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llhislr.iliil Articles arc Di" (^ by an Asterisk (*). Names of Books art- liuliratcl tiy a 1 1 l^ r 


A. K. rt. Oolil M. & M. Cn. 5-»(i 

A. y. 4 MInnlp. Polo. 1123. I27r. 

Abliott, A. A., Death of. 860 

AbPl on iliiBl cxploHtouB. 10, 11, 12 

Abundnnda mini'. Mpx. '70. 72 

Aondin t'onl ro.'H mInpH. •t524 

Accident Indemnity bill. Ind. 1232 

'Accident -Treating vletlm. 32 

AecldentB, nelRlnn eolllerleH. 00. 1200 

Accidents. R. C. eoni mlneR. 80. 1207 

Accidents. Rrltlsh mines, 130. 426, 

fi27. 07(1. 1108. 1210 
Accidents, (Villlery. .Tohn Mitchell on. 1107 
Accidents. Colliery -r,nwH. labor, etc. 18 

Accidents. TatBl. In coal mines of 
America and other countries — 
Tahnlnted sintlHtlcs. 1207. 1216 

A.MlrtentN. llmiKhlan Co.. Mich. 827 

Accidents In dlBTerenf countries. 027 

Accidents, Mine, due to electricity. 720 

.Xccldents. New Mexico. 00. 1207 

Accidents, rennsylvanln. 42H. 1207 

.\eeldents. Mine. T'reventlon of. 1088 

Accidents TreatlnK victim— Note. 818 

Accidents- II S. C. * <). Co.'h rules. 230 

Accidents — Views of Inspectors. 1171 

Acetylene lamps In mines. 007 

Adnlr-TTsher process, Improved. 403 

Adams. Oeo. I. 44 

Adams. .T. II. 340 

Adams. W. .1. 342 

- "Hints on AmalRamnllon. etc." tfl32 
Adamson. T. A. 152 
Addis, .Tohn. Death of. 770 
Adklnson. II. M.. Advanclnj? Hot Time 

lateral. Newhouse tunnel. 

•757. 773, niK. 071. 1000 

- Ore contracts (discussion.) '73. 180. 317 
Adwddell mine. Colo. 248 
Adventure mine, Mich. 240, 5.''.7, 630 
Africa. See also "West." "South." 

"Transvaal." "Rand." "Natal." 
"Hhodesla." "rierman," etc. 
.\frlcan coal statistics. 00 

Agnsslz. A. I,. 02. 43 

Agitation, Air. Notes on. •Out. 1 110 

Agitation. IMuRuIco mill. 047. •1001 

Agitators at I'achuca. 

•325. 'OnO, ^653, 008. •OOl 
.Agitators. Tachuca. fToldfleld Consol.'s. t471 
"Agricultural Analysis." tl2in 

Aguacntp mines. Cosfa Illca. 44.'i 

Aguascallentes. 271 

Ahmeek mine, Mich. 105. 108. 442. 830, 1124 
Air. See also "Ventilating." "Agitation." 
"Air, Compressed, for Mines," t7.'J2 

.Mr, Compressed. Mine signaling bv. '857 

Air. Compressed- Notes, etc. 480. 850 

Air. Compressed, I'se of. for hoisting, 532 
Air compression. llvdraulU-, Claustbal, 

•22S. 733 
Air compressor. Hydraulic, McFarlane, •710 
Air vs. electricity— Mining flat seams. •286 
Air pipe, Need of care In laying. 1152 

Akermann. R. Iron and steel. Sweden, 776 
Alabama Coal Operators' Asso, 1028 

Alabama coalmlners' strike. 

335. 148, 253. 344. 481 
Alabama Consol. Coal & Iron Co, 

077. •lOlO. •10S3 
Alabama Knel and Coal Co, 47 

Alabama gold. coal. Iron, Papers on, 725 

Alabama Marble Co, 345 

Alabama. N, E,. Iron operations In, 

•10S3. •I 043 
Alaska. Copper River, dlst. 080 

Alaska Mexican G, M, Co. 612 

—Report. ^282 

Alaska Mines Securities Co. 106 

Alaska, Mineral Resources of. t241 

Alaska Perseverance Mg. Co. 922 

Alaska Petroleum A (^oal Co 155 

.Vlaska. Seward Peninsula Gold Placers. t241 
Alaska Trendwell O. M. Co. 

512. 681, 711, 713, 755 
Alaska United (7. M. Co. B12 

Alaska's great coal reserve, 1050 

Albemarle mine. N. M. 174 

.Mcohol flame tester. 480 

Aldrlch. T. 11.. .Tr. Gold ore treat- 
ment. Hog Mtn., Ala. 725 
Alice mine, Idaho. 209. 1027 
Alkalinity— Cyanldlng, nomestake. 202. 204 
Alladln mine. Mo, 784 
Allen. Anson W. 888 
Allen, ("nrl A. 148 
Allen, Capt. Wra. 44 
Allen, .T. V. 888 

.\ll<n, ^122 

.Mils Cliiilmers machinery. ^407 

Allouez. Mich. ; 567 

.MIoys oi gold and tellurium. 567 

Almeda i .msol. Mines Co. 740 

Alta Sonuia Mg. Co. 1082 

Altar. Northwestern mines. Mex. •71 

.Mtoft .•.illlery, Eng. 817 

Alton mine. Colo. 248 

Alum nij'l aluminum salts — Use : mar- 
ker : TI. S. statistics. 293 
Alum. Dominican R(-publlc. 116 
Alumina In copper blastfurnace slags. 

270. 483. 730. mi, 1204 
Alumina separation In Iron ores. 168 

Alunilnnm Industry, Situation In. 1010 

Aluiuhiiim magnesium alloy. 526 

AlunilnuiM [irlce reduced. 865 

AluoiiiiMTn sulphate. Market for. 733 

.Munlle. Camp. New Nev. gold dlst. 

•1203. 1216 
.Munlte In Nevada. 'lOOO, ^1157 

.Munlle Mg. Co. 687 

Alvaniil" Consol. Mex. 485, 881 

Ahiiriido, Pedro. 278, 280 

Aharado .Mg, Co,. Ariz, 1177 

Amn (lueen. S. t>. 251, 880 

Amadi.r .Mg. Co., .Mont. 40 

.Vmnd'tr property, Idaho. 197 

.\uiador companies' consolidation. 4.88 

AmalL'am, Gold, absorption tiy co|iper 

plat.s. 096 

.-Vmalgam stealing from dredges, 826 

Amalgamated Cop. Co. 43. 590. K27. 1170 
.\malgnmaled mine. Cobalt. Ont. 741 

Auinluamated M. & M. Co. 396 

■■.\Mi:ilgamatlon. Hints on." etc. t632 

Ama-.(on Dixie mine. Idaho. 592. 878 

.\mber. liurma and India. 672. 972 

.\mi'rliaii Chemical Society. 140, 342, 720 
American Coal Products Co. 1231 

.\merlean direct concentrator. Macqulsten. ^23 
American Kbetrocbemleal Soc. 193. 825 

Amerb-an Flag. Mg. Co., rtah. 101, 152 

.\mi-rleau Foundrymen's .\sso. 295 

American Inst. Cbcm. Engineers. 

133. 825, 1110 

American Inst Mg. Engineers. 4'JO. 1283 

Chattanooga meeting plans. 014. 67S 

Chattanooga meeting. 725, 770 

— Pres. Hammond's address. 717 

-Cavley dry air blast. •SIO, 820, 1200 

American Iron A Steel Asso. 292, 387 

.\merlcan mine. Colo. 638 

American .Mining Congress. 

543, 590. 034, 683. 779. S75, 1223 

Forest Reserve Committee. 1050 

Mine accident laws, summary of. 1088 

Pittsburg meeting, 1171. 1023 

American Uefraclorles Co. 1087 

American Sm. A Itef. Co. (Sec also 

■■(iarfleld." etc.) 35, 201. .303, 350, 

330, 407. •010. 781, 970. 1070 

•Cost of allver-lead smelting. 315. 585 

-Report. 520. 536 

Smelter charges. Colo. .827 

The policy In Colo., etc 960. 060 

Stal.menis bv V. (^iuggenhelm 43. 1260 

-I-ead tariff. 1202, 1268 

Smelting competition. 1263 

Amerlcari Lead, Zinc A Smg. Co. 

LIS. 327. S70. 1073 

Power shovel underground. *1056 

Amparo mine. Mex. 549, 881 

.\niphlett. A. W. 841 

Anaconda Cop. Mg. Co. 

43. 45. 030. 687. 1125 122" 
The smelters. ISO 

Machine sampling. 

338, 431. 031. 770. 017. •951, 1018. till 
Protective hood ^708 

— Operation of a converter. ^747 

.Vnaconda smoke (;uestlon. 1224. 1261. 1273 
Analyses In coal washing. '424 

Anchor mine. Idaho. 491 

Anderson Apache Co. 47. 820 

Anderson. Robert. 1110 

.\ngelo mine. Ore 199 

Angle A Cason mines. 839 

.■Vngle work-Mining flat seam. '286 

Anglo-Oreek Co. Ltd. 201. 962 

Anklostomlasls. 10(^5 

Anthracite. See "Coal." 

AntI i-oal breaker. 724 

.\ntl debrla. See "Pebrls." "Dredging." 
.\ntlsmeller flght. Calif. See "Smelter." 
Antlmonll\l lead production. V. S. 620 

Antimony ore. Victorian companies. 1010 

.Vntl8ell."F. I.. Copper for the foundry. •225 





Appalachian P:nglne<'rlng As-^-- 
.Apprenticeship for coal mln>Ts 
Araluen dlst., N. S. W. 

Arcadia group. Calif. 637 

.\rcadlan Cop. Co.. Mich. 1221 

Archbold. .1. D.. Testimony of. 1110 

"Architect's and Builder's Pocket B^ok " t06 
Argall. Philip. Machine sampling. 291 

(For rest of dlsi-usslon see "Sam 

—Ore deposits. Magdalena 'SOO 

Argonaut mine. Collf. 591. 737 

Arfzono Commercial 149, 158, 423 

.\rlzona Consol. 423 

Arlzono Cop. Co.. Ltd. 37. 298, .391. 423 

.Xrlzona. Copper, Cost of production. '37 

.\rl-y;onn Michigan Cop. Co. 1177 

Arizona mines, production 1007— -Cop- 
per, gold, silver. ^22 
Arizona .Mg. A Trading Co. •6.'S9 
"Arkansas. Clays of" 11219 
Arkansas, rnlversltv of. J»n 
Arley colliery. England. 1166 
.\rsenlc ore. Value of. 9f5 
Arsenic. IT. S. statistics. 753. 842 
.Vrunrtel. S. D. 251 
Asbestos. Humboldt Co., Calif. 077 
.\sl..'StoR In (JuelM'C. 461 
.Xsbestos, I'nlted States production 07 
Asbestos, rrals. production. 140 
Ash Peak .Mg. Co. :;os. 423 
Ashantl rjoldfleld's Corp. 344 
Ashi's. Coke. Varlalile color. 5.33 
Ashes for pillars In coal mines 581 
.\shworth, .T. Recent mine dlsasdrs. 

332. 1107. 1110 
I'nderground lire. Hamstead. 'lOflO 

Aspen. Colo. Ores of. 230 

Asphalt, (California production. 73J 

Asphalt. Trinidad exports. 752. 7.-.5, 7.'iO, 857 
.\ssay for cyanide solution. X<w. 21M 

.\ssay. Lead- Chromate-oxalate. 77. .324 

.Assay- Lead determination In s|x-ller 

and ore. 17s 

.\ssay of evanlde solution. '7.50 

Assay- Silver cupellatlon. 326 

.Vssaylng, Elfect of borax in, 650 

,\ssessnieni work, fjiw of. 81 

.\s8essmi-nts. Coal land. P-nn. 

40. .-.0. 148. 152. 1229 
Associated (ill Co. 683. 707 

Associated Pipe Line Co. 707 

Asso. of American Cement Mfrs. 11115 

Asso. of Iron and Steel Elec. Eng. 860 

Atlanta gobl dlst . Idaho. »f!n 

Atlanta— Monarch mine. Idaho. 177 

Atlantic mine. Mich. 

108. 503. 557, 638. 7.83, 878. 1227 
Atlas Cement Co. 1027 

.Mmnsphere. Mine. A safe. 910 

Atolla Mg. Co. •87S 

Attala mines. Ala, •108S 

Attlncer. F. A. 1120 

Anbury. Lewis K. 189 

Calif, mineral production. 731 

Auerbach. U. S. North side Coeur 

d'Aleni-. •O.'. 

- Tungsten. C.ieur d'Alene. '1140 

Auerbach A Co. 110 

Auger. Coal, to And temp<rature 862 

Austin. I.. S. Alumina In slags, 270 

(For discussion see "Rlaga.") 
— Machine s«m|illng 238 

(For discussion see 'Sampling" 1 
Austin Manhattan Consol . Nev. 106 

Austin Run Mg Co. 49S 

Australasia. Colllerv fatalities. 

1209. 1210. 1211 
.Australasia. Gold mining. 1908. 

481. 604. 1160. 1214 
Australasia. Tin 144, 412. 582, 913 

Australasia mining In 1908. 143 

.xuslralia. Gems In 115 

.Australia. Mining .'nglneers' prospects In 42 
Australia — N. 8 W — Zinc cnnrentrates 620 
Australia. South, production 1021 

"Australia. Sotith. Record of Minn " t96 

Australia. Tin. 68S 

.Australia. West, blastinc expertmenta. 823 
Australia. West. Sampling In. S40 

Australia. West-m. gold stealing 94 

Australian collieries. Electricity in. 666 

Austria. Coal and Iron 1160 

Austria. Colliery fstailtles IJOS 

.Austria. Mineral production. 1214 

Austria Hungary. Magnedte : eb'-onittr 90t 
Automobile, prospector and. 



Aveniii' Tiiii Mg. To. 
Ayi-foii, Will. E.. Iii'ii 
Aztoc group. Colo. 
AzuIl's disirlot, Mvx. 
Azure lurquoisi' mine 


mg iMiH 


, »78 

Big I'lii 
Big i'U^i 
Big Fi.ui 


B;ll)Y FloiTlloc\ (ii.ldlii'ki. 

245, 250, 3IJ0, 488, 0311, 087 
Bacls-stoping vs. underhand, mining 

large bodies of iron pyrites. 365 

Radham. H. L. 253 

Badisclio nilric-acid furnace. 892, etc., Selby, Calif. •451, *604 

Bag-shaking device for smelters. 1009 

Bagdad-Chase I'ettit mine, Idaho. 176 

Bagdad-Chase mine, Soulsbvville, Calif. 299 
Baglev. Colo. 638 

Bailey. E. G. Combustion of. coal. 184 

Bain.' 11. F. Illinois coals. 726 

BakM r.iirwrll process. 198 

Bal.ilJehi (Ml, .',, ii;i. 4,S7, 591, 913, 975. 977 
Baldwin Wesiumiioose locomotives. •26. •lOe 
Kallic, .Mich. See -Copiier Range Con- 
Baltimore Cop. Mg. Co. 639 

Baltimore & Ohio R. K. 482 

— Coal-car case. 023, 678 

Bancroft, Geo. J. 869 

Bandcmann, C. .T. _ 342 

Banner mine, Calif. 037, 829 

Bantjes Cousol., Transvaal. 992 

Barbour, P. E. Cochiti mining dist. •173 
— •Goldticld Consol. mill. ♦467, 680 

Bardill, ,T. O. Furnace bomb. ♦763 

Barge, Self-discharging. •IISS 

Barium carbonate. Sellers of. 95 

Barnes and associates, Okl." 740 

Barnes-King, Mont, 250, 492, 784, 1180 

Barnes on high temperature measurement. 662 
Barometric pressure and explosions. 

11, 14, 461, 482 
Barron mine. Mex. *520, 523, 524 

Bartlett tunnel, Colo. 783 

Bartlett, W. P. 242 

Barton, W. 11. .\ssay for cyanide so- 
lution. 294 
Barytes, Crude, Market for. ■ 293 
Barytes, Crude, U. S. production 755 
Barytes, North Carolina. 321 
Base metals in Transvaal. 579 
Baskerville, C. Rare metals. 

907, 916, 960, 1055, 1100, 1241 
Baskets, Excavating with, Mex. ^1245 

Batan coal mines, Philippine Is. 153, 594, 1058 
Bauxite and laterization. 128 

Bauxite deposits, French. 5 

Bauxite tract purchased, Ga. 638 

Bauxite, 11. S. production. S6S 

Baxter, Harold. 44 

Bay Counties Anti-Smelter Asso. ■ 536 

Beacham Coal Co. 393 

Bear Creek Coal & Mg. Co.- 1072 

Bear Top mine, Idaho. 70, 878 

Beard. .7. T. Mine accidents. 1171 

Bearings. Holler — Two recesses. 724 

l'..-iii\, \ ciM'ster. 295 

BrrI iiiiiii Death of 388 

l!..hhin, riii.s . Death of. 193 




Big Injun mine, Nev. 
Big Murray tunnel, Idab 
Big Six, Colo. 038, 0,S0, 
Big Stick Mg. Co, 


Boston Consol. mines, Calif 
Boston Consol 


Bigelow, A. S. 

Bingham Central Standard. 

Bingham Metal Mines. 

Bingham, Ore occurrence. For 

Birchville Mg. Co. 

Bird, Testing gas with. 

Birmingham dist., etc.. Iron 

978, 112^' 
43, 92, 736, 773, 10^ 

422, 544 
Utah. 195, 389, 542, 
880, 1191, 976, 1273, 1277 
Boston & Corbin Mont. 687, 784, 879, 

1028, 1227 
Boston E'.ectrolytic Ref. Co. , 1069 

Boston & International Oil Co. 494 

Boston & Mont. 43, 147, 250, 492, 

536, 542, 736 
Boston-Richardson mine, N. S. 394, 549 

Boston & Sunshine, Utah. 394 

Bote mine, Mr>x. •116, ^401, '405, 1031 


Bisbee dist., Ariz. 
Bishop, Calif., Discoveries near. 
Bishop, Roy N. 
Bishop, Wm. 

Bismuth at Sylvanite, N. M. 96 

Bismuth, Electrolytic determinalion. 
Bismuth, U. S. statistics 
Bissell, R. W. 

Bituminous Mine Foremen's and Fii 
bosses' .-Vsso. 

544 Botsford, C. W 
108 Boulder No. 1 Co.- 
Bounties, Canadian 
083 Boutwell, .1. M. 
•37 Bowers, L. M. 

-St. George mill, 
iron and steel. 


788, 835 



Black IImI,' 


Belcher mine, Colo.. 

Belen Mg. Co. 662 

Helaium. Coal-niim- death rate. 9li, 1207 

Belginni. lr..n and sl.-el. 39 

Bell, .loselih. lliMth of. .'588 

Bell, l; )l N. 1090 

— All:iiil:i gold disl., Idaho. •176 

i:i.rir;. I use spitting device. *52S 

An.o ..Tei:i iirotective hood. ^708 

r..|[-ii,.v. II K, 145 

I'.illi'x Mr. Mil., mine. Treating concen- 

I rates. 716 

Bellinger, Herman ('. 1222 
Helmont. See "Tonopah." 

Belting notes. :'.:'.l. 382 

Belvidere group, Colo. 340 

Bement, A. 145 

Benedict's bag-shaking lieviee. 1009 

Benguet Consol. Mg. Co. 7.S.T, 1230 
P.ennett, J. C. Handling bnllion. Solby 

works. ♦SB 
- Bag-house at Selby. '451 
— Disposal of gases, Selhv, Calif. •004 
Bennetts. B. H. 1119 
Benson, .lohn W. 734 
Benson Mines Co. 1029 
Bent. Thatcher T., Death of. 1174 
Bonloii M. & M Co. 547 
nent(,n, W. Lake Creek disl 36 
Berdella tunnel, Colo. '.126 
Berlin mines, Nev. 739 
Bernardhiitte, Silesia. ^265 
I'.ernstein, P. Hydraulic air compres- 
sion. ♦228, 733 
Berry's safetv crosshead. ^41 
Bi'rtiia Mineral Co. ♦908 
Beryllium. 907, 916 
Bethune. Compagnic de. 534 
Beuret, G. Hoisting-rope connection ^185 
Big Bend Consol. Placer Mg. Co. 1272 





H ker .lack 
Bhol, s;i,„i. iiiMiiboIdt Co 

Bla.K s I Mining Co. 

Blackbird Co., .N'ev. 

Blacktail Mg. Co. 

Blackwell. G. G., Death of. 

Blair, A. A. "Chem. Analysis of Iron 

Blaisdell Coscotitlan Syndicate 

442, 488 




Blaisdell stacker, Jesus Maria 

Blake, Edwin T. 

Bland, N. M. 

Blast. See "Furnace." "Gayley," "Gas." 

Blast hole. Loading ; Inserting fuse. ^433 

Blasting and explosions — Foreign ex- 
perts' report. 860, 864, 590, 736 

Blasting coal, Randolph CO., Mo. , *6 

Blasting coal— "Star" elee. safety fuse. ^1014 

Blasting furnace accretions. 

Blasting gelatin, Iiu Pont — Cr 
Creek adit. 

Blasting in Hot Time lateral. 
(Loading blast holes.) 918, 


89, 98 



Blasting — Longwall in Eng. 

Blasting — Mercury detection ; fuse 

compression. 823 

Blasting — New English method. 769 

Blasting notes., etc. 32, 186, 332, 334, 
• 479, 480, 676, 769, 818, 909, 914, 

1015, 1062, 1211, 1222 
Blasting — Powder packages ; methods 

— Ohio law. 50, 762, 823 

Blasting powder. Treatises on. 919 

Blasting rules, Acadia Coal Co.'s. '625 

Blasting rules, U. S. C. & O. Co.'s. 236 

Blasting — 'Selective electric fuse spit- 
ting device. *528 
Blasting — -Tamping bars. 42 
Blasting — Various State laws. 1088 
Blasting without powder — Notes. 186 
Blatchley, W. D. Coal, Indi.ana. 723 
Blende, Magdalena, N. M. •SOS, ♦37ii 
Blende, Value in Wales. 709 
Blindness of mine mules. 25 
Blossburg colliery explosion. 737 
Blue Bell mine, Idaho. 545 
Blue Bird mine, Mont. 593 
Blue, F. K. Handling enislieil r,,ck. 

San Francisco bay. *1153 

Blue .John Mg. Co. 977 

Blue Lead Mg. Co. 103, 977 

See also "Big Blue Lead." 
Blue Light Cop. Co. 492 

Blue Point hydraulic mine, t'alif. 
Board of Trade mine. Wis. 
Boardman, D. F. Power. Joplin d 
Boecker. A. B.. Death of. 
Boiler fuel. Natural-gas, .Toplin di 
Boiler grates — Coal combustion. 
Boiler notes. 32, 90, 186, 334. 
480, 534, 724, Sl8, 
Boiler-plant test — Gas analysis. 
Bolafios mines, Jalisco, Mex. 
Boiling, Randolph. 
— Chemical control of coal waslie 
Bomb for furnace accretions. ^763 

Bombay Gold Mg. Co. 45 

Bonanza Creek Mg Co. 54.3 

Bonsall loinl i,,Ti- , iiiii, , 029 

Borax, C.-ilir,,riii,i pi ,,iliie(ion. 731 

Borax, efl',, i oi. iti .issaying. 050 

Borax Properlies. Lid. 140 

Bordeaux, A. F. J. Mex. mines. 770. SO.s 

Boring. See also "Drill." 
Boring, Underground, to 

coal seam. 
Borneo, Gold in. 
Boscaswell United Tin & 

Ltd. 102 

Bosnia coal production. 
Bosqui, Francis L. 

487 Bowhill Coal Co. 
99, 193 Boys' wages, anthracite field. 

869 Brackets, Framing, Broken Hill. 
'.. ♦1103 Bradford quicksilver mine, Calif. 

115 Bradley, J. W. 
124, 842 Brakpan Mines, Ltd. 290. 294, 417, 540, 992 
486 Branch Mint, S. D. 688, 740, 1277 

; Branner, J. C. Manganese, Mcirro de 

99 Mina. •1196 

1180 — "Clays of Arkansas." tl219 

197 Brass notes — Castings, etc. 220, 228, 
280, 282, 292, 340, 719, 756, 764, 

1022, 1103 
Bray, Charles W. 1271 

Brazil Factory Promoting Club. 827 

Brazil. Mineral exports. 303 

Brazil, Morro de Mina, Manganese. •I 196 

Breathing — Anaconda protective hood. ^708 
Breathing apparatus. New. 8 

Breathing apparatus— Notes. 186, 227, 288 
Breathing apparatus. Oxygen, Fighting 

fire with. 
Breathing helmets in coal dust. 
Breitung, E. N. & Co. 
Bretherton, S. E. 
— Alumina in copper blast-furnace 

slags. 270, 483. 730, 1111, 1264 

Brewer, Luther C. 779 

Breynoert, F. Coal-mine dust. *89 

Brick, Basic refractory, in metallurgy. 802 

Brick, Magnesite. 1087 

Bridge, Suspension, Peiioles Co.'s 310, •312 

763 Brigham.'H. A. Examining and fitting 

pple up a hydraulic mine. 1257 

1206 Briquets, Coal, Binders for. t96 

•757, 773 Briquets, Mud, Russia and Holland. 90 

971, Briquets on French railway. 818 

1066, 1111 Briquetting notes. 382, 914 

Briseis mines, Tas. 144 

Britain mine, Calif. 248 

British. See also "United Kingdom," 

British Association. 
British Butte, Mont. 49, 300, 492, 639, 

875, 979, 1227 
British Col. coal output: labor; acci- 
dents. S9, 142, 1207 
British Col. Cop. Co. 
British Col. Iron ore. 
British Columbia mining report. 
British Canadian Smelter Co. 
British East Africa, Copper in. 
"British Empire, Mines and Minerals." t96 
British Guiana. See "Guiana." 
British mine. Broken Hill. •793, ^795, 

•799, 893 
British Ore Concentration Syndicate, 

etc. 321, 636, 778, 973, 1121 

British Soulli .\frica Co. 727 

ilrittain. D. Pumping problems, Jop- 
lin dist. ^214 
— of nat. gas, Joplin dist. •568 
Brock, li. \V. 869 
Broddv. J. W. 1124 
Brolten Hill Block 10. •710, 893 
Broken Ilill Junction Norlh. ♦793, •799. 893 
Broken Hill mines in 190S. 143 
Broken Hill. Notes on, 753 
Broken Hill, iir,- concentration. 636 
Brok.'ii Hill I'lop. Co. 143, 144. 175, 
0411. 77.S, »793, 893. 913, 954, 970, 

972, 1100, 1155. 1199 
— -Reporl : zinc smelting. 912 

Broken Hill. Silver-lead-zine mines. ^793 

—Metallurgy. 893 

— Elmore process — Correction. 
Broken Hill South Silver Mg. Co. 

712, *793, ,893 
981, 1028, 1228 
















99 Broken Hills mi 


Bromine, U. S. production. 

Bromly, A. H. 

Bronze, Roman, Analysis of. 



— Alaska coal. 
Brooks. W. W.. 

Mines, Ltd. 

Mineral Resources of 

I '.re 

and Temagami-Cobalt 

587, 628, 631, 773 

gh, B. H., Death and successor of. 




Brown agitators. •325. ^471, 647, 

•653. 668, •901, •goi, 1110 

Brown, Austin II. 99, 193 

Brown. A. S. Electricity, Australian 

collieries. 966 

Browp Bear mine, Calif. 487. 03S, 73.". 

Brown, Bennett. 734, 1222 




liri.wM, Harv V S. 779 

Brown, II. V, L. South Australia Mines. t96 
"lirown" stralglit fufnaci% BernardhUtte. '265 
Hrownf, K. K. Hand costs. 565 

Brownt'y colll'ry. Durham. 89 

Biunton on sampllnK. 952, 1018, 1111 

(For rest of dlscusBlon sec "Sam- 
Bruseh Hydraulic Tln-MInlng Co. 371 

Brush, Edw., on lead tariff. 1262, 1268 

Bryan, .Tos., Death of. 1068 

Bua Mg. f'o. 1230 

liuhuron. Hacienda, Hex. silver mill. '663 
Buck, <'. Austin. 021 

Burkiye Mg. Co., Calif. 440 

Bulkley, Kdward. 734 

llucyruH Co. 1021 

Bucyrus I'outUoff dredges. •701 

liuehler, H. A. "Mo. Ijme and Cement." t920 
Bucll mine, Colo, 636 

Buffalo mines, Ont. 518, 036, 089, 

•856, 1070, 1278 
— Statement to stockholders. 1057 

Bulls and Hears property, NcT. 075 ' 

Iliillfro).' (iold Bar mine. 487, 1126 

nulllon Be.k & Champion. 880, 023, 976 

liiilllr.n. Blast furnace. Handling at 

K.-lhy smelting works. '83 

liulllmi, <;old silver, KeBnlng. 733 

liullwhMckcr. Ariz. 247 

r.ullv mil M. & S. Co. 544 

Bundl Tin Mining Syndicate. 371 

Bunker Illll & Sullivan. 140, 200, 389. 
592, 783, 874, 878, 927, 1024, 1027, 

1116, 1199 
Burch. If. Kenvon. 734 

Burcluird, V,. V. Iron ores, Ala. 725 

Bunlhll eoal areas, N. S. 344 

Huivau, .Mining, Proposed. 915, 1261, 1278 
Burke, ,lohn M., Death of. 784 

lliirkliiirt. Otto C. 44 

Burlcluh on the ferrltes. 421 

Burma and India amber. 672, 972 

Burma Oil Co. 95 

lliirma ruhy mines. 1022, 614, 972 

Burners, Gas, for holler firing. •688 

Burner, Lab., for volatile fuel. •807 

Burns, V. 1119 

Burr, Samuel D., Death of. 921 

Bnnii Burra mine. Tenn. ^1237 

Hurnird, S. (.'. "Illmnlayn Mtns." t920 

Burn, nilns.. Turquoise mining. •843 

Burrows. A. G., on Ont. geology. 712 

Bull, ICclwln. Kilters at El Oro. '458 

Bushni'll, A. v. Electrical equipment, 

ButtcBalaklava mine. ^714 

Buskett, E. W. Sampling and buying 

ore, .Toplln dlst. 'lOO 

— Determination of sulphuric anhy- 
dride In sulphuric acid. 407 
Rustos mill. See "(iuanajualo Keduc." 
Butler. G. M. -'rocket Handbook of 

Minerals." t777 

Butler, M. Safelv of eoni mines, 337 

Bulte-Balaklava Cop. Co. 389, 1180 

— Electrical eciulpment. ^714 

Butte Bovs mine, Nev. 199 

Butte & Boston. 43 

Bultr (•.•ihle Mg. Co. 302 

Itulli-Carllsle Cop. Mg. Co. 739 

Butte Central & Boston. 100, 542, 

736, 1024, 1176 
Butte-Coalltlon, Mont. 1073 

Butte !c Coeur d'Alene. 1027, 1072, 1275 

Itutti' iriniiiiiiili's' production. Report. 43 

Butte cnpiLr producing costs. 107 

Unit.' & l.onilon. . 226, 347 

Bulte & Milwaukee. 392, 739 

Unite. .Mont.. Ore shoots nt. 226 

BulteMontana mine. 492, 739, 1028, 1125 
Butte Undershurg Mg. Co. 827 

Butte, St. raul extended to. 290 

Butte & Suiieilor. 442, 784. 076, 1276 

Butlers liltirs, Coldfleld Consol.'s. ^472 

Butters, llinry A., Death of. 974 

C. O. D. — Waverly. Ncv. 347 

Cable Consol. Mg. Co. 347 
Cable, Steel, Packing 13.000 feet of, 

over mountain trail. *6'2, 775 

Cabot, G. I,. I'yrltlc origin of Iron-ore 

deposits. 030 

Cabrera mine, Mex. •521, ^524 
Cabrestanto mine, Mex., Ore sorting. 

•404, ^207 

Cactus Club at Newhouse mines. •1180, 1210 

Cactus Kange G. M. Co. 251 

Caddo oil Held. 12C.0 
Cndlum as a by-product. 02, 53S 

Cadmium recovery, Sllcsla. ^208 

Cahaba Coal Co. 490 
Calrnes' analysis, gold production. 

1038, lies 

Calcium chloride for coal dust. 620 

Caldecott, W. A, Cyanldlng, Mex. 654 

Caldwell, O. A., Death of. 6S2 

Calern Co., Mex. C40 
California. See also "Debris," "Dredg- 
ing." etc. 


California, Building stone, sand, clay. 

269, 731 
California desert. Mining Id. 38 

California desert, Opening the. 436 

California Development Co. 913 

fallfornia. Drift mining In. 457 

California gold and silver output. 

579. 683. 731 
California gold-mining pr(»pect8. 92. 430 
California, Magnesllc in. 242, 387, 731 

California mine complication. 1244 

California, Mine taxes In. 1156 

California mineral production. 731 

California .Mother I.odc Mg. Co. 345 

California mine, Calif. 345 

California mines. Old, Keopenlng. 422 

(.'alifornia, New mineral prodocts. 381 

California petroleum notes. 100, 850, 1195 
California pipe line, A. 707 

California quicksilver mines. 

1161, 1178, 544, 1120 
California, Revival of hydraulic mining. 1087 
California, Smelters' troubles. See 

California, Tungsten mining. 'SIS, 460, 731 
California water-power plant affairs. 

8, 871. 1161 
Calkins. R C. "Coeur d'Alene." t732 

I'allahan. C. J. 780 

Calsado. Alfonso, Death of. 1008 

Calumet & Ariz. 38, 47, 391, 423, 1274 

Calumet & Hecla. 43, 92, 151, 198, 346. 
546, 639, 730, 738, 773, 830, 1124 
— Quality of copper. 842, 1022 

Camelitt mine. Mex. '510 

Camp Aluhlte. New Ncr. gold dlst. 

•1203, 1216 
Camp Bird, Ltd. 

433, 491, 543, 686, 1025, 1178. 1224 
— Discovery of the mine. 223 

—Report. 489. 511 

- — Cost of mining. 514 

Camp, Sol. 1102 

Cam|)bell, C. M., on Granby mines. »3 

Campliell. .1. ('. 140. 438, 635 

Camplonlte In Altar district. ^72 

Canada, Cement. 681 

Canada, Colliery fatalities. 1207 

I'auada Hill Consril.. Calif. 874 

Canada, Iron and steel. 39. 387, 000. 1202 
Canaila, Iron and steel bounties. 489 

Canada Iron Corp. 881 

(.'anaiia Iron industry and resources. 419 

"<'an:iila's Fertile Northland." t032 

Canadian coal-land leases. 
Canadian Geol. Survey work. 
CatDiiihin gold coinage. First. 
Canaillan I. ash Steel Process Co. 
Cunaillan Mfrs. Asso. — technical educa- 
Canadian Mg. Inst. — Corrections. 
— Summer excursion, etc. 

145, 193, 486, 541, 021. 1174 
Canadian National Exhibition. 
Canadian Northern Itv. Co. 
Canadian Oil Fields, Ltd. 
Cananea Consol. Cop. Co. 60.'?. 1127 

— .Vlumlna In slags. 270, 1205 

(For discussion see "Alnmlna.") 
• irowth of smelting works. •954 

— I'lrmanganate method for copper. 1155 

Cananea-Duluth mine. 52 

Cananea. Resumption at. 
Canilelarla. Mex. 
Candles In coal mines. 
Carton mill, Manhattan, Ncv. 
Cap. Timber, Reinforced. '427 

Cape Nome Mg. Co., Mont. 106, C30 

Capricorn mine, Nev. 348 

Car, i^oal, distribution and private 

ownership. , 623, 67.S 

(^ar dump, Alabama Consol.'s. ^1084 

Car <luni|) for waste. North Star. '711 

Car dimip. Remarkable. Daly Rednc. 

Co.'s. ^754 

Car, Mine. Koppel. Copper Queen's. ^532 

Car, Scales. Dalv Keduc. Co.'s. 'SIM 

Cars. Mine. U,.palr cost. etc. •ISS. ^284 

Cars. I'nioadlng. Hopper for. 
Cars. Youngstown Industrial. 
Cnracahul Mtn. Cop. Co. 
Carbollneum Wood Preserving Co. 
Carbon and properties of cast iron 
Cariion Hill Coal Co. 
Carbon I.ake mine. Colo. 
Carlionieacid gas. Note on — Test. 
i''arborundtim. Amorphous. 
Carbon monoxide. Test for. 
Cardiff mine explosion, Facts on. 
Carey, Juan R. 

Caribou and Poorman mines, CoJo. 
Corlsa mine, t'tah. 
Carizo, Mex.. discoveries. 
Carkeek, \Vm., Death of. 
Carlisle Coal & Clay Co. 

Carlton, A. E. f.'no 

Carmaux coal mines. France. Opemtkm. ^574 
Carmlchael-Bradford process. 954 

Carn Brea mine. Cornwall. 181 

Carne, .1. E. N. S. \V. Coalfields. tlll5 

Carnegie Coal Co. 640 

Carnegie on steel production and tariff. 

1054. 1003. 1261. V2eii, 1269 
Carpenter, Franklin K. 486 

Carter, B. E 
Carter. T. Lanf. 
Cartridges, Hydraulic. 
Cartwrlght locat.on, Ont. 
Carufel, Dldace. 
Carwtieels made prifltably. 
Case, B. H. Lining up timber 







188, 201 


• I 050 















783. S.W 

634. 779 
186, 1211 
g up timbers In In- 
clined shafts. •Oia 
Caalngs, Annular-grid electric. 30 
Casparis Stone Co. 1227 
Casting machine. Slag and matte, Kelley. '610 
Casting plant. Bullion, .S' Iby smelter. '83 
Cata mine, Mex. 670, •806 
Catalogs, Manufacturers'. 484 
CaUwba gold mine, N. C. 832 
Caved ground, Reclaiming after squeeze. '411 
Caving, Cumberland hematite mines. 

•360, ^302 
Caving danger. Anthracite region. 1074 

Cedar-Talisman Consol. 683, 736, 875 

Cement, California production. 731 

Cemi-nt. Canada. 681 

Cement englneirlng. Degree in. 141 

Cement for tubbing In deep shafts. 42" 

Cement plant, American, in Mex. 610 

Cement plants. Electric power. 80 

Cement supports In mines. 480, 491 

Cementation. Shaft sinking by. ^221 

Centennial, Mich. 557 

Central Colo. Power Co. 1225 

Central Eureka, Calif. 149, 298. 490 

Central Gold Dredging Co. I "21 

Central mine. Broken Hill. •703, •799, 893 
Central Mg. & Invest. Corp., Ltd. 439. 4 hit 
Central Pacific Ry. Co. 474. 1113 

Central I'hosphatc Co. 1148 

Central power plant, Anthracite mines. 817 
Central R. R. of N. J. 582, 584 

Cerro Gordo. Calif., ores. 31 

Certificate, Miners — Shaleen case. 787 

Certuchena y Anexas, Mex. 982 

Cbain coal cutters. 531 

Chains, Hoisting— Notes. 288 

Chalcopyrlte and molvbdenlte separation. 824 
Chalmers, Thos., Jr., Death of. 295 

Chambers, E. J. "Canada's Fertile 

Northland." ♦032 

Cbambers-Ferland, Ont. 

251, 640, 786, 881, 1076. 1127 
Champion Cop. Mg. Co. Alumina In 

BiagB. 273 

(For discussion see "Alumina.") 
Champion mine. Mich. 557 

Champion Mg. Co.. Calif. UK). 296 

Champion Reef mine, India. 516. 566 

Chance, H. M. Origin of coal. 27. 238 

— Pyrltlc origin. Iron-ore deposits. 408, 630 
Chandler Coal Co. 46 

Chandler mine. Minn. 302 

Channing, J. I'arke. 148 

Chapin mine. Mich. 299 

Chapman. E. W., Death of. 1222 

Charging machine. Copper-melting fur- 
nace, 'sei 
Cbarlcs Dickens mine, Idaho. 

48, 105, 150, 197, 927, 1072 
Chastan Syndicate. 98 

Chautard, J. Lalerlzatlon. 128 

Cheever mine. N. Y. l'*6 

Chemical control of coal washers. '424 

Chemical Engineers, Am. Inst. 133, 825, 1119 
"Chemical Laboratories, Small." B. K. 

Meade. t732 

Chemical Society, American. 140, 342, 720 

Chemists, Cyanide. Duties of. 759 

ChemlBtrv, Applied, Intern'l Congress. 145 
Chesapeake A Ohio Ry. 495, 678 

Cbeseau, G. .Vmorphous carborundum. 006 
Chicago Copper Refining Co. ; Tom 

Head mines. 244, 343. 876. 1071 

Chihuahua. Mex., Oil wells. 852 

t^hlhuahua mineral output, 1907. 1076 

t^hlhuahua Mg. Co. 33 

Chihuahua, Western, On horseback in. •ISO 
Chile. Coal consumption. 642 

Chilean mills. Improved. •OSO. 101T 

Chllean nitrate statistics. 217 

Chill gulch. Calif.. Dredging. '.M* 

Chimneys. Concrete vs brick. 1218 

Chimneys. Smelter— Note, 3S« 

(.'hina clay. Is It a mineral? 41B 

China, Coal In. 382 

China, Mining In. 410 

Chinese cono'ssion — Note. 14 

(^hlnese miners In Transvaal. 1114 

(""hlnese mining low. 480 

Chittenden, H. W. Copper-preclp. plant, •ssa 
Chlorine gas for gold chlorlnatlon. ^24 

— Electrolytic chlorine. 9T1 

Chrlstensen, \. O. Gas analysis needed. 1109 
Chrlstcnscn. C. C. Construction of 100- 
ton copper smelling plant. ^847 
Chrlstensen mine. Colo. 441 
Chrome-Iron ore, Grecian. 294 
Chrome ore. New Caledonia. 117S 
Chromlte — Cse for linings : ore an- 
alyses : sources : production try 
countries. 802 
Chromium and maganese detection. 322 
Chronology, Monihlr. 

43. i40, 485. 681, 913. 11I« 

Church, J. A., on Guanajuato. •O"! 

—Ore sampling hv machines. 113. 142. '238. 

201, 3SS, 431. 631, 776. 917. 1111 



— Principles of machine sampling. *951, 1018 
Chutes, Inclination of. 818 

Cinco Minas, Mex. 1182 

Cinnabar. See "Quiclisilver." 
Cirkel, F. Asbestos in Quebec. 461 

Citizens Gas Co. 684 

City of Cobalt mine, Ont. 

445, 518, 636, 833, 'SSG, 1182 
Clapp, P. G. 342 

Clara Consol. G. & C. Co. 440, 829. 925 

Clark Bros, discovery, Sylvanlte. •1102 

Clarkson, H. B. 1174 

Classifiers, Drag, Esperanza. 'TBO 

Classifiers, Pulsator, Richards. •621 

Clausthal mines. '228, 733 

Clay, California. 269, 731 

Clay, China, is it a mineral? 415 

Clay, Fire, and coal. Origin. 27, 238 

"Clays of Arkansas." tl2]9 

Clearance letters for coal miners. 337 

Clearwater mine, Idalio. 491, 546 

Clelaud. E. D. Sampling, West Australia. 340 
Clennell. J. E. Borax in assaying. 656 

Cleveland mine, Colo. 877 

Clifton-Morenci dist., Ariz. 37 

Clinton location, Ont. 929 

Clinton iron ore. N. T., Stripping. •IISO 

Clinton ores, Ala. •1043, 'lOSS 

Clio mine, Calif. 299 

Clover Leaf mine, Ind. 1227 

Cloverdale quicksilver mine, Calif. 100 

Coahuila L. & Z. Co. 151 

Coal, Africa. 90 

Coal, Alaska's great reserve. 1059 

Coal and petroleum. Equivalency of. 1218 

Coal, Anthracite — Central power plant. 817 
Coal, Anthracite, "combination." 916 

Coal, Anthracite, miners' agreement. 820, 828 
Coal. Anthracite, roads — Hepburn law 

decision. 582, 584 

Coal, Anthracite — State consumption. 382 
Coal, Austria. 1260 

Coal beds — Thickness of vegetation. 186 

Coal, Bosnia and Herzegovina. 984 

Coal breaking. To prevent. 724 

Coal Briquets, Binders for. t96 

Coal, Brit. Col., output ; labor ; acci- 
dents. 89. 142 
Coal, California, Amador county. 589 
Coal-car distribution and ownership. 623, 678 
Coal, Chile consumption. 642 
Coal, Chinese deposits. 382 
Coal combustion upon grates. 184 
Coal commission — 'Foreign experts — 
Explosion precautions. 

860, 864, 590, 736 
Coal consumption, mines and railroads. 428 
Coal cost and waste. 1015 

Coal cutter, Shortwall, Jeffrey. ^24 

Coal-cutting machine, Kuhn'8. 688 

Coal-cutting machinery. Operation of. 

530, 1112 
Coal cutting, northern field. '1104, 1110 

Coal decision. Important — Safety lamps. 536 
Coal, Dominican Republic. 5 

Coal dredging. Susquehanna. 334 

Coal dust and recent disasters. 333 

Coal dust as factor of explosions. 1107, 1109 
Coal dust. Calcium chloride for. 620 

Coal-dust experiments, Altoft, Eng. 817 

Coal dust in mine explosions. *9 

Coal dust in mines, Problem of treating. 

814, 819 
Coal-dust notes, etc. 89, 98, 479, 

534, 627, 968, 1108, 1171, 1252 
Coal dust, Ohio law. 50 

Coal dust. Water-jet spray, etc. '89 

Coal-dust wetting. Foreign experts on. 

861, 864 
Coal Fields, N. D. & Mont., Geol. Surv. flUS 
Coal — Flushing, Advantages of. •! 

Coal freight rates. Anthracite and bi- 
tuminous. 678 
"Coal, Geology of, and Coal Mining." t777 
Coal, George's Creek small vein. 482 
Coal handling. Rapid, on Lakes. 235 
Coal, 111., Modification by low-temp. 

distillation. 1014 

Coal, Illinois — Notes. 1015 

Coal, India. 972 

Coal, Indi,ina, discoveries. 442, 1027 

"Coal." James Tonge. t777 

Coal, Japan, Takashiml field. 288 

Coal lands — Mining-law talks. 363 

Coal — Lehigh Valley report. 719 

Coal — "Lehrbuch dcr Bergbaukunde." t96 
Coal merchants who sell steam. 724 

Coal mine. See also "Accident," "Law," 

"State names, etc. 
Coal mine accidents. Fatal, in America 
and elsewhere — Tabulated statistics. 

