow'd the firmament 
With living sajrphires : Hesperus, that led 
The starry host, rode VriglUeit ; till the moon, 
Rising in clouded majesty, at length, 
Apparent queen, unvail'd her peerless light, 
And o'er the dark her silver mantle threw. 



Proverbs. 1 . A wise governor, would rather 
preserve peace, than gain a victory. 2. It is 
sometimes a benefit, to grant favors, and at other 
times, to deny them. 3. An angry person is an- 
gry with himself, when he returns to reason. 4. 
Wherever you are, conform to the usual cus- 
toms and manners of the country. 5. To encourage 
the unworthy, is to promole vice. 6. Ingratitude 
to the benevolent — generally ends in disgrace. 7 
Esteem virtue, tho' in a foe : abhor vice, tho' in a 
friend. 8. The more one speaks of himself, the 
less witting is he, to hear another talked about 
9. Nature — is always content with herself, lif 
Form your opinions of a person, by his questions, 
rather than by his answers. 11. Say — can wis- 
dom — e'er reside, with passion, envy, hate, or 
pride? 12. In a calm sea, every man is pilot. 13. 
A good life — keeps off wrinkles. 

Debt. There is nothing — more to be 
dreaded, than debt : when a person, whose 
principles are good, unhappily falls into this 
situation, adieu to all peace and comfort. 
The reflection imbitters every meal, and 
drives from the eyelids refreshing sleep. It 
corrodes and cankers every cheerful idea; 
and, like a stern Cerberus, guards each ave- 
nue to the heart, so that pleasure does not 
approach. Happy ! thrice happy ! are those, 
who are blessed with an independent compe- 
tence, and can confine their wants within the 
bounds of that competence, be it what it may. 
To such alone, the bread of life is palatable 
and nourishing. Sweet is the morsel, that is 
acquired by an honest industry, the produce 
of which is permanent, or that flows from a 
source which will not fail. A subsistence, 
that is precarious, or procured by an uncer- 
tain prospect of payment, carries neither 
wine nor oil with it. Let me, therefore, again 
repeat, that the person, who is deeply involv- 
ed in debt, experiences, on earth, all the tor- 
tures, the poets describe to be the lot of the 
wretched inhabitants of Tatarus. 

Varieties. 1. Is not a want of purity, 
the cause of the fickleness of mankind '.' 2. 
A man's character is like his shadow; 
which sometimes fo Hows, and at others, pre- 
cedes him ; and which is occasionally longer, 
or shorter, than he is. 3. Admiration — sig- 
nifies the reception and acknowledgment of 
a thing, in thought, and affection. 4. We 
should have good roads, if all the sinners 
were set to mend them. 5. The world is a 
hive, that affords both sweets, and poisons, 
with many empty combs. 6. All earthly en- 
joyments are not what they appear,- there- 
fore, we should discriminate ; for some are 
sweet in hopes, but, in fruition, sour. 7. Or- 
der — is the sweetest, most pacific, regular, 
and delightful melody: the first motion is 
one, and the end is one : the final end is the 
similitude of the beginning. 

Self, alone, in nature — Tooie&fast, 
Attends us first, and leaves us — lr*t. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



119 



334. Inflections. These are the rising 
and falling slides of the voice, terminating 
on a higher, or lower pitch, than that on 
which it commenced ; heing continuous from 
the radical, or opening fullness of voice, to 
the vanish, or terminating point; and not 
discrete, as the seven notes are. In the in- 
tonations, the voice steps up or down, by 
discrete degrees; but in the inflections, it 
glides up or down, by continuous degrees. 
The piano, organ, &c, give discrete degrees ; 
the harp, violin, &c, continuous degrees. 

335. The following sentences may be read, 
with either the falling, or the rising inflec- 
tion ; and the pupil should determine, from 
the sense, &c, the object of the question. 1 . Is 
not good reading and speaking a very rare 
attainment ? 2. How are we to recover from 
the effects of the fall? 3. Are we natually 
inclined to evil or good? 4. Is it possible for 
man to save himself? 5. Who is entitled to 
the more honor, Columbus, or Washington ? 
6. Which is the more useful member in so- 
ciety, the farmer, or the mechanic ? 7. Ought 
there to be any restrictions to emigration ? 
8. Will any one, who knows his own heart, 
trust himself? 

336. The inflections — may, perhaps, be 
better understood, by contrasting them with 
the monotone ; which is nearly one continued 
sound, without elevation, or depression, and 
may be represented by a straight horizontal 

line, thus ; . In the use of the 

inflections, the voice departs from the mono- 
tone, and its radical, in a continued elevation 
or depression, two, three, five, or eight notes, 
according to the intensity of the affirmation, 
interrogation, command, petition, or nega- 
tion ; which are the five distinctive attributes 
of the vital parts of speech. 

337. Some of man's characteristics. 
His position is naturally upright; he has free 
use of both hands : hence, he is called the 
only /7X'0-handed animal : the prominence of 
his chin, and the uniform length of his teeth, 
are peculiar: he is, physically, defenceless, 
having neither weapons of attack nor of de- 
fence: his facial angle is greater than that 
of any other animal ; being from 70° to 90° : 
he has generally the largest brains ; he is the 
only animal that sleeps on his back : the only 
one that laughs and weeps,- the only one 
that has an articulate language, expressive 
of ideas : and he is the only one endued with 
reason and moral sense, and a capacity for 
religion ,- the only being capable of serving 
God intelligibly. 

MILTON. 

Thy soid— was like a star — and dwelt apart; 
Thou liadst a. voice — whose sound was like the sea, 
Pure — as the naked heavens, majestic, free. 
So didst thou travel — on life's common way, 
In cheerful godliness ; and yet — thy heart 
The lowliest duties— on herself did lay. 



Proverbs. 1. As you sow, you shall reap. 
2. Betray no trust, and divulge no secret. 3. Chide 
not severely, nor punish hastily. 4. Despise none, 
and despair of none. 5. Envy cannot see; igno- 
rance cannot judge. 6. Gossiping and lying, ge- 
nerally go hand in hand. 7. lie, who sivears, 
distrusts his own word. 8. It is not easy to love 
those, whom we do not esteem. 9. Labor brings 
pleasure; idleness— pain. 10. Many a true word 
is spoken in jest. 11. He who serves — is not free. 
12. First come, first served. 13. When gold speaks, 
all tongues are silent. 

Anecdote. Don't know him. Lord Nel- 
son, when a boy, being on a visit to his aunfs. 
went one day a hunting, and wandered so 
far, that he did not return, till long after dark. 
The lady, who was much alarmed by his ab- 
sence, scolded him severely ; and among other 
things said; I wonder Fear did not drive you 
home. "Fear," replied the lad, "I don't 
know him.'' 

Progress of Society. Whoever has at- 
tentively meditated— on the progress of the 
human race, cannot fail to discern, that there 
is now a spirit of inquiry amongst men, 
which nothing can stop, or even materially 
control. Reproach and obloquy, threats and 
persecution, will be in vain. They may im- 
bitter opposition and engender violence, but 
they cannot abate the keenness of research. 
There is a silent march of thought, which no 
power can arrest, and which, it is not difficult 
to foresee, will be marked by important events. 
Mankind were never befwe in the situation in 
which they now stand. The press has been 
operating upon them for several centuries, 
with an influence scarcely perceptible at its 
commencement, but by daily becoming more 
palpable, and acquiring accelerated force, it 
is rousing the intellect of nations; and happy 
will it be for them, if there Jae no rash inter- 
ference with the natural progress of know- 
ledge ; and if by a judicious and gradual 
adaptation of their institutions to the inevit- 
able changes of opinion, they are saved from 
those convulsions, which the pride, prejudices 
and obstinacy of a few may occasion to the 
whole. 

Varieties. 1. A good wife — is like a 
snail. Why '! Because she keeps in her own 
house : a good wife is not like a snail. Why 1 
Because she does not carry her all on her 
back: a good wife is like a town clock. 
Why'? Because she keeps good time: a 
good wife is not like a town clock. Why T 
Eecause she does not speak so loud, that all 
the town can hear her : a good wife is like an 
echo. Why 1 Because she speaks when spo- 
ken to : a good wife is not like an echo. Why ' 
Because she does not tell — all she hears. 
Ye maidens fair — consider well, 
And look both shrewd, and sly, 
Ere rev'rend lips, make good the knot, 
Your teeth— will ne'er untie 



120 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



33 S. IvruECTloxs. An anecdote may 
serve to present this important branch of our 
subject, in a light easy to be understood by 
all. An elderly gentleman asked the author, 
if he thought it possible for him to learn to 
sing? He was answered in the affirmative, 
provided he loved music, and was anxious to 
learn. His voice was quite flexible, and va- 
ried, in conversation, and he used all the 
notes of the scale, except two. It was 
thought, upon the spur of the moment, to 
get the old man a little angry, (and after- 
wards beg his pardon,) in order to induce 
him to slide his voice through the octave : the 
effort was successful; and with much feeling, 
he again asked, " Do you say sir, that (1) I — 
can learn to sing? an old man like me?" 
carrying his voice from the first to the eighth 
note, on 1, sing, and me. Just then a. friend 
came in, to whom he observed, with incred- 
ulous surprise, mingled with a little con- 
tempt, — "He says Jean learn to sing:" and 
his voice fell from the eighth to the first note, 
on I. 

339. No one can read the following sen- 
tence of ors, even in the common manner, 
without any regard to inflections, and not 
give the word before or, the rising inflection, 
and the one after it, the falling inflection ; 
and the reader's ear must be the judge. 
Good, or bad ,• true, or false ; right, or wrong; 
this, or that ; boy, or girl; man, or woman; 
male, or female; land, or water ; over, or 
under; above, or below ; before, or behind ; 
within, or without ; old, or young ; strength, 
or weakness ; fine, or coarse ; one, or two ; 
you, or I; well, or ill; kind, or unkind; 
black, or white; red, or green,- rough, or 
smoothe ; hard, or soft ; straight, or crook- 
ed ; long, or short ; round, or square ; fat, 
or lean ; swift, or slow ; up, or down. If 
the reader does not satisfy himself the first 
time, let him practice on these phrases till he 
does. 

340. Reading. The purposes of reading 
are three : the acquisition of knowledge, as- 
sisting the memory in treasuring it up, and 
the communication of it to others : hence, 
we see the necessity of reading aloud. The 
ancient Greeks never read in public, but reci- 
ted from memory ; of course, \f we wish to 
succeed as they did, we must follow in their 
footsteps. How much better it would be, if 
clergymen would memorize those portions 
of the Bible, which they wish to read in 
public ! But it may be said, that the task 
would be a severe one: true, but how much 
more effect might be produced on themselves 
and at Iters : and then to have a large part, or 
the whole, of that blessed book, stored up in 
the mind, for use here and hereafter ! 

The business that we love, we raise belime. 
And go to— with delight. 



Proverbs. 1. The remedy is often worse 
than the disease. 2. To him that wills, ways are 
seldom wanting. 3. A well-balanced mind — will 
resist Ihe pressure of adversity. 4. Be always on 
your guard, against ihe advices of the to i eked, 
when you come in contact with them. 5. Blessed 
is he, that readet/i, and understand eth what he 
readeth. 6. Take it for granted, there can be no 
excellence, without labor. 7. The rich man is often 
a stranger to the quiet and content of the poor man. 
S. Beware of gathering scorpions, for this, or the 
future world. 9. There is no general rule, with- 
out exceptio?is. 10. Every light — is not the sun. 
11. Never be angry — at what you cannot help. 

Anecdote. Use of Falsehood. A Jury, 
which was directed by the Judge, to bring in 
a certain prisoner guilty, on his own confes- 
sion and plea, returned a verdict of "Not 
Guilty ,- : ' and offered, as a reason, that they 
knew the fellow to be so great a liar, they 
did not believe him. 

Talent. One man, perhaps, proves miser- 
able in the study of the law, who might have 
flourished in that of physic, or divinity ; an- 
other — runs his head against the pulpit, who 
might have been serviceable to his country at 
the plough ; and a third — proves a very dull 
and heavy philosopher, who possibly would 
have made a good mechanic, and have done 
well enough at the useful philosophy of the 
spade or anvil. 

Varieties — in the Uses of Inflections. I, 
Is genuine repentance founded in love, or 
fear? 2. Can we intentionally offend a per- 
son, whom we truly love ? 3. Have not angel- 
ic, as well as satanic beings, once been men, 
and women, on some of the countless earths 
in the universe ? 4. Has any one actual sin, 
till he violates the known will of God, and 
wilfully sins against his own conscience? 
5. How can the Red man be forgotten, while 
so many of the states, territories, moun- 
teiins, rivers and lakes, bear their names ? 6. 
Since decision of character can be acquired 
by discipline, what is the best method to ac- 
quire itT The firm resolve — to obtain that 
knowledge, necessary for a choice, and then 
to do what we know to be right, at any, and 
every peril. 7. What places are better adap- 
ted than theatres, in their present degrada- 
tion, to teach the theory and practice of fash- 
ionable iniquity ? 8. What is a more faith- 
ful, or pleasant friend, than a good book ? 

When you mournfully rivet— your fear-laden eyes, 

That have seen the last sunset of hope— pass away, 
On some bright orb, that seems, through the still sapphire sU,, 

In beauty and splendor, to roll on its way : 
Oh remember, this earth, if beheld from afar, 

Would seem wrapt in a halo — as clear and as bright 
As the pure silver radiance— enshrining yon star, 

Where your spirit— is eagerly soaring to-night 
And at this very moment, perhaps, some poor heart, 

That is aching and breaking in that distant sphere, 
Gazes down on this dark toorld, and longs to depart 

From its ovm dismal home, to a brighter one here. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



121 



341. The Rising Inflection ('). This 
indicates that the voice glides upward con- 
tinuously, on the more important words. Ex. 
Do you say that I can learn to sing 1 Are 
you going to town to-day] Is he a good 
man 7 Do you love and practice the truth ? 
Is it your desire to become Useful? Do you 
wish to become a good reader, speaker, and 
singer? Is there not a difference between 
words, thoughts, and feelings? 

3*3. Three Modes of Existence. May 
we not appropriately contemplate our bodies, 
and our minds, as consisting of three degrees, 
each having its own legitimate sphere? Is 
not each like a three story house, with three 
successive suits of apartments, which may be 
called — the lower, the middle and the up' per? 
Are there not three vital degrees of the body, 
the abdominal, the thoracic, and the enceph'- 
alic ? And does not the mind consist of as 
many degrees, called scientific, rational and 
affec'tuous? or, natural, spiritual and heav- 
enly ? Is there not in us, as it were, a ladder 
reaching from earth to hearten? Shall we 
not ascend, and descend upon it, and thus 
take a view of both the worlds in which we 
live 1 But will not the material part soon 
die, and the soul — live forever? Then does 
not wisdom say, attend to each, according to 
its importance? Are we not wonderfully 
made!? Doth out soul know it right well'? 
And will we praise our Redeemer, by doing 
his will'? 

343. On examining children,m an unper- 
verted state, and all animals, it will invariably 
be found, that they use the lower muscles for 
breathing, and producing sounds. Who is 
not aware that children will halloo, all day 
long, without becoming hoarse, or exhausted ? 
And how often it is the case, that parents wish 
their children to call persons at a distance, be- 
ing aware that they have themselves lost the 
power to speak as formerly. Now all that is 
necessary to be done, by such individuals, is to 
retrace their steps to truth and nature. Re- 
member, that examples, in thi" art especially, 
are better than precevti .- rules are to prevent 
faults, not to introduce beauties; therefore, 
become so familiar with them, that they may 
govern your practice involuntarily. 

Anecdote. Gold Pills. Dr. Goldsmith, 
having been requested by a wife, to visit her 
husband, who was melancholy, called upon 
the patient, and seeing that the cause was 
poverty, told him he would send him some 
pills, which he had no doubt would prove 
efficacious. He immediately went home, put 
ten guineas into a paper, and sent them to 
the sick man: the remedy had the desired 
effect. 

Stispiaon — overturns — what confidence — builds ; 
Andh e,who d ares but doubt when there's no ground, 
Is neither to himself, nor others— sound. 
16 



Proverbs. 1. Good manners are sure to pro- 
cure respect. 2. Self-conceit makes opinion obsti- 
nate. 3. Knowledge is the mind's treasure. 4. 
Make the best of a bad bargain. 5. Never speak 
to deceive, nor listen to betray. 6. Passion— is ever 
the enemy of truth. 7. Prefer loss, to unjust gain ; 
and solid sense, to wit. 8. Quit not certainty for 
hope. 9. Rejoice in the truth, and maintain it. 10. 
Seek not after the failings of others. 11. Might- 
does not make right. 12. Divinity — cannot be de- 
fined. 13. Deride not the ui\fortunate. 

Philosophy. Philosophy, so far from de- 
serving contempt, is the glory of human na- 
ture. Man approaches, by contemplation, to 
what we conceive of celestial purity and ex- 
cellence. Without the aid of philosophy, the 
mass of mankind, all over the terraqueous 
globe, would have sunk in slavery and super- 
stition, — the natural consequences of gross 
ignorance. Men, at the very bottom of so- 
ciety, have been enabled, by the natural 
talents they possessed, seconded by favorable 
opportunities, to reach the highest improve- 
ments in philosophy; and have thus lifted 
up a torch in the valley, which has exposed 
the vieakness and deformity of the castle on 
the mountain, from which the oppressors sal- 
lied, in the night of darkness, and spread 
desolation with impunity. Despots.- the 
mea?iest, the basest, the most brutal and ig- 
norant of the human race, who would have 
trampled on the rights and happiness of men 
unresisted, if philosophy had not opened the 
eyes of the sufferers, shown them their own 
power and dignity, and taught them to despise 
those giants of power, as they appeared thro 1 
the mists of ignorance, who ruled a vassal 
world with a mace of iron. Liberty — is the 
daughter of philosophy ; and they who de- 
test the offspring, do all that they can to vilify 
and discountenance the mofiier. 

Varieties. 1. Wnat is humility, and 
what are ito effects? 2. Vice — stings us, 
ev^r* in our pleasures ,- but virtue — consoles 
us, even in our pains. 3. Cowards — die many 
times ; the valiant — never taste of death but 
once. 4. True friendship is like sound 
health ; the value of it is seldom known till it 
is lost. 5. Young folks tell what they do; old 
ones, what they have done ; and fools, what 
they will do. 6. Men's evil manners live in 
brass; their virtues, we write in sand. 7. 
The natural effects of (4) fidelity, (5) clem- 
ency and (6) kindness, in governors, are 
peace, good-will, order and esteem, on the part 
of the governed. 8. Never make yourself 
too little for the sphere of duty,- but stretch, 
and expand yourself to the compass of its ob- 
jects. 9. (4) Friends, (5) Romans, (6) coun- 
trymen — lend me your ears ; I come to bury 
Cesar, not to praise him. 10. All truths — 
are but forms of heavenly loves ; and all fal- 
sities — are the forms of infernal loves. 

If you would excel in arts, excel in industry. 



122 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



34t4. Inflections. One very encourag- 
ing feature of our interesting subject is, that 
all our principles are drawn from nature, and 
are therefore inherent in every one ; the grand 
design is to develop our minds and bodies in 
accordance with these principles; which can 
be done, not by silently reading the work, 
or thinking about its contents; but, hy pa- 
tient, persevering practice: this, only, can 
rnable us to overcome our bad habits, and 
bring our voices, words, and mind into har- 
mony, so that the externals may perfectly 
correspond to the internals. 

345. 1. Is there aught, in eloquence — 
that, can warm the heart ? She draws her 
fire from natural Imagery. Is there aught 
in pottry — to enliven the imagination? 
TJvre — is the secret of her power. 2. Do 
you love to gaze at the (3) sun, the (4) moon, 
and the (6) planets ? This affection con- 
tains the science of astronomy, as the seed 
— contains the future tree. Would a few 
pence — duty, on tea, for raising a revenue, 
have ruineel the fortunes of any of the Amer- 
icans ? Nd! but the payment of one penny, 
on the principle it was demanded, would 
have made them — slaves. 

346. Invalids — will find the principle, 
and practice, here set forth, of great service 
to them, if they possess the strength, and 
have the resolution, to adopt them ; and they 
will often derive special aid by attempting to 
do something : for the mind, by a determina- 
tion of the will, can be brought to act upon 
the nervous system, in such a way, as to start 
the flow of the blood on its career of health, 
and strength ; and, ere they are aware of it, 
they will be ready to mount up as with the 
■wings of an eagle, and leave all care, and 
trouble, and anxiety on the earth. Let them 
fry it, and they will see : persevere. 

Anecdote. The Cobbler. A cobbler, at 
Leyden, who used to attend the public dis- 
putations, held at the academy, was once 
asked if he understood Latin. " No," replied 
the mechanic, " but I know who is wrong in 
the argument." " How ?" replied his friend. 
■" Why, by seeing who is angry first." 

Lift up thine eyes, afflicted soul ! 

From earth — lift up thine eyes, 
Though dark — the evening shadows roll, 

And daylight beauty — dies ; 
One sun is set — a thousand more 

Their rounds of glory run, 
Where science leads thee — to explore 

In every star — a sun. 
Thus, when some long-loved comfort ends, 

And nature would despair, 
Faith. — to the heaven of heavens ascends, 

And meets ten thousand there ; 
First, faint and small, then, clear and bright, 

They gladden all the gloom, 
And stars, that seem but points of light, 

The rank of sun$ assume. 



Proverbs. 1. The body contains the working 
tools of the mind; master your tools, or you will 
be a bad workman. 2. Here, and there ; or, this 
world, and the next, is a good subject for refection. 
3. An artist lives et-eri/where. 4. The body — is 
the image, or type, of the soul; and the soul is 
visible, only through it. 5. Never refuse a good 
offer, in hopes of a better one ; the first is certain; 
the last is only hope. 6. A promiscuous and su- 
perficial study of books, seldom yields much solid 
information. 7. Tho' ruin ensue, justice must 
not be infringed. 8. Those things become us best, 
that appertain to our situation in life. 9. Pros- 
perity — intoxicates and disturbs the mind : adversi- 
ty — sicbdues and ameliorates it. 10. The strongest 
symptoms of unsdom in us, is being sensible of our 
follies. 11. A good man — is not an object of fear. 
12. Friendship — is stronger than kindred. 13. 
Sin is sin, whether seen or not. 

Duelling. We read, in Swedish history, 
that Adolphus, king of Sweden, determining 
to suppress these false notions of honor, is- 
sued a severe edict against the practice. Two 
gentlemen, however, generals in his service, 
on a quarrel, agreed to solicit the king's per- 
mission, to decide their difference by the laws 
of honor. The king consented, and said, he 
would be present at the combat. He was at- 
tended by a body of guards and the public 
executioner, and before they proceeded to 
the onset, he told these gentlemen, that they 
must fight till one of them died. Then, turn- 
ing to the executioner, he added, do you im- 
mediately strike off the head of the survivor. 
This had the intended effect ; the difference 
between the two officers was adjusted, and 
no more challenges were heard of in the army 
of Gustavus Adolphus. 

Varieties. 1. Oh! who can describe wo- 
man's love, or woman's constancy. 2. Can 
the immortality of the soul be proved from 
the light of nature ? 3. If the sculptor could 
put life into his works, would he not resem- 
ble a good orator ? 4. Can we be too zealous 
in promoting a good cause ? 5. Are mira- 
cles the most convincing evidences of truth ? 
6. Is it not very hard to cherish unkind feel- 
ings, and thoughts, without showing them in 
unkind words and actions ? 7. Are theatres 
— beneficial to mankind? 8. Ought any 
thing be received, without due examination ? 
9. Do you wish to know the persons, against 
whom you have most reason to guard your- 
self] your looking-glass will -reveal him to 
you. 10. If a man is in earnest, would you 
therefore call him a. fanatic. 

They are sleeping .' Who are sleeping ? 

Captives, in their gloomy cells ; 
Yet sweet dreams are o'er them creeping, 

With their many-colored spells. 
All they love — again they clasp them ; 

Feel again — their long-lost joys ; 
But the haste — with which they grasp them, 

Every fairy form destroys. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



123 



347. The Falling Inflection Q) in- 
dicates that the voice glides downwards, 
continuously, on the more important words. 
1. " Where are you going P 2. Of what 
are you thinking? 3. Who sendeth the 
early and the latter rain 1 4. What things 
are most proper for youth to learn ? Those 
that they are to practice, when they enter 
upon the stage of action. 5. Be always sure 
you are right, then go ahead." 6. Begin x ; 
be bold, — and venture to be wise : He who 
defers this work, from day to day, Does on a 
river's brink expecting, stay, Till the whole 
stream, that stopt him, shall be gone, — That 
runs, and runs, and ever will run on. 7. I 
do not so much request, as demand your 
attention. 8. Seek the truth for its own 
sake, and out of love for it ; and when found, 
embrace it, let it cut where it will; for it is 
all powerful, and must prevail. 

348. Never begin, or end, two successive 
sentences on the same pitch: neither two 
lines in poetry; nor two members of a sen- 
tence ; nor two words meaning different 
things ; if you do, it will be monotonous. 
The 3d, 4th, or 5th note is the proper pitch 
for commencing to read or speak; the force 
must be determined by the occasion, the size 
of the room, the sense, &c. If we are in 
the middle of the pitches, we can rise or fall 
according to circumstances ; but if we begin 
too high, or too low, we shall be liable to 
extremes. Look at those of the audience at 
a medium distance, and you will not greatly 
err in pitch. 

349. Mental Philosophy — treats of 
the faculties of the human mind; their laws 
and actions, with a general reference to their 
use and cultivation. It teaches, that the 
two constituents of mind — are the will and 
the understanding ; the former is the re- 
ceptacle of all our affections, good, or evil; 
the latter, of all our thoughts, true or false. 
Phrenology — may be considered, to a certain 
extent, as the highway to the philosophy of 
mind ; but it is not a sure guide, being found- 
ed on the philosophy of effects, instead of 
that of causes; as is the case with all the 
sciences : hence, it cannot be depended on. 
To judge righteously of the subject of mind, 
we must have the whole man; which in- 
volves phrenology, physiology, and psycholo- 
gy: all of which must be seen in the light 
of truth, natural, and spiritual. 

Anecdote. Rhymetry. When queen 
Elizabeth visited the town of FaTkenstene, 
the inhabitants employed their parish clerk — 
to versify their address : the mayor, on be- 
ing introduced, with great gravity mounted 
a three legged stool, and commenced his 
poetical declamation thus: — "O mighty 
queen, Welcome to Falkenstene /" Eliza- 
beth burst out in a loud roar of laughter; 
and, without giving his worship time to re- 
cover himself, she replied, " You great fool, 
Get off that stool." 

Keep company with the wise and good. 



Proverbs. 1. Speech — is the image of action. 
2. Superstition— is the spleen of the soul. 3. Sus- 
pect a tale-bearer, and trust him not. 4. Suspicion 
— is the passion of true friendship. 5. Sweet are 
the slumbers of the virtuous. 6. Safe is he, who 
serves a good conscience. 7. Never do a mean 
action. 8. Set not loo high a value on your own 
abilities. 9. Simple diet makes healthy children. 
10. Sneer not at that you cannot kival. 11. The 
best answer to a slander— is silence. 12. Vice— is 
infamous in every body. 

Compassion. Compassion — is an emo- 
tion, of which we ought never to be asham- 
ed. Graceful, particularly in youth, is the 
tear of sympathy, and the heart, that melts 
at the tale of wo; we should not permit ease 
and indulgence to contract our affections, 
and wrap us up in a selfish enjoyment. But 
we should accustom ourselves to think of 
the distresses of human life, of the solitary 
cottage, the dying parent, and the weeping 
orphan. Nor ought we ever to sport with 
pain and distress, in any of our amusements, 
or treat even the meanest insect with wanton 
cruelty. 

Varieties. 1. What does the tree of life 
signify, and what the knowledge of good and 
evil, and what the eating from them? 2. 
What heaps of the ruins of a former world, 
are piled up to form the substratum, and 
surface, of the one we inhabit ? 3. Why is 
the Caucasian, or European race, so migra- 
tory and unsettled in its habits and propen- 
sities, while the African race seems dis- 
posed to stay at home, contented, and happy ? 
4. Where, in the brain, is the determina- 
tion of the mind, when we think intensely ? 
Is it not where phrenologists locate causal- 
ity ? 5. Why is the eye used to represent 
wisdom ? 6._ Who knoweth, (says Solomon,) 
the spirit of man, that goeth upward, and 
the spirit of the beast, that geeth downward ? 
7. Why is a circle — used to represent eter- 
nity ? 

THE DYING CHRISTIAN TO HIS SOUL. 

Vital spark — of heavenly flame ! 
Quit, oh quit this mortal frame ; 
Trembling, hoping, lingering, flying, 
Oh, the pain, the bliss — of dying! 
Cease, fond nature, cease thy strife, 
And let me languish — into life. 
Hark! they whisper; angels say, 
" Sister spirit, come away." 
What is this — absorbs me quite ; 
Steals my senses, — shuts my sight, 
Drowns my spirits, — draws my breath ! 
Tell me, my soul, can this— be death? 
The world recedes ; it disappears ! 
Heaven — opens on my eyes! my ears 

With sounds seraphic ring : — 
Lend, lend your wings ! I mount! I fly ' 
O grave ! where — is thy victory ? 

death! where — islhysft'ng - ? 

1 hate to see — a shabby book, 
With half the leaves — torn out, 

And used, as if its owner — thought 
Twere made- -to toss about. 



124 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



350. Inflections. The reader sees that 
the rising inflection is used, when questions 
are asked, that may be answered by yes, or 
no; also, in cases of doubt and uncertainty: 
and that the falling inflection is used, when 
questions are asked that are not thus an- 
swered ; and in all cases of strong affirma- 
tion. Some authors seem not to have no- 
ticed the distinction between a rising inflec- 
tion of the voice, and a simple suspension 
of it, when there is a continuation of the 
sense. Let us not rely too much on the in- 
flections, to enable us to give variety, but 
on the different -pitches of voice: the former 
gives artificial variety, and the latter, a 
natural one. 

351. 1. Accustom yourself to submit, on 
all occasions, (even in the most minute, as 
well as the most important circumstances in 
life,) to a small, present evil, to obtain a 
greater, distant good. This will give de- 
cision, tone, and energy to the mind; 
which, thus disciplined,w\\\ often reap victo- 
ry — from defeat, and honor — from repulse. 
Having acquired this invaluable habit of 
rational preference, and just appreciation, 
start for the prize that endureth forever. 2. 
The man, whose house is on fire, cries — 
Fire! fireM! FIREM!! with the falling 
inflection: but the roguish boy, who would 
raise a false alarm, cries, Fire, fire, fire, 
with the rising inflection. 3. This is an 
(5) open, (4) honorable challenge; why are 
you (6) silent? Why do you {^prevari- 
cate? I (6) insist upon this point; I (5) 
urge you to it: (4) press it; nay, I (3) de- 
mdnd — it. 

352. The end , the cause and the effect, 
are the three distinct things, which follow 
each other in regular and successive order; 
for every thing, in this world, and in the 
other, proceeds according to these degrees: 
hence, intelligence — properly consists in 
knowing and distinguishing them, and see- 
ing them in their order. Illustration: the 
end of man is the love of his will; for what 
one loves, he proposes and intends: the 
cause with him is the reason ot the under- 
standing; for the end, by means of the rea- 
son, seeks for mediates, or efficient causes: 
and the effect is the operation of the body 
from, ancl according to, them. When these 
three are exhibited in act, the end is inward- 
ly in the cause, and thro'' the cause in the 
effect; wherefore, they co-exist in the effect. 
Hence, the propriety of judging every one — 
by his works; that is, by his fruits: for the 
end, or the love of the will, and the cause, 
or the reason of his understanding, are to- 
gether in the effects; which three constitute 
the whole man. 

Oli how poor 
Seems the rich gift of genius, when it lies, 
Like the ao'vpjy'.aroao wrd, \iiUi waXi. out-Sown 
His strength — upon the sea, ambition-wrecked — 
A thing— the thrush might pity, as she sits, 
Brooding in quiet, on her lowly nest. 



I Proverbs. 1. Through the ear. we must find 
[ access to the heart. 2. Hunger makes every kind 
: of food acceptable. 3. Death — is the finishing 
' stroke in the picture of life. 4. The remembrance 
of labors performed, and difficulties overcome, is al- 
ways agreeable. 5. The labors of the student are 
sweeter, the farther he proceeds ; because his heart 
is in them. 6. Always yield to the truth. 7. The 
improvement of the mind is of the first importance. 
] 8. Beware of going into the way of temptations : 
| many have been ruined, merely by looking on, to 
see how others do. 9. Tricks and- treachery are 
the practice of fools. 10. The proper study of 
j mankind — is man. 11. Promote virtuous commu- 
I nication. 12. An ape — is ridiculous by nature; 
men — by art and study. 13. Flattery — is a very 
fashionable art. 

Anecdote. Old Habits. The duke de 
Nivernois was acquainted with the countess 
de Rochefort, and never omitted going to 
see her a single evening. As she was £ 
widow and he a widower, one of his friends 
observed to him, it would be more conven- 
ient for him to marry that lady. " I have 
often thought so," said he, " but one thing 
prevents me ; in that case, where should i 
spend my evenings?" 

Promises. If promises — from man to 
man have force, why not from man to wo- 
man ? Their very weakness is the charter 
of their power, and they should not be in- 
jured because they can' t return it. 

Varieties. Educational Questions. I. 
What are the rights and duties of the fami- 
ly, and of society at large, respecting the 
education of children ? 2. To what sort and 
degree of education can any human individ- 
ual, as such, lay claim, independently of 
fortune, or any other distinction ? 3. How 
far should the education of a child be regu- 
lated, according to his natural capacities. 
and how far should external circumstances 
be permitted to affect it ? 4. What are the 
chief obstacles to a more general education 
of the poor; and what are the leading errors 
committed in this greatest of all charities . 
so far as it extends at present ? 5. What, 
are the chief errors committed in the educa- 
tion of the wealthier classes, and by what 
means can the education of both voor and 
rich be made to produce, in the course of 
time, a more harmonious state of society ? 

6. How far, hitherto, Las Christianity been 
allowed to influence education, and by what 
means can the difficulties, arising from dis- 
*inf lions among christians, be obviated in it ? 

7. Who will satisfactorily answer these im- 
portant questions ? 
"From the birf-i 



Of mortal man, the sov'reipr Maker said, 

Tim* "0*. '.n numble, nor in brief delight, 

Not in the fading echoes of renown. 

Power's purple robes, nor pleasure's flowery lap, 

The soul— can find enjoyment; but from these 

Turning, disdainful, to ar. equal z;rA. 

Thro 1 all th' ascent oMLr.gs— enlarge her view, 

Till every bound — at length— shall disappear. 

And infinite perfection— close the scene.'" 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



125 



352. Preceding Principles. The sooner 
the pupil begins to rely upon his own re- 
sources and experience, the better ; and he 
should not forget, that he must make himself 
an elocutionist. Hence, the importance of 
his seeing, rationally, and feeling, in his in- 
most soul, the truth, or falsehood, of the 
principles here unfolding. Let every exam- 
ple be thoroughly mastered ,• and, to prevent 
the growth of bad habits, in reading, speak- 
ing and singiJig, let him often review; as 
well as pay special attention to the varieties 
of illustration, that are to be found on every 
page. 

353. 1. It is too late — to urge objections — 
against universal education; for the fountains 
— of the great deep — are broken up, and a 
flood of information, (4) theological, (5) scien- 
tific, (4) civil, and (6) literary, is carrying all 
before it; filling up the valleys, and scaling 
the (6) MouuTAiN-tops: a spirit of inquiry 
has gone forth, and sits brooding — on the 
mind of man. 2. Music — should be cultivat- 
ed, not as a mere sensual gratification; but, 
as a means of elevating, and improving the 
affections; ennobling, purifying, and exalt- 
ing, the whole man. 3. Beware — of a re- 
morseless thirst for the acquisition of riches ; 
rather — than deliver up yourself in execrable 
devotion to Mammon, mount the ladder of 
the most dangerous ambition, — even tho' it 
were planted on the precipice, and leaned 
against a cloud. 

354. Political Philosophy — includes 
all theories and general views of government, 
with a description of the forms, and the prin- 
ciples on which they are founded, and the 
modes in which they are administered. This 
study rests on the basis of natural law, or 
justice ; and therefore, presupposes a know- 
ledge of ethics ,• it requires enlarged and ele- 
vated views of human nature, and the 
constitution of society ; with the means by 
which virtue may be diffused, justice en- 
forced, and order preserved throughout the 
community: it is alike important to the 
statesman, the legislator, and the private 
citizen. 

Anecdote. Howard's Opinion of Swear- 
ers. As he was standing, one day, near the 
door of a printing-office, he heard some 
dreadful volleys of oaths and curses from a 
public house opposite, and, buttoning his 
pocket up before he went in the street, he said 
to the workmen near him, "I always do this 
whenever I. hear men swear, as I think that 
any one, who can take God's name in vain, 
can also steal, or do anything else that is bad." 
Hope, of all passions, most befriends us here : 
Passions of prouder name — befriend us less. 
Joy — has her tears, and transport — has her death: 
Hope, like a cordial, innocent, though strong, 
Man's heart, at once, inspirits — and serenes. 



Proverbs. 1. Perseverance — overcomes all 
difficulties. 2. Instruction, by example, is quick 
and effectual. 3. We are only in the morning 
starlight of the arts and sciences. 4. Knowledge is 
not obtained in a moment. 5. Apollo's bow — was 
not ahvays bent. 6. Reason — is not the test of 
truth : it is only the organ, through which we see 
truth. 7. No one is so well qualified to rule, as 
he, who knows how to obey. 8. Beauty — is like 
the flower of spring : but virtue — is like the stars 
of heaven. 9. Vain persons are fond of fine things 
10. Respect, and contempt, spoil many a one. 11. 
Some— outlive their reputation. 12. When sorrow 
is asleep, ivake it not. 

Laconics. And what was it, fellow-citi- 
zens, which gave to our La Fayette his spot- 
less fame? The love of liberty. What — has 
consecrated his memory — in the hearts of 
good men ? The love of liberty. What — 
nerved his youthful arm with strength, and 
inspired him in the morning of his days, with 
sagacity and counsel? The living love of 
liberty. To what — did he sacrifice power, 
and country, and freedom itself? To the 
horror of licentiousness ; to the sanctity of 
plighted faith ; to the love of liberty protected 
by law. Thus, the great principle of your 
revolutionary fathers, of your pilgrim sires, 
the great principle of the age, was the rule of 
his life: The love of liberty — protected by 
law. 

Vai'ieties. 1. When a lady receives the 
addresses of a gentleman, who is in the ha- 
bit of tippling, how is she to determine, to 
what extent his protestations should be set 
down to himself, and how much passed to the 
credit of ardent spirits ? In other words, how 
much is of love, and how much of alcohol ? 
Suppose she test it, by the pledge of total ab- 
stinence ? 

5 Tis not the face, — 'tis not the form, — 
'Tis not the heart — however warm ; 
It is not these, tho' all combined, 
That wins true love : — it is the mind, 
Canst thou believe thy prop h et,— (or, what is more,) 
That Power, which made thee, (8) and thy prophet, 
Will (with impunity,) let pass that breach 
Of sacred faith, given to the royal Greek? 
How (3) poor ! how (6) rich ! how (4) abject ! 
How (9) august ! how (4) complicate ! how (2) wonderful is man 
How (6) passing, He, who made him such ! and 
Centered in his make — such strange extreme* ! 
What can preserve my life ? or what destroy ? 
An (6) angeVs arm — can't snatch me from my grave : 
Legions of angels— can't confine me there. 

My mother's voice ! how often — creeps 
Its cadence — o'er my lonely hojirs, 

Like healing — sent on wings of sleep, 
Or dew — to the unconscious flowers. 

I can't forget her melting prayer, 
Even while my pulses — madly fly; 

And in the still, unbroken air, 
Her gentle tones come — stealing by ; 

And years, and sin, and manhood flee, 

And leave me— at my mother's knee ! 
L2 



126 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



355. Those Inflections may pass through 
2, 3. 5, or S notes, according to the intensity 
of the feeling. Ex. 1. "Do you say, that [1 J'3J 
can learn to sing ! 2. Do you say that [1 1'o] 
can learn to sing? 3. What.' do you say 
that [1 1' S] can learn to sing 1" Reverse the 
inflection; begin at the top, and go down. 
4. He said [S"iM] can learn to sing, not 
you'." Thus, you see that the voice may 
step up or down, by discrete degrees, or glide 
up and down, by continuous degrees. 5. 
" To whom the goblin, full of wrath, replied : 
(1) Art thou that (3) traitor (4) angel ? (8) art 
th ">u he who first broke peace in heaven, and 
(6) faith, till then (8) unbroken ? (9) Back 
to thy punishment— false fugitive, and to 
thy speed add wings ; lest with a whip of 
scorpions, I pursue thy ling'ring ; or with 
one stroke of this dart, strange horror seize 
thee, and pangs unfelt before." In speaking 
this sentence, use all the eight notes. 

356. In reading the first example, the 
voice glides from the first to the third note ; 
because there is no feeling : in reading the 
second, the voice glides from the first to the 
fifth note ; because there is some feeling, and 
consequent earnestness; and in the third 
example, the voice glides from the tonic, to 
the octave ; because there is a great deal of 
feeling : in the fourth example, the voice be- 
gins at the top, or eighth note, and glides 
down to theirs/; because there is a conse- 
quent change of thought and action. In the 
fifth example, the voice commences at 1, in 
a harsh tone, and goes on gradually ascend- 
ing to angel ,- then it recedes, and then goes 
on rising still higher on faith, and highest on 
unbroken ; when it begins to descend, in an 
unyielding and gradual way, to the close, in 
a manner that no words can describe. 

357. Do not the bees, (says Quintillian) 
extract honey from very different flowers and 
juices! Is it any wonder that Eloquence, 
(which is one of the greatest gifts heaven has 
given to man,) requires many arts to perfect 
it ? and tho' they do not appear in an ora- 
tion, nor seem to be of any use, they never- 
theless afford an inward supply of strength, 
And are silently felt in the mind: without 
all these a man may be eloquent, but I wish 
to form an orator ; and none can be said to 
have all the requisites, while the smallest 
thing is wanting. 

Anecdote. Good Works. The Russian 
embassador* at Paris, made the Abbe L'Epee 
a visit, and offered him a large sum of mo- 
ney through the munificence of the empress. 
The Abbe declined, saying, " I receive gold 
of no one; but if the empress will send me 
a deaf and dumb person to educate, I shall 
consider it a more flattering mark of dis- 
tinction." 



Proverbs. 1. An evil heart — can make any 
doctrine ialse, in its orvn view. 2. Bad books 
are fountains of vice. 3. Comply cheerfully, when 
necessity enjoins it. 4. Despair — blunts the edge 
of industry. 5. DowWe-dealing — is the index of a 
base spi-it. 6. Every vice wars against nature. 7. 
Friendship— is often slronger than kindred 8. 
Good intentions — will not justify evil actions. 9. 
In order to learn, we must pay undivided atten- 
tion. 10. Mental gifts — often hide bodily infirmi- 
ties. 11. Lawing — is very costly. 12. The world 
is his, who enjoys it. 13. Poverty — is often an 
evil counsellor. 

Despotism. All despotism, whether 
usurped or hereditary, is our abhorrence. 
We regard it as the most grievous wrong 
and insult to the human race. But, towards 
the hereditary despot — we have more of com- 
passion than indignation. Nursed and bro't 
up in delusion, worshiped from his cradle, 
never spoken to in the tone of fearless truth, 
taught to look on the great mass of his fellow- 
beings as an inferior race, and to regard des- 
potism as a law of nature, and a necessary 
element of social life ; such a prince, whose 
education and condition almost deny him the 
possibility of acquiring healthy moral feeling 
and manly virtue, must not be judged severe- 
ly. Still, in absolving the despot — from much 
of the guilt, which seems at first, to attach to 
his unlawful and abused power, we do not 
the less account despotism a ivrong and a 
curse. The time for its fall, we trust, is com- 
ing. It cannot fall too soon. It has long 
enough wrung from the laborer his hard 
earnings; long enough squandered a na- 
tion's wealth on its parasites and minions; 
lo?ig enough warred against the freedom of 
the mind, and arrested the progress of truth. 
It has filled dungeons enough — with the brave 
and good, and shed enough of the blood of pa- 
triots. Let its end come. It cannot come too 
soon. 

