ELSAH HISTORY NUMBERS 20 & 21 ELSAH HISTORY AUGUST 1977 Backgrounds of the Elsah Piggotts by Delight Koehler /In the paper below, Miss Koehler explores the back- ground of a family no longer in Elsah, the Piggotts. But the history traced here is of more significance than the chronicle of one family, because it traces a typical fron- tier experience in Illinois, taking one direct line of des- cendents from Revolutionary times to the present day. This paper has gained enormously from the extensive re- search done on the Piggotts of St. Clair County by Mr . Carl Baldwin and from the tireless efforts to turn up in- formation of Mrs. Eileeen Smith Cunningham of Carroll- ton. Much geneological information was contributed, too, by Mr . Cecil Piggott of Benton . Ed . Note J Only five years ago, the peach-colored Gothic Revival house across from the Elsah Landing Restaurant on La Salle Street, in Elsah, Illinois, stood a forlorn ruin. Win- dows were cracked and broken, the yard had grown up in trees, window shades were torn and hanging, and boards were pulling loose. In this dilapidated old building, the direct descendents of early Illinois pioneers had once lived . It had been one of the last homes of the Elsah Piggott family . During the early days of Illinois history, members of the Piggott family had often played important roles in the settle- ment of the region. Some built forts, dealt with Indians, and developed transportation routes. Others helped es- tablish Methodism in western Illinois and St. Louis. In 1829 two Piggott brothers founded the town of Eminence near the present site of Eliestoun on the Principia College campus in Elsah Township . The accomplishments of the Piggott family were con- siderably varied . Their occupations ranged from doctor or minister to bridge carpenter or farm hand. Often, as was typical in frontier situations, they worked at several odd jobs at once. CAPTAIN JAMES PIGGOTT: In 1783 the Piggott family first appeared in Illinois with the arrival of Captain James Piggott. Captain Piggott was a Revolutionary War figure who had resigned his commis- sion in the Continental Army for "health" reasons . 1 He then came west under the leadership of General George Rogers Clarke. According to Mr. Carl Baldwin, the earli- est confirmed record of James Piggott found him in the Monangahela Valley in 1775. In 1776, in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, he was commissioned, on April 6th, a captain in the 8th Pennsylvania regiment of the Continental Congress under General Anthony Wayne With this regiment, Captain Piggott fought in the actions at Bound Brook, New Jersey; Brandywine; Germantown; and Saratoga. In February, 1777, his regiment took part in "one of the most arduous forced marches of the war" from Quibble- town, according to Mr. Baldwin. Baldwin further des- cribed the scene as "an entire regiment of 685 men, with- out tents, and without winter clothing, keeping alive in the sub-zero nights in the Pennsylvania mountains by building huge bonfires and sleeping between them . "2 The next October, Captain Piggott resigned his commis- sion and enlisted in a company of volunteers under General George Rogers Clarke to establish civilization in the west. These volunteers migrated to Kentucky. About twelve miles downstream from the mouth of the Ohio, below what is now Wickliffe, Kentucky, they built Fort Jefferson. 3 Minerva Jane Piggott Hupp, granddaughter of Captain James Piggott. Born about 1828, she died in 1903 and is buried in Piasa, Illinois. Picture courtesy of Cecil Piggott. ELSAH HISTORY is published quarterly by Historic Elsah Foundation, Paul O. Williams, Editor. Subscription is with membership . Send to P. O. Box 117, Elsah, H 62028. Rates: Regular mem- bership, $3; Sustaining membership $10 or more. Sample copies available on request. PAGE TWO ELSAH HISTORY AUGUST 1977 Little is known of Captain Piggott from then until Aug- ust, 1781, when the Chickasaw and Choctaw Indians staged an uprising. At the lead of the Indians was the celebrated half-breed, Scotchman Calbert. Fort Jefferson and the surrounding scattered homesteads were prime targets for these Indian attacks . Speaking almost ninety years after these events, James's son, Isaac Newton Piggott, gave a historical lecture on the battle before the Literary and His- torical Societies of East St. Louis . Since he was Piggott's son, he might have added spice to the story. Nevertheless, he gives an extensive account of the episode. 4 The Indians attacked the area first in small parties. "If they had reached the settlement in a body, " Newton Piggott points out, "the whole white population outside the fort would have been destroyed. "5 Being so fore- warned by the small attacks, most of the settlers were able to move into the fort. A messenger was sent to the falls of the Ohio for more provisions and ammunition. It is unclear now whether James Piggott originally lived in the fort or whether he had been one of the neighboring homesteaders . All that has been reported is that the cap- tain and his wife were in the fort during many of the on- slaughts. After two weeks of the attacks by these small marauding parties, the main force of the Indians finally reached Fort Jefferson. By now the settlers had more to worry about than even these warriors . Both their water and food were giving out. Many were sick and bed-ridden, so that they had barely enough strength to hold a gun. Captain Pig- gott's wife and many others died during the siege and were buried within the walls of the fort. 6 Calbert's Indians were well aware of these conditions. They had captured a white prisoner a short time before. In return for his life, they forced him to tell about the sit- uation inside the fort. With this knowledge in mind, the Indians held up a flag of truce. Captain Piggott, a Mr. Owen, and another man agreed to meet the Indian dele- gation. "This was done, " Piggott's son recounted, "for fear the enemy would know the desperate condition of the fort. 7 Upon meeting these three white leaders, Calbert and his followers demanded an unconditional surrender of the fort. They were giving the settlers this opportunity, they claimed, because they knew the defenseless condition of the fort and hoped to save "much bloodshed." Piggott and the other delegates refused to comment on what the prisoner had told the Indians. Their answer was a compromise. "If we deny his statements you may kill him — we cannot con- fide in your promises to protect us; but we will promise, if the Indians will leave the country, the garrison will aban- don the fort and country as soon as possible. "8 Whether or not the Indians would have accepted this bar- gain was never known. As their delegation left, a bullet shot from the fort wounded Calbert. Itcame from the gun of a settler whose family had been butchered by the Indians. Although he was immediately taken into custody and Cal- bert's wound was dressed, the Indians were greatly un- settled. Fortunately, the provisions and reinforcements sent for several weeks earlier by the garrison finally reached the fort. 9 A battle ensued, but the settlers were able to force the Indians to withdraw. After the victory, Piggott left the fort and in 1783 moved to what is now Illinois. There, in the American Bottoms not far west of the present town of Columbia, the captain established a new fort. Standing near the bluffs of the Mis- sissippi, it