1207, 1216 
Coal-mine atmosphere, A safe. 919 

Coal-mine curve problems. •230 

Coal-mine disasters. Recent, Notes on. 332 
Coal-mine disasters — 'Laws, labor, etc. 18 
Coal-mine explosion, Cardiff. 93 

Coal mine, Jersey, fighting fire. •86 

Coal mines, Ashes for pillars in. 581 

Coal mines, Australia, Electricity in. 966 

Coal mines, Carmaux, France, Operation. *574 
Coal mines, Cooperative. 1252 

Coal mines. Electric power development. 1011 
Coal mines, Eng., Steam winding engines. 1013 


Coal mines? Is electric current safe 
in — Precautions ; British and other 
foreign investigations ; appliances 
to prevent firedamp ignition. 29 

Coal mines, Nova Scotia, Operating 

Acadia. *624 

Coal mines. Overcasts in. *1106 

Coal mines. Safety of — Examinations, 
apprenticeship, clearance letter, 
camp conditions. 337 

Coal mines. Underground haulage in. 859 
Coal miners. Education of. 723 

Coal miners, Eyesight of. 1012 

Coal miners. Protection of — Rules. 236 

Coal miners, U. S., Number of. 235 

Coal miners', Indiana, pension fund. 1099 
Coal mining by retreating room- and 

pillar- system. ^17, *1251 

Coal-mining machines. Types of. 1252 

Coal-mining depth. Maximum. 1252 

Coal Mg. Inst, of Am. '3, 1119, 1222 

Coal-mining labor affairs, Ala., 

335, 148, 253, 344, 481 
—Indiana. 390, 430, 439, 495, 550, 590, 
638, 738, 882, 978, 1072, 1078. 1128 
— Wyoming. 595, 635 

— Anthracite. 820, 828 

Coal-mining law. See also "Law," 

"Tax," and names of States. 
Coal-mining law, Oklahoma. 729 

Coal mining methods, Randolph CO., Mo. *6 
Coal-mining methods — 'Notes. 334 

Coal-mining methods, Silesia. ^887 

Coal mining. Modern, Electricity in. 1106 

Coal mining. Southern anthracite field. 

•475, 680 
Coal — "Modern Practice in Mining." tl219 
Coal, New Mexico, Rich fields. 1251 

Coal, New South Wales, Geol. Surv. 11115 
Coal, New Zealand. 724 

Coal, Origin of. 27, 238 

Coal. Penn., unmined. Valuing and tax- 
ing. 40, 50. 148, 152, 1229 
Coal, Philippine Is. 153, 466, 594, 595, 785 
—Paper by A. J. Cox. 1058 
Coal piles. Temperature of. 817, 862 
Coal, Pittsburg, trade and prices. 970 
Coal, Polar regions — Spitzbergen. 1012 
Coal, Prince Edward island. 246 
Coal production. Decline in. 430 
Coal puncher, Pneumoelectric. •SSO, 1112 
Coal resources, Conservation of. 

339, 583, 1172, 1265 
Coal resources, Geol. Surv. map. 480 

Coal, Russia — Wages ; production. 724, 1184 
Coal samples ; moisture. 724, 859 

Coal seam. Lower, Underground boring • 

to prove. 581 

'Coal seam. Mining, Longwall methods. *19 
Coal seam, Pittsburg. Method for. *330 

Coal seam. Thick, Method for working. *15 
Coal seam, Thickest. 1020, 1169 

Coal seams. Flat, Mining under heavy 

cover. *135 

— Losses in mining. ^284 

Coal seams — Why local sulphur. 14 

Coal shrinkage in transit. Detecting. 914 

Coal, Spanish imports. 90 

Coal storage. Loss by. 724 

Coal trade and mining conditions, Ind. 723 
Coal, United Kingdom — Thick seam. "15 

— Royal Commission's report. 

30, 186, 817, 968 
— Eight-hour day. 92 

— Cardiff mine explosion. 93 

— Accidents and safety — Notes. 

139, 186, 627, 676 
— Underground boring. 581 

— South Staffordshire methods. ^673 

— 'Seaton-Delaval colliery. ♦765 

— Ancient mine. - 769 

— Cost of longwall. ^964 

— Cutting, northern coalfield. •1104, 1110 
Coal. U. S., Area of fields. 186 

Coal, U. S. consumption. 1252 

Coal, U. S. production in 1908. 1017 

Coal, Vancouver island output. 419 

Coal, Volatile matter in. Nature. 720 

Coal, Wales. 724 

Coal washers. Chemical control. *424 

Coal washery, Dawson Fuel Co.'s. *182 

Coal washery in Colo., Operation of. •1248 
Coal washing. Notes on. 723, 818, 968 

Coal. Washington. 152 

Coal, West Va. Supp. Report. t920 

Coals. Coking, Practical test for. 479 

Coalfield, Largest in U. S. 1105 

Coalite. 186 

Cobalt Central, Ont. 

302, 350, 518, ♦856, 881, 1278 
Cobalt dist., Ont. — Shipments ; future ; 

extension, etc. 518 

— Dividends. 636, 856 

—Geology. 711, t777 

— Present position ; statistics. *855 

Cobalt Lake Mg. Co. 153, 200, 518, 'SSe, 1182 
Cobalt Silver Queen, Ont. 

153, 252, 518, 636, ^855, ♦856 
"Cobalt Silver Special." 976 

Cobalt To'wnsite mine, Ont. 856 

Cobar gold and copper field, N. S. W. '957 
Cobar Gold Mines, Ltd. 828 

Cobralla mine, Ariz. 103 

Cochiti mining dist., N. M. *173 

197, 489 



Cochrane mine, Ont. 51 

Coeur d'Alene assessments. 389 

"Coeur d'Alene Dist." Ransome ; Cal- 
kins. t732 
Coeur d'Alene mines. Reports. 140 
Coeur d'Alene mining costs. 607 
Coeur d'Alene, North side. ^65 
Coeur d'Alene ores — Notes. 85, 240 
Coeur d'Alene Placer Co. *G6, 70 
Coeur d'Alene tungsten-ore deposits. •1146 
Coeur d'Alene Vulcan mine. 488 
Coke ashes, Variable color. 533 
Coke, Birmingham dist. ^1047, •lOSS 
Coke, British Columbia. 
Coke. Connellsville, production. 
Coke, Indiana, tests. 
Coke-making notes. 

288, 480, 534, 627, 862, 1062 
Coke, Mexican imports. 256 

Coke mfr., northern West Va. 426 

Coke Oven and By-Products Asso. 634 

Coke ovens. Modern, New system. ^378 

Coke, Peat. 724, 919 

Coke plant, Carmaux, France. 576 

Coking coals. Practical test for. 479 

Colbran-Bostwick claim. 
Colburn, C. Lorimer. 
Colburn, E. A., Jr., Loading holes. 
Colby, .\lbert Ladd. 

Cole, T. F. a I 

Coleman, Professor. 734 

Coll, H. E. Operating a N. S. coal mine. '624 
Colledge, Alexander. 388 

Collier, A. J. Seward Peninsula Placers. t241 
Colliery. See also "Coal," "Accident," 

Colliery disasters — Laws, labor, etc. 18 

Colliery engineer for gold mines. 482 

"Colliery Explosions," etc. t341 

"Collieries, Mechanical Engineering of." tl219 
Collins on Goldfield ores. 1096 

Colne & Co. 1244. 

Colombia, Gold, silver, platinum. 14, 852 

Colonial mine, Ont. •SSO 

Colorado, Coal washery in. Operation. ♦1248 
Colorado Fuel & Iron Co. 788, 835, 1248 
— Report. 813 

Colorado mine-accident laws. 1088 

Colorado Mining Congress. 590, 634 

Colorado Mg. Co., Utah. 393 

Colorado State School of Mines. 99, 1222 

Colorado tungsten, 293, 636, 738, 

830, 1071, 1123, 1176, 1178, 1275 
Columbia Butte Mg. Co. 1125 

Columbia mine, Ore., Signaling. ♦857 

Columbine tunnel, Colo. 441 

Columhium. 960 

Columbus, Ont. 302 

Columbus Extension. Utah. 688 

Comanche M. & S. Co. 251, 785, 1229 

Combination, Goldfield. •1097, 1098, 1272 
Combination Fraction, Goldfield. 

101, 147, 492, 593, 780, 980, 1180, 1272 
Combustion of coal upon grates. 184 

Comet mine, Mont. 492, 784 

Commissions, Engineers'. 717, 867 

Commodity prices and gold production. 

•1037, 1168 
Commonwealth M. & M. Co. 423 

Compagnie des Mines et Minerals. 827 

Compagnie Industrielle du Platine. 703, 705 
Compaiifa. Sec also proper names. 
Comparlfa Beneficiadora de Metales. 

♦560, •647, 846 
Compressed air. See ''Air." 
Comstock mines. Merger rumored. 780 

Comstock mines, Profit sharing. 172 

Comstock mining companies. Reform. 94, 188 
Concentrates, Treating, Bellevue Ltd. 

mine. 716 

Concentration. See also "Table," etc. 
Concentration at Broken Hill. 893, 1169 

Concentration, Ore, experiments — 

Glass table. ^904 

Concentrator, Ore, Hennig. ♦134, ^1198 

Concheno, Mex. ^159 

Concrete chimneys ts. brick. 1218 

"Concrete Houses, Competitive De- 
signs." tills 
Concrete notes. 32, 130, 480, 534, 627, 818 
"Concrete, Reinforced." t241 
Concrete, Reinforced, Selby, Calif. ^451 
Concrete work, Goldfield Consol. mill. •467 
Condensers, Notes on. 724 
Conductivity, Copper — Diagram. ^225 
Congo, French, production. 1173 
Congress mine, Colo. 346, 592 
Coniagas mines, Ont. 

518, 636, 786. ^856, 881 
— Report. 1161 

Conklin. H. R. 145 

Conlin mine, Calif. 1175 

Connellsville coke production. 773 

Conservation of resources. 336, 339, 

583, 288, 1168, 1172, 1217, 1265 
— Water powers. 727, 866, 1066, 1172 

Consolidated Arizona Smelting Co. 

681, 876, 1026, 1116 
Consol. Fuel Co. 349 

Consol. Goldfields of So. Af. — Report, 

etc. 1190, 1121, 1176, 436 

(See also constituent mines.) 
Consol. Jefferson G. M. Co. 781 

Confeol. Main Reef. 540 



Consol. M>Tciii-. 1[)4, aSJ-l. 735, TBI, 875, 880 
Consol. Minis Selection Co., Ltd. 9J4 

Consol. M. & S. Co. of Can. — Report. 7B6 
Consol. Red Top, Ncv. 

■MO. 347, 492, 594, 739, 1073 
Consolidation Coal Co. 492 

Constant, C. L. ]34 

Consumption, Miners', To prevent. 480 

Contra-llro sliaft-Klnklng system. •lOul 

Conlracis, Ore, from smelter's stand- 
point. '73, 189, 317 
Controller device, Sandwell colliery. 074 
Converter, .\naconda copper. Operating. •747 
Converter, Surfuceblowri. 1244 
Converters, Cananea Consol. 's. •954, •958 
Conveyer for tliishlng, Iiodaon colliery. 'l 
Conveyers, Crushed-rock. San Francisco. 'IIBS 
Conveyers, Underground, Klclnfonteln 

mine. '^^** 

Cook. K. B. fJayley dry air blast at 

Warwick furnace, •SIO, 820, i25 

Cooliiiirdle dist., Calif. 38 

CoolKnrdIc Mg. Co., Calif. 683 

Cooling-pot system, Selby works. '83 

Cooper, C. A. Lead assaying. 178 

Cooperative coal mines. 1252 

Copeland Sampling Co. 348 

Copper, Arizona mines' production. 423 

Copper, .\ustralasla. 144, 1021 

Copper blastfurnace slags. Alumina 

In. 270, 483, 730. 1111, 1284 

CoppiM- liuttc' companies' reports. 43 

Copper, California iiroductlon. 731 

Coppc-r. Calumet & llccla. 1022, 842 

Copper Casting, beating, etc. — Notes. 

220, 228, 280, 282, 292, 340, 020, 710, 7.'".6 
Copi)er, Cheapest producer of. 824 

Copper converter, Anaconda, Operation 

of. '747 

Copper, Cost of producing, Ariz. ^37 

— World's— Various districts, 165 

Copper, Costs of producing, OfDclal re- 
ports. 555, 584 
Coplier Eagle, Mont. 100, 300, 546, 687, 784 
Copper electrolysis. Temperature effect. 755 
Copper field, Cobar, N. S. W. •9.17 
Copper for foundry ; conductivity, etc. '225 
Copper furnace. Kink. 976 
Copper furnace. Regenerative revcrbcr- 

atorv. •898 

Copper furnaecR. Basle linings for. 802 

Copper furnaces — Blast leakage ; Rob- 
inson tu.vere. •758 
Copper In British Kast Africa. 417 
Copper. Katanga deposits. 727, 1049, 344 
Copper icing mine, Idaho. 105 
Cop|)er Knob mine. N. C. 548 
Copper. Lake, .ludlclal di'tlnltlon ; elec- 

trnlvtlc copper, 842, 1022 

Copper, Lake. Itellnlng, 102" 

Copper-leaching process, Jumau. • 132 

Copper market. 91. 237. 828. 909 

Copper melting furnaces, Charging ma- 



Copper mine. Pahaquarry. N. ,1. 1181, 1074 
Copper mining and smelting, Ducktown 

diat. •1237 

Copper — Nacozarl mining dlst, 

•057. 1101, •lOOO 
Copper, Nevada, Nickel and platinum. 72 
Copper, North Carolina production. 4S5 

Copper-ore contracts, etc. Smelter's 

standpoint. •70, 189. 317 

Copper ore. Fortuna mine, Bingham. ^1191 
Copper ore. Table tor value of. 291 

Copper, rerraanganatc method for. 1155 

Copper, rhlllpplncs. 700 

Copper Plate group, Mex. 'OOO 

Copper plates. Cold accumulation on. 700 
Copper. Port Arthur dlst., discovery. 1070 
Copper-preclpltallng plant. Copper 

Queen's. *S5S 

Copper process, Laazczynskl. 1218 

Copper Producers' Association. 1'202 

Copper Queen. .\rlz. 

♦.•!S, ■2n. 271. 423. •532. 782, 1177 
— Precipitating plant, ^853 

— General account. 1242 

Copper Queen No. 2. Greenwatcr. 101 

Copper Range Consol., Mich. 

49, 249. 302, 1072, 1124, 1179 
Copper River dlst.. Alaska. 680 

Copper, Russian electrolytic. 1121 

Copper smelti'rs, American. I/lst of. 1020 

Copper smelting and A. S. & R. Co. 1266 

Copper-smelting plant, 100-ton, Con- 
struction of. ^847 
Copper-smelting suits, Calif. 1140 

(See also "Smeller-smoke.") 
Copper-smelting works. Cnnanen. Growth. ^054 
Copper slallatlcs — Tariff classlQcallon. 1110 
Copper. The slock of. 1262 

Copper, Transvaal. 579 

Copper, V. S. consumption, 1907. 187 

Copperas production, V. S., 1907. 292 

Corev. A. A. 1008 

CorklU. !•:. T. Provincial mine. 712 

Cornish tin mining. ' 181 

Cornwall. Inspector's report. 148 

Coroeoro mines, Bolivia. 338, 3.'19 

Coronado mine. Colo. 1026 

Coronet Phosphate Co. 346 

Corrlgan, McKlnney & Co. 741 


Corro.sion, Relative-, of wrought-iron 

arid steel tubing. °"^',o«i 

Corundum, Drawback on. i^«w 

Corundum, South Australia. 1J4 

Cosgro .lohn P. 11 14 

Cost Cyanldlng, Guanajuato Devel. Co. '1001 
Cost, lead mining and smelting, Spain. .3- J 
Cost of longwall in Eng. •984 •1104. IIUI 
Cost of producing copper In Ariz. J^ 

—World— Various districts. 10;; 

—Of mining quartz pyrlte gold deposits. 512 
—'And profits on Wltwatersrand. o8j 

— Lead and zinc or.'S. Mo. oo^ 

Cost of silver-lead smelting. dlj. j8o 

Costs and profits. Transvaal. ,„, „i7. 

Costs at some Rand mines. .,?r '.nwT 

Costs. Haulage, etc. — Flat seams. 'Ho, .84 
Costs of producing copper. Official re-^_^ ^ 

ports ooo. oM4 

Costs, Operating. Homestake slime pit. 386 
Costs— Power systems. .loplln dlst. .*.« 

Costs, TIn-mlnlng. Cornwall. ISJ 

Costs, Working, In Transvaal. 801 

Cotlrcll fume-condensing system. dio 

-Notes on use by Selby Co. , 

242. 296. 343, 389. 487. 536. •004 
Cowper Coles. S. Testing galvanized Iron- 30 
Cox, A. .T. Philippine coals. 1058 

Coxc, F,. II. ^J; 

Coxe, S. Herbert. •^*- 

Crabbe, .1. D.. Death of. 074 

Cracker Jack mine. Ore.. Platinum. 100.3 

Cracker,|aek mine, Idaho, 104, 1 .|? 

Crackerjack mine, Nev, 980. lis") 

Cragg location, Ont. -"' 

Cranes, Traveling, Beams, etc., for. li ." 

Creator Moor mines. Eng. ■'O" 

Crecentla mine. Colo. 48. 9'" 

Creede-Qulnleil. Colo. J^" 

Creel. Enrique C. "J: 

Crerar. George. ^Jn 

Orescent lurquolae mines, Nev. "»" 

Creason & Clearfleld, Penn. "40 

Cresson mine. Colo., hoist, etc. ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

Cripple Creek. Labor History. t34i 

Cripple creek "-^'■P"-^"»6'8'4.'S7Til78, 1206 
Cripple Creek tax dispute. 1178, 1273 

Cripple Creek treatment charges. l"." 

Crist. Wm. A.. Death of. '-'' 

Crllchton. A. B. ;*«« 

Croesus Gold M. & M. <o. ^7% 

Crooked Cafion. Calif.. New camp at. 11 j». 
Crossbead. Safety. Berry's. ■*' 

Crow'^ Nest Pass Coal^Co.^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ 

Crown. Lawrence co.. S. D. X^n 

Crown. Pennington co.. S. D. 444. .40 

Crown Deep. Transvaal. 540. "^j- 

Crown .lewel mine, Ont. 9.9 

Crown Point mine, .Tohnnlc. Ncv. 1229. 1... 
Crown Reef. Transvaal. »«" 

'''""■".'•'r2M:'394".'-518, 595. 636. •856. 1076 
Crozet & Co.'s adjust iil.le prop. •'200 

Crushing plant. Goldfleld Consol. s. 4"; 

Cvanldiii.-, :. • Hsperanza mill. 
Cyiii. Mci. 


667. 846 
leposltlon. etc. 707, 854 
ItratloD, El Ore. ^458 


Crushing plant. Goldflel 
Cr.vollte. I'ses and valu 

Culllnnn diamond, „„, 

Culm. Recovering from : fighting Arcs. -3;. 

Cumberland-Ely. Nev. "' ' 

Cumberland. Eng.. hematite mines. •i-'> 

Cumlngs. W. L. 't'} 

Cummins. H. Oren. "^J 

Cunningham. W. H. "^J 

Cupellatlon of silver. _ J-" 

cuprite -'P'-:r„«'-;i','';,'^3?,:io28.'l126. 1176 

Curb. Construction of. England. '^'^ 

Curious conflict of rights. ''i-* 

Curtis. .1. S, . , ,J^" 

Curve problems. Discussion of. -^" 

Cushn.nn. Alllston S, "4 

Cvanamlde mill, Niagara falls. iJS" 

cVanldatlon. Deterrents In. <•" 

Cvanldatlon. El Rayo, '" 

cVanldatlon mill. Bole mine. 400 

Cyanldatlon of silver ores. Pachuca.^^ ^_,^^^ 

Cvanldallon, Silver, Mangijneso In. SOjj 

Cvanlde-amalgamntlon mill. St. Geo. I14» 

Cvanlde chemist. Duties of. '»" 

cVanlde Correspondence Club of Mox. 6»l 

Cyanide mill, etc., Veta Colorada.^^^^ ^_^.^ 

Cyanide mills, Guanajuato Devel. Co._ ^^^. 

Cvanlde plants. Small. jj^I 

Cvanlde poisoning. Vi'. 

Cvanhle practice, Mex,. Caldecotf on. 034 
("vanlde. Potassium and sodium for »ll- 

ver *" 

Cyanide process. All slime, Lo l'"'*n-gj ,(,,- 

"Cvanlde Processes," E, B. Wilson. tTS'J 

Cvanlde solution. New assay for. ^>* 
Cvanlde tanks. Coatings for. **-',„,'i 

CVanldlng at t^mnaJualo. «»» 

Cvanlding at Homestake. Estimating 

■ ellluents: size of lime grain" :^ ,.„ 

sllmeplaut costs, 29J. 294. 380 

Cyanldlng. Goldfield Consol. mill. '^i 

Cvanlding. Guanajuato— Note. li» 

D. D. C. mine, Wis. 153 

Dacotab Heights mine, Ml<h, 198 

Dagner condensers, 'sS5 

Daisy Florence. Nev, 1272, 1276 

Dall mine. Wis, 982. 1030 

Dalton & Lark mine, •1191, ^1192 

Daly Cop. Co., Mont. ^ 593 

Daly, Marcus. 130 

Daly Reduction Co, •754, ^804 

Daly-West, Utah. 2o0, 246. 445 

Darby. E. V. 100. 343 

Darr mine disaster. Notes on. 332 

Davis, W. M. 'lisa 

Darwin camp, Calif. 422, 1223 

Davis Daly. Mont. 106, 347, 43;<, 489. 

540. 035. Obi. 684. 730, 781, 831. 875 
Davis, 11. I'. Position of Cobalt. 'SSO 

Davis, .1. A. Concenlrotlon experiments. 'iHH 
Davis mine. Reclaiming caved ground. 'Ill 
Davis. S. A. 1271 

Dawson I'^uel Co.'s coal wasbery. '182 

Dawson Mg. Co. •eCO. s.;.j 

De Bavay process. 778. ^'^'i 

De Beers Co. -*" 

De Gorlla * Atkins 1'-'2'< 

Deacon mill. .loplln dlst. •126 

Dead River (iold Mg. Co. 1244 

Debris question. Calif. 100, 146. 181. 244. 

304. 438. 15.35. 776, 780. 922, 975. 1221 

(Sec also "Dredging.") 
Deeds. Mineral-land. 
Deft v. W. E. 

Degri'es. New precedent, conferring 
Degn-es, Technical. 
Delst.r No. .3 concentrating table. 
Delaney, Eugene A. 
Delaware & Hudson Co. 

411, 50, 148, 582, 584, 

Delaware. Lack. & West. 

90. 444. 582. 584, 740. 122S 
— Coal-land taxation. 40, 50. 148 

— Jersev mine tire, 'So 

— Central power plant, Seranton, Sli 

—Electric power. 1011 

Deloney. J. C. 869 

Dclpb colliery. England. 'OiS 

Delprat and Poller flotation proce88e«._ 

Dex'clopment. etc. 175. 778 

Demand and supply. 280 

Demldoff placers. Russia <0i 

Dennis, W. A.. Death "i 437 

Dennlson. W. A,. Death of. 1068 

Dennv. G. A. and II. S, 588. 1068 

Denv("r Engineering Works' mscblDCf^ •02) 
Desborough. Arthur. 
Desernnto Iron Co. 
Deterrents In cyanldatlon. 
Delola gold mine, Ont. 
Detroit Cop. Mg, Co.. Aril. 423, 631 
Deutscbland mine. Silesia. 
Devers. P. H. Fighting Are, Jersey 

mine. ^SJ 

Diamond, Culllnan. <36 

Diamond Graphite Co, 982 

Diamond mining. Calif. OSS 

Diamond production. South Africa 


785. 1011 

860. 864 

1148. 1256 

Diamonds. German S. W. Africa. 
Diamonds. N. S. W. 

Dlam..!..!'.-. IShndesla. 1121 

Dbiii • !'i mining. Duty on. 43 

DIr k Butte. Nev. 250. .301 

Di.r Davis placer. Nov. 785 

Dl. , n h.. Iron ore. 804. ,'■50 

Diet.' . Ml-l 1 486 
Dincullad mine. .Mex. •521, 524 

DInamlln mine. Mex, ^020 
r>in.-r.. innn.l. I'olo. 

;n. 638. 684. 686, 783. 978 

Dl. I 5?? 
Notes on. 


,1 .ir,_' ih'poslts. 
Distillation furnaces. SllesU. 
Dividends. Oct. and Nov. 
Dividends. Transvaal mines. 
I'lvtng In coalmine water. 
Dixon. G. R. Cost of longwall in Eni 

. — Coal cutting, northern Odd. Eng. 
Dock. Lake Superior iron-ore. 
Dodge. F. H. 
Dodge, n N Cnr.UtT explosion. 

913. 1118 

34. 1110 





ii„ «Bll. 9<V?. 181 

Doi ^ 252. 303. 640 

Dolor. ~ m: . i;;i; i' i Monte, Slei. •521 

Dominican Republic. Minerals. 

5. 16. 42. 43. 70, 118. 228 
iHimlnlon Coal Co. 

.'.1. ISO. 344. 395, W9. 689. 741. 1076 
— Use of br.^athlDg sppamtus. 858 



Dominion Copper Co. 555 556 

Dominion Iron & Steel Co. 

51, 180, 344, 689 
Door, Mine, Pocahontas automatic. *862 

Door opener. ♦532 

Dorr classifiers, Pachuca. *325, 650, 730 

Dos Abril, Mex. 35O 

Dos Bocas oil-well fire. 252 

Dos Estrellas mine. Mes. •1247 

—•Electric locomotive. *466 

Douglas, Dr., on colliery accidents. 1167 

Douglas, Jas. Copper Queen mine. 38 

Douglas smelting works, Fundicion. •413 

Douglas, Theodore. 779 

Doveton, Godfrey D. 388, 588, 1119 

Dowling, W. R, Cleaning filter cloths. 410 
Downing, T. F. Southern anthracite 

field. '475, 680 

Dracger breathing apparatus used. 858, 'lOOl 
Draper, Marshall D. 44, 1174 

Dredge decision. Important — Risdon. 1021 

Dredge, Hunter, Oroville, Calif. '417 

Dredge mining — Talks on law. 364 

Dredge prospecting for phosphate rock. 1148 
Dredge — Safety mining caisson. 907 

Dredging and hydraulic mining, Calif. 
100, 146, 181, 194, 244, 438, 635, 
735, 771. 776, 780, 826, 874, 922, 
975. 1024. *1087, 1175, 1216, 1221, 1223 
Dredging, Gold. Calif. — Hydraulic noz- 
zles ; rotary screens : general news. 1160 
Dredging for platinum. Urals, Russia. •701 
Dredging. Gold. By-profits. 119 

Dredging, Gold, French Guiana. 654, 115 

Drift mining in Calif. 457 

Drifts, Small. Speed in. 

773, •757. 918. 971, 1066, 1111 
— Monthly advance, drift mining. lim 

Drill, Diamond, prospecting, Mapimi, 

Mex. •313 

Drill, Hand, in prospecting placer de- 
posits. 'IMl 
Drill holes. Records of. 385 
Drill, "Pioneer" diamond. 428 
Drill, Scott gasolene rock. *1008 
Drill size limitation, etc., Ind. 

638, 690, 828, 976 
Drill, Steam chum, hot and cold cli- 
mates. •218 
Drill steel on Rand. 324, 822 
Drill, Stope, competition, Transvaal. 

164, 324, 822, 818 

Drills, Drilling, notes, etc. 32, 324, 332, 480, 

526, 540. 672, 676, 818, 900, 914, 953, 

968, 1145 

Drills, Keystone gasolene-driven. •959 

Drills, Machine, for stoping — Reply by 

Weston — Leyner and Murphy drills. 484 
Drills on Rand, Multiple arrangement. 538 
Drilling coal measures. Cost of. 968 

Drilling — Depth of Rand bore holes. 914 
Drilling in Hot Time lateral. • 

•757, 773. 918, 971, 1066, 1111, 1112 
Drilling — Prospecting coal seams — Cores. 968 
Drilling time items — Well boring. 968 

Drilling. Underground, to prove lower 

coal seam. 581 

Dron, Alexander, Death of. 1119 

Drucker, A. E. 193 

Drummond, T. J. 1068 

Drummond mine, Ont. 350, 518, ^856 

Dry-air blast. Gayley. 91, 144, 656. 725 

— At Warwick furnace. ^810, 820, 725 

Dry blast, Gayley's invention of. 1200 

Dry wailing. South America. 338 

Du Pont blasting gelatin. 1206 

Du Pont de Nemours Powder Co. 

42, 283, 1121 
Du Pont Powder Co. 546 

Dublin & Central Ireland Elec. Power 

Co. 724 

Ducktown dist.. Mining and smelting. ^1237 
Ducktown Sulphur, Cop. & Iron Co. ^1237 
Dudley. P. H., on dry blast. 91 

Dudweiler coal-mine explosion. 445, 485 

Duiuth & Iron Range R. R. dock 

Duluth steel plant and belt ry. 

Dump, Car, Daly Reduc. Co.'s". 

Dumper, Cylindrical. Carmaux mines. 

Dumping waste with loco-train 

Duncan, M. M. 

Dunderland Iron Ore Co.. Ltd. 

Durango Iron Works. 

Durazno Mines Co. 

Dust, Coal. See "Coal." 

Dwight, Arthur S. 

Dynamite concession, Mexican. 

Dynamite, Du Pont "Red Cross." 

Dynamite, Properties of. 

Dynamite, Thawing. 

Easements, Law of. 

East Batan Coal Mines. 

East Butte, Mont. 

East Poo! mine. Cornwall 

East Rand Prop, mines. 

Eastman, H. C. 

Easzy Bird mine, Calif, 

Eckel, E. C, Ala. iron ores. 






















46, 540 






Eckstein properties, Transvaal. 482, 540 

Eclipse Gold Mg. Co. 1272 

Eden mine, Mex. •401, 1031 

Edgar Zinc Co. 178 

Education of coal miners. 723 

Education, Technical, Canadian. 636 

Edwards, C. W., land. Mo. 738 

Eichhorn trigonometric slide rule. 856 

Eight-hour bill, Transvaal. 958 

Eight-hour day, British coal mines. 92 

El Bote mine, Mex. •116, •401, ^405, 1031 
El Cobre, Mining costs. 415 

El Cristo mine, Mex. ^34 

El Cubo mill, Mex. ^116 

El Doctor mine, Mex. '665 

El Dorado Gold Dredging Co. 683 

EI Globo mine, Mex. 660, ^662 

El Oro, Mexico Mines of — Report. 764 

EI Oro Mg. & Ry. Co. — Report. 924 

El Oro, Mex., Mining costs. 515 

El Oro, Mex., slime filtration. *458 

El Oro, New Esperanza mill. '760 

El Paso Consol. G. M. Co. 636, 1224 

El Plomo, Mex. ^71 

El Rayo goltt mine, Santa Barbara. 

*78, 741 
EI Tigre mine, Mex. ■ 52, 549 

Electric current safe in coal mines? — > 
Precautions ; Britisli and other 
foreign investigations ; appliances 
to prevent fire-damp ignition. 29 

Electric currents. Heating of conduc- 
tors by. 177 
Electric fume condensation. See 

Electric furnaces in Germany. 963 

Electric fuse spitting device. Selective. *528 
Electric haulage, mining fiat seams. 

•135, •284 
Electric hoist, Vulcan built, of Carbon 

Hill Coal Co. •SI 

Electric lighting and idleness. 778 

Electric locomotives ; Baldwin-Westing- 

house. •le, *466 

Electric locomotives — Underground 

haulage. 859 

Electric power development. Coal mines. 1011 
Electric power for cement plants. 80 

Electric power for Transvaal mines. 

868, 1025 
Electric power. .Toplin dist. 327 

Electric precipitation, Mex. 668 

Electric smelting. See "Heroult," 

Electric stamp-mill drives. Rand. 1269 

Electrical equipment. Butte-Balaklava. ^714 
Electrical shock. Treatment for. 1114 

Electrical Zinc and Lead Co. 125 

Electricity : explosions — Foreign ex- 
perts' report. 861 
Electricity in Australian collieries — 

Safety commission's report. 960 

Electricity in collieries — Notes. 32, 288, 

334. 428, 676. 818, 968, 1015, 1062, 1108 
Electricity in modern coal mining. 1106 

Electricity. Mine accidents due to. 726 

Electrolysis. Copper. Temperature effect. 755 
Electrolytic determination. Bismuth. 115 

Electrolytic determination of meta 

New apparatus for. 
Electrolytic determination. Zinc. 
Electrolytic process. Laszczynski. 
Elevator, Boulder and gravel. Ruble 
Elevator, Bucket, San Prospero mil! 
Elevators, Tailings, on Rand. 
Eleven O'Ciock mine. .Toplin dist. 
Elizabeth tunnel. Calif. 
Elk Consoi;, Nev. 487, 594, ( 

Elk Creek, Colo., ore discovery. 
Elkhorn Coal & Coke Co. 
Elkhorn Electro-Metal Co. 
Elkins Coal & Coke Co. 
Elkton CoDsoI., Colo., 
Ellis. E. E. 

Elliston. Ind., Coal under. 
Elm River mine. Mich. 
Elmore process. 
— Patent decision, etc. 

321. 636, 778, 973. 1121 
—Notes. 144, 828 

— At Broken Hill. 1169, 896 

Ely companies — As to consolidation. 677 

Emerald Coal Co. 444, 640, 1075 

Emerald group, Colo. 782 

Emma Gordon mine, Okla. •910 

Emma mine, Utah. 629, 445 

Emmons on Pilares geology. ^659 

Empire mine, Wis. 786 

Empson. .T. B. 325, 667 

Engine notes. 90. 186, 534, 676, 110S 

Engine systems, .Toplin dist. 327 

Engines. Hoisting. Largest on Rand. 1056 
Engines. Steam , winding, English coal 

mines. 1013 

Engines, Traction, Fundicion. ^413 

Engineer, Mining. Duties of. , 866 

Engineer, Mining, Human side of work. 

131, 141 
Engineer, Mining, Professional ethics 
„ for 717, 725 

Engine^ — Technical degrees. 141 

Engineers, A. I. Mg. See "American." 
Engineers' lease, Goldfleld. 245, 250. 300. 


343, 347, 393, 488, 739, 780, 879, 980, 








327, 328 


87, 1180 


543, 924, 1224 
346. 1027 







Engineeking and Mining Jodhnal — 
Forthcoming statistical number. 

England. See "United Kingdom." 

Enterprise mine, Platteville, Wis. 

Epperson, ,T. Coal, Indiana. 

Equitable gas burner. 

Erich, Clans. 

Erich, Walter L. 

Ericson, E. J. Lead determination. 

Erie Coal Co. 

Escobar mine, Mex. 

Esperanza, Ariz. 

Esperanza Co., Mex. 117, 

— The new mill. 

Ethics. Professional 

Evans, .Tames P. 

Evans, P. Loss by fire. 

Eveland, A. J. Calculating matte value. 

Evinvale, S. D. 

Evje nickel works. 

Examinations, Miners' — 'Suggestions. 

Examining, etc., a hydraulic mine. 

Exchequer Mg. Co., Calif. 

Expert testimony. 

Explosion. See aiso "Coal dust," 
"Gases," "Accident," and proper 
names, etc. 

Explosion, Cardiff mine. Facts on. 

Explosion, Rikovski mine, Russia. 

Explosions and barometric pressure. 

11, 14, 461, 

Explosions, Carl Scholz on. 

Explosions, Coal dust in. 

Explosions — Coal-dust treatment. 814, 

Explosions, Gas, by electricity. Pre- 

Explosions, Mine, Dust as factor In. 


Explosions, Mine, Prevention — Foreign 
experts' report. 860, 864, 590, 

Explosions, Recent, Notes' on. 

Explosive. See also "Blasting," "Dyn- 
amite," "Gelatin," "Powder," etc. 

Explosives, Nitroglycerin, Mercury de- 
tection in. 

Explosives, Ohio law on. 823, 50, 

Explosives, Properties of. 

Explosives, Testing, in Silesia. 

Explosives — Various State laws. 

Eyesight of coal miners. 

Fairmont Coal Co. explosion. 332, 1168 

Falrview Mg. Co. 194 

Falkenback, F. J., Death of. 541 

False bottom for shaft sinking. ^221 

Fan driven by water underground. ^1211 

Fan, Sirocco. 1059- 

Fan. Sirocco — Hamstead colliery fire. 

•5, •1060' 
Farr, Milton H. 869 

Parrel, J. H. Geological mine maps. 385 

Farrell Cop. Co. 492 

• Fault systems of Nevada. ^1157, •1203 

Favorite Gold & Cop. Co. 833 

Favorite mine, Colo. 249, 783, 877 

Fearby, G. R., Death of. 486 

Federal Lead Co. 605, 606 

Federal Mg. & Smg. Co. 

49, 140, 389, 545, 783. 874, 878, 1024 
Feed, Gravity-bin, Joplln dist. '127 

Feeds Zinc-dust. •79' 

Fergie, C. H. 1119^ 

Fergusonite. 960- 

Ferrier, W. F. 1023 

Perrltes, Compounds of an iron acid. 420 
Ferro-boron — Prize offered. 193 

Ferro-siiicon. 1214 

Fields quartz property, Calif. 592 

Fieschi, F. New coke ovens. *378 

Fifty Consol. Gold Mines Corp. 1178 

Filling. See also "Flushing." 
Filling methods, Carmaux mines. •574 

Filter-press practice, Merrill, Esperanza 

mill. •760 

Filters, Butters, Goldfield Consol. 's. •472 

Filters, Ridgway, Veta Colorada. ^121, 280 
Filters, Slime, Cloths of. Hydrochloric 

acid for cleaning. 410 

Filtration of slimes, EI Oro. ^458 

Findiey Consol. 's hoist discussed. 

239, 338, 433 
Fink furnace. 97ft 

Pinlay, .T. R. Cost of producing copper 

in -Arizona. 'ST 

— World — Various districts. 165 

— Of mining quartz pyrlte gold. 512 

— Costs and profits, Witwatersrand. 565 

— Lead and zinc ores. Mo. •SOS 

Finn, Nicholas, Death of. 634 

Fire-damp, Tests for. 480, 627 

Fire disaster, Underground — Hamstead. 

•1060, *5, 1108 
Fire fighting, Jersey D. L. & W. coal 

mine. *86 

Fire fighting with breathing apparatus. 858 
FIre» Loss of property by. 3J> 


I'Mro precautions, South StnffonlHlilre. •075 
Fire protection — Various State laws. 1088 

Fires. Culm. Klglitlng wltli sand, 'SM 

Fires, Forest. 530, 349, 485, 489, 546 

Fires, Mine— Notes. 32, 334, 769, 10:5 

Fires. Spontaneous. 1108 

Fireclay and coal, Origin. 27, 238 

Firedamp. See "Gas." 
FIrmstonc, V. Iron blast furnaces. 

507, *5n 

Fitch, Walter. 825, 1174, 1271 

Five I'lnes group, Calif. 146 

Flat Klver district, Mo. "605 

Fleming, .1. B. 680 

Fletcher, Hugh. 437 

Flelcher Smelling Co. 389 

FleuHS diving apparatus. 8 

Flint mil tin mine, S. C. 1029 

Flint, Senator, on conservation. 1265 

Flint. Uses of. 824 

Flood-gold. 558 

Florence, Goldfleld, Ncv. 60, 101, 147, 245. 

250, 300, 343, 347, 803, 443, 487, 488, 

547, 589. 039, 687, 730, 780, 879, 922, 

980. 1009. 1073, 'lOOe, 1180, 1223, 1272, 


^'lorence Consol., Nev. 

488, 039. 087, 784, 979, 1073, 1228 
Florence Gem ; Florence Annex No. 2. 

5(1, 245, 488, 039, 739, 1180 
Florence Mack mine, Calif. 1120 

Florence Wheeler, Nev. 080 

Florencla property, Mex. 860, 695 

Flores mill. Guanajuato. 'eiS 

Florida phosphates. 434 

Flotation— Broken Hill metallurgy. 

803, 1169 
Flotation — 'Improved Macqulsten table. '23 
Flotation process litigation. 

778, 073, 636, 1121 
Flotation processes, Delprat and Pot- 
ter. 175 
Flotation processes. Principles of. 839 
Flotation process, Elmore oil, decision. 

321, 636 
Flow sheet, Goldfleld Consol. '473 

Flue giis analvsis. Value of. 858 

hliinilne mine, Colo. 344, 802, 924 

I'liishiiig. Advantages of, In mining. '1 

l''liislilnK, Carmaux mines. '577 

Fliisliiiig coal mines with ashes. 681 

I'liishing svstem, Gutc> llotfnung mine. 283 
riiishlng system, Slleslan collieries. •889 

Flushing mines, .\ustrla, G'ermany. 428, 480 
Fontanel explosion. 646 

Foote, A.. I!. Dumping waste. ^711 

Forbes, I). I,. 11. Slime filtration, Bl 

Oro. •468 

Forest lands — Justice to miner. 189 

Forest reserves. Mining claims on. 1060 

Forest reserves. Prospecting on. 016, 1065 
Forest resources. Conservation of. 

339. 1172, 1217 
Forestry bureau and smelting trust. 827 

Formosa, North, gold and silver. 201 

Forluna mine, Bingham, Ore occur- 
rence. 'IIOI 
I'oster, J. 437 
Foster-Cobalt mine, Ont. 

518. 636, 'SSO, 982, 1030, 1230 
Foundations, Compressed-air plant. 480 

Foundry, Copper for the, ^225 

Four Metals Mg. Co., Calif. 

248, 490, 601, 737, 782, 874, 1120 
Four Metals. Ariz. 106, 247, 298 

Frames, .loplln dist. •127 

France, Carraaux coal mines. ^574 

France. Coalmining. 1200, 1252 

France, Iron and steel. 80, 680 

France, It. Death of. 074 

FrancesMnhawk, Nev. 101, 488, 075 

Francis mine. S. I). 1127 

Francklyn & Ferguson. 128 

Franco American Phosphate Co. 1076 

Franco lirillsh Exposition, Mining ex- 
hibit. 626 
Frank Augustus Mg. Co. 1123 
Franklin mine, Mich. 

657. 084, 970, 1170, 1180. 1227 
Franklin, .Tr., mine, Mich. 1070 

Franz, W. C. 487 

Frary, F. C. .\pparatus for electro- 
lytic determination of metals. 314 
—Method for zinc. 872 
Frnser. I,ee. * 486 
Frclk'ht. George's Creek coal. 482 
Freight rates, anthracite and bitumi- 
nous <'oal. 67S 
Freight rales at llutte. 105, 380, 635 
Freight rates, .Joint. Indiana. 788 
Freight rates on ore, Utah. 1273 
Fremont Milling & Devel. Co. 

422. 637, 782, 87« 
French colonies. Mineral production. 1178 
French Guiana. See "Guiana." 
French Hand mine, Transvaal. 922 

Fresno Cop. Co. 1071 

Frlck. U. C. Coke Co. 088 

Frlederlchshtltte. Silesia. ^267 

Frisco mine. Idaho. 140, 389 

Frontier mine. Wis. 61 

Frost location. Ont. 695 

Fuel tests, Oeol. Surv. tOO, 720, 723, 862 

Full Moon mine, Idaho. 480 


Fuller's larlh, U. S. production. 168 

Fulton, C. H. Silver cupellatlon. 326 

Fulton Iron Works. San Francisco. 780 
Fume, Smelter. See "Smelter." 

Fumerton property, Idaho. 502 

Fundlclon. Douglas smelting works. •413 

Furman, J. H. 734 
Furnace. See also "Electric," "Hcr- 

oult," Iron-ore," etc. 
Furnace, Blast, Copper — Alumina In 

slags. 270, 483, 730, 1111, 1264 
Furnace, Blast, Long rest for. 1173 
Furnace, Blast, Iron, Shape of. '507, 631 
Furnace bullion, Handling, Selby smel- 
ter. •83 
Furnace. Copper. Itegeneratlve rever- 

beratory, Oll-burnlng. . •808 
Furnace. Copper-smeltlng, 100-ton. ^847 
Furnace, Cupola — Door precaution. 85 
Furnace, Fink. 976 
P'urnace hoist. Automatic, German. 801 
Furnace — Operating Anaconda con- 
verter. '747 
Furnace. Smokeless — Gov't advice. 428 
Furnace temperatures, High, Finding. 

662. 000 
Furnace, Warwick, Gaylcy blast at. 

•810, 820, 725 

Furnaces at Gary. 1254 

Furnaces — Basic refractory brick. 802 

Furnaces, Blast, Pefloles Co.'b. •373 
Furnaces. Brass, etc. — Notes. 

220, 228, 280, 282. 292, 840, 620, 719 

Furnaces, Cnnanea Consol. 's. •964 
Furnaces. Copper-melting, Charging 

machine. ^867 

Furnaces, Hollow Iron blocks In. 280 
Furnaces. Iron, Ala.^ — .\vcrage burden, 

etc. ^1048, •1083 
Furnaces, Lead and copper — Blast- 
leakage loss ; Hoblnson tuyere. ^766 
Furnaces, Lead and zinc, Silesia. ^265 
Furnaces, Lead, Crucible of. Removing 

accretions with bomb. •763 

Furnaces. Ueverberatory, Ironing. 1109 

Furnacevllle Iron Co. •IISO 

Fumess, Sir Christopher. 1225 

Furness, Dwigbt. 1230 
Fuse. Effect of compression on burning 

of. 823 

Fuse, Inserting — Loading blast hole. •4.^3 

Fuse, Safety, In French mines. 186 
Fuse spitting device. Selective electric. •528 

Fuse, "Star" electric safety. ^1014 
Puters, T. C. "Mech. EJnglnecrlng of 

Collieries." tl219 

Gadsen furnace, Ala. •1086 

Galdeana mine, Mex. ^35 

Galena, Transvaal. 570 

Galena, Value In Wales. 700 

Galloway, W. "Colliery Eiploaions." t34l 
Galvanized Iron, Testing. 30 

Galvanizing wire. Effect of. 480 

Gambell, A. D., Death of. 634 

Gardiner, B. L. Treating concen- 
trates, Bellevue Ltd. mine. 710 
Gardner. F. A. 641 
Gartleld Smelting Co. 

488, 635, 735, 772, 781. 1054 
Garner, M. G. 640 

Garnet. Statistics. 1020 

Gary. .ludge, on steel cooperation. 1218 

—On the tariff. 1268, 1260 

Gary. New Steel Corp. plant at. 1253 

Gas analysis. Chemicals for. 484 

Gas analysis will answer question. 1169 

Gas engines. Note on. 1108 

Gas escape from gravel. Preventing. 

461, 482 
Oas explosion by electricity. Preventing. 29 
Gas, Flue, analysis. Value of. 868 

Gas from nitrous compounds. 724 

Gas, Natural, California. 731 

Gas, Natural. Fse In Joplln dist. — 
Boiler firing, burners, gas engines, 
etc. •568 

Gas power, Joplln dist. 827 

Gas power plants. Blast-furnace. 1064 

Gas producer, .\dvancc of the. 482 

Gas producer for pulverized fuel. 805 

Oases, Disposal of. Selby, Calif. '•004 

Gases from coal — Tests. 720 

Gases. Mine — Notes. 

288, 4S0, 534, 627, 760, 861, 014, 

068, 1108. 1252 
Gases, Specific beat, bigh temp. 910 

Gates mine, Ont. 404 

Gates, a. V. 871 

Gateways, English collieries. 