"Varieties. l.What is education, and what 
are the best means for obtaining it! 2. Why 
are diamonds valuable'! because of their 
scarcity ? 3. Why are professional men in- 
different poets ? is it because, as the bounda- 
ries of science enlarge, the empire of ima- 
gination is diminished? 4. In what does 
true honor consist! 5. Tamerlane boasted, 
that he governed men by four great arts ; 
viz : bribery, amusement, diversion, and sus- 
pense: are there -no Tamalanes now, think 
you 1 6. Is there any alliance between ge- 
nius and poverty ? 7. If we leave the path 
of duty, shall we not be liable to run into the 
path of danger? 8. Are there not some, 
who would make void the word of God, by 
their own traditions? 9. Is it not a most 
important part of a teacher's duty, to imbue ' 
the minds of his pupils, with the love of all 
goodness and truth ? 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



127 



358. The Inflections have great influence 
in expressing, or perverting the sense, ac- 
cording as they are correctly or incorrectly 
made. 1. In the retirement of a college 
— I am unable to suppress evil thoughts ,- how 
difficult then, to do it, amidst the world's 
temptations! 2. The man who is in the 
daily use of ardent (6) spirits, (4) if he 
should not become a (3) drunkard, (6) is 
in danger of losing his (5) health, and (6) 
character. The risin g inflection on drunkard, 
would imply that he must become one, to 
preserve his health and character. 

359. Apply the principles to the follow- 
ing, according to the feelings and thoughts, 
and their objects. 1. But (5) mercy — is (6) 
above — this sceptred sway ; (4) it is enthron- 
ed — in the (5) hearts of kings,- it is an (6) 
attribute — (1) of God himself. 

Love, hope, — and. joy, fair Pleasure's smiling train ; 
Hate, fear, and grief, the family of Pain ; 
These, mixed with art, and to due bounds confined, 
Make — and maintain — the balance of the mind. 

He knew— 
How to make madness— beautiful, and cast, 
(O'er erring deeds, and thoughts,) a heavenly hue 
Of words, like sunbeams, dazzling (as they passed,) 
The eyes, which o'er them shed tears, feelingly, and fast. 

Thy words— had such a meltings/tow, 
And spoke of truth — so sweetly well, 

They dropped — (like heaven's serenest snow,) 
And all was (6) brightness, — where they fell. 

360. Ixducittg Disease. There is no 
doubt, that the seed of a large number of dis- 
eases are sown in childhood and youth ; and 
especially in our progress in obtaining what 
is called, an education. The bad habits of 
position in and out of school, and our un- 
healthy mode of living, contribute very es- 
sentially to the promotion of various diseases ; 
particularly, dyspepsia, liver and lung com- 
plaints, and headaches. Hence, we cannot 
be too watchful against sitting in a crooked 
position, nor too prudent in eating, drink- 
ing, and sleeping, as well as in our clothing, 
and our lodging apartments. Let us put 
forth every effort in the performance of our 
duties, be they physical, intellectual, or moral. 

Anecdote. A Swiss Retort. A French 
officer, quarrelling with a Swiss, reproached 
him with his country's vice of fighting on 
either side for money ; " while we French- 
men" said he, " fight for honor.' 1 '' " Yes, sir," 
replied the Swiss, "every one fights for that 
he most wants." 

Called a blessing- to inherit, 
Bless, and richer blessings merit: 
Give, and more shall yet be given : 
Love, and serve, and look for Heaven. 
Would being end — with our expiring breath, 
How soon misfortune would be puffed away ! 
A trifling shock — shrives us to the dust ; 
But the existence — of the immortal soul, 
Futurity's dark road— perplexes still. 



Proverbs. 1. The best way to see Divine 
light— is to put out our own. 2. The proud— 
shall be abased; but the humble — shall be exalted. 
3. As long as you and truth agree, you will do 
well. 4. No one is born for himself alone, but 
for the world. 5. Rely not too much on the 
torches of others ; light one of your own. 6. 
Divest yourself of envy, and lay aside all unkind 
feelings. 7. If youth knew what age would 
crave, it would both crave and save. 8. A 
speaker, without energy, is like a lifeless statue. 
9. Deep — and intense feeling — lie at the root of 
eloquence. 10. Condemn no one, without a can- 
did hearing. 11. Think more, and speak less. 
12. Follow the dictates of reason. 

Half-Murder. That father, says the 
learned Baudier, who takes care to feed and 
clothe his son, but neglects to give him such 
accomplishments as befit his capacity and 
rank in life, is more than half his murderer; 
since he destroys the better part, and but con- 
tinues the other to endure a life of shame. 
Of all the men we meet with, nine out of ten 
are what they are, good or evil, useful or not, 
by their education,- it is that, which makes 
the great difference in mankind : the little, or 
almost insensible, impressions on our tender 
infancy, have very important and lasting 
consequences. 

Varieties. 1. Send your son into the 
world with good principles, good habits, and 
a good education, and he will work his way. 
2. How absurd to be passionate yourself, and 
expect others to be placid. 3. Why is swear- 
ing — like a ragged coat? because it is a 
very bad habit. 4. Can there be any virtue, 
without true piety ? 5. Why is rebellion — 
like draw-drinking] because it is inimical 
to the constitution. 6. Why do white sheep 
— furnish more wool than 'black ones 1 be- 
cause there are more of them. 7. Why is one 
who is led astray, like one who is governed 
by a girl ? Do you give it up ? because he 
is misled, (Miss-led.) 8. Ought there not to 
be duties on imported goods, to encourage 
domestic manufactures ? 9. Are not physics 
and metaphysics inseparably joined 1 if so, 
what is the connecting link ? 10. Is it right, 
under any circumstance, to marry for money? 
11. Is it right to imprison for debt ? 
I can find comfort — in the words and looks 

Of simple hearts and gentle souls; and I 
Can find companionship — in ancient books, 

When, lonely, on the grassy hills I lie, 

Under the shadow— of the tranquil sky ; 
I can find music — in the rushing brooks, 

Or in the songs, which dwell among the trees, 

And come in snatehes — on the summer breeze. 
I can find treasure — in the leafy showers, 

Which, in the merry autumn- time, will fall; 
And I can find strong love — in buds andfowers, 
And beauty — in the moonlight's silent hours. 

There's nothing, nature gives, can fail to please* 
For there's a common joy- pervading all. 



128 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



.101. A speaker — may calculate, before- 
hand, (so far as human agency is concerned, 
and other things being equal) the effect of a 
certain effort, by adapting the manner to the 
matter, as well as a farmer can in raising a 
crop, by using the proper means. As a 
stringed instrument, when touched at given 
points, infallibly produces certain tunes,- so, 
the human mind, when touched by certain 
modulations, and corresponding sentiments, 
as infallibly receives certain impressions. 
But a speaker, singer, or writer, who thinks 
much of himself, is in danger of being for- 
gotten by others. If he takes no sincere and 
hearfelt delight in what he is doing, but as it 
is admired and applauded by his audience, 
disappointment will be his portion,- for he 
cannot long succeed. He who would be 
great in the eyes of others, must first learn to 
be made nothing in his own. 

362. Exs. of the ' and \ 1. Did you say 
yes, or no ? Shall we crown the author of 
the public calamities ? or shall we destroy 
him? 2. Beware of ignorance and s/d/A, 
and be guided by ivisdom. 3. (2) Are they 
Hebrews? Are they all Hebrews'? (4) 
Are they Hebrews from Palestine ? 4. 
What does the word person mean 1 That 
which consists in one's own self, and not 
any part or quality in another. 5. Is not 
water the 6es£ and safest of all kinds of 
drink? 6. Nature — and (4) Reason — 
answer — yes. 7. The mind — is its own 
place ; and, in itself, can make a heaven — 
of hell,- or hell of heaven. 

Good name — in man, or woman, 
Is the immediate jetoeZ of their souls: 
Who steals my pu«e, steals trash, 'tis something, nothing: 
'Twas mine, 'tis to, and has been slave to thousands; 
But he, who filches from me my good name, 
Robs me of that which not enriches him, 
And makes me — poor indeed. 
Where is the true man's father-land 1 
Is it — where he, by chance, is born? 
Doth not the yearning spirit — scorn — 
In such scant borders to be spann'd 1 
O, yes ! his father-land must be — 
As the blue heaven — wide — and free. 
Anecdote. A Quaker, who had a great 
horror of soldiers, on seeing one jump into 
the Thames, and save a person who was 
drowning, said on the occasion, " I shall al- 
ways be a Quaker,- but soldiers are good 
creatures." 

What is it, Man, prevents thy God, 
From making thee his blest abode? 
He says — he loves thee, wills thee heaven, 
And for thy good — has blessings given. 
I'll tell thee— 'Tis thy love of self, 
Thy love of rule— thy love of pelf, 
Bind thee to earth— and all her toys, 
And robs thee — of substantial joys. 
Heaven's gates — are not so highly arched — 
As prince's palaces ; they who enter there, 
Must go— upon their knees. 



Proverbs. 1. New times, demand new meat' 
ures, and new men. 2. Pride — either finds a de- 
sert, or makes one. 3. Want of feeling, is one of 
the worst faults of elocution. 4. He, that catches at 
more than belongs to him, deserves to lose what 
he has. 5. Books — associate us with the think- 
ing, and give us the material of thought. 6. 
Either be silent, or speak what is better than si- 
lence. 7. He, who resolves to amend, has God, 
and all good beings, on his side. 8. If you would 
have a thing kept secret, never tell it; and if you 
would not have any thing told of you, never do 
it. 9. The shortest answer— is doing a thing. 
10. Friends — got without desert, will be lost with- 
out a cause. 11. Never speak what is not true. 
12. If it is not decent, never do it. 

Selfishness. The selfish — look upon 
themselves, as if they were all the world, 
and no man beside concerned therein ; that 
the good state of things is to be measured by 
their condition ; that all is well, if they do 
prosper and thrive ; all is ill, if they be disap- 
pointed in their desires and projects. The 
good of no man, not of their brethren, not of 
their friends, not of their country, doth come 
under their consideration. 

Varieties. 1. If we feel well, shall we not 
try to make others feel sol 2. May not the 
constitution be injured by over-nursing, and 
the mind unnerved, by being prevented from 
relying upon its own resources? 3. Is it 
expedient to wear mourning apparel] 4. 
Does curiosity, or love of truth and goodness, 
induce you to study history? 5. Has the 
study of the classics, an immoral tendency ? 
6. Who would be an old maid, or an old 
bachelor? 7. What is Botany ? The science 
of Plants. 8. Can friendship — exist with- 
out sympathy ? 9. Is a free or despotic 
government, more conducive to human hap- 
piness? 10. Ought not human nature — to 
be a chief study of mankind ? 11. Are gold 
and silver mines, on the whole, beneficial to 
a nation? 12. Is it right, to oblige a. jury to 
give a unanimous verdict 1 

THE BIBLE — WORTHY OF ALL ACCEPTATION. 

This little book— I'd rather own, 

Than all the gold and gems, 
That e'er in monarch's coffers shone, 

Than all their diadems. 
Nay, were the seas — one chrysolite, 

The earth— a golden ball, 
And diamonds all the stars of night, 

This book— were worth them all. 
Here, He who died on Calvary's tree, 

Hath made that promise — blest; 
"Ye heavy-Zac/ew, come to me, 

And I will give you rest. 
A bruised reed — I will not break, 

A contrite heart — despise ; 
My burden's light, and all, who take 

My yoke, shall win the skies I" 
The humble man, when he receives a wrong, 
Refers revenge— to whom it doth belong. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



129 



363. Inflections. Although there are 
given rules, for making these inflections, or 
slides of the voice, either up or down, yet 
it should be borne in mind, that every sen- 
tence, which has been read with the upward 
slide, can, under other circumstances, be read 
correctly with the downward slide : the sense 
governs everything here, as in emphasis. 
Ex. 1. Are you going to tou/n? 2. Are you 
going to tow y n ? 3. Whxf did you speak to 
her! 4. Why" did you speak to her? 5. Do 
you hear me ] 6. Do you hear me 1 In the 
first example, we have a simple, direct ques- 
tion ; in the second, the same form of words, 
but so spoken, as if one said, I wish to know, 
positively, whether you go to town ; so of the 
rest. Thus you see, the sense, the object, the 
intention determines the manner. 

364. 1. Some poets may be compared to 
others; but Milton and Shakspeare are in- 
comparable. 2. He, who considers himself 
wise, while his wisdom does not teach him to 
acknowledge the Lord, is in the profoundest 
ignorance. 3. We see the effects of many 
things, the causes of but few ; experience, 
therefore, is a surer guide than imagination, 
and inquiry than conjecture. 4. It is the in- 
dispensable duty, and the inalienable right, 
of every rational being, to prove all things, 
and holdfast that which is good. 

Get but the truth — once uttered, and 'tis like 
A star, new-born, that drops into its place, 
And which, once circling its placid round, 
Not all the tumult of the earth— can shake. 
363. The nearer your delivery agrees with 
the freedom and ease of common discourse, 
(if you keep up the dignity and life of your 
subject, and preserve propriety of expression,) 
the more just, natural and agreeable it will 
be. Study nature,- avoid affectation, and 
never use art , if you have not the art to con- 
ceal it : for, whatever does not appear natural, 
is neither agreeable nor persuasive. 

Anecdote. A brutal teacher, whipped a 
a little boy, for pressing the hand of a little 
girl, who sat next to him at school. After 
which, he asked the child, " Why he squeezed 
the girl's handl" " Because," said the little 
fellow, " it looked so pretty, I could not help 
it." What punishment did the teacher de- 
serve! 

THE EPITAPH. 

Here rests his head— upon the lap of earth, 

A youth— to fortune, and to fame — unknown : 
Fair Science— frown'd not on his humble birth, 

And Melancholy— mark'd bim for her own. 
Large was his bounty, and his soul sincere; 

Heaven— did a recompense — as largely send. 
He gave to mis'ry all he had— a tear; [friend. 

He gain'd from heaven ('twas all he wish'd)— a 
No farther seek his merits to disclose, 

Or draw his frailties from their dread abode, 
'There, they, alike, in trembling hope repose) 

The bosom of his Father, and his God. 
17 



Proverbs. 1. It is much easier to defend the 
innocent, than the guilty. 2. Let the press and 
speech, be free; no good government has anything 
to fear from paper shot, or airy words. 3. Three 
things are necessary to make an able man, — na- 
ture, study, and practice. 4. Cultivate a spirit of 
love toward all. 5. Always distinguish between 
apparent truths, and real truths; between effects 
and causes. 6. God — is best known and honored, 
when his word and works are best understood and 
appreciated. 7. Industry — is essential to useful- 
ness, and happiness. 8. Every one ought to do 
something. 9. Nothing is stationary ; and the hu- 
man family — the least of all. 10. Mankind are 
tending to a better condition, or to actual extinction. 

11. Trade — knows neither friends nor kindred. 

12. Physicians — rarely take medicine. 
Wisdom of our Ancestors. If the 

"wisdom of our ancestors'''' — had not taught 
them to recognize newly discovered truths, 
and to discard those errors, to which ignor- 
ance had given birth, we should not have 
been indebted to them for the improvements, 
which, however well they may have served 
their purpose for a time, are destined to be 
superseded by still more important discover- 
ies. In the year 1615, a Florentine had the 
presumption and audacity to assert, contrary 
to the prevailing opinions of the learned, 
"the great, the good, and the wise among 
men," and contrary to the conclusions of all 
preceding ages, " that the earth revolved round 
the sun ,•" and, although he was threatened 
with death for his heresy, Galileo was right. 
Varieties. 1. What is the image of God, 
and what the likeness of God, into which man 
was created 1 2. What grace is more valu- 
able, than humility? 3. Is hereditary de- 
pravity an actual sin, or a calamity? 4. Was 
not the genius of Ax-chim-i-a\es the parent of 
the mechanical arts? 5. Did not the first 
single pair of mankind — possess the type of 
all the distinct races of men, — their innate 
tendency and genius, which has, or will, re- 
appear in their offspring ? 6. What is the 
meaning of the command to Moses, 11 See that 
thou make all things after the pattern, which 
I have shown thee in the Mount ?" 7. If we 
are hardened under affliction, does it not in- 
dicate a very bad state of mind? 8. Are 
miracles — violations of the laws of Nature? 
9. Does not the state and character of parents 
—affect their offspring? 10. What is the 
conclusion of the whole matter 1 Fear God, 
and keep his commandments. 

When Summer's heats — the verdure sear, 
Through yonder shady grove I tread, 

Or throw me listless— down to hear 
The winds — make music over head ; 

A thousand flowers — are blooming round, 
The " wilding 6ee" goes droning by, 

And springs gush out — with lulling sound, 
And painted warblers — linger nigh ; 

Yet one thing — wants the dreamer there— 

A kindred soul — the scene to share. 



130 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



365. Waves, on Circumflexes of the 

Voice: of these, there are two; which are 
called the rising circumflex [v] and the fall- 
ing circumflex [*]: they are formed hy the v 
and the ' , and are generally connected with 
the accented vowels of the emphatic words. 
Doubt, pity, contrast, grief, supposition, 
comparison, irony, implication, sneering, 
railery, scorn, reproach, and contempt, are 
expressed by them. Ee sure and get the right 
feeling and thought, and you will find no 
difficulty in expressing them properly, if you 
have mastered the voice. 

366. Exs. of the rising v. 1. I may go 
to town to-morrow, though I cannot go to- 
day. 2. The sun sets in the west, not in 
the east. 3. He lives in London, not in 
New York. 4. The desire of praise — pro- 
duces excellent effects, in men of sense. 5. 
He is more a kndve, than a fool. 6. I see 
thou hast learn'd to rui/, if thou hast learned 
nothing else. 7. Better to do well Za/e, than 
never. 8. A pretty fellow you are, to be 
sure/ 9. In some countries — poverty — is 
considered a misfortune ,• in others — a crime. 
10. The young — are slaves to novelty,- the 
old — to custom. 

367. Promiscuous Examples. 1. A just 
appreciation of our duties — is worth any sa- 
crifice, that its attainments may cost. 2. 
Dearly do we sometimes pay for our wis- 
dom, but never too dearly. 3. Is not the life 
of animals dissipated at death ? 4. The an- 
cients — had the art of singing, before that of 
writing ,• and their laws and histories were 
sung, before they were written. 5. This heav- 
enly Benefactor claims — not the homage of 
our lips, but of our hearts ; and who can 
doubt that he is entitled to the homage of our 
hearts ? 6. If we have no regard to our own 
character, we ought to have some regard to 
the character of others. 7. Tell your invad- 
ers this; and tell them, too, we seek no 
change; and least of all — such change as 
they would bring us. 

368. We must avoid a mechanical variety, 
and adopt a natural one : this may be seen in 
children, when relating anything that comes 
from themselves; then, their intonations, 
melody, and variety, are perfectly natural, 
and true to the object in view: let us go and 
sit at their feet and learn, and not be offend- 
ed. Let us turn our eye and ear, to truth 
and nature ; for they will guide their vota- 
ries right Give us the soul of elocution and 
music, and that will aid in forming the body. 

CONFIDENCE, NOT TO BE PLACED IN MAN. 

O momentary grace of mortal men, 
Which we more hunt for— than the grace of God! 
Who builds his hope — in air of your fair looks, 
Lives like a drunken sailor— on a mast ; 
Ready, with every nod, to tumble down — 
Into the fatal bowels— of the deep. 



Maxims. 1. The love of sensual pleasure, it 
temporary madness. 2. Sacrifice — can be made 
on bad principles ; obedience — only on good ones. 
3. Great cry and little wool; applies to those who 
promise much, but practice little. 4. Do what you 
think is right, whatever others may think. 5. 
Learn to disregard alike, the praise and the cen- 
sure of bad men. 6. Covet that popularity that 
follows; not that which must be run after. 7. 
What sculpture is — to a block of marble, education 
is to the human mind. 8. He, who is unwilling 
to amend, has the devil on his side. 9. Extensive, 
various reading, without refection, tends to the in- 
jury of the mind. 10. Proverbs bear age, and arc 
full of various instruction. 

Anecdote. John Randolph's Mother. The 
late John Randolph, some years before his 
death, wrote to a friend as follows : " I used 
to be called a Frenchman, because I took the 
French side in politics ; and though that was 
unjust, yet the truth is, I should have been 
a French atheist, if It had not been for one re- 
collection, and that was — the memory of the 
time, when my departed mother — used to 
take my little hands in hers, and cause me. 
on my knees, to say, ' Our Father who art in 
heaven.' ; ' 

School Teachers. It is important, that 
teachers of youth, should not only be respected, 
but respectable persons. They, who are in- 
trusted with the responsible office of develop- 
ing the mind, and directing the affections of 
the young, ought to be worthy of sharing in 
all the social enjoyments of the most refined 
society ; and they ought never to be excluded 
from such participation. Yet it is scandal- 
ously true, in some parts of our country, that 
teachers, however worthy, are excluded from 
the houses of the very parents, who send 
their children to their schools. This is not 
only contrary to all republican principles, 
but is in direct opposition to the dictates of 
common sense. Wherever such a state of 
things exists, the people are but half civilized, 
whatever pretensions wealth, and other cir- 
cumstances afford them. 

Varieties. 1. Enter on the performance 
of your duties, with willing hearts, and 
never seek to avoid them. 2. The heart — is 
woman's world; it is there — her ambition 
strives for the mastery. 3. The object of rec- 
reation is — to soften and refine, not to render 
ferocious ; as is the case with amusements 
that brutalize. 4. Is capital punishment 
right ? 5. Who has done the more injury — 
Mahomet, or Constantine ? 6. Is tobacco — 
necessary ? 7. Why is the figure of a viper 
— used to express ingratitude ? 8. Is it right 
to go to war — on any occasion 1 9. What is 
the usual quantity of blood — in a common 
sized body? About twenty-jive or thirty- 
pounds. 10. Is it not singular that Pope's 
translations should be very profuse, and his 
original compositions very concise ? 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



131 



369. Exs. of the falling a. 1. Who 
cares for you ? 2. He is your friend, is he! 
3. You tell me so, do you? 4. If /were 
to do so, what would you say? 5. It is 
not prudence, when I trust my secrets to a 
man who cannot keep his own. 6. You 
are a very wise man, strong, brave, peaceable. 
7. If you had told me so. perhaps, I should 
have believed you. 8. Sir, you are a fool. 
and I fear you will remain so. 

370. Mahxbb. What we 7neaw, does 
not so much depend on what we say, as how 
we say it ; not so much on our ivords, as on 
our manner of speaking them : accordingly, 
in elocution, great attention must necessarily 
be given to this, as expressive of what our 
words do not always indicate: thus, na- 
ture — fixes the outward expression of every 
intention and sentiment. Art only adds 
ease and gracefulness to the promptings of 
nature: as nature has ordained, that man 
shall walk on his feet, and not on his hands, 
art — teaches him to walk gracefully. 

371. Combination of the Waves. 1. 
But you forsooth, are very wise men, deeply 
learned in the truth ; we, weak, contempti- 
ble, mean persons; but you, strong, gallant. 
2. Mere hirelings, and nme-servers — are al- 
ways opposed to (5) improvements, and (6) 
originality : so are tyrants — to liberty, and 

'spublicanism. 3. Wisdom alone is truly 
fair ; vice, only appears so. 4. How like 
a fawning publican he looks! 5. How 
green you are, and fresh in this old world ! 
6. What ! can so young a thorn begin to 
prick 1 7. Money — is your suit? What 
should I say to you? Should I not say, 
Hath a dog money ? Is it possible — a cur 
can lend three thousand ducats ? 7. They 
tell iis to be moderate; but they, thet — 
are to revel in profusion ! 

Miscellaneous. 1. Can one phenome- 
non of mind be presented, without being 
connected with another? if so, — how? 2. 
Reputation — often effects that, which did not 
belong to one's character. Make a child — 
believe that he is considered aimable, by his 
friends, and he will generally become so. 3. 
Affection — is the continuous principle of love, 
— which is spiritual heat ; and hence the 
very vital principle of man. 4. Must not 
the first possible idea — of any individual, 
have been the product of the relation — be- 
tween two states of the mind, in reference to 
external objects ? 

Anecdote. Banger of Bad Campany. 
St. Austin compares the danger of bad com- 
pany — to a nail driven into a post; which, 
after the first, and second stroke, may be 
drawn out with little difficulty,- but being 
once driven up to the head, the pincers can 
take no hold to draw it out ; which can be 
done only by the destruction of the wood. 



Maxims. 1. A wounded reputation is seldom 
cured. 2. Conciliatory manners always com- 
mand esteem. 3. Never deride any one's infirmi- 
ties. 4. Detraction — is a sin against justice. 5. 
Modesty — has more charms than beauty. 6. No 
fear should deter us from doing good. 7. Pin not 
your faith to another one's sleeve. 8. Reckless 
youth — makes rueful age. 9. The example of the 
good is visible philosophy. 10. Truth — never fears 
rigid examination. 11. Sickness is felt, but not 
health. 

Reason. As the field of true science en- 
larges, as thought becomes more free, an in- 
quiry upon all subjects becomes more bold 
and searching ; a voice louder and still loud- 
er comes up from the honest and thinking 
men in Christendom, calling for rationality 
in religion, as well as in every thing else ; 
calling for such principles of biblical inter- 
pretation, as shall show the scriptures to 
be indeed, and in truth, the Word of Gob. 
Every ray of truth, which has been sent 
from heaven — to enlighten and bless man- 
kind, has gained admittance into the world 
by patient struggling and persevering con- 
test. 

Varieties. 1. The words of Seneca, the 
virtuous Pagan, put to the blush — many a 
pagan christian. 2. When Socrates was in- 
formed, that the judges had sentenced him 
to death, he replied, — " And hath not Nature 
passed the same sentence on them ?" 4. 
There is more eloquence, in the tone of voice, 
in the looks, and in the gestures of a speak- 
er, than in the choice of his words. 

Dear Patience — too, is born of woe, 
Patience, that opens the gate 

Wherethrough the soul of man must go — 
Up to each nobler state. 

High natures — must be thuntier-scaxrcA, 

With many a searing wrong. 
Law, that shocks equity, is reason's murder. 
I would not waste my spring of youth, 
In idle dalliance; I would plant rich seeds, 
To blossom in my manhood, and bear fruit, 
When I am old. 
Full many a gem — of purest ray serene, 

The dark unfathomed caves of ocean bear, 
Full many a_/?ow>V is born — to blush unseen, 

And waste its sweetness on the desert air. 
Beautiful cloud ! with folds so soft and fair, 

Swimming — in the pure — quiet air ! 
Thy fleeces, bathed in sunlight, while below, 

Thy shadow — o'er the vale moves slow : 
Where, 'midst their labor, pause the reaper train, 

As cool it comes — along the grain. 
Beautiful cloud! I would I were with thee 

In thy calm way — o'er land and sea: 
To rest — on thy unrolling skirls, and look 

On Earth — as on an open book; 
On streams, that tie her realms, with silver bands, 

And the long ways, that seam her lands ; 
And hear her humming cities, and the sound 

Of the great ocean— breaking round 



132 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



372. Remember, that Nature abhors mo- 
notony, or sameness of sound, as much as 
she does a vacuum. Hence, give variety in 
emphasis,inJiections, and lyases, if they often 
occur. 1. (3) Hippy, (5) happy, (6) hip- 
py pair! none but the (2) brave/ (6) 
none but the (5) brave ; none (8) but the 
brave deserve the/uir / 2. (6) What a piece 
of V)ork — is man ! how noble in (5) rea- 
son! how infinite in (6) faculties! in (4) 
form, and (5) moving, how express and 
(6) admirable ! in action, how like an an- 
gel/ in apprehension, (4) how like a God ! 
3. My judgment — approves this measure, 
and my whole heart — is in it : all that I 
have ; (4) all that I am ,- and all that I 
hope, in this life, I am now ready here to 
stake upon it ; and I leave off as I began ; 
th't (4) sink or swim ,• (5) live or die ,• 
survive or (6) perish, — I am for the decla- 
ration. It is my living sentiment, and (2) 
by the blessing of God, it shall be my dying 
sentiment : (5) Independence — (6) now 
and Independence (9) forever ! 

373. Effect. What is the use of reading, 
speaking, and singing, if the proper effect is 
not produced 1 If the singing in our church 
choirs, and the reading and speaking in the 
desk and pulpit, were what they ought to 
be, and what they may be, the house of God 
would be more thronged than theatres ever 
have been. Oh ! when will the best of truths 
be delivered in the best of manners ? May 
the stars of elocution and music, be more 
numerous than the stars of heaven ! 

Because I cannot flatter, and speak fair, 
Smile in man's face, smooth, deceive and coy, 
Deck with French words, and apish courtesy, 
I must be held — a rancorous enemy. 
Cannot a plain man live, and think no harm, 
But thus his simple truth— must be abused, 
By silken, sly, insinuating Jacks 1 
Tho' plunged in ills, and exercised in care, 
Yet, never let the noble mind despair : 
When prest by dangers, and beset by foes, 
Heaven its timely succour doth interpose, [grief,) 
And, (when our virtue sinks, o'erwheltned with 
By unforeseen expedients — brings relief. 
If Ihere's a sire— more deeply black than others, 
Distinguished from the list of common crimes, 
And legion — in itself, and doubly dear 
To the dark prince of hell — it is hypocrisy. 

Ye gentle gales, beneath my body blow, 
And softly lay me— on the waves below. 
Wisdom — took up her harp, and stood in place 
Of frequent concourse— stood in every gate, 
By every way, and walked in every street, 
And, lifting up her voice, proclaimed : Be wise, 
Ye fools ! be of an understanding heart. 
Forsake the wicked : come not near his house : 
Pass by: make haste: depart, and turn away. 
Me follow— me, whose ways are pleasantness, 
Whose paths are peace, whose end is perfect joy. 



Maxims. 1. A faithful friend— is a strong 
defence. 2. Avoid that which you blame in others. 
3. By doing nothing, we learn to do ill. 4. Con- 
fession of a fault, makes half amends for it. 5. 
Dependence and obedience, necessarily belong to 
youth. 6. Every art — is best taught by example. 
7. Great designs require great consideration. 8. 
Misfortune is a touchstone of friendship. 9. 
Never sport with pain, or poverty. 10. Put no 
faith in tale-bearers. 

Anecdote. Point of Law. Blackstone, 
speaking of the right of a wife to dvwer, as- 
serts, that if land abide in the husband a sin- 
gle moment, the wife shall be endowed there- 
of; and he adds, that the doctrine was ex- 
tended very far, by a jury in Wales, where 
the father and son were hanged at the same 
time ; but the son was supposed to survive 
the father, by appearing to struggle the long- 
er ; whereby he became seized of an estate 
by survivorship,- in consequence of which 
seizure, his wife — obtained a verdict for her 
dower. 

Riches and Talent. Nothing is more 
common than to see station and riches — pre- 
ferred to talent and goodness ; and yet few 
things are more absurd. The peculiar supe- 
riority of talent and goodness — over station 
and riches, may be seen from hence ; — that 
the influence of the former — will always be 
the greatest, in that government, which is 
the purest ; while that of the latter — will al- 
ways be the greatest — in the government 
that is the most corrupt : so that from the 
preponderance of the one, we may infer the 
soundness and vigor of the commonwealth ; 
but from the other, its dotage and degeneracy. 

Varieties. 1. Indolence and indecision, 
tho' not vices in themselves, generally pre- 
pare the way for much sin and misery. 2. 
If the mind be properly cultivated, it will 
produce a storehouse of precious fruits ; but 
if neglected, it will be overrun with noxious 
weeds and poisonous plants. 3. A kind 
benefactor — makes one happy — as soon as he 
can, and as much as he can. 4. The only 
sure basis of every government, is in the af- 
fection of a people, rendered contented, and 
happy, by the justness and mildness, with 
which they are ruled. 5. As moisture is re- 
quired to the formation of every seed, so natu- 
ral truth — to the formation of first principles. 

They whom 
Nature's works can charm, with God himself 
Hold converse ! grow familiar, day by day, 
With His conceptions, act upon His plan, 
And form to His— the relish of their souls. 
Our present acts, tho' slightly we pass them by, 
Are so much seed — sown for Eternity. 

The devil can cite scripture for his purpose — 

An evil soul, producing- holy wttnest, 

Is like a villain with a smiling cheek; 

A goodly apple, rotten at the heart; 

O, what a goodly outside— falsehood hath ! 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



133 



374. As the principles of elocution are 
few and simple, and as practice alone makes 

perfect, there are all kinds of examples pro- 
vided for those, who are determined to de- 
velop their minds through their bodies, and 
become all that God and nature — intended 
them to be. As the ear is most intimately 
connected with the affections — die motive- 
power of the intellect, it is absolutely neces- 
sary that the student should exercise aloud, 
that the voice and ear, as well as the thoughts 
and feelings, may be cultivated in harmony 
and correspondence. If, then, he finds the 
task severe, let him persevere, and never 
mind it. 

375. Examples. 1. The queen of Den- 
mark, in reproving her son, Hamlet, on ac- 
count of his conduct towards his step-father, 
whom she married, shortly after the murder 
of the king, her husband, says to him, "Ham- 
let, you have your father much offended." 
To which he replies, with a circumflex on 
you, "Madam, (3) you — have my father 
much offended." He meant his own father : 
she — his stepfather ; he would also intimate, 
that she was accessory to his father's mur- 
der,- and his peculiar reply, was like daggers 
in her soul. 2. In the following reply of 
Death to Satan, there is a frequent occurrence 
of circumflexes, mingled with contempt: 
"And reckon'st thdu thyself with spirits of 
heaven, hell-doomed, and breath'st defiance 
here, and scorn, where I reign king ? and, 
to enrage thee more, — thy king, and lord ?" 
The voice is circumflected on heaven, hell- 
doomed, king and thy, nearly an octave. 3. 
Come, show me what thoul't dd; woul't 
weep? woul't fight? woul't fast? woul't tear 
thyself? I'll do't. Dost thou come here to 
whine? to outface me, with leaping in her 
grave ? be buried quick with her, and so will 
D; and if thou prate of mountains, let them 
throw millions of acres on us, till our 
ground, singeing her pate against the burn- 
ing zone, make Ossa — like a wart. ]\ay, 
an thoul't mouthe, I'll rant as well as thoit. 

Anecdote. A clergyman, once traveling 
in a stage- coach, was abruptly asked by one 
of the passengers, if any of the heathens 
would go to heaven. " Sir," answered the 
clergyman, "I am not appointed judge of 
the world, and, consequently, cannot tell; 
but, if ever you get to heaven, you shall 
either find some o r „nem tnere, or a good 
reason v.hy mey are not there." 

Too High or too Low. In pulpit elo- 
quence, the grand difficulty is to give the 
subject all the dignity it so fully deserves, 
without attaching any importance to our- 
selves. The christian minister cannot think 
too highly of his Master, or too humbly of 
himself. This is the secret art which capti- 
vates and improves an audience, and which 
all who see, will fancy they could imitate ; 
while many who 4 .,y, wui not succeed, be- 
cause they are not influenced by proper riM- 
tives, and do not use the right means. 

M 



Proverbs. 1. Forbearance — is requisite in 
youth, in middle age, and in old age. 2. Peculiar- 
ities — are easily acquired; but it is very difficult to 
eradicate them. 3. Good principles are of no use 
to us, unless we are governed by them. 4. Co- 
quetry — is the vice of a small mind. 5. Pure met- 
als — shine brighter, the more they are rubbed. 6. 
Pride — lives on very costly food, — its keeper's 
happiness. 7. Extremes — are generally hurtful; 
for they often expose us to damage, or render us 
ridiculous. 8. In the days of affluence, always 
think of poverty. 9. Never let want come upon 
you, and make you remember the days of plenty. 
10. No one can become a good reader or speaker, 
in a few weeks, or a few months. 

Woman, I have always observed, says 
Ledyard, that women, in all countries, are 
civil, obliging, tender, and humane; that 
they are inclined to be gay and cheerful, tim- 
orous and modest, and that they do not, like 
man, hesitate to perform a generous action. 
Not haughty, arrogant, or supercilious, they 
are full of courtesy, and fond of society; more 
liable, in general, to err than man, but in 
general, also, more virtuous, and performing 
more good actions than he. To a woman, 
whether civilized or savage, I never address- 
ed myself in the language of decency and 
friendship, without receiving a decent and 
friendly answer. With man it has been often 
otherwise. In wandering through the barren 
plains of inhospitable Denmark; thro' hon- 
est Sweden, and frozen Lapland, rude and 
churlish Finland, unprincipled Russia, and 
the wide -spread regions of the wandering 
Tartar; if hungry, dry, cold, wet, or sick, 
the women — have ever been friendly to me 
and uniformly so ; and to add to this virtue, 
(so worthy to be called benevolence,) their 
actions have been performed in so free and 
kind a manner, that if I were dry, I drank 
the sweetest draught, and if hungry, ate the 
coarsest morsel, with a double relish. 

"Varieties. 1. When Baron, the actor, 
came from hearing one of Massillon's ser- 
mons, he said to one of his comrades of the 
stage ; here is an orator; we — are only ac- 
tors. 2. Some people — wash themselves for 
the sake of being clean; others, for the sake 
of appearing so. 3. Of all the pursuits, by 
which property is acquired, none is prefera- 
ble to agriculture, — none more productive, 
and none more worthy of a gentleman. 4. 
It is a maxim with unprincipled politicians, 
to destroy, where they cannot intimidate, 
nor persuade. 5. Good humor, ana mental 
charms, are as much superior to external 
beauty, as mind is superior to matter. 6. 
Be wise, be prudent, b^ discreet, and tem- 
perate, in all things 

Patriots have toil*'', and in their country^ cause 
Bled nobly, a.r'' A their deeds, as they deserve, 
Receive n,uud recompense. We give in charge 
Their uumes—lo the sweet lyre. The historic muse, 
Proud of her treasure, marches with it — down 
To latest times; and sculpture, in her turn, 
Gives bond, in stone — and ever-during brass, 
To guard them— and immortalize her trust. 



134 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



376. Ixtoxattoxs. The intonations are 
opposite to monotones, and mean the rise and 
fall of the voice, in its natural movements 
through a sentence: they are demonstrated 
m ?« //sic, and here, in elocution. In all com- 
mon kinds of reading and speaking, the voice 
should not generally rise and fall more than 
one note, in its passage from syllable to syl- 
lable, and from word to word: its movement 
will then be gentle, easy and flowing. But 
when the passion, or sentiment to he exhibit- 
ed, is powerfully awakening or exciting, it 
may rise or fall several notes, according to 
the predominance of feeling, 

377. Our (6) sight — is the most (4) per- 
fect, and most (5) delightful — of all our 
senses. (4) It fills the mind with the largest 
variety of (3) ideas ; (5) converses with its 
objects at the greatest (6) distance ; and con- 
tinues the longest in (5) actioJi, without being 

(4) tired — or (3) satiated, with its proper en- 
joyments. The (6) sense of (S) feelixg, 
can, indeed, give us the idea of (5) extension, 
(6) shape, and all other properties of matter, 
th't are perceived by the (5) eye, except (4) 
colors. (3) At the same time — it is very much 

(5) straightened — and (4) confined in its ope- 
rations, to the (3) number, (4) bulk, and (5) 
distance, of its peculiar objects. 

378. When we read, or speak, without any 
feeling, the voice ranges between our first 
and fourth notes ; when there is a moderate 
degree of feeling, and the subject somewhat 
interesting, it ranges between our second and 
sixth notes ; when there is a high degree of 
feeling and interest, it ranges between our 
fourth and eighth notes ; descending, how- 
ever, to the third and first, in a cadence, or 
close of the effort. It is highly necessary to 
keep the voice afloat, and never let it run 
aground; that is, let the feeling and thought 
keep it on the proper pitches, and do not let 
it descend to the first, or ground-note, till the 
piece is completed ; except in depressed mo- 
notony. Memorize the preceding, and talk 
it off in an easy, graceful and appropriate 
manner. 

Abstract Question. Which is more pro- 
bable, that our judgment, in respect to exter- 
nal phenomena, has been warped, by compar- 
ing their operations with those of the mind; 
or, that our metaphysical mistakes have been 
occasioned, by forming a false analogy be- 
tween its internal operations, and outward 
appearances ? 

The midnight moon — serenely smiles 

O'er nature's soft repose ; 
No towering cloud obscures the sky. 

No ruffling tempest blows. 
Now, every passion — sinks to rest; 

The throbbing heart lies still; 
And varying schemes of life — no more 
Distract the laboring will. 



Proverbs. 1. A clear conscience fears no ac- 
cusation. 2. An open door will tempt a saint. 3. 
Covjidtnce. — is the companion of success. 4. 
Cruelty to a woman is — the crime of a monster. 5. 
A smart reproof is better than smooth deceit. 6. Add 
not trouble to the grief-worn heart. 7. Affectation 
— is at best a. deformity. 8. Bear misfortunes with 
patience and fortitude. 9. A good maxim is never 
out of season. 10. Ambition — never looks behind. 
11. A wise man wants but little. 12. Knowledgt 
— makes no one happy. 

Anecdote. A tragedy of JEschylus was 
once represented before the Athenians, in 
which it was said of one of the characters, 
" that he cared more to be just, than to appeal 
so." At these words, all eyes were instantly 
turned upon AHstides, as the man who, of 
all the Greeks, most merited that distinguish- 
ed character : and ever after he received, by 
universal consent, the surname of — " The 
Just" 

Courtesy. St. Paul, addressing himself to 
christians of all grades and classes, even down 
to menial servants, exhorts them to be cour- 
teous. Courteousness — must mean, therefore, 
a something, which is within the reach of all 
sorts of people ; and, in its primary and best 
sense, is exactly such a behavior, as sponta- 
neously springs from a heart, warm with 
benevolence, and unwilling to give needless 
pain, or uneasiness to a fellow-being. We 
have no more right,, wantonly or carelessly 
to wound the mind, than to wound the body 
of a fellow-being ; and, in many instances, 
the former — is the more cruel of the two. 

Varieties. 1. Some start in life, without 
any leading object at all ; some, with a low 
aim, and some, with a high one ; and just in 
proportion to the elevation at which they aim, 
will generally be their success. 2. Guard 
against fraud, and imposition ; and forego 
some advantages, rather than gain them at a 
risk, that cannot be ascertained. 3. In the 
determination of doubtful and intricate cases, 
the nicest discrimination, and great solidity 
of judgment, are required. 4. We have an 
instinctive expectation of finding nature 
everywhere the same, — always consistent, 
and true to herself; but whence this expec- 
tation? 5. Is there not something in the 
native air of true freedom, to alter, expand, 
and improve the external form, as well as the 
internal? 6. Is not affluence — a snare, and 
poverty, — a temptation ? 7. Man is a true 
epitome of the spiritual world, or world of 
mind ; and to know himself, is the perfection 
of wisdom. 

CURIOSITY. 

It came from Heaven, — it reign'd in Eden's shades, 
It roves on earth — and every walk invades : 
Childhood — and age — alike its influence own, 
It haunts the beggar's nook, the monarch's throne ; 
Hangs o r er the cradle, leans above the bier, 
Gazed on old Babel's tower,— and lingers here. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



135 



379* Intohations and Melody of 
Speech. By the first — is meant the move- 
ment of the voice through the different notes 
of the scale, As-cending and DE-scending, 
with an appropriate and agreeable variety 
of sounds ; by the second, an agreeable suc- 
cession of sounds, either in speech or song. 
A dull repetition of words or sounds, on 
nearly the same pitch, is very grating to the 
ear, and disgusting to correct taste ; and yet 
it is one of the most common faults of the 
bar, the senate and pulpit ; indeed, in every 
place where there is public speaking : which 
is the melancholy result of the usual course 
of teaching children to read. 

3SO. Examples partially exhibited. 

1 . (5) Seest thou a man (5) diligent in his (6) bu- 
siness ? (5) He shall stand before (4) kings, (3) 
he shall (4) stand before (5) mean men. 2. (3) 
swear not by the (6) moon, the (5) inconstant 
(4) moon, (3) that monthly (5) changes in its 
circled (3) orb. 3. Said Mr. Pitt, to his aged 
accuser, in debate, (4) "But (6) youth, it 
seems, is not my (5) only (3) crime, (4) I have 
been accused — of (5) acting (6) a (S) theatri- 
cal part." 4. (5) Standing on the ascent of 
the (6) past, we survey the (5) present, and 

(4) extend our views into (3) futurity. 5. 

(5) No one — will ever be the (4) happier, for 
(5) talents, or (4) riches, (3) unless he makes 
a right (3) use of them. 6. (5) Truths — have 
(4) life in them ; and the (6) effect of that 
life is (3) unceasing expansion. 7. (6) He, 
who loves the (5) Lord, with all his (4) heart, 
and his neighbor as (4) himself, needs no (5) 
compass, or (4) helm to steer his (3) course ; 
because (5) truth and (4) love are his (3) 
wind and (2) tide. N. B. The inflections, cir- 
cumflexes, &c, commence with the accented 
vowel, which is supposed to be on the note 
indicated by the preceding figure. 

381. Promiscuous Examples without 
Notation - . The predominant characteristics 
of the female mind is affection : and that of 
the male mind is thought : tho' both have af- 
fection and thought ; but disparity — does not 
imply inferiority. The sexes are intended 
for different spheres of life, and are created 
in conformity to their destination, by Him, 
who bids the oak — brave the fury of the 
tempest, and the Alpine flower — lean its 
cheek on the bosom of eternal snow. 