was named the fort of the Grand Ruisseau (Big Run) or Piggott's Fort. Isaac Newton Piggott, his son, has much praise for this fort. According to him, "this was the largest fortification erected by the Americans in Illinois at that day, and was well defended with cannon and small arms . "10 Within its walls, forty-five people lived . Governor St. Clair appointed Piggott presiding judge of the court of St. Clair County around the year 1790 . The county seat was at Cahokia . When Judge Piggott arrived there, he saw that a ferry from St. Louis to Illinois was greatly needed . "At that time there was no other willing to take the risk /"of creating such a terry] . In the summertime, men could not work here," Isaac Newton Piggott recalled. The judge erected two log cabins on a natural landing along the l'Abbe River. From 1792 until 1795 he continued his work on the area each winter . By 1797 he had created a road, a bridge, and a ferry from Illinois to Missouri. He then petitioned the Spanish governor on August 15th of that year for the exclusive rights to collect ferriage in St. Louis. His petition read as follows: To Mr. Zeno Trudeau Commander at St. Louis : Sir: — Though unacquainted, through a certain con- fidence of your love of justice and equity, I venture to lay before you the following petition, which, from reasons following, I am confident you will find just to allow: The petition is , that your honor will grant me the whole benifit of this ferry, to and from the town of St. Louis . I do not desire to infringe upon the ferry privi- lege below the town , which has been long established . But that no person in the town may be allowed to set peo- ple across the river for pay (at this place) , so long as you shall allow that the benifits of this ferry hath made compensation for my private expenses , in opening a new road and making it good from this ferry to Cahokia town, and in making and maintaining a bridge over the river Abbe, of 150 feet in length .--Your consideration and answer to this is the request of your humble petitioner; and as an acknowledgement of the favor petitioned for, if granted, I will be under the same regulations with my ferry respecting crossing passengers or property from your shore as your ferry-men are below the town: and should your people choose to cross the river in their own crafts, my landing and road shall be free to them . And should you wish me to procure you anything that comes to market from the country on this side, I shall always be ready to serve you . And should you have need of timber or anything that is the product of my land , it may be had at the lowest rates . I am, sir, with due respect, your humble servant. August 15, 1797. James Piggott 12 The governor granted Piggott the exclusive rights to a ferry landing just below Market Street in St. Louis. 13 For this ferry, the judge used neither skiffs, scows, nor yawls. Rather his ferry consisted of Indian canoes or pirogues ty- pical of the west of that day . On the twentieth of February, 1799, James Piggott died. AUGUST 1977 ELSAH HISTORY PAGE THREK He left a wife, whom he had married in 1790, in charge of his will and his ferry. She, in turn, leased the ferry out several times. One of the renters "prooved treacherous" by trying to steal the rights to the ferry. A court battle followed, and the business was eventually re-established to the Piggott heirs. 14 Later they sold the ferry to a firm called McKnight and Brady. FRANCES JAMES PIGGOTT: Dead. Altho at first the practice of medison was of necessaty forsed upon her, --yet when her skill was Developed in Cases of great emergency, her practice increased during life. 15 Born in Virginia, her maiden hame had been Frances James. She was the daughter of William James, a wealthy iron founder at Mounty Etny. While she was still young, a dashing man, named Bennet Ballew, swept her off her feet. Without her father's consent, she married him. William Captain Piggott 1 s second wife was a very remarkable woman. James, being a fiery Welshman, became quite enraged at She has been praised in some documents as being a skilled "sur- this. He completely disinherited his daughter. Bennet geon doctress." An unknown nineteenth century historian tells Ballew then migrated with her to the wilderness of Kaskas- us that kia, Illinois. 16 Amongst the female pioneers we must not overlook the Name Frances had four children by Ballew: Timothy, Agnes, of Mrs. Frances Collard /she remarried after James Piggott Frances, and Margaret. Then Ballew deserted her' Ac- died/ whose fame for her skill in the healing art was well cording to historian Carl Baldwin, he took out a law suit merited . —She was the Surgeon Doctress who attended upon against Frances and confiscated everything of value except and cured the wounds of John Dempsey and David Waddle both the children. 17 That he was the kind of man who would do of whom the Indians had Tomahawked, Scalped, and left for such a thing is quite obvious from his other dealings. Bald- Elsah school children around 1905 on the front steps of the school (now the Civic Center) . At that time the steps were wooden and ran up both sides of the front wall to the door. Coal was stored under the steps. Pictured are, bottom row: Dewey McDow, Verne Alright, Stubb Vanderslice, Bill Cummings, Willis Jacobson. Next row up, , Freda Lindow, , Zetta Allen, Carrie Jacobson, Ruth Hughes, Ollie Hunger- ford, Robbie Piggott. Third row, Lena Davenport, Helen Mustane, Winnie Albright, Grace Barnal, Lucy McDow, Elizabeth Bates, Roy Piggott, Marion Allen, Edwin Mott. Fourth row, Georgie Mustane, Edna Farley, Esther Keyser, Bernice Piggott, Ruth Keyser, Mamie Worthey , Vida Farley. Fifth row, Blanche Howell. Top row, Blanche Davenport, Corie St. Peters, Mr. Ben Legatt (teacher) , Ruth St. Peters, Edith Bates, Fay Jacobson. Picture courtesy of Marie Cresswell. PAGE FOUR ELSAH HISTORY AUGUST 1977 win says that Ballew was living a double life pretending to represent the interests of the Cherokees in conferences with the United States Government, but actually serving as land agent for John Sevier of Tennessee in the largest land fraud ever per- petrated in the United States. 18 Frances was destitute. She had to give Margaret to Mrs. Pierre Troge in Kaskaskia for care. When she was able to get her back, it required court action to get Mrs. Troge to give up the child. 19 The ague came upon some of the other children. Frances sunk down in despair. She could not go home. Not only had her father disinherited her, but "savage wars" made the journey unsafe for her and the four children. Sometime during the early 1780's, she met Captain Pig- gott, and he agreed to take her "in tow. " Under the French law which governed the Cahokia district, divorces were not allowed. This meant, of course, that Frances could not marry Captain Piggott for quite awhile. Either Ballew must cease to exist orthey must ceaseto live under French law to permit a marriage. Either of these conditions would take time. Meanwhile Frances had four children by Piggott out of wedlock. According to Carl Baldwin, there is a state- ment by the captain in the Illinois section of the Draper Manuscripts affirming "that the first four children of his union with Frances were born out of wedlock and that he accepted them on equal basis with the others ."20 In 1790 Frances and James went through a contract mar- riage. Ballew had only appeared once during the time that the Piggotts had lived together. James Piggott and Robert Watts had given Frances a small plot of land to live on near the fort of the Grand Ruisseau . Upon hearing this, Bennet Ballew made arrangements to return to claim his ownership of the land as husband. If he had, Frances probably would have been without a single piece of property. Frances, therefore, sought an injunction from the French to restrain her husband. 