•766, •066, •1104 
(Tavley. Jas. W. 1068 

Gavlev drv-air blast. 91, 144, 656, 726 

—At "Warwick furnacf. •810, 820, 726 

Gavler's invention of dry blast. 1200 

Gaze, W. H. Tank protection. 842, 871 

Geduld mine. Transvaal. ' 82 

Gelatin. Blasting. DuPont. 1206 

Oelsenklrcben experiments. '0 

Gem Florence. See "Florence." 
Gem mines. Calif., Purchase of. 107, 685 

Gems, California production. 731 

Gems, India, produetlon. 972 

Gems. N. S. W. and Queensland^ 115 

General Development Co. 637 

"Ginesis of Kocks aiil Ores." t"77 

Geological mappings <•( mines. 385 

Geological Survey. S' • "Survey." 
George's Creek small v. n coal. 482 

Georgetown M. P. & T. i o. 1178 

"Georgia, Fossil Iron Of s. Report." t920 
"Georgia. Water Powers of." t632 

German-American Coke A Gas Co. 1231 

<;erman .Mining Society. 410 

German Southwest Africa, Diamonds. 1199 
German Steel Syndicate statistics. 448 

Germania Mg. tJo. 1075 

Germany and V. S., Commerce be- 
tween. 714 
Germany, Colliery fatalities. 1210 
Germany, Electric furnaces In. 963 
Germany, Iron and steel. 39, 1064 
Germany, Lead production. 436 
Germany, Mngn>-6lte production. 803 
Germany — Slleslan coal mining. •887 
Giant Mg. Co., Calif. 487 
Glbb. Allan. 634 
Giberson, Allen. .389 
i;ibraltar Investment Co. 398 
(Jlbson Cop. Co., Ariz. 423 
Gibson, G. H. Mfrs.' catalogs. 484 
Gibson, W. "Geol. of Coal," etc. ti77 
Gilbert. G. K. 1087, 1159 
Gilbert mine. Calif. 298 
Glllls min.'. Calif. 296 
Gilt Kdgi- Maid. S. D. 349. 740, 832, 1075 
GIrault. Edinundo. 193, •325 
Glroux Consol. 152. 393. 639, 740, 1273 
f.Tobe, Mlcb- Sec "Copper Range." 
filobe, S. D. 695 
Globe & Phoenix mine. Rhodesia. 059 
GobbI ranch. Calif. 1226 
(Joddord, J. N. Removing accretions 

In crucible of lead-furnaces. •763 

Godlva mine, Utah. 162, 195. 349 

Goerz group, Transvaal. 82 

Gohrlng. W. B. 825 

Golconda — 'Improved Macqulsten tube. •23 
Gold. See also "Cyanldatlon." 
Gold accumulation on copper plates. 700 

Gold amalgam absorption by copper 

plates. , 906 

Gold and copper field. Cobar. •957 

Gold and tellurium alloys. 567 

Gold, .\rl7.ona mines' production. 423 

Gold, Australasia. 

143, 481, 604, 710, 018, 1021, 

1160, 1214 
Gold Bar mine. Bullfrog. 487, 1126 

Gold. Borneo. 339 

Gold. Brazilian bullion exports. 303 

Gold. Brit. Col., report. 142 

Gold Bullfrog M. A M. Co. 780 

Gold bullion receipts. Seattle. 891 

Gold. Cnllf. mining iirospects. 02, 430 

Gold. Calif., produetlon. 570. 688. 731 

Gold chlorlnai Ion— Chlorine gas. 824, 971 
<;old. Coeur d'Alene. nortb side. '68 

Gold Crown Mg. Co. 300 

Gold deposits. Quartz pyrite. Mining 

cost. 512 

Gold Development Corp., Utah. 444 

Gold. Dominican republic. 16 

Gold dredging. See also "Dredging." 
Gold dredging. French Guiana. 664. 115 

Gold Eagle. S. D. 403 

(Told. Flood. 558 

Golil. Formosa, North, production. 201 

Gold. French colonies. 1178 

(iold. Has value of. depr'Clnted? — 
World's production and cmmod- 
Ity prices ; Norton'H views : 
Calrnes' analysis; pig-Iron com- 
parison : Tranavsal production. 
etc. •1037. 1168 

Gold HIM Mg. Co. SM 

<?old Hunter mine. Idaho. 140. SSP 

Gold. Idaho. Atlanta dist. •17«> 

Gold. India. 020, 871, 907. 072, 1057. 1221 
Gold King. Colo. 645, 592, 1072 

Gold Leaf Consol. Mg. Co. 245 

Gold. Madagascar. 850, 1178 

Gold mine, English. 98 

GoM mines. Colliery engineer for. 482 

Gold. North Carolina production. 485 

Gold. X. C. discovery. 1028 

Gold ore. Low-grade, treatment record. 480 
Gold ore treatment. Hog MIn. 72ft 

Gold Pass camp. N. M. 1181 

Gold. Philippines. i 

15.'?. 486. 595. 706. 786. 1182 
GolM c.i, ,..:■. S !■ S4fi 

<; 630 

<; I 916 

i: 1122 

i; ■;. 1122 

Gi'hl Kuv. l';t;h ,V Mg. Co. 244 

Gold. Ru.sslan tax on. 800 

Gold-silver bullion. Refining. 783 

Gold. South Carolina mines. 1212 

Gold Sovereign M. & T. Co. STT 

Gold stealing. Western Auatrtlla. 04 


Gold, Transvaal statistics. 

335, 631, 813, 1022, 1041 
Gold — Treating concentrates, Bellvue 

Ltd. 716 

Gold Valley camp. Calif. 589 

Gold, West Africa. 623, 906, 1173, 1190 
Golden Chest mines, Idaho. 

*65, 69, 249, 389, *1146 

Golden Crest, S. D. 740, 1029 

Golden Metal, S. D. 302 

Golden mine, Calif. 387 

Golden Placer, S. D. 444, 595 
Golden Reward, S. D. 

200, 349, 833, 1030, 1126 




152, 251 

830, 1147 




507, 510 



300, 739, 927 

93, 741 

166, 556, 741 


Golden Ridge M. & M. Co. 
Golden Rose mine, Calif. 
Golden Slipper, S. D. 
Golden West, S. D. 
Golden Winnie, Idaho. • 

Goldfield Blue Bell, Berlin, Ner. 
GoldfieUl CI Mill, Nev. 
Goldfleld Consol. 

101, 147, 296, 301, 343, 389, 589, 

735, 739, 980, 1024, 1073, 1180 
— Tbfe 600-ton mill. •467, ♦416, *610, 680 
Goldfleld leasers' society. 1176 

Goldfleld Merger, Nev. 300 

Goldfleld, New, Scientific search for. 

•1157, *1203 
Goldfield type of ore occurrence. 'lOOO 

Gonsolus, F. H. Tamping bars ; ex- 
plosives. 42 
Goodman, M. Mineral resources, Phil- 
Goodwin, Nat C, Co. 
Gowland, Wm. 

Grabill, C. A. Ore contracts, smel- 
ter's standpomt. •73, 189, 317 
Grace, Eugene G. 921 
Grace Zinc Co. 609, 610 
Gradenwitz, A. Washing and leaching 

apparatus. • *227 

Grammer, F. L. 
■ Gran Luz claim, Mex. 
Granbery, J. H. 
Granby Co., Mo. 
Granby Consol., Canada. 
— Report. 

Grand Central, Mex. 
Granite-Allie mine. Idaho. 249, 878 

Granite Bi-Metallic Co. 831 

Graphic, N. M., ore deposits. *366 

Graphite — Market, producers, etc. 

434, 733 
Graser, F. A. Electrolytic chlorine. 971 

Grasselli Chemical Co. 445, 981 

Grasty, J. S. Ala. iron ores. 1045 

Graul, Carl. 588 

Gray Copper Co.. Idaho. 439 

Gray Eagle. See "Grey Eagle." 
Gray, F. W. Fighting fire with 

breathing apparatus. 858 

Gray Wing mine, Calif. 771 

Grayson and Glew signalling device. 1170 
Great Boulder Perseverance report ; 

treatment ^224 

Great Boulder Prop., Electric signals. •1170 
Great Britain. See "United Kingdom," 

Great Cobar copper mines, N. S. W. •957 

Great Cobar — Machine sampling. 

113, 142, 238, 291, 338, 431, 631, 

776, 917, •951, 1018, 1111 
Great Eastern, Hornsilver. 50 

Great Eastern quicksilver mine, Calif. 

1161, 1178 
Great Northern Silver Mines, Ltd. 1127 

Great Southern Mica Mg. Co. 1181 

Great Western, Hornsilver, Nev. 

50, 348, 639, 784, 831, 1028 
Great Western, Round Mtn., Nev. 50, 348 
Great Western Powei- Co. 8, 1161 

Grecian chrome-iron ore. 294 

Greece, Magnesite. 730, 962, 201, 1217 

Greece, Mineral production. 1217 

Green-Meehan mine, Ont. 

•856, 1030, 1127, 1182 
Green River Coal & Coke Co. 392 

Greenawalt chlorination mill. 923 

Greene, W. C. 243 

Greene-Cananea Cop. Co. 52, 188, 929 

Greene concession, Mex, 
Greene Consol. 
Greene Federal smelter. 
Greene Gold-Silver Co. 

•159, 252, 350, 494, 786, 913, 929, 1230 
Greenfield, A. D. 638 

Greenwater camp, Calif. 101 

Grey Eagle mine. Mabert, Calif. 248 

Grimshaw, R. Mine mules and their 

Gross & Dixon gold mine. 
Grossman swinging staging. 
Grothe, A., and air agitation. 

•647, 652, 'OOl, 1116 
Grove, C. D. 

Grovcr & Smith mine, Ont. 
"Grub-stake" contracts. Law of. 
Grundy county. 111., mining methods. 
Guadalupe mill, Pachuca, Mex. 'aay 

■Guadalupe mine, near Inde, Mex. •lie 

Guanajuato Amal. G. M. Co. 

116, ^615, 'eeo, 807 






Guanajuato Consol. 116, 

Guanajuato Devel. Co. '670, " 

— Cyanide mills. ' 

Guanajuato, great sliver camp of 
Guanajuato-Jalisco Devel. Co. 
Guanajuato labor and supplies. 
Guanajuato, Mex., Ancient plants. 
Guanajuato mills. List of. 
Guanajuato Reduc. & M. Co. 

•110, 252, •615, • 
Guanajuato, Working mines of. 
Guerra al Tirano mine, Mex. 
Guerrero mill, Mex. 
Guess, George A. 

Guess, H. A. 295, 437, " 

Guggenheim, D., Statements. 
Guianar British, production. 726, 1 
Guiana, French, Gold production. 
Guiana, French, Mining ; dredging. 
Guides, Shaft, Steel. 
Guiterman, F., Letter of. 
Gute HotEnung mine — Flushing, 

Gwin mine, Calif. 
Gwynn gas burner. 
Gypsum, Price of. 


i, 654 
', 969 

;, 169 

•809, 1070 

393, 1212 

485, 493 




620, 1108 

Haanel, Eugene. 419, 1068, 1225 

Haas, F. Treating coal dust. 814, 819 

Habets, A. Grecian chrome-iron ore. 294 

Hacienda. See "La Unl6n," "Bubu- 
ron," "San Francisco." 

Hague, James D., Death of. 

Hahns Peak, Colo. 

Halle gold mine, S. C. 

Hailey-Ola coal-mine fire. ■ 

Haileybury Silver Co. 

Half Moon mine, Colo. 

Hall, B. M. and M. R. "Water Powers 
of Ga." 

Hall, H. Dust treatment ; timber Ig; 

Hall-Rees diving apparatus. 

Hallidie Machinery Co. 

Halse, B. Spanish-American Mining 

— Absorption of gold amalgam. 

Hamilton, R. K. 

Hammon, W. P. 194, 1120, 1175 

Hammond, John Hayes. 243, 1088 

— Professional ethics for mining en- 
gineer. 717, 725, 867 

Hamstead colliery fire. •lOOO, 1108 

Hamstead colliery. Rescue work. ^5 

Hanchett; L. Cactus Club, Newhouse 

Hancock jig, Palmerton, Penn. 

Hancock mine, Mich. 

Hannes, W. F. 

Hanson, Eagleton, Death of. 

Hantke Co., Poland. 

Hardy, J. Gordon. 

Hargreaves, E. C. 

Harmon, Floyd. 

Harmsworths purchase coal mines. 

Harney Peak Tin Mg. Co. 

Hancock, H. Lipson. 



'1189, 1216 


49, 689, 979 






145, 869 







Harris Copper Co. 

Harris, F. S., Death of. 

Harris, Lord, Remarljs of. 

Harrison County Coal Co 

Harrison, Geo. 50, 762, 823 

Harrison, W. F., on Indiana mines. 489 

Hart camp, Calif. 296, 298 

Hart, Dewltt C, Death of. 1023 

Hartlepool co-partnership experiment. 1225 

Hartshorne, Chas., Death of. 921 

Hasegawa, H. 

Hatch, F. H. 


Haulage. See also "Rope," "Elec- 
tricity," "Locomotive," "Rail- 
way," etc. 

Haulage — Mine-curve problems. 

Haulage, Mule and motor — Flat coal 
seams, heavy cover. •ISS, 

Haulage notes. bO, 334, 428, 485, 627, 

818, 1062, 1100 

Haulage, Underground, In coal mines. 

Hagltain, H. E. T. 

Havard, F. T. Basic refractory brick. 

Hawley, F. G. Permanganate method 
for copper. 

Haworth, John E., Death of. 

Haws Coal Co. 

Hawthorne, J. Temagaml - Cobalt 

Mines, Ltd. 586, 628, 631, 773 

Hay, J. K. Loading blast holes. 

971, 1066, 1111 

Haywood Coal Mg. Co. 153, 981 

- el Goldfield. 1125, 1180, 1228, 1272 






Headgear, Steel, South Rand. 
Headwaters Mg. Co., Philippines. 
Hearst Oil Concessions, Mex. 
Heathcote Syndicate, Ltd. 
Heathcote's automatic ore sampler. 
Heating of conductors by electric cur 





Hebburn colliery. Australia. 966 

Heberlein, Max, Death of. 1068 
Heckman, J. R. Local sulphur in coal 

seams. 14 
Hecla mine, Idaho. 140. 150, 389, 

491, ^528, 878, 1072. 1123 

Hedges mines, Calif. 147 

Hematites, Magdalena, N. M. •366 

Heiner, H. H. 921 

Heinrich, C. Alumina in slags. 273 
(For rest of discussion see "Alu- 
Heinze, F. Augustus. 923, 112T 
Heise, F. "Lehrbuch der Bergbau- 

kunde." t96 

Helen mine, Ont. 689 

Helen quicksilver mine, Calif. 440 
Helena mine, Colo. 48, 346, 638, 1026 
Helmet. See "Breathing." 

Hematite iron ore. Duty on. 128 

Hematite mines, Cumberland, Eng. ^357 

Henderson, C. W. 921 

Henderson, Peter. 193 

Hennig concentrating tables. ^134 

— Testing plant and met. laboratory. ^1198 

Henry Adney mine, Colo. 1027 
Hepburn law. Decision on. 582, 584 
Heraeus, W. C. 99, 193 
Herbst, F. "Lehrbuch der Bergbau- 

kunde." t96 
Hercules mine, Idaho. 48, 140, 297, 389 
Heroult elec. smelter, Calif. 164, 591 

Hersey, Milton L. 541 

Herzig, C. S. 145 

Hewitt, John. 1124 

Hidden Treasure mine, Calif. 100 

Hidden Treasure mine, Nev. 739 

Higgins, Edwin. 1147 

— Iron operations, Birmingham dlst. '1043 

— Northeastern Alabama. '1083 

— Stripping Clinton iron ore, N. Y. ^1150 

— ^Mining and smelting, Ducktown dlst. ^1237 

Hill, F. A. Colliery disasters. 18 

Hill Pub. Co.'s catalog. t920 

Hill, R. T. Prospecting In Nev. 1053 

— Goldfield type of ore occurrence. •1096 

— Scientific search for new Goldfield. ^1157 
—■Camp Alunite, Nev. •1203, 1216 

"Himalaya Mtns., Sketch of." 1920 

Hind. H. Y., Death of. 437 
Hinds Consol., Santa Barbara. •210, 211, 741 
Hinton, J. Steam winding engines, 

Eng. 1013 

Hirsch, L., & Co. 681 

Hiscox, Gardner D., Death of. 588 

Hixon, Hiram W. 974 

— The origin of coal. 238 

Hoban, John J. 245 

Hobson, Francis B. •1000 

Hocking, J. Loading blast holes. 1066 
(For rest of discussion see "New- 
Hodbarrow mine, Eng. •357, 361 
Hoffman. P. L. Fatal coal-mine acci- 
dents. 1207, 1216 

Hofman, H. O. Experimental slags. 272 

(For discussion see "Slags.") 
Hog Mtn. gold-ore treatment. 725 
Hogenraad on borax In assaying. 656 
Hogg, J. B. 588 
Hoist, Electric. Vulcan built, of Car- 
bon Hill Coal Co. *31 
Hoist, German automatic furnace. 801 
Hoist house, Butte-Balaklava. ^714 
Hoist, Single - drum. Over - balance 

weight. 239, 338, 433 

Hoists, Malacate. Zacatecas. 401, ^405 

Hoisting. See also "Rope," "Engine," 


Hoisting, Burra Burra mine, Tenn. •1239 

Hoisting coal, South Staffordshire. •673 
Hoisting development — Whiting's 

Koepe method. 1014 
Hoisting engines. Compressed-air. 532 
Hoisting engines. Steam, English col- 
lieries. . 1013 
Hoisting laws, various States. 1088 
Hoisting methods, Carmaux mines. ^575 
Hoisting methods, Joplin. 609 
Hoisting methods, Penoles Co.'s. •Sll 
Hoisting notes. 26, 32, 90, 288, 428, 

480, 534, 627, 676, 759, 818, 1015 

Hoisting, Rapid. 1010 

Hoisting record. Superior Coal Co.'s. 726 

lloisting-rope connection, Sancy shaft. ^185 
Hoisting safety devices. ^41, *94, 

«124, 676 

Holden Gold & Cop. Co. 833 

Holguin-Santiago Mine Co. 741 

Holman air-cushion stamp. ^213 

Holmes, Joseph A. 243 

Homestake. S. D. 493 
— Cyanide practice. 292, 294, 386, 548 

— Cost of mining. 514 

— Report. 654 
Homestake South Extension. 152, 595, 1075 

Hood, Protective, Anaconda. ^708 

Hook. Hoisting, Sancy shaft. ^185 

Hook. Safety sinking, Prisk's. •94 

Hooper. H. E. Alumina in slags. 1111 
(For rest of discussion see "Alu- 

Hopper for unloading cars. •lOOQ 


Ili.rB.batk In wrsliTn Clilliuahua. -ISO 

II.,rH<8, Pit, I-arade of. i«f, ^ro? 

Hosier, K. N. Ib electric current safe 

In coal mines? .,,?? 

lloBter, M. T. The .lames sllmer. •Hi!) 

Mot Time lateral. Newhouai- tunnel. 

•7.')7, 773. 918. !(71. 1000, 1111, 1112 
lIouKhlon Co., Mich., mining accl- 

.tents. 827 

Howard, Wm. »» 

H.iwatson niter. 707, 854 

ll<.wf, A. H. Klghts of Junior locators. 

Howe, n. M. Shape of Iron blast fur- 

nace. ""'■ *'^^ 

—Relative corrosion of wrought-lron 

and steel tublns. ''"^'.Sri 

— Carbon and properties of cast Iron. 'B^.l 
Hnvie, Charles. •"00 

Hovl. .1. K. f' 

IIiinKlicn Petroleum Co. ■•- 

lliil)|jiird-I';illott mines. Alaska. 080. OSl 

Huckleberry mine, Colo. 218, 441, 0;iS 

Hudson Coal & Mg. Assc— Strike. 
;iOO, 430, 430, 495, 038, 882, 

1072, 1078, 1128 
Huelva, Spain, pyrlto deposits. 283 

Human side of mining' engineer's "ork. 

ITumiiR, .Tas. 
Huniholdt Mg. Co. 
Hijrni.hM'ya, A. N., .Ir. 
Huulir dredRo, Orovllle, Calif. 
Hunter, Harvey R. 
Hutidngtonlliberleln process. 


922, 970 


•807, 808 

llulehlngs, W. H. 

•207, 269, 970 
Tapping, mine wa- 



llulelilns, .r. P. Steam churn drill 

licit and cold climates. 
— Ilaud drill in prospecting placers. 
IliilclilnBon, L. I.. 
IIiilililnHon location, Ont. 
Ilullnn. V. R. "Steam Power Plants. 
Hydraulic nlr compression. ^228, 733, 
Hydraulic mining. Sec also "Debris," 

Hydraulic mine. Examining and fitting 

llvdnuillc mining In Calif., Revival. 
nVdiMullc mining— Talks on law. 

Hydraulic wedges and cartridges. 186, 1211 
ll'vdriiehlorlc arid for cleaning cloths 

' of slime Alters. 410 

llydrocvanlc acid poisoning. 407 

ll'vdr(iK('n. Pri'pnrlng. ou large scale. Sl.J 

Hvi-'niiui'liM-s In sprinkled mines. 02i 

Uvui.ilulu. X. II. 740. 1277 



li>(x. Colo. — Little Jonny. 

llieic mine. Utah. 
Ida M. & M. Co. 

Idtilio See niso "(^oeur d'.Mene. 
IdMh.i Kold. .\tlanta dist. 
l.liili" KTilckerlHuker Mines Co. 
IdivhoMarylnnd mine, Calif. 

Idaho Mascot claims. 
Idaho mine, Calif. 
Idaho luluesafety laws 
Idalm Sm. & Ret. Co. mine, S. V. 
Idnni lulne, Idaho. 
lies, M. W. Slags. 

(Kor discussion see "Slags. ) 
Ilgner hoist at Pachuca. 
Illinois coalmine accidents. 
Illinois coal-miners' cerllllcates. 
Illinois coal. Modlllcatlon by low-temp 

IlllTiols coal— Notes. 
lIMuols Cold M. & M. Co. 
Illlucls Steel Co. 
lllln.ils Zinc Co. 
lUuniliuitlon In mines. 
Imperial Cop. Co.. Ariz. 
InipiTlnl Mg. Co.. Idaho. 
Imperial. S. D. 
Improvement. Signs of. 
Incline, Self acting, or Jig 
IndepiMidi'iit r.rllllzer Co. 
Index canl for ilrllllng record. 
India, Colliery fatalities. 
India. Cold. 020, S7I, 907, 972, 1057, 
India, Cold mining costs. 616 

India. MIniial production in 1007. 
Indian 'eampoodle" lands. Nev. 
Indian Creek. Calif. 
Indian Illll mine. Calif. 
Indiana coal miners' pension fund. 
Indiana coal miners' strikes, etc. 430, 

390. 439, 495. .'i.%0. r.90. 038, 738, 
882, 078, 1072, 1078, 
Indiana. Coal trade and mining condl- 

I Ions. 
Indiana coal, W. F. Harrison on. 
Indiana coke tests. 19' 

344, 340, 54.'i 

140, 209, 923 



IOCS, 1110, in 










Indiana "Jold Liredglng Co. 

Indiana, Iron ore. 

Indiana laws. 40, 105. 195, 245, 249, 
038, 090, 788, 828, 970, 1124, 

Indiana Southern Coal Co. 

Indiana Steel Co. 

Indiana Steel Co.'s plant at Gary. 

Indo China production. 

Infusorial earth, -Market for. 

Ingalls, W. It. Improved Macqulsten 

—••Lead and KInc In the U. S." 

- iJelprat and I'olter processes. 

— Cost of silver-lead smelling. 31. 

— Zinc ores, Nomenclature of. 

— ."The .Mineral Industry." 

—•Has value of gold depreciated? 


— Prevention of mine accidents. 
Inland Oil Co. 

Iiispic'tlon laws. Various States. 
Insperiors, Mine, Sound views of. iiii 

Insillut.- of Metals. ' 779 

Insiliuilon of .Mg. Engineers. 8 

Kdlnburgb meeting, 620 

Insiliuilon of Mg. «t Met. 148 

Insular Coal Co., Philippines. 505, 785 

International Congress, Applied Cbem. 145 
Internal lonal Miners' Congress. 40 

Intirnallonal Nickel Co. 70, 

Inlernatlonal Oil and Gas Co. 
Internal lonal shaft, Colo. 
Internal lunal Tube .Makers' Asso. 
luterslali' mine, Idaho, 
lolu (;old Mg. Co. 
Iowa (^oul Operators' .\sao. 
Iowa Girl mine, Colo. 
Iowa, Lead and zinc mining. 
Iron acid, t'errltes compounds of an 
Iron and copper-furnace slags. 
Iron anil laterlzatlun. 
Iron and steel depression In Europe. 
Iron and steel, I-'orelgn trade In. 
Iron and Steel Institute. 541, 828, 1222 

Iron and steel tarllT. 1US4, 1003, 1117, 

1220, 1201, 1203, 1267, 1268 
Iron and zinc, S. \V. Virginia. 'OOS 

Iron. Austria. 1260 

Iron blast furnace. Shape of. ^507, 631 

Iron, Canada, Industry and resources. 419 
Iron, Canadian bounties, and on steel 489 
Iron, Canadian production. 39, 387, 

000, 1-202 
Iron. Cast, Properties of, and carbon. ^043 
•'Iron. Chemical .Analysis of." tlll5 

Iron, ChlncBi' deposits. 410 

Iron, French production. 39, 680 

Iron, Wrought, and steel tubing. Rel- 
ative corrosion. 563, 

Iron pyrites. Large bodlea of — Back- 
stoplng vs. underhand. 

Iron pyrites. U. S. production. 

Ironaton. Ala., Optratlona at. • 

Isaacs, John D. 

Isle Royale, Mich. 593, 557, 830, 

It copper mine, Alaska. 103, 

Ivory Hill mine, Penn. 





I roll 


39. 448, 1004 

Hematite mines. Cumberland. 
.Ia|)an, and steel. 42, 1095 

.lapiin, ore and pyrites. 94 

lion Knoll deposits. Australia. 40 

Iron Mask mine, Idaho. 340 

Iron mines, Sandford lake, N. Y. 5-18 

Iron milling — Lake Sup. Mg. Inst. 97 

Iron Mountain Tunnel Co. 1125 

Iron. .Norway, ore statistics. 1234 

Iron operations. Ulrmlngham dlst. . ^1043 
— Northeastern Alabama. •1083 

Iron ore and pig — Recent sales. 865 

Iron ore, Chrome, etc., &*reece. 204, 1217 

Iron ore, Clinton, In N. Y., Stripping. •IISO 
Iron ore deposits, Pyrltic origin of. 

408, 630 

Iron on 
Iron ore 
Iron ore 

, Dominican republic, 
llelds, V. S., Largest. 
, Greene county. Ind. 
, Hematite. Duly on. 
Laurent Ian intns. 

I '227 

Iron-ore resources. 

339, 1168, 
Iron ore smelter, Ileroult. 104, 

Iron ore smelting, Elec, Swedish pro- 
cess Investigated by Dr. Ilaancl. , 
Iron-ore statistics. MIeh. counties. 804, 
Irondrc tralllc. Lake. 142, 020, 808, 

— Size of carriers. 
Iron ore In Gt. Ilrltaln. 
Iron ores. Clinton. In Ala. 
'•Iron Ores, Fossil, of Ga." 
Iron Ores, Iron Springs Dlst., Utoh. 
Iron ores, Sandy, Ireaiment. 
Iron ores — Silica and alumina separa- 
Iron ores. Stone valley, Penn. 
Iron. Philippines. 466. 

Iron. Pig. and gold production com- 
pared hy years. •1030, 
Iron. Pig. Low phosphorus high silicon, 
iron production In "hard" limes. 
Iron. Russia, and ore and steel. 1206, 
Iron Silver Mg. Co. 390, 401, 783, 

10-20, 1072, 1123 
Iron surfaces. Texllng pnlnis for. 474 

Iron. Sweden, and steel. 776. 1022 

Iron. Inlted Kingdom. .30, 006, 1260 

Iron. v. S., and steel, 1007. 30 

Iron. l". S.. and steol, flnlshed. pro- 
duction. 422 
Iron, V. S.. pig production. 1008. 40, 202 
Iron, World, and steol production. 39 










1024, 1116 


Jack Pot <;onBol. 

.lacuhs, K. Canadlaa Mg. loht. 

.lames, Enoch, Death of. 

James, G. A. PIncbcock for burettea- 

James sllmer. The. 

Janelew Coal & Coke Co. 

.lanuarj Xlg. Co. 

Japan. Coal, Takasblml field. 

Japan, Iron and steel Imports. 42 

Japan, Iron ore and pyrites. 94 

Japan mineral production. 1095 

Japan mining regulatlooa. 32 

Jasper County Light & Fuel Co. •568 

Java, Petroleum production. 2\3 

Jay, C. H. Cyanide cbemlat'i datlea. 750 

Jeans, James S. 342 

Jed Coal k Coke Co. 536- 

Jefferson mine, Nev. 1028 

JelTery. W. H. 388 

Jeffries & Sutherland land. Wis. 302 

Jeffrey coal' waahery, Dawson Fuel 

Co.'s. '182 

Jeffrey sbortwall machine. • ^24 

Jenner-lJ'iemahooing Coal Co. 548 

Jennie i;old .Mg. Co. 688 

Jennie June mine, Colo. 877 

Jennie Sample Consol. 636, 1025 

Jennings, E. P. Weatbjr-Sorenten pro- 
cess. 418 
Jennings, Sydney J. 1271 
Jcnnlson, W. F. 243 
Jersey coal mine. Fighting fire. '86 
Jesus Maria and Flores mills, Guana- 
juato, •eis 
Jesus Maria, Guanajuato. ^116, •671, 
Jesus Maria mine, KInaloa. 
Jig constmctlon, Joplln dlst. 
Jig, Hancock, Palmerton, Penn. 
Jig or self-acting Incline. 
Jigs, Coal washing, Stewart : Lubrls. 


182, ^424 

Jigs. Pulsator. Richards. •621 

Jim Rutler mine, Nev. 493. 548. 980 

JImuleo ifg. Co. 52. 401 

John Jackson land. Mo. 970 

Johnnie Consol., Nev. 348 

Johns-Manvllle "Leak-No." 1206 

Johnson Coal Mg. Co. 1029 

Johnson, H., on a«e of powder. 1222 

Johnson, H. L. 1244 

Johnson, J. W., & B. C. Enoa. 734 

Johnson. Nels. "34 

Johnson, P. Sampling. 114, •OSl, 
142, 238. 201, 338, 431, 631, 776, 

917, 1018, nil 
Johnson, Ralph, Death of. 437 

Johnson, T. Notes on Rand mining. 

324, 526, 902, 1010 
Jones, Edwin B., D<'ath of. 1174 

Jones, F. A. Sylvanlte. N. M. •1101 

Jones. G. P. Car dump. •754 

Joplln dlst.. Mill construction. •125, 'DOS 
Joplln dlst. mines. Power system*. 327 

Joplln district. Pumping problems. *214 

Joplln dlst.. Sampling and buying ore. •lOO 
Joplln dlst., Cse of natural gas. *568 

Joplln dlst.. Zinc mining. 38S 

Joplln Ore Sen. Co. Interests. 163 

Joplln ores — Methods and cosla. 605 

Jordan. J. J. 974 

Journals. The technical. 131, 141 

Juab Oil Co. 45 

Juarez mine. Santa Eulalla. *35 

Judd, Edward K. 145, -437. 682 

— N. e.1 of rnre in laying air pipe. 1152 

Ju' ■ • I' 8«0 

.T 1 , 



1. Nev. 101, 206, 389, 


ilir. 487. 


Kights of. 775. 


.lewrl Co. 



Kara Rournou mine. Tnrkey. 
Karslake's manganese and 

Knska William shaft, Penn. 
Katanga railroad building. 

Kniancn. Copper depoalta. 
Raufniann. w. I- 

86, •601, 





200. 344. 






Keane Wonder, Nev. 101, 199, 301, 

443, 487, 1069, 1074 
Keating Gold Mg. Co. 1276 

Kelghley, Thos. A. 588 

Keith, W. S. 388, 825, 1271 

Keller, H. A. Copper River dist. 680 

Kelley slag and matte casting macliine. '610 
Kelly, N. M., ore deposits. •366 

Kendall mine, Nev. 301 

Kenoslia mine, Calif. 544 

Kenvir Coal Co. 493 

Kepner, T. E. R. R. grants on mineral 

lands. 1113 

Kern County G. M. Co. 545 

Kern River Tower Co. 1069 

Kerr, James, Death of. 921 

Kerr, John, Death of. 437 

Kerr Lake Crown Reserve. 153, 251, 

394, 518, 595, 636, 856, 1076 
Kerr Lakp mine, Ont. 636, 786, 'SSe, •973 
Kerr, Mark B. 342 

Kerry Mg. Co., Ont. 1278 

Keuffel, W. J. D., Death of. 734 

Kewanas property, Nev. 347 

Kewanee dist., Calif. 147, 874 

Keweenaw mine, Mich. 49, 105, 299, 

546, 686, 830. 979, 1179 
Key West mine, Nev. 23 

Keyes, C. R. Lead and zinc. Miss. 

valley. 1004, 1017 

Keystone gasolene-driven drills. '959 

Kevstone-Holy Terror, S. D. 688, 1075 

Keystone mine, Calif. 780, 876 

Kidder's Architect's, etc.. Pocket Book. t96 
Kimber. W. E., on drill steel. 540, 672 

King, Cardenlo F. 728 

King David Mg. Co. 393, 444, 640, 928 

King Edward mine, Ont. •856, 1076 

King, Peter. 828 

King Philip mine, Mich. 593, 783 

King, S. B. Multiple arrangement of 

drills on Rand. 538 

Kingston Coal Co. 968 

Kinta, Socifte des Etains de. 372 

Kinzie, Robert. 512 

Kirby, Edmund B. 437 

— Human side of engineering. 131, 14' 

Kirby, J. 243 

Kirkwood gas burner. 568 

Klau quicksilver mine, Calif. 735 

Kleintontein mill. 407 

Kleinfontein mine. Underground con- 
veyers. 715 
— Hoisting engines. •'^'*55 
Klepetko, F. , 130 
Klondike High Level Gravels, Gold 

Values. t241 

Klondike vein, Coeur d'Alene. '68 

Knickerbocker Portland Cement Co. 688 

Knight, C. W. Montreal river and 

Temagami reserve. 712 

Knight, E. C. 634 

Knight, Jesse. 152, 445, 628, 682, 734, 874 
— Companies' statements. 438, 875 

Knight, J. Will. 734 

Knights Deep, Transvaal. 410, 1176, 1190 

Knowles, S. A., et al. Tunneling. 

•757, 773. 918. 971, 1066, 1111, 1112 
Knowlton. J. W. Coke mfr., northern 

West Va. 426 

Knox, H. H. 1121 

Knoxville & Sevierville R. R. 10 1 

Koch. W. E. .\lumina In slags. 730 

(For rest of discussion see "Alu- 
Koepe system hoisting — Whiting's meth- 
od. 1014 
Kokshan. Wong. 99 
Koiar goldflelds. Mining costs. 515, 566 
Koniab. .\sia Minor, mercury mines. 

•601, 85 
Koppel improved mine car. ^532 

Koppers. H. 634 

Korean mining laws. 395 

Kraemer, Edward L. 1174 

Kuehn. A. F. 779 

Kuhn's coal-cutting machine. 688 

Kummel. H. B. N. J. Report. t732 

Kunz. Geo. F. 825 

Kvshtim Corp., Ltd. 1121 

La Abundancla. See "Abundancla." 
La Fortuna, Mex. 252, 1076 

La France Cop. Co. 347 

La Gloria, Mex., sampling device. '122 

La Reina mine, Mex. 201 

La Republica, Chihuahua, •lei, 162, 201, 252 
La Rose mine, Ont. 51, 302, 394, 518, 

689, *855, 'SSe, 881, 929, 1030, 1277 
La Union, Hacienda de. Metallurgical 

practice. ^989, 1017, 561, •653, 1246 

La Union mines, near Parral, Mex. •116 
Labor affairs. Coal-mining. 148, 253, 
335, 344, 390, 430, 439, 481, 495, 
550, 590, 595, 635, 638, 738, 820, 
828, 882, 978, 1024, 1069, 1072, 

1078, 1128 


Labor and accidents, B. C. coal mines. 89 

Labor and wages. Santa Eulalia. ^34 

Labor and colliery disasters. 18 

Labor at Mysore, Costs. 515 

Labor— 'Colliery boys' wages. 769 

I^abor costs on Rand. 566 

Labor, Eight-hour, British collieries. 92 

Labor. Bight-hour, Transvaal 958 

I,abor History, Cripple Creek. __ t341 

Labor. Mexican. *666, *G71, 752 

Lalx)r. Mine, and supplies in Mex. *1245 

Labor — Safety of coal mines. 337 

Lac La Rouge dist. discoveries. 252 

Lackawanna Steel Co. 1227 

Ladd. J. B. Charging machine. '867 

Ladders, Mine — Note. 382 

Lagijua mine, Nev. 443, 594, 784, 

1028, 1125, 1180, 1228 
laird, Geo. A. 145 

Lake City Colo., copper-ore strike. 1070 

"Lake copper," Judicial definition. 842. 1022 
Lake Creek district, Wyo. 36 

Lake mine, Mich. .S46. 638. 686. 783. 979 
Lake iron-ore traffic. 142. 620, 868, 

1184 1232 
Lake ore carriers. Size of. 1173 

Lake Superior cop. companies' pro- 
duction costs. 557 
Lake Superior iron-ore dock. An. 1049 
Lake Superior Mining Institute 97 
Lamar Oil and Gas Co. 1178 
Lamb. M. R. Horseback, western Chi- 
huahua. ^159 
— San Rafael mill. •325, 730 
— Hacienda Buburon. •663 
— Ancient plants, Guanajuato. 681 
— Notes on air agitation. '901, 1116 
— Labor and supplies in Mex. '1245 
Lamp oils — Missouri law. 1091 
Lamp ttsts — 'Miners' eyesight. 1012 
Lamps. Acetylene, in mines. 967 
Lamps. Arc — Note. 1062 
Lamps, Notes on. 186, 480, 627, 769, 

861, 068, 1015, 1252 
Lamps Safety — Legal decision. 536 

Ijampe estate. Mineral Point, Wis. 982 

Lane. J. F. 869 

Land, Mineral, decisions. Justice to 

miner in. 189 

Land, Mineral in New York. 1114 

I.,ands, Forest. 827, 915, 1050, 1065 

Lands, Mineral, R. R. grants on. 1113, 

923, 474 
Lands, Phosphate, Western, Withdraw- 



Lands, Public. Conservation of. 339. 

1172. 1217 
Landecker Mg. Co. 146 

Landers, W. H. , 1023 

Landings. Safety device for. ^124 

Landrum, C. W. 295 

Lanyon zinc smelter, Kan. 783 

Larder Lake district. 297 

Larder Lake Prop. Goldflelds. 1031 

Las Chispas mines, Sonora, Mex. 

•1006, 1161 
Las Vegas, Nev.. and vicinity. ^1204 

Laschinger, E. T. 662 

Lash electric steel-making process. 419 

Last Chance mine, Coeur d'Alene. 140 

Laszczynsti copper process. 1218 

Latcritic decomposition. 1 28 

Lathe, Frank E., Medal for. 93 

Laughlin, G. McC, Death of. 1222 

Laurentian mine, Ont. 494 

Law, Hepburn. 582, 584 

Law, 111. coal-miriers' certificates. 102 

Law — Locating on railroad ground. 434 

Law, Mining, Short talks on. 81, 

117, 168. 212, 281, 363, 460, 527, 

570, 775, 822, 851 
Law, Oilo blasting. 50, 762, 823 

Law, Ontario — fining flotations. 

1195, 1225, 1273 
Law — Safety-lamp decision, W. Va. 536 

Laws, Occident, various States — Sum- 
mary. 1088 
Laws — Electricity in coal mining. 1106 
Laws, Indiana. 46, 195, 245, 249, 

638, 690, 788, 828, 976, 1099, 1124, 1232 
Laws, Mining Uniformity in — Pitts- 
burg conference. 1054 
Laws, Mexican, Proposed, etc. 240, 
246, 252, 303, 385, 390, 484, 655, 

677, 679, 680, 833, 865, 1025, 1230 
Laws, Oklahoma mining ; colliery. 728, 729 
Laws, Penn. — Miners' certlflcates. 787 

Laws — W. Va. regulations. 776 

Lawrence, H. B., sampling works. 881 

Lawfion, Thos. W. 772 

Lawson mine. Cobalt, Ont. 51 

Lea-Degen turbine pump. 'lOOS 

Leach, F. A. Reflning gold-silver bul- 
lion. 733 
Leaching apparatus. Freygang's. ^227 
Leaching copper, Jumau process. 132 
Lead, Altar dist., Mex. ^71 
Lead and ore tariff. 1024, 1069, 

1070, 1118, 1221, 1262, 1268 
Lead and spelter market. 40 

"Lead and Zinc In the U. S." tl29 

Lead and zinc mining, Iowa. 805 

Lead and zinc, Mies, valley, Distrl- 

tMitien. 1004, 1017 

Lead and zinc ores in Missouri — 

Methods and costs. •605 

Lead and zinc smelting, Silesia. ^265 

Lead, Antimonial, production, U. S. 620 

Lead assay, Chromate-oxalate. 77, 324 

Lead, Australasia 143, 1021 

Lead, Broken Hill — Mines ; metallur- 
gy. ^793, 893 
Lead," Coeur d'Alene, north side. ^65 
Lead Crown group, Calif. 737 
Lead, Determination of, in spelter and 

ore. 178 

Lead-furnace crucible. Removing ac- 
cretions. ^763 
Lead furnaces — Robinson tuyere. •756 
Lead, Mechernich, Prussia, mining. ^169 
Lead, Miami dist., Okla. * ^910 
Lead mining and smelting cost, Spain. 329 
Lead-ore contracts, smelter's stand- 
point. ^74, 189, 317 
Lead ore. Purchasers of. 778 
Lead, Philippines. 706 
Lead production, Germany. 436 
Lead — Selby — ' Handling bullion ; 

bag-house ; gas disposal. •83, *451, •604 
Lead-silver mines, Santa Barbara. ^207 

Lead-silver smelting. Cost of. 315, 585 

Lead, etc., smelting charges. 827, 960, 969 
Lead, United States consumption. 863 

Lead, Volumetric estimation. 77 

Lead, Western mines — Notes. 24, 31, 

85, 175, 239, 240, 269 275 
Lead, World, In 1906. 128 

Leak-No. 1206 

Leas, F. A. Regenerative reverberatory 

copper furnace. •SOS 

Leases, Canceling — Legal decision. 1223 

Leases, Law of. 571 

Leavitt, T. J. 145 

Lecompton mine, Calif. 194, 591, 637, 977 
Lees, W. H., Death of. 44 

Lefevre, Henry F. 974 

Leggett, T. H. Rand costs. 565, 566 

Lehigh University, Conferring degrees. 188 
Lehigh Valley Coal Co. *3, 485, 493, 723 
—Report. 719 

Lehigh & Wilkes-Barre Coal Co. 107, 334 
"Lehrbuch der Bergbaukunde." t96 

Leighton, M. C. Misleading estimates. 866 
Leith, C. K. Iron Ores, Utah. t632 

Lemon mill, Manhattan, Nev. ^1002 

Lena Goldflelds, Ltd. 246, 1025 

Leonard land. Mo. 593 

Leones group, Mex. ^71. 72 

Levels, Laying out. Broken Hill. *801 

Lewis, Thomas L. 1174 

Lewis, W. T. 588 

Lexington mine, Mont. 347 

Leyner drill discussed. 484 

— Use in Hot Time lateral. ^757, 

773, 918, 971, 1066, 1111, 1112 
Leyson, Geo. 869, 1222 

Liberty Bell, Colo., Mining costs. &15 

Licenses, Law of. 570 

Liens, Law of. 851 

Lievin coal-dust tests. •lO 

— Shaft sinking — Cementation. *221 

Lighting system, A separate. 1062 

"Lime and Cement Resources, Mo." t920 
Lime cartridges. 186 

Lime grains. Size for cyanldlng, etc. 

294, 292 
Limestone, Birmingham dist. ^1047, ^1085 

Linares Lead Mg. Co., Ltd. 329 

Lindeman, E. Iron ore, Canada. 419 

Lining. See "Furnace," "Converter." 
Lining-up timbers in inclined shafts. •612 
Linton, Robert. 243 

Lion Hill Consol., Utah. 981 

Lippincott, J. B. Fast tunnel driv- 
ing. 1199 
Litchfleld Fdy. & Machine Co. 726 
Little, Arthur D., laboratory. 817, 858, 802 
Little Cahaba Coal Co. 737 
Little Florence. Goldfleld. 101, 147. 
245. 250. 487. 492. 593, 780, 879, 

922, 980, *1096, 1180 
Little Grizzly mine, Colo. 1020, 1169 

Little Jonny. See "Ibex." 
Little Nipissing mine, Ont. 445, 786, 

833, •SoO, 929, 1030 
Little Princess mine, Joplin dist. 328 

Liveing's electrical indicator. 627 

Llvermore, T. L. Calumet & Hecia 

cop. 1022 

Lloyd, G. C. 1222 

Lloyd, R. L. 243 

Loading a blast hole. •433 

Loading blast holes. 918, •757, 773, 

971, 1066, 1111 
"Locality," Meaning of — Mine taxa- 
tion. 636 
Locations, Law of. 81, 117, 168, 212, 
281, 363, 434, 460, 527, 670, 775, 

822, 851 
Locators, Junior, Rights of. 775, 822 

Lockhart, Thos. G. 101, 147, 487, 780, 

922, 1223 
Locomotive. See also "Electricity." 
Locomotive, Electric, Dos Estrellas. •466 
Locomotive, Oil-burning, in coal mine. 428 
Locomotive train. Dumping waste with. •711 
Locomotives, Baldwin-Westinghouse. ^26 

Locomotives — Underground haulage. 859 


I.oflo locations, I-aw of. 212, 281. ;i<5:i 

l.odi, Nov., Smflter.v for. 50 

Loftus-Davls Fodoratod Mlne.f Co. 101 

Lomb, Ilonry. Death of. 44 

LonaconlnH mine, Colo. 582 

Lone Star mini-, Calif. 

Lone Star Kroup, N. M. 

iMng & Iiiiiy, Colo. 

I.onKwall, In Kne., Cost of. •9G4, •1104, 

I.ongwall mitliods of mlnlns coal seam. 

I>ongwall s.vstem, Scaton-Delaval. 

Ijongjear, .1. M. 

Loon lake, Ont., discovery. 


Lord. Chas. K.. Death of. 

I.orcto mill, Mex. 

Losses, mining flat coal seams. 'ISS, 

Louttlf, Henry. * 

Low, A. 11. Lead assay. 77, 

IjOW, a. r. 

Lower Mammoth mine, Utah. 548, 

Lubricant, Kope. 

Lucky IJoy mine, Nev. 975, 

Lilckv Strike, S. I). 200. 

Lucky Tiger Cold Mg. Co. 02, 

Luelirt Coal & Coke Co. 

Luhrig .llgs — Coal washing. '182, 

Lulpaardsvlel Ustnte. 436, 406, 582, 

662, 759, 
Lustre Mg. & Smg. Co. 
Luther, Kdwln C. 

Lutosa, .1. Manganese, Morro de Mlna. • 
Lydla Olenorchy mine, Rhodesia. 
Lynch, O. K. Coalcuttlng machinery 

operation. ' 630, 

Lyon, Chas. E., Death of. 
Lyon, Dorsey A. 
Lyon. Frederick. 
Lysle, Addison J., Death of. 


