Abstract Question. Is not that pro- 
pensity of the human mind, which seeks for 
a medium of communication, between two 
physical phenomena, to be traced to the fact, 
that every admitted truth, is derived from a 
medium of knowledge; and that there is a 
connection among all intellectual phenome- 
na ; so much so, that we cannot conceive a 
new idea, without a medium of communica- 
tion 1 



Laconics. 1. By minding our own business, 
we shall be more useful, more benevolent, more 
respected, and ten times happier. 2. That stu- 
dent will live miserably, who lies down, like a 
camel, under his burden. 3. Remember, while 
you live, it is by looks — that men deceive. 4. A 
foolish friend may cause more woe, Than could 
indeed the wisest foe. 5. He, who confides in a 
person of no honor, may consider himself very 
lucky, if he is not a sufferer by it. 6. The condi- 
tion of mankind is such, that we must not believe 
every smooth speech — the cover of a kind inten- 
tion. 7. Who is wise ? He who learns from every 
one. 8. Who is rich ? He, who is contented. 9. 
Nothing is so dumb — as deep emotion. 10. Where 
there is much mystery, there is generally much 
ignorance. 11. Catch not soon at offence. 12. 
Whoso loseth his spirits, loseth all. 

Anecdote. Choice of a Husband. An 
Athenian, who was hesitating, whether to 
give his daughter in marriage to a man of 
worth with a small fortune, or to a rich man, 
who had no other recommendation, went to 
consult Themistocles on the subject. "I 
would bestow my daughter," said Themisto- 
cles, " upon a man without money, rather 
than upon money without a man." 

True Philosophy — consists in doing all 
the good that we can, in learning all the 
good we can, in teaching to others all the 
good we can, in bearing, to the best of our 
ability, the various ills of life, and in enjoy- 
ing, with gratitude, every honest pleasure — 
that comes in our way. 

Varieties. 1. Should not our intentions, 
as well as our actions — be good? 2. True 
love — is of slow growth, mutual and recipro- 
cal, and founded on esteem. 3. Graces, and 
accomplishments — are too often designed for 
beaux-caching, and coquetryr 4. There is 
time for all things. 5. An individual — in- 
clined to magnify every good, and minify 
every evil — must be a pleasing companion, 
or partner — for life, — whether male or fe- 
male. 6. Knowledge — is not wisdom ; it is 
only the raw material, from which the beau- 
tiful fabric of wisdom is produced,- there- 
fore, let us not spend our days in gathering 
materials, and live, and die, without a shel- 
ter. 7. Every evil — has its limit; winch, 
when passed, plunges the wicked into mis- 
ery. 8. One thief in the house, is more to be 
dreaded than ten — in the street. 9. The 
more haste, generally the worst speed. 10. 
The moral government, under which we live, 
is a kingdom of uses ; and whatever we pos- 
sess, is given us for use ; and with it, the op- 
portunity and power of using it. 

Thou art, O God, the life and light 

Of all this wondrous world we see, 
Its glow by day, its smile by night, 

/Are but reflections — caught from thee; 
Where'er we turn, thy glories shine, 
And alt things fair and bright are thine. 



136 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



382. Intonations Continued. Listen 
attentively, to a person under the influence 
of nature, of his own feelings and thoughts : 
he relates stories, supports arguments, com- 
mands those under his autlwrity, speaks to 
persons at a distance, utters exclamations of 
anger and rage, joy and rapture, pours 
forth lamentations of sorrow and grief, 
breathes affection, love, &c. in different pitch- 
es, tones, qualities, eni2)hasis, inflection, and 
circumflexes, elevations and depressions of 
voice. The only possibility of success, there- 
fore, is — to get perfect control of the vocal 
organs, by practicing these principles, and 
conforming the whole manner to the sense 
and objects of the composition. 

3S3. Intonation and Mexodt. These 
examples are given as general guides; the 
figures refer to the notes in the Diatonic 
Scale. 1. (4) But, (5) from the (4) tomb, (5) 
the (4) voice of (5) nature (6) cries, (6) And, 
(5) in our (4) ashes, (5) live (4) their won-(3) 
ted (2) fires. 2. But (5) yonder comes, (4) 
rejoicing in the (6) east, (5) The (4) powerful 

(3) king of (2) day. 3. (6) Awake! <o) 
ARISE ! (6) or (5) be (3) forever (2) fallen. 
4. (3) He expired in a (5) victualing-hoxxse, 

(4) which I hope (5) 1 (3) shall (2) not. 7. 

(5) Fair (6) angel, thy (5) dcare, which tends 
to (6) know The work-" of (5) God, doth (4) 
merit (3) praise. 8- r p) Such (4) honors Ilion 
to (6) hek lover paid, And (5) peaceful slept 
(4) the mighty (3) Hector's (2) shade. Note. 
Construct a scale on faint ruled paper, and 
place the words on it as indicated; the same 
as notes are on the musical staff. 

Miscellaneous. 1. Beauty — is the out- 
ward form of goodness : and this is the rea- 
son, we love it instinctively, without think- 
ing why we love : but we cease to love, when 
we find it unaccompanied with truth and 
goodness. 2. Make not your opinions, the 
criterion of right and wrong: but make 
right and wrong — the criterion of your ac- 
tions and principles. 

Few — bring back at eve, 

Immaculate, the manners of the morn ; 

Something we thought — is blotted, we resolved — 

Is shaken, we renounced — returns again. 

There is no greater punishment of vice — 

Than that it have its own will; 

Hence, guilty — infernal love becomes the 

Most deadly hate. 

The intent, and not the deed, 
Is in our power ; and therefore, who dares greatly, 
Does greatly. 

6. Words — are things ; a small drop of 
ink, (falling like dew — ) upon thought, pro- 
duces that, which makes thousands, perhaps 
millions think. 7. Something — is at all 
times — flowing into us. 

Too much the beautiful — we prize , 
The useful— often we derpne. 



Proverbs. 1. The remedy for injuries is — 
not to remember them. 2. To read, and not under- 
stand, is to pursue, and not overtake. 3. Truth re- 
fines, but does not obscure. 4. He who teaches, 
often learns himself. 5. Worth— has been under- 
rated, ever since loealth — has been overrated. 6. 
Antiquity— cannot sanction an error, nor novelty 
injure a truth. 7. A man in a passion, rides a 
horse that runs away with him. 8. A small Umk 
will sink a great ship. 9. Never forget a good 
turn. 10. Lying — is the vice of a slave. 11. Self- 
conceit— is the attendant of ignoranct. 12. The 
love of society is natural. 

Anecdote. The emperor of China *- in- 
quired of Sir George Staunton, ?>'jout the 
manner in which physicians ^ere paid in 
England. When he was ro * ue to understand 
what the prwtice was, hi, exclaimed, — " Can 
any man in England afford to be ill! Now, 
I have four physicians, and pay all of them 
a weekly salary ; but the moment I am sick, 
that salary is stopped, till I am well again ; 
therefore, my indisposition is never of long 
d'ljation." 

Woman. The prevailing manners of an 
age depend, more than we are aware of, or 
are willing to allow, on the conduct of the 
women : this is one of the principal things 
on w r hich the great machine of human society 
turns. Those, who allow the influence which 
female graces have in contributing to polish 
the manners of men, would do well to reflect, 
how great an influence female morals must 
also have on their conduct. How much, 
then, is it to be regretted, that women — should 
ever sit down, contented, to polish, when they 
are able to reform — to entertain, when they 
might instruct. Nothing delights men more 
than their strength of understanding, when 
true gentleness of manners is its associate ; 
united, they become irresistible orators, bless'd 
with the power of persuasion, fraught with 
the sweetness of instruction, making woman 
the highest ornament of human nature. 

Varieties. 1. Fear — is a bad preserver 
of anything intended to endure ,- but love — 
will generally ensure fidelity, even to the end. 
2. He, who knowingly defends the wrong 
side of a question, pays a very bad compli- 
ment to his hearers: as much as to say ; Falsc~ 
Iwod, supported by my talents, is stronger 
than truth, supported by yours. 3. Before a 
man should be convicted of a libel, the jury 
must be satisfied, that it was his intention to 
libel ; not to state facts, which he believed to 
be true, or, reasonings, which he thoigin 
just. 4. The difference between toe word 
of God, and the composiiv/ns of man, is as 
great, as between real flame and painted 
flame. 5. Lissimulation, even the most in- 
nocp'iu, is ever productive of embarrassments; 
whether the design is evil, or not, artifice is 
always dangerous, and almost inevitably dis- 
graceful. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



137 



384. Revisions. Let all the preceding 
principles be reviewed, with an illustration of 
each, and endeavor to fix them, permanently, 
in the mind, by seeing their truth, and feeling 
their power in practice ; so that you can write 
a work yourself on the philosophy of mind 
and voice. Remember, that nothing is yours, 
till you make it your own, by understanding 
it scientifically, rationally and affcctuously, 
and then by applying it to its proper object : 
do not forget effects, causes, ends, their suc- 
cessive order, and simultaneous development. 

EVE'S LAMENT ON LEAVING PARADISE. 

(Plaintive, with quantity.) 
O, unexpected stroke, ivorse than of Death! 
Must I thus leave thee, Paradise? thus leave 
Thee, native soil, these happy walks and shades. 
Fit haunt of gods? where I had hoped to spend, 
(Quiet, tho 1 sad,) the respite of that day, 
That must be mortal to us both ; 
O flowers, (that will never in other climate grow,) 
My early visitation, and my last 
At ev'n. which I bred up, with tender hand, 
From the first opening bud, and gave ye names ; 
Who. now, shall rear you to the sun, and rank 
Your tribes, and water from the ambrosial fount? 
Thee, (lastly,) nuptial bower, by me adorned 
With what to sight, or smell, was sweet, from thee 
How shall 1 part, and whither wander — down 
Into a lower world, to this — obscure 
And wild ? How shall we breathe in other air, 
Less pure, accustomed to immortal fruits ! 

385. How mean, — how timid, — how ab- 
ject, must that spirit be, which can sit down, 
— contented with mediocrity. As for myself 
— all that is luithin me is on fire. I had ra- 
ther be torn into a thousand pieces, than relax 
my resolution, of reaching the sublimest 
heights of virtue — and knowledge, of good- 
ness — and truth, of love — and wisdom. 
Nothing is so arduous, — nothing so admir- 
able, in human affairs, but may be attained 
by the industry of man. We are descended 
from heaven ,• thither let us go, whence we 
derive our origin. Let nothing satisfy us, — 
lower than the summit of all excellence. 

Nominalists and Realists. The Nom- 
inalists — were a sect, the followers of Ros- 
celinus and Abelard: according to these 
philosophers, there are no existences in na- 
ture corresponding to general terms, and the 
objects of our attention in all our general 
speculations, are not ideas, but words. The 
Realists — were their opponents, and adhered 
to the principles of Aristotle. 
Oft — may the spirits of the dead — descend 
To watch — the silent slumbers of a friend; 
To hover — round his evening walk — unseen, 
And hold sweet converse — on the dusky green; 
To hail the spot — where first their friendship grew, 
And heaven — and nature — opened to their view. 
Oft, when he trims his cheerful hearth, and sees 
A smiling circle — emulous to please, 
There— may these gentle guests — delight to dwell, 
And bless the scene — they loved in life so well. 

18 M2 



Laconics. 1. The great battle and contest 
among politicians is — not how the government 
shall be administered, but who shall administer it. 
2. They who go to church out of vanity, or curi- 
osity, and not for worship and instruction, should 
not value themselves on account of their religion; 
for it is not worth a straw. 3. Allow time for 
consideration ; everything is badly executed, that 
is done by force or violence. 4. Occasional mirth, 
is not incompatible with wisdom; and the man of 
reserved habits, may sometimes be gay. 5. Happy 
are they, who draw lessons of prudence— from the 
dangers, in which others are involved. 6. Elo- 
quence—can pierce the reluctant wonder of the 
world, and make even monarchs tremble on their 
thrones. 

Anecdote. Spinola. " Pray, of what did 
your brother die ?» said the Marquis Spinola, 
one day to Sir Horace Vere. " He died, sir," 
replied he, " of having nothing to do." "Alas ! 
sir," said Spinola, " that is enough to kill any 
general of us all." Mostesquieu says, " We, 
in general, place idleness among the beati- 
tudes of heaven ; it should rather, I think, be 
put amid the tortures of hell. Austin calls it 
— the burying a man alive." 

Female Education. How greatly is it 
to be regretted, that for the benefit of both 
sexes, women axe not generally so educated, 
that their conversations might be still much 
more useful to us, as well as beneficial to 
themselves ! If, instead of filling their heads 
with trifles, or worse than trifles, they were 
early taught what might be really useful, 
they would not then be so continually in 
pursuit of silly, ridiculous, expensive, and 
many times criminal amusement; neither 
would their conversation be so insipid and 
impertinent, as it too often is. On the con- 
trary, were their minds properly improved 
with knowledge, which it is certain they are 
exceedingly capable of, how much more 
agreeable would they be to themselves, and 
how much more improving and delightful to 
us ? How truly charming does beauty ap- 
pear, when adorned by good nature, good 
sense, and knowledge ? And when beauty 
fades, as soon it must, there will then be 
those qualities and accomplishments remain- 
ing, which cannot fail to command great re- 
gard, esteem, and affection. 

VARIETIES. 

But — shall we wear these glories for a day, 
Or shall they last, and we rejoice in them? 
While there is hope, do not distrust the gods, 
But wait, at least, till Cesar's near approach, 
Force us to yield. 'Twill never be too late — 
To sue for chains, and own a conqueror. 

In faith, and hope, the world will disagree, 
But all mankind's concern — is charity. 
'Tis education — forms the common mind, 
Just as the tv:ig is bent, the tree's inclined. 
The mind, that would be happy, must be great f 
Great in its wishts, great in its surveys; 
Extended views, a narrow mind extend. 



138 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



386. As so much depends upon the proper 
movement of the voice, through the di liferent 
notes of the scale, and as our primary in- 
struction in reading is often diametrically op- 
posed to what is natural, it is deemed neces- 
sary to be more explicit in directions, as well 
as in examples. Imitate, with the voice, ac- 
companied by corresponding motions of the 
hand, the gentle undulations of the waters, 
when the waves run moderately high ; let- 
ting the movement of your voice resemble 
that of a small boat. Observe the various 
movements of different kinds of birds through 
the air, some bobbing up and down, others 
moving more gracefully ; some napping their 
wings, others sailing, soaring : but the move- 
ments of the voice are infinitely more vari- 
ous than all other external motions; for it 
contains them all. 

THE EIGHT NOTES OF THE SCALE. 
& 
7. 

6. cries, and 

5. from the the nature in our es live 
4. But tomb voice of ash- their won- 

3. ted 

2. fires. 

1 

Blessed — we sometimes are ! and I am now 
Happy in quiet feelings ; for the tones— 
Of a pleasant company of friends — 
Were in my ear, just now, and gentler thoughts 
From spirits, whose high character I know ; 
And I retain their influence, as the air — 
Retains the soft7iess — of departed day. 
There is a spell — in every flower, 

A sweetness — in each spray, 
And every simple bird — has power — 

To please us — with its lay. 
And there is music — on the breeze, 

That sports along the glade, 
And crystal dew-drops — on the trees, 

The gems — by fancy made. 
O, there is joy — and happiness, 

In every thing I see, 
Which bids my soul rise up — and bless 

The God, that blesses me. 
Method. In speaking extempore, or in 
writing, method, or the proper arrangement 
of the thoughts, is of the first importance ; 
to attain which, you muster, in your mind, 
the precise object you have in view, and 
never lose sight of it; then, determine the 
grand divisions; which should be natural, 
and distinct ; not an unnecessary thought, 
or illustration — should be admitted: and 
even in the amplification of the subject, eve- 
ry part should have its proper place, and all 
— present a whole. 

Anecdote. Mr. Summerfield. It is said, 
of the late Mr. Summerfield, that being asked 
by a bishop, where he was born, he replied, 
u I was born in England, and bom again in 
Ireland." " What do you mean . ? " inquired 
the bishop. " Art thou a master in Israel, and 
knowest not these things V was the reply. 



Laconics. 1. The antidote, to the baneful in- 
fluence of flattery is, for every one to examint 
himself, and truly estimate his own qualities, and 
character. 2. Let us make ourselves steadfast in 
what is certainly true, and we shall be able to 
answer objections, or reject them as unworthy of an 
answer. 3. Argument — cannot disprove/act; no 
two opposing facts can be produced; all objec- 
tions to a fact must therefore be negative. 4. Ed- 
ucation — includes all the influences, that serve to 
unfold the faculties, — and determine the char- 
acter ; thus involving the mental, and physical. 5. 
To render good for evil, is God-like; to render 
good for good, is wan-like ; to render evil for euil, is 
beast-\\ke; to render evil for good — is devil-like. 

"Varieties. Has a wise and good God — 
furnished us with desires, which have no cor- 
respondent objects, and raised expectations 
in our breasts, with no other view but to dis- 
appoint them'J Are we to be forever in 
search of happiness, without arriving at it, 
either in this world or in the next ? Are we 
formed with a passionate longing for immor- 
tality, and yet destined to perish, after this 
short period of existence ? Are we prompt- 
ed to the noblest actions, and supported 
through life, under the severest hardships 
and most delicate temptations, by the hopes 
of a reward, which is visionary and chimeri- 
cal, — by the expectation of praises, of which 
it is utterly impossible for us, ever to have 
the least knowledge or enjoyment ? 

Effects of Knowledge. The more 

widely knowledge is spread, the more will 
they be prized, whose happy lot it is — to ex- 
tend its bounds, by discovering new truths, 
to multiply its uses — by inventing new modes 
of applying it in practice. Real knowledge 
— never prompted either turbulence, or un- 
belief; but its progress is the forerunner of 
liberality and enlightened toleration. Who- 
so dreads these, let him tremble; for he may 
be well assured, that their day is at length 
come, and must put to sudden flight the evil 
spirits of tyranny and persecution, which 
haunted the long night, now gone down the 
sky. 

VARIETIES. 

Soft peace she brings wherever she arrives; 
She builds our quiet, as she forms our lives; 
Lays the rough path of peevish nature even, 
And opens, in each breast, a little heaven 
Man — is the rugged \ofty pine, 

That frowns o'er many a wave-beat shore : 
Woman's the slender — graceful vine, 
Whose curling tendrils — round it twine, 

And deck its rough bark — sweetly o'er. 
Teach me to soothe the helpless orphan's grief, 

With lively aid — the widow's woes assuage ; 
To misV^'s moving cries — to yield relief, 

And be the sure resource of drooping age. 
Our doubts — are traitors, 
And make us lose the good — we oft might win, 
By fearing to attempt. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



139 



387. Cadence — means a descent, or fall 
of the voice : here, it means the proper man- 
ner of closing a sentence. In the preceding 
examples, the pnpil sees how it is made. 
The best cadence, that which rests most 
pleasantly on the ear, is the fall of a triad; 
i. e. a regular gradation of three notes from 
the prevalent pitch of voice ; which is gen- 
erally the fourth or fifth : tho 1 different voices 
are keyed on different pitches: hence, each 
must be governed by his own peculiarities 
in this respect. Beware of confounding ca- 
dence with inflections; and never end a sen- 
tence with a feeble and depressed utterance. 
Tho' nature — weigh our talents, and dispense, 
To every man, his modicum of sense, 

Yet — much — depends, as in the tiller's toil, 

On culture, and the sowing of the soil. 

The brave man — is not he, who feels no fear, 

For that — were stupid — and irrational; — 

But he, whose noble soul his fear subdues, [from. 

And bravely dares the danger, which he shrinks 

He holds no parly with unmanly fears; 

Where duty bids, he confidently steers; 

Faces a thousand dangers at her call, 

And trusting in his God, surmounts them all. 

What is life ? 
Tis not to stalk about, and draw in fresh air, 
From time to time, or gaze upon the sun; 
•Tis to be free. 

388. Word -Painting. There is noth- 
ing in any of the other fine arts, but what is 
involved in oratory. The letters are analo- 
gous to uncompounded paints; words — to 
paints prepared for use; and, when arranged 
into appropriate and significant sentences, 
they form pictures of the ideas on the can- 
vas of the imagination: hence, composition, 
whether written or spoken, is like a picture, 
exhibiting a great variety of features, not 
only with prominence, but with degrees of 
prominence : to do which, the painter, 
speaker, or writer, applies shades of the 
same color to features of the same class, and 
opposing colors to those of different classes. 

Government. The ordinary division of 
governments into republican, monarchical, 
and despotic, appears essentially erroneous; 
for there are but two kinds of government, 
good and bad : governments are national 
and special. The essence of the former — 
consists in the will of the nation constitu- 
tionally expressed ; that of the latter, where 
there are other sources of power, or right, 
than the will of the nation. 

Anecdote. Punctual Hearer. A wo- 
man, who always used to attend public wor- 
ship with great punctuality, and took care 
to be always in time, was asked how it was 
— she could always come so early; she an- 
swered very wisely, "that it was part of 
her religion — not to disturb the religion of 
others." 

I hate to see a scholar gape, 

And yawn upon his seat, 
Or lay his head upon his desk, 
I, As if almost asleep. 



Laconics. 1. No change in external appear- 
ance, can alter that, which is radically wrong. 2. 
Seize, an opportunity, when it presents itself; if 
once lost, it may never be regained. 3. Vicious 
men, endeavor to impose on the world, by assum- 
ing a semblance of virtue, to conceal their bad 
habits, and evil propensities. 4. Beware of self- 
love, for it hardens the heart, and shuts the mind to 
all that is good and true. 5. The excessive pleas- 
ure one feels — in talking of himself , ought to make 
him apprehensive, that he affords little to his au- 
ditor. 6. In our intercourse with the world, we 
should often ask ourselves this question — How 
would I like to be treated thus ? 7. In all ages 
and countries, unprincipled men may be found, 
who will slander the most upright character, and 
find others as base as themselves, to join in the pro- 
pagation of their falsehoods . 

Confinement of Debtors. The prosper- 
ity of a people is proportionate to the num- 
ber of hands and minds usefully employed. 
To the community, sedition is a fever, cor- 
ruption is a gangrene, and idleness is an 
atrophy. Whatever body, and whatever so- 
ciety — wastes more than it acquires, must 
gradually decay: and every being, that con- 
fin ues to be fed, and ceases to labor, takes 
away something from the public stock. The 
confinement, therefore, of any man in the 
sloth and darkness of a prison, is a loss to 
the nation, and no gain to the creditor. 
For, of the multitudes, who are pining in 
those cells of misery, a very small part is 
suspected of any fraudulent act, by which 
they retain, what belongs to others. The 
rest are imprisoned by the wantonness of 
pride, the malignity of revenge, or the acri- 
mony of disappointed expectation. 

VARIETIES. 

'Tis slander: 
Whose edge — is sharper than the sword, -whose tongue 
Outvenoms all the worms of Nile ; whose breath — 
Rides on the sporting- winds, and doth belie 
All corners of the world : kings, queens, and states, 
Maids and matrons, the secrets of the grave — 
This viperous slander enters. 
Mercy to him that shows it, is the rule, 
And righteous limitation of its act, 
By which heaven moves, in pardoning guilt} man. 
And he, that shows none, (being ripe in years, 
And conscious — of the outrage he commits,) 
Shall seek it, and not find it, in his turn. 
His words — are bonds; his oaths — are oracles; 
His love — sincere; his thoughts — immaculate; 
His tears — pure messengers, sent from his heart : 
His heart — is as far from fraud, — as heaven — from earth. 
Be earnest! — why shouldst thou for custom's sake, 
Lay a cold hand upon thy heart's warm pulse, 
And crush those feelings &ac&, which, uttered, make 
Links in the chain of love? Why thus convulse 
A soul, that overflows with sympathy 
For kindred souls, when thou art called to be 
The Heart's Apostle, loving, pure, and true? 
The smooth hypocrisies, the polished lies. 
The cold de ad forms— and hollow mockeries 

Current among the many, by the few, 
Who know their manhood, should be held in scorn ! 
Speak freely thy free thought— and other souls 
To thine shall answer — as from living coals 
Together kindled, light and heat are born! 



140 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



389. Dynamics. This, in mechanical phi- 
losophy, means the science of moving-powers ; 
in elocution and singing, it relates to the 
force, loudness, harshness, strength, rough- 
ness, softness, swell, diminish, smoothness, 
abruptness, gentleness of voice: that is, its 
qualities, which are as various as those of the 
human mind ; of which, indeed, they are the 
representatives. Observe — that the names of 
these qualities, when spoken naturally, ex- 
press, or echo, their natures. The Loud, 
Rough, Soft, Smooth, Harsh, Forcible, Full, 
Strong, Tremulous, Slender, &c. all of which 
are comprehended in force, pitch, time, quan- 
tity, and abruptness of voice. 

390. Let the following examples be ren- 
dered perfectly familiar — the feelings, tho'ts, 
words and appropriate voice : nothing, how- 
ever, can be done, as it should be, without 
having the most important examples memo- 
rized, here and elsewhere. {Loud) " But 
when loud surges — lash the sounding shore ; 
(Rough) The hoarse rough voice, should like 
the torrent roar." (Soft) " Soft is the strain, 
when Zephyr gently blows; (Smooth) And 
the smooth stream,, in smoother numbers 
flows." (Harsh) "On a sudden, open fly, 
with impetuous recoil and jarring sound, the 
infernal doors, and on their hinges grate harsh 
thunder." (Soft) " Heaven opened wide 
her ever-during gates (harmonious sound) 
on golden hinges turning." (Soft) "How 
charming — is divine philosophy ! (Harsh) 
Not harsh, and rugged, as dull fools sup- 
pose. (Soft) But musical — as is Apollo 1 's 
lute." (Harsh, Strong and Forcible.) " Blow 
wind, and crack your cheeks ! rage! blow 
your cataracts, and hurricane spout, till you 
have drenched our steeples. You sulphuri- 
ous and thought-executing fires, vaunt couri- 
ers to oafc-cleaving thunderbolts ; and thou, 
all shaking thunder, strike flat the thick ro- 
tundity of the world." 

(Soft and Sviooth.) 
How sweet the moon-light sleeps upon this bank; 
Here will we sit, and let the sounds of music, 
Creep in our ears ; soft stillness, and the night, 
Become the touches of sweet harmony. 
(Quick and Joyous.) 
Let the merry bells ring round, 
And the jocund rebeck sound, 
To many a youth — and many a maid, 
Dancing— in the checkered shade. 
A want of occupation — is not rest, 
A mind quite vacant — is a mind distressed. 
As rolls the ocean's changing tide, 

So— human feelings — ebb— and flow : — 
And who could in a breast confide, 

Where stormy passions— ever glow ! 
Remote from cities — lived a. swain, 
Unvexed — with all the cares of gain; 
His head — was silvered o'er with age, 
And long experience — made him sage. 



Maxims. 1. The credit that is got by a lie, 
— only lasts till the truth comes out. 2. Zeal, 
mixed with love, is harmless — as the dove. 3. 
A covetous man is, as he always fancies, in want. 
4. Hypocrites— first cheat the world, and at last, 
themselves. 5. The borrower is slave to the lender. 
and the security — to both. 6. Some are too stiff 
to bend, and too old to mend. 7. Truth has al- 
ways a sure foundation. 8. He, who draws 
others into evil courses — is the devil's agent. 9. 
To do good, is the right way to find good. 10, 
A spur in the head— is worth two in the heel. 11. 
Better spared, than ill spent. 12. Years teach 
more than books. 

Anecdote. Love and Liberty. When an 
Armenian prince — had been taken captive 
with his princess, by Cyrus, and was asked, 
what he would give to be restored to his king- 
dom and liberty, he replied : " As for my 
kingdom and liberty, I value them not; but 
if my blood — would redeem my princess, I 
would cheerfully give it for her." When 
Cyrus had liberated them both, the princess 
was asked, what she thought of Cyrus ? To. 
which she replied, " I did not observe him : 
my whole attention was fixed upon the gene- 
rous man, who would have purchased my 
liberty with his life." 

Prejudice — may be considered as a con- 
tinual false medium of viewing things ; for 
prejudiced persons — not only never speak 
well, but also, never think well, of those 
whom they dislike, and the whole character 
and conduct is considered — with an eye to 
that particular thing which offends them. 

Varieties. 1. Every thing that is an ob- 
ject of taste, sculpture, painting, architecture, 
gardening, husbandry, poetry, and music — 
come within the scope of the orator. 2. In a 
government, maintained by the arm of pow- 
er, there is no certainty of duration ; but one 
cemented by nrntual kindness, all the best 
feelings of the heart are enlisted in its sup- 
port. 3. Who was the greater tyrant, Diony- 
sius or the bloody Mary ? 4. Beauty, unac- 
companied by virtue, is like a flower, with- 
out perfume; its brilliancy may remain, but 
its sweetness is gone ; all that was precious 
in it, has evaporated. 5. We might as well 
throw oil on a burning- house to put out the 
fire, as to take ardent spirits into the stomach, 
to lessen the effects of a hot sun, or severe 
exercise. 6. The understanding must be 
elevated above the will, to control its desire; ; 
but it must be enlightened by the truth, that 
it may not err. 

The pathway — to the grave — may be the same, 

And the proud man— shall tread it,— and the lov, 

With his bowed head, shall bear him company,. 

But the temper — of the invisible mind, 

The ^ocf-like— and undying intellect, 

These are distinctions, that will live in heaven, 

When time, — is a forgotten circumstance. 






PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



141 



391. Dynamics Continued, These con- 
trasts produce great effects, when properly 
exhibited, both in elocution and music. The 
rushing loud, indicates dread, alarm, warn- 
ing, &c. ; the soft, their opposites : the tend- 
ency of indistinctness is, to remove objects to 
a distance, throwing them into the back- 
ground of the picture ; and of fullness, to 
bring them into the /ore-ground, making 
them very prominent; thus — the volyph- 
onist deceives, or imposes upon the ear, mak- 
ing his sounds correspond to those he would 
represent, near by, and at a distance. 

392. Forcible. Now storming fury rose, 
and clamor ; such as heard in heaven, till 
now, was never: arms on armor, clashing, 
brayed horrible discord ; and the maddening 
wheels of brazen chariots raged. Full: high 
on a throne — of royal state, which far out- 
shone the wealth of Ormus, and of Inde ; 
or where the gorgeous East, with richest 
hand, showers on her kings barbaric, pearl 
and gold, Satan, exalted, sat. Strong: 
him, the Almighty Power hurled headlong, 
darning from the ethereal skies with hideous 
ruin and combustion, down to bottomless 
perdition — there to dwell in adamantine 
chains, and penal fire, — who durst defy the 
Omnipotent to arms. 

So millions — are smit— with the glare of a toy : 

They grasp at a pebble— and call it— a gem, 

And tinsel— is gold, (if it glitters.) to them; 

Hence, dazzled with beauty, the lover is smit, 

The hero — with honor, the poet — with wit ; 

The fop— with his feather, his snuff-box and cane, 

The nymph with her novel, the merchant with gain: 

Each finical priest, and polite pulpiteer, 

Who dazzles the fancy, and tickles the ear, 

With exquisite tropes, and musical style, 

As gay as a tulip — as polished as oil, 

Sell truth— at the shrine of polite eloquence, 

To please the soft taste, and allure the gay sense. 

Miscellaneous. 1. Fair sir, you spit on 
me — on Wednesday last ; you spurned me — 
such a day ; another time — you called me 
dog ; and for these courtesies, I'll lend thee 
thus much moneys. 2. I stand — in the pre- 
sence — of Almighty God, and of the world ; 
and I declare to you, that if you lose this 
charter, never, no never — will you get an- 
other. We are now, perhaps, arrived at the 
farting point. Here, even here, we stand — 
on the brink of fate ! Pause! for heaven's 
sake, pause. 3. Can you raise the dead? 
Pursue and overtake the wings of time? And 
can you bring about again, the hours, the 
dats, the YEARS, that made me happy? 
4. Eut grant — that others can, with equal 
glory, look down on pleasure, and the bait of 
sense, where — shall we find a man, that bears 
afflictions, great and majestic in his ills, like 
Calo ? 
Oh then, how blind — to all that truth requires, 
Who think ilfreedom, where a part — aspire. 



Maxims. 1. All is soon ready in an orderly 
house. 2. Bacchus has drowned more than Nep- 
tune. 3. Despair— lias ruined some, but presump- 
tion — multitudes. 4. Flattery— sits in the parlor, 
while plain-dealing is kicked out of doors. 5. He 
is not drunk for nothing, who pays his reckoning 
with his reason. 6. If the world knew what passes 
in my mind, what would it think of me. 7. Give 
neither counsel nor salt, till you are asked for it. S. 
Close not a letter— without reading it, nor drink 
water — without seeing it. 9. A fool, and his money, 
are soon parted. 1 0. If few words — will not make 
you wise, many will not. 

Anecdote. Charity Sermon. Dean Svnft 
— was requested to preach a charity sermon ; 
but was cautioned about having it too long: 
he replied, that they should have nothing to 
fear on that score. He chose for Ms text 
these words — " He that hath pity on the poor, 
lendeth unto the Lord; and that which he 
hath given — will he pay him again." The 
Bean, after looking around, and repeating 
his text in a still more emphatic manner, 
added — " My beloved friends, you hear the 
terms of the loan,- and now, if you like the 
security, — dovm with your dust." The re- 
sult was, as might be expected, — a very large 
collection.. 

Precept and Example. Example — 
works more cures than precept; for words, 
without practice, are but councils without ef- 
fect. When we do as we say, it is a confir- 
mation of the rule ; but when our lives and 
doctHnes do not agree, it looks as if the lesson 
were either too hard for us, or the advice not 
worth following. If a priest — design to edify 
by his sermons, concerning the punishment 
of the other world, let him renounce his lust, 
pride, avarice, and contentiousness; for who- 
ever would make another believe a danger, 
must first show that he is apprehensive of it 
himself. 

Varieties. 1. The first book read, and 
the last one laid aside, in the child's library, 
is the mother: every look, word, tone, and 
gesture, nay, even dress itself — makes an 
everlasting impression. 2. One who is con- 
scious of qualities, deserving of respect, and 
attention, is seldom solicitous about them; 
but a contemptible spirit — wishes to hide it- 
self from its own view, and that of others, by 
show, bluster and arrogant pretensions. 3. 
The blood of a coward, would stain the char- 
acter of an honorable man ; hence, when we 
chastise such wretches, we should do it with 
the utmost calmness of temper. 4. Cultivate 
the habit — of directing the mind, intently, to 
whatever is presented to it ; this — is the foun- 
dation of a sound intellectual character. 5. 
We are too apt, when a jest is turned upon 
ourselves, to think that insufferable, in an- 
other, which we looked upon as very pretty 
and facetious, when the humor was our own. 
Never purchase friendship by gifts. 



142 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



393. Words — arc paints, the voice — the 
brush, the mind — the pointer,- but science, 
practice, genius, taste, Judgment and emo- 
tion — arc necessary — in order to paint well : 
and there is as much difference between a 
good and bad reader, as there is between a 
good painter and a mere dauber. What 
gives expression to painting'.' Emphasis. 
We look upon some pictures and remark, 
" that is a strong outline ;" " a very express- 
ive countenance :" this is emphasis: again, 
w< look upon others, and there is a softness, 
delicacy, and tenderness, that melts the soul, 
as she contemplates them ; this is emotion. 

39-i. Throw the following lines on the 
canvas of your imagination; i. e. picture 
them out there. 

BEAUTY, WIT AND GOLD. 

In her bower — a widow dwelt ; 

At h&xfeet — three suitors knelt : 

Each — adored the widow much, 

Each — essayed her heart to touch ; 

One — had wit. and one — had gold, 

And one — was cast in beauty's mould ; 

Guess — which was it — won the prize, 

Purse, or tongue, or handsome eyes ? 

First, appeared the handsome man, 

Proudly peeping o'er her fan; 

Red his lips, and white his skin; 

Could such heauty — fail to win ? 

Then— stepped forth — the man of gold, 

Cash he counted, coin he told, 

Wealth — the burden of his tale; 

Could such golden projects fail? 

Then, the man of wit, and sense, 

Moved her — with his eloquence ; 

Now, she heard him — with a sigh; 

Now — she blushed, she knew not why: 

Then, she smiled — to hear him speak, 

Then, the tear — was on her cheek: 

Beauty, vanish ! gold, depart ! 

Wit, has won the widow's heart. 
Is Politexess, as in everything else, con- 
nected with the formation of character, we 
are too apt to begin on the outside, instead of 
the inside: instead of beginning with the 
heart, and trusting to that to form the man- 
ners, many begin with the manners, and 
leave the heart to chance and influences. 
The golden rule — contains the very life and 
soul of politeness : " Do unto others — as you 
would they should do unto you.'"' Unless 
children and youth are taught — by precept 
and example, to abhor what is selfish, and 
prefer another's pleasure and comfort to their 
own, their politeness will be entirely artifi- 
cial, and used only when interest and policy 
dictate. True politeness — is perfect freedom 
and ease, treating otfeers — just as you love to 
be treated. Nature — is always graceful : af- 
fectation, with all her art, can never produce 
anything half no pleasing. The very perfec- 
tion of elegance — is to imitate nature ; how 
much better — to have the reality, than the 



imitation! Anxiety about the opinions of 
others— fetters the freedom of nature, and 
tends to awkwardness ; all would appear 
well, if they never tried to assume — what 
they do not possess. Every one is respectable 
and pleasing, so long as he or she, is perfectly 
natural and truthful, and speaks and acts 
from the impulses of an lionest and affection- 
ate heart, without any anxiety as to what 
others think. 

Laconics. 1. Modesty — in your discourse, 
will give a lustre — to truth. — and excuse — to jour 
errors. 2. Some — arc silent, for want of mailer, or 
assurance; others — are talkative, for want of 
sense. 3. To judge of men — by their actions, one 
•would suppose that a great proportion was mad, 
and that the world — was one immense mad-}>ouse. 
4. Prodigals — are rich, for a moment — economists, 
forever. 5. To do unto others, as we would they 
should do to ms, is a golden maxim, that cannot be 
too deeply impressed on our minds. 6. Continue 
to add a little — to what was originally a little, and 
you will make it a great deal. 7. The value — of 
sound, correct principles, early implanted in the 
human mind, is incalculable. 

Those who are talentless, themselves, are 
the first to talk about the conceit of others ; 
for mediocrity — bears but one flower — 
ENVY. 

Anecdote. Too Hard. About one hun- 
dred years ago, Mahogany — was introduced 
in England as ballast for a ship, that sailed 
from the West Indies ; and one Dr. Gibbons 
wished some furniture made of it : but the 
workmen, finding it too hard for their tools> 
laid it aside. Another effort was made ; but 
the cabinet-maker said it was too hard for his 
tools. The Doctor told him, he must get 
stronger tools then : he did so, and his effort 
was crowned with success. Remember this, 
ye who think the subject of elocution, as here 
treated, too difficult : and if you cannot find 
a way, make one. Press on ! 

Varieties. 1 . A good reader may become 
a good speaker, singer, painter and sculptor : 
for there is nothing in any of these arts, that 
may not be seen in true delivery. 2. Old 
Parr, who died at the advanced age of 152, 
gave this advice to his friends; "Keep your 
head cool by temperance, your feet warm by 
exercise: rise early, and go early to bed; 
and if you are inclined to grow fat, keep 
your eyes open, and your mouth shut." Are 
not these excellent life-pills ? 3. As the lark 
— sings at the dawn of day, and the nightin- 
gale at even, so, should we show forth the 
loving kindness of the Lord — every morn- 
ing, and his feiithfulness — every night. 4. 
Is not the science of salvation — the greatest 
of all the sciences] 
Without a star, or angel — for their guide, 
Who worship God, shall find him : humble Love, 
(And not proud Reason,) keeps the door of heaven : 
Irfve — finds admission, where Science— fails. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



143 



395. Modulation — signifies the accom- 
modation of the voice, (in its diversifications 
of all these principles,) to every variety and 
shade of thought and feeling. The upper 
pitches of voice, we know, are used in calling 
persons at a distance, for impassioned em- 
phasis of certain kinds, and for very earnest 
arguments ; the middle pitches — for general 
conversation, and easy familiar speaking, of 
a descriptive and didactic character ; and the 
lower ones, for cadences, and the exhibition 
of emphasis in grave and solemn reading and 
speaking. 

396. Who — can describe, who delineate — 
the cheering, the enlivening ray ? who — the 
looks of love? who — the soft benignant vi- 
brations of the benevolent eye? who — the 
twilight, the day of hope ? who — the internal 
efforts of the mind, wrapt in gentleness and 
humility, to effect good, to diminish evil, and 
increase present and eternal happiness 1 who 
— all the secret impulses and powers, collect- 
ed in the aspect of the defender, or energy of 
truth ? of the bold friend, or subtle foe — of 
wisdom? who — the poet's eye, in a fine 
phrenzy rolling, glancing from heaven — to 
earth, from earth — to heaven, while imagina- 
tion — bodies forth the form of things un- 
known. 

IVot es. The pitch of the voice is exceedingly important in 
tvery branch of our subject, and particularly, in the higher parts; 
and thi<i — among the rest. You must not often raise your voice to 
the eighth note ; for it will be harsh and unpleasant to the ear, and 
very apt to break : nor drop it to theirs* note ; for then your ar- 
ticulation will be difficult and indistinct, and you cannot impart 
any life and spirit to your manner and matter ; as there is 1 ittle or 
no compass below this pitch: both these extremes must be care- 
fulh avoided. 

Patrick Henry's Treason. When this 
worthy patriot, (who gave the first impulse to 
the ball of the revolution,) introduced his ce- 
lebrated resolution on the stamp act, in the 
Virginia House of Burgesses, in 1765, as he 
descanted on the tyranny of that obnoxious 
act, exclaimed — "Cesar — had his Brutus; 
Charles the First, his Cromwell ; and George 
the Third" — " Treason /" cried the speaker ; 
"treason; treason; treason;" re-echoed 
from every part of the house. It was one of 
those trying moments, which are decisive of 
character ; but Henry faltered not for an in- 
stant; and rising to a loftier attitude, and 
fixing on the speaker — an eye, flashing with 
fire, continued — "may profit — by these 
examples: if this be treason, make the most 
©fit." 

The hitts, 
Rock-ribb'd — and ancient as the sun ; the vales — 
Stretching in pensive quietness — between; 
The venerable woods ; rivers, that move 
In majesty, and the complaining brooks, [all, 

That make the meadows green; and, pour'd round 
Old ocean's gray and melancholy waste; 
Are but the solemn decorations all — 
Of the great tomb of man. 



Maxims. 1. The follies of youth — are food for 
repentance — in old age. 2. Truth— may languish, 
but it can never die. 3. When a vain man hears 
another praised, he thinks himself injured. 4. An- 
tiquity — is not always a mark of truth. 5. That 
trial is not fair — where affection is judge. 6. 
Business— is the salt of life. 7. Dependence— is a 
poor trade. 8. He, who lives upon hope, has hut 
a slender diet. 9. Always taking out of the meal 
tub, and never putting in, soon comes to the bot- 
tom. 10. He, who thinks to deceive God, deceives 
himself 

Anecdote. An ill thing. Xenophanus, 
an old sage, was far from letting a false mo- 
desty lead him into crime and indiscretion, 
when he was upbraided, and called timorous, 
because he would not venture his money at 
any of the games. "I confess," said he, 
" that I am exceedingly timorous, for I dare 
not do an ill things 

Education. It is the duty of the instruc- 
tors of youth to be patient with the dull, and 
steady with the froward, — to encourage the 
timid, and repress the insolent, — fully to em- 
ploy the minds of their pupils, without over- 
burdening them, — to awaken their fear, 
without exciting their dislike, — to communi- 
cate the stores of knowledge, according to the 
capacity of the learner, and to enforce obedi- 
ence by the strictness of discipline. Above 
all, it is their bounden duty, to be ever on the 
watch, and to check the first beginnings of 
vice. For, valuable as knovdedge may be, 
virtue is infinitely more valuable ; and worse 
than useless are these mental accomplish- 
ments, which are accompanied by depravity 
of heart. 

Varieties. 1. Can charcoal — paint fire; 
chalk — light, or colors — live ^axid breathe? 
2. Tattlers — are among the most despicable 
of bad things ; yet even they — have their use; 
for they serve to check the licentiousness — 
of the tongues of those, who, without the fear 
of being called to account, through the instru- 
mentality of these babbling knaves, would 
run riot in backbiting and slander. 

