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Full text of "Emergency food plants and poisonous plants of the islands of the Pacific"

TM 10-420 



WAR DEPARTMENT 



/. 



TECHNICAL MANUAL 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS 
AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



OF THE 



ISLANDS OF THE PACIFIC 

April 15, 1943 








TM 10-420 



TECHNICAL MANUAL 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND 
POISONOUS PLANTS 



OF THE 



SLANDS OF THE PACIFIC 



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UNITED STATES 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

WASHINGTON : 1943 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office 

Washington, D. C. 



WAR DEPARTMENT 
Washington, April 15, 1943. 

TM 10-420, Emergency Pood Plants of the Islands of the 
Pacific, was written by Dr. E. D. Merrill, Administrator of 
Botanical Collections and Director of the Arnold Arboretum, 
Harvard University, and is published for the information and 
guidance of all concerned. 

[A. G. 062.12 (2-22-43).] 

By order of the Secretary of War: 

G. C. MARSHALL, 

Chief of Staff. 

Official : 

J. A. ULIO, 

Major General, 

The Adjutant General. 

Distribution : 
IC ^24). 
(For explanation of symbols see FM 21-6.) 

n 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Paragraphs Page 

Section I. Purpose and scope 1-2 1 

II. Reassurance and warning 3-5 2 

ni. Assistance and advice of natives 6-8 3 

IV. Miscellaneous information 9-10 4 

V. Edible ferns 11-12 5 

VI. Edible herbs 13-14 10 

VII. Edible palms 15-16 17 

Vni. Edible grasses 17-18 26 

IX. Edible tubers 19 30 

X. Plants eaten as greens 20 43 

XI. Edible fruits 21-22 75 

XII. Edible seeds 23 110 

XIII. Poisonous plants 24 125 

XIV. Plants used to stupefy fish 25-26 132 

LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS 

Figure Title Paragraph Page 

1. Tree fern (Cyathea) 12 6 

2. Swamp fern (Ceratopteris thalictroides) 12 7 

3. Paco (Athyrium esculentum) 12 8 

4. Stenochlaena palustris, Acrostichum aurcum__ 12 9 

5. Taro (Colocasia esculenta) 14 12 

6. Schizmatoglottis calyptrata 14 13 

7. Elephant ear (Alocasia macrorrhiza) 14 14 

8. Cyrtosperma chamissonis 14 15 

9. Amorphophallus campanulatus 14 16 

10. Sago palm (Metroxylon) 16 19 

11. Salacca edulis 16 20 

12. Rattan palm (Calamus) 16 21 

13. Buri palm (Corypha), Fishtail palm (Caryota), 

Sugar palm (Arenga) 16 23 

14. Coconut (Cocos nucifera) 16 24 

15. Nipa palm (Nipa fruticans) 16 25 

16. Job's tears (Coix lachryma-jobi) 1 18 27 

17. Setaria palmifolia 18- 28 

18. Bamboo shoots (several types) 18 29 

19. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) 19 31 

20. Cassava, manioc, or tapioca (Manihot 

esculenta) 19 32 

21. Greater yam (Dioscorea alata) 19 33 

22. Bulb yam (Dioscorea bulbifera) ^-_ 19 34 

23. Goa yam (Dioscorea esculenta) 19 35 

24. Buck yam (Dioscorea pentaphylla) 19 36 

25. Wild yam (Dioscorea hispida) 19 37 

26. Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) 19 38 

27. Yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) 19 40 

28. Polynesian arrowroot (Tacca leontopetaloides) _ 19 41 

29. Water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) 19 42 

30. Luffa cylindrica, Luffa acutangula 20 43 

31. Balsam vine (Momordica charantia) 20 44 

32. Commelinaceae 20 46 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Figure Title Paragraph Page 

33. Forrestia marginata 20 47 

34. Amaranthus (three species) 20 48 

35. Celosia argentea 20 49 

36. Alternanthera sessihs , 20 50 

37. Ceylon spinach (Basella rubra) 20 51 

38. Pilea glaberrima 20 52 

39. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea) 20 53 

40. Seaside purslane (Sesuvium portulacastrum) 20 54 

41. Boerhaavia diffusa 20 55 

42. Solanum nigrum 20 56 

43. Ipomoea aquatica 20 57 

44. Ottelia alismoides .' 20 58 

45. Monochoria vaginalis, Monochoria hastata 20 59 

46. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) 20 60 

47. Emilia sonchifolia 20 61 

48. ErechtiteS; 20 62 

49. Spilanthes acmella 20 63 

50. Pluchea indica__ 20 64 

51. Acalypha indica 20 65 

52. Acalypha wilkesiana 20 66 

53. Horseradish tree (Moringa oleifera) 20 67 

54. Coral tree (Erythrina variegata) 20 68 

55. Sesbania grandiflora 20 69 

56. Thespesia populnea 20 70 

57. Pemphis acidula 20 72 

58. Tournefortia argentea 20 73 

59. Morinda citrifolia , 20- 74 

60. Cantala (Agave cantala) 20 75 

61. Banana (Musa sapientum; Musa troglody- 

tarum) 22 77 

62. Papaw or Papaya (Carica papaya) 22 78 

63. Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) 22 79 

64. Jak fruit (Artocarpus heterophylla) 22 81 

65. Champedak (Artocarpus champeden) 22 82 

66. Artocarpus rotunda 22 83 

67. Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum); Pulusan 

(Nephelium mutabile) 22 84 

68. Lansone (Lansium domesticum) 22 85 

69. Guava (Psidium guajava) 22 86 

70. Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) 22 87 

71. Sweet sop (Annona squamosa) 22 88 

72. Sour sop (Annona muricata) 22 89 

73. Custard apple (Annona reticulata) 22 90 

74. Mango (Mangifera indica) 22 91 

75. Sapodilla (Achras zapota) 22 92 

76. Jambolan (Syzygium cumini) 22 93 

77. Syzygium aqueum 22 94 

78. Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense) 22 96 

79. Rose apple (Syzygium jambos) 22. 97 

80. Santol (Sandoricum koetjape) 22 98 

81. Polynesian plum (Spondias dulcis) 22 99 

82. Bilimbi (Averrhoa bilimbi) and Carambola 

(Averrhoa carambola) 22 100 

83. Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) 22 101 

84. Cynometra cauliflora 22 102 

IV 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Figure Title Paragraph Page 

85. Pandan or Screw pine (Pandanus tectorius)__ 22 103 

86. Gnetum gnemon 22 105 

87. Bignai (Antidesma bunius) 22 106 

88. Ximenia americana 22 107 

89. Wild tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) 22 108 

90. Ground cherry (Physalis (3 species)) 22 109 

91. Pangi (Pangium edule) 23 110 

92. Polynesian chestnut (Inocarpus fagiferus) — 23 112 

93. Sterculia foetida 23 113 

94. Indian almond (Terminalia catappa) 23 114 

95. Candle nut (Aleurites moluccana) 23 115 

96. Cycas circinalis 23 116 

97. Kanari and pili (Canarium commune) 23 117 

98. Lotus (Nelumbium nelumbo); water lily 

(Nymphaea) 23 119 

99. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) 23 120 

100. Asparagus bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolo- 

bus) 23 121 

101. Hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab) 23 122 

102. Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) 23 123 

103. Peanut (^Arachis h3rpogaea) 23 124 

104. Physic nut (Jatropha curcas) 24 126 

105. Castor oil plant (Rocinus communis).^ 24 127 

106. Tree nettle (Laportea) 24 128 

107. Tree nettle (Laportea) 24 129 

108. Cowhage (Mucuna pruriens) ; (Mucuna bipli- 

cata), (Mucuna cyanosperma) 24 130 

109. Semecarpus 24 131 

110. Croton oil plant (Croton tiglium) 26 134 

111. Derris elliptica 26 135 

112. Tephrosia purpurea 26 136 

113. Barringtonia asiatica 26 137 



TM 10-420 



TECHNICAL MANUAL 

EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 
OF THE ISLANDS OF THE PACIFIC 

Section I 

PURPOSE AND SCOPE 

Paragraph 

Purpose 1 

Scope 2 

■ 1. Purpose. — The purpose of this manual is to aid the in- 
dividual who becomes separated from his unit by illustrating 
and describing the edible and poisonous plants so that this 
individual can live off the land. The natives of the Malayan 
and Polynesian regions use parts of a great many wild plants 
as food, sometimes to supplement and diversify their daily 
diet, and sometimes as famine foods in time of scarcity. The 
parts used include young shoots and leaves of various herbs, 
shrubs, and trees, various fruits, certain seeds, some flowers 
and flower buds, and the tubers or starchy bulblike roots of 
various cultivated and wild plants. Some of these plant 
parts have a high food value and some are rich in vitamins. 

■ 2. Scope. — a. Region covered. — This manual covers all of' 
Polynesia, Micronesia, and Melanesia, as well as the entire 
Malay Archipelago including the Malay Peninsula and the 
Philippines. For all practical purposes it also covers Indo- 
china, Thailand (Siam) , Burma, and eastern India. 

b. Plants. — The more common plants that occur in reason- 
able abundance that may be used as food in times of emer- 
gency are included. The following have been excluded: 

(1) Rare species. 

(2) Plants that are familiar to residents of the temperate 
regions including maize or Indian corn, sorghum, rice, pine- 
apple, cabbage, carrot, beet, garden bean, squash, cucumber, 
egg plant, sweet pepper, and other universally cultivated food 
plants. 

(3) Familiar fruit trees such as the orange, lime, pomelo 
(one of the parents of the grapefruit) , lemon, etc. 



3^ QUARTERMASTER CORPS 

Section IT 

REASSURANCE AND WARNING 

Paragraph 

Jungle snakes 3 

Poisonous plants 4 

Jungle pests 5 

B 3. Jungle Snakes. — There is altogether too much fear of 
the Tropics, particularly on the part of those individuals 
without previous tropical experience. Thus the widespread 
fear of "the snake infested jungle" is an entirely imaginary 
picture. Poisonous snakes are absent from Polynesia. In 
Malaysia, they are very rare and are seldom seen. The 
chances of being bitten by a poisonous snake in any part 
of the Malayan region are very much smaller than in any 
part of the United States where rattle snakes and water 
moccasins occur. 

■ 4. Poisonous Plants. — a. General. — ^There is no reason to 
fear the small number of poisonous plants in any part 
of Polynesia or Malaysia. The general rule is to avoid the 
following: 

(1) Those with milky sap (except the numerous species of 

wild flg) . 

(2) All plants the taste of which is disagreeable. 

b. Contact poisons. — In the Malayan and Polynesian re- 
gion there are few contact poisons corresponding to our 
poison ivy, poison sumac, and poison oak. However, they all 
belong to the same natural family of plants (Anacardiaceae) . 
The poisonous principle is the same and the treatment is the 
same as that indicated for persons coming in contact with 
poison ivy. In the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and 
Borneo where most of them occur, they are collectively 
known as rengas and are all small to large trees. A few of 
the wild or semiwild species of mango, but not the common 
mango, also have poisonous sap. These are sometimes cul- 
tivated or sometimes found in the forests. In the Malay 
Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo, rarely outside of this 
region, they are known as kemang, lanjut, binjai, bachang, 
kwini and warii. Normally an individual might be poisoned 

2 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 4-6 

by these species when engaged in actually felling the trees. 
Their poisonous properties are thoroughly well known to the 
natives. Curiously, the fruits of all of these wild and semi- 
wild types of mango can be safely eaten, even when the 
sap is poisonous. 

c. Stinging plants. — There are some types of plants, never 
very common, that have stinging hairs such as the tree net- 
tles (Laportea) (par. 24d) and the cowhage (Mucuna) 
(par. 24e). These stinging hairs of the latter are merely 
mechanical irritants and are not poisonous. 

■ 5. Jungle Pests. — Keep constantly in mind the fact that 
in all of Malaysia and Polynesia there is almost no danger 
from poisonous snakes, noxious insects, spiders, and poison- 
ous plants. The forests and jungles of the entire region 
are a distinctly safe place in which to operate under any- 
thing even approaching normal conditions. The malaria 
mosquito and the land leech are the pests to avoid whenever 
possible. The land leech is found only in the high forests 
during the rainy season, or in the areas where the rainfall 
is heavy in all months of the year. 

Section HI 

ASSISTANCE AND ADVICE OF NATIVES 

Paragraph 

Native use of plants 6 

Advice of natives 7 

Local names 8 

■ 6. Native Use of Plaj^ts. — In all parts of the region the 
natives in general know both the wild and the cultivated 
plants which may be used as food. However, in certain 
sections, for example, Java, their use as food may be known 
but quite unknown to the natives of other islands in Malaya, 
Micronesia, and Polynesia. The breadfruit, which is a basic 
food in many parts of Polynesia, is little used as food in most 
parts of Malaya, where the species also occurs, simply because 
better foods are usually available there. A great many plants 
used by the natives of Java as food are quite unknown as food 
plants elsewhere. 

3 



7-9 QUARTERMASTER CORPS 

S 7. Advice of Natives. — Whenever possible, try to get in 
touch with natives even though one may be able to talk with 
them only by means of signs. They can be most helpful in 
times when regular rations are not available. They usually 
know how these emergency food plants should be prepared, 
and those which may be poisonous if eaten raw. In some 
of the actually poisonous plants the poisonous principle may 
be eliminated by proper cooking, or by other treatments, and 
the material then eaten with entire safety. 

H 8. Local Names. — ^In selecting recorded native plant names, 
no attempt has been made to indicate in what islands and 
by what peoples the names are used. In the area covered, 
there are probably in excess of 450 or 500 different languages 
or dialects involved. For all plants of this vast region there 
are probably in excess of 50,000 native plant names actually 
recorded; many locally used plant names are still unlisted. 
Some native plant names are very widely used, while others 
are local. Many of the plants considered have no common 
names in English. 

Section IV 

MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION 

Paragraph 

Plants near the seashore 9 

Guide for eating fruits 10 

■ 9. Plants Near the Seashore. — The number and variety of 
plants on the atolls and low islands of Polynesia and Micro- 
nesia are usually small, whether the islands be small or large, 
inhabited or uninhabited. Naturally, a greater variety of 
food plants, many of them cultivated, are found on the 
inhabited islands. On most islands will be found on or near 
the seashore such plants as the pandan or screw pine (par. 
22y) , common purslane (par. 20;) , seaside purslane (par. 
20/c) , Boerhaavia (par. 20Z) , Polynesian arrowroot (par, IQ;) , 
and such shrubs and trees as Ximenia (par. 22a&), Morinda 
(par. 20ad) , Tournefortia (par. 20ac), Pemphis (par. 20aE>), 
Thespesia (par. 20aa) , and Erythrina (par. 202/) , as well as 
various weedy herbs, such as Alternanthera (par. 206r), 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 9-11 

Emilia (par. 20r), Amaranthus (par. 20e), Commelinaceae 
(par. 20c), and perhaps some other introduced weeds con- 
siderjed in this manual. Even on uninhabited islands is 
sometimes found the coconut palm (par. 16e) , and the bread- 
fruit (par. 22c), where casual visitors have planted them. 
Generally, the vegetation on these low islands is very simple, 
with very few species as compared with that of the high 
islands, such as Fiji, Samoa, and others, and with the 
individual islands of the Malayan region. 

B 10. Guide for Eating Fruits. — ^Keep in mind that those 
cultivated trees and shrubs growing in the settled areas, in 
and near towns, that bear attractive fleshy fruits, for the 
most part are actually planted for their fruits, and that 
generally their fruits may be eaten with perfect safety. 
In the wild, where monkeys occur, a safeguard to follow is to 
observe what the monkeys actually eat in the form of wild 
fruits. The feeding habits of birds is not such a safe guide. 
One should keep in mind constantly that fruit maturity in 
the tropics is normally seasonal just as it is in temperate 
regions, and only occasionally, as with the coconut palm, are 
fruits produced throughout the year. 

Section V 

EDIBLE FERNS 

• Paragraph 

Perns in general H 

Specific ferns 12 

■ 11. Ferns in General. — The number of different kinds of 
ferns in the Malayan-Polynesian region is very great, proba- 
bly exceeding 1,500 different species. Some are small in- 
significant, while others are relatively very large in size, 
including the characteristic tree ferns (par. 12). Parts of 
certain species of ferns are regularly used as food by the 
natives and these parts are often offered for sale in native 
markets. While the food value of the edible parts of ferns 
is probably relatively low, yet these parts will help sustain 
life when other foods are not available. In general the parts 
most commonly used are the young unfolding leaves, com- 
monly spoken of as "fiddle heads;" these may be eaten either 



11 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



raw or cooked. Some of these "fiddle heads'* are too tough, 
and others are bitter or otherwise bad tasting. But one point 
may be kept in mind that, so far as known, none of the >f erns 
is actually poisonous when eaten. In some species the young 




ClUM*'^^ 



Figure 1. — ^Tree ferns {Cyathea) 



tender leaves are cooked and eaten. In general only a few 
of the better known or useful ferns have definite plant names, 
but a common collective name for all ferns in the Malay 
Archipelago is pako or paku. 