McBryde, I'atrick, Death of. 1271 

McCairrey, Itlchurd S. 825 

McCalllc, S. \V. O'a. Fossil Iron Ores. t920 

McCaskey, U. D. Metal prod., N. C. 480 

McCluskey. U. 842 

McCunnell, U. G. Klondike Gravels. t241 

McCormack, .1. C, Co. 075 

Macoun. J. A. 970 

McCreedy tin mine. 092 

McCullougli. 10. ■Kelnforeed Concrete." t241 
Macdonakl. li. Cyanide Correspondence 

(•lub. 681 

MelOlroy, L. A. 634 
McFarlane, C. C. Sinking winze with 

long holes. •713 

— Hydraulic air compressor. •710 

McKay, Alexander. 541 

Maekny, John VV. — Statue. '110 

Maekey mine, Colo. 248 

MeKenna, C. F. A. L Chem. Eng. 133 

Mackenzie. J. H. •46 1 
McKlnley-Darragh, Ont. 445, 618, 

636, •866, 1278 

M(Kliinon, W. S., Death of. 1068 

M.KIrahan, Samuel. 1271 

Mil. laurln. It. C. 102.! 

.McNiiniara lead mine, Blair, Nev. 122.S 
MaeNamara mine, Tonopah. 151, 251, 
301. 444, 493, 047, 594, 739. 832, 

871, 1277 

Masipilsten, De Havay vs. 778 

Masiiulsten lube. Improved. '23 

McVleker, .lohn. 1271 

Macadam, California production. 731 

Mace, Henry. 106S 

Machine drills for stoplng — ^lleply. 484 

Maconl, Me.\. 'OOO 

Madagascar production. 850, 1173 

Madem claim, Wyo. 30 

Mngdalena, N. M., ore deposits, •SOO 

Magistral mine, Jalisco, Mex. 082 

Magistral Ameca Mg. Co. 1182 

Magistral mine, Zacatecas, Mex. '401 
Magnallum, aluminum-magnesium al- 

loy. 520 

Magneslte hrlck. 1087 

Magneslle, Calcined. Sellers of. 203 
Magnesite. California. 242, 887, 731 

Magneslte, Calif. ; duty asked. B89 
Magneslte Industry. Greece. 80, 062. 

201, 1217 
Magneslte In the V. S. 434, 730 

Magneslte— 'Use for linings ; anal.vses : 

sources; production oy countries. 802 

Magneslte. Use and value. 95 

Magnesium In brass. 1022 

Magnesium. Market for. 824 

Magnetic oxide In slags. 1204 
(For related discussion see ".Mu- 

Magnolia Lead & Zinc Co. 086 

Magnus. Henjnroln. 342 

Maliihart. Ceorge. 146 
Mnleslle. Itah. 45. 102. 780, 1127 

Majestic mine, Joplln disl. 328 
Mala Noclie mine. Mex. •4i>3. •405 

Malaya. Mining lode tin In 371 

Mammoth Channel Mg. Co 23 

.Mammoth Cop. Mg. Co. 244, 320, 441, 

487, 400, 782 
Mammoth mine, Tlntlc, Utah. 740 

Mancayan copper mines. 700 

.Mance. F. S. Gems. Australia. 115 

— .Vustralasia la lOOS. 143 

Manganese and chromium detection. 322 

-Mangaiiesi' deposits, Morro de Mlna, 

lirazil. 'IIOO 

.Manganese in Calif. 387 

.Manganese ore, Brazilian exports. 303 

.Manganese ore In Tci. and Market. 010 

Manganese ore, Tlflls. 144 

.Manganese ores — Questions answered. 293 
.Manganese ores. Tariff on. 1209 

.Manganese, Kussia, during 1907. 704 

.Manhattan Consol. G. M. Co., Colo. 45 

.Manhattan mine, Leadville, Colo. 638, 783 
.Manhattan, Nevada. •1002 

.Manhattan Coosol., Nye. co., Nev. 

190, 348, 739 
Manners, W. G. 1145 

Manning. J. K. 245 

.Mansfi'ld slag. Analysis of. 274 

Maorlland Cop. Co. mi 

(Fur discussion see "Slags.") 
Maps. .Mini — Missouri law. 1000 

.Mappings. Geological, of mine work- 
ings. 3sr, 
Marble dust or flour. Market for. 1114 
Marcel Mines Co., Ont. 1070 
Margaret mine, Colo. 249, 441 
Marlanna explosion. 1109, 1129, 

1108, 1171, 1203 

— Facts coneeralDg. •1162 
Mariposa. S. D. 251, 1277 
Mariposa Commercial & Mg. Co., S. 

D. 422. 737 

-Markle. .lohn. 770 

Marsh. .Mfnd. Death of. 1008 

Martin Coke Works. I'enn. 1020 

.Martin, <;. A. Sylvanlte, N. .M. 002 

Martin. U. Stuart. .388. 482 

Martin's Mining Law. 775, 822 

Mary MeKlnney mine, Colo. 104, 100, 1224 
Mnrysvllle Gold Dredging Co. 140, 108" 

Masonic Golden Cycle Mg. Co. 1274 

Mass Consol.. Mich. 340, 567, 086 

Massachusetts Inst, of Tech. 1023 

.Mastin land, Joplln dist. ^215 

Matchless mine, Colo. 1123, 1170 

Mathewson, E. P. Smelters at Ana- 
conda. 130 
— Machine sampling. 338, 631, 770 
(For rest of discussion sec "Samp- 
— Copi)er conversion — Note. 760 
Matte value. Table for calculating. 201 
Malton. J. Lead production, Gorman. 436 
.Mau, Chas. A. 860 
Mnumee mine. Colo. 038 
May Day Mg. Co. 45, 105, 343 
Mayer, I,. W. Advantages of flushing. •! 

— Longwall methods of mining. •lO 

— Lead mining. .M.ehernich. •109 
. — Flushing (Uiie Hi>ITnung mine. 2S>'i 
— Il.inallle nilne.s. Cumberland. •357 
— Cannaux coal mlms. •574 
— Sculli Slaffordshlre coal mining. ^073 

— .Meiliiids. SeatonDelaval colliery. •700 

— Ccial mining methods. Silesia. •SS" 

— Illumination in mines. 907 
Mayflower vein, Bingham. •1193 
Maynard Coal Co. 02S 
.Maynard, G. W. N. W. .\ltar mines. ^71 
— Analysis of Roman bronze. 380 
Maypole colliery explosion. 485. 494 
Mazunia Hills mine, Nev. 443, 785, 1228 
Meade. E. S. Trice maintenance. 289 
.Meade, R. K. 'Small Chemlca) Labo- 
ratories." t732 

Meadow Run Coal & Land Co. 081 

"Mechanical Engineering of Collieries." tl210 
•■.Mechanical ICnginoerIng of Steam 

Tower TIanla." tl219 

Mechernlch. Trussla. Ix-ad mhiing. •lOO, 283 
Meeheruicb, Lamps at. 907 

.Meljnan, F. Grecian magneslte. 730, 002 

Melssner, Carl. 860, 864 

Melvin tungsten group. Nev. 740 

Merchants Coal IJo. 152 

Mercury. See also "Quicksilver." 
Mercury detection in nitroglycerin 

eimipounds. 823 

Mercury mines, Koniab, Asia Minor. 601. 85 
Merrell. Cyrus W., Death of. 342 

Merrill. C. W. Operating costs. Home- 

slak.' slim.' nil. S86 

Merrill i . Esperanza mill. •764i 

Merrli:^ .1. 70 

Metiil 1 <'f third quarter. 628 

.Metallui s. Tachuca, Mex. 

•050, •519. ^047 
"Metallurgy." 11. Wysor. 1732 

"Metallurgy. Trnctlcal. T. Turner. t032 

Metric system. Thllippine Islands. 1202 

Meizger. F. J. Electrolytic determina- 
tion of bismuth. 116 
Mexican coke imports. 260 
Mexican dynamite concession. 060 
Mexican Indians packing cable. •672, 776 
Mexican labor, Efllciency of. 762 

.M'Xlcan laws, proposed, etc. 240, 

246, 252, .'!03, 385, 300, 650. 

677, CT',<. 680. 833, 805, 1025, 1230 
—•Ethics of i-r 1 "(1 law. 484 
Mexican i: ..iuing stopes. ^311 
Mexican : ^282. 512 
Mexican ' ae. 350 
M'xi..:. t 1118 
.M ; :r. . .ts. 180, 240 
.M I Mg. eo. 833 
.M Co. 805 
M .ua. Oil wells. 862 
.Mexl' .— ci;,~>.., of sliver depoilta; In- 
vested capital. 770, SOS 
Mexico Consol. 1230 
Mexico. Cyanide Correspond'-nce Club. 681 
Mexico. Cyanide practice, Caidecott on. 654 
-Mexico — Hacienda La Lnl6u. •983, 1017 
.Mexico, Metal production of. 655 
.Mexico, Mine labor and supplies la. *1246 
Mexico Mines of ICI Oro. •458 
—Report. 764 
Mexico, Mining In — Comment on arti- 
cles. 677 
Mexico, Mining In. past and present. *065 
Mexico — Nacozarl ; Las Cbispas. •CO". 

•1000, 1161 

.Mexico. New railroad In. 786 

.Mexico, Notes from. 'lie 

".Mexico. Ofllclal Mg. Directory." 1020 
.Mexico, Tachuca mining features. •lOSl 

.Mi'xieo: Tresent condition of mining in. 6S3 
.M.-xico, Silver cyanlding in. 667, 846 

.Mexico — The Vai|ui war. 123 
-Mexico. By C. T. Rice— Santa Euialla 

dist. •SS 

— El Rayo mine, Santa Barbara. ^78 

— Vetu Culorada cyanide mill. •TJO 

— Sllver-li-ad mines. Santa Barbara. ^207 

— Slllclous silver mines. I'arral. ^276 

— Teilules Co., Maplmi. 'SOO, •373 
— Zaeinecas, famous silver camp. ^401 
-Ore sorting. Cahr. slant.- mine. •404 
— •Taehuia and Idal del .Monte. 'OlO 
— Metallurgical proe.sses at Tachuca. •550 
—Jesus Maria and Flor.-a mills. 'OIB 
— Cyanlilatlon. sllv--r ort-s. Tachuca. ^047 
— Guanajuato, the great silver camp. *069 
— New lOsp.ranza mill. El Oro. •760 

— Working niln)-H. tiuanajuato •bOO 
— Cyanide mills, (Juanajuato Devci. Co. 

•047, •007 
Mexico. By .M. R. Lamb. — Uoracback. 

.western Chihuahua. '150 
— San Rafael mill. •325, 730 

— Hacienda Iluburon. *663 

— Ancient plants, liuanajuato. 681 

— -Notes on air agitation. •001, 1116 

— Labor and supplies. *124& 

.Meyer & Chariton mine. 630 

.Meyer. Franz. 1068 
Miami Co.. Ariz. 298, 637. 787 

.Miami lead and zinc dist., Okla. •810 

.Mica. .Mark'-iing of. 203 

Mica. Brazilian exports. 303 

.Mica. North Carolina. B4 
Michigan copper companies' production 


Michigan counties. Iron ore. 804, 8&0 

Michigan mine. Mich. 101, 200, 603, 

630, 878 
MIcrollte. 1100 

Middle Fork mine. Calif. 637 

Midland Dist. Miners' Relief .Vno. 334 

Midnight mine. Idaho. 240 

.Miles. J. B. Blast-furnace practice. 725 

.Mllford Coal Co. 1128 

.Mill construction In Joplln dist. •125. •903 
.Mill sites. Law of. 212 

Miller, J. T. 342 

Miller. W, G. Geology of Cobalt. 711, t777 
.Millionaire mine, Colo. 636 

.Mlna del Agua. Mex. •208 

Mlna Gruto de Monte Crlsto. 1278 

MInas Tedrazzlnl Company. '1006, 1161 

Mine. How to sell a : value. 420. 037. 585 

Mine lns|ieoiors' Inst, of America. 44 

Mine Owners & Trosp. Asso. of Weat. 

Ont. 876 

Mines, lH>rp gold. 1010 

••Mlnern' Poeket book," Wamford- 

r..,-!.-. tltlB 

M ■ t- Co. 923. 1127 

M Idaho. 299. 488 

\ -V." Vol. XVI. 383. t870 

M ■ ■'■llf. 147 

M ^ni," etc. 

M 546 

\i rnlbook of." t777 

MinrM:-i ^. | ;. ii. Ltd. 321. 636. 

778. 896, 073, 1121 
Mining and Met. Soc. of Am. 021. 

1023, 1068 
M illing practice. New, 

•823. 822 
M f Ot. Brit. 817 

M S<-e "Bureau." 

V' See "Engineer." 

\' -. .\. I. See ".\merlcan- ■ 

>' o. past and pr.-ix-nt. •660 

M , .-.i.T ,^90. 6.14 

Mhui .-iJta Suol Co. '322 

Mint. British. Work of 4 IS 


Mohawk Jumbo, Nev. 




1256, 933 
^9, 784 

Misleading estimates. 727, 866, 1066 

Mississippi valley, Lead and zinc. 1004, 101^ 
Missoula Copper. 1027 

Missouri, Lead and zinc ores — Methods 

and costs. *605 

"Missouri, Lime and Cement Resour- 
ces." t920 
Missouri mine-safety laws. 1090 
Missouri, Randolph co.. Coal mining. *6 
Mitchell, John, on colliery accidents. 1167 
Mitts, W. J. 682 
Mobile roi-tland Cement Co. 47 
Moctezuma Cop. Co. 52, 303, 549, 

•657, 'eSO, •661, 1161, 'lOOe, 833, 982 
— Genera! a.-count. 1242 

Moddersfontcin. 180 

"Modern Tractice in Mining" — Coal. tl219 
MotEat, A. D. 779, 781 

Mohawk Combination lease, Nev. 49, 

106, 301 
296, 300, 393, 

492, 826, 1073 
Mohawk Mg. Co., Nev. 297, 5S9, 975, 

•1097, 1098, 1120 
Mohawk Mg. Co., Mich. 43, 49, 557 

Mohr on origin of coal. 239 

Molds, Bullion, Selby smelter. '8S 

Molybdenite and chalcoprite separa- 
tion. 824 
Molybdenum and its minerals. 1055 
Molvbdenum ore, Market for. 293, 778 
Moriaci, F. P. Turkish quicksilver 

Monahan, L. C. 
Monarch, Atlanta, Idaho. 
Monarch, Coeur d'Alene. 197 

Monazite in the Carolinas. 
Monazite-sand exports, Brazil. 
Mond, Robert. 
Monel metal. 
Monitor, Ida.. Mont. 
Monmouth M. & L. Co. — Fluorine mine 

Mono-Baltic Co., Colo. ' 1178 

MonoDgah explosion. Notes on. 332, libs 
Monongahela Riv. Consol. C. & C. Co. 

200, 444, 928, 1059 
Mono-rail system. Proposed, Klelnfon- 

tein mine. 'IS 

Monroe-Tener iron mine. 9' 

Monster mine, Calif. .}??? 

Montana Coal Fields, Geo!. Surv. t1115 

Montana Consol. Mg. Co. 492, 784 

Montana Gold Mtn. Mg. Co. 151, 439, 683 

Montana & Hex. Mg. Co. 807 

Montana Mine Owners' Asso. 195, 389 

Montana mine-safety laws. 1091 

Montana mineral production, 1907. 1224 

Montana, Sapphire production. 736 

Montana-Standard (See also "Stand- 
ard.") Ida. 442, 927 
Montana State School of Mines. 542 
Montana-Tonopah. 151, 493, 547, 594, 

832, 871, 1181, 1224 
Monte Cristo group, Nev. 1228 

Monte Cristo, Mina Gruto de. 1278 

Montezuma Lead Co. ^207, *469 

Montgomery-Goldfinch, Colo. 545 

Montgomery Mountain mine, Nev. 1180 

Montgomery, Samuel B. 12(1 

Montgomery-Shoshone, Nev. 

251, 301, 981, 
Montreal river area. 
"Moody's Manual of R. Rs.," etc. 
Moore," E. D. „4'J 

Moorhead, W. J., Death of. 634 

Morcom, Ell, Death of 1119 

Morenci, Ariz. 271 

Morgan, Donald R., Death of. 295 

Morin, L. Shaft sinking by cementation^ • 221 
Morning mine, Coeur d'Alene. 
Morro de Mina, Brazil, Manganese, 
Morro Velho mine, Brazil. 
Morrow, H. B. 
Morse, Willnrd 

Myslowitz colliery, Silesia. 
Mysore, Gold-mining costs. 

784, 1028, 1180 
515, 566 

Nacozari Consol. Cop. Co. 303, *659, 11 

Nacozarl mining dist., Sonora, Mex, 

1074, 1180 

712, 1070 


48, 140 


8, 1010 



Mortar block. Concrete, Goldfleld Con- 
sol. *469 

Morton, W. J., and Temagami-Cobalt 

Mines. Ltd. 631, 628,^773 

Moruya mine, Australia 

Morydena mine. Calif. 

Moses mine. Mo. 

Mott, Leslie C. 

Motor. See "Electric," 

Mounier prop. 

Mt. Blschoff mine, Tas. 

Mt. Lyell mine, Tas. 

— Costs ; report. 

Mt. Morgan G. M. Co., Ltd. 

— Ore treatment. 

Mt. Royal, Ont. 

Mt. Tritle Cop. Co. 

Mountain Cop. Co., Calif. 

MufBe making, Silesia. 

Mule haulage, flat seams. 

Mules. Mine, and their care. 

Multiple drill arrangement on Rand. 

Mungall, Wm. 

Murphy drill discussed. 

Murphy land. Kan. 

Murray, M. D. 

Murray tunnel project. 

Murray, W. F. Coal washery, Colo. 
Murray, W. T. How to sell a mine. 

657, 1161, ^1006 

518, 786, '856, 929 




166, 372 
1149, 1272 
•138, •287 
25, 859 

Nancy Helen mine, Ont. 

Napias Placer Mg. Co. 

Naramore, Chester. ?.;-j 

Narcissa, Okl., ore strike. 349 

Narvaez, F. Metallurgical practice. 

Hacienda de la Union. •989, 1017 

Nash, F. W. 780 

Natal, Colliery fatalities. 1209 

National Asso. of Cement Users. 1271 

National Bank mine, Nev. 443 

National camp, Nev. 785 

National Conservation Commission, 
etc. 336, 339, 583, 1168, 1172, 

1217, 1265 
— Geol. Surv. estimates. 727, 866, 1066, 1172 
National Mex. M. & D. Co. *71 

National Mg. & Invest. Co. 492 

Natoma Devel. : Natoma Consol. 683, 

1175, 1216, 1223 
Natural gas. See "Gas." 
Natural resources, Conservation of. 
336, 339, 583, 288, 1168, 1172, 

1217, 1265 
—Water powers. 727, 866, 1066, 1172 

Nautanen Kopperfaelt. •867 

Nayal mill, Mex. *947 

Neill process. ^l" 

Nelms, H. J. Coal mining by retreating 

room-and-pillar system. *17, •1251 

— Electricity in coal mining. 1106 

Nevada Commonwealth mines. 1069 

Nevada Consol. 301, 548, 677, 981, 1116 

—Reports. 972, 1095 

Nevada county exhibit, San Francisco. 100 
Nevada-Douglas Cop. Co. 785, 831, 975 

Nevada Eagles. 1125, 1175 

Nevada-Empress mine. 347 

Nevada Gold Dredging Co. 119 

Nevada Hills mine, Nev. 1074 

Nevada Mining Companies. Todd's 

Handbook. t241 

Nevada mineral output. Half year. 923 

Nevada, Nickel-copper-platlnum ore. 72 

Nevada, Nickel ore. 23 

Nevada, Oil prospects. 1110, 245, 

8-26, 1120. 1175, 1272 
Nevada, Prospectors and prospecting, 
1053, •lOOO, *1157, '■"" 
Nevada United Mines. 
Nevada Univ. — Statue of Mackay, 
Nevada Wonder. 
Nevley Thomas mine, Calif. 
New Caledonia production. 
New Campbellton coal mines. 
New Castle, Colo., gold strike. 
New Chum Ry. Co. 
New Connellsville C. & C. Co. 
New Departure Mg. Co. 
New England Ariz. G. & C. Co. 
New England & Clifton Cop. Co. 
New Idria mine, Calif. 
New Jersey, Manganiferous zinc ores. 
New Jersey State Geologist's Report 
New Jersey Zinc Co. 
New Liverpool Salt Co. 
New Mex. mining accidents. 
New Mex., Rich coalflelds. 
New Mex., School of Mines. 
New Modderfontein. 82, 711, 801 
New Monarch Mg. Co. 
New Rand, Ltd. 
New River C. & C. Co. 
New Salt Syndicate. 
New South Wales. See also 

tralasia," "Australia." 
New South Wales elec. commission. 966 

New South Wales Geol. Surv. tlll5 

New South Wales mineral output. 719 

New South Wales, Tin. 144, 582 

New State mine, Okla. '912 

New Year Gold Mg. Co. 1125 

New York & Ariz. G. & C. Co. 298 

New York mine-safety laws. 1093 

New York, Mineral land in. 1114 

New York, Mining and Quarry Industry. •241 
New York State, Stripping Clinton 

iron ore in. *1150 

New Zealand mining, etc. 143, 481, 

668, 730, 913, 1160 
New Zealand, Coal. 724 

New Zealand, Colliery fatalities. 1210 

N.w Z.ahiii.l Crown Mines, Ltd. 1225 

\r« /., ,iI:iimI ileol. Surv. bulletin. tlll5 


•1203, 1216 





803, 1173 


344, 390 









175, 1220 


90, 1207 



842, 1217 

248, 299 






& Mg. Co. 
ve B. 


Newcomer, J. B., Death of. 
Newfoundland, Tilt cove, 

Newhouse M. & S. Corp. 
-Cactus Club. 

585 Newhouse, Samuel. 





•462, 482 


•1189, 1216 

975, 976. 980 

252, 297 


28, 72 




Newhouse tunnel. Colo. 147, 636, 1024 

— Advancing Hot Time lateral. ^757, 
773, 918, 971, 1066, 1111, 1112, 

1273, 1275 
Newland, D. H., Mining etc., Indus- 
try, N. Y. t241 
Newman, W. G. 393 
Nicholls, F. S. Pyritic smelting. Tilt 

cove. '462, 482 

Nichols, W. G. 145 

Nickel Co., International. 
Nicltel discoveries in Canada. 
.Nickel ore, Calif. 
Nickel ore in Nevada. 
Nickel ore. New Caledonia. 
Nickel production, Evje works. 
Nicolardot, P. "Metaux Secondaries 

et Terres Rares." tl219 

Nigel Co., Transvaal. 540 

Niobium. 960 

Nipissing mine, Ont. 51, 201, 252, 
302, 394, 518, 595, 636, 741, 786, 

•855, *856, 1076 
Niter deposits Calif. 876 

Nitrate Chilean, statistics. 217 

Nitric acid from air. 892 

Nitroglycerin compounds — Mercury 

detection. 823 

Nitrous compounds. Fumes from. 724 

Norambagua mine, Calif. 544, 591, 637, 737 
Norman iron mine. 97 

North American Asbestos Co. 394 

North American hydraulic mine. 146, 244 
North Atlantic Collieries. 394 

North Broken Hill Co. 753, *793, 89.J 

— Report. 867 

North Butte, Mont. 43, 546, 555, 556, 1073 
North Butte Extension. 49, 151, 542, 

593, 739, 826, 879, 923, 1069, 1120, 1176 
North Butte Mountain, Mont. 593 

North Carolina, Mica. 94 

North Carolina, Metal production. 485 

"North Carolina, Minmg Industry of." t632 
North Carolina, Minor minerals. 321 

North Dak. Coal Fields, Geol. Surv. jll\5 
North Lake Mg. Co. 346, 546 

North Star, Grass Valley, Calif. 683, 

1156, 1223 
— 'Dumping waste with loco, train. ^711 

North Star mine, Colo. 102 

North State Mg. Co. 548 

North Utah Mg. Co. 542, 640. 781 

North Witwatersrand G. M., Ltd. 340 

Northern Calif. Power Co. 871. 1161 

Northern Colo. Coal Co. 592 

Northern Colo. Coal Operators' Asso. 779 
Northern Colo. M. & M. Co. 1026 

Northern Light & Power Co. 871 

Northern Pyrites Co. 394 

Northwestern Improvement Co., Mont. 

1073, 1125, 1227 
Northwestern Improvement Co.. Wash. 6.80 
Norton, J. P.. Gold situation. *1037 

Norway, Iron-ore statistics. 1234 

Nova Scotia coal mine. Operating a. *624 
Nova Scotia mine, Ont. 518, 786, 

■«S36, 1076, 1230 

•424, 1031 




516, 566 

Nova Scotia Steel & Coal Co. 

— Report. 

— Fighting fire. 

Nova Scotia Technical College. 

Nundydroog mine, India. 

Nymo mine. Mo. 

Nystrom, E. "Peat and Lignite.' 


O'Brien mine, Ont. 252. 518, 689, •855, 

O'Hara mine, Calif. 296, 345, 

O'Reilly, Rev. H. F., Death of. 

Oaxaca Sm. & Ref. Co. 303 

Ocampo, Mex. 

Occidental mine. N. S. W. 

Ocher. Yellow, in Calif. 

Octave Mg. Co., Ariz. 196, 423, 490, 

Odin. W. F. 

Offerhaus, C. Operation of Anaconda 
copper converter. 

Ohio-Beaver Creek, S. D. 

Ohio blasting laws. 50, 762, 

Ohio Cop. Co. 343, 389, 394, 485, 

736, 781. 923, 1127, 1191, * 

Ohio-Kentucky Mg. Co. 

Oil. See also "Petroleum," "Shale," 

Oil-burning copper furnace. 

Oil-burning locomotive in coal mine. 

Oil, Cylinder, Test for. 

Oil field. Caddo. 

Oil, Fuel, system, Alaska Treadwell's. 

Oil, Insulating. 32, 

Oil lands — 'Mining-law talks. 

Oil, Mine-lamp — Missouri law 

Oil pipe line. Rifled, Calif, 

Oil process. See "Elmore." "Flota- 
tion," etc. 

Oil prospects, Nev. 1110, 245, 826, 
1120, 1175, 

Oil-residue output, Calif. 

Oil svell. Burning, Vera Cruz. 445, 494, 









271, 423, 

757, 773, 

1066, 1111, 


97, 392, 681, 

Oil wells, Chihuahua, Mex. 

Oils. Lubilcallntr- — Notes. 

Ollflpld. New, Cullfornla. 

OJlbwny Mg. Co. 105, 198, 392, 831. 
978, 1072, 1124, 1179, 1227, 

OJuela mine Maplml, Mex. 

Oke. .\. L. New sampllDg device. 

Oklahoma r.VoloKlfnl Survey. 437, 

Oklahoma, Miami lead and zinc dlst. 

Oklahoma mining laws : colliery. 728, 

Old Uulllon mine, Cnllf. 

Old Dominion. Ariz. 

Old Town, Colo., etc. 

918, 926, 971 

OllnghouKC mine, etc. 

Oliver Iron Mg. Co. 

Olympla Co.. Ont. 

Ontario metal and mineral produc- 
tion. 900. 

Ontario minerals — Tyrrell's prize offer. 

Ontario mining flotations — Law. 1195, 

Ontario Silver Mg. Co., Utah. 

Ooregum mine, Mysore. 516, 

Opal, Australia. 

Opex Consol., rtah. 

Ophlr claim, Mont. 

Ophlr mine, Colo. 0.S6. 

Ophlr mine. Comstock. 94, 173. 301. 

Opt Ions, Law of. 

Orange lilossom mine, Calif. 


Ore lilns, Goldfleld Consol. 's. 

Ori' classes, Copper — Mining costs. 

Ore concentration, Experimental work. 

Ore Concentration Co. 030, 1121, 

(See also "Hrlllsh Ore Concentra- 
tion Syniilcale.") 

Ore confraclH from smelter's stand- 
point. •73, 189, 

Ore deposits, Discovery of. 

Ore deposits, Magdalena, N. M. 

Ore dressing by adhesion of liquid 

Ore sampling. See also "Sampler," 

Ore sampling and buying, .Toplln. 

Ore shoots at Butte. Mont. 

Ore sorting. Cabreslante mine, Mci. 

Ore stealing In Mexico. 

Ore weighing In stamp mills. 

Oreano jiropertv. Idaho. 

Orford Cop. Co.'s Monel metal. 1256, 

Oriental Consol., Korea. 

Original Consol., Mont. 

Orlskany Ore & Iron Corp. 

Ore Itelle Mines Co. 

Oro I'Ino. S. D. 

Orollno Co., Idaho. 

Oro Hondo, S. D. 

Orongo Circle mill No. 5. •993, 

Orovllle, Calif., Hunter dredge. 

Orovllle, Dredging suits at. 100. 146, 
438, 635, 022, 075, 

Orphan (^opper Co. 

Orsat apparatus. 

Osceola Consol., Mich. 43, 209, 442, 
557, 736, 773, 842, 879, 

Oso Negro mine Mex. 303, 

Otissc mine, Ont. 689 

Oven, Coke. See "Coke." 

Overcasts In coal mines. ' 

Overbolt Coal Co. 

Overton, A. .1. 

Ovitz. K. K. Volatile matter In coal. 

Oxford Oil and Gas Co. 

Ozark Lead Co, 

Ozark uplift. The. 1004, 

Ozokerite, Market for. 










103, 780, 782 




rachuca. Sec also "Agitation.' 
I'achuca and Keal del Monte 


I'achuca. Cynntdatlon of silver ores. 

rachuca. Features of mining. • 

I'achuca, Metallurgical processes. 

I'achuca, San Itafael mill. •325, 

raclllc Coast Borax Co. 
Packard. G. A. Mex. mining law. 
I'ago. \V. N. Dust as factor in ex- 
plosions. 1107, 
I'aint material. Palagonite. Cnllf. 
Palms, Protective, for Iron, To test. 
Painter. liobt. K. 
Palagonlle paint material, Calif. 
I'alniarelo Co., Mex. 163, 
Palmer. C. E. ^672. 734. ^947. 
Palmllla mine. Mex. ^276. 278. 2S0. 485. 
Pan-amalgamntlon mill. El Bote. 
I'lin .Vmerican Scientific Congress. 
Panel work — Mining lint seams. •ISR. 
Panhandle smeller. Idaho. 389. 592. 
Panic and gold reserves. 
Paracale Miners' Asso. 
Pargny. R. W. 
Park. .T. Cromwell subdivision, N. Z. t 






Parker, .1. L. 

Parker. Richard A. 

Parker's turquoise mine. N. M. 

Parkhead colliery. Eng. 

I'arkslde mine, Eng. 

Parr's tests. III. coal. 

Parral, Mex., Sillclous sliver 

403, •404. 




Parroqula mine, Mex. 

Parrot, Mont. 43, 

Parshall, Horace F. 

Parsons, F. W. Facts concerning Marl 

anna explosion. ^1162 

Patents, New. 191. 435, 633, 872, 1067, 1270 
I'atents. .Mining, Law of. 572 

Patio process. ^059 

Palterson, Andrew S., Death of. 682 

I'nul, .las. W. 921, 1068 

Paul. \V. 11. 342 

Paymaster mine, Idaho. 249 

Payne. Henry Mace. 1068 

-Coal-dust explosions. •O 

Peacock Coal & Mg. Co. S27, 1124, 1179 

Pearce, S. L. Mexico's proposed mining 

Pearson Co., Vera Cruz. 445, 494, 681 
"Piat and Lignite. " 
Peat bogs, trermany and Ireland. 
Peal hogs. Growth of. 


Peekham on dust explosions. 
Pedrazzini Company's mines. 1006. 

I'eeli', It. "i'ompres.sed Air for Mines." 
Pelouze on the ferrlles. 
Penn .\rlzonp Cop. Co. 
Penn Iron Mg. Co. 

Pennsylvania mining falalities. 428. 

Pennsylvania Coal & Coke Co. 393. 430, 
Pennsylvania coui-land taxation. 40. 

50. 148. 152. 
Pennsylvania Dredging Co. 100. 146, 438, 
Pennsylvania laws— ■Cert iflcates. 
Pennsylvania mine, S. D. 444, 

Pennsylvania R. R. Co. 
Peiloles Co., Maplml, Mex. — Mines : 

smeller. ^309, 

Pension fund, Indiana coal miners'. 
Penwood Coal Co. 

Pi-on or Mexican Indian. 77B, 

i'lTegrlna mill. Mei. '947, • 

Perkins, G. II. Talc and soapstone, 

, 689 







Vt. 763 

Permanganate method for copper. 1155 

Pcrret, L. A. ^702 

Perry coal mine. Colo. 102 

Peters. IC. D. Copper smelting. 270 

(For discussion s-e "Slags." I 
Peters. Theodore. Death of. 682 

Peliison mill. Manhattan, Nev. •1002 

P.troleum. See also "Oil," "Shale." 
i'elroleum and coal. Equivalency of. 1218 
Petrolium. California, notes. 100, 850, 1195 
Pelriilium, California production. 731 

Petroleum, Mexico. 52, 303, 

Petroleum, Java production. 
Petrol«-um near Colorado Springs. 
Petroleum, Penn.. McBrlde flcld. 
Petllbone. Geo. A.. Death of. 
Peftit mine. Idaho. 
Peyton Chemical Co. 
— Itegen. reverb, copper furnace. 
Pharmacist mine. Colo. S92, 

Phelps. Dodge & Co. form corporation. 
Phlla. & Reading. 51. 288. 493, 682, 

584, 688, 
— Freight rates. 
— Report. 
Philippine coals. 

Pblllpiiinc Is! mi'n^rai production. 
Phliipplne Is. notes. 153, 504. 785, 

1182, 1202, 
I'blllpiilne mineral-land laws. 364, 

Plilllpplni's. Metallic mineral resources. 
I'lillll|.s. \V. It. Cobalt sliver dlst. 
Phosphale lands. Western. Wltb- 

Pliosphaie mining. Makntoa isl. 
Pbosphale rock. Prospecting for. 
Phiis|>hale rock. United Kingdom. 
Phosphates. Florida. 
PIcb.r Lead Co. 
Pick & Drill Mg. Co. 
PUkandsXlBRec C. vV C. Co. 
Piedmont Tin Mg. Co. 882 

Pierce, D. J. Rescue work. Ham- P; 

stead. •S pi 

Plers..n. I. K.. Death of. 388 P. 

Pig Iron. See "Iron." ]• 

Pllares mining camp. Mex. •OS? 

Pillar. See also "Room-andpillnr." 
I'lllar. Protecting—Caved ground. ^412 

Pillar removal. Cumberland hematite 

mines. •387 

Pillars In coal mine.i. .^sbes for. 581 

Pillars. Meciiernlch lead mines. •I'l 

Plllars-Melhoils. Pittsburg seam. '.ISO 

PIllars—Mlnlng flat .s.ams. •ns. '284 

Pillars. Notes on. 235. 534. 762, SIS. 914 
Pillars, Robbing, Senion-Delavai mine. •768 
Pillars. South StofTordshlro. •673 

Pilot-But tc. Mont. 250. 300. 302, 503 





Plncbcock for burettes. • 

Plncbot, G. and the forest serrice. 
915, 1050, 
Pioedale colliery, Penn. 
Plngulco Mines C... •670, 741, •808. 

•947, •997. • 
Pioneer City Minlni; Institute. 
Pinos Altos. Mex. 
Pipe, Air, Nf-d of car- In laying. 
Pipe line. Rifled, oil. CMllt 
Pipe lines for hydraulic mine. 
Piping notes. 90, ISO. 235, 627, 724, 

Pisbel. M. A. Test for coking coals. 
I'ltcnirn Coal Co. 623, 

Pitchblende, Belcher mine, Colo. 
Pitt. IL T. Stamp tests. 
Plttsburg-Buffalo Coal Co. 51, 107. 

—Explosion. 1109, 1120, •I 162, 1168. 

Pittsburg Coal Co. 43. 

Pittsburg coal trade and prices. 

Pittsburg Consol. 

Plllsburg Lead Co. 

Pittsburg & Mont. 300, 

PlitslMirg & N. Y. Cop. Co. 

PItiKburg seam. Suggested mining 

Placer claims. Law of. 212. 

Placer deposits. Hand drill In pros- 
pecting. • 

Placers, .\rctlc and tropic — Drilling. 

Phistrr nf Paris flux for scrap. 

Platinum. Colombia. 14, 

Platinum. Craik'-r .lack mine, Ore. 

Platinum. Crude. Market for. 

Plallnum dredging. Russia. 

Platinum dredging. Urals. Russia. 

PIntlnum-nlckelcopper ore. Nev. 

Plaiievllle Separator Co. 

Pliny on ancient mining. 

Pluma. S. D. 

Plummer. .1. IL 

I'neumoeleclric coal puncher. •680. 

Pocahontas automatic mltfe door. 

I'ocahontas Consol. Collieries Co. 

Pocock. Cecil. 

Poderosa Mines. Chile. 

Poisoning. Carbonic-acid. In explo- 

Polaris mines. Mont. 

Pollard. Joy. Deolh of. 

Pollyton property. Wyo. 

Pomeroy. W. E. 

Ponnrov. \Vm. .\. 295 

Ponies. Pit. Parade of. 

Poolf. G. Method for working thick 
coal seam. 

"Poor's Manual of Railroads." 

Porter. H. c. Volatile matter In coal. 

Porter. J. B. Electric power, cement 

Port Is gold mine. N. C. 832. 

Portland G. M. Co., Colo. 102, 

lOS, 207, 439, 643, 

Portland. S. D. 

Portuguese Ea<if Africa notes. 

Porvenir tunnel. Mex. 

Postletbwnite dredge patent. 

Potosi Mg. Co. 

Potter, C v.. Death of. 

Potter flotation process. Development, 
etc. 176, 

Ponrcel. Alexander. 

Puuliiotr Bucyrus dredges. 


T.lastlng." "Eiplo- 

Powder. li 

Powder r ■ ,.al Co.'s. 

Power C..I. 8, 871. 

Power syst mv. .I,),!!!! dist. mines. 
Pratt Consol. Coal Co. 977. 

Pratt. J. If. Minerals. N. C. 04, 

— •Mlnli,- iM.liisiry In N. C." 
■^^ • iirolinas. 














Copper Queen's. 

1067. 1148. 
' Int; In Uex. 
Mg. Co. 
- tinnd. 



Ije Gary on. 
■■ '277. 

Co. 1071, 

G. Lead and ilnc 



Pr ,e. Colo. 

Prli . , -- ri', . nnt. 

Pring. H. \V 

Prisk. T. n. S.nfefy sinking hook. 

Prilchard. James. 

Problem of treating dust In coal mine*. 

Profit !>harlng. Comntock mine*. 
Trogreso mill. Mex. 

Prop. Adjustable. • 

Prospecting on Govt, rcscrrea. 015. 

1050. 1066. 



Prospecting placers, Hand drill in. •1141 
Prospector and his motor car. 336 

Prospectors and prospecting in NeT. 

1053, •1090, 'IIST, •1203, 1216 
Prosser, H. A. Charging macbine. •SOT 

Providence mine, Joplin dist. 328 

Provincial mine, Ont. 518, 711, •SSO 

Prudential Mg. Co. 737 

Prussia, Colliery fatalities. 1210 

Pulaski Iron Co. 'OOS 

Pulsator jigs and classifiers, Richards. '621 
Pulsifer, H. B. Platinum, Cracker 

Jack mine. 1003 

Pultz, John Leggett. 243 

Pump notes. 32, 90, 235, 334, 534, 818 
Pump, Turbine, Lea-Degen. •lOOS 

Pumps, Centrifugal, Question on. 1218 

Pumps, Elec. sinking, at Pachuca 'lOSl 

Pumping problems, Joplin district. ^214 

Punchers, Coal. 530, •580, 1112 

Purington, C. W. 342 

— Flood-gold. 558 

Puritan Coal Co. 1075 

Puritan, S. D. 200 

Puxico Mg. Co. 492 

■Pyrite deposits, Huelva, Spain. 283 

Pyrite, Magdalena, N. M. •369, •370 

Pyritic origin of iron-ore deposits. 408, 630 
Pritic smelting. Tilt cove, N. F. ^462, 482 
Pyrochlore. 960 

Pyrometry. 662, 900 

■Q. & C. electric signalling switch. '340 

Quartz, flint and sand uses. 

■Quartz pyrite gold deposits. Mining 

Quebec, Asbestos in. 

Queen Esther, S. D. 688, 

Queen Mascot, Nev. 

Queensland. See "Australasia," "Aus- 

Queensl.ind miners' death rate. 

Quemahoning Coal Co. 

Questions and answers. 95, 293, 434, 
732, 778. 824. 919, 1020, 1114, 

Quicksilver, California production. 

Quicksilver mines, Calif. 1161, 1178, 

Quicksilver minmg, Turkish. 85, •601, 

Quicksilver, Russia, in 1907. 

Quincy Mg. Co. 151, 557, 638, 738, 





Mg. & Water Co. 

Radbod colliery explosion, Germany. 1116 
Rail mill at Gary. 1254 

Rails, Steel— Cost, tariff, etc. 1267, 1269 
Railroad ground. Locating on. 434 

Railroad in Mexico, New. 756 

Railroad grants on mineral lands. 

474, 1113, 923 
Railroad pass, Nev. •1205 

Railroads and Hepburn law. 582, 584 

Railways, Narrow-gage for mines and 
smelting works ; carrying capacity 
of rails. 1052 

Rainy Lake dist., Ont. 1076 

, Ramsay, Jas. D. 779 

Rand. See also "Transvaal." 
Rand, Costs and profits. 565, 801, 1217 

Rand extension — Brakpan strike. 290, 294 
Rand, Greater efficiency on. 1050 

Rand Mines, Ltd. 1121 

Eand mining. Notes on. 324, 526, 902, 

1010, 1244 
Rand, Multiple drill arrangement on. 538 
Eand, New mining and milling prac- 
tice 323, 822 
Eand, Stope drills on. 164, 324, 822, 

484, 818 
Rand, Tailings elevators on. '539 

Randfontein group. 180 

Randolph Co., Mo., Coal mining. *6 

Eansome, F. L. Copper Queen mine. '38 
— "Coeur d'Alene District." t732 

— Goldfield ores. 1096, 1157, 1204 

Rare metals. 907, 916, 960. 1055, 1100, 1241 
"Rares, Terres, Industrie des." 11219 

Easmussen, Peter M. 194 

Eastall, B. McK. Labor History, Crip- 
ple Creek. t341 
Eaton coalfield. 1251 
Raven, Mont. 593, 976, 979 
Rawhide Coalition, Nev. 785, 980, 1074 
Rawhide Consol., Nev. 785 
Rawhide mine, Calif. 48 
Rawhide, Nev., fire. 594 
Rawhide Queen, Nev. 1228 
Ray Consol., Ariz. 1026 
Rayas mine, Mex. 'eTO, •806 
Raymond. R. W. "Lead and Zinc" re- 
viewed. tl29 
— Gayley's invention of dry blast. 1200 
Eeady Bullion mine, Alaska. 512 
Eeal del Monte silver district. *519 

Real del Monte y Pachuca Co. 

Recknagel on tin in Transvaal. 

Red Cross dynamite. 

Red Dog mine, Joplin dist. 

Red Metal, Mont. 43. 49, 

Red Mtn. dist., Nev. 

Red Mtn. Ry. & Mg. Co. 

Red Rock Mg. Co. 

Red Mtns., Birmingham dist 






47, 1028 

199, 684 


856, 929, 1182 

1044, 1046 

Red Top, Nev. 300, 347 


Redenbaugh, Chas., Death of 
Reder placer, S. D. 
Redding Gold & Cop. Co. 
Redmayne, R. A. S. "Modern Prac 

tice" — Coal. 
Redmayne on cost of boring. 
Reel, Locomotive traction. 
Reese, J. W. 

Refractory brick, Basic, Use of. 
Reid, J. T. Mining engineers' duties. 
Reiner Gravel Mg. Co, 
Reins Cop. Co. 
Reliance, S 

739, 1073 



250, 392 



Reno group, Idaho, 

Renwick, A. K. o»» 

Republic Iron & Steel Co. 

240, 637, 1029, ^1047 

— Report. 485 

Republic mine. Wash. 200, 1181 

Rcpublick, Mex. See "La Republica." 

Republican Fraction. 1024 

Rescue. See also "Breathing." 

Rescue — ^'Anaconda protective hood. '708 

Rescue apparatus. New. 8 

Rescue work, Homstead colliery. 

•5, •lOeO, 1108 

Rescue work in England. 620 

Rescue work ; stations — 'Notes. 

534, 769, 818, 1015 

Reservoirs for hydraulic mines. 1258 

Retreating system. Coal mining on. 

•17, ^1251 

Rex mine, Idaho. 783, 877 

Reynolds ground, S. D. 688 

Rhode Island mine, Mich. 684, 738, 1070 

Rhodes, J. W., Death of. 99 

Rhodesia, First half of 1908. 240 

Rhodesian gold mine. Low-grade. 463, 430 

Ehodesian mine — Globe & Phoenix. '959 

Rhodesian production. 672, 726, 1008 

Rhodesian railway. 727, 1049, 344 

Rice, C. T. Mining and transportation, 

Santa Eulalia. ^33 

■ — El Rayo gold mine, Santa Barbara. 

— Veta Colorada cyanide mill. 

— Silver-lead mines. Santa Barbara. 

— Silicious silver mines, Parral. 

— Mines of Penoles Co., Mapiml. 

— ^'Smelter of Penoles Co. 

— Zacatecas, a famous silver camp. 

— Ore sorting, Cabrestante mine, Mex. 

— Pachuca and Real del Monte. 

— Metallurgical processes, Pachuca. 

— Jesus Maria and Flofes mills, Guan- 

— ^Cyanidation of silver ores, Pachuca. 

— Guanajuato, the great silver camp. 

— 'New Esperanza mill. El Oro. 

— Working mines. Guanajuato. 

— Cyanide mills, Guanajuato Devel. Co. 

Rice, George Graham. 

Rice, Geo. S. 

— Cardiff mine explosion. 

Richards, J. W. 

Richards, Robert H. 

— Pulsator jigs and classifiers. 

Richards, Thos. M., Death of. 

Richardson, A. Rapid hoisting. 

Richardson mine, Ont. 

Richmond-Eureka mine, Nev. 

Richmond Foundry & Iron Wks 

Rickard, T. A. Pyrite smelting. 

— "Guide to Technical Writing." 

Ricke, R. Zirconia. 909 

Ricketts, A. H. Short talks on mining 
law 81, 117. 168, 212, 281. 363, 

434, 460, 527, 570, 775, 822, 851 

Ricketts, D. L. ^184 

Ricketts & Banks. 629, 631, 773 

Rickpv, Thos. B. 488. 826, 871, 1069 

Ridgway filters, 'Veta Colorada. •121, 280 

Ridley, Fredk. W. 1271 

Right of Way, Ont. 252, 5l8, 595, 

""" -"" •856, 127" 










101, 320 




Robert Emmet group, Mont. 
Roberts, Capt. Enoch, Death of. 
Roberts gas burner. 
Roberts & Schaefer Co. 
Robeson, J. H. 
Robins. Thomas. 
Robinson, C. Peon 
Robinson Gold Mg. Co, 

Rikovski coal-mine explosion. 


