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Full text of "The emigrant's guide, or, Ten years' practical experience in Australia"

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THE 



EMIGRANT'S GUIDE; 



TEN YEARS' PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE 



AUSTRALIA, 



THE REV. DAVID MACKENZIE, M.A. 



" Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father's 
iiouse, into a land that I will shew thee."— Genesis. 



LONDON: 
W. S. ORR & CO., PATERNOSTER ROW 



(M3 



d^Hpn-^^-^' '-^ 



LONDON: 
BRADBURY AND BVAM8, PRINTERS, WHirEyRIARS. 



TO 

INTENDING EMIGRANTS 

FROM 

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND, 

CTflts 'Foltttne 

IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED, 

BY 

THE AUTHOR. 



6S0558 



PREFACE. 

It is the custom of authors to assign, in what is 
called a Preface, the reasons which induced them 
to appear before the PubHc. The only reason 
which I think it necessary to assign for the fol- 
lowing publication, is my belief that a residence of 
ten years in New South Wales has enabled me to 
gather such information as may be of some use to 
intending emigrants. 

It is true that there has already issued from the 
press a host of books on this colony ; but some of 
these books contain but very little information that 
would be of practical use to the emigrant on his 
arrival here, while others of them, half filled with 
politics and private squabbles, were evidently 
written by men who either had some selfish ends 
to serve, or who never had any long or real expe- 
rience of a *' bush life." It would be vain in me 



VI PREFACE. 

to insinuate that I am able to supply this defi- 
ciency. I will merely say that my only object is, 
to give a full and faithful statement of what this 
colony now is, and of the prospects which it holds 
out to the different classes of intending emigrants. 

The materials for the following pages were 
gathered during my travels for the last ten years 
through all parts of Australia ; and I can con- 
fidently add, that in thus detailing my own prac- 
tical experience, I have no interests except those 
of truth to promote. 

DAVID MACKENZIE. 
Sydney, March, 1845. 



CONTENTS. 



Chap. I. Geographical Position .... 1 

IL Climate 3 

III. Soil 8 

IV. Seed-time and Harvest . . . . 12 
V. Tillage, Clearing, and Fencing . . 16 

VI. Appearance of Australia . . . . 20 

VII. White Population of the whole Colony . 32 

VIII. Revenue . . . ... . . 33 

IX. Government ...... 37 

X. Literature of Botany Bay , . . . 39 

XI. Churches and Clergymen ... 44 

XII. Morals and Society . . . . . 54 

XIII. Land and Squatting Regulations . . 65 

XIV. Live Stock 72 

XV. Horses 75 

XVI. Sheep . 82 

XVII. Sheep 88 



Vlll CONTENTS. 

PAGB 

Chap. XVIII. Sheep 100 

„ XIX. Cattle 110 

„ XX. Cattle 123 

„ XXI. Bush Amusements , . . .137 

„ XXII. Sydney 150 

„ XXIII. Exports and Shipping . . . .163 
„ XXIV. Eligihility and Advantages of Australia . 167 
„ XXV. Travelling in the Australian Bush . 187 

„ XXVI. The Blacks 204 

„ XXVII. Advice to Emigrants . . . . 249 
Appendix . . . . .275 



TEN YEARS m >:UgTRALIA 



CHAPTER I, 

GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION. 

In the year 1616, New Holland, which is situ- 
ated between latitude 10° and 39° south, and 
longitude 113^ and 153° east, was discovered by 
the Dutch, by whom the western part was then 
called New Holland. The whole island, or rather 
continent, measuring from east to west about 
2,500, and from north to south 2,000 geographical 
miles, is nearly the size of Europe. The colony, 
which forms the subject of the following remarks, 
lies along the coast on the east side of this conti- 
nent, and generally goes under the name of New 
South Wales. 

The now occupied pa.rt of this colony extends 
from Moreton Bay on the north to Port Phillip on 
the south, including a line of coast of nearly 1,300 
geographical miles, and inlands to a distance of 
from 200 to 300 miles, thus already embracing an 
extent of territory equal to three times that of 
England and Scotland put together. 

, B 



Z TEN YEARS IN AUSTRAUA. 

In a work like this it is not necessary to enter 
into the circumstances which led to the formation 
of the colony. Every one knows that it was ori- 
ginally plaRned as 'a penal settlement, and intended 
merely ag.a j^ao'ltfor. threat Britain and Ireland. 

. 0.11 the.25thXanjiaryj.1788, the first fleet, under 
I J^tte* •dojoajfaanf of /Gapji?jn (afterwards Governor) 
PhiUip, anchored in Port Jackson, and on the 
following day the people disembarked at the head 
of Sydney Cove, near the stream of fresh water 
which crosses what is now called Bridge- street. 
The total number of persons on hoard was 1,030, 
of whom about 800 were convicts, and the remainder 
consisted chiefly of those who were to guard them. 
On the east side of the Cove, close to where now 
stands the new Custom-house, was erected a can- 
vas tent for the Governor, Captain PhilHp, who 
named his new habitation Sydney, out of compli- 
ment to Lord Sydney, the principal Secretary of 
State for the Home Department, who greatly pro- 
moted the expedition. There were also landed 
from the ships, one bull, one bull calf, four cows, 
one stallion, three colts and three mares. This was 
the commencement of what is now the most flou- 
rishing colony belonging to the British Crown. 



CLIMATE. 



CHAPTER II. 



CLIMATE. 



No climate can be more salubrious than that of 
New South Wales. It is the climate for invalids. 
The air is bracing, pure, and balmy. The atmo- 
sphere, owing to its great capacity for absorbing 
moisture, is generally dry. Mr. Martin, a very 
interesting writer, says on this subject, " the salu- 
brity of Australia is proverbial. Of a community 
of 1,200 persons, only five or six have been known 
to be sick at a time ; and at some of the military 
stations seven years have elapsed without the loss 
of a man. Old people arrived in the colony from 
Europe have suddenly found themselves restored to 
much of the hilarity of youth ; and I have seen 
several persons upwards of 100 years of age." 
This testimony from Mr. Martin exactly coincides 
with what I myself have repeatedly noticed at 
various periods and in different parts of this colony. 
As Mr. Martin visited Parramatta, I think it pro- 
bable, that, when writing the above paragraph, he 
had in his mind's eye, among others, the following 
individuals, whose obituaries may interest you. I 
copy them from a collection I made some years 
ago for my own amusement. " In 1835, died, at 
Parramatta, Ehzabeth Eccles, aged 105. She 
arrived in the first fleet, aged 57 ; was born in 
1730, at Stratford-on-Avon. Same year (1835), 
b2 



4 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

at Toongabbee, near Parramatta, Catherine DefF- 
ney, in her 100th year of her age. Died at Seven 
Hills, near Parramatta, William Marks, in his 
102nd year. This man had been a soldier in the 
British army, and fought at the battle of Bunker's 
Hill, in the United States." Here the fever and 
ague of North America are unknown. Colonel 
Gawler, late Governor of South Australia, speaking 
of this country, says, " I never saw a spot or heard 
of a climate more calculated to restore debilitated 
constitutions." I have often slept out in the bush 
both in summer and winter, under the open canopy of 
heaven, and never have felt the least inconvenience 
from it. But this is nothing extraordinary ; we have 
here hundreds of bullock-drivers and carriers, who 
are for several weeks, in winter as well as in sum- 
mer, without ever putting their heads under the 
roof of a house, sleeping, when night overtakes 
them, in the open air, with perfect impunity. 

Though situated in the temperate zone, the 
colony of New South Wales can scarcely be said to 
have any winters at all. The summer heat is 
seldom oppressive, and in Sydney snow and frost 
are unknown. The heat of this colony has often 
been represented as something very alarming, I 
have for many years carefully watched and regis- 
tered the degrees of heat, as indicated by my 
thermometer. The highest to which the mercury 
rose in the sun within my recollection was 127 
degrees of Fahrenheit. This happened on the 
16th January, 1837. 

I copy the following note exactly as it stands in 
my register : — 



CLIMATE. 

''Monday, l^th January, 1837. — The thermo- 
meter at half-past twelve stood, in the sun, at 
127° F. ; in the shade, 118° ; in the sun, at half- 
past four o'clock, P.M., 90°; in the shade, ditto, 
86°; in the house, at eight o'clock, evening, 85° ; 
fall in four hours 37° F. This day ended in thun- 
der and lightning." 

*' The weather has been raining, with little 
intermission, since the evening of Monday, the 
16th January, up to this date, Saturday, 21st 
January, 1837." 

The following table, showing the mean, and 
highest, and lowest state of the thermometer (in the 
shade) at Port Jackson Head, New South Wales, 
will give a tolerably correct idea of our extreme 
heat and cold : — 





Mean state. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


January 


75 


82 


68 


February . . . 


75 


82 


68 


March 


71 


78 


61 


April . . . 


67 


79 


57 


May. 


61 


70 


48 


June . ... 


5Q 


67 


46 


July. 


53 


65 


42 


August . . . 


B^ 


78 


46 


September . 


59 


79 


^l ■ 1 


October . . . 


63 


90 


52 


November . 


68 


97 


61 1 


December . . . 


72 


81 


62 



From the above table it will be seen that at 
Sydney the average temperature of our coldest 
month, viz., July, is 53°, and of our warmest 



b TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

months, viz., January and February, is 75°. I 
have lately seen living, under an overhanging rock 
near Sydney, an old man, a native of the Emerald 
isle, who informed me that he had lived there for 
the last few years in order to save rint, as house 
rint was too dear in Sydney, and that he enjoyed 
better health under the rock than he ever did in 
their fine houses. 

We are occasionally visited with tremendous 
thunderstorms, accompanied by hailstones of incre- 
dible dimensions. I have seen them more than 
an inch in circumference. Lambs are some- 
times killed by them ; and the destruction occa- 
sioned by them among birds, fruit-trees, vineyards, 
&c., is very great. At one time I have had within 
ten minutes no fewer than forty panes of glass 
broken in my house by hailstones. 

In Sydney we seldom experience frost ; but in 
the interior of the colony, water exposed to the 
night air in winter is found in the morning to be 
covered with a layer of ice of the thickness of a 
penny piece. This I have often seen on the Hume 
River. At Argyle, Bathurst, the upper parts of 
the Hume River district, and several other places 
of elevation, snow frequently falls during the latter 
half of July and former half of August. That the 
appearance of snow in Sydney would be regarded 
as a remarkable phenomenon, the following para- 
graph, from a Sydney paper of date 30th June, 
1836, will show. The article is headed " Snowy 
Tuesday :" — 

" Tuesday last, the 28th instant, will be memor- 
able in the annals of Sydney, as the day on which 



CLIMATE. 7 

its inhabitants were favoured for the first time with 
the sight of snow. It reminded us of home more 
than anything we had ever seen in the colony. 
Every flake of snow seemed to be singing, as it fell, 
Dulce, dulce domum ! Home, sweet home ! The 
fall was by no means considerable in Sydney, 
although it was two inches deep towards Parra- 
matta ; it lay for an hour or more on the tops of 
houses and in other similar situations ; and the 
Sydney boys were seen for the first time in their 
lives making snow-balls. The day was very cold 
throughout. We never felt it so cold before in 
Sydney." 

In Sydney and its neighbourhood there occa- 
sionally blows a hot wind, which continues for a 
few hours, and raises the thermometer sometimes 
to 120° Fahrenheit ; but is almost invariably suc- 
ceeded by what is here called ** a brickfielder, " 
which is a strong southerly wind, which soon cools 
the air, and greatly reduces the temperature. 

Our longest day is from five, a.m. to seven, p.m., 
or fourteen hours ; and our shortest day is from 
seven, a.m., to five, p.m., or ten hours, reckoning 
from sunrise to sunset. Our shortest day is the 
21st June, and our longest day is the 22nd 
December. 

The very dwelling-houses erected in the interior 
of this colony bear testimony to the salubrity of 
our climate. Some of the wealthiest settlers live 
in huts formed of a few slabs placed vertically with 
sheets of bark as a roof. These slabs are often 
placed so widely apart that a man might thrust his 
hand through the interstices. And yet with only 



6 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

this rude accommodation, such is the general 
healthiness of the people, that medical practitioners 
frequently complain that this climate affords hut 
few chances for the exercise of their vocation. 
According to a high medical authority, consumption 
is the disease which carries off a quarter of the 
British population. That such should he the fact 
will readily be credited by any man living in New 
South Wales after having spent some years in 
Great Britain. It is truly distressing to listen to 
the endless chorus of coughing that goes on in the 
churches of Scotland during the winter season. It 
reminds one of Rachel mourning for her children, 
and refusing to be comforted. In this colony there 
are many consumptive patients, with some of whom 
I am personally acquainted, who, according to the 
opinion of their medical advisers, have, in all pro- 
bability, added several years to their lives by 
emigrating to Australia. 



CHAPTER III. 

SOIL. 



The soil of Australia is generally poor, and is 
better adapted for grazing than for agricultural 
purposes : but to this rule there are many excep- 
tions. In various parts of the colony there are 
extensive tracts of land remarkable for fertility, 
yielding during several years in succession, without 
any manure, from 30 to 40 bushels of wheat, or 
from 50 to 60 bushels of maize, per acre. In the 



SOIL. 9 

valley of the Hume Eiver I have seen 300 bushels 
of wheat raised from eight acres, and it was the 
third crop of wheat from the same land without 
any manure. I have seen seven successive crops 
of wheat raised from the same field, which had 
never been manured by the hand of man, and yet 
the seventh crop averaged 25 bushels to the acre. 
At Moreton Bay, 80 bushels of maize (Indian corn) 
have been repeatedly raised from one acre. From 
four to five tons of potatoes per acre are considered 
an average crop. Of onions, no less a quantity than 
10 tons have been raised from a single acre of 
land ; and this same acre would in the same sea- 
son yield a crop of 50 or 60 bushels of maize after 
the onion crop had been secured. 

The tobacco plant grows well here ; and you are 
aware that there is no duty on colonial-made 
tobacco. A large proportion of what is now used 
in the colony is raised and manufactured by the 
settlers ; and some of it, made on the Hunter's 
River, was actually seized in Sydney by the Cus- 
tom-House officers, who declared it to be American 
negrohead ! However, on their being convinced 
of their mistake, the tobacco thus seized was 
released. It sells in Sydney at from Is. to 2s. per 
lb. ; while negrohead, on which there is a duty of 
2s. per lb., sells at 3s. 2d. per lb. 

New South Wales is the very soil and climate 
for the vine : it grows to great perfection here. 
The late Sir John Jamieson and several other 
landed proprietors made some good wine, and in 
large quantities, from the produce of their own 
vineyards. It must, however, be admitted that. 



10 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

with perhaps the exception of Cape wine, our 
colonial-made wine is inferior to any of our im- 
ported wines. This inferiority is, doubtless, to be 
fittributed to our want of the requisite skill in the 
manufacture ; for our grapes are universally al- 
lowed to be of first-rate quality. 

Except gardens and orchards, no cultivated land 
is manured in this colony. Straw-yards are here 
unknown : the cattle are all the year grazing in 
the forest, and every farmer, living at a distance 
from Sydney, burns his straw as so much useless 
rubbish. I am acquainted with a wealthy settler on 
the banks of the Paterson River, who built all his 
corn-stacks close to the stream, where, having 
thrashed them out, he caused all the straw to be 
thrown into the river, in order to save the trouble 
and expense of burning. The newly-arrived emi- 
grant will feel inclined to ask, "Is the soil of 
Australia of such a nature as not to be improved 
by manure ?" The reply to this question is, that 
though the soil would, beyond all doubt, be greatly 
improved by manure, yet land is here so cheap and 
labour so high, that, until there is a material change 
in the price of these two commodities, the present 
system of throwing away the manure is likely to 
continue. 

Barley grows well here : oats are also cultivated ; 
but our soil is rather too warm for this grain. 
Except in a few elevated situations, such as Argyle, 
Bathurst, <fcc., the soil of New South Wales is also 
too warm for apples, gooseberries, and currants. 

In our gardens we have, besides several others, 
the following fruits and vegetables : — pears, plums, 



SOIL. 11 

cherries, apricots, peaches, grapes, nectarines, figs, 
oranges, and lemons ; also carrots, parsnips, tur- 
nips, cauliflowers, asparagus, broccoli, onions, cab- 
bages, potatoes, pumpkins, rock and water melons, 
cucumbers, vegetable marrow, and peas. We have 
green peas during the whole winter. In the 
, Sydney market, fruits and vegetables are remark- 
ably cheap. Grapes are now (March, 1845) sold 
here at two-pence per lb., and large ripe peaches 
at one penny per dozen. But except those whose 
business or inclination confines them to the heart 
of a town, no man in this colony needs be without a 
garden, where he may have abundance of all the 
above-named productions growing at his door. It 
has now been clearly ascertained that all tropical and 
European fruits grow to perfection in one part or 
other of the colony of New South Wales. Yet, 
though the soil and climate are thus so extremely 
favourable for the production of fruits and vegeta- 
bles, it is a singular fact that, throughout the whole 
extent of the Australian forest, the white man finds 
nothing on which he can subsist. Nature has done 
much for Australia ; but, until the arrival of the 
English, art has done nothing for her ; and, 
therefore, the white man who loses himself in 
what is here called "the bush," is really to 
be pitied. Many have so lost their way, and 
perished miserably. 



12 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

CHAPTER IV. 

SEED TIME AND HARVEST. 

Our chief crops are wheat, maize (Indian corn), 
barley, oats, and potatoes. By a return now in 
the Colonial Secretary's office, I find that the 
quantity of land in cultivation (exclusive of gar- 
dens and orchards) within the boundaries of the 
colony of New South Wales and Port Phillip, in 
the year 1842, was: — Acres of wheat, 57,533 ; 
maize, 26,192 ; barley, 4,817 ; oats, 4,235 ; mil- 
let, 99 ; potatoes, 4,768 ; tobacco, 223 ; rye, 
473 ; sown grass, 17,320 : Total, 115,660. The 
produce of the above quantity of land has for that 
year been, in bushels— 746,228 wheat ; 559,719 
maize ; 82,624 barley ; 81,311 oats ; 4,402 rye ; 
1,201 millet; 11,676 tons potatoes; 2,010 cwt. 
tobacco ; and 16,676 tons of hay. Wheat maybe 
sown any time between the 1 st day of March and the 
last day of June. From 1 to 1^ bushel (varying 
in quantity according to the quality of the soil) is 
enough to sow an acre ; the poorer the soil is, the 
larger is the quantity of seed required. Until 
within the last few years, our wheat crops were 
very liable to be injured by smut ; to prevent 
which, the following means now, 1 believe, gene- 
rally used throughout the colony, have been found 
effectual. The day before we intend sowing, we 
half fill a cask with water, in which we dissolve a 
couple of ounces of blue-stone for every bushel of 



SEED TIME AND HARVEST. 13 

wheat we intend steeping in it. The wheat is 
allowed to remain steeping in this solution from 
two to four hours, after which time it is taken out 
and spread to dry on the floor until the following 
day, when it is sown. I have never known any 
smut to affect wheat the seed of which has been 
thus prepared. 

Wheat harvest is from November to January ; 
late reaping may be occasioned by any or all of 
the following causes : late sowing, wet season, cold 
soil, southern exposure, or elevated situation. In 
several places near the sea-coast, such as the 
Hawkesbury and Hunter's Rivers, to the north of 
Sydney, the wheat-crops are secured before the 
end of November ; in other words, as in the cor- 
responding latitude in Judea, *' the harvest is 
past before the summer is ended." — Jer. viii. 20. 

Reaping is a very different process in Australia 
from what it is with you in England. As straw is 
of very httle use here, the wheat is reaped at the 
height of 2 or 3 feet from the ground, the only 
object of the farmer being to secure the ears or 
grain, and to encumber his barn with as little as 
he can of the straw. Such is our fine climate, 
that if the crop is ripe and the weather fair, the 
sheaves may be led and stacked the very day after 
reaping. When men are hired to thrash it, they 
are usually paid at the rate of Qd. or Id. per 
bushel, without rations. Wheat is now selling at 
from 2s. 9c?. to 4s. per bushel, weighing upwards 
of 60 lbs. Maize (Indian corn), which is chiefly 
used for feeding horses and pigs, is sown in Octo- 
ber and November, and is ripe in May and June. 



H TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA, 

It is sown, or rather planted, in holes 6 feet apart, 
and four or five grains in each hole. It requires, 
like potatoes, to be hoed at different stages of its 
progress in growth. It is generally a very abun- 
dant crop, averaging, on good soil, from 50 to 60 
bushels per acre. Maize, as might be expected, is 
a scourging crop, and requires very strong soil. 
The straw or stalks are of no use whatever to the 
farmer. Maize is usually the first crop which the 
Australian settler raises from his cleared land ; 
and, as it is reaped in May or June, there is just 
sufficient time left to the settler to enable him to 
sow the same land with wheat, and thus reap two 
valuable crops within six or seven months. The 
knowledge of this fact, trifling as it is, may be af 
use to intending emigrants who wish to lose no 
time after their arrival in the colony. About five 
years ago, when wheat was scarce in New South 
Wales, maize flour was very much used. Mixed 
with an equal quantity of wheaten flour, it makes 
very palatable and wholesome bread — far superior 
to either the barley or oaten cakes used by the 
poorer classes in Scotland. 

June is the proper time for sowing oats and 
barley. Oats are generally cut green, when the 
ear is full, and before it begins to ripen, for hay. 
There is an immense quantity of this oaten hay 
sent weekly to the Sydney market, where it now 
sells at from 2>l. to Al. per ton. Horses thrive well 
on it, and generally prefer it to lucerne, for which 
our soil or climate appears not to be well adapted. 

Barley is consumed in large quantities by our 
distillers and brewers. It is also foimd, when cut 



SEED TIME AND HARVEST, 15 

green, to be an excellent substitute for hay to feed 
horses kept in the stable. By sowing a patch of 
it for this latter purpose at different times of the 
year, the settler may always have a bundle of 
cooling and nourishing green barley for his horse. 
Potatoes may be planted at almost any time of the 
year. Potatoes that were planted in January, 
February, March, April, May, June, October, 
November, and December, have all yielded good 
crops. This is a matter of great importance to 
the newly-arrived emigrant, who may have a large 
family to feed, — especially if he is an Irishman. 
The late Mr. Shepherd, a scientific and practical 
gardener, who lived for many years near Sydney, 
recommended to plant potatoes in April, May, or 
June, for spring crops ; and for an autumn crop, to 
plant them in December and January. In his 
garden he used to raise from 10 to 12 tons of 
potatoes from one acre. He published a little 
work on gardening, containing much useful infor- 
mation, chiefly the result of his own practical 
experience. Sweet potatoes are raised about 
Moreton Bay, where also yams, arrow-root, and 
New Zealand flax are now cultivated. Like pota- 
toes, turnips, onions and peas may be sown at any 
time of the year. 

Some of our crops are liable to be injured by 
blight, smut, caterpillars, or weevil. Blight is 
occasioned by frosts when wheat is in blossom. 
Smut may be prevented by the adoption of the 
means which I have already described. The only 
remedy which I have seen employed against the 
destructive progress of caterpillars is to plough a 



16 TEN TEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

few furrows across their path. The weevil, which 
is very destructive to both wheat and maize, is a 
little insect, which penetrates the husk, eats the 
flour, and leaves nothing but the shell. I have 
repeatedly seen my corn-chest rendered one black 
heap. The corn thus injured is apt to give horses 
which eat it the ** gripes." 



CHAPTER V. 

TILLAGE, CLEARINa, AND FENCING. 

Ploughing is chiefly done here by bullocks. 
They are cheaper, more easily fed, and go more 
steadily than horses. To plough half an acre of 
heavy ground or about three quarters of light 
ground, is considered a good day's work for a 
team of six or eight bullocks. Our ploughs are 
generally made of wood, and are very rough. 
They answer best among the roots which abound 
in almost every field. Besides, if a wooden 
plough is broken, it is easily mended, as every 
farming establishment, however small, is supplied 
with tools sufficient to mend or make the common 
agricultural implements. 

In selecting a spot on his land for a cultivation 
paddock, the settler looks out for a combination of 
the following requisites : — Good soil, free from 
timber, a sufficient fall to allow the winter rain to 
run off it ; a northern exposure to the sun, and to 
be situated at a convenient distance from his resi- 
dence. It sometimes happens that such a com- 



TILLAGE, CLEARING, AND FENCING. 17 

binatlon of natural advantages cannot be found, 
and in that case the settler is obliged to supply 
Nature's deficiency by his own labour and indus- 
try. He may find, at a convenient distance from 
his house, rich soil, with a gentle slope, and 
northern exposure, but heavily timbered. In such 
circumstances he must go to the trouble and expense 
of clearing the land, and probably this is by no 
means an easy work. Our Australian timber is 
hard and heavy, and is generally useless except 
for fuel. Clearing the land is done in either of 
these two ways : the one way is by digging deep 
and wide about the roots of the tree, cutting them 
so that it may fall, and then burning the fallen 
timber on the ground. This is beyond all com- 
parison the more expensive way, but it is also the 
more efi"ectual way of clearing land. The other 
way is to cut the trees at a convenient height — 
about two or three feet — from the ground, then 
draw them together into heaps and burn them. 
In this case the stumps are left standing for many 
years ; the field presenting the appearance of a 
grave-yard studded with monuments. Girdling 
the trees, that is, cutting round and removing a 
section of the bark, so as to kill them, is but a 
very slow process, and is now seldom adopted 
even by the squatter, whose tenure of land is so 
precarious. 

Many places are so densely timbered, and that 
timber is so hard and so formidable in dimen- 
sion, that to prepare a single acre for the plough 
would be as much as any two men could accomplish 
in one week. Persons who have uot had colonial 
c 



18 TEN TEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

experience, are apt to imagine that the timber 
itself would pay at least a part of the expense of 
clearing. The timber is of no value. It is almost 
uniformly uneven and rotten within. In Sydney 
and some other large towns, where firewood is 
scarce, and consequently dear, any sort of timber 
would readily find a purchaser. But how to get 
it sent to Sydney is the question. It cannot be 
conveyed in rafts, even supposing the settler's land 
was contiguous to some navigable river, or the 
sea-shore. Our Australian timber will not Jioat, 
its specific gravity being greater than that of 
water. This is a serious loss to the colony. There 
is, however, one advantage resulting from this 
peculiar character of our timber, viz., that not- 
withstanding the carelessness and drunkenness of 
many of our domestic servants, we seldom suffer 
any loss by fire. So hard is the wood, that I 
have repeatedly kindled a fire and performed seve- 
ral chemical experiments on the wooden floor of 
my study-room. 

The durability of such dense wood is very great. 
This is a fortunate circumstance ; for around our 
cultivated fields we have neither hedges nor stone 
walls, and the only barrier against the intrusion of 
cattle is a fence entirely constructed of timber. A 
single tree may be found, when split, sufficient to 
enclose an acre. You will be amazed at the enor- 
mous dimensions of some of the trees in the 
Australian forest. I have measured one which I 
found to be forty-five feet in circumference four 
feet from the base. It is no uncommon thing to 
see a tree forty feet in circumference, and one 



TILLAGE, CLEARING, AND FENCING. 19 

hundred feet high without a branch. One of these 
trees would be more than sufficient to build such 
a house as would accommodate a whole family. 
These enormous giants of the forest give a majestic 
aspect to our rural scenery. In Van Diemen's 
Land the timber is even still larger. Mr. Robin- 
son, the chief protector of the aborigines, states 
that he had seen several trees in Tasmania, each 
of which was sixty feet in circumference, and two 
hundred and fifty feet in height. These very 
large trees are seldom of any practical use to the 
settler, who generally prefers, for fencing and 
building, trees measuring from two to three feet 
in diameter. The timber commonly used here for 
fencing is stringy bark, iron bark, or gum, and in 
some few cases pine and forest oak. Our fences 
are constructed in the following manner : — Two, 
three, and sometimes, though rarely, four rails, 
each nine feet long, are placed horizontally one 
above another, at short intervals, with their ends 
inserted into mortised posts which stand perpen- 
dicularly, being firmly fixed from eighteen inches 
to two feet in the ground, and about five feet 
above it. Two or three hundred rails and posts » 
may be got from one tree. The posts are mor- 
tised with a tool called a mortising-axe ; no other 
tool is used for this purpose. Split rails are pre- 
ferred to round ones, and the wider they are the 
better ; as in this case the vacant space between 
the edges of every two of them is of course 
diminished. 

There are several men in this colony whose 
trade or only employment is to put up these 
c2 



20 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA, 

fenciBS. It has always been '* a money-making 
job." Even at the present reduced prices for all 
sorts of fences two industrious men can easily earn 
between them from 125. to 155. a day by fencing. 
This sort of work is paid for by the rod (five and 
a half yards). The fencers have to go to the 
wood, cut the stuff, mortise the posts, dig the 
holes in the ground for these posts, prepare the 
ends of the rails, and then put up the fence. 
Their employer always drives the stuff out of the 
wood, and places it along the line of the intended 
fence. It will be seen from this description, that 
the Australian differs very widely from either the 
London or the Parisian system of fencing. 



CHAPTER VI. 

APPEARANCE OF AUSTRALIA. 

Picture to yourselves, in the midst of the ocean, 
surrounded with precipitous rocks, and nearly op- 
posite to England, a vast forest diversified with 
mountains and valleys ; innumerable plains without 
a tree ; rivers, some of them consisting only of a 
chain of ponds ; others of them, after running for 
hundreds of miles through extensive tracts of 
fertile soil, rapidly disappearing in the midst of 
arid sand, while others of them roll their majestic 
streams for a thousand miles, until they mingle 
their waters with the ocean ; here and there, like 
an oasis in the wilderness, a soHtary patch of 



APPEARANCE OF AUSTRALIA. 21 

cleared land, with a hut, rudely constructed of 
slabs and bark, in the rear ; a tribe of naked 
blacks, carrying their weapons of war, roaming 
across the distant plains ; large tracts of open 
forest-land, resembling a gentleman's domain in 
England, but occupied by only the kangaroo and 
the emu, which seem to claim and enjoy hereditary 
possession ; lofty ranges, covered with the most 
beautiful verdure to their very summits ; extensive 
lagoons, darkened with legions of wild ducks and 
teal, the property of any man who may choose to 
shoot them ; innumerable birds of the most beauti- 
ful plumage, chirping on every branch around you ; 
flowers of every hue and shade of colour strewing 
your path, wherever you go ; above you an Italian 
sky, without a cloud or speck, and the air you 
inhale pure and balmy ; a fearful silence pervading 
the forest around you, and vividly impressing upon 
your mind the idea of solitude and desolation — 
that is Australia. 

I can readily imagine that some mischievous 
wag, or bitter enemy to Australia, may success- 
fully attempt to neutrahse, or turn to ridicule, this 
last paragraph of mine, by adding to it some such 
paragraph as the following : — Picture to yourselves, 
nearly opposite to England, a colony, a large pro- 
portion of whose population are convicts or trans- 
ported felons ; where bands of armed robbers or 
bushrangers are daily committing depredations; 
where one hundred and sixteen sentences of capital 
convictions have been passed within one twelve- 
month ; where swindling and drunkenness prevail ; 
where the churches are half empty ; where a large 



22 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

proportion of the settlers, shopkeepers, and mer- 
chants have recently gone through the Insolvent 
Court, and paid their creditors with sixpence in 
the pound; where the hank directors discount 
scarcely any hills, except their own, so as thus to 
monopolise all the tea and sugar in the market ; 
where selfishness, and the cursed love of pelf, have 
destroyed all the fine feelings of human nature ; 
where the inhabitants are day and night tormented 
with legions of mosquitoes ; where the crops have 
often failed through excessive drought; where 
the navigable rivers are very few in number; 
where the interior is, in most cases, badly watered ; 
where a large proportion of the soil is only a 
miserable scrub, scarcely yielding sustenance for 
goats ; where the timber is as hollow-hearted and 
as notorious for obliquity as the inhabitants ; and 
where, on looking amid the rural scenes for the 
evergreen, you only see the never-groGU — ^that is 
Australia. 

Now it was by a species of ridicule, or parody, 
somewhat similar to this, that James Thomson's 
tragedy of Sophonisha, which cost its author 
more labour, care, and anxiety, than his Seasons, 
was excluded from a fair hearing; for no sooner 
had the actor uttered the line — *'0h! Sophonisha, 
Sophonisha, oh ! " than an impudent, unfeeling 
wag, sitting in front of the upper gallery, shouted 
— ** Oh ! Jemmy Thomson, Jemmy Thomson, 
oh ! " an unexpected addition, which threw the 
whole assembly into one simultaneous roar of 
laughter, put an end to all farther acting for that 
evening, and condemned for ever poor Jemmy 



r 



APPEAEANCE OF AUSTRALIA. 23 

Thomson's tragedy of Sophonisha by converting 
it into a comedy. 

Anything, however, you can write may be thus 
ridiculed, by a man who is fond of joking. The 
Bible excepted, I know of no writing that would 
pass scathless through this experimentum crucis. 

But to proceed : Australia is the land of con- 
trarieties. It is the land of which it is extremely 
difficult to convey to a stranger an adequate idea. 
Everything here is different from what it is with 
you. We have summer when you have winter; 
we have day when you have night ; we have our 
longest day when you have your shortest day ; at 
noon we look north for the sun ; we have our feet 
pressing hard nearly opposite to your feet ; — but 
these are not the only respects in which we differ 
from you. Nature, out of sheer spite to England, 
seems to have taken a delight in producing a com- 
plete dissimilarity between us ; take the following 
examples : — our swans are black, our eagles are 
white, our valleys are cold, our mountain tops are 
warm, our north winds are hot, our south winds are 
cold, our east winds are healthy, our cherries grow 
with the stone outside, our bees are without any 
sting, our aborigines without any clothing, our 
birds without music, many of our flowers without 
any smell, most of our trees without shade, our 
population without any poor, our cuckoo coos only 
in the night, while our owl screeches or hoots only 
in the day-time, our moles lay eggs, and one of 
our birds (the Melliphaga) has a broom in his mouth 
instead of a tongue. But to extend this enumera- 
tion can be of no practical use to the intending 



24 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

emigrant^ He will see all that I have here stated, 
and a great deal more, before he is any length of 
time in the colony. My object in this chapter is 
to describe the general appearance of New South 
Wales. There are three great roads leading from 
Sydney into the remotest parts of the interior. 
One of these main roads runs nearly due north, 
and parallel with the shore of the Pacific, from 
Sydney, to the river Hawkesbury, which is crossed 
by means of a punt ; then the road winds through 
gulleys and over ranges, along the valley of the 
WoUombi, into the town of Maitland, on the river 
Hunter. This road was made by government at 
an immense expense, but since the steamers have 
begun to run regularly between Sydney and Mait- 
land, the route overland has been altogether 
abandoned, and "the great northern road," made 
at such immense expense, is now almost impassable. 
The second great road leading from Sydney, runs 
nearly in a western direction, goes through Parra- 
matta, passes through the town of Penrith, where 
the traveller crosses the Hawkesbury river by a 
large punt ; thence the road leads for many miles 
up, through a sandy, miserable scrub, to the top 
of Mount York, which forms a part of an immense 
range called the Blue Mountains, ninning from 
north to south, nearly parallel with the coast, and 
at a distance of about sixty miles from it. Viewed 
from the summit of Mount York, which is 4000 feet 
above sea-level, the colony has a very imposing 
aspect. Here and there are to be seen a few 
cleared spots amidst an interminable forest. To 
the east, at the distance of sixty miles, is the 



APPEARANCE OF AUSTRALIA. 25 

Pacific Ocean: in every other direction is an endless 
variety of hill and dale, of deep gulleys, inaccessible 
ravines, perpendicular rocks, and towering moun- 
tains covered with trees, and green grass and 
flowers, to their very summits ; all displaying 
Nature in her wildest forms. I feel assured that if 
the celebrated Alison and Burke had passed a 
day among these mountains during one of our 
tremendous thunderstorms, the former would have 
found some additional matter for his Essays on 
Taste, and the latter would have added a new 
chapter to his work on the Sublime and Beau- 
tifiU. I once passed a night far away from any 
house, among the mountains beyond Liverpool 
Plains, during one of the most awfid thunderstorms 
ever experienced in this colony. The repeated 
flashes of Hghtning rendered darkness visible. 
The coruscations and lurid glare made it appear as 
if the atmosphere was on fire. The air was tainted 
with sulphuric smeU ; the loud and rapid peals of 
thunder, reverberated from mountain to mountain, 
seemed like the artiUery of heaven let loose to 
accomplish nature's dissolution. I was surrounded 
by a range of lofty] mountains, every one of which 
seemed to "have got a tongue." This war 
among the elements was succeeded by torrents of 
rain, to which I was completely exposed ; for soon 
after the thunderstorm had begun, I took the 
precaution of removing my bed from under the 
trees, for fear of their attracting the Hghtning. 
Many a tree was that night struck, and instantly 
shivered to atoms : I slept none ; my horses, 
which stood near me, refused to feed. When 



26 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

daylight appeared, extensive and fearful was the 
havoc effected hy the combined power of the 
lightning and whirlwind. Trees which happened 
to attract the electric fluid were completely stripped 
of their bark, and split down the centre from top 
to bottom ; while their branches, some of which a 
ton weight, were rent from the main trunk, and 
scattered in aU directions, often to the distance of 
one hundred yards. But I beg pardon, reader, 
for having left you so long on the high-road at the 
top of Mount York. 

From Mount York the road passes through the 
town of Hartley, consisting only of a few scattered 
houses, situated in a beautiful valley, called the 
Vale of Clywd. From this place to Bathurst no- 
thing of any interest is to be seen, except Sir 
Thomas Mitchell's splendid road, made at enor- 
mous expense, across mountains, through rocks, 
and over gulleys : it was a magnificent undertaking. 
Bathurst is situated in the midst of a large, open 
plain, 2000 feet above the level of the sea, contains 
upwards of 60,000 acres without a tree, and is 
nearly bisected by the Macquarie River, which 
runs through it from east to west. 

From Bathurst the road leads to Wellington 
Valley, which is also on the Macquarie River. 
This valley is eminently beautiful ; it consists of a 
large plain, extremely fertile, surrounded by high 
hills. Here are two missionaries labouring among 
the aborigines. Here is the most distant post- 
office to the west in this colony. 

The third and last great road is that which 
leads from Sydney to Port Phillip. On all 



APPEARANCE OF AUSTRALIA. 27 

tliis road, measuring upwards of six hundred 
miles, there is little to be seen but gum-trees 
and public-houses. If you have seen a mile 
of it, you have seen the whole road from Sydney to 
Melbourne, the capital of Port Phillip. The only 
difference is, that as you recede from Sydney, the 
grass for your horses improves, in the same ratio 
that the accommodation for yourself becomes 
worse. In those towns, namely Liverpool, Camp- 
belltown, Berrlma, Goulburn, and Yass, through 
which you must pass in the order in which I have 
mentioned them, and in which post-offices are 
established, there is a choice of accommodation ; 
but from the time you leave Yass, which is about 
two hundred miles from Sydney, until you reach 
Melbourne, a distance of four hundred miles, you 
are fairly in what is called the hush. In short, 
you are beyond the region of civilisation. On this 
journey of four hundred miles there is neither 
church, clergyman, nor schoolmaster. The con- 
sequence is, what might be expected, that a large 
proportion of the inhabitants are living like hea- 
thens. The children of overseers and small 
squatters grow up in total ignorance of their duty 
towards God and man. On one large establish- 
ment, belonging to Mr. B , the people had 

actually lost their reckoning in the days of the 
week, so that they kept (they knew not how long) 
Friday for Sunday. It is unnecessary for me to 
state, that the children born in this district are, 
with very few exceptions, unbaptised. I know, 
however, of one case where a Mr. and Mrs. 
Huon brought their infant daughter to Melbourne, 
a distance of two hundred miles, to receive the 



28 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

rite of baptism. There being no public or appro- 
priated place of interment, the dead are buried 
anywhere, generally on the side of a hill, near the 
hut once occupied by the deceased. From Sydney 
to Port Phillip you have to cross four great rivers. 
The first of these is the Murrumbidgee, 270 miles 
from Sydney ; at the crossing-place of this river 
is the government township of Gundagai, a post- 
town. 

Some of those persons who bought town, or 
building allotments at Gundagai, have certainly 
got a prize. In September last they had more 
than they had bargained for, as they had then not 
only water frontages, but water backs, Avater ends, 
and water four or five feet deep all over their 
allotments. In a country like Australia, where 
in some places water occasionally becomes scarce, 
this is a very great advantage, and most satisfac- 
torily evinces both the wisdom and the paternal 
care of our government, in fixing on a site for a 
township, where the inhabitant, instead of having 
to send sixty or a hundred yards for water, may 
have it in his power to swim out of his parlour or 
kitchen into his bed-room. This will be a great 
luxury in our warm climate, and it also secures to 
the householder an important advantage ; for, by 
this regular habit of swimming, which the over- 
flowing of the Murrumbidgee renders now and then 
necessary, his children will gradually become am- 
phibious animals, and thus equally capable of living 
in the water or on the land. 

The Hume River is 130 miles farther on, or 
400 miles from Sydney. At the crossing-place of 
the Hume is the thriving town of Albury, a post- 



APPEARANCE OF AUSTRALIA. 29 

town. Situated as it is on the banks of a splendid 
river, on the mail-road between Sydney and Port 
Phillip, in the very centre of a rich pastoral dis- 
trict, and nearly equi-distant — 200 miles — from 
Yass and Melbourne, Albury promises to be a 
place of great importance at no very distant 
period. Among its inhabitants are two medical 
men, four storekeepers, carpenters, blacksmiths, 
shoemakers, brickmakers, carriers, policemen, &c. 
The River Ovens, at which there is a post-office, 
is fifty miles beyond the Hume ; and the Goulbum 
River, at which also there is a post-office, is ninety 
miles beyond the Ovens, and within sixty-five 
miles of Melbourne. All these rivers abound with 
fish. The four rivers crossed by the Sydney and 
Port PhiUip road, I have seen more than once over- 
flow their banks. I have known the Murrumbidgee 
to rise five feet in one night : it was after a 
heavy rain, which melted the snow on the moun- 
tains. In October last (1844), this river rose so 
high as to spread over a large extent of the ad- 
jacent plains, and obliged several of the inhabitants 
of Gundagai to take refuge on the tops of their 
houses, until they were removed from their perilous 
situation by black fellows in their canoes. At the 
crossing-place of every one of these four rivers 
there is a good punt for the public accommodation. 
From the Ovens to the Goulburn River, a distance 
of ninety miles, the country is for the most part 
poor and scrubby, and in summer the water is 
always scarce. As you approach within forty 
miles of the town of Melbourne, the country gra- 
dually opens, presenting extensive plains, naturally 
cleared, and thickly covered with grass. The soil 



30 TEN YEAES IN AUSTRALIA. 

is evidently rich, and thousands of acres may be 
found in one block, ready without any preparation 
for the plough. 

The land in the neighbourhood of Melbourne 
produces splendid crops. For growing wheat, 
maize, and potatoes, the Port Phillip district is 
unrivalled in Australia. I know two or three in- 
stances in which the potato crops for one year paid 
the whole of the original cost of the land, and also 
the expense of the cultivation. The appearance 
and variety of the gardens in the vicinity of Mel- 
bourne, prove the superior fertihty of the soil and 
the genial character of the climate. 

The size and appearance of the town would sur- 
prise any newly-arrived immigrant, who knows that 
the place which he now sees covered with an ex- 
tensive mass of fine buildings, and presenting such 
a busy scene, was ten years ago a perfect wilder- 
ness. Melbourne, which is beautifully situated in 
and on the sides of a valley, contains a popula- 
tion of about 7000. It has several shops, which 
would do no discredit to the most fashionable 
streets of the English metropolis. The town is on 
and watered by the Yarra Yarra, where that 
river flows into an inlet of Hobson's Bay. The 
houses are chiefly bmlt of brick ; the streets 
are wide, straight, and cut one another at right 
angles. To me it was truly delightful to witness 
the appearance of the town on a Sunday ; the 
places of worship all weU attended, the people 
dressed in their best attire, the shops shut, the 
streets quiet as in an English town, and no visible 
symptoms of riot or drunkenness. This moral 
superiority of Melbourne over Sydney I can attri- 



APPEARANCE OF AUSTRALIA. 31 

bute to nothing else than the comparative absence 
of convict influence ; for, including ticket-of-leave 
men, there are only about 600 convicts now within 
the district of Port Phillip. The people of Mel- 
bourne have committed one sad blunder in choosing 
for their burial-ground a place close to the town ; 
so close, indeed, that it almost adjoins one of the 
already half-finisned streets. In my opinion, this 
is a thing which ought to have been particularly 
guarded against in this warm climate. Should 
the town continue to extend so rapidly as it has 
hitherto done, this burial-ground will in a few 
years hence be situated in the very heart of it. 
Once already have the people of Sydney been 
obliged to remove their grave-yard, which was 
originally situated in what is now the centre of the 
city ; and there is every probability, from our 
rapidly extending edifices, that a second removal 
of our grave-yard will become necessary at no 
very distant period. 

The shipping is down opposite to what is called 
William's Town, which is nine miles below Mel- 
bourne. Only small crafts can come up the river, 
and the goods to and from all large vessels are 
conveyed by barges. This is a great obstacle to 
the prosperity of the place ; for, not to speak of 
the additional expenses of this mode of conveyance, 
the goods, owing to the carelessness of the men 
who work the barges, are not unfrequently injured 
by salt water, kc. The town of Melbourne is 
represented by one member, and the Port Phillip 
district generally by five members, in our Botany 
Bay Parliament. 



32. TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 



CHAPTER VII. 

WHITE POPULATION OF THE WHOLE COLONY. 



Years. 


Persons. 


Years. 


Persons, 


1788 
1810 
1821 
1828 


1,030 
11,590 
29,788 
36,593 


1833 
1836 
1841 


60,861 

77,096 

130,856 



No census has been taken since the year 1841. 
Of the above 130,856 persons, 87,298 were males, 
and 43,558 were females ; or two males to every 
female in the colony. The convict population, 
including "tickets of leave men," amounted at 
this period (1841) to 26,977, or rather more than 
one-fifth part of the whole population : but this 
proportion of convicts to free persons is fast 
decreasing — owing to a variety of causes, such as 
deaths, many becoming free by servitude, and the 
discontinuance of transportation to New South 
Wales. The total number of convicts now in the 
colony, is less than 20,000 ; and judging from the 
average ratio at which the population has increased 
during the last twenty years, we may safely infer, 
that since the last census — that of 1841 — was taken, 
50,000 persons from births and immigration have 
been added to the free population of New South 
Wales. 

The religious denominations were in 1841, as 
follows : — 



REVENUE 



Church of England 

Roman Catholics 

Church of Scotland 

Wesleyan Methodists 

Other Protestants 

Jews 

Mahomedans and Pagans 



33 



73,727 

35,690 

13,153 

3,236 

1,857 

856 

207 



Total, 128,726 
The following are the principal towns of the 
colony, with their supposed population this year, 

(1845):— 



Sydney . 

Parramatta . 

Melbourne (capital of Poi 

Maitland 

Windsor 

Newcastle 

Macquarie 

Woollongong 

Bathurst 

Liverpool 

Goulbum . 

Richmond 



t Phillip; 



about 



40,000 
7,500 
7,000 
4,000 
2,000 
2,000 
2,000 
1,500 
1,500 
1,200 
1,200 
1,000 



CHAPTER VIII. 

REVENUE. 

The revenue of the colony is derived from the 
following sources : — 

Duty on spirits and wines, and imported tobacco ; 
license for the sale of spirits ; sale of crown 
lands ; lease of crown lands ; duty paid by auc- 
tioneers ; squatting Hcenses and assessments ; quit- 
rents, <fec., &c. 



34 TEN TEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

There are no direct taxes levied in this colony. 
Our government is supported chiefly by voluntary 
contributions ; for no man will assert that he is 
obliged either to drink or to smoke. And neither 
the money paid for land bought at a public sale, nor 
the sums paid for the lease of crown lands, within 
the limits of location, and for squatting licenses be- 
yond the limits, can in fairness be viewed as a tax. 

Every successive publication of the Sydney 
Shipping Gazette, a weekly paper, contains the 
following piece of intelligence : — " The Port of 
Sydney is a free warehousing port, and enjoys the 
privilege of importing goods into the colony, 
according to the following provisions : import duties 
on all spirits, the produce of the United King- 
dom, or of British possessions in West Indies, or 
North America, {md England,) nine shillings per 
gallon imperial ; on all other spirits, twelve shil- 
lings per gallon ; on all wine, fifteen pounds 
for every one hundred pounds value ; on all tea, 
sugar, flour, meal, wheat, rice, and other grain 
and pulse, five pounds for every one hundred 
pounds value : on all unmanufactured tobacco, one 
shilling and sixpence per pound, and on all manu- 
factured tobacco and snuiF, two shillings per 
pound. On all other goods, wares, or merchan- 
dise, not being the produce or manufacture of the 
United Kingdom, ten pounds for every one hun- 
dred pounds value." 

In the year 1821 our revenue was £36,213 
„ „ 1831 „ „ „ 120,204 
„ „ 1841 „ „ „ 653,127 

This enormous increase in the revenue for 1841, 



REVENUE. 35 

was owing to the colonial mania for land specula- 
tions. Every man and woman who could, during 
the four or five years ending in 1841, command, 
borrow, or beg a few pounds sterling, speculated 
in land. During these said four or five years, the 
arm of the government auctioneer sorely ached, 
and his hammer was worn to nothing, knocking, 
knocking down land to the colonists. The enor- 
mous sums of money thus weekly realised by the 
government, were placed at interest in the Sydney 
banks. These government deposits afibrded to 
the banks unprecedented facilities for discounting 
bills ; and bills innumerable were accordingly 
presented for discount by the land speculators, 
who no sooner obtained the money out of the 
banks, than they marched forthwith again to the 
government land sale, bought land which they 
had never seen, paid into the treasury-ofiice the 
purchase-money, which was again returned by the 
treasurer into the banks. In this manner the colo- 
nial government, instead of checking, did all in its 
power to encourage this glaringly ruinous specu- 
lation ; while the government auctioneer, an eccen- 
tric old fellow, with a knowing look, was all the 
time leering and uttering the ominous prediction, 
*' going, going," which, alas ! has since been fear- 
fully verified ; for, up to the period of 1843 the 
colony was ** going, going," and it was then nearly 
"gone." The exorbitantly high prices for land, 
sheep, cattle, and horses were gone — two of the 
Sydney banks were gone — all confidence among 
mercantile men was gone — therefore credit was 
gone — hence all further speculation was gone — and 
d2 



36 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

upwards of 1000 of our largest stockholders and 
merchants were gone into the Insolvent Court. 

Within the last few years the revenue has, as 
might have heen anticipated, greatly fallen oif. 
In 1840 the land revenue in New South Wales 
amounted to 317,251?.; but in the following year, 
viz., 1841, it amounted to only 93,583?. ; and in 
1842, the sum total of all the land revenue was 
19,444?. 

The estimated statement of the ways and means 
required to meet the expenditure of the year 1845, 
exclusively of that chargeable on the revenue 
arising from crown lands, is as follows : — 

Duties on spirits 
„ on tobacco 

Ad valorem duty on foreign goods imported 

Miscellaneous 

Post-oflBce .... 

Duties on colonial spirits 

Publicans' licenses 

Auction duties 

Tolls and ferries 

Fees and fines of public offices 

Collections by the agents for the clergy and 
school estates 

Interest on public money 

Assessment on stock, and fees and fines col- 
lected by commissioners of crown lands 

Quit-rents, and redemption of quit-rents . 

Depasturing, and other crown land licenses 

Miscellaneous receipts . 

Total, £400,000 

The above statement is copied from the printed 
papers drawn up under the direction of the Legis- 
lative Council. 



£130,600 








50,900 








28,550 








7,270 








21,000 








10,000 








20,000 








10,150 








5,100 








36,770 








4,000 








2,000 








26,000 








25,000 








19,660 








3,000 









37 



CHAPTER IX. 

GOVERNMENT. 



The government of New South Wales is a very 
simple machinery. It is composed, 1st — of the 
Governor, as the representative of Her Majesty ; 
2nd — of an Executive Council, consisting of live, 
viz., the Governor, (who is president,) the Com- 
mander of the Forces, the Lord Bishop of Austra- 
lia, the Hon. Colonial Secretary, and the Hon. 
Colonial Treasurer ; 3rd — of a Legislative Council 
of thirty-six, of which the Governor has the nomi- 
nation or appointment of twelve, — the remaining 
twenty-four are chosen hy the people. This poli- 
tical machinery answers the purpose well enough. 
There is not much talent displayed among the 
members of the Legislative Council, and little in- 
terest is felt by the colonial public in their dis- 
cussions. In general, their speeches are dull and 
prosy — each member wishing to have the extent of 
his patriotism and loyalty measured by the num- 
ber of pages which his speech, when published, 
will occupy in the Sydney Herald. They contrive 
to keep each other in countenance by alluding to 
one another in such terms as " my honourable and 
learned friend," — when it may so happen that this 
very honourable and learned friend can neither 
speak nor write half-a-dozen consecutive sentences 
grammatically. This last remark, however, applies 



38 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

to only very few of them, while there are several 
of them whose classical acquirements, general in- 
formation, and popular talents, would place them 
quite on a level with your second-class orators in 
the British House of Commons. But the very 
limited field here is unfavourahle for the display of 
senatorial eloquence. Cicero has determined that 
there can be no orator without an audience. Here 
a sufficient stimulus is wanted ; the number com- 
posing the council is too small, — and, like the dogs 
of Alexander the Great, which disdained to fight 
with any animal but the lion, those few members 
who are highly talented remain inactive, for want 
of some public arena and foemen worthy of their 
steel. Our members are allowed, with very few 
exceptions, to be men of integrity, and to have the 
good of the colony sincerely at heart ; and in one 
respect they have greatly improved on the parlia- 
mentary rules and usages at home. With you no 
speech is considered to be complete unless it con- 
tain not fewer than ten Latin and five Greek 
quotations, all often inapplicable to the point, and 
none of which is, perhaps, understood by the 
speaker, who is thus obliged to do violence to his 
own good sense, in order to comply with the esta- 
blished rules of the House, and to convince his con- 
stituents in the country that he is worthy of their 
choice. Whereas, here there is as yet no standing 
rule requiring that every country member shall 
interlard his speeches with quotations from the 
dead languages. 

The duration of our little Botany Bay parliament 
is five years. 



39 



CHAPTER X. 

LITERATURE OF BOTANY BAY. 

There is something funny in the very name. I 
may perhaps be rewarded for my trouble with a 
smile of contempt, if I tell you that here, in 
Sydney, the capital of Botany Bay, there are many 
who have already enrolled their names among the 
fraternity of authors — that we have our historians, 
our poets, our novel-writers, our writers on theo- 
logy, on law, and astronomy, our reviewers, our 
naturalists, our public lecturers ; also, our museums, 
public libraries, colleges, schools, mechanics' school 
of arts, debating societies, commercial reading- 
rooms, several booksellers' shops, and last, though 
not least, our editors and daily newspapers. 

Some of these papers, such as the Herald j 
Atlas, and one or two others, are ably conducted, 
and occasionally contain leading articles which 
would not disgrace any of your London prints. It 
must, however, be admitted that there are a few of 
our colonial publications which greatly stand in 
need of pruning. About these there is one very 
amusing peculiarity. If you happen to advance 
any opinion, or endeavour to establish any doctrine 
unpalatable to the editor, instead of attempting to 
refute or disprove by argument your statements, 
he immediately falls foul of yourself, abuses you 
personally, and if there is anything objectionable 
in all ybur past history, he rakes it up, and places 



40 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

it against your statements, — to prove, of course, 
that they are incorrect. 

It wOl be interesting to parents who intend 
emigrating to New South Wales, to be informed 
that there is scarcely a town of any note in the 
colony that cannot boast of its academy or school ; 
and in Sydney there are several highly respectable 
seminaries, conducted by men of superior talents. 
There are also several ladies' boarding-schools, 
where day scholars are received. With the 
exception of law, physic, and divinity, there is 
not a branch of a liberal education but may 
be studied as successfully in Sydney as in any 
one of your British institutions. Many important 
situations are now very creditably filled by native 
youths, who never left the colony ; and I believe 
that there is not a government office, or bank in 
Sydney, in which there is not now employed one 
or more of those young gentlemen who attended 
my own class when I taught in the Australian 
College. The Episcopalian Bishop has ordained 
some young men who received the whole of their 
education in this colony. Such a step as this has 
not yet, in any instance, been taken by the Pres- 
byterians, although they have, many years ago, 
organised and established — chiefly through the 
exertions of om* great lion, Dr. Lang — a system 
of education in the Australian College, far more 
ocmprehensive, and in every respect more calcu- 
lated to prepare for the duties of the Christian 
ministry, than any system hitherto introduced under 
the auspices of our Episcopalians. 

There is one great obstacle here to the progress 
.of literature. Money is so easily earned in this 



LITERATURE OF BOTANY BAY. 41 

colony, that parents, instead of educating their 
sons for the learned professions, or allowing them 
to remain at school until they have received a 
liberal education, send them to the bush with a few 
flocks of sheep, which is a surer and much shorter 
way of arriving at colonial eminence and independ- 
ence. This conduct on the part of parents has 
always been, and still continues to be, a source of 
great annoyance to every zealous teacher in New 
South Wales. It is much to be regretted that 
colonial youths should not receive the benefits of 
a classical and philosophical education, and thus 
have the chance of eventually distinguishing them- 
selves as literary characters. From my having, 
during the space of seven years, taught mathematics 
and natural philosophy to a public class of them 
here, I may be allowed to express my opinion that, 
in point of natural abilities and general aptitude 
to , learn, they are not one whit behind youths of 
the same age in England. 

You will, no doubt, be greatly surprised when I 
inform you that there is a general thirst for read- 
ing throughout Australia. I took some pains to 
inquire into this fact ; and the result of my inquiries 
has been that there is an immense number of books 
of a certain class read throughout the colony. 
Everybody reads. But I am sorry to add that the 
reading chiefly in vogue is of a light and frivolous 
character. There is not a bookseller or librarian 
here but will tell you that, while celebrated works 
on divinity, history, and science, are allowed to 
mould on their shelves, the demand for works of 
imagination is greater than the supply. The 
Sydney. Mechanics' School of Arts, however, has 



42 TEN YEARS m AUSTRALIA. 

already done much, and promises to do a great 
deal more, in checking this love of fiction, and 
creating a desire after more rational and intellec- 
tual enjoyment. This valuable institution numbered 
sometime ago no fewer than 800 among its mem- 
bers. Its library contains by far the largest and 
most valuable collection of books in the colony. 
The annual subscription is only 12s. a year, which 
entitles the subscriber to attend all the lectures, 
and borrow from the Hbrary any book which it may 
contain. The lectures hitherto delivered in the 
institution have been gratuitous and voluntary, no 
paid lecturer having been yet engaged by the 
committee of management, who have repeatedly 
expressed their gratification at finding their wants 
in this respect abundantly supplied by free-will 
ofiferings. Men of all classes, of all religions, and 
of every shade of politics, are equally zealous in 
patronising the Mechanics' School of Arts. In 
short, it is the only really pubUc institution in Syd- 
ney. We number among our lecturers several of 
the most influential and talented men in the colony, 
such as their Honours Justice A'Beckett and Jus- 
tice Therry ; Dr. Nicholson, M.C. ; Dr. Wallace ; 
R. Windeyer, barrister and M.C. ; Professor Ren- 
nie ; the Rev. Henry Carmichael, A.M. (author 
of an interesting work on New South Wales) ; 
T. W. Cape, Esq., for many years head-master 
of Sydney College ; and several other literary 
gentlemen of eminence and respectability. The 
course of lectures is very comprehensive, includ- 
ing, with the exception of politics and contro- 
versial divinity, every subject on which it could 
benefit the mechanic to be informed. That 



LITERATURE OF BOTANY BAY. 43 

much interest is felt in these lectures, not only by 
the mechanics for whose benefit they are chiefly pro- 
vided, but by the public in general, may be inferred 
from the large attendance of the members, and the 
fact of reporters from the press being regularly 
sent there, and a large portion of the newspapers' 
columns being frequently allotted to the publication 
of such reports. And this happened even when 
the subject of lectures was not much calculated to 
amuse or interest a popular audience. I had occa- 
sion more than once to make this remark during a 
course of lectures, delivered there by myself, on 
experimental philosophy, though they were not 
remarkable in any way either for their novelty, or 
their application to the mechanical arts. I would 
recommend every emigrant who intends remaining 
in Sydney or its vicinity, to become a member of 
this institution. The expense is a mere trifle, and 
the benefit is invaluable. The facility with which 
V money may be accumulated in this colony, and the 
numerous avenues which are here open for the 
profitable investment of capital, have an obvious 
tendency to divert the public attention from scien- 
tific pursuits to the sordid and debasing ideas of 
pounds, shillings, and pence ; and I feel assured 
that to any man of cultivated mind, newly arrived 
from England, the existence of a flourishing Mecha- 
nics' School of Arts in Botany Bay, numerously 
attended by all grades of society, from the Governor 
down to the chimney-sweep, must appear like an 
oasis in the wilderness — a solitary green spot, with 
its refreshing streams, on which the eyes of the 
weary traveller rest with delight. 



u 



CHAPTER XL 

CHURCHES AND CLERGYMEN. 

Having thus given you a peep at our Botany 
Bay literature, let me now direct your attention to 
the state of our Colonial Churches. You are no 
doubt aware that in this colony there is no Esta- 
blished Church, or state religion. Perhaps I ought 
rather to have said that there are no fewer than three 
Established Churches or religions in New South 
Wales ; for there are three religious denominations 
that are equally recognised and supported by the 
government. These denominations are the Epis- 
copalians, the Presbyterians, and the Roman 
Catholics. Other denominations, such as Baptists, 
Independents, Methodists, and Jews, have it in 
their power to claim and obtain pecuniary aid from 
the government. The nature and extent of the 
aid which the government affords, will be best seen 
from the following extracts from a Church Act 
passed in the year 1836, in the time of Governor 
Sir Richard Bourke. 

"1. That it is expedient and necessary, for the 
furtherance and promotion of religion and good 
government, that the government should extend its 
countenance and support to the dispensation of the 
ordinances of religion. 

'* 2. That it is equally expedient and necessary 
that this countenance and support should be extended 



CHURCHES AND CLERGYMEN. 45 

in such a way as not to render the ministers of 
religion independent of the Christian liberality and 
respect of their people. 

'* 3. That the exclusive establishment and en- 
dowment of any one Church, or body of professing 
Christians, in this colony, is equally inexpedient 
and impracticable. 

'* 4. That as there are at present three religious 
bodies, or Churches, already recognised and sup- 
ported by the state, in this colony, viz. : the 
Episcopalians, the Roman Catholics, and the Pres- 
byterians, who constitute the three most numerous 
and leading denominations in the colony, it is ex- 
pedient, &c., to extend the countenance and sup- 
port of the government to these Churches, or reli- 
gious bodies, indiscriminately ; leaving it in the 
power of the local government to extend that coun- 
tenance and support to other Churches, or religious 
denominations, as they shall see proper. 

"5. That it is expedient that the countenance 
and support of government should henceforth be 
extended to these Churches, or religious bodies, in 
the following manner, viz. : that in whatever place 
or district in the colony, not less than 300/. shall 
be contributed by the people for the erection of a 
church and manse for any one of these denomina- 
tions, an equal amount shall be paid from the colo- 
nial treasury ; and that if one hundred adult persons 
shall subscribe a declaration of their desire and 
intention to attend divine worship in the said 
church, a salary of 100?. shall be paid by the 
government to the minister ; that if two hundred 
adult persons shall subscribe such a declaration, a 



46 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

salary of 150?. shall be paid by the government ; 
and that if five hundred adult persons shall sub- 
scribe such a declaration, a salary of 200?. (which 
shall henceforth be the maximum in all cases) shall 
be contributed from the treasury." 

The act gives to the governor and executive 
council the discretionary power of allowing 100?. 
a year to the minister of a population less than one 
hundred, if, under the special circumstances of the 
case, they shall deem it expedient so to do. The 
fifth section of the act provides for the maintenance 
of ministers in places where no church or chapel 
has been erected ; the treasury allowance in such 
cases to be equivalent to the sum raised by private 
contribution, but not to exceed 100?. And the 
sixth section authorises the governor and executive 
council to require, at least once a year, some proof 
that each minister deriving support from the trea- 
sury, has sufficiently and regularly performed his 
duties. 

The assistance from the treasury for the erection 
of churches and dwelling-houses for the ministers, 
is to be given to an amount equal to the subscrip- 
tions of the people, but is not to exceed 1000?. 
sterling, in any one case. 

The passing of the Church Act, from which I 
have made the foregoing quotations, has been fol- 
lowed by extremely beneficial results to New South 
Wales. It has been the means of at least doubling 
the number of clergymen belonging to the three 
religious denominations already mentioned. Before 
the passing of this act, in the year 1836, there 
were only five ordained Presbyterian clergymen 



CHURCHES ANI> CLERGYMEN. 47 

in the colony : viz., Lang, Macgarvie, Cleland, 
Smythe, and Garven. There are now upwards of 
twenty ordained clergymen of the Church of Scot- 
land comfortably settled throughout the colony. 
The Episcopalian and Roman Catholic clergymen 
have also increased in numbers in about the same 
proportion as the Presbyterian. And still it may 
truly be said, in reference to each of these three 
denominations of clergymen, " and yet there is 
room." Several districts could be named which 
are destitute of the pubUc ordinances of religion, 
and where the people are both able and willing to 
contribute towards the support of efficient ministers 
of the gospel. The laxity of morals, and the pre- 
valence of crime in this colony, are in a great 
measure to be attributed to deficiency of religious 
instruction. Living far away from the house of 
God, and beyond the limits to which the nearest 
clergyman can extend his visits, men who have 
been religiously brought up in their native land, 
gradually forget to practise those lessons of piety 
which they were taught in their youth. There 
being nothing around them to distinguish the first 
day of the week from any of the rest, they cease 
to " remember the Sabbath-day to keep it holy ;'* 
and this great bulwark of our Christianity being 
broken down, they next walk in the counsel of the 
ungodly, and then stand in the way of sinners, 
until at last they contentedly sit down in the chair 
of the scornful. Between all these different steps 
of downward career, the transition is easy and 
natural. I am not here describing a hypothetical 



4^ 



TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 



case. I have in several instances been an eye- 
witness of it, during the last three years, on the 
Hume River. There, in a populous district, we 
are two hundred miles from the nearest church or 
clergyman. There is neither missionary, catechist, 
nor schoolmaster in all this district. It cannot 
boast even of a burial-ground ; and hence the dead 
are generally buried in sight of the huts. Their 
graves may be seen here and there in the forest, 
fenced in by a few rails. Owing to the total 
absence of all the means of religious instruction, 
the people here can hardly be said to be Christians. 
The very form of Christianity is lost among them. 
On several establishments no distinction is made 
between Sabbath and week-day. On one esta- 
blishment in particular, which it would not be pru- 
dent to publish, the people kept, they knew not 
how long, Friday instead of Sabbath-day. In 
reply to a question from me, one man stated, that 
from his having been for years accustomed to shave 
himself every Saturday evening, he was still able 
in the bush to tell which was Sunday by the exact 
length of his beard. To me this was quite a novel 
mode of reckoning time. Several parents having 
children unbaptised here, came at different times 
to me with an urgent request that I would baptise 
their children (some of whom were six or seven 
years of age), as the distance, two hundred miles, 
to either Yass or Melbourne, the residence of the 
nearest clergyman of any denomination, was such 
a journey as, in the imperfect state of the roads, 
they were unable to accomplish. And for pre- 



CHURCHES AND CLERGYMEN. 49 

cisely the same reason, there are several people 
living in a state of concubinage beyond the boun- 
daries of location. 

The continuance, if not the existence of such a 
state of things in a British colony, must surely be 
unknown to the Missionary Societies at home. In 
hopes that these few remarks may meet the eye 
of some member who feels an interest in the pro- 
mulgation of the Gospel in foreign parts, I will 
add that here is a wide and promising field for 
missionary exertions. All that ia required is a fit 
and proper clergyman to itinerate among us. He 
has no foreign language to acquire, as among the 
heathens. His labours would be confined to his 
own countrymen. All the qualifications requisite 
for the right performance of the task may, in my 
opinion, be summed up in a few words — prudence, 
imconquerable zeal, fervent piety, and at least a 
moderate share of natural and acquired abilities. 
He ought also to be a good rider, capable of 
enduring fatigue, and able occasionally to sleep 
out under a tree and dine even on a piece of half- 
roasted opossum at a black fellow's camp. If he 
could swim, it would be a useful accomplish- 
ment. The hospitality of the people here is pro- 
verbial, and any traveller who has even the slightest 
appearance of being respectable, is received and 
gratuitously accommodated by the squatter with 
every mark of attention and kindness. I shall, 
perhaps, be asked, if the religious deficiency is so 
great in this district, why do the settlers not 
liberally subscribe, and then as a body memorialise 
the Committee of the General Assembly, or some 

£ 



50 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

Missionary Society, to send out to them at their 
own (the colonists') expense, a suitable person to 
supply this deficiency ? The answer to such a 
question is simply this : — that it has uniformly 
been found that the desire for religious instruction 
is exactly in the inverse ratio to the need of it ; 
and that admitting the facts which I have above 
stated, the only inference which can be deduced 
from the silence of the people on this subject is, that 
they have sunk into a state of total indifference. 
If no minister is sent to them until they apply for 
one, I fear that time will never come. Life must 
be put into the dead body before there is any 
desire either felt or expressed for nourishment. 

In the remote western district of the colony, 
towards Wellington Valley and Mudgee, the Rev. 
CoUn Stewart, an ordained clergyman of the 
Church of Scotland, has been for the last few 
years itinerating among the scattered settlers or 
bushmen with indefatigable perseverance and con- 
siderable success. 

The Episcopalians, from being five times as 
numerous, and probably five times as wealthy as 
the Presbyterians in the colony, have been able to 
secure the services of a larger number of clergy- 
men whom they have spread over a larger extent 
of territory. But even they have hitherto found 
it inconvenient to spare a clergyman to itinerate 
among the far distant bushmen. 

The following is a Hst of most of those colonial 
towns and places .at each of which a Presbyterian 
clergyman is settled: — Port Macquarie, Newcas- 
tle, Maitland, William's River, Patrick's Plains, 



CHURCHES AND CLERGYMEN. 51 

Bathurst, Hartley, Windsor, Portland Head, 
Parramatta, Campbelltown, Goulburn, Braidwood, 
WooUongong, and Melbourne. 

In Sydney there are three Presbyterian churches, 
five Episcopalian, three Roman Catholic, one 
Wesleyan, one Baptist, one Independent, one 
Australian Methodist, one Bethel Union, one 
** Friends' Society House," and one Jewish Syna- 
gogue : or, in all, eighteen places of public wor- 
ship, which, excepting the last named (the 
Synagogue), are open every Sabbath. It is much 
to be regretted, however, that a large number of 
the inhabitants seldom enter a church-door. In 
Sydney, Sabbath desecration is a crying evil. The 
day is spent by many in "boating," driving, 
riding, drinking, visiting, &c> Most of the 
churches are more than half empty. It will, 
perhaps, be insinuated, that this indiflference on 
the part of the people about attending the public 
ordinances of the sanctuary must have been occa- 
sioned by the dulness or general inefficiency of the 
preacher. Not at all. I have heard every Pres- 
byterian clergyman in New South Wales, and a 
large proportion of the Episcopalian clergy preach, 
and though I do not pretend to be a very profound 
judge in such matters, I have no hesitation in 
asserting, that at least a majority of our colonial 
clergy might, in any way, stand a competition 
against an equal number taken indiscriminately 
from the clergy at home ; and though I am aware 
that we have here a sprinkling of miserable pulpit 
orators, who came to this colony because they 
despaired of obtaining any situation in the chuix'k 
e2 



52 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

at home, I perfectly coincide with the view given 
in the following extract from a volume of very- 
useful sermons recently published by my friend 
the Rev. William Hamilton, of Goulburn. *' I 
cannot suppose the reason, which may sometimes 
be urged by those who, from other considerations, 
have allowed themselves to forsake church, namely, 
that no interesting ministrations, such as are 
worth attending, are to be enjoyed there, actually 
operates to produce non-attendance. There is not 
the smallest room to doubt that all the ordinances 
of our holy religion are on the whole as purely and 
faithfully administered in this colony, as in Great 
Britain at large. And I will venture confidently 
to assert, that there are preachers in this colony, 
whose discourses are pronounced tedious and in- 
sipid, and whose churches are deserted, who would 
be flocked after, and highly esteemed, as able if 
not eloquent expounders of God's word, in Eng- 
land or Scotland." 

Several clergymen of the three leading denomi- 
nations. Episcopalians, Presbyterians, and Roman 
Catholics, have each of them two or three different 
preaching stations, widely apart from one another, 
which they visit at stated periods. This is going 
to work the right way : it is removing the general 
excuse of distance, and forcing the great truths of 
the Gospel upon the notice of the people. This is 
doubtless a toilsome undertaking for the clergy- 
man, but there is no other way of reaching many 
of the settlers throughout this colony. 

It is deeply to be deplored that Puseyism has 
extensively crept into the Church of England in 



CHURCHES AND CLERGYMEN. 53 

this colony. It is the very heresy, embodying the 
doctrine of apostolical succession, baptismal rege- 
neration, and a great deal of other sublime and 
monkish nonsense, which is best fitted to strike 
root, spring up, and gather strength in a lax com- 
munity of Christians. It is among the higher 
classes of Episcopalians that it has made most con- 
verts. To prove that the semi-popish doctrines of 
Dr. Pusey have made no small progress here, many 
facts might be adduced. I will just state one of 
them : — An eminent physician, brother to the 
Rev. James FuUerton, LL.D., one of our Sydney 
Presbyterian clergymen, who lately published a 
work condemnatory of this heresy, having a few 
weeks ago announced, through the public papers, 
his intention of offering himself as candidate for 
the situation of physician to the Infirmary esta- 
blished in connection with the Sydney Dispensary, 
called personally on the voters to solicit their sup- 
port, but was in several instances refused by some 
of the most influential men in our city, who avowed 
that the sole reason of their refusal was that his 
brother, the Rev. Dr. FuUerton, had written and 
published a book against Puseyism ! 

Nearly all the clergymen that I have yet heard 
preach in this colony, read their sermons from their 
manuscripts. A few who, like Diotrephes, loved to 
have the pre-eminence, attempted either to extem- 
porise or to preach from notes, but it was generally 
a failure. The only good extemporaneous preacher 
I have ever heard here is the Rev. Wm. Maclntyre, 
of Maitland. 

There is one pleasing circumstance which I 
must mention in connection with public worship in 



54 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

this colony : many persons have, like myself, been 
agreeably surprised at seeing the marked attention 
paid to the service of God by those few who do 
attend chm-ch. There is here less yawning, less 
listlessless, and assuredly less sleeping, than I 
have often witnessed in my younger days when 
attending the churches in evangelical Scotland. 



CHAPTER XII. 

MORALS AND SOCIETY. 



If I had any selfish interest in advising you to 
emigrate to Australia, I would not say a single 
syllable about the morals or society of Botany Bay. 
But I have no wish that any of you should come 
here, neither have I the least inducement to con- 
ceal from you any of our moral deformities ; and 
I must then candidly tell you that our calendar 
of crime is truly frightful, embracing murder, 
highway robbery, stabbing, arson, cutting and 
maiming, burglary, shooting and wounding, rape, 
piracy, perjury, cattle-stealing, <fec. In one year 
no fewer than 116 sentences of capital convictions 
had been passed for crimes of violence alone ; for 
you are no doubt aware that, since 1833, capital 
punishment for what were considered minor oflfences, 
such as forgery, theft, &c., ceased to be awarded. 

If you were only to peep into the Sydney police 
office on a Monday forenoon, you would there see 
a lovely specimen of our morality. Scores of men, 
women, boys, and girls, who had been dragged off 
the streets on the preceding evening for drunken- 



MORALS AND SOCIETY. 55 

ness, fighting, and other similar offences, standing 
with brazen faces to hear their respectiA^e sentences. 
You may then every two or three minutes hear 
thundered foi-th with the voice of authority from 
the magistrates' bench, ** Six hours to the stocks 
— ten days to the cells — twenty days to the tread- 
mill — ^fifty lashes (on his bare back) !" 

Among the motley group of culprits thus con- 
victed of drunkenness, riot, theft, <fcc., you see 
smart-looking girls of fourteen or fifteen years of 
age ; elderly and young women, dressed in silk 
gowns and Leghorn bonnets, broken noses, or no 
noses at all, and black eyes. I do not mean eyes 
naturally black, but only artificially blackened by 
the kind husband through sheer affection — a pair 
of artificially black eyes being the Botany Bay 
coat of arms. I need not tell you that the great 
domestic amusement here is that famous game 
called "playing at cross purposes,'' a spirited 
sort of bodily exercise, which I believe is not alto- 
gether unknown in some famihes in England. 

In the vicinity of Sydney, and on all the prin- 
cipal roads in the interior of the colony, bushrangers 
are frequently committing depredations. They are 
generally well armed and mounted, and go in 
bodies of from two or three to half-a-dozen. Their 
main object being plunder, they seldom commit 
murder unless they are resisted in their attempts 
at the commission of robbery. Within the last 
few weeks they have two or three times stopped 
and robbed our mail coaches loaded with passengers. 
I almost forgot to tell you, that with very few 
exceptions, these bushrangers are convicts who 
have run away from their masters, or broken away 



5Q TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

from government iron-gangs, and taken themselves 
to the bush (the woods) to procure a livelihood by 
robbery. A large majority of them are Irish 
Roman Catholics. Throughout the interior, and 
even in Sydney, they find numerous receivers for 
their stolen and robbed property. These receivers 
not only harbour them, but provide them from time 
to time with supplies of ammunition, food and 
clothing, and inform them when valuable stores 
are about leaving Sydney, and by what roads ; 
also, what gentlemen are supposed to keep money 
in their houses, and how such gentlemen could be 
most easily robbed. In May last, a worthy friend 
of my own, a Mr. James Noble, was thus murdered 
by three bushrangers (convicts) in his own house, 
in the heart of Sydney, on a Sunday evening, as he 
was reading his Bible, the leaves of which were found 
stained with his blood. Mr. Noble was a commis- 
sion-agent, and believed to keep money in his house. 
The two prevailing vices here are drunkenness 
and avarice. These are our besetting sins. From 
these two sources proceed almost all the crimes 
which stain the annals of the colony. That drunk- 
enness is common, you may reasonably infer from 
the enormous sum of money paid as duty here on 
imported and colonially distilled spirits. In the 
year 1836, the consumers were 62,925 in number, 
and yet the direct revenue from ardent spirits 
amounted in that year to £127,000, showing that 
every male and female throughout the colony, 
above twelve years of age, paid in direct taxation 
for ardent spirits alone more than £2. Any man 
who is addicted to the free use of intoxicating 
liquors, has overstepped the barrier which the 



MORALS AND SOCIETY. 57 

dictates of reason and the obligations of religion 
have interposed between him and the commission of 
crime ; drunkenness obliterates the line of demar- 
cation between good and evil ; and the drunkard, 
having thus wilfully resigned the guidance of his 
reason, is ready, when temptation offers, to pur- 
chase the indulgence of his passions at whatever 
hazard either to his body or soul. As some of the 
offsprings and concomitants of drunkenness — curs- 
ing and swearing, ribaldry and blasphemy, annoy 
the ear wherever you go. Temperance societies 
and total abstinence societies are here supported 
by large numbers of consistent members ; but the 
great majority of these members have never been 
drunkards, and they joined these societies for no 
other purpose than to set a good example. The 
great body of drunkards, young and old, still cling to 
their vicious habits ; the moral leprosy is perpetu- 
ated — ^filling our country with crime, our gaols with 
inmates, and our grave-yards with food for the worm. 
But avarice, that " auri sacra fames," is neither 
less common, nor in its results less detrimental to 
the interests of morality and religion, than is drunk- 
enness. Money, money, money. Nothing is con- 
sidered disgraceful here but the want of money. 
It covers an immense multitude of sins. Acts of 
swindling, if cleverly done, do not here, as in Eng- 
land, exclude a man from society, and brand '^him 
with infamy ; it is only poverty that excludif&^even 
one brother from the house of a richer brother in 
Botany Bay. In this colony it is 

" Cash makes the man, and want of it the fellow, 
The rest is all but leather and prunello." 



58 TEN TEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

In order to convince you tliat I am not dealing 
in general assertions unsupported by facts, in 
stating that swindling, cleverly committed, does 
not here exclude a rich man from what is called 
high life, I will copy at random two or three 
authentic anecdotes, from a collection of some 
scores which I sometime ago gathered, as 
illustrative of Botany Bay morals. About six 

years ago, Mr. , who is a Sydney merchant 

and bank director, attended a land sale of town 
allotments, on the Parramatta road, at a place 
called Burwood, within six or seven miles of 
Sydney, when he entered an adjoining public- 
house, kept by a man named C , to whom 

Mr. • stated that he came up for the purpose 

of buying some allotments, which were situated 
contiguous to C.'s property, on which C. requested 
him, as a particular favour, not to do so, as he 
himself intended to buy them, and that he could 
hardly do without them. It was ultimately agreed 
that the bank director should receive 50/. for not 
opposing C. at the sale. A cheque for this sum 
was drawn out and given to the director. The 
sale proceeded. The allotments in question were 
bought, not by the director, who stood looking on, 
but by a person in his employment, for they were 

marked down in the auctioneer's book in Mr.' 's 

name. The publican was furious, took his horse 
and galloped to Sydney to stop the payment of 

the cheque at the bank : but Mr. 's horse was 

the better goer of the two. It was after bank hours 
before either of them arrived : yet Mr. 's influ- 
ence as a bank director having readily secured him a 



MORALS AND SOCIETY. 59 

hearing, he received and pocketed the 501. before 
the thick- winded pubHcan could obtain an audience. 

A few years ago, a respectable settler, living 
with his family on his own purchased farm of 
upwards of two thousand acres, on the Hunter's 

River, mortgaged his land to Mr. B , of Sydney, 

for about 800Z., to enable him to purchase live- 
stock, which was then selling at a very high price. 
In consequence of the price of live-stock falling 
soon afterwards^ and his land yielding him nothing, 
he was unable, not only to pay oflf the mortgage, 

but even the interest. Mr. B , the mortgagee, 

advertised the estate for sale. The settler had been 
ill and confined to his house ; yet on seeing his 
house and lands advertised for sale he contrived to 
come to Sydney. He was too late. The sale 

was over. A Mr. , a Sydney merchant and 

bank director, (not the Burwood-town-allotment 
gentleman above referred to,) attended the sale in 
the settler's name, and addressed the people as- 
sembled in the auctioneer's room in nearly the 
following terms : — ** You are perhaps aware that 
the property which is now about to be here offered 
for sale belongs to a most worthy and industrious 
settler — an old acquaintance and friend of my own, 
who has a numerous small family depending upon 
him for their support. This is his only property — 
his house and home. If he loses it he is thrown 
destitute on the world. My object in attending 
here this day is, if possible, to buy in the estate for 
this worthy family." 

This short speech was effectual. It appealed to 
the best feelings of our nature ; and I am certain. 



QO TEN TEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

that ii you had only seen the long-faced solemn- 
looking director, you would not for a moment have 
doubted his sincerity. The estate was put up for 
sale at only the amount of burdens, about 1000/., 
upon it. There was no bidder. The bank director 
offered the up-set price. The estate was knocked 
down to him. The deeds were made over to him, 
and immediately afterwards he sold the same 
estate for about £2500, pocketed the money, and 
laughed both at the settler and at the people whom 
he had so cleverly duped in the auctioneer's room. 
The settler, whom I knew intimately, called on 
me a few days after the sale, when he told me the 
above particulars. This affair seemed to have 
broken his heart. As he had no money, the law- 
yers would do nothing for him. Were the law of 
libel what it ought to be, I would here give in full 
the names of the two bank directors who figure in 
the foregoing anecdotes ; but Lord Tenterden has 
long ago decided, that the more- true the statements 
are which affect private idditiduals, the greater is 
the libel. / // 

Within the last few haonths, a large stockholder 
in the Murrumbidgee "district, having visited his 
station there, found, Apparently in a dying state, 
one of his servants, who had been at one time & 
convict, but who had by industry and economy 
become possessed of a little property, partly in 
money and partly in horses. He requested his 
master to write a will for him, conveying his pro- 
perty to his only surviving brother in Ireland. On 
the following day, the master, accompanied by two 
men who were to act ae witnesses, came with the 



MORALS AND SOCIETY. 61 

will into the sick man's bed-room, to procure Ms 
signature, which he was earnestly pressed to put 
to it immediately. But the sick man, suspecting 
that there was something wrong, alleged that he 
was then too much indisposed to sit up to sign his 
name, hut that if the paper was left with him, he 
would sign it next morning. After some hesitation 
the master left it. The man got it read to him. 
It was a regularly drawn-up will, making over all 
his property to the master himself! The invahd, 
who was then hardly able to crawl, immediately 
left the place. I have known him for years, and 
always considered him a steady hard-working man. 
It was in February last, a few months after leaving 
his old 'master, that the above particulars were 
given to me by the man himself, when he showed 
me the will, written in his master's own hand ! Yes, 
written in the hand of that villain who has cattle 
upon a thousand hills, and who derives a princely 
income from his land and houses, flocks and herds. 
The curse of Heaven must sooner or later alight 
upon such ill-gotten pelf. Nathan's parable to 
David is here more than realised. 

This imbounded spirit of avarice frequently 
leads to perjury. The following is an example : 
A tailor in Sydney summoned a gentleman for a 
suit of clothes before the commissioner of the 
court of requests. The gentleman, never having 
had any dealings whatever with the taUor, was 
quite surprised on receiving the summons. He 
called on a lawyer, and explained to him the cir- 
cumstances. The lawyer told him to give himself 
no trouble about the matter, and promised that he 



62 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

would manage it for him. On the appointed day 
the case came on ; the tailor duly swore that he 
sold and delivered the clothes to the gentleman— 
but to the great surprise of the gentleman, who 
now concluded that the case was decided against 
him, the lawyer called a witness who swore that he 
was present, and saw the gentleman pay to the 
tailor the full amount of the clothes. 

I have reason to believe that in some cases 
immoral acts in this colony proceed more from 
ignorance than from any preconcerted design. A 
remarkable instance of this kind was related to me 
by the Rev. Mr. H. In 1840 a decent looking 
couple, after the usual proclamation in his church, 
came to him to be married. It was afterwards, 
however, discovered that the bridegroom had been 
through some accident detained at home, and that 
it was his brother who arrived accompanied by the 
bride and two or three of her friends. They 
waited a whole hour for the bridegroom, but never 
told the clergyman the real cause of their waiting. 
At last they stated they would wait no longer. 
My friend accordingly married them, and they 
returned home. When this irreparable blunder 
was afterwards discovered, the married brother, in 
the simplicity of his heart, stated that he thought 
he could transfer the young wife in the evening to 
his brother, the real bridegf-oom, whom he waited 
a whole hour, and that he "was unwilling to 
return home frofii the parson, after having come 
so far, without doing some business by way of 
securing the woman." I forgot to inquire of my 
friend the Rev. Mr. H., with which of the two bro- 



MORALS AND SOCIETY. 63\ 

thers the blooming bride has since lived : whether 
it was with her real, or with her intended husband. 

This is, I think, the greatest extension of " a 
power of attorney" that I have ever known given 
in this colony. 

It would not be fair to conclude these remarks 
without mentioning the fact, that the state of 
morals in New South Wales has been greatly 
improved within the last few years. This salutary 
change has been produced by a variety of causes, 
such as the large numbers of reputable emigrants 
that have arrived here within these few years. 
The combined efforts of an increased number of 
clergymen and schoolmasters have greatly tended 
to neutralise convict influence, and reduce these 
black sheep to their degraded level. 

Another great cause of the improved state of 
morals here is to be found in the altered character 
of the colonial press. Convict editors, as formerly, 
are now nowhere employed to preach to her 
Majesty's lieges their moral and religious duties. 
And the press has a very great influence on the 
colonial public : everybody here is able to pay for 
a newspaper, and is moreover anxious to hear the 
news of the times. 

The convicts, that curse of this fair colony, a^e 
now rapidly diminishing in number and influence. 
Their day is gone ; and an act of the British Par- 
liament has been passed to prevent any more of 
the sweepings of English, Irish, and Scotch jails 
being sent to New South Wales to pollute our 
moral atmosphere, and render the finest country in 
the world a perfect pandemonium. 



64 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

The different benches of magistrates are now- 
much more chary than they used to be in granting 
licenses for public-houses. Many improper per- 
sons, who once kept public-houses, have been lat- 
terly refused the renewal of their licenses ; and 
every publican whose house is improperly con- 
ducted is Hable to have his Ucense cancelled. 
This regulation has been productive of happy 
effects to the colony. At one time the most direct 
road to fortune was by selling ardent spirits. Im- 
mense fortunes were thus reaHsed by very ques- 
tionable characters in a few years ; but then a 
public-house was nothing better than a den of 
thieves. Houses and land, and herds of cattle, 
were made over to the publican for rum by the 
besotted settler. 