6 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



12 



■ 12. Specific Ferns. — a. Tree ferns (Cyathea). — Being 
chiefly forest ferns, tree ferns may sometimes be found in 
deserted clearings especially in more or less constantly wet 




Figure 2. — Swamp fern {Ceratopteris thalictroides) . 

regions. There are many different kinds and they are often 
abundant and are sometimes up to 25 feet high or even 
more. The young leaves as they commence to uncurl, the 
so-called "fiddle heads," are tender and may be eaten raw 



12 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



or cooked. The terminal tender bud or "cabbage" may also 
be eaten. Local names: Eki, dkii, biimg, 6li-6li, paoga, pdku- 
itam, pdkis-ddji, giro. 

b. Swamp fern (Ceratopteris thalictroides) . — ^This fern, 
often occurring in great abundance, is found in very wet soil, 
old rice paddies, and swampy places, more or less submerged. 
It never occurs in salt or brackish swamps. The whole plant 
which is 1 to IMj feet high may be cooked and eaten as 
greens, or may be eaten uncooked. It is an excellent food. 
Local names: Pdkis-rawa, sdjor-kodok. 




FiGTmE 3. — ^Paco {Athyrium, esculentum) 

8 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



12 



c. Paco (Athyrium esculentum) . — ^This fern often occurs 
in great abundance along swift-running streams, margins 
of rivers, and in some fresh-water swamps. It is usually 
about 2 feet high. The young developing leaf stalks, or 




OlUMi '■ft 



Figure 4. — A, Stenochlaena palustris; B, Acrostichum aureum. 



"fiddle heads," are an excellent food and may be eaten in 
quantity either raw or cooked. Local names: Pdko, paku, 
Pdku-sdjor, pdku-tdndjung, laminding, uta-hdu, uta-pdso, 
uia-iodu uta-wdsu, pdkis-ioilis. 



9 



12-13 QUARTERMASTER CORPS 

d. Stenochlaena palustris and Acrostichum aureum. — The 
tender young leaves of both these ferns may be cooked and 
eaten. The Stenochlaena (A) (fig. 4) is a climbing fern, 
occurring often in abundance near the inner margins of 
mangrove swamps, within the influence of salt or brackish 
water; other species occur in the inland forests. The 
Acrostichum (B) is a very coarse tufted fern, varying from 
2 to 6 feet high, its mature leaves being very leathery. It 
grows only in brackish swamps and hence always near the 
seashore where it is commonly abundant. Local names. 
(A, Stenochlaena) , Diliman, giliman, lamidin, lemiding, ag- 
ndya, hagndya, dkar-pdkis, melat, miding, pdku-ramiding, 
pdku-li7nbeh, pdku-merah, pdku-udang, pdkis-vordng, we- 
wesu, bempesu. (B, Acrostichum). Ldgolo, Idngayo, hap- 
pasen, sdato, lau-taputd, pdku-laut, paku-tiai, peye, piai, 
kerakds, kalakiik. 

Section VI 

EDIBLE HERBS 

Paragraph 

Araceae in general 13 

Specific Araceae 14 

■ 13. Araceae in General. — a. These plants belonging in the 
calla lily family are found in the forests and in the open 
country, varying in size from small to very large herbs. 
None of the climbing ones should be used for food. Their 
vegetative parts are in general characterized by being sup- 
plied with myriads of minute needlelike stinging crystals of 
calcium oxalate that are intensely irritating when brought 
in contact with mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, and 
throat and, in some cases, even in contact with tender skin; 
these microscopic crystals (and they occur in our common 
Indian turnip or Jack-in-the-pulpit) cause the so-called 
acrid "taste" of these plants, but in spite of the very in- 
tense irritation they may cause, the plants are normally not 
actually poisonous. In spite of the presence of these sting- 
ing crystals a considerable number of these plants are reg- 
ularly eaten and several are widely cultivated for food, such 
as the taro (and the yautia in tropical America), and to a 

10 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 13-14 

less degree the Cyrtosperma and Alocasia. In these culti- 
vated forms, the underground part is usually greatly en- 
larged, forming a tuber very rich in starch; thus to a very 
considerable degree these tubers take the place of the com- 
mon potato in the Tropics where a starchy food is needed 
to help maintain a balanced diet. The taro tuber in par- 
ticular is a very excellent well-flavored vegetable. The taro 
leaves may be cooked and eaten, although the fresh leaves 
are abundantly supplied with the minute stinging crystals, 
which in the uncooked leaves are very irritating. 

b. In general, when considering any of the numerous 
species of this family as food (other than the tubers of the 
taro), one should keep constantly in rnind the usual pres- 
ence of these microscopic stinging crystals of oxalate of lime 
and avoid putting any part of the raw plant into the mouth. 
The application of heat breaks down these stinging crystals 
so by thoroughly cooking the plant parts that are abun- 
dantly supplied with these very irritating needlelike crystals 
they may be safely eaten. However, in most cases, the first 
"taste" of the cooked aroid should be on the basis of a very 
small quantity, and if irritation results the material should 
be cooked for a longer period of time. 

H 14. Specific Araceae. — a. Taro iColocasia esculenta) . — 
This is one of the most commonly cultivated food plants in 
Polynesia, and also in the Malayan region, usually grown in 
wet lands. The many varieties are usually 1 1/2 feet high. The 
tubers are rich in starch and may be eaten in quantity, either 
boiled or roasted. They are an excellent substitute for the 
potato. The young leaves are commonly eaten as greens, 
but as they contain very many minute stinging crystals they 
must be thoroughly boiled before eating, as the application 
of heat destroys these irritating crystals. Local names: Tdo, 
tdlo, taro, tale, tdlas, tales, tdleh, tdlos, tdleus, kdlo, sune, 
gdbi, kelddi, kulddi, etu, lumbu, sukat, ambdrgo, sauhat, gete, 
bete, kudjang. Idle, Idee, loeh, mdlau, bolang, gelo, lomak, die, 
kole, kore, korei, wongkai, alddi, tdlok, pdtjo, suli, ronan, 
gwdi, ketu, etu, hdkar, wdkal, inan, indno, inane, gehut, kdlen, 
mom, warimu, hekere, buge, mengkodo, kemb, kom, komo, 
dildgo. 

516614°— 43 2 H 



14 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 




•UM t«2 



Figure 5. — ^Taro (Colocasia esculenta). 

b. Schizmatoglottis calyptrata. — ^This low smooth herb 
grows as high as 2 or 3 feet, and its flowers are usually yel- 
lowish-green, or the upper part is white. It occurs in moist 
shady places, especially in rocky soils, in forests, sometimes 
in thickets, and often near streams. All parts of the plant 
may be cooked and eaten. Local names: Njampon, wewehan, 
solempat, salimpar, sdjor-bdbi, kesesi, tunak, apau, gogu-awa, 
bdbu-banga, apalayi. 



12 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



14 



c. Elephant ear (Alocasia macrorrhiza) . — ^A very large 
plant growing in the forests and in open places, the elephant 
ear sometimes lacks a well-defined trunk, sometimes with a 




Figure 6. — Schizviatoglottis calyptrata. 

fairly tall trunk, and is often common and sometimes cul- 
tivated. It varies in height from 3 feet to as much as 12 feet. 
The juice is very acrid, due to the presence of thousands of 



13 



14 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



tiny needlelike crystals of oxalate of lime. In contact with 
the nose and mouth they cause the most intense pain. In 
times of emergency the softer parts of the trunk, which 
contains considerable starch, may be cooked and eaten. 
Some varieties are much more irritating than others. 




Figure 7. — Elephant ear {Alocasia macrorrhisa) . 

Warning: Do not eat unless first cooked very thoroughly 
with two or three changes of water. Whenever possible, seek 
the advice of informed natives who know how to prepare the 
plant parts as food. Local names: Tadmu, fdga, lace, 
sapukin, via-mila, via-gdga, drdmu, piga, ta'dmu, dpe, kdpe, 
papdo-apdka, papdo-atulong , dha, hadiang, biga, abdba, bira, 
bio, sente, kidwa, kei, lawira. 



14 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



14 




OliAOM '41 



V FiGtTRE 8. — Cyrtosperma chamissonis. 

d. (Cyrtosperma chamissonis) . — This is a very large plant 
growing only in fresh-water swamps or swampy places more 
or less in the open. The leaf stalks are more or less covered 
with short spines. Sometimes it is cultivated. The large 
underground part is rich in starch, but is to be eaten only 
when thoroughly cooked, either boiled or roasted. Local 
names: Gdliang, pdlau, palduan, hdba, bur a, puraka, burdka, 
mdota, puld'a, dpe, dpe-veo, via-kdna, opeves, Idck. 



15 



1-1 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



e. A7norphophallus campanulatus. — ^This plant, often com- 
mon, has large flowers ((A, fig. 9) a foot or more in di- 
ameter appearing before the leaves (B). The flowers are 
purplish and mottled and have the odor of decaying meat. 




ftjbl-^n ■L'-Zryf ■■■■■• L'J- V-°r^^^*cV' 



Figure 9. — Amorphophallus campanulatus. 
It is found in open places, near thickets, etc., and is some- 
times cultivated. The characteristic leafy stem (B) is 
usually about 3 or 4 feet high. The tender, young, rather 
rough and grayish-mottled leaf stems may he eaten, hut only 
after cooking. The large tuber is rich in starch, but it con- 
tains innumerable minute stinging needlelike crystals which 



16 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 14-15 

are intensely irritating to mucous membranes. Warning: 
The large tuber should never he eaten except after prolonged 
cooking. Long cooking breaks down the stinging crystals. If 
possible, consult informed natives before using this as food. 
Local names: Pungapung, teve, daiga, ddga, mdlree, suweg, 
kembang-hdngah, kembang-bdnke, dtjung, ileus, bddur, bd- 
dul, iles-iles, ileus, wdlur, dtjung, tjumpleng. 

Section VIE 

EDIBLE PALMS 

Paragraph 

Palms in general 15 

Specific palms 16 

■ 15. Palms in General. — a. There are a great many differ- 
ent palms in Malaysia and in Polynesia. They vary greatly 
in size and in habit. Some are very tall climbers, such as 
the rattan palms, others low and almost shrubby, and still 
others are gigantic in size. Some species grow along the 
seashore within the influence of the salt water, such as the 
nipa palm, some in open country, others in the secondary 
forests and thickets, and still others in the high forest. 

b. Representatives of several genera (Corypha, Arenga, 
Caryota, Metroxylon) store up great quantities of starch in 
their trunks (par. 16). This starch is entirely used up by 
the plant when it produces flowers and fruits, after which 
the plant dies. This starch is a valuable food, that from 
Metroxylon (par. 16a) being the commercial sago. The 
starch from all of these palms is used for food. The palms 
are felled, split, the softer inner parts of the trunk crushed, 
and the starch washed out into troughs to settle. The 
water is then drawn off and the wet mass which dries is 
almost pure starch. The usual way of utilizing this starch 
for food is to make it into cakes which are then baked or 
roasted. The trunks of Caryota, Metroxylon, and Arenga 
are not large and can be manipulated rather easily; that of 
Corypha is gigantic, up to 3 feet in diameter, and the outside 
is very hard. In attempting to extract starch from any of 
these it is always best to enlist the services of natives. In 
any case select the trunks of palms that have not flowered, 
or, better, those that are just commencing to produce powers. 

17 



15 QUARTERMASTER CORPS 

c. In times of real emergency portions of the starch-bearing 
softer inner parts of these palm trunks may be cut into pieces 
which are then roasted or even boiled, after which the starch 
can be "chewed out" of the fibrous mass that forms the inner 
parts of the trunk. Its food value is high. 

d. In general the terminal bud or "cabbage" of most palms 
Is edible and may be eaten raw, boiled, or roasted. This 
palm "cabbage," except in those cases where it may be too 
bitter, is an excellent vegetable. This hud or "cabbage" is 
the actual growing tip of the trunk and is found deep in the 
terminal crown of leaf stalk bases. 

e. In the climbing rattan palms (par. 16c), which are 
particularly abundant in the high forests and of which there 
are many different species, the terminal bud or "cabbage" is 
edible; in many species the lower foot or so of the small 
trunk contains considerable amounts of starch. In cases 
of emergency these lower parts may be cut off, roasted over 
a fire, and the starch then "chewed out." The abundant 
small fruits of some of the species may be eaten, but the pulp 
is acid and scanty. 

/. Very excellent, clear, tasteless or nearly tasteless drink- 
ing water may be obtained from the very long stems of the 
rattan palms. Cut the stems into about 6- to 8-foot lengths 
and hold these upright; the water will flow in a small stream 
from the lower end. In a short time the flow will stop and 
when this happens cut about a foot off the top end, and the 
flow will commence again. Repeat until all of the water is 
obtained. The rattan palms are all high climbers, mostly 
very spiny on the leaf stalks and leaves and with long slender 
whiplike spiny appendages, the spines forming characteristic 
sharp claws. The very long slender stems are smooth and of 
the same diameter throughout. The stems vary from 10 or 15 
feet to several hundred feet in length. 

g. Except for the coconut palm and a very few others, the 
fruits of most of the Old World palm species are not edible. 
In fact, those of Arenga and Caryota are very dangerous as 
they are charged with myriads of minute needle-shaped 
stinging crystals that cause intense pain when in contact 
with nose or mouth or even the tender skin. Warning: In 
testing palm fruits as to edibility, try only a very small quan- 



18 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 15-16 



tity first. If immediate intense pain results, this means the 
presence of microscopic stinging crystals. Among the palms 
it is chiefly in the fruits of Caryota and Arenga that these 
intensely irritating stinging crystals occur, and one should 
never attempt to eat the fruits of these particular palms 
(par. 16d). 




Ohach ''^z. 



Figure 10. — Sago palm (Metroxylon) . 
■ 16. Specific Palms. — a. Sago palm (Metroxylon). — This 
palm is found chiefly in fresh-water swamps and is one of 
the very few palms growing in such places. The tree is 



19 



16 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



usually 25 to 30 feet high and smooth and very spiny forms 
occur. The trunk contains great quantities of starch which 
is the commercial sago and which is a basic food for the 
natives in many parts of Malaya. (A) (fig. 10) is a full- 
grown palm; (B) , a young palm; (C), a palm past maturity 
in fruit, the starch in the trunk all used up by plant; 
(D) flower and fruit bearing parts and a mature fruit; 
(E) , lower part of a leaf of the spiny form. For brief dis- 




FiGURE 11. — Salacca edulis. 
20 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



It) 



cussion of method of extraction of the starch, see paragraph 
15. The terminal buds or "cabbage" may be cooked and 
eaten as a vegetable. Local names : Rumbia, rambia, pohon, 
sdgu, lumbal, lumbiag, bulung, kersula, resula, humbia, bdi, 
bdir, lipia, ripia, Idpia, ndwia, tesdrak, beri, no, inomo, huda, 
ambolong, bdgsang. 




Figure 12. — Rattan palm (Calamus). 



21 



IQ QUARTERMASTER CORPS 

&. Salacca edulis. — ^This is a tufted, spiny, almost stemless 
palm which grows up to 15 feet high. It bears round, brown 
fruits which are covered with scales. The yellowish white, 
sour-sweet, edible pulp surrounding two or three rather large 
hard seeds may be eaten raw. The immature fruits may also 
be cooked and eaten. Normally this palm is not founi in 
forests but usually is planted. Local names: Sdlak, huah- 
sdlak, hdkam, tiisum, seekumai. 

c. Rattan palm (Calamus). — There are many different 
kinds of rattan palm and they are found chiefly in the high 
forest. They are all climbing palms. The leaf stalks and 
growing parts are very spiny; the stems are smooth and vary 
in size from the thickness of a pencil to 2 inches in diameter. 
They are often several hundred feet long. The leaf tips are 
greatly extended and supplied with numerous very sharp, 
hard, clawlike teeth. The small growing point or "cabbage" 
of most species is edible. In many species the lower foot or 
two of the trunk ((A) , fig. 12) is slightly thickened and con- 
tains some starch; these lower parts may be roasted and 
the cooked starch "chewed out." The stems yield excellent 
drinking water (see par. 15). 

d. Buri palm; fishtail palm; sugar palm. — All of these 
palms, like the sago palm, store up great quantities of starch 
in the softer inner parts of their trunks which may be used as 
food. (See par. 15.) The tender buds or "cabbage" of all 
may be cooked and eaten. All of these occur in open lands 
and in secondary forests; the fishtail palm occurs also in the 
high forest. The buri palm is recognized by its enormous 
size, often 50 feet high, its great fan-shaped leaves, and their 
very stout spiny leaf stalks; the fishtail palm by the shape of 
its leaves; and the sugar palm by its very long feather-shaped 
ascending leaves, the lower parts of the leaf stalks where 
they join the stem with many very long black stiff hairs. 
Local names: iCorypha) : Buri, gdwang, gehang, silar, silal, 
tildda, tdli, siger. (Caryota) : Anibong, batikan, pugdhan, 
takipan, genduru, andudu, ramisi, dni, pdlun, bdru, 
(Arenga) : Kaong, kabo-negro, hidiok, idiok, irrok, hdnu, 
dren, dnau, semdki, daluku. 