Riley, Geo., Death of. 


Rlnard, James M. 


Ringarooma mine. 


Rio Plata Co., Mex. 164, 395, 


786, 1031, 



Rio Tinto mines, Mex. 

■ 741, 


Rio Tinto, Ltd. 


, 386 

— Half yearly report. 


Risdon dredge decision. 


Ritchie, S. J., Death of. 


Riter, G. W. Cost of silver-lead smelt- 
ing. 585 
Ritter, Etienne A. 825 
River & Rail Coal Co. 1183 
Roach, A. P. 634 
Roachburn colliery, England, accident. 1166 
Roasting blende ores, Silesia. *265 

Robinson Deep. 

Mex. Indian. 775 

240, 340, 323, 
324, 822, •539, 565, 813 
240, 340, 323, 822, 

1010, 1176, 1190 

Robinson tuyere. 
Rochtord Mg. Co. 595 

Rock, Crushed, Handling, San Fran- 
cisco bay. ^1153 
Rock Mtn. Gold M. & M. Co. 1276 
Rocker for washing auriferous gravel. 433 
Rocky Mtn. Club of N. Y. 437 
Roel, P. Proposed Mex. mining law. 680 
Roelofs, R. Overbalance weight. 338, 433 
Rogers, Allen H. 779 
— How to sell a mine. 537, 585 
Rogers, Lewis H. 300 
Rogers Syndicate, Nev. 50, 147, 245, 250 
Rogovin, I. I. Quicksilver, Russia. 119 
— Manganese, Russia. 764 
Roller journals with two recesses. 724 
Room-and-pillar. See also "Pillars." 
Room-and-pillar system. Retreating, 

Coal mining by. ^17, ^1251 

Eoom-and-pillar-work — Jeffrey machine. ^24 
Roosevelt Mg. Co., Wis. 982 

Roosevelt tunnel, Colo. 543, 684, 978, 

1178, 1206 
Rope compounds. 94 

Rope, Hoisting, connection, Sancy shaft. '185 
Rope, Notes on. 26, 32, 186, 334, 480, 

534, 627, 676, 818, 1015, 1062 
— Electric testing. 1108 

Rope, Wire, carrier, Samarcand. 914 

Rope, Wire, Carrying over mountain 

trail. ^672, 775 

Eosario mine, Mex. 1278 

Rosario Mg. & Smg. Co. 252 

Rose Deep, Transvaal. 386, 539 

Rose-Nash lease, Nev. 980 

Rose, T. K. Gold-tellurium alloys. 567 

Ross, F. A. Remarakable car-dump. ^754 
— Weighing ore in stamp mills. '804 

Ross, Geo. E. 99 

Ross, James G. 974 

Ross mine, S. C. 1212 

Round Mtn. Combination. 832 

Round Mtn. Hyd. Mg. Co. 50, 101, 1181 

Round Mtn. Reduc. Co. 199, 548 

Rowland. N. H. Colliery law, Okla. 729 

Royal Flush mine. Gold Mtn., Nev. 1228 

Royal Flush mine. Hahn's Peak. 1070, •809 
Royal Mines, Argentine, Penn. 43 

Royal Tiger mine, Nev. 547 

Ruble boulder and gravel elevator. ^902 

Ruby group. Lookout dist. 1179 

Ruby Mg. Co. 441 

Rubv mine, Wash. 51 

Ruby mines, Burma. 1022, 614, 972 

Rudd, C. D. 590 

Ruhl, O. Mill construction, Joplin. ^125 

— Miami district. •OlO 

— Orongo Circle mill No. 5. *993 

Ruizena group, Mex. •71, 72 

Rush Coal Co. 105 

Rush creek, Calif., gold discovery. 780 

Russell, B. E. Nacozarl dist., Sonora. 

•657, 1161, ^1006 
— Las Chispas mines. •1006, 1161 

Russia, Asbestos, Urals. 140 

Russia, Coal — 'Wages ; production. 724, 1184 
Russia, Iron, ore and steel. 1206, 1079 

Russia, Manganese during 1907. 764 

Russia — Platinum dredging, Urals. '701 

Russia, Quicksilver, in 1907. 119 

Russian copper and gold. 1121 

Russian Mg. Corp., Ltd. 246, 1025 

Russian tax on gold. 809 

Rust-preventing mixture. 139 

Rutledge, J. J. Coal mining. Mo. •& 

— Sloping in mining iron pyrites. 365 

— Reclaiming caved ground after 

squeeze. ^411 

— Iron ore. Stone valley, Penn. 726 

Ryan, Wm. D. 1222 

Sacramento, Dredging troubles. 

776, 780, 922 
Sacramento mine, Utah. 394 

Saddle Mtn. Mg. Co., Ariz. 423 

Safe Investment, S. D. 688 

Safety arrangements, Carmaux mines. 

575, ^576 
Safety cage device. Carbonic-acid. 676 

Safety device for landings. ^124 

Safety devices, Hoisting. •41, ^94 

Safety laws. State — Summary. 1088 

Safety of coal mines. 337 

Saginaw, S. D. 740, 832, 1029, 1126 

Sahuayacancito. Mex. 162 

St. George amalgamation-cyanide mill. 1145 
St. Jves Leasing Co. 784 

St. Joe Lead Co., Mo. 605, *763 


St. Joe Mg. Co., Utah. 101 

St. John del Uny. 98, 80, lOH) 

St. John's Quicksilver Mg. Co. 1220 

St. LoulB Sm. & Ref. Co. 600 

St. Mnry's Mineral Land Co. 1070 

Sales, H. II. Ore shoots at Butte. 226 

Salt and Salton Kea dispute. 
Salt, Dominican Kepubllc. 
Salt I-aku & Calif. Cop. Co. 
Salt Lake Stock & Mg. Exch. 488, 975 

Salt, Kock, Purifying by fusion 
Sam Christian gold mine. 
Samples, Metnlllcs In. 



_ „ 1020 

Sampieri Ore, Automatic, Heatbcote's. *18] 
Sampling and buying ore, Joplln. '190 

Sampling device. La Gloria, Mer. '122 

Sampling In West Australia 340 

Sampling Ore, by machine. 113, 142, 
2,'i8, 291, 3.38, 431, 631, 770, 917, 

•n.")!, 1111 
Sampling, Machine, Principles of. '951, 1018 
Sampling mill, Golddeld Consol. '469 

Snn Antonio Co., Colo. 40, 1121 

San Antonio Cop. Co. 982 

Snn liirnabe mine, Mex. •402, 403, 40!; 

Snn Diego mliic^ and mill, Mex. •209, 211 

Snn Francisco bay. Handling crushed 

rock. 1 1 •'•' 

San I'ranelsco del Oro Mg. Co. 828, 833, 1070 
San Francisco mills, Mex. ♦560, •652, 

846, 089 
San Ignnclo shaft, Mex. '521, 524, 525 

San Jose Reduction Co. ^060 

Snn Mnurlclo mine, Philippines. 1182 

Snn Pablo Quarry Co. 'IISS 

Snn I'rospero mill. Mex. '947 

Snn Rafael mill, Pachuca, Mex. 

•325, 730, 654, 008 
San Rnfnel mine Pachuca. 

•520, 523, 524, •1051 
San Rafael mine, Zncatecas. •404, 400 

San Roberto mine, Mex. ^401, 1031 

San Toy Mg. Co., Mex. •83 

Snnry shaft- Rope connection. •185 

Sand, Hlaek, Cracker Jack Mine. 1003 

Sand, Itlack, Humboldt co., Cnllf. 1223 

!<nnd. Cnlltornln. 269, 731 

Sand, Silica, Uses of. 824 

SanilfonI lake. N. Y., Iron mines. 548 

Snndwell Pnrk colliery, Eng. •6.3 

Sandy ore lr,>atment, west Mesabl. 97 

Sangre de Cristo mill. Mex. •lei. 164 

Santa Ann Mg. Co. 1069 

Santa Ann Tin Mg. Co. 48i 

Snnta Rnrbarn, El Rnyo mine. ^78 

Santa Hnrbnrn silver-lend mines. ^207, •464 
Snnta Kulalla, Mining and transporta- 
tion. '^S 
Santa (?ertrudl8 mine, Mex. '520, 523, 524 
Santo Domingo mine, Santa Eulalla, 

Mix. 34 

Santo Domingo, Snn Pedro dist., Mex. 252 
Snni" Domingo pincers, Mex. 201 

Santo Domingo minerals. 5, 16, 42, ^ 

Sapphire, Queensland. 115 

Sapphires, Montana production. "•>6 

Saratoga mine. Colo. 45, 147, liiO 

Sault Ste. Marie canal traffic. 142, 620, 868 
Savanna Cop. Co., N. M. 1220 

Scalfe, II. L. Mines of S. C. 1212 

Scales enr, Daly Reduc. Co.'s. '804 

Sclinll. \Vm. P., Death of. 1008 

Scl lite. (.'oiHir d'.Mene. •1140 

Silimltl. C. O. Steel shaft guides. •1010 

Scholz, ('., on explosions. 068 

Scliol/. O. W. Narrow-gage railways. 1052 
Schools, P. C. 528 

Scbubmann, C. Tube corrosion. 821, 503 
Schwab, C. M., on the tarlBT 

1202, 1203, 1207 

Schwab Interests, Greenwater. 101 

Schwartz, Ceo. W.. Death of. 1023 
Sclent lllc search for new Ooldfleld. 

•1157, •1203 

Scotch shaleoll Industry. 056 

Scott, A. P. llj' 

Scott gasolene rock drill. ,5 

Scranton Miners' Institute. 974. l',!|-. 

Screens. Joplln dIst. *''-' 

Serlvenor. J. B. Malay tin mining. 3il 

Scale. Herbert P., Death of. 1119 

Seams. Coal. FInt. Mining. 'ISS. •284 

Sea t on Del. w a 1 colllerv methods. ^705 

Seattle gold linlUon receipts. 391 
Selby smelling works — Handling blast- 

furnnce bullion. 83 

-^ The bag-house. 451 
— l^ottrell fume-condensing system, etc. 

242. 200. 343, ^375, 389, 487, 530, ^_^ 

— Disposal of gnses nt Selby. •604 
Sell a mine, How to. 420, 53., 58.. 
Sclukwe mine, Rhodosln. 430, 40.1 

Senator Mines Co. '-4'; 

Senecn mine. Mich. 1'-' 
Sepnrallon, Magnetic. Zinc, Snnta llar- 

bara. -ii. 

Settling Cox, Orongo Circle mill No. ■>. 'OOO 

Settling tank, Joplln dIst. 'l';' 

Seven Troughs Coalition, Nev. 10.4 

Seward Peninsula. Drilling. '218 

Seward Peninsula, Gold placers. -41 

Shackle, p.n(ket, Weston. ^41 

Shaft d.pth. Determining. 1114 

Shaft sinking by cementation. ^221 

Shaft sinking on Rand — Brakpan mines. 417 
Shaft sinking safety devices. •41, •94 

Shaft sinking — Swinging staging. ^217 

Shaft sinking system. Pachuca. •lOSI 

Shafts, <^'i,lllery — Concrete lining, etc. 235 
Shafts, Inillned, LInlngup timbers In. ^612 
Shafts-Aarlous SInte Inws. 1088 

Shnle-oll Industry. Scotch. 050 

Sbaleen mlners'-certlflcate case. i87 

Shannon Cop. Co. 37, 423, 550 

Shnrpless, F. F. Konlnh mercury mines. •601 
Sharwood, W. J. Cyanldlng, Home- 

stake. 202, 204 

Shasta Dredging Co. 380 

Shatltick Arlzonn. 47, 391, 423, 12.4 

Shnw. S. F. ,« 

Shedlock briquet process. 38J 

Shelbv. C. F. .\liimlna In copper blast- 
furnace slags. 270. 483, 7.30, 1111, 1264 
— Growth of Cnnanen copper smelter. •954 
Sh.lbv. Mrs. C. F., Death of. 842 

Shepiir.I. E. M. ^** 

Sherrod, V. B. '615 

Shields. W. J. Flrst-nld corps. 1222 

Shirley Hill Coal Co. 1227 

Shocklev. W. H. 1222 

-^Monlhlv advance In drift mining. 1112 

Shoeplnte. Cast-iron battery-post. •640 

Shoes, Stamp, Wear of chrome-steel. 681 

Short. Charles A. '>■*' 

Short talks on mining law. 81, 117, 
108. 212, 281, .363, 400, 527, 570. 

775, 822. 851 
Shorthand by machinery. 77 

Short wall coal cutter .TefTrey. •24 

Shouvnloir estate Russia. '!"^-.,Lri 

Shovel. Power, for underground work. l"''" 
Shut?, Mg. Co. 290 

Sidney, L. P. '—- 

Slebe, Gorman & Co.'s apparatus. « 

Slimens' Sir W.. Opinion of. 9RN 

Sierra Bultes mine. Cnllf. 11.2- 

Slerra JIndre Land & Lumber Co. .811 

Signaling, Electric. Gt. Boulder Prop. •ll.O 
SIgnnllng. Mine. I>v compressed air. •SB. 

Signaling switch. O. & C. ***"', Aio 

Slgnals--Vnrlou8 Slate laws. 108« 

Silesia. Advanced <onl mining methods. '88. 
Silesia. Lead and zinc smelting. •26.5 

Slllcn In copper fiirnae.. sings. .7.> 

Silica separation In Iron oris. ]«8 

Silicates, Certain, Properties of. 90« 

Silver. See also "Cyanldatton." etc. 
Silver, Arizona mines' production. 42.3 

Silver, Australasia. 143, 1021 

Silver Bar mine, Ont. 1076 

Silver. California production. __ _ 

579, 683. .31 
Silver Cliff, Idaho. 783 

Silver, Coeur d'Alene. north side. •«•> 

Silver Cross mine, Ont. 1031 

Silver cupellatlon. 3-6 

Stiver dlst., Pachuca and Real del 

Monte. . •»'" 

Silver. Formosa. North, production. 201 

Silver In Lake Sup. copper mines. 019 

SlIv.T King. Alia, I'lah. ___ 340 

Sliver King Coalition. 45. 101, 394. 

023, 1127. 1273 
Sliver King Consol. 45. 101 

Silver King group. Alta. Utah. 152 

Silver l.nke. Cnllf.. strike. 08.3 

Silver lead mines. Snnln Bnrhnrn. •207. ^464 
Silver lend smelling. Cost of. 315, 585 

Silver lendzlnc mines. Broken Hill. 

•703. 803. 1169 
Silver Lenf mjne, Ont. 201. 518, 689, •85B 
Silver Line gro\ip. N. M. 1070 

Silver mines. Trnnsvnnl. >*- 

Silver. Mint purchase resumption. Ol.j 

Silver, North Carolina production. 48^. 

Silver. Ontario production. ^850. OOO. 1202 
Silver ores. Cyanldallon. Pachuca. 

•047. •SIO. •SSO 
Silver I^enk Valcalda mines. 075, 980 

Silver, Philippines. 466. 700 

Silver, Potassium and sodium cyanide • 

for ■'34 

Silver, Price of. 384, 1003 

Silver. Price of. and Mex. mining. »5.> 

Silver Queen, Cobalt. 1.53. 252. 518. 

036. •SSS, 'ssn 
Silver Seal Exploration Co. 549 

Silver Shield. Vtah. 740 

Sliver shipments to the East— Question. 1218 
Silver. Slllclous. mines. Parrnl. Moi. _ , „„ 
•276, *120 
Silver Spade Mg. Co.. Ont. 680 

Silver Tiger Mg. Co. ,„, 12.8 

Slmmir Deep k Jupiter. 4,10. 1010 

Simmer * Jack. 240. 323. 822. 1170. 1100 
Slmiison. D. nelerri>nts In cynnldnllon. 726 
Sinclair. M. M. 634 

Sinking. See •'Shaft." "Wlnio." 
Slonx Consol.. Vtah. 51. 981 

Slrenn mine. (';unnaJuato. •600. 'SOO 

Slnicco fons. 1050. '1211 

Sirocco fan— riomslend colliery lire. ^5. •1000 
Skinner. E. H. 20.% 

Sklp-cbanglng. Burrn Burra shaft. •123. 

.sklrrow. F. w High t. 
Slag and matte astlng ri 
Slag pot, Moval.l, . Ma|.i 
Slags, Copper bl^st-fun 

In. -■"" 

Slag«, Phogphflll 
Slate picker, Pb 
Slices, Mining In 

C2il.ln valla l.l„h 




Slide rule, ^Ichl. „ .. - irlc. _ 85ft 

Sllmc deposition -tud tllc-mcnl. .0.. 854 
Slime pit. Homestake. (iperating costs. 386 
Slimes treatment, new K>^pennza mill, '.w 
Slime treatment. Guanajuato. ,?;S^ 

Sllmer, The James. ii;S 

Slimes nitration. El Oro, Mex. '*^» 

Sllnlng. Byron G. J-'l 

SlossSheffleld Steel & Iron Co ,1? 

— Report. 3»T 

Sluices for hydraulic mines. ia» 

Smelter. See also 'Fumoce,' BOO 
names of melols and proper 
names. i<S^ 

Smelter gases— Weslby-Sorenson proceM. \i^J 
Smeller, Selby— Bag-house ; gas i"fr-v..„, 
piisal. . r43V*60-» 

Smelter smoke In Collf., CottrcU trjr^ 
tern at Selby plant, etc. g42j 266. 

343, •375,^^80, 487. 1272- 
— Mountain Cop. Co's smelter. 1149, 1272 
Smelter smoke. Anaconda. 1224, 1261, 1273. 
Smeller, AntI, light In Calif. ^''* 

Smellers' troubles, Calif. 538- 

Smelters standpoint. Ore contracts 

from. 3. 18». Ji* 

Smelting competition. 1203, 1266- 

Smelting practice, American supremacy 

In. , r 

Smelting, Silver-lead. Cost of. 315, o8>> 

sSelllSg situation, Colo. 827, 830. 900. 969. 
Smith, Alfred. Death of. 634 

Smith, F. W. Present condition of 

mining In Mex. 6o&. 

Smith, Geo. O. Misleading estimates. 86ft 
Smith, J. J. Ilolst weight. 239. 338, 43X 
Smith, John S. -J* 

Smith. Lloyd B. , „, „ .,]«* 

Smith, L. S. "Water Power of Wis. ^I'J* 
Smith, Philip S. . ^ , =;? 

Sraok'- and gas formation. Coal. <ii 

Smokeless furnac^Govt advice. 4^ 

Smuggler mine, Colo 636. ]07| 

Smyth.'. Eugene G., Death of. loo» 

Snell, S. Eyesight tests. 1012 

snowstorm ">lne._^Jdaho.^ ^92.' 783.' 878. 1027 
Soapsionc Vermont. J^J 

Social life of miners. l-Jl* 

Societ* des Travaux Publics, etc 062 

Society Helbnlque des Mines. .30. 204. 062 
Socrates quicksilver mine, Calif. 58» 

i^n'no Woml." mine. Calif. 146, 438, M5 

Sonora mine. Jdabo. f^^ 

Sonora. N. W. Altar dlstlrlct. 'Jl 

Sorting ore. Cabreslante mine, Mex. '*n* 
South Africa. See also •TninsTaal. 

"Rand." "Rhodesia." "Nstal, etc. 
South Africo, Diamond production. 

1121. 1148. 125S- 

South Africa. li. ' ^ »» 1008- jj* 

South African A • rs- »»* 

■•South African vlyied. t02O 

South African " - , , „ »•-'■ 
South Australia. s. ■■ -.Vustrttlasia, 

••Australia." ._ 

South Bulte Mg. Co. ;-'» 

South Carolina. The mines of. i-'- 

South Columbus Consol. Mg. Co. ^^^ ^^ 

South Dakota School of Mlnes^ ^0- 

Soulh mine, Calif. "*'•,■''!?•,, 'tr? 

South Rami mines. •>40, 1".^^ 

South Randfonteln Deep. »»* 

South SialTordshlre method of mining ^ 

Southern anthracite fleld. Coal mining^ ^^ 

.South, rn rr ss ,„!„... Mont. ' 087 

s,.. Co. **£ 

■>; V 805. 881. 082^ 

;; 023. lll."» 

s,. OO- 

Siinlo I'll ii.M;:ii.- lU'l smelling coat. 32» 
Spanish American Mining, etc . Diction- ^^^ 

SpnnKhDrv Dk-gn.-. Calif. 47* 

s'.' ' -s. 0>» 

<j n br-producf. 5S8 

^. s' t. *'' 

s; :.r:.lna.fon to. ^^ m 

,: u..„m. ,S20. 

<: v.- electric fas*. •B28 

<; lOir 


s' '10 12T» 

^ 327 

V ro mill. 'OIT 

«;. - Coal dost-" _ 

Spurr .1 K •480. 811. 589. 118«» 

Spurr 4 Cox (Inc.*. '■"* 

441, 545, 783 


Squeeze, Procedure duriui;. SIS, 914 

Squeeze, Reclaiming caveif ground after. *411 
Stag Canon Fuel Co. 1242, 1243 

Staging, Swinging, Grossman. *217 

Stamp, Air-cushion, Holman. *213 

Stamp batteries, Veta Colorada. '120 

Stamp capacity. Effect of discharge 

level and water supply on. 386 

Standard mine, San Bernardino co.. 

Calif. 100 

Standard & Mammoth, Coeur d'Alene. 140 
Standard mine, Idaho. 878 

Standard, Montana, Idaho. 44'> 927 

Standard Mg. Co., Ont. ' 543 

Standard Oil Co. 296 

— Business — .A.rchbold's testimony. 1116 

Stanford, Leland, University. 779 

Stanley Consol. Co. 140, 297, 442 

Stanley, G. H. Cyaniding. Hex. " ~ 

"Star" electric safety fuse. 
Star miue, Idaho. 
Star of the West, Colo. 
. State Bank & Trust Co., Nev. 
„, . 101, 297, 487, 826, 871, 1069 

.Station Grounds property, Ont. 1076 

"Steam Power Plants, Mech. Eng. of." tl219 
Steam, Superheated, Use of. 627 

Steel. See also under "Iron." 
Steel and wrought-iron tubing. Rel- 
ative corrosion 563. 821 
Steel bands used for belts. 382 
Steel construction. 1156 
Steel Corporation plant at Gary. 1253 
Steel co-operation. Judge Gary on. 1213 
Steel Drill — Notes. 

324, 822, 526, 540, 672 
Steel furnaces, Electric, Germany. 963 

Steel, German statistics. , 39, 448 

Steel making. Dry-air blast. 91 

Steel making, Lash electric process. 419 

Steel making with surface-blown con- 
verter. 1244 
Steel prices. 237, 240, 289, 1213 
Steel production, Carnegie on. 

1054. 1063, 1261, 1263, 1269 
Steel production, U. S. - 39, 422 

Steel production, World. 39 

Steel shaft guides. *1010 

Steel tariff. 1054, 1063, 1117, 

1220, 1261, 1263, 1267, 1268, 1269 
Steel timbering at Sandwell. »674 

SteltCer Mg. Co. 100, 876, 975 

Stein, G. Properties of silicates. 906 

Stephens-Adamson conveying machin- 
ery, •iiss 

Steptoe mill. 152 

Steptoe smelter. See "Nevada Consol." 
Stevenson, Chas. H. 825 

Stewart Mg. Co., Idaho. 48, 491 

Sticht on blast pressure. 730 

Stillwagon Mg. Co. 589 

Stints, System of, etc. 773, •757 

918. 971, 1066, 1111, 1112 
Stirling, James. • 921 

Stocker, J. Elmore process. Broken 

Hill. 1169 

"Stoichiometry." t241 

Stokes, R. "Mints and Minerals, Brit. 

Empire." f96 

Stone, Building, California, 1907. 269, 731 
Stone Canon coal mines, Calif. 155, 1120 

Stone, Lithographic, in Calif. 387 

rStonestreet, Geo. D. 779 

Stoping. See also "Pillars," "Drill." 
Stoping. Back vs. underhand, mining 

large bodies of Iron pyrites. 365 

Stoping methods, Broken Hill ; open 

stope. •796 

atoren. R. Ore dressing by adhesion 

of liquid films. *839 

— 'Laboratory burner for volatile fuel. *867 
Stoughton. Bradley. 1023 

— Relative corrosion of wrought-lron 

and steel tubing. 563, 821 

Stoughton, S. F. 44 

Stow, A. H. Mining flat coal seams un- 
der heavy cover. *135 
- — Losses in mining flat seam. *284 
— Pocohontas auto, mine door. *862 
Stradley, Ayer. 869 
Stratton's Independence, Ltd. 

102, 195, 344, 346, 924 
Strauss. Lester W. 921 

Stray dog mme, Nev. 739 

Strickland, W. R. 295 

Strike. See "Labor." etc, • 
Stripping Clinton iron ore. N. Y. State. *1150 
Stromberg-Carlson mine telephone. *722 

Strong mine, Colo. 195 

Sturgeon lake gold region. 828 

Sturgis, F. B., and Comstock reforms 

94 172 188 
Sturm on blindness of mules. ' ' 25 
Subsidence of waste-flUed stopes. 365 

Success mine, Idaho. 140, 389 

Suffolk colliery, Penn. 1229 

Sullivan drill. 914 

Sullivan, George. 32 

Sulman & Pickard. 778 

Sulman, H. L. Slime deposition, etc. 

707, 854 
•Sulphide Corp. and others. Broken Hill. 
^ . . , 896, 1169 

Sulphide ores. Mixed. Treatment of. 1218 

Sulphur, Cuprite, Nev. 

250, 443, 639, 1028, 1126, 1176 
Sulphur, Dominican Republic. 70 

Sulphur, Local, in certain coal seams. 14 

Sulphur, Mexican discovery. 1278 

Sulphur near Liberty, Tex. 981 

Sulphur production, United States. 243 

Sulphuric acid — Anaconda smelter. 

1261, 1224, 1273 
Sulphuric acid contract, Tennessee. 

1063, 1116, 1127 
Sulphuric-acid making, Ducktown. *1237 

Sulphuric-acid recovery, Silesia. *266 

Sulphuric-acid, Waste, Treating. 115 

Sulphuric anhydride. Determination of, 

in sulphuric acid. 407 

Sulzer centrifugal pump. *1051 

Summit mine, Ind. 105, 249 

Sump. Sinking a. 235 

Sunday Creek Co., Ohio. 493 

Sunday tunnel, Colo. 346 

Superheaters, Result with. 818 

Superior Coal Co.'s hoisting record. 726 

Superior mine, Mich. 249, 392, 738, 

1124, 1227, 1275 
Superior &. Pittsburg. 47, 247, 391, 423, 782 
Supplies. Mining. 93 

Suppli-', Mining, in Mexico. *1245 

Su| II Mill., Adjustable. »1260 

Suri.ii- iiiihi. Idaho. 546, 878 

Sui\i\. i;r.ilM^;ical. 

— lJun;iu ut Mines. 915, 1268 

— Electrical accident investigation. 726 

— Explosion prevention — Foreign ex- 
perts. 860, 864, 590, 736 
— Fire, Suffers from. 1262 
— Fuel investigation. t96, 720, 723, 862 
— ^Misleading estimates — Water power. 

727, 866, 1066 
— Virginia Geol. Survey. 777 

— 'Canadian Geol. Surv. work. 46 

"Surveying, Underground, Manual of." tlll5 
Susquehanna Coal Co. 199, 240 

Swaziland Mg. & Commercial Chamber. 662 
Sweden, Iron and steel in. 776 

Sweden, Mineral and metal production. 1022 
Sweeny mine, Calif. • 592, 876 

Switch, Pull, Electric-signaling. Q. & 

C. " *340, 775 

Sybil mine, Calif. 829 

Sydney mine. Calif. 101 

Sylvanite camp, N. M. 962, *1101 

—Notes. S29, 1029, 1224 

Sylvester Gravel Mg. Co. 826 

Symmes, H. G. 869 

Symons, B. "Genesis of Rocks and 

Ores." t777 

Taatz, Alw., dredges. ♦703, 705 

Table, Concentrating, Deister. *610 

Table, Concentrating, glass, experi- 
mental. 'gOJ 
Table, Slime concentrating, James. ♦1140 
Tables, Cement, Pinguico mill. 947, *997 
Tables, Concentrating, Hennig. ^134, •1198 
Tabotacachi dist., Mex. ♦eel 
TafFanel's coal-dust tests. ♦O 
Taft, W. H. Tariff revision. 1213 
Tailiugs elevators on Rand. ^539 
Tailings, Old. cyanidation, Pachuca. •559 
Tajo mine, Mex. ♦279, ^280 
Talc and soapstone, Vermont. 753 
Talc, North Carolina. 321 
Tale of woe. 863 
Talley, J. Smith, Death of, • 1119 
Tamarack, Mich. 557 
Tamarack & Chesapeake. 140 
Tamping converter lining. ^749 
Tamping bars. Steel, Use of. 42 
Tamping, Notes on. See "Blasting." 
Tanganyika Concessions. Ltd. 344, 1049 
Tank. Settling. Joplin dist. ^127 
Tanks, Blaisdell Coscotitlau Syndicate's. ♦563 
Targes, Brown. •325, ♦471, *e53, 668, 

•901, ^991, 1116 
Tantalum and its minerals. 1100 

Tapping mine water under pressure. 239 

Tariff agitation, Calif. 1024 

Tariff, C. M. Schwab on the. 

1262, 1263, 1267, 1269 
Tariff — Collecting foreign statistics. 863 

Tariff — Copper statistics. 1110 

Tariff hearings. The. 1021, 1117, 

1171, 1220, 1261, 1263, 1267, 1268 
Tariff on hematite iron ore. 128 

Tariff on metals, American 778 

Tariff on zinc and lead ores. 383, 
1021, 1024. 1069, 1070, 1118, 

1221, 1262, 1268 
Tariff revision,. W. H. Taft on. 1213 

Tariff, Steel, Carnegie on. 1054, 1063, 

1261, 1263 
Tasmania gold mine. 'ISl 

Tasmania, Tin. 144 

Tasmanian production. 412, 913, 1160 

Tasmanian Smelting Co. 143 

Tax dispute, Cripple Creek. 1178, 1273 

Taxation. Coal. Indiana. 245, 249 


Taxation of non-producing mines. 636 

Taxes, Mine, in California. 1156 

Taxing unmined coal, Penn. 

40, 50, 148, 152, 1229 
Taylor & Brunton sampler ; machine 
sampling. 100, 200, 346, 917, 

•951, 1018, 1111 
Tays, E. A. H. Mining, Mex., past and 

present. •ees 

Teale, Joseph W. 342 

Tecolotes mines, Mex. '209, •211, 494 

Tecopa Consol., Calif. 100, 391, 829 

Telephone, Mine, and advantages. ^722 

Tellurium and gold alloys. 567 

Tellurium ores, N. M. 785, 962, 1029, •llOl 
Temagami-Cobalt Mines, Ltd. 

586, 628, 631, 773 
Temagami reserve area. 712 

Temiskaming Deposits. 711, t777 

Temiskaming mine, Ont. 549, 518, 
636, 689, '856, 929, 1031, 1076, 

1127, 1230 
Temiskaming & Hudson Bay Ont. 

518, 636, 689, ^856, 982 
Temiskaming & N. Ont. Ry. 489, ^856, 875 
Temperature, Legal, in stopes, Victoria. 1152 
Temperature of coal piles.. 862, 817 

Temperatures, Furnace, High, Estima- 
tion of. 662 
Temperatures, High, Estimation of. 900 
Temple mine, Idaho. 299 
Templeman, Hon. Wm. 1119, 1174 
Ten Mile dist., Colo. 275 
Tennessee C, I. & R. R. Co. 440, 
485, 637, 681, 737, 925, 977, 1071, 

1116, 1122, 1226 
— ^Iron operations. ^1043 

Tennessee Cop. Co. 165, 271, 275, 556, 880 
— Timbering inclined shafts. ^612 

— Acid contract. 1063. 1116, 1127 

— Mining and smelting. ^1237 

Terne plate. 1020 

Terrible-Dunderberg mine. Colo. 1178 

Terrill, Arthur C. 588 

Testing plant, Hennig. ^1198, ^134 

Teziutlan, Mex. ^672, 775, 929 

Thalmann, Ernest. 1271 

"Thermochemistry." t241 

Thew power shovel. Underground. •1056 

Thies, Ernest, Death of. 388 

Thomae, W. F. A. ' 709 

Thomsen. J. "Thermochemistry." t241 

Thompson, A. M. Nickel-copper-plati- 
num ore, Nev. 72 
Thompson Falls Power Line. 878 
Thompson, Jas. R. 779 
Thomson, J. J. 636 
Thomson, T. N. Cotrosion tests. 563, 821 
Thorium and its minerals. 1241 
Thorne, Stuart M. 869 
Thornton, W. D. 1054 
Ticon mine, Mont. 347 
Tiffany, J. E. Mine-curve problems. ^230 
Tiffany & Co. 980 
Tiger mine, Coeur d'Alene. 140 
Tiger-Poorman. Idaho. 545 
Tightner mine, Calif. 100, 296, 345, 1244 
Tigre mine. Mex. 52, 549 
Tilt cove, N. F., Pyritic smelting. •462, 482 
Timber. See also "Forest." 
Timber and mineral-land decisions, Jus- 
tice to miner in. 189 
Timber cap, Reinforced. ^427 
Timber, Treating. 32, 428, 440. 534, 1066 
Timbers, Drawing, thick coal seam. •IS 
Timbers in inclined shafts, Lining-up. ^612 
Timbers 30-ft., Handling. ^675 
Timbering — Adjustable support. ^1260 
Timbering, Broken Hill. '794, ^799 
Timbering, Carmaux coal mines. •577 
Timbering — Kghting Jersey mine fire. •SS 
Timbering notes. 90, 186, 235, 288, 

480, 491, 534, 627, 724, 818, 1252 
Timbering Seaton-Delaval colliery. ^766 

Timbering, Southern anthracite field. ^477 
Timbering, Steel, at Sandwell. •674 

Timbering with longwall methods. •23 

Timby, T. G. Separation of silica 

and alumina in iron ores. 168 

Timiskaming. See "Temiskaming." 
Tin, Australasia. 144, 412, 582, 913 

Tin, Cornish mining. 181 

Tin, Lode, mining in Malaya. 371 

Tin-mining conditions, Malaya. 970 

Tin ore, Calif. 589 

Tin, Philippines. 707 

Tin, South Carolina. 1212 

Tin, Transvaal. 579, 992 

Tintie Smelting Co. 195, 245, 635, 781 

Tinton, S. D. 302, 548, 640 

Tip-Top Heath, Ariz. 737 

Tipple, Daly Reduction Co., Ltd.'s. ^754 

Tipplers, Rotary, Use of. 1166 

Tod, George, Death of. 1068 

Todd, L. C. 921 

Todd's Handbook, Nevada Mining Com- 
panies. t241 
Tom Head mines, Calif. 244, 343, 876, 1071 
Tom White channel, Calif. 977 
Tombstone, Ariz., Ores of. 269 
Tombstone ConsoL, Ariz. 247, 423 
Tonge, Jas. "Coal." t777 
Tono(5ah, Nev., Notes from. 871 


Tononah-Iiflmont. 00, 444, 493, 547, 
r,'J4, 088, ~-M. 785, 871, 980, 1074, 

U26, 1181, 1224, 1229, 1277 
Tonuimh Extension mine, Nev. 871, 928 

TonopaliMldway. _ 493 

Tonopah M«. Co. 106, 152,^251^93.^^^ ^^^ 

Toronto exhibition, Minerals at. 846 

Torreon, f'la. Met. de. 201, •209, '211 

Tourenle Mg. Co. 595 

Tovey, L. Platinum dredging, Urals. 'TOl 

Town Topics f/old Mg. Co. 248 
Townscnd, A. K. Kocker for washing 

iiurlfirous gravel. 433 
— OUlcliil reports of costs of produc- ^ 

Ing copper. 555, 584 

Track-curvi- iiroblems. Discussion. '260 

Track, Mine, Cost, etc. '135, *284 

TrackH, Mine, Crade of. 1100 

Tracks. Narrow-gage. lODJ 

Tramway, San Toy mine, Mcx. '33 
Transvaal. See also "Hand." 

Transvaal, liase metals. 578 

Transvaal, Chinese miners In. 1114 

Transvaal, Costs and profits. 

1217, 323, 565, 801, 822 

Transvaal, KIrst six months of 1908. 240 

Transvaal gold mining. 335, 631, 813, 1022 

Transvaal (;old Mining Estates. 43G 

Transvaal gold statistics. 813, 1041 
Transvaal mine dividends, etc. 430, 842 
Transvaal mines. Electric power for. 

868, 1025 
Transvaal mining notes. 82, 180, 240, 

340, 417, 436, 5.39, 540, B02, 736. 

771, 842, 892, 900, 913, 953, 958, 

092, 1055, 1244, 1269 

Transvaal rope regulations. 334 

Transvaal, Safety cage device. 676 

Transvaal silver mines. 8- 
Transvaal, Stopc-drllls in. 

164, 324, 484, 538, 818 

Trask. E. C. 1174 
Treadwell mines, Alaska. 512, 681. 

711, 713, 755 

Trego vs. Roosevelt Mg. Co. 982 

'I'reloar, Samuel. 1174 

Treniont-Iievou Mg. Co. 12i6 

Trenton, Mont. 43 

Trespass, Law of. 460 

Trelhewny, \V. S., Death of. 825 
Trethewey mine, Ont. 

549, 518, 630, 833. 856, 1076 

Treweek, N. ■ 101 

'J're/.ona, Cant. Chas. , 89 

Trigonometric slide rule, Hchhom. 856 

Trllhy mine, Colo. 344 

Trimorc mine. Mo. 593 

Trim ilaln. Sec "Copper Range Con- 

Trinidad asphalt exports. 752, 755, 756, 857 
Trlnllv Cop. Co. 772, 197, 591 

Trout' l.iike smeltery, Ont. 595 

Truax group. S. I). 640 

Truck. Molten bullion, Selby smelter. '84 

Truekee Itlver Gcnl. Elec. Co. 199, 1120 

Trumbull, I-. \V. "Underground Sur- 

vi'vlng." tlll5 

Truss work. Steel. 1150 

Tulie mill liner. liarry. Life of. 842 

Tubi' mills, (JoUllleld Consol.'s. 471, •472 

Tubbing In deep shafts. Cement for. 427 

Tucker. \V. 1". Douglas smelter. Fun- 

dlelon. •413 

Tumbaga mine, riilllpplnes. 1182 

Tungsl.n, Callfornlii mining. ^573, 400, 731 
Tungslen, Colo. 293, 0.30. 738. 830. 

1071, 1123, 1170, 1178, 1275 
Tungsten ore deposits, Coeur d'Alene. 

•1110, 07, •08, R30 
Tungsten. Nev. 740. 122H 

Tungslen ores— 'Market ; production. 05, 293 
Tungsten, S. D. 040, 1127 

Tunnel driving, Fast— Elizabeth tunnel. 1199 
Tunnel, Newhoiise, Hot Time lateral. 

^757, 773, 918, 971. 1000, 1111. 1112 
^nnel. Hoosevelt drainage. 

r.43, 084, 978, 1178, 1206 
Tunnel sites. Law of. 212 

Tunnels. Drain, of hydraulic mine. 1259 

Tunneling machines In Colo. 297 

Tuolumne Cop. Mg. Co. 300. 389. 442, 

546, 784. 024, 1180 
Tuomev. M. South Cnrollnn mines. 1212 

Turf n'llnes, Itand. 148, 4.30 

TurluskI riatlnum Mg. Co. ^705 

Turklsb quicksilver mining. 85, 'OOl. 1226 
Turn sbeels, Hrldging— Note. 1009 

Turner. H. I.. Loading blast hole. ^433 

Turner. T. ' Tractlcal Metallurgy." t032 

Tunpiolso at Svlvanlie. N. M. •IIOI 

Turquoise mining, Iturro mtns.. N. M. •843 
Tuvere. Hobinson. •750 

TwenlvOne mine, Calif. 24,S 

Tyee rop. Co. 93 

Tvpewrller. Shorthand. i< 

Tyrr.ll. .T. U. 193. 321, 1070 



Underwriters land, Joplln dlst. 32 1 

Unger, .Tohn S. 1068 

Union Hasin Mg. Co. 149 

Union coal mine, Ind. 442 

Union, La. Sec "La Union." 
Union on Co. 850, 1272 

I^nlon Soapstone Co. 
United Coal Co. 
United Coke & Gas Co. 
United Colo. Mines Co. 
United Globe, Ariz. 
United Gold & Cop. Co. 
United Golden Chest mines. *65, 69, 
249, 389, 
United Kingdom. 
—Accidents, Mining. 139, 426, 627, 

676, 1108, 1210 
— Coal mining, Seatoo-Delaval mine. ^765 
— Coal mining. South Staffordshire. ^673 

— Colllerv Commission — Explosions; 

ebctVlclty ; dust. 30, 186, 817, 968 

— Cornwall, inspector's report. 148 

— Cost of longwall ; coal cutting, 

norlbern Held. •964, ^1104, 1110 

— Eight hour day. coal mines. 92 

—Gobi mill". English. 98 

— 'Ilemallti' mines, Cumberland. ^357 

— Insiiectors : relief asso. — Notes. 334 

-Iron, Iron ore and steel. 39, 990. 1200 

— "Mines and Minerals, Drit. Empire." t90 
—Patents. New. 191, 435, 633, 872, 

1067, 1270 
— IMiosphalerock slatistiCB. 
— Scotch shale-oil industry. 
— Steam winding engines, coal mines 
— Tin mining. Cornish. 
— Value, galena and blende, Wales. 
— Work of nrlllsh Mint. 
T-nlle.l .Mine Workers. 148, 335, 828, 928 

tinlled OH Co. 439 

I'nlted IMacers Co. 
United Stales. 

— ..Mum and aluminum salts. 
— .Anilnionlallead production. 
— Arsenic sliitlsllcs. 
— ''slos jiroductlon. 

— ilaryles, Crude, production. 
— ISuu'xIte producllon. 

— Ulsmulh statistics. 
— IJromlne producllon. 
— Coal consumption, mines and rail- 

— Coalllelds. Area of. 

— Coke exports to Mexico. 

— Copper consumption In 1907. 

— Copperas production. 1907. 

— I'"uller's earth |)roductlon. 

— Germany. Commirce with. 

— Iron and steel. 1907. 

— Iron and steel. Finished, production 

— iron productlim. 19(i8. 4 

— Iron pyrllis production. 

— Lfiid eitnsumptlon. 
— Miignislle and chromlte production, 

— Sulphur production. 
-Tungsten production. 

United States C. * C. Co. "20 

United States Coal & Oil Co. 230 

I'nlled States Diamond Mg. Co. 440 

Unltiil States Gold Corp. 248. 87 1 

Unlte.l States Red. & Ref. Co. 827, 830 

United States Sing.. Ref. A Mg. Co. 
101, 194. 317. 320, 343, 438, 880. 

923, 976, 1095 1263 
— Bag shaker; ear unloader. '1009 

United States Steel Corp. 43, '97, 

240, 289. 305. 805, 1116 



753, 842 
824, 842 




864. 883 




247. 423 

870. 1125 

-Dululh steel plant 
— Statement, Si'pt. quarter. 
— Sclent lOc research bureau. 
._\,.w plant at Gary. 
Inll'il Slates Zinc Corp. 
rnlte<I Verde, Ariz, 
lulled Zinc Co. 198, 347, 086, 

linlversltv mine, Ont. "SO 

fulvirsllies. See proper names. .,„„„ 

Unb>adlng ears. Hopper for. 1,„V 

Urals. Dredging for platinum. 'lOl 

I'rquharl, M. J.. Death of. -38.8 
Utah Apex. 444, 683. 781, 981 

UtahHlngham. **'• 

Uiah Consolidated — The smelter. ••- 

—Notes. 488. 036. 735. 781. 874. 923. 

, 1030. 1176. 1203 

—Costs. IOC. •''•'I*' 

— Weslby-Sorensen process. -tJS 

— Statement to shareholders. 10.>4 

Utah Cop. Co. 45. 147. 246. 349. 389. 

Utah Development Co. 542. 7.M 
Utah, iron Springs Dlst.. Iron Ores. TO.<J 

Utah mine. Fish Springs. 45, 4S9 

Utah mine safety laws. 109.> 

Utah United Cop. Co. 542. 040 

UtKa Mg. Co. '"'2 

Utah Yerlngfon. Nev. 12-8 


Van Law. C. v.. •618 

Van Nostrand to«-n8hlp, Ont. 350 

Van Osdel, E. B. «34 

Van Zwaluenbarg. Macblne sampling. 1018 
Vanadium, Ixiss of 95 

Vanadium ores — Qu. stlons answereo. 283 

Vancouver Island con; outpnt. 419 

Vandalla <oal Mg. " o. 546, 592, 1027 

Vantage Extraction Cu. 1228 

Varnishes for cyanide tanks. 842, 871 

Veins, Law of. 212, 281, 363 

Vclardcrta mine, Mei. 1278 

Ventilating notes. 32. 2*^. 314. 333. 
428. 534. 724. 709. (slS. 902. 914, 

908. 1012, 1015, 1"62, 1108, 1252 
Ventilating— Water power umlerground. 

Ventilation — Coal-dust prevention. 1107, llt»9 
Ventilation — Jersey mine fire. '88 

Ventilation, Mine, Improved methods. 1059 
Ventilation — Mining flat coal seams. •284 
Ventilation reversal, llamstead collb'ry 

fire. '5, "lOOO 

Vermont, Talc and soapstone. 753 

Vessels, Lake ore. Size of. 1173 

Veta Colorada cyanide mill and mines. 

•r20, •278, 279, 280, 35". 595 
Veta Grande mine, Mei. •402, 403, •405 

Veta Madre mines. •«09, 'SOS 

Vezin, Henry A., and machine sam- 
pling. 142. 238. 291. 338. 431. 

031, 776, 917. •OSl, 1018, 1111 
Victor Copper Mg. Co. 591 

Victor Fuel Co.. Colo. •1248 

Victoria. Si-e also "Australasia." etc. 
Victoria Falls Power Co. 868, 1025. 1121 

Victoria mine, Mich. 1 n9, 1227 

Victoria mine. Ont. 786, 1031 

Victoria, S. D. 200 

Victorian Syndicate. Ltd. 1019 

Vlenun-Inti'niatloual mine, Idaho. 502 

Vigo county. Ind.. coal survey. 442 

VlFlage I.e."p. I-td. 148. 438 

Village Main Reef. 484 

Vindicator Consol.. Colo. 195, i81 

Virginia Carolina Chem. Co. lllo 

Virginia Geological Survey. 77i 

Virginia Iron, Coal i Coke Co. •908 

Virginia Polytechnic Inst. 486 

Virginia, S. W., Iron and ilnc. 'SOS 

Vivian. V.-eo. G. 44 825. 861. 

Vogeltruls Consol. Deep, Transvaal. 992 

Volatile mattir In coal. Nature of. 720 

Von Ilammersteln. A. Ji'sr 

Von Pohl. Itaron Herbert. 12<1 

Vulcan Iron Wks. — Electric hoist. •31 

Vulcan mine. Queensland. 144 


Waddell, Geo. F. 

Wages. Sec also "Labor." 

Wages at Guanajuato. 