Those gentlemen in England who feel any 
interest in the prosperity of the Australian colo- 
nies, ought to exert themselves in endeavouring 
to stop the usual allowance of ardent spirits to 
those emigrants whose passage is paid by the 
government. The issuing of spirits as part of 
their rations on ship-board during so long a voyage, 
has, in many instances, been the means of first 
creating a desire, and then of gradually establish- 
ing a habit which rendered the emigrants a dis- 
grace and nuisance to the colony. It is painful 
to witness groups of emigrants, soon after their 
arrival, staggering along the streets of Sydney in 
a state of intoxication. 

The great disproportion of the sexes is another 
obstacle to the moral improvement of this colony. 
This is a serious evil in the eye of the philosopher 



LAND AND SQUATTING REGULATIONS. 65 

and the philanthropist, and is such as requires 
for its removal the interposition of the British 
government. It is to be hoped, that in the selection 
of emigrants who shall receive a free passage to 
Australia, no unmarried man above the age of 
eighteen shall be deemed eligible. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

LAND AND SQUATTING REGULATIONS. 

The total quantity of lands alienated up to last 
year, within the nineteen counties into which New 
South Wales is divided, is nearly 6,000,000 (six 
millions) acres. The greater part of this land 
was given as grants ; the remainder was bought. 
The system of free grants was abolished 
fourteen years ago. Since that time the govern- 
ment sold, by public auction, whatever land was 
applied for, provided the application met with the 
approval of the Governor and the Surveyor- 
General. For the first seven years after the 
abolition of grants, the crown lands were offered 
for sale by public auction at a minimum price 
of 5s. per acre. The minimum price was after- 
wards, that is, about seven years ago, raised 
by the Home Government to 12s. per acre, and 
three years ago, to 20s. per acre ; for in the year 
1842 an Act of the British Parliament passed for 
the purpose of establishing a fixed minimum price 
of land in the Australian colonies of 20s. per acre. 
Very little land has been bought here from the 



£ *. 


d. 


105,163 4 


8 


120,171 13 


5 


116,324 18 


11 


154,744 8 





313,052 16 


9 



66 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

government since the promulgation of this Act of 
1842. The following official statement will show 
the large revenue which had been derived during 
the five years ending 1 840, from the sale of crown 
lands within this colony ; — 

1836 .... 

1837 

1838 .... 

1839 

1840 .... 

809,457 1 9 

The emigrant who intends to purchase land 
here, applies at the Surveyor-General's office, 
where he inspects the maps of the colony, and sees 
what lands are unappropriated. He then visits 
and personally examines various locahties which 
he thinks would suit him. Having made his 
selection, he applies for it to the government, 
which, after one month's notice in the case of 
emigrants newly arrived, and after three months' 
notice in all other cases, will put up to sale, 
by public auction, at a minimum price of 205. per 
acre, the lands so applied for, if approved of by 
the Governor, whose approval, however, is always 
given as a matter of course. 

If the selection is made so as to encroach on a 
rich neighbour, the emigrant may be opposed 
at the sale, and obliged either to pay too much for 
his land, or witness an unexpected rival become 
the purchaser of it. It may also happen that 
through some unforeseen circumstance the measure- 
ment of the land applied for is either not completed. 



LAND AND SQUATTING REGULATIONS. 67 

or not reported previous to the day of sale, in 
which case the sale is delayed. 

** With the exception of special cases, the 
reasons of which must he assigned, each lot so put 
up for sale will consist of not less than one square 
mile or 640 acres. If a section with water 
frontage does not contain this full quantity, the 
section hehind it will he added to the lot. The 
highest bidder must pay down a deposit of 10 per 
cent, at the time of sale, and the remainder of the 
purchase-money within one month, under penalty 
of forfeiting both the land and deposit." 

Instead of buying land from the government, 
the emigrant might save himself much time and 
trouble, by buying from private individuals a 
small farm, partially cleared, with house and other 
improvements on it, at a less sum than the govern- 
ment minimum price. I have known several small 
farms of this description, which have been sold 
within the last few months at less than 10*. 
an acre. 

A few days ago a farm of 2000 (two thousand) 
acres of excellent land, well watered, all fenced 
in, a great part of it under cultivation, with a large 
and substantial dwelling-house, an orchard, garden, 
stables, men's huts, and barn, which cost =£200, 
was all offered for £800 (eight hundred). It 
is situated in a beautiful valley, near the town 
of Berrima, 85 miles from Sydney, on the mail 
road to Port Phillip. In May, 1843, a farm 
belonging to Mr. Ward Stephens, on the River 
Hunter, measuring 1200 acres, and partially 
improved, was sold at Is. 3d. per acre, or £75 for 
F 2 



68 TEN TEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

the whole of this farm of twelve hundred acres ! 
There are many such opportunities which the 
emigrant, with a small capital, may have of 
suiting himself without either losing time and 
money by the delay, or running the risk of compe- 
tition arising from his attempting to buy land from 
government. 

Some emigrants prefer leasing for a certain 
number of years farms already cleared. This has 
frequently been done by families who wished to 
gain colonial experience before making any pur- 
chase in land, or who preferred to lay out the 
greater part of their capital in live stock or some 
other investment. Farms of all descriptions and 
of any extent may be obtained on lease of from 
two or three to ten or twelve years. Yet the 
preferable way is to buy the farm, how small 
soever it may be in extent. A man has never 
the same inducement to exert himself when he 
knows that all his improvements will, after the 
lapse of a few years, pass into the hands of 
his landlord, who will turn him and his family 
adrift to begin the world anew. 

Whatever quantity of land a man cultivates, 
let it be absolutely his own, and then he will 
in good spirits and in right earnest begin to 
improve what he knows is to descend to his 
children's children. 

To induce any newly-arrived emigrant to take a 
farm on a clearing lease here is downright cruelty. 
Many a poor fellow has thus been robbed of 
his little capital, his time, and his labour, in 
clearing the heavily-timbered estates of our rich 



LAND AND SQUATTING REGULATIONS. 69 

landed proprietors. Whatever, therefore, you do 
after landing in AustraHa, avoid taking a farm on 
a clearing lease, no matter what may be the soil, the 
situation, the duration of the lease, or other plau- 
sible inducements held out to you by the man 
of acres. 

Now, supposing that either you have no money 
or no inclination to buy land, whether cleared 
or uncleared, and that you are equally disinclined 
to lease a farm, or, in short, to have anything at 
all to do with farming, and yet that you are 
desirous to become the owner of sheep and cattle, 
how are you to obtain pasture for them, and 
a home for yourself ? The answer to your ques- 
tion is, — become a squatter, like more than one 
half of all the rich and respectable stockholders in the 
colony. More than one half of all the present 
members of the Legislative Council are squatters, 
and, agreeably to the confession of the Lord Chan- 
cellor, Her Majesty Queen Victoria herself is but 
a squatter in Australia ; and surely it cannot 
be wrong to follow the example of such an amiable 
lady. 

Therefore, without adducing any further argu- 
ments, I shall now take it for granted, as a thing 
admitted, if not fully proved, that to squat is 
common, is right, is fashionable. Then comes 
the other question, what it is to squat? and what 
you may, or can, or might, could, would, or 
should, do in order that you may or can squat ? 
All that you have to do is, first, to accompany 
beyond the limits of location some friend or ac- 
quaintance who knows the district where you wish 



70 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

to have your station. Push beyond the farthest 
outstations, making all possible search and inquiry 
as you proceed, and, as a means of further securing 
the object of your excursion, stipulate to give a 
trifle to some stockman connected with one of the 
farthest outstations, on condition that he shall 
accompany you and endeavour to find for you 
a suitable place for your flocks and herds. The 
requisites are the following : — A reasonable dis- 
tance, say seven or eight miles, from your nearest 
neighbour, either plains or open forest land, 
plenty of good grass, and, above all, plenty of 
water in the dryest season. Timber for building 
and fencing can be got conveniently anywhere, 
except at Maneroo, and one or two other places. 

Immediately after you have selected your run, 
write to the Commissioner of Crown Lands for the 
district, applying for what is called a depasturing 
license. In your application to the Commissioner 
you describe as nearly as you can the boundaries 
of your run, and the extent or number of square 
miles you claim. If the Commissioner has 
reason to beheve that you are a reputable person, 
and worthy of holding a squatting license, this 
application will secure your run against any other 
squatter for six months, so as to allow you time to 
build your hut and bring your live stock on the 
ground. Your application is forwarded by the 
Commissioner, with his approval, to the Colonial 
Treasurer, Sydney, or Sub-Colonial Treasurer, 
Melbourne, according to the district in which 
3'our selection is made, and you will be required to 
pay at the Treasury the sum of <£10 sterling for 



LAND AND SQUATTING REGULATIONS. 71 

a squatting license, which entitles you to occupy 
your station and run for one year, provided your 
license is taken out in July, for all squatting 
licenses expire on the 30th of June yearly, and 
must be renewed thereafter by the payment 
of .£10. 

Besides the <£10 for a depasturing license, the 
squatter must also pay to the government the 
following half-yearly assessment on all the sheep, 
cattle, and horses, which he may have on his 
station : — for every sheep one halfpenny, for cattle 
three halfpence each, and for horses three pence 
each. 

Hitherto one license has been held sufficient 
to entitle the squatter to occupy any reasonable 
number of stations of any extent in the same 
district, but the Governor has last year proposed 
to make every station pay a separate license, and 
to allow no station to include more than 20 
(twenty) square miles, unless a double license, or 
£20, be paid yearly for it. The colonists have 
furiously opposed this proposed law, which, there- 
fore, has not been yet enforced. 

There is no doubt, however, that the present 
squatting regulations require to be revised and 
modified. Many abuses which I could specify 
have been gradually introduced. I know of a 
whole family, who occupy some hundreds of square 
miles, for which they pay only one license, or £\0, 
besides the usual assessment. 



72 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

LIVE STOCK. 

At the formation of the colony in the year 1788, 
fifty-seven years ago, the live stock consisted of 
4 cows, 1 bull, 1 hull-calf, 3 mares, 3 colts, and 
1 stallion. No sheep. Twenty-two years after- 
wards, or in the year 1810, on the arrival of 
Governor Macquarie, the live stock of the colony 
was found to be— of cattle, 12,442 ; sheep, 25,888 ; 
hogs, 9,544 ; horses, 1,134 : and in the month 
of October, in the year 1821, immediately before 
Governor Macquarie 's departure from this colony, 
the live stock was — of cattle, 102,939 ; sheep, 
290,158 ; hogs, 33,906 ; horses, 4,564. 

For the introduction of fine woolled sheep, the 
colony has been indebted to the late John Mac- 
arthur, Esq., whose flocks, in the year 1803, 
amounted to nearly 4,000, derived chiefly from 
thirty Indian sheep purchased in the year 1793, 
from a ship which arrived in Sydney from Calcutta. 
To these thirty sheep Mr. Macarthur had added 
ten of the pure Spanish Merino breed. This is the 
origin of our grand staple commodity, which re- 
quired last year from Sydney alone forty ships for 
its transport to London, amounting in weight to 
10,000,000 lbs., and reaUsing in Sydney the large 
sum of £625,000 — a pretty income from one 
article alone from so young a colony. 



LIVE STOCK. 



73 



Pigs are easily fed here where milk, peaches, 
maize, &c., are so plentiful. You scarcely pass 
a station or hut without seeing a lot of pigs either 
running ahout, or in a sty at some short distance. 
I have seen herds of two hundred of them together 
feeding out in the woods and followed by the 
swineherd. They were of all sizes, of all ages, 
and of all sorts of breed. They got very little to 
eat, except what they picked up in the bush. 

Many parts of this country are extremely well 
adapted for the rearing and maintenance of goats, 
and for no other purpose. In the year 1832, a 
Mr. Riley imported to this colony a few Cashmere 
goats from France. In three years the number 
increased to three hundred. About that time Mr. 
Riley exported three of them to the Cape of Good 
Hope, — one pure male, and one female, and one 
cross-bred female, produced from our common 
goat and the Cashmere. These three sold at the 
Cape for £150. Last year I saw a fine flock of 
these goats near Sydney, at a farm called Canter- 
bury, belonging to a Mr. Campbell, a Sydney 
merchant, and lately a member of the Legislative 
Council. 

There is one great advantage attending goats, 
viz., they are liable to no disease of any conse- 
quence. They are also more hardy and more 
easily fed than sheep. Several of our great colo- 
nial stockholders occupy runs including many 
thousands of acres, which are useless for either 
sheep, cattle, or horses, but which would well 
answer for feeding numerous herds of the common 
goats ; and I have not the slightest doubt that 



74 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

these would yield a liberal profit to the grazier. 
The J require but little care. They would travel 
to market with greater ease and expedition than 
any sheep. They increase very rapidly, in most 
cases producing twins : and now that boiling- 
down establishments are formed extensively 
throughout the colony, the male increase, when 
full grown, might be yearly boiled down for their 
tallow. The skin is thrice as valuable as that of 
a sheep, and it is a well-known fact that goats' 
tallow always commands a higher price than either 
sheep or bullocks' tallow. In hardness and purity 
candles made from goats' tallow difier but little 
from those of sperm or wax. 

According to an official report made by the 
Colonial Secretary, and published by the Legisla- 
tive Council, the live stock in the colony of New 
South Wales, on the 30th of September, 1843, 
was as follows : — 5Q,5S5 horses ; 897,219 horned 
cattle ; 4,804,^846 sheep ; 46,086 pigs. Of these 
there were then in the Sydney or Middle District, 
40,184 horses; 304,886 horned cattle ; 1,596,417 
sheep ; 43,045 pigs : in the Southern or Port 
Phillip District, 1,349 horses ; 19,419 horned 
cattle ; 185,322 sheep ; 3,141 pigs : and in the 
Commissioners' Districts without the limits of 
location, 15,052 horses ; 572,914 horned cattle ; 
3,023,107 sheep. Pigs pay no assessment, num- 
ber is therefore unknown to the government. 



HORSES. 



CHAPTER XV. 

HORSES. 



75 



The enormous number of horses, now upwards 
of 70,000, we have here for so small a population, 
will no doubt surprise you ; and you will naturally 
ask — for what purpose do you rear such an im- 
mense number of animals which neither carry 
fleeces for the woollen manufacturer, nor flesh for 
the butcher ? In reply I must inform you, that a 
very large number of horses is required and annu- 
ally ruined in performing our ordinary work in 
this colony. 

Everything here is done on horseback — every 
man you meet is on horseback. In the interior a 
boy will not travel from the hut to the stockyard 
except on horseback. A man will walk two miles 
to catch a horse to carry him one mile. A black 
fellow will not proceed fifty paces for you unless 
you lend him a horse to ride. So well known and 
estabhshed is this rule, that at some stations a 
dozen saddle horses are always kept for the work 
of the place. Every stockman who looks after 
your cattle expects two or three horses to be 
appropriated entirely to his own use while in 
your employment. Almost every respectable clerk 
and shopkeeper in Sydney, and in every other 
town throughout the colony, has his high-bred 
horse, on which he cuts all sorts of capers and 



76 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

vagaries as often as he can slip away from his 
desk or counter. Every shoemaker and every tailor 
does the same— the son of Crispin throws away 
his last, and the Vulgar Fraction his goose to mount 
his horse. I have seen fiddlers and dancing-masters 
frequently ride their high-spirited chargers and 
drive their tandems. Every man who wishes to 
move out of Sydney buys a horse. Nothing ban 
be seen or done without a horse. In India there is 
now a great demand for our horses. Shiploads of 
them have already been sent thither, which have 
sold remarkably well, averaging £80 each ; the 
expense of freight, fodder, &c., is only about £20. 
And there are now in the colony three agents from 
India selecting and buying horses for the East 
India Company's service. 

Already has New Zealand been partly supplied 
by us with horses ; and that rising colony must 
come to us as the nearest market for further 
supplies of horses. Every new colony that may be 
formed on any part of this great continental island, 
or within two or three thousand miles of it, must 
be supplied by us with horses. Every new station 
which may be formed either within or beyond the 
prescribed boundaries of the colony necessarily 
absorbs a certain number of our surplus horses. 
Every respectable settler that arrives among us 
buys a horse. The land adjacent to the main 
roads within many miles of Sydney, being now 
fenced in from the public, horses are beginning to 
be used instead of bullocks for the conveyance of 
goods to and from our metropolis ; and wherever 
expedition is required in the carriage of supplies 



HORSES. 



77 



to stations, goods to countrj'^ stores and other 
places, or in sending agricultural or dairy produce 
to market, horses, which travel so much faster 
than bullocks, are now employed. Carriers gene- 
rally employ horse-teams. In ploughing also bul- 
locks are now in several instances superseded by 
horses, which not only do the work quicker, but 
save the expense of a man, for in ploughing with 
a team of bullocks two men are required, one to 
drive them and the other to hold the plough ; 
whereas the man who ploughs with horses can also 
drive them, or rather guide them by means of his 
reins. In the absence of railroads, canals, and 
navigable rivers, horses will always be in demand. 
If a poor man wishes to remove his family, he 
must buy a horse. The servant often prefers a 
horse to money in payment of his wages. The 
bond-man frequently saves his few shillings, re- 
ceived as indulgences for good conduct, in order 
that when he becomes free he may buy a horse to 
carry him. Rich and poor, young and old, male 
and female, bond and free, all equally " put their 
trust in horses." Without horses we should all 
be as fixed and stationary in one place as the 
oysters which cling to and cover the rocks of Port 
Jackson. So general is the demand for horses 
here, not as a speculation, but as a means, and 
the only means of locomotion, that, from one end 
of New South Wales to the other, nothing is 
heard but one reiterated, urgent, and loud ejacu- 
lation—** a horse, a horse, my kingdom for a 
horse ! " 

I know of no station formed exclusively for 



78 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

horses. They are generally kept on the cattle 
station ; and the stockman who looks after the 
cattle is also expected to attend to the horses. 
The chief stock of our colonial horses are derived 
from some hlood horses from India, afterwards 
improved by numerous and well-selected importa- 
tions from England. In general our colonial horses 
are well bred and suited for the saddle, for gigs, 
and light carriages ; but we have very few of the 
real draught horses. It is no uncommon thing to 
see butchers, bakers, and publicans ride nearly tho- 
rough-bred horses. We have several very superior 
English, and also a few pure Arab stallions, whose 
progeny is very beautiful. Yet it is to be regretted 
that the attention of breeders has hitherto been 
chiefly confined to the rearing of horses of a lighter 
make, or approaching to the racing cut, since of 
late horse-teams have begun to supersede bullock- 
teams, and, as a consequence, cart horses are now 
greatly in demand. 

The colonial horses are remarkable for their 
toughness and capacity of enduring fatigue and 
hunger. The climate is very favourable to them. 
English horses would perhaps stand the same 
hardships here ; but our horses, I am convinced, 
could not endure it in England. It is the climate, 
the climate that makes all the difference. I have 
often ridden the same horse fifty and sometimes 
sixty miles without a bite of food of any kind : 
and I repeatedly rode the same horse a journey of 
400 miles in ten days, during which time he ate 
nothing except the wild grass he picked up at 
night while I was sleeping at the root of a tree. 



HORSES. 79 

It is rare in this colony to see an aged horse. 
This is owing partly to our horses being broken in 
and wrought when too young, generally under 
three years of age, often not exceeding two, and 
partly to the cruel usage they receive, for often 
are they ridden fifty or sixty miles without a 
morsel of food, and then at their journey's end ; 
instead of being well groomed and fed, as in Eng- 
land, the unfeeling rider takes the saddle off him, 
gives him a kick, and sends him smoking hot, all 
hot, (as the pyeman would say), adrift to pick up 
what he can get in the bush until he is wanted 
next morning. 

About six years ago several ship loads of horses 
were imported into this colony from Valparaiso, 
South America. In general they were ugly ani- 
mals, and all very imperfectly broken in ; but the 
cross produced between them and our colonial 
horses has proved extremely hardy and sufficiently 
tractable. We have also had several ship loads 
of ponies from Timor, an island a little to the 
north of New Holland. They arc a miserable 
set of puny creatures, seldom exceeding ten or 
eleven hands high, big headed, low shouldered, 
rough legged, bad tempered, unbroken, and when 
broken, only fit to carry school boys ; yet such 
was at one time the mania for these miserable 
things in the shape of horses, that in 1840 I have 
witnessed at a public sale in Sydney a Timor mare, 
just imported along with one hundred and fifty 
others, sold for forty guineas cash ! 

From the year 1837 to 1842, inclusive, 2913 
horses, chiefly from South America and from 



80 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

the island of Timor, were imported into this 
colony. 

We have a few mules and asses here, which are 
found to answer the climate and rough character 
of the country very well ; but owing to their slow 
movements they are of no use after stock. 

When a settler wants an additional horse at his 
station, he accompanies his stockman out on the 
run, and drives into the stockyard a mob of horses, 
which had never been under the roof of a house, 
and never been handled. One of these is now 
roped by throwing a running noose over his head 
on his neck. He pulls — the men hold fast the 
other end of the rope, until he is half choked and 
falls. They hold down his head, slacken the 
noose, put on him the breaking-in tackle, and 
lunge him ; next day lunge him again, saddle him, 
mount him, and gallop away on him. He is now 
considered broken-in to saddle. But the fact is, 
that few, if any, of our saddle horses are properly 
broken in ; and yet it is truly astonishing to wit- 
ness the feats of horsemanship performed by our 
stockmen on these scarcely half-broken-in quadru- 
peds : up hill, down hill, zig-zag, sharp turns, 
over creeks, rocks, logs, and bushes, full gallop 
after a wild bullock. I have often witnessed a 
fox-hunt when living in England, but it was no- 
thing — absolutely nothing, compared to our fear- 
nought, break-neck, hurry-skurry, Australian tally- 
ho. Old men and young women, and boys of seven 
or eight years of age, are fearless and accomplished 
riders. In England the huntsman has only to 
look out for and be ready to clear hedges, fences. 



HORSES. 8-1 

and ditches ; but here we have often across our 
path not only a dense forest, but every other sort 
of obstacle which the vagaries of nature could 
scatter through space. It does occasionally happen 
that shoulder-blades are dislocated — arms, legs, 
and heads broken, collar-bones put out, and ex- 
hausted horses drop down dead — but it is truly 
surprising how few accidents happen to so many 
mad-caps ; for not only is there the chance of your 
falling from your horse, or of both you and him 
falling together, or of his running you against a 
branch of a tree, but the bullocks you are chasing 
often turn about and charge you. It is then 
scabies occupet extremum — then you must quickly 
wheel about and clear the way, for they sometimes 
rip up your horse. I have seen several horses 
destroyed in this way. 

All oiu- horses are branded with the owner's 
brand (generally his initials), impressed on the 
horse's skin with red hot iron. Without having 
some such indelible mark upon our horses, they 
could neither be identified nor sworn to by the 
owner, in case they may have gone astray or be 
stolen, and therefore the law here requires that all 
horses and horned cattle above twelve months old 
shall have on them some distinguishing brand. 
At all cattle and horse stations, therefore, the 
owner or his overseer superintends the branding of 
all the yearly increase of live stock. 



82 TEN TEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

CHAPTER XVI 

SHEEP. 

In the official return of live stock made up in the 
Colonial Secretary's Office in December 1843, it 
is stated, as mentioned in a former chapter, that 
the number of sheep in the colony of New South 
Wales, on the 30th Sept., 1843, was 4,804,846, 
or nearly five millions ; but this was eighteen months 
ago, and it must be borne in mind that as un- 
weaned lambs are exempted from the government 
assessment of one penny per head per annum, they, 
at i^east, were excluded from the above return, 
which was made out just at the dropping of the 
crop of spring lambs. Now, after making due 
allowance for the probable number of deaths from 
old age, disease, and other causes, also for the 
number since boiled down for their tallow, and 
those slaughtered for rations or sold to the butchers, 
our present stock of sheep of all ages cannot be 
less than 6,500,000, or six-and-a-half miUions. 

From the year 1837 to 1842, inclusive, no fewer 
than 103,723 sheep were imported into New South 
Wales. They were principally imported from Van 
Diemen's Land to the district of Port Phillip. 

As wool is not only our grand staple article, 
but the only commodity whence, in my opinion, 
the colonists can expect to derive a steady and 
permanent income, I will here give a few scattered 
hints, embodying the result of my own experience 
during the last ten years as a sheepholder, for the 



SHEEP. 83 

guidance of those emigrants who may wish to in- 
vest part of their capital in the purchase of sheep. 

The first advice I would give you is, to huy none 
but young ewes. Old ewes, or culls, as they are 
called, can seldom rear lambs ; and if they do, the 
progeny is never so strong and healthy as that of 
a young ewe. In winter again, especially if very 
wet, you will be daily annoyed by seeing your old 
ewes dying in half dozens. 

The proper number of breeding ewes for each 
flock is from 500 to 700, according to the nature 
and quality of the run. If your run is open forest 
land and the feed is good, the latter number (700) 
may safely be put in one flock ; if, on the contrary, 
the run is scrubby, thickly timbered, or poor soil, 
or swampy ground, 500 breeding ewes in a flock are 
sufficient. Whatever may be the nature or quahty 
of the run, to keep a smaller number than 500 in 
a flock will not pay the proprietor, while wool and. 
mutton continue at the present low prices, as the 
expense of shepherding, watching, &c., is the 
same, whatever may be the numerical strength of 
the flock ; and, on the other hand, to keep a larger 
number than 700 or 800 ewes in one flock, would 
be running headlong into Charybdis in attempting 
to avoid Scylla. So large a number being in one 
flock would render it necessary for them to spread 
widely and travel far for their food, and thus in- 
crease the chances of some of them being lost or 
scattered, and devoured by native dogs — an animal 
in every way resembling the English fox. I have 
now upwards of 900 breeding ewes in one flock, 
but it is by far too many to be running together. 
G 2 



84r TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

No more than two flocks ought to be kept at 
each station : consequently the complement of men 
necessary for each station is three, being two shep- 
herds and one watchman. The watchman acts as 
hut-keeper by day, and is responsible for the safe 
keeping of both flocks of sheep by night. The 
daily duty of each shepherd ends about sun-set, 
when he either counts his flock over to the watch- 
man, or, as is most commonly the case, drives his 
sheep without counting into the hurdles. From the 
time that they are driven into the hurdles until 
after breakfast next morning, the sheep are under 
the care of the watchman, who sleeps in a wooden 
box placed near the folds, so as to prevent the 
attacks of native dogs, he. It is also the duty of 
the watchman to shift daili/ the hurdles, or to keep 
the fold well swept, if the sheep are kept in yards ; 
but I would advise the grazier to use hurdles only. 
Dirty yards are the prolific source of disease ; and 
however convenient they may be to an indolent 
hut-keeper, the sheep proprietor should allow none 
of them to stand on his run while he can buy, beg, 
or borrow hurdles. Hurdles can now be bought at 
£5 per 100. About 48 hurdles, that is 12 square, 
are sufficient for a flock of 800 breeding ewes. 
The sheepholder should see that his hut-keeper 
shifts, that is removes to a new place daily, these 
hurdles, especially if the weather is wet or the 
ground soft. Each shepherd is allowed to have one 
dog, and the watchman also requires a dog ; he 
may be allowed to keep two, but no more. Some 
of the largest stockholders in the colony allow none 
of their shepherds to keep a dog. It has been found 
that some shepherds leave their flocks entirely to the 



SHEEP. 85 

management of their dogs ; and that unless the dog 
is very well trained, the flock thus left is generally 
in a low condition. No doubt it would be a great 
advantage to flockowners, if men could be found to 
undertake the shepherding of our flocks without em- 
ploying any dog ; at all events, you should allow 
no more than one dog to be kept by each shepherd, 
and one or two by each watchman. A few years 
ago there was scarcely a sheep station throughout 
the colony, at which there was not kept a whole 
regiment of curs, of high and low degree. The 
shepherds made a trade of rearing them, for the 
purpose of selling them to newly arrived emigrants 
and others. In order to provide food for these 
dogs, the shepherd or watchman practised a genuine 
piece of Botany-Bay villany. The method by which 
he had for years, without detection, regularly pro- 
vided mutton for his dogs at his master's expense 
was very ingenious. If he broke the sheep's leg, 
or otherwise visibly injured the animal, its lameness 
would prevent it from travelling with the flock, and 
it would probably be killed by order of the overseer 
or master, who would cut up the carcase among 
the dogs ; but then the shepherd, unless he could 
satisfactorily account for the accident, would be 
either fined in his purse, if free — or punished in his 
person, if bond. The problem was, how to occa- 
sion the death of the sheep without leaving any 
external or internal mark of ill-treatment on it. 

To do this the shepherd cut a pellet of wool, 
which, with a stick, he rammed down the gullet of 
some good fat sheep so tightly, that the poor animal 
was very soon choked, and found dead. The over- 
seer or master examined the carcase externally and 



86 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

internally, but could discover no appearance of any 
improper treatment : the carcase, after this coroner's 
inquest was over, was cut up and divided among the 
dogs. This was a regular system of Burking 
for years : until at last one of these villains, who 
had a hand in it, became King's evidence. The 
distance that should intervene between every two 
stations on the same run will greatly depend on 
the nature of the ground, the quality and quantity 
of the feed, &;c. ; in general the distance is between 
seven and eight miles. This will allow the sheep 
from each station to travel upwards of three miles 
in a direct line from each station, without the 
chance of meeting or mixing with one another ; 
and the run is very bad indeed, if two flocks of 
about 700 each cannot collect sufficient food within 
the area of a square measuring 36 square miles. 
By those settlers who have expressed the most un- 
favourable opinion of the capability of our pasture 
for grazing purposes, three acres have been allowed 
as the fair average for the support of one sheep ; 
and you know that there are 640 acres in a square 
mile, the grass on which ought, according to this 
calculation, to support 213 sheep. 

No prudent flockmaster will allow his ewes to 
rear more than one crop of lambs a year. To have 
two lambings from the same flock in the same year 
greatly injures the constitution of the ewes, and 
the lambs themselves are generally puny and sickly. 
But these are not the only evils resulting from this 
practice, which was, at one time, very common : 
the fleece is not nearly so heavy from a ewe which 
has been kept the greater part of the year rearing 
lambs, and, as a matter of course, in low condition. 



SHEEP. 87 

There are two lambing seasons in Australia : the 
one in March and April, the other in September 
and October. The most experienced sheep pro- 
prietors prefer the September and October lambing, 
and fuUy two-thirds of our lambs are dropped at 
this season of the year. The weather is then be- 
coming daily warmer for the young lambs ; whereas 
April is often too cold, and the grass is withered, 
which prevents the ewes from yielding so much 
milk for the sustenance of the lambs. There is, 
however, this advantage from the April lambs — 
that they carry a pretty good fleece in November 
or December, the months in which sheep are shorn 
here. Immediately before the ewes commence 
lambing, rock salt should be given to them ; other- 
wise many of them will eat the tails, ears, and 
perhaps legs off the lambs, so fond are they of any 
substance to which saline particles adhere. 

The number of rams for each flock of 700 ewes, 
is from 10 to 12 ; they are left in the flock about 
six weeks. You are aware that a ewe runs twenty 
weeks. If, therefore, you wish that your lambing 
should commence the last week in September, when 
the soft spring grass covers the face of nature, you 
will, of course, put the rams among the ewes on 
the first day of May ; but if you prefer the April 
lambing, you put the rams among the ewe flocks in 
November. The young ewes, when 18 months 
old, may be put to the rams : the ewe will thus be 
about two years when rearing her first lamb. 

The rams, when taken from the ewes, are kept 
during the rest of the year among a flock of 
wethers, which are generally running at a separate 
station from the breeding flocks. The number of 



88 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

sheep in a wether flock may be considerably larger 
than that in a ewe flock ; wethers, being stronger, 
can travel faster and farther for their food. It is 
common here to see 1 000 wethers in one flock. Last 
year I had upwards of 1400 in one flock ; but it 
was too many, though my run consists of very open 
forest land. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

SHEEP. — (continued.) 

The most busy time with the shepherd is the 
lambing season. His difficulty and labour are 
greatly increased by many of the ewes aban- 
doning their lambs, which must again and again 
be put to the mothers until they "take to each 
other." To secure this end, a great number 
of small and separate enclosures are formed by 
means of hurdles. Three hurdles, forming an 
equilateral triangle, are erected, and into each of 
these triangles or separate enclosures a ewe with 
her rejected lamb is put. To induce the ewe to 
take to her lamb, some salt, of which all sheep 
are fond, is rubbed on the lamb's skin, which the 
mother now licks first from her love for the salt, 
and ultimately from her love to her ofi'spring. In 
order to induce the shepherd to feel an interest in 
the lambing, and to exert himself on this occasion, 
many flockmasters allow a premium to those shep- 
herds who rear the greatest number of lambs for 
every hundred ewes in the flock. Without such 
an inducement few shepherds would lose a night's 



SHEEP. 89 

sleep for the sake of saving a score of lambs. 
From 80 to 90 lambs reared from every hundred 
ewes in the flock is considered "good lambing." 
Some sheep proprietors have had 100 per cent., 
that is, a lamb for every ewe, reared. The 
greatest per centage I have ever had from my 
ewes was 92 per cent. 

A ewe that has lost her own lamb will allow a 
strange lamb to suck her. In this way we relieve 
a ewe that has twins, without killing either of 
them. Very few, however, of our ewes have twins, 
and still fewer are able to rear them properly. 
Valuable lambs, whose mothers have either died 
or have had twins, may be fed on cow's milk by a 
quill inserted through a cork in a bottle. With 
this view a couple of milch cows should be kept at 
every sheep station. During the lambing season, 
which generally continues for a month or six weeks, 
not only is the hut-keeper expected to assist the 
shepherd, but an additional man is also employed 
for six weeks to look after such lambs as are 
either too weak or too young to travel any distance 
from the hurdles. 

The lambs are weaned when they are five or six 
months old. If the ewes are poor, the lambs may 
be weaned when they are about four months old. 
When there are several lambing flocks, all the 
male lambs of two or three flocks may be put 
together to form one wether lamb flock, and all the 
female lambs of the same two or three flocks are 
at the same time drafted separately, and made to 
form one ewe lamb flock. It may, however, some- 
times happen that the proprietor is short of hands, 
and finds it inconvenient to increase either the 



90 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

number of his shepherds, or the number of his 
huts and hurdles, and yet the lambs must be 
weaned. In this case all the lambs of one flock 
may be put with the ewes of the other flock, and 
vice versa. Then the ewes of neither flocks will 
allow the new lambs to suck them. 

Throughout the greater part of the colony the 
month of November is the shearing time. The 
sheep are first carefully washed in a lagoon, or 
stream, in preference to a river, the water of 
which is either too cold or too hard. To wash 
them, they are thrown into what is called soaking- 
pens, made in water four or five feet deep. After 
remaining a few minutes swimming about in these 
pens, they are taken one by one by a row of men 
placed in the water, who all rub them in succes- 
sion, until the master or overseer, who superintends 
this operation, pronounces the sheep clean by 
singing out ''pass on." There are generally 
eight or nine men in the water, all up to their 
middle. The regular task is to wash one flock 
a day. I generally got the blacks to perform this 
work, and paid them with a few figs of tobacco and 
their victuals, according to our previous agreement. 
In my opinion, much labour and time might be 
saved, either by throwing into the pond in which 
the sheep are to be washed a quantity of the ashes 
of our Australian apple-tree, as the alkali which 
these ashes contain would greatly soften the water, 
or by driving each flock swimming through the 
pond on the day previous to washing them. 

After washing, the sheep are left three or four 
days to dry, and also to allow sufficient time for 
the ** yoke " (the grease from the body of the 



SHEEP. 



91 



animal) to rise, and thus add weight and softness 
to the wool. During this interval they are kept 
from feeding or lying down upon such ground as 
might again impart any extraneous matter to the 
fleece. It is necessary that sheep should he shorn 
previous to the grass seeds and burs becoming 
ripe, otherwise the wool will most probably be 
deteriorated to the amount of two or three pence 
per lb. 

Shearing is commonly done in large sheds, 
which cover the shearers both from rain and the 
heat of the sun. A man who is at all expert 
at this sort of work can shear about 60 sheep 
a day, for which he is paid at the rate of from 
two to three shillings per score, with board and 
lodging. I had one man who shore 100 daily, and 
I was then paying four shillings a score with 
board, <kc. One man is employed in gathering the 
fleeces as they are shorn — another in folding them 
up, and handing them to a man who is pressing 
them into a large bag, called a wool pack, capable 
of containing, under ordinary pressure, about 250 
lbs. of wool, or about 100 average fleeces. This 
wool pack is put empty into a strong square box, 
made of wood, in which a man is employed 
in tramping and beating with feet, pole, or spade, 
each fleece as it is put into the pack. When 
no more wool can be pressed into it, the mouth of 
the pack is sewed up with some strong twine. 
When filled, these packs are called bales. The 
proprietor's brand is now put on them, and they are 
generally numbered. 

Of these bales, averaging in weight about 250 
lbs., one of our ordinary wool-drays, drawn by 



92 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

eight bullocks, will carry to Sydney from 15 
to 20 or, according to the present prices of 
wool, (about Is. 3d. per lb.,) to the value of 
from £240 to £300. 

The drays and bullocks which carry the wool to 
Sydney or Melbourne generally carry back sup- 
plies, such as tea, sugar, salt, soap, tobacco, 
slops, &c., sufficient for the men at the stations 
until next shearing season. 

The wool-grower, so far from finding any diffi- 
culty in meeting with a purchaser on the arrival of 
his wool in Sydney or Melbourne, has often the 
pleasure of witnessing a scramble among the 
merchants here as to which of them the first offer 
or the preference as a buyer ought to be given. 

Some people prefer selling their wool in the 
grease, that is, unwashed, in which state it gene- 
rally sells at half the price given for the same 
wool when well washed : but in this case the fleece 
weighs double what it weighs after being washed ; 
so that the profits are the same. The objections, 
however, are, first, that one half of your load on 
a journey of perhaps 400 miles is dirt, of which a 
few days' sheep-washing would have relieved you ; 
and, secondly, that your sheep, whose skins have, 
since last year's washing, contracted a consider- 
able quantity of dust and sand, which irritate and 
often prevent the animal from feeding, would have 
been greatly benefited by a thorough ablution. 

The usual weekly rations or provisions allowed 
to each shepherd are as follow : — 1 lbs. beef or 
mutton ; 10 lbs. flour, or 1 peck of wheat ; 2 lbs. 
sugar ; ;|; lb. tea, with some salt. 

In addition to these weekly rations I allow each 



SHEEP. 93 

of my shepherds the use of a milch cow. There 
is no sheep-station at which they may not have a 
garden well stocked with vegetables, and most 
hut-keepers have poultry. 

From this you see that our Australian shep- 
herds are better fed than most of the labourers of 
Great Britain and Ireland. But in my opinion the 
great advantage which the Australian shepherd 
enjoys over the English labourer, is the superior 
opportunity of profitably investing the savings of 
his yearly wages. I know many shepherds who 
are stockholders to a small extent. The usual 
wages at present to a shepherd is from £16 to 
£22. These are much below the usual wages : 
this reduction has been occasioned by the recently 
depressed state of the colony. Wages, however, 
are now rising with the rapidly improving state of 
things here ; and I have no doubt we shall soon 
again have to give from £25 to £35 a year to 
every shepherd or hut-keeper. Our climate is so 
delicious that very little clothing is required, and, 
therefore, the greater part of the man's wages is 
clear gain, which he may either hoard up or lay 
out in the purchase of brood mares or cows, which 
his employer generally allows to graze, without 
expense, among his own cattle. 

As some masters are in the habit of supplying 
their servants with slops (clothing of every sort) 
at fifty and sometimes one hundred per cent, 
profit, I would suggest to shepherds, hut-keepers, 
stockmen, and labourers, that they should stipu- 
late with their employer, at the time of their engage- 
ment, that his drays were to bring for them, free of 
expense, any little article, such as shoes, trousers, 



94 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

sliirts, (fcc, which they might require, and for 
which thej should be charged only the Sydney 
prices. 

To masters, I would suggest the expediency of 
so engaging their shepherds^ hut-keepers or la- 
bourers, that the expiry of their engagement should 
not happen either at lambing or shearing time ; 
and I would farther suggest, that the engagements 
of not more than two or three of the men should 
terminate simultaneously, otherwise the master may 
be placed entirely at the mercy of his servants, 
who know well their own importance, and, at busy 
periods of the year, such as lambing, shearing, and 
reaping time, when men are scarce, will so combine 
as to oblige their employer to yield to any demands, 
how extravagant soever, which they may choose to 
make. In the event of the master himself not re- 
siding at his stations, he will probably receive 
numerous complaints from his men against his over- 
seer, whom they will accuse of gross mismanage- 
ment, <fcc. Such complaints, however, are, in nine 
cases out of ten, perfectly groundless. To me 
those private complaints, sent to me with many 
professions of regard for my interest, generally 
afforded a pleasing proof that my overseer was 
faithfully performing his duty, since he incurred the 
displeasure of the men left under his authority ; for 
if he had allowed them to act just as they wished, 
he would have been pronounced a capital fellow. 

Your success, however, as a flock-owner, will 
very much depend on your personally attending to 
the management of your sheep. There is nothing 
like the eye of the master. It is true everywhere, 
but more especially in Botany Bay, that " he who 



SHEEP. 95 

by the plough would thrive, himself must either 
hold or drive. ' ' See that your sheep are driven out 
to feed early enough in the morning — that they are 
driven sufficiently far from the hut — that the shep- 
herd does not "dog them*' too much; that he 
does not keep them at what is here called '* a licking 
place," that is, earth mixed with saline particles, 
which the sheep would, if allowed, continue to eat 
all day, and thus allow the lazy shepherd to sit 
down in one place from morning to evening. See 
that your sheep are not driven home before sunset, 
that the hurdles are daily shifted, that there is 
always the full complement of hurdles kept in 
each fold, that the fold is never pitched in places 
where there happen to be ant-hills, black stumps, 
or overhanging trees, and that the sheep are 
properly regulated. What is here called regu- 
lating the sheep is done in the following man- 
ner : — being all mustered, those of the same 
age are separated from the rest, and the males 
and females are classified separately. All the old 
ewes and crawlers are put into a flock by them- 
selves, and given in charge to a careful shepherd, 
with instructions to feed them near the hut, so 
that they may not be farther weakened by having 
to travel far for their food. Under the term 
crawlers are included the lame, and those which 
are very poor, sickly, or cranky. Old ewes and 
crawlers fall off in condition, chiefly because they 
cannot keep up with the young and strong sheep, 
which eat up every blade of grass before the 
crawlers moving in the rear arrive. Old ewes, if 
kept from breeding, will soon fatten, and ought 
then to be sold to the butcher. We generally sell 



96 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

our wethers when they are three years old. The 
mutton however is better, if they are not killed 
until they arrive at the age of four, and the wool 
will pay the expense of keep, but after four the 
fleece becomes lighter. The average weight of our 
wethers is about 60 lbs. the four quarters ; of ewes 
the average is less. I have seen some wethers 
which averaged 80 lbs. ; but for one flock of this 
description, we have twenty which would average 
less than 60 lbs. after being driven to Sydney or 
Melbourne. 

Owing to the unprecedentedly depressed state of 
the colony about two years ago, when a large pro- 
portion of the colonists, having ruined themselves 
and others through extravagance and wild specula- 
tion, had filed their schedules and applied at the 
Insolvent Court for a whitewashing certificate, the 
price of live stock, and, indeed, of every other 
species of colonial property, was reduced to a mere 
trifle. The market was glutted with sheep, cattle, 
and horses belonging to insolvent estates, and now 
offered for sale by the creditors. Numberless 
flocks and herds exchanged owners. From Monday 
to Saturday rap, rap, rap went every auctioneer's 
hammer ; but it was evident that, in so limited a 
community as that of New South Wales, these 
large daily sales of live stock could not long con- 
tinue. Neither did they. The demand was fully 
supplied ; all the buyers had now disappeared, 
though the sellers still continued to pour into 
market their sheep, cattle, and horses, which were 
at last sold for a mere song — sheep at Is., cattle 
at 5s., and horses at 30s. a-head. This fearful 
crisis led stockholders to rack their brains in 



SHEEP. 97 

attempting to devise some means of saving the co- 
lony from impending ruin, by enhancing the value 
of live stock ; and necessity was here the mother of 
invention. The bright idea of boiling down our 
surplus fat sheep and cattle for their tallow, occurred 
to our esteemed colonist Mr. Henry O'Brien, J. P., 
of Yass, and a large stockholder. He first tried 
the experiment on some of his own fat wethers ; 
the trial was eminently successful. He realised from 
Ss. to 9s. per head from his wethers. He pressed 
— he urged others to follow his example. He not 
only published the result of his experiment, but, 
like his famous countryman Dan, in a less worthy 
cause, agitated, agitated, until he had the satisfac- 
tion of seeing numerous boiling-down establishments 
in full operation. The consequence was, that 
within a few weeks sheep had doubled, and in some 
cases tripled their prices. After Mr. O'Brien had 
succeeded in reducing to practice his grand and 
original, though extremely simple conception, hun- 
dreds of miserable scribblers came forward to in- 
form us that they knew, many years ago, that 
sheep contained tallow, and that this tallow might 
be extracted from the lean by the process of 
thorough-boiling. To Mr. O'Brien the stockholders 
of New South Wales are under deep obligation. 
In consequence of his discovery, it is perfectly evi- 
dent that sheep and cattle cannot, at least for 
many years, fall below a certain price in Australia. 
The price below which they are not likely to be 
sold is, of course, the market-value of the quantity 
of tallow, (fcc, produced from the boiled-down ani- 
mal, after due allowance is made for the expense of 

H 



98 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

boiling. The Sydney merchants will buy tallow 
as readily as they buy wool, for the London market. 
The price of tallow in London varies, I believe, from 
,£40 to £4:5 per ton. Li Sydney they give about 
£30 cash for it. The expense of boiling is Qd. 
a head for sheep, and 5s. for cattle. But the skin 
and lean of a sheep will sell for more than double 
the expense of boiling ; while, at some establish- 
ments, the hide and tongue of a bullock will be 
taken in full payment of boiling, thus leaving to 
the stockholder all the tallow of his sheep, and both 
the tallow and the lean (excepting the tongue) of 
his bullock. 

It has been found that the taUow from a flock of 
fat wethers of an average size, will yield to the 
owner at the rate of 5s. a head, after paying all 
expenses ; and that a fat bullock, of an average 
size, will produce nearly 2 cwt. of tallow, or to the 
value of nearly £3 in Sydney or Melbourne. These, 
then, are about the prices below which, in my 
opinion, our sheep and cattle, if fat, are not likely 
to be sold in any large numbers. If the animals 
are not fat, they will probably sell for much less, 
if forced into the market. In June last I bought 
a small flock of sheep which belonged to an insol- 
vent estate, at 2s. a head. In November I had 
them shorn : they averaged about 2i lbs. wool, 
which I sold in Sydney for Is. Sd. per lb. cash, or 
rather more than 3s. a fleece. Any settler who 
has an extensive and fattening run, might now 
safely speculate in purchasing sheep and cattle in 
low condition, if young and healthy. Since the 
boiUng-down estabhshments have come into opera- 



SHEEP. 99 

tion, our butchers have been obliged to give about 
the same prices which the animals, if boiled down, 
would produce to the owner. 

To any man of tender feelings no spectacle can 
be more revolting than the sight of a butcher with 
an axe entering a fold of perhaps a thousand 
sheep, and knocking them down right and left, 
without stopping to bleed them. He is followed 
by men with knives, who bleed the fallen heaps 
kicking and struggling with death. The havoc 
committed in a few minutes is horrible ; the whole 
flock is prostrated; the fold is deluged with blood; 
and the silence of the scene is only broken by the 
confused gurgling noise from the throats of hun- 
dreds of dying animals. The ferocious-looking 
men, whose trade it is to perform this disgusting 
work, never consider it any part of their duty to 
shorten as much as possible the sufferings of those 
dumb creatures. Martin's Act might be of some 
use here. 

A fall in the price of tallow in the London 
market would, of course, lower the price of hve 
stock in AustraUa ; but the tallow-market in 
England is not subject to very great fluctuation, 
and the immense increase of machinery now applied 
to the purposes of manufacture in that country, is 
more likely to produce an upward tendency in the 
price of tallow. Besides, our boiling-down esta- 
blishments have recently begun to manufacture 
gelatine from what had hitherto been a perfect 
waste. This gelatinous matter, which is now 
selling well, and is likely to form an important 
article of exportation from this colony, is expected 
H 2 



100 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

to be adequate to the expense of boiling, thus 
leaving to the stockholder the hide, worth Ss. or 
10s., in addition to all the tallow from his bullock. 
Several cases of this gelatine have been lately 
shipped for London, and other parts of the world. 

You are perhaps aware, that connected with the 
hind- quarters of a sheep there is but comparatively 
little tallow or fat : therefore these quarters have 
recently, in numerous instances, been converted 
into Mutton Hams, which sell well, and which some 
Sydney epicureans, and other men learned in the 
profound science of gastronomy, have pronounced 
to be equal in taste and flavom- to your real York- 
shire hams. A cargo of these mutton hams is now 
on the way to China. 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

SHEEP. (continued). 

The diseases to which sheep are liable in this 
colony are nearly the same as in Great Britain, 
and of course the remedies are the same. The 
two principal diseases which have frequently 
thinned our flocks are, the scab and the catarrh. 
The catarrh (sometimes called the influenza) is 
fearfully rapid in its progress, and is most to be 
dreaded in the months of July and August, being 
the coldest, and generally the wettest, season in 
Australia. 

For catarrh there are two remedies. Hhe^rst is 
to shift the flocks, and to continue shifting them 



SHEEP. 101 

into and folding them upon new ground, thus pre- 
venting them from feeding or folding two succes- 
sive days or nights in the same place. To accom- 
plish this object, all that is required is that the 
shepherd should feed them from place to place, at 
a considerable distance from the hut, and instead 
of driving them home towards evening, camp them 
aU night on some sheltered .ra-ige. . Tf they have 
been well fed during the day. .obey; \7ili.>quietly, Ue 
down at sunset, and so.rromain anywhere until 
sunrise. The shepherd, pf.\ -cqurse, carri(iS • lfd» 
blanket, his tinder-box, and a day's rations, <vith* 
which he is regularly supplied. His dog, and a 
line of large fires he makes in the evening round 
about his sheep, will enable him to sleep quietly 
all night, without any fear of attacks from native 
dogs. I have known of many flocks having thus 
got rid of the catarrh. The second remedy, re- 
commended and adopted by many, is extremely 
short and simple, viz., to cut the throat of every 
diseased sheep, and burn the carcase. If the 
carcase is not burnt, the native dogs and carrion- 
hawks may convey the contagion to a great dis- 
tance. The scab also has been thus conveyed to 
distant flocks. Low clayey soil is very inimical to 
sheep sufi'ering from catarrh. For folding-ground 
choose, if you can, dry acclivities and granite soil. 
The symptoms of catarrh are the same as those 
of the epidemic murrain which prevailed in Europe 
about the middle of the last century, viz. discharge 
at the nose, running at the eyes, drooping of the 
ears, and heaving of the flanks. The disease had 
been introduced into England by a tanner, who 
imported the hides of some diseased cattle from 



102 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

Holland. The disease itself is inflammation of 
the chest, lungs, and brain. 

The scab may either be received by contact 
with infected sheep, or be generated by the sheep 
being kept too long in dirty yards or folds. Some 
weeks elapse after the disease is caught before it 
makes its appearance. It generally breaks out on 
the. arrival of wet weather. Fortunately, however, 
air, if? a disesise wh'ci? it. is not very difficult to cure. 
Medical men Jiave given it as their opinion that 
ih'e difiea&G itself [is 'nothing but an insect, which 
insinuates itself ami spreads under the skin, caus- 
ing perpetual irritation, and that it is analogous 
to that disgusting disease called the itch, which is 
still common among the poorer classes of England, 
Ireland, and Scotland. 

Various remedies have been prescribed for the 
scab. The most effectual and now the common 
way of removing it, is the following : — Put into a 
large tub or vat 1 oz. of corrosive sublimate ; 1 
gill of spirits of turpentine ; 1 lb. of soap, a little 
salt, and 2 lbs. tobacco -stems, boiled about 4 hours 
in 5 gallons of water, boiled down into 3 gallons. 

Then put the scabby sheep (all except the eyes) 
into the tub, vat, or cask, half-full of this com- 
pound, and let the animal remain there for one 
minute. The soap is used only to soften the skin. 
The tobacco-juice and mercury are the only active 
agents in effecting the cure. Two men should be 
employed in curry combing the sheep thus im- 
mersed, so as to scarify the skin, and lay open 
parts of it to receive the medicine. It is desirable 
to hrve a spout, so as to carry the liquid running 
from the sheep's back again into the tub. The 



SHEEP. 103 

liquid compound must, of course, be renewed or 
strengthened from time to time as the process of 
dressing proceeds. Five men can thus dress 200 
sheep daily. 

The following precautions are necessary : — 
avoid dressing them when it is likely to rain ; let 
them not drink any water for a day or two after 
dressing, and keep them on the following day in 
the shade. In order to render the cure certain, 
three dressings are required, and a fortnight should 
intervene between every two dressings. 

Sheep infected with the scab seldom fall off in 
condition. Scabby sheep are often very fat ; but 
the great evil consequent on this disease is, that 
before shearing- time arrives all the wool is gone, 
partly by the animal continually rubbing its skin 
against trees, &c. 

Foot-rot is generally caused by the sheep being 
kept grazing over soft swampy ground, and fre- 
quently driven through creeks and muddy places, 
or folded in dirty yards. The shepherd may easily 
get rid of this disease by always avoiding such 
places as have now been mentioned, by a proper 
application of a little blue-stone, after washing or 
removing the dirt from the feet affected, and by 
feeding his sheep on high ranges and sound hard 
ground. 

It would be very difficult to state the exact prices 
at which good, young, and healthy ewes could now 
be bought in New South Wales. A slight rise 
has lately taken place in the wool-market here ; 
the colonists are gradually recovering from their 
late difficulties ; the pecuniary crisis has nearly 
passed; forced sales of sheep have become less 



104 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

common ; public confidence begins to be restored ; 
the nmnerous boiling-down establishments through- 
out the colony have helped to prop up the tottering 
settler ; and as our banks of issue have ceased, at 
the close of last year, to allow any interest on de- 
posits, the money hitherto locked up there now 
begins to find its way into circulation. All these 
combined circumstances have greatly contributed 
to influence our sheep-market, and I do not think 
that choice ewes can now be bought here under 7*. 
or 8s. a head. I know of some mixed flocks having 
lately been sold at from 5s. to 6s. 6d. a head. I am 
of opinion that under good management sheep, I 
mean yoimg ewes, bought at 20*. a head, will yield a 
fair profit to the owner, even supposing the price 
of wool never to exceed Is. 3d. per lb. I can see, 
however, no probability of the very best of our 
Australian sheep realising 20^. a head within the 
next few years, unless some new colony is formed 
in our neighbourhood, or some such mad scheme 
as the Australian Agricultural Company introduced, 
to turn the heads of the colonists. You are doubt- 
less aware, that in the year 1824 a grant of one 
milHon of acres at Port Stephens, situated 85 miles 
north from Sydney, was made to a company of 
London speculators. The concern has never paid 
them ; and the monopolists themselves are very 
unpopular in the colony, chiefly in consequence of 
their claiming and exercising an exclusive right to 
work the coal-mines at Newcastle, at the mouth 
of the river Hunter, 70 or 80 miles north from 
Sydney. 

Soon after the receipt of this extensive grant of 
land, the company's agent made his appearance. 



SHEEP. 105 

with about one million of money to purchase live 
stock. The intelligence of the arrival of such an 
immense amount of capital produced a perfect 
mania among the colonial stockholders, as well as 
among those who would he stockholders. Sheep, 
cattle, and horses, rapidly exchanged owners : 
settlers mortgaged their farms, and borrowed 
money at 10 per cent, to invest in sheep bought 
at £2 and £2 10s. per head. There was soon a 
re-action, which continued for some years. In 
1835-6 and 7, when a number of respectable emi- 
grants, with capital, continued to arrive by almost 
every ship from England, sheep steadily advanced 
in price — -until in 1837, ewes sold in Sydney at 
£3 and £3 bs. a head. The following paragraph, 
which I copy verbatim from a Sydney newspaper, 
of date May 1837, now before me, will prove that 
what the colonists then most needed was a cargo 
of strait-jackets, and a place in a lunatic asylum. 

" Isaac Simmons & Co. sold yesterday the undermen- 
tioned flocks of sheep, viz. : — 

£ s. 

500 aged wethers for 700 

250 four-year old ewes with lambs, at 60s. each 750 

175 five and six-year old do., at 45s. each . . 395 15 
800 fovir-year old ewes, maiden ewes, male and 

female lambs, at 40s. each. . . . 1,600 



£3,445 15 

The only apology that can be offered for the 
buyers is, that the sale took place when the moon 
happened to be full ; a period which was, no doubt, 
purposely fixed upon by the cunning seller. 

At that time, several young men bought sheep 
at about £3 a head on five years' credit, paying 



106 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

10 per cent, interest, or, in other words, paying 
yearly Qs. for the rent of every sheep, and having 
at the end of five years to pay £3 as the purchase- 
money ; hut before the expiration of the fifth year 
the best sheep were seUing for less than those 
beardless speculators had to pay as the yearly inte- 
rest : the result was, that they had to ride post- 
haste into the Insolvent Court. 

To enable a man to become a sheepowner, it is 
not necessary for him either to buy land or to 
become a squatter. He will have no difficulty in 
meeting a respectable stockholder, who will receive 
and graze his sheep on what is called halves ; that 
is, the grazier receives yearly one-half of aU the 
wool, and one-half of the increase from the flock. 
Suppose, for example, that you buy a flock of 600 
ewes, and give them out on halves. At the close 
of the year, the grazier to whom you have given 
them on halves, delivers to you, in Sydney or Mel- 
bourne, 300 fleeces of wool, and hands to you what 
is called a yearly return, showing that your 600 
ewes have reared probably 540 lambs, of which 
270 belong to you, and have been added to your 
600 ewes ; next year, allowing 5 per cent, for 
deaths among your ewes, you will have 940 sheep 
to shear, from which you will receive one-half, or 
470 fleeces ; together with this wool you will 
also receive a return of the increase — ^probably 
amounting to 90 per cent., or about 510, of which 
one-half or 255 are added to your flock, now 
making the number of your sheep about 1,150, after 
making allowance for deaths, casualties, he. Be- 
fore the close of the third year your first lambs 
have begun to breed also, and thus to co-operate 



SHEEP. 107 

with your original ewes in adding to your increase ; 
after this your flocks will go on multiplying rapidly 
and increasing like a snow-ball. The system of 
giving out sheep on halves (it used to be on thirds 
till lately,) is very convenient for those gentlemen 
whose capital is but small, or who may not wish for 
a year or two to form stations for themselves. 

But now, supposing that you prefer to squat, and 
to have all your sheep under your own eye or su- 
perintendence, you wish to know what must you 
have for your own accommodation, and that of your 
shepherds, on a squatting sheep-station. To stand 
a whole year's siege in the Australian wilderness 
against such enemies as cold, hunger, &c., your full 
complement of military force and defensive armour 
will be as follow : — first, a hut for your men and 
another hut for yourself. These two huts you and 
your hut-keeper, with the assistance of two of the 
black natives, may build in three or four days. It 
will perhaps appear incredible to you that a dwell- 
ing-house 20 feet long, 12 or 14 feet wide, and 
with the walls 6 or 7 feet high, should be put up 
in two days. Yet I can assure you that such a 
wonderful achievement as this has often been ac- 
complished ; and your sui*prise will probably cease 
when I tell you, that the walls and roof of such a 
house are barky and that it is quite common to see 
a sheet of bark 8 feet wide and 9 feet long, or 72 
superficial feet : it is generally from 1 inch to 1 i 
inch in thickness, and is nearly as tough and strong 
as a deal-board of the same dimensions. One black 
fellow can cut off the trees, with his tomahawk, 
twenty such sheets of bark a day. I have seen 
sheets measuring 9 x 10, or 90 square feet each. 



108 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

These sheets of bark, when placed as a wall to a 
house, have their lower ends fixed 6 or 8 inches in 
a rut cut out in the ground, and their upper ends 
fastened by means of twisted filaments of tough, 
stringy bark, to the wall-plate of the house ; the 
roof-sheets are generally fastened in the same way 
by their upper ends to the ridge-pole. The side of 
the bark which had been next to the tree is kept 
inside the house, and gives it the clean and whitish 
appearance of a house built of polished deal-boards, 
8 or 9 feet square. Such a house is warm enough 
for this climate ; and it may be so constructed as 
not to admit a single drop of rain. The watchman's 
box is built of the same materials. 

In addition to the hut, the following articles are 
generally allowed to every sheep-station : — 1 iron 
pot, 1 frying-pan, 1 spade, 1 bucket, 1 wood- 
axe, 1 beef-cask, 1 sieve, 1 steel hand-mill with 
which to grind the wheat, and some weighing- 
machine, for issuing the weekly rations ; also 1 
hammer, 1 or 2 gimlets, and a few hurdle-nails. 
Every shepherd is expected to provide himself with 
a blanket, tin quart-pot and pint-pot ; in the quart- 
pot he makes, and out of the pint-pot he drinks his 
tea. A quart-pot is often used at sheep-stations 
as a measure for dealing out the wheat rations to 
the men, 8 qts. being 1 peck. 

For your own use in your hut, you may provide 
whatever delicacies and luxuries you may fancy ; 
but if you are either a philosopher or a true soldier, 
you will, at least for the first year, live on the same 
sort of food as you give your men, viz., beef or 
mutton, bread made from flour, and tea and sugar. 
The only luxury I would recommend you to pro- 



SHEEP, 109 

vide yourself with, would be a few interesting and 
useful books to afford you amusement, and shake 
your ribs with laughing during the long winter 
evenings when you are alone. Your bedstead will 
consist of four forks driven into the ground for 
corners or posts, on which are placed lengthways 
two, and crossways half-a-dozen, sticks, thus forming 
a parallelogram. Beef or mutton you can probably 
buy from your next neighbour, at Id. per lb., 
wheat at from 45. to 5s. per bushel, until you can 
grow wheat of your own, which you ought to do 
by next year. Tea, sugar, soap and salt for 12 
months, you are supposed to have brought with 
you from Sydney. 

The man who acts as your hut-keeper and 
watchman at the station cooks and washes for you, 
and also catches and saddles your horse for you 
when you wish to ride. 

At the proper time sheep-shearers are travelling 
from station to station ; and when shearing is over, 
if you have no drays and bullock-teams of your 
own, you can engage at a moderate rate a regular 
carrier to take your wool to Sydney : but in the 
event of your preferring to have your own teams, 
you shall see, if you will take the trouble of reading 
the following chapter, how you can best provide 
yourself with a choice team of working bullocks. 

In the mean time 1 have to apologise to you for 
the great length of these observations on the ma- 
nagement of sheep. The general importance of 
the subject (wool being the staple article of Aus- 
tralia) appeared to me to justify a slight deviation 
from the rigid laws of brevity. 



110 TEN YEARS IX AUSTRALIA. 



CHAPTER XIX. 

CATTLE. 

To the emigrant who intends to commence as a 
cattle-grazier, I would recommend to buy a mixed 
herd. By a mixed herd is meant cattle consist- 
ing of cows, heifers, bullocks, steers and calves, 
nearly in equal proportions and of all ages. The 
chief advantage of this arrangement is, that he 
has at once in his own herd bidlocks which he can 
either break in for his dray, or slaughter for the 
use of the men on his station, while the steers are 
growing up to fill the place of the bullocks already 
used. If, like many raw, unexperienced beginners, 
he buys only cows and heifers, he must wait three 
or four years before he can touch any of his herd, 
and during all this time he is obliged to buy 
bullocks for his work, and beef for his own and 
his men's rations. A mixed herd of from 300 to 
500, or from 60 to 100 of each sort of cattle 
above-named, would be quite sufficient as a com- 
mencement ; and, at the usual rate of increase, 
would in a few years stock a very extensive run. 
Such a herd as I have now named, could at 
present be bought here at from fifteen to thirty 
shillings a head, according to their breed and 
condition. One bull is generally allowed for every 
forty or fifty cows and heifers in the herd. Nothing 
varies so much here as the price of bulls. I have 



CATTLE. Ill 

seen 400/. paid for two small animals, the one 
aged 18 months, and the other 20 months — hut 
they were imported from England. A very supe- 
rior colonial-bred hull may now be bought for 10/. 
or 12/. During the six years ending with 1842, 
no fewer than 795 homed cattle, chiefly choice 
bulls and cows, were imported into this colony. 

In selecting a run for your herd, you must bear 
in mind that to shift or remove a cattle-station is 
far more difficult than to remove a sheep- station. 
Sheep require no breaking in to a run. They will 
contentedly feed anywhere ; besides, they are 
followed all day, and every night confined within 
hurdles. It is otherwise with cattle. It takes at 
least six months to reconcile them to a new place, 
how rich and abundant soever may be the pasture. 
I have known them to find their way back 300 
miles to the place on which they were bred. But 
then, after they are once fairly broken in to a new 
run, they seldom leave it of their own accord, 
and it is generally a work of no small difficulty to 
drive away from their usual run a draft of 
fat bullocks for the market. The strong attach- 
ment manifested by cattle to home, coupled with 
the fact of their being necessarily allowed to remain 
out all night, forms one reason why you ought to 
be particular in fixing on a place whence natm-al 
causes, such as scarcity of water, scarcity of 
grass, or scarcity of room, will not oblige you for 
some years to remove. 

There is another reason which renders it advis- 
able for you to pitch your camp with your herd on 
a spot holding out some fair probability of fixity 



112 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

and permanency ; in the formation of a cattle- 
station, it is necessary to erect substantial stock- 
yards, which, in case of removal, cannot he 
so easily carried away as hm-dles and watch-boxes 
from sheep-stations. 

I shall suppose, then, that you have displayed 
judgment in the selection of a locality for your 
cattle-station. The first improvement you ought 
to make, after taking possession of your run, is to 
set fire to the grass ; if it happens to be the 
season of the year, viz., the end of summer, 
dry autumn, or dry frosty winter, on a windy day, 
when the grass will burn. If you can, burn every 
blade of it from one end of your run to the other, 
and never mind what has been published in London 
against this practice of ours by Count Strzelecki, 
who recently made a tour through Australia. The 
Count's argument, that by burning the grass, its 
roots, in consequence of long exposure to a scorch- 
ing sun, in such a dry climate as that of New 
South Wales, are permanently destroyed, is built 
upon a theory, of which practice and universal ex- 
perience, the only legitimate tests, demonstrate 
the fallacy. 

For many years it has been found throughout 
the colony that the oftener you burn the grass the 
thicker it grows, and that while sheep, cattle, and 
horses, half starve in the midst of miles of grass 
up to their flanks, it is no sooner burnt, than there 
springs up from its roots a thick mantle of sweet 
and nutritious green foliage, on which all sorts of 
live stock rapidly thrive and fatten. And accord- 
ingly every Australian settler, whether living on 



CATTLE. 113 

his own purchased land, or is merely a squatter, 
whose meadows are covered with long dry grass, 
takes the earliest opportunity of burning it. I 
have annually spent several days in this sort 
of employment. I have burnt scores of miles 
of thick grass, four or five feet in height, over my 
sheep and cattle-runs. Viewed from a convenient 
height an hour or two after the sun has dis- 
appeared below the horizon, there is an approxi- 
mation to the sublime in the spectacle of forty or 
fifty miles of long and thick grass in one mass of 
conflagration. As you could form no idea of it from 
anything that I am able to write, I will not here 
attempt a description. You can picture to yourself 
the irresistible impetuosity of the flame, sweeping 
away in its progress every semblance of vegetation 
— "before it is as the garden of Eden, behind it, a 
desolate wilderness," the atmosphere heated for 
many miles — dense volumes of smoke carried 
athwart the sky — birds, snakes, and quadrupeds 
hurrying away from the coming destruction — kan- 
garoos, opossums, bandicoots, and emus, rushing 
forward, being driven away from their hiding-place. 
Commingled with the crackling of burning reeds, 
you hear the hissing of serpents and chirping of 
birds, and then, crash, crash, crash, the gigantic 
trees, which stood for ages, as they now in rapid 
succession come tumbling to the ground. As far 
as vision extends, you see, furiously blazing across 
the darkened space the flames have swept, thou- 
sands and thousands of lofty hollow trees, from the 
tops of whose cavities, as from so many tunnels or 
pillars of fire, issue myriads of clear flames. 



114 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

illuminating the forest far and wide, and present- 
ing the appearance of a grand exhibition of nature, 
or of some fantastic fairy scene, on a scale truly 
magnificent. But until you have seen all this, 
it is impossible for you to form a correct idea of 
its sublimity and grandeur. By means, however, 
of a few lucifer matches, you can here repeat this 
scene, a scene compared with which your boasted 
Vauxhall pyrotechnics are but a childish bagatelle, 
and even the burning of Troy would dwindle into 
insignificance. 

Having burnt the grass, there is another thing 
you must do before bringing your cattle on the 
run. You must build on an elevated ground near 
where you intend having your hut, either a three- 
raUed fence, inclosing about an acre, or a stock- 
yard sufiicient to contain your herd, as they must 
for the first few months be what is here called 
tailed^ that is, followed daily by a man on horse- 
back, and yarded or confined in the stockyard by 
night, to prevent them from returning, as they will 
attempt to do, to the run whence they came. I 
deem it unnecessary to describe the extent, form, 
divisions, &c., of the stockyard, as you must see 
on your way so far into the bush a great variety of 
stockyards of all sizes. 

The following is a list of what men and things 
you will require to provide yourself with, in order to 
form and properly carry on for the first year your 
cattle-station. You need not be told that the first 
year is the most expensive, and that while, after 
the first year, your difiiculties are over, your 
necessary outlay is reduced to a small amount. 



CATTLE. 115 

£ a. d. 

1 dray, 10/.; tarpaulin, 21. \ chains, yokes, and 

bows, for 8 bullocks, 21 14 

8 working bullocks, 20^. ; squatting license, 10/. . 30 
Assessment on 500 head of cattle, at ^d, a head 

per annum . 6 5 

2 riding-horses, with saddles, one for yourself, 

and one for your stockman . . . . 30 

Yearly wages to stockman, 20/.; to hut-keeper, 18/ 38 
1 wood-axe, 3*. Qd. ; mortising, 3s. ; adze, 4s. ; 

set of augers, 10s. Qd. . . . ..110 

3 chisels, 4s.; seven iron wedges, 18s.; maul- 
rings, 3s 15 

1 cross-cut saw, 18s. ; hand-saw, 4s. ; saw-set and 

files, 5s 17 

1 spade, 3s. Qd. ; hoe, 2s. Qd. ; hammer, 2s. ; 

gimlets. Is. 6c? 9 6 

2 M. nails of all sizes, 12s. ; beef-cask, 8s. ; two 

buckets, 7s 17 

2 iron pots, some tin plates, quart-pots, and panni- 
kins, knives and forks . . . .10 

1 steel mill, 2/. 10s.; sieve, 7s.; six three- 
bushel bags, 18s 3 15 

2 branding-irons, with your initials, 12s. ; candle- 
mould, 2s. Qd 14 6 

Steelyard, to weigh 2 cwt., 18s.; weights and 

scales for tea and sugar, 9s 17 

1 chest of tea, net weight, 64 lbs., 5/. ; four cwt. 

sugar, 4/. 12s 9 12 

2 cwt. Liverpool salt, lOs. ; \ cwt. soap, 10s.; 

forty bushels wheat, 10/ 11 

Plough, 3/. 10s. ; harrow, 1/. 16s. . . .560 

156 9 



In drawing out. this estimate, I have taken 

it for granted that your hut-keeper has driven your 

team, carrying the supplies to the station, that he 

and you have put up the huts and stockyards while 

I 2 



116 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

the stockman is daily out after the cattle — that you 
killed your own beef — that you brought with you 
from England a couple of blankets, your double- 
barrelled gun, and some powder and shot. If you 
are a married man, as you certainly ought to be 
before settling in the bush, you will be able to do 
without a hired hut-keeper after the first year, and 
thus save a considerable item of expense, and live 
much more comfortably. 

But it is very possible that your predilection for a 
bachelor's life may be invincible, and that in utter 
defiance of what I have here said, you may be de- 
termined to continue in practical infidehty, by your 
disbelieving the scriptural declaration that "it is not 
good for man to be alone," and yet be desirous to 
reduce as much as possible your expenses. In such a 
case employ a family, the husband to act as stock- 
man, and make himself generally useful, his wife to 
act as hut-keeper ; and if they have any children 
above seven or eight years of age, they may be 
very useful in driving home your milkers, feeding 
pet calves, and pigs, &c. The yearly wages now 
given to a family of this description are about £20, 
with double rations. They pay for whatever rations 
they may draw from your store over their stipu- 
lated allowance. Never hire any man who will not 
consent to sign a written agreement, containing a 
clause binding him to make himself generally useful. 
All old hands have a mortal antipathy to this 
clause. But unless it is inserted in their agree- 
ment, it is evident that five hundred unforeseen 
and totally unexpected things may require to be 
done which they, if they choose, may legally re- 
fuse to perform. 



CATTLE. . 117 

As soon as you have got over the hurry occa- 
sioned by building your huts, making a garden, and 
enclosing with a two-railed fence a paddock for 
wheat, you ought to employ your stockman and 
hut-keeper, every morning, in milking as many as 
they can of your cows, and in breaking in to 
bail all your heifers, or young cows that have 
just calved for the first time. Milk them all, 
even if you should, in the absence of pigs and pet 
calves, throw away the milk. Unless your cattle 
are remarkably quiet, I would strongly recommend 
the formation of a dairy. The direct profits from 
it might not perhaps cover the expense of conduct- 
ing it, and of the dairy utensils. But ultimately 
you would be a large gainer. With wild cattle you 
can do nothing. They are perfectly unmanage- 
able. The falling of a leaf will disturb them 
in their pasture. The sight of a man will drive 
them away at a full gaUop for many miles. They 
never fatten. You can never drive them to 
market. You can never break them in to work. 
They will attack your horse and rip him up, 
if you succeed in heading them, and attempt 
to drive them back. If, after some days' hard 
riding, accompanied by half-a-dozen men on horse- 
back, and after knocking up a score of horses, 
you at last are fortunate enough to drive a third or 
even fourth of them into a stockyard, they will 
furiously attack you if you venture inside. I have 
been attacked by calves, a few days old, which 
came bellowing and roaring towards me, and I 
have seen a cow repeatedly clear a stockyard 
of half-a-dozen strong men, one of whom she 



118 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

caught on her horns, and tossed him high in 
the air, like a boy's play-ball. He was now truly 
on the horns of a dilemma. We of course all 
waited to see him come down again without his hat. 
Tliese wild Russians, as they are here called, will, 
as I have often seen, clear at the first leap a stock- 
yard six feet in height, and there is only one 
thing then can tame them — and what is that ? 
It is to yard them often, and to form a dairy. So 
generally known is the fact, that keeping a dairy 
tames the cattle, that stockholders frequently 
request as a favour of their servants to milk 
for their own use as many of the cows as they can 
collect. It has been found that the calves of cows 
that are regularly milked thrive fully as well 
as the calves which are left to suck the whole of 
their mother's milk ; and then, when these civilised 
calves are weaned, or turned out, they quietly feed 
and very soon fatten. The stockman and hut- 
keeper may milk before breakfast from thirty 
to forty cows ; the same cows being milked only 
about four months in the year, (dating the period 
from the cow's calving,) upwards of one hundred 
of them may thus be milked within twelve months. 
There are men in this colony who can milk forty 
cows daily, if they are driven into bail for them, 
and this would only be an amusement for yourself 
in the morning. Cows are milked only once 
a day at cattle-stations. After the cows are 
milked, the calves are allowed to accompany them 
out on the run, and to remain with them until 3 
o'clock, P.M.; when they are all driven into the 
yard, the calves put up for the night in their pens, 



CATTLE. 119 

and the cows allowed to remain out feeding in the 
wood until next morning, when they either come 
home of their own accord to their calves, or are 
driven home to the yard by the stockman to 
be milked. The dairy utensils you will require, 
in cafse you wish to make butter and cheese, are 
1 churn, 4 buckets, 6 cheese-vats, 6 milking 
piggins, 1 large iron pot, 1 butter-tub, 1 skimmer, 
1 strainer, about 40 large shallow tin dishes, and 
some butter-casks. You must of course build a 
dairy-house. It ought to be in a cool place, and 
have a double roof. 

There are some men in this colony, such as Mr. 
Howe, of Glenlee, Mr. George Rankeen, of 
Bathurst, &lc., who have derived large incomes 
from the profits of their dairies. 

I shall now suppose that your cattle are fully 
broken in to their new run, and require no yarding 
at night, and that if they have been naturally 
wild, they are in a fair way of being tamed 
by the establishment of a dairy ; that you have 
at least half-a-dozen acres under wheat, well 
fenced; and that you have a garden producing 
abundance of vegetables. The additional im- 
provements which you ought now gradually to 
make, are the following — and I may as well here 
mention that I copy them from my own head- 
station, at which I have resided during the last two 
years and a half. 

Stable, barn, storehouse, an additional wheat 
paddock, a large heifer paddock, (into which you 
can put your calves which are fit to be weaned,) 
and a small paddock, near the huts, for your 



120 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

Tiding horses and working bullocks. This last 
paddock will save you much time that would 
otherwise be lost in searching for your horses and 
bullocks when required. In one of your cultivation- 
paddocks you ought to raise hay and green barley 
to enable you to keep your own horse chiefly 
in the stable, and if you have sheep-stations within 
two hundred miles, you ought to grow wheat 
enough to spare for their supply. If you select 
your station on a river, you may find angles of it, 
which will form two- thirds of your paddock-fence. 
One of my grazing-paddocks is formed by running 
a straight fence from one angular point to another, 
and thus including the space contained in a large 
bend of the river in the shape of the letter C. I 
have thus seen a forty-acre cultivation-paddock 
inclosed by eighteen yards of fencing ! This will 
give you some idea of the circuitous and meander- 
ing character of our rivers, thus prolonging their 
stay among us ; and, indeed, so beautiful are the 
valleys through which they run, that you need not 
be surprised at their unwillingness to leave them. 

Without a weaning or heifer-paddock, you will 
be obliged to allow your calves to continue sucking 
their mothers for a whole year, to the serious injury 
of the latter ; and you will also be obliged to 
allow your heifers to have calves, as in such 
circumstances they often have, before they are 
twenty months old. The result will be, that many 
of them die in calving, and that, if you allow the 
survivors to rear their calves, the growth of 
the mother is stunted, and the calf will be a 
disgrace to your herd. Nothing tends more to 



CATTLE. 121 

deteriorate a herd than to allow the heifers to 
breed at too early an age. They ought to be 
three years before they are sent to the bull. It is 
also necessary that you should change your bulls 
every third year, so as to prevent the possibility of 
breeding in — the result of which has been found to 
be in this colony to produce both a wild and 
a diminutive race. 

One circumstance which has tended much to 
improve our breed of cattle, is the splendid feed 
which, in most parts of the colony, they have at all 
times of the year. Theoretical men may talk as 
they like about the breeding of cattle, but I have 
no doubt that one of the most effectual means of 
improving them is by well feeding them at all 
seasons of the year. It would surprise an 
Englishman, newly arrived in the colony, to see 
some of our bullocks, which were never under the 
roof of a house, and which had never anything to 
eat except the natural grass they picked up in the 
forest, so very fat as to be unable to walk. The 
beef of these bullocks is equal in taste and flavour 
to any stall-fed beef you ever tasted in England. 
It is, however, inferior in tenderness to the beef of 
Scotland, where the fattening of cattle with oil- 
cake and other such abominations is fortunately 
unknown. The Australian beef might be much 
better than it is, if cattle-proprietors were not in 
such a hurry to convert all their fat bullocks into 
money. No buUock, however fat, ought to be 
killed until he is at least four years old. A 
bullock grows until he is five years or upwards, 
and to kill him before that age is a loss to buyer 



122 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

and seller : tlie meat of a verj young bullock is 
neither firm nor palatable, and on its being boiled, 
it shrinks to two-thirds of its original bulk. Any 
tolerable judge in these matters can tell whether 
it is young or aged beef, by merely seeing it on 
his plate at a dinner-table. A large number of our 
Australian fat bullocks are killed before they are 
three years old. Hence the loose texture of the 
beef, and the comparatively small proportion of 
fat with which it is intermingled. 

Our cattle here are scarcely subject to any 
disease, except what is called the black leg, which 
is very rare, and which attacks only very fat and 
young cattle. To remove this disease, all that is 
necessary is to yard the herd, and allow them to 
feed only two or three hours out of the twenty- 
four. 

It would puzzle a conjuror to tell what is 
our breed of cattle in Australia. Our breeds 
of cattle are as numerous, though not, perhaps, so 
vicious, as our breeds of bipeds. If every county 
in England, Ireland, and Scotland, has contributed 
to increase our stock of bipeds, many counties 
in England, and a few in Scotland, have contri- 
buted to replenish our breed of cattle. The late 
Rev. Mr. Marsden introduced an excellent breed of 
polled cattle, called the Suffolks. 



CATTLE. 



123 



CHAPTER XX. 

CATTLE. (continued). 

In the course of some years your heifer-paddock 
will in all probability yield but a scanty supply of 
grass for the increasing number of calves necessary 
to be weaned, and the heifers which are too young 
for breeding. In such a case, your best, if not 
only remedy, is to form what is called a heifer- 
station. This is what I had to do lately ; and, 
though there is nothing either new or very inte- 
resting in my proceedings on that occasion, a 
detail of them may perhaps be of use in guiding 
you at some future period, when your first cattle- 
run becomes overstocked. Accompanied by two 
of my neighbours, I started in search of a station. 
Each of us was well mounted, and supplied with a 
blanket, greatcoat, some provisions, tin quart-pot, 
tinder-box, flint and steel, and hobbles for our 
horses. We had also a tomahawk, and a pocket- 
compass. With the compass we steered our course 
by day, and with the tomahawk we cut two or 
three sheets of bark in the evening, and thus 
made a comfortable house to shelter us from wind 
and rain during the night. We built our house 
opposite to some large dry log, to which we set 
fire. We always hobbled our horses on good feed 
near us, and if they rambled, which they seldom 
did, we could easily track them uext morning. 



124 TEN TEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

We steered our course in the direction of the 
junction of the Hume and the Murrumbidgee, and 
nearly midway between these two rivers. About 
one hundred miles from my head-station, I found 
a place possessing in my opinion the necessary 
requisites for a cattle-station, viz.: plenty of room, 
plenty of grass, plenty of water, and open forest- 
land, together with the additional recommendation 
of large plains, some of which measuring a thou- 
sand acres, without a tree, and ready for the 
plough. 

Mobs of wild cattle and a few naked blacks 
were the only occupiers of this beautiful place, of 
which I now took possession, — not in her Majesty's 
name, — but in my own name. I then hastened 
back to my nearest station — about fifty miles, — 
wrote to the District Commissioner, describing 
the boundaries of my new run, and applying for 
his permission to occupy it. And then, lest some 
other squatter might chance to follow my track, 
and afterwards pretend that he was the first 
discoverer, I immediately returned with men, tools, 
dray, bullocks, and provisions, and commenced 
building. The only two buildings requisite for a 
heifer-station are a hut for the men, and a stock- 
yard or paddock for the cattle. I selected and 
pegged out, near a deep lagoon, an elevated spot 
for a hut, 20 x 12 feet, the height of the walls to 
be six feet. For this magnificent palace I engaged 
to pay, when finished, thirty shillings. I also 
fixed on a dry situation for a paddock, 150 yards 
square, containing of course an area of nearly five 
acres. Various reasons induced me to prefer a 



CATTLE. 125 

paddock to a stockyard. A paddock, affording to 
cattle plenty of room, not only increases their 
chance of escaping from those vicious animals 
among themselves that would horn them, but of 
all finding a dry spot on which to rest during the 
night, a luxury not to be enjoyed in a confined 
stockyard, which, during the winter, is generally 
one uniform slough, often up to their flanks. This 
might do well enough twice or thrice in the 
year, but it would not answer in the case of cattle 
which must be confined every night for some 
months in the stockyard. 

Another reason for preferring a paddock to a 
stockyard is, that by the time the cattle are 
broken in to the run, and may be left out all night, 
your paddock has been well manured, and may be 
ploughed up and converted into a cultivation-en- 
closure, yielding abundance of wheat for the 
supply of the station. Your men are then also at 
leisure to build the necessary stockyard. 

The only timber which my men could find near, 
that would split for rails, was pine. Near them 
was a whole forest of pine, sufficient to build a 
city ; but it is very bad building timber, and ought 
never to be used when stringy-bark can be ob- 
tained. I stipulated that the posts for the paddock 
should be either of gum or box, each of which is 
abundant here, and is very durable. My own 
bullock-driver, with my team, was engaged to 
drive in all the stuff or materials for the buildings 
above mentioned. 

While I remained with the men making these 
arrangements, I was visited by a party of fifty or 



126 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

sixty naked blacks, one of whom, an old man 
named "Jackey Jackey," stated that I was on 
his ground, over which he and his family always 
hunted. I said I would buy it from him, and 
describing to him the best way I could, how far I 
wished to occupy, desired him to put a price on it, 
and I would pay him ; — to which he replied, that 
it would be a new man-shirt, a knife, a big piece 
of beef, a tobacco-pipe, and that many (holding up 
five fingers) of figs tobacco. I told him I would 
pay him his price ; and accordingly, at the very 
earliest opportunity, I paid him more than double 
the price he set on my run of about thirty square 
miles. Each of us was well pleased with his 
bargain ; and he promised that neither his dogs 
nor the people belonging to him, should ever 
disturb my cattle. He has been very useful to 
me in cutting bark and looking after my horses. 

After having paid two or three visits to this 
station, and seen that everything was ready, I 
drafted and drove thither all calves fit to be 
weaned, and aU the heifers under two years old, 
together with a lot of steers and bullocks. I 
placed them under the charge of two stockmen, 
who were supplied with three good horses and two 
saddles, provisions of wheat, tea, sugar, and salt, 
for four or five months. They were to kill a 
bullock for themselves. Besides the two stock- 
men, whose business it was to foUow the cattle 
every day and to yard them every evening, there 
was a hut-keeper, under whose charge the supplies 
were placed. Steel-mill, sieve, iron pot, spade, 
axe, saw, iron wedges, maul, bucket, milk-dish 



CATTLB. 127 

and beef-cask, with the splendid thirty shilling 
mansion already described, constituted the sum 
total of their accommodation. To the stockman 
in charge of the herd at the cattle-station, strict 
orders should be given to kill the calf of every 
heifer or young cow that may calve on the run, 
for it is impossible always to prevent a stray bull 
from running in among them. 

One of the most important duties to be per- 
formed on a cattle-station is mustering. This is 
done at least once, and sometimes twice a year, 
and generally when the stockyard is dry. The 
mustering of cattle in this colony is a work full of 
excitement, and, considered as a sport, is equal to 
any fox-hunt or steeple-chase you have ever 
witnessed in England. The object of mustering 
all the cattle may be either to draft fat bullocks 
for the market, or to cut and brand the calves, and 
wean, by sending either into the paddock or to 
the heifer-station, those of them which are of 
sufficient age or size to do well enough without 
their mothers. A few days before you intend 
mustering, you send notice to half-a-dozen of your 
neighbours, requesting their presence and assist- 
ance. They, expecting a similar favour from you 
next week, will attend. You have kept your horses 
fresh for the occasion. On the morning of muster 
all the inner gates of the stockyard are generally 
opened, and all the outer, except one, are shut. 
The horses, perhaps a dozen, stand saddled and 
ready at the door. Each rider is armed with a 
stock-whip, the handle of which is only a little 
more than a foot in length, while the thong is 



128 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

twelve or fourteen feet long. With this whip 
a stockman can cut a piece clean out from the 
skin and flesh of a hullock. The report from 
a crack of it may be heard at the distance of 
some miles. Boots, spurs, trowsers, shirt, and 
cap, generally constitute the whole dress of the 
rider. All being now mounted and followed by a 
few cattle-dogs, they start at a slow pace to one 
end of the cattle-run, where, after having arranged 
to meet again on some large plain or open ground 
within a few miles of the stockyard, they divide 
into parties of two or three. Each party scours 
its allotted gullies, creeks, and back-ranges, 
driving down every horned beast towards the plain 
of general rendezvous. The cattle no sooner hear 
the loud crack of the stock-whip, than they 
scamper away towards their usual camping-place, 
with the fury and determination of a dog to whose 
tail a di'um or an old kettle is tied, the rider in full 
chase after, until he succeeds in heading the 
cattle and driving them in the right direction. 

One end of the run being thus cleared, the 
diflferent parties now meet on the appointed plain, 
with all, or at least the greater part, of the 
cattle in that direction. The accumulated herd 
thus collected is now driven by the united riders 
towards the stockyard. 