'Tis the mind, that makes the body rich ; 
And, as the sun — breaks the darkest cloud, 
So, honor — 'peareth — in the meanest habit. 
No : let the eagle — change his plume, 
The leaf— its hue, the flower — its bloom ; 
But ties — around the heart were spun, 
That could not, would not, be undone. 
Oh, who — the exquisite delights can tell, 
The joy, which mutual confidence imparts? 
Or who — can paint the charm unspeakable, 
Which links, in tender bands, two faithful hearts f 

6. Many things — are easier felt, than told. 

7. It is no proof of a man's understanding, 
to be able to affirm — whatever he pleases; 
but, to be able to discern, that what is hue, 
is true, and that what is false,is false — is the 
mark and character of intelligence. 

Nature — sells everything for labor. 



144 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



397. MODULATION CONTINUED. The 

situation of the public reader and speaker, 
calls for the employment of the most refined 
art in the management of his voice: he 
should address a whole assembly with as 
much apparent ease and pleasure to himself 
and audience, as tho' there were but a single 
person present. In addressing an auditory, 
which meets for information, or amuse- 
ment, or both, the judicious speaker — will 
adopt his ordinary and most familiar voice ; 
to show that he rises without bias, or preju- 
dice, that he wishes reason, not passion, should 
guide them all. He will endeavor to be 
heard by the most distant hearers, without 
offending the ear of the nearest one, by mak- 
ing all his tones audible, distinct and na- 
tural. 

Friendship ! thou soft, propitious power, 

Sweet regent of the social hour, 

Sublime thy joys, nor understood, 

But by the virtuous, and the good. 

Ambition is, at a distance, 
A goodly prospect, tempting to the view ; 
The height delights us, and the mountain-top 
Looks beautiful, because 'tis near to heaven ; 
But we never think how sandy's the foundation;[h. 
What storms will batter, and what tempests shake 

O be a man; and let proud reason — tread 

In triumph, on each rebel passion's head. 
At thirty, man suspects himself a fool ; 
Knows it at forty, and reforms his plan ; 
AXfifty, chides his infamous delay, 
Pushes his prudent purpose — to resolve, 
In all the magnanimity of thought, 
Resolves and re-resolves — then, dies the same. 

398. Some tell us, that when commencing 
an address, the voice should be directed to 
those most distant; but this is evidently 
wrong. At the beginning, the mind is natu- 
rally clear and serene, the passions unawa- 
kened ; if the speaker adopt this high pitch, 
how can it be elevated, afterwards, agreeably 
to those emotions and sentiments, which re- 
quire still higher pitches! To strain the 
voice thus, destroys all solemnity, weight 
and dignity, and gives, to what one says, a 
squeaking effeminacy, unbecoming a manly 
and impressive speaker; it makes the voice 
harsh and unmusical, and also produces 
hoarseness. 

Anecdote. Speculation. A capitalist, 
and shrewd observer of men and things, be- 
ing asked, what he thought of the specula- 
tions now afloat, replied — " They are like a 
cold bath, — to derive any benefit, from which, 
it is necessary to be very quick in, and very 
soon out." 

Not io the ensanguin'd field of death alone 
Is valor limited : she sits— serene 
In the deliberate council; sagely scans 
The source of action ; weighs, prevents, provides, 
And scorns to count her glories, from the feats 
Of brutal force alone. 



Maxims. 1. A broad hat — does not always 
cover a wise head. 2. Burn not your house — to 
frighten away the mice. 3. Drinking water, nei- 
ther makes a man sick, nor his wife a widow. 4 
He has riches enough, who need neither borrow 
or flatter. 5. True wisdom — is to know what is 
best worth knowing, and to do what is best worth 
doing. 6. Many things appear too bad to keep, and 
too good to throw away. 7. Keep a thing seven 
years, and you will find use for it. 8. We cannot 
pluck thorns from another's bosom, without pla- 
cing roses in our own. 9. Better a half loaf than 
no bread. 10. Draw not thy bow before the arrow 
be fixed. 

Experience. By what strange fatality 
is it, that having examples before our eyes, we 
do not profit by them 1 Why is our experi- 
ence, with regard to the misfortunes of others, 
of so little use ? In a word, why is it, that 
we are to learn wisdom and pi-udence at our 
own expense ? Yet such .is the fate of man ! 
Surrounded by misfortunes, we are supplied 
with means to escape them ; but, blinded by 
caprice, prejudice and pride, we neglect the 
proffered aid, and it is only by the tears we 
shed, in consequence of our own errors, that 
we learn to detest them. 

Varieties. 1. Give to all persons, whom 
you respect, (with whom you walk, or whom 
you may meet,) especially ladies, the wall 
side of the walk or street 2. If we think 
our evil allowable, tho' we do it not, it is ap- 
propriated to us. 3. Why does the pendu- 
lum of a clock — continue to move .' Because 
of the uniform operation of gravitation. 
What is gravitation ? 4. Humility — is the 
child of wisdom : therefore, beware of self- 
conceit, and an unteachable disposition. 5. 
Psychology — is the science, that treats of the 
essence — and nature of the human soul, and 
of the mode — by which it flows into the ac- 
tions of the body. 6. The true way to store 
the memory is — to develop the affections. 
7. The only way to shun evils, or sins, is to 
fight against them. 8. Reading and obser- 
vation — are the food of the young intellect, 
and indispensable to its growth. 9. Is it pos- 
sible, that Aeor^-friends will ever separate ? 
10. All effects are produced by life, and na- 
ture. 

Now vivid stars shine out, in brightening^es, 
And boundless cether glows, till the fair moon 
Shows her broad visage — in the crimson'd east; 
Now, stooping, seems to kiss the passing cloud, 
Now, o'er the pure cerulean — rides sublime. 
Nature, great parent.' whose directing hand 
Rolls round the seasons — of the changing year, 
How mighty, how majestic, are thy works ! 
With what a pleasant dread — they swell the soul, 
That sees, astonished, and astonish'd, sings! 
You too, ye uinds, that now begin to blow, 
With boist'rous sweep, I raise my voice to you. 
Where are your stores, you viewless beings, say, 
Where your aerial magazines — reserved 
Against the day of tempest perilous ? 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



145 



399. Strength of Voice. The voice 
is weak, or strong, in proportion to the less, 
or greater, number of organs and muscles, 
that are brought into action. If one uses 
only the upper part of the chest, his voice 
will be weak : if he uses the whole body, 
as he should do, (not in the most powerful 
manner, of course, on common occasions,) 
his voice will be strong. Hence, to strength- 
en a weak, voice, the student must practice 
expelling the vowel sounds, using all the 
abdominal and dorsal nerves and muscles: 
in addition to which, he should read and re- 
cite when standing or silting, and walking 
on a level plain, and up hill: success will 
be the result of faithful practice. 
So soft, so elegant, so fair, 
Sure, something more than human 's there. 
Upon my lute — there is one string 
Broken; the chords — were drawn xoo fast: 
My heart— is like that string; it tried 
Too much, and snapt in twain at last. 
She will, and she will not, she grants and she de- 
Consents, retracts, advances, and iheri flies, [nies; 
Mental fragrance — still will last, 
When our youthful charms are past. 
If little labor, little are our gains; 
Man's fortunes — are according to his pains. 

Delightful task — to rear the tender thought, 
To teach the young idea — how to shoot, 
To pour the fresh instruction o'er the mind, 
To breathe th' enliv'ning spirit, and to fix 
The generous purpose in the glowing breast. 

tOO. Demosthenes — had three particular 
defects ; first, weakness of the voice ; which 
he strengthened by declaiming on the sea- 
shore, amid the roar of waters ; which effort 
would tend directly to bring into use the 
lower parts of the body ; second, shortness 
of breath ; which he remedied by repeating 
his orations as he walked up hill ; which act 
serves to bring into use the appropriate or- 
gans, and fully inflate the lungs: and third, 
a thick, mumbling way of speaking; which 
he overcame by reading and reciting with 
pebbles in his mouth ; which required him 
to make a greater effort from below, and 
open his mouth wider. Examine yourself 
and act accordingly. 

Inconsistency. Montaigue — condemns 
cruelty, as the most odious of all vices ; yet 
he confesses, that hunting — was his favorite 
diversion. He acknowledges the inconsist- 
ency of man's conduct, but he does not as- 
cribe it to the right cause; which is the pre- 
dominance, at the time, of those associations 
it awakens, conducing to pleasure. If he 
had not been accustomed to it, the associa- 
tions of hunting, would have been painful, 
and his aversion to cruelty in the abstract, 
would have been realized in the concrete and 
particulars. 

Then, pilgrim, turn, thy cares forego; 

All earJ/i-born cares — are wrong; 
Man — wants but little — here below, 
Nor wants that little— long. 

19 N 



Proverbs. 1. To subdue a trifling error, do 
not incur a greater. 2. Anger and haste — hinder 
goodcounsel. 3. All complain of want of memory, 
but none of want of judgment. 4. Good men arts 
a public good, and bad men — a public calamity. 
5. Human laws reach not our thoughts. 6. Ru- 
lers — have no power over souls. 7. No one ever 
suffered — by not speaking ill of others. 8. Silly 
people are generally pleased with silly things. 9. 
Zeal, without knowledge, is religious wiMfire. 10. 
The example of a good man — is visible philos- 
ophy. 

Anecdote. Clients' Bones. A certain 
mechanic, having occasion to boil some cat- 
tle's feet, emptied the bones near the court 
house. A lawyer, observing them, inquired 
of a bystander, what they were. " I believe 
they are clients' 1 bones,' 1 '' replied the wit, " as 
they appear to be well picked.' 1 ' 1 

The Deceiver. _4 Base Character. Must 
not that man be abandoned, even to all man- 
ner of humanity, who can deceive a woman 
with appearances of affection and kindness, 
for no other end, but to torment her with 
more ease and authority ? Is anything more 
unlike a gentleman, than, when his honor is 
engaged for the performing his promises, 
because nothing but that can oblige him to 
it, to become afterwards false to his word, 
and be alone, the occasion of misery to one, 
whose happiness he but lately pretended was 
dearer to him than his own ? Ought such a 
one to be trusted in his common affairs ? or 
treated, but as one whose honesty — consisted 
only in his capacity of being otherwise. 

Varieties. 1. Is it strange, that beauti- 
ful flowers should wither and die ? 2. Trust 
thyself; every heart vibrates to that iron 
string. 3. Our American character is mark- 
ed by a more than average delight — in ac- 
curate perception; which is shown by the 
currency of the o?/-w r ord — " no mistake." 4. 
In sickness, and languor, give us a strain 
of poetry, or a profound sentence, and we are 
refreshed; when the great Herder was dy- 
ing, he said to his friends, who were vieep- 
ing around him: "Give me some great 
thought." Blessed are they, who minister to 
the cry of the soul. 5. The christian sees, 
in all that befalls the human race, whether 
it be good or evil, only the manifestations 
of Divine Love, as exercised in training and 
preparing souls, for the approach of that 
perfection, which they are one day destined 
to realize. 6. For every friend, that we 
lose for truth, God gives us a better one. 
The love of praise, howe'er concealed by art, 
Reigns, more or less, and gloivs in every heart: 
The proud — to gain it — toils on toils endure, 
The modest — shun it, but to make it sure; 
O'er globes and sceptres, now on thrones it swells, 
Now trims the midnight lamp — in college cells. 
'Tis tory, whig; it plott, prays, preaches, pleads, 
Harangues in senates, speaks in masquerades. 
It aids the dancers heel, the ivriter's head, 
And heaps the plain — with mountains of the dead; 
Nor ends with life; but nods — in sable plumes, 
Adorns our hearse, and flatters — on our tombs. 



146 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



401 . Transition — means, in speech, the 
changes of pitch, from one note to another ; 
as from the eighth to the third : or from the 
sixth to the first ; and vice versa ; to corres- 
pond in variety and character, to the senti- 
ment and emotion. In singing, it means 
changing the place of the key-note, so as to 
keep the tune within the scale of twenty-two 
degrees. In transition — the pitches of voice 
are not only changed, but its qualities, agreea- 
bly to the nature and object of the composi- 
tion ; however, there must never be any sac- 
rifice of other principles — all the proportions 
must be preserved. Example : 

An hour passed on ; the Turk awoke, 
That (6) bright dream— (3) was his last. 
He (5) woke — to hear his sentry's shriek, [Greek!'" 
(8) "To arms ! they(6)come.' the (8) Greek! the (10) 
He woke— to die — midst (5) flame, and (5) smoke, 
And (6) shout, and (3) groan, and sabre stroke, 
And death-shots falling thick and fast 
As lightnings — from the mountain-c\o\i([ ; 
And heard with voice as trumpet loud, 
Boziarris — cheer his band. 

(8) Strike! till the last armed foe expires ; 

(9) Strike ! for your (6) altars and your (8) fires ; 

(10) Strike ! for the green graves of your sires, 
(8) God — and your native land. 

402. To succeed in these higher parts of 
oratory, one must throw himself into the con- 
dition, and shape, he wishes to fill, or be, and 
bring the body into perfect subjection : by as- 
suming the appropriate language of action 
and earnestness, he may work himself into 
any frame of mind, that the subject demands. 
He must be sure to keep up the life, spirit, 
and energy of the composition ; and let there 
be a light and glow in his style. He must 
also cultivate a bold and determined manner ; 
for if he takes no special interest in what he 
is reading or speaking, he may rest assured 
others will not. 

Lo ! from the regions of the north, 
The reddening storm of battle pours, 

(5) Rolls along the trembling earth, 

(6) Fastens on the Olynthian towers ; [brave ? 

(8) Where rests the sword ? Where sleep the 

(9) Awake 1 (8) Cecropia's ally save 
(6) From the fury of the blast; 

(8) Burst the storm — on PhocVs walls ; 

(10) Rise, or Greece (8) forever falls : 

(12) Up ! or (10) freedom— breathes her (6) last. 

(4) The jarring states — obsequious now, 

(5) View the patriot's hand on high ; 
(2) Thunder— gathering on his brow, 

(6) Lightning— flashing from his eye: — 

(8) Grasp the shield— and draw the (6) sword: 

(9) Lead us to (8) Philippi's lord ; 

(6) Let us (10) conquer him,— (5) or (2) die. 

THE BIBLE- 

Behold the Book, whose leaves display 
Jesus, the life, the truth, the way ; 
Bead it with diligence and prayer, 
Search it, and you shall find him there. 



Proverbs. 1. Be just to others, that you may 
be just to yourself. 2. The mind of the idler— 
never knows what it wishes for. 3. Every rose 
has its thorn. 4. There is nothing good, that 
may not be converted to evil purposes. 5. Few 
persons are aware — of the importance of rigid 
economy. 6. Do not suffer yourself to be deceived 
— by outward appearances. 7. Never take ad- 
vantage of another man's ignorance. 8. The 
word, that has gone forth— can never be recalled. 

9. A bird in the hand, is worth two in the bush. 

10. That load appears light, which is borne with 
cheerfulness. 11. Virtue is the forerunner Oi 
happiness- 12. Foresight — is the eye of prudence. 

Anecdote. Obey Orders. A brave vete- 
ran officer, reconnoitering a battery, which 
was considered impregnable, and which it 
was necessary to storm, laconically answered 
the engineers, who were endeavoring to dis- 
suade him from the attempt; — " Gentlemen, 
you may think and say what you please: 
all I know, is, — that the American flag — 
must be hoisted on the ramparts to-morrow 
morning ; for I have the order in my pocket." 

Effects of Perseverance. All the per- 
formances of human art, at which we look 
with praise or wonder, are instances of the 
resistless force of perseverance; it is by this 
that the quarry becomes a pyramid, and that 
distant countries are united with canals and 
rail-roads. If a man was to compare the ef- 
fect of a single stroke of a. pickaxe, or of one 
impression of the spade, with the general de- 
sign and last result, he would be ovenv helm- 
ed by the sense of their disproportion ; yet 
those petty operations, incessantly continued, 
in time, surmount the greatest difficulties, and 
mountains are levelled, and oceans bounded, 
by the slender force of human beings. 

Varieties. 1. Can Omnipotence do things 
incompatible and contradictory ? 2. St. Au- 
gustine described the nature of God, as a cir- 
cle, whose centre was everywhere, and his 
circumference nowhere. 3. The walls of rude 
minds are scrawled all over with facts and 
with thoughts ; then shall one bring a lan- 
tern, and read the inscriptions '! 4. " My chil- 
dren," said an old man to his boys, scared by 
a figure in the dark entry, "you will never 
see anything worse than yourselves.'''' 5. 
Some one says, " There are no prodigies, but 
the first death, and the first night, that deserve 
astonishment and sadness!" 6. When we 
have broken our god of Tradition, and ceas- 
ed from our god of Persuasion, then, God 
may fire our hearts, with his own presence ,• 
but not before. 7. No love can be bound by 
oath, or covenant, to secure it against a higher- 
love. 

God — scatters love — on every side, 

Freely — among his children all ; 

And always— hearts are open wide, 

Wherein some grains may fall. 
To know and love God, is everything. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



147 



403. Male at*d Female Voices. The 
▼oices of men — are generally an octave lower 
than those of women; or, comparatively, 
men's voices are like the bass viol, and wo- 
men's voices like the violin. The voice is 
made grave, that is. to run on lower pitches, 
by elongating, and enlarging the vocal 
chords ; and it is made acute, that is, to run 
on higher pitches, by shortening and dimin- 
ishing them ; in connection, however, with 
the size of the chest, which always has its 
influence. Few are aware of the extent to 
which the voice is capable of being cultivat- 
ed ,- and hence, we should beware of setting 
limits to it. 

If every one's internal care 

Were written on his brow, 
How many would our pity share 

Who raise our envy now ! 
The fatal secret, when revealed, 

Of every aching breast, 
Would fully prove, that while concealed, 
Their lot appears the best. 
How calm, how beautiful, comes on 
The stilly hours, when storms are gone; 
When warring winds have died away, 
And clouds, beneath the glancing ray, 
Melt off, and leave the land and sea, 
Sleeping — in bright tranquillity. 
404:. To acquire the .ability to change, at 
will, your pitch of voice, so as to be able 
iO adapt the manner to the matter, prac- 
tice throwing the voice on different pitches, 
varying from one to Jive, Jive to eight, 
eight to one, and in other ways ; also, recite 
such pieces as have a number and variety of 
speakers, as found in dialogues ; and imitate 
the voice and manner of each, as far as pos- 
sible. But remember, no one can accomplish 
much, without committing the examples to 
memory; thus, after long practice in this 
way, you may make the book talk and speak. 
All developments are from within — out, not 
from without — in. 

Miscellaneous. 1. Two things are in- 
cumbent on the historian; to avoid stating 
what \s false, and fully and fairly to place be- 
fore us the truth. 2. One of the greatest blun- 
ders an orator can commit is, to deviate into 
abstruse expressions, and out of the beaten 
track. 3. Man — was created for a state of 
order, and he was in order, till he fell, or be- 
came depraved ; or, what is the same thing, 
disordered — i. e. the reverse of order. 4. Man 
is in order, when he acts from supreme love 
to the Lord, and charity towards his neigh- 
bor, in obedience to the Divine Will ,- but he 
is depraved, and disordered, in the degree he 
acts from the love of self , and the love of the 
world. 5. No man is compelled to evil; his 
consent only makes it his. 

A diamond, 
Tho' set in horn, is still a diamono, 
And sparkles — as in purest gold. 



Maxims. 1. Bad counsel confounds the ad- 
viser. 2. No one can do wrong, without suffering 
wrong. 3. He is greatest, who is most useful. 4. 
Love — and you shall be loved. 5. A great man — 
is willing to be little. 6. Blame — is safer than 
praise. 7. All the devils respect virtue. 8. A 
sincere word was never lost. 9. Curses — always 
recoil upon the head of him, who imprecates them, 
10. God — will not make himself manifest to cow- 
ards. II. The love ofsociety is natural. 

Anecdote. An old alderman, after having 
lived for fifty years on the fat of the land, and 
losing his great toe with a mortification, in- 
sisted, to his dying day, that he owed it to two 
grapes, which he ate one day, after dinner; 
he said, he felt them lie cold at his stomach 
the moment they were eaten. 

Education. The time, which we usually 
bestow on the instruction of our children — in 
principles, the reasons of which they do not 
understand, is worse than lost ; it is teaching 
them to resign their faculties to authority; it 
is improving their memories, instead of their 
understandings ,• it is giving them credulity 
instead of knowledge, and it is preparing 
them for any kind of slavery which can be 
imposed on them. Whereas, if we assisted 
them in making experiments on themselves, 
induced them to attend to the consequence of 
every action, to adjust their little deviations, 
and fairly and freely to exercise their powers, 
they would collect facts which nothing .could 
controvert. These facts they would deposit 
in their memories, as secure and eternal trea- 
sures ; they would he, materials for reflection, 
and, in time, be formed into principles of con- 
duct, which no circumstances or temptations 
could remove. This would be a method of 
forming a man, who would 'answer the end 
of his being, and make himself and others 
happy. 

Varieties. 1. Did not the Greek philoso- 
phy — corrupt the simplicity of the christian 
religion ? 2. There are two sorts of popular 
corruption ; one, when the people do not ob- 
serve the laws; the other, when they are 
corrupted by the laws. 3. Cesar — added the 
punishment of confiscation, for this reason ; 
lest the rich, by preserving their estates, should 
become bolder in the perpetration of crime. 
4. No localities can bound the dominion, or 
the superiority of man. 5. What constitutes 
a church? Divine goodness and truth, con- 
joined by love, and exemplified in the life. 
6. Madame de Stael's idea, that architecture 
— is like frozen music, must have been sug- 
gested on a cold day. 7. We are often made 
to feel, that there is another youth and age, 
than that which is measured from the year of 
our natural birth; some thoughts always 
find us young, and keep us so; such a 
thought is the love of the Universal and Eter* 
nal Beauty. 



148 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



405. Style — comprehends nil the princi- 
ples of elocution, and denotes the manner in 
which diilerent kinds of composition should 
be read, or spoken : of course, there are as 
many kinds of style, as there are of compo- 
sition ; and unless a person has command of 
body and mind, he cannot harmonize his 
manner and matter. If in writing, style — 
means proper words, in proper places ; in 
sjjeaking, it must signify, proper sounds in 
proper places. Ex. 

What is wit? a meteor, bright and rare, 
Th't comes and goes, we know not whence, or where; 
A brilliant nothing — out of something wrought, 
A mental vacuum — by condensing thought. 

O the eye's eloquence, 
(Twin-born with thought,) outstrips the tardy voice; 
Far swifter — than the nimble lightning's flash, 
The sluggish thunder-peal, that follows it. 
True courage — but from opposition grows, 
And what are fifty — what — a thousand slaves, 
Matched to the sinew — of a single arm, 
That strikes for liberty ? 

406. What causeth the earth to bring forth 
and yield her increase ? Is it not the light 
and heat of the sun, that unlocks her native 
energies and gives them their power 7 In an 
analogous manner should the light of the 
thought, and the fieat of its accompanying 
affection, act upon the mind, which will com- 
municate the influence received to the whole 
body, and the body to the voice and actions. 
This is what is meant by imbibing the au- 
thor's feelings, and bringing before you all 
the circumstances, and plunging amid the 
living scenes, and feeling that whatever you 
describe, is actually present, and passing be- 
fore your mind. 

40 7. Lyceums and Debating societies, are 
admirable associations for the improvement 
of mind, and cultivation of talent, for pub- 
lic or private speaking. Franklin and Ro- 
ger Sherman, (the one a printer, and the oth- 
er a shoe-maker,) rose from obscurity to great 
eminence, and usefulness, by their own ef- 
forts: so may we, by using the proper 
means. It was in a debating society, that 
Lord Brougham first displayed his superior 
talents and unrivaled eloquence ; and there, 
also, Henry Clay, the greatest American 
orator, commenced his brilliant career. A 
word to those who would be wise is enough. 

Anecdote. An appropriate Sign. A man 
who had established a tippling-house, being 
about to erect his sign, requested his neigh- 
bor's advice — what inscription to put upon 
it His friend replied, " I advise you to write 
on it — Drunkards and Beggars made here." 
Honor's — a sacred tie, the law of kings, 
The noble mind's — distinguishing perfection, 
That aids and strengthens virtue, when it meets her, 
And imitates her actions, where she is not: 
It ought not to be sported with. 



Proverbs. 1. A good word for a bad one— is 
worth much, and costs little. 2. He, who knows 
not when to be silent, knows not when to speak. 
3. Oppression — causes rebellion. 4. Where con- 
tent is. there is a feast. 5. The drunkard continu- 
ally assaults his own life. 6. Show me a liar, 
and I will show you a thief. 7. That which helps 
one man, may hinder another. 8. A good educa- 
tion is the foundation of happiness. 9. Most follies 
owe their origin to self-love. 10. No tree — takes so 
deep a root as prejudice. 11. Inform yourself, and 
instruct others. 12. Truth — is the only bond of 
friendship. 

Learning. We have been often told, that 
" a little learning is a dangerous thing," and 
we may be just as well assured, that a little 
bread is not the safest of all things ; it would 
be far better to have plenty of both : but the 
sophism — of those who use this argument, is, 
that they represent the choice between little 
and much; whereas our election must be 
made between little — and none at all ; if the 
choice is to be — between a small portion of 
information, or of food, and absolute igno- 
rance, or starvation, common sense gives its 
decision in the homely proverb — " half a. loaf 
is better than no bread." 

Varieties. 1. The best and surest course 
is — never to have recourse to deception, but 
prove ourselves, in every circumstance of life, 
equally upright and sincere. 2. The most 
consummate hypocrite — cannot, at all times, 
conceal the workings of his mind. 3. When 
we employ money — to good purposes, it is a 
great blessing ; but when we use it for evil 
and wicked ends, or become so devoted to it, 
as to endeavor to acquire it by dishonest 
means, it is a great curse. 4. None are so 
fond of secrets, as those who do not mean to 
keep them: such persons covet them, as 
spendthrifts do mony, for the purpose of cir- 
culation. 5. Burke — called the French rev- 
olutionists, "the ablest architects of ruin, 
that the world ever saw." 6. Trifles — always 
require exuberance of ornament ; the build- 
ing that has no strength, can be valued only 
for the grace of its decorations. 7. We can- 
not part with our heart-friends : we cannot 
let our angels go. 

Nor fame I slight, nor for her favors call ; 
She comes unlook'd for, if she comes at all. 
But, if the purchase cost so dear a price, 
As sooth \ng folly, or exalting vice ; 
And if the muse — must flatter lawless sway, 
And follow still where fortune leads the way; 
Or, if no basis — bear my rising name, 
But the fall'n ruins of another's fame ; 
Then, teach me. heaven, to scorn the guilty bays ; 
Drive from my breast that wretched lust of praise. 
Unblemished let me live, or die — unknown: 
O, grant me honest fame, or jrrant me none. 

'Tis sweet — to hear 
The song and oar — of Adrians gondolier, 
(By distance mellowed,) o'er the waters sweep. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



149 



408. Public speakers ought to live longer, 
and enjoy better health, than other persons ; 
and if they conform to the principles here 
taught, and the laws of life and health gener- 
ally, this will be the result. Pulmonary dis- 
eases may be thrown off by these exercises ; 
the author being a living witness, having been 
given over at three different times with con- 
gumption. The celebrated Cuvier and Dr. 
Brown, the metaphysician, and many others 
that might be mentioned, are also witnesses 
of this truth. One reason is, that natural 
speaking induces one to use a very large 
quantity of air, whereby the capacity of the 
lungs is much enlarged, the quantity of air 
increased, and the blood more perfectly puri- 
fied ; the use of the whole body insures a free 
circulation, and, of course, contributes to 
universal health. 

Think'st thou— there are no serpents in the world, 
But those, which slide along the grassy sod. 
And sting the luckless foot, that presses them? 
There are, who, in the path of social life, 
Do bask their spotted skins, in fortune's sun, 
And sting the soul, aye, till its healthful frame 
Is changed lo secret, festering, sore disease; 
So deadly — is its wound. 
The brave, 'tis sure, do never shun the light ; 
Just are their thoughts, and open are their tempers; 
Still are they found — in the fair face of day, 
And heaven, and men — are judges of their actions. 

409. Diseases of the Thtioat — are con- 
nected, particularly, with those parts of the 
body, which are involved in breathing, and 
relate to the understanding, or reasoning fa- 
culties of the mind: thus, thinking and 
breathing are inseparably connected toge- 
ther ; as are feeling and acting ; hence, the 
predominance of thought, in the exercise of 
the voice, or in any kind of action, and zeal 
without knmvledge, tend directly to such per- 
versions of mind and body, as induce, not only 
diseases of the throat, but even pulmonary 
diseases : if, then, we will to be free, in any re- 
spect, we must return to truth and nature ; for 
they will guide the obedient, in the right way. 

Miscellaneous. 1. Whatever one pos- 
sesses, becomes doubly valuable, by having 
the happiness of dividing it with a friend. 
2. He who loves riches more than Ms friend, 
does not deserve to be loved. 3. He who 
would pass the latter part of his life with 
honor, and usefulness, must, when he is 
young, consider that he shall one day be old ; 
and when he is old, remember that he has 
once been young. 4. The rolling planets, 
and the glorious sun, Still keep that order, 
which they first begun ,• But wretched man, 
alone, has gone astray, Swerved from his 
God, and walks another way. 5. The old — 
live in the past, as the young do — in the fu- 
ture. 6. Fix upon a high standard of char- 
acter : to be thought well of— is not sufficient: 



the point you are to aim at, is, the greatest 
possible degree of usefulness. 7. He who 
only aims at little, will accomplish but little. 

Anecdote. A silly, but very pretty wo- 
man, complained to the celebrated and beau- 
tiful Sophia Arnold, of the number of her 
admirers, and wished to know how she 
should get rid of them. " Oh, my dear," 
(was the satiric reply,) " it is very easy for 
you to do it : you have only to speak." 

Proverbs. 1. Those, who possess any real 
excellence, think and say, the least about it. 2. 
The active only, have the true relish of life. 3. 
Many there are, who are everything by turns, and 
nothing — long. 4. To treat trifies — as matters of 
importance, is to show our own zmimportance. 5. 
Grief cherished unseen, is genuine; while that, 
which has toitnesses, may be affected. 6. Error — 
does not so often arise from our ignorance of the 
truth, as an unwillingness to receive it. 7. Some — 
mistake the tote — for the practice of virtue, and are 
not so much good themselves, as they are the 
friends of goodness. 8. To love any one, and not 
do him good, when there is ability and opportu- 
nity, is a contradiction. 9. Pity — will always be 
his portion in adversity, who acted with kindness 
in prosperity. 10. The best mode of proving any 
science, is by exhibiting it. 

A Good Example. Mr. Clay, in a de- 
bate upon the Loan Bill, remarked, that, for 
twenty or thirty years, neither he nor his 
wife, had owed any man a dollar. Both of 
them, many years gone by, had come to the 
conclusion, that the best principle of economy 
was this, — " never to go in debt. To indulge 
your wants when you were able to do so, and 
to repress them when you are not able to in- 
dulge them." The example is not only an 
excellent one for itself, but comes from a high 
source. To repress a want— is one of the 
wisest, safest, and most necessary principles 
of political economy. It prevents, not only 
the dangerous practice of living beyond our 
means, but encourages the safe precedent of 
living within them. If all who could, would 
live within their means, the world would be 
much happier and much better than it is. 
Henry Clay and his noble housewife — give 
us an example worthy of all imitation. 

Varieties. 1 . Is pride — a mark of talent? 
2. Byron says, of Jack Bunting, " He knew 
not what to do, and so he swore :" so we may 
say of many a one's preposterous use of books, 
— He knew not what to do, and so he read. 
Wits — a feather — Pope has said, 

And ladies — do not doubt it : 
For those, who've least — within the head, 
Display the most — about it. 

They sin, who tell us love can die; 

Its holy flame forever burneth ,* 

From heaven it came, to heaven returneth. 
Forgiveness — to the injured does belong; 
But they ne'er pardon, who have done the wrong. 
Be thou as chaste as ice, as pure as snow, 
Thou shalt not escape calumny. 
»9 



150 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



410. Deliveut — addresses itself to the 
mind through two mediums, the eye and the 
ear : hence, it naturally divides itself into 
two parts, voice and gesture ; both of which 
must be sedulously cultivated, under the 
guidance of proper feeling, and correct 
thought. That style is the best, which is the 
most transparent ; hence the grand aim of 
the elocutionist should be — perfect transpa- 
rency ; and when this part is attained, he 
will be listened to with pleasure, be perfectly 
understood, and do justice to his subject, 
his powers, and his audience. 

411. Young Gentlemen, — (said Wil- 
liam Wirt,) you do not, I hope, expect from 
me, an oration for display. At my time of 
life, and worn down, as I am, by the toils of 
a laborious profession, you can no longer 
look for the spirit and buoyancy of youth. 
Spring — is the season for flowers ; but I — am 
in the autumn of life, and you will, I hope, 
accept from me, the fruits of my experi- 
ence, in lieu of the more showy, but less 
substantial blossoms of Spring, I could 
not have been tempted hither, for the pue- 
rile purpose of display. My visit has a 
much graver motive and object. It is the 
hope of making some suggestions, that may 
be serviceable in the journey of life, that is 
before you ; of calling into action some dor- 
mant energy ; of pointing your exertions to 
some attainable end of practical utility ; in 
short, the hope of contributing, in some 
small degree, towards making you happier 
in yourselves, and more useful to your 
country. 

4:13. The conversational — must be deliv- 
ered in the most natural, easy, familiar, dis- 
tinct, and agreeable manner ,• the narrative 
and didactive, with a clear and distinct artic- 
ulation, correct emphasis, proper inflections, 
and appropriate modulations ; because, it is 
not so much your object to excite the affec- 
tions, as to inform the understanding : the 
argumentative, and reasoning, demand great 
deliberation, slowness, distinctness, frequent 
pauses, candor, strong emphasis and occa- 
sional vehemence. No one can become a 
good reader and speaker, without much prac- 
tice and many failures. 

Pioneers. The " eccentric" man-^is gen- 
erally the pioneer of mankind, cutting his 
way the first — into the gloomy depths of un- 
explored science, overcoming difficulties, that 
would check meaner spirits, and then — hold- 
ing up the light of his knowledge — to guide 
thousands, who, but for him, would be wan- 
dering about in all the uncertainty of igno- 
rance, or be held in the fetters of some self- 
ish policy, which they had not, of themselves 
— the energy to throw off. 

'Tis not m folly— not to scorn afool, 

And scarce in human wisdom— lo do more. 



Proverbs. 1. Constant occupation— shuts 
out temptation. 2. A flatterer — is a most danger- 
ous enemy. 3. Unless we aim at perfection, we 
shall never attain it. 4. They who love the long- 
est, love the best. 5. Pleasure — is not the rule for 
resU but for health. 6. The President is but the 
/lead-servant of the people. 7. Knowledge— is not 
truly ours, till we have given it away. 8. Our 
debts, and our sins, are generally greater than we 
suppose. 9. Some folks — are like snakes in the 
grass. 10. He — injuries the good, who spares the 
bad. 11. Beauty will neither feed or clothe us. 
12. Woman's work is never done. 

Anecdote. What for? After the close 
of the Revolutionary war, the king of Great 
Britain — ordered a thanksgiving to be kept 
throughout the kingdom. A minister of the 
gospel inquired of him, " For what are we 
to give thanks? that your majesty has lost 
thirteen of your best provinces ?" The king 
answered, " No." " Is it then, that your ma- 
jesty has lost one hundred thousand lives of 
your best subjects?" "No, no!" said the 
king. " Is it then, that we have expended, and 
lost, a hundred millions of money, and for 
the defeat and tarnishing of your majesty's 
arms ?" " No such thing," — said the king 
pleasantly. " What then, is the object of the 
thanksgiving'!" " Oh, give thanks that it is 
no worse." 

Varieties. 1. Who does not see, in Ce- 
sar's Commentaries, the radical elements of 
the present French character] 2. " A man," 
says Oliver Cromwell, " never rises so high, 
as when he knows not whither he is going." 
3. The virtue, that vain persons affect to des- 
pise, might have saved them ; while the beau~ 
ty, they so highly prized, is the cause of their 
ruin. 4. He, who flatters, without design- 
ing to benefit by it, is a fool ; and whoever 
encourages that flattery, that has sense 
enough to see through, is a vain coxcomb. 5. 
The business of the teacher — is not so much 
to communicate knowledge to the pupil, as 
to set him to thinking, and show him how 
to educate himself ; that is, he must rather 
teach him the way to the fountain, than car- 
ry him to the water. 6. Many buy cheap, 
and sell dear ; i. e. make as good bargains as 
they can ; which is a trial of skill, between 
two knaves, to see which shall overreach the 
other ; but honest men set their price and 
adhere to it. 7. If you put a chain round 
the neck of a slave, the other end fastens it- 
self around your own. 
Would you then learn to dissipate the band 

Of these huge threatening difficulties dire, 
That, in the weak man's way — like lions stand, 

His soul appal, and damp his risingj^re? 

Resolve, resolve, and to be men aspire. 
Exert that noblest privilege, alone, 

Here to mankind indulged : control desire; 
Let godlike reason, from her sovereign throne, 
Speak the commanding word— I will, and it is don- 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



151 



413. Earnestness of Manner — is of 
vital importance in sustaining a transparent 
style ; and this must be imbibed internally, 
and felt with all the truth and certainty of 
nature. By proper exercises on these prin- 
ciples, a person may acquire the power of 
passing, at will, from grave to gay, and from 
lively to severe, without confounding one 
with the other: there are times, however, 
when they may be united ; as in the humor- 
ous and pathetic, together. 

Breathes there a man with soul so dead, 
Who never, to himself hath said, 
" This — is my own, my native land V 
Whose heart — hath ne'er within him burned, 
As home— his footsteps he hath turned, 
From wandering on & foreign strand? 
If such there breathe, go mark him well : 
For him, no minstrel raptures swell ; 
High tho' his titles, powers, or pelf, 
The wretch — concentred all in self, 
Living — shall forfeit fair renown, 
And, doubly dying, shall go down 
To the vile dust, from whence he sprung, 
TJnwepVd, unhonored, and unsung. 

414. The following are the terms usually 
applied to style, in writing, and also in speak- 
ing ; each of which has its distinctive charac- 
teristics ; though all of them have something 
in common. Bombastic, dry, elegant, epis- 
tolary, flowing, harsh, laconic, lofty, loose, 
terse, tumid, verbose. There are also styles 
of occasion, time, place, &c. : such as the 
style of the bar, of the legislature, and of the 
pulpit,- also the dramatic style, comedy, 
(high and low,) farce and tragedy. 

Illiterate and selfish people, are often op- 
posed to persons traveling through the coun- 
try, to lecture on any subject whatever ; and 
especially, on such as the grumblers are ig- 
norant of. But are not books and newspa- 
pers, itinerants too ? In olden time, the wor- 
shipers of the goddess Diana, were violently 
opposed to the Apostles ; because, thro' their 
preaching of the cross, their craft was in 
danger. The liberally educated, and those 
who are in favor of a universal spread of 
knowledge, are ready to bid them "God 
speed," if they and their subject are praise- 
worthy. 

Anecdote. A Kingly Dinner in Nature's 
Palace. Cyrus, king of Persia, was to dine 
with one of his friends ; and, on being asked 
to name the place, and the viands with which 
he would have his table spread, he replied, 
" Prepare the banquet at the side of the river, 
and let one loaf of bread be the only dish." 
Bright, as the pillar, rose at Heaven's command: 
When Israel — marched along the desert land, 
Blazed through the night— on lonely wilds afar, 
And told the path, — a never-setting star ; 
So, heavenly Genius, in thy course divine, 
Hope— is thy star, her light— is ever thine. 



| Proverbs. 1. People generally love truth 
more than goodness ; knowledge more than holi- 
ness- 2. Never magnanimity — fell to the ground. 
3. He, who would gather immortal palms, must 
j not be hindered by the name of goodness, but 
j must explore — if it be goodness. 4. JVo author 
• was ever written down, by any but himself- 5. 
Better be a nettle in the side of your friend, than 
l his echo. 6. Surmise is the gossamer, that malice 
blows on fair reputation ; the corroding dew, that 
destroys the choicest blossoms. 7. A general 
prostration of morals — must be the inevitable re- 
sult of the diffusion of bad principles. 8. To 
know — is one thing ; and to do — is another. 9. 
Candor— lends an open ear to all men. 10. Art 
— is never so beautiful, as when it reflects the 
philosophy of religion and of man. 

We cannot honor our country — with too 
deep a reverence ; we cannot love her — with 
an affection too pure and fervent ; we can- 
not serve her — with an energy of purpose, or 
a faithfulness of zeal — too steadfast and ar- 
dent. And what is our country 1 It is not 
the East, with her hills and her valleys, with 
her countless sails, and the rocky ramparts 
of her shores. It is not the North, with her 
thousand villages, and her harvest-home, with 
her frontiers of the lake, and the ocean. It is 
not the West, with her forest-sea, and her 
inland isles, with her luxuriant expanses, 
clothed in the verdant corn ; with her beauti- 
ful Ohio, and her majestic Missouri. Nor is 
it yet the South, opulent in the mimic snow 
of the cotton, in the rich plantations of the 
rustling cane, and in the golden robes of the 
rice-field. What are these, but the sister 
families of one greater, better, holier family, 

OTJR COUNTRY? 

VARIETIES. 

Give thy thoughts no tongue, 
Nor any unproportioned thought his act. 
Be thou familiar ; but by no means vulgar. 
The friends thou hast, and their adoption tried, 
Grapple them to thy soul, with hooks of steel ; 
But do not dull thy palm — with entertainment 
Of ev'ry new hatched, unfledged comrade. Beware 
Of entrance into quarrel ! but, being in, 
Bear it, that the opposer — may beware of thee. 
Give every man thine ear, but few thy voice, [nient. 
Take each man's censure, but reserve thy jxidg- 
Costly thy habit — as thy purse can buy, 
But not expressed infancy ; rich, not gaudy . 
For the apparel — oft proclaims the man. 
Neither a borrower, nor a lender be ; 
For loan — oft loses both itself and friend, 
And borrowing — dulls the edge of husbandry. 
This above all — to thine own self he true, 
And it must follow, as the night the day. 
Thou canst not, then — he false to any man. 
Dare to be true — nothing — can need a lie ; 
The fault that needs it — grows two — thereby. 

What do you think of marriage ? 

I take it, as those that deny purgatory ; 

It locally contains or heaven or hell; 

There is no third place in it. 



152 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



415. Beware of a slavish attention to 
rules; for nothing should supercede Nature, 
who knows more than^Lr/; therefore, let her 
stand in the foreground, with art for her 

servant. Emotion — is the soul of oratory : 
one flash of passion on the cheek, one beam 
of feeling from the eye, one thrilling note of 
sensibility from the tongue, one stroke of 
hearty emphasis from the arm, have infinite- 
ly more value, than all the rhetorical rules 
and flourishes ot ancient or modern times. 
The great rule is — be in earnest. This is 
what Demosthenes more than intimated, in 
tt\nee declaring, that the most important 
ta.ig in eloquence, was action. There wiil 
be no execution without jire. 
Whoever thinks, must see, that man — was made 
To face the storm, not languish in the shade; 
Action — liis sphere, and, for that sphere designed, 
Eternal pleasures — open on his mind. 
For this — fair hope — leads on th' impassioned soul, 
Through life's wild labyrinth— to her distant goal : 
Paints, in each dream, to fan the genial flame, 
The pomp of riches, and the pride of fame; 
Or, fondly gives reflections cooler eye, 
A glance, an image, of a future sky. 

Notes. The standard for propriety, and force, in public 
speaking is — to speak just as one would naturally express himself 
in earnest conversation in private company. Such should we all 
do, if left to ourselves, and early pains were not taken to substitute 
an artificial method, for that which is natural. Beware of im- 
agining that you must read in a different way, with different tones 
and cadences, from that of common speaking. 

Anecdote. The severity of the laws of 
Draco, is proverbial; he punished all sorts 
of crime, and even idleness, with death : 
hence, De-rao-des said — "He writes his 
laws, not with ink — but with blood.' 1 '' On 
being asked why he did so, he replied, — that 
the smallest crime deserved death, and that 
there was not a greater punishment he could 
find out, for greater crimes. 

Miscellaneous. 1. Envy — is the daugh- 
ter of pride, the author of revenge and mur- 
der, the beginning of secret sedition and the 
perpetual tormentor of virtue; it is the filthy 
slime of the soul, a venom, a poison, that 
consumeth the flesh, and drieth up the mar- 
row of the bones. 2. What a pity it is, that 
there are so many quarter and half men and 
women, who can take delight in gossip, be- 
cause they are not great enough for any 
thing else. 

Were I so tall — as to reach the pole, 
And grasp the ocean — with a span, 
I would be measured — by my soul, 
The mind^s — the standard of the man. 

4. What is the difference between loving 
the minds, and the persons of our friends ? 

5. How different is the affection, the thought, 
action, form and manners of the male, from 
the affection, thought, action, form and man- 
ners of the female. 