21 Mostly likely it worked . No more was heard of Ballew. The French had respect for Frances. Often, they called her Frances St. James or Madam Piggott. That Frances was a religious woman has often been ob- scured. Some historians, according to Baldwin, have claimed that because of her relationship with Piggott, Fran- ces was a woman of easy virtue. Looking back on her plight, however, they seem to be jumping to conclusions. As Mrs. Piggott, she held Sunday Bible readings in her Illinois home. 22 Captain Piggott also was a very religious man. He had often "carried a book of Methodist hymns which his soldiers sang on the march . "23 After the captain's death, she petitioned the governor to marry Jacob Collard, June 8, 1802. This petition was soon granted . In this new home the first Methodist services in St. Louis County, Missouri, were held. Baldwin believes that "there is little doubt that she — as a lay person — intro- duced Methodism in Illinois. "24 With James Piggott, Frances had eight children: Sophia, Asenath, Joseph, Isaac Newton, Frances, Zacheus, James, and Cynthia. The most well known of these in the Elsah area were Isaac Newton and Joseph Piggott. These men founded Eminence and remained in the Elsah area for some time. ISAAC NEWTON PIGGOTT: Isaac Newton Piggott was born in 1793 in Piggott's Fort. When his father died, he moved with his mother from St. Clair County, Illinois, to St. Louis County, Missouri. Then in 1805 the family moved once again to the Upper Louisiana Territory, where he grew to manhood . On February 1, 1816, he married Sarah Massey. Like his father, Isaac Newton Piggott was involved in a brief military career. In the War of 1812, he enlisted as a private under Captain David Music in the Missouri Militia. 25 From his mother he learned the art of surgery at an early age. Legend had it that as Frances and Isaac Newton were walking through Stable Lane in early St. Louis, they found a man lying in tall weeds who had been scalped by an In- dian. They managed to get the man back to their home. After Frances sewed his scalp back on, the man recovered. Piggott descendent Cora Jones Heltzell reports that Isaac Newton later became a physician in his own right. His first claim to fame, however, stemmed from his reli- gious training . in 1822 and 1823 he became the first Metho- dist minister to travel a circuit in the western section of Il- linois. In effect he was one of the first men to bring Metho- dism to the St. Louis region. Piggott made his home three miles north of the present site of Kane, in Greene County, near Macoupin Creek . From there he traveled a nine county territory (known as the Mississippi Circuit) as an ordained deacon of the church. These counties included the present day Jersey, Greene, Scott, Morgan, Schuyle, Brown, Adams, Pike, and Calhoun counties. The circuit took four weeks to complete. 27 During his sermons to the early residents of Illinois, Isaac Newton often interlaced his preaching with quotations from hymns or with original poetry. Upon at least one oc- casion, it has been recorded, he "preached an entire ser- mon in poetry." In the spring more people were able to come into town to hear a service . Accomodations in the church were often not large enough to seat all of them . In such a case, the congregation had to move outside. Isaac Newton Piggott did not mind this , however . The outdoors gave him more subjects to draw poetic allusions from. 28 Piggott was indeed a very popular preacher . For many years his daughter prized a letter sent to him from the citi- zens of Greene County in 1823. It invited him to act as chap- lain at the Fourth of July celebration in Carrollton .29 As an itinerant minister, Piggott got to know many people well. After awhile, he decided that he could do these people even more good if he were to run for state senate. In 1824 Greene and Pike counties were holding their first senatorial election since the formation of the district. His decision to run led to one of the most unusual elections in Illinois his- tory . Piggott ran for the senate against Thomas Carlin, the founder of Carrollton and eventually the governor of Illi- nois . Both men were dynamic and popular. Carlin was known for his "nerve, energy, and undaunted courage. "30 He had been a ranger, and also knew the people well. From his ministry, Piggott had become a forceful speaker, and was declared a formidable opponent for Carlin. The senatorial district for which they fought was very large. Pike County at that time included "all territory west and north of the Illinois river to the north line of the state. "31 Both candidates, however, traveled all over the district to win votes. After the hard campaign, the vote was so close that the decision of the people was unclear. Each man thought he had won. Each, in some way, managed to obtain a certificate of election. When Congress convened at Van- dalia, then the capital of Illinois, both men stood before the Senate claiming the seat. Needless to say, the Senate AUGUST 1977 ELSAH HISTORY PAGE FIVE was not about to put up with this nonsense. Piggott and Carlin were sent home immediately. The Senate declared that "there had been no election," and the two would have to fight it out again . 32 When the race began again, the people's excitement boiled over. The battle grew hotter. On December 13, 1824, the second election was held. This time the victory was clearly Carlin's . Isaac Newton Piggott retired gracefully from the state political scene. During 1825 Piggott's health failed, and he was forced to seek work other than itinerant ministry .33 In 1829 he was made the first postmaster in the present day area en- compassed by Jersey County. On April 11th he opened a post office in Elsah township, then in Greene County, Illi- nois . Located somewhere back from the bluffs , probably in the Ewing Woods area of the Principia College campus, between the Principia football field and Eliestoun, it was potentially an excellent site for a new central post office to serve the surrounding area. At the bottom of this bluff, a man named Henry Mills, of Portage des Sioux, had just recently established a store, the first in the immediate area . On top of the bluff Isaac Newton and his brother , Joseph, laid out the town of Eminence (so called because it was situated on the bluff, which rose 175 feet above the Mississippi) .34 During the town's existence, it pro- bably never contained more than five cabins . Like so many incipient towns, Eminence never developed, and its inhabitants went elsewhere. All that remains now are four known graves belonging to Reverend Joseph Piggott; his wife, Ann Spurlock; their son, David; and a Suzanna Dambmann, whose gravestone is in German. In 1835 Isaac Newton Piggott moved his post office to Newbern, Illinois, about five miles north of Eminence. Neither of these post offices was ever in good financial shape, however. It apparently required twice as much money to run them as was coming in . According to the postmaster's budget sheets, four dollars needed to be col- lected per mile in order to buy supplies . All Isaac Newton Piggott could collect from the settlers amounted to two dol- lars per mile. The balance was made up by the postmaster out of his own pocket. 