22 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



16 




9tLktn m 



Figure 13. — A, Buri palm {Corypha, a young palm at the left); B, 
Fishtail palm {Caryota); C, Sugar palm {Arenga) . 

e. Coconut (Cocos nucifera) . — This plant is one of the 
most commonly cultivated palms throughout Polynesia and 
Malaya. The large terminal bud or "cabbage" is one of the 
very finest vegetables, and may be eaten in quantity, either 
raw or cooked. The nut yields the very best drinking water 
that is available anywhere, while the meat may be eaten in 



23 



16 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 




piLLtlt U\ 



Figure 14. — Coconut {Cocos nucifera) . 



any stage of development. Local names: Nu, ni, niu, nius, 
nihau, niweur, niel, igo, 7iizok, niog, hardmbir, ardmhir, 6J}i, 
kaldpa, njejong, njur, njir, Idngai, ongat, tdpo, niuka, bdnga, 
bongo, kaluku, utiri, turiri, niyog, noe merau, efo, epoh, bdku, 
krdmbil, krdmbir, tuivaloh, keldmbir, vdte. 

f. Nipa palm (Nipa fruticans) . — This palm occurs only 
along tidal streams and back of the mangrove swamps where 
it is always within the influence of salt or brackish water. 



24 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



16 




Figure 15. — Nipa palm {Nipa fruticans) . 

In favorable habitats it sometimes covers hundreds of acres. 
It is a stemless palm, the part corresponding to the trunk 
creeping in the mud and sending up several long leaves. The 
normal height is about 15 feet. The solitary, dark, brown 
round heads of fruits are about 1 foot or more in diameter. 
The large white seeds may be eaten when immature; in 
young stages they somewhat resemble the meat of the coco- 
nut. When fully mature the seed is very hard, and if eaten 



25 



16-17 QUARTERMASTER CORPS 

at all in this stage should be finely grated or crushed. Local 
names: Nipa, ipah, saripi, parenga, dimor, Idtaf, sanenem, 
hira, wera, song, kopere, tdmu, hoho, hohoro, salipi. 

Section VIII 
EDIBLE GRASSES 

Paragraph 

Grasses in general . 17 

Specific grasses 18 

■ 17. Grasses in General. — a. To this family belong all of 
our cultivated cereals, such as rice, wheat, barley, oats, rye, 
millet, sorghum, maize or corn, etc. Rice, millet, sorghum, 
maize, and several other cereals are extensively cultivated in 
the Tropics, but one does not find rye, wheat, oats, and other 
cereals so characteristic of the temperate regions. The bam- 
boos are all grasses, and the young shoots of most of these 
(and there are many kinds in Malaya) may be cooked and 
eaten with safety (see par. 18c) . The cultivated sugarcane 
is a grass. Its juice is rich in sugar, and thus has consid- 
erable food value. A wild species of sugarcane, a coarse, 
harsh-leafed grass 4 to 10 feet high, or even taller in rich 
soil, is very common and widely distributed in open valley 
lands. The flower -bearing parts are white, and make the 
species very conspicuous. It sometimes occupies large areas 
and scarcely needs a description. This is known as taldhib, 
geldgah, gldgah, kdso, tebu-sdla, tatebau, tehiu, tigbau, 
bogang, kldgah, tlengdt, kenu, sdraw, hepu, dalina, djodo, 
and siuhu. The hearts of the young shoots are frequently 
eaten raw or cooked, and are even sold in the markets of 
Java. The very young flowering parts, while still inclosed in 
the upper leaf -sheaths, may be cooked and eaten, while the 
roots may be peeled and eaten and taste somewhat sweet like 
the cultivated sugarcane. 

b. Some of the wild grasses allied to millet, such as our 
common barnyard grass, have fairly large seeds, and these 
are produced in abundance; they may be gathered, the seeds 
rubbed out of the chaff, and either boiled or roasted. While 
the seeds of the wild grasses are much smaller than those of 
our cultivated cereals, nevertheless they are perfectly safe to 
eat, and are actually used by the natives in times of food 
shortages. (See figs. 17 and 18.) 

26 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



18 




Figure 16.— Job's tears {Coix lachryma-jobi) . 

B 18. Specific Grasses. — a. Job's tears \Coix lachryma- 
johi). — This is coarse grass, usually 2 to 3 feet high, often 
abundant in open places, never found in forests. The very 
hard, white, shining "fruit" contains one to several fairly 
large seeds which may be eaten raw, boiled, or roasted. There 
is one form (dele, jelai, salea, lahja, hadjeli, iriule, sah, sari, 
rore, lore), with very thin-walled brownish "fruits," fre- 



516614^—43- 



27 



18 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



quently cultivated for its seeds. Local names: Adlai, 
kudldsan, jelai, jelai-bdtu, andjdlai, sila, sdna-sdna, sang a- 
sdnga, bilen, pu-pu, vianiu-niu, perdra, sdlea-utan, hadjere. 




Figure 17. — Setaria palniifoUa. 

bukehang, tataokok, tie. Idle, bdree, kalide, karisi, klumba, 
gelem, sdlea, takokok. 

b. Setaria palmifolia. — ^This is a coarse grass, 2 to 6 feet 
high, with broad, prominently nerved leaves and very numer- 



28 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



18 



ous flowers. It is usually abundant in old clearings, partly 
shaded ravines, old plantations, and along forest borders. 
The hearts of the young shoots or stout plants ((A), fig. 17) 
may be eaten raw or cooked, and these are often sold in the 




.y'i 



^/i 




Figure 18. — Bamboo shoots (several types). 

native markets of Java. The very numerous small seeds (the 
species being allied to Italian millet) may be gathered and 
boiled or roasted; these are used as a famine food in the 
Philippines and elsewhere. Local names: Luluwan-kebo, 



29 



18-19 QUARTERMASTER CORPS 

tjewehan, sahuen, yang-meydngan, wuluhan, lintabueng, 
jang-ujdngan, mese-mae, Idkar, esa-esa, wdru-wdri, sowa- 
sowdne, agusdis, asdhas, hagusdis, dumhug. 

c. Types of bamboo shoots. — There are many different 
kinds of bamboo in Malaysia and a few in Polynesia. They 
occur often in great abundance in the open country and in 
the jungles and forests. The young shoots appear from 
near the bases of the older stalks and their growth is very 
rapid. All of them may be cooked and eaten when young, 
although in a few species the shoots are too bitter to be 
palatable. The surrounding, often hairy sheaths, are re- 
moved and the more or less tender inner parts are cut into 
small pieces and boiled, or the whole shoot may be roasted. 

Section IX 

EDIBLE TUBERS 

Paragraph 
Edible tubers 19 

1 19. Edible Tubers. — a. Sweet potato ilpomoea batatas). — 
The sweet potato is widely cultivated throughout the Old 
World Tropics as a staple article of food. It may be identi- 
fied by its pink flowers or the shape of its leaf. In addition 
to the edible tubers (these may be eaten raw or cooked), 
the young shoots and leaves make an excellent pot herb or 
substitute for spinach. Local names: Kamote, kumdra, ubi- 
djdwa, batdta, petdtas, gddong, gddung, eba, piek, kepileu, 
gowi, katila, ketela, kesela, kastena, kastela, pildoe, pelo, tela, 
sdbhrang, hiwu-djdwa, watdta, bdge, atetela, wui-tutu, uwi, 
Idme-djdwa, kandora, ufi-sina, sdne, nom-metai, bloini, uru, 
urlau, mvi-kastela, mdngat, ddso, rdnso, mue, sabakruwa, 
ningoi, kdv, gumi, gumini, bowon, ima, kdpu. 



30 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



19 




Figure 19. — Sweet potato {Ipomoea batatas). 

h. Cassava, manioc, or tapioca (Manihot esculenta) .—A 
plant widely cultivated in the Old World Tropics and is the 
commercial source of tapioca. It is a shrubby plant 3 to 5 
feet high. The large roots are rich in starch. Warning: 
The two varieties, bitter cassava and sweet cassava cannot be 
distinguished by any characteristic other than by taste. 
Bitter cassava is poisonous when eaten raw. Cooking elimi- 



31 



19 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 




Figure 20. — Cassava, manioc, or tapioca {Manihot esculenta) . 

nates the poisonous principle (in this case hydrocyanic acid) , 
but with bitter cassava it is best to crush the root thoroughly 
and wash the starchy mass with several changes of water. 
Never eat bitter cassava raw, but only after it has been 
thoroughly cooked. Local names: Kamote-kdhoy, kdsbi, 
kasawe, mandioka, maniota, manoka, maniota-aipi, men- 
dioka, ufi-ladu, yuka, ufiladu, ebae, kikohak, ketila, gddung- 



32 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



19 




Figure 21. — Greater yam {Dioscorea alata) . 

kdoe, ubi-inggris, ubi-kddju, batdta-kdfu, bistungkel, huwi- 
dangdeur, sdmveu, tjdpeu, kasdpen, kasibi, kdsbi, kaspini, 
kdspe, ketela-pung, sikong, menjok, sdwi, mandardsi, pangdla, 
tasibie. 

c. Greater yam (Dioscorea alata) . — This is a twining vine, 
common in cultivation, and sometimes growing wild. The 
stems are ridged or with narrow wings. The yams vary 



33 



19 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 




Figure 22. — Bulb yam {Dioscorea bulbifera) . 

enormously in shape and size, sometimes rather small, some- 
times weighing up to 30 pounds. The flesh varies from white 
to purple. An excellent food boiled or roasted. Local names : 
Ubi, uhi, ufi, ui-pdrai, uvi, uwi, huwi, heri, heli, lame, lutu, 
gusu, dago. 

d. Bulb yam {Dioscorea bulbifera). — ^This twining vine has 
smooth stems. It grows in thickets, and is sometimes cul- 
tivated. Usually fairly large, round, rather hard bulbs are 



34 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



19 



in the leaf axils. Warning: While the axillary bulbs and the 
yams may be eaten when properly prepared (see g below) , 
they should never be eaten unprepared, as they are definitely 
poisonous. Seek the advice of informed natives if possible as 
to how the tubers should be treated. Local names: Huwi, 
buwah, gembolo, kambubu, ahuhu, ohuhu, kapilpu, pulugan, 
hoi^ VI, soi, abardka, vdti, nam. 




Figure 23. — Goa yam {Dioscorea esculenta) . 

e. Goa yam (Dioscorea esculenta) . — This spiny and twin- 
ing vine is cultivated, also often found wild in thickets. The 



35 



19 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



yams vary in shape but are usually not very large. They are 
distinctly well flavored, and may be eaten boiled or roasted. 
Like those of the greater yam they need no special treatment, 
as they are never poisonous. Local names: Gembolo, 
gemheili, sudo, kaburan, huwi-ldndak, kdwai, tugi, tungo, 
dago, hoi-tia, nika, sdhu, sidfu, sidpu, sidwu, sajdwu, kapugu, 
isdhu. 




jOIUMI '4i 



Figure 24. — ^Buck yam {Dioscorea pentaphylla) . 



36 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



19 



/. Buck yam (Dioscorea pentaphylla) . — This is a climbing, 
twining vine, the leaves usually with five parts, the stems 
smooth or with short scattered spines. It is sometimes cul- 
tivated, but more commonly found wild in thickets. Some- 
times there are small bulbs in the leaf axils. The yams vary 
in shape and are usually not very large. Tliey may be 
eaten boiled or roasted. Local names: Ubi-pdsir, uhi-sunda. 




Figure 25. — ^Wild yam {Dioscorea hispida) . 



37 



19 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



kdtak, huwi-putri, susuan, rdhet-sosean, pda, pilita, pirita, 
patora, paaudra, utau, lima-Uma, sdpong. 

g. Wild yam (Dioscorea hispida) . — ^This is a climbing, 
rather woody, spiny vine; the leaves have three parts. It 
usually grows wild in thickets, and is rarely cultivated. The 
yams vary considerably in shape and size. Warning: These 
yams are definitely poisonous and should not be used for food 
unless properly prepared; seek the advice of natives when- 
ever possible. The yams should he cut into very thin slices, 




Figure 26. — Arrowroot {Maranta arundinacea) . 



38 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 19 

coated with ashes if possible, and then soaked in streams or 
in salt water for 3 or 4 days, after which they should he 
dried in the sun. After prolonged treatment they may be 
cooked and eaten, but great caution is necessary. Local 
names: Ndmi, gadoong, huwi-gadgoong, kdpak, gddu, sikdpa, 
bitule, sidpa, boti, lei, hajule, hajuru, kdlut, korot, kulut, 
udle, kdwai, hoi-tia, nika. 

h. Arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea) . — This is an erect, 
smooth, branched herb, 1 to 3 feet high, with small white 
flowers. The thickened scaly roots may be cooked and eaten, 
or they may be crushed, the abundant starch washed out. 
and used as food. This is the commercial arrowroot, and is 
found only in cultivation. Local names: Ardru, areroo, 
aruru, droot, aiigkrik, drus, djildrut, everut, gderut, gdrut, 
irut, Idrut, ngdrut, saldrut, paruta, sdgu, sdgu-hdnban, sdgu- 
rdrut, pdtat-sdgu, tdwang, hula-moa, huda-sula, peda-peda, 
pia, pi-waldnda, Idbia-waldnda, masoa-fdnau, tidre-arura. 

i. Yam bean (Pachyrhisus erosus). — ^This vine has blue 
flowers. It is often common in thickets and hedgerows, and 
is sometimes planted. The turnip-shaped root is very re- 
freshing, the flesh is crisp and pleasant to the taste; it is 
always eaten raw, never cooked, v The very young pods may 
be cooked and eaten like string beans. Warning: The ma- 
ture seeds in brown pods should never be eaten as these are 
poisonous. Local names: Hikamas, sinkamas, bakuwang, 
bangkowan, bangkuwa, bangkuwang, bingkowang, bengku- 
wang, singkuwang, huivi-hiris, besusu, djempirdngan, ubi- 
plisak, oeas, oea. 

j. Polynesian arrowroot (Tacca leontopetaloides) . — This 
is a plant that grows 2 to 5 feet high having stems that are 
distinctly grooved. The hard, usually round, and potatolike 
tubers are rich in starch and may be boiled or roasted and 
eaten, or better, crushed or grated and then boiled. Warn- 
ing: The tubers should never be eaten raw as they are said to 
be poisonous until after being crushed, washed, and cooked. 
Usually the tubers are found in the loose soil some distance 
from the base of the plant and from one to several to a plant. 
It is sometimes cultivated, but as a wild plant is most often 
found in loose sandy soil not far from the seashore. Local 
names: Gdu-gdu, panarien, tayobong, ketjondang, katjunda, 

39 



19 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



tjdndang, labing, leki, leker, likir, tdka-laut, tatoan, kolo-- 
pale, katjodo, katjunda, katio, telo, tda, huda-kordno, pia, 
yabia, ydmbia, mdra, mdsoa, maaeua, mok-mok, gah-gab, 
vdtia, yovoli. 




Figure 27. — Yam bean {Pachyrhisus erosxis) . 

k. Water chestnut (Eleocharis dulcis) . — This is a coarse, 
more or less tufted plant, 2 to 4 feet high, growing only in 
fresh water swamps in open places. The nearly round, hard 
tubers are produced underground and are excellent to eat, 

40 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



19 



boiled or roasted. This is the wild form of the so-called 
ma-tai of the Chinese and the tubers in normal times are 
extensively imported into the United States by them and 
are served in Chinese restaurants. Local names: Apulid, 




Figure 28. — ^Polynesian arrowroot (Tacca leontopetaloides) . 

potok, tike, tikai, dekeng, pangoke, tereke, goro, pagoro, bigdu, 
mansiro-holong , utu-utu, uchdga-ldhe. 



41 



19 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 




Figure 29. — Water chestnut {Eleocharis dulcis) 



42 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 

Section X 
PLANTS EATEN AS GREENS 
Plants which may be eaten as greens 



20 



Paragraph 
20 




Oiuan 'At, 



Figure 30. — Lu}Ja cylindrica, L. acutangula. 



H 20. Plants Which May Be Eaten as Greens. — a. A, Luffa 
cylindrica, B, Luffa acutangula. — These vines are cultivated, 
and also often grov/ wild. The flowers are yellow. The young 



516614^—43- 



43 



20 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



green fruits (not more than half ripe) may be cooked and 
eaten; at this stage they make an excellent vegetable; the 
tender shoots, flowers, and young leaves may also be cooked 
and eaten. The mature fruits are too tough to eat. One spe- 
cies ((A), fig. 30) has sharply angled fruits, the other (B) 
has smooth fruits suggesting a smooth cucumber. The fruits 
of the wild form, occurring in thickets especially near the 
sea, are smaller than those of the cultivated forms. Ix)cal 
names: Patola, petola, ketola, hestru, blestru, motini, pacho- 




OlIlOM •■It t^ /f 

Figure 31. — ^Balsam vine {Momordica charantia). 