Then farewell, — I'd rather make 
My bed — upon some icy lake, 
When thawing suns — begin to shine, 
Than trust a love — as false as thine. 
The stomach — hath no ears. 



Laconics. 1. God has given us vocal organs, 
and reason to use them. 2. True gesture — is the 
language of nature, and makes its way to the 
heart, without the utterance of a single word. 3. 
Coarseness and vulgarity — are the effects of a bad 
education; they cannot be chargeable to nature. 
4. Close observation, and an extensive knowledge 
of human nature alone, will enable one to adapt 
himself to all sorts of character. 5. Painting — 
describes what the object is in itself: poetry — what 
it inspires or suggests : one — represents the visible, 
the other — both the risible and the invisible. 6. 
It is uncandid self-will, that condemns without a 
hearing. 7. The mind — wills to be free; and the 
signs of the times — proclaim the approach of its 
restoration. 

Woman. The right education of this sex 
is of the utmost importance to human life. 
There is nothing, that is more desirable for 
the common good of all the world; since, as 
they are mothers and mistresses of families, 
they have for some time the care of the ed- 
ucation of their children of both sorts ; they 
are intrusted with that, which is of the 
greatest consequence to human life. As the 
health and strength, or weakness of our bodies, 
is very much owing to their methods of 
treating us when we were young; so — the 
soundness or folly of our minds is not less 
owing to their first tempers and ways of 
thinking, which we eagerly received from 
the love, tenderness, authority, and constant 
conversation of our mothers. As we call our 
first language our mother -tongue, so — we 
may as justly call our first tempers our moth- 
er-tempers; and perhaps it may be found 
more easy to forget the language, than to 
part entirely with those tempers we learned 
in the nursery. It is, therefore, to be la- 
mented, that the sex, on whom so much de- 
pends, who have the first forming both of 
our bodies and our minds, are not only edu- 
cated in pride, but in the silliest and most 
contemptible part of it. Girls are indulged 
in great vanity; and mankind seem to con- 
sider them in no other view than as so many 
painted idols, who are to allure and gratify 
their passions. 

Varieties. 1. Was England — justified 
in her late warlike proceeding against Chi- 
na ? 2. Fit language there is none, for the 
heart's deepest things. 3. The honor of a 
maid — is her name; and no legacy is so rich 
as honesty. 4. O, how bitter a thing it is — 
to look into happiness — thro' another's eyes. 
Ungrateful man, with liquorish draughts, 
And morsels unctuous, greases his pure mind. 
That from it — all consideration slips. 
To persist 
In doing wrong, extenuates not wrong, 
But makes it much more heavy. 
He cannot be a perfect man, 
Not being tried or tutored in the world : 
Experience is by industry achieved, 
And perfected — by the swift course of time 
A confused report— passed thro' my ears; 
But, full of hurry, like a morning dream, 
It vanished — in the business of the day. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



153 



416. The Declamatory and Horta- 
tory — indicate a deep interest for the per- 
sons addressed, a horror of the evil they are 
entreated to avoid, and an exalted estimate 
of the good, they are exhorted to pursue. 
The exhibition of the strongest feeling, re- 
quires such a degree of self-control, as, in the 
very torrent, tempest and whirlwind of pas- 
sion, possesses a temperance to give it 
smoothness. The Dramatic — sometimes 
calls for the exercise of all the vocal and 
mental powers: hence, one must consider 
the character represented, the circumstances 
under which he acted, the state of feeling he 
possessed, and every thing pertaining to the 
scene with which he was connected. 

417. Roixa's Address to the Peru- 
vians. My brave associates — partners — of 
my toil, my feelings, and my fame ! Can 
Rolla's words — add vigor — to the virtuous 
energies, which inspire your hearts? No,- 
you have judged as / have, the foulness of 
the crafty plea, by which these bold invaders 
would delude you. Your generous spirit 
has compared, as mine has, the motives, 
which, in a war like this, can animate their 
minds and ours. They, by a strange frenzy 
driven, fight for power, for plunder, and ex- 
tended rule ; we, for our country, our altars, 
and our homes. They — follow an adventur- 
er, whom they fear, and obey a power, which 
they hate; we — serve a monarch whom we 
love, — a God, whom we adore. Whene'er 
they move in anger, desolation — tracks their 
progress ! Whene'er they pause in amity, 
affliction — mourns their friendship. They 
boast, they come but to improve our state, 
enlarge our thoughts, and free us from the 
yoke of error / Yes — they will give enlight- 
ened freedom to our minds, who are them- 
selves the slaves of passion, avarice, and pride. 
They offer us their protection. Yes, such 
protection — as vultures — give to lambs — 
covering, and devouring them. They call 
on us to barter all of good, we have inherited 
and proved, for the desperate chance of some- 
thing better, which they promise. Be our 
plain answer this : The throne — we honor 
— is the people's choice; the laws we rever- 
ence — are our brave fathers' legacy ; the faith 
we follow — teaches us to live in bonds of cha- 
rity with all mankind, and die — with hope 
of bliss — beyond the grave. Tell your in- 
vaders this, and tell them too, we seek no 
change; and, least of all, such change as 
tliey would bring us. 

GAMBLING. 

Oh ! vice accursed, that lur'st thy victim on 
With specious smiles, and false deluding hopes — 
Smiles — that destroy, and hopes — that bring despair, 
Infatuation — dangerous and destructive, 
Pleasure most visionary, if delight, how transient! 
Prelude of horror, anguish, and dismay! 
20 



Proverbs. 1. The more— women look into 
their glasses, the less— they attend to their houses. 

2. Works, and not words, are the proof of love. 3. 
There is no better looking-glass, than a true friend. 
4. When we obey our superiors, we instruct our 
inferiors. 5. There is more trouble in having no- 
thing to do, than in having much to do. 6. The 
best throw of the dice— is to throw them away. 7. 
Virtue, that parleys, is near the surrender. 8. The 
spirit of truth — dwelleth in meekness. 9. Resist a 
temptation, till you conquer it. 10. Plain dealing 
is a jewel. 

Anecdote. Faithful unto Death. When 
the venerable Polycarp — was tempted by 
Herod, the proconsul, to deny, and blaspheme 
the Lord Jesus Christ, he answered, — 
" Eighty and six years — have I served my 
Lord and Savior,— and in all that time — 
he never did me any injury, but always 
good ; and therefore, I cannot, in conscience, 
reproach my King and my Redeemer." 

A Wife ; not an Artist. When a man 
of sense comes to marry, it is a companion he 
wants, and not an artist. It is not merely a 
creature who can paint, and play, and sing, 
and dance. It is a being who can comfort 
and counsel him; one who can reason and 
reflect, and feel and judge, and discourse and 
discriminate; one who can assist him in his 
affairs, lighten his sorrows, purify his joys, 
strengthen his principles and educate his child- 
ren. Such is the woman who is fit for a mo- 
ther, and the mistress of a family. A woman 
of the former description may occasionally 
figure in a drawing-room, and excite the ad- 
miration of the company; but is entirely 
unfit for a helpmate to man, and to train up 
a child in the way he should go. 

Varieties. 1. He, who is cautious and 
prudent, is generally secure from many dan- 
gers, to which many others are exposed. 2. 
A fool may ask more questions in an hour, 
than a wise man may answer in seven years. 

3. The manner in which words are delivered, 
contribute mainly to the effects they are to 
produce, and the importance which is attach- 
ed to them. 4. Shall this greatest of free na- 
tions be the best? 5. One of the greatest 
obstacles to knowledge and excellence, is in- 
dolence. 6. One hours sleep before midnight, 
is worth two afterward. 7. Science, or learn- 
ing, is of little use, unless guided by good 
sense. 

Men — use a different speech — in different climes, 
But Nature hath (me voice, and only one. 
Her wandering moon, her stars, her golden sun, 
Her woods and waters, in all lands and times, 
In one deep song proclaim the wondrous story. 
They tell it to each other— in the sky, 
Upon the winds they send it — sounding high, 
Jehovah's wisdom, goodness, power, and glory. 
I hear it come from mountain, cliff, and tree, 
Ten thousand voices — in one voice united J 
On every side — the song encircles me, 
The whole round world reveres— and is delightedL 
Ah ! why, when heaven — and earth— lift up their voice, 
Ah ! why should man alone, nor worship, nor rejoice? 



154 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



418. The merging of the Diatonic Scale 
in the Musical Staff, as some have done in 
elocution, is evidently incorrect; for then, the 
exact pitch of voice is fixed, and all must 
take that pitch, whether it be in accordance 
with the voice, or not. But in the simple di- 
atonic scale, as here presented, each one 
takes his lowest natural note for his tonic, or 
key-note, and then, passes to the medium 
range of pitches. Different voices are often 
keyed on different pitches; and to bring 
them all to the same pitch, is as arbitrary as 
ProcrusWs bedstead, according to Hudribras : 

"This iron bedstead, they do fetch, 

To try our hopes upon ; 
If we're too short, we must be stretch'd, 

Cut off— if we're too long." 
Beware of all racks ; be natural, or nothing. 
What the weak head — with strongest bias rules, 
Is (0) pride ; the neuer-failing vice of fools. 
A soul, without reflection, like a pile, 
Without inhabitant — to ruin runs. 
Wit — is fine language — to advantage dressed ; 
Better often thought, but ne'er so well expressed. 
Our needful knowledge, like our needful food, 
Unhedged, lies open — in life's common^eM, 
And bids all — welcome — to the vital feast. 
Let sense — be ever in your view; 
Nothing is lovely, that is not true. 

419. Suggestions. Let the pupils me- 
morize any of the proverbs, laconics, max- 
ims, or questions, and recite them on occa- 
sions like the following : when they first as- 
semble in the school-room ; or, meet together 
in a social circle : let them also carry on a 
kind of conversation, or dialogue with them, 
and each strive to get one appropriate to the 
supposed state, character, &c. of another : or 
use them in a variety of ways, that their in- 
genuity may suggest. 

Pride. There is no passion so universal, 
or that steals into the heart more impercep- 
tibly, and covers itself under more disgui- 
ses, than pride ; and yet, there is not a sin- 
gle view of human nature, which is not suf- 
ficient to extinguish in us all the secret 
seeds of pride, and sink the conscious soul — 
to the lowest depths of humility. 

Anecdote. Sterling Integrity. In 1778, 
while congress was sitting in Philadelphia, 
frequent attempts were made, by the British 
officers, and agents, to bribe several of the 
members. Governor Johnstone — authorized 
the following proposal, to be made to Col. 
Joseph Reed: " That if he would engage his 
interest to promote the objects of the British, 
he should receive thirty thousand dol- 
lars, and any office in the colonies, in his 
majesty's gift. Col. Reed — indignantly re- 
plied, — "I am not worth purchasing; but 
such as I am, the king of Great Britain is 
not rich enough to buy me." 



Laconics. 1. Any violation of law— is a 
breach of morality. 2. Musk, in all its variety, 
is essentially one : and so is speech, tho' infinitely 
diversified. 3. Literary people — are often unpleas- 
ant companions in mixed society ; because they 
have not always the power of adapting them- 
selves to others. 4. It is pedantry — to introduce 
foreign words into our language, when we have 
pure English words to express all that the exotics 
contain ; with the advantage of being intelligible 
to every one. 5. Whatever is merely artificial, is 
unnatural; which is opposed to general eloquence. 
6. There can he no great advances made, in gen- 
uine scientific truth, without well regulated affec- 
tions. 7. We can be almost anything we choose; 
if we will a thing to be done, no matter how high 
the aim, success is nearly certain. 

Anger. Of all passions — there is not one 
so extravagant and outrageous as this ; ntlier 
passions solicit and mislead us : but this — 
runs away with us by force, hurries us as 
well to our own, as to another's ruin : it often 
falls upon the wrong person, and discharges 
its wrath on the innocent instead of the guil- 
ty. It spares neither friend nor foe ; but tears 
all to pieces, and casts human nature into a 
perpetual warfare. 

VARIETIES. 

All the world's — a stage, 
And all the men and women — merely players : 
They have their exits, and their entrances ; 
And one man, in his time, plays many parts, 
His acts — being seven ages. At first, the infant, 
Meivling and puking in the nurse's arms ; 
And then, the whining school-boy, with his satchel, 
And shining morning/ace, creeping like snail, 
Unwilingly, to school. And then, the lover; 
Sighing like a furnace, with a woeful ballad 
Made to his mistress' eyebrow : Then, a soldier, 
Full of strange oaths, and bearded like the pard, 
Jealous in honor, sudden and quick in quarrel, 
Seeking the bubble reputation 
Even in the cannon's mouth : And then the justice; 
In fair round belly, with good capon lined, 
With eyes severe, and beard of formal cut, 
Full of wise saws and modern instances, 
And so he plays his part : The sixth age — shifts 
Into the lean and slipper'd pantaloon ; 
With spectacles on nose, and pouch on side; 
His youthful hose, well saved, a world too wide 
For his shrunk shank ; and his big manly voice, 
Turning again toward childish treble— pipes, 
And whistles in his sound : Last scene of all, 
That ends this strange eventful history, 
Is second childishness, and mere oblivion; 
Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans eueri/thing. 
Charity, decent, modest, easy, kind, 
Softens the high, and rears the abject mind ; 
Knows, with just reins, and gentle hand, to guide 
Betwixt vile shame— and arbitrary pride. 
Not soon provoked, she easily forgives ; 
.And muchr— she suffers, as she muclt^-believes. 
Soft peace she brings, wherever she arrives ; 
She builds our quiet, as she forms our lives; 
Lays the rough paths — of peevish nature even; 
And opens, in each heart, a little heaven. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



155 



430. The Slexder characteristic of 
Voice. In all cases, endeavor to express by 
the voice and gesture, the sense and feeling, 
that are designed to be conveyed by the 
words,- i.e. tell the whole truth. Most of 
the following words, that Shakspeare puts 
into the mouth of Hotspur, descrjptive of a 
dandy, requires the use of this peculiarity of 
voice, in order to exhibit their full meaning. 
Conceive how a blunt, straight-forward, hon- 
est soldier would make his defence, when 
unjustly accused by his finical superior, of 
unsoldier-like conduct; and then recite the 
following. 

My liege— 1 did deny no prisoners. 
But I remember, when Xhefght was done, 
When I was dry with rage, and extreme toil, 
Breathless, and faint, leaning upon my sword, 
Came there a certain lord; neat, trimly dress'd; 
Fresh as a bridegroom ; and his chin, new reap'd, 
Showed like stubbleAaxid— at harvest home. 
He was perfumed like a milliner; 
And, 'twixt his finger and his thumb, he held 
A pouncet-box, which, ever and anon, 
He gave his nose. And still he smiPd, and taWd, 
And as the soldiers— bore dead bodies by, 
He called them untaught knaves, unmannerly, 
To bring a slovenly, unhandsome corse 
Betwixt the wind — and his nobility. 
With many holiday, and lady terms, 
He questioned me ; amongst the rest, demanded 
My prisoners, in her majesty's behalf; 
I then, all smarting with my wounds, being gall'd 
To be so pestered with a popinjay, 
Out of.my grief— and my impatience, 
Answered negligently, — I know not what — 
He should, or should not; for he made me mad, 
To see him shine so brisk, and smell so sweet, 
And talk so like a waiting gentlewoman, [mark,) 
Of guns, and drums, and ivounds, (heaven save the 
And telling me the sovreigrfst thing on earth, 
Was spermaceti — for an inward bruise: 
And that it was great pity, (so it was.) 
That villanous saltpetre — should be digged, 
Out of the bowels of the harmless earth, 
Which many a good, tall fellow had destroyed 
So cowardly ; and, but for these vile guns, 
He would himself have been a soldier : 
This bald, unjointed chat of his, my lord, 
I answered indirectly, as I said ; 
And I beseech you, let not his report 
Come current, for an accusation, 
Betwixt my love, and your high majesty. 

Number. Unity — is an abstract concep- 
tion, resembling primary, or incorporeal 
matter, in its general aggregate; one — ap- 
pertains to things, capable of being num- 
bered, and may be compared to matter, 
rendered visible under a particular form. 
Number is not infinite, any more than mat- 
ter is ; but it is the source of that indefinite 
divisibility, into equal parts, which is the 
property of all bodies. Thus, unity and one 
are to be distinguished from each other. 
Plenty— makes dainty. 



Maxims. 1. Some are ahrt in the beginning, 
but negligent in the end. 2. Fear— is often con- 
cealed under a show of daring. 3. The remedy is 
often worse than the disease. 4. A faint heart nev- 
er won a fair lady. 5. No man is free, who does 
not govern himself. 6. An angry man opens his 
mouth, and shuts his eyes. 7. Such as give ear to 
slanderers, are as bad as slanderers themselves. 
8. A cheerful manner denotes a gentle nature. 9. 
Proud looks lose hearts, but courteous words — win 
them. 10. Brevity is the soul of eloquence. 

Anecdote. Self-interest. When Dr. 
Franklin applied to the king of Prussia to 
lend his assistance to America, — " Pray Doc- 
tor/' says he, " what is the object you mean 
to attain 1" " Liberty, Sire," replied the phi- 
losopher ; " Liberty! that freedom, which is 
the birthright of all men." The king, after a 
short pause, made this memorable answer: 
" I was born a prince, and am become a king; 
and I will not use the powers I possess, to 
the ruin of my own trade." 

Of laying. Lying — supplies those who 
are addicted to it — with a plausible apology 
for every crime, and with a supposed shelter 
from every punishment. It tempts them to 
rush into danger — from the mere expecta- 
tion of impunity ; and, when practiced with 
frequent success, it teaches them to confound 
the gradations of guilt ; from the effects of 
which there is, in their imaginations, at 
least one sure and common protection. It 
corrupts the early simplicity of youth; it 
blasts the fairest blossoms of genius; and 
will most assuredly counteract every effort, 
by which we may hope to improve the tal- 
ents, and mature the virtues of those whom 
it infects. 

Varieties. 1. A -very moderate power, 
exercised by perseverance, will effect — what 
direct force could never accomplish. 2. We 
must not deduce an argument against the use 
of a thing, from an occasional abuse of it. 3. 
Should we let a painful and cold attention to 
manner and voice, chill the warmth of our 
hearts, in our fervency and zeal in a good 
cause? 4. Youth — often rush on, impetu- 
ously, in the pursuit of every gratification, 
heedless of consequences. 5. The adherence 
to truth — produces much good; and its ap- 
pearances — much mischief. 6. Every one, 
who does not grow better, as he grows older, 
is a spendthrift of that time, which is more 
precious than gold. 7. Obedience to the 
truths of the Word, is the life of all; for 
truths are the laws of the heavens, and of the 
church ; obedience — implies the reception of 
them; so far as we receive, so far we are 
alive, by the coming of the kingdom within 
us. 

Whoe'er, amidst the sons 
Of reason, valor, liberty, and virtue, 
Displays distinguished merit, is a noble 
Of Nature's own making. 



156 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



431. Tremor, of Voice — resembles the 
{rill in singing, and may be indicated in this 
manner, ~^~^—-^^^~ ; the voice ranging 
from a quarter of a tone, to several tones. 
It is made deep in the throat, with a drop- 
ping of the jaw ; and when properly used, 
it is very effective and heart-stirring : espe- 
cially, in the higher kinds of oratory. It 
heightens joy, mirth, rapture, and exulta- 
tion ; adds pungency to scorn, contempt, and 
sarcasm s deepens the notes of sorrow, and 
enhances those of distress: often witnessed 
in children, when manifesting their delights. 
There are several degrees, from the g)-oss to 
the most refined. 

423. 1. Said Falstaff, of his ragged regi- 
ment, " I'll not march through Coventry 
with them, that's fiat ,• no eye hath seen such 
scarecrows." Almost every word requires a 
kind of chuckle, especially the italic ones ; 
and by making a motion with the chin, up 
and down, the shake of the voice will corres- 
pond to the sign, -^^^^-^^-s . 2. In 
this example we have an instance of a refin- 
ed tremor of voice ; but the right feeling is ne- 
cessary to produce it naturally. Queen Cath- 
arine said, in commending her daughter to 
Henry, " And a little to love her, for her moth- 
er's sake: who loved him — heaven knows 
how dearly." The coloring matter of the 
voice is feeling — passion, which gives rise to 
the qualities of voice; thus, we employ 
harsh tones in speaking of what we disap- 
prove, and euphoneous ones in describing the 
objects of love, complacency, admiration, &c. 
423. In extemporaneous speaking, or 
speaking from manuscript, (i. e. making it 
talk,) when the speaker is under the influ- 
ence of strong passion, the voice is apt to be 
carried to the higher pitches : how shall he 
regain his medium pitch 1 by changing the 
passion to one requiring low notes; thus, 
the surface of his flow of voice, will present 
the appearance of a country with mountains, 
hills, and dales. Elocution — relates more to 
the words and thoughts of others ; oratory 
toouroum. To become a good reader and 
speaker, one must be perfect in elocution, 
which relates to words ; in logic, which re- 
lates to thoughts ; and in rhetoric, which ap- 
pertains to the affections : thus involving 
rauses, and effects. 
Anecdote. Aged Gallantry. A gallant 
old gentleman, by the name of Page, who 
was something of a rhymester, finding a la- 
dy's glove at a watering-place, presented it 
to her, with the following lines : 
" If from your glove — you take the letter g, 
Your glove — is love — which J devote to — thee." 
To which the lady returned the following 
answer : 
"If from your Page, you take the letter p, 
Your page— is age, — and that won't do for me." 



Proverbs. 1. Proud persons have few real 
friends. 2. Mildness — governs belter than anger. 
3. No hope should influence us to do evil. 4. Few 
things are impossible to skill and industry. 5 
Diligence — is the mistress of success. 6. Conscienn 
is never dilatory in her warnings. 7. A vain 
hope flattereth the heart of afool. 8. Moderate. 
speed is a sure help to all proceedings. 9. Liber- 
ality of knowledge makes no one the poorer. 10. 
If you endeavor to be honest, you struggle with 
yourself. 

Names. A man, that should call every tiling 
by its right name, would hardly pass through 
the streets, without being knocked down as a 
common enemy. 

Varieties. 1. In 1S40, there were in the 
United States, five hundred and eighty-four 
thousand whites, who could not read or 
write-, five thousand, seven hundred and 
seventy-three deaf and dumb; five thous- 
and and twenty-four blind ; fourteen thous- 
and five hundred and eight insane, or idiots. 
and two millions four hundred and eighty- 
seven thousand slaves. 2. As our popula- 
tion increases thirty-four per cent, in ten 
years, at this rate, in 1850, our seventeen 
millions will be twenty-two millions : in 
1860, thirty millions ; and in 1900, ninety- 
five millions. 3. The regular increase of the 
N. E. states is fourteen per cent ; of the mid- 
dle states twenty-five per cent. ; of the south- 
ern twenty-two per cent. ; and of the west- 
ern — sixty-eight per cent. 4. Many persons 
are more anxious to know who Melchisedec 
was, or what was Paul's thorn in the fiesh, 
than to know what they shall do to be saved. 
5. To cure anger, sip of a glass of water, till 
the fit goes off. 6. An infallible remedy for 
anxiety — " cast thy burden upon the Lord, 
and he shall sustain thee." 

TRY J TRY AGAIN. 

'Tis a lesson — you should heed, 

Try, try again ; 
If a\ first — you don't succeed, 

Try, try again; 
Then your courage should appear. 
For, if you will persevere, 
You will conquer, never fear ; 

Try, try again. 
Once, or twice, though you should/a//. 

Try. try again ; 
If you would, at last, prevail, 

Try. try aga in ; 
If we strive, 'tis no disgrace, 
Though we may not win the roc ; 
What should you do in the case ? 

Try, try again. 
If you find your task is hard, 

Try, try again ; 
Time will bring you your reward. 

Try, try again; 
All that other folks can do, 
Why, with patience, should not you ? 
Only keep this rule in view, 

TRY, TRY AGAIN. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



157 



424. Before entering on a consideration 
and illustration of the Passions, the pupil is 
urged to revise the preceding lessons and 
exercises; but do not be deceived with the 
idea, that thinking about them is enough, 
or reading them over silently; join practice 
with thought, and the effects are yours. One 
of the great difficulties in thinking about 
any art or science, and witnessing the efforts 
of others in their presentation, is — that one's 
taste is so far in advance of his own practice, 
that he becomes disgusted with it, and des- 
pairs of his success. Let us remember that 
nothing is truly our own, that we do not 
understand, love and practice. 

hamlet's instructions on delivery. 
Speak the speech, I pray you, as / pronounced 
it to you; trippingly on the tongue. But if you 
mouth it, as many of our players do, I had as lief 
the town-m'er had spoke my lines. And do not 
saw the air too much with your hand; but use all 
gently; for in the very torrent, tempest, and, as I 
may say, whirlwind of your passion, you must 
acquire and beget a temperance, that may give it 
tmoothness. Oh! it offends me to the soul, to hear 
a robustious, periwig-paled, fellow tear a passion 
to tatters, to very rags, to split the ears of the 
groundlings ; who, (for the most part,) are capa- 
ble of nothing, but inexplicable dumb-show and 
noise. I would have such a fellow whipped for 
o'erdoing termagant, it out-Herod's Herod. Pray 
you, avoid it. Be not too tame, neither; but let 
your own discretion be your tutor. Suit the ac- 
tion — to the word, the word — to the action; with 
this special observance, that you o'erstep not the 
modesty of nature: for anything, so overdone, is 
from the purpose of playing ; whose end, both at 
the first, and now, was, and is — to hold, as 'twere, 
the mirror up to nature; to show virtue her own 
feature, scorn — her own image, — and the very age 
and body of the time, his form and pressure. Now, 
this overdone, or come tardy off, though it may 
make the unskillful laugh, cannot but make the 
judicious — grieve: the censure of one of which, 
must, in your allowance, o'erweigh a whole thea- 
tre of others. Oh! there be players that I have 
seen play, and heard others praise, and that high- 
ly, that, neither having the accent of christian, nor 
the gait of christian, pagan, nor man, have so 
strutted and bellowed, that I have thought some 
of nature's journeymen had made men, and not 
made them well; they imitated humanity so abom- 
inably. 

425. Tendencies of our Language. 
As our language abounds in monosyllables, 
it affords good means to deliver our thoughts 
in few sounds, and thereby favors despatch. 
which is one of our characteristics ; and 
when we use words of more than one sylla- 
ble, we readily contract them some, by our 
rapid pronunciation, ,'or by the omission of 
some vowel; as, drown'd, walk'd, dips; in- 
stead of drown-ed, walk-ed, dip-peth, &c; 
and even proper names of several syllables, 
when familiarized, often dwindle down into 
monosyllables; whereas, in other languages, 
they receive a softer turn, by the addition 
of a new syllable. 



Proverbs. 1. Beauty is no longer amiable, 
than while virtue adorns it. 2. Past services 
should never be forgotten. 3. A known enemy is 
better than a treacherous friend. 4. Don't engage 
in any undertaking, if your conscience says no 
to it. 5. Benefits and injuri.es receive their value 
from the intention. 6. We should give by choice, 
and not by hazard. 7. He, that does good to an- 
other, from proper motives, does good also to him- 
self. 8. He that is false to God can never be true 
to man. 9. A good principle is sure to produce a 
good practice. 10. None are truly wise, but those 
that are pure in heart. 

Anecdote. Contrary. A woman, having 
fallen into a river, her husband went to look 
for her, proceeding up stream from where 
she fell in. The bystanders asked him if 
he was mad? she could not have gone 
against the stream. The man answered : 
" She was obstinate and contrary in her life- 
time, and I suppose for certain she is so at 
her death." 

Intuition. We cannot have an idea of 
one, without the idea of another to which it 
is related. We then get the idea of two, 
by contemplating them both; referring, ab- 
stractly, to one of them. We say one and 
one are equal to two; one one, is less than 
two ones; therefore, one does not equal two. 
One and one, are the parts of two, and the 
parts of a thing are equal to the whole of it. 
Thus, we come to the knowledge of what 
has been called intuitive proposition, only 
by reasoning. When such a principle is 
clearly admitted, we cannot deny its truth, 
for a moment : but it is far from being, 
strictly speaking, an intuitive truth. 

Varieties. 1. The virtues of the country 
are with our women, and the only remaining 
hope of the resurrection of the genius and 
character of the nation, rests with them. 2. 
The present — is the parent of the future. 3. 
The last words of' the Indian chief, who 
died at Washington, in 1824, were, " When 
I am gone, let the big guns be fired over 
me." 4. Beware of turning away from do- 
ing good, by thinking how much good you 
would do, if you only had the means. 5. 
The pleasure of thinking on important sub- 
jects, with a view to communicate our tho'ts 
to the unfolding minds around us, is a most 
exquisite pleasure. 6. Principle and prac- 
tice must go hand in hand, to make the 
man, or woman. 7. The time is fast ap- 
proaching, when the mind will strike out 
new fields, and view itself, its Creator, and 
the tfniverse from new positions. 

HOPE. 

Why do those cliffs of shadowy tint appear, 
More sweet than all the landscapes shining near? 
'Tis distance lends enchantment to the view, 
And robes the mountain in its azure hue ! 
Thus with delight we linger to survey 
The promis'd joys of life's unmeasur'd way ; 
Thus from afar, each dim discover'd scene, 
More pleasing seems than all the past hath been, 
And every form that fancy can repair, 
From dark oblivion, glows divinely there. 



158 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



426. A Just delivery consists in a distinct 
articulation of words, pronounced in proper 
/ ( )/ir\ suitably varied to the sense, and the 
emotions of the minds with due observation 
of accent, the several gradations of emphasis ; 
pauses or rests in proper places, and well 
measured degrees of time ; and the whole ac- 
companied with expressive looks, and signi- 
ficant gestures. To conceive, and to execute, 
are two different things : the first may arise 
from study and observation ; the second is 
the effect of practice. 

4*57. Rules fob. the v . When ques- 
tions are not answered by yes or no ; as, Who 
is that lady? In affirmative sentences; 
as — I am prepared to go : language of au- 
thority; as — Back to thy punishment, 
false fugitive: terror; as — The light 
burns blue : surprise ; as — Sir, I perceive 
that thou art a prophet: reprehension; 
as — You are very much to blame for suffer- 
ing him to pass : indign ation : Go — false 
fellow, and let me never see your face 
again : contempt ; as — To live in awe of 
such a thing as I myself: exclamation : 
O nature ! how honorable is thy empire ! 
rhetorical dialogue, when one or more 
persons are represented ; as — James said, 
Charles, go and do as you were bidden,- and 
John said, he need not go at present, for I 
have something for him to do: and the 
final pause; as — All general rules have 
some exceptions. 

428. Important Questions. 1. Is there 
more than one God ? 2. Was the world crea- 
ted out of nothing? 3. What is the mean- 
ing of the expression, " let us make man in 
our image, after our likeness ?" A. By what 
means can we become happy? 5. Can we 
be a friend, and an enemy, at the same time ? 
6. Are miracles the most convincing eviden- 
ces of truth ? 7. Will dying for principles, 
prove any thing more than the sincerity of 
the martyr ? 8. Is it possible for a created 
being to merit salvation by good works? 9. 
Have we li fe of our ovjn ,- or are we dependent 
on God for it every moment? 10. What is 
the difference between good and evil? 11. 
Is any law independent of its maker? 12. 
Are miracles — violations of nature's laws ? 

429. Some think matter is all, and man- 
ner little or nothing; but if one were to 
speak the sense of an angel in bad words, and 
with a disagreeable utterance, few would 
listen to him with much pleasure or profit. 
The figure of Adonis, with an awkward air, 
and ungraceful motion, would be disgusting 
instead of pleasing. 

Reader, whosoe'er thou art, 
What thy God has riven, impart ; 
Hide it not within the ground ; 
Send the cup of blessing round. 



Proverbs. 1. To fail, or not— to fail ; that 
is the question. 2. He, that loveth pleasure, shall 
be a poor man. 3. Flattery is a dazzling meieor, 
that casts a delusive glare before the mental eye 
seduces the imagination, perverts the judgment, 
and silences the dictates of reason. 4. Mankind 
are governed more by feeling and impulse, than 
by reason and reflection. 5. Our dntij and rue 
interest, always unite. 6. An occasional hearty 
laugh, is often an act of wisdom. 7. No one can 
be great, who is not virtuous. 8. We make more 
than half the evils we feel. 9. JVo one can esti- 
mate the value of a pious, discreet, and faithful 
mother. 10. The boy— is the father of the man. 

Anecdote. T allow and Talent. Fletcher, 
bishop of Nesmes, was the son of a tullow- 
chandler. A great duke once endeavored to 
mortify the prelate, by saying to him, at the 
king's levee, that he smelt of tallow. To 
which the bishop replied, "My lord, I am 
the son of a chandler, it is true, and if your 
lordship had been the same, you would have 
remained a chandler all the days of your life. 

Disinterestedness— is the very flower of 
all the virtues, a manifestation — in the heart 
of one who feels and acts from it, of heaven 
on earth, — the very reflection of the sun of 
Paradise. If mankind more generally, knew 
how beautiful it is to serve others, from the 
love of doing them good, there would not be 
so much cold and narrow selfishness in the 
world. When we have contributed most to 
the happiness of others, we are receptive our- 
selves of the most happiness. 

Varieties. 1. Never repay kindness with 
tmkindness. 2. Is pride — commendable? 3. 
No guarantee for the conduct of nations, or 
individuals, ought to be stronger than that 
which honor imposes. 4. True patriotism 
labors for civil and religious liberty all over 
the world — for universal freedom ,• the liber- 
ty and happiness of the human race. 5. 
What is charity, and what are its fruits? 6. 
When persons are reduced to want, by their 
own laziness, or vices, is it a duty to relieve 
them? 7. To read Milton's Paradise Lost, 
is the pleasure of but few. 8. The argu- 
ment of the Essay on Man, is said to have 
been written by Bolingbroke, and versified 
by Pope. 9. Painting, Sculpture and Archi- 
tecture — are three subjects, on which nearly 
all persons, of polite education, are compelled 
to conceal ignorance, if they cannot display 
knowledge. 10. Is labor — a blessing, or a 
a curse ? 

Music! — oh! how faint, how weak! 

Language — fades I e fore thy spell ; 
Why should feeling— ever speak, 
When thou canst breathe her soul — so well. 
Ah ! why will kings— forget— that they are men, 
And men, that they are brethren ? [the ties 

Why delight— in human sacrifice! Why burst 
Of nature, that should knit their souls together 
In one soft band— of amity and love ? 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



159 



430. Style. The character of a person's 
style of reading and speaking depends upon 
his moral perceptions of the ends, causes, and 
effects of the composition : thus, style may- 
be considered the man himself, and, as every 
one sees and feels, with regard to everything, 
according to the state or condition of his 
mind, and as there are and can be no two 
persons alike; each individual will have a 
manner and style peculiar to himself; tho' 
in the main, that of two persons of equal 
education and intelligence, may be in a great 
degree similar. 

431. Rules for the ' . When ques- 
tions are answered by yes or no, they gen- 
erally require the '. Exs. Are you well ? 
Is he gone ? Have you got your hat ? Do 
you say yes ? Can he accommodate me 1 
Will you call and see me 1 But when the 
questions are emphatic, or amount to an affir- 
mative,the y isuse&. A\e you well ] As much 
as to say : tell me whether you are well. Is 
he gone 1 Have you done it? All given 
in an authoritative manner. Hath he said 
it, and shall he not do it] He that planted 
the ear, shall he not hear ] Is he a man, 
that he should repent P 

432. Important Questions. 1. Is the 
casket more valuable than the Jewel? 2. 
Will not the safety of the community be en- 
dangered, by permitting the murderer to live? 
3. Are theatres — beneficial to mankind ] 4. 
Did Napolean do more hurt than good to the 
world'! 5. Were the Texans right — in re- 
belling against Mexico] 6. Ought the license 
system to be abolished ] 7. Is animal mag- 
netism true ] 8. Who was the greatest mon- 
ster — Nero, or Catiline? 9. Should we act 
from policy, or from principle? 10. Is not 
the improvement of the mind, of the first im- 
portance ] 

Nature. Man is radiant with expressions. 
Every feature, limb, muscle and vein, may 
tell something of the energy within. The 
brow, smooth or contracted, — the eye, placid, 
dilated, tearful, flashing, — the lip, calm, quiv- 
ering, smiling, curled, — the whole counten- 
ance, serene, distorted, pale, flushed, — the 
hand, with its thousand motions, — the chest, 
still or heaving, — the attitude, relaxed or firm, 
cowering or lofty, — in short, the visible char- 
acteristics of the whole external man, — are 
Nature's haistd-writi^g ; and the tones and 
qualities of the voice, soft, low, quiet, broken, 
agitated, shrill, grave, boisterous, — are her 
oral language : let the student copy and 
learn. Nature is the goddess, and art and 
science her ministers. 

Since trifles— make the sum of human things, 
And half our misery — from our foibles springs; 
Since life's best joys — consist in peace and ease, 
And few — can save or serve, but all — can please ; 
O let the ungentle spirit— learn from ftenee, — 
A smaU unhindness—is a great offence. 



Maxims. 1. It does not become a law-maker, 
to become a law-breaker. 2. Friendship is strongei 
than kindred. 3. Idleness is the sepulchre of a liv- 
ing man. 4. An orator, without judgment, is like a 
horse without a bridle. 5. He that knows when to 
speak, knows when to be- silent. 6. The truest end 
of life— is to know the life that never ends. 7. 
Wine has drowned more than the sea. 8. Impose 
not on others a burthen which you cannot bear 
yourself. 9. He overcomes a stout enemy, that 
overcomes his own anger. 10. Study mankind 
as well as books. 

Anecdote. Note of Interrogation (]). 
Mr. Pope, the poet, who was small and de- 
formed, sneering at the ignorance of a young 
man, who was very inquisitive, and asked a 
good many impertinent questions, inquired 
of him if lie knew what an interrogation 
point was ] " Yes sir," said he, " it is a little 
crooked thing, like yourself, that asks ques- 
tions." 

Ideas, acquired by taste — are compound 
and relative. If a man had never experi- 
enced any change, in the sensation produced 
by external things, on the organs of taste, 
that which he now calls sweet, (if it had been 
the quality, subjected to the sense,) would 
have conveyed to the mind no possible idea ; 
but, alternating with the quality we call bit- 
ter, contrariety — produces the first impres- 
sion, and he learns to distinguish the qualities 
by names. The sensation — awakened by 
Madeira wine, must be very acute, to enable 
a man to discriminate, accurately, without a 
Very careful comparison. Let a particular 
kind of Madeira wine remain a few years on 
the lees of many other kinds, and who would 
detect the compound flavor, but the contriver ? 

Varieties. 1. Inspire a child with right 
feelings, and they will govern his actions: 
hence, the truth of the old adage, Example 
is better than precept. 2. The great difficulty 
is, that we give rules, instead of inspiring 
sentiments ; it is in vain to lead the under- 
standing with rules, if the affections are not 
right. 3. Benjamin West states, that his mo- 
ther kissed him, eagerly, when he showed her 
the likeness he had sketched of his baby sis- 
ter,- and, he adds, — that kiss made me a 
painter. 4. Lay by all scraps of material 
things, as well as of knowledge, and they 
will certainly come in use within seven years. 
5. Gain all the information you can, learn all 
that comes in your way, without being intru- 
sive, and provided it does not interfere with 
the faithful discharge of other duties. 6. It 
was a maxim of the great William Jones, 
never to lose an opportunity of learning 
anything. 

A wise man poor, 
Is like a sacred book, that's never read; 
To himself he lives, and to allege seems dead: 
This, age— thinks better of a gilded fool, 
Than of a threadbare saint— in wisdom's school 



160 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



433. Style. The numerous examples 
given throughout this work, afford the neces- 
sary means for illustrating ah the principles 
of elocution: let the taste, and judgment, as 
well as the abilities of the student — be test- 
ed by a proper selection and application of 
them. He must not expect too much from 
others, nor take it unkindly, when thrown 
upon his own resources : the best way to in- 
crease our strength, is to have it often tested. 
All who become orators, must make them- 
selves orators. 

434. Important Questions. 1. If we 
do ivell, shall we not be accepted ? 2. Which 
is more useful, fire, or water ? 3. Ought cir- 
cumstantial evidence to be admitted in crim- 
inal cases'! 4. Can we be too zealous in 
rightly promoting a good cause '.' 5. Which 
is worse, a bad education, or no education 1 
6. Are not bigotry and intolerance — as des- 
tructive to morality, as they are to common 
sense ? 7. Are we not apt to be proud of 
that which is not our oivn P 8. Ought there 
not to be duties on imported goods, to en- 
courage domestic manufactures ? 9. Is sla- 
very right ? 10. Have steamboats been the 
cause of more good than evil ? 

435. Ignorance and Error. It is al- 
most as difficult to make one unlearn his er- 
rors, as to acquire knowledge. Mal-'mfox- 
mation is more hopeless than won-informa- 
tion ; for error is always more busy than ig- 
norance. Ignorance — is a blank sheet, on 
winch we may v'rite ; but error — is a scrib- 
bled one, from which we must first erase. 
Ignorance — is contented to stand still, with 
her back to the truth; but error — is more 
presumptuous, and proceeds in the same di- 
rection. Ignorance has no light, but error 
follows a false one. The consequence is, 
that error, when she retraces her footsteps, 
has farther to go, before she can arrive at the 
truth, than ignorance. 

Anecdote. Virtue before Riches. The- 
mistocles — had a daughter, to whom two men 
were wishing to make love ; one — was very 
rich, but a simpleton, and the other — poor, 
but a very wise man : the father preferred the 
latter, — saying, " I would rather have a man 
without riches, than riches without a man." 
The primal duties — shine aloft, like stars ; 
The charities, that soothe, and heal, and bless, 
Are scattered at the feet of man, like flowers ; 
The generous inclination, the just rule, 
Kind withes, and good actions, and pure thoughts. 
No mystery is here ; no special boon 
For high, and not for loxo ; for -proudly graced, 
And not for meek of heart. The smoke ascends 
To heaven as lightly from the cottage hearth, 
As from the haughty palace. He, whose soul 
Ponders this true equality, may walk 
The fields of earth — with gratitude and hope. 
Our wishes lefigthen — as our sun declines. 



Maxims. 1. Punctuality begets confidence, 
and is the sure road to honor and respect. 2. A 
picture is a poem, without ivords. 3. Sensible men 
show their sense, by saying much in few words 
4. He, who thinks to cheat another, cheats him- 
self. 5. Piide is easily seen in others; but we 
rarely see it in ourselves. 6. Wealth is not his 
who gets it, but his who enjoys it. 7. A bad book 
is one of the worst of thieves. 8. Toleration 
should spring from charity, not from indifference. 

9. Too much prosperity makes most men fools. 

10. He, who serves God, has the best master in 
the world. 11. One love drives another out. 12. 
Health is better than wealth. 

Influence. Few are aware of the full ex- 
tent of meaning contained in this word. If 
we can measure the kind and quantity of 
influence, that every variety of heat and cold 
has on the world of matter ; if we can tell 
the influence, that one individual has on an- 
other, one society on another, and one na- 
tion on another, both for time and eternity; 
if we can estimate the influence, that spir- 
itual beings have on one another, and on 
the human race, collectively, and separately ; 
also the influence of the Great Spirit on all 
creation, then, we are able to see and realize 
the mighty meaning of this important word. 
Contemplate and weigh the influence, that 
different kinds of food and drink have on the 
human system, by being appropriated to its 
innumerable parts; the influence on body 
and mind of keeping and violating the laws 
of life, by thinking, feeling, and acting ; the 
influence, which a good or bad person has on 
his associates and also their influence on oth- 
ers, through all coming time, as well as in the 
eternal world, and you will perceive some- 
thing of the importance of ceasing to do evil, 
and learning to do well; of living and prac- 
ticing what is good and true, and thereby 
being saved from all that is evil and false. 

Varieties. 1. Lord Coke — wrote the fol- 
lowing, which he religiously observed ; " Six 
hours to sleep, to law's great study six, Four 
spend in prayer, the rest to nature fix.*' 2. 
Wm. Jones, a wiser economist of the fleeting 
hours of life, amended the sentiment thus; 
Seven hours to law, to soothing slumbers 
seven, Ten to the world allot, and all to 
heaven. 3. The truly beautiful and sublime 
are to be found within the regions of nature 
and probability : the false sublime sets to it- 
self no bounds : it deals in thunders, earth- 
quakes, tempests, and whirlwinds. 4. Is it 
any pain for a bird to fly, a. fish to sv;im, or 
a boy to play ? 5. Confound not vociferation 
with emphatic expression; for a whisper 
may be as discriminating as the loudest tones. 
6. Speech— is the gift of God. 7. Order — is 
the same in the world, in man, and in the 
church ; man — is an epitome of all the prin- 
ciples of order. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



161 



436. Sttle, &c. To accomplish your ob- 
ject, study the true meaning and character 
of the subject, so as to express the whole, in 
such a way as to be perfectly understood and 
felt: thus, you will transport your hearers 
to the scene you describe, and your earnest- 
ness raise them on the tiptoe of expectation, 
and your just arguments sweep everything 
before them like a mountain torrent: to ex- 
cite, to agitate, and delight, are among the 
most powerful arts of persuasion : but the 
impressions must be enforced on the mind by 
a command of all the sensibilities and sym- 
pathies of the soul. That your course may 
be ever upward and onward, remember, none 
but a rood man can be a perfect orator; un- 
corrupted and incorruptible integrity is one 
of the most powerful engines of persuasion. 