35 In 1831 a letter sitting in the Eminence post office caused The digging season at the Koster archeological site is B.C.). Toward the end of the season a large .. oi L u ary was nearly over for 1977. Much of this season's work involved uncovered. Work on it was not complete when the ;egular probing remains of the archaic culture in horizon 11 (6,400 fieid school ended on August 20th. PAGE SIX ELSAH HISTORY AUGUST 1977 more sorrow than any other in the area of the time, in all probability . It was not that the information in the letter was depressing. Nevertheless, by the end of the year, it had played a part in the first murder and legal hanging in Greene County . 36 When the circuit court session sat in Carrollton in September, 1831, I.N. Piggott had some business to attend to there. While he was at the court, he saw John Lofton of the Macoupin Creek region. Piggott recalled that the Eminence post office had recently received a let- ter addressed to him . Lofton gave Piggott $.25 for post- age and promised he would soon send his son, Samuel, to pick up the letter . Samuel was a responsible, able boy of fifteen. He was given an additional chore on this particular trip to the post office. Henry Mills , the store owner at Eminence, owed David Pierson of Carrollton $25. Since the round trip between Macoupin Creek took at least a full day, neither Mills nor Pierson had had the opportunity to settle the debt. It therefore became young Sam's duty to collect the money . He arrived at Eminence late Saturday afternoon and proceeded first to see Henry Mills . Mills paid him . Near- by stood one of his customers, James Sullivan, "who was known to the boy . . . ."37 Samuel then went up the bluff to the post office. From Mrs . Piggott he received his father's letter. As it was nearly sundown, Sarah Piggott asked him "if he intended to go home that night. "38 He replied that he planned to go as far as Newbern and stay with his Aunt Aggie Lofton over Sunday . After he left the Piggott home, Samuel was seen alive by only one other person. According to the newspaper account, he rode alone along the main road. As he passed the homestead of the late Thomas Carroll, he saw a figure on horseback on the lane ahead of him. It was James Sullivan, whom he had seen just awhile earlier . Sullivan told the boy he was going to work at Jacob Lurton's that night. The two decided to ride together . After they had travelled about a mile, Sullivan left the road, telling the boy that "he knew a nearer way than the ridge road by taking a path which led up what is now known as the 'Briggs Branch. '"39 The Lofton boy followed his lead . Within the next quarter mile, Sullivan attacked the boy and brutally murdered him . He checked over the value of John Lofton's letter, and placed it in the boy's hat with bloody fingerprints . Sullivan then fled with the $25 that Samuel had collected from Mills. The boy's body was not found for two weeks . His parents were used to his taking detours to visit his aunt for extended periods of time . When they did find him, they spotted the buzzards first. The bushes and grass showed signs that a desperate struggle had taken place. From a preliminary investigation, enough evidence was found to make James Sullivan their primary suspect. The evening of the murder Sullivan had finally gone to Jacob Lurton's. Once there he gathered up all his clothes and left for parts unknown. At the time, nothing much was thought of this. Sullivan was known for his nomadic life. He never stayed anyplace very long . Now no one knew precisely where he was . There was little hope of bringing him to justice. In the winter, however, a man named Jefferson Murphy from "Gillham Mound," in the Newbern area, travelled to New Orleans and there found Sullivan. He had him arrested for the murder of the Lofton boy and sent back to Carroll- ton. There he was tried by jury, convicted, and "sentenced to be hung at the spring term of the court in 1832. "40 Sulli- van's real name turned out to be Patrick Cavanaugh. Although the execution took place in a "terrible rain storm" on April 25, 1832, several hundred people turned out to see the hanging . The murder of a young boy, such as Samuel Lofton, collecting a letter and a debt, horrified most people. They wanted to see justice done. General Jacob Fry carried out the orders . As soon as he was through, he and his regiment left in pursuit of Black Hawk's warriors in that small Illinois war. Dr. Isaac Newton Piggott's postal service after this in- cident is recorded as merely an uneventful list of debts and expenditures. In 1853 he retired from the business and re- turned to St. Louis. There he was still known as a power- ful speaker . On August 4, 1871 he gave a long historical lecture (previously quoted in this article) before the Literary and Historical Society of East St. Louis, Illinois. Much of it was stories of his parents' lives. When Piggott received the title of doctor is not known; however, this lecture was published under the name of Dr. Isaac Newton Piggott. Some historians believe that he might have taken on his mother's career of surgery. Isaac Newton Piggott died on February 11, 1874. Upon interment in Belfontaine Cemetery, he was given a bronze marker commemorating his service in the War of 1812.41 SARAH MASSEY PIGGOTT: At the date of his passing, Sarah Massey had been mar- ried to Isaac Newton Piggott for sixty-six years . During that time, she created a home for him befitting that belong- ing to a Methodist preacher. Her own obituary seven years later says that "her house was the home of preachers of all denominations as long as she lived. "42 Sarah Massey was born in Kentucky in 1795. When she was only two years old, her family came to Upper Louisi- ana (Missouri) . Her father served as a captain in the War of 1812. On February 1, 1816 she married I.N. Piggott, another veteran of the "Second War for Independence." Although she lived until December 14, 1881, her life as a wife of a minister was anything but easy for her . For one thing, early in their marriage, her husband was rarely home for long . Later he became the postmaster , and this too caused him to be away at times. During the nineteenth century the mortality rate for children was extremely high. Sarah had at least twelve children by Isaac Newton, of whom only three girls lived to adulthood. Most died in infancy. The record of their births and deaths was duly noted in the family Bible. Nancy October 29, 1816 to October 14, 1817 Ann F. October 4, 1818 to September 16, 1866 Frances April 22, 1821 to October 17, 1821 Mary Jane November 1, 1822 to May 1, 1902 William James November 30, 1825 to September 29, 1826 Unnamed son born and died May 3, 1827 Joshua April 24, 1828 to July 29, 1828 Isaac Newton August 11, 1829 to December 11, 1833 Joseph April 29, 1832 to May 28, 1832 Levi July 1833 to August 15, 1835 Cornelia Celinda November 26, 1836 to September 27, 1839 Asenath June 20, 1842 to 1931 43 AUGUST 1977 ELSAH HISTORY PAGE SEVEN Of the three girls who survived, all married fairly well. Ann married John W. Slaten on October 27, 1836. Born in Jackson County, Georgia, Slaten had a prosperous mercantile business in Jersey County, Illinois, at the time of his marriage. In 1840 he became a justice of the peace, and three years later he was licensed to preach. 