The confusion of Babel is now renewed. The 
lowing of cows for their lost calves, and of calves 
for their lost mothers — the roaring of rival bulls, 
now brought into close contact — the bellowing of 
bullocks that lost their companions — the barking 
of dogs— the cracking of stock-whips — the shouting 



CATTLE. 129 

of riders — the rearing and prancing of excited 
horses — the tramp, tramp, tramp, of a thousand 
head of cattle of every description, all attempting 
to break away into the forest. Then is your time of 
action ; bring up the rear — check the galloping 
van — drive in the scattered flanks — hit out — give 
your horse his head — clear the fallen timber — 
dash through the mire — onward — onward — splash 
mud and water — never mind your lost hat. 

To people who live at the distance of some 
miles, the position and approach of this immense 
moving body are indicated by a volume of dust 
rising high in the air, and by a confused murmur 
of rumbling noise wafted on the wings of the wind. 
The severest part of the work has not yet com- 
menced. On approaching close to the stockyard, 
the cattle make a last struggle to break away. It 
is then you see equestrian performances. An old 
stock-horse knows his business fully as well as his 
rider, and all that you need do is to give him his 
head. With the quickness and agility of a French 
mountebank, he will twist and turn, zig-zag — zig- 
zag — right to left — left to right — according as the 
cattle he attempts to head move away. He will 
then, when going, in Yankee style, right a-head at 
the rate of thirty or forty miles an hom*, suddenly 
stop and whisk about, describing an acute angle, 
on finding that he has headed the runaways, 
to which he now sticks closely until he sees them 
within the stockyard. When the horse is describ- 
ing these varied evolutions, he and his rider, 
unless the latter is well on his guard, are likely 
enough to part company. I have often witnessed 

E 



130 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

such unexpected dissolution of partnership, for 
' 'facilis descensus. 

When the horses, fresh and fiery, started in the 
morning, they looked clean, sleek, and of all 
colours ; now, on their return to the hut, trembling, 
hollow, exhausted, and languid, they are all of one 
colour, viz,, grey, or covered with one mass of 
foam and mud. And the riders, who wore clean 
shirts on starting, have in the interval exchanged 
them for a covering of mud, mixed with perspira- 
tion. In this short interval of six or seven hours, 
everything but one has been impaired — and what 
is that ? It is the rider's appetite. Our delicious 
climate, the mountain air, and the equestrian 
exercises, have so sharpened the appetite, , that the 
rider is ready to swallow and digest everything and 
anything, except the shovel and the poker. I some- 
times shuddered when I thought what would be the 
result, if any of us had then lost his appetite, and 
a poor man found it. It would have ruined him. 

The cattle being now secured in the yard, 
if there is time this evening, we draft them ; 
if not, we do it to-morrow morning. Drafting 
consists in separating those that we want for 
any particular purpose from those which we do not 
want, and which, therefore, are turned out into 
the bush (woods), to remain there undisturbed, 
perhaps, until next year. I shall suppose that 
your object on this occasion is twofold — 1st, 
to draft out a lot of fat bullocks for the market, 
and, 2nd, to brand all your unbranded calves. 
The fat bullocks are drafted into one yard, 
the unbranded calves into another, and those 



CATTLE. l;U 

cattle not wanted are drafted into a third yard. 
When this is done, the fat bullocks are sent off for 
the market ; the cattle not wanted are counted out 
and allowed to escape into the hush ; the calves 
are branded. To do this, a large fire is kindled 
outside the stockyard, and your brands are heated. 
In the mob of a thousand head brought in yester- 
day, you have probably two hundred calves to 
brand. Your men rope the big ones and pull 
them up to a post, throw them down, and partly 
tie them. The very young ones are caught, and 
held without the aid of a rope ; then the brand is 
gently pressed against the skin of the animal, 
until an indelible impression is produced. You 
always brand on the same part, whether right 
or left, rump, thigh, hip, or ribs of the animal. 
The owner, if present, generally cuts and brands. 
An account is kept of the number of males 
and females thus branded. Two hundred can 
easily be done daily. Divers extraordinary and 
incorrect accounts of Australian cattle-muster 
have been written by men who evidently were 
never in the bush : for instance, one writer gravely 
states that "the proprietor, if present, generally 
cuts and brands himself." I can only say that, 
though I have attended many a cattle-muster 
during the last ten years, I have neither witnessed 
nor heard of any such act being committed on the 
occasion. The calves under fi.ve months old are 
turned out to their mothers in the bush : 
those above that age are confined in a separate 
yard, until they can be sent off with others either 
to the weaning-paddock or heifer-station. 
K 2 



132 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

In the heifer-paddock you can keep the fat 
bullocks which you have drafted, until you can 
send or accompany them into market. 

Next day another division of the run is cleared, 
and the cattle on it are mustered in the same way 
as I have described those of yesterday ; you have 
generally fresh horses, and this work goes on 
until all the calves are branded, and those which 
are old and strong enough are weaned. You are 
not to infer that, since six months' old calves are 
weaned, and five months' old calves are allowed to 
go into the bush, you would therefore have to 
muster and wean every month of the year. Three- 
fourths of all your cows calve within two or three 
months, that is between September and November, 
so that most of your calves are fit to be weaned 
in March or April, our deUcious autumn. The 
different lots of cattle as they go out of the yard, 
arc counted under the following heads : — cows, 
heifers, bullocks, steers, bulls, male calves and 
female calves. From this calculation the half- 
yearly returns for the government assessment for 
the next twelve months are made out, and sent to 
the district commissioner : unweaned calves are 
not counted. I never attended a muster either of 
my own cattle or of any of my neighbours', without 
seeing several stray cattle (or strangers, as they 
are called,) among every mob brought into the 
stockyard ; and this accounts for the readiness with 
which our neighbours will assist you at a cattle- 
muster. The truth is, that it is not so much to 
oblige you as to benefit themselves they attend. 
It is self-interest — that grand moving principle of 



CATTLE. 133 

human nature — general, uniform, and powerful as 
the laws of gravitation, that prompts them to come 
to your assistance. They can thus secure and 
drive home, from among yom- herd, their own stray 
cattle. Yet the arrangement is good, and the 
benefit reciprocal ; for by this means the stock- 
holder who has, perhaps, only two men to manage 
a herd of two thousand head of cattle, can thus 
command, when required, the services of a dozen 
men well mounted. 

Having finished your mustering, drafting, and 
all your cutting and branding, the cattle return to 
their usual beat ; for all of them have not only 
their favourite companions, but their favourite 
places of feeding, camping and bedding, from year 
to year ; and they will sometimes half starve rather 
than abandon their old haunts, even to frequent 
places abounding with the richest grass. To in- 
duce them to exchange an old favourite but barren 
spot for a good and distant place, the exercise of 
some ingenuity is necessary. In order that they 
may spread far and wide over the run, and enjoy 
the benefit of the best grass, take a bullock's hide 
well salted, and nail it, with the flesh side outward, 
to a tree in some shady, cool, dry place, near which 
you see plenty of grass and water. Drive now a 
. mob of the cattle to the hide. They will soon find 
out the salt ; and for an hour or two about noon, 
they will continue day after day Hcking the hide, 
until it is as thin as a wafer : in the mean time 
their feet will necessarily dig the ground around it, 
rendering it a soft and cool standing-place. After 
regularly feeding within a short distance of it, they 



134 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

will continue for years daily resorting thither. It 
is now a permanent camping-place. 

After the muster, you may probably have to 
accompany your fat bullocks to Sydney or Mel- 
bourne. They should never be driven out of a 
walk, and not more than 12 or 15 miles a day. 
Use no dog. If the weather is warm, allow them 
to camp in the middle of the day ; let them travel 
and feed early and late. If the stockyards on the 
road are not dry, camp your bullocks out, and 
watch them all night. After you are a day's 
journey with them away from your run, one man 
on foot could drive them the remainder of the 
journey. Take a pack-horse to carry your pro- 
visions and blankets. When you arrive within a 
few days of your journey's end, write to two or three 
butchers of the town ; they will ride out to meet 
you. If you like their offer, take it ; if not, boil 
down your bullocks. In the event of your not 
having a large number of bullocks fit for slaughter, 
you can send them to market by one or other of your 
neighbours who is going with a lot of his own, and 
will drive and sell yours, on condition that you 
will perform a similar neighbourly act for him on 
another occasion. We thus often oblige each other. 
Our fat bullocks generally average about 700 lbs. 
the four quarters. I have some bullocks now in 
my team that would weigh 1100 lbs. each, the 
four quarters ; and I have heard of stockholders 
here who had bullocks which weighed nearly 
1300 lbs. the four quarters. Such bullocks, how- 
ever, are very rare in this colony. 

You ought frequently to accompany your stock- 



CATTLE. 135 

man out among the cattle, however faithful he may 
be in the performance of his duties ; your eye may 
often he better than his hands. If you have much 
riding, you would require a number of saddle- 
horses ; I generally keep four or five for my own 
use. They are of little or no expense, the govern- 
ment assessment or tax being only 6d. per annum ; 
and I have widely scattered stations to visit. 
During the last twelve months I rode on an average 
nearly one hundred miles weekly. 

When we want beef, we drive into the yard a 
small lot of fat bullocks, select one of them, drive a 
bullet through his brains, and then let his compa- 
nions escape into the bush. The four quarters are 
cut up and salted next morning ; the head, the 
heart, the liver, the feet and tripe are all thrown 
in to the dogs. What is in this colony thrown away, 
would feed many a family in England, Ireland, 
and Scotland. The bullock's horns are always 
thrown away. A Scotch tinker who could work 
these horns into spoons, drinking cups, (fee, would 
make his fortune here, and benefit the colony. 
The hide is kept to be cut up for ropes. In this 
colony everything is held, tied, or mended with green 
hide. Our loads of wool and hurdles are tied by 
green hide ; our bullocks and horses are roped with 
green hide ; our horses are tethered, and our bul- 
locks hobbled with green hide ; our saddles and 
bridles are mended with green hide ; our milch 
cows are leg-roped with green hide ; our calves are 
tied up with green hide ; our broken fences are 
mended with green hide ; our bucket and pot- 
handles are made of green hide ; our spurs are 



136 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

tied on with green hide ; our stock and bullock- 
whips are made of green hide ; our door-hinges 
and hasps are made of green hide ; our house- 
frames and roofs are secured with green hide ; our 
harness and bullock-chains are mended with green 
hide ; our wheat is led home tied with green hide ; 
our wheel-washers are made of green hide ; green 
hide, instead of canvas, covers the stretchers on 
which we sleep. Of green hide we make sieves ; 
of green hide we make leading-halters and lunging- 
ropes. With green hide many a convict has been 
taught obedience. But time would fail me to 
enumerate half the virtues and uses of green hide. 
Suflfice it to say, that green hide, horses, and 
stringy-bark, are the grand support and stay of 
Australia ; without them the whole fabric would 
totter and fall. 

Nothing will more surprise you here, than the 
quantity and quality of eatables on the table of 
some of the old settlers at a cattle-station. In the 
course of one day I have seen the following on a 
table which consisted of a sheet of bark, nailed on 
four posts driven into the floor : — beef, pork, ham, 
vegetables, eggs, fritters, butter, cheese, tea, sugar, 
cream, damper, poultry, wild ducks, and fish fresh 
out of the river. 

No wonder, then, that some people here should 
occasionally complain of indigestion. The only 
article named in the above list which you may not 
probably understand, is damper. This is our 
bread, baked under the ashes. Men who have 
been long in the bush can, in a very short time, 
convert wheat into bread for you. During a short 



BUSH AMUSEMENTS. 137 

visit I made to my cattle-station about five years 
ago, my hut-keeper came in at breakfast-time to 
inform me that there was no bread for dinner, and 
what was worse, the wheat was done ! I was about 
ordering a horse to be saddled, on which I was to 
send the stockman to my next neighbour to borrow 
a bushel of wheat, when the hut-keeper informed 
me that a corner of my own wheat was ripe enough. 
He accordingly started with a sickle, reaped a 
sheaf, carried it home, thrashed it out with a stick, 
winnowed the wheat, dried it for an hour by ex- 
posing it to a hot sun, ground it by the steel mill, 
put the flour through the sieve, made a damper, 
baked it, and it was cool before evening on my 
riding home to dinner ! 

You will probably wish to know how we gene- 
rally employ our time at a cattle-station, what 
amusements have we, since we cannot always be 
engaged in mustering cattle, drafting heifers, or 
forming new stations ? The answer to this ques- 
tion forms the subject of the following chapter. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

BUSH AMUSEMENTS. 

The chief sources of amusement you may freely 
enjoy in the bush are the following : — fishing, 
hunting, shooting, riding, and reading. Our rivers 
abound with fish of all sizes. We generally catch 
them with a line and baited hook. If you are a 
true disciple of Izaak Walton, you may catch as 



138 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

many in a couple of hours — weighing from half-a- 
pound to twenty pounds — as will supply your table 
for a week. The most common sort are perch, 
bream, roach, carp, cod-fish, and mullet. This 
last-named, as you know, is a fish which thrives 
equally in salt and fresh water. I have seen cod- 
fish caught which weighed from sixty to eighty 
pounds. But these very large ones are inferior in 
taste and flavour to those of a smaller size. The 
blacks generally catch their fish by spearing. At 
a single glance they aim at the fish, and drive 
their spear through him with unerring precision, 
as he swims at a considerable depth under the 
water's surface. You would suppose, from witness- 
ing their skill and practice, that they studied, in 
Newton's Principia, all that is there stated on the 
angles of incidence and reflection. They capture 
wild ducks in the same way as fish — by spearing. 
The black fellow either crawls quietly on fours 
through the long grass, or keeping a tree in a line 
between him and the ducks, he softly creeps until 
he reaches the edge of the lagoon or river, when 
he suddenly darts his spear, and generally secures 
one, if not two of them. 

Hunting is a favourite amusement here. The ani- 
mals hunted are, generally, the native dog, kanga- 
roo, and emu. The native dog closely resembles the 
English fox, in size, shape, and cunning. The 
English fox, however, is generally of one colour, 
viz., red; whereas, among the Australian native 
dogs are some red, some brown, and some black. 
They are very numerous, and extremely trouble- 
some. They come almost to the very door of the 



BUSH AMUSEMENTS. 139 

huts, and leap over the hurdles among a flock of 
sheep, on one side of the fold, while the watchman is 
in his box on the other. A great number of calves 
— perhaps ten per cent, at some out-stations — are 
yearly destroyed by them ; and when pressed by 
hunger they will attack foals. I have seen several 
of my calves which had their ears and tails bit off 
by these carnivorous animals. To destroy them 
is, therefore, the great object of every stockholder, 
in keeping a few kangaroo dogs, which are a breed 
between a pure greyhound and a mastiff. At every 
station you find some of these dogs, and, accompa- 
nied by them, some settlers spend a great part of 
their time in riding over their runs in search of the 
native dog. He smells as strong as the English 
fox, and the dogs no sooner come on his scent, 
than they start at full-speed, their noses to the 
ground. When they get sight of him, you must 
let your horse out and follow them. He will make 
hard either for the mountains or the river. They 
soon catch him, and tear him to pieces. I lately 
came on four of them together, tearing away at the 
carcase of a calf. They cunningly fled in four 
different directions. I had only three dogs with me, 
all of which followed one ; after a smart chase they 
caught him, and fairly cut his throat. Some years 
ago, several stockholders in this colony used to give 
two shillings and sixpence for every native dog's 
brush or tail produced ; and then every man who 
wanted half-a-crown tried to cur-tail them. Their 
barking is quite different from that of a domestic- 
ated dog. It has been erroneously stated that they, 
being in a state of nature, never bark ; and some 



140 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

writers have obstinately maintained that bark- 
ing is entirely the result of civilisation. I am 
aware that the dogs carried by Columbus to 
America were afterwards found by him to have 
lost their propensity to barking. They could 
merely whine, howl,, and growl. And the traveller 
Sonnini also states, that the shepherds' dogs in 
the wilds of Egypt possessed not the faculty of 
barking. 

The kangaroo is an extraordinary animal. There 
are several kinds of them, and they are of various 
sizes. The kangaroo forester is about five feet high, 
and when pursued by dogs, it leaps or bounds 
from fifteen to twenty paces. The animal goes on 
his hind legs, steering his body with his tail. His 
fore legs are only about half the length of his hind 
legs. He is generally of the same colour as the 
EngHsh hare, and his flesh greatly resembles in 
taste and appearance that of the hare. The tail, 
which sometimes weighs twenty pounds, is consi- 
dered the best part of him. It makes excellent 
soup — indeed equal to any ox-tail soup I ever 
tasted. His movements in his native wilds are 
extremely graceful. Seldom rapid, until he sees 
you and your dogs in full chase after him, — then 
he hits out in right earnest, hops, skips, bounds, 
and if you have not fleet dogs before you, and a 
fleet horse under you, he is soon out of sight. In 
some parts of the colony they are seen in droves, 
but I never saw more than five or six of them 
together. I have often seen them quietly feeding 
among my cattle, with which they seemed to live 
on peaceable terms. 



BUSH AMUSEMENTS. 141 

When hard pressed, they turn about, put their 
backs to a tree, and for a time successfully fight 
the dogs, which they often rip up and disable for 
life. They have been known not only to drown 
dogs, but also to take a man in their arms, carry 
him towards a lagoon or deep pond, and there 
attempt to drown him, as they commonly drown a 
dog, viz., by pressing his head under water. A 
friend of mine, a Mr. James Aitken, settler on the 
Clarence River, has lately received in a battle 
with a kangaroo a mark which he will necessarily 
carry with him to the grave. He was in chase 
after a kangaroo, which at last his dogs caught, 
when my friend inconsiderately dismounted from 
his horse for the purpose of assisting his dogs. 
The kangaroo now left them and attacked Mr. 
Aitken, whose lip he completely tore. The kan- 
garoo is naturally timid, and is easily tamed. He 
lives entirely on grass ; and the female has only 
two young ones at a time, which she carries in a 
pouch or bag under her belly. When hard pressed 
in the chase, she drops them one by one ; you can 
then be certain that she is nearly beat — all that a 
kangaroo has will she give for her life. The skin 
is remarkably tough, and is converted into stock- 
whips, and sometimes used as a substitute for a 
blanket in travelling through the bush. With 
half-a-dozen of these skins sewed together, a man 
could comfortably sleep out aU night on a bleak 
snowy mountain. 

As this little work may chance to meet the eye 
of a Jew, it may not be uninteresting to him to be 
informed, that the Levitical prohibition does not 



142 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

apply to the eating of kangaroos ; for, although 
Moses declares all creatures that fly and walk on 
four feet to be impure, he excepts those which, 
having " legs above their feet leap " and do not 
crawl upon the earth. Now, I can testify that 
the kangaroo skips or leaps with amazing 
agility. 

Lieut. Flinders, describing his first visit to Kan- 
garoo Island, situated near the entrance of Port 
Adelaide, South Australia, says — " On going to- 
wards the shore, a number of dark-brown kanga- 
roos were seen feeding on a grass-flat by the side 
of the wood ; and our landing gave them no dis- 
turbance. It would be difficult to guess how many 
kangaroos were seen ; but I killed ten, and the 
rest of the party made up the number to thirty- 
one, taken on board in the course of the day ; the 
least of them weighing sixty-nine, and the largest 
one hundred and five pounds. These kangaroos 
had much resemblance to the large species found 
in the forest-lands of New South Wales, except 
that the colour was darker, and they were not 
wholly destitute of fat. The animals were so tame 
as to allow themselves to be shot in the eyes with 
small shot, and in some cases to be knocked on the 
head with sticks. The supply amounted to an 
enormous quantity of food. In gratitude for so 
seasonable a supply, I named this southern land, 
Kangaroo Island. Never, perhaps, had the domi- 
nion, possessed here by the kangaroo, been invaded 
before this time. The seal shared with it upon 
the shores, but they seemed to dwell amicably 
together. It not unfrequently happened that the 



BUSH AMUSEMENTS. 143 

report of a gun fired at a kangaroo near the beach 
brought out two or three bellowing seals from 
under bushes considerably farther from the water- 
side. The seal, indeed, seemed to be much the 
more discerning animal of the two ; for its actions 
bespoke a knowledge of our not being kangaroos, 
whereas the kangaroo not unfrequentlj appeared 
to consider us to be seals." (Vol. 1. p. 169 — 172.) 

The emu is covered with hair rather than fea- 
thers, and accordingly he never flies. He stands 
from five to seven feet high, and is of a ragged 
grey colour. I have seen nine or ten of them to- 
gether. They can run as fast as a racer, and it 
is very seldom they can be run down by a man on 
horseback. I once had an old stock-horse, on 
which my stockman, who was rather too fond of 
field-sports, used to run down emus — a feat which 
was here considered extraordinary. The emu 
lays ten or twelve eggs. I have one of them now 
in my possession. It measures thirteen inches in 
circumference one way, and eleven inches the 
other way, and is of a dark-blue colour. The emu 
has an oily, disagreeable taste, and is seldom or 
never eaten by white men here ; the blacks, how- 
ever, are fond of it. A valuable oil is procured 
from these birds, and this is the chief, indeed the 
only satisfactory reason assigned by white men for 
hunting them. When half-a-dozen emus are viewed 
from a distance, majestically striding across the 
plain, they look like a party of savages. 

Shooting is here a common amusement. You 
are aware that in this colony we have no game- 
laws, and therefore wild animals are considered 



144 TEN TEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

common property, to which all men have an equal 
right ; and, accordingly, every settler has his 
double-barrelled gun. I know several boys of ten 
or twelve years of age, who are first-rate shots, 
the result of constant practice. 

Among the animals which we have here to be 
shot, are'the following : — native turkeys, which are 
very good eating ; wild ducks, with which some of 
our lagoons are covered, and are superior in flavour 
and taste to our tame ducks ; bronze-winged 
pigeons, which are very numerous, and will aUow 
you to get quite close to them ; wild geese, teal 
and parrots, all of which are very good eating. 
The musk-duck, native companion and cockatoo 
are common, but eaten only by the blacks. The 
only quadrupeds usually shot are the opossum, an 
animal resembling a rabbit •; feeds on grass and 
leaves, carries its young ones in the same way as 
the kangaroo, in a pouch or bag under the belly, 
and lives in the hollows of decayed gum, box, or 
stringy-bark trees. Opossums are very abundant, 
and it is a common amusement, especially among 
boys, to form parties to go out with guns by moon- 
light to shoot these opossums as they jump from 
branch to branch among the trees. Of their skins, 
beautiful cloaks are made, one of which would be 
sufficient to keep you warm in the open air during 
our coldest winter-night. Many a night have I 
slept under a tree, with no other covering than one 
of them. Bandicoots and kangaroo-rats are also 
very numerous, and are excellent eating. Both 
white and black men are fond of them. The fly- 
ing squirrel is eaten only by the blacks. The 



BUSH AMUSEMENTS. 145 

wombat, an animal resembling a bear, is con- 
sidered equal to pork. He burrows like a rabbit. 
One of them was lately brought to me as a present 
by a tribe of blacks, who killed in one day, on a 
mountain behind my hut, as many as the tribe 
could eat during several days. 

You will require all kinds of shot. Hall's gun- 
powder is much used here. Get a real Joe 
Manton, if you can ; at all events, get a genuine 
twist barrel and a percussion lock. With a good 
rifle you might occasionally bring down a kanga- 
roo, emu, or native dog, 

After you have read the foregoing pages, it 
is very possible that your imagination may 
have led you into a train of thoughts termi- 
nating in some conscientious doubts and scruples 
about the propriety of joining in this wholesale 
work of destruction against unoffending animals. 
Reader, I must candidly confess to you, that on 
this subject I myself do still entertain very strong 
doubts and scruples. I hold such wanton destruc- 
tion to be an outrage on the principles of huma- 
nity, and to indicate, on the part of those who 
share in it merely for sport, a lamentable obtuse- 
ness of feeling ; yet, considered in one point of 
view, the practice admits of justification. In 
some cases these animals are caught, hunted, or 
shot, not for sport, but thus to procure a supply of 
food. Now, this being admitted, I am ready to 
maintain, in the face of the Pope of Rome, the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, or the Moderator of 
the General Assembly, that we have an incontro- 
vertible right to those animals. They have been 

L 



146 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

given to man as a grant by the Author of 
Nature, and to refuse which grant would be offer- 
ing an insult to the donor. '* Everything that 
liveth shall be meat for you," was the language 
addressed to Noah (Gen. ix. 3.), and this compre- 
hensive grant, including " the beasts of the earth, 
the fowls of the air, and the fishes of the sea," 
has never since been revoked. 

I chose to rest my case on this argument, rather 
than trust to the old and common, but to my mind 
utterly untenable position, that if we did not thin 
these inferior animals, they would so multiply, that 
after the lapse of years they must either half 
starve or destroy one another. It is doubtless 
quite true, that in one particular at least, the 
fishes of the sea closely resemble the fishes on the 
land ; viz., the big ones live on the little ones. 
But assm-edly, this circumstance could never jus- 
tify a third party, whom we have not injured, in 
waging a war of extermination against either 
of us land or sea-fishes ; unless that third party 
could as clearly prove his right to us as an article 
of food, as I have proved from a deed of gift our 
right to what we sincerely believe to be inferior 
animals, notwithstanding what has been asserted 
to the contrary in " GuUiver " and other learned 
works. 

It is unnecessary for me to state, that riding is 
one of our common recreations in the bush. If 
you are tired of either fishing or shooting, you 
order your servant to saddle your horse for you. 
Some of your time will also be spent in attending 
the cattle musters of those neighbours who assisted 



BUSn AMTJSEMENTS. 147 

you on a similar occasion. Your nearest neigh- 
bour is, perhaps, from eight to ten miles from you. 
But that is only a short distance, and your horse 
will probably carry you thither within one hour. 
You will, perhaps, have occasion often to visit one 
or other of your neighbours for the purpose of 
borrowing or returning a book or newspaper, or of 
spending the evening or dining with him, &c. 
Strange to say, they have even their balls and 
dancing parties here, and you will see some very 
pretty currency lasses gracefully moving through 
a quadrille, or playing on the pianoforte, four 
hundred miles from Sydney, on the banks of the 
Hume ! 

I have already stated, that the people of this 
colony are fond of reading. In the bush this is 
a favourite amusement. In several huts you enter, 
you see the proprietor of the station wearing his 
regatta shirt and fustian dress, and inhaling the 
fumes of tobacco through a short black pipe which 
he occasionally draws from his mouth, in order to 
wipe away from his eye the tear of joy or of sor- 
row, as he reads one or other of the novels of Sir 
Walter Scott, or of Fenimore Cooper, or of 
Dr. Bird, or of Bulwer, or of Smollett, or Tom 
Cringle's Log Book, or Sam Slick, or Dickens's 
works, or Chambers' Journal. You will also see, 
resting on roughly-constructed shelves behind him, 
a few volumes on history, chemistry, philosophy, 
and travels by sea and land. You will be as 
agreeably surprised as I have been on finding so 
large an amount of intelligence among long- 
bearded bushmen wearing nothing but fustian. 
l2 



148 TEN TEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

It is in the bush you really enjoy, after a day's 
ride, some interesting volume — and much tallow 
is thus consumed by the intelligent settlers who 
are fond of reading. But tallow costs them 
nothing ; they make their own candles, and either 
the mould in which they are made, or the neck of 
a bottle, or a lump of wood with an inch augur 
hole in it serves for a candlestick. A foot-long 
piece of iron hoop bent double, and retaining 
some of its elasticity or spring, serves for snuffers. 
The floor or fire-place is the tray. Truly, *' man 
wants but little here below." 

I think I have now said enough to show you 
that in the bush we spend an active Ufe, and 
enjoy the opportunity of blending the agreeable 
with the useful. 

Clerks who have rambled into the bush on a 
leave of absence from public offices — ^youngsters 
from school who, during the holidays, have visited 
their fathers' stations — shopkeepers, lawyers, sol- 
diers and sailors who have made an excursion 
into the bush to gratify a feeling of curiosity — 
have found our field-sports too strong an allure- 
ment to be resisted, and, accordingly, either re- 
mained in the bush, or soon afterwards returned 
to its healthy exercises and enjoyments. 

Here you experience a buoyancy of spirits and a 
freedom from care unknown among the busy haunts 
of a crowded population. Here you have to 
contend with no jarring interests^— no underhand 
rivalry. You may live as you choose. You are 
" monarch of all you survey." Here the freedom 
of the savage and the comforts of civilisation are 



BUSH AMUSEMENTS. 149 

conjoined. The patriarchal simplicity of Hfe is 
restored. Here solitude invites to meditation, and 
rural exercise sweetens enjoyment. Here may be 
found that lodge in a vast wilderness, after which 
prophets, and poets, and lovers, have sighed. " Bea- 
tus ille, qui procul negotiis,^' exclaims every settler 
who is capable of appreciating the beauties of 
nature, — and especially that greatest of all beauties 
— his cattle, sheep, and horses, increasing around 
him, and holding out to him the reasonable prospect 
of leaving his children, if not in affluence, at least 
beyond the fear of want. Here you may live in 
peace with all men ; for if perchance any dispute 
about the boundaries of a run should arise between 
you and any of your neighbours, you may well 
address him as Abram addressed Lot, " Let 
there be no strife between me and thee, and 
between my herdmen and thy herdmen ; for we are 
neighbours. Is not the whole land before thee ? 
Separate thyself from me ; if thou wilt take the 
left hand, then I will go to the right ; or if thou 
depart to the right hand, then I will go to the left." 
And let me assure you that such an honest attempt 
at peace-making as this seldom fails of producing 
its intended effect. 

Having given you a glance of our bush Hfe, you 
and I shall now start for Sydney. 



150 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

CHAPTER XXII. 

SYDNEY. 

Observe now, as we ride along our Macadamized 
streets, how nearly all of them, at equal intervals, 
cut each other at right angles. A large portion of the 
ground along one side of that main street belonged 
to a tailor who came out with the 102nd regiment. 
About ten years ago he sold a great part of it for 40Z. 
a foot frontage. The land on your left was sold at 
57?. a foot in the year 1834. There were then no 
buildings on either of these lands. Notice the great 
number of Jewish names on the shop signs — there 
are "Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, Joseph and Benja- 
min, Moses and Aaron, Samuel and Solomon, Jere- 
miah and Ezekiel, Judas and Beelzebub," &c. 
in partnership. The ten lost tribes found their 
way to Sydney ; that accounts for it. Look at 
our splendid shops — some of them fully equal to 
those of second-rate in London. Behold what 
fine buildings are these ! — all of freestone, and 
built chiefly by Scotch masons. See what magni- 
ficent quarries, all of freestone, and in blocks of 
enormous dimensions, we have here in the very 
heart of Sydney. The whole city is built upon 
one immense rock, of various elevations and depres- 
sions, but all composed of this valuable solid mate- 
rial ; and it was not without reason that the honest 
Scotch mason, when, a few days after his arrival 
here, he was asked by a friend of mine what he 
thought of the colony, replied, " Hech mon, it is an 
unco braw kintra for stanes." See what a splendid 



SYDNEY. 



151 



Tiew Sydney commands of Port Jackson, and what 
a magnificent harbour is ours I The whole British 
navy might ride here in safety.^ It is completely 
land-locked. The entrance is, no doubt, narrow ; 
only about a mile — and there is inside the entrance 
a bar ; but there is a fine light-house on the south- 
head, close to the entrance, for the guidance of 
ships ; and many a large vessel has sailed over the 
bar, close to a part of which, called the " Sow and 
Pigs," there is always stationed a tub of a vessel 
serving for a light-house, with a family living on 
board. A seventy-six gun-ship, (Her Majesty's 
Warspite,) 1960 tons, and drawing 24 feet water, 
has entered Port Jackson. I think, therefore, 
that few merchant-vessels have anything to fear. 
A few of our buildings, you see, are slated, though 
the great majority of them are shingled, or covered 
with pieces of split wood, of the size, shape, and 
appearance of slates. In some of the houses 
coals are burnt ; in others wood is used as fuel. 
Here we come to the house where, in November last, 
poor Mr. Warn, whom I knew, was murdered by his 
servant, James Bidel ; who, after completely fractur- 
ing his skull with a large axe, attempted to burn the 
body on his own fire, but failing in this, he cut the 
half-burnt carcase up into pieces, and packed them 
in a box, which he was carrying away when he was 
detected. He was tried, convicted, and hanged. 
There is the house in which Mrs. Jamison, a poor 
widow who kept a small shop, was last year mur- 
dered by Sir Edward Knatchbull's brother, who 
expected to find some money in her till. Since 
his arrival in this colony, under sentence of trans- 
portation, he committed various crimes. While he 



152 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

lived he was a curse to society, and a disgrace to 
his family and high connections, — and at last he 
died on the scaffold the death of a dog. 

Notice the amazing diversity of physiognomy 
among the crowds of passengers on each side of 
us ; what villany depicted in the countenances of 
some of them ; all the water of Port Jackson 
could never wash away the mark of Cain which 
they bear on their foreheads. You observe that 
stout coarse-looking man riding near us ; he was 
a convict, but is now a bank director, and pos- 
sessed of immense property. Twice was he on 
the eve of being hanged. Since his arrival as a 
convict in the colony, he had actually the rope 
about his neck, on a scaffold erected at the inter- 
section of King-street and George-street, but was 
saved just in articulo mortis by a reprieve from the 
governor. You see that portly good-natured look- 
ing dame who is passing us in her splendid carriage. 
She was transported to this colony for stealing a 
donkey. She still displays her judgment in horse- 
flesh. Stop, stop, here comes at full speed, driving 
his tandem, the man who robbed the Glasgow 
Bank. He managed the affair so cleverly ! He 
and his accomplices were living in Edinburgh, and 
having ascertained when the box containing the 
exchanged bank-notes was to be forwarded to 
Glasgow, they engaged all the seats in the mail. 
It was a dark night : midway on their journey 
they contrived, by means of brace and bits, to cut 
an opening into the boot of the coach, whence 
they extracted the money-box, and quietly de- 
camped across the fields. Mr. , you now 

see driving the tandem, was the ringleader, who 



SYDNEY. 153 

was, soon after the robbery, apprehended, tried, 
convicted, and transported to Botany Bay. His 
wife soon afterwards arrived here with the Glas- 
gow bank-notes converted into gold, with which 
these fine buildings you now see before you were 
erected. You notice these open carriages filled 
with well-fed and well-dressed gentlemen. These 
gentlemen are the directors of the defunct bank of 

, the failure of which has plunged many a 

widow and orphan, both here and in England, into 
misery and ruin. One of these gentlemen di- 
rectors helped himself to 80,000Z., another to 
40,000/., and a third to 30,000/., and so on. 

One thing you could not have failed to notice as 
they severally passed you, viz., the immense size 
of the organ of acquisitiveness as developed in the 
head of every one of them ; and the total absence 
of the organ of conscientiousness. In one respect, 
however, we squatters ought to feel grateful to 
these directors ; for at the late public meetings 
held in Sydney on the subject of the new squatting 
regulations, these are the men who then con- 
tended most manfully for us, in order to secure, if 
possible, what is called fixity of tenure. In dis- 
cussing our petition praying for this boon, they 
eloquently argued, that without fixity of tenure, no 
situation, either within or beyond the boundaries 
of location, was worth any man's acceptance, and 
scouted the antiquated ideas of Mr. George Miller, 
of the Savings' Bank, who, in an evil hour, hap- 
pened to say that in the present state of things, 
fixity of tenure would not, in his opinion, be for 
the public good. I believe the Governor stated, 
that this was the only point on which he could 



154 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

conscientiously agree with the petitioners ; and 
that in all his despatches to the Home Government, 
he, as a consistent Whig, was doing everything 
in his power to secure fixity of tenure. Here 
comes a row of carriages ; the gentlemen in 
them are driving straight for the Insolvent 
Court to file their schedules. Not a douht of 
it ; for did you not see them come from Mr. 
Norton's office, where they have heen securing 
their property to their wives ? and having done so, 
they now intend to pay their creditors just two- 
pence halfpenny in the pound. As soon as they 
have passed through the Court, and received their 
whitewashing certificate, after having conscien- 
tiously sworn that they have given up everything 
they possessed, they wiU again commence business 
on an extensive scale, and with a large capital 
unexpectedly sprung up, nohody knows whence ; 
while, in the mean time, their dear wives, to each of 
whom 500/1. a year has been secured for life, receive 
their generous husbands — of course out of pure gra- 
titude — into a participation of this yearly income. 

You seem to think that this statement is a little 
exaggerated. Not a jot. Hear what has been 
given in evidence on the 25th Nov. 1843, before 
a Committee of the Legislative Council, by a man 
who is thoroughly acquainted with the mercantile 
community of Sydney, and had no motive whatever 
to misrepresent facts. 1 have been permitted to con- 
sult the minutes of evidence then taken, and since 
printed at the expense of the Government, and I 
will here repeat to you part of Mr. L.'s evidence : — 

** You have carried on extensive business in 
Sydney for many years ? I have. What amount of 



SYDNEY. 155 

debts have you proved under the present insolvent 
law ? Upwards of 33,000/. What dividend have 
you received ? I have received 800?. , or about 6^. 
in the pound. Will you state what frauds are 
committed under the present insolvent act ? It 
has been generally the case, that persons have not 
gone into Court till they have made over their pro- 
perty to various persons, and have had nothing 
left for their creditors. Frauds have thus been 
frequently committed. It is a common thing when 
an insolvent is asked what has become of his pro- 
perty, for him to say, ' I kept no books. ' There 
is the case of Mr. ; he states in his exa- 
mination, that he has been a merchant for ten 
years, and that for the last three or four years he 
had three vessels trading here, and he values their 
cargoes at upwards of 60,000/., and he kept 

no books. Then there is • , who failed for 

upwards of 200,000/. ; he also states that he kept 
no books ! Persons conceal their property, or 
dispose of it to friends ; for there is not an insol- 
vent that walks the streets now, but is dressed in 
better clothes and better boots than they were 
before they passed the Court. I see none with 
their elbows through their coats, or toes through 
their shoes ; they are to be seen dashing and driving 
about in their carriages. 

"What proportion of the cases that come before 
the Insolvent Court do you believe to be of a fraud- 
ulent kind ? I should say forty-five out of fifty are 
fraudulent. Do you think then that forty-five out of 
fifty of the insolvents have perjured themselves ? 
I do." 

There is a picture for you! In fifteen months, 



156 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

that is, from February 1st, 1842, to April 29th, 
1843, no fewer than 714 persons have gone through 
the Insolvent Court in Sydney, and the total 
amount of their liabiHties was 1,754,877L, (one mil- 
lion, seven hundred and fifty four thousand, eight 
hundred and seventy-seven pounds sterling), and the 
dividend they paid did not average one shilling in 
the pound ! The heaviest failure of these was that 
of the firm of *' Halt, Balance, and Diddle." It 
would appear from Alderman Myndert's exclama- 
tion (in Cooper's ** Water Witch,") that there was 
only one firm of this name in New York, but there 
were several firms of this name in Sydney, and to pre- 
vent mistakes in the delivery of letters it was found 
necessary to address these different firms as follows : 
"Halt, Balance, and Diddle, the first," "Halt, 
Balance, and Diddle, the second," "Halt, Balance, 
and Diddle, the third," and so on. Most of these, 
however, have already gone into the Insolvent 
Court ; but a few of them still remain, doing 
business in Sydney. Check your horse a little — 
you see the crowd in that auction room. There 
is a public sale going on there, of goods of 
every description, just arrived from London : the 
auctioneer is knocking them down at less than one- 
half the London prices ! You need not look sur- 
prised — the importers of these goods never intended 
to pay for them. They ordered them with this in- 
tention, and they are now selling them by auction in 
order to raise the wind, pocket the profits, and then, 
like other honourable gentlemen, walk into the 
Insolvent Court. Here is the school for teaching 
new chums how to do business ; and in what corner 
of the globe, let me ask, would you expect to find 



SYDNEY. 157 

perfection in the mercantile art — which is very often 
the art of cheating — if not here, where we have 
the collective wisdom of 96,558 pickpockets, 
thieves, swindlers, robbers, murderers, <fcc. ? for 
this is the number of convicts sent to Van Diemen's 
Land, and New South Wales, at an expense to the 
mother country of 7,724,640/., up to the end of 
1836 ; and you see, I have given the last batch of 
them eight years to procure their tickets-of-leave ; 
for eight years is the period which the colonial law 
requires a convict transported for life should serve 
previous to his obtaining what is called a ticket-of- 
leave, enabling him to move about at his pleasure 
in the colony, and benefit society with his experience 
and counsel. 

The London merchants have themselves alone to 
blame. They trust and consign their goods to men 
here whom they have not sufficiently tried and 
proved. Few of our Sydney merchants deserve the 
name ; most of them being only penniless adventu- 
rers, ship-brokers, and commission-agents — as des- 
titute of principle as they are of capital, and proud 
as Lucifer. A man contrives to borrow or scrape 
together two or three thousand pounds, and with 
this paltry sum he thinks himself justifiable in 
commencing business as a Sydney merchant. It 
ought, also, to be borne in mind, by London con- 
signers, that our community is yet so very limited 
that a large quantity of any one kind of goods 
gluts the market, when forced sales become ruin- 
ous. An article is scarce, and consequently dear : 
every one then sends for a supply ; the result is, 
that this supply, being so greatly disproportioned 
to the demand, must either remain long unsold, or 



158 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

one-half of it be sold at considerably less than its 
original cost. The time to order an article for this 
colony is, when that article is here very plentiful ; 
this conclusion may appear paradoxical ; it is, 
nevertheless, the result of continued observation. 
It will be found, that by the time the new supply 
has arrived, the article has become scarce: it 
had been a drug in the market. So many lost by 
it last year ; and therefore nobody has ordered a 
fresh supply of it. Hence the importers may now 
have a monopoly. London merchants, who are 
generally honourable and high-minded gentlemen, 
are little aware of the meanness which character- 
ises some of our soi-disant Sydney merchants, 
alias brokers and ship-agents. Within the last 
week a case has come into my knowledge, of a 
captain of a ship now in harbour, who called at his 
agents' office to pay his account for provisions, &c., 
supplied to him : when he was asked, whether it 
was his own or the owners' account he wanted to be 
made out. The explanation is this : If the ship 
has not been consigned by the owners to any par- 
ticular agent in London, but is left to the captain 
to bestow that honour g,nd profit on whom he 
chooses, the agent, out of gratitude, gives the cap- 
tain, by way of a bribe, a large per centage — from 
5 to 1 — on all sums paid by him for provisions, 
stores, &c., supplied by the agent. Two different 
accounts are accordingly made out, and duly dis- 
charged — one of them private and conjidential, 
for the captain, which is all he really pays — and 
which is, moreover, at the rate of the regular 
Sydney market prices — the other account is for 
the owners, and amounting to from 5 to 10 per cent. 



SYDNEY. 159 

more. An honest captain will, of course, scorn to 
soil his fingers in any such infamous transaction. 
As some people know me to be intimate with 
Captain Morrice, of the Elizabeth, whose agents are 
Messrs. Lyall and Scott, George-street, I deem it 
but an act of justice to state, that they are not the 
parties to whom I here allude ; and I may further 
add, that I have reason to believe these gentlemen 
to be honest and honourable men in their dealings. 

There are now in our harbour three ships con- 
signed to one firm in Street. Two of these 

ships were consigned to this firm by the respective 
captains of the vessels on arrival here. The third 
ship was consigned from London to the firm by the 
owners of the vessel. The two captains who volun- 
tarily consigned their vessels to the firm, receive 
every mark of attention, and are regularly in- 
vited to champagne dinners, and evening parties ; 
whereas, the poor unfortunate captain who had no 
vote or discretionary power in the choice of agents 
for his ship — she having been consigned by the 
London owners to the firm — is left unnoticed, to 
eat his salt junk dinner week after week on board 
his own vessel. And yet one of this firm has the im- 
pudence to drive daily, with a livery servant in his 
gig, through Sydney, begging freight for these ships. 

Let us now pass on to see the steamers. Every 
two or three hours of the day a steamer starts for 
Parramatta ; and almost every evening a steamer 
starts for Hunter's River, calling at Newcastle. 

Steamers go regularly to Port Macquarie, and 
Clarence River, to the north ; also to Port Phillip, 
Launceston, Van Diemen's Land, &c. See what 
a busy scene our harbour presents, — what an im- 



160 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

mense number of vessels for so young a colony ! 
From the year 1822 to 1842, inclusive, 219 vessels, 
of the aggregate tonnage of 11,095, have been 
built in the colony of New South Wales ; or yearly, 
ten vessels, averaging fifty-two tons each. You 
see the great number of wharfs, with deep water 
alongside, and so arranged, not only that vessels 
of large tonnage may discharge their cargoes with- 
out the intervention of connecting planks, but that 
these cargoes might even be hauled up by means 
of the ropes and pulleys you see, into those large 
stores contiguous to the wharfs. What a number 
of people moving in all directions I Every two or 
three you see there collected are talking of pounds, 
shillings, and pence, or the chances of some begun, 
continued, but not yet ended speculation. If any of 
the gentlemen there, who happen to know you, 
should invite you to dinner, be assured he has some 
design on you. He either knows or believes that you 
have both money and credit ; and he expects, by 
means of champagne and a little flattery judiciously 
applied, either to find his way into your pocket direct, 
or to obtain your endorsement to a bill. I have 
reason to believe that many of our Sydney dinner- 
parties are given with this intention. If you go 
to them, button up your pockets : your host has 
beautifully-preserved salmon for you — but he is 
also fishing for gudgeon and fiat ; they are the 
only fish for which he cares. 

The immense quantities of animal food used by 
both males and females in this colony cannot fail 
to be injurious to health and to personal beauty. 
It is to this circumstance, and to the very little 
exercise taken on foot or on horseback in the open 



SYDNEY. 161 

air here, that I attribute the early corpulency and 
cadaverous appearance of some of our most fashion- 
able ladies. Many of the native white girls here 
are very pretty. They are well formed ; they are 
lively and affectionate ; their complexion is beauti- 
ful ; and their features are regular and pleasing. 
Some of these personal attractions are no doubt 
owing to our delicious climate, and the freedom or 
exemption which females in this colony enjoy from 
all care about the future ; for, I believe, the only 
subject which at any time distracts their thoughts 
is what ought to be the colour of the next gown — 
but no personal female attractions, however great, 
can long remain scathless against beefsteaks at 
breakfast, cold beef at noon lunch, roast and boiled 
beef at dinner, and cold beef at tea or supper : this 
is perfectly outrageous ! In the halcyon days of 
the Roman empire it was, *' Jovis omnia plena,^^ 
but alas ! in our days it is "bovis omnia plena,*^ as 
the rotundity and general appearance of many ladies 
may testify. By thus increasing their bulk they 
evidently spoil their own market ; for I believe most 
men act agreeably to the wise adage, that **of all 
evils we ought to choose the least." 

The streets of Sydney, which are under the 
management of a corporation chosen by the in- 
habitants, are lighted with gas, and are paraded by 
a number of policemen during the night. You 
may walk in perfect safety on a dark night through 
the city. In my opinion, a foot-passenger is in 
greater danger, after dusk, in many parts of London, 
than he is in walking the streets of Sydney. 

In the Supreme Court, the Courts of Requests, 
and Quarter Sessions — and also in our Police Courts 



162 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

— ^justice is, I fully believe, as purely and as con- 
scientiously administered as in the corresponding 
courts in either England or Scotland. And we 
have here, that greatest of all civil privileges — 
trial by jury. All our courts are open to the news- 
paper reporters ; and the free and fearless discus- 
sions on men and measures which daily issue from 
the public press, have a powerful influence in pre- 
serving the administration of law and justice free 
from every suspicion of bribery and corruption. In 
the Court of Requests, which is a court of con- 
science or equity, all cases not exceeding 30/. may 
be decided. This wise arrangement saves to the 
colonists large sums of money which would other- 
wise be spent in useless litigation. 

Our Sydney Post-office is well conducted ; and 
through the indefatigable exertions of Mr. Ray- 
mond, our Post Master General, post-offices have 
been established in every little town or^ village 
throughout the interior of the colony. 

That large building on your right is the Victoria 
Theatre, which is, I am sorry to hear, numerously 
attended. I myself was never in it ; for I have 
always maintained that that man can have but very 
few sources of amusement within his own mind, who 
resorts to theatrical exhibitions ; the character of 
which may easily be determined by merely looking 
at the mass of loose and dissipated people they 
generally bring together. I believe the play most 
frequently acted here js '' The Forty Thieves," as 
the manager finds it is a play which all his custom- 
ers best understand — especially since the failure of 
the Bank of Australia, and the astounding dis- 
closures made in the late Sydney Bank. 



EXPORTS AND SHIPPING. 163 

CHAPTER XXIII. 

EXPORTS AND SHIPPING. 

The exports of New South Wales are wool, beef, 
tallow, hides, horns, horses, mutton-hams, oil, 
whalebone, tobacco, timber, mimosa bark, canary- 
seed, and a variety of minor articles. 

It is not generally known that gum arabic, so 
extensively used in the arts in England, might be 
collected here in large quantities. The indigo 
plant is indigenous in the colony. The castor oil 
bush, or shrub, covered with berries, is at this 
moment neglected as valueless in the vicinity of 
Sydney. The rearing of the silkworm is attended 
with very little trouble. I have seen some beauti- 
ful specimens of thread spun here by these crea- 
tures. We have soap, salt, and two or three 
wooUen or cloth manufactories. Except my shirt, 
which is English, I wear nothing but Colonial 
manufacture. — Mr. Lord's colonial tweed, Mr. 
Uther's colonial hats, and Mr. Willshire's colonial 
tanned leather converted here into boots. I use 
nothing but Mr. Blaxland's colonial salt. Professor 
Ronnie's beautiful colonial soap, and Mr. King's 
colonial earthenware dishes. I forbear to mention 
our colonial lucifer matches, as these are manufac- 
tured chiefly by the clergy at the altar ; but they 
are really good, and never miss fire at the slightest 
touch, as some fathers of families acknowledge. 

Our coal mines are numerous, of large extent, 
and at no great distance from the surface. The 
M 2 



1Q4: 



TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 



existence of iron mines has been clearly ascertained ; 
but at the present stage of the colony, and taking 
into account the scarcity of labour here, it is 
cheaper for us to import iron from England than to 
dig for it. It has been, therefore, considered 
advisable to let these mines remain for a time as 
a sinking fund for the colony. The exceedingly 
fine sand, containing a large proportion of silex, 
about Port Jackson, has been found by experiment 
to be extremely well adapted for the manufacture 
of glass. The splendid copper mines which the 
people of South Australia are now working, as well 
as the manganese and copper mines, which the 
colonists of New Zealand have been working for 
some time past, will contribute to stimulate the 
commercial intercourse between these young colo- 
nies and New South Wales. 

The following table shows the quantity of wool 
exported from the colony of New South Wales 
(including the district of Port Phillip), from the 
year 1833 to 1842, inclusive. 







Value, as entered in 


Year. 


Quantity. 


the Custom House 
return of exports. 




lbs. 


£. 


1833 


1,734,203 


103,692 


1834 


2,246,933 


213,628 


1835 


3,893,927 


299,587 


1836 


3,693,241 


369,324 


1837 


4,448,796 


332,166 


1838 


5,749,376 


405,977 


1839 


7,213,584 


442,504 


1840 


8,610,775 


566,112 


1841 


8,390,540 


517,537 


1842 


9,428,036 


595,175 



EXPORTS AND SHIPPING. 165 

According to this steady rate of increase of our 
staple commodity, tlie clip of 1845, or quantity of 
wool to be shipped at the close of this current year 
from Sydney and Port Phillip, will amount to 
upwards of thirteen millions of pounds weight ; and 
allowing 2501bs. to a bale, there will be 52,000 
bales. 1000 bales have been the average quantity 
of wool hitherto shipped on board each of the 
London or Liverpool vessels, which generally 
take oil, or some other heavy export as ballast, 
under the wool. From this statement it will 
be seen that no fewer than fifty-two ships will be 
required to carry our wool-clip of 1845 to Eng- 
land. These thirteen million pounds of wool, at 
the current Sydney price {Is. 3d. per lb.), will 
produce the sum of 812,500/. — a very large 
amount for one article alone of export from so 
young a colony ! 

Last year (1844), there have been only 2944 
bales shipped from Sydney for Liverpool ; the 
remainder was for London. In 1831 the total 
quantity of wool exported from this colony was 
only 5590 bales. Last year, two large ships, the 
Herald, and General Hewett, carried to London 
5593 bales, being a little more than the total quan- 
tity exported from Sydney in 1831 ; while in 1844, 
no fewer than forty ships were loaded in Sydney 
harbour, chiefly with wool. This is a wonderful 
change since 1802, when the total quantity of 
wool exported was only 2451bs. 

For fineness, silkiness, elasticity, and strength, 
Australian wool has been pronounced by the best 
judges to be equal to any Spanish or Saxon wool 



166 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

ever imported into England. And one great 
inducement to a capitalist to invest his money in 
sheep here is, that our climate improves our wool. 
Every year, without the intermixture of any cross 
breed, our wool becomes finer. This has been 
found to be the uniform efi'ect produced by the 
climate of Australia on both imported and colonial- 
bred sheep. Coarse-woolled sheep imported into 
this colony have, in the course of years, gradually 
improved, until at last the fleece was totally 
different from what the animal carried when 
imported. 

The value, as entered in the return of exports 
of sperm and black whale oil, and of whalebone 
and seal skins exported from this colony in 1840, 
was 224,144/. I find, however, on reference to 
the Custom-house returns, that since this date 
(1840), there has been a gradual decrease in the 
quantity exported : this is accounted for by the 
quantity sent from New Zealand direct, which was 
formerly sent to Sydney for shipment. 

The following official statement of our shipping 
for the year 1842, will give a sufficiently correct 
idea of our commercial transactions and inter- 
course with other places. In that year (1842), 
fifty-four vessels, of the aggregate tonnage of 
16,323 left this colony for Great Britain ; seventy- 
eight vessels for New Zealand, and 328 vessels 
for other British colonies. Including those ves- 
sels which sailed for the South Sea Islands, the 
fisheries, the United States, and foreign states, 
633 vessels of the aggregate tonnage of 134,970 
left this colony in the year 1842. 



ITS ELIGIBILITY AND ADVANTAGES. 167 

In the same year (1842), the number and ton- 
nage of vessels entered inwards were as follow : — 

From Great Britain . 137 vessels of the tonnage of 55,144 
New Zealand ... 81 .... 14,085 

Other British colonies 282 .... 42,365 

South Sea Islands, fish- "I 

eries, United States, U28 . . . . 32,320 

and foreign states J 

Total 628 143,914 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

ELIGIBILITY AND ADVANTAGES OF AUSTRALIA. 

In pointing out some of the advantages of Aus- 
tralia as a field for emigration, I shall take it for 
granted, without stopping to prove, that there is 
now a large surplus population in Great Britain 
and Ireland ; that some of them find it difficult to 
procure a sufficiency of food and clothing for them- 
selves and families ; while others of them, who have 
either some trade or a limited capital, have plenty 
of food and clothing for present use, and also in 
prospect, hut yet see no reasonable chance of 
improving their present condition, or of rising in 
the world. These are my postulates. 

As a field for emigration, the only countries 
between which and the Australian colonies a com- 
parison can be instituted by intending emigrants 
from Great Britain and' Ireland, are the United 
States, British America, and New Zealand. Let 
us now briefly and dispassionately examine the 



168 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

pretensions of each of these countries, and compare 
them with those of Austraha. It must be admitted, 
that the United States of America possess advan- 
tages which Nature has denied to Austraha. 
Throughout the interior of the United States, there 
are large navigable rivers, affording water com- 
munication for the conveyance of the settlers' 
produce, at a trifling expense, to distant markets. 
Here we have but very few, if any, such rivers. 
In the United States you can buy land equal at 
least to any in Austraha at about one dollar 
(4s. 6d.) an acre ; whereas here, the minimum 
government price is 20s. an acre. Within a fort- 
night you may now pass from England, Ireland, 
or Scotland, into the United States, or British 
America ; and if you repent of the exchange of 
country you have made, you can easily go back 
again ; whereas, it takes you four months' voyage 
to reach the nearest of the Australian colonies ; 
and if on arrival you should repent of the step you 
have taken, it will then be too late. It requires 
a large amount of money — 70/. or 80/. at least — to 
enable even a single man to return from here to 
England as a cabin passenger ; and in the case of 
steerage passengers, though the government give 
them a free passage out, no provision whatever is 
made for affording them the means of returning 
home, in the event of their repenting of their bar- 
gain on arrival in Australia. Again, of New 
Zealand it may safely be affirmed that the climate 
and soil are good, that the temperature approxi- 
mates to that of England, thus holding out a 
strong inducement to English emigrants ; that it 



ITS ELIGIBILITY AND ADVANTAGES. 169 

is well watered ; that the crops seldom fail ; and 
that the convict curse has never been entailed 
upon it as on Australia, by the British Parliament. 

I believe I have now candidly stated the gist of 
the arguments which I conceive to be in favour 
of the United States, British America, and New 
Zealand. Let us now see — not what can be urged 
against them, for that forms no part of my present 
task, but what can be said for Australia as a 
superior field for emigration. 

In Australia we have neither the ague nor the 
yellow fever, which cut off thousands in the United 
States. In Australia wages are paid in money, 
not in barter, as in the United States. In Aus- 
tralia, Jonathan's truck system is unknown. If in 
Austraha we have convicts, the Yankees have 
worse — they have slaves. We only employ as ser- 
vants, for a limited number of years, men and 
women who have forfeited their liberty to the 
violated laws of their country, whereas the Yan- 
kees, who boast of their free institutions — their 
civil and political liberties — are, as Lord Aberdeen 
truly told them, the only nation in Christendom 
who enjoy the unenviable privilege and notoriety 
of supporting slavery. If we employ convicts, we 
never yet, like Jonathan, have had any traffic in 
human blood ; such a foul blot has never yet 
stained the Australian escutcheon. Twice already 
has England been embroiled in war with the Yan- 
kees, and it is possible that she may yet find it 
necessary to take up arms against them. The 
annexation of Texas, and the proposed occupation 
of the Oregon territory, form two very important 



170 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

subjects, which are not yet fully settled, and which 
are likely enough to create a rupture between 
England and the United States of America. In 
such a case, the emigrant from Great Britain or 
Ireland, placed on the field of battle in a line 
opposite to his own brother or nearest relations, 
would feel it a painful struggle to determine how 
to act — inclination and reviving attachment to 
native land, to kindred and ancient home, dis- 
posing him to espouse the cause of England ; 
while stern duty and his oath of allegiance re- 
quired that he should now contribute all in his 
power to humiliate and crush the land to which 
he owed his birth — an alternative to which, I am 
confident, no Englishman of spirit or right feeling 
would wish to be reduced. You ought also to 
remember, that in spite of the extensive com- 
mercial intercourse between England and the 
United States, the Yankees do still entertain a 
deep-rooted antipathy against England and En- 
glishmen, and that you, as emigrants, would be 
exposed to your fuU share of all the manifestations 
of this international grudge ; whereas, in Aus- 
tralia you are only among your own countrymen, 
who feel a pride and an interest in all the glory 
and prosperity of England. 

In British America, again, the inhabitants are, 
during a great proportion, amounting to nearly 
one-half, of the whole year, locked up in snow. 
Their long winters suspend all agricultural opera- 
tions and out of door labour. Many a tradesman, 
as well as common labourer, is then thrown idle, 
and obliged to support himself and family by 



ITS ELIGIBILITY AND ADVANTAGES. 171 

falling back on his pa^ savings, if he has been 
able to make any such provision against what is 
vulgarly called a rainy day If not, he and his 
family must live on hope ; whereas here, where 
we have no winter, the poor man's labour, which 
is his capital, is always available. Here neither 
the outdoor nor the indoor tradesman suffers any 
interruption from the seasons. No period of the 
year necessarily occasions a suspension of the 
tradesman and labourer's usual employment or 
occupation. Instead, therefore, of your having, as 
in the Canadas and Nova Scotia, only one part of 
the year to work at your outdoor trade, you have in 
Australia the whole year, and the daily wages here 
are fully as high as in America, and moreover are 
paid in money. In America there is only one sowing 
time, and only one crop in the year ; whereas in 
Australia we have two seed-times and two harvests 
in the same year ; and if one crop fails, sow 
another : you lose but little time. If as an agri- 
culturist you arrive in America after seed-time, 
you lose a whole year ; whereas in Australia, 
come when you may, you can lose no more than 
half a year. To this advantage add the delight- 
fulness of the Australian climate ; for here we 
have neither the swamps of Canada, the fogs of 
Nova Scotia, nor the fever of New York. There 
is every reason to fear that the turbulent spirit 
recently manifested in acts of open insurrection in 
Canada is not yet extinguished. The French 
Canadians, who are by inheritance so very excit- 
able, require nothing but an able leader ; and then 
there is quite at hand M. Papineau who, instead 



172 Tflif YBARS IN AUSTAiOtA. 

of llM\iii" Ik. n linrMil. :i .r in.dly h<> «ll>fH(»rVtH!, 

IlilH Ik'<ii ;i|>|hmiiI( J III I .1111 iiui mlHlnfoniit'd) Ut 

i\U) hi^ll HIkI I. |M,ii li.l. iliinlKMI (tf liri ,M.i|. I \ '-A 
A(,l,onu'v (Ini.i.il Imi iI,, umlcd ("imiidii* ' 

'I'll.' NwN.i ■, lion, i'-.n..!.,,,,! I,, All iialiii, Uumgh 
nilicli Imm.mi. r; ;i(hi;ill_\ :alri (liuii iium I'liit^liliul 
to AiiM iM 1 and tllodiliort»ll('«MM IIm /< /.'./ill ollllO 
VoyiijM I . Ill mv <t|Miiioii. II iiniHci nl \<iv lillKt 
0O»Mr(|ii( II. (• (hi.. \..ii ". ( \.. Ill ell. v.Mii Ip.im'H, 

tuiil yiMii I I . on Immi.I ill. Iii|> III wliii^li you 

li.i\.- (.il.. II \,.iii |..i .I'M-, .n,' \,,iii , If no I'lirtlioi' 

t 111.. Ill iImhii 11. I L«!H,vn II, l,o lliu oiiptain and 

III 11 111 I ' iha roit. You nit to read, until 

j(Mi li<>nr iliiit (Ih« Sy<Inoy li^llt liOllMc i- \i ild«>, or 
tli<^ aiu'lior \ii \oi ^o ill Port ,la<!ltM»in I . an anHuro 
yon tliat, lor my own juirt, I wa ..ii\ wh. n I wwh 
int(>rrn|d(>d in my MhidioM by ili. i. i mmii i.n (if 

npwill'da'nr live liiuMlJlrt' Voyil".'. 1( i -.mm! I.,i ;i 
man !•> I><' o.-.n i.iiutltY nUui <aii liom lli< Im y 

world, and (-oiii|i<<II(mI h il w . i < i.> li.ild couinm- 
ni<in witli liiniMoU ilm. .iIImi.Ihi Imiu ail tliu 
udvantagoM witliout tli<* auaicniica of thu monk- 
iKh lifo. 

A- (.. New Z(MiIand, I'liii.^iMaii . |li.i-,> lind iho 

nalu. . a \.ry diilonMll la.. ..l | |.l.- iKitlltllO 

aliorif;;ino« ol" AiiMlrnlia. 'I'ln nain. .il Now 
ZiMiliind. wim an* nnlnrnlly Im a\. . nni.iilit. mid 
ml' III". Ill |K>()pl<<. and wlm li.n( iluin.l.in. . (if liro- 

llMii ' anil iiMlMMIllitioM, ai. ai llii:> in<iin«ait lip Itl 
anna a-.nn l lli, ■ . 111. i 11 1. . IIUIJVON, wIlO (Mill 

mn«(<i. Ill .a. ..I ii...,.i(\. ii|.\vii,rdn id' twtMity 
tlioiiriiind iirmcd m. n. Iiuvo vt>ry r<M'(<ntly avowed 
their iioMtilit^ lu lliu uliitu iutrudoi'ti, hy iiMultiug 



ITS ELIGIBILITY AND ADVANTAGES. 173 

and pulling down the British flag at the *♦ Bay of 
lalanda." (hi this occasion, as well as on others, 
tho prcscMit Governor, who may ho an aniiahle and 
well-meaning man, has ]>roved hinjsi'lf to he totally 
unfit to eonnnand in New Zealaml. 1'hrongh luB 
imheeility, and want of decision, England has heen 
thus insulted hy semi-harharians with impunity. 
I h(M"o forbear to give any further speoimens of 
tho wisdom displayed in this government, — such 
as tho reeent entiro abolition of the eustoma, and, 
in tho very teeth of an act of parliament, the re- 
duction of tho ]>riee of land in New Zealand, from 
ono ]>ound to one penny sterling an acre, in order 
to please the natives ! After this suicidal act, 
who will he surprised at Donald's politeness in sub- 
mitting to be hanged in order to ]>lease the laird ? 

(Considering our ])roxiniity to New Zealand, wo, 
who have an interest in New South Wah>s, have a 
right to eom])lain of this instance of misgovern- 
ment which contributes to demoralise still more our 
population hy opening a door for defratuling oiu" 
revenue through smuggling. 

A strong (i(>ta('bin(Mit of soldiors from Sydney 
are now on their \\'.\\ (<> New Zealand, for the pur- 
pose of preserving |m ;i( <•, and securing «d)edienco 
to tho constituted autborilies. — luit the aborigines 
know their own ])o\ver and nvsources ; and the 
maintenance of :i (iciig ihitish force, kept up at a 
great expens( ih. re, will always be necessary to 
protect the seltlers ngainst aggression. Thero is 
every reason to fear (bat these natives will long 
continue to be a (born in (be side of the biUropoan 
settlors, for it is j)resunie(l tbat England will never 



174 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

be guilty of such unchristian and dishonourable 
conduct as to sanction a war of extermination 
against a people to whom she first granted a flag, 
and then, without provocation, or any just cause 
shown, invaded and subjugated their country. 
Prom New Zealand look now at Australia. The 
aborigines here, who have never been distinguished 
for their warlike disposition, are completely sub- 
dued. They seldom give us any trouble. They 
have no fire-anns, and the fear of the white man 
has evidently seized on them. A. few months ago 
a party of seventy or eighty of them, armed with 
spears, boomerangs, &c., came to my head station, 
where their dogs attacked my cattle. There were 
only four white men, including myself, on the place. 
We took our guns, turned out and fired a few blank 
shots in the direction of the dogs. The whole 
tribe of blacks, dogs and all, decamped, crossed the 
river, and in five minutes from the first firing, not 
one of them was to be .seen. A whole regiment of 
English cavalry could not thus frighten the New 
Zealanders. 

If our soil, taken as a whole, is inferior to that 
of any of the three countries above named, it must 
be remembered that Australia is eminently a pas- 
toral, not an agricultural country. The signs of 
our zodiac are Aries and Taurus, though these 
are in the northern, and we in the southern 
hemisphere. We trust more to wool, beef, and 
tallow, than to wheat ; and yet, as I have already 
shown, we have here extensive tracts of very fer- 
tile soil, producing in some cases thirty, some 
sixty, and in some one hundred fold. An English 



ITS ELIGIBILITY AND ADVANTAGES. 175 

farmer having first looked at our wretched system 
of agriculture, and then at our splendid crops, 
would be greatly surprised, especially if he took 
into consideration that the land which yielded 
this return had never been artificially manured, 
and that it had already produced ten or twelve 
crops of wheat in succession, the land during that 
long period not having enjoyed the rest or the 
relief afibrded by a rotation of crops. Our soil 
produces aU the grains and fruits of Europe. In 
Australia we have innumerable plains, such as 
Bathurst, O'ConneU, Goulburn, and Yass plains, 
each of them measuring many thousands of acres, 
aU covered with the richest pasture, with scarcely 
a single tree, and all ready for the plough. If 
we have not navigable rivers like America, neither 
is land-carriage for our staple commodity, wool, at 
all expensive — from 200^. to 300/. worth of wool 
being often carried to market on one dray. To 
the prosperity of . a pastoral , country , navigable 
rivers, however desirable, are not essential. These 
were intended by Nature only for agricultural and 
commercial countries : yet it is not the fact that 
we have no navigable rivers whatever. The river 
Hawkesbury admits of vessels of 100 tons going 
up to Windsor. Steamers go almost daily up 
the Hunter River to Maitland. The Paterson and 
William's Rivers are navigable to small craft. 
' The Clarence River is navigable for many miles ; 
and doubtless, at no distant period, a regular com- 
munication by water will be established between 
South Australia and the thousands of settlers that 
people the rich valleys along the banks of the 



176 TEN TEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

rivers Hume and Murrumbidgee. In this case we 
shall boil our fat bullocks and sheep where they 
now graze, and thus save the tallow now lost in 
driving them to Sydney or Melbourne. Our wool, 
tallow, beef, hides, mutton-hams, mimosa bark, 
gum, cordage made from the bark of trees, kc, 
will then be sent down by water at a trifling 
expense all the way to Port Adelaide. There is 
nothing impracticable in the undertaking now sug- 
gested. The rivers just mentioned are suflSciently 
deep, and not rapid. Nothing is to be feared 
from the natives on the banks. Captain Sturt 
went down the Murrumbidgee and Murray Rivers 
in his boat, all the way to Lake Alexandrina ; 
and it is well known that there are no water-falls 
in the Murray, or in either of the two great rivers, 
the Hume and Murrumbidgee — the junction of 
which forms the Murray — to present any impedi- 
ment to the proposed navigation. To remove the 
numerous logs, or snags, as the Yankees call 
them, which have been for ages accumulating in 
various parts of the channels of those rivers, would 
doubtless be attended with expense ; but the in- 
crease in the value of the land on the banks of 
the rivers thus rendered navigable, would more 
than repay to the government any necessary out- 
lay : and under proper management, a great part 
of this public work might be performed by the 
blacks who line the banks of those rivers. These 
people are naturally fitted for such employment, 
and to keep them to it would be the most effectual 
way of civilising them. 

In Australia we have no national debt to absorb 



ITS ELIGIBILITY AND ADVANTAGES. 177 

<yur profits. Here we have no direct taxes, as in 
England, to keep the people's noses always to 
the grindstone — here we have neither tithes, nor 
poor-rates, nor game-laws, nor severe winter. In 
Australia we have no exclusive religion, no domi- 
nant state church. We have no quadrupeds dan- 
gerous to man. We have here the same laws, 
the same money, the same coins as in England. 
We enjoy the most delightful climate on the face 
of the globe ; and thanks to the liberality of 
England, our military force is paid by John 
Bull. The soldiers who protect our lives and 
property, and who consume our beef and mutton, 
are paid, fed, and clothed, at the expense of the 
British nation. 

It is not to be denied that we still want good 
roads — a want which is common to all new colo- 
nies ; but owing to tho mildness of our winter, 
and the general uniformity of our climate, our 
hush, or natural roads, are such as to occasion 
very little inconvenience to the settlers. In proof 
of this I may mention, that parties have driven 
in their gigs all the way across from Adelaide to 
Port Phillip, a distance of 500 miles ; and I my- 
self have driven tandem, a few years ago, in the 
dead of winter, from Sydney to beyond the Hume 
River, a distance of 420 miles. 

In Australia we have boundless extent of terri- 
tory, and no winter food is required to be provided 
for the sustentation of live stock. In America the 
number of graminivorous animals, such as sheep, 
cattle, and horses, which the inhabitants can rear, 
must always be limited by the quantity of food 



178 TEN YEAES IN AUSTRALIA, 

they are able to provide for them against the win- 
ter. It is not so in Australia. Here there needs 
be no limit to the number of your flocks and herds, 
even if you should not have an inch of land you 
could call your own. Many live in Sydney, some 
occupying situations, and others idle, whose flocks 
and herds are increasing beyond the boundaries of 
location ; for according to an Act of Council passed 
in 1839, any person of good character, on pay- 
ment of 10/., may obtain a government license for 
occupying crown lands beyond the boundaries of 
the colony. As abundance of the most nutritious 
grass is thus to be had for almost nothing, at all 
times of the year, there is no limit to the extent 
to which the Australian stockholder's flocks and 
herds may be allowed to increase. This pecuhar 
circumstance partly accounts for the large and 
rapid fortunes made by many persons who arrived 
in this colony friendless and penniless. 

In a former chapter I have stated, that, in addi- 
tion to the 10/. (for a yearly license) required to be 
paid by the squatter to the colonial treasury, there is 
a half-yearly assessment levied on the stock, accord- 
ing to the following rate : — sheep, ^d. ; horned cat- 
tle, \\d, ; and horses, Zd. a head ; and Sir George 
Gipps, the present governor, talks of making every 
twenty square miles, or 12,800 acres, occupied by 
the squatter, pay 10/. a year. After the deter- 
mined opposition made by the colonists, it is not 
probable that this proposed regulation will be 
enforced ; but even if it should, 1 see no reason to 
apprehend from its enforcement the disastrous con- 
sequences to the squatters which some croakers 



ITS ELIGIBILITY AND ADVANTAGES. 179 

anticipate. Even still we shall be able to under- 
sell in the London market the wool-growers of 
Spain, Saxony, and other places, where the flock- 
owners have to construct warm sheds for their 
sheep, and to provide them with hay for their 
winter food. Hear what the report of the Rural 
Society Company at Naz (near Geneva, in Switz- 
erland) states : — *' The sheep proprietors calculate 
on at least 150 days of dry stall-feed yearly. 
Their sheep are then fed on hay. Wet ewes get 
each of them 2^ lbs. of hay daily. Dry ewes, 
wethers, and rams, get about 2 lbs. daily. They 
are fed twice a day, and also twice a day the 
sheep are driven out to a spring of running 
water." 

Contrast now the expense and trouble attending 
the management of sheep at Naz with our Aus- 
tralian mode of management, and then say whe- 
ther we have any just cause eventually to fear 
competition from foreigners in the London wool 
market. 

Look again at our geographical position. Glance 
at a chart of the world, and see how very con- 
veniently situated Australia is for trade and com- 
merce. With a sea-coast of nearly eight thousand 
miles, all indented at regular intervals with a vast 
number of safe, large, and commodious harbours, 
partly in the torrid zone, and partly in the tem- 
perate zone, Australia is in the very centre of the 
busy world. In Java, the Mauritius, and the 
Philippine Islands our sugar is manufactured ; 
China produces our tea and silk ; in India our 
rice is raised j in Ceylon our coffee. And these 
n2 



180 TEN TEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

islands and countries in return will find it their 
interest to open a market for the sale of some of 
our surplus productions. We are no great distance, 
only about a month's sail, from the western coast 
of America ; and all the islands of the Pacific, as 
well as those of the Indian Archipelago, will be 
so many convenient market-places for Australian 
produce. 

In attempting to point out the advantages of 
Australia, I forbear to notice the fortunes that 
have been made here by buying and reselling 
town or building allotments. Half-acre allot- 
ments bought at Melbourne in 1837 at 50/., were 
sold in the following year at 2000/. As these 
are nothing better than gambling speculations, no 
prudent man will countenance them. It is far 
better to play a sure though slow game, than risk 
your money and peace of mind on the wheel of 
capricious fortune. Neither would I advise the 
emigrant of capital to invest his money in colonial 
Bank shares ; in insurance or steam navigation 
companies. Within the last two or three years, 
heavy losses have been sustained by numerous 
parties here, through the incapacity, negligence, 
or dishonesty of the men to whom the shareholders 
intrusted the management of their money. I 
believe, however, that those two Banks, the 
" Union Bank of Australia," and the *' Bank of 
Australasia," the head offices of which are in 
London, are perfectly safe, and that a man would 
incur but very little risk in purchasing shares in 
either of them. 

For the benefit of the poorer classes, we have 



ITS ELIGIBILITY AND ADVANTAGES. 181 

a Sydney Savings Bank, which is, and has for 
many years, been under the able management of 
a Mr. George MiUer, an honest and clear-headed 
Scotchman. Deposits from a few shillings up to 
200/. are received there, and interest at the rate 
of 5 per cent, is paid yearly to the depositor on 
any balance standing to his credit ; on 30th June, 
1843, the number of depositors was 2590, and the 
amount to their credit was 86,732/. 13s. 9d 

In England, Ireland, and Scotland, there are 
many honest and industrious tradesmen, who are 
scarcely able to keep free from debt. It is not so 
here. There is no man who is able and willing to 
work that needs be poor, or without having money 
in the Savings Bank in Sydney. If a man, who 
is in the enjoyment of good health, is here in 
destitute circumstances, it may in general be 
affirmed that he is either indolent or profligate. 
The man who has no property has probably a 
trade, or if he has no trade, he has a pair of hands 
to work, or a pair of legs to carry him at the rate 
of a mile an hour after a flock of sheep. 

In letters received from England, I have been 
often asked the question, who are those who 
ought to emigrate to Australia ? In answering 
this question, I shall begin by describing those 
who ought not to emigrate. Several young men 
of dissipated habits have been sent out here by 
their friends to reform ! They were scape-goats 
at home, and were likely to entail disgrace upon 
their families ; it was therefore judged prudent to 
get rid of them by sending them to a very distant 
country, whence they could not readily return. If 



182 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

the intention of their parents or friends was utterly 
to ruin them, and thus blot out their memories for 
ever, no better plan could have been adopted ; 
but if the intention was to reform those hopeful 
youngsters, it was the most absurd idea that ever 
entered the brain of man. Send a youngster to 
Botany Bay to be reformed ! It is perfectly ludi- 
crous ; it is cruel mockery. They could not have 
sent them to a more unfavourable place for 
reformation. It requires not the gift of prophecy 
to foretell what must be the influence of bad ex- 
ample, in a convict colony, on a young man of 
loose morals, and far removed from parental 
restraint. His career would be rapidly down- 
ward — his doom fixed — and here is no compassion 
felt for him. The finical dandy who trusts for 
success to the high sounding names of some of his 
family connections, or to his own dashing appear- 
ance, will find himself greatly disappointed. The 
people of this colony care not one straw about the 
emigrant's rank or titles. Neither is this the 
field for the display of great literary talents. The 
colony is yet too young either to appreciate or 
reward such intellectual luxuries ; and therefore 
the penniless scholar has but a very slender chance 
of success here. Owing to the scattered state of 
the population, there are but few inducements to 
professional men, such as clergymen, lawyers, 
medical men, teachers, and artists, to emigrate. 
Having thus stated the description of people we 
do not want in Australia, I will now mention 
those we do want, and whom the colony will abund- 
antly reward for their work ; they are the indus- 



ITS ELIGIBILITY AND ADVANTAGES. 183 

trious, the sober, and the healthy of the following 
classes : — Shepherds, ploughmen, carters, labour- 
ers, gardeners, cooks, grooms, butchers, bakers, 
printers, millers, sawyers, brick-makers, stone- 
cutters, masons, saddle and harness-makers, car- 
penters, cabinet-makers, plasterers, painters and 
glaziers, blacksmiths, wheelwrights, tailors, shoe- 
makers, tanners and curriers, female house-ser- 
vants, nurses, farmers, retired officers and other 
gentlemen with either small or large capital. 

These are the people who ought to emigrate to 
Australia, and to these our colony offers advantages 
which are not to be met with in any other part 
of the world. In the United States, in British 
America, and some other countries, wages may, 
perhaps, be as high as here ; but where is the 
country in which any sum of money, however 
small, which a man saves out of his wages, can be 
laid out so advantageously as in Australia ? Where 
is the other country whose inhabitants possess 
so large a proportion of food as the colonists of 
Australia ? And be it remembered, that the extent 
of our rich pastures is illimitable ; and there being 
no winter here, our flocks and herds may increase 
indefinitely — thus constantly multiplying food and 
employment for all that can possibly emigrate. 
Here are not only room enough and food enough, 
but remunerative labour enough, and to spare ; 
while many of the labouring classes of England, 
Ireland, and Scotland are half starving with 
hunger. Here is freedom from all fear of want. 
At home — I mean where you now reside — ^you are 
often afraid of being thrown out of employment. 



184 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

No such fear ever disturbs your repose in AustraKa ; 
and the more numerous your family is, the greater 
is your chance of success. To each of them you 
may, in a few years, have it in your power, by or- 
dinary prudence and industry, to leave landed pro- 
perty yielding sufficient produce to place them and 
their posterity for ever beyond the fear of want : 
and surely, you parents, who are naturally concerned 
for the future welfare of your children, will not 
hesitate to make some personal sacrifice on your 
part — to run some slight risk, in order permanently 
to provide for their comfort.. The whole land is 
here before you; and if your own country has 
denied you sufficient food or remunerative labour, 
the voice of Providence which was addressed to 
Abram is now addressed to each of you, saying, 
" Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kin- 
dred, and from thy father's house, into a land 
that I will show thee." Labour is, perhaps, the 
only capital which many of you possess, but in 
exchange for this capital, for which you sometimes 
receive but a scanty allowance at home, we will 
give you here abundance of the most substantial 
food for yourselves and families. To be a shep- 
herd here, it is not at all necessary that a man 
should have previously served an apprenticeship to 
this sort of employment. Some of our best shep- 
herds in Australia have been Paisley weavers. One 
of my hut-keepers, a man who has been now some 
years in my employment, is an old sailor, from 
Hull ; and one of my present stockmen was a 
labourer in England. Any man who is able and 
wUling to work may here obtain remunerative em- 



ITS ELIGIBILITY AND ADVANTAGES. 185 

ployment. I do not know any sober industrious 
freeman, of half-a-dozen years' standing in the 
colony, who has not saved money, or accumidated 
its equivalent — property. And how could it be 
otherwise, in a country where, to an artisan, two 
days' work may purchase provisions and pay for 
his lodgings for a week ? Beef from Id. to l^d. 
per lb., flour 10s. per lOOlbs., sugar 3c?. per lb., 
tea Is. 6d. per lb. : fish is always cheap, and 
abundant in Sydney (our sea swarms with the 
finest fish), and good wine can be bought at the 
rate of Is. o, bottle.— The following is a list of 
the Sydney Market prices of colonial produce, 
this day, viz., 1st March, 1845. Wheat 3*. 6ci 
per bushel ; fine flour 10s. per lOOlbs. ; ship 
biscuit, best quality, 16?. per ton ; second sort 
121. ; hay 3s. per cwt. ; maize 2s. to 2s. dd. per 
bushel ; oats 3s. to 3s. Qd. per bushel ; barley 
2s. 6d. per bushel ; fat cattle 21. 10s. ; fat sheep 
from 4s. to 6s. ; milch cows 21. 16s. ; fat calves 
12s. to 15s. ; butcher's meat, retail prices, beef 
l^d. per lb. ; mutton l^d. per lb. ; pork 3d. to 4c?. 
per lb. ; veal 3d. per lb. ; salt beef per tierce 50s. ; 
ox tongues Is. 4:d. each ; ox tails 3d. to 4:d. each ; 
suet 4d. per lb. ; dressed roasting pigs 4s. to 4s. Qd. 
each. Poultry : fowls 2s. to 2s. 6d. per pair ; geese 
6s. to 8s. per pair ; pigeons Is. 6c?. per pair ; eggs 
from 9d. to Is. per dozen ; colonial honey 4c?. per 
lb. ; potatoes 2s. to 2s. 6c?. per cwt. ; best colonial 
cheese 7c?. per lb. ; butter Is. to Is. 2c?. per lb. ; pears 
4c?. per dozen ; peaches Is. to Is. 3c?. per basket ; 
nectarines 2c?. per dozen ; figs 9c?. per dozen ; 
melons, as large as Professor Combe's head, 2c?, 



186 TEN TEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

each ; salt 5s. per cwt. ; and coals 10s. at the 
pit, or 2O5. per ton, delivered in any part of 
Sydney. By two or three tradesmen, if single, 
clubbing together, as it is called, and renting a 
small cottage between them, their board and 
lodgings would cost them very little. Throughout 
the interior many towns are springing up requiring 
artisans of various descriptions. 

It speaks highly for Australia, that a large pro- 
portion of the military officers who come to serve 
in New South Wales, sell out and turn settlers, — 
converting their swords into sheep-shears and fish- 
ing-hooks. Numbers of both naval and military 
officers are scattered over the interior ; acting 
as magistrates, or living on their own purchased 
estates, or actively superintending their flocks and 
herds. Officers on half-pay, and other respectable 
persons of limited income in England, would 
greatly improve their circumstances, as well as 
increase their importance, by emigrating to this 
colony, where they would have nothing to buy 
except their clothing, tea and sugar, soap and salt. 
From their own farm they might have abundance 
of fruit, wine, poultry, eggs, beef, mutton, veal, 
pork, ham, butter, cheese, milk, wheat, and vege- 
tables — including potatoes and green peas all the 
winter. They can brew their own beer, tan their 
own leather, and kill their own game. 

In so limited a work as this, it is impossible to 
enumerate all the advantages which Australia holds 
out to intending emigrants, but I trust that what I 
have already stated will sufficiently show, that if 
this is not a land flowing with milk and honey, it 



TRAVELLING IN THE AUSTRALIAN BUSH. 187 

is at least a land capable of yielding abundance 
of both animal and vegetable food for all the sur- 
plus population of Great Britain and Ireland. 



CHAPTER XXV. 

TRAVELLING IN THE AUSTRALIAN BUSH. 

As I wish to introduce you to the blacks of 
this country, you and I shall now make an excur- 
sion into the interior ; and as a preparation for 
this journey, each of us must provide himself with 
the following equipment: — a good horse, a pair 
of hobbles, a tin pot for boiling tea, blanket, 
great-coat, tinder-box, pocket-compass, and sad- 
dle-bags, containing a couple of regatta-shirts, 
two or three pairs of cotton socks, a blank cheque- 
book, and some negrohead tobacco. The blank 
cheque-book must be one of those which will do 
for any bank. 

While we are travelling within the region of 
civilisation, we pay our expenses at the inns on 
the road by cheques on the banks in which we 
keep our deposits. It is very seldom an innkeeper 
refuses as payment of his biU the cheque of any 
respectable-looking man, whether known or un- 
known. Mr. Boniface is thus sometimes duped ; 
yet he knows well the difficulty and danger of 
carrying money on the road ; and that were he to 
refuse cheques in payment of his bills, he would 
soon lose half his customers, who would in that 



188 TEN TEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

case be obliged to "hush i<" every night. It 
sometimes happens that when bush-rangers stop a 
traveller, and rummage his pocket and saddle- 
bags, they compel him to sign and give them a 
bank cheque, made payable to bearer on demand. 
Yet in this case the traveller generally defeats 
them. He either gives the cheque on a bank in 
which he has no money (and payment is conse- 
quently refused), or he signs his name so differ- 
ently from his usual way, that on the cheque being 
presented for payment at the bank, where his 
genuine signature has been left, it is pronounced 
a forgery, and the unfortunate bush-ranger runs a 
fair chance of being immediately apprehended. 

I have my doubts whether, in the circumstances 
of the case, the traveller is really justifiable in 
practising such a stratagem, merely to save his 
purse. A learned casuist would, perhaps, concur 
with the Mantuan bard in saying, 

" Dolus, an virtus, quis in hoste requirat ?" 

As this is purely a case of conscience, I think it 
better not to attempt a solution, but leave it to 
every traveller to determine it for himself. Money 
is scarcely in use in the interior. Nearly all the 
business is done by cheques or orders on some 
Sydney or Melbourne bank or merchant. These 
cheques and orders pass through scores of hands. 
A 101. cheque, which I gave in May, was not 
presented to the bank till October. Another 
cheque which I gave was nearly eighteen months 
in circulation ; and by the time it reached the 
bank the back of it was covered with indorse- 
ments, indicating only a few of the hands through 



TRAVELLING IN THE AUSTRALIAN BUSH. 189 

which it passed. The banks are very accommo- 
dating in this respect. Though they generally 
grumble when any order or cheque for less than 
twenty shillings is presented to them for payment, 
yet I have known them to pay a cheque amount- 
ing to only a few shillings. I myself once received 
on the now defunct Bank of Australia, a jix)e shil- 
ling order, drawn by Major-General Stewart of 
Bathurst, and though the amount was so trifling, 
it was readily paid, 

After we shall have passed the region of civilis- 
ation, the common circulating medium among 
both whites and blacks is tobacco — negrohead to- 
bacco. Neither David Ricardo, nor Adam Smith, 
nor indeed any other great political economist that 
I know, has ever discussed the merits of negro- 
head tobacco as a standard of value. So far as I 
know, the only celebrated writer on this subject is 
the African traveller, Mungo Park, who states 
that ** twenty leaves of tobacco were considered 
on the Niger as a bar of tobacco, which bar the 
whites valued at 2^. sterling ; and that thus a 
slave, whose price was then about 151., was said 
to be worth 150 bars of tobacco." Not having a 
copy of Mungo Park's Travels at hand, I make 
this quotation, like some others, from memory. I 
can therefore vouch, not for the exact words, but 
the general substance or purport of the extracts 
thus quoted. It is proper, however, to mention, 
that every one of the statistical statements made 
in this work has> been taken from the official 
papers, and has been over and over carefully 
revised and compared with the originals. For 
tobacco you get anything done for you in the 



190 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

bush. There everybody smokes : men, women, 
and children, white and black, aU smoke. Every 
dinner, every supper, every meeting, here ends in 
smoke : about two years ago it was seriously ap- 
prehended that the whole colony was then about to 
end in smoke ; when they are out of tobacco, the 
people wiU smoke anything and everything, tea- 
leaves, &c. : they have been known even to smoke 
a passing stranger, who appeared to have some 
designs on them ! I need not say more to prove 
that tobacco procures for you a cordial reception, 
and the best accommodation at every hut you pass 
on your travels. In times of great scarcity of this 
precious weed, I have known lib. of tobacco 
bought in Sydney for 3*., being sold in the bush 
for 20s. sterling, and glad were the men to get 
it on any terms. 