44 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 20 

dag, djingi, ojong, pet ola-heng gala, petola-pdndjang, petola- 
tjina, kimput, ernes, kdtjur, hurung-djdwa, timput, lopang, 
dodahdla, ojong. 

h. Balsam vine (Momordica charantia) . — This is a slender 
vine with small yellow flowers. The rough fruits, variable in 
shape, are usually yellow, the pulp reddish. The young 
leaves and shoots may be eaten as greens (better mixed with 
other plant material, as they are rather bitter), while the 
fruits may be cooked and eaten. Tliis plant is found both 
in cultivation and wild; the fruits of the wild form are al- 
ways smaller than are those of the cultivated ones, which 
may be 6 inches long or even more. Local names: Papdri, 
pepdre, pdre, pdria, pdlia, pdnia, pulia, peria, paparidno, 
taparipong, karaidno, paridne, paliak, pentu, pepdreh, 
pdja, truwuk, kdnibeh, popdri, foria, apaldya, ampaldya, 
apdlia, amargoso, almagoso, vidrgoso, pupuruvi. 

c. Commelinaceae. — Figure 32 shows two common and 
widely distributed representatives of Cyanotis (A) (D) and 
two of Commelina (B) (C). These are somewhat fleshy, 
trailing or ascending herbs, with blue flowers. They occur 
in open places, waste and cultivated lands and meadows, 
and all are common. The plants may be eaten raw, steamed, 
or boiled. Local names: Bramhdngan, gewor, petungan, 
tdli-korang, tdli-sdit, rehha-mosor, alibdngon, sabilau, ulik- 
bdngon, nemeneakori, vdte, mau-u-toga, aihere-pdpe, rebha- 
kongong, 

d. Forrestia marginata. — This erect plant grows to about 2 
feet in height. The stems are smooth or hairy with dense 
heads of small violet or purple flowers in the leaf axils. The 
tender shoots may be cooked and eaten, these parts of the 
plant being even sold in native markets in Malaya. Local 
names: Arigbdngon, tdhig-tdhig, limpungan, gewor, kerok- 
bdtok. 

e. Three species of Amaranthus. — ^Vstrious species of Ama- 
ranthus occur (often in great abundance) throughout 
the Malaysian and Polynesian regions, particularly in open 
places (especially (B) flg. 34) , waste lands about settlements 
(especially (C) ) , and more or less cultivated (A) . Some 
((A) and (B) ) are often 3 feet high; others (C) are usually 



45 



20 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



not more than 1 foot high. In the cultivated forms the 
leaves are often variegated, dull purple to even red. The 
young shoots and leaves of all kinds of Amaranthus make 




Cu»»i> *^ 



Figure 32. — Commelinaceae. 



excellent greens when cooked. Local names: Kolitis, hdlon, 
bdjam, hdja, bdjem, vdte, driti, nakeke, ddmu-ddmu, drum, 
drun, howa, hajoem, tdrnak, tdrnjak, lembain, nddu, medja. 



46 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



20 



wdwa, sinue, sinahue, podo, maldbut, Idhut, matdhut, mala- 
huto, uta-paine, ut-ldbut, loda, loda-kohori. 




Figure 33. — Forrestia marginata. 

/. Celosia argentea.— This ((A), fig. 35) is a wild form of 
the common garden cock's comb and is often abundant in 
meadows, old clearings, waste places, but always in the open, 



47 



20 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



never in forests. It is about 2 feet high and the flower bear- 
ing parts are shining white to pink. The young shoots and 
leaves are boiled and eaten as greens. The garden forms of 




Figure 34. — Aniaranthus (three species). 



< 



the common cock's comb ((B) and (C) ) may also be so used, 
the floral parts being red, purple, or yellow, but these forms 



48 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



20 



are usually not found wild. Local names: Borotjo, sangsri, 
kuntha, kindaydhan, kudidpa. 
g. Alternanthera sessilis. — This is a common, widely dis- 



Piu»if 




PiGXJRE 35. — Celosia argentea. 



tributed, weedy plant, more or less ascending. It is found 
in waste places, old rice paddies, along streams and ditches, 
roadsides, about dwellings, in gardens, and in damp meadows. 



49 



20 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



It has small heads of white flowers in the leaf -axils; the 
leaf -form is variable. The younger parts of the plant may 




Figure 36. — Alternanthera sessiUs. 

be cooked and eaten as greens. Local names: Daun-rusa, 
daun-tolod, keremak, tolod, letah-hdyam, honga-honga, 
vao-sosolo. 

h. Ceylon spinach (Basella rubra). — This fleshy, twining 



50 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



20 



vine grows in hedges and along fences. Sometimes it is cul- 
tivated. The rather fleshy stems may be dark red, purple, 




Oltx»»l *«& 



Figure 37. — Ceylon spinach {Basella rubra) . 

or yellowish green and the leaves may be green, red, or 
purplish. It does not occur in the forest but chiefly near 
settlements. The small flowers are pink and the fruits black 
or dark purple. The whole plant may be eaten raw or cooked. 
Local names: Libdto, arogbdti, alugbdti, dundula, gandola, 
gendola, kendola, gendjerot, kandola. 



51 



20 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



i. Pilea gldberrima. — This erect plant, a somewhat juicy- 
herb, grows 2 to 5 feet high. It has opposite leaves and 
numerous small greenish or greenish white flowers. A num- 
ber of closely allied species occur, often in great abundance, 
in wet or damp high forests, in shaded ravines, and along 




Omm Nt 



Figure 38. — Pilea glaberrima. 

streams, but always in the forest. In Java the tender young 
leaves and stems are eaten both raw and cooked, and are 
actually sold in the native markets. Local names : Pohpo- 
han, tiotiok-buba (in Java). 



52 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



20 



j. Purslane (Portulaca oleracea) . — This very fleshy weed- 
like plant is often abundant in settled areas throughout the 
Tropics, while other forms occur near the sea. The whole 




OILION ^2 



Figure 39. — Purslane {Portulaca oleracea) . 

plant may be eaten raw or cooked as greens. Local names: 
Golasiman, ulisiman, gelang, aturi, tamole, krokut, re- 
serejan, djdlu-djdlu-kiki. 

k. Seaside purslane (Sesuvium portulacastrum) . — This is 
a trailing branched herb with fleshy stems and leaves, oc- 



53 



20 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



curring only back of the beach or brackish marshes along 
the shores of lagoons, etc., within the influence of salt or 
brackish water. Widely distributed in all tropical countries. 
The whole plant may be eaten raw or cooked as greens, but 




Figure 40. — Seaside purslane {Sesuvium portulacastrum).. 

it is desirable to change the water two or three times to elim- 
inate the salt. Local names: Chdra, dampdlit, gelang-ldut, 
geldng-pasir, rumput-bdbi, kernel, djdlo-djdlo, tatdla-dogoto, 
birbiri. 



54 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



20 



I. Boerhaavia diffusa. — This is a rather diffuse, spreading 
or ascending, branched herb with small pink flowers, the 
stems often reddish or purplish. Common in open places 
especially near the seashore back of the beach. The some- 
what thickened leaves and young somewhat fleshy stems 







Figure 41. — Boerhaavia diffusa. 

may be cooked and eaten. The roots are reported as being 
eaten in Fiji in times of scarcity, but as their use as food 
affects the kidneys, they should be used with caution if at 
all. Local names: Katuri, vidve, rima, dafoe, kisi, kalisi-lisi, 
runa, runa-runa, muna-muna. 



55 



20 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



m. Solanum nigrum. — This is an erect, branched herb that 
normally grows 1 to 2 feet high. It has small white flowers 
and small black berries. It is common both in waste places 
and cultivated lands. The young leafy shoots make excellent 




OcLUM 42 



Figure 42. — Solanum nigrum. 



greens when cooked, and are extensively so used in the Tropics 
of both hemispheres. The small black fruits are edible. 
Local names: Anti, rdmpai, rdnti, leuntja, leuntja-hddak, 
leuntja-hdjam, leutja-pdhit, konti, buse, hohose, magdlo, 
popolo. 



56 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



20 



n. Ipomoea aquatica. — ^This vine grows only in shallow 
fresh water ponds and swamps, and resembles the sweet- 
potato vine. It has pink flowers. The tender stems and 
young leaves make very excellent greens, and are frequently 




Figure 43. — Ipomoea aquatica. 

gathered and sold in the native markets for this purpose. 
Local names: Kankong, kangko, kankung, naniri, pangpung, 
rumpun, kaldjau, lalidih, Idra, Idre, sajdha, sariokang, 
pondngoi, kdnto, tatdnggo, tdnggo, dngo-ddno, kdko-ddno, 
kingkoi, koiigkia, utdngko, heehob, takdko, kdko. 

57 



•0 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



o. Ottelia alismoides. — ^This herb has rather large, thin 
leaves. It grows in slow shallow streams, pools, and quiet 
ponds, the white flowers extending above the sui'face of the 




Figure 44. — Ottelia alismoides. 

water, the leaves wholly submerged or extending to the sur- 
face. The entire plant may be cooked and eaten as greens. 
Local names: Etjeng, tjowehan, lila-laldngkow, podang, kala- 
hua, ddmong-ildlim, Idnten-sdga, tardbang. 



58 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



20 



p. (Monochoria vaginalis and Monochoria hastata) . — This 
herb is somewhat fleshy and grows about 1 to 1 Yz feet high. 
It grows in open wet places, old rice paddies, or along streams. 




ObMM 



Figure 45. — A. Monochoria vaginalis; B, Monochoria hastata. 

and is often abundant. It has blue flowers. The whole plant 
except the roots may be eaten raw, steamed, or boiled. Local 
names: Etjeng, bengok, pingo, wewean, etjeng-kebo, gabi^ 
gabi, Idpa-ldpa, kosol-kosol. 



616614°— 43- 



59 



20 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



q. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) . — ^While this 
plant is a native of Brazil and of comparatively recent intro- 
duction in the Old World Tropics, it is now widely naturalized 
and wherever it occurs it is usually very abundant. The 




FiGTjRE 46. — ^Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) . 

flowers are blue with a yellow spot. They float on ponds and 
slow streams, and also occur as a weed in rice paddies. In 
Malaya the young leaves, leaf stalks, and flowering parts are 
steamed or boiled and eaten. Local names: Bengok, wewean, 
etjeng-gondok, riri-vdi. 

60 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



20 



r. Emilia sonchifolia. — ^This is a common and widely dis- 
tributed weed and usually grows less than 1 foot high. It 
is found in open places, meadows, wastelands, and coconut 
plantations, but not in the forest. The flowers are pink or 




tkt*^ 'JfU 



Figure 47. — Emilia sonchifolia. 



in some forms, reddish. The whole plant may be eaten raw 
or cooked. It is botanically allied to lettuce. Local names: 
Djonge, momelan, sdrop, sundilan, kemandelan, pdtah- 
kemudi, tagulinas, libum, lamlampdka, fualele, meleni-vdo. 
s. Erechtites. — ^These two weeds are very abundant in de- 
serted clearings and waste places. Erechtites valerianic olia 



61 



20 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



((A), fig. 48) bears pink flowers; Erechtites Jiier act folia (B), 
yellowish flowers. The plants are usually 2 to 3 feet high. 
The tender parts may be cooked and eaten as greens. Local 
names: Djildmpang, puyung, hageeni, holostrok, djdvibrong, 
doblang, koroyono, sintrong. 




//A 

Figure 48. — Erechtites. 

t. Spilanthes acmella. — This weedy herb grows both erect 
or ascending. It is branched and bears yellow flowers. The 
plant grows abundantly in meadows, waste places, along 
paths, in abandoned agricultural lands, but not in the forests. 



62 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



20 



The younger parts of the plant may be cooked and eaten as 
greens. Local names: Ddun-getang, ddun-gulang, ddun- 
moorit, gletang, getang, gdtarig, gulang, djotang, legetan. 



OiLt«« yj 




Figure 49. — Spilanthes acfiiella. 



legetan-kebo, sarunen, sarunei-sdpi, sriinen, djotjong, 
djotjong-sdwa, kirat-tjirat, rdt-tjirat, bdga, gatdng-gdtang, 
mlat-vilat. ddun-ldda. 

u. Pluchea indica. — This small shrub grows 2 to 3 feet 
high. It is common and widely distributed, especially near 
the seashore and in wet soil. It bears a pale violet flower. 



63 



20 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



The young leaves, tips of the branches, and young flowers 
may be cooked and eaten, and are extensively so used in 
Java. Local names: Beluntas, luntas, tluntas, baluntas, 
baruiitas, blunias, lamutdsa, lenabou, nih, hahig-bahig, 
baning-baiiing, kalapini. 




0««AM» *^ 



FiGTTRE 50. — PliLchea indica. 



V. Acalypha indica. — This is an erect, branched herb 
which grows up to 3 feet high. It occurs as a weed 
about settlements, in meadows, along ditches, and in waste 
places generally, often abundantly; it does not occur in the 



64 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



20 



forests. The young leaves and tender stems may be cooked 
and eaten. Local names: Leldtaiig, Idteng-putih, hayeman, 
tjeka-mas, ongo-ongo. 
w. Acalypha wilkesiana. — ^This is an ornamental shrub 




Figure 51. — Acalypha indica. 

which grows 5 to 15 feet high. It has green or reddish twigs 
and variegated leaves, green and variously mottled or light 
red, dark brownish red, sometimes with greenish-yellow 
blotches, or pale edges ((B), fig. 52). It is easily recognized 



65 



20 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



by its colored leaves. It is a native of Polynesia and is 
planted in hedges and near houses throughout Malaya, fre- 
quently abundant. The young shoots and young leaves may 




Figure 52. — Acalypha loilkesiana. 

be cooked and eaten. There are various other species of 
this genus, herbs, shrubs, or small trees, all with green 
leaves, whose young parts may also be similarly prepared 
and eaten with safety. Local names: Ddun-vidngsi, ddun- 
ndngsi, kalamhuci, kalahuci-ddmu. 



66 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



20 



X. Horseradish tree (Moringa oleifera) . — ^This is a small or 
medium-sized tree, 15 to 20 feet high, with fine thin leaves 
and white flowers. It is cultivated and spontaneous in many 
parts of the Old World Tropics, but is not found in the forests. 




«U.«N >*1 



Figure 53. — Horseradish tree {Moringa oleifera). 



The leaves, shoots and young pods make excellent greens 
when cooked, or they may be eaten raw. The roots have the 
characteristic biting taste of horseradish. The mature pods 
are too tough to be eaten, but the seeds may be roasted and 
used as food. Local names: Malungai, marungai, mourong. 



67 



20 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



remungai, mungai, harungai, parongi, Tcelo, kelor, keloro, 
kerol, kerel, keror, kelohe, kilor, tjelor, kawona, wona, 
moltong, wori, kdi-fok, hue-fo, p6, fok, kenele, wakerele, 
uto-keleno, uwa-kerelo. 




Figure 54. — Coral tree {Erythrina variegata). 

y. Coral tree (.Erythrina variegata) .—This tree grows from 
20 to 50 feet in height. It is common along the seashore, 
and is often planted in settled areas along roadsides. The 
rather large, crowded flowers are bright red. It does not 



68 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



20 



occur in the high forest. The young branches are usually 
somewhat spiny. The leaves and the tender shoots may be 
steamed or boiled and eaten as greens. Local names: 
Ddp-dap, dddap, dddap-laut, dhddhak, belendung, thethek. 




Figure 55. — Sesbania grandiflora. 

deris, galdla-kokotu, galdla-itam oeken, lola-kohori, pdpa- 
auko, ngolola-dalatoro, drdla, dlo-dlo, gatde, gdb-gab, gdp^ 
gap, gdo-gao, isddra, rdl, rdr. 