437. Important Questions. 1. Is any 
government — as important as the principles 
it should protect and extend] 2. Should we 
remain passive, when our country, or politi- 
cal rights are invaded? 3. Are banks bene- 
ficial 1 4. Have the crusaders been the cause 
of more evil than good ? 5. Was the war 
waged against the Seminoles of Florida, just? 
6. Which is the more important acquisition, 
wealth, or knowledge ? 7. Is there any neu- 
tral ground between good and evil, truth and 
falsehood? 8. Which should we fear most, 
the commission of a crime, or the fear of pun- 
ishment ? 9. By binding the understanding, 
and forcing the judgment, can we mend the 
heart? 10. When proud people meet toge- 
ther, are they not always unhappy? 11. Is 
not common sense a very rare and valuable 
article 1 12. What is the use of a body, with- 
out a. soul? 

438. Manner and Matter. The secret 
of success in Music, as well as in Elocution, 
is. to adapt the manner perfectly to the mat- 
ter : if the subject be simple, such must be 
the manner : if it be gay and lively, or solemn 
and dignified, such, or such must be the 
manner- in addition to which, the performer 
must forget himself, or rather lose himself in 
the subject, body and soul, and show his re- 
gard to his audience, by devoting himself to 
the subject : and hence he must never try to 
show himself off: but hide behind the thought 
and feeling, and depend upon them to pro- 
duce the effect : if there is any affectation, 
the hold on the heart is in that proportion 
relinquished. Oh, when shall we take our 
appropriate place and regard use as the grand 
object ! 

But sure— to foreign climes— we need not range, 

Nor search the ancient records of our race, 
To learn— the dire effect of time— and change, 

Which, in ourselves, alas ! we daily trace ; 
Yet, at the darkened eye, the withered face, 

Or hoary hair— 1 never will repine ; 
But spare, Time ! whate'er of mental grace, 

Of candor, love, or sympathy divine ; 
Whate'er of fancy's ray, or friendship's flame is mine. 
SB1 



Maxims. 1. Revenge, however 'sweet, is 
clearly bought. 2. Life is half spent, before we 
know what it is to live. 3. The world is a work- 
shop, and the tvise only know how to use its tools. 

4. A man is valued, as he makes himself valuable. 

5. Heaven is not to be had, merely by wishing for 
it. 6. As often as we do good, we sacrifice. 7. Be 
careful to keen your word, even in the most trifling 
matter. 8. Hearts may agree, tho' heads may dif- 
fer. 9. Honest men are easily bound ; but you can 
never bind a knave. 10. Experience keeps a dear 
school; but fools will learn in no other. 

Anecdote. Curious Patriotism. Some 
years ago, one of the convicts at Botany Bay, 
wrote a farce, which was acted with much 
applause in some of the theatres. Barring- 
ton, the notorious pick-pocket, wrote the 
prologue ; which ended with these lines : 
True patriots we ; for, be it understood, 
We left our country — for our country's good. 

Ignorance— Willfulness. The ignor- 
ant — oppose without discrimination. Har- 
vey, for asserting the circulation of the blood, 
was styled a vagabond, a quack ; and perse- 
cut ed, through life, by the medical profession. 
In the time of Francis I., Ambrose Pare — in- 
troduced the ligament, to staunch the blood 
of an amputated limb, instead of boiling hot 
pitch, in which the bleeding stump had for- 
merly been dipped; and he was persecuted, 
with the most relentless rancour, by the Fa- 
culty, who Hdiculed the idea — of risking a 
man's life upon a thread, when boiling pitch 
had stood the test for centuries. Medicines 
have been proscribed as poison, and then pi-e- 
scribed in great quantities ,- the proscriptions 
and prescriptions being both adopted with 
equal ignorance and credulity. There is no 
hope for man, but a thorough and correct 
education in the school of truth and goodness, 

"Varieties. 1. Does 'the nature of things 
depend on the matter, of which they are 
formed; or on the laws of constitution, by 
which matter is an-anged ? 2. Is not veget- 
able matter formed from oxygen and hydro- 
gen ; and animal matter from these two and 
carbon? But what are their constituent 
parts ? Were their essences created, or are 
they eternal ? 3. What large portions of the 
world there are of which we know compara- 
tively nothing ! and although we are familiar 
with our bodies, externally, yet how little of 
their internals do even the best physiologists 
knowl 4. How much is really known of 
the nature of mind? and yet there is pre- 
sumption enough in some, to decide at once, 
upon all the phenomena of the mind, and 
prescribe its limits. 5. Thus, man clothes 
himself with his fanciful knowledge, and 
plays such insane tricks before the world, as 
make the angels weep. 

The fisher— is out on the sunny sea, 
And the reindeer — bounds e'er the pasture free; 
And the pine — has a fringe of a softer green, 
_ And the moss— looks bright, where my foot hath bees. 

o2 



162 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



439. Effective Style. The more your 
reading and speaking partake of the freedom 
and ease of common discourse, (provided 
you sustain the object and life of the compo- 
sition) the more Just, natural, and effective 
will he your style of delivery : hence the ne- 
cessity of studying nature, of avoiding all 
affectation, and of never attempting that in 
public, which is beyond your ability. Some 
mar, or spoil what they are going to say, by 
making so much ado over it, thinking they 
must do some great thing; when it isal most 
as simple as — wash and be clean : whatever 
is not natural is not agreeable or persuasive. 

44:0. Important Questions. 1. Were 
any beings ever created angels'? 2. Is it 
right ever to do wrong ? 3. Why was a rev- 
elation necessary ? 4. May we not protect 
our person and character from assault ? 5. 
Does civilization increase happiness? 6. 
Which excites more curiosity, the works of 
nature, or the works of art? 7. Ought a 
witness to be questioned with regard to his 
religious opinions, or belief? 8. Was the 
general bankrupt law a benefit to the coun- 
try 1 9. Why are we disposed to laugh, even 
when our best friend falls down 'i 1 0. Which 
is the greatest, fait h, hope, or charity? 11. 
Should controversy interrupt our friendship 
and esteem for each other! 12. Have chris- 
tians any right to persecute each other for 
their opinions ? 

441. It is much to be regretted, that our 
teachers are so illy qualified to instruct their 
pupils even in the first rudiments of reading : 
and they are all so much inclined to fall into 
bad habits, and the imitation of faulty speak- 
ers, that it requires constant watchfulness to 
keep clear of the influences of a wrong bias, 
and false, and merely arbitrary rules. We 
never can succeed in this important art, until 
we take elementary instruction out of the 
hands of ignoramuses, and insist upon hav- 
ing persons fully competent to take charge 
of the cause. Away then with the idea, that 
any one can teach reading and speaking, 
merely because they can call the letters, and 
speak the worth so as to be understood. 

Operating Circumstances. We are too 

apt. in estimating a law, passed at a remote peri- 
od, to combine in our consideration, all the subse- 
quent events, which have had an influence upon 
it ; instead of conforming ourselves, as we ought, 
to the circumstances, existing at the time of its 
passage. 

So live, that, when thy summons comes — to joiu 
The innumerable caravan, that moves 
To the pale realms of shade, where each shall take 
His chamber— in the silent halls of death, 
Thou 50 not, like the quarry-*\a.ve, at night, 
Scourged to his dungeon ; but, sustained and soothed 
By an unfaltering trust, approach thy grave, 
Like one, who wraps the draper} of bis couch 
About him, and lies down— to pk want dreamt. 



Maxims. 1. Happiness is the shadow of 
contentment, and rests, or moves forever with ita 
original 2. A drop of wisdom is worth a tun of 
riches. 3. Whatever does not stand with credit, 
will not stand long. 4. Business must be attend- 
ed to, at the expense of every thing else of less im- 
portance. 5. Our states of mind differ as much 
as our spirit* and temper. 6. Death— cannot hill 
what never dies,— mutual love. 7. If you will 
not hear reason, she will rap you over your knuck- 
les. 8. Open rebuke is better than secret love. 9. 
Good counsel is thrown away on the arrogant 
and self-conceited. 10. He, who resolves to amend, 
has God. and all good beings on his side. 

Anecdote. Vanity Reproved. " I am 
very thankful,ihat my mouth has been open- 
ed to preach without any learning,^ — said 
an illiterate preacher, in speaking against 
educating ministers, to preach the gospel. 
A gentleman present replied, " Sir, a similar 
event took place in Baalum's time." 

Education — should give us command of 
every faculty of body, and mind — call out all 
our powers of observation and reflection, 
change the creatures of impulse, prejudice 
and passion, to thinking, reasoning, and lov- 
ing beings ; lead to objects of pursuits, and 
habits of conduct, favorable to the happiness 
of every individual, and to the whole world, 
and multiply all the means of enjoyment, 
and diminish, every temptation to vice and sen- 
suality ; and true education will do all this. 

Varieties. 1. What is moral virtue? 2. 
The greatest danger to public liberty, is from 
vice and idleness. 3. He, that showeth mer- 
cy, shall receive mercy. 4. Never attempt 
anything more, than there is a prospect of 
accomplishing. 5. Should not beasts — as 
well as men, be treated with kindness ? 6. 
Rational liberty — is diametrically opposed 
to the wildness of anarchy. 7. We should 
never ascribe bad motives, when we can sup- 
pose good ones. 8. Nothing is more preju- 
dicial — to the great interests of a nation, 
than uncertain and varying policy. 9. Is 
it lawful — to contend with others, on any oc- 
casion. 10. Prefer the evident interests of 
the community, to the suggestions of the 
pride of consistency. l\. Cleanliness — is 
next to godliness. 

Why have those banished and forbidden legs 
Dared once to touch a dust of England's ground ? 
But more than why — Why have they dared to march 
So many miles upon her peaceful bosom ; 
Frightening her pale-faced villagers with war, 
And ostentation of despised arms ? 
Comest thou because the anointed king is hence ? 
Why, foolish boy, the king is left behind, 
And in my loyal bosom lies his power. 
Were I but now the lord of such hot youth 
As when brave Gaunt, thy father, and myself, 
Rescued the Black Prince, that young Mars of men, 
From forth the ranks of many thousand French; 
Oh, then, how quickly should this arm of mine, 
Now prisoner to the palsy, chastise thee, 
And minister correction to thy fault! 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



163 



442. Eloquence. What were all the 
attributes of man, his personal accomplish- 
ments, and his boasted reason, without the 
faculty of speech ? To excel in its use is 
the highest of human arts. It enables man 
to govern whole nations, and to enchant, 
while he governs. The aristocracy of Elo- 
quence is supreme, and, in a free country, 
can never be subdued. It is the pride of 
peace, and the glory of war: it rides upon 
the zephyr 's wings, or thunders in the storm. 
But there is in eloquence, in painting, the 
life of the canvas, which breathes, moves, 
speaks, and is full of action: so is there in 
the dance, the poetry and music of motion, 
the eloquence of action; whose power con- 
sists in the wonderful adaptation of the gra- 
ces of the body to the harmonies of mind. 
There is eloquence in every object of taste, 
both in art and nature; in sculpture, gar- 
dening, architecture, poetry and music ; all 
of which come within the scope and plan of 
the orator, that he may comprehend that 
intellectual relation, that secret clause in the 
liberal professions, which, connecting one 
with another, combines the influence of all. 
Virtue, alone, ennobles human kind, 

And ■power — should on her glorious footsteps wait. 

Wisdo??i — finds tongues — in trees; books — in run- 
ling streams; sermons — in stones, and good — in 
.♦L-erj/thing. 

Fou pride you — on your golden hue ; [too. 

Know — the poor glow-woim. — hath its brightness 

When men of judgment— -feel, and creep their way, 
The positive — pronounce — without delay. 
: Tis good, and lovely, to be kind; 
But charity— should not be blind. 
A little learning — is a dangerous thing ; 
Drink deep — or taste not the Pierian spring • 
There, shallow draughts — intoxicate the brain, 
But, drinking largely, sobers us again. 
Ah me ! the laureled wreath, that murder wears, 
Blood-nursed and watered with the widow's tears, 
Seems not so foul, — so tainted, — and so dead, 
As waves the night-shade round the sceptic's bed. 

443. Music — is the oral language of the 
affections; as words are the natural language 
of the thoughts. The notes of a tune are 
analogous to letters; ihemeasures — to words; 
the strains — to sentences; and the tune, or 
musical piece, to a discourse, oration, or po- 
em. As there is a great variety of affections, 
and states of affection in the human mind, 
so there is a great variety of tunes, through 
the medium of which these affections, and 
states of affection are manifested. There 
are three grand divisions of music, which, 
for the sake of distinction, may be denomin- 
ated the tipper, -or that which relates to the 
Supreme Being ; the middle, or that relating 
to created, rational beings, or social music ; 
and the lower, or what appertains to that 
part of creation below man — called descrip- 
tive music. 

Ambition — is like love, — impatient — 
Both of delays, — and rivals. 



Maxims. 1. Old age and faded flowers, no 
remedies can revive. 2. Something should be 
learned every time a book is opened. 3. A truly 
great man never puts away the simplicity of the 
child. 4. The gem cannot be polished without 
friction, nor man — perfected, without adversity. 5 
The full stomach cannot realize the evils of hun- 
ger. 6. When thought is agitated, truth rises. ?. 
A child requires books, as much as the merchant 
docs goods. 8. Learn by the vices of others, how 
detestable your own are. 9. Judge not of men or 
things, at first sight. 10. Reprove thy friend pri- 
vately, and commend him publicly. 

Anecdote. Sharp Reply. Two country 
attorneys overtaking a wagoner, with two 
span of horses, and, thinking to be witty at 
his expense, asked him, " How it happened, 
that his forward horses were so fat, and the 
rear ones*"SO leanV The wagoner, know- 
ing them, answered, " That his fore span 
were lawyers, and the other — clients.'''' 

Selfishness — seems to be the complex of 
all vices. The love of self, when predom- 
inant, excludes all goodness, and perverts all 
truth. It is the great enemy of individuals, 
societies, and communities. It is the cause 
of all irritation., the source of all evil. Peo- 
ple, who are always thinking of themselves, 
have no time to be concerned about others; 
their own pleasure or profit, is the pivot, on 
which everything turns. They cannot even 
conceive of disinterestedness, and will laugh 
to scorn all, who appear to love others, as 
well as themselves. Selfishness — is the very 
essence of the first original sin, and it must 
be corrected, or we are lost. 

Varieties. 1. The wind, the falling of 
water, humming of bees, a sweet voice read- 
ing monotonously, tend to produce sleep ; 
this is not so much the case with musical 
tones. 2. The trilling and quivering of 
the voice, which please so much, correspond 
to the glittering of light : as the moonbeams 
playing on the waves. 3. Falling from a dis- 
cord to a concord, which produces so much 
sweetness in music, correspond to the affec- 
tions, when brought out of a state of dislike; 
and also with the taste; which is soon cloy- 
ed with what is sweet alone. 4. Music has 
great effect on mind and body, making us 
warlike or the reverse, soft and effeminate, 
grave and light, gentle, kind and pitiful, 
"&.C., according to its nature, and perform- 
ance; the reason is, because hearing is more 
closely associated with feeling or spirits, 
than the other senses. Observe the effect of 
Yankee Doodle, God save the King, Mar- 
seilles Hymn, &c. 5. When music speaks 
to the affection, affection obeys; as when ?ia~ 
ture speaks, nature replies. 

"Let gratitude — in acts of goodness flow; 

Our love to God, in love to man below. 

Be this our joy— to calm the troubled breast, 

Support the weak, and succor the distressed; 

Direct the wanderer, dry the widow's tear; 

The orphan guard, the sinking spirit cheer: 

Tho' small our power to act, tho' small our skili y 

God— sees the heart; he judges— by the wilL 



164 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



444. There arc also three great divisions 
in Poethy, which is closely allied to music ; 
and both of them originate in the will, or 
affections: and hence, the words of the 
psalm, hymn, poem, and the music in which 
they are sung, chanted, or played, constitute 
the forms, or mediums, through which the 
affections and sentiments are bodied forth. Is 
not genuine music from heaven ? and does it 
not lead there if not perverted ? May not the 
same be said of poetry ? Woe betide the per- 
son, that converts them into occasions of evil ! 

How blind is pride ; what eagles are we still — 
In matters that belong to other men ; 
What beetles— in our own. 

Who fights 
With passions, and overcomes them, is endued 
With the best virtue.— 
Nature— to each— allots his proper sphere ; 
But— that forsaken, we like comets are ; [broke, 
Tossed thro' the void ; by some rude shock we're 
And all our boasted fire— is lost in smoke. 
Thick waters — show no images of things ; 
Friends — are each others' mirrors, and should be 
Clearer than crystal, or the mountain springs, 
And free from cloud, design, ox flattery. 
Tis virtue, that they want ; and wanting its 
Honor — no garments to their backs can fit. 

445. The Uses of Eloquence. In every 
situation, in all the pursuits of life, may be 
seen the usefulness and benefits of eloquence. 
In whatever light we view this subject, it is 
evident that oratory is not a mere castle in 
the air : a fairy palace of frost-work ; desti- 
tute of substance and support. It is like a 
magnificent temple of Parian marble, ex- 
hibiting the most exact and admirable sym- 
metry, and combining all the orders, varieties, 
and beauties of architecture. 

Habits of Industry. It is highly impor- 
tant, that children should be taught to acquire 
habits of industry; for whatever be their habits 
while young, such, for the most part, must they 
continue to be in after life. Children — are apt 
to think it a great hardship, to be obliged to de- 
vote so much time to occupations, at present 
perhaps, disagreeable to them ; but they ought 
to be made to believe, that their tasks are not 
only intended for the informing of their minds, 
but for the bending of their wills. Good habits 
are as easily acquired as bad ones; with the 
great advantage of being the only true way to 
prosperity and happiness. 

Anecdote. Conciseness. Louis XIV. who 
loved a concise style, one day met a priest on 
the round, whom he asked hastily — " Whence 
come you 1 where are you going ? what do 
you want ?" The other immediately replied, 
"From Bruges, — To Paris, — A Benefice." 
u You shall have it," replied the king. 

Servile doubt — 
Argues an impotence of mind, that says,— 
We fear because we dare not meet misfortune. , 



Maxims. 1. Want of punctuality is a species 
of falsehood. 2. Pay as you go, and keep from 
small scores. 3. He, that has his heart in his 
learning, will soon have his learning in his heart. 
4. The empty stomach has no ears. 5. A man 
may talk like a wise man, and yet act like a fool. 
6. Rather improve by the errors of others, than 
find fault with them. 7. The devil turns hi9 
back, when he finds the door shut against him. 
8. Better be upright, with poverty, than depraved 
with abundance. 9. The value of things, is never 
so strongly realized, as when we are deprived of 
them. 10. JVone are so deaf as those who will 
not hear. 

Reform. He, that looks back to the his- 
tory of mankind, will often see, that in poli- 
tics, Jurisprudence, religion, and all the 
great concerns of society, reform — has usu- 
ally been the work of reason, slowly awaken- 
ing from the lethargy of ignorance, gradu- 
ally acquiring confidence in her own strength, 
and ultimately triumphing over the domin- 
ion of prejudice and custom. 

Varieties. 1. What is mercy and its 
uses? 2. Individuals and nations, fail in 
nothing they boldly attempt, when sustained 
by virtuous purpose, and determined resolu- 
tion. 3. Some persons' heads are like bee- 
hives : not because they are all in a buzz, but 
that they have separate cells for every kind 
of store. 4. What nature offers, with a smil- 
ing face, fruit, herb, and grain — are just 
what man's pure instinct would choose for 
food. 5. The majority — ought never to 
trample on the feelings, or violate the just 
rights — of the minority ; they should not 
triumph over the fallen, nor make any but 
temperate and equitable use of their power. 
6. Death is the enacted penalty of nature's 
violated laws. 7. Was it causeless, that 
washing — was introduced, as a religious 
rite, seeing that its observance is so essential 
to the preservation of health ? 

And when the soul — is fullest, the hushed tongue, 
Voicelessly trembles — like a lute unstrung. 

There's beauty— in the deep ; 
The wave— is bluer than the sky ; 
And tho' the light — shine bright on high, 
More softly do the sea-gems glow, 
That sparkle in the depths below ; 
The rainbow's tints — are only made 
When on the waters they are laid, 
And sun and moon — most sweetly shine 
Upon the ocean's level brine : 

There's beauty in the deep. 

There's music — in the deep : 
It is not in the surf's rough roar, 
Nor in the whispering, shelly shore— 
They— are but earthly sounds, that tell 
How little — of the sea-nymph's shell, 
That sends its loud, clear note abroad, 
Or winds its softness through the flood, 
Echoes through groves — with coral gay, 
And dies, on spongy banks, away : 

There's music in the deep ! 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



165 



*46. Our Field. The orator's field is the 
universe of mind and matter, and his sub- 
jects, all that is known of God and man. 
Study the principles of things, and never 
rest satisfied with the results and applications. 
All distinguished speakers, whether they ever 
piid any systematic attention to the prin- 
ciples of elocution or not, in their most suc- 
cessful efforts, conform to them; and their 
imperfections are the results of deviations 
from these principles. Think correctly — ra- 
ther than finely ; sound conclusions are much 
better than beautiful conceptions. Be useful, 
rather than showy ; and speak to the pur- 
pose, or not speak at all. Persons become 
eminent, by the force of mind — the power 
of thinking comprehensively, deeply, closely, 
usefully. Rest more on the thought, feeling, 
and expression, than on the style ,• for lan- 
guage is like the atmosphere — a medium of 
vision, intended not to be seen itself, but to 
make other objects seen ; the more transpar- 
ent however, the better. 
Hast thou, in feverish, and unquiet sleep, — 
Dreamt — th't some merciless demon of the air, 
Rais'd thee aloft,— and held thee by the hair, 
Over the brow — of a down-looking steep, 
Gaping, below, into a chasm — so deep, 
Th't, by the utmost straining of thine eye, 
Thou canst no resting place descry ; 
Not e'en abush— to save thee, shouldst thou sweep 
Adown the black descent; that then, the hand 
Suddenly parted thee, and left thee there, 
Holding— but byj»?ng-er-tips, the bare 
And jagged ridge above, that seems as sand, 
To crumble 'neath thy touch?— If so, I deem 
Th't thou hast had rather an ugly dream. 

447. Vocal Music In vocal music, there 
is a union of music and language — the lan- 
guage of affection and thought,- which in- 
cludes the whole man. Poetry and music 
are sister arts ; their relationship being one 
of heaven -like intimacy. The essence of 
poetry consists in fine perceptions, and vivid 
expressions, of that subtle and mysterious 
analogy, that exists between the physical and 
moral world ; and it derives its power from 
the correspondence of natural things with 
spiritual . I ts effect is to elevate the thoughts 
and affections toward a higher state of ex- 
:j»tence. 

Anecdote. A powerful Stimulous. When 
Lord Erskine made his debut, at the bar, his 
agitation almost overcame him, and he was 
just about to sit down. " At that moment," 
*aid he, " I thought I felt my little children 
tugging at my gown, and the idea roused me 
to an exertion, of which I did not think my- 
self capable." 

Tis not enough — your counsel still be true ; 
Blunt truths more mischief than nice falsehoods do. 
Men must be taught— as if you taught them not, 
And things unknown — propos'd as things forgot. 
Without good-breeding, truth is disapprove; 
That, only, makes superior sense— beloved. 



Maxims. 1. Poverty of mind is often con- 
cealed under the garb of splendor. 2. Vice — is in- 
famous, even in a prince; and virtue, honorable, 
even in a peasant. 3. Prefer loss— to unjust gain, 
and solid sense— to wit. 4. He, that would be 
well spoken of himself must speak well of others. 
5. If every one would mend himself we should all 
be mended. 6. A sound mind is not to be shaken 
with popular applause. 7. The best way to see 
divine light, is to put out our own 8. Some 
blame themselves for the purpose of being praised. 
9. Nothing needs a trick, but a trick; sincerity 
loathes one. 10. As virtue has its own reward, so 
vice has its own punishment. 

What is Worth! The spirit of the age 
says, — "Worth — means wealth; and wis- 
dom — the art of getting it." To be rich is 
considered, by most persons — a merit ; to be 
poor, an offence. By this false standard, it is 
not so important to be wise and good, as to 
be rich in worldly wealth ; thus it is, every 
thing, as well as every person, has its price, 
and maybe bought or sold; and thus — do 
we coin our hearts into gold, and exchange 
our souls — for earthly gain. Hence, it is said, 
" a man is worth so much ;" — i. e. worth just 
as much as his property or money, amount 
to, and no more. Thus, wealth, worth, or 
gain, is not applied to science, to knowledge, 
virtue, or happiness; but to pecuniary ac- 
quisition ; as if nothing but gold were gain, 
and everything else were dross. Thus the 
body — is Dives, clothed in purple and fine 
linen, and faring sumptuously every day; 
while the mind — is Lazarus, lying in rags at 
the gate, and fed with the crumbs, that fall 
from the tables of Time and Sense. 

Varieties. 1. Instead of dividing man- 
kind into the wise and foolish, the good and 
wicked, would it not be better to divide them 
into more or less wise and foolish, more or 
less good or wicked '? 2. It was a proof of 
low origin, among the ancient Romans, to 
make mistakes in pronouncing words ; for it 
indicated that one had not been instructed by 
a nursury maid: what is the inference? 
That those maids were well educated; par- 
ticularly, in the pronunciation of the Latin 
language, and were treated by families as 
favorites. How many nursery maids of our 
day enjoy such a reputation, and exert such 
an influence? Indeed, how many mothers 
occupy such a pre-eminence ? Let wisdom 
and affection answer, and furnish the remedy. 
3. The purest and best of precepts and ex- 
amples should be exhibited to our youth, in 
the development of their minds, and tie for- 
mation of their characters. 

The seas — are quiet, when the winds are o'er; 
So, calm are toe, when passions— are no more j 
For then, we know how vain it was — to boast 
Of fleeting things, so certain to be lost. 
Clouds of affliction — from our younger eyes, 
Conceal that emptiness, that age descries ; 
The soul's dark cottage, battered and decay'd, 
Lets in new light, through chinks, that time has made. 



166 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



448. The Human Voice. Among all 
the wonderful varieties of artificial instru- 
ments, winch discourse excellent music, 
where shall we find one that can be compared 
to the human voice ? And where can we 
find an instrument comparable to the human 
mind ] upon whose stops the real musician, 
the poet, and the orator, sometimes lays his 
hands, and avails himself of the entire com- 
pass of its magnificent capacities ! Oh ! the 
length, the breadth, the height, and the depth 
of mu sic and eloquence.' They are high as 
heaven, deep as hell, and broad as the uni- 
verse. 

THE POWER OF IMAGINATION. 

The lunatic, the lover, and the pott, 

Are, of imagination — all compact : 

One — sees more devils — than vast hell can hold ; 

That — is the madman : the lover, all as/raMic, 

Sees Helen's beauty — in a brow of Egypt : 

The poet's eye. in a fine frenzy rolling, [heaven ; 

Doth glance from heaven — to earth, from eartii — to 

And, as imagination — bodies forth 

The forms of things unknown, the poets pen, 

Forms them to shapes, and gives to airy nothing, 

A local habitation, and a name. 

449. Cicero and Demosthenes. An 
orator, addressing himself more to the pas- 
sions, naturally has much passionate ardor ; 
whilst another, possessing an elevation of 
style and majestic gravity, is never cold, 
though he has not the same vehemence: 
in this respect do these great orators differ. 
Demosthenes — abounds in concise sublimity; 
Cicero, — in diffuseness : the former, on ac- 
count of his destroying, and consuming ev- 
erything by his violence, rapidity, strength, 
and vehemence, may be compared to a hurri- 
cane, or thunderbolt: the latter, to a wide 
extended conflagration, spreading in every 
direction, with a great, constant, and irre- 
sistible flame. 

Anecdote. Envy and Jealousy. Colonel 
Thornton, of the British army, could not bear 
to hear the Americans praised. When he 
was at Charleston, S. C, some ladies were 
eulogising Washington; to which he replied, 
with a scornful air, " I should be very glad to 
get a sight of your Col. Washington ; I have 
heard much talk about him, but have never 
seen Aim." " Had you looked behind you, at 
the battle of Cowpens^ rejoined one of the 
ladies, " you might easily have enjoyed that 
pleasure." 

With illustration wmpZe, yet profound, and with unfaltering zeal 

He spake from a vxtrm heart, and made even cold hearts feel; 

Thti — is eloquence — 'tis the intense, 

Impassioned fervor — of a mind, deep fraught 

With native energy, when soul, and tense 

Burst forth, embodied in the burning- thought ; 

When look, emotion, lone, and all combine ; 

When the whole man — is eloquent with mind ; 

A form that comes not to the coil or quest, 

But from the gifted soul, and the deep feeling brtasU 

The farmers patient care— and toil 
Are oftener wanting — than the soil, 



Maxims. 1. Blind men must not undertake to 
judge of colors. 2. Gamesters and racehorses nev- 
er last long. 3. Forgiveness and smSes are the 
best revenge. 4. They, are not our best friends, 
who praise us to our faces. 5. An honest man's 
word is as good as his bond. 6. Never fish for 
praise ; il is not worth the bait. 7. None but a 
good man can become a perfect orator. 8. Culti- 
vate a love of truth, and cleave to it with all your 
heart. 9. Female delicacy is the best preservative 
of female honor. 10. Idleness is the refuge of 
weak minds, and the holliday of fools. 

The Trine in. Man. There are three 
things of which human beings consist, the 
soul, the mind and the body; the inmost is 
the soul, the mediate is the mind, and the 
ultimate the body : the first is that which re- 
ceives life from Him, who is life itself; the 
second, is the sphere of the activities of that 
life; and the third, is the medium through 
which those activities are manifested : but it 
should be remembered, that there is, as the 
apostle says, " a natural body, and there is 
a spiritual body." 

Varieties. 1. Nature — makes no emen- 
dations; she labors for all: hers is not mo- 
saic work. 2. The more there is prosaic in 
oratens, poets and artists, the less are they 
natural; the less do they resemble the copi- 
ous streams of the fountain. 3. The more 
there is of progression, the more there is of 
truth, and nature; and the more extensive, 
general, durable, and noble is the effect: 
thus is formed the least plant, and the most 
exalted man. 4. Nature is ererz/where sim- 
ilar to herself; she never acts arbitrarily, 
never contrary to her laws : the same wis- 
dom and power produce all varieties, agreea- 
ble to one law, one will. Either all things 
are subject to the law of order, or nothing is. 
Home! how that blessed word — thrills the ear ' 

In it — what recollections blend ! 
It tells of childhood's scenes so dear, 

And speaks — of many a cherished/n«nd. 
O ! through the world, where'er we roam, 

Though souls be pure — and lips be kind, 
The heart — with fondness — turns to home, 

Still turns to those — it left behind. 
The bird, that soars to yonder skies. 

Though nigh to heaven, still seems unblessed , 
It leaves them, and with rapture flies 

Downward — to its own much-loxed nest. 
Though beauteous scenes — may meet its view 

And breezes blow — from balmy groves, 
With wing untired — and bosom true. 

It turns — to that dear spot it loves. 
When heaven — shall bid this soul depart, 

This form — return to kindred earth, 
May the last throb, which swells my heart 

Heave, where it started into birth. 
And should affection — shed one tear ; 

Should friendship — linger round my tomb; 
The tribute will be doubly dear, 

When given by those of "home, sweet home.'* 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



167 



450. Poetry — may be written in rhyme, 
or blank verse. Rhyme is the correspond- 
ence of sounds, in the ending of two (or 
more) successive or alternate words or sylla- 
bles of two or more lines, forming a couplet 
or triplet : see the various examples given. 
Rythmics, in the poetic art, means the rela- 
tive duration of the time occupied in pro- 
nouncing the syllables ; in the art of music 
it signifies the relative duration of the sound, 
that enters into the musical composition: 
see measures of speech and song. 

Lo ! the poor Indian, — whose untutored mind, 
Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind : 
His soul proud science— never taught to stray- 
Far as the solar walk, or milky way ; 
Yet, simple nature to his hope has given, 
Behind the cloud-topp'd hill, an humble heaven; — 
Some safer world — in depth of wood embraced, 
Some happier island — in the watery waste; 
Where slaves, once more, their native land behold, 
No fiends torment — no christians thirst for gold. 

451. Skips and Slides. By closely ob- 
serving the movements of the voice, when 
under the perfect command of the mind, you 
will see that it changes its pitch, by leaps of 
one or more notes, in passing from word to 
word, and sometimes from syllable to sylla- 
ble, and also slides upwards and downwards ; 
which skips and slides are almost infinitely 
diversified, expressing all the shades of tho't 
and feeling, and playing upon the minds of 
the listeners, with a kind of supernatural 
power, the whole range of tunes from grave 
to gay, from gentle to severe. The worlds 
of mind and matter are full of music and 
oratory. 

Even age itself— is cheered with music; 
It wakes a glad remembrance of our youth, 
Calls back past joys, and warms us into transports. 
Nature— is the glass— reflecting God, 
As, by the sea — reflected is the sun. 
Too glorious to be gazed on — in his sphere. 
The night 
Hath been to me — a more familiar face 
Than that ofman; and, in her starry shade 
0(di?n, and solitary loveliness, 
I learned the language — of another world. 
Parting— they seemed to tread upon the air, 
Tujin roses, by the zephyr blown apart, 
Only to meet again — more close, and share 
The in ward /ragrance— of each other's heart. 
Nothing — is made out of Nothing. 
Good, in his "Book of Nature," contends, that 
there is no absurdity, in the supposition, of God 
creating something— out of nothing; and he main- 
tains, that the proposition, conveying this idea, is 
only relatively absurd, and not absolutely. But it 
is absolutely absurd. When God said, " Let there 
be light, and there was light," light cannot be said 
to have been created out of nothing, but from God 
himself; not out of God, but by his Divine Will. 
through his Divine Truth. So, we may conceive, 
that God, by his Will, made atmospheric matter, 
and then created it in form. 

Enough to live in tempest; die in port. 



Maxims. 1. It is better to do and not prom- 
ise, than to promise and not perform. 2. A benefit 
is a common tie between the giver and receiver. 
3. The consciousness of well doing is an ample re- 
ward. 4. As benevolence is the most sociable of 
all virtues, so it is the most extensive. 5. Do not 
postpone until tomorrow, what ought to be done 
to-day. 6. Without a friend, the world is but a 
wilderness. 7. The more we know our hearts, the 
less shall we be disposed to trust in ourselves. 6. 
Obedience is better than sacrifice, and is insepera- 
bly wedded to happiness. 9. We should not run 
out of the path of duty, lest we run into the path 
of danger. 10. He doeth much, that doeth a thing 
well. 

Anecdote. Moro, duke of Milan, having 
displayed before the foreign embassadors his 
magnificence and his riches, which excelled 
those of every other prince, said to them : 
" Has a man, possessed of so much wealth 
and prosperity, anything to desire in this 
world?" " One thing only,'' 1 said one of 
them, " a nail \o fix the wheel of fortune.''' 

Swearing. Of all the crimes, that ever 
disgraced society, that of swearing admits of 
the least palliation. No possible benefit can 
be derived from it ; and nothing but perverse- 
ness and depravity of human nature, w r ould 
ever have suggested it ; yet such is its pre- 
valence, that "by many, it is mistaken for a 
fashionable acquirement, and considered, by 
unreflecting persons, as indicative of energy 
and decision of character. 

Varieties. 1. Duty sounds sweetly, to 
those who are in the love, and under the in- 
fluence of truth and goodness: its path does 
not lead thro' thorny places, and over cheer- 
less wastes ; but winds pleasantly, amid 
green meadows and shady groves. 2. A new 
truth is, to some, as impossible of discovery. 
as the new world was to the faithless cotem- 
poraries of Columbus; they do not believe in 
such a thing ; and more than this, they toill 
not believe in it : yet they will sit in judg- 
ment on those who do believe in such a con- 
traband article, and condemn them without 
mercy. 

THE FALLS OF NIAGARA. 

The thoughts are strange that crowd into my brain, 
While I look upward to thee. It would seem 
As if God — pour : d thee from his " hollow hand.'' 
And hung his boiv upon thine awful front; 
And spoke, in that loud voice, which seem'd to him 
Who dwelt in Patmos— for his Savioitrs sake, 
"The sound of many icaters ;" and had bade 
Thy flood — to chronicle the ages back, 
And notch His centuries — in the eternal rods. 

Deep — calleth unto deep. And what are are. 
That hear the question — of that voice sublime? 
O ! what are all the notes, that ever rung 
From war's vain trumpet, by thy thundering side ' 
Yea. what is all the riot — man can make 
In his short life, to thy unceasing roar! 
And yet, bold babbler, what art thou — to Him 
Who drown'd a worhL and heaped the waters far 
Above its loftiest mofWitains? — a light leave, 
That breaks, and ivhispers— of its Maker's might. 

Say, what can Chloe want? she wants a heart. 



168 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



452. Obsf.hvatioxs. No one can over 
become a good reader, or speaker, by reading 
in a book; because what is thus acquired 
is more from thought than from feeling ; 
and of course, has less of freedom in it; 
and we are, from the necessity of the case, 
more or less constrained and mechanical. 
What wc hear, enters more directly into the 
affect uous part of the mind, than what we see, 
and becomes more readily a part of ourselves, 
i. e. becomes conjoined instead of being ad- 
joined: relatively, as the food which we eat, 

digests and is appropriated, and a plaster 
that is merely stuck on the body. Thus, we 
can see a philosophic reason why faith is 
said to come by hearing, and that wc walk 
by faith, and not by sight : i. e. from love, 
that casts out the fear that hath torment ; that 
fear which enslaves body and mind, instead 
of making both free. 
Ever distinguish substances— from sound; 
There is, in liberty, what gods approve j 
And only men, like gods, have taste to share ; 
There is, in liberty, what pride perverts, 
To serve sedition, and perplex command. 
Trve liberty — leaves all things free, but guilt ; 
And fetters everything — but art, and virtue ; 
False liberty— holds nothing bound, but power, 
And lets loose — every tie, that strengthens law. 

Home — is man's ark, when trouble springs ; 

When gathering tempests — shade his morrow ; 
And woman's love — the bird, that brings 

His j>eace-branch — o'er a flood of sorrow- 

453. CojfojcrEBnfG-LovE. To learn al- 
most any art, or science, appears arduous, or 
difficult, at first; but if we have a heart for 
any work, it soon becomes comparatively 
easy. To make a common watch, or a watch 
worn in a ring ; to sail over the vast ocean, 
dec., seems at first, almost impossible ; yet 
they are constantly practiced. The grand 
secret of simplifying a science is analyzing 
it ; in beginning with what is easy, and pro- 
ceeding to the combinations, difficult, most 
difficult: by this method, miracles may be 
wrought .- the hill of science must be ascend- 
ed step by step. 

Conceptions. Would it not be well for 
metaphysicians — to distinguish between the 
conception of abstract truth, and the conception 
of past perception, by calling the latter — mental 
perception, as contradistinguished from all other 1 
Anecdote. Rouge. A female, praising 
the beautiful color, used by the artist on her 
miniature, was told by him, that he did not 
doubt she was a woman of good taste ; for 
they both bought their rouge at the same shop. 
True philosophy discerns 
A ray of heavenly light— gilding all forms 
Terrestrial, — in the vast^the minute, 
The unambiguous footsteps of a Ood, 
Who gives his lustre — to an insect's wing, 
And wheels his throne, upon the rolling worlds. 



Maxims. 1. A people's education — is a na- 
tion's best defence. 2. Let not the sun go down 
upon your wrath. 3. Who aims at excellence, 
will be above mediocrity ; and who aims at me- 
diocrity, will fall short of it. 4. Forbearance is 
a domestic jewel. 5. The affection of parents in 
best shown to their children, by teaching them 
what is good and true. 6. Feeble are the efforts 
in which the heart has no share. 7. By taking 
revenge, a man is but even with his enemy; but 
in passing it over— he is superior. 8. Loveliness 
needs not the aid of ornament ; but is, when un- 
adorned, adorned the most. 9. No one ever did, 
nor ever can, do any one an injury, without do- 
ing a greater injury to himself. 10. It is better 
not to know the truth, than to hnow it, and not 
do it. 

Pursuit of Knowledge. He, that en- 
larges his curiosity after the works of nature, 
demonstrably multiplies the inlets to happi- 
ness ; therefore, we should cherish ardor 
in the pursuit of useful knowledge, and re- 
member, that a blighted spring makes a bar- 
ren year, and that the vernal flowers, how- 
ever beautiful and gay, are only intended by 
nature as preparatives to autumnal fruits. 

Varieties. 1. Business letters should al- 
ways be written with great clearness and per- 
spicuity : every paragraph should be so 
plain, that the dullest fellow cannot mistake 
it, nor be obliged to read it twice, to under- 
stand it. 2. Lawyers and their clients re- 
mind one of two rows of persons at a fire ; 
one — passing full buckets, the other return- 
ing empty ones. 3. The bump of self-esteem 
is so prominent on some men's heads, that 
they can't keep their hats on in a windy day. 
4. A crow will fly at the rate of 20 miles an 
hour; a hawk, 40; and an eagle 80. 5. 
The heaviest fetter, that ever weighed down 
the limbs of a captive, is as the robe of the 
gossamer, compared with the pledge of a 
man of honor. 6. An envious person, wax- 
eth lean with the fatness of his neighbor. 7, 
Nature — supplies the raw material, and edu- 
cation — is the manufacturer. 
The dumb shall sing, the lame his crutch forego, 
And leap, exulting, like the bounding roe. 
Distrustful sense with modest caution speaks ; 
It still looks home, and short excursions makes j 
But rattling nonsense in full volleys breaks. 
Come, gentle Spring, etherial mildness, come, 
And, from the bosom of yon dropping cloud, 
(While music wakes around,) vailed in a shower 
Of shadowing roses, on the plains descend. 
The man, that dares traduce, because he can, 
With safety to himself, is not a man. 
Slander— meets no regards from noble minds ; 
Only the base— believe what the base utter. 

If I lose mine honor, I lose myself; 

Mine honor — is my life ; both grow in one ; 

Take honor from me — and my life is done. 

He was a man, take him for all in all, 

I shall not look upon his like again. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



169 



454. Inflections and Intonations. 

The author is perfectly satisfied, that most 
of his predecessors have depended entirely 
too much upon the inflections, to produce 
variety, instead of upon the intonations of 
the voice : the former, invariably makes me- 
chanical readers and speakers; while the 
latter, being founded in nature, makes natu- 
ral ones : the one is of the head, and is the 
result of thought and calculation ,• and the 
'other of the heart, and is the spontaneous ef- 
fusion of the affections : the former spreads 
a xu.il before the mind; the latter takes it 
away. Is it not so ? Choose ye. Nature 
knows a great deal more than art ; listen to 
her teachings and her verdict. 

There are two hearts, whose movements thrill 
In unison, so closely sweet ! 
That, pulse to pulse, responsive still, 
That both must heave, or cease to beat ; 
There are tivo souls, whose equal flow 
In gentle streams — so calmly run, 
That when they part, (they part ?) ah no ; 
They cannot part, — their souls are one. 
No marvel woman should love flowers, they bear 
So much of fanciful similitude 
To her own history; like herself, repaying, 
With such sweet interest, all the cherishing, 
That calls their beauty, and their sweetness forth; 
And, like her, too, dying — beneath neglect. 
455. Ignorance and Euror. How fre- 
quently an incorrect mode of pronunciation, 
and of speaking, is caught from an ignorant 
nurse, or favorite servant, which infects one 
through life ! so much depends on first im- 
pressions and habits. Lisping, stammering, 
and smaller defects, often originate in the 
same way, and not from any natural defect, 
or impediment. If parents and teachers 
would consider the subject, they might see 
the importance of their trust, and be induced 
to fulfill their respective offices in a conscien- 
tious manner : to do wrong, in any way, is 
a sin. 