While we are travelling among civilised people, 
that is, within the boundaries of location, we 
generally move, or, as the newly-applied term is, 
progress at the rate of five or six miles an hour ; 
and forty miles are considered a good day's work, 
especially when we have a long journey before us. 
As in travelling here everything depends upon 
your attention to your horse, allow me to give you 
a few practical hints on this very important sub- 
ject. Feed him, not as much, but as often as you 
can ; for though learned jockeys have laid it down 
as a rule, that ** for a saddle-horse to go well, he 
should be two parts blood," they have left it for 
you to infer, that the remaining part or parts 
should be made up of corn and hay, &c. And let 
me advise you always to see your own horse eat 
his food. At the inns here I have invariably 



TRAVELLING IN THE AUSTRALIAN BUSH. 191 

made it a point of duty to comb my horse's tail 
or mane while he is eating his corn. I find that 
he thus thrives as fast again on it. This is an 
extraordinary fact, and to me perfectly unaccount- 
able. No writer on animal physiology has hitherto 
even attempted an explanation of this pheno- 
menon ; the celebrated Mr. Pickwick himself, who 
has done so much for the cause of science, has not 
ventured to look at this difficulty. It would, 
therefore, be presumption in me to try to explain 
it. I merely state the fact, that your horse will 
thrive as fast again, if you comb his tail every 
time he is eating his corn in a Botany Bay public- 
house stable. Water him a mile or two before his 
journey's end ; and walk him gently after he has 
been watered. Let the first and last parts of your 
day's journey be performed slowly. In the even- 
ing wash his feet up to the knees. In such a hot 
climate as this, the friction of his shoes is suf- 
ficient to heat, not only his hoofs, but his feet. 
Let the saddle remain on his back until he has 
cooled. The girths should of course be slackened 
on his entering the stable. Rub him well while 
he is nibbhng at his hay ; but give him no corn 
until he is quite cool. If the corn is not cracked, 
mix either bran or chaff with it, otherwise he will 
gulp it without chewing it. You ought also daily 
to mix a httle salt, about two ounces, with his 
feed. I sometimes carry in my pocket a small 
quantity of nitre for my horse. At every stopping 
place take off the saddle and dry it ; the back of 
many a good horse has been injured through the 
neglect of this precaution. Allow about half an 



192 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

hour to elapse from the time that he has finished 
his corn until you proceed on your journey. When 
you can get no corn, try to buy, beg, or borrow some 
" siftings" (bran), which are to be found at almost 
every hut. By thus attending to your horse, he 
will always be in fair condition, and by the long 
continuous journeys you perform, you will surprise 
many a besotted traveller who is in the habit of 
drinking in the tap-room until he is half blind, his 
poor horse being all this time left to the tender 
mercies of the hostler — a character celebrated 
throughout the world for honesty and humanity. 

After we shall have travelled two or three hun- 
dred miles out of Sydney, we may not always find 
it convenient so to regulate our journeys as to 
reach a public-house every evening ; and even if 
it were convenient, I would not advise it ; for as 
we recede from Sydney or Melbourne, the grass 
for our horses improves in the same ratio that the 
accommodation for ourselves and them becomes 
worse. Therefore we shall not trouble the pub- 
licans with our presence ; and in order to do 
without them, we buy in passing a store on the 
road some tea and sugar. We can calculate on 
getting beef and damper at every hut we pass. 
Thus provided, we may either stop at a hut, or 
camp out wherever we find water ; for grass and 
firewood are everywhere abundant. If we stop at 
a hut, we manage our horses as follows : — On our 
arrival, having taken off the saddles, we hobble 
the horses at some distance from the hut in sight 
of the inmates. And then after it gets dark, if 
we are not sure of the character of the men, you 



TRAVELLING IN THE AUSTRALIAN BUSH, 193 

keep them talking while I go out to remove our 
liorses to a considerable distance, and in a direc- 
tion opposite to that in which we first hobbled 
them. The object of this manoeuvre is to prevent 
their being hid (or planted as it is here caUed) by 
any of the men about the hut. To plant travel- 
lers' horses and settlers' working bullocks is a 
common trick played by Botany Bay convicts, who 
will afterwards offer to find them for a specified 
reward. The above is one way in which you may 
defeat these artful villains. 

In most cases I prefer to camp out and far 
away from any hut. It is the most independent 
way of travelling. Towards evening, on our arri- 
val at good water, we hobble our horses, light a 
fire, and boil tea in our tin quart pots. We carry 
our tea and sugar, cold beef, and damper. After 
supper we generally visit our horses, and observe 
the direction in which they are heading. We 
then make our beds as follows : — each of us se- 
lects for himself some soft, dry, and warm place, 
on which he spreads his great-coat and blanket ; 
between these two he sleeps ; his saddle inverted 
serves for a pillow. If it rains, stick in the ground, 
about six feet apart, two forks ; place a ridge pole 
upon them, and over it spread your blanket, the 
edges of which fasten to the ground with wooden 
pegs. You have now a house, which will be both 
dry and warm, and tenfold more comfortable than 
the tub of Diogenes. At dawn you will be awa- 
kened by a bird called the " Jackass, " which then 
sets up a long-continued horse-laugh. This inti- 
mation he regularly gives every morning at dawn ; 




194 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

then half an hour afterwards ; and finally when it 
is broad day-light ; after which you seldom hear 
anything more of the Jackass till next morning ! 
By their punctually crowing or laughing in a body 
every morning at dawn, they are very useful in 
the bush. In summer the traveller is often awa- 
kened in the morning by frogs, which give regular 
concerts during the season. Having risen, the 
first thing we do is to look for our horses, which 
are frequently in sight ; but if not, we track them. 
Having found them, we saddle them, start and 
travel ten or twelve miles before we halt at some 
water, where we light a fire and breakfast, while 
we allow them to feed near us. This is the usual 
mode of travelling in the Australian bush. If it 
is moonlight, many gentlemen prefer, especially in 
summer, travelling at night, and resting both them- 
selves and horses during the daytime. I recollect 
having been once with a party thus traveUing at 
night, when I was deputed by the rest to call at a 
friend's hut on the way, to borrow, not '* three 
loaves," but one damper, for our jom-ney. It 
vividly brought into my recollection the beautiful 
passage in St. Luke's Gospel, chap. xi. 5 — 8 ; 
for, as every Greek scholar knows, this is the 
spirit of the passage as it stands in the original. 
The Greek passage clearly implies that the mid- 
night traveller turned out of his road to call on 
his friend, not with the intention of remaining 
with him during the rest of the night, but merely 
to borrow the three loaves, and then to proceed 
on his jom-ney, just as our party did after I bor- 
rowed the damper. 



TRAVELLING IN THE AUSTRALIAN BUSH. 195 

It is scarcely possible for any man who is accus- 
tomed to read his Bible, to travel much in this 
colony without noticing a variety of scriptural illusr 
trations quite unexpected. Sometime ago I had 
occasion to ride out with a great sportsman 
on the river Gwydir, nearly 400 miles north-west 
from Sydney. We were followed by a lot of 
kangaroo-dogs. Where we happened to be, the 
Gwydir, like the Jordan, has two sets of banks, 
inner and outer. As it is only a flood which 
causes the river to overflow its inner banks and to 
extend to the outer ones, the intervening space, 
which is overgrown with shrubs, is seldom covered 
with water ; and hence this sheltered interval, so 
convenient to the water, in this hot climate (a 
climate closely resembling that of Judea), is a 
favourite resort of wild animals, — the native dog 
in particular, as we soon found by starting a 
female, which had been there rearing pups, and 
which our dogs soon caught and killed. If the 
river happened to swell, and consequently overflow 
its inner banks, as the Jordan does periodically, 
I should then have witnessed the exact counter- 
part of Jeremiah's beautifully correct simile (in 
chap. xlix. 19), "Behold, he shall come up like a lion 
(or lioness) from the swelling of Jordan" — an ex- 
plaining comparison or simile which has often been 
ridiculed as unnatural by a set of drivellers, who 
have even ventured to ridicule the idea of Balaam's 
ass speaking with man's voice (Numb. xxii. 28 — 
30). How inconsistent these objectors, while they 
themselves give us the clearest proofs, not only 
that asses can speak, but that they do still conti- 
o2 



196 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

nue to speak, whether reqmred or not ; and I only 
wish that I could be refuted when I assert that, 
ever since the days of Balaam, this breed of 
speaking animals has been rapidly increasing and 
widely spreading, to the great annoyance of every 
man of common sense. 

It may not, perhaps, be generaUy known, that 
in this colony we have wild fig-trees. A young 
friend of mine, with whom I was travelling in the 
month of December, proposed that we should turn 
off our path to visit a fig-tree, which he had often 
seen, and which he stated must have fruit, as he 
had lately seen it with leaves (which generally 
appear after the fruit), and the time of figs, or 
fig-gathering, was not yet arrived. On coming to 
it we found figs. Never till then did I see the 
full force of that parable recorded in Mark xi. 13, 
14, and the reason of the divine malediction there 
pronounced. When sucking the leaves of trees, 
which I have more than once done, as I travelled 
under a scorching heat, through a country at the 
time destitute of water, how refreshing would I 
have found " a cup of cold water," and how valua- 
ble the parcel of ground that would have included 
the weU which Jacob gifted to his favourite son 
Joseph ! I have here seen the exact counterpart 
of Rachel driving her father Laban's flocks at noon 
to be watered out of wells carefully shaded over to 
prevent any loss or waste of water through evapo- 
ration in this warm climate ; and I have also seen 
my own bullock-drivers, like the Israelites on leav- 
ing Egypt, carry on their journey kneading-troughs 
with damper which is just unleavened, that is, un- 



TRAVELLING IN THE AUSTRALIAN BUSH. 197 

fermented bread. But I must here quit biblical 
exposition, and return to bush-travelling. While I 
have been thinking of nothing but theology, you 
may perhaps have been only wishing to know how 
we are to manage for clean shirts, since each of us 
had only two spare ones at starting, and we may be 
twice as many weeks on our journey. At any hut 
on our way, in this very dry climate, the hut-keeper 
can wash and dry a shirt for you between six 
o'clock evening and six o'clock next morning. 
On those roads which I often travel I sometimes, 
with a view to relieve my horse, carry only one 
shirt, viz. that on my back. But then I have 
shirts left to be washed at different stages, which 
I no sooner reach, than I put off the one I wear, 
and put on a clean one ; the one which I now 
leave will be ready for me again on my return. 
If in some other countries the people can boast of 
their relays of horses, here we can boast of our 
relays of shirts. 

If you wish to make your toilet when camping far 
away from any hut, you can go to a pond of clear 
water, and looldng into it as into a mirror, you can 
shave or admire yourself, like Ovid's Narcissus, but 
not, it is to be hoped, with the same fatal result. 
Some bushmen or settlers shave only once a year. 

Among the numerous and formidable obstacles 
to travelling, eloquently described by the learned 
Mr. Pickwick, I do not recollect having seen any 
mention made of creeks and rivers swelled by rain, 
or the periodical melting of snow on the distant 
mountains ; yet I can assure you that if Mr. Pick- 
wick had accompanied me last winter, he would 
include this obstacle in his second edition of that 



198 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

splendid burst of eloquence, wherein he speaks of 
his perils, in the pursuit of science, from *' damp 
sheets," &c. 

In the months of August and September last, 
several of our creeks and rivers continued for weeks 
to overflow their banks, and in the absence of boats 
and bridges, present very serious obstacles to tra- 
velling. A few persons, among M^hom were two of 
our postmen, lost their lives in attempting to cross 
the creeks on the road. Last winter, as I was 
returning from a distant station, riding one horse 
and leading another, on the back of which my 
opossum cloak, great coat, <fcc., were strapped, I 
came to one of those swelled creeks, which I crossed 
in the following manner : — In order to guard 
against the chance of drowning my horses, I looked 
out for an easy and wide landing-place on the 
opposite bank, and then, at a considerable distance 
above this place, according to the strength and 
speed of the current, which may be determined by 
throwing a stick into the centre of it, I drove in 
my horses after having taken the following precau- 
tion, viz., tied the stirrups over their backs, and 
unbuckled the bridle-reins, to prevent the chance 
of the animals getting their feet entangled, which 
would of course impede their swimming, and pro- 
bably be the means of drowning them. I got over 
myself by means of fallen trees, partly immersed, 
and extending the greater part of the way across. 
Where it can be done, this is safer than risking 
yourself on a horse's back, especially in crossing 
these impetuous creeks, where horses are frequently 
carried several rods down the stream. You can 
easily catch your horse on the opposite side, as 



TRAVELLING IN THE AUSTRALIAN BUSH. 199 

soon as you get over yourself. Your blanket, great- 
coat, and shirts, which you sent across tied on the 
horse's back, will get dry before night ; but you 
must contrive to keep dry your tea and sugar, and 
tinder-box, by securing them on or behind your 
head ; for they will not be safe tied on the horse's 
withers, as many horses swim on their sides, and 
some totally disappear on the first plunge, and 
then, at the distance of a few yards, rise above the 
surface. If you carry a tomahawk you may cut a 
sheet of bark, on which you can cross dry and in 
perfect safety, after your horses. During the 
greater part of the months of September and 
October last, when the floods entered several of our 
houses in this district, not only travellers, but Her 
Majesty's mail, had been conveyed across the 
Hume river on a sheet of bark, navigated by a 
naked black fellow. The river was then two miles 
wide, which was rather too great a journey for any 
horse to swim. 

As your tin quart pot may happen to be lost, or 
broken, or may become leaky on your travels, it is 
as well for you to know how, in the absence of any 
metallic vessel, you may be able to boil water for 
your tea, &c. Everywhere throughout the Aus- 
tralian forest may be seen sticking to the trees 
knobs of all sizes and shapes, and covered, like the 
tree, of which they are tumours, with bark. With 
your tomahawk or knife cut off the hemispherical 
or half globular bark of one of these round knobs or 
elbows which you find to be nearly the size of your 
head. When you have made a complete circular 
incision in the direction of the brim of the intended 
vessel, the bark will easily strip after a few thumps 



200 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

to destroy the cohesive attraction between it and 
the wood. The concave or inner side of this vessel 
is as clean and smooth as a polished table, and in 
order to dry it and extract the sap, let a gentle 
flame play against the inside of it for a few minutes. 
Fill it now with water, and place it near your fire. 
Heat nearly to redness a few clean and hard stones, 
which when thus heated seize by means of two 
sticks, used by way of tongs, and immerse them 
one by one for a few seconds in your bark tea-pot, 
which will now boil. The thing required is done, 
as Euclid, on solving one of his beautiful problems, 
would express it. The water may thus be kept 
furiously boiling for any length of time, and you 
may now enjoy your tea, and be perfectly inde- 
pendent of the whole race of tinkers, as well as of 
many other descendants of Tubal-cain, whom only 
our luxury, indolence, and artificial wants supply 
with employment. 

If you carry a gun on your travels, you may 
have it in your power to shoot more game than 
half-a-dozen could eat. I myself, however, dislike 
carrying a gun, or indeed any fire-arms on a 
journey ; for besides encumbering a man, they 
render him more liable to attacks from bushrangers, 
to whom fire-arms are always a valuable prize. As 
means of defence from such attacks, fire-arms are 
perfectly useless to the traveller. The bush- 
rangers will have him covered (as it is called) with 
their muskets pointed at his head from behind a 
bush or tree, before he can finger his trigger. The 
following paragraph, copied verbatim from a Syd- 
ney paper, will show you with what activity these 
feUows carry on their trade : — " Three armed bush- 



TRAVELLING IN THE AUSTRALIAN BUSH. 201 

rangers have been committing depredations on the 
roads between Liverpool and Campbell-town, and 
on the Cowpastm-e road, near the junction at Glen- 
field. They made their first appearance on the 
evening of Wednesday, the 15th instant ; the 
superintendent on the estate of Macquarie Field, 
returning from Liverpool, between seven and eight 
o'clock in the evening, accompanied by a man 
named Hush, were the first whom they attempted 
to stop. Hush was thrown from his horse and 
severely injured, at a short distance from Liverpool. 
His companion had him carried into a house, and 
mounting his horse, rode off at full speed, to bring 
Dr. Hill to his assistance, who was just then visit- 
ing a patient farther up the road. In the hollow 
beyond Martin's he was challenged by three bush- 
rangers, who, presenting their pieces, ordered him 
to stand ; disregarding their threats he put spurs 
to his horse and rushed past them ; one of them 
attempted to fire, but luckily his piece did not go 
off. A short time after, Mr. Wentworth, when 
proceeding homewards, was stopped at the same 
place ; his horse fortunately taking fright in time 
to enable him to see his danger, he turned the 
animal's head, and made the best of his way back 
to Martin's public-house, where he took refuge for 
the night. Another man, whose name we have 
not learned, was also stopped and robbed of a few 
shillings. On the following morning (Thursday), 
Mr. Mannix was stopped by the ^ame three fellows, 
and report says was robbed of 1001. A few pounds 
of this sum consisted of written orders, which they 
returned to him. Mr. Robert Jenkins, of Eagle 
Vale, accompanied by a Mr. Campbell and another 



202 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

gentleman, whose name we have not learned, were 
stopped a few days ago at Bargo River, by a party 
of four armed bush-rangers ; Mr. Jenkins and Mr. 
Campbell were robbed of all their cash ; their com- 
panion was fortunate enough to make his escape." 

From this paragraph you may possibly infer, not 
only that great numbers of travellers who go down 
from Jerusalem to Jericho, thus fall among our 
Botany Bay thieves, but that a man can scarcely 
move out of Sydney without being attacked and 
robbed by bush-rangers. I beg to assure you that 
this is not the case. I have travelled many thou- 
sands of miles in all directions, north, west, and 
south, through this colony, during the last ten years, 
and I have never yet been stopped by bush-rangers. 
I met them well-mounted and armed, but they 
allowed me to pass unchallenged. They merely 
asked me what parties I saw on the road I came 
and they were going. These fellows generally 
know their mark ; they know those who usually 
carry money. Besides, the farther you go from 
Sydney the less is your chance of meeting bush- 
rangers, for the very obvious reason that in the 
distant interior there is but little for which they care. 

I have stated that a necessary part of your bush 
equipment is a pocket compass. The most con- 
venient sort is about the circumference of a five- 
shilling piece, in a brass case. I need not remind 
you that if held too close to your stirrup-irons or 
your tomahawk, the magnetic needle may be dis- 
turbed. Unless you know the country well, you 
must carefully guard against the chance of losing 
yourself in , the Australian forest. In the year 
1791, that is soon after the formation of the colony, 



^ TRAVELLING IN THE AUSTRALIAN BUSH. 203 

twenty male convicts and one female, each taking 
a week's provisions, and armed with tomahawks 
and knives, absconded from near Sydney, with the 
intention of walking to China ! Some of these 
people, after lingering a long time, and living on 
roots and wild berries, perished miserably. 

In case you should happen to lose yourself, either 
give your horse his head — he will probably take 
you back to whence you started in the morning — 
or try to catch a view, from some lofty position, of 
the forest, in all directions, and thence notice the 
general fall of the country. In this depression 
there is most probably a creek, which in this colony 
consists of a chain of stagnant ponds, receiving the 
water from the surrounding elevations. Follow 
down this creek ; for in all likelihood there are 
stations on it, or it will lead you to some river or 
larger reservoir of water, near which you will cer- 
tainly meet either white or black inhabitants. 
Some new chums, to whom I once gave this 
direction, told me afterward that they found the 
creek by following my advice, but that after find- 
ing it they could not ascertain which was up or 
down, or towards what point of the compass the 
creek when running woidd flow, so level was the 
valley through which it passed. To determine 
this point is very easy. Almost all our creeks 
run at one time or other of the year, and while 
thus running, they wash down a mass of rubbish, 
part of which is caught and held by trees and logs 
in the channel of the creek. It is therefore evi- 
dent that the current, which had so far carried this 
rubbish, must have come from that side of the tree 
or log against which the rubbish was left. 



204 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

If neither of tlie plans which I have here sug- 
gested should get you out of your difficulty, you 
must just hobble your horse, light a fire, and hush 
it for the night. If you have no food, you must 
try to imitate the blacks, who have to catch or 
gather all their food. How they manage to live 
you will see, if you take the trouble of reading the 
following chapter. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

THE BLACKS. 



Of the black natives of Austraha there are several 
varieties, differing in language, customs, and gene- 
ral appearance. The following remarks apply 
chiefly to those aborigines residing in the Mur- 
rumbidgee and Murray districts. In both height 
and weight these blacks differ very little from the 
English ; and in these two respects also the males 
and females among the blacks bear the same pro- 
portion to each other that the two sexes in England 
do to one another. But in many other points 
the difierence is very remarkable. The legs of 
the blacks — especially of the females — are ex- 
tremely thin and slender, — they are perfect spindle- 
shanks ; the arms also of the females, which are 
long, appear to be nothing but skin and bone. 
The hands are small. Among both sexes the foot 
approaches to club-shape, and the toes are wide 
and turning inwards. From these two peculiari- 
ties I can at once tell whether the impression of a 



THE BLACKS. 205 

liuman foot in the sand or mud before me, be that 
of a white or black person. The head is generally 
large, with a greater proportion behind than before 
the ears. The forehead is long, narrow, and 
sloping backward. The skin is dark ; the hair is 
jet black, straight, long and coarse, but neither 
curly nor woolly ; the eyes are black and lively ; 
the face is broad, the mouth large, the lips thick 
and prominent ; the nose short, with its point 
slightly turning upwards ; the cheek bones are high ; 
the skull is so thick that a blow from their waddy 
seldom produces any impression on it ; their teeth 
are invariably white and regular. In all parts of 
this country where I have met the blacks, I ob- 
served that they emitted a peculiarly strong and 
disagreeable odour, which is not at all owing to want 
of cleanliness. So strong indeed is this odour, 
that cattle smell it at a considerable distance ; and 
thus warned of the approach of the blacks, whose 
spears they have been taught by experience to 
dread, gallop away to some place of safety. 

The language of the blacks sounds very guttural 
to a European ear, until accustomed to it. Many 
of the words, however, especially their names of 
places, are not only harmonious, but very ex- 
pressive, and denote some peculiarity or character- 
istic of these places. It is therefore much to be 
regretted that the whites, influenced chiefly by 
vanity, should discontinue these native names, in 
order to " call their lands by their own names." 

The blacks have no writings, no hieroglyphics, 
no signs to record past events, no works of art, no 
monument of any description. The following is a 



206 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

specimen of the most common words in their 
language : — 

Calleen, water ; patter, food ; bulga, hill ; 
birnble, ground ; moru, road or path ; gunya, hut ; 
pelageree, wife ; murrumbidgee, river ; cunuma, 
snow ; toggra, cold ; mundarra, thunder ; nuruma 
or wallen, rain ; nangree, night or sleep ; waddy, 
tree or stick ; mungee, fish ; cobbra, head ; mandoi, 
foot ; narang, small ; cabonn, large or much ; 
budgeree, good ; corodgee, doctor ; uroka, sun ; 
crammer, to steal ; yaen, to go ; bundygerry, to 
understand ; yabber, to speak ; burra-buiTai, to 
make haste. 

They count by moons. Their mode of count- 
ing, except when they do it by signs, by holding 
up their fingers, is extremely clumsy and imper- 
fect. Goody, one ; blythum, two ; coody blythum, 
three ; bulla bulla, four ; bulla bulla coody, five ; 
&c. Now, clever as the blacks are in many 
other respects, this is very little better than the 
English magpie, which has been known in the 
following manner to count correctly up io four. 
Four persons having entered at once an old build- 
ing, close to which was a magpie's nest, containing 
newly-hatched young ones, the old dam fled, and 
perched on a neighbouring tree, commanding a 
full view of the door of the old building. One of 
the four men now came out ; and then, after some 
interval, a second ; then a third ; but the magpie 
still remained watching until the fourth should 
come out, whom she no sooner saw remove after 
his three companions from the building, than she 
flew to her young ones. The same experiment 



THE BLACKS. 207 

was again tried with jive persons ; but the mag- 
pie's powers of calculation evidently not extending 
beyond four, she returned to her nest as soon as 
she saw the fourth person depart. But I beg to 
apologise to my reader for this digression from 
blacks to magpies. 

Among the blacks infanticide is and has been 
frequent. It is sometimes difficult to point out 
the motives which lead to the commission of this 
crime. It is not always to be ascribed to the 
want of affection on the part of the mother, except, 
perhaps, in the case of half-caste male children. 
Captain Sturt, while on the journey down the 
Murray in 1830, witnessed a black fellow kill his 
infant child by knocking its head against a stone, 
after which he threw it on the iire, and then 
devoured it. Here was an instance of infanticide, 
committed apparently from the want of food, as 
well as from the want of affection. 

The want of affection is beyond aU doubt a 
frequent cause. A black woman, who was seen 
committing this act by knocking her child's brains 
out against a tree, was once pointed out to me ; 
and on my asking her why she had committed 
such a crime, she quickly and coolly replied, 
'* Pickaninny too much cry." 

The famous Bennilong, whose society was so 
much courted in England, assigned a totally dif- 
ferent reason for murdering his infant child. 
Having followed his wife's body to the grave, he 
astonished the bystanders by placing the living 
child along with the dead mother, in the same 
grave, which was instantly filled up by the other 



208 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

native blacks in attendance. The defence which 
the father (Bennilong) made for this unnatural act 
was, that the mother being dead, no woman could 
be found willing to nurse the child, and that there- 
fore it would soon die a worse death. 

There is apparently verj little trouble in rearing 
black children. The child is generally carried by 
the mother on her shoulder, sometimes in a bag of 
net-work made of bark filaments ; and sometimes 
the child is seen slung over her shoulder, and held 
by one leg, the little black head swinging like a 
pendulum athwart the mother's back as she walks. 
I have been assured by an eminent medical prac- 
titioner, who had various opportunities of observing 
the fact, that there is one part of the original 
curse which the black mothers are not doomed to 
experience to the same extent as European 
mothers. 

At a very early age the male children learn a 
variety of gymnastic exercises. I have seen a 
boy, whose age, I was told by the mother, was just 
four times as many moons as she had fingers on 
both hands, or about three years and a quarter, 
dance, wrestle, swim, throw the spear and boom- 
erang, and sing their famous national tunes. The 
happy little fellow had never in his life been sub- 
jected to the bondage of wearing any clothing. 
It is an amusing spectacle to witness half a dozen 
little boys and girls, stark naked, engaged in a 
sham fight with their yam sticks. They display 
an amazing degree of presence of mind, agility, 
and good humour, while they thrust, parry, and 
ward. 



THE BLACKS. 



iof':^ 



The age of puberty among the blacks is from 
thirteen to fourteen. The families are sinall. I 
have heard of twins, but have never seen twins 
among the aborigines. 

There is one respect in which the blacks far 
excel Europeans, namely, in the perfection in 
which they (the blacks) possess the five senses, 
especially sight, hearing, and smelling. A Euro- 
pean would be quite astonished at thefr^ftliaironess 
of sight, quickness of hearing, and keenness "of* 
smell. They can trace a man or beast over rocks 
or hard ground, where a white man could see no 
mark whatever. Among thousands of objects of 
every shape, size, and hue, the black fellow's 
quick eye can detect, some hundreds of yards ofi", 
an opossum sitting on a limb of a tree. And they 
put their ears to the ground, and can tell you if 
there is anything moving within an immense dis- 
tance of the spot. This quickness of hearing has 
enabled many of them living among us to pick up 
many words and phrases in the English language, 
in an incredibly short time. 

Their smell is nearly as keen as that of a Scotch 
terrier, and they turn this natural qualification to 
equally good account, in smelling at the cavities 
of stringy bark trees, when hunting opossums, 
their favourite food. I have not had equal oppor- 
tunities of proving whether these people possess 
the remaining two senses, those of touch and 
taste, in equal perfection. The necessity which 
they are under of constantly exercising, at least 
three of their senses, both in providing their daily 
food, and in guarding against sudden attacks from 



210 TEN TEARS IN AUSTRALIA, 

their enemies, may have contributed to improre 
these senses ; but these causes are insufficient ta 
account for the very great superiority, in this 
respect, of the black man over the white. I fully 
believe that this superiority is partly inherent or 
natural, not acquired. 

At the age of puberty, the young man has two 
of his front teeth knocked out. The two fore 
teeth of the upper jaw are accordingly found 
wanting in all adult males. It was in order to 
make a man of him that his friends had inflicted 
this cruel punishment ; which is, however, imme- 
diately followed by one great consolation, namely^ 
that he is thenceforward at liberty to take a wife, 
wherever he can find one to his taste ; whether he 
is to her taste or not, is a matter of very little 
consequence. 

The chastity of both sexes among the blacks 
is very defective indeed, as may be satisfactorily 
proved by the number of black women cohabiting, 
with the knowledge and consent of their sable 
husbands, in all parts of the interior, with white 
hut-keepers — the number of half-caste children 
seen at every black fellow's camp — and, above all, 
by the number of white men daily under the medi- 
cal care of practitioners throughout the colony. 

Polygamy, which Moses never approved of, but 
merely connived at, and that only for the hardness 
of the people's hearts, is not only permitted, but 
practised to a very great extent among the Austra- 
lian blacks. I know several black fellows who 
have each of them a number of wives. A strong, 
and rather handsome fellow, named Yarry, who 



THE BLACKS. . 211 

frequently assisted me at sheep-washing, has gene- 
rally half a dozen wives ; and, Hke Henry the 
Eighth, he is continually changing them. Within 
my own recollection he has divorced four or five of 
them, in order to make room for an equal number 
of younger and prettier girls ; for he displays no 
small degree of taste in his selections. Several 
young men, hawever, who found it difficult, in the 
present scarcity of women, to get wives of any 
sort, liave often complained to me, that *' Yarry 
was cabonn greedy;" a remark, the justice of 
which my conscience constrained me to admit, 
though I had no wish to be the means of sowing 
sedition, not knowing where it might end, among 
the black population. There was one political 
benefit : Yarry 's castaway wives, if not too old, 
were readily picked up by young men who had no 
wives at all. 

The blacks use both animal and vegetable food, 
but they neither cultivate vegetables nor rear 
animals. A short description of their food, and 
their mode of procuring it, may not be uninterest- 
ing. Opossums, which are very abundant in all 
thinly-inhabited parts of the colony, constitute the 
principal article of food among the blacks. These 
opossums are generally caught as they lodge in 
the hollow trunk of a tree, at some elevation from 
the ground. The black feUow can, in most cases, 
know, before taking the trouble of ascending the 
tree, whether an opossum is there. The hollow 
limb, or tree, in which the animal rests, is open at 
the top, and if the aperture is deep, it is some- 
times necessary to smoke it out, which is done by 
p2 



212 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

setting fire to the tree, when the opossum, to 
avoid being suiFocated, rushes out, and leaps on 
the ground, where the black fellow's dog imme- 
diately catches it. Bandicoots, kangaroo-rats, 
and squirrels, which are also very plentiful in the 
bush, and considered very good eating by the 
blacks, are caught in nearly the same way as the 
opossum. Wombats are differently caught. The 
flesh of these animals, which commonly weigh 
from 20 lbs. to 60 lbs., is considered very delicious. 
I have never seen the blacks catch either fish or 
wild ducks otherwise than by spearing^ in which 
long practice has rendered them perfect adepts. 
They do, however, catch fish with nets, made by 
the black women, either from tough bark or a 
species of grass. 

A never-failing, and it is said, a most delicious 
article of food among the blacks, is a white worm, 
about the length and thickness of your little 
finger. This worm, which is very abundant in all 
parts of the colony, is cut out of the cavities, or 
from under the bark of trees, and may easily be 
procured by a man who can catch neither fish, 
fowl, nor flesh in the Austrahan wilds. I have 
cut it out of the tree, and have seen it eaten by 
white as well as black men. In the heart of the 
main root of a small sapling, called the Myall or 
Boree, and within a foot or two of the trunk, this 
worm is certain to be found. The knowledge of 
this fact might be useful to those people classically 
called "new chums," or, indeed, to any man who 
may chance to lose his way in the bush. The 
situation of this worm is frequently indicated by a 



THE BLACKS. 



213 



small aperture, nearly adjacent. The only tool 
required is a tomahawk, with which the traveller 
can cut out food to satisfy his appetite, and hark 
to cover him at night. The roots of a shrub, 
called by the natives, ** Quondong," are good food, 
after having been roasted for some time under the 
ashes. The fruit of the same tree or shrub, is 
also in great repute among the blacks. The native 
yam, dug up here in great abundance, is con- 
sidered not only nutritious, but very palatable 
when roasted, like the quondong root, under the 
ashes. Native .currants, native raspberries, and 
wild cherries, are eaten by blacks and whites. I 
cannot imagine what could have led Sir Richard 
Phillips, in his book called " A Million of Facts," 
to assert that *' no honey bees were found in Aus- 
tralia!" I myself have often eaten honey caught 
here, and given to me by the blacks. They are 
very expert at discovering bees' nests. 1 have 
seen them watch, and then follow a bee in his 
flight until they discovered his abode. Guanas 
and snakes are excellent food. The black snake 
I have not only seen eaten, but I have dined on it 
myself. The blacks cook it by half broiling it on 
the fire. When thus prepared it is as white as 
an eel, and as tender as a chicken. The blacks, 
however, will not eat of it unless it is killed by 
themselves ; the reason is obvious ; a white man 
seldom succeeds in killing a snake with the first 
blow ; the consequence is, that the animal being 
only wounded, becomes desperate, and often, in the 
agony of torture, inserts its fangs into its own 
body, and thus difi'uses the poison through every 



214 TEN TEARS IN AUSTRALU. 

part of it. Black and brown snakes are abundant 
in most parts of the colony. I have killed several 
scores of them. They Tary in length from three 
to fourteen feet. The most common length is 
about five feet. They generally try to get out of 
your way ; but after you have struck them the 
first blow, they show fight and face you furiously. 
The danger is when you accidentally tread on them 
as vou walk through the long grass. Their bite is 
almost certain death. A man in one of my neigh- 
bours* employment has thus lately lost his life. 
He survived it only about twenty-four hours ; and 
yet the impression on his leg, where he was bit, 
was no larger than the point of a pin. Several of 
our cattle are destroyed yearly by them ; and it is 
truly surprising that the blacks, walking as they 
do naked through the long grass, meet with so few 
accidents. 

In the cooking of their food the blacks are by 
no means delicate. After having skinned the 
animal they have caught, they throw it on the 
fire, and when it is well heated, but not half 
roasted, they pull it off, tear it with their teeth 
and fingers, and voraciously devour it, entrails and 
evervthing. Sometimes they do not even wait to 
skin it. They merely pull off the hair ; after 
which they half-roast the carcase with the skin, 
both of which they will then eat. 

They have no scruples as to eating anything 
they deem either nutritious or palatable, and they 
are enormous eaters. About five years ago, as I 
happened to be drafting sheep, with two black fellows 
assisting me, on the Hume River, we smothered a 



THE BLACKS. 2l5 

yearling wether, which would have weighed nearly 
forty pounds. At their own request, I ordered the 
carcase to he given to those two black men, who, 
after having skinned it, threw it on a large fire, 
where it was left till half-roasted, when they 
sat down and continued eating until a late hour of 
the night. They slept by the fireside, got up, 
according to their usual habit when they have 
plenty of food, two or three times during the night, 
to resiune the business of eating ; by noon next 
day, or within twenty-four hours, those two men 
ate the whole of the forty pounds of mutton ! The 
result was, that for the ensuing twenty-four hoiu-s 
they would do nothing for me ; they lay rolling 
themselves on the ground, heavily groaning in 
pain, and with their hands rubbing their bellies, 
exclaiming, ** Cabonn buggel along bingee " (that 
is, I am very sick in the stomach). 

The blacks have no fixed time for eating. 
Hunger alone regulates their diets. 

They have no fermented liquor among them. 
But, by steeping an empty sugar-bag in water, 
they obtain what they call " hull,'' which makes 
them drunk and play a variety of capers. Indeed, 
very little intoxicates them. A pipeful of to- 
bacco has been known to produce this efi*ect. 

The capacity of the Australian blacks for sus- 
tained exertions is not nearly equal to that of 
Europeans. 

Among both sexes the practice of piercing or 
scarifying the arms, back, and breast, in every 
fantastic form, is prevalent. The only reason 
which I have ever heard them assign for this 
practice is, that it makes them metong (strong) for 



216 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

fighting ; and there is no doubt that scarification 
of the skin renders it less liable to injuiy from 
blows. 

These people are beautiful dancers. It would 
perfectly astonish you to witness their corrobaries 
or grand balls. These nightly meetings are held 
at the time of the full moon : such variety and 
agility of movement, ^uch fantastic capers and 
ludicrous positions, the dancers all the while 
mimicking the motion of kangaroos, emus, frogs, 
and other animals, and yet keeping exact time to 
music, for which they have excellent ears. In 
April last year, a tribe of about a hundred adult 
blacks, besides children, arrived at my hut on the 
morning of Friday, and began to prepare for the 
grand corrobary. For appearing at the great 
corrobaries in England, the ladies and gentlemen 
prepare by putting on their bodies some things 
considered valuable, such as fine clothes, and a 
variety of brilUant toys, including a specimen of 
everything that can be found in a jeweller's shop. 
Here the fashion is very difl^erent ; for, instead of 
putting on ornaments, the dancers put off what- 
ever they previously wore, and enter the ball 
naked as they were born. And yet no lady or 
young dandy in England ever spent more time in 
preparing and decorating the body for attending a 
public ball. Every inch of the black naked skin 
was on this occasion ornamented with either chalk 
or red and yellow ochre. By means of these cheap 
materials, which showed well on a dark skin, the 
black fellow made his whole body appear as if 
covered with tartan. Lines horizontal, vertical, 
and oblique, forming squares, parallelograms, 



THE BLACKS. 21 7 

1-hombs, rhomboids, and trapeziums, each measur-^ 
ing about an inch in diagonal, constituted a per- 
fectly dazzling scene, through which, I have uo 
doubt, many a nice young lady had on that evening 
lost her heart. Like most English corrobaries, 
dancing commenced about nine o'clock p.m., and 
generally continued till two o'clock next morning. 
This went on for five successive nights, that is, 
from Friday to Tuesday inclusive. I attended the 
ball every evening, except Sunday. They had 
vocal and instrumental music ; the musicians were 
about twenty in number, and consisted of both 
males and females. I counted fourteen females 
(musicians) ; all these sat on a log, with their 
opossum cloaks folded up into bags, which, as on 
so many drums, they beat with their open hands, 
and at the same time sang together, in perfect 
harmony, their famous national tune of " Maley, 
maley, ma-a ma." The gentlemen musicians 
(six, I think, in number), were all standing in a 
line in front of the dancing circle, each of them 
holding two short, dry sticks, which were struck 
against one another in unison, and accompanied, 
like the drumming among the ladies, with vocal 
music. 

The grotesque appearance of so many dancers, 
the combination of so many well-tuned voices, 
added to such instrumental music, the shouts of 
merriment, and '* the loud laugh that spoke the 
vacant mind, ' ' the fine moonlight night, the clear 
sky, the soft bracing air, surpassing " the balmy 
gales of Arable the bless 'd," an A the beauty of 
the valley, intersected by the limpid river, consti- 



218 TEN TEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

tuted, as the French would call it, a ** tout 
ensemble," which to an artist would have been an 
interesting picture. 

When a lady wanted refreshment at this ball, 
instead of stepping, leaning on the arm of some 
tightlj-laced dandy, as on corresponding O'ccasions 
in England, into an adjoining apartment, she 
merely walked into the river at my door, put her 
mouth to the current, and thus cooled herself both 
inside and outside : or if she felt disposed to taste 
anything more substantial than pure water, she 
went to the camp, and took out from a greasy net- 
bag a piece of half-roasted kangaroo rat, which 
she tore with her teeth and fingers, ate, and then 
returned to the ball. 

I noticed that, in one particular, the ladies at this 
grand ball closely resembled some of their frail 
sisters at English corrobaries, by displaying nearly 
a^ much skill, taste, and fine feeling in their envi- 
ous and biting criticism and uncharitable remarks 
on one another. But no sensible man will ever 
blame the black ladies for this habit. That 
among the English ladies such a common habit as 
this is either unchristian or improper, no writer 
has ever had, or will ever have, the temerity to 
assert ; and surely if an additional diamond, jewel, 
gold chain, or any other such childish toy, is suf- 
ficient to justify envious remarks at an English 
corrobary, an additional line of chalk or red ochre 
ought to justify similar criticism at a black corro- 
bary — and assuredly the liberty of the tongue is 
not less valuable than the liberty of the press. 
It must be admitted that in one respect the bkck 



THE BLACKS. 219 

ladies, when they do wear clothes, are centuries 
before their white sisters in England. That abo- 
minable practice of compressing the waist, so as to 
reduce it to one-half its natural circumference, is 
here unknown. Scarifying the body, and knock- 
ing out the two front teeth, are nothing in point 
of cruelty to this monstrous tight lacing, which 
has sent many an interesting English lady to an 
early tomb. Such a species of suicide, often en- 
couraged by the vanity of the mother, ought to 
deprive the victim of all benefit of clergy. 

The only dress worn by the blacks, who do not 
choose always to go naked, consists of opossum or 
kangaroo skins, sewed together into the form of a 
blanket, by means of the sinews of some animal, 
used as thread, and a pointed bone for a needle. 
A covering thus made is very warm, as I can 
testify from many years' experience. The same 
dress is worn by both sexes. English blankets 
are now fast superseding the opossum cloaks among 
the blacks. 

The blacks are short-lived. At the age of forty 
they appear old men and women. This statement 
is supported by the invariable testimony of every 
experienced colonist with whom I have conversed 
on the subject. This premature decay is no doubt 
partly owing to their constant exposure to alterna- 
tions of heat and cold, and to their precarious mode 
of procuring subsistence : this week they cram 
themselves to surfeit, and the next week they may 
go for days with an empty stomach, sufi'ering the 
pains and penalties of that vacuum which nature 
abhors. 



220 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

Their sick are badly treated. In the absence 
of medical skill, of clothing, of house shelter, and 
of stored provision, the case of the sick man or 
woman among the blacks, especially in the winter 
season, is truly to be deplored. Their quack doc- 
tors and quack medicines, as among civilised com- 
munities, do more mischief than good. In some 
cases it is possible that nature might have effected 
a cure, had not the empiric with his nostrum inter- 
fered. 

Vice and disease are making fearful havoc 
among them. Men, women, and children are 
affected with the venereal. I have seen infants 
who were only a few weeks old, in a loathsome 
state, through this curse of heaven, inflicted far 
and wide on the transgressors of the divine law. 
I also find that Sturt, to whom I have already re- 
ferred, gives a similar account of the Murray tribe, 
visited by him fifteen years ago, when he says, 
** nor were the youngest infants exempt from these 
diseases. Indeed so young were some of those 
who were in this really disgusting condition, that 
I cannot but suppose they must have been born in 
a state of disease. How these diseases originated 
it is impossible to say. Certainly not from the 
colony, since the midland tribes alone are infected. 
Syphilis raged among them with fearful violence ; 
many had lost their noses, and all the glandular 
parts were consideraby affected." 

When a man dies — especially if young, and has 
gradually pined away — a neighbouring tribe is 
blamed for it, as having " crammer gourai " (stolen 
the fat), by some invisible agency, and thus caused 



THE BLACKS. 221 

his death. In this case nothing but life for life 
will satisfy the bereaved relations. I tried by 
reason and ridicule to convince the blacks that 
such an effect could never have been produced by 
the cause which they assigned ; that as the two 
tribes were living widely apart, with many inter-r 
vening mountains between them, and without any 
communication, and especially as there was no 
visible cut in the body of the deceased, whence 
the gourai, or fat, could be taken out, it was quite 
unreasonable to blame their neighbours for it. 
But the old black fellows only shook their heads, 
laughed at my ignorance, and hinted that that was 
all we white fellows knew about the matter. 

This is one of the thousand fearful effects of 
ignorance and superstition — a curse from which 
England owes her emancipation to Christianity 
alone — for this very superstition was once prevalent 
in our native land, in Italy, and some other parts 
of Europe, as it is still prevalent among some tribes 
both in India and America. 

A black fellow's burial is conducted in the fol- 
lowing manner : — After having dug a round hole 
about five feet deep^ they cut at the bottom another 
hole horizontally. Into this latter they thrust the 
dead body doubled, the head up, the knees to his 
mouth, his opossum cloak wrapped about him ; 
and then all the openings which remain are filled 
up with long dry grass. The grave, or first hole, 
is now fiUed up with sticks, covered over with bark, 
and finished with earth. Having put a rough 
paling round it to prevent the intrusion of cattle, 



222 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

they go away, and never again mention the name 
of the deceased. 

The nearest relatives, when mourning for the 
dead, cover their heads all over with white clay ; 
and at certain intervals, generally after dusk, they 
set up piteous howUngs. I have often been thus 
disturbed at night by the loud lamentations of 
some helpless mother who had buried probably 
her only child. 

Their ideas of a future state are extremely vague 
and indefinite. Many of them beheve that after 
death they will "jump up white fellows ;" and 
they confidently assert, that, among the white 
Europeans here, they recognise several of their own 
deceased friends and relations. 

They have no fixed abodes, and no houses of any 
description. Their only shelter at night from cold, 
wind, or rain, consists of one or two sheets of bark 
placed obhquely on end, having the upper end 
resting on a horizontal stick or ridge pole, sup- 
ported by two wooden forks stuck in the ground 
about six feet apart, and five or six feet high. 
Their fire is always outside, and in front of this 
hut. If the wind shifts, the position of the hut is 
changed in less than five minutes ; the front of it, 
and of course the fire, being placed to leeward. 
Each family occupies a separate hut. They can 
strike fire by quickly rubbing against one another 
two dry sticks of the grass tree. 

They have no domestic animal except the dog, 
which is useful to them in catching opossums, &c. 

Their government is democratical, and, as in 



THE BLACKS. 22S 

all such governments, a few men, favoured by 
nature with long heads, great gift of the gah, and 
a high opinion of themselves, being the three great 
requisites for governing the mob in any country, 
take the lead and dictate to the rest on all public 
occasions. Hence, as among the rankest radicals, 
the tendency is to aristocracy. 

They have no property, except their wives, 
children, dogs, weapons of war, nets, opossum 
cloaks, hunting and fishing grounds, to preserve 
and regulate all which very few laws are required. 
Their weapons are the following : — spears, boome- 
rang, nulla-nuUah, bark shield, marga, tomahawk, 
and a woomera, which is a stick with a notch in 
it, and is used for throwing the spear, which, with 
the aid of the woomera, they can throw and kill 
at one hundred yards. Their tomahawks used to 
be of stone, — one of which is now in my possession. 
They seemed to answer their purpose — that of 
cutting bark, and notching trees to climb, tolerably 
well : but since the arrival of Europeans here, 
stone tomahawks have been superseded by iron 
ones. With a tomahawk the black fellow can 
accomplish wonders : with it he can dig to any 
depth required, cut bark, build his hut, climb 
trees, and cut out opossums. In climbing a straight 
smooth tree without a branch or limb, he begins 
by making a couple of notches, into which he puts 
his big toes, after having stuck the tomahawk 
between his teeth, and grasped the tree with both 
hands. Having got his feet firmly fixed in these 
notches, which are the first two steps in the ascent, 
holding on by his left, he now disengages his right 



224 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

arm, takes the tomahawk, and cuts two more 
notches as higher steps : and thus he continues 
ascending step by step, carrying his tomahawk in 
his teeth, until he reaches the desired altitude. I 
have seen him in this manner ascend a tree a hun- 
dred feet without a branch, as quickly as an old 
sailor could climb from the deck of a ship to her 
royals. 

Through famine and war, vice and disease, the 
blacks are rapidly diminishing in numbers. It is 
lamentable to think that this should almost inva- 
riably be the doom of all savages similarly circum- 
stanced. 

It is a humiliating fact that Great Britain, the 
most civilised, the most enhghtened, the most 
evangelical nation in the world — a nation whose 
proud boast is, that the sun never sets on her do- 
minions — should, notwithstanding this pre-emi- 
nence, establish her colonies in the destruction of 
the native inhabitants, who are swept away before 
the march of civihsation. While England's sons, 
in obedience to the Divine command, go forth to 
multiply, replenish, and subdue the earth, the 
original inhabitants rapidly disappear as snow 
before the melting sun : the arrival of the white 
man has sealed their doom, and no power short of 
Omnipotence seems now competent to arrest the 
progress of extermination. 

By private individuals, by government, and re- 
ligious societies, several efforts have been made to 
improve, to enlighten, and evangelise, these un- 
fortunate creatures. In December, 1814, Governor 
Macquarie called a meeting of all the blacks east 



THE BLACKS. 225 

of the blue mountains at Parramatta, a town within 
fifteen miles of Sydney, and proposed to them 
to become settlers, and send their children to 
school. Some of them accepted of the offer, and 
were taught by a Mr. Wm. Shelley, a Church 
missionary. A few of the children made sur- 
prising progress, and Governor Macquarie reports 
that " three girls educated at this native institu- 
tion had been married from thence to native youths 
who had become settlers." But, alas ! like the 
baseless fabric of a vision, this institution has long 
since disappeared, leaving not a trace behind. 

About the year 1825, the Rev. L. E. Threl- 
keld, of the London Missionary Society, began 
his labours among the aborigines, on a grant of 
10,000 acres issued to the Society by the colonial 
government for this mission. But after Mr. 
Threlkeld, first on a yearly salary of 300?., and sub- 
sequently on 150/., had laboured for some years 
with very indifferent success in attempting to civilise 
and evangelise the aborigines, the whole affair 
ended in smoke. The blacks deserted the station 
(which was situated at Lake Macquarie, between 
Sydney and Newcastle), and Mr. Threlkeld, out 
of sheer vexation at the failure of his missionary 
exertions, sunk all his savings in a coal pit. The 
public, however, have derived one important bene- 
fit from the laJDOurs of Mr. T. While engaged 
here as a missionary, he published a grammar of 
the language of the aborigines, which is not only 
a great literary curiosity, but may prove extremely 
useful in the event of any farther attempts being 
made to improve the condition of these blacks. 
Q 



226 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

Mr. T. has also translated a considerable portion 
of the New Testament into the native language. 

The German mission to the aborigines at More- 
ton Bay, commenced in the year 1838, under the 
management of two excellent men, the Rev. 
Messrs. Schmidt and Eipper, has also proved a 
failure. 

In January, 1840, I visited the old mission to 
the aborigines at Wellington Valley, which is 
situated about 240 miles nearly west from Syd- 
ney, and, at the request of the missionaries, I 
examined the blacks then receiving instruction. 
I afterwards published anonymously in the Sydney 
newspapers, a short account of my visit to this 
mission ; and though that account contains nothing 
either new or interesting, I here insert the follow- 
ing extract from it, as it will serve to give you 
some idea of what is going on at the most import- 
ant mission hitherto established on behalf of the 
Australian blacks. 

** Having had the pleasure of examining the 
black natives who are now receiving instruction 
from the Rev. Messrs. William Watson and James 
Gunther, the two resident missionaries, I beg to 
state the following particulars, which you are at 
liberty either to publish or suppress, as you may 
think proper. 

" In the Rev. Mr. Watson's house there are now 
residing fifteen native blacks (nine boys and six 
girls), whose ages vary from four to fourteen 
years ; the greater number of them, however, are 
apparently about seven or eight. The majority of 
these can both read and write well. I also ex- 



THE BLACKS. 227 

amined them on Watt's Catechism, and proposed 
to them several questions suggested by the chap- 
ters of the New Testament, which formed the 
subject of the lessons read. With both of these 
exercises they seemed to be quite familiar. A few 
of the pupils were able to repeat in English several 
religious hymns, and whole chapters of the New 
Testament. Mr. Watson, who has been here for 
several years (I believe from the very commence- 
ment of the mission), can speak the native language 
with tolerable fluency, but teaches the natives 
through the medium of the English language only. 
In 1835, the Rev. J. C. Handt, when connected 
with this mission, wrote an aboriginal grammar, 
translated the Confession, the Creed, the Lord's 
Prayer, the Ten Commandments, and a part of 
the Gospels. It appears from a Report made by 
the missionaries at that time, that the morning 
and evening service of the Church of England, 
having been translated, divine service was then 
performed every Sunday in the native language. 
I was greatly struck with the neat, clean, and 
orderly appearance of aU the children in attend- 
ance. They evidently prove that while the zealous 
missionaries labour to promote the intellectual, 
moral, and spiritual improvement of the blacks, 
Mrs. Watson and Mrs. Gunther are no less 
indefatigable in attending to their personal com- 
forts. The difficulty of performing this latter task 
can be duly appreciated only by those who have 
been accustomed to observe the slovenly and filthy 
habits of savages. I was much pleased to notice 
that all the pupils who can read with ease, take 



228 TEN TEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

great delight in reading any tract or story-book 
that comes in their way. The number of blacks 
that live with the Rev. Mr. Gunther (whose resi- 
dence is nearly half a mile distant from Mr. Wat- 
son's), is from twelve to eighteen. Nearly all 
these have arrived at the years of matm-ity. Many 
more blacks, sometimes from forty to fifty, attend 
occasionally during the day, but return at night 
to their camps in the woods. Mr. Watson's only 
female servant is a native black, a girl of fifteen, 
and Mr. Gunther's nurse is also a native black, of 
nearly the same age. Mr. G.'s cook is an active 
intelligent black native. Several of the men 
make themselves useful in threshing, tending sheep 
and cattle, ploughing, reaping, carrying wood and 
water, &c. 

" In warm weather they consider it a great 
hardship to be obliged to wear any clothes. One 
evening last week, about sunset, while I was talk- 
ing to half a dozen stout fine-looking fellows, 
whose ages varied from twenty to thirty, and who 
were * larking' stark naked in an outer apart- 
ment, the amiable and accomplished Mrs. Gunther 
(the missionary's lady) came to the door and issued 
the order, ' Put on your shirts and come in to 
prayers.' This, however, seemed to be a very 
unpalatable order to the blacks ; but the only 
remark made by them was, ' Murry hot yet. ' 
Their deportment at family worship and at Mr. 
Gunther's lectures was extremely solemn: they 
all seemed to be very attentive, and some of them 
sung Church music uncommonly well. 

"I am of opinion, that in order to render this 



THE BLACKS. 



229 



mission still more efficient, it would be necessary 
to appoint some properly qualified schoolmaster 
(a married man), who with his wife would relieve 
the missionaries from the drudgery of teaching 
the alphabet, and thus leave them more at liberty 
to devote their time and talents to the religious 
instruction of their more advanced pupils. 

"In the course of last year a Mr. Porter arrived 
from England, and took the superintendence of 
the agricultural establishment, from which, and 
other secular affairs, the missionaries have thus 
been happily relieved. 

** Of the grant to the mission, there are only 
about sixty acres altogether under cultivation ; but 
if the seasons were here propitious, this quantity 
of land would yield more than sufficient grain to 
supply all the wants of both the white and black 
population connected with the mission. Owing, 
however, to the drought, this year's crop, like its 
predecessor, had been a partial failure. The 
missionaries will be obliged to purchase wheat for 
their own establishment. Flour is now selling 
here at Is. per pound, and tea is 6s. per pound. 
There are upwards of 1000 sheep and about 150 
head of cattle now belonging to the mission. 

" The total amount of the white population at 
Wellington Valley is only about thirty, including 
Mr. BaiTOW, the magistrate, and his police force. 
The valley, which is most beautifully situated, is 
about five miles in length, and averages one mile 
in breadth : it is partly inclosed by two rivers, the 
Macquarie and the Bell, and it is nearly surrounded 
by high hills, covered with wood and verdure to the 
summit. In the valley itself there is scarcely a 



230 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

tree, and the soil is extremely rich and fertile. 
You are doubtless aware, that a grant of 13,000 
acres, or about twenty square miles, was given by 
the British government for the use of the mission 
at Wellington Valley. This grant, situated as it 
is in so rich a valley, and at the confluence of two 
rivers, will unquestionably become, at some future 
period, an important source of revenue to the 
mission ; but, from the want of sufficient means to 
bring it into cultivation, it has hitherto been of 
little or no value. 

'' You would naturally suppose, from the unas- 
suming demeanour and disinterested labours of the 
missionaries, and the great alteration already pro- 
duced in the general conduct of the aborigines by 
these missionary labours, that the surrounding 
settlers would heartily co-operate with such zealous 
and devoted men in their attempts to evangelise 
and civilise the savages ; but I am sorry to say 
that such is not the case. Men from whom better 
things might be expected, have done everything 
in their power, as I have been assured by Mr. 
Gunther, to thwart this attempted great work of 
moral and spiritual reformation. An instance of 
this has happened during my short stay in the 

district. On Sunday the 15th instant, a Mr. 

having clothed in a theatrical and fantastic style, 
with red knee breeches and other articles of dress 
to correspond, a black native female, who occa- 
sionally lives with him, sent her over with his ovm 
elegantly bound Bible and Prayer-book, for the 
express purpose of disturbing divine service, which 
the Rev. Mr. Gunther was then in the act of per- 
forming. It is scarcely necessary to add, that this 



THE BLACKS. 231 

profane device so far succeeded, and I have no 

doubt that Mr. has since then repeatedly 

amused his associates by the relation of his exploit 
on that Sunday. 

" I think you will agree with me in saying, that 
to the missionaries at Wellington Valley the colo- 
nial public are under manifold obligations. To 
whom, except to the missionaries, are we to attri- 
bute the peaceable character of the aborigines of 
this district ? These, instead of spearing cattle 
and murdering shepherds, like the blacks in other 
districts, assemble for the purpose of receiving 
moral and religious instruction. I doubt whether 
any genuine convert to Christianity has yet been 
made among the blacks anywhere throughout 
Australia, and I beheve that the missionaries 
themselves, sanguine as they are, would not ven- 
ture to assert, that any of the aborigines who now 
attend, or haVe attended their classes, has yet 
experienced a saving change ; but it is pleasing 
to see so many of them brought within the reach 
of the gospel sound ; for there is some hope when 
we see them put themselves, like Zaccheus, in the 
way while the Saviour of the world is passing 
by. The Christian missionaries are by no means 
responsible for the success of their mission. 
Their duty is simply to employ the means which 
God prescribed, and then leave the result to 
Him, who will not suflfer his word to return 
unto Him void, but who will in his own time 
and way give to his Son the heathen for an inhe- 
ritance, and the uttermost parts of the world for 
a possession." 

The mission at Wellington Valley is, I believe, 



232 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

still going on as it was in 1840, except that they 
have now plenty of wheat ; and I will further add, 
that though I have since that time lived much 
among the blacks, I have seen nothing which 
would induce me to change or modify the opinion 
I then formed of them. That no convert to Chris- 
tianity has yet been made among them is deeply 
to be deplored ; but that they are possessed of good 
natural abilities, and capable of much intellectual 
improvement, may be established beyond all doubt. 
What they want is only application. I am aware 

that some writers, among whom is Lieut. , 

who have written on Australia, have pronounced a 

very different opinion on this subject. Lieut. • 

says, that "he can discover no great difference 
between the aborigines of New Holland and the 
ourang-outang. " 

I believe that, notwithstanding their degraded 
condition as human beings, these blacks had been 
originally created in the image of God, and have 
the same immortal spirit, which constitutes one of 
the grand and essential distinctions between the 
white man and the brutes that perish. It was, 
however, very natural for a soldier, a mere 
fighting machine, supposed to have no will of 
his own, to compare rational creatures to auto- 
matons. On a cold night ourang-outangs have 
been seen surrounding and apparently enjoying 
a fire on a mountain in Borneo ; but however 
much they may have enjoyed and wished to per- 
petuate the heat of this fire, not one of them was 
ever seen to throw a stick on it to prevent it from 
going out. If the Australian blacks are on a level 
with the ourang-outang, either the religious public 



THE BLACKS. 233 

have committed the very acme of absurdity in 
sending missionaries among them, or the same 
rehgious public are very much to blame for having 
so long neglected to establish a Christian mission 
among the ourang-outangs. There is no escaping 
from one or other of these conclusions. For my 
ovrn part, I was not aware that ourang-outangs 
have, hke the blacks of Australia, been taught 
reading, writing, and the common rules of arith- 
metic, and otherwise so improved as to be employed 
as policemen, bullock-drivers, shepherds, cooks, and 
nurses, and some, with the approbation of clergy- 
men of the Church of England, to enter into the 
** estate of holy matrimony." 

The neighbouring tribes are always at war with 
each other. The causes of their feuds are nearly 
as silly as those of European hostilities. The -only 
difference that I could ever see was, that the wars 
of these savages are not so bloody as our Christian 
wars, — that, like Homer's heroes, there is more 
speechifying than actions among the black war- 
riors, and that a " Te Deum " is not sung or said 
by them as by civilised and Christian Europeans 
on obtaining a victory. It was my chance to be 
living in Paris when this splendid act of profanation 
was performed in the grand church of " Notre 
Dame," in the presence of Charles the Tenth and 
the French nobility, on the arrival of the news of 
the taking of Algiers in 1830. But the rejoicing 
or public thanksgiving on this occasion was perhaps 
for the sixty millions francs found as booty, and 
not for having sent so many thousands of fellow- 
creatures to their last account. 



234 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

The three great causes of war among the blacks 
are territorial aggression, murdering one of the 
neighbouring tribes, and the abduction of wives, 
whether by stealth or violence. 

It is a well-ascertained fact, not only that 
they are cannibals, but that they very frequently 
eat the bodies of those taken in war. A re- 
spectable gentleman, named Morrice, residing 
on the Hume River, came lately on a party of 
fifty or sixty blacks while in the very act of roast- 
ing pieces of human flesh. He saw some parts of 
the same carcass in the camp, which were no 
doubt reserved for a future repast, and he was 
given to understand that it was the body of a 
female from a neighbouring tribe, whom they had 
just killed. 

A. stout black fellow, named Paddy, who fre- 
quently lives with me, has been a great warrior 
in his time, and committed several murders. 
When lately describing to me one of the last 
murders (that of a black boy, about twelve years 
of age) in which he was concerned, he stated that 
this boy, who belonged to a neighbouring tribe 
that had caused the death of some one in Paddy's 
tribe, was employed by a squatter up the Hume 
River, where he (Paddy) and three more watched 
him for some days, until at last they found him on 
horseback looking after cattle, when all four 
rushed on him, pulled him off the horse, cut him 
up with their tomahawks, roasted and ate him. 
Old Paddy, licking his lips, added it was " Gabon 
hudgery patter like it Emu,'' and that if I 
wished it, he would bring me a piece of the next. 



THE BLACKS. 

For more reasons than one I declined, however, 
generous offer. 

There are some very had points in the character 
of the Australian hlacks. Like most savages, 
they are hoth treacherous and avaricious. Neither 
time nor space will permit me here to multiply 
proofs for the purpose of substantiating this charge. 
In Major (now Sir Thomas) Mitchell's expedition, 
in the year 1835, down the Lachlan River, he 
says, " A 'chief, to whom I had given presents 
and shown particular attention, had been the first 
to attack us. To concihate them (the blacks) was 
quite hopeless, for the more we endeavoured to 
supply their wants and show good-will towards 
them, the more they seemed to covet what was 
utterly useless to them, and the more they plotted 
our destruction. The very knives we gave them 
as presents they immediately used in cutting the 
cording of our tents." 

By the squatters the blacks have generally been 
treated very kindly, and yet, in many instances, 
the only return made for this kindness was spear- 
ing our cattle and murdering our servants, which 
acts frequently led to terrible retribution from the 
whites. Happily for both parties this state of 
things is now known only in history. On the one 
hand the blacks feel themselves completely subdued, 
and on the other the whites, having no reasonable 
ground for complaint, find it their interest to live 
on friendly terms with their sable neighbours. 
Since the " Liverpool Plains Massacre " there 
have been some, but not many murders committed 
on either side — at least not many, so far as the 



236 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

public have been informed. It is said, but I can- 
not vouch for the truth of the report, that since 
that memorable event, arsenic, mixed up in 
damper, has been liberally given to the aborigines. 
If so, all the fiends of pandemonium in council 
assembled could not have devised a more diabolical 
scheme, and hanging would be too slight a punish- 
ment for any man who would be even in the 
smallest degree accessory to such a deed. The 
particulars of the horrid tragedy at Liverpool 
Plains are as follow : — In June 1838, in con- 
sequence of several cattle being speared, and some 
white men murdered by the blacks, a party of 
stockmen on horseback, armed, some with pistols, 
some with swords, and some with muskets, sur- 
rounded, at a place called the Big River, a hut in 
which a tribe of blacks, on friendly terms with the 
inmates, had taken refuge on observing this armed 
body approach. The victims were fastened to each 
other by the wrists, and then bound, men and 
women, with helpless infants on their backs, to a 
rope which one of the armed horsemen had brought ; 
none being omitted except three, a man and a 
woman, who were saved without any reason being 
assigned ; and a third, a girl, who was spared 
because she was good-looking. Bound in this 
manner, and surrounded by the armed horsemen, 
the blacks were conducted from the hut in the 
direction of the bush. On passing along the bank 
of a deep dry creek, two little black boys, who 
had not been properly secured, effected their 
escape, by plunging down the steep bank of the 
creek where the horsemen could not follow them. 



THE BLACKS. 237 

The cavalcade thus moved out of sight of the hut a 
distance of about half a mile : some shots were then 
heard, and afterwards it was found that twenty- 
eight blacks — men, women, and children — had been 
here butchered, some with pistols and some with 
swords. The heads were found, in several in- 
stances, to have been severed from the bodies. 
The remains were gathered together, and partially 
burned in a large fire made of logwood. The space 
occupied by the fire measured fourteen yards in 
circumference ; the place was literally strewed 
with human remains, among which were the heads 
of from ten to twelve children, most of them 
partially burnt. Three of the heads had not been 
burnt at all, the hair being merely singed. Native 
dogs, and hundreds of birds of prey, were gathered 
round the spot. All the men concerned in this 
horrid mm-der had been convicts. Six months 
afterwards, Tuesday, the 18th December, 1838, 
seven of these men were hanged in Sydney. 

I happened to be Kving within a few miles of the 
scene of the Liverpool Plains tragedy, when these 
seven men, the chief actors in it, were hanged. 
The excitement then, among whites and blacks, 
was very great. They lived in constant dread of 
each other. It was to me a strange spectacle to 
see two shepherds, both moimted and well armed, 
go out every morning after one flock of sheep, 
consisting of double or triple its wonted number. 
In one flock were 2400 sheep, in another 1800. 
I found some of my own cattle speared by the 
blacks, and lying dead within half-a-mile of the 



238 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

hut. It was evident that it was not want of food 
which led the aborigines to commit such acts ; for 
with the exception of a little of the kidney fat, no 
part of the carcasses was cut off, though the cattle 
were very fat. A few days afterwards, I accompa- 
nied Mr. Mayne, the district commissioner, to a 
spot where a tribe of the blacks had camped, and 
where we found upwards of 500 young ewes dead, 
all in one heap. They had been surrounded and 
speared by the blacks The shepherds had a 
narrow escape. One of hem had a spear driven 
through his hat — the spear had slightly grazed the 
crown of his head. The sheep belonged to a Mr. 
Cobb, two of whose men had been previously 
murdered by the blacks. One of these two men 
was murdered in the bush, and the other was 
speared near his own door, when running for his 
life to get inside the house. The body of the 
man who was murdered in the bush (woods) they 
cut up in pieces and roasted. At Mr. George 
Bowman's cattle station here, the blacks were very 
kindly treated ; but the only return made by them 
for this kindness was, to murder two of his men, 
and spear numbers of his cattle. At the same 
time (1838) that these murders were committed 
on the Gwyder and Big Rivers, a party of eight 
men, belonging to a Mr. W. P. Faithful, travelling 
with sheep, and drays loaded with provisions to 
Port Philip, were surrounded, attacked, and all — 
except one — murdered by a body of three hundred 
blacks, at a place called the " Winding Swamp," 
between the Ovens and Broken Rivers. From the 



THE BLACKS. 239 

evidence of the only white man who effected his 
escape out of this party of eight men, it appears 
that no provocation whatever was given to the 
savages, and that plunder alone led them to com- 
mit this massacre. The only opposition made to 
them by Faithful's men was, taking from one of 
the blacks a lamb which he had killed and con- 
cealed under his cloak. 

It would be difficult — perhaps impossible — to 
state the probable numbe^ of aborigines now in 
Australia. That they a[j i very few, compared to 
the immense extent of territory over which they 
spread, admits not of a doubt ; and it is equally 
certain that they are rapidly diminishing, especially 
within the limits of all the Australian colonies. I 
have not seen, within the last few years, any state- 
ment on which I could rely. The following is an 
abstract from the official general returns of the 
black natives, taken at the annual distribution of 
the government donation of blankets to each tribe 
within the four divisions of the colony, for the 
years 1835, 1836, and 1837. 

1835. 1st. South, and south-western district, from"] 

Sydney to Twofold Bay, including men, V 4:12 
women, and children . . . .J 

2nd. Western district, viz., Bathurst and Wei- 1 , „_ 
lington Valley J 

3rd. North, and north-western district, from "1 , on-^ 
Sydney to Port Macquarie inclusive . J 

4th. Home district, Sydney and Windsor in- "I „oe 
elusive .J 

Total numher of blacks in year 1835, 2094 



Girls. 


Total. 


217- 


2094 


169. 


1582 


147. 


1531 



240 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

DESCRIPTION OF PERSONS. 

Men. Women. Boys. 
In 1835, there were 904 681 291 

1836, „ 727 461 225 

1837, „ 735 454 195 

All these are tame blacks, who are certainly 
few in number compared to those who live far 
away from the habitations of white men. In 1830, 
Captain Sturt saw about 4000, all in a complete 
state of nudity, on the Murray River alone. 

PROPORTION OF SEXES, INCLUDING CHILDREN. 

In 1835, of 2094 persons there were 75 females to 100 males. 

1836, of 1582 „ 66 „ 100 „ 

1837, of 1531 ,, . 64 „ 100 „ 
Decrease of females in two years fifteen per cent ! 

One cause of the diminution of the blacks is, 
beyond all doubt, to be found in the disproportion 
between the sexes in several districts of the 
colony. The official return from one district gives 
only two women to twenty-eight men ; two boys, 
but no girls I 

The Rev. Mr. Threlkeld, in one of his Reports 
says, — " The continued ill-treatment, and frequent 
slaughter of the black women can only be deplored, 
perhaps without remedy. One black, of the num- 
ber sentenced to work in irons at Goat Island, had 
previously shot several females, and chopped in 
pieces others with his tomahawk. On his return 
from confinement he joined his tribe, sat with 
them around a fire in the bush, seized a woman, 
and was about to despatch her — when a black 
started up and cleft his skull with a hatchet — while 
another was buried in his heart. The measles, 



THE BLACKS. 241 

the hooping-cougli, and influenza have cut off hun- 
dreds of them. Of one large tribe in the interior, 
four years since, there were 164 persons ; there are 
now only three individuals alive ! " 

The blacks seldom make any provision for the 
future, but literally act on the principle that "suf- 
ficient for the day is the evil thereof." A friend 
of mine gave some cuts of potatoes for seed to a 
black fellow, which he was induced to plant, on 
his being assured that after a short time these 
few cuttings would produce a large quantity of 
potatoes. Two days afterwards, the black fellow re- 
turned to my friend, to complain that the young 
potatoes did *' not yet jump up." He then, hold- 
ing up two fingers, asked if it would yet be so 
many days before the young potatoes should 
•' jmnp up;" and on my friend admitting to him 
that it might be as many days as there were 
fingers to both his hands, he immediately went 
away, dug up all the cuttings of the potatoes, 
and ate them, saying that *' white fellow is all 
gammon." 

They make their wives carry everything belong- 
ing to them, while they themselves proudly strut 
in front, shouldering their weapons of war, and 
thus proving, if any proof of such a palpable fact 
was required, that they are the lords of the crea- 
tion. I have frequently seen the husbands beat, 
and sometimes cut, their wives with tomahawks. 
After such scenes, it needed no argument to con- 
vince a spectator that the woman was the weaker 
vessel. 



242 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

It may be interesting to a philosopher to be 
informed, that by intermixture with Europeans 
some of the phrenologically bad points disappear in 
the Australian blacks. Every one of the few half- 
castes that I know affords a favourable specimen. 
In her evidence, given before a Committee of the 
Legislative Council, appointed in 1838, Mrs. Shel- 
ley, who kept the Asylum for Aboriginal Children, 
(established at Parramatta, by Governor Macquarie, 
in 1814,) for upwards of eight years, states that 
" Some of the (black) children under her tuition 
read and wrote well, and understood arithmetic ; 
that she always found the half-caste children 
quicker and more tractable than the blacks ; that 
several of the girls had married black men, but 
instead of having the effect intended, of reclaiming 
them, they eventually followed their husbands into 
the bush, after having given away or destroyed 
all the clothes with which they had been furnished 
by the government. Some of the boys went to 
sea. Most of the girls turned out very bad ; but 
there is one exception, in a half-caste girl, who 
was married to a white man, and was very indus- 
trious, taking in needlework," <kc. 

The blacks have no religion, no idols, neither 
sacrifices nor gifts, no sacred days or religious 
ceremonies. Some of them are afraid of " mu^hi- 
gang'* (ghosts); and in order to keep away the 
deble-deble, a few of them thrust a bone through 
their noses. The comet which appeared two years 
ago greatly alarmed them, and some of them 
applied to me for an explanation of this pheno- 



THE BLACKS. 243 

meiaon, as some rascally white men told them that 
its design in paying us a visit was to complete the 
destruction of the hlacks. . 

They are excellent mimics, and have a keen 
rehsh for the ludicrous. They enjoy a joke even 
at their own expense. They are first-rate shots. 
It is seldom they miss their aim ; as sure as you 
hear the report, the animal aimed at is either 
killed or wounded, unless there is some flaw in 
the piece. 

They are fearless riders, and never feel them- 
selves so happy as when at full gallop. An orphan 
hoy, about ten years of age, rode about with me 
for nearly six months of last year. I found him 
useful in finding the horses in the morning, &c. 
At the same time I had two big black fellows 
driving buUock teams for me. They did well 
while they continued ; but there is no dependence 
on them for any length of time, and the laws of 
their tribe required their attendance at meetings 
which deprived me of their services. I have my 
doubts whether, without a thorough change in 
their views and whole character, they can ever be 
induced to exchange their roaming habits for all 
the comforts of civilisation. 

There is evidently a charm in savage hfe, which 
is difficult, perhaps impossible, for a European to 
appreciate. Bennilong, who was brought to Eng- 
land, after two years' enjoyment of European 
comforts and refinements, cast away his fine 
clothes, and then, naked, joined his old companions 
in the wilds of Australia. I have repeatedly 
ffiven clothes and abundance of food to black fel- 
R 2 



244 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

lows ; but they soon got tired of our tame sort of 
living, threw away their clothes as useless lumber, 
fit only for bondsmen, and then joined their tribe 
in the forest to live on grubs and sleep naked 
under a sheet of bark. This spectacle would cer- 
tainly have cheered the heart of Rousseau and 
other great admirers of the savage life. I know 
some sensible white men here who believe that the 
privations occasionally experienced by the blacks 
are more than counterbalanced by the perfect 
freedom and independence they enjoy. That at 
least one white man has evinced the sincerity of 
his professions of such a belief by exchanging the 
civilised for the savage life, will be seen by the 
reader ere he comes to the close of this chapter. 
Without professing to entertain myself any pre- 
dilection for such a hfe, I wiU add, that great 
would be the surprise of any Englishman who 
would contrast the servile, crouching, cringing, 
drunken blacks lounging about the streets of Syd- 
ney, after having sold their birthright, their inde- 
pendence, for a morsel of bread, — ^with the wild 
inhabitant of the forest in a state of perfect nudity, 
as he roams at freedom over immeasurable plains, 
hills, and valleys, bearing on his shoulders his 
weapons of war and implements of chase, yielding 
submission to no human power, and with a cha- 
racteristic elasticity of movement, firmness of step, 
and dignity of gait, proclaiming, not in words, 
but in every gesture, his hereditary rights and 
independence. 

When viewing, not one man only, but scores of 
men of this bold stamp, I could not help cherish- 



THE BLACKS. 245 

Ing an anxious wish that some further efforts 
should be made to save at least a remnant of this 
interesting race from annihilation. Is it not 
enough that the Caribs of the West Indian Islands 
should be extinct, that the red Indians of North 
America should be almost gone, and that the 
whole aboriginal population of Tasmania, reduced 
to eighty or ninety persons collected and bundled 
off a few years ago to Flinders' Island, in Bass' 
Strait, whence stiU more reduced in numbers, 
they were at last landed in sight of hostile tribes 
on the shores of Port Phillip, should now be known 
only as tribes that once existed ? We have occu- 
pied the lands of the aborigines — we have driven 
them from their hunting and fishing grounds, and 
what have we given them in return ? Their pre- 
sent condition is a reproach both to the British 
legislature and to the colonial public. We cannot 
yet conscientiously say, in reference to the Aus- 
tralian blacks, what more could we have done to 
this vineyard that we have not done ? The fol- 
lowing extraordinary incident will prepare the 
reader for the plan which I have to propose for the 
improvement of the aborigines. 

In the year 1835, Mr. Bateman's men at Port 
Phillip '* were one fine morning much frightened 
at the approach of a white man of immense size, 
covered with an enormous opossum skin rug, and 
his hair and beard spread out as large as a bushel 
measure. He advanced with a number of spears 
in one hand and a waddie in the other. The first 
impression of Mr. Bateman's men was that the 
giant would put one of them under each arm, and 



246 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

walk away with them. The man showing signs of 
peace, their fear subsided, and they spoke to him. 
At first he could not understand one word that was 
said, and it took a few days before he could make 
them understand who he was, what he had been, 
and whence he came. His story is very remark- 
able. His name is William Buckley ; he was 
formerly a private in the 4th, or King's Own ; he 
was transported to New South Wales, and accom- 
panied Governor Collins, in the year 1804, to the 
settlement, which was then attempted to be formed 
at Port Phillip. Whilst the new colony was being 
established, Buckley, with three others, absconded ; 
and when the settlement was abandoned, they were 
left there, supposed to have died in the bush." 

This account perfectly agrees with, and is cor- 
roborated by, the evidence of one of those who 
formed that expedition, and now an old settler, who 
distinctly recollects that four prisoners absconded, 
and that one of them, named William Buckley, 
was very tall, and that they were never heard of 
afterwards. Buckley never saw a white man for 
upwards of thirty years, that is, from 1804 to 
1835. He has been all that time living on friendly 
terms with the natives, who treated him as a chief. 
He says he does not know what became of the 
other three runaways. Curiosity induced Mr. Bate- 
man's men to measure him. His height is six feet 
six inches. He measures nearly four feet round 
the chest, and the calf of his leg is eighteen inches 
in circumference. This man, who, as I have been 
informed by a friend of mine who saw liim eighteen 
months ago, now holds, or at least then held, some. 



THE BLACKS. 247 

petty situation in Hobart Town, Van Diemen's 
Land, might be employed, provided his moral cha- 
racter is unexceptionable, to some good purpose in 
improving the condition of the Australian blacks. 
Any literary character, possessing a lively imagi- 
nation and sound judgment, might compose an 
interesting little volume from materials collected 
during a few days' conversation with this modern 
Robinson Crusoe. The original narrative of Alex- 
ander Selkirk, from which Daniel De Foe produced 
an imperishable work, contained not half so many 
incidents as, we know, Buckley's history may 
furnish. 

It is evident the blacks were fond of him, and 
he of them, since it was with difficulty he was pre- 
vailed upon to abandon them and return to civilised 
life. His thirty years' residence among them 
establishes two very important facts, viz., first, 
that a white man, and therefore a Christian mis- 
sionary, may venture to trust himself, unprotected, 
among the wild blacks ; and secondly, that a white 
man can live and thrive on the same sort of food 
that sustains them. 

I am clearly of opinion, that if the heralds of 
the gospel are ever to make any impression on the 
aborigines, it must be by joining their camps, 
following them in their native wilds, and living on 
roots, grubs, and opossums, like themselves. It 
was precisely in this way that Mr. Elliot, the 
famous missionary, acquired the language, gained 
the confidence, and by the aid of the divine Spirit 
changed the hearts, of many of the red Indians in 
North America ; and precisely similar was the plan 



248 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

successfully adopted by Mr. Anderson, the mis- 
sionary at the Cape of Good Hope. Let the 
Church at home, therefore, appoint some missionary 
of apostolic zeal, self-denial, robust constitution, 
and unconquerable enterprise, to accompany the 
blacks in their wanderings, and accommodate him- 
self to their savage mode of life. William Buckley 
might, I have no doubt, be induced to accompany 
such a missionary among the Port Phillip blacks, who 
would, unquestionably, hail with joy the return of 
their old friend and chief. Every scheme hitherto 
employed, with a view to promote their moral and 
spiritual improvement, having been unsuccessfiil, I 
feel some confidence in recommending the adoption 
of a scheme which, we know, has already proved 
successful in so many similar cases in the history 
of missionary enterprise. 

This chapter on the aborigines has, I must 
candidly admit, extended considerably beyond what 
was necessary for the information of the intending 
emigrant. I have two reasons to urge by way of 
excuse for this transgression: — First, thai so far as I 
know, none of the numerous works hitherto published 
on this colony contains any satisfactory account 
of the Australian blacks, (that my account of them 
is satisfactory, I will not venture to insinuate ; the 
reader will, of course judge for himself, and criti- 
cise me with as much freedom and as little cere- 
mony as I have used in criticising others) ; and, 
secondly, that having seen a pamphlet published a 
few years ago, in London, under the following 
title : " Queries respecting the Human Race, to 



ADVICE TO EMIGRANTS. 249 

be addressed to Travellers and others ; drawn up 
by a Committee of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, appointed in 1839," I 
was desirous to contribute a few facts towards the 
promotion of so laudable an object ; and I shall 
consider myself amply rewarded for my trouble, if 
my hasty and imperfect sketch contains materials 
which may be useful to some more competent 
person who may undertake to write a full account 
of the habits, manners, and customs of the Aus- 
tralian aborigines. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

ADVICE TO EMIGRANTS. 



There are only two classes of men, physicians and 
lawyers, to whose advice any high value is attached; 
and their advice is highly valued for no other reason 
that I can tell, than that neither of them has ever 
been known to open his lips, by way of giving 
advice, without having previously "received in 
hand," as payment, the sum of at least twenty-one 
shillings of the current coin of the realm. As it 
happens, very unfortunately for me, that I am 
neither a lawyer nor a "doctor," I scarcely expect 
that intending emigrants will attach much import- 
ance to the advice which I am now about to offer to 
them. It shall, however, be freely and honestly 
tendered. 

This subject divides itself iuto three parts : 7?rs<» 



250 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

what you ought to do before sailing ; secondly, 
what you ought to do on the voyage ; and, thirdly, 
what you ought to do after landing in Australia. 
To each of these three divisions of my text (as 
pulpit orators would express it), I will now direct 
your attention. 

Having made up your mind to emigrate to 
Australia, apply, if you wish a free passage, to 
one or other of the emigration agents. 

They will give you all the necessary information 
required, and the government takes care that none 
but sound and sea-worthy ships are chartered for 
the conveyance of passengers to the colonies. The 
attention of the British Parliament has been long 
and successfully occupied in devising the best 
means for securing the comforts of emigrants from 
Great Britain and Ireland to all parts of the 
world ; and accordingly, in August 1842, an Act 
intituled the ** Passengers' Act," was passed, 
regulating the carriage of passengers in mer- 
chant vessels. Every captain carrying above 
thirty passengers is bound to have on board two 
copies of this Act ; and he is also bound to give a 
perusal of one of these copies to any of his passen- 
gers who may ask for it. Every passenger ought 
to acquaint himself with its contents. He will 
there see how much space in the ship he can law- 
fully claim ; also the quantity of water, the quan- 
tity and quality of food, &c., <kc., to which he is 
entitled. Many skippers, who take it for granted 
that their passengers are not aware of the existence 
of such a parhamentary Act, curtail their just 
allowance of space, water, and provisions. For any 



ADVICE TO EMIGRANTS. 



251 



and every violation of this law, the emigrant, on 
arrival at his destination, can puU up the skipper, 
and in a most summary way obtain damages for 
all injuries thus sustained during the voyage. This 
Act, of August 1842, also provides that no skipper 
shall carry more than in the proportion of three 
persons for every five tons of the registered burden 
of the ship, the master and crew being included in 
such prescribed number. 

I shall now suppose that some of you would not 
wish to go out as steerage passengers. In this 
case the above Act will not apply to you, and 
therefore it is the more incumbent on you to exer- 
cise great care and caution in selecting your ship ; 
get some competent friend to examine her. Ascer- 
tain what her age is — how she stands at Lloyd's — 
whether she is amply provisioned — whether* her 
captain is a steady man ; for some of these skip- 
pers are ignorant, tyrannical, and drunken vaga- 
bonds, whose characters you can seldom know till 
you are fairly out at sea, where, for four months, 
you are completely at their mercy. See that the 
ship carries a medical man. Stipulate that in case 
the ship should touch at any intermediate port for 
either supplies or repairs, you are to be maintained 
on board without any extra expense. If you have 
reasonable doubts as to the honour and respectabi- 
lity of captain and owners, charterers or agents, 
get a written agreement, binding them to give you 
daily a certain fixed quantity and quality of provi- 
sions and water. Cabin passage fares (including 
provisions, wines, &c.,) vary from 50/. to SOI., 
according to the accommodation, character of the 
ship, <fcc. It is proper to mention that there is a 



25Z TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

number of highly respectable captains now com- 
manding ships between England and the Austra- 
lian colonies, from whom no written agreement 
would at all be necessary. For example, you 
would be perfectly safe in taking the mere verbal 
promise of the following gentlemen, whose esta- 
blished character would be a safer guarantee than 
any written compact to the passenger : — 

Captain Coubro, of the Herald ; Captain David 
Morrice, of the Elizabeth ; Captain Hart, of the 
General Hewett ; Captain Sim, of the Palestine ; 
Captain Morrison, of the Midlothian ; Captain 
Darley, of the Eweretta ; Captain Mallard, of the 
Persian, <fec. 

Passenger ships sailing from London are gene- 
rally better provisioned than ships from any other 
port. John BuU knows well what is good for the 
stomach in all latitudes and longitudes, and it is 
very seldom that we hear of any complaints from 
passengers who arrive here by ships direct from 
London. 

Before leaving home, every emigrant, who is 
not well known to some respectable people here, 
ought to procure a certificate of character either 
from the clergyman whose ministry he last attended, 
or from his last employer. If the genuineness of 
the signature can be certified by any gentleman 
here who is known to the emigrant, it might be 
an advantage. Nothing can be of greater value 
here than a good character, for the very cogent 
reason that we have so many men in this colony 
who have no character at all. 

As our winter never interposes any interruption 
to out-door work, it matters little at what time of 



ADVICE TO ESflGRANTS. 253 

the year the emigrant sails for Australia. If there 
is one period preferable to another for starting, it 
is, perhaps, the months of July and August; since, 
in this case, the ship would in all likelihood arrive 
about the commencement of our harvest : and in 
December and January the settlers are daily 
arriving in Sydney or Melboiu'ne with their wool, 
which occasions an additional circulation of money 
and an increased demand for all sorts of labour ; 
as on the return of the wool drays with the yearly 
supplies of tea, sugar, slops, &c., to the stations, 
whatever servants are required are then generally 
hired and forwarded to their destination. As it 
may happen that no Government emigration ship 
(furnishing emigrants with a free passage to Aus- 
traha) may be ready to sail when you wish to 
start, it is proper to state that a comfortable 
steerage passage, including provisions, may be 
obtained in merchant vessels for about 20?. 

You are to remember that the average voyage 
from England to Australia is nearly four months, 
or about sixteen weeks, during which period you 
cannot calculate on getting any article washed on 
ship-board ; you must, therefore, provide yourself 
with linen sufficient for that time. During one 
part of the voyage you will be in high and cold 
latitudes, where warm clothing is necessary ; while 
during another part you will be exposed to the 
scorching heat of a vertical sun, when nothing but 
the very lightest covering is bearable. You ought, 
therefore, to provide against each extreme, by 
procuring, at least, one suit of each description of 
clothing. You will find regatta (blue) shirts the best 
suited for a sea-voyage ; and if you go afterwards 



254 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

into the bush, they will best answer your purpose. 
All articles of value liable to become damaged by 
sea air, &c., ought to be packed up in cases lined 
with tin. You are aware that, as a passenger, 
you will have to provide your own bedding for the 
voyage, and also whatever candles you burn in 
your own cabin. If you are a man given to read- 
ing, as I hope you are, I would advise you to buy 
for your own use a large transparent lantern, six 
pounds of wax or sperm candles, and some amusing 
books. Some lemon-juice and raspberry vinegar 
you would find a great luxury when crossing the 
torrid zone. 