44 Ann Slaten died before her mother, Sarah Massey Piggott passed on. In her will, Sarah remembered each of her daugh ter 's children: Christopher J . , Allen M . , George N . , Thad- deus A. , Dwight D. , Roxana C. , and Dexter. To these seven she willed one dollar to be divided equally among them. Mary Jane married Robert T. Brock, whose father had been the foreman of the jury that convicted Sullivan for the murder of Samuel Lofton. During the Civil War, Brock had been secretary of the war relief committee in the north . Afterwards he had been representative for St. Louis in the General Assembly of Missouri in 1867 and '68. 45 Unfor- tunately, three of their children passed on at an early age. 46 The last of the daughters, Asenath Piggott, married Howard G. Lame, otherwise known as Doc Lame. He was a Mississippi riverboat pilot, renowned for his courage. Few soon forgot the fire and sinking of the Golden Eagle. As pilot, Lame had calmly steered the burning vessel with its passengers to shore. By the time the steamboat touched ground, his own escape had been cut off by the flames. A newspaper of the period reported that "he jumped from the texas to the roof, from there to the boiler deck, and then down through the fire and smoke, until he, too, reached a place of safety, although badly scorched and burned. 47 In accord with his quiet, reserved nature, Doc Lame hardly ever commented on this episode. Some people mis- took this reserve for coldness, but others thought other- wise. When his young daughter died, he placed the fol- lowing poem in the newspaper, full of nineteenth century sentiment: Sweet little Emma, Idol of mine, Gone to her rest, Where bright angels shine, Though she has left us, Sadly alone, Christ has bereft us — Claiming his own. 48 Those friends who knew him well respected his nature. His newspaper obituary ended with typical Victorian flamboyance. His friends wished "most earnestly, that when he made his last crossing --over the dark river--he saw the signal shin- ing, and safely reached the shores of eternal peace. "49 Howard Lame and Asenath had at least one surviving male heir, Virgil Lame. His daughter is Mrs. Harold (Betty) Marshall, who presently lives in Old Kane, Illinois. JOSEPH PIGGOTT AND DESCENDENTS: In 1874, Isaac Newton Piggott's branch of the Piggott family died out with no male heirs. However, Captain James Piggott had had six other sons who might also carry on his name. The most interesting son who stayed in the Elsah vicinity was Joseph Piggott. Like Isaac Newton, he moved with his mother to St. Louis in 1805 and finished his ■ growing up there. His great-great grandson, Cecil Piggott, a local geneal- ogist, believes that Joseph "was the first of the Piggotts to return to Illinois. "50 For a while he resided in St. Clair County, where his father had last lived. Then around 1818 he bought a farm near Old Kane. There he remained for several years until he heard that his brother, Isaac Newton, was moving to what is now Jersey County . Joseph had been -close to his younger brother . He decided to move down near him. Together they founded the small, ephemeral village of Eminence, high on the bluffs above the Mississippi River , a mile downriver from the present site of Elsah . As has been stated, Isaac Newton became postmaster, and Joseph created a ferry which ran from near Eminence to Portage des Sioux on the Missouri shore. 51 On April 16, 1832, Joseph's wife, Ann Spurlock, died at Eminence and was buried near the village along one of the bluff ridges east of the village. A son, David, was also buried there after he died on August 29, 1852, at the age of twenty-six . Joseph was reported to have died in Old Kane on October 17, 1850, but he too was brought to Eminence and interred beside his wife in the Eminence graveyard. Cecil Piggott traces his family line through Joseph's son, James. During his lifetime, James had two wives. His first, Lucinda McDow, having died, he married Sarah Susan Snyder. James and Sarah had a son, Henry H. Pig- gott, in 1860. When Henry was twenty-seven, he married Mary Ann Talley, at the time sixteen years old. Their son was Cecil's father, George Piggott. This half of the Piggott family appears to have spread out in the region. Cecil Pig- gott now lives in Benton, Illinois. The first half of the family that James had with Lucinda McDow had several members who remained in the Elsah vi- cinity. James and Lucinda's son, George, was duly noted in the 1880 census of Elsah . Recorded as being born in Illinois, George Piggott was a thirty-eight year old farmer with five children. He had married Hannah Snyder, the younger sister of his father's second wife. That would mean, of course, that his step-mother was also his sister- in-law. Other records show that when George Piggott was twenty-two or twenty-three, he had served in the An archaic grooved axe-head found by Susan C. Smith on the field east of the Principia Knob Site (see EH # 18) . The artifact is now a part of the Principia College collection . PAGE EIGHT ELSAH HISTORY AUGUST 1977 Civil War. 52 Also around this time in Elsah, another Isaac Newton Piggott appears in documents . No information has yet been turned up as to whom he is descended from . The original I. N. Piggott's son, Isaac Newton, died as an infant. Therefore, it is quite possible that this one is either an uncle, brother, or "close" cousin to George. Cecil Piggott believes that the younger I.N. Piggott could possibly be another son of his great-great grand- father, Joseph. 53 In the 1872 atlas of Jersey County, I.N. Piggott's property appears to be quite widespread. He is believed to have lived in the farmhouse west of the Elsah cemetery. References are made in the McNair diary to Robert and William McNair 's working on a house for I.N. Piggott from March 26th to May 25th, 1875. William McNair some- times referred to him as "Newt." In 1891 the town clerk recorded money being dispersed to Isaac Newton for "streets and alleys." A present resident of Elsah, Lucy McDow, remembers her parents speaking of an Isaac Newton Piggott who worked at the Riverview Hotel with his wife. 54 Although Isaac Newton Piggott was a well-known name around Elsah, his twenty year old son, Thomas, soon made a more notorious name for himself. He became, in 1887, a major defendent in the only attempted murder trial the village had had. The victim was Xavier Schneider, a highly respected cooper in Elsah. According to the JERSEY COUNTY DEMOCRAT of October 6th, 1887, the incident took place as follows: Thursday night about half past seven Mr . S . went to the mill and was paid $354. 