69 



20 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



z. Seshania grandiflora. — This slender tree bears long, 
slender, hanging pods up to 2 feet long or longer, and large 
white or wine-red flowers, these 2 to 3 inches long. These 
trees are sometimes planted and often naturalized; they are 




•lkM4 '4C 



Figure 56. — Thespesia populnea. 



not in the forests. The young leaves and the young pods 
may be cooked and eaten, while the large flowers and flower 
buds are very commonly cooked and used as food. An outline 
of the very large flower is shown in figure 55 (A) . Do not eat 



70 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 20 

the mature seeds. Local names: Turi, tuli, turing, toroj, tuwi, 
suri, paldwii, tanunu, katudai, ghunga, ulidngo, kola, katuri, 
katurai, gduai-gduai, kambang-turi oufai, ouai. 

aa. Thespesia populnea. — This is a small or medium sized 
tree bearing large yellow flowers. It is found chiefly near the 
seashore and usually immediately back of the beach. The 
smooth leaves may be eaten raw or cooked, as well as the 
flower buds and the flowers. The rather dry, nearly, round 
fruits are not edible. Local names : Milo, miro, banda, bandlo, 
bandgo, bdlu, bdru-laut, pengegen, pakeena, amde, vdte, 
ndmir, novoinil, mulo-miilo, wdru-laut, sdlimuli, hdlimuli. 

ab. Pemphis acidula. — This is a small tree attaining a 
height of 10 or 12 feet. It has small, 6-parted flowers and 
small leaves. It is found only along the seashore, where it is 
common and very widely distributed. The small leaves have 
a distinctly acid taste and may be eaten raw. Local names: 
Ngingia, sanggdle, aie, edgi, gie, ngie, ingia, konge, nigas, 
nigdshi, ngdngae, ndnghi, kasugel, bantigi, kabantigi, pantigi, 
ligat, mentigi, wdkat-besi, tjdntigi, sdntigi, sentigi^ menthigi, 
keneas, silu-tdsi, 

ac. Tournefortia argentea. — This is a shrub with stout 
branches. It has grayish white, very hairy leaves and many 
small, crowded flowers. It grows only on sandy seashores, 
and is common and widely distributed. The leaves, may be 
eaten raw. Local names: Tauhunu, tausini, tahinu, tausunu, 
tahunu, tohonu, tainu, hunik, hunig, geo-geo, sdsran, neyin- 
pori, ndnquitpdra, ndth, bukdbuk, moral-babulu, babaukan, 
kibdko, Iddu-boling, mokal-ahua, moral-ahua, nela, kdrpo. 

ad. Morinda citrifolia. — ^This is a shrub or small tree, vary- 
ing from 4 or 5 to 10 or 15 feet in height. It is common along 
the seashore. The flowers are white and the fruits are green- 
ish white. The young leaves and the young fruits may be 
eaten raw or cooked, and the mature fruits, deprived of their 
seeds, may also be eaten. Local names:" Bengkudu, meng- 
kudu, bangkudo, bangkuro, bakulu, bentis, kemudu, kudu, 
pdtje, tjangkudu, kodhuk, pamari, makudu, manakudu, 
mangkudu, mekudu, wangkudu, tibah. aikombo, eino, nen, 
nino, nenu, tumbong-dso, noni, nonu, Idda, ndcour, gogu, Tid- 
bul, malueg, kura, worpil, alin. 



71 



20 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



ae. Cantala (Agave cantala). — This form of the "century 
plant" is extensively grown in the drier parts of the Malayan 
region, sometimes in plantations, sometimes as scattered 
plants in fence rows, waste places, etc., where it is naturalized. 




tSOfi 



PiGiniE 57. — Pemphis acidula. 



The thick, fleshy leaves, 3 to 6 feet long, are very sharp- 
pointed, and their edges are very spiny. In Java, the tender 
heart or "cabbage" ((A), fig. 60) in the crown of the growing 



72 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



20 



plant is extensively eaten. It should be cut into small pieces 
and well cooked, preferably with one or two changes of water. 



ISk 




P^GURE 58. — Tovrnefortia argentea. 

Warning: Many of the American species are not edible; some 
contain saponin and others contain minute stinging crystals 
of oxalate of lime. Seek the advice of natives whenever pos- 



73 



20 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



sible. Local names: Ndnas-kosta, ndnas-sdbrang, ndnas- 
batdwi, ndnas-haldndah, gdnas-sdbrang, Idnas-haldndah, 




FIGURE 59. — Morinda citrifoUa. 

mdgei, pita, laldto-holdno, pena-seuk, nas-wdtan, nandhi- 
djawa. 



74 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



21 




Figure 60. — Cantala (Agave cantala). 

Section XI 

EDIBLE FRUITS 

Fruits in general Paragraph 

Specific fruits _ 22 

■ 21. Fruits in General.— a. There are scores of varieties 
of the common banana, and for all practical purposes the 
plantain cannot be distinguished from the edible banana 



516614° — 43- 



75 



21_22 QUARTERMASTER CORPS 

except that all the bananas may be eaten raw, while the 
plantain fruits must be cooked — either boiled, fried, or 
roasted; green and ripe bananas may also be cooked. The 
fruits vary much in shape and size as well as in color, vary- 
ing at maturity from green to various shades of yellow, or 
even brownish-purple. Many wild forms occur in the for- 
ested regions (usually, however, not in the high forest except 
along streams). The fruits of the wild species contain 
numerous seeds and small quantities of pulp, but even these 
may be gathered when young and cooked. Other parts of 
the banana plant may be used as food, especially the fairly 
large more or less cone-shaped terminal flower bud (see A, fig. 
61). These flower buds may be boiled or roasted in hot 
ashes, and certain varieties make an excellent vegetable; 
others contain fairly large quantities of tannic acid and 
are hence bitter, but the bitter principle may be eliminated 
in part by cooking in several changes of water. With the 
bitter kinds it is best to cut the bud into rather small pieces 
before cooking. 

b. The soft inner parts of the rather thick root and the 
tender heart of the base of the stems may be cut into small 
pieces, boiled, and eaten. Even the small shoots from the 
lower parts of the plant may be cooked and eaten when 
nothing better is available. 

c. In general these statements apply to all types of the 
banana, whether wild or cultivated. While the parts other 
than the fruits and the flower buds do not rate as first class 
food by any means, yet they are safe to eat when boiled 
or roasted. 

■ 22. Specific Fruits. — a. Banana. — ^This fruit is too well 
known to discuss here. The banana may be eaten raw or 
cooked, but the plantain requires cooking. Other parts of 
the cultivated bananas and plantains, and of the wild forms 
that occur in the forests and old clearings, may be boiled 
or roasted and eaten, especially the large flower bud ((A), 
fig. 61) . (B) is a wild and cultivated banana extending from 
the Moluccas and New Guinea to Polynesia, with erect fruit 
clusters. There are innumerable native names for the com- 
mon banana and plantain; some of those for Musa Troglody- 



76 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



22 



tarum are: Fei, maia, soa'a, huetu, laufu, ddak, tungkat- 
Idngit. 

b. Papaw or Papaya (Carica papaya). — ^This is a soft 
wooded, erect, normally unbranched tree. It usually grows 




Figure 61. — ^Banana (A, Musa gapientum; B, Musa troglodytarum) , 

from 6 to 15 feet high. The large yellow melonlike fruits are 
borne on the trunk, and are excellent food. The green im- 
mature fruits may be cooked and eaten. The young leaves 
and leaf -stems and flowers (the male flowers borne on sep- 
arate plants) may be cooked and eaten as greens. It is, how- 



77 



22 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



ever, important that such parts he cooked with several 
changes of water to remove the hitter taste and certain 
harmful suhstances. Local names: Papaya, papdja, popdja, 
tapdja, gedang, esi, uliti, kahaelo, pertek, pastela, hetik. 




ouMw m, 



FiGURK 62. — ^Papaw or Papaya {Carica papaya). 



emhetik, hotik, hdla, si-kdilo, kdtes, kahdja, kehdja, kapdla, 
kustela, nasilu, kalikih, pantjene, mddjan, hddas, hdridas, 
mdndjan, hdngo, pddu, kdsi, kaliki, sumojowi, titimu, mue- 



78 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



22 



mala, udi-melai, uta-mdlai, paldki, sempdin, siberidni, sdm- 
ber, titgono. 

c. Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) . — This is a large tree that 
may grow 40 feet high or more. It has very large lobed 




Figure 63. — Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) . 

leaves and rather large, nearly round green or brownish-green 
fruits. It is a basic food plant in many parts of Polynesia, 
where many cultivated varieties are found. The seedless 



79 



22 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



form ((A), fig. 63) is utilized either boiled, baked, or fried. 
The large seeds in the seeded form (B) (Malaysia) , boiled 
or roasted, are excellent food, as are the seeds of other species. 
Local names: Mai, ulu, uru, uto, lemai, dug -dug, rima, kuru, 
suku, sukuen, sukon, kardra, suune, sou, mdguh, ne-mdre, 
thdo, hatopul, kulu, gomo, gomu, gogomo, hemo, ulule, urule, 
ulur, hukun, Idkuf, kuloro, bitdla, kaluweh, kemdnsi, 
kaldwi, gei, tu, dmo, mue, ur-knam, kardra, kaldra, kundu, 

ndmu, kuu. 

d. Jak fruit (Artocarpus heterophylla) .—This is a large 
tree, normally cultivated only. The very large greenish or 
yellowish-green fruits are 1 to 3 feet long, and sometimes 
weigh up to 40 pounds. The fruits are borne directly on the 
tree trunk and larger branches. The pulp may be eaten raw. 
The numerous large seeds make excellent food when boiled 
or roasted. There are many different species of Artocarpus 
in Malaysia. All have abundant milky sap, and the seeds of 
all of them are edible when cooked. Local names: Ldngka, 
ndngka, ndngkeu, ndka, nandka, pdna, pdnas, pandsa, pindsa, 
andsah, nda, sosak, lamdsa, maldsa, mendso, bendso, bdtuk, 
bdduk, endduk, mdduk, hoka, tjidu, nand-kang, kulop, ulu- 
ndka, amnadlo, tafena, ndka, ndkai, ndkan, nakdne, ndknak, 
anda, andane. 

e. Champedak (Artocarpus champeden). — ^This large tree 
has a milky sap. Its leaves are more or less hairy. The 
large, cylindric fruits borne on the larger branches are 
smaller than in the jak fruit and have a very strong odor. 
The pulp is edible and the seeds are edible when boiled or 
roasted. Local names: Champedak, tjampedak, tueda, 
bikdwan, sibodak, subodak, tembedak, temedak, tiwddak, 
tjapedak, kdkon, pulutan, bateda, ndka-wdra, kawera, 
kaferak, tdbodoko, tewdlak, nakdne, anda-wdsi, indale, tafela, 
esiolo, andane, tamberak, tudda, tuddak. 

f. Artocarpus rotunda. — ^This large tree has a milky juice. 
The fruit is round, greenish or greenish brown, and is found 
on the smaller branches. These fruits are up to 5 inches in 
diameter and covered with short stiff conical spines. This 
tree occurs in Malaysia, but not in Polynesia. The fruit is 
one of the best of Malayan fruits, the well-flavored pulp being 



80 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



22 



eaten raw. The large seeds should be boiled or roasted before 
eating. Local names: Kosar, peusar, tampunai, tampunik, 
keledang, mandalika, purin, tdwan. 




eiLMII ''IS 

Figure 64. — Jak fruit {Artocarpics heterophylla) . 

g. Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) and Pulusan (Nephe- 
Hum mutaUle). — These fairly large trees are usually culti- 
vated, but the Pulusan is sometimes found in forests. The 
characteristic red fruits are one-seeded. The seed is sur- 



81 



22 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



rounded by a white unusually well-flavored pulp. Both the 
Rambutan and the Pulusan are among the very best fruits 
of Malaya. Local names: (A) Rambutan, rdmbot, rambuta, 
djailan, sokdpas, puru-bidwak, hahujam, kakdpas, likis, siban. 




Figure 65. — Champedak {Artoca7-pii^ champeden). 

biriti, sagdlong, beliti, maliti, kajokan, puson, usdre, buluwan, 
waldtu, wajdtu, baldtii, leldmu, toleang; (B) Pulusan, puldsan. 



82 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



22 



tukou-bidwak, kapuldsan, molaitomo, mulitan, bdli, buldla, 
lintias, laguan, potian. 

h. Lansone {Lansium domesticum) . — This a cultivated tree. 




••4 Ma 



FiGtmE 66. — Artocarpus rotunda. 

The pale, yellowish fruits are found on the trunk and on the 
larger branches below the leaves. It is one of the best 
of the tropical fruits. Local names: Lansone, Idngsat, Idha, 



83 



22 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



Idnsa, Idsa, Idse, Idsat, lasdte, aha, rdsak, rihat, Idwak, lehat, 
lainsa, laldtsat, lasdtol, lakdole, nasdte, Idngsep, tjeloring, 
duku, dukem, lukem, lukdma, ddnsot, rdnso, lonsong. 




Figure 67.— A, Rambutan {Nephelium lappaceum); B, Pulusan 

{Nephelium mutabile) . 

i. Guava (Psidium guajava) .—This is a small shrub or tree 
that grows 5 to 15 feet high, often abundant, but never found 
in real forests. It has white flowers and pale greenish or 



84 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



22 



yellowish-green, smooth, many-seeded fruits. This excellent 
fruit may be eaten raw or cooked. Local names: Bay abas, 
guaydbas, gudbang, kudva, abas, tudva, bidwas, gawdja. 




Figure 68. — Lansone {Lansium domesticum) . 

djdmbu-bidji, galiman, bidwas, gogdwas, kedjdwas, pidwas, 
libu, bajdwas, petokal, tokal, sotong, gudwa, wajdmas, 
kojabdsa, bojowat, ddmbu, biabuto, kudjdbas, kojdbas, 
kajawdse, kojafdte, gawdja. 



85 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 

j. Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) . — This is a small or 
medium sized tree usually about 20 feet high. It is often 
common in more or less settled areas, but not in the forests. 




Figure 69.— Guava {Psidium guajava). 

The yellowish to purplish very juicy large part of the fruit 
is very refreshing. The single seed in the smaller part of 
the fruit is the cashew nut of commerce and should be eaten 



86 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



22 



boiled or roasted. Warning: The sap in the shell of the 
small part of the fruit surrounding the seed is very caustic. 
In boiling or roasting the seed-hearing part, avoid the steam 
or smoke. Local names: Balubag, kdsoi, djambu-monje. 




Figure 70. — Cashew {Anacardium occidentale) : 

djdmbu-dipa, djdmhu-gddjus, djdmhu-erang^ djambu-siki, 
djdvibu-mete, djdmbu-dwipa, gddiu, wojdkis, kanoke, mdsa^ 
pdna, huwa-jakia, buwah-monjet. 



87 



22 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



k. Sweet sop (Annona squamosa). — ^This is a small tree, 
usually 15 feet high, and is found both wild and in cultiva- 
tion. Jhe medium-sized pale green fruit is of excellent 




••*»*(i •*& 



Figure 71. — Sweet sop {Annona sqitamosa) 



flavor and is always eaten raw. This tree is found chiefly 
in and near settlements, not in the forests. Local names: 
Atis, atisi, apeli, dta, sarikdja, srikdja, sirikdja, srikdwis, 
sarkddja, garoso, perse, hirikdja. 



88 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



22 



I. Sour sop (Annona muricata) . — ^This tree is about 15 feet 
high, rather similar to the sweet sop, is generally cultivated, 
but is sometimes wild. It is found chiefly in and near settle- 




PlU.M« '♦«. 



Figure 72. — Sour sop {Annona muricata) . 



ments, not in the forests. The large, well-flavored greenish 
fruits are always eaten raw. Local names: Guayabano, 
lagudna, ndngka-beldnda, ndngka-waldnda, ndngka-ma- 



89 



22 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



nila, ndngka, moris, durian-heldnda, swirswak, sursak, 
djdmhu-londa, srikdja-djdwa, srikdja-weldndi, surikdja- 
tveldnda, ndka, ndkat, haniiso, dnad-waldnda, anda-waldta, 
inda-waldta, tafena-wardta. 




Figure 73. — Custard apple {Annona reticulata). 

m. Custard apple {Annona reticulata) . — This tree, about 
15 feet high, is similar to the sweet sop and the sour sop. It 
is found chiefly in cultivation in the settled areas, never in the 



90 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



22 



forests. The large well-flavored greenish juicy fruits are 
eaten raw. Local names: Anonas, manona, nona, nonas, 
buwah-nona, tdpu-tdpu, serba-rdhsa, djamhu-iiona, djus, 
manowa, malowa, mulwa, kanowa, kemulwa, kliiwa, sirikdja- 
susu, nona-daelok, dta-kdse, boinon. 




FiGtTRE 74. — ^Mango (Mangifera indica) . 

n. Mango {Mangifera indica ) . — This is usually a large tree, 
mostly planted; not found in the forests. It is one of the 
very best of tropical fruits. Most of the varieties in Malaya 



516614—43- 



91 



22 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



and Polynesia have yellow fruits. Rarely an individual may 
be allergic to mangos, and in such 'cases a skin rash may 
develop; very rarely the individuals may be affected by 
the leaves. Other species of the genus in Malaya, all with 
edible fruits, have a very irritating sap (binjai, bachang. 




Figure 75. — Sapodilla {Achras zapota) . 

lanjut, kwini) affecting the skin quite as does poison ivy. 
The indicated treatment is the same as for poison ivy 
poisoning. Local names: Manga, mdngga, mdga, pdho, pdo, 
po, mempelam, lempelam, morpolom, bdlem, pegun, peigu, 
pager, ampelavi, pelam, guwae, dwa, lelit, wowa, pdwen. 



92 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



22 



ruwe, mapldne, mdhlang, apdlum, ajder, baldmo, soh, olai, 
taipa. 

0. Sapodilla (Achras zapota) . — This is a medium sized 
tree, usually 15 to 25 feet high, v/ith a milky sap. It grows 




PiGxniE 76. — Jambolan {Syzygium cumini). 

both cultivated and spontaneously, but not in the forests. 
The grayish to brownish fruits vary in shape from round 
to oval and are excellent to eat. The pulp which is pinkish- 



93 



22 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



white to reddish -brown is sweet and somewhat granular. 
The pulp surrounds several fairly large smooth black seeds. 
They should not be cooked. Local names: chico, sdwo- 
londa, sabu-manela, sdba-djawa, tjiku, sdwo-manila. 