Wagner. J. L. Coal puncher. 1112. •o80 

Wahl. William. „ 1271 

Walhl Co., N. Z. . . 143, 481, M^ 

Walnsvllle Coal Sl Coke Co. -^W 

Wake-Up-Charley location, N. M. ^1102, I.-4 

Wales. Coal In. x'-* 

Wales. Value of galena and blende. lOK 

Walker. Edw. Holman alr-cusblon 

stamp. *?\.^ 

Walker. <J. n. Rescue work In Eng. HM 

Walker. S. F. Heating, elcclrlcal con- 
ductors, li' 
— Pull switches for elec. slsoais- •'* 
Wallace, D. Proposed Mexican law. 484 
Wallaroo * Moonta costs. 165 
Walsh. G. E. Elec. power, coal mines. 1011 
Walsh. M. J.. Death of. lOOf 
Walsh. T. F. Discovery of Camp Bird. 2-3 
Walter CroneckhlUle, Sll.-sla. -M^ 
Wanderer mln.-. Rhodesia. 4.30. 4t}3 
War Dane.' mine. Colo. 54.'i. I'l.J 
Ward SbMii N ^ 348. 12.. 
Wardn.'r ^ . -JvrJ 
Warnfor.l - PockeU>oof 'lllS 
Warren 1: Co. 391 
Warrior K ■ "■ ^. 594 
Warwick (urn.i . .j.iyi.y drj-air blast. 

•810. 820, 725 
Wasnieh ftnh Mg. Co 781 

W;i.'' • ■■ i -' In.llMn:, 1124 

u , .1 of. ^424 





\V,i,ii.r... ....... .1. •■■.... I',. ...lion. ^1248 

Washing and IvncUir.* apparatus, Frcy- 

Washioi:! .n production. 





Val.alda. Silver Peak. Nev. 
Valley Construction Co. 
Valparaiso mine. Calif. 

975. OSc 

.rslty of. 

\\ oroductloo, Mont. 43 

W Mont. 130, 1224, 1261. 1273 

\\ "ConMrTatlon." 

\v,- ipp"*-* 288. 62. 

W;l^|■. Duiiii'iiic with loco, train. •.H 

Water as motive power aoderfTonnd. •1211 


Water catching in English colliery 

shafts. *673 

Water hoisting by tank. 724 

Water-jet spray for coal dust. *89 

Water, Mine, Tappinc under pressure. 239 

Water power in U. S. — Note. 1197 
"Water Power of Wisconsin." fUlS 

Water-power plants, Calif. 8, 871, 1161 

"Water Powers of Georgia." t632 

Water problems, Joplin dist. ♦214 
Water resources. Conservation of. 

1172, 1217 
— Misleading power estimates. 727, 

866, 1066 

Waters-Pierce Oil Co. 1116 
Watering. See also "Coal dust." 

Watering mines dangerous. 1107, 1109 

Watson, Eric E. 634 

Watson, T. L. 777 

Watson, W. J., and Tyee smelter. 93 

Watterson Gold Mg. Co. 161 
Watteyne, Victor. 13, 486, 860, 864 
Watts mine, Ont. 518, 741 
Way, B. J. Underground conveyers, 

Kleinfontein mine. 715 

Weber, Henry. 101 

Webster, B. Copper River dist. 680 

Weighing ore in stamp mills. •804 
Weight, Over-balance, for hoist. 239, 

623, 906, 1173, 


Weihe. Wm., Death of. 

Weitzell, R. S. 

Well, Boring — Time items. 

Wells, J. S. C. Ferrites, compounds 
of an iron acid. 

Wells, Robert G. 

Werf Conrad dredges. 

Wemher, Sir Julius. 

West African gold. 

West Australia. See 

West Coast Co., Ore. 

West Coast M. & S. Co., Mex. 

West End, Tonopah. 301. 493, 594, 

West Rand Consol., Transvaal. 

West Va. coal. Machine mined. 

"West Va., Map of." 

West Va. mine regulations 

West Va. Mining Asso. 

— Meeting. 

— Coal-dust explosions. 814, 819, 

West Va., Northern, Coke mfr. 

West Va., Supp. Coal Report. 

Westby-Sorensen process. 

Western Eng. & Const. Co. 

Western Md. C. & C. Co. 

Western Metals Co. 

Western Precip. Co. See "Cottrell." 

Western University of Penn. 

Western Utah Cop. Co. 

Westinghouse air signaling system. 

Westinghouse mica property, S. D. 

Westmoreland Coal Co. 

Weston, E. M. New mining and mill- 
ing practice on Rand. •323 

— Machine drills for stoplng — Reply. 

— Multiple drill arrangement on Rand. 

— Tailings elevators on Rand. 

Weston bucket shackle : Berry cross- 

Wetzig, B. Huelva pyrite deposits. 

Weymouth. W. S. 

Wharton, S. L., Death of. 

Wheal Kitty & Penhalls. 

White, Geo. M. 

White, I. C. "Map of W. Va." 

White Silver Mg. Co. 

Whitehead, Cabell, Death of. 

Whiteside Exploration Co. 

Whiting's hoisting method. 

Whitman. P. R. 

Wliitman & Little. 















629, 773 






Whitman Mg. Co. 239 

Whittall Bros. ^601 

Wickett, Morley. 636 

Wicks, John, Death of. 825 

Wiley, H. W. "Agricultural Analysis." tl219 

Wiley, W. Murdock. 

Wilkes, Capt. John, Death of 

Wilkinson, Gen. Sir H., Death of. 

Wilkinson, W. F. 

Willard, E. T. Ind. coal mines. 

Williams, Albert. 

Williams, Gerard W. 44 

— Engineers' prospects, Australia. 42 

— ^'Silver-lead-zinc mines. Broken Hill. •793 

—Metallurgy of Broken Hill. 893, 1169 

— Cobar field. 957 

Williams, R. Y. Method for Pittsburg 

Willow Branch mine, Okla. 
Wilson, E. B. "Cyanide Processes." 
Wilson, F. F., Jr. Prospecting for 

phosphate rock. , 

Wilson group, Ariz. 
Wilson, J. B. Bridging turn sheets. 
Wimmer Coal Co. 

Winchell, Horace V. 243 

Winding. See "Hoisting," "Rope," 

"Engine," etc. 
Wingfield, Geo. 101, 147, 1120 

Winslow mine, Ind. 1179 

Wintering & Osgood, Calif. 438 

Winze, Sinking, with long holes. ^713 

Wiper, Wm. C. 388 

Wires, Heating of, by electric currents. 177 
"Wisconsin, Water Power of." tlll5 

Wisconsin Zinc Co. 153, 158, 51, 1075 

Withrow, J. R. Copper electrolysis. 755 

Witwatersrand. See "Rand." "Trans- 
Wolf Creek Mg. Co. 639 

Wolf flotation process. 778 

Wolfel, Paul L. 44 

Wolfsheart Co., Mo. 151 

Wolftone Co. 640, 830 

Wolverine, Mich. 557 

Wolverine & Arizona. 47 

Wonder, Nev. 739, 831, 1126 

Wong Kokshan. 99 

Wood. G. R. Electrical accidents. 726 

Wood mine, Sylvanite, N. M. 1224 

Wood, Thos. L. 869 

Woodbridge, D. E. Duluth steel plant 

and belt railway. •322 

Woodbridge, T. R. Machine sampling. 

917, 1019, 1111 

(For rest of discussion see 

Woodward Iron Co. 103, 1048 

Wooldridge Co., Tenn. 785 

Worcester, S. A. Over-balance weight. 

239, 338, 433 
World productions. See countries, 

metals, etc. 
Worrel, S. H. 779 

"Writing, Technical, Guide." T. A. 

Rickard. t732 

Wulfenite. 1055 

Wyandot Co., Mich. 783, 830, 927, 

1072, 1124, 1179 
W.voming coalfield, largest in U. S. 1105 

Wyoming mine. Colo. 441 

Wysor, H. "Metallurgy." +732 

Wyssotzki, N. K. Platinum. Russia. '701 

Yak tunnel, Colo. 299, 390, 441, 545, 

684, 783 
Y'ale. C. G. Calif, gold and silver pro- 
duction. 579 

Yampa mine and smelter, Utah. 200, 

542, 781, 1273 

Yaqul war. The. 123 

Yeandle, M. H. 14S 

Yellow Aster mine, Calif. 244, 438 

Yellow Dog mine, Joplin dist. 327 

Yellow Jacket mine, Calif. 925- 

Yellow Tiger mine, Nev. 487, 594, 

687, 1180 

Yolande Coal & Coke Co. 977 

Yoquivo mine, Mex. 201 

Y'oung, S. "Stolchiometry." t241 

Young, W. P. Variable color, coke 

ashes. 533 

Youngstown industrial cars. •lOSO 

Yttrotantalite. 1100 

Yukon-Alaska-Paciflc Expo. 922 

Yukon Basin Gold Dredging Co. 494 

Yukon Gold Co. 52 

Zaaiplaats State tin mine. 

Zacatecas, famous silver camp, Mex. 

Zalinsky, MaJ. E. L. 

Zalinski, E. R. Turquoise mining, 
Burro mtns. 

— Ore occurrence, Fortuna mine. • 

Zehner, W. D., Death of. 

Zimmermann, Col. W. H., Death of. 

Zinc and alumina in slags. 270, 483, 
730, 1111, 

Zinc and lead. Miss, valley, Distribu- 
tion. 1004, 

Zinc and lead smelting, Silesia. 

Zinc, Australasia, in 190S. 

Zinc-box precipitation. Veta Colorada. 

Zinc, Broken Hill — Mines ; metallurgy. 
•793, 893, 

Zinc — Cadmium as by-product. 92, 

Zinc-concentrate exports, N. S. W. 

Zinc Corporation. 144, 713, 896, 

Zmc-dust precipitation, El Rayo. 

Zinc, Electrolytic determination. 372, 

Zinc — Galena and blende value, Wales. 

Zinc in S. W. Virginia. 

Zinc, Iowa mining. 

Zinc, Joplin dist. — Pumping ; power ; 
natural gas. *214, 327, 

"Zinc. Lead and, in the U. S." 

Zinc, Miami dist.^ Okla. 

Zinc-mill construction, Joplin dist. 

Zinc mining, Joplin dist. — Ore tariff, 

Zinc — Mixed sulphide-ore treatment. 

Zinc-ore, Joplin — Sampling ; buying. 

Zinc ore, Prayers for. 

Zinc-ore prices — Effect on production. 

Zinc-ore separation. Magnetic, Santa 

Zinc ore, Sussex Co., N. J. 

Zinc-ore tariff. 383, 1021, 1024, 1069, 

Zinc ores — Lead determination. 

Zinc ores, Magdalena, N. M. 

Zinc ores, Missouri — Methods and costs. 

Zinc ores. Nomenclature of. 

Zinc oxide and the ferrites. 

Zinc oxide in slags. 

Zinc resources — To what extent known? 

Zinc smelters in Canada. 

Zinc smelting at Port Pirie. 

Zinc — Testing galvanized iron. 

Zinn-FIorence, Nev. 488, 547, 639, 

Zirconia as a refractory material. 

Zug, Charles G., Death of. 




















The Engineering and Mining Journal 


NEW YORK, JJLY 4, 1908. 

NO. 1. 

The Advantages of Flushing in Coal Mining 

Introduction of Filling into Mines Is an American idea Much Favored 
in Europe. The System Is Necessary at Some Mines with Bad Top 




I lie practice of back-filling waste ma- 
terial into underground workings by 
means of water, is called "flushing" in 
America. This idea of so conducting ma- 
terial is of American origin, having been 
first introduced in Pennsylvania about 17 
years ago. James B. Davis of the Dodson 
colliery first worked on the scheme in 1891 
at the property of the Dodson Company 
in Plymouth, Penn., near Wilkesbarre. 
Up to the year 1907, there had been no 
decided change in the original method of 
filling, and the company was still drawing 

years after the announcement of results at 
the Dodson colliery, German engineers in- 
vestigated the field where the process was 
in successful operation, and have since 
illustrated their approval of the practice 
by its universal introduction along most 
elaborate lines in Germany, where it con- 
tinues to gain favor constantly. 

Value of the System has been Proved 
The value of the flushing system as 
used in Pennsylvania has been proved be- 
yond question. At the Dodson colliery, it 

ground excavations. The seams in this 
field (often attaining 25 ft.) are very 
thick, consequently the subsidence was se- 
vere, and any economic system of mitiga- 
ting this condition was welcome. The wa- 
ter-filling method has become popular in 
Silesia because of the extremely favorable 
results attained with it. Any material in 
the district (such as gravel, clay, crushed 
slag, cinders, etc.) which can be moved 
with water and passed through ordinary 
sized pipes, is introduced into the work- 
ings. Since the adoption of the method. 

FIG. I. CONVEVI.ST. filling FROM Dr Ml 

from its waste culm pile tn fill the mine 
chambers. .\t the Black Diamond col- 
liery, which was under the management 
of the Jno. C. Haddock Coal Company, 
similar operations have been in vogue for 
some time. The Lehigh Valley Coal 
Company as well as the Pennsylvania & 
Reading Coal & Iron Company have not 
been slow in adopting the idea at a num- 
ber of points in the State. 

Information on the subject does not 
evince the idea that the flushing system is 
used elsewhere in the United States than 
in the State of Peimsylvania. Not many 

is questionable whether the property could 
be successfully worked were it not for 
filling the excavated areas. This is not 
alone accountable to the squeeze which 
was impending, but also to the nature of 
cover which overlies the thick seams, and 
the fact that the coal lies to a great ex- 
tent directly under the main town. A 
similar condition existed at Shenandoah 
City, Penn., where chambers of large ex- 
tent have been filled to maintain surface 

In Upper Silesia, Germany, where the 
system was first introduced in Europe, 
damage suits were numerous as a result 
of 'surface depression caused by the under- 

surfacc damage suits have practically dis- 

Pillar coal hitherto unminable because 
of permanent pillar requirements, is now 
available, and timber costs have l>ecn con- 
siderably reduced. Surface troubles have 
been greatly alleviated, and work under- 
ground is now carried on under much 
safer conditions. 

It might be pointed out at the begin- 
ning, that the general system as operated 
in America is rather more with a view of 
maintaining ground, i.e., reinforcement of 
the pillars, than as a means of extracting 
pillar coal which olhenvise would be left 
in place. In Europe, the incipient idea is 


July 4, 1908. 

to effect a complete removal of the de- 
posit; the preliminary layout of the mines 
is planned with this prospect in view, 
whether the mining system is pillar work 
or modified longwall. In justice to the 
originators of the flushing system, it is 
only fair that a description be first of- 
fered of the practice at certain points in 
Pennsylvania, but it must be admitted that 
in Europe the practice has received much 
more attention and use than in America. 
This applies in Europe to metalliferous 
mines as vieW as coal mines. 

Flushing at the Dodson Colliery 
Fig. I illustrates the general surface ar- 
rangements at the Dodson colliery at 
Plymouth Penn. The culm dump is rep- 
resented by a and shows in the fore- 
ground, although much of the _ material 
has since been transferred to the mine 
workings. The old breaker is marked b. 
The culm dump in the figure is com- 
posed of material wliich w.ts mined many 

down the launder g of Figs. I and 3. The 
material leaving the washeries will all 
pass through a ^-in. ring. The flume is 
about 650 ft. long and is lined with terra 
cotta-pipe sections. This flume leads to 
the bore-hole well, into which the culm 
may be seen discharging in Fig. 4. Over 
the hole a tripod is seen. The function of 
this apparatus is to support rods which 
are at times brought into play when the 
hole becomes jammed. The cover which 
fits' over the well casing is marked k. 

The bore-hole is 8 in. in diameter and 
600 ft. in depth ; it is lined with 5-in. 
wrought-iron pipe, the space between the 
outer periphery of the pipe and the hole 
being filled with mud. The system of 
pipe connections underground where the 
pipe line starts ofT from the vertical, is 
shown in Fig. 5. This is the 360-ft. level. 
The three valves shown control the direc- 
tion of flow at this point. Upper valve 
/ is a drain cock; if iii is shut oflf and / 
opened, a drain of the system is eflfected. 

culm was being flushed per 18 hours and 
the water flow was given at 485 gal. per 
min., or appro.ximately 5 to 5.5 lb. of 
water per lb. of culm. 

The Mine Workings 
The Dodson mine comprised seven 
seams of coal showing a variety of thick- 
nesses ranging from 5 to 23 ft. The 
method of working was by the bord-and- 
pillar system though not with the utmost 
regularity, the pillars necessarily varying 
in size in different parts of the mine. The 
seams pitch slightly, although at some 
points they are quite horizontal. Where 
there is grade to the workings, the pipe 
enters the chambers from the upper end, 
the culm thus banking up to the roof at 
the lower end, where a barrier has been 
.set to hold the culm intact and allow the 
water to pass on. Where the floor is 
level, the pipe is carried into the chamber 
to its full lengtli, and the discharge end 
is set close to the roof. As the chamber 



years ago. This contains a good quantity 
of coal which in former days was not 
marketable, c is the small washery which 
now rehandles the dump as a whole, and 
extracts the good product as it is received 
from the conveyer d. This latter is a con- 
veyer of the push-plate type. The trough 
at d in Figs. I and 2 shows the chain and 
push plates leading up to the engine f 
Fig. I, at which point the material is di- 
rected at right angles to a second con- 
veyer h delivering to the washery. The 
two conveyers measure 680 ft. in length. 
Fig. 2 shows a section of the conveyer in 
detail, and the method used for feeding 
same. The troughs were of No. 10 sheet 
lining in 4-ft. lengths, the shape being half 
hexagons. The frame sections were 12 
ft. in length. As the culm bank is con- 
sumed the conveyer is moved up accord- 

At c Fig. I, the filling is joined by the 
waste coming from the main washery, and 
a supply of water, and is thus conducted 

It is important that the system be drained 
at times when operations cease, or if 
flushing is to be discontinued at a lower 
level, and an upper level is to be started. 
The arm in Fig. $ is part of the casting 
aiid extending out serves as a bearing 
against the timber prop, noticed in the 

Pipe Lines Underground 
The pipes are laid along the gangways 
and branch off by means of elbows and 
tees leading into the mine chambers ; 4- 
and S-in. pipes are used underground. 
Experiments were carried on some time 
ago at the Dodson colliery to test the 
various pipe materials. It was found that 
wrought iron gave the best service; that 
the steel pipe tried, was too soft, and that 
cast iron wore rough inside. At the time 
of my visit, culm was passing through 
about 1500 ft. of pipe and there was con- 
siderable up-grade in the course of the 
line. Three hundred and fifty tons of 

fills, lengths of pipe are gradually with- 
drawn. It seems difficult to conceive how 
a chamber having a level floor and roof 
can be completely filled in this way, and 
it would appear that where a close contact 
is effected between the filling and the 
roof under such conditions it must be 
due to the bend of the roof between 


Previous to the introduction of the 
filling into the chambers, the areas are 
isolated by timber walls which serve to 
control the inflow of culm. The hight of 
barriers varies with the thickness of seam. 
Fig. 6 shows the form generally used. 
Vertical round posts are set off at 4- to 
6-ft. intervals across die mouth of the 
chamber. These posts are 6 to 12 in. in 
diameter and are set into hitches pre- 
viously cut in the floor and roof to re- 
ceive them. 

Where the pitch of the seam is slight. 

July 4, 1908. 


relatively little pressure must be sus- 
tained by the barriers, but in the more 
inclined seams it often becomes neces- 
sary to reinforce these posts by addi- 
tional timbers, or by placing a rock-wall 
on either side of the timber barrier wall. 
In order to allow the water to drain off 
from the mass of the culm as it comes to 
rest, small holes are bored in the planks 
making up the wall. This same form of 
barrier may be varied by using round 
limber throughout instead of plank. 

Referring to Fig. 7, this shows a form 
of barrier maintained by planks which be- 
come imbedded in the filling materia! ; 
these planks are attached to the barrier 
wall, and the entire arrangement is self- 
sustaining. The wall is formed of 2x12- 
iii. planks, 12 ft. long, designated by a 
in the figures. Planks b b are engaged 
into this wall at right angles to it, and at 
a vertical interval of 12 in. The filling 
backs against the wall a, and at the same 
time accunuilates abnni ih. '- '■ |>;arik- 

ihe bore-hole. At this lift there was a 
large L fixture which changed the direc- 
tion of culm flow from the vertical, and 
the pipe line was started off at an up- 
grade so that an accumulation was al- 
ways present at the L to act as a cushion 
to the down-flowing stream. The culm 
particles were considerably larger than 
the average at Dodson, quite an amount 
of material as large as 2 in. being noted. 
This is not unusual, for large sized 
gravel is being flushed at another point 
in the district, where the material is only 
small enough to pass through the 4-in. 

At the Hazleton No. 2 mine there is 
arranged an L at the bottom of the bore- 
hole line, of design shown in Fig. 9. To 
effect a tight connection, grout was 
forced up into the space between the pipt- 
and the walls of the bore hole. The fix- 
ture is supported by a base marked r. 
Wooden pipe of the design shown in Fig 
') \v,i^ 11,.. I .;t till- mill.- an.l served wt 

surface, and placmg it in the mine cham- 
bers. In fact, at the present time, in vari- 
ous parts of Europe, dry filling is lowered 
into mines and shoveled into place behind 
the coal face; in spile of the expense <i 
hand-loading at the bank and similarly 
unloading at the face, the practice has 
been found economical in the long run. 
Water flushing is gradually replacing 
all other methods of filling transference, 
and it has been universally found that 
this method far surpasses the dr)- methc-d 
from many standpoints, not alone in the 
matter of manipulation cost, but more 
particularly in the matter of efficiency in 
fulfilling the purpose of the filling. 


.■■^ . "■^JMfMl'if.t, 




The imbedded planks and the wall are 
secured by means of 2;t2 or 2x4-in. cleats 
c c c. The wall may be built to any de- 
sired hight. The sticks d d are simply 
placed to hold the bb b planks apart while 
the filling accuniulntcs. 

The advantage of such a type of barrier 
is its flexibility, and hitches do not have 
to be cut in the roof and floor as in the 
post type. A comparative estimate of cost 
for the two types, including installation, 
shows that up to about 8 ft. hight, the 
sectional style is the cheaper of the two. 

Fig. 8 illustrates a typical area in the 
William A mine of the Lehigh Valley 
Coal Company in Pittston, Pennsylvania, 
It is noted that the area to lie filled is 
aiuipped with barriers and that the fill- 
ing is sent in from the upper gallery. The 
Rcncral niethoil uiulcrgroutul is quite the 
s.iiiie as at the Dodson colliery. The 
tilling material, culm, came direct from 
the washerv and there was but one lift in 

to counteract the corrosive effect of the 
mine waters on ordinary metal pipes. 

EuRorE.\N Flushing Pr.\ctice 
The Myslowitz colliery at Myslowitz, 
Upper Silesia, is reputed to be the first 
European mine to introduce the flushing 
.•i'ystem known in Germany as "spielver- 
satz." This colliery is one of the larger 
operations of the foremost German coal- 
lield. The idea of introducing filling with 
water soon traveled westward and south- 
ward, and it was not long before it was 
practiced in Westphalia, several districts 
in France, and also in Austria on an elab- 
orate scale 

The replacement of coal seams with 
tilling had long been realized a necessity 
in many parts of Europe, and its intro- 
duction became so urgent a requirement, 
that manual labor was pressed into service 
lor the purpose of transferring great vol- 
umes of dry material from banks on the 

In Using water, the problem of it.» dis- 
posal after having served its purpose a.» a 
conductor, must not be minimized, and 
whtrc this water must be raised from the 
m-ne workings, it must be clear to a de- 
gree, before being allowed to enter the 
pumps. These items, in addition to plan: 
requirements «n the surface to the 
inflow of material as it is brought t.. the 
bore hole or shaft, must be considerc<l, 
in comparing the flushing system with 
other methods. 

Most interesting; operations carried on 
in southern France will be described in 
detail later on. Suffice it to say that at 
Carmaux, dry filling has for a long time 
been practiced, but is now being replaced 
by a successful flushing system. The new 
system has met with distinct favor al- 
ready. It having been found that the 
shrinkage in volume of material hydrauli- 
cally filled is markedly less than where the 
sand and clay was introduced dry. which, 


July 4, 190S. 

of course, infers amelioration of the ob- 
jectional surface subsidence feature. 

Flushing in Metal Mines 
Not alone has flushing been adopted in 
coal mines of Europe, but in Germany I 
observed a lead mine where mill tailings 
were being flushed to great advantage, 
and at another point, also to be described, 
an iron mine had introduced a chamber- 
and-pillar system of mining, in which was 
involved the flushing of sand, in virtue of 
which pillar removal was made possible. 

In Cumberland, England, flushing of 
sand into an iron mine to assist a contem- 
plated scheme for the removal of large 

Am .'is A Conductor 
The material which had been experi- 
mented v/ith was a crushed dolomite rock, 
and I was advised that material as large 
as I in. had been satisfactorily manipu- 
lated. Pipes were about 10 cm. in diam- 
eter. Following the phenomena of accel- 
eration and velocity of air and solids in 
pipes, it was found best to make the pipe 
line which conducted the material in its 
vertical course down the shaft, of spiral 
design. It was inferred from the informa- 
tion available that only a light air pres- 
sure was necessary, and that the pipe lines 
underground could be varied at will in 
direction, to make turns or follow undula- 

that the process involved a higher cost 
than flushing, where water was readily 

It would appear that with any system 
not involving water, it would be difficult 
to create a very intimate contact between 
the particles making up the filling med- 
ium. It has been suggested that this in- 
volves a condition allowing of excessive 
shrinkage of the packing and consequent 
subsidence of the overlying strata. It is 
my opinion, however, that with the air 
system less shrinkage is likely than where 
the stowing is introduced by shoveling, 
although unless the air pressure under 
which the particles are introduced is 

Itc - 



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Section through A-B 

tiUclce to BUpport 



£ear View Floor 

_Q;\4;ci..u I 




pillars was under consideration. The de- 
posit was a high grade of ore, and at this 
particular mine the caving system (so pre- 
valently practiced in Cumberland), involv- 
ing lowering of the surface, was not 
adoptable. I have no record of any other 
mine in England where steps have been 
made to introduce filling by flushing, but 
various English engineers have visited the 
Silesian field in Germany, with a view of 
investigating the flushing practice there. 
The difficulties involved at times in ob- 
taining water for the purposes herein de- 
scribed, as well as the disposal of same 
from the workings in a clarified state, has 
suggested possibilities in the direction of 
utilizing air under pressure as a motive 
medium for the stowage material. An 
experimental plant was recently con- 
structed near Kattowitz, Upper Silesia, to 
experiment with the idea of introducing 
filling from the surface to the mine cham- 
bers, with compressed air as a conductive 
force. At the time of my visit in Silesia, 
during September, 1907, the experiments 
had not been brought to a conclusion, but 
sufficient work had been carried on to 
predict a fair future for the process, in 
view of the encouraging results thus far 

FUlin Sp&M between Bore Hole and \ , 5 1 

f CoBttng with nekt Cement GrouL — ■f'/\ jn ' 



Bhowing Arrangement 
at Bottom of Bore Hole. 
Hazleton No. 1 Colliery. 

-Cut Iioa Co&nectlon — ^ 


tions of the floor. The information was 
evinced, that by this air-filling system, 
more or less of a dust nuisance was 
created in the mine chambers as the ma- 
terial discharged from the pipe line, and 

strong, the margin may be very small in 
this regard. 

At the Park Pit, Skelton Cumberland, 
a method of building dry rock-walls in 
certain parts of the mine has been intro- 
duced, and within these walls which are 
about I to 2 ft. thick and built more or 
less on the pig-stye order, small stuff is 
packed. The walls are built up to the 
back, and similarly the loose material is 
piled up within the skeleton walls. As 
the loose stuff is placed, sprays of water 
are added thereto, and the whole tamped 
as the building up progresses. In this way 
quite a consistent pack is accomplished, 
and no more water is introduced than can 
be absorbed by the filling, so that no water- 
disposal troubles enter into the problem. 
The operations on these lines were not 
very extensive, and were intended merely 
to counteract surface subsidence at certain 
points where buildings were located. 

At Lens, Pas de Calais, which is in 
northern France, an inclined seam is 
back-filled by remblayage par embouage, 
as flushing is called in France. Here, 
however, the filling material, which is a 
shale, is lowered to a certain gallery in 
the .mine in cars, where it is dumped into 
storage receptacles, and on leaving same 

July 4, 1908. 


comes in contact with the water which 
conducts it to the chambers where the 
filling is going on. The material at this 
place attains a maximum of I in. in size, 
and it is said that the ratio of liquid to 
solid is 4:1. It was found here that a 
mixture of the shale with sand gave better 
results as regards consistency and its re- 
lation to shrinkage. 

In the mine at Pas dc Calais, as in cer- 
tain mines of Westphalia, canvas brat- 
tices are used underground to hold the 
filling intact, instead of the timber barrier 
form previously described and more uni- 
versally adopted. A light framework is 
first constructed of timber at the point 
where it is desired to bank the filling, and 
the canvas is hung snugly on this frame- 
work. The canvas itself acts as a filter, 
and the water passing through same, pro- 
ceeds directly to the pumps. 

Rescue Work at Hamstead 

Bv D. J. Pierce* 

The rescue operations incident to the 
Hamstead mine disaster near Birming- 
ham, England, were marked by unusually 
heroic incidents. The coal at Ilamstirc^l 
lies at considerable depth and the pre 
sure upon the seams has caused li' 
quent trouble through the generati 1 
of heat. The last and most dis.c 
trous fire occurred in such a position 1 
to entrap 30 men in the workings. Th. 
main shaft, nearest the location of tlu 
fire, was temporarily out of use owing lo 
the breakdown of an engine, and only :i 
smaller ventilating shaft was available I'm' 
use. After several unavailing efforts tn 
reach the entombed miners, it was dcciilcl 
to reverse the ventilation of the mine. 

VENTIL.^TION Was Reversed 
As is usual in English mines, the pit 
where the disaster occurred had two ver- 
tical shafts, one down-cast and the other 
up-cast, the ventilating fan being con- 
nected by an air drift to the up-cast shaft 
and drawing the air into the down-cast 
shaft the workings and up the 
up- cast shaft. In order to draw the air 
down the up-cast shaft an entirely new 
fan installation was required since the fan 
in use could not be moved. 

A 60-in. Sirocco turbine fan, delivering 
80,000 cu. ft. of air per min. was requis- 
itioned from a neighboring colliery, and 
himdreds of men set to work to build an 
air drift from the down-cast shaft to the 
suction. This air drift was 150 ft. long 
and 7 ft. in diameter. Thousands of tons 
of earth had to be excavated for the new 
air duct, but this, and the building of the 
brick drift was begun on Friday and fin- 
ished Sunday afternoon. The bricklayers 

•Tribune building. New York City. 

and laborers worked night and day, with 
only occasional moments of rest to cat. 
When the brickwork of the old shaft was 
reached, it was found to be almost as solid 
as iron, but the tired laborers attacked it 
with pick-axes and finally succeeded in 
connecting up the fan with the down-cast 

An Al.\iost Impossible 
To excavate for and build an air drift 
SO yd. long and 7 ft. in diameter, install 
a fan and connect the fan by steam mains 
from its engine to the boiler house, in a 
space of two days seems an almost impos- 
sible feat, but this was what was actually 
accomplished. The report of the super- 
intendent on the work says : "Owing to 
the comparative simplicity and lightness 
of the fan and the installation work, it 
was possible to erect it and finish off the 
duct, shaft, fan, and engine foundation. 

Coal in the Dominican Republic 

The extensive valley lying between the 
central range, or Gran Cordillera, and 
the Cordillera Setentrional, or Monte 
Cristi chain, abounds in coal iepojits, 
those of the Pacificador district being the 
best known. .According to a recent 
British consular report, the coal of the 
first mines discovered around Samana 
bay was of such a character as to lead 
to a general belief that the coal deposits 
in the Republic were still in the period 
of formation, and consequently that it was 
useless as fuel ; this, however, was ap- 
parently a mistake, as large quantities of 
excellent coal, ready to be used as fuel, 
are to be found. Anthracite coal, stated 
to be as good as the best grades on the 
market, has been found in the Tamboril, 
province of Santiago, in the valley above 
mentioned. Both lignite and anthracite 

m.. 1. i.\>rAi.i.i.\i; (x)-in. mkocco fa.s at 

and have everything in going order in 48 
hours from the time the fan and engine 
vtrc unloaded from the trucks." 

When the walls of the down-cast shaft 
were penetrated, it was found to be frllcd 
with dense clouds of smoke, but after the 
fan had been working a few hours the air 
was so clear that the rescuers descending 
the up-cast shaft were followed by the air 
current instead of being obliged to meet 
it charged with smoke. .-Mthough the 
rescuers were too late to save the lives of 
26 of the men entrapped by the fire, the 
records made during the eflforts at rescue 
will stand unbroken for a long lime, ac- 
cording to the experts whose views are 
quoted in English journals. 

deposits arc found in Altamira, Puerto 
Plata district, on the spurs of the Monte 
Cristi chain, and samples of anthracite 
from San Cristobal in the province of 
Santo Domingo have been tested with, it 
is said, excellent results. Other coal de- 
posits have also bten found in the .-Vzua 

The cheapest and best coal in Japan for 
manufacturing iron is in Hokkaido, along 
the railway line, a short distance north 
of Muroran, where the supply is ahinidant. 

In a report from the United States 
consul-general at Marseille, it is stated 
that the French bauxite deposits, which 
were the first to bt discovered, continue 
to be the most important in the world. 
iKtih in extent and value. The first valu- 
able beds were found in the neighborhood 
of Lcs Baux. a few miles to the west of 
Marseille, which accounts for its name. 
.•\t present the chief sources of suppFy are 
in the department of Var, a few miles 
east of this city, from which export ship- 
ments are made. 


July 4, ig 

Coal Mining Methods in Randolph County, Mo. 

Plans for Shaft Sinking and Entry Driving with Especial Reference 
to the Location and Firing of Holes; Dimensions of Pillars and Rooms 

B Y 




In the present condition ot the coal 
trade in the middle West, any coal seam 
of less than 4 ft. in thickness, of average 
quality, and lying under a weak tender 
roof, presents serious problems in the 
mining and marketing of the coal. Such 
a bed is found in Randolph county in 
northern Missouri and some of the details 
of the practice in working this deposit by 
hand and machine may prove of interest 
to coal men. 

As a general rule, one of the greatest 
problems in working thin seams by the 
pillar-and-room method is to furnish new 
working places fast enough to take the 
place of the older rooms as they are 
v/orked up and exhausted. The rooms are 
usually advanced proportionally faster 
than the entries are driven, and miners 
are compelled to wait until additional en- 
try can be provided before they can se- 
cure new working places. Part of this 
trouble is due to the scarcity of good en- 
try-men or the disposition to shoot the 
coal off the solid instead of cutting the 

K-'-r^r 1 


1 J 





h Y 

there were three shifts employed, and dur- 
ing the remaining two-thirds, two shifts. 
There were 4 men on every shift, one of 
whom led the shift, or acted as foreman. 
The cost, including labor and all supplies, 
was $18 per ft. Measured in the clear, the 
shaft was 7^x16 ft. and was timbered 
with 4xio-in. yellow pine. 

All work was done by hand ; hand steel, 
or "jumpers" of i-in. octagon steel, were 
used in hard ground, while in soft ground 
the ordinary coal miner's "churn drill" 
was employed. As there was considerable 
shale, the churn drill was used about two- 
thirds of the time. The ground passed 
through was composed of hard limestone 
layers, varying in thickness from 4 to 6 ft. 
and rather soft dark-colored shales. Some 
20 to 30 ft. of drift was encountered near 
the surface. 

ft. cut at each firing and to complete sink- 
ing 3 ft. every 24 hours. When 3 shifts 
are employed, No. I shift drills the 8 
holes ; No. 2 shoots the holes, and No. 3 
does the timbering. The sinkers receive 
$2.80 per 8 hour shift. 

The ordinary jumper drill and 8 lb. 
hammer are used, double handed. Timber 
is lined by 4 plumb lines, one in each 
corner and after all muck has been sent 
up and the bottom squared up carefully, a 
set of timbers is placed on the shaft bot- 
tom and carefully leveled by a spirit level. 
Then each set is wedged by driving pine 
wedges against the outside of the side 

The end pieces are usually forced in 
place, between the ends of the sides, by 
jacks, and the joint is a very strong one. 


\ I ii 






entries ; another cause arises from work- 
ing entries single shift. One mine fore- 
man gave as the results of his experience 
the rule that, in Kansas and Missouri, 
every seventh man at work in the coal in 
a given mine, should be an entry-man, in 
order to keep a sufficient number of work- 
ing places open to produce a uniform daily 
output of coal. 

Shaft Sinking 

Some methods of mining, by hand and 
machine, in the northern. Missouri coal- 
field, are illuustrated in the following 
r.'jtes : The coal seam mined varies from 
3 to 4 ft. in thickness, is uniformly hori- 
zontal, and lies 60 to 170 ft. from the sur- 
face. One of the shafts is 174 ft. in depth the time consumed in sinking it was 
two months; during one-third of this time 

Placing Shots in a Shaft Bottom 
In beginning to sink the sump, "holes" 
A and B, Fig. i, are started at about y^ 
of the length of the shaft from one end. 
These holes are drilled at an angle of 45 
deg. with the horizontal and are pointed 
toward the center of the shaft. The holes 
are 5 ft. in depth and so drilled that the 
distance x is Yj of the entire breadth of 
the shaft. 

Two men can usually drill four 4-ft. 
holes in 8 hours and then fire them. Four 
sticks of 60 per cent, dynamite are gen- 
erally used in each hole. These holes be- 
ing fired give a sump 3 ft. in depth. There 
are 8 holes in all, 2 sump holes and 6 end 
holes. The entire 8 are drilled at the 
same time, and the sump holes are fired 
first. The end holes are 3 ft. in depth, 
nearly vertical, and so placed as to trim 
ends and corners after the sump holes 
have been fired. The plan is to give a 3- 

A one-half inch notch in the ends of end 
and side pieces gives a substantial joint 
and one not pushed out of place. 

Solid Shooting 
In solid shooting as ordinarily practiced, 
the miner looks for "chances," that is, he 
selects those points along the coal face in 
his room where coal can be "shot off the 
solid" without any shearing or undermin- 
ing. As the physical quality of the coal 
in any given seam is always changing 
more or less, and slips, in coal and roof 
are frequent, the miner cannot always 
gage his powder correctly to meet these 
changes. Sometimes he uses too small a 
quantity of powder and the shots "stick" 
and must be worked off by vigorous use 
of the pick durino' the time or the day 
following when the miner should be load- 
irjg his coal, -"^t other times he uses too 
much powder and the coal is blown to 

July 4. 1908. 


small pieces and scattered all over the 
•working place, knocking out props and in- 
juring the roof. The next day the miner 
must spend some time in resetting his 
props and has no coal to load. For the 
above reasons, the foreman of the mine in 
which this method of producing coal is 
employed cannot with confidence expect 
a uniform daily output from his mine un- 
less he employs a larger force of men 
than would be necessary to produce his 
regular daily output if all his men had 
coal to load. 


The plan shown in Fig. 2 illustrates the 
improved method of solid shooting in a 
room 24 ft. wide, and in a 12-ft. entry. 
The room pillars arc 6 ft. thick and the 
loom face is shown after the place has 
been turned. It is only necessary for the 
miner to cut i ft. per day, in the room, in 
order to have his shots in good shape. 

In the 12-ft. entry, the cutting is made 4 
fi. from the rib, which gives 3 shots across 
the width of entry, each 4 ft. wide. After 

Method of Driving a 7-ft. Entry bv 

The coal varies in thickness from 3V2 
to 4 ft. The entry is 7 ft. wide and at 
the commencement of work, has a square 
face as shown in Fig. 3 (0). A cutting 
3 ft. deep, about I ft. wide and the thick- 
ness of the coal in hight is then put in 
by means of the miners' pick. When this 
cutting is completed a drill hole is put in 
and the shot marked No. i in Fig. 3 (c) 
is fired. This leaves the face of the entry 
as shown in Fig. 3 (d) ; another 3-ft. cut- 
ting is now put in, as shown in Fig. 3 
(e). After this work has been performed, 
the miner has a shot 6 ft. long, and about 
3 ft. wide, as shown marked No. 2 in Fig. 
3 (e). AftiT this No. 2 shot has been fired, 
an additional 3-ft. cutting is put in and a 
6-ft. shot IS made at No. 3 in Fig. 3 (c). 
When the work is properly performed and 
discretion is exercised in the amount of 
I)owder used to shoot the shots, the en- 
tries furnish good coal, the tender roof 
is not unduly shattered, and an adva'ncc 
nf 3 ft. per day is made. 

^ .p^.r^.F^^,-^^ 

roof is 01 a gray shale and very tender. 
Cross-entries arc turned at distances of 
240 ft., and arc driven 7 and 12 ft. in 
width. Close timbering is necessary on 
main and cross-entries. The rooms are 
turned, as shown in Fig. 4, with room 
pillars 8 ft. in thickness and a triangular 
stump pillar 21 ft. wide and carried back 
to the distance of 21 ft. from the entry 
to a point, the widening being on an angle 
of 45 deg. with the center line of the road- 
way. Each room pillar where it is fronted 
on the entry, is 14 ft. in width, and all 
room necks arc 7 ft. wide and 7 ft. deep. 
As the coal is thin for machine mining, 
the self-propelling Sullivan machine elec- 
trically operated, was employed. This 


I Clai' 4 in to 10 i.v 


till' lirst shot, 3 ft. long, is fired, a second 
.vft. cutting is then put in by the miner and 
the second shot, which is 4 ft. wide and 6 
fl long is set ofT. Following this, the 
miner puts in another 3-ft. cut and a 
third hole is tired. The entry advances 3 
fl. per day when in the hands of a good 
luiiier. It is said that this plan yields 20 
IH-r cent, more lump than the common 
uulliod of shooting coal off the solid in- 
discriminately and without any freeing of 
the shots by cutting. Each .shot, 6 ft. long, 
4 ft. wide and 4 ft. high yields about 2]i 
short tons of coal. By this plan the room 
man often averages 4' j to 5 tons per shift, 
while 3 tons is the average where no cut- 
ting is done. The entry man averages 3 
as against 2 tons by the ordinary plan. 
This is by "miners weight." 

In fxlliiwing this plan, many thin scams 
of coal will be more advantageously 
worked by vertical shearing either by 
hand or machine, combined with solid 
shooting en re fully done, than by under- 
cutting in coal or clay. This is more es- 
pecially true of seams having a rather 
thick dirt band in the lower part of the 
scam, at which banil the coal parts after 
being undermined, allowing the lower coal 
to fall, causing trnublc in blasting the 
coal down. The undermining, when done 
in the clay, as it is often carried on, gen- 
erally causes trouble in loading dirty coal. 

R(K)MS IN Machine Mines 

The coal mined by machines is on an 
average about 3 ft. 9 in. thick. Main en- 
tries are driven 9 and 12 ft. wide, as the 

machine weighs about 3000 lb., and runs 
from right to left across the face of the 
room. The practice is to run the ma- 
chine in the room to the room face by 
means of the right-hand road, then it is 
unloaded and run across the room face 
to the head of the left-hand room read, 
cutting a 6-ft. undercut in the clay. TTie 
cutting space is 4 to 5 in. deep, and gen- 
erally all in the clay under the coal. 
Rooms arc usually turned by a machine, 
running the two-room necks together on 
the left to make the room face, as the 
room is opened up. By ginng 2J4 ft. on 
the rib side of each room road, a room 
40 ft. in width is made. This gives an 
economical working face for the self- 
propelling hea\->- mining machines and 
permits of their being brought to and 



July 4, 1908. 

from the working faces expeditiously. 

Some 40-ft. rooms are undercut in 45 
min., but usually the time required to un- 
dercut a room face is about one hour. 
The cutter bar is '6 ft. long and 18 in. 
wide. Entry pillars are about 50 ft. long 
and 20 ft. thick, with 7-ft. crosscuts. 

Owing to the difficulties in handling the 
clay from the undercutting and the neces- 
sity of waiting for places, the average per 
shift is only about three 40-ft. rooms, or 
120 ft. of lineal undercutting. As a rule, 
two men could load out the coal in a 4-ft. 
room in lyi shifts. From each room 
cutting about 38 tons of coal, miner's 
weight, was loaded out, the two tons prob- 
ably going to the bands and impurities in 
the coal An average daily output per 
man in the rooms is 5^ tons in entries, 
and five tons to each cut. 

It is thought advisable to have all the 
pillars of 20-ft. width instead of one being 
21 and the other 14 ft. The room pillar 
should be 10 ft. instead of 8 ft. thick, and 
room necks should be 12 ft. deep and 7 
ft. wide, instead of being only 7 ft. deep as 
at present. The Sullivan machine used, re- 
quired a distance of 6 ft. between the face 
of the coal and the last row of props. In 
one mine the room roads were 5 ft. from 
the rib with one row of props between. 
There were on an average, in this mine, 
three 4^-ft. props used to each ton of 
coal produced. The clay under the coal 
varies in thickness from 6 to 10 in. Under 
the clay is a hard limestone and in best 
practice, the props are footed on this 

Goodman electric mining machines are 
also used. These undercut to a depth of 
6 ft. and are used to cut the entries, and 
generally work on the night shift. Good- 
man haulage motors are used and one 
Morgan-Gardner haulage motor. 

New Rescue Apparatus for Mines 

The Institution of Mining Engineers, 
which has its headquarters at Newcastle- 
on-Tyne, England, its members being 
chiefly men connected with coal and iron 
mining, held its annual general meeting in 
London during the first week in June. 
The mornings were devoted to the read- 
ing and discussion of papers, while the 
afternoons were spent in visiting works 
and the mining and metallurgical exhibits 
of the Franco-British exhibition now be- 
ing held in London. Among the works 
visited were those of Siebe, Gorman & 
Company, who construct diving apparatus 
for the British navy, and who in recent 
years have given special attention to the 
manufacture of apparatus for rescue work 
in mines. Appliances are made for use 
under water as well as in poisonous at- 
mospheres. The apparatus for both pur- 
poses is of a simple, reliable and inex- 
pensive nature, and considering their great 
value as a means of saving life, they ought 

to be found in every mine that is liable 
to an explosion or to being flooded. 

The demonstration given at Siebe & 
Gorman's works included four separate 
exhibits. The ordinary diving dress, as 
used for marine work, was first shown. 
The diver is here supplied with air from 
an air pump at the surface and is in com- 
munication with the surface through a 
telephone. The second exhibit was a self- 
contained diving apparatus, in which a 
supply of oxygen is carried by the diver 
in steel cylinders. This apparatus is more 
likely to be of use in mines than the 
ordinary diving dress, because the diver 
can move about more freely. This self- 
contained apparatus is the invention of 
Mr. Fleuss, who proved its successful 
application when, a quarter of a century 
ago, he saved the workings of the Severn 
tunnel, when they were accidentally 
flooded by an irruption of water. A feat- 
ure of the apparatus is that the supply of 
oxygen is automatic. Pure oxygen is not, 
hoyvever, supplied to the diver, but a mix- 
ture of 40 per cent, of pure oxygen and 
60 per cent, of air. By this means the 
danger of oxygen-poisoning at ordinary 
depths is avoided. Of course, much more 
of this mixture is needed than if pure 
oxygen were supplied, but the extra 
weight of steel cylinders is of little im- 
portance, as the diver must be artificially 
weighted in any case, to enable him to 
sink. The most recent form of the Fleuss 
apparatus was publicly shown for the first 
time, a diver giving a practical demon- 
stration in a large tank. 