Association of Ideas. We may trace 
the power of association — in the growth and 
development of some of the most important 
principles of human conduct. Thus, under 
tine feudal system, appeals from the baronial 
tribunals were first granted to the royal 
courts, in consequence of the delay, or refusal 
of justice,- afterwards, they were taken, on 
account of the injustice or iniquity of the 
sentence. In the same way, a power, ap- 
pealed to from necessity, is at length resorted 
to from choice ; till finally, what was once a 
privilege is, in certain cases, exacted as an ob- 
ligation. This principle is full of political 
and social wisdom, and cannot be too deeply 
studied by those, who wish to analyze the 
causes and motives of human conduct. 
The purest treasure,— mortal ties afford, 
Is — spotless reputation ; that — away, 
Men are but gilded loam, and painted clay. 
22 



Maxims. 1. The wise man thinks he knows 
but little; the fool thinks he knows it all. 2. He, 
who cannot govern himself, cannot govern others. 
3. He is a poor wretch, whose hopes are confined 
to this world. 4. ile, who employs himself well, 
can never want for something to do. 5. Umbrage 
should never be taken, where offence was never 
intended. 6. Deride not the unfortunate. 7. In 
conversation, avoid the extremes of talkativeness 
and silence. 8. Lawyers' gowns are often lined 
with the willfulness of their clients. 9. Good books 
are the only paper currency, that is better than 
silver or gold. 10. No man may be botli accuser, 
and judge. 11. At every trifle— scorn to take offence. 
Anecdote. A Rose. A blind man, having 
a shrew for his wife, was told by one of his 
friends, that she was a rose. He replied, " I 
do not doubt it; for I feel the thorns daily." 
Laconics. He who would become dis- 
tinguished in manhood, and eminently useful 
to Ms country, and the world, must be con- 
tented to pass his boyhood and youth in ob- 
scurity, — learning that which he is to prac- 
tice, when he enters upon the stage of action. 
There are two kinds of education ; the liber- 
al and the servile; the former puts us in 
possession of the principles and reasons of 
actions and things, so far as they are capable 
of being known or interrogated : the latter 
stops short at technical rules and methods, 
without attempting to understand the reasons 
or principles on which they are grounded. 

Varieties. 1. We may apprehend the 
works and word of God, if we cannot fully 
comprehend them. 2. A man passes, for 
what he is worth. The world is full of judg- 
ment-days; and into every assembly, that a 
man enters, in every action he attempts, he 
is guag^d and stamped. 3. It is base, and 
that is the one base thing in the universe, to 
receive favor, and render none. 4. How shall 
we know, that Washington — was the most 
prudent and judicious statesman, that ever 
lived] By carefully observing his actions, 
and comparing them with those of other men, 
in like circumstances. 5. The union of science 
and religion, is the marriage of earth and heav- 
en. 6. Mankind can no more be stationary 
than an individual. 7. The virtue of women 
is often the love of reputation and quiet. 
Satan's supposed speech to his legions. 
Princes, Potentates, 
Warriors, the flower of Heaven ! once yours, now -lost, 
If such astonishment as this— can seize 
Eternal spirits ; or have ye chosen this place, 
After the toil of battle, to repose 
Your wearied virtue, for the ease you find 
To slumber here, as in the vales of Heaven ? 
Or, in this abject posture— have ye sworn — 
To adore the Conqueror ! who now beholds 
Cherub— and seraph — rolling in the flood, 
With scatter'd arms and ensigns; till anon 
His swift pursuers — from Heaven's gates— discern 
The advantage, and descending, tread us (town, 
Thus drooping, or with linked thunderbolts 
Transfix us to the bottom of this gulf? 
Awake, ARISE, or be forever fallen! 



170 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



456. The Passions and Actions. The 
human mind we contemplate under two 
grand divisions, called Will and Understand- 
ing: the former is the receptacle, or conti- 
nent, of our passions, emotions, affections; 
the latter — of our thoughts. To attend to 
the workings of mind, to trace the power 
that external objects have over it, to discern 
the nature of the emotions and affections, 
and to comprehend the reasons of their be- 
ing affected in a particular manner, must have 
a direct influence on our pursuits, character 
and happiness, as private citizens, and as 
public speakers. 

What nothing earthly gives, or can destroy, 

The soul's calm sunshine, and the heartfelt joy, 

Is virtue's prize. 

In faith, and hope, the world will disagree; 

But all mankind's concern— is charity. 

He gave to mercy — all he had, a tear; [friend. 

He gained from heaven, ('twas all he wished,) a 

In the faithful husbandman — you see, 

What all— true christians— ought to be. 

Speak of me, as I am : nothing extenuate, 

Nor set down aught — in malice. 

Honor, and shame, from no condition rise ; 

Act well your part, there all the honor lies. 

457. An accurate analysis of the passions 
and affections is, to the moralist, as well as 
the student in elocution, what the science of 
anatomy, and physiology is to the physi- 
cian and surgeon: it constitutes the first 
principles of rational practice for both; it is, 
in a moral view, the anatomy of the heart; 
discloses why and how it beats; indicates 
appearances in a sound and healthy state, 
and detects diseases, with their causes, and 
is much more fortunate in applying remedies. 

Stages of Progress. Useful discoveries 
and improvements generally have four distinct 
stages in their progress to universality. The first 
is, when the theory is pronounced false, contrary to 
experience, absurd and unworthy of the attentiou 
of sensible men. The second is, when they are 
claimed as having been known before ; thus, de- 
priving the medium — of all credit for more indus- 
try, discrimination and originality, than others. 
The third is, when they are denounced as perilous 
innovations, endangering the religion and morals 
of society. The fourth is, when they are receiv- 
ed as established truths by every body ; the only 
wonder being, that they should ever have been 
doubted, they are in such perfect harmony with 
ae laws of the universe. 

The meek-ey'd morn appears, mother of dewf, 
At first, faint glimmering— in the dappled east ; 
Till, tar o'er ether— spreads the wid'ning glow ; 
And, from before the lustre of her face, 
White break the clouds away. With quickened step, 
Brown night— retire* ; young day pours in apace, 
And opens all the lawny prospect wide. 
The dripping rock, the mountain's misty top, 
Swell on the tight, and brighten — with the dawn. 
If, on a sudden, he begins to rise, 
No man that lives, can count his enemies. 



Laconics. 1. All men, possessed of real 
power, are upright and honest: craft is but the 
substitute of power. 2. To answer wit by reason, 
is like trying to hold an eel by the tail. 3. Fre- 
quent intercourse often forms such a shnilarity, 
that we not only assure a mental likeness, but 
contract some resemblance in voice and features. 
4. The more ideas included in our own words, and 
the more cases an axiom is applied to, the more 
extensive and powerful will they be. 5. The im- 
provement of the internal, will also be the im-, 
provement of the external. 6. A little vice often 
deforms the whole countenance; as one single 
false trait in a portrait, makes the whole a carri- 
cature. 7. The noblest talents may rust in indo- 
lence; and the most moderate, by industry, may be 
astonishingly improved. 

Anecdote. A Good Hint. A clergyman 
and Garrick the tragedian, were spending 
an evening together ; and among other top- 
ics of conversation, that of delivery was in- 
troduced. The man of the pulpit asked Gar- 
rick, " Why is it, you are able to produce so 
much more effect, with the recital of yoxxrfic- 
tio?is, than we do. by the delivery of the 
most important truths . ? " The man of the 
stage replied — " My Lord, you speak truths, 
as if they were fictions ; we speak fictions, 
as if they were truths." 

Action. To do an ill action is base ; to 
do a good one, which involves you in no dan- 
ger, is nothing more than common ; but it is 
the property of a truly good man, to do great 
and good things, though he risk et'er?/thing 
by it. 

Varieties. 1. The coin, that is most cur- 
rent among mankind — is flattery : the only 
benefit of which is, that by hearing what we 
are not, we may be instructed what we ought 
to be. 2. Bring the entire powers of your 
mind, to bear on whatever study you unde?- 
take, with a singleness of purpose, and you 
will not fail of success. 3. The predomir 
nance of a favorite study, affects ail the sub- 
ordinate purposes of the intellect. 4. Vex 
not thy heart, in seeking — what were far bet- 
ter unfound. 5. In reference to certain prin- 
ciples and persons, unstable people cry out, 
at first, " All hail, " — but afterwards, 
" crucify ! ckucift ! " 6. Luxury is an 
enticing pleasure, which hath honey in her 
mouth, but gall in her heart, and a sting in 
her embrace. 7. Let your rule of action be, 
to perform, faithfully, and without solicitude, 
the duty of the present hour ; let the future 
take care of itself. 

Two tasks are ours, to know— and understand, 
Evil, and good^ and name their various band; 
But worthier far, with cheerful will, to choose 
Whate'er is good, and all the ill— refuse. 
Why all this toil — for triumphs of an hour ? 
What though we wade in wealth, or soar in fame ? 
Earth's highest station ends in—" Here he Ins ;" 
And— "dust— to dust"— concludes her noblest song. 

Virtue itself, 'scapes not calumnious strokes. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



171 



458. The Passions. There are three 
things involved in the exhibition of the pas- 
sions; viz. the tones of the voice, the appear- 
ance of the countenance, and rhetorical ac- 
tion; the first is addressed to the ear only, 
the latter to the eye. Here, then, is another 
language to learn, after the pupil has learned 
the written, and the vocal languages: how- 
ever, the language of the passioiis may be 
said to be written — by the hand of Nature. 
Contemplate the passions separately, and 
combined, and seek for examples to illus- 
trate them. 

For praise, too dearly loved, or warmly sought, 
Enfeebles all internal strength of thought ; 
And the weak, within itself unblest, 
Leans, for all pleasures, on another's breast. 
Friendship, like an evergreen, 

Will brave the inclement blast, 
And still retain the bloom of spring, 

When summer days — are past ; 
And tho ; the wintry sky should lower, 

And dim the cheerful day, 
She still perceives a vital power, 
Unconscious — of decay. 
Jealousy ! thy own green food, 
Thy joy— is vengeance, death, and blood! 
Thy love — is wrath! thy breath — is sighs! 
Thy life — suspicious sacrifice ! 

459. Truth. Some men say, that " toealth 
is power"— and some that " talent— is power"— and 
some that " knowledge — is power" — and others, 
that " authority — is power" — but there is an apo- 
thegm, that I would place on high above them all, 
when I assert, that, " truth — is power." Wealth 
cannot purchase, talent — cannot refute, knowledge 
— cannot over-reach, authority — cannot silence 
her ; they all, like Felix, tremble at her presence : 
cast her into the sevenfold heated furnace of the 
tyrant's wrath — fling her into the most tremend- 
ous billows of popular commotion — she mounts 
aloft in the ark — upon the summit of the deluge. 
She is the ministering spirit, who sheds on man 
that bright and indestructible principle of life, 
which is given, by its mighty author, to illumin- 
ate and to inspire the immortal soul — and which, 
like himself, " is the same yesterday, to-day, and 
forever" 

The wintry blast of death — 
Kills not the buds of virtue; no: they spread 
Beneath the heavenly beams — of brighter suns, 
Through endless ages — into higher powers. 
The scale of being— is a graduated thing; 
And deeper, — than the vanities of power. 
On the vain pomp of glory— there is writ — 
Gradation — in its hidden characters. 

EPITAPH. 

Here rests his head — upon the lap of earth, 

A youth — to fortune and to fame unknown ; 
Fair science— frown 1 d not-^n his humble birth, 
And melancholy — mark'd him for her own. 
A dandy — is a thing, that would 
Be a young lady — if he could; 
But, as he can't, does all he can, 
To show the world — he's not a man. 
The course of true love— never did run smooth. 



Maxims. 1. A well instructed people, only. 
can be a free people. 2. To ask for a living, with- 
out labor, would be to ask for a curse, instead of a 
blessing. 3. No one looks after his own affairs, as 
well as himself. 4. Fruitless advice is like pour- 
ing water on a duck's back. 5. The more our tal- 
ents are exercised, the more will they become de- 
veloped. 6. Unless the laws are executed on the 
great, they will not be obeyed. 7. He, who toils 
with pain, will reap with pleasure. 8. The tor- 
ment oienvy — is like sand in the eye. 9. Laziness 
often gives occasion to dishonesty. 10. The error 
of an hour — may become the sorrow of a whole 
life 

Anecdote. Father Aurius said, when 
Bourdaloue preached at Rouen, the trades- 
men forsook their workshops, the lawyers 
their clients, and the physicians their sick, 
to hear the orator: but when / preached 
there, the following year, I set all things 
right; every man minded his own busmess. 

Iiuxiiry. When I behold a fashionable 
table, set out in all its magnificence, I fancy 
that I see gouts and dropsies, fevers and leth- 
argies, with other innumerable distempers, 
lying in ambuscade among the dishes. Na- 
ture delights in the most plain and simple 
diet. Every animal, but man, keeps to one 
dish. Herbs are the food of this species, fish 
of that, and flesh of a third. Man falls upon 
every thing that comes in his way ; not the 
smallest fruit or excrescence of the earth, 
scarce a berry or a mushroom can escape him. 

"Varieties. 1. Without exertion and dili- 
gence, success in the pursuits of life, is rarely 
attained. 2. It is the business of the judge 
to decide as to the points of law, and the 
duty of the jurors — to decide as to the mat- 
ters of fact. 3. The essence of our liberty 
is — to do whatever we please, provided we 
do not violate any laui, or injure another. 
4. A handful of common sense is worth a 
bushel of learning. 5. Few things are more 
injurious to our health and constitution, than 
indulgence in luxuries. 6. Did God, after 
creating the universe, and putting it in mo- 
tion, leave it to itself? 7. Credit — is of in- 
estimable value, whether to a nation, or an 
individual. 

THE MINISTRY OF ANGELS. 

And is there care in heaven? and is there love 
In heavenly spirits — to these creatures base, 

That may compassion of their evils move ? [c ase 
There is : else, much more wretched were the 
Of men than beasts. But. oh ! the exceeding grace 

Of highest Heaven! that loves his creatures so : 
And all his works — with mercy doth embrace, 

That blessed angels he sends to and fro, 

To serve to wicked man, — to serve his wicked/oa. 

How oft — do they their silver bowers leave, 
To come to succor us, that succor want ! 

How oft — do they, with golden pinions, cleave 
The flitting skies, like flying pursuivant, 
Against fo\i\ fiends — to aid us militant! 

They for us fight, they watch and duly ward, 
And their bright squadrons round about us plant, 

And all for love, and nothing for reward : 

Oh ! why should the Lord to man have such regard ! 



172 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 




TRANQUILLITY, &c. 

460. Tranquil- 
lity appears by the 
open and compos- 
ed countenance, 
and a general re- 
pose of the whole 
body; mouth near- 
ly closed ; eye- 
brows a little 
arched; fore- 
head smooth; eyes 
passing with an 
easy motion, from 
one object to 
another, but not 
dwelling long on 
any ; cast of hap- 
piness, bordering 
on cheerfulness; 
desiring to please and be pleased ; gaity, good 
humor, when the mouth opens a little more. 

CHEERFULNESS IN RETIREMENT. 

Now my co-mates, and brothers in exile, 
Hath not old custom— made this life more sweet, 
Than that of painted pomp ? Are not these woods 
More free from peril, than the envious court ? 
Here— feel we but the penalty of Adam ; 
The seasoji's difference ; as the icy fang, 
And churlish chiding of the winter's wind ; 
Which, when it bites and blows upon my body, 
Ev'n till I shrink with cold, I smile and say, 
This is no flattery ; these are counsellors, 
That feelingly persuade me what I am: 
Sweet— are the uses of adversity, 
That, like a toad, ugly and venomous, 
Wears yet a precious jewel in its head. 
And this our life, exempt from public haunts, 
Finds tongues, in trees, books, in running brooks, 
Sermons in stones, and good in everything. 

Miscellaneous. 1. Timidity — often ob- 
scures the brightest powers of orators, at 
their outset ; like the chilling vapor, awhile 
retarding the beauty of a morning in spring,- 
but the day of success, attained by persever- 
ing efforts, when it comes, will well repay for 
its late appearance, and its splendor more 
than atone for its morning shade. 2. By tak- 
ing in the widest possible range of authors of 
all ages, one seems to create, within himself, 
a sympathy for the whole brotherhood of 
man, past, present, and to come, and to ap- 
proximate continually, to a view of Univer- 
sal Truth, tho' never attaining it. 3. All 
good speakers and writers, are addicted to 
imitation : no one — can write or speak well, 
who has not a strong sympathy with, and ad- 
miration for — all that is beautiful. 

Anecdote. A Pun. Purcell, the famous 
vunster, being desired, one evening, when in 
company, to make an extempore pun, asked, 
u on what sulrject ? v " The king ;" was the 
answer. "0 sir," said he, "the king is not 
a subject." 

I hate to see a boy— so rude, 
That one might think him— raised 

In some wild region of the wood, 
And but ftaZf-civilized. 



Maxims. 1. The follies we tell of others, 
are often only mirrors to reflect our own. 2. 
Righteousness — exalteth a nation ; but sin — is a 
reproach to any people. 3. The best mode o. 
dealing with a quarrelsome person, is, to keep 
out of his way. 4. Good thought, couched in an 
appropriate simile, is like a precious stone, set in 
gold. 5. Great minds may produce great vices, 
as well as great virtues ; an honest man — is the 
noblest work of God. 6. Nature, and natural 
] causes, are nothing else, than the way in which 
' Cod works. 7. 'Tis use that constitutes posses- 
sion. 8. No sooner is a law made, than the wick- 
ed seek to evade it. 9. One lie draws ten mors 
after it. 10. Idleness — buries a man alive. 

Irresolution. In matters of great con- 
cern, and which must be done, there is no 
surer argument — of a weak mind, than irre- 
solution ; to be undetermined, where the 
case is so plain, and the necessity so urgent. 
To be always intending to live a new life, 
but never to find time to set about it ; this is 
as if a man should put off eating, and drink- 
ing, and sleeping, from one day and night to 
another, till he is starved and destroyed. 

Varieties. 1. Every evil, that we con- 
quer, is a benefactor to our souls. The Sand- 
wich Islander believes that the strength and 
valor of the enemy he kills, passes into him- 
self. Spiritually, it is so with us; for we 
gain strength, from every temptation we 
resist. 2. It is absurd, to think of becoming 
good, in any thing, without understanding 
and practicing what we learn. 3. Have we 
life of our own ? or, are we dependent on 
God for it, every moment of our lives ! 7. 
All the moments of our lives, produce eter- 
nal consequences. 

How sweet — the words of truth, 
Breathed from the lips— we love. 
One alone 

May do the task of many, when the mind 

Is active in it. 

Coxcombs — are of all realms, and kind ; 

They're not to sex, or age confined, 

Of rich, or poor, or great, or small, 

'Tis vanity— besets them all. 

True happiness— had no localities; 
No tones provincial ; no peculiar garb. 
Where duty went, she went ; with justice went ; 
And went with meekness, charity, and love. 
Where'er a tear was dried ; a wounded heart 
Bound up ; a bruised spirit — with the dew 
Of sympathy anointed ; or a pang 
Of honest suffering soothed ; or injury, 
Repeated oft, as oft— by love— forgiven ; 
Where'er an evil passion was subdued, 
Or Virtue's feeble embers fanned ; where'er 
A sin was heartily abjured, and left ; 
Where'er a pious act was done, or breathed 
A pious prayer, or wished a pious icish — 
There — was a high — and holy place, a spot 
Of sacred light, a most religious fane. 

Faith— is not built— on disquisition's ruins. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



173 




JOY ; DELIGHT 
461. Jot, 

a pleasing ela- 
tion of mind 
on the actual 
or assured at- 
tainment of 
good; or de- 
liverance from 
some evil. 
"When moder- 
ate, it opens 
the counte- 
nance with 
smiles, and 
throws a sun- 
shine of delec- 
tation over the 
whole frame; 
when sudden 
and violent, it 
is expressed by clapping the hands, exultation 
and weeping, raising- the eyes to heaven, and per- 
haps suffusing them with tears, and giving such a 
spring to the body, as to make attempts to mount 
up as if it could fly : and when it is extreme, goes 
into transport, rapture, and ecstasy; the voice 
often raises on very high pitches, and exhilarating; 
it has a wildness of look and gesture that borders 
on folly, madness and sorrow ; hence the expres- 
sion, " frantic with joy." Joy, mirth, &c, produce 
a rousing, exciting, lively action. 

JOY EXPECTED. 

Ah! Juliet, if the measui-e of thy joy 
Be heaped, like mine, and that thy skill be more 
To blazen it, then sweeten, with thy breath, 
This neighbor air, and let rich music's tongue 
Unfold the imagin'd happiness, that both 
Receive, in either, by this dear encounter. 

See ! my lord, [veins 
Would you not deem it breathed, and that those 
Did verily bear blood ? O sweet Paulina, 
Make me think so twenty years together ; 
No settled senesof the world can match 
The pleasure of that madness. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Talents — angel-bright, 
If wanting worth, 
Are shining instruments 
In false ambition's hand— to finish faults 
Illustrious, and give to infamy renown. 
Tis easiest— dealing with the firmest mind, [kind. 
Move just, when it resists, and when it yields, more 
A mirror— has been well defined— 
An emblem — of a thoughtful mind, 
For, look upon it — when you will, 
You find— it is reflecting still. 
Life — is a sea, where storms must rise ; 
^Tis fatly— talks of cloudless skies; 
He, who contracts his swelling sail, 
Eludes the fury of the gale. 
Anecdote. A. painter — was employed in 
painting a ship, on a stage, suspended under 
her stern. The captain, who had just got 
into the boat to go ashore, ordered the cabin 
boy to let go the painter. The boy went aft, 
and let go the rope by which the painters 
stage was held. The captain, surprised at 
the boy's delay, cried out, " Confound you for 
a lazy dog ; why dont you let go the paint- 
er?" "He's gone sir," replied the boy, 
"pots andaZZ." 

?2 



Maxims. 1. The abuse of money is worse 
than the want of it. 2. Revenge is a mean plea- 
sure ; but no principle is more noble, than that of 
forgiving injuries. 3. Without/rands, the world 
is but a wilderness, i. Flattery to ourselves — does 
not change the nature of that which is wrong. 5. 
When a man is not liked, whatever he does is 
amiss. 6. If a man is unfortunate, and reduced in 
the world, it is easy to find fault with him. 7. A 
pure heart makes the tongue impressive. 8. A 
man's best fortune, or his worst — is a wife. 9. 
Health is better than wealth. 10. Unexperienced 
persons think all things easy. 

Free Schools ; or the road to Honor open 
to all. When the rich man — is called from 
the possession of Ins treasures, he divides 
them as he wills, among his children and heirs. 
But an equal Providence deals not so with 
the living treasures of the mind. There are 
children, just growing up in the bosom of 
obscurity, in town and country, who have in- 
herited nothing but poverty and health, and 
who will, in a few years, be striving, in stern 
contention, with the great intellects of the 
land. Our system of free schools, has opened 
a straight way from the threshold of every 
abode, however humble, in the village, or in 
the city, to the high-places of usefulness, in- 
fluence and honor. And it is left for each, 
by the cultivation of every talent, by watch- 
ing, with an eagle-eye, for every chance of 
improvement; by bounding forward like a 
gray-hound, at the most distant glimpse of 
honorable opportunity ; by grappling, as with 
hooks, the prize, when it is won ; by redeem- 
ing time, by defying temptation, and scorn- 
ing sensual pleasures ; to make himself use- 
ful, honored and happy. 

Varieties. 1. God, who loveth all his 
creatures, and is no respecter of persons, 
would have us be good for our own sakes. 

2. What is the difference, between the love 
of being wise, and the love of wisdom? 

3. Every age has its own predominant 
features, taste and propensities, that each 
may be fitted, and inclined, to discharge the 
offices allotted to it. 4. God has planted in 
the irrational brute, memory, sense, and ap- 
petite; but to rational man — he has given 
all these, and superadded thought, intelli- 
gence, will, immortal reason, and undying af- 
fection. 5. All orders of good and truth are 
capable of an infinite display of the varieties, 
proper to that order; and of an infinite mi//- 
tiplication of each. 

Music ! thou rest of life, and balm of age, 
To cheer man's path — through this dark pilgrimage, 
In every state — be thou my partner made : 
By night, by day, in sunshine, and in shade ; 
Teach me, while here, the strain that angels sing, 
From hearts devout, to Heaven's Eternal King ; 
Tune my last breath— with pure seraphic love, 
And hymn my passage — to the choir above. 
So very still, that echo — seems to listen ; 
We almost hear — the music of the spheres, 
And fancy, that we catch the notes of angels. 



174 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 




MIRTH, JOLLY LAUGHTER. 

4G2. When 

delight arises 
from ludicrous 
or fugitive amuse- 
ments, in which 
others share with 
us, it is called 

MIRTH. LAUGHTER 
OR MERRIMENT J 

which opens the 
mouth horizon- 
tally. shrivels the 
nose, raises the 
cheeks high, les- 
sens the aperture 
of the eyes, and 
fills them with 
tears. 

INVOCATION OF THE GODDESS OF MIRTH. 

But come, thou goddess, fair and free, 

In heav'n yclep'd Euphosyne ; 

And of men — heart-easing mirth; 

Whom lovely Venus bore : 

Haste thee, nymph, and bring with thee 

Jest and youthful Jolity, 

Quips, and cranks, and wanton wiles, 

Nods, and becks and wreathed smiles, 

Such as hang on Hebe's cheek, 

And love to live in dimple sleek ; 

Sport, that wrinkled Care derides, 

And Laughter, holding both his sides ; 

Come, and trip it as you go 

On the light fantastic toe, 

And in thy light hand — lead with thee 

The mountai?i-nymph, sweet Liberty. 

MIRTH AND MELANCHOLY. 

Now, by two-headed Janus, 

Nature hath framed strange fellows in her times ; 

Some, that will evermore peep through their eyes, 

And laugh, like parrots at a fcag-piper ; 

And others — of such vinegar aspect, 

That they'll not show their teeth in way of smile, 

Though Nestor swear the jest be laughable. 

463. Theatres. If the lofty powers of 
the matter tragedian were concentrated to 
the development of mind, in the presence 
of those, only, who can appreciate his gen- 
ius ; if the public display of them, on the 
stage, were unaccompanied by any of those 
excressences, which cling, incubus-like, to 
modem theatres ; the evil of which the phi- 
lanthropist and patriot complain, would 
seem to be trifling. But when he throws 
himself in the midst of such scenes, as he 
must necessarily meet, in all the theatres of 
the present day, he gives the sanction of his 
presence, his example and reputation, to 
some of the most monstrous abuses, which 
exist among men. Although his moral char- 
acter may be irreproachable, yet a man is al- 
ways known by the company he keeps; and, 
in spite of himself and his friends, he is 
identified with all the theatres, in which he 
performs : his character is assimilated to his 
debased associates, who boast of his society ; 
and ape his greatness. It is because he is 



among them, that they are countenanced by 
so large a portion of the American people. 

Maxims. 1. He, that hearkens to counsel, is 
wise. 2. Courage — ought to have eyes, and ears, 
as well as arms. 3. Credit, lost, is like a broken 
looking-glass. 4. It is sweet to do good unseen 
and in secret. 5. Nature — unites the beautiful with 
the useful: hence, handsome is, that handsome 
does. 6. The mob hath many heads, but no brains. 
7. A superior mind cares but little about dress, pro- 
vided it be decent. 8. The world — is a large and 
interesting book, and is opened to us day and 
night. 9. Vanity — renders beauty contemptible. 
10. Vows, made in storms, are forgotten in calms; 
because they are the offspring of fear. 

Anecdote. Play upon words. A pooi 
drunken loafer — was picked up in the street, 
by the watchman, when the following decis- 
ion was made : There is no sense in his head, 
no cents in his pocket, and a powerful scent 
in his breath: he was of course sent to the 
watchhouse. 

Tlxe Feet. There are seven bones in the 
ankle, five in the metatarsus, and fourteen 
phalanges in the foot, which are strongly fas- 
tened together by means of a gristle, which 
yields — so as to enable us to tread, with equal 
ease, on level or unequal surfaces. We often 
hear of the small feet of the Chinese ladies ; 
and we also see some ladies in a christian 
land who try to make themselves heathens, 
by wearing a very small shoe, under the false 
notion, that it is genteel to have small feet. 
Genteel to have corns, impeded circulation, 
and all their train of horrors! Oh, when 
shall we come to our senses, leave off tight 
shoes, and cease to worship the god of fash- 
ion? 

VARIETIES. 

Like the lily, 

That once was mistress of the field, 

I'll hang my head, and perish. 

Her suny locks 

Hang on her temples, like a golden fleece. 
She looks as clear, 

As morning roses, newly washed with dew. 
There's nothing in the world can make me joy ; 
Life — is as tedious — as a twice-told tale, 
Vexing the dull ear of drowsy ?nan. 
Love is blind, and lovers cannot see 
The petty follies, that themselves commit. 
How far that little candle throws his beams! 
So — shines a good deed — in this naughty world. 
Penetration — has an aid of divination. 

HONESTY. 
Thou art full of love and honesty, 
And weigh'st thy words before thou giv'st them breath. 
Therefore, these stops of thine fright me the more : 
For such things, in a false disloyal knave, 
Are tricks of custom ; but, in a man that's just, 
They are close denotements, working from the heart, 
That passions cannot rule. 
Gold, silver, vases sculptur'd high, 
Paint, marble, gems, and robes of Persian dye, 
There are, who have not, and, thank heaven ! there are, 
Who, if they have not, think not worth their care. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



175 




ECSTASY, RAPTURE 
464. Ec- 
stasy, Rap- 
ture, Trans- 
port, express 
an extraor- 
dinary eleva- 
tion of the 
spirits, an ex- 
cessive ten- 
sion of mind : 
they signify- 
to be out of 
one's self, out 
of ons's mind, 
carried away 
beyond one's 
self. Ecsta- 
sy — benumbs 
the faculties, 
takes away the power of speech, and sometimes 
of thought; it is generally occasioned by sudden 
and unexpected events: but rapture often invig- 
orates the powers and calls them into action. 
The former, is common to all persons of ardent 
feelings: especially, children, &c, the illiterate: 
the latter is common to persons of superior minds, 
and circumstances of peculiar importance. 

What followed, was all ecstasy, and trances: 

Immortal pleasures round my swimming eyes did dance. 

By swift degrees, the love of nature works, 

And warms the bosom, till at last, sublim'd 

To rapture and enthusiastic heat, 

We feel the present Deity. 

Scorns the base earth and crowd below, 

And, with a peering 1 wing, still mounts on high. 

He play'd so sweetly, and so sweetly sung, 

That on each note the enraptur'd audience hung. 

4:65. Garrick. It is believed, that this 
tragedian greatly surpassed his predecessors, 
in his genius for acting, in the sweetness and 
variety of his tones, the irresistible magic of 
his eye, the fire and vivacity of his action, 
the elegance of his attitudes, and the whole 
pathos of expression. The cause of which 
success was, his intimate and practical 
knowledge of human nature. Example. A 
certain gentleman, on returning from the 
theatre, asked his postillion, (who sat in his 
private box,) what he thought of the great 
Mr. Garrick. " Not much, my lord," was 
his reply, "for he talked and acted just like 
John and I in the stable.' 1 ' 1 When this was 
repeated to the tragedian, he declared it the 
greatest compliment ever paid him: for, 
said he, if nature's own children can't dis- 
tinguish me from themselves, it is a pretty 
sure indication that I am about right. 

RAPTURES. 

Bat, in her temple's last recess inclos'd, 
On dullness' lap, th' annointed head repos'd. 
Him close she curtains round — with vapors blue, 
And soft besprinkles — with Cimmerian dew ; 
Then raptures high — the seat of sense o'erflow, 
Which only heads — refin'd from reason, know ; 
Hence, from the straiv, where Bedlam's prophet 
He hears load oracles, and talks with gods : [nods, 
Hence, the fool's paradise, the statesman's scheme, 
The air-built castle, and the golden dream, 
The maid's romantic wish, the chemist's flame, 
And poet's vision of eternal/ame. 
How dost thou wear, and weary out thy days, 
Restless ambition; never at an end. 



Maxims. 1. He is not wise, who is not wise 
for himself. 2. If you wish a thing d one, go ; i f not, 
send. 3. The silence of the tongue is often the elo- 
quence of the heart. 4. The perfection of art is, to 
conceal art. 5. Every day is a little life; and a 
whole life but a day repeated. 6. We find it hard 
to forgive those, whom we have injured. 7. Fash- 
ionable women are articles manufactured by mil- 
iners ; 

They want but little — here below, 
And want that little — for a show. 
S. Do nothing you would wish to conceal. 9. Ap- 
pearances are often deceiving. 10. Riches cannot 
purchase mental endowments. 

Anecdote. Look at Home. The advice 
of a girl, to Thales, a Milesian astronomer, 
was strong and practical. Seeing him gaz- 
ing at the heavens, as lie walked along, and 
perhaps piqued, because he did not cast an 
eye on her attractions, she put a stool in his 
path, over which he tumbled and broke his 
shins. Her excuse was, that she wanted to 
teach him, before he indulged himself in 
star- gazing, to " look at home.' 1 '' 

VARIETIES. 

A proper judge — will read each work of wit, 
With the same spirit, that its author writ. 
It comes o'er the ear, like the sweet south wind, 
Which breathes upon a bank of violets. 
Stealing — and giving odor. 
Th't mind and body — often sympathize, 
Is plain ; such — is this union, nature ties : 
But then, as often too, they disagree, 
Which proves — the soul's superior progeny. 
Yet this is Rome, 
That sat on her seven hills, and from her throne 
Of beauty — ruled the world. 

Beware of desperate steps ; the darkest day, 
(Live till to-morrow,) will have passed away. 
With pleasure — let us own our errors past, 
And make each day — Brcritic — on the last. 
Thinking — leads man to knowledge. 
He may see and hear, and read and learn, 
whatever he pleases, and as much as he pleas- 
es : he will never know any thing of it, ex- 
cept that which he has thought over; that 
which, by thinking, he has made the pro- 
perty of his mind. Is it then saying too 
much, that man, by thinking only, becomes 
truly man. Take away thought from man's 
life, and what remains ? 

'T was the bow of Omnipotence : bent in Bis hand, 
Whose grasp at creation the unixxrse spann'd ; 
'T was the presence of God, in a symbol sublime ; 
His vow from the flood to the exit of Time ! 
Not dreadful, as when in the whirlwind he pleads, 
When storms are his chariot, and lightnings his steeds, 
The black clouds his banner of vengeance unfurl'd, 
And thunder his voice to a graft-stricken world ; — 
Not such was the rainbow, that beautiful one ! 
Whose arch was refraction, its fcfy-stone the sun; 
A pavilion it seenvd, which the Deity graced, 
And just ice and mercy met there, and embraced. 
Awhile, and it sweetly bent over the gloom, 
Like love o'er a death-couch, or hope o'er the tomb; 
Then left the dark scene ; whence it slowly retired j 
As love had just vanish'd, or hopehad expired. 

Virtue, not rolling siuis— the mind matures. 



176 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 




LOVE, 
466. Love 
gives a soft se- 
renity to the 
countenance, a 
languishing to ; 
the eyes, a 
sweeinessto 
the voice, and a 
tenderness 
to the whole 
frame: fore- 
head smooth 
and enlarged ; 
eye-brows arch- 
ed ; mouth a 
little open; 
when entreat- 
ing, it clasps 
the hands, with 
intermingled ringers, "to the breast ; eyes lan- 
guishing and partly shut, as if doatingon the ob- 
ject ; countenance assumes the eager and wistful 
took of desire, but mixed with an air of satisfac- 
tion ami repose ; accents soft and winning, voice 
persuasive, flattering, pathetic, various, musi- 
cal and rapturous, as in Joy : when declaring, 
the right hand, open, is pressed forcibly on the 
breast; it makes approaches with the greatest 
delicacy, and is attended with trembling hesi- 
tancy and confusion ; if successful, the counte- 
nance is lighted up with smiles ; wnsuccessful 
love adds an air of anxiety and melancholy. 

467. To the above may be added, Shaks- 
peare's description of this affection, as given 
by the Good Shepherd, who was requested to 
tell a certain youth, what 'tis to love : 
It is to be all made of sighs and tears : 
It is to be all made of faith and service: 
It is to be all made of fantasy, 
All made of passion, and all made of icishes : 
All adoration, duty, and observance, 
All humbleness, all patience, and impatience, 
All purity, all trial, all observance. 

LOVE DESCRIBED. 

Come hither boy; if ever thou shalt love, 
In the sweet pangs of it remember me : 
For such as /am — all — true lovers are : 
Unstaid and skittish in all motions else ;[belov'd. 
Save in the constant image of the creature, that is 

LANGUISHING LOVE. 

O fellow, come, the song we had last night : 

Mark it Cesario ; it is old and plain ,* 

The spinsters, and the knitters in the sun, [bones, 

And the free maids, .hat weave their threads with 

Do use to chant it : it is silly, sooth, 

And dallies with the innocence of love, 

Like to old age. 

Hail, wedded love, mysterious law, true source 

Of human offspring, sole propriety 

In paradise, of all things common else ! 

By thee adult'rous lust — was driv'n from men 

Among the bestial herds to range ; by thee 

Founded in reason, loyal, just, and pure, 

Relations dear, and all the charities 

Of father, son, and brother, first were known. 

Here, lore his golden shafts employs, here lights 

His constant lamp, and waves his purple wing*, 

Reigns here and revels : not in the bought smile 

Of harlots, loveless, joyless, unendear'd, 

Casual fruition ; not in court amours, 

Mix'd dance, or wanton mask, or midnight ball. 



Maxims. 1. We must strike while the iron 
is hot ; but we must sometimes make the iron hot 
by striking. 2. Books are to the young, what 
capital is to the man of business. 3. It is not good 
husbandry, to make a child's fortune — great, and 
his mind — poor. 4. Some — excuse their ignorance, 
by pretending, that their taste lies in another di- 
rection. 5. Reading, makes a full man, and think- 
ing, a correct man. 6. Not the pain, but the 
cause — makes the martyr. 7. Learn some useful 
art or trade, that you may be independent of the 
caprice of fortune. 8. Nothing is harder for hon- 
est people, than to be denied the privilege of 
speaking their minds. 9. Some— are penny-uise, 
and pound-foolish. 10. A true friend sometimes 
ventures to be offensive. 

Anecdote. Two Lawyers. A wealthy 
farmer, being engaged in a Zcci^-suit against 
one of his opulent neighbors, applied to a 
lawyer, who happened to be engaged on the 
opposite side ; but, who told him he would 
give him a recommendation to a professional 
friend ; which he did in the following lines : 
" Here are two fat wethers, fallen out together, 
If you'll fleece one, I'll fleece the other, 
And make them agree like brother and brother." 

The letter being unsealed, the farmer had 
the curiosity to open and read it ; he did so, 
and instead of carrying it to the other lawyer, 
he took it to the person, with whom he was 
at variance. Its perusal cured both parties, 
and ended the dispute. Inference — Lawyers 
live by the violation of the laws of goodness 
and truth. 

Conversation. When five or six men 
are together, it is curious — to observe tlie 
anxiety every one has to speak. No one 
wishes to hear ^ sill he desires, is — an audi- 
tor. Rather than defer telling their respec- 
tive stories, they frequently all speak at the 
same time. 

Varieties. The United States — is on a 
conspicuous stage ; and the world — marks 
her demeanor. 2. If a parent — withhold from 
his children — the light, and influence of Bi- 
vine Truth, is he not, in part, responsible 
for their crimes? 3. Eloquence — is the lan- 
guage of Nature, — of the soul,- it cannot be 
acquired in the schools, though it may be cul- 
tivated there. 4. What is the object of court- 
ship 2 to get acquainted; to show off; to 
take in; or, to marry? 5. What a dreadful 
thing it is — to be " cut out," — and to " get 
the mitten /" 

They— know not my heart, who belioe there can be 
One stain of this earth — in its feelings for thee ; 
Who think, while I see thee in beauty's young hour, 
As pure as the morning's first dew on the flower, 
I could harm what I love — as the sun's wanton ray 
But smiles on the dew-drop— to waste it away ! 
Ao— beaming with light— as those young features are, 
There's a light round thy heart, which is lovlier far: 
It is not that cheek— 'tis the soul— dawning clear 
Through its innocent blush, makes thy beauty so dear— 
As the shy we look up to, though glorious and fair, 
Is look'd up to the more, because heaven is there ' 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



177 




PITY, COMPASSION. 
468. Pitt, 
benevolence to 
the afflicted; a 
mixture of love 
for an object 
which suffers, 
whether human 
or animal, and a 
grief that we are 
unable to re- 
move those suf- 
ferings. It is seen 
ma compassion- 
ate tenderness 
of voice . a feel- 
ing of pain in the 
couute nance ; 
features drawn 
together, e y e- 
brows drawn down, mouth open, and a gentle 
raising and falling of the hands and eyesj^as if 
mourning over the unhappy object. 

Hadst thou but seen, as J did. how at last, 
Thy beauties, BeWidera., like a wretch 
That's doom'd to banishment, came weeping forth: 
Whilst two young virgins, on whom she once 
Kindly look'd up. and at her grief grew sad! [lean'd, 
Ev'n the loud rabble, th"t were gather'd round 
To see the sight, stood mute, when they beheld 
Her : govern'd their roaring threats, and grumbl'd 

PITY. 

How many bleed, 
By shameless variance, between man and man ! 
On the bare earth, exposed, he lies, 
With not a friend to close his eyes. 
Shoic mercy, and thou shalxfind it. 
Life, fill ? d with grief's distressful train. 
Forever asks the tear humane. 

The quality of mercy — is not strain'd ; 
It drcppeth. as the gentle rain from heaven 
Upon the place beneath: it is twice bless'd: 
It blesseth him xWat gives, and him that takes: 
Tis mightiest — in the mightiest: it becomes 
The throned monarch — better than his crown ; 
His sceptre shows the force of temporal power, 
The attribute to awe — and majesty. 
Wherein doth sit the dread and fear of kings ; 
But mercy — is above this sceptrVl sway. 
It is enthroned — in the hearts of kings. 

It is an attribute to God himself: 

And earthly power — doth then show likest God's, 
When mercy — seasons justice. 

But from the mountain's grassy side, 

A guiltless feast I bring : 

A scrip, with fruits and herbs supplied, 

And water from the spring. 
Thou great, thou best prerogative of power ! 
Justice may guard the throne, but. join'd with thee, 
On rocks of adamant it stands secure, 
And braves the storm beneath. 
Mercy — is the becoming smile of justice; 
This — makes her lovely, as her rigor — dreadful; 
Either, alone, defective : — but. when join'd, 
Like clay and water in the potter's hands, 
They mingle influence, and together rise, 
Informs, which neither, separate, could bestow. 
The su-eetest cordial— we receive at last, 
Is— conscience — of our virtuous actions past. 
23 



Maxims. 1. He that feels as he ought, will be 
polite without knowing it. 2. Comon sense is the 
growth of all countries and all ages, hut it is very 
rare. 3. Modesty is one of the chief ornaments of 
youth. 4. In every condition be humble; the loftier 
the condition, the greater the danger. 5. Fedingi 
and thoughts are the parents of language. 6. To 
gain a good reputation, be, what you desire to ap- 
pear. 7. In prosperity, we need consideration ; in 
adversity — patience. S. Kindness is more binding 
than a loan. 9. Right should be preferred io kind- 
red. 10. A wise man adapts himself to circum- 
stances, as water does to the vessel that contains it. 
Anecdote. When Woodward first acted 
Sir John Brute, Garrick was induced, either 
by curiosity or jealousy, to be present. A 
few days afterward, they happened to meet, 
when Woodward asked Garrick, how he liked 
him in the part ; adding, I think I struck out 
some beauties in it. Garrick replied, " I think 
you struck out all the beauties hi it." ; 

Discretion. At the same time, that I 
think discretion — the most useful talent a 
man can be master of, I look upon cunning 
to be the accomplishment of little, mean, un- 
generous minds. Discretion — points out the 
noblest ends to us, and pursues the most pro- 
per and laudable methods of attaining them; 
cunning — has only private, selfish aims, and 
sticks at nothing which may make them suc- 
ceed. Discretion — has large and extensive 
views, and, like a well-formed eye, commands 
a whole horizon,- cunning — is a kind of 
short-sightedness, that discovers the minutest 
objects, which are near at hand, but is not 
able to discern things at a distance. 

Varieties. 1. Said an Indian chief to the 
President, " May the Great Sjririt bear up 
the weight of thy gray hairs, and blunt the 
arrow, that brings them rest. 2. The great 
truth has finally gone forth to the ends of the 
earth, that man shall no more render account 
to man, for his belief, over which he himself 
has no control. 3. Let every one feel, think, 
act and say whatever he pleases; provided, 
he does not infringe upon like privileges of 
others. 4. Virtue — promotes worldly pros- 
perity; vice destroys it. 5. Who can fully 
realize the strength of parental affection, 
without experiencing it 1 and even then, icho 
can describe it. 6. Grief, smothered, preys 
upon the vitals ; give it vent into the bosom 
of a friend. 7. Nothing is of any service, 
that does not help tore-unite the soul to God. 
But, whate'er you are. 
That in this desert inaccessible, 
Under the shade of melancholy houghs, 
Lose and neglect the creeping hours of time, 
If ever you have looked on better days. 
If ever been where bells have knoli'd to church; 
If ever sat at any good man's feast! 
If ever, from your eye-\ids, wip'd a tear, 
And know what "tis to pity, and be pitied, 
Let gentleness my strong enforcement be 



178 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 




DESIRE, HOPE. 