Figure 77. — Syzygium aqueum. 

p. Jambolan iSyzygium cumini) . — This is a medium sized 
tree which grows 20 to 30 feet high. It is found both wild 
and cultivated. The tree has somewhat leathery leaves, 



94 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 22 

small white flowers, and one-seeded, light to dark purple, 
smooth fruits. The single seed is surrounded by a whitish or 
yellowish, sourish, rather pleasant tasting edible pulp. 
Local names: Duhat, djambulang, duwe, djambelang, diam- 
bula, djdmlang, djuwet, djiwat, dhdlus, kldgu. 

q. Syzygium aqueum. — This small tree, 15 to 20 feet high, 
is chiefly cultivated, but sometimes grows wild. The leaves 
are short-stalked and grow in opposite pairs. The flowers 
ate white to pink in color. The edible fruits are smooth, 
pink in color, and somewhat juicy. There are many different 
species of Syzygium in the forested regions and their fruits 
may be eaten with entire safety, although some have almost 
no pulp. The flowers of all species are white, pink, or red, 
and always have many stamens. The fruits vary greatly in 
size, some of them being dry with no pulp, others with fairly 
ample pulp, which is usually acid. Local names (5. aqueum) : 
Tdmbis, tdbis, arbottle, macupa, inddhau, jdmbu-dyer., 
jdmbu-jembir, samba, gora, Jcilbal, Jcumpas, jdmbu-mangkoa, 
kumpdsa, kokuka, kombas, kembes, kebes, keket, omuto, 
tdkaw, gdmbu, wua-usa, tepete, lutune-waele, popote, ouna, 
jdrem, ausdhmoh, purori, jddi. 

r. Malay apple {Syzygium malaccense) . — This is a medium 
sized tree, 15 to 30 feet high, with somewhat leathery leaves. 
The red flowers are found on the branches below the leaves. 
This tree is chiefly cultivated. The pink to reddish, thin 
r.kinned, smooth fruit, somevv'hat resembling an apple, varies 
from 2 to 4 inches in length. The thick, rather well-flavored 
pulp surrounding the large seed is edible. Local names: 
Djdmbu-berteh, djdmbu-bol, djdmbu-susu, djdmbol, mang- 
koa, gora-merah, gora-ldmo, gora-tome, darsdna, dersdna, 
kochua, upo, kupo, koa, mdkii, mutiha, lutune, nutune, 
rutuno, dlu, kumkolo, gogoa, gorogo, sua. 

s. Rose apple {Syzygium jambos). — ^This is a small tree, 
10 to 15 feet high, and has white flowers. The fruits are 
somewhat rose-scented, greenish white, egg-shaped or some- 
what pear-shaped and are about 1 inch long. This tree is 
often planted and occurs also in thickets, waste places, and 
secondary forests. The tree has a wide distribution. The 
fruits are eaten raw. Local names: Jdmbu-mdwar, jdmbu- 



95 



22 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



dersdna, jdmbu-keldmpok, jdmhu-hulu, jdmbu-krdton, kom- 
bot, kembes-woldnda, kekete, tamvoi, ydmpoi, kahika, 
kahika-papda. 




PlLXOH ^M 

FiGUBE 78. — Malay apple (Sysygium malaccense) . 

t. Santol (Sandoricum koetjape) . — ^This is a medium sized 
tree, about 30 feet high, and bears round, yellowish fruits 
about 2 to 5 inches in diameter. It grows both wild and culti- 
vated and is often rather common. The fruits are covered 



96 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



22 



with very short hairs and contain from two to five fairly 
large seeds, surrounded by a dirty white, soft, juicy, sour- 
sweet, edible pulp. The seeds are not eaten, only the sur- 




FiGURE 79. — Rose apple {Syzygium jarnbos), 

rounding pulp. Local names: Sdntol, sdntu, sentol, sotol, 
setol, kechdpi, ketchdpi, satulu, wasuu, pono, kasdpi, hasipi, 
Jceetol, setung, sentul. 



97 



22 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



u. Polynesian plum (Spondias dulcis) . — ^This tree, 25 to 30 
feet high, is widely distributed in Polynesia. It is often 
planted. The fruits are plumlike and are yellowish or yel- 




9iujtt 



Figure 80. — Santol {Sandoricum koetjape) . 



lowish-green. The thin pulp surrounding the large seed- 
bearing part is excellent to eat. While this species occurs 
also in some parts of Malaysia as a cultivated tree, its place 
in the forests is taken by a very similar species, Spondias 



98 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



22 



pinnata, the fruits of which are also edible. Local names of 
Spondias dulcis: Vi, wi, ivi, nevie, vi-vao. Of Spondias pin- 
nata: Kadongdong, liwas, ontijo, otjo, ulite, urital, vdte, teti- 
mur, ndssou, ngolo, alubihon, libas, ddnas. 




PiGiiRE 81. — Polynesian plum (Spondias dulcis). 

V. Bilimbi and carambola. — ^These are small trees, 12 to 15 
feet high, with green or pale green, very acid fruits which 
may be eaten raw or cooked. In one, the smooth fruits, 
similar to small green cucumbers, are borne on the trunks 



99 



22 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



and larger branches; in the other, the fruits borne on the 
small branchlets are sharply five-angled and star-shaped in 
cross section. Cultivated and wild in the settled areas, not 




Figure 82, — ^Bilimbi and Carambola (A, Averrhoa carambola; 

B, Averrhoa bilimbi) . 

in the forests. Local names: Balimbing, belimhing-mdnis, 
helimbines, balibi, kdmias, iba, urr-ruall, hull-ruall, arrafd- 
thna-owotrai, kalamias, kdmias, gardhan-malibi, malimbin. 



100 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



22 



tjallngting, limbi, libi, lumpias, lompiat, rumpiasa, pulirang, 
bdknil, tuelela, taprera, uteke, takuele, tofuo. 
w. Tamarind (Tainarindus indica) . — ^This is a large tree, 




PiGXJRE 83. — Tamarind {Tamarindus indica) . 

often planted, sometimes wild, but not found in the forests. 
The fruit is brown. The acid pulp surrounding the seeds may 
be eaten; it is a mild laxative. The young leaves and flowers 
may be cooked and eaten as greens. Local names: Asam, 



101 



22 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



dsam-djdwa, dsam-djow, dtjein, kdju-dsavi, sampdlok, 
dtjam-tdgi, tamaldgi, tjumaldgi, tdngkal-dsem, tjelagi, bdge, 
kamdrii, kdza, heldgi, mdke, mdge, nadge, tobi, samhdlagi, 




Figure 84. — Cynometra cauli flora. 

tjdrnba, tjempa, kenobo, kiv.e, sukder, au-mdli, sdblaki, 
tobeldke. 

X. Cynometra cauliflora. — This is a small tree, growing from 
8 to 12 feet high. The flowers and fruits are borne on tuber- 



102 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 22 

cles on the trunk and larger branches. The fruits are usually 
ripe from August to November. When ripe, the one -seeded 
fruits are yellowish green or dirty yellow. The parts sur- 




to'LLON <4£ 



Figure 85. — Pandan or screw pine {Pandanus tectorius) . 

rounding the seed are yellowish white, fragrant, juicy, edible 
and sweet-sour or sour In taste. The tree does not occur 
in the forests and is chiefly found only in cultivation. Local 
names: nam-nam, ndjuu-ndmu, nandmul, ndmet, aiidjing- 



103 



22 QUARTERMASTER CORPS 

andjing, lamuta, lamite, namute, kendis, aloma, kdpi-dnd' 
jing, kuwdndjo, putji-dnggi, aripa, kanamdle, klamute. 

y. Pandan or screw pine (Pandanus teetorius) . — ^This is 
one of the most common plants in all of Polynesia and Ma- 
laysia, chiefly occurring near the sea and often forming 
dense thickets back of the beach. The trees are small, usually 
about 12 feet high. It may be identified by the prop roots 
on the trunk, or the long spiny leaves arranged spirally at 
the ends of the branches. The terminal tender leaf -bud or 
"cabbage" may be eaten raw or cooked. The scanty red 
fruit pulp is also edible, as are the small seeds. These state- 
ments apply to all of the numerous species of this genus in 
the forests of Malaysia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. Local 
names: Fahola, dra, fafiina, kdfu, hdla, pulidla, dggak, laufala, 
ieioga, pdndan, pdngdan, ponddngo, pondak, pudako, paogo, 
ongor, haldwa, vddra, idle, honok, keke-moni, hdo-moni, 
kdwae, ormon-fom, bdnga, bdku, hokungo, henak. 

z. Gnetum gnemon. — This is a small tree, 15 to 20 feet 
high, with glossy leaves and one-seeded red fruits. This is 
a forest tree, but it is sometimes planted. The seeds may 
be eaten raw, roasted, or boiled, and the young leaves make 
excellent greens. There are several other species; all, how- 
ever, are woody vines and are found in the Malayan forests. 
Their seeds may also be eaten. Local names: Bdgo, hdgu, 
bandgo, hdghu, nabo, ganemu, suwah, hlindgo, wdgu, suwa, 
huka, wa-sowa, uwdli, ruki, wdli. 

aa. Bignai (Antidesma hunius) . — This is a small tree com- 
monly found in open places and secondary forests. The 
numerous small, usually purplish-black, one-seeded fruits 
are edible. There are many other species of this genus in 
Malaya and a few in Polynesia, their fruits, all edible, are 
smaller than in bignai. Local names: Bignai, buni, wuni, 
katakuti, kutikdta, burneh, bune-tedong, huni. 

ab. Ximenia americana. — This is a small, spiny tree, alwajrs 
growing near the seashore. The rather scanty sour pulp 
surrounding the large hard seed-bearing part may be eaten 
raw, but the seeds should not be eaten. The young leaves 
also may be cooked and eaten. Local names: Moli-tdi, pi-od, 
somi-somi, tumi-tunii, paniungan, biddra, biddra-laut, biddro, 
wdma-wdma. 

104 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



22 



ac. Wild tomato (.Lycopersicum esculentum) . — ^This wild 
form of the common cultivated tomato is an erect, branched 




Figure 86. — Gnetum gnemon. 

herb, 2 to 3 feet high, with leaves smaller than the cultivated 
form and small red fruit not larger than an English cherry. 
It is frequently common in deserted clearings, abandoned 



105 



22 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



agricultural lands, and at higher altitudes even in open grass- 
lands. It does not occur in the forests. The small red fruits 
are eaten raw. Local names: Kamdtis, kamdtis-bundoK 




ffii^a H4 



PiGiTRE 87. — ^Bignai {Antidesma bunius). 

kamantil, tavidte, tomdte, temdntis, tomat, rdnte, rdnte- 
beddhi, kendiri, kemir, ambelai, samdte, antes, togdlai, 
lambdte, matdbai, kuet, kabotil, warasmdla, samante. 



106 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



22 



ad. Ground cherry (Physalis (3 species) ) .—These may be 
identified as erect or ascending branched herbs with small 
white or yellow flowers. The round fruits are borne inside 



Olit 




FiGXJHE 88. — Ximenia americana. 



of an inflated husk. When mature, the fleshy round fruits 
are usually red. They somewhat resemble very small toma- 
toes and may be eaten raw. They are found in open waste 



516614" — 43 — — 8 



107 



22 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



places, sometimes near the seashore, but not in the forests. 
Local names: Tomdtes-kaputi, tomdte-chdka, tamdnu-fairi, 
poha, konini, daim-boba, daun-kdpokopo, leletop, tjetjendit, 




»II.I.«N *4J 

Figure 89. — ^Wild tomato {Lycopersicum esculentum) . 

tjeplukan, jorjoran, ketjeplokan, dededes, kenampok, kopok- 
kopokan, leletoken, pddang-rdse, Idpunonat, ddgameme, 
putokan, sisiu, Idpak-ldpak. 



108 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



22 




Figure 90. — Ground cherry {Phy salts >(3 species) ) , 



109 



23 



quartermaster corps 

Section XIE 
EDIBLE SEEDS 



Plants whose seeds may be eaten. 



Paragraph 
23 




Figure 91. — ^Pangi {Pangium edule). 

fi 23. Plants Whose Seeds May Be Eaten. — a. Pangi (Pan- 
giuvi edule). — This is a tree that grows 70 or 80 feet high. 

110 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 23 

It is found in humid forests and also often planted. The 
large fruits ((A), fig. 91) are up to 10 inches long, brown 
and densely rusty-hairy outside. The scanty pulp sur- 
rounding the numerous large hard seeds may be eaten when 
fully ripe. Warning: The seeds (B) are very poisonous 
{hydrocyanic acid!). They are used as food hy the natives 
but only after careful preparation. The seeds should he 
crushed and boiled for at least an hour, then put into run- 
ning water for at least a day, after which they are boiled 
again and eaten; seek the assistance of competent natives 
if possible. The leaves also are poisonous if eaten. Local 
names: Pdngi, putjong, peetjong, pdkem, kepdjang, kuke- 
tong, kalowa, ngdfu. 

b. Polynesian chestnut (Inocarpus fagiferus). — ^This is a 
small or medium-sized tree, 8 to 10 or 20 feet high, much 
more common in Polynesia than in Malaysia. It g^ows 
especially near the seashore. The leaves are simple. The 
pods contain a single large seed which is an excellent food, 
when boiled or roasted, even better than the chestnut. 
Local names: I ft, ifimea, ihi, ivi, ole-ifi, it, hi, hihi, gdgan, 
gdjani, den, ono, adne, aidne, bosila, boeu, buoy, bui, benjek, 
gdtet, gdtep, gde, geinu, ankdeng, akddjeng, gdma, nias, 
eidne, eidno, keam, kaene, laidno, ainhual, mele, mdpe, rata, 
rdtti, emmer, gajdmu, hdjam, gugura, gurdvrd, fudmoa, 
mardre, madrah, radrrah, mdrau, maupe, anillo, kureak. 

c. Sterculia foetida. — This is a large tree with large red 
fruits. The numerous, nearly black seeds are rich in oil, the 
flavor somewhat suggesting the beechnut. The seeds may be 
eaten raw or roasted. Many other species of this genus 
occur in the forests but in most of them the leaves are simple. 
The seeds of all species are edible. Local names: Kalum- 
pang, kajumpang, kolompang, halumpang, kepoli, kepah, 
kapdka, kepuh, kalupa, kolednga, poh, ghalompang, kekepd- 
hang, wuka, wukak, bungoro, alumpang, nita, nitas, fongol, 
kailupafuru. 



Ill 



23 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



d. Indian almond (Terminalia catappa). — This is a large 
tree, generally found along the seashore but sometimes 
planted inland. Not uncommonly planted as a shade tree. 




FiGURK 92. — ^Polynesian chestnut {Inocarpits fagiferus). 

Some of the leaves are usually red. The fruits contain a 
single fair-sized seed which is of excellent flavor and may 



112 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



23 



be eaten in any quantity. Many other species of Terminalia 
occur in the forests, and the seeds of all are edible. Local 
names: Katdpang, kaorika, kauarika, dua, autarda, adsu. 




Figure 93. — Sterculia foetida. 

asdsu, auwiri, ddyle, ker, gudill, sarf, tdlie, tdlie-ula, talisay, 
talese, tarisei, tdsi, taliho, tavola, kd, keime, ketdpang. 



113 



23 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



hatdpang, atdpang, lahdpang, faodgia, ketdpas, salrise, 
kamdni, lisa, wew, wewa, sarisa, saliha, kalis, kris, kauarika, 
ruge, ngusu, kell, sadina. 




OiUvM MS 



PiGimE 94. — ^Indian almond {Terminalia catappa) . 

e. Candle nut (Aleurites moluccana) . — ^This is a common 
tree which may be identified by the foliage which is often 
pale green in contrast to that of other trees, or by the small 



114 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



23 



greenish white flowers. The fruits contain a single, hard- 
shelled seed rich in oil, and which may be eaten after roast- 
ing. Local names: Kamiri, kemiri, kembiri, lumbang, kukui. 




Figure 95. — Candle nut {Aleurites moluccana) . 

lama, keminting, muntjang, derekan, pidekan mere mirie, 
akrriiri, imile, umiri, lekong, kaleli, kawilu, kamie, kamili, 
baiue, Idna, blue, lepdti, lepode, sapiri, ampiri, peleng, feno. 