As notes, even of the Bank of England, do not 
pass in the Australian colonies, if you have any 
money, carry it out either in hard sovereigns or by 
a bank bill on the Bank of Australasia, or Union 
Bank of Australia. The office of the former is 
No. 2, Moorgate-street ; and that of the latter is 
No. 38, Old Broad-street, London. 

Do not be guilty of the folly of bringing out 
your money, either in goods for our fluctuating 
market, or in an order on some Sydney merchant, 
who may be insolvent before your arrival here, or 
if not, who may probably contrive (to use an ele- 
gant and purely classical term) to humbug you 
before he parts with your money. I must also 
caution you against letters of introduction, espe- 
cially if you have any money. They are easily 
obtained, but, believe me, they are the most dan- 
gerous instruments you can carry about with you. 
If you have a bank-bill, and are known to have it, 
rather put a box of lucifer-matches, or any other 
combustible materials, than a letter of introduc- 



ADVICE TO EMIGRANTS. 255 

tion in the same pocket with it. If jou are with- 
out money in either pocket, letters of introduction 
are perfectly harmless. In this case you may 
carry them in safety. But also remember that in 
this case they will not even procure you a dinner. 
When you deliver them to the Sydney great man, 
you will receive a gracious nod, followed by a few 
canting common-place phrases, expressive of good 
wishes for your future welfare and prosperity. 
Place no dependence on the promises or patronage 
of colonial gentlemen. They came here to benefit 
themselves, and if they find they can make no 
profit by you, they will scarcely notice you the 
next day as they meet you in the street. Many 
clever and respectable emigrants who brought out 
letters of introduction to the governor from influ- 
ential functionaries at home, expected that their for- 
tune was made ; but Sir George Gipps is too honest 
and independent a man to delude any emigrant 
with hopes never to be realised. Some years ago, 
an acquaintance of mine brought out to his excel- 
lency an introductory letter from Lord Glenelg, 
but Sir George frankly told my friend that he had 
a whole bushelful of such recommendations, and 
then candidly added that he could do nothing for 
him. After some time, however, and by singular 
good luck, he was appointed to the paltry situation 
of Commissioner of Crown Lands within the limits 
of the colony. 

Expect no government situation here, unless 
you arrive with something more to the purpose 
than a mere recommendation. Nothing but the 
bond, the bond — treasury-warrant or direct ap- 
pointment from Downing-street, — will avail you in 



256 TEN YEARS IN AUSTEALIA. 

Australia. Whether rich or poor, give yourself, 
then, no trouble about procuring mere introductory 
letters. Seldom have they benefited any man 
who brought them, and they have been the means 
which led many a simple-minded man to have his 
little capital filched from him. If it would answer 
any good purpose, some men who now hold their 
heads high, and occupy situations of trust and 
emolument, might here be exposed to public repro- 
bation as nothing better than infamous swindlers. 

The emigrant farmer or settler can safely cal- 
culate on pm-chasing, at a very moderate rate, in 
the colony, whatever agricultural implements and 
gear he may require. I would also recommend 
him to bring no indented servants with him. Mr. 
MacArthur, a respectable colonist, who has writ- 
ten a very able work on Australia, says that 
** there is no instance on record in the history of 
the colony, where settlers have been able to pre- 
vent their indented servants, hired in England, 
from turning dissatisfied, and then leaving them 
after their arrival." The mechanic ought to bring 
with him a complete assortment of the best tools 
for his trade ; and let me suggest to him that his 
edged tools ought to be of the very best descrip- 
tion, otherwise they will make no impression on 
our Australian wood, which in general is as hard 
as old EngHsh oak. In order to preserve his 
edged tools, and indeed all sorts of ironware, from 
rust on the voyage, let him besmear them all over 
with grease — oil or tallow will do. 

I now proceed to the second division of my sub- 
ject, which was to show what ought to be done 
during the voyage. 



ADVICE TO EMIGRANTS. 257 

Dr. Johnson defines a life on board ship as "being 
in prison, with the chance of being drowned." If 
tjne-half of what his sycophantic biographer, Mr. 
Boswell, reports be true, Dr. Samuel Johnson, 
with all his mass of learning, was a sarcastic surly 
bear, who said many clever things, more remark- 
able for their sprightliness than their correctness. 
There is no doubt that on board ship you expe- 
rience many inconveniences arising from want of 
room, want of bodily exercise, want of employ- 
ment, and want of many other things to which 
you have been accustomed on shore. But if, after 
all these drawbacks, you do not enjoy yourself, it 
will be your own fault. I will venture to assert, 
that if I were along with you for a couple of 
hours, in some old-fashioned London bookseller's 
shop, I could put you in the way of buying, for a few 
pounds sterling, a collection of books, the reading 
of which would keep you in one roar of laughter 
from the London Docks to Sydney Heads. On 
board ship you will be as free from care as the 
unsophisticated clown, who had been for years so 
regular in his attendance at the parish church, as 
at last to extort from his clergyman the following 
compliment : — ** John, the institution of the sab- 
bath is a great blessing to the poor man ; and I 
am happy to see, from your regular attendance at 
church, that you duly appreciate this blossing." 
To which John devoutly replied, " Sir, I finds it a 
great blessing ; I goes to church every Sunday, 
throws myself in the seat, shuts my eyes, takes 
up my feet in the pew, and thinks of nothing." 
Happy oblivion, John ! 



258 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

Now, from London to Sydney you may enjoy 
more than all the happiness and all the hlessings 
which John enjoyed in the parish church. I hope 
that instead of thinking of nothing, you will think 
of many subjects of importance ; and that, instead 
of shutting your eyes, at least during the daytime, 
as John did, you will employ them in reading 
what will improve your mind and your heart also. 
Every man, however well informed he may be, 
requires now to devote a considerable portion of 
his time to reading, in order to keep up with what 
is contemptuously styled the *' march of intellect." 
In the arts and sciences important discoveries and 
improvements are continually making, and if a 
man slackens but even for a few months his efforts 
to go ahead, Yankee style, he appears, when 
admitted into well-informed circles of society, like 
a man who has lately dropped from the moon, and 
he accordingly runs a risk of being asked by some 
unfeeling wag — What news, Sir, from our neigh- 
bouring planet ? 

I must here candidly confess to you, that in the 
bush we feel very much the want of books ; it is 
indeed our greatest want ; we know little of what 
is going on in the busy world. The French may 
be in possession of Sydney, and we on the Hume 
River not know it. In respect of general inform- 
ation we are far behind you who live in the midst 
of books, newspapers, civilisation, and railroads. 
I trust that this explanation will serve to apologise 
for any antiquated or unnecessary remark made in 
this work. 

Shipboard is your place for study. Consider 



ADVICE TO EMIGRANTS. 259 

every hour valuable, and diligently employ it in 
reading or meditation. It is want of employ- 
ment that has been the most frequent occasion of 
quarrels among passengers on a long voyage. It 
was the house found empty, swept and garnished, 
that was entered and taken possession of by evil 
spirits. It was so eighteen hundred years ago, 
and it wiU always so continue, 

" For want of occupation is not rest ; 

A mind quite vacant is a mind distress'd." 

That contemptible habit which some ignorant 
and weak-minded people have of frittering away 
their time, by playing cards, is undeserving of the 
name of amusement. Card-playing is resorted to 
in some societies for the very good reason that the 
whole party cannot muster among them one half- 
dozen ideas, and hence, if you were to take away 
those square pieces of pasteboard, with red and 
black spots, originally invented for a mad king of 
France, you might as well put a gag upon the 
company. If you have selected for your library 
books written by men of genius and humorous 
disposition, as well as learning, you will be both 
amused and instructed ; for Horace, a great autho- 
rity in all cases of conscience, has triumphantly 
asked, without any apparent fear of contradiction — 

" quanquam ridentem dicere verum 
Quid vetat ?" 

By judiciously dividing your time, you may 
read a large number of useful works during the 
voyage of four months ; and, let me add, that you 

s2 



260 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

will have nothing else to employ your time ; for I 
defy any man to fill a page with a description of 
all that he can possibly see worthy of notice from 
London to Sydney. 

In ancient limes those who went down to the 
sea in ships might no doi' nave seen great won- 
ders in the deep, for everything was then new, 
and, before the art of printing and the discovery of 
the polarity of the magnetic needle, the information 
of mankind was very limited ; but tempora mu- 
tantur ; for neither the ** Penny Encyclopaedia " 
nor '* Chambers' Information for the People " was 
then known ; and I assure you that no such 
wonders as were witnessed in ancient times are 
likely to be now seen on a voyage from England 
to Botany Bay. A man may sail a dozen times 
round the world, and after all know just as much 
of the world as did the blind fiddler, who boasted 
of his travels after he had made the tour of 
Europe. When you have got fairly out to sea, 
the ship heavily rocking and roUing, and the pas- 
sengers have just dined, you will witness a gentle- 
man here and there, with a long, rueful coun- 
tenance, leaning over the ship's side, casting up 
his accounts, as if he was clearing both his 
stomach and his conscience together. The sight 
strongly reminded me of the following pathetic 
lines, written by — I now forget what tender poet : -— 

" The orators their mouths do ope, 
At every gulp out flies a trope ; 
But here, when some poor, sickly sinner 
Opes his mouth, out flies his dinner." 

The poet who could have written this elegant 



ADVICE TO EMIGRANTS. 261 

effusion must have more than witnessed the heart- 
rending scene he so feehngly describes ; and I may 
add, that this is wonder the first to he seen by those 
who go down to the sea in ships. The succeeding 
wonders are made up of thousands of flying fish, 
some of them jumping on board ; phosphorescent 
appearance of the sea on a dark night within the 
tropics ;• the ship then seemingly dashing through 
an ocean of Hquid flames hoihng ; sharks, por- 
poises, whales. Cape pigeons, albatrosses, he, 
following and playing around the ship. All these 
objects combined constitute wonder the second. 
You may chance now and then to meet a ship, 
which is a pretty object far out at sea, especially 
when under full sail you are passing each other 
and exchanging salutations. At one stage of your 
voyage within the tropics, you will necessarily 
pass right under the sun, when at noon your foot 
will cover your shadow. If you have any taste 
for the study of astronomy, you will find in the 
southern hemisphere a splendid field for contem- 
plation ; you will there see innumerable objects 
you may have read of, but have never witnessed 
before ; among which are the continuation of the 
Milky Way, the Clouds of Magellan, and the 
Southern Cross, about which constellation so 
many beautiful things have been said in connexion 
with those missionaries who, guided by it, have 
gone forth, at the risk of their lives, to plant 
the doctrines of another cross in the regions of 
darkness and paganism. 

You are probably aware that, from the position 
of the Southern Cross (which Humboldt most 
appropriately calls " Un horloge qui avance tres 



262 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

regulierement de pres de quatre minutes par 
jour"), as well as from that of the pointers in the 
Great Northern Bear, the hour of the night may 
easily be found. 

By ships which sail far to the southward, after 
leaving the south-east trade, for the purpose of 
getting strong westerly winds, there is often seen 
a group of islands, three in number, the largest of 
which is Tristan D'Acunha, in lat. 37° S., and 
long. 12° W., or about 1500 miles from the 
Cape of Good Hope. 

When Napoleon Buonaparte was confined in 
St. Helena, a British ship of war was generally 
kept at Tristan d'Acunha. It is twenty miles in 
circumference ; it is well watered, and produces 
potatoes and vegetables. Ten years ago, when 
the ship Wellington, Captain James Liddell, bound 
for India, touched there, the whole population of 
this empire amounted to 41, including Governor 
Glass. Their total live-stock then consisted of 
50 head of cattle, 75 sheep, and a large quantity 
of pigs and poultry. 

Of the 40 people who composed the subjects of 
his Excellency Governor Glass, 29 were unbaptised 
when Captain Liddell visited them. Providentially, 
there happened to be then among Liddell's pas- 
sengers for India the Rev. J. Applegate, who 
*' baptised these 29 persons, from the age of a 
few months to seventeen years." It seems this 
was the first time the islanders had ever seen a 
clergyman ; ** and a baptismal register was now 
left with them." 

In 1839, the Canton, Captain Mordaunt, bound 
for Hobart Town, touched here, when he bought 



ADVICE TO EMIGRANTS. 263 

two bullocks. His Excellency, Governor Glass, 
dressed in his uniform, viz., duck trowsers and a 
straw hat, and smoking his pipe, then came on 
board. His Excellency represented himself at first 
as being a teetotaller, but before leaving the ship 
he got quite drunk. He begged and received all 
the thread and needles the people on board could 
spare. 

It seems his Excellency can both read and write, 
but his prime minister can only make his mark in 
signing any official documents. 

When I was at the Cape in 1834, I read na 
Cape Town newspaper an advertisement from 
Tristan d'Acunha for a schoolmaster and catechist. 

Wonder the third will be completed, if, on your 
way, you touch at the Cape of Good Hope for sup- 
plies. This would be an agreeable relief to some 
of the passengers, and you might have an oppor- 
tunity of visiting both Cape Town and its neigh- 
bourhood. Among the objects of the latter, 
deserving the notice of strangers, are the celebrated 
vineyards of Constantia, producing the famous wine 
bearing that name. The ship in which I came 
touched and remained at the Cape for nearly a 
fortnight. You would be much pleased with the 
natural beauty and regularity of Cape Town, as 
well as with the picturesque situation of Constantia 
vineyards. 

After leaving the Cape, which is in nearly the 
same latitude as Sydney, your course is due east, 
and the wind is generally favourable and very 
strong, occasionally driving you at the rate of 



2U 



AtSniiCLL. 



»4»y. We 



246 



If 



fr6m '3WI to 2S0 
mileB in «■ 
dariag tibe 
Mneeliy, k will k^w 

^^TB, or every fifteea ( 

ran dcnrn ; 

rerr fifteen decrees 5«« an to Ike CMt- 
r.t flaoe ; MtteligrliM 






dep^ees east of G juxw i d i^ 
icHSt ten houTB and sm 



w»k«fe 



if ;fM WMk to Ibe r^:«l«tol liy the SjieesT 

&. Panl'^ iBlaud. vbiek k mi yo«r i«j, 
toL^»^ S. imd loQg. 77«53'E.,MdiB 



tflMk^aairBi ponk, Mii » elow to ^M 
a kit i|ni«, i&H, ■fryTiii to Vktohg 
M^ ^tomrlke ilk, toitoMd <M Ike keek, Mt er 

hm^*M ** iBfti DJBBetory ** niliiei fin' ftiawrini; 
toee— t: «OM^eeeit«le«rSl. Pbrf*elkeie» 

<keM» 




ADVICE TO EMIGRANTS. 2^^ 

in the water. Oiir people, who were on shore 
sealing (that is, catching seals, with which the 
island abounds), constantly boiletl their dinner of 
fish in some of the springs, which are in all parts 
close to the basin, mixing with its waters in some 
places, and heating them to a considerable extent. 
And as the basin abounds with fish, and no art is 
required to catch them, one of the Ik>vs, in live 
minutes, caught a sufficiency for our whole party 
to eat.** This island, which was discovered by the 
Putch, and by them ceileil with the Cape of Good 
Hoj>e to Great Britain, is yet uninhabited. 

In sailing through Bass's Straits, you will pass, 
on your right, Flinders's Island, whither, a few 
yeai*s ago, under the clerical charge of my old 
friend, the Rev. Thomas Dove, the Van Piemen's 
Land gi^vernment transporte<l and confiueil the 
small number that remaineil of the onee powerful 
triboi^ that owne<l and inhabited Tasmania on the 
arriv'al of the white man. 

I believe I have now cursorily glanced at the 
chief wonders either on the way of or which may 
be seen by those who gv> down in shij>8 from Lon- 
don to Sydney. The island of Lillipnt, the grand 
scene of Lemuel Gulliver's wonderful adventures, 
as recorded by Dean Swift, I have purjH>sely 
omitted to mention among the wonders of Bass*s 
Straits, as this island, of whose existence — in 
Swift's imagination — there could have been no 
doubt, is yet not laid down in any moilern map : 
though it is evident fKnn the following historical 
quotation, that Surgeon GuUiver wius in tKeae 
Straits long before Surgeon Bass of the T>.^1?a««>' 



266 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

" A violent storm drove us," says Gulliver, " to 
the north-west of Van Diemen's Land, where we 
were driven directly upon a rock, and immediately 
split. I swam as fortune directed me, and got to 
the shore, hut could not discover any signs of houses 
or inhabitants." 

As you pass Botany Bay (about eight miles 
before reaching Port Jackson), you may obtain a 
glance of the monument erected to the memory of 
the unfortunate La Perouse. I have frequently 
visited this locality. Here, close to the monument, 
is the site of a garden (with broken walls, and a 
few bushes and shrubs) formed by the French 
during their stay at this place. Excepting the 
monument just named, all that you can see at this 
inlet are a few fishermen's huts, a station for 
a custom-house officer, and an immense variety of 
beautiful wild flowers, which amply justified Sir 
Joseph Banks in naming this Botany Bay ; which, 
however, instead of recalling to the mind of the 
English reader all that is fragrant, tender, natu- 
rally beautiful and innocuous, only serves to con- 
jure up to the imagination a hideous assemblage 
of thieves, robbers, and murderers. 

I now come to the third and last division of the 
subject, which was to state what, in my opinion, the 
emigrant ought to do on his arrival in Australia. 

Newly-arrived emigrants are liable to be at- 
tacked by dysentery. But it is easy to guard 
against it by taking the following precautions : — 
* ' Spare diet, very gentle exercise, using no stimu- 
lants, and occasionally taking some laxative medi- 
cine." 



ADVICE TO EMIGRANTS. 267 

Should you happen to arrive in summer, you are 
likely to be annoyed by mosquitoes, which have a 
great partiality for new comers. If you have 
brought any money with you, place it as a deposit 
in your own name in one of the Sydney or Mel- 
bourne banks. By so doing you run no risk ; for 
all of them are joint- stock companies, and what- 
ever becomes of the shareholders, the depositors 
are perfectly safe, even if the whole body of di- 
rectors were not only to become insolvent, but after- 
wards to run away with all the bank capital. The 
failure of a joint-stock bank director does not 
affect the depositor as such. Messrs. BuUer, Cur- 
tis, Manning, Raikes, and Ward, have each and 
all of them been gazetted while governors and di- 
rectors of the Bank of England, as any man who 
is at all conversant with the history of that bank 
can tell you. 

If the sum with which you arrive exceed not 
2001., place it in the savings bank ; and until you 
gain colonial experience, be not induced, on seeing 
what you may consider a good bargain, to lay out 
your money. Wait for a time ; you will see many 
such good bargains offered in this colony. 

Immediately on the arrival of a ship with emi- 
grants, a number of citizens and settlers, or their 
agents, go on board to hire the people. I have 
known several cases in which nearly all the 
emigrants had been engaged within forty-eight 
hours after the government muster, or inspection 
of the people, was over. The persons who gene- 
rally remain longest disengaged, are families con- 
sisting partly of very young children, who, instead 



268 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

of being of any use to the settler, only occupy the 
time of the mothers, consume rations, and supply 
the establishment with vocal music. The emigrants 
who are most readily engaged, are single females 
to act as house-servants. There is often a scramble 
for them. The great scarcity of female servants 
in this colony is owing chiefly to the readiness 
with which they get married. A large proportion 
of the girls that emigrate to Australia, are com- 
fortably married within a twelvemonth of their 
arrival. No fewer than three female servants of 
my own were married within one year. However 
agreeable it may be to the girls to get permanently 
settled, it is doubtless very inconvenient to families 
to be thus frequently deprived of good servants. 
But there is no remedy for it, except patiently 
waiting the arrival of the next emigrant ship ; and 
hence the necessity of employing men as general 
house-servants both in Sydney and throughout the 
colony. 

If you are a tradesman, lose no time in applying 
for employment to some respectable masters car- 
rying on business in your own particular trade. 
You can easily find out their address by inquiring 
of any old inhabitant, or by glancing over the 
Sydney Directory, the loan of which for a few 
minutes will be freely given to you by any of our 
shopkeepers, whom I have always found civil and 
obliging. In case you have a wife and family, 
and intend remaining in town, your best plan is to 
engage by the week a smaU cottage, which can 
be had, in the outskirts of the town, at about 7s. 
or 8s. of weekly rent ; but if you are living in 



ADTICE TO EMIGRANTS. 269 

single blessedness, you and some of your fellow- 
passengers, of congenial dispositions, ought to 
engage a small cottage between you. Each of 
you might then live comfortably at about 10s. 
a-week, and save at least 20s. a-week. 

Though I had Sydney in my eye when I made 
this estimate, yet I have reason to believe that it 
is also appHcable to Melbourne. If the emigrant 
has the desire and means of living in a somewhat 
higher style, he can go to any of the numerous 
boarding-houses throughout Sydney, where he will 
have to pay from 15s. to 30s. a-week. 

If your attention is directed towards rural affairs, 
I would advise you to remove yourself and family 
(if you have any), with all convenient speed, into 
the country, where you can live at little or no 
expense. Before commencing on your own account, 
or making any purchases of either land or live 
stock, acquire colonial experience. BeUeve me, 
the time spent in thus acquiring experience is not 
lost, even if it should be a couple of years. 

Whether your intention is either to settle as 
an agriculturist or as a sheep and cattle proprietor, 
you would do well to acquire some colonial experi- 
ence before embarking in any speculation whatever. 
The knowledge thus acquired will amply compen- 
sate for the time which you would perhaps call lost. 
The intending agriculturist or grazier would after- 
wards find it of immense advantage, if he were to 
serve, even without wages, a few months' appren- 
ticeship as overseer on some large establishment in 
the country. Such a practical training would 
enable him to avoid many grievous mistakes com- 



270 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

mitted by new comers, and qualify him for success- 
fully managing his own affairs. In our general 
system of agriculture or tillage, as well as in the 
selection, purchase, and management of live stock, 
the newly-arrived emigrant has much to learn, 
which he could not possibly have learnt either from 
the best written books on the subject, or from prac- 
tical experience in Great Britain. 

Whatever may be the amount of your capital, 
whether large or small, or whatever may be your 
views or profession, guard against entering into 
partnership with any, unless you have well known 
for years your partner or partners, and are fully 
satisfied not only as to their solvency, but as to their 
moral character, economy, prudence, and general 
business habits. Many a worthy man has had here 
cause to repent, when too late, having had anything 
to do with these co-partnerships. 

Emigrants who are in quest of situations as 
superintendents, overseers, clerks, tutors, store- 
keepers, <fec., ought to advertise in the Sydney or 
Melbourne newspapers. There are always some 
live stock proprietors, merchants, private gentle- 
men, and speculators, who are in want of per- 
sons of the above description ; and in a rapidly 
rising colony like Australia, there are new open- 
ings for young and active men continually occurring. 

To newly-arrived emigrants who are unac- 
quainted with any person in Sydney, and who, in 
case of their removing to the interior of the colony, 
may have occasion to employ a general commission 
agent to transact their town business, I can confi- 
dently recommend Messrs. Buyers and Lochhead, 



ADVICE TO EMIGRANTS. 271 

of Hunter-street, Sydney, as gentlemen on whose 
honesty and attention to the interest of their em- 
ployers the utmost reliance may safely be placed. 

As a Custom- House agent, Mr. Thomas Watson 
is both well known and much esteemed. 

I must now warn you that very few persons, on 
their first arrival in any new colony, relish their 
situation. The transition is too violent. They 
feel themselves as if cast helpless and abandoned 
on a foreign shore : and hence many individuals, 
if they had only the means, would gladly retrace 
their steps, without giving the colony a fair trial. 
Guard, on your arrival, against this general feeling 
of gloom and despondency. Doubtless you will 
here meet some faint-hearted people who see a lion 
in the way wherever they go, and who, Uke the 
spies sent by Moses to view the land of Canaan, 
would throw every obstacle in the way of emi- 
grants. It seems the family of the Croakers were 
as numerous then as they are now, and you can 
confidently say to them, as Caleb, on that most 
critical occasion said to the disheartened Israel- 
ites, ** Let us go up at once, and possess it ; for 
we are well able to overcome it." 

I am clearly of opinion that it is owing partly to 
the difficulty of returning home from Australia 
that many emigrants have to attribute their great 
success. The immense distance which separates 
them from their native land is unquestionably an 
advantage. For, perceiving the difficulty of return- 
ing home, they are the more prepared and deter- 
mined to make the best of their time here ; and 
thus, like an army driven to desperation, are ready 



272 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

to encounter difficulties and face opposition, from 
which, if they saw any easy mode of retreat, they 
would instantly make their escape. In your great 
distance, therefore, you ought to see the strongest 
stimulant to activity, rather than any just cause for 
dejection. 

If you have taken the trouble of reading all that 
I have written in this volume for your guidance, 
you ought to have some idea of this colony, — of 
its resources and inhabitants. I have only one 
more advice to offer you : it is an advice which you 
may perhaps consider to be out of place, to be un- 
called for and unnecessary in a work of this kind, 
— but, notwithstanding, it is an advice which I 
consider myself bound as a Christian to offer. 

In Australia you will probably meet several 
persons who neither fear God nor regard man, 
and who will make every effort to gain you over 
to their own views. This will be the test to try 
the strength of your moral and religious principles ; 
and this will be the time for you to show the differ- 
ence between genuine and spurious Christianity, 
by exhibiting in your own conduct the practical 
effects of those lessons of heavenly wisdom, which 
you have been early taught by your parents, 
teachers, and ministers. In the midst of abound- 
ing iniquity it is, no doubt, difficult for a Christian 
to hold fast his integrity, while the singularity of 
his conduct daily exposes him to no small share of 
ridicule ; but remember that it is a poor religion 
that cannot stand a jest, and that He who alone 
can open the gates of heaven has declared, that 
those who shall be ashamed of Him before men, 



ADVICE TO EMIGRANTS. 273 

He will disown on that day when the destinies of 
the assembled universe shall be for ever fixed. 
Avoid the society of the profane. Enter not into 
their councils. Whatever may be their profes- 
sions of friendship, they are your enemies. If by 
associating with them, there is a chance of your 
gaining some worldly advantage, there is, on the 
other hand, a certainty of your losing many 
spiritual benefits. You have, therefore, to choose 
between these two alternatives. On the one side 
are held up to you the thirty pieces of silver, and 
on the other the approbation and friendship of 
Him whose favour is better than life; and be 
assured that honesty is the best policy, and that, 
viewed even in reference to this life alone, every 
dishonest man is a fool. By his crooked dealings 
he may gain some petty advantage, and therefore 
think himself very clever, but his character soon 
becomes known ; he loses caste, confidence, and 
custom, thus manifesting the truth of the scrip- 
tural declaration, that it is only ** he that walketh 
uprightly, walketh securely." 

Sabbath desecration is the most common form 
in which your Christianity will be assailed in this 
colony. It seems to be generally understood among 
Satan's emissaries throughout the world, that once 
this positive institution is set aside — once this 
day of rest from secular employment is blotted 
out from the Christian's calendar, the remaining 
steps in the downward career will be both easy 
and natural. Many of the men who have been 
transported to this colony, and one half of those 
who have here terminated their lives on the scaf- 



274 TEN YEARS IN AUSTRALIA. 

fold, dated the commencement of their degrada- 
tion, misery, and ruin, to the period when first 
they ceased to *' remember the sabbath day to 
keep it holy." Thousands have experienced the 
truth of God's threatening by the prophet Jere- 
miah, chap. xvii. 27, *' But if ye will not hearken 
unto me to hallow the sabbath day, and not to 
bear a burden, even entering in at the gates of 
Jerusalem on the sabbath day, then will I kindle 
a fire in the gates thereof, and it shall devour 
the palaces of Jerusalem, and it shall not be 
quenched." Your way of observing the sabbath 
will, in my opinion, be always a correct means for 
ascertaining the quantity and quality of your 
religion. 

Your lot may be cast in a part of the colony 
which is far removed from the sound of the church- 
going bell, or where you may have no opportunity 
of hearing the voice of a clergyman ; but it ought 
to be your consolation that even there you have 
your Bible — the emigrant's infallible guide to the 
heavenly Canaan — and that though you may dwell 
in Mesech, far removed from your native land, 
from parental admonition and restraint, from your 
church and clergyman, you are nowhere removed 
from your Father and your God. In the wilder- 
ness you may live near to him, enjoy his favom-, 
hold daily communion with him, and experience 
that peace of mind and joy in believing, which the 
world can neither give nor take away. Your lot 
mjiy be cast in the wilderness, but even in the 
wilderness the fairest flowers are often found to 
grow. In soils and under cUmates apparently the 



APPENDIX. 275 

most uncongenial, the seeds of life divine have 
often vegetated, for wherever God has planted his 
grace, there, watered by the heavenly dew, it will 
spring up and flourish. Many an heir of glory 
has lived under a rough exterior, unnoticed — per- 
haps despised by the world. 

In your hours of retirement and soKtude cul- 
tivate commimion with Him whose favour is better 
than life. Withdraw your thoughts from the 
world, and lift them to that rest which awaits the 
people of God. Frequently study and contemplate 
that amazing scheme of redemption devised for 
fallen man ; and cleave to that Saviour, an inte- 
rest in whose atonement and intercession can alone 
avail you as you pass through the dark valley and 
shadow of death — for He alone can disarm death 
of its sting ; to Him alone is all judgment com- 
mitted, and on Him alone are founded the hopes 
which cheer the just, when all the refuges of lies 
shall have been swept away, and the hypocrite's 
hopes have for ever perished. 



APPENDIX. 



Some years ago the Australasian Chronicle, published in 
Sydney, contained the following very interesting notice of 
the early history of Australia : — 

DISCOVERY OF AUSTRALIA. 

After the visit of Tasman to Van Diemen's 
Land, Australian discovery for a long period was 



276 APPENDIX. 

at a stand. " The attention of European nations 
had often been attracted by the golden fables of 
South America, the sunny islands of the Caribbean 
Sea, and the boundless extent of the coast, ex- 
tending from Florida to the region of everlasting 
snows." The Dutch, however, it would appear, 
must have frequently visited Australia, since in 
1665 the States- General ordered that the western 
coast should be called New Holland. The cele- 
brated English circumnavigator Dampier, in 1668, 
came with his buccaneers to the north-west coast 
of Australia, for the purpose of careening his 
vessel and procuring refreshments. Dampier de- 
scribes the natives as a ** naked black people, 
with curly hair, like that of the negroes, having a 
piece of the rind of a tree tied like a girdle about 
their waist, and a handful of long grass, or three 
or four green boughs full of leaves, thrust under 
their girdle to cover their nakedness." He also 
says, " that the two front teeth of the upper jaw 
are wanting in all of them, men and women, old 
and young; neither have they any beards." 
With respect to their arms, he says, " the men, at 
our first coming ashore, threatened us with their 
lances and swords, but were frightened by our 
firing one gun." 

In 1699, William and Mary commanded that 
an expedition should be fitted out to make dis- 
coveries on the coasts of New Holland, and among 
the islands to the north of its shores. The com- 
mand was intrusted to the experienced veteran 
Dampier. On the Ist of August, 1699, he made 
the land near Dirk Hartog's Road, and coasted 



APPENDIX. 277 

from 27° 40' south lat. to 16° 9'. His quaint 
description of the natives will afford some amuse- 
ment to our readers. " They are the same blinking 
creatures we saw before, here being also abundance 
of the same flesh-flies teasing them, and with the 
same black skins and hair frizzled, tall and thin 
as they were. One of them, a chief, was painted 
with a circle of white paste or pigment above his 
eyes, and a white streak down his nose from his 
forehead to the top of it ; and his breast and some 
part of his arms were made white with the same 
paint." Dampier saw no houses, and believed 
that the natives had none ; " but there were 
several things like haycocks standing in the savan- 
nah, which at a distance we thought were houses, 
looking just hke the Hottentots' houses at the 
Cape of Good Hope, but we found them to be so 
many rocks." 

No farther knowledge was acquired of the Aus- 
tralian continent from the time of Dampier to the 
first voyage of the celebrated Captain Cook, in 
1770. This great navigator was sent with Mr. Green, 
the astronomer, and accompanied by Mr., after- 
wards Sir Joseph Banks, and Dr. Solander, to 
observe the transit of Venus over the sun's disk 
at Otaheite ; and after accomplishing the object 
of his voyage, and making a survey of New 
Zealand, he continued his course westward, in 
order to explore the west side of what was then 
called Terra Austrahs Incognita. It would be 
altogether inconsistent with our design, and useless 
to our readers, were we to give an abridged 
account of the discoveries of Captain Cook, from 



278 APPENDIX. 

the southward of Botany Bay to Cape York. 
Flinders has justly stated concerning this memor- 
ahle voyage, that the general plan of the expedition 
did not permit Cook to examine minutely every 
part of the coast. Some portions of the shore 
were passed in the night, many openings were 
seen and left unexamined, and the islands and the 
reefs lying at a distance from the coast could be 
no more than indicated. Captain Cook reaped 
the harvest of the discovery ; but the gleanings of 
the field remained to be gathered. 

The subsequent voyages of the French Captain 
Marion, in 1772, of Captain Furneaux, in 1773, of 
Captain Cook, in 1777, of Captain Bligh, in 1778, 
and of the French Rear-Admiral D'Entrecasteaux, 
in 1792, only partially enlarged the knowledge 
already possessed of Van Diemen's Land and 
Austraha. 

The cause of Australian discovery is deeply in- 
debted to two gallant and enterprising young men, 
Flinders, a midshipman, and Bass, a surgeon, who 
came out with Governor Hunter. These intrepid 
young sailors fitted up a boat, only eight feet long, 
which they very appropriately termed the Tom 
Thumb, and in this frail and diminutive vessel they 
actually examined every inlet and cove, not only 
within, but twenty miles beyond the limits which 
had been reached by the officers of government. 
Encouraged by success, and stimulated by the 
very difficulties which obstructed their undertak- 
ings, they again went to sea in 1796 ; but after 
examining a considerable extent of coast, they 
were compelled to return by their miserable equip- 



APPENDIX. 279 

ment. In 1797, Bass, in a whale-boat with six 
men, performed an exploit which will ever occupy 
a prominent position in the annals of maritime 
daring and enterprise. In an open boat he tra- 
versed six hundred miles of an unknown sea, added 
three hundred miles of coast to our geographical 
knowledge, ascertained Van Diemen's Land to be 
an island and not a part of Australia, and gave 
his name to the straits by which these countries 
are separated. The discovery was completed by 
Bass and Flinders in concert the following year ; 
they entered the river Derwent, and gave such 
information as induced the establishment of a 
colony in 1803. In 1801 a commission was 
signed at the Admiralty, appointing FUnders lieu- 
tenant and commander of his Majesty's sloop 
Investigator, and in this crazy, old, rotten, and in 
every respect ill adapted craft, he surveyed 
much of the western and southern coasts ; he 
also entered and examined the great gulf of Car- 
pentaria, following the indentations of the shore, 
and succeeded in accurately exploring about four 
hundred leagues of land. 

The adventurous career of the brave and perse- 
vering Fhnders was not yet completed. In 1804 
he was wrecked in Torres Straits, in company 
with the Cato ; while the commander of the 
Bridgewater, their companion, with almost unpa- 
ralleled barbarity, sailed away and left them to 
perish. In this emergency the shipwrecked mari- 
ners acted with the cool resolution so character- 
istic of British seamen. They removed from the 
wrecks to a dry sand, sufficiently extensive to 



280 APPENDIX. 

receive the men and the provisions ; and having 
erected tents, and seciu-ed all the stores which 
could be obtained from the ships, Flinders left 
them in an open boat to traverse two hundred and 
fifty leagues of tempestuous sea to obtain help at 
Port Jackson. He accomphshed this perilous 
feat, and returned with a ship and two schooners 
to the rescue of the endangered navigators. He 
afterwards sailed again in a smaU schooner on 
discovery to Torres Straits ; but this vessel became 
so leaky as to threaten to founder. He was com- 
pelled to take refuge at the Mauritius, then in 
possession of the French ; and there the governor, 
with the base and barbarous spirit of vindictive 
and dishonourable cruelty which actuated so many 
of his countrymen during the revolutionary war, 
declared him a prisoner, treated him with severity, 
and actually detained him four years, after an 
order had been issued by his government for his 
release. 



LOSDOS '. 
BBADBURY AND BVANS, PRIMT£RS, WHITKFKUKS. 



DESCRIPTIVE VOCABULARY. 



N.B. The terms Northern, Southern, or other Dialects refer to Perth as a centre, 
v., Vasse; K.G.S., King George's Sound ; denote that the word is chiefly used in 
that locality. 



A, long, as in Father ; a, short, or a, at the end of a word, 
as the first a in Mamma. See Preface. 

Ab, or Ap. — An abbreviation of Abbin. A particle which, 
when affixed to words, expresses to be, or to become ; as 
Djulap, Bugorap, Garrangab, to become bad, or a cham- 
pion, or angry. 

Abba — A word of friendly salutation with the natives about 
Augusta, accompanied by the act of rubbing the breast 
with the hand, and spitting at the same time. This was, 
pei'haps, at first a superstitious ceremony on their part, to 
avert any evil consequences which might ensue from hold- 
ing communication with beings whom they probably, at 
that time, considered to be preternatural. There does not 
appear to be any established mode of salutation customary 
among themselves. To hold up the open hands is used 
now by the white and black people as a sign of amity ; but 
this is chiefly to show that the hand is unarmed, or the 
disposition friendly. Green boughs were presented to the 
settlers at York, by the natives, on the occasion of their 
first interview. 

Abbin — Getting ; becoming. Gwabbabbin, becoming good ; 
Durdakabbin, getting well, recovering fi'om sickness. 

Adjo, pers. pron. — I, an imperfect pronunciation of Ngadjo. 

Adjul — I will. See Ngadjul. 

Ak, or Ok — Of ; an affix denoting possession — as Winatak 
Gatta, the head of Winat. 

Allija, or Allt, pron. — It ; that is it. 



Amar, subst. — A hole or pool of water in a rock. In many 
parts of the country, where there are no rivers nor springs, 
the water from the winter rauis is retained in deep cre- 
vices or holes worn into the surface of the rock. These 
reservoirs are carefully noted, and are relied upon as the 
principal resources of the natives, in dry and rocky situa- 
tions, during the summer months. 

An, or Annin — An affix used to express action, or the act of 
doing ; as Gurad, short ; Guaradan, shorten, or make 
short ; Minytwallakannin, to put a new face on ; to alter. 

Ang, affix — Of ; from ; out of ; belonging to ; and when the 
antecedent ends in a vowel, some consonant is often inter- 
posed for sound's sake ; as Gabbi, water ; Gabbilang, 
aquatic ; Juko, Jukobang ; Bilo, Bilorbang. 

Anga, subst. — The beard. See Nganga. • 

Anna, pers. pron. — Me. See Nganna. 

Anya, pers. pron. — I. See Nganya. 

Ap, or tTp — An affix used to denote a locality fit for, or used 
as, a resting-place ; as Mangaga ap, the resting-place at 
Mangaga. 

Arda, adv. — Gratuitously, without object ; idly ; merely ; 
only ; nothing particular. This is a word of very frequent 
use. What are you doing % Nothing. — Where are you 
going ? Nowhere. — What do you want ? Nothing. In all 
such cases Arda is the proper answer. 

Ardak, adv. } 

Ardakat V S '^^'^ ^^^^ ' <^ownwards.— See Ngardak. 

Arndin, or Arndinyang, adj (V.) Sick ; ill ; sore. 

B. 

Observe ! The sounds of B and P are in so many instances 
used indiscriminately or interchangeably, that it is fre- 
quently diiBcult to distinguish which sound predominates. 
The predominant sound varies in different districts. The 
same is to be remarked of D and T, and also of K and G. 
See Preface. 
'BkBUkyadj. — Weak ; languid ; wanting strength ; as Bidibabba, 
weak-veined ; unwell ; too weak or tired to do anything. 



Babbalya, suhst. — Pudenda puelluloe. 

Babbangwin, subat. — Lightning. 

Babbin, subst. — A friend. 

Babilgun, subst. — A species of bat. 

Badbadin — Pitpatting ; from Bardo, to go. 

Badjang, subst. — Matter from a boil or sore. From their 
temperate habits, all wounds heal with surprising facility ; 
but sometimes sores, like scrofulous eruptions, break out, 
which do not heal readily, and from want of cleanliness 
become very offensive, and render the afflicted individual 
a disgusting object, sometimes wasting him to death by 
a lingering and loathsome disease. 

Badto, subst. — (S.) Water. 

Bak — An affirmative particle, always used as an affix, mean- 
ing indeed ; as Bundobak, true indeed ; Gwabbabak, good 
indeed, very good. 

Bakadjin, subst. — A contest; a fight; throwing of spears. 

Bakadju, wr6— Pres. part., Bakadjin ; past tense, Bakud- 
jaga ; to fight; to quarrel. 

Bakkan, verb — Pres. part., Bakkanin; past tense, Bakkanaga. 
To bite ; to ache ; to pain. 

Bal, person, pron. — The third person singular of all genders; 
he ; she ; it. 

Bal, imp. verb. — Leave it ; let it alone. There is no appre- 
ciable difference in sound between this and the foregoing 
word, the pronoun. 

^A'LBiB.i, subst. — A skewer ; a stick with which the cloak is 
pinned when worn, or the back hair fastened up. 

Balbyt, adj. — Silly ; foolish. 

Balga, subst. — Xanthorea arborea, grass-tree or blackboy. 
This is a useful tree to the natives where it abounds. The 
frame of their huts is constructed from the tall flowering 
stems, and the leaves serve for thatch and for a bed. The 
resinous trunk forms a cheerful blazing fire. The flower- 
stem yields a gum used for food. The ti-unk gives a resin 
used for cement, and also, when beginning to decay, fur- 
nishes large quantities of marrow-like grubs, which ai*e con- 
sidered a delicacy. Fire is readily kindled by friction of the 
b2 



dry flower-stems, and the withered leaves furnish a torch. 
It may be added that cattle are fond of the leaves ; sheep 
pull up the centre leaves when they can reach them, and 
eat the blanched end of the leaf ; and even many settlers 
have dressed the crown of it as food, which tastes like an 
artichoke ; and used the young stem, when boiled and 
carefully scraped, which is said to have a taste like sea- 
kale : but this last-mentioned part should be used with 
caution, as some are said to have suffered from it. 

Balgang, verb — Pres. part., Balgangwin ; past tense, Bal- 
gangaga ; to track ; to pursue on a track. 

Balgor, subst. — Young fresh-grown trees. In the north dia- 
lect, this word is used for Diibi, leaves of trees in general. 

Balgun, pers. pron. — They. 

Balgup, pers. pron. — Them. 

Balingub, reri— (K.G.S.) To climb. 

Baljarra, adj. — Exposed ; naked ; uncovered. As Baljarra 
ngwundow, to sleep exposed, without a hut in the open air. 

Ballagar, subst — (A north word) ; the small squirrel-like 
opossum, called at Perth, Ballawara, and at K. G. S. 
Ballard. 

Ballajan, verb — Pres. part., Ballajanin ; past tense, Balla- 
janan. Sometimes it is pronounced short ; to assault j to 
attack ; to slay. 

Ballak, subst. — A species of Xanthorrhea. 

Ballal (Vasse) — He himself ; she herself. 

Ballar, adverb — Secretly. 

Ballard, subst. — (K.G.S.) A small species of opossum. 

Ballarijow, verb — Compounded of Ballar, secretly ; and 
Ijow, to put, place. Pres. part., Ballarijo win ; Past tense, 
Ballarijaga. To secrete ; to hide. 

Ballarok, proper name — The cognomen of one of the great 
families into which the aborigines of Western Australia ap- 
pear to be divided. The general laws relating to marriage 
have reference to these families. No man can marry a 
woman of his own family name ; and the children all take 
that of the mother. As the hunting ground or landed pro- 
perty descends in the male line, it follows that the land is 



never for two genei-ations in the hands of men of the same 
family name ; and in the event of a man having several 
wives of different family names, his lands are at his death 
divided between so many new families. His male children 
owe certam duties to men of their own family, at the same 
time as to their half brothers, which often clash with each 
other, and give rise to endless dissensions. There are said 
to be four of these principal families : — I. Ballarok ; 
2, Dtondarap ; 3. Ngotak ; 4. Naganok, which are re- 
solved again into many local or sub-denominations. The 
Ballaroks are said to have peculiarly long thighs ; the 
Ngotaks are short and stout. The'Ballarok, Dtondarap, and 
Waddarak, are said to be Matta Gyn, of one leg, probably 
of one stock, or derived from one common ancestor. The 
Gnotak and Naganok are of one leg'; the Nogonyak, 
Didarok, and Djikok are of one leg. The wife is generally 
taken from the Matta Gyn, or kindred stock. 

Ballawara, subsL — A small squirrel-like opossum. 

Balluk, adv. — Accidentally ; unintentionally. 

Balwungar, subst. — A name given to the glaucous-leaved 
Eucalyptus, which grows in the open sandy downs in the 
interior. 

Bal-yan, adj. — Damp ; wet. 

Bal-yata, adj. — Firm ; fixed. Applied to man and wife as 
firmly united together, not likely to be parted. Also, to a 
rock, as Bu-yi balyata, an embedded I'ock ; and to the 
roots and stumps of trees, as Djinnara balyata, a stump 
firmly fixed in the ground. 

Bamba, subst. — The Sting-rayfish ; not eaten by the natives. 

Bambala, subst. — Film or cataract formed over the eye. 

Bambi, subst. — A small sort of flounder fish. 

Bambi, subst. — A bat. 

Bambun, subst. Epsaltria ; yellow-bellied fly-catcher. 

Banbar, adj. — Round, cylindrical ; as a wine-bottle. 

Ban dak, adv. — Purposely ; openly ; knowingly ; wittingly ; 
outside ; in the open air. 

Bandang, adj. — All. 

Bandi, subst. — The leg ; the shank. 



Bandin, suhst. — Melliphaga ; Nov. Holl. ; yellow-winged 
honey-sucker. 

Bandyn, adj. — (A northern word) ; hungry. 

Bang-al, adj. — Separated by distance; stopped or left behind. 

Bang-al, subst. — Retaliation ; exchange of one thing for 
another. As if a man is asked, " Where is your cloak, or 
spear ? " He might answer, " Oh ! I have given it away." 
The remark that followed would be : — Bang-al nyt nginni 
yong-aga ? What did they give you in exchange ? 

Bang-al buma, verb. — To retaliate ; to revenge ; to avenge ; 
to strike in return. 

Bang-al yong-a, verb. — To exchange ; to barter one thing for 
another. 

Ban-gap, subst. — The Walloby, a small species of kangaroo. 
It is worthy of remark, that, on Rottnest, Garden Island, 
and one only of the Abrolhos group, there exists a small 
animal of this sort, which is now rarely if ever found on the 
adjacent mainland. This seems to favour the tradition that 
those islands once formed part of the mainland, but were dis- 
severed by a great fissure of the earth from volcanic action. 

Bang-ar, subst. — (North word) ; very large species of lizard, 
four to six feet long. 

Bang-ga, subst.—VsiVt of ; half of anything. 

Bang-ga nginnaga, adj. — Broken ; divided. From Bangga, 
half ; and Nginnow, to remain. 

Banggin, subst. — Hjematops ; black-headed honey-sucker. 

Banjab, adj. — Patient. 

Bannagul, verb. — (Mountain dialect) to flee. 

Ban-ya, verb. — Pres. part., Banya ; past tense, Banya ; to 
perspire ; to sweat. 

Ban-ya, subst — Sweat ; perspiration. 

Ban-yadak — Weighty or heavy to carry ; as causing perspi- 
ration. 

Bappigar, verb.—{K.G.^.) To mend ; to stop up. 

Barrang-yurar-angwin, suhst.— The act of rubbing between 
the hands ; as in the case of cleaning the By-yu or Zamia 
nuts ; or twirling a stick rapidly round within a hole in a 
piece of wood, to procure fire. 



Barda-Xr, adj. — Bald ; bare, clean. Instances of baldness 
are very rare. 

Bardal-ya, subst. — A fulness between the upper eyelid and 
the eyebrow. 

BXr-dang, verb — Pres. part., Bardangwin ; past tense, Bar- 
dang-Sga ; to fly, flee ; to run away. 

Bardangbardo, verb — To flee. 

Bardangngtnnow, verb — To jump ; from Bardang, to fly ; 
and Nginnow, to sit or stoop, because in jumping you stoop 
to gather strength, to spring, or fly forward. This word 
is evidently derived from the motion of the kangaroo. 

BIrdanitch, subst. — Botaurus. The bittern. 

Bardi, subst. — The edible grub found in trees. Those taken 
from the Xanthorea or grass-tree, and the wattle-tree, 
have a fragrant, aromatic flavour, and form a favourite 
food among the natives, either raw or I'oasted. The pre- 
sence of these grubs in a Xanthorea is thus ascertained : 
if the top of one of these trees is observed to be dead, 
and it contain any Bardi, a few sharp kicks given to it 
with the foot will cause it to crack and shake, when.it is 
pushed over and the grub extracted, by breaking the tree 
to pieces with a hammer. The Bardi of the Xanthorea 
are small, and found together in great numbers ; those of 
the Wattle are cream-coloured, as long and thick as 
a man's finger, and are found singly. 

Bardo, verb—Vves. part., Bardin ; past tense, Bardaga. 
Togo. 

Barduk, adv. — Near ; not far ; close. 

Bardunguba — Large-nosed, blue-winged duck. 

Bard-ya, subst. — Quartz ; quartzose rock. Besides the veins 
and fragments of this rock which are found in the granite 
districts, very large isolated masses of compact quartz have 
been seen in several parts of the colony. See Borryl. 

Bargar, adj. — Light ; thin ; as a covering. 

Barh-ran, subst. — A scar ; any mark of a wound. 

Barjadda, subst. Dasyurus Maugei. Native cat. 

Barna, subst. — A stray animal ; anything which may be 
found wanting an owner. 



BAR 8 BAR 

Barnak, adv. — Openly ; publicly ; as Nadgul barnak burda 

warrang — I will openly tell, or inform, by-and-by. 
Barnak, arf;.— Outside ; exposed ; bleak ; open. 
Barnak warrang— To inform. 
Barnan, verb — Pres. part., Barnanwin ; past tense, Bar- 

nanaga. To sweep ; to clean ; to clear away. To pluck 

out hair or feathers. 
Barnap, subst.—An orphan. Compounded of Barna, a^thing 

without an owner, and abbin, to become. 
Barra, adv. — Wrongly ; erroneously. 
Barrab, subst. — The sky (Vasse). 

Barrab ara, adj Well, recovered from wounds or sickness. 

Barrabart, verb. — To go astray; to wander out of the road. 
Barrajit, subst — Dasyurus Maugei. A weasel ; colonially, 

a native cat. 
Barrakattidj, verb. — To misunderstand. 
Barrang, verb. — Pres. part., Barrangwin, or Barrangan; past 

tense, Barrang,agga. To bring ; to cari-y ; to abduct — 

as Kardo Barrang, to carry off a wife : that being a very 

general mode of obtaining one. 
Barrangballar — To close up ; to secrete. 
Barrangdedin — To shut up ; to cover up. 
Barrang-djinnan, verb — To handle ; to examine. 
Barrangdordakanan, verb — To save the life of a person. 
Barrangkattidj — To recollect ; to bring to mind. 
Barrangmaulkolo, verb — To drag along ; literally, catching ; 

pull, move. 
Barrangtakkan, verb — To break. 
Barra WANGOW, verb — To speak so as not to be understood ; 

to make mistakes in speaking a language ; to talk 

childishly. 
Barrit, subst. — Lying ; deceit. 
Barro, subst. — The tough-topped Xanthorea or grass-tree, 

from which the strongest resin, the Kadjo, exudes ; that 

which the natives use for fastening on the heads of their 

hammers. The Barro grows genei-ally in high and dry 

situations ; whereas the Balga prefers low and rather 

damp soils. 



BXrt, or Bartu, ac?^^— No; not; none. Always used as 
an affix, as, Nadgo Kattidj bart — I do not understand. 
This is the most general sound of the negative affix ; 
though at Perth it is called Bru, which is probably a 
shortened sound of Bartu. This word has been corrupted 
into "Port" at K. G. S. 

Baku, subsi. — (Vasse and K. G. S.) Blood. 

Barukur, suhst. — (K. G. S.) The bowels. 

Barup, subst.— {K. G. S.) Dew ; water resting in drops. 

Batdotn, ac(;. — (Northern dialect.) Small; thin; wasted. 

'B&TTA, subst. — The sun's rays. Ngangabatta : thesun's beams, 

Batta, subst. — Thysanotus fimbriatus. A rush, with which 
the natives sew the kangaroo skins together to form their 
cloaks. This word is used in the northern dialects equally 
with Jilba to express that there is grass in a place. It 
means also rushes in general. 

Battardal, subst. — A waste, barren tract of land, destitute 
of edible roots, or of any means of subsistence. 

Battiri, adj. — Rough ; hard ; like an unprepared kangaroo 
skin. 

Bebal, subst. — Knee-cap ; knee-pan. ' 

Bedoan, subst. — A mother-of-pearl-like oyster-shell. 

Began, verb. — (Vasse) To unfasten ; to untie ; to open. 

Bellak, adv. — Enough ; sufficient. 

Belli, adj. — Superior ; excellent. 

Bellibelli, adv. — On this or that side. 

Bellogar, subst.— Peta-UYUS Mairarus. Grey squirrel. 

Bema, subst. — Semen. 

Beper, or Bepil, subst. — (K. G. S.) A species of fish. 

Bepumer— (K. G. S.) A large species of hawk. 

Betan, subst. — A knot. 

Bettich, subst.— {K. G. S.) An old man. 

Bettik bettik, adv. — Gently ; noiselessly ; quietly. 

Bettinun, verb — (Northern word.) Pres. part., Bettinun ; 
past tense, Bettinun. To pinch. 

Bewel, subst. — (Vasse and K. G. S.) The paper -bark tree. 

Br, subst. — A fish. • 

BiAN, verb — Pres. part., Bianwin ; past tense, Biana, or 



BIA 1^0 BID 

Bianaga. To dig ; to scrape ; to scratch ; to bury. The 
natives dig roots, dig animals out of the earth, and dig 
graves ; but they do not cultivate the ground. They 
neither plant nor sow, but rely wholly upon the sponta- 
neous products of the soil for vegetable food ; as they do 
also on the wild animals for animal food. 

BiARA, subst. — Banksia nivifolia. The Banksia tree, with 
long, narrow leaves ; colonially, honeysuckle, from the 
hairy, long, cone-shaped flowers, producing abundance Ox 
honey, which the natives are fond of regaling upon, either 
by sucking, or soaking the flowers in water. This tree 
furnishes the best and favourite firewood. Biara Kalla, 
the dead wood of the Banksia fit for firing. 

BiARGAR, adj. — (Upper Swan word.) Light ; not heavy. 

BiBi, subst. — Female breast. 

BiBiLYER, subst. — A bustard ; colonially, the wild turkey. 
A fine large bird, frequently weighing twelve to fifteen 
pounds, and extending full six feet from tip to tip of the 
wing. It is excellent for eating. 

BiBi MUL-YA, subst. — Nipple of the breast. 

BiBiNAK, subst. — The white-throated creeper bird. 

BiB-BYL — A mother mourning for her child. See Medarang. 

BiDDURONG, subst. — About two o'clock in the day. 

BiDi, subst. — A vein ; the main path, or track, pursued by 
the natives in passing from one part of the country to the 
other, and which leads by the best watering-places ; also 
a sinew. 

BiDi BABBA, adj — Weak ; unwell ; tired ; from Bidi, a vein 
or sinew, and Babba, weak. 

BiDi-DUR-GUL, subst. — A straight line. 

Bidi murdoin, adj. — Strong ; powerful ; from Bidi, a vein, 
and Murdoin, strong. 

Bidier, subst. — A man of a certain importance or influence ; 
from Bidi, a path : and meaning, therefore, a guide, 
director, adviser ; or from Bidi, a sinew, as being a strong 
man. 

Bidil, subst. — Charcoal. 

BiDJAK, adj. — Stinking, offensive. 



BID 11 BIL 

BiDJAR, subst.— Slee'p. In summer they liave merely a 
screen of bushes, to keep the wind from their back. In 
winter they build huts, with the door from the wind, and 
a small fire lighted before the door. See Mi/a. 

BiDJAR NGWUNDOW, verb — To sleep ; to go to sleep ; to lie 
down to sleep. 

BiDJiGURDU, snbst. — An island. The natives have a tradi- 
tion that Rottnest, Carnac, and Garden Island, once 
formed part of the mainland, and that the intervening 
ground was thickly covered with trees ; which took fii'e 
in some unaccountable way, and burned with such inten- 
sity that the ground split asunder with a great noise, and 
the sea rushed in between, cutting off those islands from 
the mainland. This is a savage's description of an erup- 
tion of subterranean fire ; and although there are not 
many indications of volcanic action in the neighbourhood, 
yet some recent observations of the officers of H. M. S. 
Beagle, during an examination of that part of the coast, 
and of the group of the Abrolhos Islands, would rather 
tend to confirm than to overthrow this opinion. 

BiDJiRUNGO, subst. — A species of snake. 

BiDJUBA, subst A snake of a white colour, with red bands. 

BiGO, subst. — Prepared resin of the grass-tree. See Tudleba. 

BiGYTCH, subst. — The forehead. 

BiLDJART, subst.— PiiloiiB. Ycllow honey-sucker. 

BiLGA, subst — The ancle. 

BiLGiTTi, ad;.— Unintelligible. 

BiLLANG, or BiLLANGUR (K. G. S,), vcrb. — Pres. part., Bil- 
langwin ; past tense, Billangaga. To push ; to roll. 

BiLLANGDJiNNANG, rerft— To lift ; to turn anything over, for 
the purpose of examining under it. 

BiLLARA, subst. — A dead leaf ; dried leaves. 

BiLLE — (Vasse). The other. 

BiLO, subst. — A stream; a river. No names are given to 
rivers as proper names, but the localities and resting-places 
on their banks are designated with great minuteness. 
Few rivers in the colony run continuously throughout the 
summer, when they present the appearance of a sei'ies of 



BIL 12 BIN 

ponds, standing at irregular intervals, and only connected 
by the rains of winter. It is probable that each pond is 
the actual source of, or is fed by, springs of more or less 
strength. Some very lai'ge rivers have been discovered 
lately on the north-west coast, but have not been tho- 
roughly examined. 

BiLOBANG-OA, adj. — Wounded severely, but not mortally. 

BiLORBANG, subst. — A persou living on the banks of a river. 

BiL-YAGORONG, subst. — Myzautlia garrula. The noisy honey- 
sucker. 

BiL-YAN, verb — Pres. part., Bilyanwin ; past tense, Bilyanaga. 
To throw off ; to take off ; to unloose — as Buka bilyan, 
to throw oflF the cloak. 

BiL-YAP, subst The tailless guana. 

BiLYAR — (K. G. S.) A small species of bird. 

BiL-Yi, subst. — The navel. The aborigines suppose a person 
with a large navel is necessarily a good swimmer ; and 
therefore Bil-yi-gadak, or Bil-yi-gwabba, means a good 
swimmer. They also think that, whether they can swim 
well or not, depends upon whether their mother has 
thrown their navel-string into the water or not, at the 
time of their birth. 

BiM~(K. G. S.) A footstep. 

BiMBAN, verb — Pres. part., Bimbanwin, or Bimbanan ; past 
tense, Bimban-agga. To kiss. 

BiNA, subst. — (Northern word.) Daylight ; daydawn. 

BiNAR, subst. — Sti'ix Cyclops. The white owl. 

BiNANG, subst. — To-morrow. 

BiNBART BiNBART — Rolling from side to side ; I'ocking, un- 
steady ; like a drunken man or a ship — Ngarrak ngarrak. 

BiNDA, subst. — Dryandria, species nova. A species of Bry- 
an dria tree. 

BiNDAK, subst. — Calthamnus sanguineus. A plant so named 
from the colour of the flower. 

BiNDANG, verb — Pres. part., Bindangwin, or Bindangan; past 
tense, Bindang-agga. To smell. 

BiNDART, smAs^.— Personal effects ; that which can be be- 
queathed by a man at his decease — as Durda, Kadjo, 



BIN 13 BIR 

Buka : his dog, his hammer, and his cloak. The spear 
of a deceased person, being first broken, the knives, and 
the throwing-board, are usually stuck into the earth of 
the grave mound. 

BiNDi, subst. — The stick, or skewer, with which the cloak is 
fastened. 

BiNiTCH — (K. G. S.) Sparks. 

BiNNAR, subst. — A meteor, described by the natives as a star 
of fire ; seldom visible, but when seen considered by them 
as an omen of death. A remarkably large and bright 
meteor was observed a few years ago traversing a large 
space in the heavens from east to west. Its progress was 
accompanied by a loud crackling sound, like the continued 
discharge of musketry. The unusual number of meteors 
seen in Europe and America in the months of August 
and November, have not been observable at Western 
Australia. 

BiNNARANGAR— (K. G. S.) To bury. 

BiNUN, verb — Pres. part., Binwin, or Binunun ; past tense, 
Binaga. To pinch ; to squeeze. 

BiROK, subst. — The summer season, December and January. 
This season follows Kambarang, and is followed by Bur- 
noru. This is the very height of summer, when guanas 
and lizards abound. The aborigines seem to distinguish 
six particular seasons. They are : — 

1 . Maggoro — June and July — Winter. 

2. Jilba — August and September — Spring. 

3. Kambarang— October and November. 

4. Birok — December and January — Summer. 

5. Burnoru — Februai'y and March — Autumn. 

6. Wan-yarang, or Geran — April and May. 

It would be curious, should a more perfect knowledge of 
their language and ideas give us to understand that to 
each of these seasons some definite portion of time was 
appointed, as sixty or sixty-one days ; in which case their 
year would be made to consist of 360 or 366 days ; and 
it might prove, on further research, that this, and some 
others of their customs, were fragments splintered off" from 



BIR 14 BLU 

some ancient fabric of knowledge and civilization with 
which they were formerly connected. See Mon-yo. 

BiRRGA, adj. — Badly wounded ; bruised ; sore. Birrga 
Bogal : a heap, a mass of sores. Their only treatment of 
a wound is to bind a ligature tightly above the wound 
where the part is capable of such application. 

BiRRGYN, subst. — A sore. See Badjang. They sometimes 
shake dust, or sand, upon a sore, to absorb moisture, but 
they do not wash or clean it. 

BiRRi, subst. — The nails. Marh-ra-birri : the nails of the 
hand, 

BiRRiGON, adj. — Bright ; glittering ; shining ; the name given 
to silver money. 

BiRRiGUR, subst. — The nails. 

BiRUNBiRUN — Merops melanura. Bee-eater. It bux'rows and 
makes its nest in the ground. 

BiRUNNA, subst.— The wind from the north inclining to the 
west. 

BiRYTCH, or BiYTCH, subst. — The cone of the Biara or nar- 
row-leaved Banksia. It burns like touchwood. One is 
generally canned ignited by the women in summer, as 
pieces of burning bark are in winter, to make a fire. 

BiRYT, sicbst. — Daylight. The day as contradistinguished 
from night. But the natives have no idea of the word 
day, as used by us for a portion of time. Biryte gudjal ; 
two days ; two daylights. 

BiwoEN, subst. — Ocypterus albo-vittatus. The wood-swallow. 

Blura, subst. — A species of bee. A species of the leaf-cutter 
bee is indigenous ; but the honey -storing bee has not yet 
been found, and, I think, does not exist. Several attempts 
have been made to introduce the bee from England ; but, 
whether from the length of the voyage, or from want of 
proper management on their arrival, they have been 
hitherto unsuccessful. This is much to be regretted, as, 
from the numerous honey-bearing flowers in the colony, 
there is no doubt of their succeeding well. Governor 
Hutt has offered a premium to the first successful intro- 
ducer of them. 



BOB 15 BOG 

BoBO, subst. — Grass ; vegetation. 

BoBBAN, verb — Pres. part. Bobbanwin ; past tense, Bobban- 
agga. To blow with the mouth. 

BoBTO, subst. — The back of the neck. 

BoGAL, subst. — The back ; a hillock marking a grave — hence 
it is sometimes used for the grave itself — as Yongar Bogal, 
a man's hillock or grave. Within twenty-four hours after 
the death of a native, preparations are made for burying 
him. An immediate shrieking and howling are set up by 
his wives and female connexions, who scratch their faces 
until the blood flows down, and the skin is partially peeled 
from them. Some of his very near male relatives pro- 
ceed]to dig the grave, and by the time that this is nearly 
finished the body is conveyed to the spot, wrjipped in the 
kangaroo-skin cloak of the deceased. There the shriek- 
ing and wailing are continued. The beard is usually cut 
off and burned, and the ashes rubbed on the foreheads of 
the near relatives. The nail is stripped from the thumb, 
and sometimes from the little finger also, by the applica- 
tion of fire ; and the thumb and one of the fingers of the 
right hand are firmly bound together, and the body is 
now ready for burial. The grave is dug about four and 
a half feet long, and four feet deep. When it is com- 
pletely prepared, a quantity of freshly -gathered boughs of 
the Eucalypti or gum trees are burned within it ; after 
which a bed of fresh boughs is laid at the bottom, and the 
body is lowered down, still wrapped in the cloak. The 
grave extends either east and west, or north and south, 
according to the manner of the tribe to which the deceased 
belonged. The mountain tribes bury the body north and 
south ; the head to the south, the body on the right side, 
with the face looking to the rising sun, and the earth from 
the grave formed into one crescentic mound, on the west 
side of the grave. This mode of burial is called Gotyt. 
The lowland tribes lay the body east and west on its back, 
the face turned to one side towards the mid-day sun ; the 
clay thrown out in two heaps, one at the head and one at 
the foot. This mode of burial is called D-yuar. More 



BOG 1 6 BOK 

fresh boughs are then heaped upon the body ; then stout 
stakes are laid lengthways ; then cross pieces pressed 
firmly into the sides; and then boughs again, and so on, until 
the surface reaches to a level with the upper ground ; and 
finally sand or earth is strewed over the top. Whilst all that 
is above described is going on, the magician, orBolyagadak, 
of the tribe, sits wrapped in his cloak at the head of the 
grave, bending his ear from time to time to the ground, 
attentively listening for the flight of the spirit, and the 
communication it may have to make as to the evil origi- 
nator or cause of his death ; and having feigned to obtain 
this intelligence, he raises his miro in silence, and points 
in the direction where the enemy is to be found who has 
j robbed the tribe of a warrior, — of course taking care to 
stimulate the vengeance of those who are eagerly waiting 
round, against some hated family or individual ; and as 
soon as revenge has been obtained by the death of the 
member of a rival tribe, the trees near the place of bu- 
rial which have been previously scored are now marked 
afresh, and more deeply, to record that an atonement has 
been effected. The grave is regularly visited during a 
certain period, to see that it is not disturbed or profaned ; 
and for a long time afterwards a small hut of reeds or 
boughs may. be observed erected over the grave, before 
which a fire is fi'equently lighted, that the spirit of the 
deceased may, if it pleases, continue still to solace itself 
as before, in the quiet of the night. 

BoGALNGUDi, adj. — Humpbacked. 

BoHN, or BoHRN, subst. — A small red root of the Hsemadorum 
spicatum. This root in flavour somewhat resembles a very 
mild onion. It is found at all periods of the year in sandy 
soils, and forms a principal article of food among the 
natives. They eat it either raw or roasted. 

BoiLOiT, (Vasse) — Skilful ; dexterous. 

BoKA, subst. — A cloak or covering. See Buka. 

BoKANBOKAN, subst. — Calaudra ; Bellbird. 

BoKOJO, adverb — There ; in that place ; speaking of some 
distance away. 



BOK 17 BO-Y 

BoKYT, adj. — A term applied to ground clothed with vegeta- 
tion which has not yet been burned. Perhaps derived 
from Boka, a covering. 

BoNDJUN, subst. — A native knife, with a polished handle of the 
raspberry jam-wattle, or some other indigenous wood. 

BoNNiT, subst The knee. 

BoRAK, adv. — Down ; below. 

BoRANG, (K.G.S.) — A male dog. 

BoRDAN-YAK, adj. — Hungry. 

Born, verb — Pres. part. Bornin ; past tense, BornSga ; to cut 
up. To make cuts — asNgambarn-born,to cut scars, or tatto 

^ the body, by scarifying the skin Avith sharp-edged bits of 
quartz or glass. 

BoRRYL,swi5^ — Quartz ; and, from the similarity intheappear- 
ance, particularly of the fragments of the two substances, 
it has come to^mean glass — as Borryl Gidji,a sp^ar the head 
of which is armed with jagged broken pieces of quartz or 
glass glued on to the wood. This is a most formidable, 
and even deadly weapon : the cut inflicted by it is that of 
a coarse saw, and as it severs the veins and arteries, it is 
much more dreaded than the barbed spear, which only 
forces its way without cutting laterally. 

BoTOL-YANG, adj. — (Upper Swan word.) Heavy ; weighty. 

BoTTYN, adj. — Thin ; small ; wasted. Mountain dialect ; fre- 
quently used at Perth. Batdoin to the north. 

Bo-YANG, adj. — Far off" ; distant. Urrarbo-yang, a stranger. 

BoY^-AR, subst. — A blackguard ; a seducer ; a whore. 

Bo-YE, subst. — (Upper Swan dialect.) Stone ; rock. The geolo- 
gical features of the country are not yet ascertained with 
any precision. The principal rocks are limestone, granite, 
basalt, and ironstone. The great strata appear to run 
nearly in a north and south direction. Next, and parallel 
to the sea-coast, is a limestone district, with light sandy 
^soil. Upon this are found the Tuart, the Mahogany, and 
the Banksia. To this succeeds a tract of stiffer soil, and 
reddish sandy loam, having a ferruginous sandstone, which 
is colonially called ironstone ; and on this the red gum-tree 
is found intermixed with others. Next is the "Darling 



BOY 18 BOY 

range " of hills, of no great elevation, having a granite 
base, and boulders of ironstone and breccia, which form a 
coarse gravelly soil, upon which the best mahogany is 
found. To this, as you proceed eastward, succeeds the 
granite country of the York district, the granite of which 
decomposes into a coarse gritty soil, bearing good grass, 
and capable of cultivation. The entire granite districts 
are occasionally intersected or interrupted by whinstone, 
which yields a rich, red, loamy soil. Forty miles to the 
east of York commences a broad belt of country, having 
naked rounded masses or hills of granite standing in a 
slightly undulating country, as islands do in the sea. 
About these hills water and grass are always found. 
This belt is nearly a hundred miles broad to the east of 
York. On this tract are found Tuart, Wurak, Nardarak 
trees ; but there are no kangaroos, and few traces of 
natives. To this succeeds a country of a different formation, 
on which a whitish trapstone was found, but neither water 
nor grass, as far as it could be penetrated. This, which 
was about 220 miles in the interior, on the parallel of 
Perth, is the greatest distance which has yet been reached 
in that direction. 
BoYEE, subst. — A name given to certain stones of a smooth 
ovate shape, which are found in several places, and are 
traditionally said to have fallen from the sky. 
BoYL — (K.G.S.) An entrance. 
BoYL-YA, subst. — A certain supposed power of witchcraft ; 

sorcery, 
BoYLYA Gadak, subsi. — One possessed of Boylya ; a wizard ; 
magician. The men only are believed to possess this 
power. A person thus endowed can transport himself 
through the air at pleasure, being invisible to every one 
but his fellow- Boy lyagadak. If he have a dislike to another 
native, he is supposed to be able to kill him, by steaMng 
upon him at night, and secretly consuming his flesh ; 
entering into his victim like pieces of quartz, and occa- 
sioning much pain. Another Boylyagadak can, however, 
disenchant the person thus afflicted. When this is done' 



BOY 19 BUD 

the Boylya is drawn out from the patient in the form of 
pieces of quartz, which ai'e kept as great curiosities. 
The aborigines do not appear to comprehend that mor- 
taUty is natural to man. All diseases, and particularly 
those of a fatal kind, are ascribed to supernatural influ- 
ence, and hence the reason why, when one of them dies, 
another is invariably killed in return, whether the deceased 
has died by the hand of an enemy, or by accident, or from 
natural causes. In the first case the death is revenged 
either on the murderer, or on some one of his near rela- 
tives of the same family name. In either of the other 
cases, vengeance is wreaked on a connexion of the Boylya- 
gadak, the suspected cause of the death. 

BoYNGADAK, adj. — Fat ; stout. It is sometimes used in the 
sense of handsome ; a fat pei'son being a rarity among the 
natives. 

BoYN, subst. — Fat ; grease ; the fat of meat ; oil of any sort. 
Grease to anoint or smear themselves with seems neces- 
sary to the health of the aborigines ; they otherwise be- 
come covered with scurf, and are subject to violent cuta- 
neous disorders. 

BoYNKOT-YAK, subsi. — Marrow ; literally the fat matter of 
bones. 

Brigo, subst. — An edible red root resembhng the Bohra. 

Bru, adv. — See Bart. — No ; not ; without. Always used as 
an affix — as Wangabru, don't speak ; Bukabru, naked, 
without a cloak. 

BuATU, subst. — Oxura australis. A bird of the duck kind, 
with very small wings, migratory, and found only in one 
season on the fresh-water lakes. 

BuDiBUDi, subst. — Hirundo. White-throated swallow. 

BuDJAN, subst. — Dryandria Fraseri (a shrub). The flower 
abounds in honey, and is much sought after by the natives. 
See But-yak. 

BuDJAN,re»*6. — Pres.part.,Budjanui ; past tense, Budjannaga. 
To pluck feathers from a bird. 

BuDJiN, subst.— A small species of ant, very troublesome 
about sugar and meat, which should be covered or hung up. 



BUD 20 BUK 

BuDJOR, subst. — Earth ; the ground. The predominant colour 
of the earth is red ; the qualities various, and varying ra- 
pidly and unaccountably from one quality to another, as 
from sand to clay, or to loamy soil, and from sterile to fer- 
tile, frequently without any apparent cause. In the 
York district there are several parallel veins or belts of 

~ land which extend for a considerable distance, nearly in a 
north and south direction. These veins are much superior 
in fertility to the adjacent lands, and composed of rich, 
dark vegetable mould. Being generally bare of trees, and 
covered with rich grass alone, they are locally called 
" clear streaks." No probable cause has yet been assigned 
for this appearance. 

BuDTALLANG, subst. — Pelicauus, Nov. Holl. ; PeUcan. These 
birds are frequently seen to come from the interior, across 
the York districts. 

BuDTO, subst. — The bark of the Djarryl, or mahogany tree, 
or any other of the gum-tree species. 

BuDULU, subst.— Calm weather favourable for fishing ; applied 
also to a space of smooth, glassy water. 

BuGGALO (Vasse.) — To him. 

BuGGALONG (Vasse.) — His. 

BuGOR, subst. — A Brave ; one who does not fear. At Lesche- 
nault this is the name of the Mundo or shark. 

BuKA, or BoKA, subst. — A kangaroo-skin cloak ; clothes or 
bodily covering of any sort ; as Mattabuka, leg clothes or 
trousers. It requires three kangaroo skins to make a 
large full cloak, such as one of those worn by the women ; 
and the skins of the female kangaroo are preferred, those 
of the males being considered too thick and heavy. The 
skins are prepared by first stretching them out, and peg- 
ging them down on the ground in the shade. The women 
then, with a Dtabba, or native knife, scrape off all the soft 
inner parts, and afterwards rub them well, to soften them, 
with grease and wilgi. To form the cloak, the skins are 
sewn together with the Gwirak, or sinews of the kangaroo ; 
or when they are not at hand, with the Batta, or rush. 
The cloak is worn with the hairy side inwards. 



BUL 21 BUN 

BuLA, adj. — Abundant ; many ; much ; plentiful. 

BuLA — Numeral — (Dual.) Two brothers, sisters, or friends. 

BuLALA — Numeral — (Dual.) Parent and child ; uncle and 
nephew, or niece. 

BuLANGAT — (K.G.S.) A species of bird. 

BuLEN — Numeral — (Dual.) They two ; husband and wife. 

BuLGALLA, subst. — The large-leaved Banksia, which bears the 
Metjo, or large cone used for fires. 

BuLGANGAR (K.G,S.) Uneven ; in lumps. 

BuLGUT, subst A star ; the wife of Tdadam. 

BuLJiT, subst. — Acanthorhyncus superciliosus, least honey- 
sucker. 

BuLLALEL (Vasse) — They. (Not in frequent use.) 

BuLLALLELANG (Vassc) — Their. 

BuLLOR, subst. — A species of large greenish-coloured beetle. 

BuLOLO, subst. — Small species of ant. 

BuLORDU, subst — Calamanthus, the scrub-lark. 

BuL-YAR, arfy. — Indiscriminately. 

BuMA, verb — Pres. part., Bumawin ; past tense, BumagS ; to 
beat; to strike. 

BuMAKANiN, part. adj. — Lying or pressing, one thing upon 
another. From Buma, to strike ; and Kannow, or Gan- 
now, to tread; step. Also, stamping ; tramping. 

BuMBURMAN, Verb — Pi-es. part., Bumburmanin ; past tense, 
Bumburmanagga ; to shout as the natives do to frighten 
the kangaroo after they have speared it ; or when assem- 
bled together at a Kabo. 

BuNAis, subst. — Aperture ; opening ; entrance ; means of 
access. 

BuNARAK, subst. — Pcrsonal property of any kind ; as Kadjo, 
Dtabba, Buka, the hammer, the knife, the spear. 

BuNDO, adj. — True ; truly. 

BuND0JiL,ac?u. — Certainly ; very true. 

Bun-gal, subst. — The side. 

BuN-GALLA, subst The part of the body immediately above 

the hip ; the short ribs. 

BuN-GALLOR, subst. — Early state of pregnancy. 

BuN-GARN, subst, — A maid. Girls are betrothed in their 



BUN 22 ^ BUR 

infancy, and given to their husbands at a very early 
age. 

Bunco— (K.G.S.) There. 

BuNQURT — (K.G.S.) A species of grass. 

BuN,GYTE, subst. — A girl who is not betrothed. 

BuNJAT, adj Shining ; glittering ; adorned ; clean. Burnu 

Yyi bunjat, the trees are now glittering. 

BxjRA, prepos. — Within; in safety — as Maryne bura ngwun- 
dow, the food is within, or is in safety. 

BuRABUR— (K.G.S.) The wild turkey. 

BuRARAP, subst — The underground Xanthorea or grass-tree. 
Sheep feed on the centre leaves. 

BuRBUR, subst.— Ex&ct resemblance j counterpart one thing 
of another. 

BuRDA, adv. — By-and-by ; presently. 

BuRDAK, adv. — (Murray River dialect.) By-and-by'; pre- 
sently. 

BuRDi, subst.— Macropus ; a species of small kangaroo, having 
the habits of a rabbit. 

BuRDi, subst. — Musk obtained from the musk-duck. 

BuRDiLTUP — (K.G.S.) A baby. 

Bur-dun, subst. — A light straight spear procured from the 
south, and highly prized by the natives on account of the 
elasticity of the wood. 

Burnu, subst. — A tree. Wood. The most abundant tree is 
the Eucalyptus, of which there is a very great variety of 
species. The other trees are principally of the Banksia, 
Casuarina, Melaleuca, Hakea, and Acacia sorts. 

BuRNUNGUR— (K.G.S.) A species of paroquet. 

BuRNUR, or BuRNURO, subst. — The autumn of Western Aus- 
tralia, including the months of February and March. It 
follows the season Birok, and is followed by Wanyarang. 
This is the By-yu or Zamia-fruit season ; and mullet, 
salmon, and tailor-fish abound. 

Burr— (K.G.S.) Rough ; hard. 

BuRTAP,or Bartap— (K.G.S.) To lie ; to deceive. Probably 
from Bart, not. To say what is not. 

Bu-ruro, subst. — A neckband of opossum's hair. 



BU-T 23 BV-Y 

Bu-TAKBU-TAK, vcrb — To wiuk; to open and shut, or move the 
eyes at all quickly. 

BuTANGAR— (K.G.S.) To curc. 

BuTOGO, subst. — A species of edible fungus. They will not 
eat the common mushroom, which grows abundantly. 

But- YAK, subst. — Dryandria Fraseri. The flowers are thistle- 
shaped, and abound with honey ; they are sucked by the 
natives like the Man-gyt or Banksia flowers. 

Bu-yal, subst.— The south. They always direct you by the 
points of the compass, and not by the right or the left. 

Bu-YENAK, subst. — Hovea pungens. 

Bu-Yi, subst. — Turtle ; tortoise. A small snake-necked turtle 
is found in rivers and swamps; and the large turtle, valued 
for its shell and for food, is to be found in great abundance 
at Shark's Bay, and other more northern parts of the 
coast, weighing above SOOlbs. 

Bu-Yi, subst. — A stone. For geological description, see 
Bot/e. 

Bu-YiBiLLANAK, subst. — Rocky ground ; land covered with 
stones. From Bu-yi, a stone, and Billang, to roll ; mean- 
ing ground rolled over with stones. It is in sandy soil of 
this nature that the Djubak, or native potato, is mostly 
found. 

Bu-YiT, subst. — A species of coleopterous insect. 

Bu-YU, subst. — Smoke. 

BwoLLUK, proper name — (K.G.S.) The name of a star. 

BwoNEQUR— (K.G.S.) To pluck. See Barnan. 

BwoT— (K.G.S.) Cloudy. 

BwYE— (K.G.S.) An egg. 

BwYEGO, subst. — A species of fungus eaten by the natives. 

BwYRE-ANG (K.G.S.) The second brother. 

Btangbyang, adj. — Light ; not heavy. 

Byi, subst Posteriors. 

Byl-yi, subst. — A small species of leech. There are many in 
the swamps, lakes, and stagnant pools of rivers, which 
fasten readily on those who go into such waters. 

Byl-yur, adj. — Hungry ; empty. 

By-yu, subst The fruit of the Zamia tree. This in its na- 



BY-Y 24 DAL 

tural state is poisonous ; but the natives, who are very fond 
of it, deprive it of its injurious qualities by soaking it in 
water for a few days, and then burying it in sand, where 
it is left until nearly dry, and is then fit to eat. They 
usually roast it, when it possesses a flavour not unlike a 
mealy chesnut ; it is m full season in the month of May. 
It is almost the only thing at all approaching to a fruit 
which the country produces. Wild grape, nutmeg, and 
peach trees are said to exist on the N. W. coast. 
By-yu Gul-yidi, subst. — Little magpie. 

D. 
N.B. — The sounds of D and T are in so many instances used 
indiscriminately, or interchangeably, that it is frequently 
difficult to distinguish which sound predominates. The 
predominant sound varies in different districts. See Pre- 
face. 
Da, subst.— The mouth. See Bta. 
Dabba, subst. — A knife. See Tabba. 
Dabardak— (K.G.S.) A species offish. 
Dadim, adj. — South word for bad, Djul ; apphed to anything 

hard, dry, unpalatable. 
Dadja, subst. — Any animal fit to eat ; or the flesh of any such 
animal ; animal food, as contradistinguished from Maryn, 
vegetable food. 
Dadjamaryn, subst. — Food of all sorts, animal and vegetable. 
Da-gangoon, verb — (Northern dialect.) To kill. 
Daht, adj. — Sly ; cunning ; noiseless. 
Dakarung— (Vasse.) To break. 
Dalba, snbst. — Ashes ; dust. 
Dalbada, adj. — Whitened with flour or ashes. 
Dalbitch— (K.G.S.) Dry. 

Dalgagadak,sm65^. — A sorcerer; perhaps as exercising a pre- 
tended power over the wind. 
Dallar, subst.—FlsiVaQ ; as Kalla dallar, flame of the fire. 
Dallaga, subst. — A strong wind, good for hunting the kanga- 
roo. The wind prevents this very timid creature exercis- 
ing its acute sense of hearing. The hunter makes his ap- 



DAL . 25 DAR 

proach against the wind, and screens his movements by a 
leafy bough, which lie carries before him, and so creeps 
within spear-throw of the unsuspecting animal. 

Dal-yar, subst. — Raw, uncooked meat ; green wood. 

Dambarijow, verb — Pres. part., Dambarijowin ; past tense, 
Dambarijaga. To bury ; to hide. 

DammXlXk, subst. — A parrot. 

Danda, arfj.— Angular ; having corners like a square bottle. 

DXng-yl, subst. — A sweetish substance, white ; found on cer- 
tain trees and plants ; supposed to be some insect secre- 
tion, much prized by the natives. Colonially termed 
Manna. Birds feed upon it, and are in excellent condi- 
tion during the season when it abounds. See Waumilyar. 

Danjal, adj. Shallow ; not deep. 

Dan JO, adv, — Together ; in company ; Ngannildanjo, we two 
together. 

Dappa, subst. — The native knife, formed of sharp-edged pieces 
of quartz fastened on a short stick. See Tahba. 

Daran, subst North word for DammalSk, a parrot. 

Daran — A name given to those people who live to the east- 
ward. 

Darang-an, verb — Pres. part., Darang-anwin ; past tense, 
Darang-Snaga. To spill ; to let water fall. 

YiAViBM., subst. — An estuary. They speak of some great estuary 
in the intei'ior, at a long distance, which they know only from 
the report of those who come fi'om that direction. In the 
neighbourhood of Shark's Bay Capt. Grey discovered a large 
tractof country which looked like a dried-up lake or estuary, 
having raised lands like islands standing above the surface, 
and with rolled stones, coral, and shells on the bottom. 
He walked upon it twelve miles in an easterly course, and 
could not discern, even with his telescope, any termmation 
to it in that direction. This tract had no visible communi- 
cation with the sea to the westward, there being a I'ange 
of high hills interposed between it and the coast. 

DarbXlXng, subst. — A person livmg on the banks of an 
estuary. 

Darbow, verb. — Pres. part., Darbowin ; past tense, Darbaga ; 



DAR 26 , DED 

to drive ; to stoop ; to pass through or under, as in creep- 
ing through bushes or jungle. 

Dardak, subst. — White clay ; lime ; fuller's earth. 

Dardaknabbow, verb. — To put on white clay as mourning. 

Dardar, subst. — Mourning for the death of any one. A term 
applicable to females only, who assume the marks of sor- 
row, by drawing a streak of white across the forehead, 
down the sides of the cheeks, round the chin, and round 
each eye. White clay or lime is used on these occasions. 
When a man puts on mourning, he is said to Murh-ro 
nabbow ; which see. 

Dxnx)!, subst. — Pudenda. A disease was lately introduced, 
which the men attributed to the witchcraft of the northern 
Boyl-yagadaks. 

Dardun, adj. — Uneven ; as Budjor dardun, uneven ground. 

Dardyn, subst. — Whiting. 

Dargangan, verb. — Pres. part., Dargangannin ; past tense, 
Dargananaga ; to strike so as to stun or kill, as Nadjul 
nginni gori dargangan, I'll settle you, put an end to you 
presently. 

Darin, subst. — ^gotheles ; Little goat-sucker, 

Darnavan, subst. — Fear; fright ; alarm ; terror. 

Darnavanijow, verb. — To alarm ; frighten ; to startle ; to 
terrify. 

Darnavanmidi, suhst. — Anything which frightens or startles 
a person. 

Darrajan, adv. — Superfluously ; beyond what is required or 
expected ; as Darrajanwanga,to speak or talk beyond mea- 
sure ; Darrajan yong-ow, to give over and above measure. 

Datta, adj. — Dried up ; in a place where water has been, as 
Ngura datta, a dried-up lake. 

Dedam, subst. — A name given to two stars, one male, the other 
female, of which the following story is told : — Dedam the 
man speared Dedam the woman, because she let his bro- 
ther's two children stray away. The children are repre- 
sented by two small stars at some distance higher in the 
heavens. The spear is represented by two stars standing 
one on each side of the woman's body. 



DEI 27 DJA 

Deidung, verb — (Vasse.) To cut. 

Dendang, verb — Pres. part., Dendang-win ; past tense, Den- 

dang-agga ; to climb ; to mount ; to ascend. They climb 

the tallest trees, by cutting small notches, in which they 

insert the great toe, helping themselves up by leaning with 

the hand on the handle of the hammer, which they strike 

into the soft bark like a spike. 
Deni, subst. — Brothers-in-law, or sisters-in-law. The brothers 

of the wife are to the husband Deni ; but his brothers are 

to her Kardoman, marriageable relatives ; because when 

a man dies his next brother takes his widow to wife, as a 

matter of course. 
Derer, adj. — Dry ; withered ; applied to leaves in autumn. 
DiDARAL, adj. — Deep ; deep water in the middle of a river. 
DiDAROK — Proper name of one of the principal families among 

the aborigines ; they are Matta Gyn, with the Djikok and 

Nogonyak. See Ballarok. 
DiDT, subst. — Small sort of fish ; colonially termed silver fish, 

or silver herring. 
DiDiN, verb — Pres. part., Didinin or Didinwin ; past tense, 

Didinagga ; to close ; to shut. 
DiDiN Wanjow, verb — To close a door or gate after one. 
DiL, subst. — (Vasse.) The cray-fish found in swamps. 
DiLBi, subst. — A leaf. 