While this apparatus may, no doubt, be 
usefully employed at a mine for getting 
at drowned-out pumps, or closing water- 
tight doors, and similar work, it does not 
compare in value with the appliances 
made for enabling men to descend into 
mines filled witli smoke or poisonous 
gases. Here human life is usually at 
stake and with this apparatus available, 
the lives of many men entombed by falls 
of ground may be saved. The dress is 
somewhat similar to that used under 
water, but is lighter. The Hall-Rees light 
diving dress and smoke helmet, designed 
by two naval officers, was designed more 
particularly for rescuing men from a sub- 
merged submarine, but it can also be 
used as a smoke helmet. It is very light 
and can be put on without assistance in 
30 seconds. The oxalate, or air purifier, 
is carried in a case fixed to the front of 
the man's jacket, and the vitiated air pass- 
ing through the oxalate is re-oxygenated 
and used over and over again. It is made 
for a service of two hours. 

The improved Fleuss apparatus was 
also shown and a demonstration given of 
its use in an experimental gallery filled 
with poisonous gases. In this apparatus 
the oxygen supply is carried in a cylinder, 
or in two cylinders, on the man's back 
and there is a breathing bag in front. At- 
tached to the bag is a pressure gage enab- 
ling the man to see exactly what quantity 

of oxygen remains in his cylinders and 
warning him when to return. The dress 
is light and allows free movement of the 
body, and a man equipped with the ap- 
paratus can crawl through a small open- 
ing without any danger of the apparatus 
being damaged, the bulkier part of the ap- 
paratus being fixed in the small of the 
back, so that if a man can get his head 
and shoulders through an opening, he 
knows this his oxygen cylinders will go 
through safely. 

Those who are interested in this subject 
will find much detailed information in the 
Transactions of the Institution of Min- 
ing Engineers, as well as in the report of 
the Royal Commission on Mines. The 
subject is of the highest importance and 
all managers, who have human lives de- 
pendent on them, ought to inform them- 
selves of the work that has been done in 
connection with rescue appliances for 
mines. Science has given the miner a 
weapon which enables him to defy water, 
smoke and firedamp, and there can be no 
excuse for failing to provide the appli- 
ances which may save life, or at all events 
mitigate the horrors of a mine disaster. 

A California Power Plant 

Special Correspondence 

The Great Western Power Company 
has commenced work on its extensive 
dam at the intake of the Big Bend tunnel 
in Butte county, Cal. Electric cars run 
through the tunnel from the power plant 
at the lower end to the dam at the upper, 
conveying material. The tunnel is 3 
miles long and 18 ft. high in the clear, 
lined with cement. This same company 
has commenced work also on its transfor- 
mation sub-station in East Oakland. This 
is at Sessions basin on the edge of the 
deep water in Oakland harbor. On this 
same property will be erected a steam- 
power plant to develop 25,000 h.p. by the 
use of fuel oil, .13 an auxiliary. The 
transmission lines are now in course of 
construction, and between 30 and 40 miles 
of them have been finished. Stretches 
have been completed above Oroville, in 
Sacramento county. The transmission 
cables are carried on steel towers 30 ft. in 
bight, and it is expected that the first in 
stallation will have been completed by 
October. At this time the delivery of 
65,000 h.p. of electrical energy will begin. 
The transmission line, when completed, 
will pass through Butte, Sutter, Sacra- 
mento, Yolo, Contra Costa and Alameda 
counties, crossing the San Joaquin river 
at Antioch. It is generally understood 
that much of the power generated at the 
Big Bend electric plant will eventually be 
used on the lines of the Western Pacific 

July 4. 1908. 


Coal Dust as a Factor in Mine Explosions 

Liability of Coal Dust to Explosion Increases Almost Directly with Its 
Percentage of Volatile Combustible Matter. Size Also of Importance 

B Y 



P A Y N E ^ 

Shortly after tlic completion of my in- 
vestigation of the Monongah explosion, 
your president asked me to address you 
at this meeting, and as the intervening 
time seemed ample for preparation, I con- 
sented. I almost immediately began a 
scries of foreign correspondence for the 
purpose of securing all possible reports 
and data which would enable me to pre- 
sent to you at this time, a resume of the 
coal-dust problem in its highest develop- 
ment, but I had no conception of the mass 
of material which must be assimilated, or 
of the labor entailed in its compilation. 

For any apparent omissions or incom- 
plete developments I do not plead procras- 
tination, but rather the fact that the pre- 
paration of the material embodied, re- 
quired the translation of over 80 books 
and reports in French and German, and 
over 1000 letters and magazine articles in 
these and other languages, a complete or 
even comprehensive summary of which 
would assume the dimensions of a book 
of considerable inagnitude. 

Coal dust is first mentioned as a dan- 
gerous element in 1803, next in 1828, and 
again in i8:(4 and 184s. All these cases 
were in England. In 1855, 1861, 1864, 
1867, and 1875 we (ind records of experi- 
ments in France. Since that time, France, 
England, Gcrniaiiy, Prussia, Belgium, and 
the United States have all shown periods 
of active investigation, culminating in 
recent years in coal-dust commissions, 
bureaus or departments of mining, and 
the establishment of stations for techno- 
logical research. 

Upon certain basic principles, all scien- 
tists seem agreed. Coal dust has existed 
in coal mines from the earliest dates, and 
and is a more or less unavoidable product. 
The quantity produced in our modern 
n;iiies is comparably large, compared 
tlint produced in the earlier days, and 
consequently the dangers of coal mining 
are correspondingly increased. This in- 
crease is due principally to the large out- 
put of the present day, the greater depths 
reached, the more common use of explo- 
sives, extended haulage systems, large 
number of men employed, and high speeds 
used in transit. The amount of coal dust 
produced depends mainly on the nature 
of the coal. A coal easily friable m.iy be 
so mined as to avoid much of the dust, 
by care and skill in mining, and attention 

Note — A pnper rond before tlie Conl Min- 
ing Inatllute ot America, Greonsbiirg, Penn., 
June 8. 1008. 

•I'rofessor of mlnlnK enKinecrlng, West 
Vlrdnla University, Morgnntown, west Vir- 

to the condition of roadway and rolling 

Thus far, we lind unanimity of opinion, 
but at this stage, investigators become dis- 
tinctly segregated into two classes. The 
first of these maintain that a dust explo- 
sion is only possible in the presence of 
firedamp, while the latter assert that under 
certain conditions of fineness, suspension 
and temperature, any organic dust is ex- 
plosive. In considering cither of these 
classes we find striking illustrations, rec- 
ords, and experiments tending to support 
the claims of its adherents. 

It appears to me that in weighing such 
arguments, the first point of differentia- 
tion is to establish a line of demarcation 
between cornbustion and explosion. All 
combustible material may be considered 
as explosive if the conditions under which 
combustion takes place, are such that dis- 
ruption and consequent expansion, or de- 
composition, occur so nearly simultane- 
ously, that the expansive force is mani- 

u :,i lur ii< j;- -j.i ."» I"' "» -" 


tested before the heat generated by the 
transfer of energy into kinetic form can 
be appreciably recognized. The one cle- 
ment upon which such manifestation de- 
pends more largely than any other, is 
room for expansion. Hence the danger 
from any accumulation of dust increases 
rapidly with the distance in from the 
mouth of the mine, and it is probable that 
what have been described as dust explo- 
sions in coal tipples might more correctly 
be classified as combustions. 

An illustration of this class of phenom- 
ena is had in the case of La Belle works 
several years ago, where a crusher was 
being installed. The coal is hard, and at 
least 20 per cent, of the crusher product 
will pass a No. 100 screen. The crusher 
was located in a pit and was housed up 
perfectly tight, the only opening being that 
for belt coiuiection with the motor. M 
the point where the belt came through the 
wall, several -ihicknesscs of common can- 
\as had been placed, and there was an 

accumulation 01 several inches of dust 
over surrounding timbers and canvas. 
The canvas was ignited by a hot bearing 
on the motor, and began to burn slowly. 
The attendant attempted to beat out the 
blaze with another piece of canvas which 
in.mcdiately threw large quantities of dust 
in suspension, over the blaze, which then 
shot up the chute 15 or 20 ft. As soon as 
the dust around the blaze had burned up, 
however, the fire went out altogether. 

Next in importance to room for ex- 
pansion is the degree of inflammability of 
the dust, the density of its suspension, and 
its fineness, or state of divisibility. Prob- 
ably the most exhaustive series of tests 
yet made to determine the elements en- 
tering into, and controlling the inflamma- 
bility of various dusts, are those made at 
the Gelsenkirchcn station (as reported in 
variius issues of the Gliieckauf, and in the 
publications of that station) and those un- 
der the supervision of M. Taffanel at the 
Licvin station, and published as a report 
of the central committee of coal mines of 

The results of the Gelsenkirchen experi- 
ments are shown in Fig. I. Increasing 
rapidly as the percentage of volatile mat- 
ter is augmented, the point of inflamma- 
bility reaches the highest point on the 
curve at about 29 per cent, volatile, after 
which it drops ofl almost as uniformly 
as it rose until it passes beyond 50 per 
cent., farther than which we find no 

The experiments of M. Taffanel, of the 
Lievin station are described in detail, and 
one cannot fail to be impressed with the 
extreme care and accuracy with which 
they were performed. In all cases dust, 
which would pass through a No. 200 
screen of the finest bolting cloth, was 
used, and a uniform charge of one-half 
cartridge of dynamite gelatine weighing 
from 32 to 38g. was placed without ram- 
ming, in a cannon, made by lioring a hole 
about I'A in. in diameter and 6 in. deep in 
the end of an old steel engine axle, which 
was placed on a truck at the end of the 
explosion cylinders. 

A ventilation system being produced by 
either compressed air or a motor-driven 
fan, the air and its load of dust circulated 
in a closed circuit, through the main cyl- 
inder and its rcluni, corresponding pre- 
cisely to a section of a main mine entry 
and its accompanying airw.-iy and interme- 
diate break-throughs. Prcliminarj- tests 
having shown that high vclocitj- of the air- 
current is unfavorable to ignition, a uni- 
form velocity of 4 to Svn. per second was 


}u\y _), if)o8. 

adopted for all the experiments, and all 
the samples tested were exploded both 
with and against the air-current, ignition 
being always greater when the shot was 
opposed to the direction of the air, or rela- 
tively toward the intake. 

The density of the cloud is regulated by 
the amount of dust fed into the cylinders 
from the hopper. The lading process con- 
tinues from 15 to 150 sec, depending on 
the density required. During this pe- 
riod the dust-laden air travels around the 
closed circuit from 5 to 50 times, the eddy 
thus created securing perfect homogene- 
ity of the cloud. 

The lowest density at which ignition 
was invariably produced, was 7og. of dust 
per cubic meter, and below a density of 
46g. per cubic meter nothing but negative 
results could be obtained. 

M. Taffanel draws the following con- 
clusions with regard to the influences of 
the density of the cloud : 

"There is one certain density for which 
the total combustion of the carbon and of 
the volatile matter, with exclusive forma- 
tion of carbonic acid and watery vapor, 
should absorb exactly all the oxygen of 
the air ; such a density would be particular- 
ly favorable to the propogation of tlame 
* * * . Having noted the low per- 
centage of ash and the high percentage of 
volatile matter, this density ought to lie 
below iiig. per cubic meter. But, when 
the density is raised above this value, 
the tests do not show any sign of stifling 
the flame through want of oxygen ; on 
the contrary, the greater the density the 
greater the flame. Yet. we should not 
deduce from this that stifling the flame or 
arresting its propagation by excess of 
dust, is never produced * * * "rhe 
violent pressure of the gas, which pro- 
motes combustion in the tube, forces be- 
yond this into the midst of the burning 
gas, the dust incompletely burned; this 
combustion is completed at the expense of 
oxygen taken from the atmosphere, pro- 
ducing at the extremity of the tube, a 
flame whose extent is proportioned to the 
weight of unconsumed dust projected. 

"After the ignition of very dense clouds 
of dust, and especially when the density 
■exceeds 2Sog, per cubic meter, there are 
found in the tube, deposits of uncon- 
sumed dust with indications of partial dis- 
tillation. These are agglomerated in 
frothy fragments, * * * and have the 
appearance of coke crusts such as may be 
found on mine timbers after a dust ex- 

Many of these crusts were gathered 
(fter ignition and analyzed. The percent- 
age of volat-lie combustible matter had 
decreased f/om 29.7 per cent, to 25.1 per 
cent, while the ash increased from 5.5 
per cent, to 10.5 per cent. This increase 
in ash testifies to the partial combustion. 

The result' of all these tests leads us to 
■believe that large quantities of dust are 
not necessary, when homogeneously sus- 
pended, to form a dangerously inflam- 
mable cloud, since these last experiments 

show us invariable ignition at a dust 
density of 70g. per cubic meter, while as 
a matter of fact it is not unusual to find 
a density of loog. per cubic meter in any 
mine passage of an old mine, under high 
air-current velocities, leakage of com- 
pressed-air pipes, or e-xtremely rapid haul- 
age. Reference to Fig. 2 shows entirely 
different results as determined by M. 
Taffanel, from those shown in Fig. i. 

The Lievin tests failed to get an igni- 
tion with any of the dusts until passing II 
per cent, volatile matter by analysis, after 
which the point of ignition lowered rapid- 
ly as the percentage of volatile matter in- 
creased, and after reaching 17 per 'cent, 
the curve becomes almost a straight line, 
passing off at about 29 degrees, and very 
regular, up to 53 per cent, volatile mat- 
ter, beyond which the experiments were 
not carried. 

The reason for such a marked differ- 
ence between Figs, i and 2 can only be 
conjectured. I am inclined to the opinion 
that the extreme uniformity of experi- 
mental conditions which governed the 
French investigation, such as uniform 
weight of explosive, uniform air-current 
ond temperature, had much to do with 









0% i% lOiJ 15J -JOS: iVi ■!»% 35i5 40it',45i[ M* 

bringing about the regularity of results, 
and I believe that the extreme fineness 
of the dust used had a pertinent bearing 
on the value of these results, to which lat- 
ter feature I shall revert subsequently. 

Professor Abel states that the propor- 
tion of firedamp required in a mine to bring 
dust into operation as a ready explosive 
material, is below the smallest amount 
which can be detected by the most ex- 
perienced observer. The Prussian Fire- 
damp Commission in 1883, concluded that 
a minute quantity of dust in the presence 
of an almost indistinguishable amount of 
firedamp would produce violent explo- 
sions, so that a dust not otherwise 
dangerous, may give rise to a disastrous 
explosion under these conditions. 
' Foster and Haldane state that while the 
possibility of a purely dust explosion is 
bound up with the presence of certain 
kinds of coal, and while on the other hand 
a comparatively high percentage of me- 
thane is necessary in order to form an ex- 
plosive mixture with air, such as in most 
mines must be regarded as an exception, 
coal dust and methane cooperate ; and it 
is, therefore, possible for explosive con- 
ditions to arise in almost any mine, since 
there is everywhere opportunity for the 
formation of coal dust. 

In 1886 a Commission for the Investiga- 
tion of English Mine Accidents, reported 
among other conclusions : "The occur- 
rence of a blown-out shot where but a 
small percentage of firedamp exists in the 
air, in the presence of but slightly inflam- 
mable, or a wholly non-inflammable but 
very fine, dry, and porous dust, may cause 
an explosion, the flame of which may 
reach other distant accumulations of gas 
or deposits of inflammable dust." Henry 
Kinlock in an article in the Colliery En- 
gineer, Vol. 9, p. 26, says that if dust were 
the principal agency in coal-mine explo- 
sions, every blown-out shot would be at- 
tended by a disastrous explosion. 

We now come to the consideration of 
those investigators whose experiments 
and observations lead them to the con- 
clusion that any organic dust is explosive 
under stated conditions: Richard K. 
Meade, editor of the Chemical Engineer, 
describes in detail the explosion which 
occurred at the Edison Portland Cement 
Company's plant some three or four years 
ago. At this plant, the coal was crushed 
between rollers, and the pulverized pro- 
duct blown out into settling chambers, the 
coarse product being returned for regrind- 
ing. A small fire started in an elevator 
leading from a drier used to dry the coal, 
and passed over into the settling chamber, 
in which there was at all times an atmos- 
phere heavily charged with fine coal dust. 
The explosion which occurred wrecked 
the building, blowing off the steel sheets 
riveted to the steel framework. 

Professor Peckham, of the University 
of Minnesota, describes in the March, 
April and May, 1908, issues of the same 
journal, the dust explosion in the Wash- 
burn Flouring Mills at Minneapolis, in 
1878, and shows conclusively that sparks 
of fire generated between the millstones, 
ignited the flour dust in the conveyers and 
dust room, causing both to explode. To 
support this conclusion, he observes at 
length, that there were no explosive ma- 
terials of any kind in or about the mill ; 
that no electric phenomena had ever been 
abserved in connection with the mill ; that 
while dust may be made so fine as to float 
in air, and water may float in air as a fog, 
yet neither is a gas, and flour dust is not 
a gas. 

He then states the chemical analysis of 
wheat flour, ard shows the various tem- 
peratures and conditions under which it 
emerges from the stones, and relates that 
if wheat flour were subjected to destruc- 
tive distillation, hydrogen and carbureted 
hydrogen (methane) would be among the 
products of decomposition, and concludes 
that W'heat-flour dust, when fine, dry, and 
hot enough, will explode. 

To corroborate his position, he quotes 
the explosion in the soap works of the 
Kendall Manufacturing Company, at Prov- 
idence, R. I., in 1890, after which he car- 
ried on a series of experiments with va- 
rious kinds of flour, powdered sugar, plan- 
ing-mill dust, powdered soap, powdered 

July 4> 1908. 


asphallimi, and similar substances, tvcry 
one of which will explode when extremely 
fine, properly suspended in a homogeneous 
cloud, and mixed with the requisite 
amount of air. In fact powdered soap, in 
contact with an open gas jet, gave evi- 
<lence of a greater explosive force and 
more intense heat than could be produced 
from any of the other dusts named. 
( Within the last month our attention has 
lieen directed to an explosion of pulver- 
ized sugar in a sugar refinery in Paris, 
wherein 42 lives were lost and property 
worth $100,000 destroyed.) 

Professor Pcckham's work extended 
over so many years, and was so thorough, 
that I cannot do better than quote his own 
words in reference to recent coal-mine 
disasters in West Virginia and Pennsyl- 
vania : "It is not necessary to assume the 
presence of firedamp at all. Coal dust 
and air in proper proportions, ignited 
from a blast, are an ample and wholly 
adequate cause for all the phenomena that 
occurred. Years of imnuniity are no safe- 
guard against a critical condition that may 
appear at any moment, and yet never 
come. * * * In a mine explosion, no 
one observes either cause or effect from 
the outside. The few who survive are 
usually remote from the initial steps in 
the phenomenon. * * * it js, there- 
fore, only by analogy that it can be rea- 
sonably assumed that a slight accident or 
indiscretion, by which the initial explosion 
of a mixture of coal dust and air jars the 
dust into the air from an adjoining cham- 
ber, from which a succession of explo- 
sions follow * * * until the cumula- 
tive effect is irresistible and almost irre- 
trievable disaster. ♦ * * Immaculate 
cleanliness and eternal vigilance arc the 
price of safety in all * * * mines 
where oxidizable dust is produced." 

Henry Hall, in 1876 and again in 1890, 
stated that his experiments for the Royal 
Coal Dust Connnission had not shown 
that gas is necessary before an explnsion 
of dust can occur, but that coal dust 
from some seams is as sensitive to ex- 
plosion as gimpowder itself, its sensitive- 
ness being in direct proportion to its free- 
dom from impurities. Doctor Foster, late 
Professor of Mining Engineering at the 
R<iyal School of Mines, London, says that 
it has been proved that the dust of cer- 
tain coals, especially the bituminous coals 
rich in gas, may be the cause of explo- 
sions, when methane is completely absent. 
Prof. '['. H. Cockin, in his latest book 
on "Coal Mining," says: "That coal dust 
and air can cause all t!;? effect of a violent 
explosion without the presence of ga^; is 
proved by the following: 

"First, a violent explosion can readily 
be caused by the experimental firing of 
coal dust and air. 

"Second, explosions of roal dust and air 
have taken place on scucens, etc., on the 
surface. (Note. — These latter are more 
propcrlv designated as combustions. — H. 
M. ?.•)' 
"Third, violent explosions have taken 

place at collieries in which m gas has ever 
been detected, either before or after the 

"Fourth, many recent explosions have 
originated in the main intakes, in which 
dust in its most dangerous form was most 
likely to be found, and in which it was 
impossible for large volumes of gas to 
have been present. The quantity of such 
dust in the air, necessary to give rise to 
an explosion depends upon various cir- 
cumstances, but the dust must be intim- 
ately mixed with the air in the shape of a 
cloud, though the cloud need not neces- 
sarily be very dense." 

Professor Abel (above referred to), 
chemist of the English War Department, 
writes: "A particular dust, though it may 
contain but a small proportion of combus- 
tible matter, may explode in a very mild 
or feeble character in the first instance, 
and be instaniancously increased in mag- 
nitude and violence by coal dust raised 
and brought into action by the first igni- 

As long ago as May, 1878, an editorial 
in the Scientific American Supplement 
said: "Indeed it would appear that coal 
dust itself, when mixed with certain pro- 
portions of air, renders the air explosive 
without the presence of any of the gases 
usually evolved in coal mines." 

The most widely read, most frequently 
quoted and most distinctive conclusions 
ever placed on record, are those of the 
Royal Commission of England. Time and 
space forbid an extended excerpt, but it is 
interesting to note tVo of their specific 
deductions, viz.: "Coal <lust alone, with- 
out the presence of any other gas at all, 
may cause a dangerous explosion if ig- 
nited by a blown-out shot or other violent 
inflammation. « * * Different dusts 
arc inflammable and consequently danger- 
ous in varying degrees ; but it cannot be 
said with absolute certainty, that any dust 
is entirely free from risk." 

In Mines and Minerals, June, l8j8, we 
find the report of State Mine Inspector 
Griffiths, of Colorado, on the Crested 
Butte explosion, in which he deduces, 
among other conclusions, the following: 

"I. That coal dust under certain con- 
ditions is explosive in the absence of 

"2. That a very little compression of 
the inflammable ingredients will bring 
them to an explosive point. 

"3. That the dust particles give off 
their explosive constituents at a lower 
temperature than is generally admitted. 

"4. That an explosion of coal dust can 
take place without the intervention of shot 

Sufficient reference has been made to 
various authorities to' show the sincerity 
with which the exponents of cither theory 
ma> attempt to justify their stand, and it 
is 111 interest to pass on to the much 
niir.teil question of the influence of tem- 
perature and barometric pressure upon the 
frequency or added liability to the occur- 

rence of such explosions. It has been 
commonly claimed that severe mine ex- 
plosions are more frequent in cold than 
in warm weather because of the fact that 
the air entering the mine is very low in 
hygroscopic moisture and that on expand- 
ing in the mine atmosphere it takes up all 
the moisture, making the mine dry and 
dusty; from which argument we imme- 
diately develop the statement that the 
better, the system of ventilation, the dryer 
the mine, and consequently the more ex- 
plosive the dust. 

James Ashworth, of England, in a 
series of articles published in 1903 and 
1904. claims that the presence of moisture 
in the atmosphere is a marked aid to an 
explosion, and quotes instances where ex- 
plosions have followed the wet portions 
of mines, and shunned the dry places. In 
summing up his paper on "Air Percussion 
and Time in Colliery Explosions," he 
slates that the extension of an explosion 
is probably facilitated rather than retarded 
by watering and spraying. 

The most available data on barometric 
influence upon mine explosions was pub- 
lished in Cool. January, 1908. The statis- 
tics upon which the article is based were 
prepared by D. E. Llewellyn, and show 
graphically that of all the mine explosions 
of which records were available between the 
years 1808 to 1894, in England and Wales, 
the month of June exceeded any other 
period of the year, in its disasters. Out 
of all these explosions, he takes the years 
1856 to 1894 and shows that of the 17 ex- 
plosions in that period, each of which in- 
volved more than 100 lives, none occurred 
in January, March, April, or May, and 
the months of June and July held equal 
place in percentage of explosions dunng 
those years. 

J. T. Beard, in his recent work on 
"Mine Gases and Explosions," admirably 
sums up the relation between mine ex- 
plosions and barometric changes as fol- 
lows : "The attempt to show that the 
colder seasons of the year are more pro- 
ductive of mine explosions, has proved 
almost as futile as the endeavor to show 
a connection between such explosions and 
barometric changes. • • • The effect 
of a sudden fall of barometric pressure 

• • ♦ is quite generally conceded to 
be followed, or it may be accompanied, 
by an outflow of gas from all standing 
areas and abandoned places in mines. 

• • * Some assert that there is an 
increased transpiration of gas from the 
solid face of the coal due to the de- 
creased atmospheric pressure, but the rate 
of transpiration is not appreciably af- 
fected by viy possible fall of the barom- 
eter, since the pressures under which 
gases are occluded, • • • are too 
great, as compared with atmospheric 
pressure, to be affected appreciably by 
such changes." 

During the past year there have been 
many discussions, commercial, sociolog- 
ical, and a few scientific on the relative 


July 4, 1908. 

amounts of dust made by different 
methods of mining, and on the merits of 
air and electricity from the standpoint of 
safety. I shall only refer, at this time, to 
the recently published tests made by the 
Fairmont Coal Company, and the West- 
moreland Coal Company, as relating to 
the results obtained from various mining 
machines, which tests may be found in 
late numbers of Mines and Minerals, and 
to recent articles on the effect of electric 
currents on coal dust, published in the 
Engineering and Mining Journal, from 
which latter articles we learn that it was 
only by the use of extremely small wires 
offering high resistance that temperatures 
were obtained which would produce ex- 
plosions under the most favorable cir- 

The experiments of Prof. B. H. Hite, 
chief chemist of the West Virginia Geo- 
logical Survey, have shown that ignition 
of coal dust by ordinary electric dis- 
charge, is impracticable. The results of 
his present experiments to determine the 
"flashing point" of coal dust, i.e., the tem- 
perature at which finely powdered coal 
begins to give off a combustible gas, are 
awaited with interest, since they are being 
made upon hundreds of samples of coal, 
from every open mine in the State. 

Before discussing the evolution of a 
coal-dust explosion, I desire to call your 
attention to some investigations I have 
been making at Morgantown, with a 
view to determining the degree of fine- 
ness which differentiates dust from slack. 
We note when reading any modern author- 
ity upon coal dust, that the finer the dust, 
the greater the explosion it will cause, 
and the lower the point of ignition. 

Professor Abel says that the intensity 
of coal-dust ignition is largely influenced 
by the fineness of the dust. Mr. Kinlock, 
in an article in the Colliery Engineer, dis- 
cussing the comparative rapidities of com- 
bustion and explosion, states that the 
rapidity depends principally on the fine- 
ness of the dust particles. 

Especially relevant at this time is an 
editorial from Mines and Minerals, of 
July, 1899, from which I quote briefly as 
follows : "Contents of dust particles are 
proportional to the velocity of the air 
movement that suspends them. The 
minutest particles are the only ones that 
are suspended in air which has * * * 
only an eddy motion, as in a closed room 
where minute dust particles are seen 
dancing in the sunbeams. The gradation 
of dust particles with relation to the air 
movement by which they are suspended 
is especially important with regard to the 
inflammability of coal dust when sus- 
pended in the air of mines. * * * 
Large particles of coal burn slowly, as 
the oxygen required for their combustion 
can only be supplied by converging 
streams of air that lie in the radii of 
spheres whose contents are proportional 
to the contents of the coal particles; this 

means that a given sphere of air contains 
the weight of oxygen required for the 
perfect combustion of the coal. * * * 
Large particles of dust cannot produce 
an explosion because the period required 
for its complete combustion is too long. 
Very fine dust such as is suspended in 
nearly still air, may, however, cause an 
explosion because * * * the areas of 
the surfaces of small particles are much 
larger in proportion to their contents than 
those of large particles ; * * * and 
because the combustion of the volatile 
matter disengaged by small particles 
(which is proportional to their surfaces 
divided by their contents) requires shorter 
periods than does the volatile matter dis- 
engaged by large particles, because the 
air and the gas are more intimately 
mixed, when ignition occurs." 

From this it is evident that the only 
dust that can be consumed rapidly enough 
to raise the surrounding air to the tem- 
perature of flame, is the fine small dust 
found in nearly still air. Beard, Hall, 
Cockin, and other authorities unite in 
saying that fine dust is more dangerous 
than coarse. Sir William Galloway says 
that the size of the dust particles is of 
great importance. 

With this irrefutable preponderance of 
testimony in mind, I began a series of ex- 
periments, with various sizes of dust, and 
velocities of air-current, upon as many 
different samples of coal as might be 
readily obtained, and in every instance I 
found a decided change in conditions be- 
tween the dust which passes through a 
No. 80 screen, and that which passes 
through one of 100 meshes to the inch. 
The coarser dust acts like fine sand, or 
granulated sugar, rolling along easily, but 
held in suspension with difficulty. The 
finer screenings, however, act more like 
gaseous bodies, and remain suspended in 
the slightest circulation. It is evident, 
therefore, that between these two sizes, 
there is a sharp d^narkation of more than 
a physical nature, and evidently bordering 
on or entering into a chemical transition. 

We know that divided carbon, in the 
form of charcoals, has the power to ab- 
sorb or occlude gases, and the testimony 
of W. E. Garforth before the Royal Dust 
Commission of England showed that fine 
coal dust consisted of hollow spores, 
which acted as reservoirs from which gas 
is being continuously dissipated in the air, 
and that each particle of dust is floating 
in its own balloon of gas. 

Organic dust has an affinity for the oxy- 
gen of the air, and when brought into con- 
tact with the atmosphere, rapidly disinte- 
grates under the combined influence of 
oxygen and atmospheric moisture. Doctor 
Bedson, of England, found that the hy- 
drocarbon gases occluded in coal dust are 
not merely marsh gas, but hydrocarbons 
containing a large proportion of carbon, 
and they, therefore, form an explosive 
mixture requiring a larger volume of air 
than the marsh gas that comes off before 

the heavier hydrocarbons. These hydro- 
carbons are replaced principally by oxy- 
gen, and such dust ignites more easily 
than dust entirely devoid of air. Doctor 
Bedson's experiments, and those of Pro- 
fessor Hite referred to above, have shown 
that finely divided coal dust gives oflf gas 
at much lower temperature than has been 
suspected ; in fact occlusion takes place at 
normal atmospheric temperatures much 
below those at which the usual analyses 
rre made. Where we find instances of 
partially consumed dust, it is probable that 
the more volatile hydrocarbons have ex- 
hausted all the oxygen, and none is left 
for the closer burning carbon. 

Another reason why the finer dust is 
susceptible of ignition, lies in the fact, as 
deduced by James Ashworth from the 
works of Doctor Bedson, that the lighter 
gases such as marsh gas and hydrogen are 
most readily removed, and the coal dust 
when extremely fine, allows the ready dif- 
fusion of the lighter gases into the air, 
while the denser gases remain for a time. 
These denser hydrocarbons are in time 
diffused and replaced by oxygen, and thus 
we have not only the fine dust lightly 
floating along in the ventilating current, 
but also the diffused hydrocarbons which 
are gradually collecting throughout the 
mine, or else being mixed with the dust 
in circulation, lurking in constant readi- 
ness for an initial force to give them com- 
bustible temperature. 

I believe, therefore, that we are justified 
in stating that any pulverized coal coarser 
than that which will pass a No. 100 screen 
is properly classified as slack, liable only 
to explosion in the secondary sense, as 
when distilled by the heat or compression 
of a primary ignition ; and that all sizes 
from No. 100 screenings and finer, may be 
appropriately designated as dust. This 
real dust is described by Doctor Mellor 
as being in a state of "chemical tension," i.e., 
bordering on dissolution or decomposition. 

The effect of compression on such a 
dust cloud would be very different than 
that upon gas and air alone, for in the 
latter case no amount of compression 
would change the relative mixture of air 
and gas, while in the former case, it 
would increase the density of the cloud, 
which if ignited would create a greater 
amount of heat and gas in the same space. 
(Vide Mines and Minerals, December, 

One of the noteworthy features of a 
dust explosion is the fact that coke crusts 
are found wherever the coal dust is free 
from external impurities, but wherever 
clays or other dust from roof or floor be- 
come mixed with it, as along main haul- 
ways, these deposits are rare. 

We have now in an individual sense, 
briefly ; in a collective sense, at consider- 
able length ; but in neither sense, ex- 
haustively, reviewed the various phases of 
coal-dust investigation. Doubtless we are 
now more fully cognizant than ever be- 
fore, of the explosive potential of coal 
dtist, but the problem still confronting u» 

July 4, 15 



is how to master the evil gciiic, the con- 
fines of whose territory have so recently 
been established. 

Striving toward this end, we find atten- 
tion divided between three methods of 
elimination : 

1. Removing the dust. 

2. Watering the dust. 

3. Using flameless powder. 

All that needs to be said of the first is 
that good judgment and sound mining 
practice require that all available dust 
shall be loaded out of the rooms at fre- 
quent and stated periods. 

Regarding the second, we are con- 
fronted with a variety of methods, experi- 
ences and opinions. Mel Butler, now super- 
intendent of the Bix Six Coal Company, 
at Palmer, Washington, whose experience 
covers the Crested Butte explosion, and 
an extended service in charge of the 
Tercio mines in Las Animas county, 
Colo., writes me at length of his experi- 
ments with various methods of watering 
the dust, and sums up by saying : "I 
recommend spraying the water as fine as 
possible, and keeping someone always at 
it. Improvement can be noted at once. 
There will be no water on the roads from 
this method, but they will remain wet, 
and the air will be cool and damp. After 
three months the moisture was seen to 
climb up into the raise workings. In six 
months the air in the mine was clear and 
you could feel the dampness on the faces 
of the coal, and in some places, see the 
tiny globules of water. The dryness of 
the summer months can be overcome by 
using a fan. Fine spraying all along the 
entries and roadways is the only way to 
overcome dust, as it is the only way dust 
can be dampened ; the fact of the water 
on the roadway helps very little. I know 
of an explosion from a blown-out shot 
where there was water the entire length 
of the gangway and no gas. Fine spray- 
ing and keeping everlastingly at it is the 
principal thing. 

"Wetting the face of the room previous 
to firing is of no material benefit other 
than that it cools the air at that point. 
The dust should, of course, be loaded out, 
tut it is not this dust thai carries the 
danger, but rather the fine dust in sus- 
pension which will ignite instantaneously 
from the flame of the shot and communi- 
cate with that previously deposited on 
timbers, roofs, sides and in crosscuts. 

"The point I make is to dampen the 
fine particles as they are blown in the 
air and cause them to settle at once, and 
settle damp — then it will be easy to keep 
thi-m damp." 

Rearing on this same phase of the 
spraying proposition. The Engineering 
AND Mining Journal, in an editorial in 
May, 1904, said that the saturation of air 
in a mine where the main airway may be 
passing 200,000 cubic feet of air per min- 
ute, is practically out of the question. 
James Ashworth, of England, as has 

been quoted previously, claims that sat- 
urated air is no deterrent against the ex- 
tension of an explosion, and maintains 
further that in deep, hot mines, men can- 
not work in a moist atmosphere, while in 
dry mines at the same temperature, they 
suffer but little inconvenience. 

Many companies are now using a port- 
able electric pump with hose attachment 
and are washing down the roof, sides and 
face of the working places. This doubt- 
less washes down what dust may be then 
lodged on these surfaces, but unless con- 
tinuously carried on throughout the mine, 
would be of small benefit, in entries and 

We now pass to the third method of 
eliminating danger from dust, the use of 
"safety," or "flameless" powder. Refer- 
ence to my Monongah report will show 
that my chief recommendation at that 
time was the use of such powder, and I 
still lay great stress on its importance. 

A series of most exhaustive tests, 
equaled only by those of M. Taffanel, 
quoted above, have been made by the De- 
partment of Mines of Belgium under the 
direction of Victor Watteyne, and de- 
scribed in a number of brochures pub- 
lished by that department. These tests, 
however, instead of being directed toward 
the inflammability of various coals, were 
in the nature of a study of explosives, 
for the purpose of determining which, if 
any, were positively safe. I quote from 
Mr. Watteyne works : "Certain ex- 
plosives, to which the admitted theories 
attributed a high degree of safety, have 
proved unworthy to appear on this list. 

* * * The safety of an explosive de- 
pends not only on its chemical consti- 
tuents, but also on its method of com- 
position. One recalls the noted example 
of Dahmenite "A," quoted by M. Heise, 
where the charge limit varied in great 
proportions with the grain. * * I 
have pointed out frequently during the 
past 10 years the importance of care in 
mining coals high in bitumen, calling at- 
tention to the very special danger from 
volatile dusts. * * * Much progress 
has been made in this regard ; the em- 
ployment of safety explosives which has 
become common in our mines, has been a 
great step forward. But the complete 
suppression of all explosives is quite pre- 
ferable, and one cannot repeat too often, 
that safety from explosions can only be 
obtained at this price. 

"Such a complete elimination of ex- 
plosives seems impossible to realize, but 
it is possible in more cases than is gen- 
erally admitted ; several who have tried, 
have succeeded in it. * • * A very 
important cause of this preponderance of 
mine accidents caused by explosives is the 
pronounced influence which coal dust ex- 
ercises in mine catastrophes, as the mines 
increase in depth and extent and are, 
therefore, drier and warmer, and demand 
more active ventilation. We have also 

determined from our point of view, that 
gaseous and dusty conditions forbid the 
use of slow explosives, * * * even in 
mines where the most minute investiga- 
tions of the inspectors fail to show any 
:race of gas. * * * Whatever be the 
condition of ventilation in a mine, a cer- 
tain quantity of firedamp can be disen- 
gaged within the confines of the mine, 

♦ * * and can be reached by the 
flames of a blown-out shot before the 
firedamp has time to become sufficientlj 
diluted in the air. 

"It is besides, well established at the 
present time that certain coal dusts are 
capable, of themselves alone, or assisted 
by quantities of firedamp not appreciable 
by test, of giving rise to grave explosions, 
and activity of ventilation favors the pro- 
duction and propagation of dusts. * * * 
Careful tamping of the wad reinforces 
materially the safety, but its influence 
varies greatly with the nature of the ex- 
plosive. It is of minimum benefit with the 
ordinary charge, relatively weak for mix- 
tures of nitroglycerin, and very high for 
a strong proportion of ammonium nitrate 

The use of the lead block for testing 
the values of various explosives originated 
in Belgium, and has opened up a field of 
research in this country which is being 
entered by many of our large mining com- 
panies and by experts on explosives gen- 

In conclusion, I propose briefly to sum 
up the decisions at which I have arrived 
through my own experiments and the 
compilation of the subject matter here 

1. Granting that secondary explosions 
may be propagated indefinitely by the 
larger sizes, only coal dust which will 
pass through a No. 100 screen is capable 
of initial, or primary, explosion. 

2. Such dust after having been sub- 
jected to ordinary atmospheric air for only 
a few hours, becomes largely decomposed, 
and exists as a bubble of constituent gases, 
whose film is composed of undisintcgrated 
carbon and impurities, which after com- 
bustion are known as ash. 

3. Such dust, when suspended in a 
homogeneous cloud, with a moderate air 
velocity, is susceptible of ignition either 
through shock, compression, or sufficient 
heat to inaugurate combustion. 

4. Such results will be classified as 
combustion or explosion, depending upon 
the volume of dust ignited, its supply of 
o.xygen, and the space within which com- 
bustion takes place. 

5. Where gas alone is ignited, and the 
mine is free from dust, a "high explosive" 
effect is obtained, and the explosion may 
be strictly local, due to the cooling effects 
of the walls. 

6. The chief product of a dust explo- 
sion is carbon monoxide, whose expansion 
under combustion is greater than that of 
methane, and which receives its continu- 



July 4, 15 

ous supply of oxygen by feeding toward 
the intake. 

7. A dust explosion, while assisted by 
the intake air, must nevertheless follow 
those entries or airways furnishing the 
most material upon which to feed, and 
when this course follows the return air- 
ways, the conversion of the carbon mon- 
oxide to carbon dioxide renders the air 
extinctive, and prohibits further propa- 
gation. Evidence of such a condition will 
be found in the coke splashing, or crusts, 
formed by the deposit of red-hot cinders, 
carried by the air wave, and testifying to 
the incomplete combustion. 

8. The initial explosion may and gen- 
erally does, distil so large an amount of 
gas that complete combustion is impossi- 
ble at the site of distillation, and this 
mass of gas and dust, in varying stages of 
ignition and combustion at a temperature 
greatly in excess of the point of ignition 
were sufficient oxygen present, will de- 
velop into local explosions at irregular 
intervals, wherever adequate atmospheric 
oxygen is available, such as at junctions 
of airways, widened passages for side 
tracks, or cavities where falls of roof rock 
have occurred, and are frequently called 
"flame areas." 

9. When such an explosion, either pri- 
mary or secondary, travels toward a dead 
end of an entry or passage, the compres- 
sion generated by its expansion and mo- 
mentum causes an almost incredible rise 
in temperature, sufficient to distil the va- 
rious hydrocarbons from even the ribs of 
the coal itself, and supplementing it with 
a heat potential far in excess of its losses 
through radiation and expansion. 

10. The liability of any coal dust to ex- 
plosion increases almost directly with its 
percentage of volatile combustible matter, 
i.e., the quotient of its percentage of vola- 
tile matter divided by the sum of the per- 
centages of volatile matter and fixed car- 

11. While coal dust alone, under the 
conditions enumerated, is distinctively ex- 
plosive, the presence of even the smallest 
amount of methane augments materially 
the susceptibility to ignition. 

12. On account of the great elasticity of 
air, it is highly probable that no proper 
conception has yet been attained, of the 
almost incredible speed with which a dust 
explosion, through its gaseous products, 
may be extended to far distant portions of 
a mine, under the force of initial expan- 
sion, properly called the "percussive the- 

13. Changes in barometric pressure only 
affect the liability to explosion in so far 
as they allow, when the barometer is fall- 
ing, a settling of any possible accumula- 
tion of methane from a dome in the roof 
rock, into the ventilating current ; but such 
small quantities of gas are infinitely safer 
when diffused in the current of air than 
when concentrated in one place. 

Moreover, even if we grant that a low 
barometer allows greater occlusion it also 

allows easier ventilation for the diffusion 
of such occlusion. 

* 14. A mine may be overventilated until 
the air-current has such a velocity that it 
stirs up dust, and would feed any slight 
ignition which might take place and other- 
wise die out. 

15. The difference in the amount of real 
dust made by either air punchers or elec- 
tric-chain machines is so slight, and so 
variable, depending on the nature of the 
coal and the skill of the machine man, 
that it connot be said that either machine, 
as a class, creates more dust, one than 
the other. 

16. The results of experiments with 
electric ignition of dust show that the 
danger from electric wiring is no greater 
than that of stirring up a cloud of dust 
from a broken air pipe or a loose con- 

17. Coal dust cannot be made wet, in 
the usual sense. The method used by su- 
perintendent Butler is indicative of the 
best results, but even then it is hypotheti- 
cal if the most careful system of watering 
is not merely an infinitesimal portion of 
the "ounce of prevention," and it is an 
open question whether it is not positively 

18. While the abolition of all explosives, 
as recommended by the Belgian authori- 
ties, appears unnecessary and imprac- 
ticable in this country, yet the greatest 
field of investigation now lies along that 
line, and only those explosives carefully 
tested, and known to be uniformly pre- 
pared, by well known and responsible 
manufacturers, should be used. The main- 
tenance of a testing laboratory even 
though on a small scale, and the employ- 
ment of a competent chemical engineer, 
should be undertaken at every coal opera- 
tion of commercial importance. 

Why Sulphur Abounds Locally in 
Certain Coal Seams 

By J. R.* 

In recent correspondence with a prom- 
inent coal operator the following state- 
ment was made : "As to the Bed 'E' 
coal, I think the greatest trouble with this 
fuel for coking purposes is the amount of 
sulphur contained. Bed 'E' does not run 
regular at any place. A first-class coal 
may be found at one place, while 50 ft. 
further on pockets high in sulphur will be 

In assigning probable reasons in answer 
to the above, I submit the following re- 
marks as relating generally to all coal 
seams, but especially to the Upper Free- 
port and Brookville seams in Pennsyl- 
vania. I have often noticed the same con- 
ditions above mentioned, and from careful 
investigation am certain that the overly- 
ing massive Mahoning sandstone is the 

•Mining engineer, Johnstown, Tenn. 

cause of the pockety condition in which 
the sulphur is often found in Bed "E." 

The various movements of the earth's 
crust have caused the sandstone to fracture, 
and where there is an insufficient slate, or 
shale cushion, more than the usual amount 
of sulphur in the coal may be expected; 
especially is this true at points near any 
prominent fracture. Where unusual con- 
ditions exist, a succession of rolls in the 
coal seam usually afford these conditions, 
and from the siltings into the fracture in 
the rolls, coal from such localities gener- 
ally yields a higher percentage of ash. At 
such places the coal appears irregular, or 
"spotted" in quality. 

A Geological Problem 
To locate the fracture and its directions, 
is a problem for the geologist, and when 
this has been done it seems that the next 
correct move is for the engineer to ar- 
range the plans for mining so as to leave 
a line of pillars, or rib, directly under the 
line of fracture. The following reasons 
may be attributed for this procedure: (i) 
These supports would often prevent disas- 
tious rock falls; (2) the pillar, or rib, 
would contain the major portion of the 
sulphur pockets, and thus avoid much an- 
noyance. The large amount of iron ex- 
isting in the make-up of the Mahoning 
and the Clarion sandstones, is taken up 
by percolating waters, and uniting with 
the sulphur results in the pyrites. 

A force sufficient to fracture the rocks 
is also capable of crushing the underlying 
coal, and provides places for the forma- 
tion of pockets of sulphur and other silt- 
ings. A high percentage of iron in the 
coal, or the pyrites, gives a reddish ash, 
and an abundance of "clinker." Where 
the roof of a coal seam consists of a thin- 
bedded sandstone, a greater number of 
minor fractures regularly distributed are 
noticed; in this case the sulphur has the 
appearance of being finely diffused 
through the coal, and is difficult to elim- 

It should be remembered that in any 
movement of earth crust, coal is the first 
to be affected and suffers most. I believe 
that the pockety condition of sulphur 
found in all of our coal seams has been 
assembled by the process above described, 
and also feel sure that the greatest amount 
of sulphur is found in coal seams of a 
friable nature; or that part of the bed 
which is the least able to withstand a 
crushing force. 

According to Consul Isaac A. Manning, 
the United States of Colombia exported 
$2,011,959 gold; $98,597 platinum; $45,223 
mixed gold and platinum ; $26,991 gold 
specie; and $42,084 silver specie in 1907. 

According to a recent consular report, 
the Chinese government has granted a 
concession to work mines in Hainan, near 
Hongkong, where gold, tin, coal and iron 
are known to exist. 