115 



23 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



milu, igue, hdge, hdget, saketa, hakdta, pojuem, huta, inhatch, 
lama, tia-iri, tutui, tuitui, ndpa, vdte, sikeci. 

f. Cycas circinalis. — This is a palm-like plant with a rather 
rough stem and very stiff leaves, sometimes found in the for- 




FiGXjRE 96. — Cycas circinalis. 

est, more often near the seashore. The very young leaves 
((B), fig. 96) which are seasonal, may be eaten cooked as 
asparagus. The trunk yields a kind of sago but its extrac- 



116 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



23 



tion is difficult. Warning: The large seeds are used as 
food in times of scarcity but they are very poisonous unless 
properly prepared. The flesh is crushed or grated and 




Figure 97. — Kanari and pili (A, Canarium commune; B, fruit of C 

ovatum) . 

soaked in water, with frequent changes of water, it being re- 
ported that this process should cover several days. The 
soaked material may be made into cakes and baked. When- 



117 



23 QUARTERMASTER CORPS 

ever possible, consult informed natives if the seed is to be 
used as food. Local names: Bdyit, bitogo, pitogo, pdkisddji, ' 
uta-niel, fddang, roro, no-mall, brotel, frdtel, rumiyan, 
roro, fallutier, kokeal. 

g. Kanari and pili (Canarium commune) . — There are many 
kinds of Canarium in Malaya, the genus extending eastward 
to Fiji and Samoa. They occur in the forests and are mostly 
of large size. The sticky resinous sap of the bark is dis- 
tinctly fragrant or aromatic. The very hard inner parts 
of the fruit are usually more or less triangular in cross sec- 
tion, often pointed at the ends. The single, often fairly 
large, oily seed is well-flavored, and may be eaten raw or 
roasted. Some of the local names are : Kanari, kdnai, kandli, 
kieri, nanari, ndnai, pili, pildui, if ale, ihdle, ijdle, ijdne, inyat, 
mafoa, nungi, ma-dli, aa-matie, mashoes, lehi, ihai, upoi, 
kodja, hihi, dedi, uwar, dokde, hijdo, jdlo, seben, ngie, niha, 
njdnja, njidra, njiha, hdpo, hdfo, sddjeng, ai-wikan. 

h. Lotus (Nelumbium n el umbo) and water lily 
(Nymphaea) . — These plants both occur only in shallow fresh- 
water lakes and in slow streams. The lotus flowers are pink 
and the water lily flowers vary from white to pink or pale 
blue. The large seeds of the lotus ((A) , fig. 98) are excellent 
v/hen boiled or roasted, while the large roots, found in the 
mud, may be cooked and eaten. Local names: Bdino, terdte, 
tardte, sdna, serodja. The numerous small seeds of the water 
lilies (B) may be cooked and eaten, as well as the more or 
less thickened roots. Local names: Ldbas, lauas, pulau, 
tundjung. 

i. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) . — ^This is a small shrub or 
shrublike plant, 5 or 6 feet high, which is sometimes culti- 
vated, but more often wild and frequently rather abundant. 
It occurs in open places, never in the forests. The flowers are 
yellow. The beans are edible but must be thoroughly cooked. 
Local names: Radios, lebu, kdtjang-kdju, kdtjang-iris, 
kekdtje, undis, lebui, legili, tori, sarupdpa, bintotung, kdntje, 
tuUs, tunis, turis, fuwe-jdi, fuo-hote. 

j. Asparagus bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) .—This is 
a twining vine from somewhat tuberous roots, the flowers are 
fairly large, and light violet-blue in color. The pods are 6 to 



118 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



23 



10 inches long, with four rather thin longitudinal wings. 
This is chiefly planted, but is sometimes found in fence rows. 
The tender pods, cooked as one would string beans, are an 




•utM^ '41 



Figure 98. — (A, Lotus {Nelumhium nelumbo) ; B, Water lily 

{Nymphaea) . 

excellent vegetable. The mature seeds may be roasted and 
eaten. Local names: Ketjepir, tjipir, djdat, birdro, sdnsre, 
kelongkang, kalamismis, kamaluson, siguidillas. 



119 



23 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



k. Hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab) . — This vine bears 
violet or white flowers. The young pods are often somewhat 
pink or reddish. The seeds are white, yellowish with black 




PiGXTRE 99. — Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) . 

dots, or black with white dots. It is often cultivated, and 
frequently found wild in thickets. The young pods, an 
excellent vegetable, may be cooked and eaten as one would 



120 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



23 



string beans, and even the flowers and young leaves may be 
cooked and eaten, as well as the ripe seeds. Local names: 




Figure 100. — ^Asparagus bean {Psophocarpus tetragonolohus) . 

Kara, kdra-kdra, kdtjang-bddo, kdtjang-peda, kekdra, raoj- 
hedog, roaj-peda, koomas, komak, rakdra, hdtau, bulai, 
sibdchi, arbila, ndoto, loto, papdpa, chuchumeco, roto. 



121 



23 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



I. Lima bean iPhaseolus lunatus) . — ^This vine has small 
flowers, greenish, sometimes white or violet within. It is 
cultivated and naturalized, the wild form occurring in 




hum *tf 



FiGTTRE 101. — Hyacinth bean {DoUchos lablab) . 

thickets. The very young tender pods may be cooked and 
eaten as one would prepare string beans. Warning: The 
mature seeds are often very poisonous ihydrocyanic acid!), 



122 



r 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



23 



a7id one must he very careful when dealing with the wild 
forms, especially those with black seeds. The seeds vary in 
size and in color, ranging from white to brown or mottled or 




Figure 102. — ^Lima bean {Phaseoltis lunatiis) . 

^ven jet black. The mature seeds of these wild forms may- 
be eaten only after greatly prolonged cooking with many 
changes of water. Local names: Patdni, Tcekdra, kdra, 



I 



516614°-^3- 



123 



23 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



krdtok, kardtok, bedar, keddar, kropook, roaj, roaj-cdpri, 
roaj-hedjo, roak-gdling, buringi, butingi. 

m. Peanut iArachis hypogaea) .—The common peanut is 




PiGtTRE 103. — Peanut (Arachis hypogaea). 

often planted, especially in sandy soils. The fruits, borne 
under the surface of the ground, are very nutritious and the 
seeds may be eaten raw or cooked. Local names: Mani, 



124 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 23-24 

kdtjang-broel, kdtjang-tdno, kdtjang-tdmo, kdtjang-tjina, 
kdtjang-djdna, kdtjang-manila, kdtjang-goreng, kakahuati, 
hdnsang, alitak, aritak, kdsang, kdsa-gore, retak-tdnah, 
retak-guring, itak-bumi, botji, bautji, boutji, njiha-tjina, 
wardge, wardpe, wehrdpe, hatilal-unsil, hoi, huwea, hatila- 
laitdin, uwdrsin, fongdri-tjina, laurur-makaharire, boee, 
foee-kdse, fore-rdi, tjangore, sanggoren, tjanggoreng. 

Section XIII 

POISONOUS PLANTS 

Paragraph 
Plants to avoid 24 

■ 24. Plants To Avoid. — a. Physic nut (Jatropha curcas) . — 
This is a very common shrub found in hedges and fence 
rows. Warning: The rather large seeds are poisonous and 
violently purgative, not to be eaten under any circumstances. 
Local names: Djdrak-kosta, lau-pdta, tuba-tuba, binddlo, 
bintdlo, uto-papaldgi, baldtjai, ddmar-ende, djirak, kaleke, 
beaw, blue, peleng-kaliki, pdkie-kdse, mouen-mdv, malote, 
mdkamdle, ai-kamdne, jdihua-kamdlo, baldtjai, boldtjai, 
kadoto. 

b. Castor oil plant (Ricinus communis). — ^This is a com- 
mon, coarse, erect shrub or shrublike plant with large lobed 
leaves. It is found in thickets and open places. Warning: 
The seeds are poisonous and a violent purgative, not to be 
eaten under any circumstances. Local names: Agaliya, djd- 
rak, tdngan-tdngan, lulang, dulang, lajdndru, rdngam, kaliki, 
tatdnga, lolo, ketovmng, kolonjan, aldle, kildle, tilalongi, lulu, 
luluk, baldtjai, tuitui-pakardngi. 

c. Tree nettle (Laportea). — These shrubs, or small trees, 
grow in secondary forests and thickets, some species in the 
high forest. There are many species. The leaf-edges, nerves, 
leaf -stalks, flower- and fruit-bearing parts are supplied with 
stiff, very sharp, stinging hairs, often not conspicuous. These 
stinging hairs ((A), fig. 106) seated on thin bulbs, are filled 
with intensely irritating sap. On light contact with the skin 
one immediately has the sensation of having touched a very 



125 



24 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



hot iron, due, apparently, to the formic acid in the hair-sap. 
While intensely painful, the sting is normally not dangerous. 
Local names: Sdgai, sdgi, langdton, Ungdtoii, anuling, lipu. 




.**VM.<4t 



Figure 104. — ^Physic nut {Jatropha curcas) 



lipai, lupa, daun-gdtee, sdla, sosoro-bdtja, kemdduh, kemd- 
duh-keho, soro-hilaldgo, sosoro-bohudo, Idtejig, keldting, 
pulus, saldto, lelese, elat, karktdo, kdhtat, kdhtl, lilies. 



126 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



24 



d. Tree nettle (Laportea) .—This plant is one of the forms 
with larger, broader leaves from the southwestern Pacific 
area. The stinging properties and local names are the same 




I * 



Figure 105. — Castor oil plant {Ricinus communis). 

as for the narrower-leafed form (c above) . The numerous 
small flowers are greenish or greenish white in all these tree 
nettles. Figure 107 (A) shows a stinging hair enlarged. The 
curious thing about these tree nettles is that if one grasps 



127 



24 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



the leaves very firmly the result is usually little or no stinging, 
the stinging hairs being crushed. A light touch, however, 
usually results in an immediate burning sensation. Some 
species are much more irritating than others. 




FiGtTRE 106. — Tree nettle (Laportea) . 

e. Cowhage {Mucuna pruriens; M. biplicata; M. cyano- 
sperma) . — These vines occur in thickets and secondary for- 
ests, usually not in the high forest. The flowers are greenish- 



128 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



24 



white to very dark purple or even red. A number of different 
species occur in Malaya, some without stinging hairs. Parts 
of the flowers and the pods are covered with many stiff, easily 




tfiuf* *^9 



FIGURE 107. — Tree nettle (Laportea) . 

detached, stinging hairs ((C), fig. 108 much enlarged). 
While distinctly irritating, they are not poisonous, being 
mechanical irritants. One should avoid getting these stinging 



129 



24 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



hairs into the eyes, as then they cause intense inflammation 
and may be really dangerous. Local names: Gonseng, 
kekdra-gdtel, kerdwe, kdrung, raraweje, kowas, ipe, likai, 
nlpai, lupoi, alilipai, danipai, duglo, bukitkit. 




Figure 108. — Cowhage (A, Mucuna pruriens; B, M. biplicata; C, 

M. cyanosperma) . 

f. Semecarpus. — These shrubs, or small trees, sometimes 
grow to a height of 30 feet and chiefly occur in thickets and in 



130 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



24 



the secondary forests, many different kinds being known. 
Some of the species are reputed to cause had skin eruptions on 
contact, or from the sap if the trees are cut down. The fleshy 




Figure 109. — Semecarpus. 

swollen basal parts of the fruits are usually dark purple and 
can be eaten with safety. The plant belongs in the same 
family with poison ivy and poison oak. Treatment, if one is 



131 



24-25 QUARTERMASTER CORPS 

poisoned, is the same as that indicated for poison ivy infec- 
tions. These plants are not very dangerous. Local names: 
Rdngas, ringasputeh, kdju-sdju, lewer, lenat, renat lauldsi, 
ingas, tilik, dgas, andgas, handgas, libas, ligas, Idngas.pdrau, 
pdnau, tohnget, tongot, tschongot. 

Section XTV 

PLANTS USED TO STUPEFY FISH 

Paragraph 

Plants in general 25 

Specific plants 26 

■ 25. Plants in General. — a. In many parts of the region 
covered by this manual portions of several different kinds 
of plants are used to stupefy fish, both those found in tide 
pools and in small streams. The methods vary, but the 
usual one is to pound or crush the plant parts used, mix 
with water, and throw a sufficiently large quantity of the 
material into pools which the fish inhabit. In streams the 
material is always placed at the upper end of a quiet pool, 
thus permitting the current to spread it. Usually large 
quantities of this mixture must be used. The fish are suf- 
focated, and usually come to the surface belly up; they can 
then be taken easily. The materials used for this purpose in 
no manner affect the flesh, and fish thus secured can be 
eaten with entire safety. Whenever possible seek the advice 
of friendly natives as to what plants and what plant parts 
may he used for this purpose and how they are used. 

b. The most commonly used and most commonly available 
plants are different types of Derris (par. 26&), all woody 
vines, widely known as tuba, and also as tugli, tubli, kaju 
tuba, toba, mombul, manengop, yup, duup, duva and nathon. 
The fish poison is most abundant in the roots, but in pre- 
paring the material both the roots and other parts of the 
plants are pounded and thrown into the water. Derris is 
the most efficient of the various plants used. The large 
one-seeded fruits of Barringtonia asiatica (par. 26d) are 
also used. This is a large tree with large, very smooth 
leaves, pink flowers, and one-seeded fruits that are square in 
cross-section. Its natural habitat is only along tho seashore 

132 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 25-26 

of Malaysia and parts of Polynesia, it is known as putat 
laut, bitung, butun, hutun, keben, modgin, puutin, kun, futu, 
hutu, puting, utu, vutu, vup. The large solitary seed is 
mashed and thrown into the pools where the fish occur. 
Another often used plant that is frequently fairly common, 
is the shrub or small tree Croton tiglium (par. 26a). The 
small seeds are crushed and used as in Barringtonia. The 
species is rather commonly found about settlements, near 
houses, and is naturalized in waste places; it does not occur 
in the forests. Some of the local names are tuba- tuba, 
chemekian, cherdken, simaldkian, panchdhar, adalddal, 
simuli, kowe, kamaisa, kamdgsa, tuba, makaisa. Tephrosia 
purpurea (par. 26c) is a small shrub or somewhat woody herb 
with small purple flowers and a small flat pod. It is proba- 
bly the most used fish poison in Polynesia and Micronesia, 
where it is widely distributed. The whole plant is pounded 
or crushed and thrown into the water. Local names: Avdsa, 
hora, hola, auhola, kohuhu. The word tuba which is widely 
used in Malaya and applied to a number of totally different 
plants usually indicates a plant that may be used for stupe- 
fying fish. Incidentally, a charge of dynamite or even a 
hand grenade thrown in a pool is a very effective way of 
stunning fish. 

1 26. Specific Plants. — a, Croton oil plant (Croton ti- 
glium) . — ^This shrub, or small tree, is cultivated and spon- / 
taneous. The seeds are used chiefly for poisoning fish. \ 
Warning: A very violent purgative. Not to be eaten under 
any circumstances. Local names: Kamaisa, kamdgsa, ke- 
mdde, makaisa, tuba, tjerdkin, simildkian, kemaldkijan, 
ddal-ddal, pentjdhar, rungkou, dungkow, lungkow, Idnta, 
kelmure, tupo, humulite, semuli, kowe. 

b. Derris elliptica. — This is a most efficient fish poison, 
its use for suffocating fish in slow streams, pools, and even 
tide pools is widely known. There are many different species 
of the genus, some more potent than others. The parts used 
are chiefly the crushed roots, but sometimes the crushed 



133 



26 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



branches and leaves are also used. These are all woody vines, 
with flowers resembling those of the bean, and narrowly 




OlLLBli '41. 



Figure 110. — Croton oil plant (Croton tigliuTu) . 

winged pods, occurring chiefly in thickets and secondary 
forests. See paragraph 25 for methods of use and local 
names. 



134 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



26 



c. Tephrosia purpurea. — ^This is a small, branched shrub 
or shrubby herb, growing in open places. The small flowers 




siijint 'a 



Figure 111. — Derns eUiptica. 



are purple. It is widely used as a fish poison, especially in 
Polynesia. The whole plant is crushed and thrown into the 
pools where fish occur. See paragraph 25 for local names. 



135 



26 



QUARTERMASTER CORPS 



d. Barringtonia asiatica. — These large trees grow on the 
seashore. They bear large smooth leaves, large pink flowers 
with many stamens, and large fruits which are square in cross 




filUM MJ 



Figure 112. — Tephrosia purpurea. 



section and which contain a single large seed. The crushed 
seeds are used for killing fish in pools. See paragraph 25 
for local names and methods of use. 



136 



EMERGENCY FOOD PLANTS AND POISONOUS PLANTS 



56 




Figure 113. — Barringtonia asiatica. 