DiL-YURDU, subst. — Circus ; the marsh harrier bird. 
DiNANG, verb—VreB. part., Dinangwin ; past tense, Dinang- 

agga ; to carry on the shoulders. This is the way they 

carry wounded or sick persons, sitting with the legs 

pressing against their sides in front. 
DiNGAR — (K.G.S.) The seed of a common shrub at King 

George's Sound, which bears a blue flower. 
DiNYT, subst. — The loins. 
Djaat, subst — (K.G.S.) The sun. 
Djabbun, uer6— (North word.) Pres. part., Djabbunin ; past 

tense, Djabbunaga; to pick up ; to take up. 
Djakat, subst. — A small root eaten by the. natives ; in season 

in the months of September and October. 
Djallam, adj Acrid ; bitter ; salt. Much of the soil of the 



DJA 23 DJA 

colony is strongly impregnated with salt, so that many of 
the lakes and stagnant waters, and pools in river beds, are 
intensely salt in summer. In many places the salt is dug 
up from the bottom of shallow waters, or sci*aped from 
the earth where the water has been evaporated, and 
is found excellent for all purposes of culinary or domestic 
use. Salt can be procured in great abundance also from 
the lakes in the interior of Rottnest Island ; but it should 
be boiled before use, as it is said to have a bitter flavour 
without that preparation, probably from the commixture 
of some extraneous ingredient. 
Djalyup— (K.G.S.) A species of paroquet. 
Djam, subst. — Water. 
Djanbae, subst. — The same as the Madja ; an edible root ; a 

coarse kind of Bohn. 
DsA^GkfSubst — The dead. The re-appearance of deceased 
persons. A term applied to Europeans, who are supposed 
to be aborigines, under another colour, restored to the 
land of their nativity. This idea prevails equally on the 
eastern as on the Avestern coast of Australia, in places 
2000 miles apart from each other. It has taken its rise 
most likely from the supposition that none but those who 
were already acquainted with the country would or could 
find their way to it. Europeans are frequently claimed as 
relatives by old people, who think, or pretend, that they 
are sure of their identity, and who treat them according to 
the love they formerly bore to the individual supposed to 
be recognised. 
Djang-gang, subst. — Anthochsera Lewinii; the wattle bird. 
Djanja, subst. — A species of Hakea tree. 
Djanjarak, subst. — Himantopus ; long- tailed plover. 
Djanni, subst — The bark of the Banksia and Hakea trees. 
This bark is used by the aborigines for two purposes :— 
1st, For pointing wood or sticks, as the Wanna, or digging 
staff of the women, and the Dowak, or throwmg-sticks ; 
these implements having been charred in the fire, are then 
rasped to a point with the Djanni. 2dly, It serves them 
as a means of warming themselves when moving about. 



DJA 29 ^Ji 

In cold weather, every native, male or female, may be seen 
carrying a piece of lighted bark, which burns like touch- 
wood, under their cloaks, and with which, and a few 
withered leaves and dry sticks, a fire, if required, is soon 
kindled. A great part of the fires that take place in the 
country arise from this practice of carrying about lighted 
Djanni. In the valleys, even in summer, the air is chill 
before sunrise. The half-clad native starts with the 
lighted bark ; as the day advances, the warmth of the sun 
renders artificial heat unnecessary ; the bai'k is discarded 
without regard to where it may fall, perhaps into a thick 
bush, or among high grass. A breeze comes, the smoul- 
dering embers are blown into a flame, and the whole 
country is shortly in a blaze. 

Djardal-ya, s7ibst. — The wiry-feathered creeper. 

DjardXm, subst. — Blade-bone of the shoulder. 

Djarjilya, subsf. — Malurus pectoralis ; blue-bird. 

Djarryl, sttJi-;.— Eucalyptus robusta ; mahogany-tree. This 
tree has its bark disposed in longitudinal slips, running 
with the grain of the wood, straight, waved, or spiral as 
the grain runs. It is an excellent timber for building, as 
the white ants do not attack it, and it works well for leaves 
of tables and other articles of furniture. It grows in 
sandy districts, and on poor soil in the hills. 

Djabrylbardang, subst. — Platycercus ; blue-bellied parrot. 

Djerral, S7tbst. — The north. 

Djerrung — (K.G.S.) Fat ; handsome ; greasy. 

Djibbal, subst. —The young of the Gurh-ra, brush kangaroo. 

Djidal, adj. — White ; grey, Kattadjidal, grey-headed. 

Djidar, subst. — Dawn of morning ; daylight. 

Djidarra, adj. — Browned ; spoken of meat roasting as being 
sufficiently cooked. 

Djidik, subst. — Cooked meat ; the opposite to Dal-yar, raw 
meat. The aborigines always roast their food ; they have 
no means of boiling, except when they procure the sei'vice 
of an old European saucepan or tin pot. 

Djidji, subst. — Semen. 

Djidong, subst. — (Upper Swan dialect.) Limestone. It is not 



DJI 30 DJI 

yet ascertained whether any limestone belonging to the 
coal formation exists in the colony. Recent limestone is 
abundant near the sea-coast, but has rarely been found to 
the eastward of the hills. Much of the limestone contains 
no trace of organic matter, but that which is found at 
Koombana Bay and the Vasse river has many small shells, 
and is of a compact nature. 

DjiJA.LLA,subst Clay. Strong red and white clays good for 

pottery and brick-making are abundant in some dis- 
tricts. 
Djijinak, 5Mi«^ — Xama, little gull. 
Djikok, subst. — Name of one of the principal native families. 

See Ballarok. 
Djillak, sulst. — Coronaria Strepera ; the white-vented crow. 

Djil-yur, subst A small field-mouse, eaten by the natives. 

Djinbenongerra — A species of duck. The Ngotaks formerly 
belonged to this class of birds, before they were changed 
into men, according to fabulous tradition. 
Djindalo, subst. — A flat-headed fish of the cobbler species. 
Djin-gan, verb — Pres. part., Djinganin ; past tense, Djin. 
ganaga ; to sharpen or point wood, by first charring, and 
then rubbing or rasping it with bark. It is the only 
means the natives have among themselves of pointing large 
sticks ; the small ones they scrape with quartz or glass. 
Djingun — A star ; one of the wives of Wurdytch. 
Djingjing — The spears carried by lads before using the Miro ; 
a coarse sort of spindle in the shape of a small cross, used 
- by the native men in spinning the human and the opossum 
hair for their girdles. 
Djinnang, verb — Pres. part., Djinnang ; past tense, Djinnang ; 

to see, to look. 
Djirang, uerfi— Pres. part., Djirang ; past tense, Djirang ; 

t;0 scratch. 
Djirdowin, subst.-^A small kind of mouse, supposed to be 

marsupial. 
Djiri, subst. — Scabs ; as Matta djiri, scabby legs — a term of 

reproach. 
Djiriji, sMftsf.—Encephalartos spiralis j the Zamiatree. The 



DJI 31 DJU 

body of this tree contains a farinaceous matter, which, 
when prepared, has been used as sago, but is dangerous 
without preparation. 

Djirin, verb — Used only in composition, meaning to charge 
with or accuse; as Wulgar djirin, to accuse of murder; 
Ngagyndjirin, to accuse of theft. 

Djirritmat, subst.— A. small frog. 

Djitting, adj. — Fair ; light-coloured ; Katta-djitting, light- 
haired. 

Djiito, adj. — Fair; light-coloured. 

Djow, subst. — Water. 

Djowen, subst (North word.) Fur. 

Dju, subst. — Down ; short hair on the body. 

Djubak, subst. — An orchis, the root of which is the size and 
shape of a new potato, and is eaten by the natives. It is 
in season in the month of October. The flower is a pretty 
white blossom, scented like the heliotrope. 

Djubarda, subst. — A species of tea tree. 

Djubo, subst. — The kidney. 

Djubobarrang, verb — To amuse ; literally, to take or handle 
the kidney. 

Djubodtan, verb — To tickle ; literally to pierce the kid- 
ney. 

Djudarran, sicbst. — Cuculus ; the cuckoo. 

Djuko, subst. — A sister. 

Djul, adj — Bad. 

Djulgo, adj. — Bad. 

Djulbidjulbang, subst. — Acanthiza Tiemeuensis ; brown- 
tailed wren. 

Djul-yyn, subst. — The hip-joint. 

Djunbar, subst. — A sort of gum eaten by the natives. 

Djundal, adj. — White. 

Dju-nong — Called Djung-o to the north, and Djung at King 
George's Sound — A skewer made of the small bone of the 
kangaroo's leg, and used to drill holes with ; in the butt 
end of the spear, to fit the hook of the Miro ; in the boys' 
noses, to admit the Mul-yat when they arrive at years of 
puberty ; in the kangaroo skins when sewing them together, 



DJU 32 DTA 

in order to pass the stitches through ; and sometimes it 
serves to extract teeth. 

Dju-nongdtan, verb — To drill holes. 

Djuo, subst. — Short hair on the body ; down either of birds 
or animals ; fur. 

Djuritch, subst.— CvlcvXwq metallicus; bronze cuckoo. 

Djuto, subst. — The knee. 

DoK, smS*.'.— (K.G.S.) The eyelid. 

DoLGAR, subst. — An edible gum of the Hakea. 

DoL-GYT, subst. — A marsupial animal allied to the kangaroo, 
except that it has no incisores or cutting teeth, and that 
the opening of the pouch is from below instead of from 
above. This seems to be a provision of nature suited to 
the habits of the animal, for the creature burrows in the 
ground, and it would be difficult for the young ones to seek 
shelter suddenly in the parent's pouch if it were otherwise 
formed, and which they can readily do now, though she 
should have entered her burrow ; and, also, when she 
burrows, the earth would be thrown into the pouch, if the 
opening were in the usual position. 

DoMBART, adj. — Alone ; one ; single. 

DoRDAK, adj. — Alive ; convalescent. 

DoRDAN-GAL, adj. — (Mouut dialect.) Round ; spherical ; with 
a raised surface. 

DowAK, subst. — A short heavy stick, chiefly used by the na- 
tives for knocking down Walloby and birds. It is worn 
in the girdle as the Kyli also is worn, and is often flung 
with great dexterity and precision of aim. 

DowALMAN, adj. — Pendent ; hanging down. 

DowARN, subst. — Platycercus zonarius, a parrot ; colonially 
termed Twenty-eight, from the note it utters. It can be 
taught to whistle tunes and utter several words. 

DowiR, adv. — Alwsiys ; continually. 

Dow IRE, adj. — Loose ; hanging loose ; as Katta Mangara 
dowire, the haii* of the head all hanging about the ears. 

Dta, subst. — The mouth ; the lips ; an opening. Used at 
K.G.S. figuratively, or perhaps corruptly, for To eat. 

Dtabak, adj. — Slow ; lazy ; inactive ; sluggish. 



DTA 33 DTO 

Dtabbat, verb. — Pres. part., Dtabbatin ; past tense, Dtabba- 
taga, to fall as rain ; to set as the sun ; to fall down. 

Dtagat, siibst. — The windpipe. 

Dtallajar, subst. — The north-west wind. 

Dtallang, subst. — The tongue. 

Dtallangiritch, verb. — Pres. part., Dtallangiritchin ; past 
tense, Dtallangiritchaga, to order any one away out of 
your presence. 

Dtallangyak, adj. — Jesting ; joking ; teasing (the act of). 

Dtallap, subst. — Flame — as Kalla dtallap, the flame of fire. 

Dtallar, subst. — Flame — as Kalladtallar, the flame of fire. 

Dtal-yi, subst Spittle ; froth ; foam. 

Dtal-yil, 5m65/. — (K.G.S.) A small species of fungus eaten 
by the natives. 

Dtalyilt-yugow, verb. — To lie ; to tell lies. Fortunately for 
the ends of justice, when a native is accused of any crime, 
he often acknowledges his share in the transaction with 
perfect candour, generally inculpating others by way of 
exculpating himself. Were it not for this habit, there 
would be a total failure of justice in the great majority of 
cases of aggression committed by them against the white 
people. 

Dtamel, subst. — The countenance ; literally, the mouth and 
eyes. 

Dtan, verb. — Pres. part., Dtanin ; past tense, Dtanaga. To 
pierce ; to penetrate ; to make an opening. 

Dtanbarrang-ijow, verb — To dig up ; to dig out. A com- 
pound word, signifying literally, pierce (the ground) take 
(it, whatever is dug up, in your hand), put (it on one side), 
this being an exact description of the native style of dig- 
ging- 

Dtandidin, verb — Pres. part., Dtandidinwin ; past tense, 
Dtandidinaga. To close ; stop up a gap ; to mend a hole. 

Dtardytch, subst. — The lowest of the vertebrae of the neck. 

Dtarh-ra, subst, —Small sort of knife ; the barb of a spear. 

Dta-wang, verb. — Pres. part., Dtawang-goan ; past tense, 

Dtawangagga. To yaAvn. 
Dtondarap — Proper name of one of the gi*eat families into 



DTO 34 1>UM 

which the aborigines are divided.— Matta Gyn, with the 
Ballarok and "Waddarok. See Ballarok. 

Dtowal, subst. — The thigh. 

Dtowalguorryn — The name of a dance among the Eastern 
natives, during which the muscles of the thigh are made 
to quiver in a very singular manner. A dance of this 
sort is common among the Malay girls. 

Dtul-ya, subst. — Exocarpus cupressiformis. This, with 
the By-yu and the Kolbogo, and a few other things de- 
serving no better name than berries, of no particularly 
good flavour, are all that have been yet found in the 
country in the way of fruit. 

DuBARDA, subst. — The flower of a species of Banksia which 
grows on the low grounds, and comes into flower the 
latest of all these trees. 

DiTBYT, subst. — A very venomous yellow-bellied snake, from 
five to six feet long, much dreaded, but eaten by the 
natives. 

DuuTA, subst The seed-vessel of the white gum-tree. 

DuKUN, verb — Pres. part., Dukunin ; past tense, Dukunagga. 
To light the fire for the purpose of cooking ; to put on the 
fire to be cooked. 

Bulbar, subst. — Season of bad or wet weather — as Ngannil 
dulbar mya wyerowin, we build, or are building, huts in 
Bulbar. 

BuLBO, subst. — A fine farinaceous substance eaten by the 
natives, and this is the name sometimes given by them to 
our flour. 

BuLGAR, subst. — The gum of the Hakea. Eaten by the 
natives. 

BuLURDONG, adj. — Round ; spherical ; egg-shaped. 

BuL-YA, subst. — A fog ; mist. 

BuL-YANG, verb — To visit distant tribes in search of articles 
required. 

BuMBiN, verb — Pres. part., Bumbinin ; past tense, Bumbin- 
agga. To avert or turn aside the coui'se of a spear, or 
other missile weapon, by shouting to it. Some individu- 
als are supposed to be peculiarly qualified in this way. 



DUM 35 DUR 

Also, to procure injury to any one by Boylya, or enchant- 
ment. 

DuMBU, subst. — The womb. 

DuMBUN, subst. — A cave. The only vestige of antiquity or 
art which has yet been discovered, consists of a circular 
figure rudely cut or carved into the face of a rock, in a 
cavern near York, with several impressions of open hands 
formed on the stone around it. The natives can give no 
rational account of this. They tell some fables of the 
moon having visited the cave and executed the work. 
They have little curiosity regarding it, and pay it no re- 
spect in any way. In short, it appears as if it did not 
concern them, or belong to their people. Caves with well 
executed figures, done in different colours, are said to 
have been found on the north-west coast, when visited by 
• Messrs. Grey and Lushington in 1838. This rude carving 
at York may possibly be the last trace of a greater degree 
of civilisation proceeding from the north, and becoming 
gradually more faint as it spreads to the south, till it is 
almost entirely obliterated ; or, again, it may be the only 
monument now left to speak of a former race, which has 
altogether passed away, and become superseded by another 
people. 

DuMBUNG, subst. — Xylomela occidentalis ; tiie native pear- 
tree. It bears a hard solid woody substance, which has a 
most tantalising outward I'esemblance to a good fruit. 

DuNDAK, subst. — The outskirts of a place. 

DuNGANiN, subst.— Adam's apple of the throat. 

DuN-NGOL, subst. — A very short person ; a dwarf. 

DuuANDURAN, subst. — Ptilotis ; white-eared honey-sucker. 

D-YiLLAK, subst. — A sort of coarse gi-ey granite. 

DuRDA, subst. — A dog. The native dog is a sneaking, cow- 
ardly animal, having the stealthy habits of a fox, and com- 
mitting great depredations among the sheep and poultry. 
Some are pai'tially domesticated by the natives ; but as 
they do not bark, European dogs are much more valued, 
when persons are unwise enough to give them to the 
aborigines.' 

D 2 



DUB, 36 D-YU 

DuRDiP, subst. — The seed-vessel of the Eucalypti, or gum- 
trees. 

DuRDONG, adj. — (K.G.S.) Green. 

DuRGA, iiubsi.— The north-west wind accompanied by rain. 
It blows chiefly during the winter season of Western 
Australia, from May to September. 

DuRGUL, adj. — Straight ; in a straight line. 

DuRRUNGUR — (K.G.S.) To put in a bag. 

DwoY-A, subst. — Dried leaves. 

Dy-kr, subst. — The skin of a wild dog's tail with the fur on, 
worn by the aborigines usually across the upper part of 
the forehead as an ornament. 

D-YiNDA, subst. — A species of opossum. Portions of the fur 
of this animal are worn by the aborigines among the hair 
as an ornament. 

D-YUAR, subst. — The name applied to the mode of bui'ial of 
the lowland tribes. They dig the grave east and west ; 
the body is placed on its back, the head to the east, the 
face turned on one side, so as to look to the mid-day sun ; 
the earth being thrown out in two heaps, the one at the 
head, the other at the foot.— (For the mountain manner 
of burial, see Gotyt.) — These two diff'erent modes of burial 
rigidly adhered to by a people who are now so rude, would 
point to either a descent from two different stocks origin- 
ally, or the existence at some remote period of a very dif- 
ferent state of society from that in which they are now 
found. 

D-YULAR, subst. — Cuculus ; little cuckoo. 

D-YULGYT — The name of the native dance among the eastern 
men. 

D-YUNA, subst. — A short club used by the aborigines in their 
wars and contests. 

D-YUNDO, subst. — Kernel of the Zamia nut. 

D-YUNONG, acy. — Rounded in shape; convex; opposite to Yam- 
pel. 

D-YURANGiTCH, 5W&5/.— (K.G.S.) Left arm. 

D-YURo, subst.— Leii arm. 

D.Yuwo — An exclamation of dissent ; oh no ; not so. 



37 



E. 

E, as in there, whether at the beginning, middle, or end of a 
word. — See Preface. 

EcHENNA,wrZi — Pres.part., Echennin ; past tense, Echennaga. 
To happen ; to befal — as Dtonga gori yan echennaga, what 
can have befallen, or happened, to my ears lately ; when 
a man wishes to express that he does not take in or com- 
prehend at all what you are telling him. 

Edabungur — (K.G.S.) To make a noise like thunder. 

En-gallang, verb — Pres. part., Engallangwin ; past tense, 
Engallangaga. To surround. 

Ennow, verb — Fres. part., Ennowin ; past tense, Ennaga. To 
walk ; to move. 

Enung — (Vasse.) Whose, or of whom. 

Epal— (K.G.S.) A little while ago. 

Errudu— Nyroca australis, Eyton ; white-winged duck. 

G. 

Observe — The sounds of G and K are in so many instances used 
indiscriminately, or interchangeably, that it is frequently 
diflScult to ascertain which sound predominates. The predo- 
minant sound varies in different districts. G is always 
sounded hard. 
Gabbar, adj. — Wide. 
Gabbarn, subst. — Part of the body immediately below the 

navel ; the abdomen. 
Gabbi, subst. — Water. 
Gabbidjikup, subst. — Fresh water. 

Gabbi Kallangorong, subst. — Hirundo ; the martin. The 
Australian name of this bird appears to be derived from 
Gabbi, water ; Kalian, to collect ; and Gorang, to turn or 
twist ; birds of this order being remarkable for their sud- 
den and active turnings in pursuit of their insect prey 
over the water. 
Gabbikarning, subst. — Salt water, such as is found in lakes 

and rivers. 
Gabbikolo, subst. — Running water. 



GAB 38 GAN 

Gabbilang, adj. — Of or belonging to water. Spoken of fish 
and amphibious animals. From Gabbi, water ; and ang, 
of, 1 being interposed for sound's sake. 

Gabbiodern, subst. — Sea- water. 

Gabbiwarri, subst. — Water standing in a pool. 

Gabbyn, adv. — Perhaps ; likely ; it may be so. 

Gabbytch, subst. — (Vasse.) Running water. 

Ga-dak, adj. — Never used except in composition ; having ; 
possessing — as Warda gadak, having fame ; a man of re- 
nown or authority. 

Gaddara, sm65<. — Biziura lobata ; the musk-duck. Colonially, 
steamer, from its paddling motion, and the noise it makes 
as it shuffles along the water, with its diminutive wings or 
flappers. This bird cannot fly. 

Gadjinnak, sw6s; — Rhipiduraalbiscapa;fan.tailed fly-catcher. 

Gagalyang, subst. — A sort of whinstone or basalt. 

Galgoyl, 57^55^— Species of Xanthorea, or grass-tree. 

Gal-yang, subst. — Species of Acacia. Colonially, the wattle- 
tree, from its partial resemblance to the wattle or osier- 
tree of England. 

Gal-yang, subst. — The gum of the Galyang, or wattle-tree, 
eaten by the natives. It is soluble in water, and is one of 
the best gums in the country for all common purposes. 

Gal-yarn, subst. — (Eastern word.) Salt. It is abundant in 
many places. See Djallum. 

Gambarang, subst. — Beginning of summer — October and 
November. The natives leave off building huts about 
this time. Young birds begin to be plentiful. 

Gambarn, verb. •% Pres. part., Gambarnin ; past tense, Gam- 

Gamb arnbardo ^ barnagga. To associate with ; to accompany. 

Gambart, subst. — A niece. 

Gambigorn, subst. — Podargus Cuvieri ; large or hawk goat- 
sucker. The moss-hawk of V. D. Land. 

Gamo, subst. — A large flag leaved plant, something like the 
New Zealand flag. Phormium teuax sp. 

Gande, subst. — A sort of slate-stone. 

Gang-a-nginnow, verb — To take a person as a friend or ser- 
vant to live with you. 



GAN 39 GAR 

Gangow, verb — Pres. part., Gangowin ; past tense, Gangaga. 

To bring ; to carry ; to fetch ; to take. 
Ganno, subst. — A root found at York, eaten by the natives, 
and resembling a potatoe in shape. Sp. Nov. nondescript, 
growing in poor, dry, gravelly soil. 
Gannow, verb — Pres. part., Gannowin j past tense, Gann&ga* 

To step ; to kick. 
Garba, subsi. — A piece of wood ; branch of a tree broken off. 
Matta garba ; stick or wooden legs, is a term of reproach. 
Garbala — The afternoon ; the evening ; towards sunset. 
Garbang, verb — Pres. part., Garbangwin ; past tense, Gar- 

bangaga. To scrape a spear ; to point by scraping. 
Garbang-a, subst. — Large black cormorant. 
Garbel, adj. — Scraped ; pointed, but not barbed ; applied to 
spears— as Gidji garbel, a fishing spear. The point of the 
spear is hardened by fire, and scraped off to a degree of 
sharpness which is scarcely credible. 
Garbyne, subst. — A large flag-like grass growing in the low 
grounds, very stiff, and apt to cut the natives' legs, and, 
therefore, much avoided by them when out hunting. 
Gardan, subst. — Eucalyptus resinifei'a ; red gum-tree, so 
called from the quantity of gum -resin of a deep coagulated 
blood colour, which exudes, during particular months in 
the year, through the bark. It is a valuable timber on a 
farm, as it splits well for posts and rails, and is useful for all 
agi'icultural implements. It grows generally on good red 
loamy soil. In the hot summer months a sweet saccharine 
juice exudes plentifully from some trees of this sort, which 
the natives call by the same name which they apply to our 
sugar. See Ngon-yang. 
Gardang, subst. — Younger brother. 

Gargan, verb — Pres. part., Garganwin ; past tense, Gargan- 
aga. To light down ; to pitch ; to alight as a bird on the 
ground. 
Gargoin, subst. — The stone of the Zamia fruit. The outer 
rind is edible after being steeped in water or buried in 
moist earth for a time ; but the kernel is considered un- 
wholesome by some persons. 



GAR 40 GID 

Gar-jyx, subst. — A flowing spring — as Gabbi garjyt, running 
water. 

Garlgyte, subsi. — Hypsiprymnus Gilbertii. A species of 
kangaroo. 

Garrab, subst. — A hole ; a hollow ; a cane. 

Garrabara, adj. — Full of holes ; pierced with holes. 

Garragar, adj. — (Upper Swan word.) Slippery. 

Garrang, subst. — Anger ; passion ; rage. 

Garranggadak, verb — To be angry. 

Garraning, verb — (Upper Swan.) Restraining a man in a 
passion. See Wungart. 

Garrap, subst. — Marrow. 

Garrimbi, subst About sunset. 

Garro, adv. — Again ; then. 

Garro-djin, imp. verb — Look out ; mind ; take care. Com- 
pounded of Garro, again ; and Djinnang, to see ; look. 

Garro-yul, verb — To return. Compound of GaiTO, again ; 
and Yul, to come. 

Gedala, subst.— (Vasse.) A day. 

Gelangin, subst. — Lightning. (Northern word.) 

Gerik, subst. — Smoke. 

Geripgerip, adj. — Green. 

Getget, adv. — Quickly ; speedily. 

Gi-aterbat, subst. — Gerygone brevirostris. Short-billed wren. 

GiDji, subst. — A spear. The common native spear is fur- 
nished with a wooden barb, and pointed like a needle. 
The shaft is very slender and tapering, about eight feet in 
length. This has been found, by experience, to be a much 
more formidable and deadly weapon than its first appear- 
ance would lead one to suppose. It is projected by means 
of the Miro ; which see. 

GiDGiBORYL, subst. — A spcar, barbed with broken bits of 
quartz,' or glass, which cuts like a rough saw, and is much 
dreaded on account of the ragged wound which it inflicts. 

GiDGiGARBEL, subst. — Fishiug spear. In the use of this the 
natives are extremely active and expert. They have no 
other mode of taking fish in the sea ; but in rivers they 
construct rude wears. 



GIR 41 GOT 

GiRGAL, subst. — Sericornis frontalis. Spotted winged warbler. 

GiRiJiT, subst. — Sparks ; Kallagirijit, sparks of fire. 

GoA, verb — Pres. part., Goawin ; past tense, Go-aga. To 
laugh .>^ 

GoBUL, subsl. — A young frog whilst in a tadpole state. 

GoDOiTCHj subst. — One of the constellations. 

GoGOGO, subs t.—Fhsilacrocorax flavirhyncus. Little cormoran t. 

GoNGAN, subst. — A sandy district. The easiest road, or usual 
path, or mountain pass to a place. 

GoNG-GO, subst — The back. 

GoRAD, adj. — Short ; stunted. 

GoRADA, adj. — Little ; short. 

GouADAN, verb — Make short ; shorten. 

GoRAH, adv. — A long time ago. The opposite to " Mila." 
Some future time. 

Goran, verb — To scold ; to abuse. 

GoRANG, verb — Pres. part., Gorangwin ; past tense, Gorang- 
aga ; to spin ; to turn round ; — as Kumalgorang, to spin 
opossum's hair ; which is done by twirling a sort of cross- 
shaped spindle on the thigh, the fur or thread being at- 
tached to the head, while the shaft is turned by the hand. 

GoRi, adv. — Just now ; lately. 

GoRiJAT, adv. — First ; before. 

GoTANG, verb— Vres. part., Gotang ; past tense, Gotang ; to 
bag ; to carry in a bag. 

GoTiTKAR — (K.G.S.) A nephew. 

Goto, subst. — A bag. Every woman is provided with two 
bags of kangaroo skin. The Goto and the Gundir, each 
about two feet deep, and a foot and a half broad. The Goto 
is the general receptacle for every small article which the 
wife or husband may require, or take a fancy to, what- 
ever its nature or condition may be. Fish just caught, or 
dry bread ; frogs, roots, and wilgi, are all there mingled 
together. (For Gundir, the child's bag, see that word. ) 

GoTYN, subst. — A hollow or swamp with a little water. 

GoTYT, subst. — The name applied to the mode of burial among 
the mountain tribes. The grave is dug north and south ; 
the body placed on the right side, with the head to the 



GOY 42 GUL 

south ; the face looking to the rising sun ; the earth formed 
into one crescent-like mound on the west side of the grave. 
See D-yuar. 

GoYARRA, sttiiY, — Sand. A great extent of country is co- 
vered either with silicious or calcareous sand, which 
possesses greater fertility than was at first supposed, and is 
becoming more valued as its qualities are better known. 

GuBA, subst. — Petroica multicolor. Colonial robin. Some- 
thing like the English robin in appearance, but wholly 
without its song or familiar habits. 

GuDAP, subst. — Aquila. Short-tailed brown eagle. 

GuDDANGUDDAN, subsf. — Platyccrcus Icterotis. Red-breasted 
parrot. 

GuDiLANG, subst. — Colluriciucla. Grey thrush. 

GuDjA, subst. — An infant. 

GuDJA-iJow, verb — To bear children. 

GuDJAL — Numeral ; two. 

GuDJALiNGUDJALiN — Numeral ; four. 

GuDJARRA, subst. — A spccics of frog. 

GuDJELAN, subst. — A spccics of hawk. 

GuDJiR, conj. — Also ; and. 

GuDJUNANGUR — (K.G.S.) To dread. 

GuDJYT, subst. — The sky ; the firmament. 

GuGUMiT, subst. — A small brown owl, the note of which re- 
sembles the cuckoo when heard at a distance. 

GuLAMBiDDi, subst. — A youug man. About the age of pu- 
berty the cartilage of the nose is pierced with a spear, and 
a bone skewer is worn in the hole as an ornament. The 
cartilage is sometimes ruptured in the operation. 

GuLAMWiN, subst. — The sea-breeze. This commences about 
ten every morning in summer, with few exceptions, and 
tempers the heat of the day. 

GuLANG, subst. — A child of either sex. Plural. Gulang-ara. 
The sex is indicated by adding Yago, or Mammarap, a 
man or woman child. 

GuLANG-iN, part Chewing ; mumbling. 

GuLANG-GARA, subst. — The small toes, as distinguished from 
the large one j the children ; the little ones. 



GUL 43 GU L 

GuLBANG, verb — (North word.) Pres. part., Gulbangwin ; 
past tense, Gulbangagga ; to move ; to go ; to proceed. 

GuLBAR, adj. — Dry ; parched up ; as ground unfit for hunting, 
and not carrying scent. 

GuLBAT, verb — (North word.) Pres. part., Gulbattin ; past 
tense, Gtilbat ; to go ; to depart. 

GuLDANGULDAN, subst. — Platyccrcus Icterotis ; red-breasted 
parrot. 

GuLiN, verb — Pres. part., GuIHniu ; past tense, GuUinagga ; 
to he ; to tell lies. 

GuiJAK, subst. — Black swan. This bird may be readily taken 
when moulting, and soon becomes tame. 

GuLLi, subst. — A species of Casuarina ; colonially, the she- 
oak. It splits well for shingles. 

GuLLiMA, stibst. — Poi'phyrio. Swamp hen ; or swamp phea- 
sant. 

GuLOYN, subst. — Youngest brother or sister, or son ; also the 
little finger. 

GuLUJiBURiN, adj. — Being shy, or timid. This word is, per- 
haps, derived from Gulang, a child, and Bur, or Burbur, 
similar to, resembling. 

GuLURTO, subst. — Colonially, flooded gum-ti-ee ; so called 
from being found usually in ground liable to be covered 
with water. It is very attractive to the white ants ; and, 
consequently, unfit for posts, or anything resting on the 
ground. 

GvLVT, verb — (East-country word.) Pres. part., Gulutin ; 
past tense, Gulut ; to go ; to depart. 

GuL-YAM, verb— Pres. part., Gulyaman ; past tense, Gulya- 
magga ; to lie ; to tell lies. This is a term of frequent use 
in objurgation among one another. 

GuL-YAMBAR, subst. — A Complete fraud, a mere pretence ; 
used on receiving, for instance, a very small quantity of 
food, when much has been expected. 

GuL YANG-ARRA, subst. — Crumbs of bread ; bits of anything ; 
roots when pounded ; sugar when melted ; the fi'y of fish. 

Gui.-YARRi, subst. — A sorcerer. Boyl-ya Gadak, 

GuL-YiDARANG, subst. — Nauodes vemistus. Ground parrot. 



GUM 44 GUN 

GuMAL, subst. — Phalangista vulpina. Large grey opossum. 

GuMALBiDYT, subst. — Sittella Melanocephala. Nut-hatch, 

GuMBAR, adj. — Big ; heavy. 

Gambu, subst. — The bladder. 

GuMBU, verb — To make water. The females strew rushes or 
grass-tree leaves on the ground, as it is considered un- 
lucky, or rather likely to produce sickness, to tread on the 
bare earth where they have been. 

GuMBURGUMBUR, subst. — The itch. A complaint which is 
sometimes very prevalent among them. 

GunabXl, adj. — Deprived of ; having lost a brother by death. 
An expression used in reply to the question, why is such 
a one in mourning ? 

GuNAL-YATA, adj. — Succcssful in killing game. 

GuNAM, subst. — An expert marksman. 

GuNDAK, adj. — A husband who has lost his wife's brother by 
death, is said to be Gundak. 

GuNDip, adj. — Heavy. 

Gu>DiR, subst. — A bag of kangaroo skin, about two feet long, 
by a foot and a half wide, suspended by a piece of leather 
over the mother's shoulders, and in which the children are 
carried when not at the breast, from their earliest birth 
until they are four or even six years old, up to which 
period the women sometimes suckle their children. The 
little things are placed standing upright in these bags ; 
and this may partially account for the thin knock-kneed 
legs of most of the aborigines when grown up. The in- 
fants cling with their hands, as well as they are able, to the 
mother's neck and shoulders ; and when sleeping, they 
rest with their noses pressing against the mother's back, 
from which, perhaps, that feature takes its broad flat 
shape ; or else with their heads leaning back, and dangling 
to the parent's motions, in a way that would break any 
white child's neck, 

GuNiDi, subst. — The swallow, or passage of the throat. 

GuNiNG, adj. — Stingy ; unwilling to give. 

GuN-YAK,arf/. — Soft; smooth; as Yurytchgunyak, soft-cheeked. 

GuN-YAN, subst. — The palate. A native will not eat tainted 



GUP 45 GUR 

meat, although he cannot be said to be very nice in his 

food, according to our ideas. Their meat is cooked almost 

as soon as killed, and eaten immediately. 
Gup — An affix to the name of any place or district, implying 

a person to be an inhabitant of the same ; as Kargatta 

Gup, an inhabitant of Kargatta, or Perth, 
GuRAGA, subst. — Tadorma, the mountain- duck. 
GuRAGO, subst. — A root eaten by the natives. 
GuRAGOR, adj. — Old ; aged. The word is formed by a repe- 
tition of Gorah. Some time ago ; as though it were written 

Gorahgorah ; and is applied equally to persons and things. 

It is difficult to ascertain the age of a native ; but old age 

is not frequent. 
GuRANG, subst. — The excrement of the wattle-tree Bardi, or 

grub ; which oozes from under the bark of the appearance 

and consistence of clear gum. 
GuRBAL, subst. — Cracticus tibicen ? Break-of-day-bird ; the 

watchman of Van Diemen's Land. From the topmost 

bough of a tree it heralds the dawn with a note by no 

means unmusical. 
GuRBiTGURBiT, subst. — Falcuuculus Icucogastcr, Thick -billed 

butcher-bird. 
GuRDAKj adj. — Of or belonging to the heart ; anxious for ; 

desirous of ; as Gabbi gurdak. Thirsty ; desirous of 

water. 
GuRDiN, adj. — Crooked ; curled ; as Katta gurdin nginnowin ; 

the head being curled ; or the hair curlmg about the head. 
GuRDAR, subst. — A pair ; a couple. 
GuRDOR, subst. — Sound ; noise. 
GuRDU, subst. — The heart. The combinations of this word 

express many of the feelings. (See some of them 

below.) 
GuRDUBAKKAN-YUGOw, Verb — To Want ; as Ngadjo marynak 

gurdu bakkanyugowin, I want flour or food. 
GuRDUBUDJOR, subst. — Compound of Gurdu, the heart, and 

Budjor, land ; an island. 
GuRDUDJUL, adj. — Compound of Gurdu, the heart, and Djul, 

bad ; angry ; displeased ; disappointed. 



GUR 46 GU-Y 

GuRDUGWABBA, adj. — Compound of Gurdu, the heart, and 

Gwabba, good ; pleased. 
GuRDUGYN-YUL, adj. — Compouud of Gux'du, the heart ; Gyn, 

one ; and Yul, to come ; agreeing with ; of one heart or 

mind ; unanimous. 
GuRDUMiT, subst. — Compound of Gurdu, the heart, and 

middi, the agent ; the soul. 
GuRGOGO, subst. — A species of rush. Rushes in general 

growing in or near water. 
GuRGURDA, subst. — Strix. Little brown or cuckoo owl. 
GuRi, subst. — Milk from a woman's breast. 
GuRJiGURJi, subst. — Salicaria. The reed- warbler. 
GuRNU, verb — Pres. part., Gurnu ; past tense, Gurnu. To 

push ; to shove away. 
GuROYL, suhst. — (Used to the north of Perth.) A swan. 
GuRH-RA, subst. — Macropus cseruleus. The brush kangaroo. 

A very fleet, active animal, of about twenty pounds' weight, 

having fur of a silver grey colour, with a white stripe on 

each side of its face. 
GuRH-JAL, adj. — Cool. 
GuRT, suhst An abbreviation of Gurdu ; the heart. In other 

dialects called Gort. See Preface. 
GuRTANGUR — (K.G.S.) To howl with fear. 
GuRTDUN— (K.G.S.) The heel. 
GuRTGADAK, adj. — Compouud of Gurt, the heart ; and Gadak, 

having or possessing ; a lover. 
GuRUK — (K.G.S.) A species of mimosa. 
Gut— (K.G.S.) To beg. 
GuTiGUTi, adj. — Slyly ; noiselessly ; as Guti gannow, to steal 

on anything, 
GuTUBAN, subst. — Chalcites. The bronze-cuckoo. 
Gu-YA, or Goya, subst. — A species of frog that burrows in the 

sand, and is eaten by the natives. It is in season in the 
' months of April and May. 
Gu-YALLA, subst. — A spccies of gadfly. 
Gu-yamgu-yam, subst. — A species of fly. 
Gu-Yi, subst. — The abdomen ; the part directly above the 

groin. 



GWA 47 IJA 

GwA — Yes. 

GwABBA, adj. — Good ; pretty ; right ; proper ; well in health. 
GwABBALiTCH, adj. — Beautiful ; excellent ; very good ; as, 

minyte gwabbaliteh, a beautiful countenance. 
GwABBANiJow, verb — Compound of Gwabba, I'ight, good, 

and ijow, to put ; to put in order. 
GwADJAT, adj. — Previous ; fii'st in order ; before. 
GwARDYN, subst. — A root eaten by the natives ; it somewhat 

resembles the Bohn, but is tougher and more stringy. 
GwARDO, verb — Pres. part,, Gwardin ; past tense, Gwardagga ; 

to throw ; to cast ; to fall ; to die. 
GwART, verb — Abbreviation of Gwardo. To throw ; to cast. 
GwELGANNOw, verb — Compounded of Gwel, and Gannow ; to 

step ; to shift the position ; to avoid a spear by stepping on 

one side. 
GwENDE, subst. — (Mountain dialect.) The Bandicoot 

Kundi. 

GwETALBAR, subst Falco Melanogenys. Peregrine falcon. 

GwiNEEN— (K.G.S.) The common stock of food. 
GwiRAK, sm6«^— Sinews. The dried sinews of the kangaroo, 
^ particularly those of the tail, used by the natives in the 

operation of sewing the kangaroo skins together to form 

their cloaks. 
GwoYRAT, subst. — A daughter. 
GwYTCH, adv. — Just now ; at once ; immediately. 
GwYTCH-ANG-AT, adj. — First ; before. 
Gyn, adj. — One. 

Gyn-yak, adv. — Enough ; sufficient. 
Gyn-yang, adv. — Once. 

I. (Sounded as in Fatigue. See Preface.) 
Idal-ya, feathers. 

Idi-yal, pron. — (Vasse dialect.) I myself. See Ngadjul. 
Igan, verb. — Pres. part., Igan; past tense, Igan. To alai^m ; 

to disturb ; to drive. 
I-i, adv. — Yes ; sign of assent ; pronounced gutturally with 

the lips nearly closed, and the chin projected forwards. 
I J AN, veri— To mock ; to make game of. 



IfA 48 IRA 

I JARAP, subst. — The snapper-fish, caught in great abundance 

on banks or shoals near the coast. 
Ijow, verb — Pres. part., Ijowin ; past tense, Ijaga. To place ; 

to put ; to produce, as animals their young, a tree its 

fruit, a hen her eggs. 
Ilakilak, adv. — At once ; immediately. 
Ilar, adj. — Dry ; not wet. 
Ilyn, aubst. — Flesh ; muscle. 
Ilyn-gadak, crc?/. — Stout ; fleshy. 
Il-yan, part. — Obscured, as a ti'ack, or steps, which one is 

desirous of following up ; also as a person's voice may bo 

drowned or obscured, by others talking purposely loud, 

and hindering what is said from being heard. 
Il-yanok — Local name of one of the family denominations. 
Inbi, subst. — A species of Unio ; the fresh- water muscle. 
Indat, adv. — Together ; in company. 
Indi, pron. — (Vasse dialect.) Who ; the same as Ngando. 
Initch— (K.G.S.) A brilliant fire. 
Injal, ado. — A form of Winjal ; where. 
Injar, adj. — Dry ; parched up. 
Injaran, verb — Pres. part., Injarannin ; past tense, Injara- 

naga. To make dry. 
Injaranan, verb — To dry up. 
Inji, adv. — A form of Wingi ; where. 

Inji, subst. — The peeled ornamental sticks worn by the na- 
tives at the Yallor, or native dance. 
Inyene, adv. — (Vasse.) Here. 
Ira, adj. — Upright ; upwards. 
Ira, adv. — Up. Applied to going to a place, " up the 

country." 
Irab, verb — Pres. part., Irabin ; past tense, Irabin. To 

arise ; to get up. Compounded of Ira, upright, and Ab- 

bin, to become. 
I rap, verb — Arise ; get up. 
Ira-yugow, rerj— Stand up. 
Ira-yugowin, subst.— The lower teeth ; so called from their 

standing upright. Compounded of Ira, upright, aud 

Yugowin, standing. 



Irilbarra, subst. — Ice. Glass is now so called. 

Iring-win, part. — Fi'owning. 

Irodu, subst. — Nyroca australis. White-winged duck. 

Irrgo, subst. — A small white bivalve shell ; used by the na- 
tives for sharpening their spears when they cannot pro- 
cure glass. 

J. 

Jadam, adj. — (Vasse.) Hard ; dry. 

Jakkal-yakkal, subst. — Plyctolophus Leadbeteri. Pink- 
crested cockatoo. There is generally abundance of salt 
in the districts frequented by these birds. 

Jandu, subst, — Haliseetus canorus. Little eagle. 

Janjin, subst. — Xylomela occidentalis. The native pear-tree. 
It bears a thing which looks provokingly like a good fruit ; 
but is merely a hard solid woody substance, which when 
ripe splits open, and lets drop out a small thin winged 
seed. 

Jeran, verb — Pres. part., Jeranin ; past tense, Jeranagga. 
To tear ; to sepai*ate violently ; to sur^-der. 

Jerung — (K.G.S.) Grease ; fat ; handsome. 

Jetta, subst. — The root of a species of rush, eaten by the na- 
tives, in season in June. It somewhat resembles a grain 
of Indian corn, both in appearance and taste. 

Jextyl, stibst. — A grasshopper. This insect is very numer- 
ous, and multiplies rapidly. It has' been observed that in 
districts where the vegetation has not been burned for 
some years, they increase so much, as to threaten serious 
mischief to the pastures. 

JiDA, subst. — Acanthiza chrysorrhoea. Brown-tailed wren. 
General name for a small bird. 

JiD-AMY-A, subst. — Bird's nest. 

JiDi, subst. — A shower. 

JiDYT, adj. — Innocent. Not implicated in the quarrel be- 
tween two parties, though related to both. Neutral. 

JiJA, subst. — (Vasse dialect.) The ear. 

JiL — The adjective superlative termination ; as Gwabbcojil ; 
very good. 



JIL 50 JIR 

JiLBA, subst.— The spring ; August and September. Djubak 
is now in season. It precedes Kambarang, and is fol- 
lowed by Magguru. See Burnuro. 

JiLBA, subst. — Vegetation. Any vegetables not eaten by the 
aborigines. 

JiLi, subst. — Outer pinion of a wing. 

JiLLAP, adj. — Sharp ; having a fine point ; as Gidji Jillap, a 
spear sharp pointed. 

JiLLiJiLLi, subst. — Accipiter torquatus, sparrow-hawk. 

JiLLi-MiL-YAN, subst. — Ardea, green-backed crane. 

JiL-YiNG — (K.G.S.) Emu feathers worn as an ornament. 

Jin, conj. — As ; like. 

JiNARARRA, subst. — A lizard. 

JiNATONG, subst. — Young grass. 

JiNDAM, subst. — The eldest sister. ' 

JiNDANG, subst. — The name of a star. 

JiNDi, subst. — A fog ; mist ; dew. 

JiNDo, adj. — Mel Jindo, sharp-eyed. 

JiNGALA, subst. — Long Ornamented sticks worn in the hair of 
the performers at the Yallor, or native dance. Hence 
this word has come to mean Horns. 

JiNGALAGADAK, subst. — A COW ; literally, the horn-possessor. 

JiNGAN, verb — To scrape in order to sharpen a spear, &c. 

Si^i^, subst. — (K.G.S.) A species of sword-fish. 

JiNNA, subst. — The foot. 

JiNNAGUR, subst. —iLlie toos. 

JiNNAGABBARN, Subst. Solc of the foot. 

JiNNAMAMMAN, subst. — The great toe ; literally, the father of 

the foot. 
JiNNANG-AK, subst. — A traveller, 
JiNNANG-ANJO, subst. — English boots or shoes. 
JiNNARA, subst Feet ; roots of trees ; Burnojinnara, stump 

of a tree including the roots. 
JiNNARDo, subst. — The ankle ; sometimes the heel. 
JiNNi, subst. — The brown tree-creeper. 
Jipjip, subst. — The itch. See Gumburgumbnr. 
JiRi, «m6a'^.— Estrilda. Spotted finch. 
JiRJiL-YA, subst, — Stipiturus Malachurus. The Emu wren, 



JIX 51 KAA 

a very small bird, having a long tail with feathers like 
those of the Emu. 

Jit— (K.G.S.) A hole. 

JiTALBARRA, subsi. — A chap in the skin ; a crack in the bark 
of a tree. 

JiTETGORAN, subst. — A root eaten by the natives. 

JiTip, subst. — Sparks ; as Kalla Jitip, sparks of fire. 

JiTTA, subst. — The bulbous root of an orchis, eaten by the 
natives, about the size of a hazel-nut. 

JiTTi-NGAT, subst. — Seisura volitans. Glossy fly-catcher. 

JoRANG, subst. — A small sort of lizard. 

Jow-YN, subst. — Short hair on the body ; fur of animals. 

JuLAGOLiNG, subst. — Name of the planet Venus. She is de- 
scribed as a very pretty young woman, powerful in witch- 
craft. A singular, if fortuitous, coincidence with her 
classical chai'acter. 

JuLWiDiLANG, subst. — Zostcrops dorsalis? Grape-eater, or 
white eye. 

JuwuL, subst. — (K.G.S.) The short stick which they throw 
at animals. 

K. 

Observe — The sounds of K and G are in so many instances 
used indiscriminately or interchangeably, that it is diflBcult 
to distinguish frequently which sound predominates. The 
predominant sound varies in different districts ; as Katta, 
Gatta, &c. See the Preface. 
Ka, adv. — Or. 

Kaa, arfv.— (K.G.S.) Enough. 

Kaabo, subst. — A battue of kangaroo. A word denoting that 
a number of people are going together to hunt kangaroo ; 
as Ngalata watto Kaabo, we three go away to hunt kan- 
garoo. A number of persons form a wide circle, which 
they gradually contract, till they completely enclose and 
hem in their game, when they attack it with their spears. 
But a single hunter creeps upon his game, concealing 
himself with a branch which he carries for the purpose, 
till he comes within a short spear-throw. 
e2 



KAB 52 KAL 

Kababda, subsL — A species of snake, cream-coloured with 
dark spots. It is considei'ed deadly, and is much dreaded 
by the natives ; but although several dogs have died sud- 
denly from the bite of a snake, no white person has 
hitherto suffered more than a slight inconvenience from 
temporary pain and swelling of the limb affected. 

Kabbar, adj. — Bleak ; exposed. 

Kaddar, subst. — Large black lizard. 

Kadjin, subst. — Soul ; spirit. The form which rises after 
death, and goes over the sea to the island of souls, 

Kadjo, subst. — A native hammer, broad and blunt at one 
end, and sharp-edged at the other ; formed of two pieces 
of whinstone, cemented on to a short thick stick, by means 
of the Tudibi, or prepared Xanthorea gum. 

Kadjo, subst The strong gum or resin used for fixing on 

the heads of the hammers ; it is obtained from the Barro, 
or tough-topped Xanthorea. 

Kadjor, subst. — Basalt ; whinstone ; probably from being 
used for tlie head of the Kadjo. The decomposition of 
this stone forms a fine rich dark-red loam. Veins of 
whinstone are found intersecting the granite from east 
to west. There is a formation of Columnar Basalt, just 
to the south of Point Casuarina, at Koombana Bay, not 
far from the new town of Australind ; and it is mentioned 
in M. Pei'on's work, as existing somewhere in the south- 
ern bight of Geographe Bay, but has not been seen there 
by any of the <?olonists. For geological description, see 
Sope. 

Kaddang — Ignorant ; not understanding. 

Kaggal, subst. — The east. (Northern dialect.) See Kangal. 

Kaggarak, subst. — The name of the native dance among the 
southern men. 

Kainbil— (K.G.S ) The dead. 

Kakam, subst. — The rump ; as Kakam Kotye, bone-rumped. 
A term of reproach. 

Kakur, ««6.s/.— (K.G.S.) The east. 

Kalbyn, verb. — Pres. part., Kalbynan ; past tense, Kalbyn- 
agga ; to exercise some charm or enchantment, so as to 



KAL 53 KAL 

Still the wind if necessary : or to raise wind ; to procure 
rain in order to annoy an enemy. To a people living 
so shelterless and unprotected as the aborigines of Aus- 
tralia, nothing is more annoying than bad weather. 

Kaldar, subst. — The green Iguana. 

Kalga., subst. — A crook. A stick with a crook at one end, 
used for pulling down the Mangyt, or Banksia flowers. 
Mangyt Barraugmidi, the instrument or agent for pro- 
curing the Mangyt. 

Kalga, subsi. — Eurostopodus. The goat-sucker. 

Kalgonak, subst. — (K.G.S.) A species of frog. 

Kalgong — Satin-bird , 

KxLGyT,subst. — The Xanthorea flower- stem ; orany other stick 
fitted for building huts with. 

Kali, subst. — Podiceps cristatus* Grebe. Crested Grebe. 

Kaling, verb — Pres. part , Kalingwin ; past tense, Kalingaga. 
To sweep the earth with boughs. 

Kaljirgang, subst — Tan. A sea-swallow. 

Kalkada, subst. — (Mugil ) The mullet-fish. Great heaps 
of this and the herring-fish were thrown up dead in the 
summer of 1841, in one day, in the I'iver at Guildford. 
The cause was not known, but it was attributed to some 
volcanic action along the bed of the river, or eruption of 
mephitic gas. 

Kalla, subst. — Fire ; a fire ; (figuratively) an individual's 
district ; a property m land ; temporary resting-place. 
Wingi Kalla, meaning, where are you staying just now 1 

Kallabidyl, subst. — Charcoal embers ; dead coals. 

Kallabudjor, subst. — Property in land. 

Kalla-inak, subst. — Embers ; cinders. 

Kallak, adj. — Hot ; burning ; fiery. 

Kallama, adj. — (Derivative evidently from Kalla, fire.) 
Bright yellow. 

Kallamatta, subst. — (Compound of Kalla, fire ; and Matta, a 
leg.) Firestick ; firebrand. 

Kallang, adj. — Warm, applied to water ; Gabby Kallang, 
water standing in the hole of a rock, and therefore warm 
at any season under an Australian sun j water at the 



KAL 54 KA.N 

edges of lakes in the summer season. It is a very re- 
markable fact in the history of mankind, that a people 
should be found now to exist, without any means of heat- 
ing water, or cooking liquid food ; or, in short, without 
any culinary utensil or device of any sort. Their only 
mode of cooking was to put the food into the fire, or roast 
it in the embers or hot ashes ; small fish or frogs being 
sometimes first wrapped in a piece of paper-tree bai'k. 
Such was their state when we came among them. They 
are now extremely fond of soup and tea. 

Kallangkallang, adj Burning hot ; from Kalla, fire, and 

Ang, of. 

Kallang, verb — Pres. part., Kallangwin ; past tense, Kal- 
langagga. To collect sticks for a fire. 

Kallar, adj. — Deadly ; mortal. 

Kallarak, adj. — Hot ; warm. 

Kallardtan, verb — To wound mortally. 

Kallili, subst. — Formica maxima. The lion-ant, nearly 
an inch and a half long, having very sharp mandibles, and 
a formidable sting, which produces very acute pain. 

Kallip, adj. — Denoting a knowledge of localities ; familiar 
acquaintance with a range of country, or with individuals. 
Also used to express property in land ; as Ngan-na Kal- 
lip, my land. 

Kal-ya, subst. — Chorizema cordifolia. A plant. 

Kal-yaqal, adv. — Always ; ever ; continually. 

Kamak, subst. — A small kind of Kuruba, found in the York 
district. 

Kambar, subst. — Incisores, or cutting-teeth of the large 
kangaroo ; one of these is sometimes inserted into the 
end of the Miro, or spear-thi'owing board, for the 
purpose of scraping anything with, as the points of the 
spears, &c. 

Kambart — A niece. See Gambart. 

Kammajar, adj. — Green. 

Kanangur, adj.— (K.G.S.) Adorned ; shming. 

Kanba, subst.— The wing of a bird ; gill of a fish. 

Kanbarra, subst, — Scolopeudra, a centipede. Although nu- 



KAN 55 KAR 

merous they are not dreaded. I have not heard of any 
person suffering from their bite. 

Kanbigur, subst. —(K.G.S.) The eyelash. 

Kandi, verb — To creep ; to sidle along ; to steal on game. 

Kandal-yang, adj. — Heavy. 

Kandang, verb — Pres. part., Kandangwin ; past tense, Kan- 
dang-agga. To vomit ; to spew. 

Kangal — The east ; or, more properly, the spot of sun-rising, 
as it varies with the sun throughout the year. 

Kangarong-a, subst. — (Used on the Murray and Serpentine 
rivers, south of Perth.) Female kangaroo. Probably the 
proper sound is Yangorgnanga, from Yangor, a Kanga- 
roo, and Ngangan, mother. Mother of kangaroo. 

Range, adj.— (K.G.S.) Straight. 

Kang-innak, subst. — Halcyon sanctus. Species of kingfisher. 
This bird has been seen in the interior, in districts where 
neither lakes nor rivers were found. 

Kangun, sm6s/.— Uncle ; father-in-law. 

Kangur, subst. — (K.G.S.) A species of fly ; also a native 
dance. 

Kannah, interject. — Is it so ? Eh ? Verily ? Do you under- 
stand ? An interrogative particle, used at the end of a 
sentence requiring assent or reply to a remark. The only 
mode of asking a question is to affirm or assume a fact, 
then add Kannah 1 Is it so, or not ? from Ka, or. 

Kannahjil, interjec. — A more intensitive form of expression 
than the preceding, indicating. Is it true 1 Do you really 
speak the truth ? 

Kannamit, subst. — Hirundo. The swallow. Very like the 
English house-swallow. It builds in hollow trees, or 
sometimes now under the eaves of houses. 

Kanning — The south. 

Kapbur, subst. — Jacksonia Sternbergiana. One of the 
dullest and most melancholy foliaged trees in Australia. 
It has an unpleasant smell in burning, from which it is 
frequently called stinkwood, as in Africa also. Horses, 
sheep, and goats eat the leaves with avidity. 

Kara, subst. — A spider. Some kinds spin a very strong silk- 



KAR 56 KAR 

like thread, which offers a sensible resistance as you pass 
through the bush. 

Karak, subst. — Calyptorhyncus fulgidus. The red-tailed 
black cockatoo. The males have their tails barred, the 
females spotted, with red. 

Karal-ya, subst. — A fish colonially called the cobbler. The 
natives spear them in the shallow salt water. 

Karamb, adv. — Formerly ; any time past. 

Karbarra, subst. — Fern. 

Karda, subst. — Part ; portion ; generally half. (South word.) 
A very large species of lizard. 

Kardaborn, verb — To cut right through ; from Karda, and 
Born, to cut. 

Kardagor, prep. — Between ; amongst. 

Kardagut, subst.— {K.G.S.) A species of ant. 

Kardang, subst. — Younger brother ; third son ; also third 
finger. 

Kardar, subst A large black lizard. 

Kardara, subst. — liong-tailed tree Iguana. 

Kardatakkan, verb — Compounded of Karda, part ; and Tak- 
kan, to break. To break in two ; to break off ; to break 
in pieces. 

Kardidi, adj. — Thin ; small. 

Kardijit, subst. — A brother ; neither the eldest nor the 
youngest. Derived, most likely, from Karda, the half, 
and therefore the middle ; and Ijow, to put. The se- 
cond son, also the middle finger. 

Kardil, subst. — One of the trees from the wood of which the 
shields are made. 

Kardo, subst — A married or betrothed person, whether 
male or female ; husband or wife. 

Kardobarrang, verb — (Compounded of Kardo, a wife ; and 
Barrang, to take.) To marry ; to take a wife. The law 
with regard to marriage is, that a man can never have as 
his wife a woman of the same family name as himself, as 
a Ballarok a Ballarok, or a Dtondarap a Dtondarap. A 
man's wives consist either of the females who have been 
betrothed to him from their birth : those whom he has 



KAU 57 KAT 

inherited from a deceased brother, or those whom he has 
run away with ; but the rule as regards the family in each 
case remains the same. 

Karduk, subst.—(K.G.S.) A species of fish. 

Kardura, subst. — Two ; a pair. 

Kargyl-ya, adj — Clean. 

Kargyl-yarXn, verb — Pres. part., Kargyl-yaraniu ; past 
tense, KargyLyaraiiaga. To clean. 

Kargyn,sw&s/. — leracidea Berigora. Lizard-eating hawk. 

Karing, subst. — The south-west wind ; generally bringing 
fine weather in that locality. 

Karjat, verb — Pres. part., Karjatin ; past tense, Karjatagga. 
To cut. 

Karnayul, off. part. — (Upper Swan dialect.) It is true ; it is 
a fact. 

Karnbarrongin, part. — Belching ; eructating. 

Karne, adj.— (K.G.S.) Weak ; foolish. 

Karra, subst. — Conduct ; manner ; behaviour. 

Karrakarra, or Karra w a — An exclamation of approbation. 
That is it ; that will do, &c. 

Karradjul, adj. — Troublesome ; tiresome, (From Karra, 
behaviour, and Djul, bad.) 

Karragwabba, adj. — Civil; well-behaved. 

Karh-rh, subst. — A tuberose root, like sevei'al small potatoes. 
It belongs to the Orchis tribe. 

Karri, subst. — A crab. 

Karrin, adj. — Blunt-edged. 

Karyma, subst. — A scorpion. (Northern dialect.) 

Katta, subst. — Head ; hill ; top of anything. 

Katta Katta Kabbin, verb. — To hesitate. 

Kattamordo, subst. — (Upper Swan dialect.) The moun- 
tains ; the high head. The name given to the Darling 
range of hills, which runs nearly north and south for al- 
most three hundred miles. Their base is granite, having 
boulders of ironstone and breccia superimposed, and being 
in some places intersected by basalt. The other principal 
ranges are the Stirling range, comprising the high hills 
of Tulbrunup and Kykunerup, the highest yet known in 



KAT 58 KOB 

the colony ; and also Moresby's flat-topped range, which 
is supposed to be of the red sandstone of the coal forma- 
tion, and promises to be a valuable district when exa- 
mined. 

Kattangirang, suhst. — A small species of lizard. 

Katte, verb. — (North dialect.) To carry ; to fetch. 

Kattidj, verb. — Pres. part., Kattidjiu ; past tense, Kattidjaga; 
to know ; to understand ; to hear. This word seems to 
be compounded of Katta, the head ; and Ijow, to put. 

Kattidjiballar, verb. — To conceal information. Literally, 
to know secretly. 

Kattidjmurdoinan, verb — To mind ; to fix your attention 
upon. 

Kattik— (K.G.S.) Night. 

Kattin— (K.G.S.) A few. 

Kattyl, verb— To delay. 

KiDDAL, sutst. — A species of cricket insect. Grilla. 

Ki-iLGUR, subst. — (K.G.S.) A small species of hawk. 

Ki-iN— (K.G.S.) The dead. 

KijjiBRUN, subst. — A water-fowl ; a species of Coot. 

KiLKiLLANG — As Nalgo Kilkillang ; setting the teeth on edge. 

KiLLAL, subsi. — Formica maxima ; lion-ant. 

KiLLiN, subst. — The pudenda. 

KiLUNG, .mis/.— (K.G.S.) The fresh-water tortoise. 

K-NUDE, subst. — A species of casuarina. 

KoBBALAK, subst Pregnancy. 

KoBBALO, s?ibst. — Stomach ; belly. 

KoBBALOBAKKAN.YUGOW, verb — To waut. (See Gurdu.) To 
hunger for a thing. 

KoBBALO-Bu-YiRGADAK, subst. — A sorcercr. Boylya Gadak. 
Compounded of Kobbalo, stomach ; Buyi, a stone ; and 
Gadak, possessing. Seemingly answering to our stony 
or hard-hearted person. 

KoBART, subst. — A species of spear-wood found in the 
swamps. 

KoBAT KoBATANAN, verb— To dccoy. Compounded of Kue, 
the sound they utter when calling at a distance to each 
other 5 and Bado, to go. 



KOG 59 KOL 

KoGANG, adv. — In ambush, as watching for game. 

KoGANG-NGiNNOW, verb — To lie in ambush. 

KoGYN, subst. — Any edible bulb. 

KoKADANG, subst. — Or Wal-yu-my. Jacksonia prostrata. A 
shrub much frequented by Bandicoots and Wallobys. 

KoKAL-YANG, subst. — (North-east word.) Feathers ; or a tuft 
of feathers worn as an ornament. 

KoKANWiN, adj. — Festering. 

KoKARDAR, a^".— (K.G.S.) High ; lofty. 

KoKORO, subst. — A small fish with very large eyes. 

KoLBANG, verb — Pres. part., Kolbangwin ; past tense, Kol- 
bang-aga ; to move ; to proceed ; to go forward. 

KoLBARDO, verb — To depart ; to go. Compounded of Kolo 
(which see), and Bardo, to go. 

KoLBOGO, subst. — Mesembryanthemum equilateralis ; the 
Hottentot fig-plant. The inner part of the fruit is eaten 
by the natives. It has a salt sweetish taste. 

KoLBOGO-MANGARA, subst. — Compound of Kolbogo, the Hot- 
tentot fig, and Mangara, hair. The leaves of the Hot- 
tentot fig-plant. In the eai*ly days of the settlement, 
when garden vegetables were scarce, these were split up, 
and dressed like French beans by some, and used at 
table. 

KoLE, subst.— A name. Names are conferred upon the chil- 
dren which have reference to some remarkable incident 
occurring at the time of the birth, or which are descriptive 
of some particular locality, or commemorative of some 
event, or sight, or sound, and are intended to be indica- 
tive rather of the feelings or actions of the parent, thaii 
prophetic of the future character of the child. These 

- names are readily exchanged with other individuals as a 
mark of friendship, and fi-equently become so entirely su- 
perseded by the adopted appellation, that the original 
name is scarcely remembered, and the meaning of it is 
often entirely forgotten. 

KoLiL, 5m6s^.— Melaleuca. Colonially, tea-tree, or paper-bark 
tree. The first of these names is derived from its re- 
semblance to a tree in the other Australian colonies, 



KOL 60 KON 

from the leaves of which an infusion something like tea 
is prepared. It takes its name paper-bark from the ex- 
treme thinness of its numberless coatings, similar to the 
bark of the birch -tree, of a delicate light-brown colour. 
The natives strip the bark off in large masses, to cover 
their temporary huts. It is used for the same purpose 
by travellers in the bush, in default of tents; and by many 
it is preferred to the leaves of the grass-tree, for a bush- 
couch, when drained of its moisture, and well dried before 
the fire. The wood of this tree is hard and elastic. It 
might make good shafts and fellies for wheels. A piece 
of the bark placed in a hollow scooped in the ground is 
used by the natives to hold water. Also a piece folded 
into the shape of a cup is used for drinking. It is also 
used for wrapping up frogs or fish, to stew them in the 
embers. 

KonN, verb — To deceive. See Gulin. 

KoLO, verb — Denoting motion in general. Used by the tribes 
to the east of Perth instead of Bardo — as Watto bart, or 
Watto kolo, be off, go away with you ; Winji badin, or 
Winji kolin, where are you going ? 

Kolo, subst. — A flea ; a louse. It is doubtful whether fleas 
are indigenous. The natives say not, and they have no 
distinct name for them. Lice abound ; Kolo is the name 
for them. The natives pick them out and eat them. 

KoL-YURANG, Verb — Pros, part,, Kolyurangwin ; past tense, 
Kolyurang-aga. To beat anything to powder ; to pound ; 
to melt. 

KoMBuiL, subst. — One of the trees from which the native 
shields are made. The other is the Kardil. See Wunda. 

KoMMA, subst — Patersonia occidentalis (a plant). 

KoNA, suhst.—The excrement. 

KoNA, subst. — The anus. The natives to the east of the hills 
are said to be much addicted to an unnatural vice, whilst 
those to the west speak of it in terms of horror and detes- 
tation. 

KoNAK, subst. — A species of crawfish. 

KoNAKMARH-BA, suhst. — Scorpion. 



KON 61 KUK 

KoNANG, verb — Pres. part., Konangwin ; past tense, Konang- 
agga. To void the excrement. 

KoNANG, subsi. — Bowels. 

KopiL, subst. — Sleep, 

KoPiN, adv. — Secretly— as Kopinijow, to hide ; to place se- 
cretly. 

KopoTJAN, verb — To make the same noise as the Gaddara, or 
steamer-duck. 

KoRAGONG, or WuRDO, subsL—A species of fungus growing on 
the ground, of a sweetish taste, red-coloured, and very 
juicy. 

KoRBuiL, adj. — (Upper Swan dialect.) Fat ; in good condi- 
tion — as applied to animals ; the opposite of Wiribal. 

KoREL, subst. — Shells in general ; sea-shells. 

KoROYLBARDANG, subst. — The tall green-flowered Anigozan- 
thus. 

KoRTDA, adv. — Apart ; separately. Wallakwallak. 

KoTAJiJMENO, subst. — The name given in the Murray River 
district to the Naganok family. 

KoT-YE, subst. — A bone. 

KoT-YEDAK, adj. — Bony. 

KoT-YELARA, adj. — Thin ; bony. 

KoT-YENiN-GARA, subst. — Chrysorroe nitens, a shrub bearing 
a large brilliant dark-orange flower. 

Kow ANYANG, verb. — Pres. part., Kowanyang ; past tense, 
Kowanyang. To swim. See Bilyi. 

KowAR, subst. — Trichoglossus, screaming-parrot. 

KowAT, subst. — A young sister. 

KowEDA, or KowER., subst. — Vimiuaria denudata ; the broom- 
tree. 

Kow-wiN, subst. — Water. 

KuDjiDi, subst. — Leptospermum angustifolia ; the sweet- 
scented leptosmermum. A slender, graceful shrub. 

KuBiT, sm55/.— (Used to the south of Perth, on the Murray 
and Serpentine rivers.) The male kangaroo. 

KuBERT, subst. — A species of tea-tree, of which spears are 
made. Found in swamps. 

KuKUBERT, subst. — ^gothelcs albogularis ; the small black 



KUL 62 KUN 

goat-sucker. The natives believe that the kangaroos were 
at one time blind and without the sense of smell, so that 
they might be readily approached and killed ; but that 
they have had the faculties of seeing and of smelling im- 
parted or restored to them by this bird, which is also sup- 
posed to have the power of afflicting human beings with 
sore eyes. 

KuLBUL KULBULDTAN, Verb. — To cough. The hooping-cough 
was at one time introduced among them by the arrival of 
a regiment. They attributed the illness to the blasts of the 
bugler. 

KuLGi, subst. — The hip. 

KuLiNDA, subsi. — The young of the Kardara, or long-tailed 
tree Iguana. 

KuLJAK, subsi. — The black swan. The family ancestors of the 
Ballaroks are x-eputed to be these bii*ds changed into men, 

KuL-YiR, subsi. —(K.G.S.) Mist ; fog. 

KuMAL, subst. — Phalangista vulpina ; large grey opossum. 
This animal forms a great resource for food to the natives, 
who climb the tallest trees in search of them, and take 
them from the hollow branches. 

Kumbardang, subst. — Night. 

KuMBUL— (K.G.S.) A species of flat fish. 

KuiNABT, or KwoNNAT, subst. — A species of acacia abundant 
on the banks of estuaries, and in disti'icts having salt lakes. 
It produces a great quantity of gum in the summer 
months. From the seeds of this tree the natives to the 
south obtain, by pounding them, a flour, which they make 
into dampers, or unleavened bread. 

KuNDAGUR, subst. — A species of Zamia found near the coast. 

KuNDAM, subst. — A dream. 

KuNDAM-NGWUNDOw, Verb. — To dream. 

KuNDARNANGUR — (K.G.S.) To thunder ; to rend the clouds. 

KuNDART— (K.G.S.) A cloud. 

KuNDi, subst. — A species of marsupial rat. Colonially, Band- 
icoot. It is something like a guinea-pig, and is very good 
for eating. 

KuNDu, subst.—The chest. 



KUN 63 KWI 

KuNDU, subst. — The coagulated blood exuded fi-oin a wound. 

KuNDYL, subst. — Young grass springing after the country has 
been burned ; anything very young still growing ; tender ; 
the soft inside of anything, as, the crum of bread ; the 
interior of the zamia plant ; the seed of any plant. 

KuNGAR, subst. — (K.G.S.) Perspiration. 

KuN-GO, subst. — A path ; a beaten track. 

KvtijiG-GVR, subst. — A young woman who has attained the 
period of puberty, which is at a very early age. 

KuN-Yi, subst. — The fillet or band of opossum fur worn round 
the head. 

Kup— (K.G.S.) Charcoal. 

KuRABUK — (K.G.S.) A species of fly. 

KuRBON, subst. — Frost. Though slight, it is sufficient to in- 
jure the young potatoes in the months of May and June, 
if not attended to before the sun shines upon them. 

KuREDJiGO, subst — A root eaten by the natives. 

KuRG-iN-YUGOW, verb — To shiver with cold or fear. 

KuRNi — (K.G.S.) A species of fi'og. 

KuRRANG, subst. — The grub of the Menna ; Acacia Greyana. 

KuRREN — ^(K.G.S.) A species of shrub to which medical pro- 
perties are attributed by the natives of King George's 
Sound. It is a sensitive plant, and when dying assumes 
an unnatural pale yellow colour, and emits a smell like the 
most powerful garlic ; in this state the natives use it in 
cases of headache, waving it under the nose of the patient, 

KuRROLO, subst. — Kenaedia Hardenbergia ; purple Kennedia 
creeper. 

KuRRUT — (K.G.S.) A species of ant. 

KuRUBA, subst. — The fruit of a creeper eaten by the natives. 
It is of a long, slender, ovate shape, and when roasted in 
the fire is of a pleasant slight lemon-peel flavour. It is 
one of the very few things which can be considered as ap- 
proaching to an indigenous fruit. 

KwA— Yes. 

KwAKAR — (K.G.S.) A small species of kangaroo. 

KwALAK — (K.G.S.) A species of ant. 

KwELA, subst. — (K.G.S.) A species of casuarina. 



KWI 64 KY-L 

KwiNiN — (K.G.S.) The nut of a species of zamia. 

KwoGGYN, subst. — Soul ; spirit. 

KwoNDA, subst. — A very deadly species of snake. See 
Kabarda. 

KwoNNAT, subst.— A species of acacia. See Kundrt. 

KwoT-ALANG, subst. — Soul ; spirit. 

KwYT-YAT — Melaleuca hamata ; having leaves like those of a 
pine or fir tree, only hooked at the end ; found always in 
wet or damp soils. 

Ky-a, subst (Northern dialect.) An emu. 

Ky-a— (Eastern dialect.) Yes. Ky at King George's Sound. 

Ky-a-ky-a, interj. — An exclamation of sui-prise or delight ; 
sometimes of gratitude. 

Ky-alamak — Look there, in that du'ection (for a thing). 

Ky-an — (North-eastern dialect.) Nothing. 

Ky-argung, subst. — A small species of snake. 

Ky-bra, subst. — The name given to a ship, reason not 
known. 

Ky-li, subst. — A flat curved throwing weapon, made plane on 
one side, and slightly convex on the other, with one end 
rather longer from the bend or curve than the other. It 
is held by the longer handle, and on stiff soils is thrown so 
as to strike the ground with one end, about ten or twelve 
yards from the thrower, whence it rebounds into the air 
with a rapid rotary motion, and after having performed 
a long circumgyration, frequently in two circles, or like 
the figure 8, it returns nearly to the spot whence it was 
thrown. It seems to be as much a weapon for treachery 
as of direct attack. When the eye is diverted by its mo- 
tions, the opportunity is taken to strike with the spear. 
They are much valued by the natives, and not readily 
parted with. This weapon offers a faint clue by which the 
origin of the people might possibly be traced. The use of 
curved or angular weapons, is said to have been known to 
several nations of remote antiquity. The possession of 
such an implement by the Austi-alian savage, would go to 
prove an early communication with some more civilised 
people, or the enjoyment of a much higher degree of 



KYN 65 MAG 

knowledge among themselves, before they relapsed into 
their present state of utter barbarism. The same may be 
said of the Miro, or throwing-board for the spear. It is 
sometimes used also to throw at birds. 

Kyn, adj (Northern dialect.) One. 

Kynkar— (K.G.S.) A father. 

KYN-YAj-fui^/. — Soul; spirit. 

Kypbi, subst. — Water. This is most probably the true word, 
of which Gabbi is our corrupt pronunciation. At King 
George's Sound, where the language is for the most part 
that of Perth reduced to monosyllables, Kyp is water ; as 
Kat is the head, instead of Katta, and Kal is fire, instead 
of Kalla. 

M. 

Ma-ap, subst. — The spleen. 

Mabo, subst. — The skin of men and animals ; the bark of 
trees. 

Madap, subst. — Fungus of the white gum tree, used for 
tinder. 

Madja, subst. — Hsemadorum paniculatum, an edible root. 

Madji, subst. — Rope ; string. 

Madjinda, sm6»/ The carpet-snake ; very venomous. 

Madjit, subst. — A species of shark. 

Madjit-til,sm6s/.— (K.G.S.) The magic stone of the shark. 
These are pieces of crystal supposed to possess supernatu- 
ral powers; some of them are much more celebrated 
than others. None but the native sorcerers will touch 
them. 

Madto, subst. — The green-backed crane. 

Madun, subst. — The small squirrel-like opossum. 

Maggo— (Vasse.) Naked. 

Maggobo, subst. — The winter of Western Australia, includ- 
ing the months of June and July. It follows Burnoru, 
and is followed by Jilba. At this period of the year 
cobbler-fish abound, and the mullet become blind, occa- 
sioned, it is supposed, by the superabundant mixture of 



MAG 66 mXl 

the fresh water with the salt water in the estuaries. 
These fish are then said to be Melbambalagadak — Mel, an 
eye; Bambala, a film or cataract ; and Gadak, possessing. 

Maggorong, subst. — The name given to a pig. 

Mahr-rok, subst. — Yesterday. 

Majerak, subst. — The small Hottentot fig. (Mountain dia- 
lect.) The fruit is eaten by the natives. 

Mala — A species of mouse. 

Malaj, verb — Pres. part., Malajin ; past tense, Malajaga ; to 
grow. 

Malaga, subst. — Ironstone. This rock is said to possess a 
large quantity of magnetic iron ore. The strata of the 
Darling hills consist very greatly of it, overlying the 
granite ; and its appearance would lead any one to con- 
clude that little or no nourishment was to be derived from 
the soil in which it abounded ; yet it bears some of the 
finest timber in the settlement, colonially called the ma- 
hogany tree. Much of this stone is also supposed to con- 
tain a large proportion of iron of a very pure quality. 
Some experimental trials which have been made on a 
small scale to extract the metal have been attended by 
the most satisfactory results. 

Malga, subst. — A species of spear-wood found in the hills. 

Malgar, subst. — Thunder. 

Malgarak — (K.G.S.) To cure an enchantment, 

Malui, subst. — A shadow. 

Mallaluk, adj. — Unsuccessful in killing game. 

Mallat, subst. — A species of eucalyptus found only eastward 
of the hills. 

Mallo, subst. — Shade. To the north the word is applied to 
European?. 

Mallowaur, subst. — Acanthosaurus gibbosus (Preiss). The 
horned thorny lizard. A very singular animal, found in 
the York district. It is marked something like a tiger, 
with dark bands on a tawny ground. The colours are 
particularly brilliant when the creature is in good health, 
though it seems to possess a chameleon power of altering 



MAL 67 MAN 

the shade of these colours, according to the light it is in. 
In appearance it is one of the most formidable, though, in 
reality, one of the most harmless and innocent of ani- 
mals. The head, back, and tail are covered with regu- 
larly arranged small protuberances, each surmounted 
with a horn or spike ; yet it may be handled with the most 
perfect impunity, nor does it seem to have any means of 
attack or defence. Its eyes, though bright, are peculiarly 
diminutive, its mouth small, and its motions very awk- 
ward. It is colonially called the devil, from its peculiar 
appearance when placed erect on its hind legs. 

MXl-yar, subst. — The ignited portion of a piece of burning 
wood. 

Mal-ya, subst — The brain. 

Mal-yangwin, j9ar<.— (Northern dialect.) Singing. 

Mal-yarak, subst. — Mid-day. 

Mal-yi, subst. — A swan. There is no other sort than the 
black swan in the colony. 

Malyn, adj. — In the habit of ; accustomed to. 

Mx^mALfSubst. — A son. The sons soon emancipate themselves 
from the control of the father, and at a very early age 
beat their mother if she displeases them ; but no mother 
ever corrects a child by beating. 

Mammilyar — (K.G.S.) Dew. 

Mamman, subst. — A father. 

Mammango, subst The white of an egg. 

Mammarap, subst. — A man. The derivation of this word 
seems to be from Mamman, a father, and Abb in, to be- 
come. The men are rather active and sinewy, than strong 
and muscular. They are well formed, broad in the chest, 
though generally slender in the limbs. Some very tall 
men are found among them, but the average height is 
rather below than above the European standard. 

Mammart — (K.G.S.) The sea. 

Manar— (K.G.S.) A species of iguana. 

Manbibi, subst. — The small Hottentot fig. 

Manda, adv Amongst ; between ; speaking of a division 

F 2 



MAN 68 MAN 

among individuals — as Manda-yong-owiu, giving anything 

' to be shared between several persons. 

Mandarda, subst. — A mouse. There are several indigenous 
species. 

Mandig-ara, subst. — A girl not arrived at years of maturity ; 
a woman who has had no children. 

Mandjar, subst. — A sort of fair which takes place among the 
aborigines, where the inhabitants of different districts meet 
to barter with each other the products of their respective 
countries. Thus, if the people from the North and the 
Murray River and Perth were to meet together on one of 
. those occasions, the following articles might be exchanged 
among them ; but it is rather an interchange of presents, 
than a sale for an equivalent. 



THE NORTH MEN 


THE MURRAY MEN 


THE PERTH MEN 


WOULD OFFER 


WOULD OFFER 


WOULD OFFER 


Kyli. 


Nulbarn. 


Kadjo. 


Wunda. 


Burdun. 


Boka. 


Dowak. 


Dtabba 


Kun-yi. 


Wirba. 


Durdadyer. 


Wundu. 


Miro. 


Kokal-y5ng. 


Bu-yi. 


Gidji. 


Wilgi. 


Bururo. 


Borryl. 


Ngower. 


Dardak 


D-yuna. 


Niggara. 





Mandjalla, adj. — Idle; inactive; lazy; tired. 

Mandju, subst. — Decayed roots ; seasoned wood. Applied 

also to flesh or bodies of animals when dried up by the 

sun, or burned when roasting at the fire. 
Mando, subst. — Pubes. 
Mandon, subst. — A wooded spot ; a place full of trees ; a 

thicket. 
Mandu, subst.— Bsittsi mandu, sunbeams. 
MANDUBiNjorf;. — Browning; turning brown — as meat roasting. 
Man-ga, subst.— a nest. Robbing bii-ds' nests is a favourite 

occupation in the proper season of the year. 
M4N-QAR, subst . — Barb of a spear made of a piece of scraped 



MAN 69 MAN 

wood tied on with sinew, and cemented with prepared resin 
of the grass tree. 

Man-gara, subst.—l{a,ir. Katta man-gara, hair of the head. 
The hair is mostly straight and smooth, but sometimes 
curling naturally and gracefully around the head and on 
the neck of the young men. It is generally bound back 
from the eyes, or tied into a tuft on the top, by a fillet 
formed of string made of fur. The most frequent colour 
is black, but different shades are not uncommon, and very 
light-coloured is sometimes seen. The men only have 
long hair ; the women's is short, and not so much attended 
to as that of the men. 

Mang-art, 5Mis<.— Raspberry -jam wattle— so called from the 
fragrant odour of the wood. It is not found to the west of 
the hills. 

Man-gat, subsl. — Aunt ; mother-in-law. 

Man-gyt, suhst. — The large yellow cone-shaped flower of the 
Banksia, containing a quantity of honey, which the natives 
are fond of sucking. Hence the tree has obtained the 
name of the honeysuckle tree. One flower contains at 
the proper season more than a table-spoonful of honey. 
Birds, ants, and flies consume it. 

Man-gyt-dju, subsl. — The hairy petals of the Man-gyt. 

Manjang, adj. — Harmless. 

Manjiral, adj. — Fat. 

Mannangur— (K.G.S.) To hang down ; to be pendent. 

Man-yana, subst. — To-morrow. This word is used at King 
George's Sound, and has been heard also in use with one 
tribe living in the hills ; but there is a doubt whether it is 
not an introduced word, 

Man-yi-ni, subst The hair-seal. 

Manyt, subst. — Plyctolophos ; the white cockatoo with a 
lemon-coloured crest ; the most easily tamed of any of 
the tribe. Where these birds are found, the traveller in 
the bush may generally rely upon finding water. This bird 
when taken young is easily tamed, and may be taught to 
speak. 



MA-O 70 MAR 

Ma-ow, adj.— Few ; a small number. 

MaUj subsL — A cloud ; wind. 

Mar-arl, or Gedurnmalak — Milvus Isurus ; the kite. 

Mar-myart-myart, adj. — Cloudy sky ; overcast. 

Marang, subsi. — One of the edible roots. 

Maranganna,5m6s^ — Anser; thewood-duck. Itroosts on trees. 

Marda, subst. — A nut ; the York nut. It is very oily ; and 

the natives pound it and smear themselves with it, when 

animal grease is not to be had. 
Marda, adj. — Bald ; as Katta Marda, bald-headed. 
MARDANGWiN,ac?;. — Hunting by night or moonlight ; literally, 

moonlighting. 
Mardo, subst. — A species of rat or mouse eaten by the 

natives. 
Mardyl, subst. — The wrist. 
Mardyn, adj. — (Northern word.) Three. 
Marel, subst. — A species of unio, or fresh-water muscle. Not 

eaten by the natives, because supposed by them to be 

poisonous. It has been eaten by settlers with impunity. 
Marga, subst. — The lower arm ; from the elbow to the wrist ; 

bough of a tree. 
Marh-jin-bang-ga, adj. — Five ; literally, half the hands. 
Marh-jin-bang-ga-gudjir-gyn, adj. — Six ; litei'ally, half the 

hands and one, 
Marh-jin-bang-ga -GUDJiR-GUDJAL, adj. — Seven. 
Marh-jin-belli-belli-gudjir-jina-bangga, adj. — Fifteen ; 

literally, the hand on either side, and half the feet. 
Marh-ra, subst. — The hand. That of the women especially 

is small and well formed. 
Marh-ragur, subst. — The fingers. 
Marh-rang, subst. — A meddler ; a meddling person. 
Marh-ra-ngangan, subst. — The thumb ; literally, the mother 

of the hand. 
Marrallak, adj. — Unlucky in the chase. 
Marri — (K.G.S.) Flesh ; meat ; also the bark of a species 

of eucalyptus. 
Marromarro, subst. — The peeled sticks, like curled orna- 



MAR 7 1 MEN 

mental candlelighters.worn on the head by the performers 
at the Yallor, or native dance. 

Maryn, subsi. — Vegetable food. All plants, of which any 
part is eaten by the aborigines, come under this denomi- 
nation. 

Maryn-dadja, subst. — Food of all sorts, animal and vegetable. 

Matta, subsL — Leg ; shank ; a family or species ; the handle 
of anything. Mattagyn, of one and the same family ; 
literally, of one leg, that is, of one stock. 

Mattaboka, subst. — Trousers. Compounded of Matta, a leg, 
and Boka, a covering or clothing. 

Mattawit — (K.G.S.) A species offish. 

Maul-barrang-ijovi^, verb— To pluck up ; to pull out. 

Meda, subst Penis. Membrum virile. 

Medarang, subst. — Mourning ; but spoken only of a father 
bereaved of his child. 

Medi, subst. — Phalacrocorax ; common shag. 

Mekil— (K.G.S.) A species of iguana. 

Mekytch_(K.G.S.) The forehead. 

Mel, subst. — The eye. 

Melak, subst.— a fish ; colonially called salmon. 

Mele, subsi. — A swan, 

Melok — Local name of one of the great family denominations. 
See Ballarok. 

Melkanba, subst. — Eyelash. 

Melnalyak, subst. — Eyelids. 

Menangal — (K.G.S.) The local term for the spring season. 

Mendalang, subst. —Acacia, new species, with small, white, 
oblique ovate-shaped leaves ; grows always in very barren 
places. Pigeons are fond of the seeds. 

Mendyk, adj. — III ; in pain ; unwell. The natives suffer 
much from toothache and rheumatism, both of which ail- 
ments they endeavour to relieve by topical bleeding, scari- 
fying the skin by a piece of quartz, or by a piece of broken 
glass bottle. They have recourse now to the white people 
for physic, and to have teeth drawn and blood taken from 
the arm. 



MEN 72 MID 

Menna, subst. — The gum of one species of acacia, which is 
sometimes prepared by being first pounded, then mixed 
with spittle, and made into a ball, and, finally, beaten into 
a flat cake, when it is kept by the natives as a provision 
against a time of want. It is considered good, and is found 
to be very nourishing. 

Merda, subsi. — Penis. Membrum virile. 

Merdelang — (K.G.S.) A species of fish. 

Merrak, adv. — Right side up ; in aright position. The oppo- 
site of Miidjardo. 

Met, adv. — Attentively ; steadfastly. 

Metjaeak, subst. — Mesembryanthemum equilateralis ; Hot- 
tentot fig. (Toodyay dialect.) 

Metjil, adj. — Exact ; accurate. 

Metjo, subst. — The seed-vessel of the Gardan, red gum ; the 
seed-cone of the Banksia. 

Metjo-nuba, subst. — The seed-vessel in the cone of the 
Banksia. 

Metjo-kun-dyle, subsi. — The inner seed-vessel of the Bank- 
sia cone. The seed itself. 

Meto, adj. — Blunt-headed ; applied to spears. 

Mettagong, subst. — A species of fungus, emitting a phosphoric 
light ; the name of an evil spirit, perhaps from the terror 
inspired by the gleaming of the phosphoric light in dark 
places. 

MiAK, subst. — The moon. See Miga. The moon is a male, 
and the sun a female, in the estimation of the Australian 
savage. 

MiAMiT, subst. — Ptilotis omata, Gould ; yellow-eared honey- 
sucker. 