5C. He had in his pocket at the time $105. He did not return home at once as he is an Odd Fellow and the Lodge of Rebecca met that night, and being a member he attended . About 10 o'clock he started home accompanied by some of the members of the lodge, among them Mr. John Reintges. The latter left him but a short distance from his home and and this is the last seen of him till he staggered into his home bleeding profusely from two wounds in the head. . . . The robbery was committed doubtless by persons acquainted with the place for they knew the route Mr . Schneider would take and had cut off some limbs from a tree under which he would pass that the murderer could get a better chance to strike him, the assassin standing over the fence and reaching his arm across the walk. 55 Xavier Schneider recovered barely enough to talk during October . After he told the detectives on the case some de- tails, they arrested Henry Minard and Thomas Piggott. The case has already been written up in detail in the March, 1974, issue of ELSAH HISTORY ("The Case of the Clobbered Cooper") by Leslie Yelland . One of the witnesses called spoke only German. Since she lived across the street from the scene of the incident, in the Virginia Anderson house, her testimony was very important, and a translator was brought in. In the end, both defendents were convicted. Xavier Schneider lived another sixteen years in ill health, dying on August 10th, 1905. He had never fully recovered from the attack. 56 JAMES AND JULIA PIGGOTT AND THEIR ELSAH HOUSE: George Piggott's son, James, fared much better in Elsah than Thomas had. He married a young lady, Julia, in 1892, and settled down in the gabled house across from the present Elsah Landing Restaurant. Together they had three children, Roy (born in 1893) , Bernice, and Eunice (born in 1898) . All attended the Elsah school. In 1896 a child named Hannah was born. However, no further mention is made of her in a later listing of citizens. During his residence in Elsah, James worked as a bridge carpenter . Later James and Julia moved away and used the Elsah house only for weekend visits. 57 Their son, Roy, lived by himself in the house. During World War I, however, Roy B . Piggott served as a private in the Sixth Field Artiller replacement draft. Roy made it through the war all right, but did not live long after . He returned to the same Gothic Revival house in Elsah and went to work as a farmer . Returning home from work one day at noon feeling ill, he shortly passed on. 58 When James Piggott, the father, died, he left the Elsah house to his wife, Julia. Apparently, Julia must have come back to Elsah to live once again, for she is believed to have died in this house. 59 After her passing, the Gothic Revival house slowly deteriorated until it was on the verge of being condemned by the village. Several people were interested in buying it, but quite a few Piggott relatives had inherited portions of the house. No potential buyer had the time or the tenacity to hunt down all these owners — that is, no potential buyer until Mr. Alfred Mack. Early in 1972, Alfred Mack, a partner in the Elsah Landing Restaurant, began to get interested in the building . He hated to see the old house get torn down. Before Elsah had been put on the National Register for Historic Places , he had be- gun to dream of buying and restoring the Piggott home. The first job was to trace down all the owners . When Julia died, Alfred Mack discovered that she had left the pro- perty to her daughters, Mrs. Bernice Kiel and Mrs. Eunice London. Mrs. London passed on later without making a will. Half her property went to her husband, Mr. Oscar London, who received one fourth of the house. Her three children each received one twelfth. Mrs. Bernice Kiel still owned one half. Mr. London soon remarried. When he died, he left everything to his new wife, Catherine. She remarried a Mr . Slate and moved to Texas . Of the owners, she was the most difficult for Mr. Mack to locate. By 1972, therefore, there were five partial owners of the house. After some difficulties , Mr . Mack finally found all the heirs. Mrs. Slate, it turned out, had moved back to St. Louis. Within a short time, he also had gotten them all to agree to sell the property . The bill of sale was drawn up . Mack then drove each one personally to a notary pub- lic to have his signature authorized. 60 All in all, the transaction took about six months in 1972. The house, which had been standing vacant for fifteen to twenty years , was ransacked between the start of the buy- ing process and the actual sale. Everything had been left where it was when Mrs . Piggott passed on . These articles disappeared. After the building had been bought, it was ransacked a second time, supposedly by the same indivi- duals . This time everything left in the building was taken away. Eventually, though, the thieves were caught, and most of the goods recovered . AUGUST 1977 ELSAH HISTORY PAGE NINE Soon after purchasing it, Alfred Mack and his wife, Inge, began restoring the Piggott house. They started at the top . Working with the help of a master carpenter , Mr. Macks' son, Glenn, the Macks first removed the old roof and had a completely new one put on . Next the family took off all the clapboards . Only the bare studs were left showing . During this stage, the house was re- ferred to as looking like a bird cage. You could look right through it. The Macks kept most of the old studs and doub- led them with new when necessary. This made a more so- lid wall. Plywood boxing was also added to strengthen the structure. Then they reframed all the windows and doors. New windows were made to order to match those that had been there before. When the house was built, the top windows had been two inches shorter than the bottom ones . These measurements were reproduced in the new house. After jacking up the building a few inches, they put in new sills. Plaster board and insulation were put in also, along with all the modern conveniences which our society is used to . Before the restoration, the Piggott house had been un- excavated. The Macks put ducts underneath. A founda- tion was laid for the kitchen and the garage which was added to the left of the house. Since this side of the house sat on a rock ledge, these foundations had to be dug out with a jackhammer. Finally, the family built a retaining wall to hold the hill in back of the house. Earlier in its history, a landslide had pushed the house off its founda- tions and into the street. Someone had managed to move it back to its original location. The new retaining wall should prevent this incident from recurring . 61 When the Macks finished the restoration, they had al- most created a completely new house in place of the tattered old one. Indeed, it had cost more than most new houses would. It now stands as a quiet memorial to a once pro- minent family in Illinois and Elsah history . Perhaps it was a better memorial than any other Piggott house in the area, because it had become the center of community atten- tion as the Macks made their heroic efforts to save and beautify the dwelling . Today Mrs ."Do" Lanigan is the resident of the house. The ancestors of James and Julia Piggott had made many contributions to the settlement of western Illinois . The first member to come to Illinois, Captain James Piggott, built a fort, a road, and a bridge, and set up a ferry from St. Clair County to St. Louis. His second wife and one of his sons, Isaac Newton, were among the first to establish Methodism in western Illinois. Later Isaac Newton went on to found two new post offices. Together with his brother, Joseph, he devel- oped a short lived town, Eminence. Joseph's ferry to Mis- souri helped to span the river for settlers . Since then many other Piggotts have been prominent members of towns in the Elsah area. There are other Piggotts from Elsah who are not included in this paper because no information has been uncovered about them. These include Robert Piggott (1870-1948); Hattie Pig- gott, his wife (1874-1941); and Robert B. Piggott (1893-1910) . All are interred in the Elsah cemetery . Further information about local members of the family will be welcomed by His- toric Elsah Foundation. A fairly extensive genealogical chart was developed in the research on this paper and is available for those interested . Special thanks for help in developing this paper must go to Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Mack, Mr. Carl Baldwin, Dr. Paul 0. Williams, Mr. Cecil Piggott, Miss Lucy McDow, Mrs. Eileen Smith Cunningham, and Mrs. Annetta Cronin. ENDNOTES: 1. James Piggott, Copy of a petition to George Washington re- questing permission to resign his commission as captain of the 8th Pennsylvania regiment, undated. Found by Mrs. Cunningham, along with many other Piggott documents. 