137 



INDEX 

Paragraph Page 

Acalypha indica 20 64 

Acalypha toilkesiana 20 65 

Achras zapota 22 93 

Acrostichum aureum 12 9 

Agave cantala 20 72 

Aleurites molticcana 23 114 

Alocasia 13 11 

Alocasia macrorrhiza 14 13 

Alternanthera sessilis 20 49 

Amaranthus 20 45 

Amorphophallus campanulatus 14 16 

Anacardiaceae 4 2 

Anacardium occidentale 22 86 

Annona muricata 22 89 

Annona reticulata 22 90 

Annona squamosa 22 88 

Antidesma bunius 22 104 

Araceae 13 10 

Arachis hypogaea 23 124 

Arenga 15.16 17,22 

Arrowroot 19 39 

Arrowroot, Polynesian 19 39 

Artocarpus altilis . 22 79 

Artocarpus chatnpeden 22 80 

Artocarpus heterophylla 22 80 

Artocarpus rotunda, 22 80 

Asparagus bean 23 118 

Athyrium esculentum 12 9 

Atolls 9 4 

Averrhoa 'bilimhi '■ 22 100 

Averrhoa carambola 22 100 

Balsam vine 20 45 

Bamboo IT 26 

Bamboo shoots 18 30 

Banana 22 76 

Barley IT 26 

Barringtonia asiatica 26 136 

Basella rubra 20 50 

Beans: 

Asparagus 23 118 

Hyacinth 23 120 

Lima 23 122 

Beet 2 1 

Bignai 22 104 

Bilimbi 22 99 

Bitter cassava 19 31 

Boerhaavia dijjusa 20 55 

Borneo 2 2 

Breadfruit 6,22 3,79 

Buck yam 19 37 

Bulb yam 19 33 

516614°— 43 10 139 



INDEX 

Paragraph Page 

Buri palm 16 22 

Burma 2 1 

Cabbage 2 1 

Cajanus cajan ._ 23 118 

Calamus 16 22 

Calla lily 13 10 

Canarium commune 23 118 

Candle nut 23 114 

Cantala 20 72 

Caramhola 22 99 

Carica papaya 22 77 

Carrot 2 1 

Caryota 15,16 17.22 

Cashew 22 86 

Cassava : 

Bitter 19 31 

Sweet 19 31 

Castor oil plant 24 125 

Celosia argentea 20 45 

Century plant 20 72 

Ceratopteris thalictroides 12 8 

Ceylon spinach 20 50 

Champedak 22 80 

Chestnut : 

Poljmesian 23 . Ill 

Water 19 40 

Cock's comb 20 45 

Coconut palm 10,16 5,23 

Cocos nucifera 16 23 

Coix lachryrrta-jobi 18 27 

Colocasia esculenta 14 11 

Commelinaceae 20 45 

Coral tree 20 68 

Corn 17 26 

Corypha 16 22 

Cowhage 4,24 3,128 

Croton oil plant 26 133 

Croton tiglium " 26 133 

Cucumber 2 1 

Custard apple 22 90 

Cyuthea 12 7 

Cycas circinalis 23 116 

Cynometra cauUflora 22 102 

Cyrtosperma 13 11 

Cyrtosperma chamissonis 14 15 

Derris elliptica 26 133 

Dioscorea alata 19 33 

Dioscorea bulbifera 19 33 

Dioscorea esculenta 19 35 

Dioscorea hispida 19 38 

Dioscorea pentaphylla 19 37 

Dolichos lablah 23 120 

Edible ferns 11 5 

Edible fruits 21 75 

140 



INDEX 



Edible grasses 

Edible gxeens 

Edible herbs 

Edible palms 

Edible seeds 

Edible tubers 

Egg plant 

Eichhornia crassipes 

Eleocharis dulcis 

Elephant ear 

Emilia sonchifolia -- 

Erechtites 

Erythrina variegata _ 



Ferns : 

Fiddle head 

Food value 

Kinds 

Pako 

Paku 

Use as food by natives.. 
Ferns, edible: 

Acrostichum aureum 

Paco 

Stenochlaena paliLstris. 

Swamp 

Tree 

Fiji 

Fishtail palm 

Forrestia marginata 

Fruits, edible: 

Artocarpus rotunda 

Banana 

Bignai 

Bilimbi 

Breadfruit 

Carambola 

Cashew 

Chaihpedak 

Custard apple 

Cynometra cauliflora--. 

Gnetum gnemon 

Ground cherry 

Guava 

Jak fruit 

Jambolan 

Lansone 

Malay apple 

Mango 

Pandan 

Polynesian plum 

Pulusan 

Rambutan 

Rose apple 

Santol 

Sapodilla 

Screw pine 



Paragraph 


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99 


22 


79 


22 


99 


22 


86 


22 


80 


22 


80 


22 


102 


22 


104 


22 


107 


22 


84 


22 


81 


22 


94 


22 


83 


22 


95 


22 


91 


22 


105 


22 


98 


22 


81 


22 


81 


22 


95 


22 


96 


22 


93 


22 


103 



141 



INDEX 

Fruits. edible-Continued. Paragraph; Page 

Sour sop 22 89 

Spondias pimmta 22 99 

Sweet Bop 22 88 

Syzgium aqueum 22 95 

Tamarind 22 101 

Wild tomato 22 105 

Ximenia americana 22 104 

Fruits : 

Guide to eating 10 5 

Maturity of 10 5 

Gnetum gnemon 22 104 

Goa yam 19 35 

Grasses, edible 17 26 

Bamboo shoots 18 30 

Job's tears 18 27 

Setaria palmifolia 18 28 

Greater yam 19 33 

Greens : 

Acalypha indica 20 64 

Acalypha wilkesiana 20 65 

Alternanthera sessilis 20 49 

Amaranthus 20 45 

Balsam vine 20 45 

Boerhaavia diffusa 20 55 

Cantala 20 72 

Celosia argentea 20 45 

Ceylon spinach 20 50 

Commelinaceae 20 45 

Coral tree 20 68 

Cycas drcinalis 23 116 

Emilia sonchifoUa 20 61 

Erechtites 20 61 

Forrestia marginata 20 45 

Gnetum gnemon 22 104 

Horseradish tree 20 67 

Jpomea aquatica 20 57 

Luffa acutangula 20 43 

Luffa cylindrica 20 43 

Monochoria hastata 20 59 

Monochoria vaginalis 20 59 

Morinda citrifolia 20 71 

Ottelia alismoides 20 58 

Papaya 22 77 

Pemphis acidula 20 71 

Pilea glaberrima 20 52 

PlVyChea indica 20 63 

Purslane 20 53 

Seaside purslane 20 53 

Sesbania grandiflora 20 70 

Sesuvium portulacastrum 20 53 

Solanum nigrum 20 56 

Spilanthes acmella 20 62 

Tamarind 22 101 

Thespesia populnea 20 'Zl 

Tournefortia argentea 20 71 

Water hyacinth 20 60 

Ximenia americana 22 104 

142 



Paragraph Page 

Ground cherry 22 107 

Guava 22 84 

Herbs, edible 13 10 

AmorphophalliLS campanulatus 14 16 

Cyrtospertna chamissonis 14 15 

Elephant ear 14 13 

Schismatoglottis calyptrata 14 12 

Taro 14 11 

Horseradish tree 20 67 

Hyacinth, bean 23 120 

Hyacinth, water 20 40 

Identification of edible fruits: 

Brown fruit. 22 101 

Grayish to brownish fruit 22 93 

Green fruit 22 88 

Green or brownish-green fruit 22 79 

Green or yellowish-green fruit 22 80,84 

Greenish-white fruit 22 95 

Pink fruit 22 95 

Pink to reddish fruit 22 95 

Purple fruit 22 95 

Purplish-black fruit 22 104 

Red flowers 22 95, 105 

Red fruit 22 81,104 

White flowers 22 84,95 

White or yellow flowers 22 107 

Yellow fruit 22 77,92 

Yellowish fruit 22 83,96 

Yellowish or yellowish-green fruit 22 98 

Yellowish-green fruit 22 103 

Identification of edible grasses: 

White flowers 17 26 

White fruit 18 27 

Identification of edible greens : 
Plants: 

Blackberries 20 56 

Blue flowers 20 45,59 

Blue flowered water plant 20 60 

Greenish or greenish-white flowers 20 52 

Pink flowers 20 55 

Red, purple, or yellow flowers. 20 48 

Reddish to purplish stem 20 55 

Violet, or purple flowers , 20 45 

White flowered water plant 20 58 

White flowers 20 50, 56, 58 

White to pink flowers 20 48 

Shrubs : 

Colored leaves 20 65 

Grayish-white leaves 20 71 

Green or reddish twigs 20 65 

Greenish-white fruit 20 71 

Violet flowers 20 63 

White flowers 20 71 



143 



INDEX 



Identification of edible greens — Continued. Paragraph, Page 

Trees i 

Pods 20 67,70 

Red flowers 20 68 

White flowers 20 67,71 

White or wine-red flowers 20 70 

Yellow flowers 20 71 

Vines : 

Green, red, or purplish leaves 20 51 

Pink flowers 20 51,57 

Pods 20 67,70 

Red, purplish, yellowish-green stems 20 51 

Yellow flowers' 20 43,45 

Weeds i 

Pink flowers 20 62 

Pink or reddish flowers 20 61 

Yellow flowers 20 62 

Yellowish flowers 20 62 

Identification of plants With edible seeds: 

Greenish-white or violet flowered vine 23 122 

Pale green-leafed tree 23 114 

Pink lotus flowers 23 118 

Red fruit tree 23 HI 

Red-leafed tree 23 112 

Violet or white flowered vine 23 120 

Violet-blue flowered vine 23 118 

White, pink, blue, water lily flowers 23 118 

Yellow flowered shrub 23 118 

Identification of poisonous plants: 

Greenish-white flowers 24 127 

Greenish-white, purple, or red flowers 24 128 

Purple base 24 131 

Stinging hairs 24 125, 

127, 129 
Identification of tubers: 

Blue flowers 19 39 

Grooved stems 19 39 

Hard bulbs 19 34 

Pink flowers 19 30 

Three-parted leaf 19 38 

Vine with pods 19 39 

White flowers 19 39 

Indian almond 23 112 

Indian corn 2 1 

Indian turnip 13 10 

Indo-China 2 1 

Inocarpus Jagiferus 23 111 

Insects 5 3 

Jpomoea aquatica 20 57 

Jpomoea batatas 19 30 

Jack-in-the-pulpit 13 10 

Jak fruit 22 80 

Jambolan 22 94 

Jatropha curcas 24 125 

Java 4. 2 

Job's tear 18 27 



144 



■ INDEX 

Paragraph Page 

Kanari 23 118 

Lansium domesticum 22 83 

Lansone 22 83 

Lapbrtea 24 125,127 

Leech, land 5 3 

Lima bean 23 122 

Lime 2 1 

Lotus 23 118 

Luffa acutangula 20 43 

Lujjn cylindrica 20 43 

LycopersicuTTU esculentum 22 105 

Maize 2,17 126 

Mangifera indica 22 91 

Mango 4,22 3,91 

ManiJiot esculenta 19 31 

Manioc 19 31 

Malay apple 22 95 

Malay Archipelago 2 1 

Malaysia 22 80 

Maranta arundinacea 19 39 

Maturity of fruit 10 3 

Melaniesia 2 1 

MetroxT/lon 16 19 

Micronesia 2,6 1,4 

Millet ___ 17 26 

Moluccas 22 76 

Momordica charantia 20 45 

Monochoria hastata 20 59 

Monochoria vaginalis 20 59 

Morinda citrifolia 20 71 

Moringa oleifera 2([) 67 

Mosquito 5 3 

Mucuna bipUcata 24 128 

Mvxmna cyanosperma 24 128 

Mucuna pruriens 24 128 

Musa sapientum 22 77 

Musa troglodytarum 22 77 

Names, local 8 4 

Native use of plants 1,6,7 1,3,4 

Nelumtnum nelumbo 23 118 

Nephelium lappaceum 22 81 

Nephelium mutabile 22 81 

New Guinea 22 76 

Nipa fruticans 16 24 

Nipa palm 16 24 

Nymphaea 23 118 

Oats 17 26 

Oranges 2 1 

Ottelia alismoides 20 58 

Pachyrhizu^ erosus 19 59 

Paco__ 12 9 



145 



INDEX 

Paragraph, Page 

Palms, edible 15 17 

Buri 16 22 

Coconut 16 23 

Fishtail 16 22 

Nipa 16 24 

Rattan 16 22 

Sago 16 19 

Salacca edulis 16 22 

Sugar 16 22 

Pandan 22 104 

Pandanus tectorius 22 104 

Pangi 23 110 

Pangium edule 23 110 

Papaya 22 77 

Parts of plants eaten 1 1 

Papaw 1 77 

Pea, pigeon 23 118 

Peanut 23 124 

Pemphis acidula 20 71 

Pepper, sweet 2 1 

Pests, jungle 5 3 

Phaseolus lunatus 23 122 

Philippines 2 1 

Physalis 22 107 

Physic nut 24 125 

Pigeon pea 23 118 

Pili_____ 23 118 

Pineapple ■ 2 1 

Pilea glaberrima 20 52 

Plantain 21, 22 76 

Plants used to stupefy fish 25, 26 132, 133 

Barringtonia asiatica 26 136 

Croton oil plant 26 133 

Derris elUptica 26 133 

Tephrosia purpurea 26 135 

Pluchea indica 20 63 

Poisonous plants 4,5,24 2,3,125 

Castor oil plant 24 147 

Physic nut 24 125 

Seme carpus 24 130 

Poisonous plants, cooking of 7 4 

Poisonous plants, treatment for 4 2 

Polynesia ■ — 2,22 1,76 

Polynesian arrowroot 19 39 

Polynesian chestnut 23 111 

Polynesian plum 22 98 

Pomelo 2 1 

Portulaca oleracea 20 53 

Potato, substitute 14 11 

Psidium guajava 22 84 

Psophocarpus tetragonolohus 23 118 

Pulusan 22 81 

Purpose of manual 1 1 

Purslane 20 53 

Purslane, seaside 20 63 



146 



INDEX 

Paragraph, Page 

Rambutan 22 81 

Rattan palm 16 22 

Region covered 2 1 

Rengas 4 2 

Rice 2,17 1,26 

Ricinus communis 24 147 

Rose apple 22 95 

Sago palm 16 19 

Salacca edulis 16 92 

Sandoricum koetjape 22 96 

Santol 22 96 

Sap, milky 4 2 

Sapodilla 22 93 

Schimnatoglottis calyptrata 14 12 

Screw pine 22 104 

Seeds, edible: 

Artocarpus rotunda 22 80 

Asparagus bean 23 118 

Breadfruit 22 79 

Candle nut 23 114 

Cashew 22 86 

Champedak 22 80 

Cycas circinalis 23 116 

Gnetum gnemon 22 104 

Hyacinth bean 23 120 

Indian almond 23 112 

Jak fruit 22 80 

Kanari 23 118 

Lima bean 23 122 

Lotus 23 118 

Pandan 22 104 

Pangi 23 110 

Peanut 23 124 

Pigeon pea 23 118 

Pili 23 118 

Polynesian chestnut 23 111 

StercuUa foetida 23 111 

Water lily 23 118 

Semecarpus 24 130 

Sesbania grandiflora 20 70 

Sesuvium, portulacastrum 20 53 

Setaria palmifolia 18 28 

Shoots 1 1 

Snakes 3,5 2,3 

Solanum nigrum i 20 56 

Sorghum 2,17 1,26 

Sour sop 22 89 

Spiders 5 3 

Spilanthes acmella 20 62 

Spondias dulcis 22 98 

Spondias pinnata 22 .99 

Squash 2 1 

Starch : 

Obtaining 15 17 

Utilizing 15 17 

147 



INDEX 

Paragraph; Page 

Stenochlaena palustris 12 9 

Sterculia foetida 23 111 

Stinging plants 4,13 2,10 

Stupefying fish, method of 25 132 

Sugar palm 16 22 

Sugarcane -'_-_ 17 26 

Sumatra 2 1 

Swamp fern 12 8 

Sweet cassava 19 31 

Sweet potato 19 30 

Sweet sop 22 88 

Syzygium aqueum • 22 95 

Sysygium cumini 22 94 

Syzygium janibos 22 95 

Syzygium malaccense 22 95 

Tacca leontopetaloides 19 39 

Tamarind 22 101 

TaTnarindu^ indica 22 101 

Tapioca 19 31 

Taro 13,14 11 

Tephrosia purpurea 26 135 

Terminalia catappa 23 112 

Thailand 2 1 

Thespesiai populnea 20 71 

Tournefortia argentea 20 71 

Tree nettle 24 125.127 

Trees: 

Coral_j - 20 68 

Horseradish __♦_ 20 67 

Nettles 4.24 3,125 

Pemphis acidula 20 71 

Sesbania grandiflora 20 70 

Thespesia populnea 20 71 

Tubers 1,13,14 1,77 

Edible 19 30 

Arrowroot 19 39 

Buck yam 19 37 

Bulb yam 19 33 

Cassava 19 31 

Goa yam 19 35 

Polynesian arrowroot 19 39 

Sweet potato 19 30 

Water chestnut 19 40 

Wild yam 19 38 

Yam bean 19 39 

Vines : 

Balsam 20 45 

Ceylon spinach 20 50 

Gnetum gnemon 22 104 

Water chestnut 19 40 

Water from coconut palm 16 23 

Water from palms 15 17 

Water from rattan palm 16 22 

Water hyacinth 20 40 

148 



INDEX 

Paragraph; Page 

Water lily 23 lis 

Wheat 17 26 

Wild tomato 22 105 

Wild yam 19 38 

Ximenia americana 22 104 

Yam bean 19 39 

Yam, buck 19 37 

Yam, goa 19 37 

o 



149