MiDDi, subst. — Frequently in composition Mid, or Mit. — 
The agent ; the medium ; the active principle of anything ; 
always used as an affix to other words — as Yungar barrang 
middi, a horse, or the people- carrying agent ; Mun-gyt 
barrang middi, the Mungyt- getting agent, or stick for 
hooking down the Mungyt, or Banksia cones ; Yungar 
Dgannow middi, the people-eating agent, or cannibal. The 



MIG 73 MIN 

word thus applied is of frequent and most extensive use 
in the language. 
MiGA, snbst. — The moon. The natives give the following 
names to the different phases of the moon, but the mean- 
ing of several of the terms has not been distinctly ascer- 
tained : — 
Moon Waxing : 

New moon, Werberang warri. 
First quarter, Marongorong. 
Half -moon, Bangal. 
Second quarter, Kabbul. 
Full moon, Gerradil Katti. 
Moon Waning : 

Bina Bardok. 

Three quarters, Bumo Wandat. 
Half-moon, Jidik golang. 
Last quarter, Narrat. 
MiKANG, subst. — Moonlight. 
MiKi, subst. — The moon. 

MiLA, adv. — Hereafter ; at some future period. 
MiLGAR, adj. — Fresh ; new — as Bolva milgar, a new cloak. 
MiL-YARM, sicbst. — The stars. 
MiL-YU, subst. — Samphire. Abundant both on the sea-coast 

and on the salt plains in the interior. 
MiMAK, subst. — The moon. 

Mi-MANG-A, subst. — A whale. Both sperm and black 

whales abound on the coast. Sometimes a dead whale is 

thrown on the shore, and affords luxurious living to the 

natives. 

MiMBAT, subst. — The eyebrows. 

MiMi, subst. — The skins or layers of the Bohn root. They 

resemble the layers of an onion. 
MiMiDi, subst. — Xanthorea; the underground grass-tree. 
Sheep and cattle eat the centre leaves. This species is 
not found eastward of the Darling range. 
MiMMAL, subst. — A species of shag or diver. 
MiNDAR, subst. — Grass-tree leaves, of which those that are 



dry and withered, and fit for burning, are well suited to 
make a very good traveller's bed in the bush. 

MiN-DYT, adj. — Sick ; in pain ; unwell. See Mendyk. 

MiNG-AL, subst. — A tear. 

MiNG-AL-YA, «m6s^. — Tears. 

Ming-art, subst. — Eyelash. 

MiNG-o, subst. — The chest. 

MiNAM— (K.G.S.) Truly. 

Minang_(K.G.S.) The south. 

Mini, subst. — An edible root ; a large species of Bohn. 

Minidang, or Minijidang, subst. — Petroica Goodenovii ; red- 
crownefl robin. 

MiNJiN, subst. — See Mallowaur. Another name for the 
horned thorny lizard. 

MiNjiNiNG, subst. — The eggs of lice. See Kolo. 

MiNNiNG, conj. — If ; if I might. 

MiNOB, verb — Pi'es. part., Minobin ; past tense, Minobaga ; 
to be jealous. It is singular that whilst the natives to the 
west of the hills are very jealous, those to the east are said 
to be rather the contrary, offering their women readily 
for a small consideration. There are but three children 
of a mixed race yet known to exist in the colony. These 
children are said to be not only treated with great affec- 
tion by the mother, but also with particular care and at- 
tention by her husband, and to be regarded as objects of 
pride and satisfaction by the other natives. 

MiN-YA, subst. — A smell ; Minya-djul, a stink. 

MiN-YANG, subst. — (Murray River.) A tear. 

MiN-Yi, subst. — Dew, The dews of summer are frequent and 
very beneficial to vegetation. No injury is sustained by 
persons sleeping exposed to them. 

MiNYT, subst. — The countenance. It is always expressive, and 
when not distorted by passion, is rather pleasing. The 
eyebrows of many project considerably, which makes the 
eyes appear sunk, and the forehead receding ; but some 
faces are quite Asiatic. 

MiNYT-WALLAK-iJow, vevb — To alter ; to change ; to put a 



MIN 75 MOD 

new face on a thing. Compound of Minyt, the counte- 
nance ; Wallak, in part, divided ; and Ijow, to put. 

MiN-YUDO, adj. — Stale ; mouldy. 

MiRAK, subst. — Applied to a married woman when speaking 
of her to her brother ; a married sister. 

MiRALGAB, subst. — Poising ; balancing the spear in a quiver- 
ing state preparatory to discharging it. The attitude of the 
native at this time is beautiful, the right arm upraised and 
drawn back, the chest expanded, the head erect, the eye 
active and gleaming. 

MiRAN, verb — Pres. part., Miran ; past tense, Miran. To 
poise or quiver a spear preparatory to throwing. 

MiRANG, verb — Pres. part., Mirangwin ; past tense, Mirangaga. 
To cry ; to grieve ; to lament. 

MiRO, subst. — The throwing-board used by the natives to 
launch the spear. It is about two feet long, about four 
inches broad in the middle,and tapering off at each end. One 
end is armed with a piece of glass or quartz, set on with 
Kadjo, or grass-tree gum, which is used particularly for 
scraping and tapering the points of the spears. The other 
end has a small point or hook resting upon the flat side of 
the Miro, which is intended to enter a hole at the butt end 
of the spear, and so steady it in the act of throwing, and 
which forms also the actual fulcrum from which the spear 
is projected. This is a lever of considerable power, and 
could never have been invented by the natives in their 
present state of barbarism. It is a sort of inflexible sling, 
and is said to resemble the amentum of the ancients. See 
Kt/li. Also the outskirts of a wood or hunting ground. 

MiROW, verb— Fres. part., Mirowin ; past tense, Miraga. To 
call ; to cry out. 

Mo-AN, adj. — Black ; dark-coloured. 

Mo-DiAR, subst. — The gum of the Mut-yal, or Nuytsia flori- 
bunda, colonially, cabbage-tree. Very abundant. 

MoDONG, subst. — A large sort of Melaleuca. Colonially, tea 
tree, or paper-bark ti'ee. It grows on swampy plains. 

MoD-YART, subst. — A specics of eucalyptus ; colonially called 



MOG 76 MON 

cedar. It works more kindly than the mahogany, and is 
preferred for cabinet work, as being lighter. It is not 
abundant. 

MoGANG, subst. — A stranger ; any person or thing unknown 
in a place ; a foreigner, and regarded by the aborigines, 
therefore, as an enemy. 

MoGiN, adj. — Like ; similar to. (Upper Swan dialect.) 

MoGO-iN, adj. — Like ; similar to. 

MoHAM, verb — Pres. part., Mohamin ; past tense, Moham. 
To bellow, 

MoKYN, adj — (Upper Swan dialect.) Applied particularly to 
a wild dog. Durda Mokyn, a wild untamed dog. 

MoLADA, subst — White ant. No timber except the mahogany 
should be suffered to rest for any length of time upon the 
ground, as they inevitably attack it. All deal timber 
seems particularly attractive to them. Growing trees, 
especially blue gum and red gum, are frequently destroyed 
by them. They never come voluntarily into daylight, and 
their presence is detected by pipes of clay, with which 
they form their covered ways. Large limbs and branches 
of trees frequently fall suddenly from the effect of their 
ravages. 

Molar, subst. — Large pebbles ; collection or mass of large 
gravel. 

MoLORN, subst. — The loins. 

MoLTTCH, subst. — White ant's nest, made of stiff clay. The 
natives pull out the young at one season, and eat them. 

MoNAK, adj. — Clear ; fine ; sunshiny weather. 

MoNGARN — (K.G.S.) A species of acacia. 

MoN-GOR, subst — Fat, grease. 

MoN-GORAL, adj. — Fat, stout. 

MoNNO, subst. — A whu'lwind. 

MoNONG, subst A pool of water. 

MoN-YO, subst. — A ceremonious meeting, arranged for the 
purpose of conferring upon certain elderly females the 
character and office of Moyran, or grandmother. Upon 
these occasions presents are interchanged between the 



MOR 77 MOY 

Moyran and the person conferring the distinction, who is 
usually some man of influence in the tribe. The parties 
having embraced, the Moyran offers to the man and his 
wives implements of war and ornaments. The man, on 
his part, makes her a suitable return, and the ceremony 
is concluded. But it is a proceeding which confers upon 
the woman privileges of importance to all parties. She 
can henceforth no more be carried off for a wife or fe- 
male drudge, nor be made a victim of revenge. Her in- 
fluence is henceforth powerful with her tribe, either in 
stirring them up to war, or in allaying and reconciling 
quarrels. She is even permitted, if she think fit, when a 
dispute is anticipated, to mingle among the threatenmg 
combatants, and deprive their spears of their barbs. This> 
is one of those customs which seem to point to a superior 
system of polity, beyond anything to be expected among a 
people so immersed as the aborigines now are in igno- 
rance and barbarism. 

MoRDAK, adj. — Deep ; steep, or high. 

MoRDAKAKANAN, active Verb — To drown. 

MoRDAiCALAP — To be drowned. 

MoRDiBANG, adj. — Unable to do anything ; whether from 
being tired, or any other cause of inability. 

MoRDO, subst. — A mountain. See Kattamordo. 

MoRH-RAGADAK, subst. — To-morrow. 

MoRO, subst. — Tail j Os coccygis, the lowest of the spinal ver- 
tebrae. 

MoRH-ROGODO, subst.-^'Yo-vaovTovr. 

MoROYT, adj. — Stiff ; hard— as hard clay. 

MoRYTCH, adj. — Absent. 

MoRRYL, subst. — A species of eucalpytus with a rough bark. 
It splits well for shingles. Found to the eastward. 

MoYORT, subst. — A fish caught in fresh-water pools, by putting 
a quantity of brush-wood at one end of the pool, and push- 
ing it out to the other, sweeping everything before it. 

Moyran, subst. — Grandfather ; grandmother ; grandchild. 
See Mon-yo for this word, as applied to women. 



MUD 78 MUN 

MuDJARDO, adj. — Overturned ; topsy-turvy. 

MuDJERO, adj. — Looking on the ground carelessly. 

MuDURDA, subsL — A species of tea tree, or paper-bark tree. 

MULGAN— (K.G.S.) Cold. 

MuLLi, subst. — Gum found on the upper part of the Xanthorea 

flower-stem. 
MuLMUL — (K.G.S.) In parts. 
MuLTCHiN, adj — Afraid. 
MuLTCHONG, subsi. — A coward ; a rascal. 
MuLUR, subst. — A large lake. Fresh-water lakes are not 

numerous in the interior. A chain of them runs parallel to 

the coast for a long distance, a few miles back. 
MuL-YA, subst. — The nose. 
MuL-YABiN, adj. — Ofifeuded ; sulky. 
MuL-YA BUNAN, or PUNAN, subst. — The nostrils. 
MuL-YA MEL, subst. — The countenance ; literally, nose and 

eyes. 
MuL-YAK, subst. — The first of anything ; the commencement 

of an action ; the head of a lake. 
MuL-YARiJOw, verb — To sneeze. 
MuL-YARiTCH, subst. — A sncczc ; the act of sneezing. 
MuL-YAT, subst. — The small bone of the kangaroo's leg, worn 

by youths through the cartilage of the nose, as a mark of 

their having attained the years of puberty. 
MuL-YA-wiNDU, subst. — Fulvia ; the coot. 
MuL-YiN — (K.G.S.) A swampy place. 
MuL-YiT MUL-YiT, adj. — Swcct ; palatable. 
MuN — Affix, signifying all together ; as Yagomun wu)jal I 

where are all the women 1 
MuNANG, verb — To bear in the arms ; to carry. 
MuNDAK, subst. — The bush ; the wild country ; the woods. 
MuNDAKAL — In the bush ; as Bal mundakal watto, he is gone 

into the bush. 
MuNDANG, or MuNDAMANG— (Vasse.) All; the whole. 
MuNDo, subst. — Squalus ; the shark. The natives do not eat 

this fish. The extremity of the backbone. 
MuNGA, subst — The shoulder. 



MUN 79 MUR 

MuNQ-URDUR — (K.G.S.) The windpipe. 
MuN-iNG, subst. — Mustachios. 
MuNiNJiNGERANG, subst. — The name of a star. 
MuNONG, adv. — Farther off ; at a greater distance. 
MuRADA, adj. — Full ; satisfied. 
MuRANNA, subst. — A vory large species of lizard. 
MuEANTCH— (K.G.S.) The ancle. 
MuRDAR — (K.G.S.) A species of fish. 
MuRDO, adv. — In vain. 

MuRDO, or Mordo,sm6«^— A mountain. See Katiamordo. No 
mountains of any great elevation have yet been discovered. 
The highest is probably not much more than 3000 feet. 
MuRDONG, subst. — A mountaineer. 
MuRDONGAL, subst. — A mountaineer. 
MuRDUBALANGUR (K.G.S.) To be firm or immoveable. 
MuRDUiN, adj. — Strong ; powerful ; fixed ; immoveable ; hard. 
MuRGA, subst. — A ring ; a circle of men formed round game 

intended to be taken ; a heap. 
MuRGYL, arf;. — Abundant ; plentiful. 
MuRH-RO, subst. — Charcoal. 

MuRH-RONABBOW, verb — To go into mourning. This is done 
by the men among the aborigines, by rubbing the face 
over with charcoal. The women streak their faces with 
pipe-clay on such occasions, and daub their foreheads with 
it. White rings are frequently made round the eyes also. 
MuRRiNGMURiNG — (K.G.S.) Green. 
MuRiT, subst. — Coturnix Australis ; brown quail. 
MuRiT-YA, subst. — Hydromus leucogaster ; a kind of water 
rat, rare and shy, but very fierce. It is destructive to 
young ducks, or other water- fowl. 
MuRNA, subst. — The sound or rustle of any living creatux'e 

moving through the bush. 
MuROLANG, subst. — Hemipodius varius ; painted quail. 
MuRORONG, subst. — Macropus ; rock kangaroo. Rare and 

shy. 
MuRRiJO, verb — Pres. part., Murrijobin ; past tense, Murri- 
job. To move ; to go ; to walk. 



MUR 80 MY-A 

MuRRJO, subst. — Upper part of the back of the neck. 

MuRTDEN— (K.G.S.) Three. 

MuRUT, subst. — A I'elation. 

MuRUTBARNA, adj. — Friendloss ; unrecognised. A term of 
reproach, compounded of Murut, a relative, and Barna, a 
thing wanting an owner ; as having no friends to protect 
his Ufe or avenge his death, 

MuTURONG, adj Fat ; stout. A person with a large paunch 

is said to be Muturong. 

MuT-YAL, subst. — Nuytsiafloribunda; colonially, cabbage-tree. 
The only loranthus or parasite that grows by itself. 
Another anomaly in this land of contradictions. It bears 
a splendid orange flower. 

Mu-YANG, verb — Pres. part., Mu-yang-an ; past tense, Mu- 
yang-agga. To copulate. Positura aboriginum in actu 
coitus est admodum singularis et valde diff'ert ab ea quae 
in usu est inter alias gentes. Auctoritate Preissii rerum 
naturalium seduli conquisitoris. 

Mu-YUBARRA, adj. — Bluo. 

My-a, subst. — A house ; the bark of the tea-tree, or paper- 
bark tree with which the natives cover their huts, which 
are in shape like a section of a bee-hive, about three feet 
high. They are formed of a framework of sticks stuck in 
the ground, and thatched with paper bark or grass-tree 
leaves, or small brushwood, or bark, or whatever is most 
easily found on the spot. 

Mya, subst. — The voice. 

My-akowa, subst. >~- An echo. Literally, voice come. 

My-ar, subst. — A house ; a place frequented ; the haunt of 
an animal. 

My-ardak, subst. — Night. 

My -XRi, subst. — Foliage; the Myar, or haunt of birds and 
insects. The foliage of the trees does not give a thick 
shade, as the leaves of many stand edgewise to the branch, 
presenting only the edge, and not the broad face to the 
sun. 

My-art, subst. — Darkness. 



MY-A 81 NAI 

My-atyl— (K.G.S.) To deceive ; to flatter ; to charm with 
the voice. 

Myerbakkal, subst. — Menses; monthly courses of women. 
During this period the native women live in a small hut 
apart, though near to their husbands and friends. They 
are obliged to remain in this state of Wallak ngwundowin, 
lying separate, during six or eight days. 

Myerki, subst. — Liver. 

Myra-gyn, subst. — The day before yesterday. 

Myur, subst. — A nephew. 

N. 
Nabbow, verb — Pres. part., Nabbowin ; past tense, Nabbaga. 

To rub on ; to anoint. Wilgi nabbow, to rub on the red 

earth which, mixed with grease, serves for ornament, and 

for protection against sun and flies. 
Naga, dem. pron. — This ; that. 
Nagabel, dem. pron. — That very (thing). 
Nagal, adj. — Friendly ; peaceable ; quiet ; amicable — as, 

Nagal nginnowin, sitting together in a friendly manner. 
Nagal- YANG, subst. — A thief ; a robber. See Ngagyl- 

yang. 
Naganok, proper name — One of the family divisions among 

the natives. They are Matta Gyn with the Gnotak. See 

Ballarok. 
Nagga, subst. — Cold. Used frequently adjectively. 
Naggaman, adj. — Cold. 
Nagkan, subst. — (K.G.S.) A small species of fish, fx'om the 

use of which, in former times, the Naganok family are said 

to have obtained their name. 
Nago, verb — To know. Px'incipally used to the south of the 

Swan. 
Nagoluk, adj. — Acquainted with a person ; aware of any in- 
telligence. 
Nah, interj. — Oh ! Ah ! 
Na-it — What — as, Naga nait, what is that I 
Na-itjak, adj. — Wherefore ; for what reason ; why ; of, or 

for what. 



Nalgo, suhst. — Teeth. Improperly used for to eat, Ngannow. 
A sharp edge, as the edge of a knife. 

Nalja, verb — Pros, part., Nalja ; past tense . To peep 

sideways at any object. 

Naljak, suhst. — The outer corner of the eye. 

Nalla, subst. — The gum of the I'ed gum-tree. 

Nallang, subst. — The gum of the Xanthorea. 

Nal-yira 1 (K.G.S.) The afternoon. 

Nambar— (K.G.S.) A barb, 

Namman, subst. — A sort of fruit growing on a low shrub like 
the Kamak. 

Nammidi, subst. — A fresh- water fish resembling a small minnow. 

Nam-yango, prop, name — A name for the Dtondarap family 
in the Vasse district. 

Na'na, subst. — Navel-string. 

Nandap, subst. — Eucalyptus resinifera, red gum-tree Gardan. 
A useful timber for general purposes. 

Nandat, subst. — The east wind ; the land wind. 

Nangar— (K.G.S.) To bite ; to tear ; to eat. 

Nan-gatta, sicbst. — Moss. 

Nangergun, subst. — An edible root. 

Nang-ga, subst. — The back or nape of the neck. 

Nani, subst. — (Upper Swan word.) The small quail. 

Nanna, subst. — Navel-string. 

Nannap, verb — Stop ; halt. 

Nanning, subst. — Strangers unconnected by blood or marriage ; 
opposite to Noy-yang. 

Nano, subst.— Mnd ; soft wet earth. 

Nan-yar, adj. — Benumbed ; stiffened. 

Nappal, subst. — Burned ground ; ground over which fire has 
passed. Over this ground the natives prefer walking ; it 
is free from all scrub and grass, their progress is, there- 
fore, not obstructed, and the tracks of animals are readily 
discerned upon it. 

Nappang wanja, verb — To cover up anything ; to leave a 
thing covered. 

Nardarak, subst. — A species of Eucalyptus, with a stem like 
clustered pillars. Found only eastward of the lulls. 



NAR 83 NET 

Nargal-ya, suhst. — The gum on the lower part of the stem of 
the Xanthorea flower. 

Narna, subsL — A caterpillar. 

Narra, subst. — The side. 

Narraga, adj. — Dry ; ripe — as seeds or corn. 

Narragara, subst — The name of a star. 

Narrang — Stamping with the foot. 

Narriik, subsi, — (Vasse dialect.) Abundance ; plenty. 

Narrija, subst. — Foam ; froth ; spittle. 

Narrija gwart, verb — To spit — Compounded of Narrija, spit- 
tle ; and Gwardo, or gwart, to throw or cast. 

Narrik, subst. — (From narrow to burn.) Unburned ground, 
but ready for burning. Land of which the vegetation is 
abundant and dry, fit to be set on fire, which is done by the 
natives sometimes accidentally and sometimes on purpose, in 
order to drive out the animals that have found refuge, or 
may nestle there,as kangaroos, bandicoots, wallobys, snakes, 
&c., which they kill as the creatures attempt to escape, and 
makeameal of afterwards. In Upper Swan dialect, dry; ripe. 

Narrow, verb — Pres. part., Narrowin ; past tense, Narraga. 
To burn. 

Natdjing, subst. — The yolk of an egg. 

Nelarak, subst. — A species of Eucalyptus, of a pale yellow- 
coloured bai'k. 
Netingar, subst. — A term used by the natives to designate 
their ancestors or forefathers, of whom they do not appear 
to have any distinct tradition, except that they were vei'y 
large men. Some suppose that they came over the sea, 
others suppose that they came from the interior, from the 
north and north-east. Their general belief is that the spirits 
of the dead go westward over the sea to the island of souls, 
which they connect with the home of their fathers. I have 
a strong belief that they are identical with the natives of 
Papua or New Guinea, having lately seen a young man 
from that country, who exactly resembles them in colour, 
shape, features, hair, and every external appearance. 
This lad had been carried away at a very early age, and 
had suffered so much as to have partly lost his recol- 



N-HU 84 NOD 

lection, and entirely forgot his native tongue, so that no 
conclusion could be formed from the identity of language. 

N-HURDO, suhst. — Conduct ; behaviour. 

NiDJA, adv. — Here ; in this place. 

NiDJA, joron.— This. 

NiDJAK, adv Here ; in this place. 

NiDJALLA, adv. — Here ; in this place. (More emphatic than 
Nidja.) 

NiDO, suhst. — A mosquito. Very troublesome in summer in 
moist situations. 

NiDUL-YORONG, subst. — .^gialitis nigrifrons, Gould ; black- 
fronted plover. 

NiGGARA, subst. — The girdle of human hair worn round the 
waist. 

NiLGE, subst. — The name of a dance among the natives to the 
north-east. 

NiMYT, subst. — The ribs. 

NiNAT, subst. — Worms bred in sores. 

NiNDi, subst. — Tail of an animal. 

NiNDiAN, verb — Pros, part., Nindianin ; past tense, Nindi- 
anaga. To kiss. 

NiNiM, subst. — Large species of leech. 

NiN-YA NiN-YA, joron.— These. 

NiRAN, verb — Pres. part., Niran ; past tense, Niran. To 
plant ; to sow ; to put in the ground. They do not plant, 
but they put the Byyu in the ground to prepare it for 
eating. 

NiRiMBA, subst. — Pelecanus Nov. Holl. ; pelican. It is singular 
that these birds are seen frequently to come from the in- 
terior, across the York district. 

NiRRAN, verb — To bark ; to growl as a dog. 

NiRRGO, subst — A mosquito. Numerous in damp situa- 
tions. 

NoBA, or Nuba, subst. — Young of any creature. Plural, 
Nobagarra. 

NoDY'TCH, subst. — The dead ; a deceased person. The abori- 
gines have an extreme aversion to mentioning the name 
of any one after his decease ; and this word, Nodytch, the 



NOG 85 NOT 

departed, is used among them when speaking of a person 
who is no more. 

NoGAT, or NoKAT, verh — (Word used in the York district.) 
To sleep. 

NoGO, subst.— A species of fungus. 

NoGOLAN_(K.G.S,) Accidentally ; unintentionally. 

NoGON-YAK, subst. — The name of one of the great native 
families. The Didarok and Djikok are Matta gyn with 
these people. See Ballarok. 

NoGORO, subst. — Heavy sleep — as, Bidjar nogoro ngan-ya 
bakkan, heavy sleep bites, or oppresses me. 

NoGYT, subst.— Ihe elbow. 

NoL-YANG, subst. — Gallinula, Nol-yang. These birds are not 
much known in Western Australia, though common in 
New South Wales. In 1836, they made their appearance 
here suddenly in great numbers, to the surprise and 
alarm of the farmers, for they devoured all the green food 
in fields and gardens with the appetite of locusts ; and 
then they disappeared almost as unaccountably and sud- 
denly as they had come, nor have they, with some few 
exceptions, been seen since. They are about the size of 
well-grown pullets, frequenting the low grounds near 
rivers, and, though not web-footed, swimming with great 
facility. Thousands were shot and consumed as food. 
The meat has something of a fishy flavour. 

Nona, subst. — A very deadly snake, cream-coloured, with 
dark spots. 

NoPYN, subst. — The young of animals. 

NoRNDUKAUN — (K.G.S.) To fly from any one or anything. 

NoRNO, subst. — A very poisonous snake. See Kabarda. 

NoRNT, subst. — (K.G.S.) The feathers of small birds. 

NoTAN, subst. — An oyster (K.G.S. dialect.) Deep and exten- 
sive beds of oyster-shells are found on the flats in the Swan 
River, but no live oysters have been yet discovered in 
that vicinity. A few very small rock oysters are found in a 
part of Melville water, and some mud oysters in Gage's 
roads ; but they are abundant at K. G.'s Sound. Rock 
oysters are abundant on the Abrolhos group, and on the 



NOT H6 NUR 

NoTO DTAN, verb — To shut. 

NoYT, suhst, — The spirit ; the soul — as, Noyt ngardak, the 
spirit is below, intimating that an individual is dead. See 
also Nodytch. 

NoY-YANG, subst. — Connections by blood or marriage ; kins- 
folk. 

NuBAL, pron. dual— Ye two ; parent and child ; brothers and 
sisters. 

NuBiN, pron. dual — Ye two ; man and wife. 

NujAN, verb — To void the excrement. 

Nuji, subst. — A large species of mouse eaten by the natives. 

NuLA, subst. — Sea- weed. 

NuLARGO, subst. — Graucalus ; blue pigeon. 

NuLBARN, suhst. — A ropo-like girdle of opossum's hair worn 
by the aborigines, partly by way of ornament, passed many 
times round the waist. But it serves also for other useful 
purposes. In it are carried the Kadjo, or hammer, the 
Dowak, or throwing-stick, and the Kyli. It is tightened or 
loosened like the belt of famine of the Africans, according 
to the supply of food, and it answers for string occasion- 
ally, or for rag in the case of a cut or wound ; and small 
articles, such as the teeth and barbs of spears, are fre- 
quently deposited in the folds of it. 

NuLU, adj. — Narrow. 

NuMBAT, subst. — An animal found in the York district of a 
brownish hue, with whitish stripes across the loins. This 
animal is not marsupial, but the young are found at an 
early stage adhering to the teat of the mother, in the same, 
unaccountable manner as in the pouch of the kangaroo. 

NuMBRiD, subst. — The flower or blossom of the red gum-tree, 
from which the natives make a favourite beverage by 
soaking the flowers in water. 

Nund-yXng, adj. — (Upper Swan word.) Narrow ; strait ; 
tight. 

NuNGURDUL, adj. — Stuck in ; that which has penetrated, but 
not gone through. 

NuNiKA, subst. — Myriophyllum ; a water-plant. 

NuRDi— (K.G.S.) The south. 



NUR 87 N-YO 

NuRDU, subst. — A fly. Flies are very abundant and annoy- 
ing in summer. There is a small fly that bites or stings 
the eye very sharply, when the eyelid almost instantane- 
ously swells to a frightful size. The natives have a speedy 
cure for this ailment, which is rather unsightly than pain- 
ful. As soon as they feel the sting, they scarify the arm, 
so as to draw some blood, which they drop into the eye 
as they lie on their backs, and so let it remain for some 
time till it is thoroughly coagulated, when they draw it out, 
by which means the smart is assuaged and the swelling 
averted. 
NuRDURANG, verb—Fves. part., Nurdurang ; past tense, Nur- 

durang. To snore. 
NuRGO, subst. — An egg ; seeds. 
NuRGOBiNDi, subst. — An empty egg-shell. 
NuRGO-iMBA, subst. — The shell of the egg. Compounded of 

Nurgo, an egg ; and Imba, the husk or rind. 
NuRRUK— (K.G.S.) An Emu. 

Note. — Y when separated from the preceding letter by a 
hyphen or a comma, is a consonant. See Preface. So 
N-yagga is sounded as Yagga, with the nasal sound of N 
before it. 
N-YAGGA, pron. — That. 
N-YAL, adv. — Here ; present. 
N-YANG-ow, verb — To look ; to see ; to behold. 
N-YANNi, subst.— RaWns ; the water-rail. 
N-YARDO, subst. — Left arm. 
N-YELiNGUR, adj. — (Vasse.) Stingy. 

N-YETTi, subst — Shavings ; dust ; sawdust ; scrapings. They 
adorn themselves with shavings of white wood in their dances. 
N-YiDDiN, adj. — Cold. 

N-YiDO, subst, — A species of fly. See Nurdu. 
N-YiNNi, pron. — Thou ; you. 
N-YiNNow, verb — Pres. part., N-yinnowin ; past tense, 

N-yinnaga. To sit ; to remain in a place any time. 
N-YiN-YA, adv. — Here ; in this place. 

N-YOGULANG, Verb — To steep in water — as, Man-gyt n-yogu- 
lang, to steep the Man-gyt, or Banksia flowers, in water, 



NYT 88 NGA 

which the natives do to extract the honey, and then drink 
the infusion. They are extremely fond of it ; and in the 
season their places of resort may be recognised by the 
small holes dug in the ground, and lined with the bark of 
the tea-tree, and which are surrounded with the drenched 
remains of the Man-gyt. They sit round this hole, each 
furnished with a small bunch of fine shavings, which they 
dip and suck until the beverage is finished. 

Nytbi, subst. — A nonentity ; a nothing ; a thing not known or 
undex-stood. 

N-YULA, subst. — A species of moss. 

N-YUMAP, adj. — Diminutive ; little ; small. 

N-YDMAR, subst. — A flesh-coloured fungus, growing chiefly 
on the Eucalyptus robusta ; the mahogany- tree. 

N-YUNALAK, pron. — Thine. 

N-YUNDU, or N-YUNDUL, inter, pron. — Will you ? Do you ? 
Did you ? &c. 

N-YUNERUK— (K.G.S.) A species of duck. 

N-YURANG, pron. — Ye. 

N-YURANG-AK, pron. — Yours. 

N-YURDANG, subst. — A raiubow. (Northern dialect.) 

NG 
Is introduced as a distinct letter, and sounded as ng in rinff, 
sing, wing. See Preface. 
Ngad-jo, pron. — I. 
Ngadjul, pron.— I will. 
Ngagadja murrijo, verb — To proceed as the messenger, or 

herald of news, whether good or bad. 
I^^XGAL, subst. — The part of the mouth under the tongue. 
Ngaggow, verb— To beg ; to ask. 
Ngagyl-ya, verb — To steal. 
Ngagyl-yang, subst.— a thief. 
Ngagyn, arf;.— Stolen. That which has been obtained by 

theft ; as Maryn ngagyn, stolen food. 
Ngagyn barrang, verb— To take thievishly ; to steal. 
Ngala, pron. dual— We two ; parent and child ; uncle and 

nephew. 



NGA 89 NGA 

Ngalata, vron, — We ; any number more than two. 

Ngalba, subst. — The piece of string attached to the mouth of 
the bags carried by the women, to which the strap that 
supports them round the neck is fastened. 

Ngalbarda, adj. — Flat. 

Ngalbo, subst. — An ornamental tuft of emu feathers, worn 
on various parts of the body, but chiefly on the upper arm. 

Ngalganning, subst. — Nycticorax. The Ibis. 

Ngalladara, subst. — A hole pierced completely through. 

Ngallarar djinnang, verb — To see obscurely, as through a 
veil, or other like obstruction. 

Ngallanang, subst. — Evening ; twilight. 

Ngalli, pron. dual — We two ; brother and sister ; or two 
friends. 

Ngallin, adj. — Crooked ; awry. Matta ngallin, crooked legs. 

Ngaluk_(K.G.S.) The cheek? 

Ngal-ya, subst. — The arm-pit. 

Ngal-yak, subst. — The skin of an animal. 

Ngaman — How many. 

Ngamar, subst. — A hole or pool of water in a rock. See Amar. 

Ngambarn, subst. — Tattooing ; the marks of tattooing. The 
mode practised among the aborigines of Western Austra- 
lia is to raise lumps or weals on the breast, back, arms, 
and shoulders, by scarifying the skin, and preventing the 
edges from uniting for a time ; and to raise a larger scar 
they sometimes even apply fire. Both men and women 
adopt this mode of ornamenting themselves. 

Ngambarn born, verb — To tattoo or scar the body by scoring 
the skin with sharp quartz. This is considered both 
ornamental to the person, and a proof of the hardy cha - 
racter of the individual. 

Ngamiler — (K.G.S.) A species of mullet fish. 

Nganalak, poss. pron — Mine. 

Ngand-yar, adj Crooked. (Upper Swan dialect.) 

Ngando, pron. — Who, as the agent. 

Ngando, subst. — The breast-bone. 

Ngandul — Who will ? 

Ngandyn, adj Unwell. — Toothache, Rheumatism; Ophthal- 



NGA 90 NGA 

mia, and Consumption ai'e their principal ailments, which 
all arise from colds. The constant exposure does not 
appear to make them callous and hardy, as might be sup- 
posed. 

Nganga, subsi. — The sun. The sun is a female, and the 
moon is a male. They say the Daran, or eastern men, see 
where the sun rises out of the water ; where the water and 
the sky meet together. 

Nganga, subst The beard ; the chin ; roots of trees or plants. 

Nganga baxta, subst. — Sunbeams. Also the beard. 

Ngangalar, adj. — Having been a mother ; having had 
children. 

Ngangan, subst. — A mother ; the great toe ; the thumb. 

Nganganbru, adj. — Motherless ; an orphan. 

Ngangar, subst. — The stars. 

Ngangonat, subst. — Cenomice retispora. A species of lichen. 

Nganna, ^rora. — My. 

Nganni, pron. — Who. As Nganni Yugowin, who is there ? 
Nginni nganni, who are you ; literally, thou, who ? 

Ngannik, dual pron. — We two ; husband and wife. 

Ngannil, pron. — We ; us. 

Ngannilak, poss. pron. — Ours ; of or belonging to us. 

Ngannip, subst. — A young kangaroo ; still resorting to its 
mother's pouch. The mother sometimes, when pressed 
by the dogs, throws the young one from its pouch, and 
continues its flight with increased speed, when thus cruelly 
compelled to relieve itself of its burden. 

Ngannong, pron.— Whose. 

Ngannow, verb — Pres.part., Ngannowin ; past tense, Ngan- 
naga, to eat ; to swallow. 

Ngannama, dual pron — We two ; brothers-in-law. 

Ngan-ya, pers. pron. — Me. 

Ngardagan, adv. — Below ; within ; beneath ; low grounds. 
This word is the exact opposite of Yiragan. 

Ngardak, adv. — Downwards. 

Ngardak yugowin — Literally, standing downwards. Applied 
to the upper teeth. 

Ngardal, adj. — Low ; low in position ; lying low ; below. 



NGA 91 NGO 

Ngardang, verb — Pres. part., Ngardangwin ; past tense, 
Ngardang-agga ; to creep, to steal on anything. 

Ngardo, subst. — The heel. 

Ngardyte, adj. — Shallow. 

Ngargal-ya, subst. — The gum on the lower part of the stem 
of the Xanthorea flower. 

Ngarra — (Vasse) The back. 

Ngarrak-ngarrak, adv. — From side to side. As NgarrSk 
ngarrak-badin, walking unsteadily. 

Ngarral, subst. — The ribs ; the sides. 

Ngarran, verb — Pres. part., Ngarranwin ; past tense, Ngar- 
ranagga, to stick half way, or in the interval ; as in at- 
tempting to pass through a narrow space ; a ramrod in a 
gun ; a bone in the throat. 

Ngarrang, verb — Pres. part., Ngarrangwin ; past tense, Ngar- 
rangagga, to move ; to be in motion. 

Ngarri — (K.G.S.) A species of salmon. 

Ngarrilgul — (K.G.S.) A species of king-fish. 

Ngattang, verb — Pres. part., Ngattangwin; past tense, Ngat- 
tangagga, to wound ; to injure. 

Ngatti, adv. — More ; go on ; continue. As Ngatti ngatti, 
again and again. 

Nga-yang, subst. — The elbow. 

Ngera — (Vasse) To lie. 

Ngikil, subst. — (North-eastern dialect.) The groin. 

Ngtlarak, adj. — Blue. 

Ngilat, adj. — Dark-yellow colour. 

Ngtlgi, subst. — The groin. 

Ngillel — (Vasse) We. 

Ngille-lung — (Vasse) Of us ; our. 

Nginde, proTi. — Corruption of Ngando, who. 

Nginni, pron. — Thou. 

Nginnow, verb. — Pres. part., Ngninnowin ; past tense, Ngin- 
naga, to sit ; to remain in a place any time. 

Ngirgo, subst. — (Northern dialect.) A small spring of water. 

Ngirjyn, subst.— Clip or pan of the kangaroo's knee. 

Ngobar, subst. — Open downs near the sea ; sand-hills of the 
coast. 



NGO 92 NGU 

Ngobebn, subst. — The eldest or first son ; also the first or 
fore finger. 

Ngogat, subst. — Contents of a bird's craw. 

Ngogolak, subst. — A bird's craw. 

Ngolak, sm6s/.— Calyptorhyncus. The white-tailed black 
cockatoo. 

Ngo-lang-a, adv. — After ; behind. 

Ngomon, adj. — (Southern dialect.) Large ; big. 

Ngondo — (Vasse) An elder brother. 

Ngon-yang, subst. — The honey or nectar of flowers ; sugar. 
The flower of the Budjan (which see). It abounds in 
honey. Also a saccharine juice, which exudes plentifully 
from the red gum-tree in the warm season. 

Ngo-ra, subst. — Phalangista Cookii, ring- tailed opossum. 

Ngoriuk ? (Vasse) Much ; very. 

Ngo-ro, subst. — The mucus of the nose. 

Ngota — (K.G.S.) A species of crow. 

Ngo-tak, prop, name— One of the great families into which 
the natives are divided. The Naganok are Mattagyn. 
See Ballarok. 

Ngow-dik, subst. — Pearsonia, a plant. 

Ngow-er, subst.— a tuft, formed of the tail or wing feathers 
of a bird, worn in the hair. The feathery part is stripped 
from the stiff" stem or quill, and tied upon a small stick 
like a skewer. 

Ngowerit— (K.G.S.) The navel. 

Ngow-o, subst.— ColoniBl pheasant, nondescript ? It scrapes 
together a large heap of earth or sand, perhaps two to 
three feet high, and five to six feet in diameter, in which 
it deposits its eggs about a foot deep, which are left to be 
hatched by the sun. It is the only bird of this habit in 
the colony. The eggs are very large in proportion to 
the size of the bird, and of a delicate flavour. It would 
be very valuable if domesticated. The mother is said to 
come and uncover the eggs at the time of maturity. 

Nggy-ang, adj. — Sharp. 

Ngoy-yur— (K.G.S.) The elbow. 

Ngu-bu, subst. — Blood. 



NGU 93 NGOf 

Ngubul-ya, ac?/.— Red ; blood-coloured. 

Ngudang, subst. — The heel. 

Ngudi, subst. — A knot in wood ; an excrescence on a tree. 

Ngulbun-gur— (K.G.S.) A species of mouse. 

Ngulob, subst Haliseetus leucogaster ? sea-eagle. 

Ngul-ya, subst. — An edible root of a reddish colour, some- 
what like Bohn in flavour, but tougher and more stringy. 

Ngul-yap, adj. — Empty. (Vasse dialect.) Probably the same 
as Yulap. 

Ngumbit, subst.— The flower of the red gum-tree, which, 
steeped in water, affords a honey-sweet beverage, much 
relished by the natives. 

Ngunallang, poss. pron. — Yours ; thine. 

Ngunman, subst. — The right arm, or side. 

Nguntburbcng — (K.G.S.) To startle. 

Ngura, subst. — A small lake or basin of water ; a native 
well. 

Ngurju, subst. — Hydromus leucogaster. A kind of marsu- 
pial water-rat, rare and shy, but fierce if attacked. 

Nguxek, subst. — A species of Grevillea flower. 

Nguto, subst. — An edible root. 

Ngu-yang, subst. — The distant misty appearance of approach- 
ing rain, 

Ngu-yubarra, adj. — Blue. 

Ngu-yup — Blue. 

Ngwidam, adj. — Serious ; in earnest ; not joking ; bonest. 

Ngwol-yi naggirang. subst. — Anas ; teal. 

Ngwonana, subst. — Anas Novse Hollandise ; the grey duck. 

Ngwonna, subst. — The pieces of kangaroo skin used for 
stringing the women's bags. 

NgWORRYN-NGWORRYN, I ,. tt 1 1 ..p , 

> ad). — Handsome : beautiful. 
Ngworryn-yang, 1 "^ 

Ngwundkol — (K.G.S.) The place last slept at ("lain and left"). 

Ngwundow, verb — Pres. part., Ngwundowin ; past tense, 

Ngwuudaga. To lie down. 

Ngwuntungur — (K.G.S.) To dream. 

Ng-yakyn, subst. — (Northern dialect). A turtle. See Yagyn. 

Ng-yal, adv. — Here. 



NG-Y 94 QUA 

Ng-yame-ng-yaming, subst Rhodanthe Manglesii. A pretty 

pink flower, growing in great abundance on red sandy 
loam soils. 

Ngy-anga, subst. — A wave of the sea. 

0. 

(Sounded as in Old, Cold. Ow as in Cow, Now. O and U are 
also used interchangeably in different dialects. See Preface.) 
Odern, subst. — The sea. 

Ordak — A particle affixed to verbs, signifying to intend ; to 
purpose ; as, Ordak dtan, to intend to pierce ; Ordak- 
barrang, to intend to take. 
Orlgo, sm6*^. — Corrupted from Nalgo, a tooth. 
Orpin, adj (K.G.S.) Plenty. 

P. 

Observe — The sounds of P and B are in so many instances used 
indiscriminately or interchangeably, that it is frequently dit- 
ficult to distinguish which sound predominates. The pre- 
dominant sound varies in different districts. See Preface. 
Pandopen, verb — (Northern dialect.) To faint ; to swoon. 
Partap — (K.G.S.) To lie ; to deceive ; from Bart, not. 
PiDiLMiDANG, subst. — Pacliycepliala gutturalis. Yellow- 
bellied thrush. 
PiRA — (K.G.S.) A species of Bauksia. 

PiRiNG, s7cbst. — The gum or resin of the Balga, the Xanthorea, 
or common grass tree. It is not of so sti'ong a quality as 
the Kadjo, or resin of the Barro, and is used for fastening 
on the barbs, and the jagged quai'tz or glass fragments to 
the spear-heads, which are not fixed on so firmly but that 
they may come off" in the wound. Though the Piring is a 
resin, and not soluble in water, wet loosens and destroys it. 
Po-nyte, subst. — The knee. 

PuLBARN, subst. — Kenucdia. A creeper, with scarlet flowers. 
PuNAN, subst. — A hole ; an aperture. 

Q. 

QuARRA, subst. — Macropus coeruleus. Blue kangaroo. 
Quart— (Mountain dialect.) To throw. 



QUE 95 TAM 

QuELAP, subst. — The first appearance of pubescence in youth 

of either sex. 
QuELE, subsf. — A name. See Kole, (Perth dialect.) It may 

be useful to bear in mind, with reference to this word 

Quele for Kole, and Quet-ye for Kot-ye, and words of 

similar sound, that in the dialects of the interior E and O 

are interchangeable. 
QuELKEN, verfi— (Upper Swan dialect.) To step on one side 

in order to avoid a spear, or other missile weapon 

Gwelgannow. 
Q,VE,T YE, subst. — (Upper Swan.) A bone. Kot-ye. 
QuiBBANG, verb — Pres. part., Quibbangwin ; past tense, Quib 

bangaga. To do anything very secretly. 
QuiPPAL, verb — To steal. Supposed to be an imported word 
QuoGGA, subst. — A bandicoot, found in the southern districts, 
QuoNNERT, or KwoNNAT — A spccics of acacia. See als( 

Kunart. 



N.B. — The sounds of T and D are in so many instances used 
indiscriminately or interchangeably, that it is difficult to 
distinguish frequently which sound is most predominant. 
The predominant sound varies in different districts. See 
Preface. 
Tab-a-dak? (K.G.S.) a species of fish. 
Tabba, subst. — The native knife ; a rude implement formed 
of sharp-edged chips of quartz, set in a row, about four 
inches long, and fixed by means of Kadjo, or Xanthorea 
gum, to a short wooden stick about as thick as a man's 
finger. 
Tabitch ? (K.G.S.) Dry. 

Taddar, subst. — (Upper Swan dialect.) Fuller's earth. 
TadibIj subst. — Pi'epared Xanthoi'ea gum resin. See Tudteha. 
Takil— (K.G.S.) A feather. 
Takkan, verb. — Pres. part., Takkanin ; past tense, Takkan- 

agga. To break. 
Takkand-yung — Broken. 
Tammin, subst. — A grandmother ; a grandfather. 



TAN 96 TUD 

Tandaban — (K.G.S.) To spring; to jump. 

Tapingur— (K.G.S.) To steal. 

Tdo-dak (K G.S.) Raw ; uncooked. See Djidik. 

Tdon-gan — (K.G.S.) A species of By-yu. 

Tdu-dar— (K.G.S.) A girl. 

Tdud-tin — (K.G.S.) A species of Xanthorea. 

Tdun-dal, arfj.— (Northern dialect.) Fair; white; light- 
coloured. 

Tdun-jar— (K.G.S.) A species of frog eaten by the natives. 

Tdur-dang— (K.G.S.) Green. 

Tdur-tin — (K.G.S.) Trackless ; untraversed ; without a path. 

Tdur-tyl — (K.G.S.) A species of fly. 

Teni, subst. — Brother-in-law. See Dent. 

Tergur— (K.G.S.) To enclose. 

Ti-iL — (K.G.S.) Any crystals. These are supposed to possess 
magic power. The same name is also applied to anything 
transparent. 
Ti-ENDi— (K.G.S.) Stars. 
Tjil-ki — (K.G.S) A species of cray-fish. 
Tjoi-ung — (K.G.S.) A species of iguana. 
ToLOL, adj. — (Upper Swan dialect.) Straight forward ; direct. 

ToLYL, subst A crow. See Wardang. 

To-NAiT ? (K.G.S.) Here. 

Tonga, or Twonga, subst. — The ear. 

Tonga birgi-birgi-un, verb — To confuse. 

ToRN-A-MAG-AR — (K.G.S.) To fight ; to contend. 

Toy— (K.G.S.) The calf of the leg. 

TOYNTCH- WANG— (K.G.S.) To COllcCt. 

TuART, subst. —The white Eucalyptus which grows in the lime- 
stone districts. It is a most valuable timber for mill- 
wrights, shipwrights, and wheelwrights, as it is almost 
impossible to split the wood, although it may be very 
closely morticed. As this wood is not liable to splinter, 
it would be particularly suitable for ship-building in the 
time of war. 

TuDTEBA, subst. — The resin of the Xanthorea or grass-tree, 
prepared for use by being mixed with charcoal. This 
mixture, having been first heated, is applied by the natives 



TUK 97 WAD 

to fasten on the heads of the hammers, and the quartz 
edges of their knives. It is more brittle than the cement 
on the hammers, on which account it is preferred for the 
spears, that the barbs or teeth may come off more easily 
in the wound. 

TuK — (K.G.S.) A species of frog eaten by the natives (thus 
named from the noise it makes). 

TuL-DY-NANG — (K,G S.) A spccies of Jew-fish. 

TuLGA, subst. — Gum of the Hakea tree. 

TuR-NiT— (K.G.S.) A baby. 

Tu-TA-MiN-Di— (K.G.S.) The knee. 

TwOTTA, subst. — A Eucalyptus, of which the natives chew the 
bark of the roots, wrapped about gum, or pounded up 
with it into a cake. Colonially, the York gum-tree, being 
the principal timber which characterises that district. The 
lands whereon it is found are generally good for sheep 
pasture. 

T-YUNDAL-AR— (K.G.S.) A spocies of flat-fish. 

T-YUNG — (K.G.S.) The local name of the fish colonially called 
the cobbler. Thus named from the spine with which it 
stings. 

U. 

U sounded as in rude. U and O are often used interchangeably 
in different dialects. See Preface. 
Uloyt, subst. — The calf of the leg. 
Urdal, subst. — The west. 
Urdo, subst. — (Vasse) A younger brother. 
Utamat — The local name given at King George's Sound to 
one of the principal family divisions. 

W. 

Wab-ye gadak, adj. — Awed ; terrified ; having awe or fear. 
Waddarak — Proper name of the Canning mountain people. 
Waddarak, subst. — A species of chicory or sow-thistle. 
Waddo-wadong, subst. — Vanga destructor ; butcher-bird. 
Wadju — A term applied to the hair of the head. Katta 
mangara wadju, meaning that it is properly dressed, ac- 



WAI 98 WAL 

cording to native fashion and ideas, when rolled up, well 
greased, and wilgied, and fastened round the head, so as 
to form a matted mass impenetrable to the intense heat 
of an Australian sun. 

Wai-yu — (K.G.S.) A species of Kingia. 

Wa-kur-in — (K.G.S.) A species of waterfowl. 

Walbar— (K.G.S.) The sea-shore. 

Walbul, adv. — Stretching or reaching over — as Walbul- 
ngannowin, eating with the neck outstretched, as a horse 
reaching over a fence. 

Walbyn, verb — Pres. part., Walbynang ; past tense, Walby- 
nagga. To cure by enchantment ; to eject the Boyl-ya, or 
evil spirit, the supposed cause of all sickness and disease. 
This is performed, by the person who undertakes the cure, 
squeezing the afflicted part with his hands, and then draw- 
ing them down, thereby to attract the Boyl-ya to the ex- 
tremities. He is, however, very careful after each squeeze 
to shake his hands and blow well upon them, in order to 
preserve himself from any evil influence, or ill effects of 
the Boyl-ya, who generally makes his escape, invisible to 
uninitiated eyes ; but sometimes assumes the likeness of a 
piece of quartz, in which case he is eagerly captured, and* 
preserved as a great curiosity. Any person having the 
reputation for eff'ecting this cure is sought after by the 
natives for many miles round, in behalf of a sick relative. 
The mode of cure sometimes adopted resembles the pro- 
cess of animal magnetism. 

Waldja, subst. — Very large dark brown mountain-eagle. It 
sometimes attacks lambs and young pigs. 

Walga, subst — A kind of Dowak. 

Walgah— (K.G.S.) A species of fish. 

Walgen, subst. — The rainbow. 

Wal-gur--(K.G.S.) To laugh. 

Walgyt, subst. — The calf of the leg. 

Waljap, subst. — Stem of the Xanthorea, or Grass-tree flower. 
It is this stem, or rather stick, which serves the natives to 
produce fire by friction. This is done by rapidly twirhng 
between the hands one piece of the stick within a hole 



WAL 99 WAN 

cut in another piece placed upon the ground, and retained 
in its position by the feet ; the operation being assisted 
by the dry furry material of the withered seed-head laid 
in the hole, and which very soon smokes and ignites. The 
length of the stem varies from 3 feet up to 10 feet, and 
the thickness from that of a man's finger up to that of a 
man's wrist ; the flowering part is often 4 or 5 feet 
long. The flower contains much honey in the proper 
season. 

WALLAK-WALLA,ji, adv. — Separately ; in part ; divided ; indi- 
vidually — as wallak-wallak yonga, to divide among several 
persons ; to give to each separately or individually. 

Wallak-ijow, verb — To change. 

Wallak- YONGA, verb — To give in portions ; to share ; to 
divide. 

WallXng — (K.G.S.) The seed of a parasite which bears a 
red flowei'. 

Wallarra, adv — Carelessly ; without looking — as wallara 
murrijobin, walking along without looking. 

Walle, verb — To cry ; to shed tears ; to wail. 

Wallu, subst. — An interval or open space between two points 
or objects ; the division of the hair when parted on the 
top of the head ; partial baldness ; morning twilight ; the 
interval between night and day. 

Waly-adi, adj. — Tall ; long ; ungainly. 

Wal-yal, subst — The lungs. Instances of death from dis- 
eased lungs have been seen among them, but are not 
of very frequent occurrence. They genei'ally recover from 
the effect of a spear-wound in the lungs. 

Wal-yo, subst. — The Kangaroo-rat. An animal nearly as 
large as a wild rabbit, tolerably abundant, and very good 
for eating. The natives take them by driving a spear 
into the nest, sometimes transfixing two at once, or by 
jumping upon the nest, which is formed of leaves and 
grass upon the ground. 

Wandang, verb — Pres. part., Wandangwin ; past tense, 
Wandangagga. To wear or carry on the back. 

Wando, subst, — Eucalyptus ; the white gum-tree. In hollow 
H 2 



WAN 100 WAR 

trees of this sort, water is frequently retained, which forms 
the only resource for natives in summer, in many districts. 
It is discovered by a discoloration of the bark. A hole is 
opened with a hammer and carefully closed again. 

Wan-do-na, subst. — A species of insect. 

Wangadan, verb — Pres. part., Wangadanin ; past tense, 
Wangadanagga. To scream out ; to cry loudly for help. 
Compounded of wangow to speak, and dan or dtan (so as) 
to pierce (the ear). 

Wang- EN, adj. — Alive ; well ; in health. , 

Wanggi-ma, subst. — The satin-bird. 

Wan-go, subst. — The upper part of the arm from the elbow 
to the shoulder ; a species of snake particularly liked as 
food by the aborigines, 

Wan-gow, verb — Pres. part., Wangowin ; past tense, Wang- 
yaga. To speak ; to talk. 

Wan-gow-djinnang, verb — To ask ; to inquire. 

Wanja, verb — Pres. part., Wanjawin ; past tense, Wanjaga. 
To leave ; to quit. 

Wanna, subst — The long heavy staff pointed and hardened 
at one end by fire, carried about by the women, each of 
whom has one for the purpose of digging roots. The dig- 
ging or pointed end is flattened on one side and rounded on 
the other, so as to act, when used, like the claw end of a 
crow-bar. 

Wanni, verb — To die. 

Wanniga, part. — Dead. 

Wannyl, subst. — Roots of trees. 

Wan-yur-du, adj. — Indisposed. 

Waow, interj. — An exclamation of surprise and warning. 

Wappi, subst. — a. small species of fish, found in the pools of 
rivers in summer, and taken by pushing boughs through 
the water from one end of the pool to the other. 

Warba, adv. — Otherwise. 

War-bum— (K.G.S.) To kill ; to slay. Probably from wardo 
the throat, and buma to strike. 

Warda, subst. — Fame ; renown ; news ; the recent track of 
any animal, such as the fresh particles of sand left by the 



WAR 101 WAR 

opossum's claws on the bark when climbing up trees, 
which immediately show the natives that the animal is to 
be found there. 

Wardagadak, subst A hero ; a great warrior ; a man of 

renown, or authority. 

Wardan, subst. — A large species of long-winged buzzing fly. 

Wardang, subst. — Corvus coronoides ? a crow. In appear- 
ance it is like the English crow, but its voice is very 
melancholy. It does not appear to, be gregarious. 

Wardo, subst. — The neck or throat.- ■ •^ . c , ,' j ' '^ ', 

Wardo-narrowin, part. — Being thifsty. Compounded' ol 
wardo the throat, and narrowin Joiroing.. , The.ii^ve, is 
careful not to drink directly froni gtargonnt 'vatei\-bat 
scrapes a hole in the sand at a little distance and drinks 
the filtered water. And even in springs he frequently 
inserts a quantity of grass-tree leaves, so as to act as a 
strainer ; this is to guard against swallowing insects, a 
precaution which might be prudently imitated by the 
settlers. 

Wardyl, verb — Pres. part., Wardyl-yin ; past tense, War- 
dylaga. To whistle. 

Wargat, verb — Pres. part., Wargattin ; past tense, Wargat- 
tagga. To search for ; to look for. 

Warh-rang — Numeral three. 

Warh-ral, subst. — Whirlwind. 

Warh-ro, subst. — A knoll ; a hillock ; an acclivity. 

Warra, adj.- — (Mountain dialect.) Bad. 

Warraja, subst. — Zapornia ? Little swamp-hen. 

Warrajudong, subst, — Anthus Australis ; the lark. It has 
not the splendid song of the English lark, yet it twittex'S 
very cheerfully when on the wing. 

Warran, subst. — One of the Dioscoreae. A species of yam, 
the root of which grows generally to about the thickness 
of a man's thumb ; and to the depth sometimes of four to 
six feet in loamy soils. It is sought chiefly at the com- 
mencement of the rains, when it is ripe, and when the 
earth is most easily dug ; and it forms the principal article 
of food for the natives at that season. It is found in this 



WAR 102 WAU 

part of Australia, from a short distance south of the 
Murray, nearly as far to the north as Gantheaume Bay. 
It grows in light rich soil on the low lands, and also among 
the fragments of basaltic and granitic rocks in the hills. 
The country in which it abounds is very difficult and un- 
safe to pass over on horseback, on account of the fre- 
quency and depth of the holes. The digging of the root 
is a very laborious operation. It is said to grow to a very 
large size, to the north ; but this may be a traveller's 
. exaggeri^^tion This root is known by the same name in 
• New South Wales. ' ■ 

WAa?,iVN-Ai!ie^ i^ubst.)^/^^ porpoise. 

WAUJiAj^fG-^N, verfc-irr^Eres* part., Warrang-anin ; past tense, 
Warrang-anaga, to tell ; to relate ; to bid ; to desu^e. 

Waerap, suhst. — Any parasitical plant. Almost evei-y tree 
has a parasite pecuhar to itself, affecting it like a vermin, 
to such an extent, as frequently to destroy the tree. The 
flower is in general beautiful. The splendid flowering 
tree, Nuytsia floribunda, is said to be an independent pa- 
rasite. The only known Loranthus of that character. 

War-roitch— (K.G.S.) A species of fish. 

Warru, subst. — A female kangaroo. Cloaks are made of the 
skin of the female, that of the male being considered too 
hard and unsuited for the purpose. 

Warryl-bardang, subst Gerygone culicivorus ? ash-co- 
loured wren. 

Warryn, subst.— a word. The grammatical structure of the 
language appears simple and rudimentary, and not very 
copious, as many compound words are used ; and there 
are few or no terms to express abstract ideas. 

Watti— (K.G.S.) A species of Mimosa. 

Watto, adv. — Away ; off. Ngan-ya watto, I am off". 

Wattobardo, verb— To go away ; depart. 

Wattobarrang, verb — To carry off". 

Watto-djtn, imp. verb — Look out ; keep out of the way. 
Literally, away ! see ! 

WaubXtin, adj. — Full ; overflowing. 

Waubbaniranwin, par^. —Jokmg ; jesting. 



WAU 103 WAU 

Waubbow, verb — Pres. part., Waubbowin ; past tense, Waub- 
bow, to play ; to tease. 

Waudarak, subst. — The sow-thistle. This was very gene- 
rally used as a vegetable by the early settlers, before the 
gai'dens were made productive. 

Waudunu, subst. — A species of hymenopterous insect. 

Waug, subst. — (K.G. Sound dialect.) Soul ; spirit ; breath. 

Waugal, subst. — An imaginary aquatic monster, residing in 
deep dark waters, and endowed with supernatural powers, 
which enable it to overpower and consume the natives. 
It generally attacks females, and the person whom it 
selects for its victim pines and dies away almost imper- 
ceptibly. To this creature's influence the aborigines 
atti'ibute all sores and wounds for which they cannot 
otherwise account. Its supposed shape is that of a huge 
winged serpent. It may be a lingering remnant of the 
tradition of the old Serpent or evil spirit. 

Waugalan, adj. — 111 ; very sick ; a woman who miscarries, 
or has any complaint subsequent to child-birth, is said to 
be Waugalan, or under the influence of the Waugal. 

Waugab, subst Breath ; breathing. 

Waugart dtan, verb — To pierce through. 

Waugar-buma, verb — To breathe ; to pant. 

Waugat, adj.— a. few. 

Waukanga, subst. — Polytelis Melanura, mountain-parrot. 

Waukyn — (K.G.S.) Bad, useless. 

Waullu, sm6«^— Light ; dawn ; daylight ; the morning twi- 
light ; the interval between light and darkness ; a clear, 
open space without trees ; an interval or open space be- 
tween two objects ; the division of the hair, when parted 
on the top of the head ; partial baldness. 

Waumil-yar, subst. — Colonially called Manna. A white, 
sweetish substance, found on and under certain trees and 
plants, supposed to be some insect secretion. It is much 
prized by the natives. Birds feed upon it, and are in 
excellent condition during the season when it abounds. 
When the native women find a quantity of it collected 
about an ant-hill, they fling the furry side of their cloak 



WAU 104 WID 

upon it, to which it adheres. They then carry off the 
cloak and secure their prize, the ants having dropped off 
the fur in the naeantime. At Perth it is called Dangyl, 
which see. 

Waumma, adj. — Another. 

Waummarap, adj. — Giddy, confused. 

Waummarapbin— Straying ; bewildered. 

Wauraling, subst. — Nymphicus Novee HoUandiae. Crested- 
parrot. 

Wa\l-mat— (K.G.S.) The bone through the nose. 

Way-re -(K.G.S.) To ford ; to walk in the water. 

Wedin, subst. — A valley. 

Weko, subst. — The nest or brooding-place on the ground of a 
large bird, as Ngowo-weko. 

Wellang, or Wela-wellang— (Vasse.) Quickly. 

Welle, subst. — A di*eam. 

"Weld — A name given to all people living to the north of 
them, by every tribe, be the latter situated where they 
may, in the same way as Daran is applied to all people to 
the eastward. 

Welojabbin, subst — The name of a bird which is so called 
from the noise it makes at night. It is colonially called 
the Curlew, from its resemblance to that bird, but its bill 
is short and blunt and the colour is lighter. 

Wendang, adj. — Bad. 

Wer, conj. — And ; also. 

Werbal, arf;.— (Upper Swan.) Lean ; iu poor condition. 

Wetdang, verb— Fres. part., Wetdangan ; past tense, Wet- 
dangagga ; to collect. 

We-to, subst. — The young white ants, which are eaten by the 
natives at a particular stage of their growth. 

We-yang— (Vasse.) To mix. 

Wi-AK— (K G.S.) Enough. 

Wi-DA, subst. — Kernel of the Zaraia nut. 

WiDA-wiDA, subst. — The name of two sorts of Pardalotus 
punctatus and striatus, the Diamond-bird. Its native 
name is taken from the sound it utters. In some places 
it is called Widji winji, where is the Emu ? 



WID 105 WIL 

WiDANG, verb — Pres. part., Widangwin ; past tense, Widang- 
aga ; to mix. 

WiDANG-wiNAN,s«6s^ — Theactof mixingorpoundinganything. 

WiDAP wiDAP — Another name for the Diamond-bird. See 
Wida wida. 

Wi-DING, adj. — Thin ; bony. 

WiDJi, subst. — An Emu ; a Dragon-fly. The emu is easily 
domesticated when taken young, and becomes very fami- 
liar with and attached to the dogs, which generally leads 
to the death of a tame one. A full-grown one, when erect, 
stands seven feet high. The natives creep on them and 
spear them. The flesh is very good for eating in the pro- 
per season, tasting something like veal. The eggs are of 
a tea-green colour, with a watered appearance on the sur- 
face. There is a singularity in the growth of the feathers 
— two of them spring from one quill. 

WiDJi BANDi, subsi. — A gun ; literally an emu shank or leg, 
perhaps from the thin handle part of a gun-stock resem- 
bling in its carving the rough grain of the skin of an emu's 
leg. A double-barrelled gun is described -as having two 
mouths. A gun with a bayonet, as the gun with the spear 
at its nose. 

WiLBAN, adj. — White. 

WiLGi, subst. — An ochrish clay, which, when burned in the 
fire, turns to a bright brick-dust colour ; with this, either 
in a dry powdery state, or saturated with grease, the 
aborigines, both men and women, are fond of rubbing 
themselves over. The females are contented with smear- 
ing their heads and faces, but the men apply it indiscri- 
minately to all parts of the body. Occasionally they paint 
the legs and thighs with it in a dry state, either uniformly 
or in transverse bands and stripes, giving the appearance 
of red or parti-coloured pantaloons. This custom has 
had its origin in the desire to protect the skin from the 
attacks of insects, and as a defence against the heat of the 
sun in summer, and the cold in the winter season. But 
no aboriginal Australian considers himself properly attired 
unless well clothed with grease and wilgi. 



WIL 106 WIR 

WiLGiLAM, adj. — Red. 

WiLLAR — (K.G.S.) An estuary. 

WiLLARAK, subst. — Sandalum latifolium, Sandalwood tree. 
This tree is tolerably abundant in the interior, but the 
transport is expensive. It is said to be the true sandal- 
wood. The smoke of it when burning produces nausea in 
most persons. It bears a nut, having a white kernel of the 
size of a musket-bullet, from which oil of a pure quality, 
without taste or smell, may be expressed. This nut, 
though not disagreeable, is not eaten by the natives. 

WiLLARiNG, subst. — Muscicapa. Wagtail ; fly-catcher. 

WiL-YAN, verb — Pres. part., Wil-yanwin ; past tense, Wil-ya- 
naga ; to miss ; not to hit. The native does not throw 
with precision more than twenty or thirty yards. When 
not flurried, his aim is very accurate, and his spears deli- 
vered with surprising rapidity. 

WiL-YU, subst. — CEdicnemus longipennis 1 Wil-yu. 

WiMBiN, subst. — Rhynchaspis. Shoveller or Pink-eyed Duck. 

WiNATDiNG, part (N. E. dialect.) Dead; derived from or 

connected in some way with Wynaga, dead. 

WiNDANG, adj. — Worn out ; useless ; applied particularly to 
an old man or woman, 

WlNDO, arf;.— Old ; useless. 

Wi-NIN — (K.G.S.) A species of waterfowl. 

Wining, adj. — (N. E, dialect.) Alive ; the opposite of Win- 
atding, dead. 

WiNJALLA, adv. — Where. 

WiNGi, adv. — Where ; whither ; as Wingi watto, Where or 
whither are you going ? 

WiNNAGAL — (Mountain dialect.) The west. 

WiNNiJiNBAR, adv. — Now, at this very moment. (Upper Swan.) 
Wynnikanbar. 

WiNNiR— So many ; this number. 

WiNNiRAK— Similar to ; at this time ; now. 

WiRBA, subst. — (Northern dialect.) A large heavy club. 

WiRBE, subst. — The name of a dance amongst the natives 
living to the south-east. 

WiRGO, subst. —A species of rock-crystal found to the north. 



WIR 107 WUL 

WiRGOJANG— (K.G.S.) Blowing away ; curing by disenchant- 
ment. 

WiRiL, acy. — Slender; wasted; slight; thin. 

Wiring, adj. — Straight ; in a right line ; used also to denote 
that two persons are in the right line of marriage. 

WiRRiT, subst. — South-east wind. 

Wi-YUL, adj. — Thin ; slight ; wasted. 

WoDTA, subst. — Columba. The Bronze-winged Pigeon. Most 
delicate eating. It abounds in summer, when the acacia 
seeds are ripe. 

Wo-DO, subst. — Green-fleshed edible fungus ; more juicy and 
tender, and less to be dreaded than our mushroom. 

Woi-LE ? (K.G.S.) A small species of kangaroo. 

WoiNDJA, verb — Corruption of Wanja, to leave ; to quit ; to 
desist. 

WoLANG, verb — To put on one's covering or clothes. 

WoL-JARBANG — ( Vasse.) A species of parrot. 

WoN-GiN, adj. — Living ; also green, when applied to leaves 
or wood.^^ 

WoNNAR, subst. — A species of spear-wattle found in the hillsw 

WoNNANG — (Vasse.) To throw ; to cast. 

WoppAT — As Woppat murrijo. 

WoRDAN — (Vasse.) Supposed to signify north — probably the 
direction in which the rivers of a country flow. 

WoRRi, subst. — A species of snake not eaten by the 
natives. 

Wot- Y AN, adv. — On the other side ; as Bilo wot-yan, on the 
other side of the river. Also remote ; distant. 

WoYN-BAR — (K.G.S.) To cure by disenchantment. 

Wu-LANG-iTCH — (K.G.S.) To fasten. 
WuLBUGLi, subst. — Athense ? The Barking Owl. 

WuLGANG, 5mJs;.— Agrub found in the Xanthorea or Grass 
tree, distinguished from the Bardi by being much larger, 
and found only one or two in a tree, whereas the Bardi 
are found by hundreds. 

WuLGAR, subst, — Guilt. Being implicated, from relationship 
or other causes, with persons who have committed mur- 
der, which renders a person Wulgargadak, and liable to 



WU-L iU» WUN 

be killed in revenge. Those who are not in the state of 
Wulgar are said to be " Jidyt." 

Wu-LiNG, adv. — Thus ; in this manner. 

WuL-LAJERANG — The Pleiades. 

WuLWUL, subst. — Diomedea Chlororhynca. The Albatross. 

WuMBUBiN, adj. — Strutting ; being proud or vain. 

WuNDA, subst. — A shield. The native shield is about two 
feet long, and very narrow, being barely sufficient to pro- 
tect the hand when holding it. It is convex on the exte- 
rior face, and thinned off and rounded at each end, having 
a slit cut in the thickest part at the middle of the back, to 
serve as a handle. There are two sorts of wood, the Kum- 
buil, and the Kardil, of which they are made. The use 
of them is not at all common among the natives in the 
located parts of Western Austraha, who bring them as 
great curiosities from the north to the settlers. They are 
sometimes ornamented with wavy lines or grooves, traced 
upon them with an opossum's tooth in the grain of the 
wood ; the grooves being painted alternately red and 
white. 

WuNDAB-BURT, subst. — The name given to an English boat, 
from its shape like a shield. The natives have no canoes, 
nor any mode of passing over water ; but on the north- 
west coast, one man was seen by Captain King crossing an 
arm of the sea, on a piece of a mangrove-tree. They 
describe with great vividness their impressions when they 
saw the first ship approach the land. They imagined it 
some huge winged monster of the deep, and there was a 
universal consternation. One man fled inland for fourteen 
miles without stopping, and spread the terrifying news 
amongst his own friends. 

WuNDi— (K.G.S.) A species of Iguana. 

WuN-DU, subst. — Human hair, made into a coarse string, and 
worn as an ornament round the head and arms. 

WuNDUN, verb — Pres. part., Wunduning ; past tense, Wun- 
dunaga ; to stare ; to wonder ; to look at a person in order 
to recognise him. 

WuN-GAN, verb — Pres. part., Wunganin ; past tense, Wun- 



WUN 109 WYE 

ganagga ; to embi*ace, or fold the arms round a person to 
restrain him. When a native is in a passion, his friends 
(Wungan) hold him back from attacking or harming others 
till the fit goes off. 

WuNNARA, subst. — A spccics of Tea-tree, of which spears are 
made. 

WuNNo, adv. — This way ; in this direction ; round about. 

WuNNOiTCH, adv. — Thus. 

WuRAK, subst. — Macropus elegans ; a species of kangaroo. 

WuRAK, subst. — A glossy brown-bai'ked Eucalyptus, abound- 
ing to the eastward of the hills, but not found to the west. 

WuRALiNG, subst. — Nyniphicus Nov. Holl. ; crested parrot. 

WuRDOiTCH, subst. — The name of a star, supposed to have 
been a native. 

WuRDUKUMENO— -Name of the Ballarok family in the Murray 
district. 

WuRDYTCH — The name of a star, supposed to have been a 
native. 

WuRGYL, subst. — A frog. When this species of frog has the 
embryo within it in the state of the young roe of a fish, it 
forms a favourite food of the natives, and marks a parti- 
cular season. They are found in great abundance in the 
swamps and shallow lakes. 

WuRJALLAK — The name of a star. 

WuRRiJi, subst. — Small species of lizard, not eaten by the 
natives. 

WuRTAMAR— (K.G.S.) To beat ; to strike. 

Wu-YUN, subst. — The soul. 

Wyamak, adj. — Straight ; slender. 

Wyan, subst. — Ardea Novse Hollandise ; the Blue Crane. 

Wy-e, subst. — A species of snake. 

Wyen, verb — Pres. part., Wyenin ; past tense, Wyenagga ; 
to fear ; to dread ; to be afraid. 

Wyen wyen, subst. — A coward. A term of great insult, as 
among more civilised people. 

Wyerow, verb — Pres. part., Wyerowin ; past tense, Wye- 
row ; to raise ; to construct. As Mya wyerowin ; raising 
a hut ; Gabbi wyerowin ; "the water is rising. 



WYN 1 10 YAG 

Wyni kanbar, adu. — Now at this immediate moment. 
Wyrodjudong, subst. — Glycipliila Ocularis ? Gould ; the 

white-breasted honey-sucker. 
Wy-uda, subst. — Podiceps nestor 1 the Httle Grebe. 

Y. 

Y, when a consonant as in your, yoke. 

Y, when a vowel, as in my, thy ; and this sound is to be given 
to it in the middle of a word after a consonant, if not sepa- 
rated from the preceding letter by a hyphen, when it becomes 
a consonant itself ; as in Gyn-yang, once — the first Y is a 
long vowel, the second a consonant. See Preface. 

Yaba, subst The temples. 

Yaba-wilban — Ephthianura albifrons, Gould ; Sanfoin-bird. 

Yabbal-gadak — Having an intention to give. As, Bal nginni 
boka Yabbalgadak ; he intends to give you a cloak. 

Yabbal, subst. — The bark either of the Banksia, or Hakea. 
See Djanni. 

Yabbra, adv. — Quickly ; rapidly. 

Yadang, verb. — Pres. part., Yadangwin ; past tense, Yadang- 
agga. To pound ; roots, for instance. 

Yadjarrap, subst. — The Snapper-fish. Ijarrap, a deep-sided 
salt-water fish, caught in abundance on banks near the 
coast. 

Yadjo, subst. — The testicles. 

Ya-et — (K.G.S.) A species of waterfowl. 

Yaga, orfu.— Merely ; only ; not at all ; no such thing. 

Yago, subst. — Plural Yagoman. A woman. Women are 
the mere slaves of the men, obliged to watch and attend 
their movements, and to carry all their property, as well 
as the ycung children, in bags at their back. They must 
construct the hut, make the fire, provide roots for them- 
selves, and give a share to their husband ; whilst he does 
not always share his game with them. Little affection can 
exist in this state, and the woman is naturally favourably 
disposed to any one who will pay his court to her. This 
occasions frequent dissension, which often ends in the 
woman eloping with her lovSr. In early life their form is 



YA J 111 YAL 

symmetrical, their movements graceful, their voices 
musical, and the countenances of many lively and rather 
pleasing. But most of these qualities are lost at a very 
early age. 

Yajingurong, sm65/.— Recurvix'ostra rubricollis. The Avoxet. 

Yagyn, subst. — Snake-necked, fresh-water Turtle. It appears 
to bury itself in mud in the winter, as it has been some- 
times dug up in a torpid state in the swamps. It is ex- 
ceedingly tenacious of life, moving about even when its 
head is cut off. The largest weighs only four or five pounds. 

Yalga, adv. — Yet ; still ; first ; previously. 

Yalgaranan, verb — To open ; to liberate from confinement, 

Yalgor, suhst A swamp. 

Yalla, demon, pron. — That. 

Yallabel — That particular, or very thing, or place. 

Yallala, adv. — There. 

Yalle, subst. — Mushroom. The natives will not eat what 
we call mushroom, although they eat several other sorts of 
fungus. 

Yallingbardo, verb — To go on one side. Compounded of 
Yalla and Bardo, meaning to go there, or to that place. 

Yallor, subst. — The name of the native dance among the 
northern men ; as also the chaunt, or tune, if it may be 
so called, to which the dance is performed. The dance is 
generally performed by the young men. Women seldom 
take any part in it. Their dances frequently represent 
the chase, and motions of the kangaroo and emu, the 
pursuit of a wounded cockatoo, the course of a snake, 
the transformations or feats of a magician with a wand, 
as well as the measured step and concerted movement of 
a dance of ten or twelve persons ; and, although the figures 
are somewhat uncouth, the gestures are not ungraceful ; 
and as seen in the forest on a clear night, by the bright 
blaze of a fii-e, surrounded by groups of admiring spec- 
tators, the whole scene presents a pleasing and animated 
picture of the recreations of a savage life. 

Yallor- wangow, verb — To chaunt. From Yallor, the native 
dance, and Wangow, to speak. 



Yallor-gannow, verb — To dance. Compounded of Yallor, 

the native dance, and Gannow, to step. 
Yal-ya, subst. — A grave ; the hollow itself. See Bokal. 
Yal-yet, or Yal-yu-ret — (K.G.S.) Wet. 
Yambo, adv. — Abreast ; all in one line. 

Yambong, adv. — (A strong affirmative). Yes ; actually ; cer- 
tainly. 
Yampel, adj. — (Upper Swan word). Flat ; flattened on the 

surface. 
Yanbart, adj. — A descriptive term applied to ground where 

the vegetation has been burnt. 
Yanbi, adj. — Awkward ; improper ; incorrect ; wrong. It is 
used also as an expression of surprise, meaning, what are 
you doing ? what are you about ? 
Yan, interrog. pron. — What % 

Yang — The strongest expression of thanks, or gratitude. 
Yanganan, verb — To thank ; to praise ; to bless. 
Yango, subst. — A species of Xanthorea. 
Yangor, subst. — The kangaroo species in general. In the 
mountain dialect, the male kangaroo. It is believed that 
this is the only word in any of the Australian dialects 
which approaches at all in sound to our word kangaroo. 
Yangori — Proper name. Evidently from Yangor, name of 

the Ballarok family at the Vasse river. 
Yanji, subst.— K tuft of emu feathers. 

Yanjidi, subst. — An edible root of a species of flag (Typha 
angustifolia), growing along fresh-water streams and the 
banks of pools. It consists of many tender filaments with 
layers of a farinaceous substance between. The natives 
dig the roots up, clean them, roast them, and then pound 
them into a mass, which, when kneaded and made into a 
cake, tastes like flour not separated from the bran. This 
root is in season in April and May, when the broad leaves 
will have been burned by the summer fires, by which the 
taste, according to native ideas, is improved. 
Yannow, verb— To saunter ; to walk ; to move slowly .along, 
Yarbelli, subst.— Incest ', union with a female not within the 
marriageable line, or proper degree of kindi-ed, as with 



YAR 113 YIN 

one of the same name, though no identity of blood may be 
traceable ; as Ballarok with Ballarok, though the relation- 
ship might be almost as doubtful as that of one Smith 
with another. 

Yargyl— (K.G.S.) Charcoal. 

Yarralak, subst. — A species of fish. 

Yarril— (K.G.S.) A species of cray-fish. 

Yatto, subst. — An opossum's tail, worn as an ornament on 
the head, or hanging from the hair. 

Yeddi, or Yetti, subst. — A song. See Yetti. 

Yeddi-garow, verb — To sing. 

Yemat, subst. — Water. 

Yekan, verb — To drive ; to chase ; to tend cattle. 

Yekyn, subst. — The wild, or native Australian dog. It fre- 
quents swamps and thickets, and creeps upon its game by 
stealth. Sometimes it fastens upon the hind leg of a kan- 
garoo, and clings till its victim is exhausted and easily 
overpowered. 

Yellin, subst. — The Guard-fish. 

Yendun — (K.G.S.) Underneath. 

Yenma, subst. — The name of a dance among the natives to 
the N.E. and East. 

Yet— (K.G.S.) The chin. 

Yetit-yetit, adj. — Peevish ; cross-grained. 

Yetit-yetitan, verb — To tease ; to annoy. 

Yetti, or Yeddi, subst A song. They have no regular 

song ; but they chaunt in a tone of recitative any striking 
events of the day, or give vent to their feelings when 
excited, beginning in a high tone, and gradually descending 
to a low deep tone by regular intervals. 

Yijatgur — (K.G.S.) To sharpen ; to make ready. 

YiLBiN, verb — Pres. part., Yilbinin ; past tense, Yilbinagga. 
To glance off ; to graze. 

YiMANG, subst. — The forehead. 

YiMBA, subst — The husk, or shell, or rind of anything ; the 
bark of the paper bai-k-tree. 

YiNANG, subst. — A widow ; widower. 

YiNBi, subst, — A species of Unio, or fresh- water muscle. The 



YIR UA YUK 

natives will not eat it, though the settlers have used it with 

impunity. 
YiB— (K.G.S.) A species of Djunong. 
YiRAK, adj. — Elevated ; high up ; up. 
YiRAKAL— (K.G.S.) Quickly. 
YiRAGAN, adj. — Elevated ; on high. 
YiRRBiN, verb— Pros, part., Yirrbin ; past tense, Yirrbin. 

To sprinkle. 
YiRRiLA, subst. — The fin of a fish. 
YiRRiWA, subst. — An English knife, 
YiR-YiR, subst. — A flag-like gras^, much disliked by the 

natives, as it cuts their legs in walking. 
Y-JO, pers. pron. — I. (Vasse river.) See Gnadjo. 
Y-JUL— I will. See Gnadjul. 
Yoi-YU — (K.G.S.) A small species of fish. 
YoNG-A, or YuNG-A, verb — Pres. part., Yongawin ; past tense, 

Yongaga. To give. 
YoNJA, subst. — Strix delicatulus ; lesser White Owl. 
YowART, subst. — The male kangaroo. 
YowiR, adj. — Giddy ; confused as a drunken man. 
YowiRGw^ART, verb — To fall down in a faint ; to swoon. 
YowiRiN, adj. — Being giddy, as Katta Yowirin, my head is 

turning round. 
YoYT, subst. — Muscle of the thigh. 

YoYTCH, subst. — Mountain dialect ; the testicles. Yadjo. 
YuADA, adv. — No. 

YuAL, adv. — Here ; hither; come here. 
YuANGUR — (K.G.S.) A species of frog eaten by the natives. 
YuDANG-wiNNAN, subst. — The act of pounding anything. 
YuGOW, verb — Pres. part., Yugowiu ; past tense, Yugaga. 

To be ; to stand ; to exist. 
YuGOw-MURRiJO, verb— To run ; literally, be, go. 
YuGOW-MURRiJOBiN— Go quickly ; literally, be moving. 
YuKEL., subst. — The large volute, or conch shell. It is worthy 
of remark that many natives, towards the interior, in- 
variably persist in asserting, that both these shells and the 
mother of pearl shell, Bedoan, are to be found in quantities 
a long way to the north-east of York. See Derbal. 



YUK 115 YUR 

YuKUNGADAK — (K.G.S.) A sorcerer ; a doctor. 

YuLANG, adv. — Nearer ; closer. 

YuLANGEBA, subst. — A womaii who is old and has had 
children. This word is evidently derived from Gulang, a 
child ; and Collins tells us that the name of the i-ite by 
which youths are initiated into manhood at Sidney is, 
Yulang ira bardang, which means " youth or child gomg 
up," almost to a letter in this language. 

YuLANG-iDi, adj. — Fruitful ; having had children ; as Yago ; 
Yulang-idi, a woman who has had children. 

YuLAP, adj. — Hungry ; empty. Probably an introduced 
word, though now very common ; but see Ngul-yap (Vasse 
dialect). 

YuLMAN, adv. — In turn ; in return. 

YuLMAN WANGOW, terfi — To auswcr. 

YuLMAN YONGA, verh — To exchange. 

YuLY_(K.G.S.) lazy; idle. 

YuL-YANG, verb — Pres. part., Yul-yangwin ; past tense, Yul- 
yangaga. To smear ; to varnish ; to rub with gum the 
green shafts of the spears. 

YuNDo, adj. — Yellow. 

YuNDAK, subst A species of Iguana. 

YuNDUNG, subst. — A species of Iguana. 

YuNG-AB, subst. — People. The name by which they designate 
themselves. There may be about 3000 aborigines fre- 
quenting the located parts of the colony. See the Statis- 
tical Report for 1840. 

YuNG-AR YULMAN GiAR — the name of a stai". 

YuNGiLBAR — (K.G.S.) Foolish ; wasteful. 

YuN-GiTCH — (K.G.S.) Straight. 

YuNGOLANG — as " Gurdu Yungolang," said in hot weather. 

YuRAKYN, subst. — A specics of snake. 

YuRANG, verb — Pres. part., Yurangawin; past tense, Yurang. 
To shake together ; to rub roots, to clean and prepare 
them for eating. 

YuRDA, subst. — A place where a fire is or has been ; the 
ashes of a fire-place ; the household hearth ; the spot 
I 2 



YUR 116 YYI 

where a person has been accustomed to make his fire. 

Mahrrok bidjar. 
YuRDO, subst. — The forehead. 
YuRiB-ANGWiN, part. — Stirring up. 
YuRJANG, verb—Tres. part., Yurjangwin ; past tense, Yur- 

jangaga. To take by force. 
YuRNA, subst. — An Iguana. There are many varieties of the 

Saurian tribe to be found, and of all sizes, from a few 

inches up to five or six feet long. The largest sorts are 

supposed to be destructive to young poultry. 
YuRRiL— (K.G.S.) Quickly. 
YuRRO, subst. — Gabbi yurro ; the discoloured stream of 

fresh water, which descends after rain from the uplands 

mingling with the salt water in the estuaries. 
Yu-RYTCH, subst. — The cheek. 
YuTTo BARRANG, Verb — To rase ; to pull down. 
YuTTOK, adv. — The last time ; the last of anything. 
YuTTARLGAR, subst.— A buudlc ; a sheaf of coi*n ; or other 

tied heap of anything. 
YuTTARN, verb — Pres. part., Yuttarn ; past tense, Yuttarn. 

To fasten ; to tie. 
YuTLTUNMiTCH — (K.G.S.) A native dance. 
Yy-i, adv. — Now; to-day. 
Yy-inang, adj. — New ; fresh ; young ; sti-ange. 



DESCRIPTIVE VOCABULARY. 



PART II. 
ENGLISH AND AUSTRALIAN. 



DESCRIPTIVE VOCABULARY. 



For more full and particular information respecting each Australian 
word, consult the first part of the Vocabulary ; and for tl;e Pro- 
nunciation see the Preface also. 



A. 

Abduct, to — Kardo barrang. 

Abreast — Yambo. 

Absent — Morytch. 

Abundance— Bula. Narriik (Vasse dialect). 

Abundant — Bula. 

Abuse, to— Goran. 

Acacia, Acacia Saligna — Biytch. 

Acacia (species of)— Mongarn ; Kurren ; Watti ; Gal-yang. 

Accidentally— Balluk ; Nogolan. 

Acclivity, an ; a Knoll — Warh-ro. 

Accompany, to — GSmbarnbardo ; Gambarn. 

Accurate — Metj il. 

Accuse, to — Djirin ; as Wulgar djii'in, to accuse of murder. 

This word must be used with the substantive expressive 

of the crime charged against a person. 
Accustomed to — Malyn. 
Ache, to — Mindyt-bakkan ; Bakkan. 
Acquainted wiTH_Nagoluk ; Kallip. 
Acrid — Djallara. 
Across — Yambo. 
Actually — Yarabong. 
Adam's Apple, of the neck — Dun-ganin, 
Adorned — Buiijat ; Kanungur. 
Afraid, to be— Multchin ; Wyen. 
After — Ngolang-a. 
Afternoon, about two— Biddoi'ong ; Nalyira 1 



AFT 120 ANT 

Afternoon, late in the — Garbala. 

Again— Garro ; as GarroYual, to return, to come back again. 

Aged — Guragor. 

Agent (means of doing anything), always used as an affix — 

Middi. 
Ago, any time — Karamb, 
Ago, long time — Gorah. 
Ago, little time— Gori; Epal. 
Agreeing with — Gurdu-gyn-yul. 
Ah !— NSh, 

Aim, to miss the — Wilyan. 
Alarm — Darnavan. 

Albatross — Diomedia Chlororhyncha — Wulwul. 
Alight, to, as a bird. — Gargan. 
Alive— Dordak ; Wining (N.E. dialect.) 
Alive, green as applied to trees — Won-gin. 
All — Bandang ; Muudang. 
Allied to, by marriage— Noy-ySng. 
A LONE — Dombart . 
Also — Gudjir; Wer. 

Alter, to — Wallak-ijow ; Minytwallakijow. 
Always — Dowir ; Kalyagal. 
Ambush, to lie in — Kogang-nginnow. 
Amicable — Nagal. 
Among— Kardagor. 
Amongst — Manda. 
Amuse, to — Djubu-barrang. 
And — Gudjir ; Wer. 
Anger— Garrang. 

Angry, to be— Gurdu-djul ; Garrang-gadak. 
Angular — Danda (Upper Swan word). 
Ankle— Bilga ; Jinnardo ; Murantch. 
Anoint, to — Nabbow. 
Another— Waumma. 
Ant (small species)— Budjin. 

Ant (small species)— Bulolo ; Kardagut ', Kurrut j Kwalak. 
Ant, white — Molada. 
Ant, white, nest of— Molytch. 



ANT 121 BAG 

Ant, lion — Formica maxima — Killal ; Kallili. 

Anxious, for any thing — Gurdak. 

Apart — Wallakwallak ; Kortda. 

Aperture — Bunan. 