2. Carl Baldwin, "James Piggott--Piggot--Piquette, " ILLI- NOIS STATE GENEALOGICAL ASSOCIATION, December 1976, p. 179. 3. Richard Elwell Banta, THE OHIO (New York: Rinehart and Company, 1949) , p. 152. 4. Dr. Isaac Newton Piggott, "Historical Lecture Delivered Before the Literary and Historical Society of East St. Louis, Illinois, By Dr. Isaac N. Piggott, August 4, 1871," in L. U. Reavis, ST LOUIS: THE FUTURE GREAT CITY OF THE WORLD WITH BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF THE REPRESEN- TATIVE MEN AND WOMEN OF ST. LOUIS AND MISSOURI (St. Louis: C. R. Barns, 1876), pp. 95-103. 5. Piggott in Reavis, pp. 95-103. 6. IBID. 7. IBID., p. 102. 8. IBID. 9. An Indian party had been sent to intercept these pro- visions and men, but they had landed too far downriver. The reinforcements, therefore, continued in safety. 10. Piggott in Reavis , p . 103 . 11. IBID, p. 97-98. Also "The Wiggins Ferry ," ST. LOUIS POST-DISPATCH, April 24, ? (date incomplete) . 12. "The Wiggins Ferry . " 13. Piggott in Reavis, p. 98. 14. Anonymous handwritten history about Mrs. Frances Collard , p . 1 . Copy given to HEF . 15. IBID. 16. Carl Baldwin letter to Mrs. Eileen Cunningham, July 15, 1975. 17. Baldwin, "James Piggott — Piggot — Piquette," p. 181. 18. IBID. 19. Anonymous handwritten history, p. 2. 20. Baldwin, "James Piggott— Piggot— Piquette," p. 183. PAGE TEN ELSAH HISTORY AUGUST 1977 21. IBID., p. 181. 22. IBID., p. 182. 23. Cora Jones Heltzell, CITY OF MY LOVE, ST. LOUIS, p. 2. 24. Baldwin, "James Piggott— Piggot— Piquette," p. 182. 25. Widow's Pension for Sarah Piggott, Pension Bureau, Department of the Interior, United States Federal Govern- ment, March 9, 1878. 26. Heltzell, p. 4. This story is probably somewhat in- accurate since a scalp which has been completely taken and is missing cannot be sewn back on. Perhaps the man had been severely cut. 27. Robert T. Brock, "Early Methodism in Illinois," single separate sheet. 28. "A Glance Backward, Historical Reminiscences Ex- changed at the First Methodist Church Reunion, " ST . LOUIS GLOBE-DEMOCRAT, undated. 29. Unidentified newspaper clipping from the Greene County Historical Society Collection, "The Fourth of July, 1823," undated. 30. Unidentified newspaper clipping from the Greene County Historical Society collection, "Death Recalls Episode of 1824, Mrs. Lame was Daughter of Rev. Piggott, Opponent of Gov . Carlin," undated. 31. IBID. 32. IBID. 33 . Unidentified newspaper clipping from the Greene County Historical Society collection, "First Jersey Postoffice Located in Elsah Township, " Jerseyville, Illinois, September 29, ? (date incomplete) . 34. IBID. 42. IBID. 43. Isaac Newton Piggott, FAMILY RECORD. 44. JERSEY COUNTY ATLAS (Davenport, Iowa: Andreas, Lyter, SCo., 1872), pp. 60-61. 45. "Hon. Robert T. Brock," ST. LOUIS GLOBE- DEMOCRAT, May 5, 1895. 46. Robert T. Brock, FAMILY BIBLE. 47. Unidentified newspaper clipping from the Greene County Historical Society collection, "Howard G. Lame," undated. 48. Unidentified newspaper clipping from the Greene County Historical Society collection, undated . The clipping is pasted to a piece of stationery marked: Everett House, St. Louis, Dec. 18th, 1875, Mr. Vir- gil T. Lame. According to Mrs. Eileen Smith Cunning- ham, this poem appeared in the ST . LOUIS JOURNAL, September 30, 1873. 49. Unidentified newspaper clipping from the Greene County Historical Society collection, "Howard G. Lame." 50. Cecil Piggott letter to Mrs. Cunningham, undated (approximately November, 1976) . 51 . IBID . 52. Cecil Piggott letter to Mrs. Cunningham, January 22, 1976. 53. Cecil Piggott letter to Paul O. Williams, February 28 1977, p. 1. 54. Lucy McDow interview of January 22, 1977. 55. Leslie Yelland, "The Case of the Clobbered Cooper," ELSAH HISTORY, Number 8 (March 1974) , p. 2. Quota- tion from the JERSEY COUNTY DEMOCRAT, October 6 1887. 35. Legal allegation of the financial state of the Eminence 56. IBID. , p. 7. and Newbern post offices, undated. 57. Alfred Mack interview of January 16 1977 36. Unidentified newspaper clipping from the Greene County Historical Society collection, "The First Legal Hanging in Greene County," undated. 37. IBID. 38. IBID. 39. IBID. 40. IBID. 41 . Unidentified newspaper clipping from the Greene County Historical Society collection," Mrs . Dr. Piggott's Death," December ?, 1881. Between Powder Mill Hollow and Chautauqua, a mussell sheller at work in the Mississippi. Many shellers work in the Illinois River between Hardin and Grafton. AUGUST 1977 ELSAH HISTORY PAGE ELEVEN 58. Lucy McDow interview. 59. IBID. 60. Alfred Mack interview. 61. IBID. ****************************************************** /Ed. Note: Anyone scanning the documentation above will notice a great many references to unidentified material. Almost without exception this is material turned up by Mrs. Eileen Smith Cunningham in her indefatigable researches and generously lent to HEF for copying . As is so frequently the case, the newspaper clippings testify to the imperfect historical methods of whatever family member originally cut them from their identifiable source. For the benefit of future historians, all clippings should be identified at least by some marginal notation so their source and date can be recovered later . In addition to these houses, Glenn and Judy Felch's Ailsa Craig gallery, behind River view House, was open, as were the Elsah Landing Restaurant, the Village Hall and the Civic Center, both of Elsah's churches, the Joy- ous Junques Antique Shop, and the Buggy House Rock Shop of the Robertsons. Too many deserve credit and thanks for the work on the house tour to single any out without the danger of leaving out the acknowledgement of significant work. Per- haps the assiduous parking crew, headed by Ed Lewitz, deserves special mention for their heroic efforts to acco- modate the great numbers of cars. Surely the publicity afforded by a news spot on the Dick Ford show, Channel 5, at 6: 30 p .m. on May 3rd, is to be credited with bringing many people from St. Louis to the tour . HEF is very grateful for all the help of its many workers . House Tour HEF's Mother's Day house tour was the most success- ful to date,, with a large crowd of visitors totalling around 1,8000. Able coordination by Mrs. Mary Ann Pitchford, and work by a large number of able and faithful workers , resulted in a fairly smooth handling of the large crowd. Houses open on the tour included the large brick home of Ned and Paula Bradley, the stone cottage formerly owned by Mrs. Josephine Copeland, the Frances Grayson brick house on Palm Street, the Methodist parsonage re- cently