469. Hops 
is a mixture of 
joy and desire, 
agitating the 
mind, and anti- 
cipating its en- 
joyment; it ev- 
er' gives pleas- 
ure": which is 
not always the 
ca?e with wish 
and desire ; as 
they may pro- 
duce or be ac- 
companied with 
pain and anxie- 
ty. Hope erects 
and brightens the 
countenance, o- 
pcns the mouth 
to half a smile, arches the eye-brows, gives the 
eyes an eager and wistful look ; spreads the arms 
with the hands open, ready to receive the object 
of its wishes, towards which it leans a little ; the 
voice, is somewhat plaintive, and manner incli- 
ning to eagerness, but colored by doubt and anx- 
iety ; the breath drawn inward more forcibly than 
usual, ill order to express our desires more strong- 
ly, and our earenesi expectation of receiving the 
object of them. 
But thou, O hope ! with eyes so fair, 

What was thy delighted measure ? 

Still it whisper'd— promis'd pleasure, 
And bade the lovely scenes at distance hail ; 

Still would her touch the strain prolong, 
And from the rocks, the woods, the vale, 

She called an echo still thro' all her song ; 
And where her sweetest theme she chose, 
A soft responsive voice was heard, at every close. 
And Hope, enchanted, smil'd. and wav'd her 
golden hair. [health! 

Thou captive's freedom, and thou sick man's 
Thou lover's victory, thou beggar's wealth ! 
Thou manna, which from heaven we eat, 
To every taste a several meat ; 
Hope ! thou first fruit of happiness ! 
Thou gentle dawning of a bright success ! 
Who, out of fortune's reach doth stand, 
And art a blessing still at hand! 
Brother of faith ! 'twixt whom and thee, 
The joys of heaven and earth divided be; 
The future's thine, — the present's his. 
Thou pleasant, honest flatterer ; for none 
Flatter unhappy men, but thou alone ! 
O Hope, svjeet flatterer, whose delusive touch 
Sheds on afflicted, minds, the balm of comfort, 
Relieves the load of poverty ; sustains 
The captive, bending under the weight of bonds, 
And smooths the pillow of disease, and pain ; 
Send back the exploring messenger with joy, 
And let me hail thee — from that friendly grove. 

Anecdote. A traveler in a stage-coach, 
not famous for its svjiftness, inquired the 
name of the coach. A fellow passenger re- 
plied, " I think it is the Regulator, for I ob- 
serve that all the other coaches go by it." 
Hast thou power?— the weak defend ; 
Light?— give light : thy knowledge lend ; 
Rich?— remember Him, who gave; 
Free ?— be brother to the slave. 
A disputable point— is no man"s ground. 



Maxims. 1. It is one thing to know how to 
give, and anoilier to know how to keep. 2. Every 
thing perfected by art, has its source in nature. 
3. He who tells you the faults of others, intends to 
tell others your faults. 4. Opinion is free, and 
conduct alone amenable to the law. 5. Extrava- 
gant praise is more mortifying than the keenest 
satire. 6. Love all beauty, and you will love all 
goodness. 7. A foolish/rimd does more harm than 
a wise enemy. 8. When our hatred is violent, it 
sinks us below those we hate. 9. There should 
be no delay in a benefit, but in the modesty of the 
receiver. 10. A cup of cold water, in time of need, 
may save a man's life. 

Acquaintance -with Human Nature. 
He, who has acquired a competent knowl- 
edge of the views, that occupy the generality 
of men ; who has studied a great variety of 
characters, and attentivly ohserved the force 
and violence of human passions ; together 
with the infirmities and contradictions they 
produce in the conduct of life, will find in 
this knowledge, a key to the secret reasons 
and motives which gave rise to many of the 
most important events of ancient times. 

Varieties. 1. Some people will do al- 
most anything, rather than own a fault ; 
tho' everything depends on it : thus, Seneca's 
wife, to conceal her blindness, declared that 
the whole world was in darkness, and nom 
could see. 2. What is the difference between 
pleasure and happiness ? 3. There is, in ali 
things, a threefold pnnciple, by which they 
exist; an inmost, middle, and outermost ; 
and in human beings, there is a soul, mind, 
and body ; will, understanding, and act ; af- 
fection, thought and speech; intellectual, 
rational, and scientific ; end, cause, and ef- 
fect, all essentially distinct. 4. Our Lord 
does not say — if a man see a miracle, he 
shall know that my doctrine is from God ; 
but, " if any man will do my wilV 

The flower — soon dies, but hope's soft ray 

Unchanged — undying shines 
Around that form— where pale decay, 

A peaceful heart enshrines : 
Like ivy— round the blighted tree, 

It twines around the heart, 
Amid poor— frail humanity, 

The only verdant part. 
TVuehope is swift, and flies with swallow's wings ; 
Kingt it makes Gods, and meaner creatures Kings. 
Hope, though 'tis pale sorrow's only cordial 
Has yet — a dull and opiate quality, 
Enfeebling — what it lulls. 
A beacon shining o'er a stormy sea; 
A cooling/ownZain — in a weary land ; 
A green spot — on a waste and burning sand; 
A rose — that o'er a ruin sheds its bloom ; 
A sunbeam — smiling o'er the cold dark tomb. 
Westward— the course of empire takes its way ; 

The four first acts already past, 
A fifth— shall close the drama with the day; 
Time's noblest offspring — is the last. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



179 




HATRED, AVERSION, 
^TO. When, 
by frequent re- 
flections on a 
disagreeable 
object, our dis- 
approbation of I 
it is attended 
with a strong 
disinclinat i o n 
of mind to- 
wards it, it is 
called hatred ; 
and when this 
is accompani- 
ed with a pain- 
f u 1 sensation 
upon the appre- 
hension of its 
presence and 
approach, there follows an inclination to avoid it, 
called aversion ; extreme hatred is abhorrence, 
or detestation. Hatred, or aversion expressed 
to, or of any person, or any thing, that is odious, 
draws back the body to avoid the hated object, 
and the hands, at the same time, thrown out and 
spread, as if to keep it off; the face is turned away 
from that side, which the hands are thrown out ; 
the eyes looking angrily and obliquely, or asquint, 
the way the hands are directed ; the eyebrows are 
contracted, the upper lip disdainfully drawn up ; 
die teeth set; the pitch of the voice is loud, surly, 
chiding, languid and vehement; the sentences are 
short and abrupt. 

HATRED— CTJRSTXG THE OBJECT HATED. 

Poisons— be their drink, 
Gall — worse than gall, the daintest meat they taste : 
Their sweetest shade, a grove of cyprus trees; 
Their sweetest prospects, murd'ring basalisks; 
Their music — frightful as the serpent's hiss : 
And boding screec/i-owls make the concert full ; 
All the foul terrors of dark-seated hell. 
The mortal coldness of the soul, like death itself comes down ; 
It cannot feel for other's woes, it dare not dream its own ; 
That heavy chill has frozen o'er the fountain of our tears, 
And though the eye may sparkle still, 'tis where the ice appears. 
Tho' wit may flash from fluent lips, and mirth distract the breast, 
Thro' midnight hours, that yield no more their/ormer hope of rest ; 
Tis but as ivy leaves — around the ruin'd turret wreath, 
All green and wildly fresh without, but worn and gray beneath. 
On Adam last thus judgment he pronounc'd : 
" Because thou hast hearken'd to the voice of thy 
And eaten of the tree, concerning which [wife, 
I charg'd thee, saying, ' Thou shalt not eat thereof,' 
Curs'd is the ground for thy sake ; thou, in sorrow, 
Shalt eat thereof all the days of thy life ; 
Thorns, also, and thistles it shall bring thee foTth 
Unbid; and thou shalt eat 'the herb of the field. 
In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, 
Till thou return unto the ground; for thou 
Out of the ground wast taken : know thy birth, 
For dust thou art, and shalt to dust return." 

Anecdote. Satisfaction. A ruined 
debtor, having done every thing in his power 
to satisfy his creditors, said to them, "Gentle- 
men, — I have been extremely perplexed, till 
now, how to satisfy you : and having done 
my utmost to do so, I shall leave you to sat- 
isfy yourselves" 

He, whose mind 

Is virtuous, is alone — of noble kind ; 

Tho' poor — in fortune, of celestial race; 

And he— commits a crime, who calls him base. 



Maxims. 1. One true friend is worth a hund- 
red relations. 2. Happiness is to be found every 
where, if you possess a well regulated mind. 3. 
Between good sense and good taste, there is the 
same difference as between cause and effect. 4. 
He, who profits by the mistakes, or oversights of 
others, learns a lesson of great importance. 5. 
The flight of a person accused, is a tacit acknowl- 
edgment of his guilt. 6. He, is vjise, who does ev- 
ery thing at the proper time. 7. Confession is zs 
a medicine— to him who has gone astray. S. The 
love of liberty makes even an old man brave. 9. 
Children are heirs to the diseases of their parents, 
as well as to their possessions. 10. A man, who 
cannot forgive, breaks the bridge over which he 
might pass to Heaven. 

Thoughts. A man would do well to car- 
ry a pencil in his pocket, and write down the 
thoughts of the moment. Those that come 
unsought for, are commonly the most valu- 
able, and should be secured, because they sel- 
dom return. 

Varieties. 1. What do you think of one ? 
who gives away ten dollars, when he owes a 
hundred more than he can pay ? 2. Let us 
follow nature, who has given shame to man 
for a scourge ; and let the heaviest part of the 
punishment be — the infamy attending it. 3. 
Can we perceive any quality in an object, 
without an act of comparison ? 4. Falsehood 
often decks herself in the outer garments of 
truth, that she may succeed the better in her 
wily deceits. 5. The thing, which has been 
done, it is that which shall be ; and that which 
is, it is that which shall be done ; and there 
is no new thing under the sun. 6. Society 
cannot be held together without morals ; nor 
can morals maintain their station in the hu- 
man heart, without religion; and no religion 
is worth having, unless it is founded on truth, 
which is the corner-stone of the fabric of hu- 
man nature. 7. How far have moralpercep- 
tions been influencedby physical phenomena? 

How very precious — praise 
Is — to a young genius, like sunlight — on flowers, 
Ripening them into fruit. 

One hour — 
Of thoughtful solitude — may nerve the heart 
For days of conflict,— girding up its armor- 
To meet the most insidious foe, and lending 
The courage — sprung alone from innocence — 
And good intent. 

There is not, in this life of ours, 

One bliss — unmixed with fears; 
The hope, that wakes our deepest powers, 

A face of sadness wears ; 
And the dew, that show'rs o'er dearest flow'rs. 

Is the bitter dew — of tears. 

In all our strictures — placid we will be, 

As Halcyons— brooding on a summer sea. 
No man— is born into the world, whose work—* 
Is not born with him ; there is always work,— 
And tools— to work withal, for those who will 



180 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



ANGER, RAGE, FURY, 

Imply 




471. 

excitement or 
violent action : 
when hatred 
and displeasure 
rise high, on a 
sudden, from 
an apprehen- 
sion of injury 
received and 
perturbation of 
mind in conse- 
quence of it,it is 
called anger: 
and rising to a 
very high de- 
gree, and ex- 
tinguishing hu- 
manity, it be- 
comes rage and fury : anger always renders 
the muscles protuberant ; hence, an angry mind 
and protuberant muscles, are considered as 
cause and effect. Violent anger or rage, ex- 
presses itself with rapidity, noise, harshness, 
trepidation, and sometimes with interrruption 
and hesitation, as unable to utter itself with suf- 
ficient force. It wrinkles and clouds the brow, 
enlarges and heaves the nostrils ; every vein 
swells, muscles strained, nods or shakes the 
head, stretches out the neck, clenches the fists, 
breathing hard, breast heaving, teeth shown and 
gnashing, face bloated, red, pale, or black ; eyes 
red, staring, rolling and sparkling; eye-brows 
drawn down over them, stamps with the foot, 
and gives a violent agitation to the whole body. 
The voice assumes Ihe highest pitch it can 
adopt, consistently with force and loudness ; 
Tho' sometimes, to express anger with uncom- 
mon energy, the voice assumes a low and forci- 
ble tone. 

Hear me, rash man ; on thy allegiance hear me ; 
Since thou hast striv'n to make us break our vow, 
Which, nor our nature, nor our place can bear, 
We banish thee forever from our sight, 
And our kingdom: If when three days are expired, 
Thy hated trunk be found in our dominions, 
That moment is thy death.— Away. 

Anger is like 

A full hot horse; who, being allow'd his way, 

£e//-mettle tires him. 
The short passing anger but seem'd to awaken 
New beauty, like flowers, that are sweetest when shaken. 

They are as gentle 
As zephyrs blowing below the violet, 
Not wagging his sweet head ; and yet as rough, 
Their royal blood enchaf 'd, as the rud'st wind, 
That, by the top, doth take the mountain pine, 
And make liim stoop to the vale. 

You are yoked with a lamb, 
That carries anger— as the flint bears fire ; 
Who, much enforced, shows a hasty spark, 
And straight is cold again. 

Anecdote. Sowing and Reaping. A 
countryman, sowing his ground, two up- 
starts, riding that way, one of them called to 
him with an insolent air — " Well, honest fel- 
low, 'tis your business to sow, but we reap 
the fruit of your labor.'''' To which the 
countryman replied — " 'Tis very likely you 
may ; for I am sowing hemp." 

The world's a book,— writ by the eternal art 

Of the Great Author, and printed— in man's heart. 



Laconics. 1. A little neglectmay breed great 
mischief. 2. Retrospection and anticipation may 
both be turned to good account. 3. He, who 
would be well spoken of himself, must speak 
well of others- 4. Wildness of eccentricity, and 
thoughtlessness of conduct, are not necessary ac- 
companiments of talent, or indications of genius. 
5. Vanity and affectation, often steal into the 
hearts of youth, and make them very ridiculous ; 
yet, no one is contemptible, for being what he is, 
but for pretending to be what he is not. 6. JVo 
speech can be severe, unless it be true ; for if it 
be not true, it cannot apply; consequently, its 
severity is destroyed by its injustice. 7. Mutual 
benevolence must be kept up between relatives, 
as well as between friends ; for without this ce- 
ment, whatever the building is called, it is only 
a castle in the air, a thing talked of, without the 
reality. 

Education. Education is to the mind, 
what cleanliness is to the body ; the beauties 
of the one, as well as the other, are blemished, 
if not totally lost, by neglect- and as the 
richest diamond cannot shoot forth its lustre, 
wanting the lapidary's skill, so, will the la- 
tent virtue of the noblest mind be buried in 
obscurity, if not called forth by precept, and 
the rules of good manners. 

Varieties, 1. He that thinks he can be 
negligent of his expenses, is not far from be- 
ing poor. 2. Extended empire, like expand- 
ed gold, exchanges solid strength for feeble 
splendor. 3. Similarity in sound, weakens 
contrast in sense. 4. There being differences 
of mind, each member of a family, and of 
the community, is best qualified for the per- 
formance of specific duties. 5. The notions 
of some parents are very extravagant, in 
wishing the teacher to make great men of 
their sons ; while they would be much more 
useful, and happy, in the field, or in the 
workshop. 6. Write down all you can re- 
member of a lecture, address, or book, and 
the result will enable your teacher, as well 
as yourself, to decide, with a good degree of 
accuracy, upon your character, and the stu- 
dies most appropriate for you to pursue. 
What is wedlock forced, but a hell, 
An age of discord, and continued strife! 
Whereas the contrary — bringeth forth bliss, 
And is a pattern — of celestial peace. 

Immortality o'ersweeps 
All pains, all tears, all trials, all fears, and peals, 
Like the eternal thunder of the deep, 
Into my ears, this truth— "Thou livest forever." 
Oh ! life is a waste of wearisome hours, 

Which seldom the rose of enjoyment adorns ; 
And the heart that is soonest a wak'd to the flowr's, 

Is always the first to be touched by the thorns. 
The soul of music — slumbers in the shell, 
Till waked and kindled, by the master's spell, 
And feeling hearts, (touch them but lightly,) pour 
A thousand melodies, unheard before. 

When all things have their trial, you shall find, 
Nothing is constant, but a virtuous mind. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



181 




REVENGE. 

*73. Re- 
venge — is a 
propensity 
& endeavor to 
injure or pain 
t h e offender, 
contrary to the 
laws of j u s- 
tice : which is 
attended with 
triumph and 
exultation, 
when the in- 
jury is inflict- 
ed, or accom- 
plished. It ex- 
poses itself 
like malice, or 
spite, but more 
openly, loudly and triumphantly; sets the jaws; 
grates the teeth ; sends blasting flashes from the 
eyes ; draws the corners of the mouth towards the 
ears : clenches both fists, and holds the elbow in 
a straining manner : the tone of voice and expres- 
sion are similar to those of anger; but the pitch 
of voice is not so high, nor loud. 
If they but speak the truth of her, [honor, 

These hands shall tear her; if they wrong her 
The proudest of them shall well hear of it. 
Time hath not so dried this blood of mine, 
Nor age so eat up my invention, 
Nor fortune made such havoc of my means, 
Nor my bad life — 'reft me so much of friends, 
But they shall find awak'd, in such a kind, 
Both strength of limb and policy of mind, 
Ability in means, and choice of friends, 
To quit me of them thoroughly. 

4:73. If it will feed nothing else, it will feed 
my revenge. He hath disgraced me, and hin- 
der'd me of half a million ; laugh'd at my 
losses, mocked at my gains, scorn'd my na- 
tion, thwarted my bargains, cool'd my 
friends, heated mine enemies. And what's 
his reason ? I am a Jew ! Hath not a Jew 
eyes ? Hath not a Jew hands ? organs, di- 
mensions, senses, affections, passions ? Is he 
not fed with the same food; hurt with the 
aame weapons ; subject to the same diseases ; 
heaTd by the same means : warm'd and coofd 
by the same summer and winter, as a Chris- 
tian is 1 If you stab us, do we not bleed ? 
If you tickle us, do we not laugh ? If you 
poison us, do we not die ? And if you wrong 
us, shall we not revenge P If we are like you 
in the rest, we will resemble you in that. If 
a Jew wrong a Christian what is his humili- 
ty 1 Revenge. If a Christian wrong a Jew, 
what should his sufferance be by christian 
example] Why, Revenge. The villiany 
you teach me, I will execute ; and it shall go 
hard, but I will better the instruction. 

O sacred solitude; divine retreat! 

Choice — of the prudent ! envy — of the great ! 

By thy pure stream, or in thy waving shade, 

We court fair wisdom, that celestial maid : 

The genuine offspring — of her lov'd embrace, 

(Strangers — on earth,) are innocence — and peace. 

There, from the ways of men laid safe ashore 

We smile— to hear the distant tempest roar; 

There, bless'd with health, with bus'ness unperplex'd, 

This life we relish, and ensure the next. 



When will the world shake off such yokes ! oh, 
Will that redeeming day shine out on men, [when 
That shall behold them rise, erect anil free, 
As Heaven and Nature — meant mankind should be! 
When Reason shall no longer blindly bow 
To the vile pagod things, that o'er her brow, 
Like him of Jaghernaut, drive trampling now; 
Nor Conquest dare to desolate God's earth ; 
Nor drunken Victory, with a Nero's mirth, 
Strike her lewd harp amidst a. people's groans; — 
But, built on love, the world's exalted thrones 
Shall to the virtuous and the wise be given — 
Those bright, those sole legitimates of Heaven! 

Human Testimony. The judgment must 
be employed, to discern the truth or falsehood of 
assertions, by attending to the credibility and 
consistency of the different parts of the story: the 
veracity and character of witnesses in other re- 
spects; by comparing the assertions with ac- 
counts received from other witnesses, who could 
not be ignorant of the facts ; and lastly, by bring- 
ing the whole to a test of a comparison with 
known and admitted facts. 

Anecdote. Scientific Enthusiasm. The 
enthusiasm of ardent and forcible minds, ap- 
pears madness, to those who are dull and 
phlegmatic. The pleasure it inspires is the 
greatest and the most independent remunera- 
tion, that men of genius receive for their efforts 
and exertions. Do-na-/eWo, the great Flor- 
entine sculptor, had been long working at his 
statue of Judith ; and, on giving the last stroke 
of the chisel to it, he was heard to exclaim, 
" Speak now ! I am sure you can." 

Varieties. 1 . How beautiful the arrange- 
ment of all living creatures, with the bounda- 
ries of their habitation / But how much more 
beautiful, could we but discover the law of 
this arrangement, or the reason, by which it 
is founded ; that law, and the source from 
which it proceeds, must be the perfection of 
intelligence. 2. A good natured man has the 
whole vjorld to be happy in. He is blest 
with earn/body's blessing, and wherever he 
goes, he finds some one to love ; " Unto him 
that hath, shall be given." 3. Parents should 
beware of discouraging their children, by 
calling them fools, half-witted, and telling 
them they will never know anything, &c. ; 
but let the current flow on, and it will soon 
run clear: dam it up, and mischief will most 
certainly ensue. 4. The agitations among 
the nations of the earth, cannot be mistaken: 
they are the struggles of opinion., writhing in 
its chains, and indignantly striving to cast 
them off; the soul bursting its trammels, for- 
saking its bondage, and soaring away to its 
native heaven of thought, where it may range 
at large, emancipate and free. 

« Peace ."' shall the world, out-wearied, ever see 
Its universal reign ? Will states, will \ings, 
Put down those murderous— and unholy things, 
Which fill the earth— with blood and misa-y? 
Will nations learn— that love— not enmity— 



182 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 




ANGER, HATRED, REPROACH. 

474. Re- 
proach — is set- 
tled anger, or 
hatred, chasti- 
sing the object 
of its dislike, by 
casting in his 
teetli the secret 
causes of his 
misconduct, or 
impe rfections : 
the brow is con- 
tracted, the lip 
turn'd up with 
scorn, the head 
shaken, the 
voice low, as 
if abhorring, and 
the whole body- 
expressive of aversion, contempt and loathing. 

Farewell, happy fields, 

Where joy forever dwells ! Hail, horrors ! hail, 

Infernal world J and thou, profoundest Hell, 

Receive thy new possessor ; one who brings 

A mind not to be chang'd by place or time. 

The mind is its own place, and in itself 

Can make a heaven of hell, a hell of Heav'n : 

What matter where, if I be still the same, 

And what I should be. all but less than he 

Whom thunder hath made greater? Here, at least 

We shall be free; th' Almighty hath not built 

Here for his envy ; will not drive us hence : 

Here we may reign secure; and in my choice, 

To reign is worth ambition, though in hell : 

Better to reign in hell, than serve in Heaven. 

He is my bane, I cannot bear him ; 

One heav'n and earth can never hold us both : 

Still shall we hate, and with defiance deadly, 

Keep rage alive, till one be lost forever ; 

As if two suns should meet in one meridian, 

And strive, in fiery combat, for the passage. 

Who does one thing, and another tell, 

My heart detests him as the gates of hell. 

Hence, from my sight ! 

Thy father cannot bear thee ; 

Fly with thy infamy to some dark cell, 

Where, on the confines of eternal night, 

Mourning, misfortunes, cares and anguish dwell. 

REPROACHING WITH WANT OF COURAGE AND SPIRIT. 

Thou slave, thou wretch, thou coward ! 
Thou little valiant, great in villany, 
Thou ever strong upon the stronger side ! 
Thou fortune's champion, thou dost never fight 
But when her humorous ladyship is by, 
To teach thee safety! thou art perjured too, 
Andsoothest up greatness. What a fool art thou, 
A ramping fool; to brag, to stamp, and swear, 
Upon my party ! Thou cold-blooded slave ! 
Hast thou not spoke like thunder on my side, 
Been sworn my soldier T bidding me depend, 
Upon thy stars, thy fortune, and thy strength 1 
And dost thou now fall over to my foes ? 
Thou wear a lion's hide ; doff it, for shame, 
And hang a calf's skin on those recreant limbs. 
Debasing tendency of Anger. What 
a wretched thing is anger, and the commotion of 
the soul. If anything interposes itself between 
me and the object of my pursuits, what is incum- 



bent upon me is, that I should put forth my powers, 
and remove it. How shall I do this ? By the ex- 
ercise of my understanding. To the employment 
of this power, a cool and exact observation is ne- 
cessary ; but the moment I am the slave of pas- 
sion, my power is lost; I am turned into a beast, 
or rather into a drunkard; I can neither preserve 
my footing, nor watch my advantage, nor strike 
an effectual blow. Did you never see a passion- 
ate and a temperate man — pitched against each 
other ? How like a fool did the former appear ! 
how did his adversary turn and wind him as he 
pleased, like some god— controling an inferior na- 
ture ! It is by this single implement, his reason, 
that man tames horses, camels, and elephants, to 
his hand ; that he tames the lion of the desert, and 
shuts up the hyena with bars. 

Anecdote. Servile Imitation. The Chi- 
nese tailors do not measure their customers, 
but make clothes according to the pattern 
given them. An American captain, being at 
Canton, and wanting a new coat made, sent 
the proper quantity of cloth, and an old one 
for a pattern: but, unluckily, the old coat 
had a patch at the elbow, which the tailor 
copied, to the no small mortification of his 
employer. 

Varieties. 1. Whatever tends to dissolve 
the Union, or lessen the sovereign authority, 
is hostile to our liberty and independence. 2. 
As the true christian religion, which is to be- 
come universal, had one local origin, so, 
have all genuine and specific creations had 
their origin, or local centre, whence they have 
been diffused. 3. Let an unbeliever in this 
religion, write down, fairly and truly, all the 
absurdities he believes instead of it, and he 
will find that it requires more faith to reject 
it, than it does to embrace it. 4. Reverence 
paid to man, on account of what is good and 
true; as divine in them, and as their own, 
is the worship of the creature, instead of the 
Creator, and is idolatry. 5. Man is the end 
of the whole creation ; and all particulars 
of it conspire, that conjunction of him with 
God may be attained, and that the end may 
be brought to pass. 
False views, like that horizon's fair deceit, 
Where earth and heaven but seem, alas, to meet 
Deceit — is the false road to happiness ; 
And all the joys we travel to through vice, 
Like fairy banquets, vanish when we touch them. 

Oh ! colder than the wind, that freezes 
Founts, that but now in sunshine play'd, 

Is that congealing pang, which seizes 
The trusting bosom, when betrayed. 

In vain my lyrii would lightly breathe 
The smile, tha; sorrow fain would wear, 

But mocks the woe, that lurks beneath, 
Like roses— o'er a sepulchre. 

As the ivy — climbs the tallest tree, 
So — round the loftiest souls his toils he wound, 
And, with his spells, subdu'd Xhe fierce and/res. 
An honest man's the noblest work of God. 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



183 




TERROR, OR FRIGHT. 

475. When 
violent and 
sudden, it 
opens very 
wide the 
mouth, short- 
ens the nose, 
draws down 
the eye- 
brows, gives 
the counte- 
nance an air 
of wildness, 
covers it with 
deadly pale- 
ness, draws 
back the el- 
bows parallel ., .._ 
with the ^^^ \> 
sides, lifts up the open hands — with the fingers 
spread to the height of the breast, at some distance 
before it, so as to shield it from the dreadful object. 
One foot is drawn back behind the other, so that 
the body seems shrinking from the danger, and 
putting itself in a posture for flight. The heart 
beats violently, the breath is quick and short, and 
the whole body is thrown into a general tremor. 
The voice is weak and trembling, the sentences 
short, and the meaning confused and incoherent. 
Imminent danger produces violent shrieks, with- 
out any articulate sounds ; sometimes confuses 
the thoughts, produces faintness, which is some- 
times followed by death. 

Ah ! mercy on my soul ! What is that '? 
My old friend's ghost ? They say none but 
wicked folks walk ; I wish I were at the bot- 
tom of a coal-pit. See ! how long and pale 
his face has grown since his death : he never 
was handsome ; and death has improved him 
very much the wrong way. Pray do not come 
near me ! I wish'd you very well when you 
were alive ; but I could never abide a dead 
man, cheek by Jowl with me. Ah, ah, mercy 
on us ! No nearer, pray ; if it be only to take 
leave of me that you are come back, I could 
have excused you the ceremony with all my 
heart ; or if you — mercy on us ! no nearer, 
pray, or, if you have wronged anybody, as 
you always loved money a little, I give you 
the word of frightened christian,- I will pray 
as long as you please for the deliverance, or 
repose of your departed soul. My good, 
worthy, noble friend, do, pray disappear, as 
ever you would wish your old friend to come 
to his senses again. 

Passion, when deep, is still — the glaring eye, 
That reads its enemy with glance of fire ; 
The lip, that curls and writhes in bitterness ; 
The brow contracted, till its wrinkles hide 
The keen fixed orbs that burn and flash below ; 
The hand firm clench'd and quivering, and the foot 
Planted in attitude to spring and dart 
Its vengeance, are the language it employs. 
While passions glow, the heart, like heated steel, 
Takes each impression, and is work'd at pleasure. 
Anecdote. Printing. It is related that 
Faust, of Mentz, one of the many to whom 
the honor of having invented the invaluable 
art of printing is ascribed, having carried 
some of his Bibles to Paris, and oifered tliem 



for sale as MSS., the French, after consider- 
ing the number of the books, and their exact 
conformity to each other, and that the best 
book writers could not be so exact, concluded 
there was witchcraft in the case; and, by 
either actually indicting him as a conjuror, 
or threatening to do so, they extorted the 
secret; hence, the origin of the popular story 
of the Devil and Dr. Faustus. 

Their breath is agitation, and their life 
A storm whereon they ride, to sink at last, 
And yet so nurs'd and bigoted to strife, 
That should their days, surviving perils past, 
Melt to calm twilight, they feel overcast 
With sorrow and supineness, and so die ; 
Even as a flame unfed, which runs to waste 
With its own flickering, or a sword laid by 
Which eats into itself, and rusts ingloriously. 

Friendship. The water, that flows from a 
spring, does not congeal in the winter. And those 
sentiments of friendship, which flow from the 
heart, cannot be frozen in adversity. 

"Varieties. 1. As in agriculture, he, who 
can produce the greatest crop, is not the best 
farmer, but he, who can effect it with the 
least labor and expense; so, in society, he is 
not the best member, who can bring about 
the most apparent good, but he, who can ac- 
complish it with the least admixture of con- 
comitant evil. 2. Cicero says, that Roscius, 
the Roman comedian, could express a sen- 
tence in as many ways by his gestures, as he 
himself could by his ivords. 3. The eye of 
a cultivated person is full of meaning ; if you 
read it attentively, it will seem like a mirror, 
revealing the inner world of thought and 
feeling ; as the bosom of the smooth lake re- 
flects the image of the earth around, and the 
heavens above. 4. A good reader and a bad 
singer, and a bad reader and a good singer, 
is without excuse,- for the same strength, 
purity, distinctness, flexibility and smooth- 
ness of voice, that either requires, and pro- 
motes, are subservient to each other. 

Should/aZe — command me to the farthest verge 
Of the green earth, to distant, barbarbous climes, 
Rivers — unknown to song; where first the sun — 
Gilds Indian mountains, or his setting beams 
Flame on the Atlantic Isles ; 'tis nought to me ; 
Since God — is ever present, ever felt, 
In the void waste — as in the city full; 
And where He — vital breathes, there must be joy. 
When e'en, at last, the solemn hour shall come, 
And wing my mystic flight — to future worlds, 
I cheerful, will obey ; thee, with new powers, 
Will rising wonders sing : I cannot go — 
Where universal love — smiles not around, 
Sustaining all yon orbs, and all their sons : 
From seeming evil, — still educing- good, 
And better,— thence again, and better— still- 
In infinite progression. But I lose 
Myself in Him — in light ineffable: 
Come then, expressive Silence— muse his praise. 



184 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



GRIEF AND REMORSE, 
Are 




476 

closely allied 
to sorrow and 
remorse ; or a 
pain fa 1 re- 
membrance of 
criminal ac- 
tions and pur- 
suits : casts 
down the 
counten a nee, 
clouds it with 
anxiety: hangs 
down the 
head, shakes it 
with regret, 
just raises the 
eyes as if to 
look up. and 
suddenly casts 
them down again with sighs : the right hand 
sometimes beats the heart or head, and the whole 
body writhes as if in self-aversion. The voice 
has a harshness, as in hatred, and inclines to a 
low and reproachful tone : weeps, stamps, hur- 
ries to and fro, runs distracted, or faints away. 
When it is violent, grovels on the ground ; tears 
the clothes, hair or flesh ; screams ; sometimes 
it produces torpid sullen silence, resembling to- 
tal apathy. 

47r. Remorse for Druxkexxess. I 
remember a mass of things, but nothing dis- 
tinctly ; a quarrel, notliing wherefore. that 
men should put an enemy in their mouths to 
steal away their brains ; that we should with 
joy, pleasure, revel, applause, transform our- 
selves into beasts: I will ask him for my 
place again ; he shall tell me — I am a drunk- 
ard : had I as many mouths as Hydra, such 
an answer would stop them all. To be now 
a sensible man, bjr and by a fool — and pres- 
ently — a beast! O strange! every inordi- 
nate cup is unblessd, and the ingredient is 
a devil. 

GRIEF DEPLORING LOSS OF HAPPIJfESS. 

I had been happy, if the general camp, 

Pioneers and all. had wrong'd my love, 

So had I nothing known : O now. forever, 

Farewell the tranquil mind; farewell, content; 

Farewell the plumed troop and the big war 

That make ambition — virtue! O farewell : 

Farewell the neighing steed, and the shrill trump, 

The spirit-stirring drum, the ear-piercing^/e, 

The royal banner, and all quality, 

Pride, pomp, and circumstances of glorious war! 

Farewell ! OtheuVs occupation's go?ie. 

Oh. when the last account 'twixt lieaven and earth 

Is to be made, then, shall this hand and seal 

Witness against us to damnation! 

How oft the sight of means to do ill deeds 

Makes' ill deeds done ! Hadst not thou been by, 

A fellow by the hand of Nature marked, 

Quoted and signed, to do a deed of shame, 

This murder had not come into my mind; 

But taking note of thy abhorred aspect, 

Finding thee fit for bloody villany, 

Apt, liable to be employed in danger, 

I faintly broke with thee of Arthur's death ; 

And tltou, to be endeared to a king, 

Madest it no conscience to destroy a prince. 



Freedom of the Press. The liberty of the 
press — is the true measure of the liberty of the peo- 
ple. The one cannot be attacked, without injury 
to the other. Our thoughts ought to be perfectly 
free ; to bridle them, or stifle them in their sanctu- 
ary, is the crime of perverted humanity. What 
can I call my own, if my thoughts are not mine. 

Anecdote. Prize of Immortality. On 
its being remarked to Zeuxis, a celebrated 
painter, that he was very long in finishing 
his works, he replied, " I am, indeed, a long 
time in finishing my works; but what I 
paint — is for etehvitt." 

Varieties. 1 Many projects, which, at 
the first, appear plausible and inviting, in 
the end — prove to be very injurious. 2. Sci- 
ence, philosophy and religion, are our food in 
youth, and our delight in more advanced 
life ; they are ornaments to prosperity, and 
a comfort and refuge, in adversity ; armor at 
home, and abroad, they pass their days and 
nights with us, accompany us in our travels, 
and in rural retirements. 3. Which is more 
to be dreaded, a false friend or an open ene- 
my ? 4. Guard against being led into impru- 
dence, by yielding to an impetuous temper. 
5. There is no virtuous person, who has not 
some weakness or vice; nor is there a vi- 
cious one, who cannot be said to possess 
some virtue. 6. What a difficult thing it is, 
not to betray guilt in the countenance, when 
it exists in the mind .' 7. The strength of 
one vital faculty is sometimes the occasion of 
a weakness in another ; but, that it may not 
exist, exercise no faculty or principle beyond 
its strength or bounds. 8. Science — relates to 
whatevever addresses us thro' the ./ire senses ; 
which are the ultimates — upon which the 
interiors of the mind, and the inmost of the 
soul — rest. 

Wherefore rejoice ? What conquest brings he home ! 
What tributaries follow him to Rome, 
To grace, in captive bonds, his chariot- wheels ? 
You blocks, you stones, you worse than senselesB 
O. you hard hearts, you cruel men of Rome, [things! 
Knew ye not Pompey ? Many a time and oft 
Have you climb'd up to walls and battlements, 
To towers and windows, yea, to chimney-tops, 
Your infants in your arms, and there have sat 
The live-long day, with patient expectation, 
To see great Pompey pass the streets of Rome : 
And when you saw his chariot but appear, 
Have you not made an universal shout, 
That Tyber trembled underneath his banks, 
To hear the replication of your sounds, 
Made in his concave shores? 
And do you now put on your best attire? 
And do you now cull out a holiday? 
And do you now strew flowers in his way, 
That comes in triumph over Pompey's blood ? 
Begone; 

Run to your houses; fall upon your knees, 
Pray to the gods to intermit the plague, 
That needs must light on this ingratitude 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 



185 







DESPAIR, 
4:77. As a 

condemned 
criminal, or 

one who has 
lost all hope of 
salvation, 
bends the eye- 
brows down- 
ward, clouds 
the forehead 
rolls the eyes 
around fretful- 
ly, eyeballs red 
Lnd inflamed 
like a rabid 
dog ; opens the 
mouth horizon- 
tally, bites the ■ ,, Jtl§iP^ 
lips, widens the 1z?^ 
nostrils, and gnashes the teeth; the head is press- 
ed down upon the breast ; heart too hard to permit 
tears to flow ; arms are sometimes bent at the el- 
bows ; the fists clench'd hard ; the veins and mus- 
cles swollen; the skin livid; the whole body 
strained and violently agitated ; while groans of 
inward torture are more frequently uttered man 
words. If any words are spoken, they are few, 
^and expressed with a suUen eager bitterness ; the 
tones of the voice often loud and furious, and 
Sometimes in the same pitch for a considerable 
time. This state of human nature is too terrible, 
too frightful to look, or dwell upon, and almost 
improper for representation : for if death cannot 
be counterfeited without too much shocking our 
humanity, despair, which exhibits a state ten 
thousand times move terrible than death, ought to 
be viewed with a kind of reverence to the great 
Author of Nature, who seems sometimes to permit 
this agony of mind, as a warning to avoid that 
wickedness, which produces it: it can hardly be 
over-acted. 

Bring me to my trial when you will. 

Died he' not in his bed ? where should he die? 

Can I make men live, whether they will or no? 

Oh ! torture me no more, I will confess. 

Alive again? then shoro me where' he is, 
I'll give a thousand pounds to look upon him. — 
He hath no eyes, the dust bath blinded them — 
Comb down his hair; look ! look! it stands upright, 
Like lime-twigs, set to catch my winged soul! 
Give me some drink, and bid the apothecary 
Bring the strong po iso n that I bought of him. 

Ay, but to die, and go we know not where ; 

To lie in cold obstruction, and to rot; 

This sensible warm motion to become 

A kneaded clod ; and the delighted spirit 

To bathe in fiery floods, or to reside 

In thrilling regions of thick-ribbed ice ; 

To be imprison'd in the viewless winds, 

And blown with restless violence about 

The pendant world ; or to be worse than worst 

Of those, that lawless and uncertain thoughts 

Imagine howling ! — 'tis too horrible ! 

The weariest and most loathed worldly life, 

That age, ache, penury, and imprisonment 

Can lay on nature, is a paradise 

To what we fear of death. 

Critics are like a kind of flies, that breed 

In wild fig-trees, and, when they're grown up, feed 

Upon the raw fruit of the nobler kind, 

And by their nibbling on the outward rind, 

Open the pores, and make way for the sun 

To ripen it sooner than he would have done. 



Virtue and Vice. Every man has actually 
within him, the seeds of every virtue and every 
vice; and the proportion, in which they thrive and 
ripen, depends, in general, upon the situations in 
which he has been, and is placed, and his life. 

Anecdote. Filial Piety. Valerius Max- 
imus relates, that a womar\ of distinction, 
having been condemned to be strangled, was 
carried to prison, in order to be put to death ; 
but the Jailor was so struck with compunc- 
tion, that, resolving not to kill her, he chose 
to let her die with hunger ,- meanwhile, he 
permitted her daughter to visit her in prison, 
taking care that she brought nothing to eat. 
Many days passing by, and the prisoner still 
living, the jailor at length, suspecting some- 
thing, watched the daughter, and discovered 
that she nourished her mother with her own 
milk. He informed the authorities, and they 
the people ; when the criminal was pardoned, 
and the mother and daughter maintained at 
the public expense ,■ while a temple was erect- 
e:l — sacred to eieiai. piety. 

Varieties. 1. The mind should shine 
through the casket, that contains it ; its elo- 
quence'must speak in the cheek ,• and so "dis- 
trict ly should it be wrought in the whole 
countenance, that one might say, the body 
thirties, as well as feels,- such oratory will 
never cloy ; it is always enchanting, never the 
same. 2. A gentleman, lecturing before a 
lyceum, remarked : a lady, when she married, 
lost her personal identity — her distinctive 
character — and was like a dew-drop, swallow- 
ed by a sunbeam. 3. Let ignorance talk, 
learning hath its value. 4. Where mystery 
is practiced, there is generally something bad 
to conceal, or something incompatible with 
candor, or ingenuousness, which form the 
chief characteristic of genuine innocence. 5. 
The worst man is often he, who thinks him- 
self the best. 6. A benefit is a good office, done 
with intention and judgment. 7. He, who 
punishes an enemy, has a momentary de- 
light ; but he who forgives him, has an abid- 
ing satisfaction. 

Despair shall round their souls be twin'd, 
And drink the vigor of their mind : 
As round the oak rank ivy cleaves, 
Steals its sap, and blasts its leaves. 
Iiike yonder blasted boughs, by lightning riven. 
Perfection, beauty, life, they never know, 
But frown on all, that pass, a monument of woe. 

I saw, on the top of a mountain high 

A gem, that shone liksfre by night; 
It seem'd a star, that had left the sky, 

And dropp'd to sleep on the lonely height. 
I clomb the peak, and found it soon 

A lump of ice, in the clear cold moon — 
Can you its hidden sense impart? 

'Twas a cheerful look, and a broken heart. 

Favors — to none, to all, she smiles extends, 
Oft she rejects. — but never once — offends. 
Q 2 



186 



PRINCIPLES OF ELOCUTION. 




SORROW AND SADNESS. 

4?S. In sor- 
row, w hen 
moderate, the 
countenance 
is dejected, 
the eyes are 
cast down. the 
arms h a n g 
I a x, s o in e- 
times a little 
raised, sud- 
denly to fall 
again; the 
hands open, 
the fingers 
spread, the 
voice plain- 
tive, and fre- 
quently inter- 
rupted with sighs. But when immoderate", it 
distorts the countenance, as if in agonies of pain; 
Taises the voice to the loudest complainings, and 
sometimes even to cries and shrieks ; wrings 
the hands, beats the head and breast, tears the 
hair, and throws itself on the ground; like some 
other passions in excess, it borders on phrenzy. 

Say that again ; the shadow of my sorrow ! 
Ha ! let's see : 

'Tis very true, my grief lies all within ; 
And these external manners of lament, 
Are merely shadows to the unseen grief, 
That swells, with silence, in my tortured soul ; 
There — lies the substance ; 
And I thank thee, king, 
For the great bounty, that not only giv'st 
Me cause to wail, but teaches me the way, 
How to lament the cause. I'll beg one boon, 
And then be gone, and trouble you no more. 
Pelayo— stood confused : he had not seen 
■Count Julian's dau'ter, since in Roderick's court, 
flittering in beauty and in innocence, 
A radiant vision, in her joy, she moved : 
More like a poet's dream, in form divine, 
Heaven's prototype of perfect womanhood, 
So lovely was the presence, — than a thing 
Of earth and perishable elements. 
JVozc, had he seen her in her winding-sheet, 
Less painful would that spectacle have proved ; 
For peace is with the dead, and piety 
JBringeth a patient hope to those, who mourn 
O'er the departed ; but this alter'd face, 
Bearing its deadly sorrow character'd, 
Came like a ghost, which in the grave, 
Could find no rest. He, taking her cold hand, 
Raised her, and would have spoken ; but his tung, 
FaiVd in its office ; and could only speak 
In ?tnder-tone, compassionate, her name. 

The voice of pity — soothed, and melted her, 
And, when the prince bade her be comforted, 
Proffering his zealous avl in whatsoe'er 
Might please her to appoint, a feeble smile 
Past slowly over her pale countenance. 
Like moonlight— on a marble statue. 
For forms of government, let fools contest ; 
Whate'er is best administered — is best: 
For modes of faith— let graceless zealots fight ; 
His— can't be wrong, whose life— is in the right 
Those hearts, that start at once into a blaze, 
And open all their ra^e, like summer storms, 
At once discharged, grow cool again, and calm. 



Love of Justice. A sense of justice should 
be the foundation of all our social qualities. In 
our most early intercourse with t