Arise — Irap. 

Arise, to — Irabin. 

Arm, right — Ngunman. 

Arm, left — D-yuro ; N-yardo ; D-yurangitch. 

Arm, upper, from shoulder to elbow — Wango. 

Arm, lower, from elbow to wrist — Marga. 

Arm-pit — Ngal-ya. 

Arms, to carry in the, — Munang. 

Arrange, to — Gwabbanijow, 

Arrange the fire, to — Dukun. 

As, like as — Jin ; Winnirak. 

Ascend, to — Dendang. 

Ashes — Dalba. 

Ask, to — Wan-ga djinnang. 

Assault, to— Ballajan, 

Associate with, to— Gambarn bardo. 

Astray (to go astray) — Bai'rabardo. 

At once — Gwytch ; Ilak ilak. 

Attack, to — Ballajan. 

Attentive — Met. 

Aunt — Mangat. 

Avoid, to, by shifting on one side — Gwelgannow. 

AvoxET — Recurvirostris rubricollis — Yajingurong. 

Autumn — Burnur ; Burnuro. 

Away (Begone) — Watto. 

Away, to send — Dtallangiritch. 

Awkward — Yanbi. 

Awry — Ngallin. 

B. 

Baby — Burdilyap ; Turuit. 

Back, the — Bogal ; Gong-go; Ngarra. 

Back of the neck — Nang-ga. 

Backbone — Bogal ; Kot-ye. 

Backbone, extremity of— Os coccygis ; Mundo ; Moro. 



BAC 122 BEF 

Backside — Byi. 

Bad — Djul ; Windo ; Dadim (Southward) ; Djulgo ; Wen- 
dang ; Waukyn ; Warra (Mountain dialect). 
Bag, for general purposes — Goto. 
Bag, in which the child is carried — Gundir, 
Bag, to carry in a — Gotang ; Durrungur. 
Bald— Marda ; Barda-ar. 
Baldness, partial — Wallu. 
Bandicoot — Gwende ; Kundi. 
Bandylegged — Matta ngallin. 

Banksia, narrow-leaved — Banksia nivifolia— Biara ; Pira. 
Banksia, narrow-leaved, cone of — Birytch ; Biytch. 
Banksia, large-leaved — Bulgalla. 
Banksia, large-leaved, cone of— Metjo. 
Banksia, flower — Mangyt. 
Banksia, of low grounds, flower of — Dubarda. 
Barb, of a spear — Mangar ; Dtarh-ra ; Nambar, 
Bare, clear, open— Barnak ; Barda-ar. 
Bark, of trees — Mabo. 

Bark, of Banksia, or Hakea — Yabbal ; Djanni. 
Bark, of Mahogany, or other gum-trees — Budto. 
Bark, to, as a dog — Niran. 
Barter, to, Bang-al yong-a. 
Bat (the animal) — Bambi ; Babilgun. 
Basalt, sp. of— Gagalyang ; Kadjor. 
Battue, of Kangaroo— Kaabo. 
Be off (Go away)— Watto. 

Beams, of the sun — Mandu ; Battamandu j Ngangabatta. 
Bear, to, children — Gudja ijow. 
Bear, in the arms — Munang. 
Beard, the — Nganga ; Nganga batta. 
Beat, to — Buma ; Wurtamar. 
Beautiful — Gwabbalitch ; Ngworryn-ngworryn. 
Becoming, getting — Abbin. 
Bee, a species of — Blura. 
Bee-eater — Merops melanura — Birunbirun. 
Beetle, light-green species— Bullor. 
Befall, to— Echenna. 



BEP 123 B( 

Before — Gorijat ; Gwytch-angat ; Gwadjat. 

Beg, to— Gut. 

Begone (Be off)— Watto. 

Behaviour — Nhurdo ; Karra. 

Behind — Ngolang-a. 

Behold, to — Djinnang ; N-yaiig-ow. 

Belching — Karnbarrong-in. 

Bell-bird— Calandra — Bokanbokan. 

Bellow, to — Mohara. 

Belly, the— Kobolo. 

Below (low down) — Ngardak ; Ngardal ; Borak. 

Beneath — Ngardagan. 

Benumbed — Nan-yar. 

Betray, to— Kobat kobatan. 

Between— Kardagor ; Manda. 

Bid, to (tell) — Warrangan. 

Big — Gumbar ; Ngomon. 

Bird, a small — Jida. 

Bird, species of — Bilyar ; Bulangat. 

Bird's-nest— Jidamya ; Man-ga, 

Bite, to— Bakkan. 

Bitter— Djallara. 

Bittern (the bird) — Botaurus ; Bardanitch. 

Black — Mo-an. 

BLADDER—Gumbu. 

Blade (Shoulder-bone) — Djardam. 

Bleak (open)— Kabbar ; Barnak. 

Bless, to (to thank) — Yang-anan. 

Blood — Ngubu ; Baru. 

Blood, coagulated, exuded from a wound — Kundu. 

Blood-coloured — Ngubul-ya. 

Blow, to (to blossom) — Buma ? 

Blow, to, with the mouth — Bobban. 

Blue — Mu-yubarra ; Ngilarak ; Nguyup. 

Bluebird — Malurus pectoralis — Djarjil-ya. 

Blunt (as a knife)— Karrin. 

Blunt-headed (as a spear) — Meto. 

Board, for throwing the spear — Miro. 



BON 124 BUS 

Bone, a — Kot-ye ; Q,uet-ye (Upper Swan) ; Quetje ; Quej 

(K.G.S). 
Bony — Kot-yedak ; Kot-yelara ; Widing. 
Boots, European — Jinna nganjo. 
Bough, of a tree — Marga. 
Bowels — Konang ; Barukur. 
Brain— Mal-ya. 

Brand (fire-brand) — Kallamatta. 

Brave, a brave fellow, a bi'ave of a tribe or party — Bugor. 
Break, to — Takkan ; Barrang takkan. 
Break, to, off, or in pieces — Kardatakkan ; Dakarung. 
Break-of-day-bied, or Magpie — Cracticus tibicen 1— Gurbat. 
Breast, woman's — Bibi. 
Breast, man's — Kundu 1 Min-go. 
Breastbone— Ngando. 

Breath (Breathing)_'Wau-gar ; Waug (K.G.S. dialect). 
Breathe, to — Wau-gar buma. 
Bright (glittering) — Bunjat. 
Bring, to — Gang-ow ; Barrang. 
Bring forth, to (as animals their young) — Ijow. 
Broken — Takkand-yung. 

Broom-tree — Viminaria denudata — Koweda ; Kower. 
Brother — Nguudu. 

Brother, elder — Ngobern ; Borran ; Ngondo. 
Brother, second — Bwyreang. 
Brother, middle — Kardijit. 
Brother, younger— Kardang ; Gardang ; Urdo. 
Brother, youngest — Guloyn. 
Brother-in-law— Deni ; Teni. 
Browned (applied to meat properly cooked) — Djidara ; Man- 

dubin. 
Bruised — Birrga. 
Bundle, a — Yuttarlgar. 
Burn, to — Narrow. 
Burning (hot) — Kallang kallang. 
Bury, to — Bian ; Dambarijow ; Binnarangar. 
Bush (the Bush ; the wild country) — Mundak. 
Bustard (colonially, Turkey) — Bibilyer. 



125 



Butcher-bird — Vanga destructor ; Waddowaddong. 
Butcher-bird, thick-billed — Falcunculus Leucogaster — Gur- 

bit gurbit. 
By-and-bye— Burda ; Burdak (Murray R.) 



Cabbage-tree — Nuytsia floribunda — Mut-yal. 

Calf, of the leg_Walgyt ; Uloyt ; Toy. 

Call, to — Mirow. 

Carelessly — Wallarra. 

Carry, to — Gang-ow; Katte (Upper Swan). 

Carry, to, in the arms — Munang. 

Carry, to, on the back — Waudang. 

Carry, to, in a bag— Gotang. 

Carry, to, on the shoulder — Dinang. 

Carry, to, off — Watto ; Barrang. 

Cast, to — Gwardo ; Gwart. 

Casuarina, species of — Kvvela ; Knude. 

Cat, native (a species of weasel) — Dasyui'us Maugei — Bar- 
rajit ; Barjadda. 

Cataract (or film over the eye) — Barabala. 

Caterpillar — Narna. 

Cave, a — Garrab ; Dumbun. 

Cedar (colonially) — Mod-yart. 

Centipede — Kanbarra. 

Certainly — Yambong; Bundojil, 

Champion (one of the braves of a tribe) — Bugor. 

Change, to — Minyt wallak ijow ; Wallak ijow. 

Chap, in the skin — Jitalbarra. 

Charcoal — Bidil ; Kallabidyl ; Murh-ro ; Kup ; Yargyl. 

Charm, to (by a spell)— Kalbyn ; Walbyn : as Mar-Kalbyn, 
to allay the wind. 

CHAUNT,to (as is done at the Yallor, or native dance) — Yallor 
wangow. 

Cheek— Yurytch ; Ngaluk 1 

Chest, the— Kundu 1 Mingo. 

Chewing — Gulang-in. 

Child— Gulang. PI. Children— Gulang-gara. 



CHI 126 CON 

Chin — Ngan-ga; Yet. 

CiNDEES — Kalla inak. 

Circle (for the purpose of inclosing game, &c.) — Murga. 

Circular — Dordong-al. 

Civil — Karra gwabba. 

Clay — Djijalla. 

Clay, white lime — Dardak ; Taddar. 

Clean — Kargyl-ya ; Barda-ar ; Bunjat. 

Clean, to — Kargyl-yaran ; Barnan. 

Clear (as water) — Karryl. 

Clear (from wood) — Barda-ar. 

Clear away, to — Barnan. 

Climb, to — Dendang ; Balingur. 

Cloak — Boka ; Buka. 

Close, to (to stop up a hole) — Dtandidin ; Didin. 

Close (near) — Barduk. 

Closer (hither) — Yualang. 

Clothes (to put on) — Wolang ; Wandang. 

Cloud — Mar ; Kundart. 

Cloudy (very dark) — Mar ; Myart myart ; Bwot. 

Club, a heavy — Dowak ; Wirba (Northern dialect). 

Cobbler-fish — Karal-ya ; Moyort. 

CoBBLER-FiSH (species of) Djindalo ; T-yung, 

Cockatoo, black, with red tail — Calyptorhyncus fulgidus — 

Karak. 
Cockatoo, black, with white tail— Calyptorhyncus — Ngolak. 
Cockatoo , white — Plyctolophus — Manyt. 
Cockatoo, pink — Plyctolophus Leadbeteri — Jakkal-yakkal. 
Cohabit, to — Muyang. 

Cold — Nagga ; Naggaman ; N-yiddin ; Mulgan. 
Collect, to— Wetdang ; Toyntchwang. 
Comet — Binnar. 

Company (in company) — Danjo ; Indat. 
Conceal, to — Ballarijow. 
Concealed — Ballar. 
Conduct — Nhurdo ; Karra. 

Cone, of the Banksia, dried — Birytch ; Metjo ; Biytch. 
Confuse, to — Ton-ga bu-gi bii'-gi-un. 



CON 127 CRO 

Confused — Waummar-ap ; Yowir. 

Connected (related) — Noy-yang. 

Construct, to — Wyerow. 

Contest — Bakadjin. 

Continually— Kal-yagal ; Dowir. 

Continue (go; move on) — Ngatti, 

Convalescent — Dordak. 

Cook, to — Dukun. 

Cooked (sufficiently for eating) — Djidik. 

Cool — Garh-jal. 

Coot, a — Fulica — Mulya windu. 

Coot, species of — Kijjibrun. 

Copulate, to — Mu-yang. 

Cormorant, large black — Garbang-a. 

Cormorant, little black- Phalacrocorax flaviryhyncvis — Go- 

gogo. 
Corner, outer, of the eye — Naljak. 
Cough, to— Kulbu ; Kulbul-kulbul-dtan. 
Countenance— Dtamel ; Minyt ; Mul-yamel. 
Counterpart, one thing of another — Bui'bur. 
Couple, a — Gurdar. 

Covered up, to leave — Nappang wanja. 
Cow, a — Jingala gadak. 

Coward — Wyi-wyi ; Multchong ; Wy-en-wyen. 
Crab, a — Karri. 

Crack, in the skin, or bark of a tree — Jitalbarra. 
Crane, green-backed — Ardea — Jillimil-yan ; Matdo. 
Crane, blue — Ardea Novae HoUandipe— Wyan. 
Craw, of a bird — Ngogolak. 
Craw, contents of — Ngogat. 
Crawfish — Konak ; Dil ; Tjilki. 
Crawfish, species of — Yarril. 
Creep, to, on game — Ngardang ; Kandi. 
Creeper, white-throated (a bird) — Bibinak. 
Creeper, wiry feathered, or brown reed — Djardal-ya. 
Creeper, brown tree — Jinni. 
Cricket, a — Kiddal. 
Crook, used to pull down the Banksia flowers — Kalga. 



CRO 128 DATC 

Crooked — Ngallin ; Gurdin. 

Crossgrained ; ill-tempered — Yetit yetit. 

Crow — Corvus coronoides ? Wardang ; Tolyl. 

Crow, white- vented — Coronaria strepera — Djillak. 

Crow, species of — Gnota. 

Crumbs, bits — Gulyang-arra. 

Crumb, soft inside of anything — Kundyl. 

Cry, to — Mirang. 

Cry out, to — Mirow. 

Cry out, to, loudly — Wanga dtan. 

Cry out, to, with fear — Gurtangur. 

Crystal, rock crystal, species of, found to the North — Wirgo ; 

Tiil, 
Cuckoo, cuculus — Djudarran. 
Cuckoo, lesser — D-yular. 

Cuckoo, bronze — Chalcites ; Gutuban ; Djuritch. 
Cunning — Daht. 
Cure, to, by a spell — Walbyn ; Butangur ; Malgarak ; Wir- 

gojang ; Woynbar. 
Curled — Gurdin. 
Cut, to, with a knife — Bohrn. 
Cut, to, with a native hammer or axe— Kadjat or Karjat ; 

Deidung. 
Cylindrical, as a wine bottle — Banbar. 

D. 

Damp — Bal-yan. 

Dance, native— Yallor ; Kaggarak ; D-yoolgyt ; Wirbe ; Yen- 
ma; Nilge; Yuyltunmitch. 
Dance, to — Yallorgannow. 
Dark coloured— Mo-an. 
Darkness— Myart. 
Daughter — Gwoy-i'at. 
Dawn, of morning— Djidar ; Waulu ; Biua. 
Day, a— Gedala. 

Daylight— Biryt ; Djidar ; Waulu. 
Day, to-day — Yy-i, 
Day before yesterday— Myargyn ; Myragyn. 



DEA 129 DOW 

Dead, the — Djanga. — The name appHed by the natives to 

Europeans. Mallo, same terra used by Aborigiuea to the 

North. 
Dead — Wanniga ; Nodytch ; Gwardin (Northern word). 

Wmatding (N.E, dialect) ; Kainbil ; Ki-in. 
Decayed, withered — Mandju. 
Deceit — Barrit. 
Deceive, to — Gulin. 
Deception —Barrit. 
Decoy, to — Kobat kobatanan ; Myatyl. 
Deep — Mordak. 
Deep, deep water — Didaral. 

Depart, to — Gulbang ; Watto kolo ; Gulbat ; Gulut. 
Departing — Kolbattin. 
Desire, to ; to direct — Warrang-an. 
Desirous of — Gurdak. 
Devil ; evil spirit — Mittagong ; Waugal. 
Dew — Min-yi ; Jindi ; Barup ; Mammilyar. 
Diamond-bird ; Pai'dolotus— there are two kinds, Punctatus, 

and Striatus — Widapwidap. 
Die, to — Gwardo ; Wanni. 
Dig, to — Biau. 

Dig up, to — Dtanbarrang ijow. 
Diminutive — N-yumap ; Bottyn. 
Direct, in a straight line — Durgul ; Tolol. 
Disappointed— Gurdu djul. 
Displeased — Gurdudjul ; Mulyabin. 
Distant — Bo-yang ; Urrar. 
Disturb, to — Igan. 
Dive, to — Darbow. 

Diver ; blue-bill, Oxyura Australis — Buatu. 
Divided, separate — Wallakwallak. 
Divide to, amongst several persons — Wallak-yong-a. 
Dog— Durda. 
Dog, male — Borang. 
Dog, wild— Durda mokyn ; Yekyn. 

Dog, wild, tail of, worn by the natives in the head — Dyer. 
Down, short-hair or feathers — Dju ; Djuo; Jow-yn. 



DUG 130 EAG 

Down, low — Borak ; Ngardak ; Ardak ; Ardakat. 

Downs, of the sea-coast — Ngobar. 

Downwards— Ngardak ; Ardak ; Ardakat. 

Drag along, to — Barrang maul kolo. 

Dread, to — Multchin ; Wyen ; Gudjuuangur, 

Dream— Welle ; Kundam. 

Dream, to — Kundam ; Kundam-ngwundow ; Ngwuntungur. 

Dress, to — Wolaiig ; Wandang. 

Dried, dried up — Datta; Iiijariujar ; Mandju(applied to trees^ 

or wood, or animals of any sort when dead ; a mummy 

would be Mandju). 
Dried, parched ground — Gulbar. 
Drill holes, to — Dyunong dtan. 
Drip, to — Gabbi-gannow. 
Drive, to — Igan ; Yekan. 
Drown, to, active verb — Mordakanan. 
Drowned, to be drowned — Mordakal-ap. 
Drunk — Yowir. .: 

Dry, not wet — liar; Injar ; Dalbitch ; Tabitch ? 
Dry, thirsty — Gabbigurdak, 
Dry up, to ; make dry — Injaran ; Injaranan. 
Dry, withered, applied to leaves — Derer. 
Duck, grey; Anas Novee Hollandise — Ngwonana; N-yuneruk? 
Duck, mountain — Tadorma ; Guraga. 
Duck, steamer or musk ; Biziura lobata — Gaddara. 
Duck-Diver, a, with very small flappers or wings — Buatu. 
Duck, wood ; Anser — Marang-anna. 
Duck, white- winged ; Nyroca Australis — Errudu. 
Duck, shoveller ; Rhynchaspis — Winibin. 
Duck, large-nosed, blue-winged — Bardunguba. 
Dung — Konang. 
Dust — Dalba ; N-yetti. 

E. 

Eagle, mountain — Waldja. 
Eagle, little; Haliseetus Canorus — Jandu. 
Eagle, short-tailed ; brown; Aquila — Gudap. 
Eagle, sea ; Halieeetus leucogaster — Ngulor. 



EAR 131 EXC 

Ear — Tonga ; Jija (Vasse). 
Earnest, in earnest — Ngwidam. 
Earth — Budjor. 
East, the — Kangal ; Kakui'. 
Eat, to — Ngannow ; Nalgo ; Nangar ? 
Echo — Myakowa. 
Edge, sharp, as of a knife — Nal^io, 

Effaced, as steps or tracks which are attempted to be fol- 
lowed out — Il-yan. 
Effects, personal — Bindart ; Bunarak. 
Egg — Nurgo ; Bwye. 
Egg, white of — Nurgo mammango. 
Egg, yolk of— Nui'go natdjing. 
Egg, shell, when full — Nurgo imba. 
Egg, shell, broken, empty — Nurgo bindi. 
Egg, an, to lay — Ijow ; Nurgo ijow. 
Egg of lice, or of vermin— Minjin-ing. 
Eh ?— Kannah. 

Elbow — Ngayang ; Nogyt ; Ngoy-yur. 
Elevated — Yira-gan. 
Embers — Kalla inak. 
Embrace, to — Wun-gan. 
Empty — Byl-yur. 

Emu — Widji ; Wadji ; Kya (North dialect); Nurruk. 
Emu feathers, ornamental tuft of — Ngalbo; Yanji. 
Emu wren ; Stipiturus Malachurus — Jh'jil ; Jirjil-ya. 
Enclose — Eugallang ; Tergur. 
Enough — Belak ; GyngSk ; Kaa ; Wiak. 
Entrance — Bunan ; Boyl. 
Erect, to — Wyerow. 
Erron eously — Barra. 
Estuary — Darbal ; Willar. 
Evening — Garrimbi. 
Ever— Kal-yagal ; Wattul. 
Exact — Metjil. 

Exactly alike, the same — Burbur. 
Examine, to, in order to recognise — Wundun. 
Excellent — Belli ; Gwabbalitch. 
K 2 



EXC 132 FEW 

Exchange, in exchange — Bangal. 

Exchange, to— Bang-al yong-a ; Yulman yong-a. 

Excrement — Konang. 

Excrescence on a tree — Ngudi. 

Exposed — Barnak ; Baljarra ; Kabbar. 

Eye— Mel. 

Eyebrow — Mimbat. 

Eyelash — Mel-kanbar ; Ming-art ; Kanbigur. 

Eyelid — Mel nal-yak ; Dok. 

Eye, outer corner of— Mel naljak. 

F. 
Face — Minyt ; Dtamel ; Mulyamel. 
Faint, to — Yowir gwart ; Pandopen (Northern dialect). 
Fair, annual — Manjar. 
Fair, light-coloured — Djitting ; Djitto. 
Falcon, peregrine ; Falco Melanogenys — Gwetalbar. 
Fa LI,, to — Dtabbatkolo ; Gwardo. 
Fall, to, down in a faint — Yowir-gvvart. 
Fame — Warda. 
Family or tribe — Matta. 
Far off — Bu-yang ; Urar. 
Farther off — Munong. 
Fasten, to — Yuttarn ; Wulangitch. 
Fastened up, applied to the hair — Wadju. 
Fat (grease) — Boyn ; Mon-gor. 

Fat, stout— Boyngadak ; Ilyn-ngomon ; MongorSl ; Korbuil. 
Father — Mamman ; Kynkar. 
Father-in-law — Kan-gun. 
Fatigued— Mordibang ; Bidibaba. 
Fear — Darnavan. 
Fear, to — Mult-chin ; Wyen. 
Feathers— Idal-ya ; Nornt ; Takil, 

Feathers, tuft of— Kokul-yang ; Ngower ; Ngalbo ; Jilying. 
Fern— Karbarra. 
Festering — Kokanwin. 
Fetch, to— Gang-ow ; Katte. 
Few, a — Waugat ; Maow ; Kattin. 



PIE 133 FLO 

Fiery, hot — Kallak. 

Fig, Hottentot, large ; Mesembryanthemum Equilateralis — 

Kolbogo. 
Fig, Hottentot, small — Manbibi ; Majerak (Mountain dialect). 
Fig, leaves of — Kolbogo Mangara. 
Fight, to — Bakadju ; Tornamagar. 
Fight, a — Ballajinin ; Bakadjin. 
Fillet for the head, made of human hair— Wundu. 
Film, formed over the eye — Barabala. 
Fin, of a fish — Yirrila. 
Finch, spotted — Estrilda ; Jiri. 
Fingers — Marh-ra ; Marh-ragur. 
Fingers, joint — Marh-ra bottyn. 
Fire— Kalla. 

Fire, stick, or brand — Kallamatta. 
Fire, bright, a — Initch. 
Firm — Murdoin ; Bal-yata ; Murdubalangur. 
FiRMA MENT — Gudjy t. 
First — Gorijat ; Gwadjat ; Gwytchangat. 
First, part, or commencement of anything — Mul-yak. 
Fish, a— Bi. 
Fish, species of — Beper ; Bepil ; Dabardak ; Jinin ; Karduk ; 

Kumbul ; Mattawit ; Merdelang ; Murdar ; — Nagkan ; 

Tabadak ? Tuldynang ; T-yundalar ; Walgah ; Warroitch ; 

Yoiyu, 
Five — Marh-jinbangga. 
Fixed — Murduin ; Bal-yata. 
Flame — Dtallar ; Dtallap. 
Flat — Ngalbarda ; Yampel. 
Flea, a— Kolo. 
Flee, to — Bardanbardo; Ban-nagul (Mountain word); Nom- 

dukaun. 
Flesh, muscle — Ilyn. 

Flesh, of animals fit to be eaten — Dadja ; Marri. 
Flounder, small fish — Bambi. 
Flowers : — 

Anigozanthus, tall, green-flowered — Koroylbardang. 

Calthamnus sanguineus — Bindak. 



FLO 134 FOR 

Cenomice retisporum — Ngangonat. 

Bauksia, large — Mangyt. 

Banksia, small — Dubarda. 

Chorizema cordifolia — Kal-ya. 

Chrysorhoe nitens — Kotyeningara> 

Dryandria Fraseri — Budjan ; Butjak. 

Dryandria species nova — Biuda. 

Gre villea — Ngutek . 

Kenn edia — Pulbarn , 

Kennedia Hardenbergii — Kui'rolo. 

Myriophyllum — Nuuika. 

Pattersonia Occidentalis — Komma. 

Pearsonia — Ngowdik. 

Nuytsia floribunda — Mutyal. 

Rhodantlie Manglesii — Ng-yarae Ng-yaming. 

Hovea pungens — Buyenak. 
Fly, a — Nurdu. 

Fly, species of — Tdurtyl ; Kangur ; Kurabuk. 
Fly, species of horse-fly — Gu-yam gu-yam ; Gu-yalla. 
Fly, very large species — Wardan. 

Fly catcher, fan-tailed ; Rhipidura Lathami — Gadjinnak. 
Fly catcher, yellow-bellied ; Eopsaltria — Bambun. 
Fly catcher, glossy ; Seisura Volitans — Jittiug-at. 
Fly catcher, wag-tail ; Muscicapa — Willaring. 
Fly, to — Bardang, 
Foam — Dtal-yi ; Narrija. 
Fog — Dul-ya ; Jindi ; Kulyir. 
FoLi AGE — Myari. 
Food, animal — Dadja. 
Food, vegetable — Maryn. 
Food, in general — Dadjamaryn. 
Food, common stock of— Gwineen. 
Foolish— Balbyt ; Karne ; Yungilbar. 
Foot— Jinna. 
FoRci BLY — G widj ar. 
Fording — Bardangin ; Wayre. 
Forehead— Yurdo ; Bigytch ; Yimang ; Mekytch. 
Foreigner — Mogang. 



FOR 135 FUT 

Forenoon — Biddurong. 

Formerly, any time previous — Karamb. 

Four — Gudjalingudjalin. 

Fresh — Milgar ; Yy-inang. 

Friend — Babbin. 

Friendless — Murutbarna. 

Friendly — Nagal. 

Fright, fear— Darnavan. 

Frighten, to — Darnavan ijovi^. 

Frog— Wurgyl. 

Frog, species of — Gudjarra. 

Frog, species of — Gu-ya. 

Frog, species of — Djiritmat. 

Frog, speciesof — Kalgonak ; Kurni ; Tdunjar ; Tuk ; Yuangur. 

Frost— Kurbon. 

Froth — Dtal-yi ; Narrija. 
Frowning —Iringwin. 

Fruit. The only things like fruit which have been as yet 
discovered, scarcely deserve the name ; they are By-yu ; 
Dtulya ; Kolbogo ; Kuruba ; Kamak ; Kwonnart ; Na- 
man ; which see. 
Fruitful, having had children — Yulang-idi ; Yulang-ara. 
Fry, the, of fish — Gulyang-arra. 
Full, overflowing — Waubatin. 
Full, satisfied — Murada. 

Fungus of the white gum, used for tinder — Madap. 
Fungus, edible — Butogo. 
Fungus, edible — Dtalyil. 
Fungus, edible — Bwy-ego. 
Fungus, edible — Metagong. 
Fungus, edible — Nogo. 
Fungus, edible — Numar. 

Fungus, edible, growing on the ground, of a sweetish taste, 
red-coloured, and very juicy — Whodo, or Koragong, or 
Wurdo. 
Fur — Jow-yn ; Djuo. 
Future, in future — Mila. 



GAD 136 GRA 

G. 

Gadfly, a species of — Gu-yalla. 

Gallinule, subst.) Porphyrio — Gullima. 

Gentl V — B ettik b ettik . 

Get along with you ! — Watto. 

Get up, to — Irabin. 

Get up, arise — Trap. 

Getting, becoming — Abbin. 

GiDDT, confused— Waummarap j Yowir. 

Giddy, foolish— Balbyt. 

Gill, of a fish — Kanba. 

Girdle of opossum's hair worn by the natives round the 

waist — Nulbarn. 
Girdle of human hair worn round the waist — Niggara. 
Girl — Mandigara ; Bungarn ; Tdudar. 
Girl not betrothed — Bungyt. 
Give, to — Yong-a. 
Glance off, to— Yilbin. 
Glass — Boryl ; Irilbarra. 
Glittering — Bunjat. 
Glittering as silver — Birrigon. 
Go, to astray — Barrabart. 
Go to— Bardo ; Gulbang ; Gulbat ; Gulut ; Murrijo Kolo ; 

Kolbardo. 
Go to, on or forward— Kolbang. 
Go to, on one side — Yallingbardo. 
Goatsucker — Eurostopodus ; Kalga, 

Goatsucker, large, or hawk ; Podargus Cuvieri— Gambigorn. 
Goatsucker, little ; -^gotheles— Darin. 
Goatsucker, small black ; ^gotheles Albogularis — Ku- 

kubert. 
Good— Gwabba. 
Good, very— Gwabbalitch. 
Grandchild — Moy-ran. 
Grandfather — Moy-ran ; Tammin, 
Grandmother — Moy-ran. 
Granite, grey — D-yillak. 
Grass— Bobo ; Jilba. 



GRA 137 GUM 

Grass, species of — Bungurt. 

Grass, young, just springing after burning — Jinatong ; 

Kundyl. 
Grasshopper — Jettyl. 
Grass-tree, Blackboy ; Xanthorea — Balga. 
Grass-tree, underground — Burarap ; Mimidi. 
Grass-tree — tough-topped — Barro. 
Grave, a — Yungar-bogal ; Yal-ya. 
Graze, to (to glance off) — Yilbin. 
Grebe, Crested ; Podiceps Cristatus — Kali. 
Grebe, Little ; Podiceps Nestor (Gould) — Wy-uda. 
Green (colour) — Girip-girip; Kammadjar; Tdur-dang ; Dur- 

dong ; Murringmuring. 
Green (alive), applied to trees— Won-gin. ■ 
Green Wood — Dal-yar. 
Grey — Djidal. 
Greyheaded — Katta-dj idal. 
Grinding, or pounding — Barrang-yurrar-angwin. 
Groin, the — Ngilgi ; Ngikil (N.E. dialect). 
Ground, the — Budjor. 

Ground, unburned, or ready for burning— Narrik ; Bokyt. • 
Ground, burned — Nappal; Yanbart. 
Grow, to — Malaj. 
Growl, to, as a dog — Nirran. 
Grub, edible, found in trees — Bardi ; Wulgang. 
Guard-fish — Yellin. 
Guilt — Wulgar. 
Guilty — Wulgargadak. 
Gull, little; Xema — Djijinak. 
Gum-tree, flooded ; Eucalyptus — Gulurto. 
Gum-tree, Red ; Eucalyptus resinifera — Gardan ; Nandap. 
Gum-tree, Red, flowers of — Numbrid. 
Gum-tree, White ; Eucalyptus — Wando ; Tuart. 
Gum-tree, species found near York — Twotta ; Wurak ; Nel- 

arak ; Nardarak ; Morryl ; Mallat. 
Gum, edible, of the Hakea— Dulgar ; Tulga. 
Gum, edible, of the Wattle-ti-ee — Galyang. 
Gum, edible, of the Mang-art, or Raspberry Jam (Acacia) 

Menna. 



GUM 138 HAW 

Gum, of the Mut-yal (Nuytsia Floribunda, or Cabbage-tree — 

Modyar. 
Gum-resin, of the Xanthorea, prepared for use by mixing it 

with charcoal — Tadibi ; Tutdeba ; Bigo. 
Gum-resin, of the Xanthorea Arborea — Nallang ; Firing. 
Gum-resin, of the Tough-topped Xanthorea — Kadjo. 
Gum, of the Xanthorea flower-stem — Nargal-ya. 
Gum, of the Red Gum-tree — Nalla. 
Gun — Widji-bandi. 

H. 

Habit (in the habit of) — Malyn. 

Hair, of the head — Katta mangara. 

Hair, down of the body — Dju. 

Half, of anything — Bang-ga ; Karda. 

Halt — Nannap. 

Hammer, native — Kadjo. 

Hand — Marh-ra. 

Handle, of anything — Matta. 

Handle, to — Marh-rabarrang ; Barrang-jinnang. 

Handsome — Gwabbalitch ; Ngwori'yn-ngworryn ; Ngworryn- 

yang ; Djerrung. 
Hanging (loose) — Dowalraan ; Dowiri. 
Happen, to — Eche-na. 
Hard — Murduin ; Moroyt ; Jadam. 
Hard (rough) — Battiri ; Burr, 
Hark ! (listen)— Nah-nah-or ; Allah. 
Harmless — Manjang. 
Harsh (rough to the feel, like an unprepared kangaroo-skin) 

— Battiri. 
Hatchet — Kadjo. 
Haunches — Byi. 
Having (possessing) — Ga-dalj, 
Haunt, of an animal — Myar. 

Hawk, Lizard-eating ; leraeidia Berigora — Kargyn. 
Hawk, species of — Gudjilan ; Bepumer ; Kiilgur. 
Hawk, Eagle ; Aquila fucosa Cuvieri— Wald-ja. 
Hawk, Little ; Accipiter torquatus— Jillijilli. 



HE 189 HON 

He— Bal. 

He (himself)— Ballal. 

Head— Katta. 

Health — in health — Wan-gin. 

Heap — Murga. 

Hear, to — Kattidj. 

Heart — Gurdu ; Gurt. 

Hearth, where the ashes of a fire are still remaining — 
Yurda. 

Heavy — Gumbar ; Gundip ; Botol-yang (Upper Swan dia- 
lect) ; Kandalyang ; Ban-yadak, 

Heel — Ngudang Jinnardo ; Ngardo ; Gurtdun. 

Hen, Swamp ; Poi'phyrio — GuUima. 

Hen, Little ; Zapoi'nia — Warraja. 

Her (Poss. Pronoun) — Balak. 

Here— Belli belli ; N-yinya ; Nidja ; Nidjak ; Nidjalla ; 
N-yal ; Inyene ; Tonait ? 

Here (Come here) — Yual. 

Hereafter (at some future period) — Mila. 

Hero — Wardagadak. 

Hesitate, to — Kattakattak-abbin. 

Hidden — Kopin. 

Hide, to— Ballarijow — Dambarijow ; Kopinijow. 

High — Kokardar ? 

High up — Yirak ; Yiragan. 

Hill — Katta ; Warh-ro. 

Hillock — Bogal ; Warh-ro. 

Him, to — Buggalo. 

Hip — Kulgi. 

Hip-joint — Djul-yyn. 

His — Buggalong. 

Hold, to (back any one from fighting) Wungan ; Garraning. 

Hole — Garrab ; Jit. 

Holey (full of holes) — Garrabara. 

Hollow — Garrab. 

Honest — Ngwidam . 

Honey — Ngon-yang ; Boyn. 

Honeysuckle-tree (See Banksia) — Biara. 



HON 140 ILL 

HoNEYSUCKER, yellow-winged ; Melliphaga Novse Hollandiae— 

Bandin. 
HoNEYSucKER, black-hcaded ; Hsematops lunulatus — Baiiggin. 
HoNEYSUCKER, yellow ; Ptilotis — Bildjart. 
HoNEYsucKER, noisy ; Myzantha garrula — Bil-yagorong, 
HoNEYSUCKER, least ; Acanthorhyneus Superciliosus — Buljit. 
HoNEYsucKER, white-eared ; Ptilotis—Duranduran. 
HoNEYSucKER, yellow-eared ; Ptilotis ornata — Miamit. 
HoNEYSucKER, wliite-breasted ; Glyciphila ocularis — Wyrod- 

judong. 
Horn, a (or anything resembling it) — Jingala. 
HoT_Kallang ; Kallarak. 
Hottentot fig ; Mesembryanthemum Equilateralis — Kol- 

bogo. 
Hottentot fig, small— Manbibi ; Majerak. 
House — Mya. 

HovEA puNGENS (a plant) — Bu-yenak. 
Humpback — Bogal-ngudi. 

HtrNGRY— Byl-yur ; Bordan-yak Yulap ; Bandyn. 
Hunt, to (Kangaroo in a party) — Kaabo. 
Hunting, by moonlight — Mard-angwin. 
Hurt, to (pain) — Bakkan, 
Husband— Kardo. 
Husk— Yimba. 

I. 

I— Ngadjo ; Nganya ; Adjo ; Y-jo. (Vasse river.) 

I WILL— Ngadjul ; Adjul ; Y-jul. (Vasse river.) 

Ibis ; Nycticorax — Ngalganning. 

Idle— Mandjalla. 

If, if I might — Minning. 

Iguana, the— Yuma. 

Iguana, long-tailed— Kardara. 

Iguana, a species of— Yundak ; Manar ; Mekil ; Tjouing ; 

Wundi. 
Iguana— Yundung. 
Iguana, tailless— Bilyap. 
Iguana, green — Kaldar. 
Ill— Mindyt ; Ngandyn ; Mendyk ; WaugalSn. 



IMM 141 JUS 

Immediately — Ilak ; Gwytch ; Bui-da. 

Immoveable — Murduin murduin. 

Implicated as a blood-relative in an offence or quarrel— 

Wulgar. 
Improper — Yanbi. 
Inj within — Bura. 
In vain — Mordo. 

Inactive— Mandj alia ; Dtabbak ; Bidi babba. 
I NCEST — Yarbelli . 
I NCORRECT — Yanbi . 
Increase, to — Malaj. 

Indeed, in very truth — Buudojil ; Kannajil ; Karnayul. 
Indiscriminately — Bul-yar. 
Indisposed — Wan-yurdu. 
Individually — Wallakwallak. 
Infant— Gudja ; Burdilyap. 
Inform, to — Barnakvvarrang. 
Injure, to (wound) — Ngattang. 
Innocent, not implicated in a quarrel — Jidyt. 
Insect, species of — Wandona. 

Interval, or open space between two objects — Wallu. 
Iron-stone — Malaga, 
Island — Gurdubudjor ; Bidjigurdu. 
It — Bal ; Allija. 

It, that is it — Allija ; Karrakarra ; Karrawa. 
Itch — Gumburgumbur ; Jipjip. 

J. 

Jacksonia-tree ; Jacksonia Sternborgiana — Kapbur. 

Jacksonia prostrata — Kokadang ; Walyumy. 

Jealous — Minobin. 

Jealous, to be — Minob, 

Jesting — Dtallangyak. 

Joints, of the fingers — Marh-rabottyn. 

Joking — Waubbaniranwin ; DtallangySk ; Waubbowin 

Waubbawangowin. 
Jump, to — Bardang nginnow ; Tandaban. 
Just now — Gori ; Gwytch. 



142 



K. 

Kangaroo, in general — Yan-gor. 

Kangaroo, the male — Yowart. 

Kangaroo, the female — Warru ; Kang-garang-a. 

Kangaroo, rock — Murorong. 

Kangaroo, blue ; brush, or silver-grey ; Macropus ceeruleus — 
Gurh-ra. 

Kangaroo (small species) — Burdi ; Kwakar ; Woile ? 

Kangaroo, Macropus elegans — Wurak. 

Kangaroo, young, which still resorts to its mother's pouch — 
Ngannip. 

Kangaroo, sinews used for thread — Gwirak. 

Kangaroo, Hypsiprymnus GilbertU — Gilgyte. 

Kennedia, purple creeper ; Kennedia Hardenbergia — Kur- 
rolo. 

Kernel of the Zamia nut — Gargoin. 

Kick, to — G annow. 

Kidney — Djubo. 

Kill, to — Dargang-an ; Warbum ; Dagangoon. 

KiNGiA, species of — Waiyu. 

KiNGFisHER—Halcyon Sanctus ; Kan-yinnak ; Kandimak. 

Kiss, to — Bimban ; Nmd-yan, 

Knee— Bonnit ; Djuto ; Tutamindi. 

Knee-cap, or knee-pan — Bebal. 

Knee, kneepan of the Kangaroo — Ngirjyn. 

Knife, native — Tabba ; Bondjun ; Dappa. 

Knife, small— Dtarh.ra. 

Knife, English— Yirriwa. 

Knoll, a hillock— Warh-ro. 

Knot— Betan. 

Knot, a, in wood — Ngudi. 

Know, to (to understand)— Kattidj. 

Know, not— Kattidjbru or Kattidjburt. 

Knowledge of, having— Nagolak. 



LAK 143 LIF 

L. 

Lake — Mulur. 

Lake, small, or basin— Ngura. 

Land — Budjoi*, 

Land, property in — Kallip ; Kallabudjor. 

Land-breeze — Nandat. 

Languid — Bidibaba. 

Large — Ngomon. 

Lark, antlms — Warrajudong. 

Lark, scrub ; Calamanthus— Bulordu. 

Last, the last of anything — Yuttok. 

Lately — Gori. 

Laugh, to — Goa; Walgur. 

Lay, to, anything down ; to lay eggs— Ijow, 

Layers, of a root ; as of an onion — Mimi. 

Lazy — MSndjalla ; Dtabbakan ; Yuly. 

Leaf — Dilbi. 

Leaf, a dead — Billara ; Derer ; Dwoy-a. 

Leaf ; dead leaves of the Xanthorea or grass-tree — Min-dar. 

Lean, thin — Kardidi ; Kotyedak ; Kotyelai'a. 

Lean, in poor condition ; speaking of game or animals — 

Werbal (Upper Swan). 
Leave, to — Wanja. 
Leave it ; let it alone— Bal. 
Leave, left behind — Bang-al. 
Leech, small kind — Bylyi. 
Leech, large — Ninim. 
Leg — Bandi ; Matta. 
Leptospermum, sweet-scented j Leptospermum aagiistifolia 

— Kuber. 
Let (let it alone) — Bal. 
Liberate, to— Yalgaranan. 
Lie, to ; deceive — Dtal-yili ; Gulin ; Gul-yam ; Bartap, or 

Burtap ; Partap. 
Lie down, to — Ngwundow ; Ngera ? 
Lie (to sleep) — Bidjar ngwundow. 
Lift up, to — Barrang djinnang. 



144 



Lift up, to, in order to examine underneath — Billan djinnang. 

Light (not heavy) adj. — Byang byang ; Biargar ; (Upper 
Swan). 

Light, thin (as a covering) — Bargar. 

Light (sunlight and heat)— Monak. 

Light (moonhght) — Mikang. 

Light, of the morning — Waullu ; Bina. 

Light (daylight) — Biryt. 

Light (in colour, not dark) — Djitting ; Djitto. 

Light, to prepare a fire — Dukun. 

Light, to, as a bird — Gargan ; Gargat. 

Lightning — Babbangwin ; Gelangin (Upper Swan). 

Like (similar to) — Mogoin ; Mogin ; Jin. 

Likely (perhaps)— Gabbyu. 

Limestone — Dardak ; Djidong (Upper Swan). 

Line, a straight mark — Bidi durgul. 

Line, in a right or straight — Wiring. 

Lips — Dta. 

Little, short — Gorad ; Bottyn. 

Little, in quantity — N-yumap. 

Little while ago— Gori. 

Liver — Myerri. 

Living, applied to man or animals — Wining. 

Living, applied to trees — Won-gin. 

Lizard — Jinadarra. 

Lizard, a species not eaten — Wurriji. 

Lizard, large black— Kardar. 

Lizard, small species— Kattang-irang ; Jorang. 

Loins— Dinyt ; Molorn. 

Loitering— Mandj alia. 

Lonely— Dombart. 

Long, tall— Wal-yadi. 

Long time ago— Gorah. 

Longing for — Gurdak. 

Look, to, see — Djinnang ; N-yangow. 

Look, to, for— Wargat. 

Look sideways, from the corner of the eye— Nalja. 

Look carelessly on the ground ; sauntering along— Mud j or o. 



LOO 145 MID 

Look ! Look out ; mind — Garro-djin ; Wola. 

Louse — Kolo. 

Lover — Gurtgadak. 

Low, low down — Ngardak; Ngardalj Borak; Ardak; Ardakat. 

Lungs — Wal-yal. 

Lying — Barrit ; Gulyaman. 

M. 
Magpie, break-of-day bird ; Cracticus Tibicen — Gurbat ; 

Korbat (Upper Swan). 
Magpie, Little — By-yu gul-yidi. 
Mahogany tree ; Eucalyptus robusta — Djarryl. 
Maid — Bun-garn ; Bun-gyt. 
Man — Mammarap. 
Man, married — Kardo. 
Man, young — Gulambiddi. 
Man of renown — Wardagadak. 
Man, old — Bettich. 
Manna, so called — Dang-yl. 
Manner, behaviour — Karra • N-hurdo. 
Many — Bula. 
Many, so— Winnir. 
Many, how — Gnaman. 
Marriage, in the right line of — Wiring. 
Marrow — Garrap ; Boyn kot-ye-ak. 
Marry, to — Kardobarrang. 
Marsh harrier-bird ; Circus — Dil-yurdu. 
Marten, hirundo — Gabbikallan-gorong. 
Matter, from a sore — Badjang ; Kundu. 
Me — Ngan-ya ; Anna. 
Meddler, one who meddles— Marh-rang. 
Melt, to, as sugar in water ; Kol-yurang. 
Membrum Virile — Meda ; Merda. 
Mend, to a hole — Dtandidin ; Bappigar. 
Menses — Myerbakkal. 
Merely— Arda ; Yaga. 
Meteor — B innar. 
Mid-day — Mal-yarik. 



Milk — Gu-ri ; Gu-yi. 

Mind ! take care — Garrodjin ; Kattidj murdoinan. 

Mine — Ngan-yalak. 

Miscarry, to — Waugalan. 

Miss, to, the aim — Wil-yan. 

Mist — Dul-ya ; Jindi ; Kulyir. 

Misty, appearance of approaching rain ; Ngu-yang. 

Misunderstand, to — Barra-kattidj . 

Mix, to — Widang ; Weyang. 

Mock, to ; imitate — Ijan. 

Moon — Miga ; Miki ; Mimak ; Miak. 

Moonlight — Mikang. 

Moon, waxing : — New moon — Werbarang-warri. 

First quarter — Marangorong. 

Half-moon — Bang-al. 

Second quarter — Kabbul. 

Full moon— Gerradil katti. 
Moon, waning : — Binabardok. 

Three quarters — Burno wandat. 

Half moon — Jidik golang. 

Quarter moon — Narrat. 
Monster, fabulous, of the water — Waugal. Its supposed 

shape is that of a huge winged serpent. 
More — Ngatti. 
Morrow ; to-morrow — Binang ; Morh-ragadak ; Morhro- 

godo; Man-yana. 
Mosquito— Nido ; Nirrgo. 
Moss— Nangatta ; N-yula. 
Mother — Ngangan. 
Mother-in-law— Man-gat. 
Motherless— Nganganbru. 
Mouldy — Min-yudo. 
Mount, to— Dendang. 
Mountain — Katta Murdo or Mordo. 
Mountain duck— Tadorma ; Guraga. 
Mountaineer, a — Murdong ; Murdongal. 
Mourning, to go into — Murh-ro nabbow ; Dardak nabbow. 
Mouse, small burrowing kind, eaten by the natives — Djil-yur. 



MOU 147 NEE 

Mouse, species of — Mardo ; Ngulbungur. 

Mouse, small species — Mandarda. 

Mouse, large, eaten by the natives — Nuji ; N-yuti (Upper 

Swan). 
Mouse, small species, supposed to be marsupial — Djirdowin. 
Moustaches — Mun-ing. 
Mouth — Dta. 

Move, to — Murrijo ; Ennow ; Gulbang ; Kolo. 
Move, to, slowly along — Yannow. 
Much, adj. — Bula ; Gnoriuk ? 
Mucus of the nose — Ngoro. 
Mud — Nano, 

Mullet fish — Kalkada ; Ngamiler. 
Mumbling food— Gulang-in. 
Muscle of the body — Ilyn. 
Muscle of the thigh — Yoyt. 
Muscle, fresh-water — Inbi ; Marel. 
Mushroom — Yalle. 
Musk duck, or steamer — Gatdarra. 
Musk, obtained from the male musk duck, being the oil gland 

of this bird — Burdi. 
My — Nganna. 

N. 
Nails of the hand — Birri ; Birrigur. 
Naked — Baljarra ; Bokabart ; Maggo. 
Name — Kole ; Quele. 
Nape of the neck — Nan-gar. 
Narrow — Nulu ; Nund-yang (Upper Swan word). 
Navel — Bil-yi ; Ngowerit. 
Navel-string — Nanna. 
Near— Barduk. 
Nearer — Yulang. 
Neck— Wardo. 
Neck, back of — Bodto. 
Nectar of flowers — Ngon-yang. 

Needlessly — Darrajan ; asDarrajan wangow, to talk on need- 
lessly or incessantly. 

L2 



NEP 148 OH 

Nkphew — My-ur ; Gotitkar. 

Nest, birds' — Jidamya ; Jidakalla ; Manga. 

Nest, white ants' — Molytch. 

Neutral ; connected by blood with two hostile parties, but 

not implicated in the quarrels of either— Jidyt. 
New — Milgar ; Yy-inang. 
News— Warda. 
Niece— Gambart. 

Night — Kumbardang ; Myardak ; Kattik. 
Nipple of the breast — Bibi mulya. 
No — Yuada. 
Noise — Gurdor. 
Noiseless — Daht ; Gutiguti. 
Noiselessly — Bettikbettik. 
NoL-YANG — Gallinula; Nolyang. 
Nondescript, a ; any indescribable object — Nytbi. 
Nonsense, no such thing — Yaga. 
Noon— Mal-y arak . 
North — Dj erral . 
Northern people — Welo. 
Nose — Mulya. 

Nose bone — Mulyat ; Waylmat. 
Nostrils— Mul-ya bunan. 
Not — Bart ; Bru ; Yuada. 
Nothing — Kyan ; Yuat, 
Nothing particular — Arda. 
Now— Yy-i; Wmnirak ; Yy-inang. 
Now, just now— Gori. 
Now, at this very time — Winnijinbar (Upper Swan word) ; 

Wynikanbar (K.G.S. word). 
Nut, York nut — Marda. 
Nuthatch ; Sitella Melanocephalus — Gumalbidy t. 

0. 
Off, be off— Watto. 
Offended — Mul-yabin. 
Offensive, in smell — Bidjak. 
Oh !— NSh. 



OLD 149 PAL 

Old, aged — Guragor. 
Old, useless — Windo ; windang. 
Once — Gyn-yang. 
Once, at once — Gwytch ; Ilak. 
One — Gyn ; Dombart. 
Only, merely, simply — Ai'da ; Yaga. 
Open, to — Yalgaranan. 

Open, a clear open space without trees — Waullu. 
Opening, an — Bunan ; Dta. 
Openly — Barnak ; Baiidak. 

Opossum, large grey ; Phalangista Vulpina — Kuraal. 
Opossum, small, squirrel-like — Ballagar ; Ballawarra ; Ma- 
dun ; Ballard. 
Opossum, ring-tailed ; Phalangista Cookii — Ngora. 
Opossum hair-girdle — Nulbarn. 
Opossum band for the neck — Bururo. 
Opossum band worn round the head — Kun-yi. 
OB^Ka. 

Orphan — Barnap ; Ngangan-bru. 
Other, the — Waumma ; Bille. 
Otherwise — Warba. 
Our — Ngannilak ; Ngillelung. 
Outside (out of doors)— Bandak ; Barnak. 
O V ERF LOWING — Waubatiu. 
Overturned — Mudjerdo. 
Owl, White ; Strix Cyclops — Binar. 
Owl, Barking ; Athena^ — Wulbugli. 
Owl, Lesser White ; Strix Delicatulus — Yonja. 
Owl, Small Brown, or Cuckoo ; Strix — Gurgurda ; Gugumit. 
Ownerless — Barna. 
Oyster — Notan (K.G.S. dialect). 

P. 
Pain, to — Bakkan. 

Pained (in pain)— Mendyk ; Mindyt. 
Pair, a — Gurdar. 
Palatable — Mul-yit mul-yit. 
Palate of the mouth — Gun-yan. 



PAP 150 PEO 

PiJPER-BARK, or Tea-tree, which grows on the banks of rivers, 

a small species — Kolil ; Mudurda ; Bewel. 
Paper bark, or Tea-tree, larger kind, growing on swampy 

plains — Modong . 
Paper-bark tree, bark of — Mya. 
Parasite (a plant) — Warrap. 
Parasite, seed of a species of — Wallang 
Parched up — Injar-injar. 
Parched up ground — Gulbar. 
Parrots, in general — Dammalak. 

Parrots, a species of — Burnungur ; Djalyup ; Woljarbang. 
Parrot, Blue-bellied ; Platycercus — Djarrylbardang. 
Parrot, Twenty-eight ; Platycercus Zonarius — Dowarn. 
Parrot, Red-breasted ; Platycercus Icterotis — Guddan- 

guddan. 
Parrot, Screaming ; Trichoglossus — Kowar. 
Parrot, Little Ground ; Nanodes Venustus — Gulyidarang- 
Parrot, Crested ; Nymphicus Novae HoUandise — Wuraling 
Parrot, Mountain ; Polytehs Melanura — Waukan-ga. 
Parrot, Variegated Ground ; Pezoporus Formosus — Djul- 

batta ; Djardong.garri. 
Part, a, of anything — Bang-ga ; Karda. 
Parts, in — Mul-mul. 
Pass, to, on one side — Yallingbart. 
Pass, to, through or under — Darbow. 
Passion — Garrang. 
Path — Bidi; Kungo. 
Patient (adjective) — Banjar. 
Peaceable— Nagal. 

Pear, Native ; Xylomela Occidentalis — Janjin ; Dumbung. 
Pebbles — Molar. 
Peep sideways, to — Nalja. 
Peevish— Yetit yetit. 

Pelican ; Pelecanus Novse HoUandise — Budtallang ; Nirimba. 
Pendant — Dowiri-Dowalman ; Marmangur. 
Penetrate, to — Dtan. 
Penis ; Membrum virile — Meda ; Merda. 
People — Yung-ar. 



PER 151 POW 

Perceiyk, to — Djinnang. 

Perhaps — Gabbyn. 

Perspiration — Ban-ya ; Kungar. 

Perspire, to — Ban-ya. 

Pheasant, Colonial — Ngowo. 

Pick up, to — Djabbun. 

Piddle, to — Gumbu. 

Pierce, to — Dtan. 

Pierce through, to — Waugartdtan. 

Pio — Maggorong. 

PiaEON, Bronze-winged ; Columba — Wodta. 

Pigeon, Blue ; Graucalus — Nulargo. 

Pinch, to — Binun ; Bettinun. 

Pinion, outer, of wing — Jill 

Pit-patting, agitation, fluttering of the heart — Badbadin. 

Pitching down, lighting as a bird — Gargan-win. 

Place, to— Ijow. 

Planet Venus — Julagoling. 

Plant, to — Niran. 

Play, to— Waubbow. 

Pleased, to be — Gurdugwabba. 

Plenty — Bula ; Murgyl ; Orpin. 

Plover, Long-legged ; Himantopus — Djanjarak. 

Plover, Black-fronted ; ^gialitis nigrifrons — Nidul-yorong. 

Pluck up, to — Maulbarrang ijow. 

Pluck out feathers, to — Budjan ; Bar-nan ; Bwonegur, 

Pointed finely— Jillap. 

Poise, to, a spear, preparatory to throwing — Miran. 

Pool, of water, in a river — Monong. 

Pool, of water, in a rock — Ngamar. 

Porpoise — Warranang. 

Portion, or part of a thing — Karda. 

Possessing (having) — Gadak. 

Posteriors — Byi. 

Pound, to (beat to powder) — Kol-yui^ng, 

Pounding roots, the act of — Yudangwinnan. 

Powerful — Murduin ; Bidimurduin. 



PR A 152 QUI 

Praise, to — Yang-anan. 

Pregnancy — Kobbolak. 

Pregnancy, early state of — Bun-gallor. 

Present, adj. — N-yal. 

Present, to— ^ong-a. 

Presently — Burda ; BurdSk, (Murray R.) 

Pretty — Gwabba ; Ngworryn ngworryn. 

Previously — Gwadjat. 

Probably — Gabbyn . 

Proceed, to — Gulbang. 

Produce, to, as animals having young, or trees, fruit, &c. — 

Ijow. 
Proper— Gwabba. 
Property, personal — Bunarak. 

Property, personal, of an individual deceased — Bin-dart. 
Property, landed— Myar ; Kallip ; Kalla budjor. 
Proud — Wumbubin . 
PuBES, the — Mando. 

Pubes, first appearance of, in youth — Quelap. 
P UBLICL Y — Barnak . 
Pudenda — Babbalya ; Dardi. 
Pull, to — Maulbarrang. 
Purloin, to — Ngagynbarrang. 
Purposely — Bandak. 
Pursue, to, on a track — Balgang. 
Push, to— Gurnu ; Billang ; Billangur. 
Put, to — Ijow. 

Put, in order — Gwabbanijow. 
Put, on a covering — Wolang ; Wandang. 

Q. 

Quail, brown ; Coturnix Australis, Gould — Murit. 

Quail, painted ; Hemipodius Varius — Murolang ; Nani 

(Upper Swan). 
Quartz— Borryl ; Bard-ya. 
Quick, quickly— Yabbra ; Getget ; Wellang ; Welawellang ; 

Yirakal ; Yurril. 



QUI 153 RET 

Quiet, peaceable — Nagal. 
Qui etlt — Bettikbettik . 
Quit, to — Wanja. 

R. 

Rage — Garrang. 

Rail, water rail ; Rallus— N-yanni. 

Rainbow — Walgen ; N-yurdang. 

Raise up, to — Wyerow. 

Rapid — Yabbra ; Getget. 

Rascal— Multchong. 

Rase, to (to pull down) — YuttobSrrang. 

Rat, Marsupial species ; Bandicoot — Kundi ; Gwende. 

Rat, water, species of; Hydromus Leucogaster — Murit-ya ; 

Ngurju. 
Rat, kangaroo rat — Wal-yo. 
Raw— Dal-yar; Tdodak ? 
Rays of the sun — Nganga Batta. 
Really, truly — Bundo ; Karnajil ; Karnayul. 
Red, blood-coloured — Ngubulyar ; Wilgilam. 
Reed creeper (brown) — Djardalya. 
Reflect, to — Kattidj. 
Regardless, careless — Wallarra. 
Relate, to, to tell — Warrang-an. 
Related by marriage — Noy-yang. 
Relati on — Murut. 

Remain, to ; long in a place — Nginnow. 
Renown — Warda. 

Renown, a man of renown— Wardagadak. 
Residence, place of — Myar. 
Resin of the Xanthorhea, prepared for use by mixing it with 

charcoal — Tadibi ; Tutdeba ; Bigo. 
Resin of Xanthorhea Arborea — Nallang ; Firing. 
Resin of the tough-topped Xanthorhea — Kadjo. 
Restrain, to — Wungan. 
Retaliation, in retaliation — B^ng-al. 
Retaliate, to — Bang-al buma. 
Return, to — Garroyual. 



REV 154 ROO 

Revenge, to — Bang-al buma. 

Ribs, the — Ngarral ; Nimyt. 

Ribs, short, the — Bun-galla. 

Right, proper — Gwabba. 

Right arm — Ngunman. 

Ring, a circle for enclosing game — Murga. 

Rise, to — Irabin. 

River — Bilo. 

Robber — Nagalyang. 

Robin ; Petroica Multicolor— Guba. 

Robin, red-crowned ; Petroica Goodenovii — Minijidang. 

Rock — Bu-yi. 

Rock, crystal, species of — Wirgo. 

Rocking — Binbart binbart. 

Rocky — Buyi billanak. 

Rogue — Multchong. 

Roll over, to (active verb) — Billang ; Billangur. 

Rolling from side to side — Binbart binbart. 

Roots of plants or trees — Nganga ; Djinnara, or Jinnara ; 

Wannyl. 
Roots, decayed — Mandju. 



s, edible — 






1. 


Haemadorum 


Spicatura — Bohn. 


2. 


An orchis, like a small potato — DjubSk. 


3. 


Hsemadorum- 


-DjakSt. 




4. 




Ganno. 




5. 




Gwardyn. 




6. 




a species of rush — Jitta. 


7. 




Jitetgorun. 




8. 




Kogyn. 




9. 




Kuredjigo. 




10. 




a large kind of Bohn— Muii. 


11. 


Hsemadorum 


Paniculatum- 


-Madja. 


12. 






MSrang. 


13. 






Nangergun, 


14. 






Ngulya. 



15. Resembling Bohn Nguto. 



ROO 155 SCR 

Roots, edible — 

16. One of the Dioscorese ; a species of yam — Warran. 

1 7. Typha angustifolia ; broad-leaf marsh flag — Yan- 

jidi. 

Rope — Madji. 

Rough — Batiri ; Burr. 

Round about ; on the other side — Wunno. 

Rub, to, on, or over — Nabbow. 

Rub together — Yurang yurang. 

Rubbing, pounding — Barrang yurrarangin. 

Rump — Byi; Kakam, 

Run, to — Yugow murrijo. 

Run away, to — Bardang. 

Rushes in general — Gurgogo ; Batta. 

Rush — Thysanotus Fimbriatus ; used by the natives in sew- 
ing the kangaroo skins together to form their cloaks — 
Batta. 

S. 
Salmon — Melak ; Ngarri ; Ngarrilgul, 
Salt (subst.) — Gal-yarn (Eastern word). 
Salt (adj.) — Djallara. 
OAMPHIRE — Mil-yu. 
Sand, or Sandy land — Go-yarra. 
Sandhills near the coast — Ngobar. 
Sandal wood tree ; Sandalum Latifolium — Willarak. 
Sandy district — Gongan. 

Sanfoin bird ; Ophthiamura Albifrons — Yaba wilban. 
Satin bird — Kalgong ; Wanggima. 
Satisfied— Murada. 
Save, to — To save the life of any one — Barrang dordak- 

Snan. 
Saw- dust — N -y etti. 
Scab — Djiri. 
Scar — Barh-ran. 
Scold, to — Gorang. 

Scorpion — Karryma ; Konak-marh-ra. 
Scrape to, the earth — Bian. 



SCR 156 SHA 

Scrape a spear, to point it— Garbang ; Jingan. 

Scraped, pointed — Garbel. 

Scrapings — N -yetti. 

Scratch, to — Djirang. 

Scratch, to, up earth — Bian. 

Scream, to — Wanga-dan. 

Sea — Odern ; Mammart. 

Sea-breeze — Gulamwin. 

Sea-shore — Walbar. 

Seaweed — Nula. 

Seal, the hair ; Phoca — Man-yini. 

Search, to, for — Wargatta. 

Seasons — The aborigines reckon six in number. 

1. Maggoro ; June and July — Winter. 

2. Jilba ; August and September — Spring. 

3. Gambarang ; October and November. 

4. Bii'ok ; December and January — Summer. 

5. Burnuro ; February and March — Autumn. 

6. Wun-yarang, or Geran ; April and May. 
Secret — Ballar ; Kopin. 

Secrete, to — Ballar ijow ; Kopin ijow. 

See, to — Djinnang ; N-yang-ow. 

See, to, obscurely — Ngallarar djinnang. 

Seed — Nurgo ; Kundyl. 

Seed vessel of the Banksia — Bi-ytch ; Metjo. 

Seed vessel of the Eucalyptus, or gum-tree of any sort- 

Durdip. 
Seedling-trees — Balgor. 
Semen — Djidji ; Bema. 
Separate, to, violently — Jeran. 
Separated by distance — Bang-al. 
Separately — Wallakwallak ; Kortda. 
Serious — Ngwidam. 
Set, to, as the sun — Dtabbat, 
Set in order — GwabbSnijow ; Gwabgwabbanijow. 
Seven — Marh-jin bangga-gudjir gudjal. 
Shade — Mallo. 
Shadow — Malliji. 



SHA 157 SIL 

Shag, a bird ; Phalacrocorax— Medi. 

Shake, to — Yurang yurang. 

Shallow — Danjal ; Ngardyt. 

Shank — Bandi; Matta. 

Share, to, or divide amongst several persons — Wallak- 

yong-a. 
Shark — Mundo ; Bugor (Leschenault dialect). 
Shark, species of — Madjit. 
Sharp, sharp-edged — Ngo-yang. 
Sharp, pointed — Jillap. 
Sharpen, to ; to point — Djinganan ; Yijatgur. 
Shavings — N-yetti. 
She— Bal. 

She oak, the — A species of Casuariua — GulH. 
Shells, sea-shells — Korel; Yukel. 
Shells, fresh-water shells — Marel ; Yinbi. 
Shells, egg-shells — Nurgo imba. 
Shells, pearl oyster — Bedoan. 
Shield — Wunda. 
Shining — Bunjat ; Birrikon. 
Shiver, to, in pieces — Kardatakkan. 
Shiver, to, with cold or fear — Kui'gin yugow. 
Shoe, an English — Jiuna nganjo. 
Short — Gorad ; Gorada. 
S horten — Goradan . 
Shoulder — Manga. 
Shoulder or blade-bone — Djardara. 
Shout, to, in order to frighten and alarm — Buraburman. 
Shove, to — Gurnu. 
Shower, a — Jidi. 

Shut, to — Didinwanjow ; Notodtan, 
Shy — Gulumburrin. 
SiCK—Mendyk ; Ngandyn ; Waugalan ; Mindyt ; Arndin ; 

Arndinyang (v.). 
Side, the — Bun-gal ; Narra. 
Side, on this or that —Belli belli. 
Side, from side to side — Ngarrak ugarrak. 
Sidle along, to — Kandi. 
Si lently — Gutiguti. 



STL 158 SMO 

Silly — Balbyt. 

Silver fish ; silver herring — Colonial name, Didi. 

Similar to — Mogoin ; Winnarali ; Burbur ; Mogin. 

Sinew — Gwirak. 

Sing, to — Yeddigarow. 

Singing— Malyangwin (North dialect). 

Single — Dombart. 

Sink, to, as the sun — Dtabbat. 

Sister — Djuko. 

Sister, eldest — Jindam, 

Sister, middle, younger — Kowat. 

Sister, youngest — Guloyn. 

Sister, married sister — Mirak. 

Sister-in-law — Deni. 

Sit, to — Nginnow. 

Skewer — Djunong ; Balbiri ; Djung-o ; Yir. 

Skilful — Boiloit. 

Skin, outer covering of anything— Mabo. 

Skin of an animal — Ngal-yak. 

Skin of a dog's tail with the fur on — Dy-er. 

Sky — Gudjyt ; Barrab. 

Slate stone, species of — Gande. 

Slay, to — Ballajan. 

Sleep — Bidjar ; Kopil. 

Sleep, heavy — Nogoro. 

Sleep, to — Bidjar ngwundow. 

Slender — Wyamak ; Wiril. 

Slight— Wi-yul ; Wu*il. 

Slippery — Garragar. 

Slow — Dtabbak. ^ 

Slowly — B ettikbettik. 

Sly— Daht. 

Slyly, noiselessly — Gutiguti. 

Small — Batdoin ; Bottyn ; N-yumap ; Kardidi. 

Smear, to— Nabbow ; Yul-yang. 

Smell — Min-ya. 

Smell, to (aclive) — Bindang. 

Smoke— Bu-yu ; Gerik. 

Smooth— Gun-yak. 



SNA 159 SPE 

Snake — Waugal. 

Snake, species of — Bidjirun-go ; Yurakyn. 

Snake, species of, small — Ky-argung. 

Snake, Carpet— Madjinda. 

Snake, small, white with i-ed bands — Bidjuba. 

Snake, very venomous — Dubyt ; Kabarda ; Nona ; Noma ; 

Kwonda. 
Snake, a kind much liked by the natives — Wan-go. 
Snake, a species not eaten by the natives — Worri ; Wye. 
Snapper fish — 'Ijarap, 
Sneeze, a sneezing — Mul-yaritch. 
Sneeze, to — Mulyar-ijow. 
Snore, to — Nurdurang. 
So MANY — Winnir. 
Soft, smooth — Gunyak. 
Softly — Bettik. 
Sole of the foot— Jinnagabbarn. 
Son — Mammal. 
Song— Yeddi; Yetti. 
Sorcerer — Boyl-yagadak ; Dalgagadak ; Gul-yarri ; KobbE> 

lo bu-yirgadak ; Yukungadak. 
Sorcery — Boylya. 
Sore — Birrga. 
Sore, a — Birrgyn. 
Sores, covered with — Birrga bogal. 
Soul, the — Gurdumit; Noyt ; Wu-yun ; Kadjin ; Kwoyalang ; 

Kwoggyn ; Kyn-ya ; Waug. 
Sound, a — Gurdor. 

South — Bu-yal ; Kanning ; Minang ; Nurdi. 
South-west wind — Karing. 
SowTHiSTLE — Waudarak. 
Sparks of fire— Jitip ; Girijit ; Binitch. 
Speak, to— WSngow. 

Speak to, so as to be misunderstood — Barra wan-gow. 
Spear — Gidji. 

Spear, glass or quartz-headed — Boryl ; Gidjiboryl. 
Spear, fishing— Garbel ; Gidjigarbel. 
Spear, boys' — Djinjing. 



SPE 160 STE 

Spear-wood from the hills — Malga ; Wonnar. 

Spear- WOOD from the south— Burdun. 

Spear-wood found in swamps — Kubert. 

Spear, to — Gidjal; Dtan. 

Speedily — Getget ; Yabbra. 

Spew, to — Kandang. 

Spider — Kara. 

Spill, to — Darang-an, 

Spin, to twirl round — Gorang. 

Spindle, a coarse kind used by the natives — Djinjing. 

Spirit, evil — Jilgi ? Mettagong ; Waugal. 

Spirit, the ; the soul — Noyt. 

Spit, to — Narrija gwart. 

Spittle — Dtalyi ; Narrija. 

Spleen, the — Maap. 

Spring, the — Jilba ; Menangal. 

Spring, flowing, of water — Garjyt ; Gabbi garjyt. 

Spring, small— Ngirgo (Northern dialect). 

Sprinkle, to — Yirrbin. 

Squeeze, to — Binun. 

Squirrel, grey ; Petaurus Mairarus-— Bellogar. 

Staff, woman's — Wanna. 

Stale — Min-yudo. 

Stampi ng — Narrang. 

Stand, to — Yugow. 

Stare, at, to — Wundun. 

Stars— Mil-y arm ; Ngangar ; Tiendi. 

Startle, to — Darnavan-ijow ; Nguntburbung. 

Steadfastly — Met. 

Steal, to — Quippal ; Ngagynbarrang ; Yurjang ; Ngagyl-ya ; 

Tapingur. 
Steal, to, creep on game — Ganna-nginnow ; Ngardang ; 

Kandi. 
Stealthily — Gutiguti. 

Steamer, musk duck ; Biziura lobata — Gatdarra. 
Steep — Mordak. 
Steep, to, in water — N-yogulang. 
Step, to tread — Gannow. 



STE 161 STR 

Step, to, on one side to avoid a spear or a blow — Gwelgan- 

now ; Quelkan (Upper Swan). 
Stick, a, any piece of wood— Gar ba. 

Sticks — 1. The throwing stick— D-yuna ; Dowak; Walga ; 
Juwul. 

2. Woman's stick or staff — Wanna. 

3. Crook for pulling down the Banksia flowers — 

Kalga. 

4. Stick or skewer for fastening the cloak— Balbir 

Bindi. 

5. Peeled, ornamental stick, worn in the head at a 

Corroberry, by the dancers — Inji; Marromarro ; 

Jingala. 
Stick, to, to stick half way ; to get jammed — Ngarran. 
Stiffened, benumbed — Nan-yar. 
Still, yet — Yalga. 

Still, to, the wind by enchantment — Kalbyn. 
Stingray fish — Bamba. 
Stingy — Guning ; N-yelingur. 
Stinking— Bidjak. 
Stirring up — Yurirangwin. 
Stolen, Ngagyn. 
Stomach, Kobbalo. 
Stone — Bu-yi. 
Stony — Bu yi billanak. 
Stoop, to— Darbow. 
Stop ! — Nannap. 
Stop up, to— Didin ; Dtandidin. 
Stopped, or staid behind — Bang-al. 
TOUT — Boyn-gadak ; Ilyn ngomon. 
Straight, in a direct line — Wiring; Durgul ; Tolol ; Kange; 

Yungitch. 
Straight, upright — Wyamak. 
Stra nge — Mogang. 

Stranger — Wui-rar bo-yang ; Yy-inang ; Mogang. 
Stranger, not related — Nanning. 
Stray, anything found without an owner — Barna. 
Straying, having lost one's road— Waummarabbin. 

M 



STR 16i SWE 

Stream, a — Bilo ; Garjyt. 

Strike, to — Buma. 

Strike, to, so as to stun or kill — Dar-gang. 

String — Madji. 

String of a bag— Ngwonna ; Nalba. 

Strong — Murduin ; Bidi mui'duin. 

Strongly — Gwidjar. 

Strutting — Wumbubin. 

Stuck in — Nuugurdul. 

Stun, to — Dargangan. 

Stunted — Gorad ; Gorada. 

Sufficient — Gyn-yak ; Bel-lak. 

Sugar — Ngon-yang ; this, which is the name of a saccharine 

juice, exuding from the red gum-tree, is applied to sugar, 

on account of its sweetness. 
Sulky — Mul-yabin. 
Summer — Birok. 
Sun — Nganga ; Batta ; Djaat. 
Sunbeams — Batta mandu ; Nganga batta. 
Sun-set, time of — Garrirabi. 
Sun, shine and heat — Monak. 
Superfluously — Darrajan ; as Darrajan Yong-a ; to giA'e 

more than is expected. 
Superior (adj.) — Belli. 
Surround, to— Engallang ; Tergur. 
Swallow, of the throat — Guuidi. 
Swallow, to — Ngannow. 

Swallow ; Hirundo — Kannamit ; Budibring. (Upper Swan.) 
Swallow, wood; Ocypterus Albovittatus — Biwoen. 
Swallow, white-throated ; Hirundo — Budibudi. 
Swallow, sea ; Tern — Kaljirgang. 
Swamp — Bura ; Mulyin ; Yalgor ; Gotyn. 
Swamp, hen — Porphyrio ; GuUima. 
Swamp, little — Zapornia ; Warraja. 
Swan, black — Kuljak ; Guroyl ; Mal-yi ; Mele. 
Sw eat — Ban-ya. 
Sweat, to — Ban-ya. 
Sweep, to — Barnang; Kaling. 



SWE 163 THE 

Sweet — Mul-yit mul-yit. 

Swim, to — Kowangow? Kowanyang. 

Swoon, to — Yowirgwart ; Pandopen. (Northern dialect.) 

T. 

Tadpole — Gobul. 
Tail — Moro ; Nindi. 
Tail, skin of wild dog's — Dyer. 
Take, to — Gang-ow. 
Take off, to — Bil-yan. 
Take by force, to — Yurjang. 
Take up, to — Djabbun. 
Take in the hand — Barrang. 
Take care, look out — Garrodjin. 
Talk, to — Wangow. 
Tall — Wal-yadi ; Urri. 

Tattoo, to, with scars — Born ; Ngambaru born. 
Tattooing, marks of — Ngambarn. 
Tea-tree, small sort growing in low grounds — Kolil. 
Tea-tree, of which the spears ai'e made — Kubert ; Wunnara. 
Tea-tree, large sort growing on the open grounds — Modong. 
Tea-tree, species of — Mudurdu ; Djubarda. 
Teal ; Anas — Ngwol-yinaggirang. 
Tear, to — Jeran. 

Tear — Mingal-ya ; Mingal ; Min-yang. (Mm-ray River.) 
Tease, to — Yetit yetitan. 
Teasing, the act of teasing — Dtallang-yak. 
Teeth — Nalgo. 

Teeth, of the upper jaw — Ngardak-yugowin. 
Teeth, of the lower jaw — Ira-yugowiu. 
Tell, to — Warrang-an. 
Temples, the — Yaba. 
Terrify, to — Darnavan ijow. 
Terror— Darnavan. 

Testicles— Yadjo ; Yoytch. (Mountain dialect.) 
That — Alia ; N-yagga ; Yalla. 
That very thing — Yallabel. 
Their— Balgunak ; BuUallelang. 
M 2 



THE 164 TIM 

Them — Balgup. 

Then — Garro. 

There — Bokojo ; Yallala ; Bungo. 

These— Nin-ya nin-ya. 

They — Balgun ; BuUalel. 

They, two {dual) — Brothers and sisters, or friends — Bula, 

They, two {dual) — Parent and child ; uncle and nephew, or 

niece — Bulala. 
They, two (rfua/)— Husband and wife — Bulen. 
Thief — Nagal-yang ; Ngagyl-yang. 
Thieve, to — Ngagylya. 
Thigh— Dtowal. 
Thix — Kardidi ; Kot-yelara ; Widing ; Wi-yul ; Kotyedak ; 

Batdoin. 
Thine — N-gunallang ; N-yunal^k. 
Thirsty — Gabbigurdak. 
This— Nidja. 

This way, this side — Bellibelli ; Wunno. ' 
Thistle, sow-thistle — Waudarak. 
Thou— Nginni. 

Thou {interrogatively) — N-yndu ; N-yundul. 
Three — Warh-rang ; Mardyn. (North dialect.)— Murtden. 
Throat, neck— Wardo. 
Through, pierced through — Waugart. 
Throw, to — Gwardo ; Gwart ; Wonnang. 
Throw, to, the spear — Gidjigwart. 
Throw, to, off- Bil-yan. 
THROwiNG-board for the spear — Miro. 
Thrush, grey ; CoUuricincla — Gudilang. 
Thrush, yellow-bellied ; Pachycephala gutturalis — Pidilmi- 



Thunder — MalgSr. 
Thunder, to — Kundarnangur. 
Thunder, to sound like— Edabungur. 
Thus — Wunnoitch ; Wuling. 
Tickle, to — Djubodtan. 



TIR 165 TWO 

Tired — Bidibaba. 

Tiresome— Karradjul j Yetit yetit. 

To-day— Yyi. 

Toes, large toe — Ngangan ; Jinamamman. 

Toes, small — Gulaiig gara. 

Together— Danjo ; Indat. 

To-morrow — Binang ; Morh-rogodo ; Morh-ragadak ; Man- 

yaua. 
Tongue — DtallSlng ; Dtakundyl. 
Toi' of anything— Katta. 
TorsY-TURVY — Mudjiirdo. 

Tortoise— Bu-yi ; Ng-yakyn ; Yagyn ; Kilung. 
Track — Balgang ; Kungo. 
Track, recent, of an animal — Warda. 
Trackless — Tdurtin. 

Traveller — A pei-son constantly on the move— Jinning-Sk. 
Tread, to — Gannow. 
Tree — Buruu. 
Troublesome — Karradjul. 
Trowsers— Matta boka. 

Truly, or true — Bundo ; Kamajil ; Kamayul ; Minam. 
TuKT, ornamental, of emu feathei*s — Ngalbo ; YSnji. 
Tuft, ornamental, of cockatoo feathers — Ngower. 
Turkey, see Bustard — Bibil-yer; Bui*abur. 
Turn to, or spin anything round — Gorang ; Gorang-&n&n. 
Turn over, to, for the purpose of examinmg underneath — 

Billang djinn^g. 
Turtle, sea, long-necked ; Chelodinia longicollis — Bu-yi. 
Turtle, snake-necked freshwater — Yagyn. 
Twilight, evening — Ngallanang. 
Twilight, morning — WauUu. 
Twirl, to, round — Gorang-anan. 
Two — Gudjal ; Gurdar. 
Two, we (dual) — Parent and child — Ngala. 
Two, we {dual) — Brother and sister, or two friends — Ngalli. 
Two, we (dual) — Husband and wife — Ngannik. 
Two, we (dual) — Bi'othei*s-in-law — Ngannama. 



TWO 1 66 VAI ^_ 

Two, ye {dual) — Man and wife — Nubin. 

Two, they {dual) — Brothers and sisters, or friends — Bula. 

Two, they {dual) — Parent and child ; uncle and nephew, or 

niece — Bulala. 
Two, they {dual) — Husband and wife — Bulen. 

U. 

Unable, from any cause to do what may be required — Mor- 

dibang. 
Unanimous — Gurdu gyn-yul. 
Uncle — Kangun. 

Unconnected, unrelated — Nanning. 
Uncooked meat — Dal-yar. 
Uncovered — Baljarra. 
Underneath — Yendun. 
Understand, to — Kattidj. 
Understand, not to — Kattidjburt ; Kaddung. 
Uneven — Dardun ; Bulgangar. 
Unfasten, to — Began. 
Ungainly — Wal-yadi. 
Unintelligible — .Bilgitti. 
Unintentionally — Balluk. 
Unknown, strange — Mogang ; Bo-yang. 
Unloose, to — Bil-yan ; Began. 
Unlucky in the chase — Marralak ; Mallaluk. 
Unsteady — Binbart binbart ; Ngarrak ngarrak. 
Unwell— Mendyk ; Ngandyn ; Bidibabba ; Mindyt. 
Up, upwards — Irak. 
Up, get up — Irap. 
Upright — Ira. 
Upside down — MudjSrdo. 
Us — Ngannil. 
Used to — Malyn. 
Useless — Djul ; Windo ; Windang. 

V. 

Vain, proud— Wumbubin. 
Vain, in vain — Murdo. 



VAL 167 

Valley, a — Wedin ; Burdak. 

Varnish, to, with gum — Yul-yang. 

Vegetable food — Maryn. 

Vegetation — Jilba ; Bobo. 

Vein— Bidi. 

Venus, the planet — Julagoling. 

Vermin— Kolo. 

yERY, superlalive affix — Jil ; as Gwabba, good; Gwabbajil, 

very good. 
Voice— Kowa % Mya. 

Void, to, the excrement — Konang ; Koua ; Nujan. 
Vomit, to — Kandang. 

W. 
Walk, to — Ennow ; Yannow ; Murrijo. 
Walloby — Ban-gap. 

Wander, to, from the right road — Bai'rabart. 
Warbler reed ; Salicaria — Gurjigurji. 
Warbler, spotted, winged ; Sericornis frontalis — Gii'gal. 
Warm — Kallak ; Kallarak. 
Warm, applied to water — Kallang ; Gabbikallang, wai'm 

water. 
Waste, a ; baiTen land utterly destitute of vegetation— Bat- 

tardal. 
Wasted, thin— Wiyul ; Batdoin ; Bottyn. 
Water— Gabbi ; Kypbi ; Kowin ; Yeraat ; Djam ; Djow ; 

Badto. 
Water, fresh — Gabbidjikap ; Gabbigarjj't. 
Water, salt, in lakes and rivers — Gabbikarning. 
Water, salt, of the sea — Gabbiodern. 
Water, running — Gabbikolo ; Gabbytch. 
Water, standing in a pool — Gabbi vvarri. 
Water, standing in a well — Gnura. 
Water, standing in a rock — Gnamar. 
Water, to make — Gumbu. 

Waterfowl, species of— Wakurin ; Winin ; Yaet. 
Wattle bird; Anthochsera Lewinii — Djang-gang. 
Wattle tree — Galyang. 



WAN 168 WHO 

Wandunu, a species of insect — Wandunu. 

Wave of the sea — Ngy-anga. 

Way, a path — Bidi; Kungo. 

Way, this way — Wunno. 

We — Ngannil ; Ngalata ; Ngillel. 

We two {dual) between husband and wife — Ngannik. 

We two {dual) between parent and child — Ngalla. 

We two (dual) bi'other and sister, or two friends — Ngalli. 

We two (dual) brothers-in-law — Ngannaraa. 

Weak — Babba ; Bidibabba. 

Wear, to, or carry on the back — Wandang. 

Weasel; colonially, native cat — Dasyurus Maugei ; Barrajit. 

Weather, fine, sunny — Monak. 

Weather, clear, calm — Budulu. 

Weighty — Gumbar ; Gundipgundip ; Botol-yang ; Kandal- 

yang ; Banyadak. 
Well, good — Gwabba. 
Well in health — Wan-gen. 

Well, recovered from sickness — Barr-ab-ara ; Dordak. 
Well of water, native — Gnura. 
Well-behaved — Karra gwabba. 
West— Urdal ; Winnagal (Mountain dialect). 
Wet— Bal-yan ; Yalyet ; Yalyuret. 
Whale, a — Miraang-a. 
What — Nait ; Yan. 
Where— Winjalla ; Winji. 
Wherefore — Naitjak. 

Whinstone, species of — Gagalyang ; Kadjor. 
Whirl, to, i*ound — Goranganan. 
Whirlwind— Warh-ral ; Monno. 
Whistle, to — Wardyl. 

White— Wilban ; Dalbada ; Djidal ; Djundal. 
White of an egg — Mammango. 
Whither — Winji. 

Who — Ngan ; Nganni ; Ngando ; Indi. 
Who will ?— Ngandul. 
Whole— Mundang ; Bandang. 
Whose — Ngannong ; Enung. 



WHY 169 WOM 

Why — Naitjak. 

Wide — Gabbar. 

Widow — Yinang. 

Widower — Yinang. 

Wife — Kardo. 

Wild, desolate — Battardal. 

Will yon ? — N-yundu ; N-yundul. 

WiLYU— (Edicnemus longipennis ; Wilyu. 

Wind — Mar. 

Wind, north — Birunna. 

Wind, north-west — Durga ; Dtallajar. 

Wind, south — Wiriti. 

Wind, south-east — Wirrit ; D-yedtk. 

Wind, south-west — Karring. 

Wind, east— Nandat ; Nangalar. 

Wind, west — Durga. 

Wind, sea-breeze— Gulamwin. 

Wind, land-wind — Nandat. 

Windpipe — Dtagat ; Mungurdur. 

Wing — Kanba. 

Wing, outer pinion of — Jili. 

Wink, to — Butak-butak. 

Winter — Maggoro. 

Witchcraft — Boyl-ya. 

Withered, dried up ; applied to wood or animals when dead 

— Mandju. 
Withered; applied to leaves — Derer. 
Within — Bura. 
Without, wanting anything — Bru ; as Boka bru, without a 

cloak. 
Wittingly — Bandak. 
Wive, to ; steal a wife — Kardo barrang. 
Wizard — Boyl-ya-gadak. 
Woman — Yago. 
Woman, unmarried, or one who has attained the age of 

puberty — Kung-gur. 
Woman who has not had children — Mandigara. 
Woman who has had children — Yulang-idi ; Yulang-ara. 



WOM 1 70 YEL 

Womb — Dumbu. 

Wonder, to — Wundun. 

Wood — Burnu. 

Wood, well seasoned — Mandju. 

Wooded, covered with trees — Maudon. 

Word — Warryn. 

Worms bred in sores — Ninat. 

Worms, intestinal — Ninat. 

Worn out— Windo ; Windang. 

Wound, to — Ngattang. 

Wounded badly — Birrga ; Bilo bangga. 

Wounded mortally— Kal la dtannaga. 

Wren, emu ; Stipiturus Malachurus — Jirjil-ya. 

Wren, ash-coloured; Georygone culicivorus ?— Warrylbardang. 

Wren, short-billed ; Gerygone brevirostris — Giaterbat. 

Wren, brown-tailed ; Acanthiza Tiemenensis— Djulbidjul- 

bang. 
Wren, yellow-tailed ; Acanthiza Chrysorrhoea— Jida. 
Wrist— Mardyl. 
Wrong, wrongly — Barra. 

X. 

Xanthorrh^a ; colonially, grass-tree or black boy. 

Xantiiorrh^a arborea— Balga. 

Xanthorrh^ea arborea, species of — Ballak ; Galgoyl ; Yango ; 

Tdudtin. 
Xanthorrh^a arborea, tough-topped — Barro. 
Xanthorrh^a arborea, undei'ground — Bui'arap'; Mimidi. 
Xanthorrh^ea, leaves of — Mindar. 
Xanthorrh^a, stem of the flower — Waljap. 

Y. 

Yawn, to— Dtawang. 

Ye — N-jTirang. 

Ye two, brother and sister, parent and child— Nyubal. 

Ye two, man and wife — Nyubin. 

Yellow — Yundo. 

Yellow, bright yellow— Kallama. 

Yellow, dark yellow— Ngilat. 



YES 171 ZAM 

Yes — I-i ; projecting the chin forward, and keeping the mouth 
nearly shut, when uttering this guttural sound— Kwa; Ky; 
Koa; Kya. 

Yesterday — Marh-rok. 

Yet — Yalga. 

Yolk of an egg— Natdjing. 

You — N-yurang. 

You will — N-yundu ; N-jTindul. 

Young — Yyinang. 

YouNO of anything— Nuha ; Nopyn (Mountain word). 

Younger (middle) sister — Kowat, 

Younger (middle) brother — Kardijit ; Kardang. 

Yours — Ngunallang; N-yurangak ; N-yunalak. 

Youth, young man — Gulambiddi. 

Z. 

Zamia tree ; Encephalartos Spiralis — Djiriji. 

Zamia tree, species of, growing near the coast — KundSgor. 

Zamia tree, fruit of— By-yu ; Tdongan. 

Zamia tree, stone of— Gargoin. 

Zamia tree, kernel of — D-yundo ; Wida. 

Zamia tree, nut of, a species of— Kwinin. 



1«ND0S s 

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