restored by Mike and Mary Ann Pitchford, the Ro- . bertsen house on Valley Street, the former McNair home on Mill Street restored by Charles and Jeralyn Hosmer, the former Farley home at Mill and Maple, recently re- furbished by Ray and Blanche Darnell, and the Irina Azar home on Mill Street, a home for many years that of the Mandorca family . Chris Hagenlocher and Chris Lindgren selling softdrinks at the Mother's Day house tour. **************************************************** News Notes It is difficult to think of Elsah without John Wanamaker, who has been associated with the village for so many years . His retirement from the Principia College biology depart- ment, in June, to his home in Idyllwild, California, would seem to mark the end of the presence of a Wanamaker in Elsah. However, his influence for good will still be felt. "Doc," as he was generally known, was very generous in leaving Elsah, turning over all the furnishings of his apart- ment for sale by HEF as a donation. This sale was held during the third week in August, and the proceeds to HEF came to $1,825. This contribution is to be used for the re- | storation of the interior of the old Village Hall, as well as for other restoration work on the hall . The Wanamaker influence will continue in many ways in Elsah . We are particularly grateful for this one. ****************************************************** One house on the tour was the former Jo Copeland house HEF . S new pamp hlet, JEREMIAH'S ELSAH, edited by across from the Village Hall. This house has been pur- Gail Samek and Brian McC auley , is being currently re- chased by Mr. and Mrs. Hugh Semple. Mr. Semple is a leased. Composed of newspaper reports written from first cousin, twice removed, of General James Semple, foun- Elsah a hundred years ago, it gives a particularly graphic der of Elsah. This means that they shared the same great- great grandfather. PAGE TWELVE ELSAH HISTORY AUGUST 1977 picture of life in the village from the point of view of a real midwestern humorist with a vivid sense of life. Look for the flyer in this issue. ******************************************************* According to a Decatur, Illinois, newspaper of Sun- day, May 15, 1977, attempts have been made by people in the St. Louis area, including Principia College, to acquire the Frederick Oakes Sylvester painting, "As the Sowing, the Reaping," which hung in the Stephen Decatur High School. The painting was a donation of the high school classes of 1909 and 1911. Sylvester had visited the city in 1909, and was much admired by art patrons there. The painting ori- ginally cost $300, but by 1937 it was valued at $60,000. When the high school was recently razed, the paint- ing was taken from the wall and permanently loaned to the North Fork Museum. The painting depicts a portion of the Elsah river bluffs as seen from farmland on the Missouri shore. ******************************************************* The ALTON TELEGRAPH for August 13, 1977 devotes its entire "Back Page" to historic districts in Alton. Three sections of the city, Middletown, Christian Hill, and Upper Alton, have been nominated for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places . Closest to Elsah is the Chris- tian Hill district, which includes much of the old section of Alton west of Belle Street near the river in the vicinity of the Peavey flour mills . publications it******** ************ ************************** Controversy regarding the Alton Locks and Dam continues, especially with regard to the user's fees. Bargaining and pro- posals shift too rapidly for HEF to give a report on the issue. Some time back, after previous remarks on the issue, HEF received a letter from member Richard Worthen, who is also a member of the Sierra Club. Mr. Worthen lists a number of disadvantage to allowing the United States Army Corps of Engineers to build the dam they propose. While some of these predictions are based on the assumption that a twelve-foot channel would be established, Mr. Worthen nonetheless pre- dicts that the continued buildup of traffic in any case will produce the spread of barge tie-ups like Alton's at Norman's Landing well up the river toward Elsah. ******************************************************* HEF is grateful for a contribution of $100 from Mrs. Kenneth Bechtel, of Kentfield, California, x****************************************************** The UNION ELECTRIC NEWS, an in-house folder, contains recognition for the work done by Mike and Mary Ann Pitchford in coordinating the Mother's Day House Tour and putting their house on the tour. This appears in Volume 35, Number 6, the issue for June, 1977. It contains pictures of the exterior and the interior of the Pitchford home, with the couple, and text about their restoration of the home. ******************************************************* As of June, 1977, Paul O. Williams resigned from the board of HEF to concentrate his efforts on the editing of its publications . HEF has a small supply of publications that frequently come into demand. Below is a listing of available mater- ials: ELSAH HISTORY: Numbers 1, 3, 6, 7, 10-13, and 15-19 are available at 25 cents each, plus 15 cents postage if the copy is to be mailed . LEAFLETS: #1 THE MAYBECK PILOT at 25 cents, plus 15 cents postage. This publication outlines the designing and building of the Principia College campus by famous California architect, Bernard Maybeck. #2 ELSAH CITIZENS at 50 cents, plus 20 cents post- age. This publication is chiefly of interest to local gen- ealogists . It consists of listings of 19th century Elsah citizens , including a complete roster of the stones in the Elsah graveyard. This has proved to be one of the most useful research tools HEF has developed . #3 ELSAH BLUFF PRAIRIES, by Marilyn Bland, at 75 cents, plus 20 cents postage. This study of the uni- que ecosystems of the bluff prairies in the Elsah area is both scientifically accurate and fascinating . #4 THE GREAT RIVER: MASTER SCULPTOR, by Percival Robertson, at $1.50, postpaid. Professor Emeritus Robertson examines the geology of the Elsah area and its fossil remains . Included is a key to the various formations one encounters in a drive on the River Road from Alton to Pere Marquette State Park. #5 CHAUTAUQUA, ILLINOIS, A BRIEF HISTORY, by William Fabian, at $2, postpaid. This is the most com- prehensive history ever done of our neighboring com- munity of Chautauqua. ELSAH: A HISTORIC GUIDEBOOK, 3rd edition, by Charles B. Hosmer, Jr., and Paul O. Williams. This guide to buildings and history of Elsah was awarded a certificate of commendation by the American Associ- ation for State and Local History and has long been an aid to visitors to Elsah . Copies have been sent to al- most all the states and some far regions of the world . So far it is the most comprehensive history of Elsah. OTHER ITEMS: Postcards of Riverview House, with the old road entrant at 10 cents each, plus postage, unless sent with other items . Sylvester souvenir, showing a full -color reproduction of a F. O. Sylvester riverscape with information inside, at 25 cents, plus 10 cents postage. Notepaper: A fine Elsah composite scene on 5 differ- ent pastel note folders with matching envelopes . A good gift, or a good stationery for short notes to friends. $1.25, plus postage if necessary. DON'T FORGET. CONTRIBUTIONS TO HISTORIC ELSAH FOUNDATION ARE TAX DEDUCTIBLE NOW.