July 4. 15 



A Method for Working a Thick Coal Seam 

Great Care Must Be Exercised in Drawing the Ribs and 
in Preventing the Dirt from Mixing with the Clean Coal 


Many are the difficulties to be overcome 
ill working coal scams which are 15 ft. or 
more in thickness."] here is greater danger 
of falls of roof due to the disadvantage, 
and sometimes the impossibility, of ef- 
ficiently timbering and testing. There is 
again a much greater surface area of coal 
exposed in thick seams than in thin ones, 
giving rise to greater oxidation of the 
coal, and as a result, the liability to more 
fires due to spontaneous combustion. 

It is not my object, primarily, to de- 
scribe the difficulties to be overcome in 
getting the coal, but -to give a practical 
instance of how a certain seam with which 
I am concerned is worked under most 
unfavorable conditions. 

The coal seam contains a dirt parting of 
a friable nature, and unless great pre- 
cautions are taken, it is liable to fall and 
mix up with the lower portion of the coal 
when that is being removed, leading to 
much waste. The coal is fiery; and necos 
sarily such a bed must be worked "coming; 
home" or retreating from the boundary 
toward the shaft. 

Mine Is Divided Into Districts 

The mine is divided into a number of 
districts which may be worked inde- 
pendently of each other ; they are formed 
by driving branch roads from off the main 
entry, 45 yd. apart, to the boundary. 
"Barriers" or ribs of coal 6 yd. wide arc 
left to separate neighboring districts, as 
shown in Fig. 2. The workings are di- 
vided in this manner so that in case of a 
serious fire, the burning area may be en- 
tirely and efficiently dammed off to pre- 
vent the (lames spreading. Smaller areas 
iif coal are then left unworked than would 
l)e the case if the workings were extended, 
I'"urthcrmorc, the ribs of coal that arc left 
picvcnt the thunderous falling in of the 
roof, which in some mines has such a fatal 
effect, causing the roadways to completely 
close, thus losing the timber ar.d steel sup- 
ports that have been used. In the South 
Staffordshire coalfield, these great falls 
are known as "bumps" and they are nearly 
always consequent upon the withdrawal of 
a large area of a thick coal seam. It is 
often possible to work over the same 
ground again after the lapse of a few 
years and remove all such ribs and pillars 
of coal as were of necessity left to sup- 
port the roof in the first development, 
hence the usefulness of making and pre- 
serving accurate plans. 

When the branch roads have reached 
the boundary, they are joined by a gatc- 

•Tlip Tinlvprslty. University Road, Edg- 
bnstmi, UlrnilnRlinm. Englnnd. 

rua<l abb 11. wide. I he men then go 
back 50 yd. from the ends of this road, 
and drive a second road or "split" across 
at c d. From this split, two roads are 
driven 15 yd. apart to the boundary, thus 
dividing the panel into three parts. 

The gateway cfh now driven parallel 
to o 6 a distance of 10 yd. away. This 
road may be driven in each direction from 
the center roads as well as from the 
branch roads. The distance, 10 yd., \\'hich 
has been found by experience to be most 
suitable, is regarded by the nature of 
the roof as aflPected by surrounding work- 

Wblle Uuil 


Oluk Bit 



Tow Coal 


Orey Cl«y Sbola 

atone Col 



Method of Working 

From the road ef, the whole of the coal 
below the dirt parting is swept out by 
stallwork to the boundary rib, this being 
simply longwall working; the working 
place is timbered up to the dirt. When 
the whole of this coal has been removed, 
the timber is withdrawn from the rear to 
the front, and the dirt is allowed to drop. 

It is well known that a yard of dirt in 
the solid occupies considerably more than 
a cubic yard when fallen, but here comes 
the great advantage of this method of 
working, for the men just clear the dirt 
from around the loading places or "bolt 
holes" f g II and /. to enable them to get 
into the opening when the rest is leveled 
and pulled back. These places are called 
"holt holes," because if anything happens 
in the opening, the men bolt through them 

with a slightly greater speed than tliat to 
which they are so accustomed. 

Getting the Top Co.\ls 

The next operation is to get out the top 
coals ; these are dropped, layer by layer 
and loaded out, the roof being timbered 
as well as possible. The difiiculty of 
efficiently setting long trees on loose 
ground is overcome in the following man- 
ner. To measure the bight of the prop 
required, the miner usually sticks the end 
of a tape in a ball of soft clay and throws 
it up to the roof to which it clings. The 
loose dirt forming the floor is then pre- 
pared to receive a large sleeper or "foot 
lid," by being leveled and stamped down. 
.\ "lop lid" is then fastened to the top of 
the tree by means of a stout nail. The 
prop is then placed on the end of the 
foot lid and at the required position in 
the roof; the bottom of the prop is then 
driven along the foot lid until it is tight 
and vertical. 

The whole of the top coal, however, is 
not at first worked out ; the rooves, black 
bat and white coal layers are left up as a 
roof and timbered to; it being considered 
the better plan to get out the whole of the 
coal below this horizon fir?t, rather than 
interfere with the top coals, thus causing 
a fall of roof entailing the loss of much 

If the former method is adopted, the 
li'P coal in the majority of cases may also 
be dropped and removed. Suppose now 
that only ilie rooves and white coals are 
up : It has been found by experiment that 
it is not advisable to blast them down, 
even if they are hard after all the timber 
has been removed ; such a shock is fatal 
and the sheet crashes in. It is best, there- 
fore, to remove the timber gradually from 
the rear to the bolt holes, and if the coal 
docs not conic in immediately to let it 
work down naturally or "fret." 

Dk.xwinc Ti.vbers 

Ihe timber drawer is usually an old- 
limcr; he knows his work, which is of a 
dangerous character, thoroughly. He 
cautiously removes most of the long trees 
first, by knocking them out with a "job- 
ber" (a long pole with an iron head), 
and if they do not come easily, he scrapes 
away some dirt from under the foot lid, 
and withdraws them with a "pillar" (a 
pole with a hook on the end). A suffi- 
cient number of trees are left in to protect 
the man in this operation, and these latter 
he extracts from a safe position. 

N'ow whilr flip top coal is being re- 



July 4, 1908. 

moved in section one, a second relay of 
men is started to drive another cross-road 
at k and b and to sweep out the bottom 
coal in section two, in the same manner 
as in the first case, timbering up to the 

In order to keep the roof steady, and 
in case there may be a fall of sheet in 
section one, small pillars of solid coal are 
left at a g It and b. These pillars — about 
4 yd. square — are sometimes found un- 
necessary; in such cases they are ex- 
tracted ; however, it is always best to 

comes on, the timber just gives a bit and 
allows the roof to bend slightly, whereas 
the sides of a pillar grind off. This latter 
action, besides weakening the support, 
offers another disadvantage, in that heat 
is produced by friction which, if not pre- 
vented, may originate a fire. 

In the same manner, while the top coal 
in section two is being taken out, a third 
section is being undermined, and so on. 
It will be seen that by adopting this 
method of working, practically the whole 
of the coal is taken out and verv little dirt 


leave them until such time when they can 
be taken out with safety. Another practi- 
cal point in connection with these small 
pillars is that the roof pressure is dis- 
tributed much better if they are not left 
in regular order. There should be no 
prearranged position for them, but, as a 
general view, should appear as in the ac- 
companying figure. 

Good timber chocks or cogs are some- 
times built, instead of leaving pillars; 
these cog.s form a good support if they 
are put in in time, for when a weight 

is loaded out. This compares most favor- 
ably with the general method of working 
thick seams known as "square work," and 
which was at first the method of working 
at this mine. 

While panel A is being extracted panel 
B is being prepared, the size being the 
same, namely, 45x50 yd. In full working 
order about 40 men are required per panel. 
Under fortunate conditions, all the coal 
from the boundary to the main roads may 
be obtained by thus working in sections, 
but the coal being of a fiery nature, it 

sometimes happens that "fire-stink" is de- 
tected in the workings coming out of the 
goaf. The whole of the work is imme- 
diately dammed off by four dams, as 
shown in panel A in the sketch. If this 
were not done the gas would be so strong 
on the day after its appearance that the 
men would be unable to work. In such 
a case, a "fire rib" about 5 yd. thick should 
be left intact, forming a complete dam to 
the area on fire, and giving such roof sup- 
port as would enable the workmen to 
commence a fresh section and carry on 
the work as commenced. 

The illustration. Fig. I, shows the main 
roads at the bottom ; on the left is a dis- 
trict worked back to the main-road rib ; 
in the center, the last panel of a district 
is about to be started ; on the right is a 
district being opened out at the boundary 
rib, as I have already described ; on the 
extreme right, roads are being driven out 
defining a fresh district. 

Gold in the Dominican Republic 

The British vice-consul at Santo Do- 
mingo reports that veins of auriferous 
quartz are found all along the central 
mountain chain, or Gran Cordillera, the 
richest lodes being always in meta- 
morphic rocks, near the crystalline 
rocks. Alluvial gold exists along the 
upper Jaina river, in the province of 
Santo Domingo; it is coarse and of a 
deep yellow color, showing a high de- 
gree of purity; an assay of 12 oz., made 
at the United States mint in 1870, showed 
a fineness of 0.946. In the northern part 
of the island, that is, on the northern 
flank of the Cibao, alluvial gold is found 
in a number of places, especially in 
streams flowing from the Sierra de Cibao 
into the Yaque river. The Rio Verde and 
Sabaneta placers, in the Cibao region, 
have acquired quite a name, and it is re- 
ported that natives washing the gold- 
bearing sands in bateas, or common vats, 
have gathered as much as from S to 6 oz. 
a week. 

The mines and placers known to exist 
in the province of Santiago are the Cerro 
de Piedra Blanca, in Paralimon; San 
Jose de las Matas, about one and a half 
miles from San Jose, which contains gold 
and iron oxide; El Pinar, San Jose de 
las Matas, on the road to Guava Cuano, 
containing quartz veins, talc, and gold- 
bearing schist; Loma de la Mina, in the 
vicinity of the Magu river, with decom- 
posed gold-bearing porphyry; Las Guas- 
imas and La Cajera in San Jose de las 
Matas, containing gold. The principal 
placers are along the Dicayagua, Bao and 
Yaque rivers. 

In starting a fire under a boiler, the 
valve should be left open until the steam 
blows; this assures the expulsion of all air. 

July -|, 190X. 



Coal Mining By the Retreating 
Room-and-Pillar System 

Hv Harvey J. Nelms* 

The accompanying plan of development 
shows the general method of driving 
rooms and extracting pillars on the re- 
treating system of mining. The best gen- 
era' schcnie is to have four main entries, 

tries so as to thoroughly protect the 
gangways. The mains should be driven 
perfectly straight as regards sights and 
should have no angles that can possibly 
lie prevented. It is generally true that 
only two angles are necessary in develop- 
ing a coalfield, which can be developed by 
the mains cutting through the center of 
the field ; the angles necessary are 45 deg. 
for chutes, and 90 deg. for all entries 
turncfl off the mains; also 90 deg. for all 

carry the entries under any kind of top 
if they are kept in a good condition. The 
first entry of the pair of butts should start 
out on a 45-deg. angle for a distance ot 
-6.26 ft. when the 45 deg. is again turned, 
putting the entry square on the butt 
course. The parallel to this entry should 
be turned oflf at 90 deg., 68.57 ft- ^roni 
the 45-deg. angle spad. The break- 
through opposite this parallel entry should 
be driven across the four mains for ren- 


two iiuaUes. and two returns for air. One 
intake is used lor haulage and the other 
as a manway. .\t the face, it is advisable 
to have throe entries, using the middle 
one for intake air and haulage. Two 
Imtts driven together, with a motor 
lu'tween every third pair of butts, consti- 
Intes the best butt entry system. 

The mains shouKl be driven on 50-ft. 
centers, with bo ft. of solid coal left 
standing on each side of the outside en- 

•Supi'HmiMUllMU, It.M'.ll Hii 

puny, Wellsliurgli, \V. Vii. 

rooms turned off the butts. The break- 
throughs in the main, should be driven 
every 1 25 ft. and kept at a standard dis- 
l.wce. Such crosscuts should be driven 
opposite one another for ventilating and 
drainage purposes. 

Mkthoh or Driving Bfrr Entries 
The butt entries should be turned so 
as to have 480 ft. of solid coal between 
two pairs of butts. The distance between 
centers of butts should also \k 50 ft. for 
protecting purposes as this distance will 

tilatiiig and drainage purposes. The 
small triangle at the base of each pair of 
butt entries is 18.57 ft., for base and alti- 
tude, and 26.X) ft. secant distance. The 
45-deg. angle first turned off the main, 
should be driven on through until it in- 
tersects with the 90-dcg. angle turned off 
for a parallel butt entry, as this makes 
an ideal haulage for both mules and loco- 
motives. The haulage road for the mines, 
on this plan, is the third main, and the 
chutes necessar>' to make an ideal haulage 
are thoroughly demonstrated 



July 4, 1908. 

Development Should be Started Early 
If an operator v/ere to open up his 
mines, and have' his mains started by the 
time he starts on his tipple, he could be 
about ready to ship by the time the tipple 
is ready to run coal. The first pair of 
butts can be developed as soon as the 
mains are driven in 250 ft. After turn- 
ing the first pair of butts, the work should 
te advanced night and day ' so that as 
soon as the plant starts to run coal, it viiW 
be possible to turn off rooms from the 
first pair of butt entries already being 
driven. It is asking too much of any 
operator to not run room coal until all 
of his entry work is finished, so the best 
plan is to turn the rooms and work on the 
advance, instead of retreating on his first 
pair of butts ; this room coal will pay 
for the later entry development until the 
retreating system can be started. The il- 
lustration. Fig. I, shows the development 
of a mine, from the advancing to the re- 
treating system. 

Rooms Driven/ On Sights 
The rooms should be turned 90 deg. off 
the butts and sights put up to drive them 
by. The chambers are worked 24 ft. wide 
with 15-ft. pillars. The plan of driving 
rooms on sights should be rigidly en- 
forced as 75 per cent, of the coal lost to 
•operators in western Pennsylvania is 
caused by rooms having too small pillars 
"between tfiem. This makes it impossible 
4o either drive the rooms to their limit, 
or to extract all the room pillars after 
the chamber is finished. 

The engineer in surveying his entries, 
should tie them together at every fourth 
breakthrough. As soon as the entries are 
driven, the engineer should establish a 
ibase survey inside his mines, and close 
this survey within a minute. When this 
is done, the transitman always has some- 
thing to tie into in making inside surveys, 
and consequently it is easy to pick up mis- 

The Electric Wiring 
The wiring of the mines for electricity 
should be rigidly attended to, and the 
feeders and main power lines should al- 
ways be put in on an intake entry. When 
500 volts are used, 12 in. should be kept 
tetween all wires. On butt entries, the 
positive drive (hot) should be on the in- 
side of the negative (cold) line, and be 
next to the rib ; the insulators of the posi- 
tive line should be placed in holes drilled 
on a 45-deg. angle in the corner where the 
top intersects the rib so as to thoroughly 
isolate this line and put it where it will 
do the least danger. If this is done at the 
start, it will soon pay for the extra labor, 
as falls of slate or top will not bother 
the line. The locomotive power line should 
"be strung so that the locomotive can do all 
its work by using one trolley pole. 

The production of iron ore in Japan in 
1906 was 40,766 tons ; of iron pyrites, 
42,15s tons. 

Colliery Disasters 

By F. a. Hill* 

The technical and trade journals have 
recently published many articles dealing 
with the causes and remedies for the ap- 
palling coal-mine disasters that have oc- 
curred during the past year. There is no 
question that the losses of life from these 
disasters are out of proportion and vastly 
more than they should be. Investigations 
by juries, by committees and by mine in- 
spectors have reported on causes. They 
include gas, coal dust and falls of roof; 
still, in a great majority of cases, the im- 
mediate cause of the disaster is the human 
factor. If there were no gas or dust, ex- 
plosions would not occur. 

Aided and abetted by the miner and 
sometimes by labor organizations, these 
disasters, in the minds of the public, are 
placed as the fault of the operator. Is it 
true? If the human factor was con- 
trolled, how often would we hear of an 

Laws are Aimed at the Operator 
It is well to have laws and enforce 
them ; rigid laws to compel the operators 
to keep proper ventilation and provide 
safeguards. This, the great majority of 
coal operators would do regardless of any 
law except the economical one, because it 
pays to provide good and ample ventila- 
tion. Of the laws enacted, 99 per cent, 
are aimed at the operator; i per cent, at 
the man behind the gun. If the operator 
does not obey the law, he should be 
vigorously prosecuted and convicted. If 
he, for the sake of dollars, should jeopard- 
ize life he should be treated as any com- 
mon murderer, but what about the miner? 
Of course in most of the explosions the 
guilty one has been killed ; but what about 
those whose known carelessness is con- 
stantly in evidence? How many miners 
have been prosecuted or convicted for 
violating the rules governing the opera- 
tion of coal mines? For every operator 
thus guilty, there are hundreds of em- 
ployees, yet the laws invariably are aimed 
at the former. 

.'Ml capable mining engineers know that 
it is possible to reduce these casualties if 
we could govern the forces that go to 
make up the vast majority of them. The 
engineer does govern those that are 
known : He controls air, dust, and pro- 
vides safe methods of mining; but does he 
govern the human element? Are the 
conditions of the time such that he can do 
so? All over this great country we recog- 
nize the right of labor to organize them- 
selves, to protect themselves in the en- 
joyment of a lucrative wage, and I up- 
hold this right, and have for many years. 
What has it led to? Miners' unions are 
formed, but don't stop at the wage ques- 
tion and hours of work, but provide for 
many and divers conditions in such a way 

•Consulting engineer. Seattle. Washington. 

that the law of the union is superior to 
the law of the mine or the law of the land. 
A large part of the time of superinten- 
dents and foremen that should be used in 
looking after the safe operation of the 
mine, is spent with grievance committees. 

Labor Conditions 

We also welcome the foreigner to our 
shores, and put many, of them into our 
mines until there is a veritable Babylon of 
tongues in our mining camps. Miners 
cannot read the rules that are promul- 
gated for their safety, and the boss not 
being a linguist cannot instruct them re- 
garding the peculiarities of the mine in 
which they work. Under union rules and 
union domination, there is no room for 
the old miner who has passed the zenith 
of his physical ability. There is no room 
for the- mail who, taking his apprentice 
with him, teaches the latter how to take 
care of his working place, how to mine, 
where and to what depth to place the 
drill hole, how to load and fire the shot 
and at the lunch hour discusses reasons 
for these things. He is eliminated for the 
reason that he cannot earn a day's wage 
by himself or with a helper of like ca- 

There is no discipline about those coal 
mines that are unionized, and there can 
be none until the laws of the mine are 
obeyed absolutely and men are summarily 
dealt with who disregard the laws of the 
mine, and until all the miners with all 
their hearts and souls recognize this law. 
Union papers give good and timely ad- 
vice to miners as regards their safety ; but 
they also contain reflections, insinuations 
and innuendos against the interpretation 
of the laws by our Supreme Court when 
the decisions are not upholding the so- 
called rights of the miner. I cannot re- 
call any case where they advise the miner 
to obey the laws of the mine and render 
obedience to his superior officer. 
Suggested Remedy 

We should have laws that will make 
miners carry a clearance card showing 
their ability as miners, and the law should 
be so constructed that no superintendent 
could refuse to give a clearance card to 
any man who has been or is a competent 
miner, and obeyed the law of the mine. 
He should have a card stating his services, 
and his ability as a miner only. This is 
infinitely better than a certificate received 
by examination, as he will get a card by 
reason of his practical and not his theore- 
tical knowledge^ and because he has or 
has not shown by his work that he is or 
is not a competent miner. 

I repeat, lack of discipline has more to 
do with coal-mine disasters than all the 
other causes combined. Operators should 
all stand together for absolute discipline 
in and around the mine, and until that is 
had, we may expect disasters brought 
about by disobedience to rules. Quick and 
sure punishment should come from infrac- 
tion of laws, and the miner should see to 
this* as much as the operator. 

July 4, 1908. 


Longwall Methods of Mining a Coal Seam 

Discussion of an Advantageous System of Coal Mining, Little Used 
in the United States, but Which Should Be More Generally Adopted 

B Y 




The most striking feature of mining in 
the United States, is the infrequent use 
■of the lon^wali system. This system re- 
fers chiefly to coal mining, although, as 
will be noted later, instances of its use 
are not unheard of in metal-mining op- 
erations aliroad. 

In general, tlicre are three systems of 
mining coal; (i) room-and-pillar ; (2) 
pillar-and-stall; (3) longwall mining. 
The first is by far the most generally em- 
ployed in the United States, and is oper- 
ated for every thickness of coal where 
men can work. The pillar-and-stall sys- 
tem is merely a modification of the room- 
and-pillar method, the room being ap- 
proached from the haulage-way by a nar- 
row opening called the stall. This open- 
ing may be from 7 to 8 ft. wide and 20 
ft. long. In comparison to this, the ordi- 
nary room-and-pillar system, the rooms 
arc turned off from the gangway their 
full width. It is evident that by the pil- 
lar-and-stall method, the chamber as- 
sumes its full width after passing the 
stall, which blocks out a pillar, left to pro- 
tect the roof over the haulage-way from 
which the chamber has been turned off. 

By the longwall system is inferred a 
method of mining, whereby complete ex- 
traction of the deposit is contemplated on 
the initial attack. There are two genera! 
systems of longwall in use, viz : advanc- 
ing, and retreating, although there are 
modifications of the system now under 
discussion. Literature on the subject of 
longwall mining refers to it in a rather 
elementary and unsatisfactory manner, 
and in this country in particular the crit- 
icisms are more or less deprecatory. 

Location of Longwall Operations 

It appears that the advantages of the 
longwall system are not realized in the 
United States. Wherever it is used, it is 
frequently noted that the operation is 
under the espionage of men with foreign 
experience. In England the system is 
operated in more instances than all the 
other methods combined, and where in 
.'Vmcrica it is used only under ideal condi- 
tions, in England the method is operated 
under widely diversified conditions of 
roof, floor, inclination and thicknesses of 

Longwall tiiay be seen in the United 
Slates to fair advantage in northern Il- 
linois, where it is used to a greater ex- 
tent than elsewhere in America, In this 
district the seams average about 3 ft. in 

thickness. A few isolated camps in West 
Virginia and Kentucky are using the 
system. One determined effort to intro- 
duce longwall in West Virginia a few 
years ago, on a seam somewhat over 5 ft. 
in thickness, ended in the abandonment of 
the attempt, mainly because of the in- 
aptitude of the labor for this particular 
kind of work. There are a few instances 
of longwall in Iowa and Kansas, though 
the operations might hardly be termed 
prodigious. Colorado is a scene of long- 
wall operations at a place called Radiant, 
where for some time the system has met 
with but- moderate success. 

In Pennsylvania there are two instances 
of longwall. The Vintondale Coal Com- 
pany employs the system in conjunction 
with underground mechanical convey- 
ance, as does the Cambria Steel Com- 
pany in one of its mines near Johns- 
town, Pehn. In the far West, there are a 
few places where longwall is operated, as 
in the State of Washington. Whereas, in 
Pennsylvania, the seam thickness approx- 
imated 42 inches, and the work in the 
scam was carried on to this hight through- 
cut, excepting roadways, in Washington 
the beds approximate 4 feet. 

The whole of Europe has followed the 
English idea, and in France may be seen 
a modified system of longwall operated 
on thick seam. It is not uncommon to 
see the system used on seams up to a 
thickness of 10 ft., and the coal taken in 
one slice, although with complete stow- 
age. Similarly, the system is used on 
beds as thick as 30 ft. ; in such an in- 
stance, the work would be carried on in 
three slices. 

Longwall in Metalliferous Mines 

The most general use of longwall is in 
deposits lying close to the horizontal. 
Aside from the operations of longwall in 
coal seams of England, Scotland, France 
and Germany, may be noted a number of 
instances on the Continent where the 
method is used in metalliferous mines. 
The Mansfeld Copper Company, for ex- 
ample, have for a long time been long- 
walling the copper shale in Germany. In 
South Africa several of the banket mines 
have used the system, though I have not 
visited this field to verify information to 
this eflfect. I understand, however, that 
on the Black Reef the system has been 
used, though details on the subject are 

In the United Stales the occurrence of 
horizontal deposits is unusual. Sheet 
ground of southeastern Missouri where 

the disseminated lead-ore deposits are 
quite consistent, presents the most con- 
sistently flat formation on the entire con- 
tinent. The sheet ground of the Joplin 
district, and the Wisconsin fields, may 
also be mentioned. The possibilities of 
a modified longwall system for this 
giound, where the sheets are extensive, 
is not beyond reason. 

Definition of Longwall 
In longwall mining in its true form, it 
is desired to eflfect a uniform settlement 
of the roof, behind a continuous working 
face. To admit of safety at the breast, 
this settlement should be effected at a 
certain distance in the rear. There are 
certain economic conditions which govern 
the extent to which ground may be kept 
open between the face and the gob. The 
control of roof settlement does not figure 
alone in the safe keeping of the face, but 
very strongly in eflFecting the proper 
breaking of the material being mined. 

On the proper control of the roof de- 
pends the success of the system. In coal 
mining, it is usual to undercut, and the 
weight of the overlying strata lends its 
assistance in the breaking down of the 
coal. If the face is not regular, the 
weight is not exerted uniformly, and 
the same may be true if the timbers be- 
hind the face are not withdrawn in a 
regular manner. 

Longwall Advancing 

In advancing longwall, after sufficient 
coal area has been left at the shaft 
for its maintenance, the seam may be re- 
moved in its entirety to the boundary in 
all directions. The face may thus take a 
circular shape, and this is a condition ac- 
cruing in the Grundy county and Spring 
Valley fields of Illinois, which former 
district will be further cited. 

It is observed that in advancing long- 
wall, roadways must be maintained in 
fallen ground, so that the coal may be 
conducted to the shaft. In true longwall, 
the structure of these roads is quite de- 
void of solidity, having been passed 
through ground thoroughly divested of 
coal. Ground is maintained by means of 
walls, built either of rock refuse which 
may have been stratified with the coal, or 
else rock is shot down from the roof for 
wall-building purposes. In thin seams 
there is usually plenty of packing mate- 
rial close at hand ; for example, in a seam 
of 3- ft. thickness, 2 ft. would be brushed 
down from the roof in haulage-ways, and 
the pack walls would be maintained at 


July 4, 1908. 

approximately S-ft. hight. An example 
of work of this nature may be illustrated 
by describing a mine in the Grundy 
county field, which presents a general 
idea of longwall as practiced in the United 

The mines are located in a practically 
flat country, the coal lying parallel to the 
surface topography. The district is situ- 
ated about 60 miles west of Chicago, near 
a town called Coal City. The seam is a 
bituminous coal averaging 3 ft. in thick- 
ness ; a typical section of strata overlying 
the coal would be about 7 ft. of surface 
soil, 16 ft. of sand, 10 ft. of blue lime, 12 
ft. of cemented gravel, 22 ft. of sand shale, 
30 ft. of shale, and a bottom of fairly 
hard fire-clay for a floor. The total depth 
of cover is usually in the neighborhood 
of IOC ft. Fig. I shows the workings of 
one of the Grundy county mines. The 
shaft, represented by x, is circular. Note 
the large amount of ground left to support 
this shaft. 

The size of pillar left to support shafts 
depends so much on local conditions that 
no definite figures may be given for this 
feature. It is quite often found in long- 
wall work of this nature that a figure 
adopted for size of pillar supporting the 
shaft is of diameter equivalent to the 
depth of the shaft. At a glance the dif- 
ference in magnitude between coal- and 
metal-mining operations, is observed in 
*^his single feature, and the difficulty of 
comparison of such a system as this for 
the working of metalliferous beds, with 
coal as a predecessor, is apparent. 

In Fig. I, aa a a called "mothergate- 
ways" in England, are driven approxi- 
mately 280 ft. apart, and practically at 
right angles to the main haulage road. 
Room roads hbb are spaced approxi- 
mately 42 ft. apart, center to center. 
Where the cross-entries c c c are turned 
at 45 deg. from the main roads, the spac- 
ing of the room roads is approximately 
60 ft., in order to make the 42 ft. of face 
measured perpendicularly. Entries are 
maintained 7x7 ft. outside of timbers, ex- 
cept the room roads, which are driven 
just sufficiently high to allow tramming. 
In .some parts of the field soft ground 
is encountered, and sets of I2xi2-in. 
timbers have been observed placed con- 
tinuously and badly crushed, due to the 
movement of the ground. The mainte- 
nance of roadways in advancing longwall 
under such a condition as above set forth 
is, of course, an expensive item, and it is 
questionable whether the system pays 
when surrounded by such difficulties ; 
however, ground of such a nature as this 
would be diflicult of maintenance in any 
system of mining. 

Referring to Fig. 2, the roof is propped 
within 2 or 3 ft. of the face. The use of 
uridcrcutting machines, or running track 
parallel to the face is precluded by the 
soft nature of the roof. I have seen roofs 
so strong that it is quite possible to run 

several sets of track between the face and 
the gob, should such a course be desirable ; 
props being set, the miner proceeds to 
undercut the face with a pick to a depth 
of 16 to 20 in., Fig. 3, a. This under- 
cut is 7 to 10 in. high, and is not made in 
the coal, but below it in the floor. This 
procedure, however, is not always possible 
when the loss, due to the undercutting in 
the coal itself accrues. 

4, e e, are built up to the roof, which has 
been brushed down in the roadway to 
make a hight of 5 ft. However, these 
walls, as shown in the figure, are only 
built to a hight equal to the thickness of 
the seam, since there is no brushing done, 
excepting in the roadway. 

Between the walls, Fig. 4 f, the small 
material and excess rock are thrown. 
Where there is an excess of this material. 


The room track. Fig. 3, b, is brought 
up as close as possible to the face without 
interfering, with the work. Coal between 
room roads. Fig. i, bbbb, has to be car- 
ried along the face, where it is loaded into 
the cars, Fig. 3, c. At the face. Fig. 3, d, 
the back is the hight of the seam, viz : 
3 ft., but in the entries the back is 
brushed down to make head room for the 
tramming Walls, Fig. 3, e e e, and Fig. 

it is hoisted and disposed of on the sur 
face. There is a considerable amount of 
small material which is useless for wall 
building. An examination shows that the 
amount of waste hoisted is 25 tons for 
every 100 tons of coal mined. 

Cross-roads are usually driven about 
200 to 300 ft. apart. The length of room 
roads, however^ is more or less arbitrary, 
depending on the action of the roof and 

July 4, 1908. 


the facility with which roads can be main- 
tained at length. When the maintenance 
becomes unduly difficult, a new cross-road 
is driven and the room roads behind 
abandoned. Arrangement is made with 
the contractors who mine the coal, to 
maintain a certain length of room road 
and cross-road ; 60 ft. of the former and 
300 ft. of the latter is a fair requirement, 
the work of maintaining further exten- 
sions devolving on the company. With 
the formation before cited, it is found that 
most of the loose settlement occurs dur- 
ing the first two months, this subsidence 
taking place in a gradual manner. The 
surface rights are leased with the under- 
standing that subsidence will occur. Pil- 
lars are left in the usual manner, to sup- 
port important buildings on the surface, 
but elsewhere the entire country is 

In contrast to the operations above cited. 

ik;. j. shows suusiuence of roof 
between r0om-r0.\ds 

which arc considered typical of the long- 
wall system in ."Vnicrica, may be mentioned 
an instance of an advancing system in 
I'jiMland. wlure the scam is 7 ft. in thick- 
iu-~v. uiili but a 4-in. band of slate; the 
])ack u.cll material having been drawn en- 
tirely from the roof rock over this 7-ft. 
seam, is shot down in a systematic man- 
ner in the roadway and carefully built up 
in regular form by experienced wall- 
builders. This roof rock was an exception- 
ally strong sandstone.; Longvvall 
In general, retreating longwall infers 
ibo driving of entries to the boundaries 
and working home to the shaft. The roof 
IS allowed to subside behind the area tem- 
porarily supported to maintain the work- 
ing face. .'\s in any .system of longwall, 
more or less timber is required at the face 
depending on the nature of roof, which 
may or may not permit of economic main- 
tenance of track between face and gob. 
\ good condition, in any event, is when 
there is always sufficient space open be- 
iween coal and gob to admit of a person 
walking continuously around the face. It 
IS then assured that the ventilating cur- 
vents have free sway and that the face is 
in good condition. 

CoMr.\RisoN OF Retreating and .Xhvant- 
iNG Longwall 
In comparing the two systems, it may 
be said for the advancing system, that a 
qiiick cash return is available. Whereas, 
with the retreating system, particularly 
where seams are thin, and there is con- 
siderable rock waste to be mined in the 
roadways, this feature may involve con- 
*ideraliK- delay, since the headings are 

usually driven to the boundaries before 
mining proper is started. In advancing 
longwall, the haulage-ways are in ground 
which is artificially supported, whereas, in 
retreating work, the roadways are always 
in the solid, the fallen ground being left 
to rest behind for all time. This feature 
of the retreating system is a marked ad- 
vantage. Following the subsidence of 
roof, shrinkage of the pack walls, and the 
upheaval of the floor, it often becomes 
necessary to brush down the roof, pull up 
floor and retimber to maintain the proper 
hight of roadways in the advancing sys- 

Since the roads are subject to these 
conditions, it is evident that constant at- 
tention is required, but the seriousness of 
this matter depends entirely on the na- 
ture of roof and floor, which subject will 
be discussed later. It would appear that 
with the advancing system, a strike or 
other cause precluding proper repairs to 
the roads, may under certain conditions 
render them impassable, and eventually 
iluse passageways would have to be rc- 
' pened, perhaps at large expense. 

It is remarkable to note in sotne forma- 
tions how fallen ground will consolidate, 
and where one would anticipate tlie neces- 

area is depleted to the boundary. The 
faster long^wall can be driven, the better 
the roof conditions under which the men 
are working, for as the face advances, 
new roof is being constantly exposed. 
This point of speed also figures to an ex- 
tent as regards timber, for the less time 
the roof is given to assert its weight on 
the supports, the more readily will their 
removal be effected. 

Features of Longwall 
In general, by using a longwall system, 
less coal is exposed to the action of the 
atmosphere. In room-and-pillar work, pil- 
lars may stand for years, before being 
removed, if they are removed at all. Not 
alone does the action of the air ameliorate 
the quality of the coal, but dangerous 
gases in longwall workings are seldom 
exposed. Retreating longwall in partic- 
ular, favors good ventilation, especially at 
the face. Explosions due to accumulated 
gases in longwall workings are seldom 
heard of. In retreating work, this feature 
is emphasized because there is no reason 
to return through a fallen area, as in ad- 
vancing long^vall. 

.Accidents due to roof falls are'less pre- 
valent in longwall work than any other 

— — - - — ::— — -— 

L oJc 

8fcUod alooc 

ilOOID Uokil 


>'/ liuc»n.. ^ ^ ^ ^^.\- .- ■■ ■ i--... - ..- G — 

rcjt 11) 

a Turn from Ilrauch 
to Itoom Uo«d' 


sity of a complete forespiling .system of 
timbering, it is often fiund quite practic- 
able to support fallen ground with or- 
dinary drift sets much in the same way 
as the original groimd. Where the roads 
are in packed gromul, in the event of a 
sudden squeeze or other accident, the 
roads may be rendered useless for escape, 
wherein lies a disadvantage of the advanc- 
ing system. It may be said, however, 
with regard to such squeezes, that they 
are quite unlikely, since the longwall sys- 
tem involves at the outset a regular sub- 
sidence of the roof, anticipating control of 
both roof and floor. The effect of squeezes 
in room-and-pillar work is well known 
to be usually due to the carrying out of 
the bad policy of leaving pillars too small 
as compared to room area, which leads to 
difficulties accruing in the progress of pil- 
lar-withdrawal operations. The frequent 
occurrence of accidents, leading to the 
rapid destruction of pillars and the ter- 
rific efforts required as a rule to save 
this action, cites an advantage to the long- 
wall system. 

In advancing longwall, the roads prob- 
ably require more timber in the long- 
run than in retreating, since they must 
be kept open in certain locations until the 


system of coal mining. This applies par- 
ticularly to the United States, for there. 
as stated previously, only the thinnest 
scams are worked long^vall, and a low roof 
can always be more readily tested than a 
high one. In France, where the roof is 
of ID ft. hight, over a longwall face, bad 
conditions were involved since this roof 
was of a scaling nature and the most 
thorough timbering was necessary. The 
• coal was friable and even the face was 
timbered with plank excepting at those 
points where the men were picking the 

Experience has shown that where a large 
production is desired from a given area, 
the same may be accomplished in a 
shorter interval of time with longrwall 
than by the room-and-pillar system. In 
general the production per man per shift 
in longwall is greater, and the cost of 
mining per ton, under certain conditions 
where both longwall and room-and-pillar 
had been operated, favored the former 
system, to say nothing of the higher ex- 
traction of the coal deposit. 

.■\merican coal engineers in general show- 
disfavor for the longwall system, despite 
the great success with which it has met 
in Great Britain, and the following that 


July 4, 1908. 

other nationalities abroad have given the 
Britishers. The prevailing opinion in the 
United States is that the system is im- 
practicable where the seam is over 5 ft. 
in thickness, and it will be then also in- 
ferred for an advancing system partic- 
ularly, that sufficient packing material is 
stratified with the coal to supply wall- 
building material. The maintenance of 
roads in advancing longwall is severely 
criticized as an item creating a large 
expense. This condition is quite true, but 
depends entirely on the nature of roof and 
floor, so that the inference is not at all 

The main objection to retreating long- 
wall relates to the tying up of capital for 
an undue period. This objection con- 
siders that in all cases the roads must 
be driven first to the boundary, as is true 
in the typical longwall system of this 
form. However, a combination system 
of both advancing and retreating long- 
wall may be operated often, and this ob- 
jection thus mitigated, where speedy mon- 
etary returns are so urgent. 

Nature of Roof and Assistance of Roof 

There appears to be considerable di- 
version in opinion among the authorities 
as to whether a hard or moderately soft 
roof is preferable to the longwall system. 
In this country the latter is favored de- 
cidedly, but I venture to state that there 
are roofs in England, which, though suc- 
cessfully manipulated behind a longwall 
face, would be considered in America 
wholly beyond the province of longwall 

It would be difficult to state whether an 
infinitely hard roof would be easier of 
control than an infinitely soft one; the 
latter is the one most frequently en- 
countered over coal seams. In this con- 
nection a peculiar condition seems to ex- 
ist the world over, that the roof over 
coal seams is considerably harder than the 
floor, and only in a few instances has it 
been noted that both the roof and floor 
were of the same material. 

It is of prime importance that the face 
be maintained safely and with compara- 
tive ease, in order that the quickest pro- 
gress may be made. A soft roof will re- 
quire more attention and more timbering 
than a hard one. With a hard roof there 
is often considerable anxiety felt in ob- 
taining the first break, which, however, 
when once accomplished, permits the roof 
subsidence behind the face to be readily 
kept under control. Large areas have 
been known to hang, which, when they 
have finally fallen, created more or less 
windage. Investigation of this subject 
has proved that this windage is never so 
strong as to be really dangerous. In the 
Bengal seams of India, which are thick, 
and mined from under sandstone roofs by 
a modified South Staffordshire method, 
heavy falls of roof have occurred covering 
large areas. Due notice of the impending 

fall is always given in the nature of local 
scaling off of roof rock, and the men 
have been known to remain in the mines, 
not far from the active areas, during the 
period of a fall without sustaining any 

It may seem an extreme statement to 
say that no roof is too hard for longwall, 
but from work observed, it would appear 
that no roof found over coal is so hard 
that longwall cannot be operated success- 
fully, other things being equal. 

Where a roof is so strong that it will 
not break within a reasonable area, one 
of the objects of longwall is defeated. 
The occurrence of the first break in the 
roof is a sign that the lateral compression 
in the overlying masses is relieved. Where 
there is no break there will be practically 
no weight on the face, and consequently 
no assistance of the roof in the breaking 
of the coal. It is not to be inferred that 
power is unnecessary in longwall mining, 
but even though a steady pressure of roof 
is obtained, and the coal be undercut, a 
certain amount of blasting is usually re- 


quired to break down the coal at the de- 
sired moment. 

While the condition of an infinitely 
strong roof is rarely heard of over coal 
measures, yet if such a condition was met, 
and although the assistance of roof pres- 
sure to break the coal at the face might be 
lost, the feature of a high extraction of the 
deposit would still be attainable, and there 
is no question but that the best way to 
mine wherever possible, is to make the 
first attack on the beds the last attack, 
wherever same can be accomplished in 
an economical manner. 

Roof falls are not always accomplished 
by the dislocation of the main strata, but 
more often consist merely in the peeling 
off of roof strata below the outline of 
the dome formed in the caving. In long- 
wall with a yielding roof, the ideal ac- 
tion is one of bending of the formation, 
which acts on the face cantilever-like. 
With a strong roof, which hangs, the 
peeling action above mentioned might oc- 
cur locally and must be guarded against. 
If a fall included the main roof strata, 

no amount of artificial support could 
counteract it, but the peeling action of 
the strata below the dome line could be 
readily supported with props. In Europe 
it is generally advised that no matter how 
safe a roof may appear, it should be tim- 
bered thoroughly, for the mysterious ac- 
tions of roofs have been the occasion of 
more fatalities than any other cause. 

Surface Subsidence 
Surface subsidence usually follows roof 
falls underground. The severity of this- 
subsidence depends on the thickness of 
the seam, the nature of overlying strata 
and the depth of the seam below the sur- 
face. It is well to always anticipate dis- 
turbance of the surface, even though the 
area is completely packed. It has been 
shown, however, in this regard, that 
where packing material has been intro- 
duced by means of water, such an intimacy 
can be effected between the particles mak- 
ing up the filling material that surface 
depression is hardly noticeable, where 
formerly the introduction of the filling in 
a dry condition resulted in considerable 
shrinkage and marked surface disturb- 
ance. No matter in what manner an area 
is replaced by a packing material there 
will always be some shrinkage, for the 
replacement medium cannot be made as 
solid as the original material occupying 
this space. 

With longwall where surface subsidence 
ensues, roof lowering is attended with 
considerably less disturbance on the sur- 
face than with pillar work, since the work 
underground is carried more regularly 
and the face advances with more accurate 
alinement and more gradual lowering of 
the roof. In longwall the roof is watched 
more carefully, for so much depends on 
its proper control. This feature should 
not be minimized in room-and-pillar 
work. In pillar robbing, however, it is 
not aimed so much to throw the weight 
of the roof on the coal, whereas in true 
longwall this feature is part and parcel 
of the system. In robbing a pillar, the 
timbers are usually left standing long^ 
enough to admit of as nearly complete 
removal of the coal as possible. While 
there is some regard paid to the future 
of neighboring pillars, if the work is car- 
ried on conscientiously, the roof is finally 
allowed to fall, if it will, in virtue of 
the removal of the timbers. 

In America, while the filling system is 
used, as will be discussed in a future 
article in detail, it is rarely introduced 
in conjunction with the robbing system, 
but rather as an auxiliary support for the 
pillars which were not properly arranged 
in the original layout. In longwall, when 
the timbers are withdrawn, it is desired 
that the roof shall come gradually to rest 
on the packwalls, whereas in pillar-rob- 
bing work, the roof falls to the floor. 
True, with a soft floor in longwall the 
packs are often driven into the floor, but 
this action is not a sudden one, and the 

July 4, l£ 



overlying strata when it docs subside does 
so in a gradual manner. 


Every effort should be made to recover 
timber and where possible to reuse same. 
In longwall work, it is most important 
that all standing props be removed in' a 
systematic manner as the working face 
advances. With certain roofs, a few 
standing props may interfere with regular 
roof subsidence. It is not unusual to see 
a small prop standing in a thin seam and 
the roof bending about it, finally reaching 
the floor. A roof formation of this kind 
would be considered favorable for the 
longwall system, in virtue of such a pos- 

Where the roof is hard and the floor 
comparatively soft, or vice versa, a much 
better condition for ideal longwall ob- 
tains than where both are hard. Where 
a hard roof has taken weight, with a 
liard floor under it, timber removal may 
become extremely diflficult. The with- 
drawal of props in such an instance often 
entails blasting, or otherwise destroying 
same, to effect its dislocation. With n 
soft floor, the props might be force<l 
well into it, and their recovery is not such 
a remole possibility. By tapering the 
props at one en<l, the action due to the 
fracture of timber has been ameliorated. 
By this tapering the compressive action 
of the roof, when taking weight, is In 
calized in the tapered area of the prop, 
which is caused to bur. This burred 
part may then be sawed off and the prop 
reused, at a point where a shorter stick is 
required. Such a form of prop is greatly 
favored in certain parts of England. It is 
also found expedient in setting a straight 
prop, to pile an amount of small broken 
stone under it, which, when picked aw.iy 
will admit of readily removing the tim 
bcr even though the roof has taken 

A closer study of the longwall system 
on the part of .American engineers would 
no doubt evolve some interesting innova- 
tions in its application. Up to the present 
time, however, comparatively little thought 
has been given the subject in the United 
States, which is strange in a country 
where speedy and total extraction of de- 
posits is generally looked to, and extreme 
means usually pressed into service to ef 
feet this result. 

Nickel Ore in Nevada 

Sp£ci.\l Correspondence 

The control of a hoist should be such 
as to entail the least possible amount of 
physical exertion on the part of the en- 
gineer. He should be free from the con- 
stant demand upon his physical energy to 
operate and control the engine, so that 
his mental faculties may be properly con- 
centrated upon his work. For this rea- 
son, hoisting engines should have easily 
oper.iled steam valves, quick to open and 
close, steam-actuated reversing gear and 
powerful brakes capable of holding the 
engines under the most unfavorable cir- 

The principal development of nickel ore 
in Nevada has occurred at the Key West 
mine, in the southeastern part of the 
Slate, about five miles west of the Utah 
boundary. The ore is confined to rounded 
masses of diabase intruded into crystal- 
line schists, the former being very much 
like the basic rock of Sudbury, Ontario. 
The diabase weathers rapidly, forming a 
greenish black, powdery mass. Chalco- 
pyrite is the prevailing mineral, the ore 
averaging about 3.5 per cent, copper, 2.5 
per cent, nickel, I to 3 oz. silver, and 0.25 
to 0.30 oz. platinum per ton. It does not 
contain gold. 

The first work on tlie prnprrty .nn 

found nothing but the undisturbed crystal- 
line schists. 

There were two reasons why the prop- 
erty was not further developed at that 
time, viz., (i) the distance from trans- 
portation and the high cost of operating, 
and (2) the difficulty in disposing of a 
copper-nickcl-platinum matte. The mine 
IS now within a reasonable distance of the 
railroad, and it is rumored that a matting 
furnace is to be erected in the vicinity. 

TTie Improved Macquisten Tube 

By W. R. Inc.\li^ 

In an article in the Journal of October 
26, 1907, I described the Macquisten tubes 

n-er| ff.r ' --r^ ■:■-- ■'-:z r-rr !v. r, tlitation- 


incline dipping 12 deg. into the outcrop of 
one of the lenses; a second incline, at 
right angles to the first, and starting about 
150 ft. from it, was funk at a dip of 30 
dcg., developing a body of ore which 
varied greatly as to outline and metal 
contents. .\t .^00 ft. from the first incline 
a shaft was sunk iio ft., encountering a 
mass of ore which was cut off by what 
seemed to be a fault but proved afterward 
to be only the smooth exterior of the 
mass. A second shaft was sunk 150 ft. 
from the first and encountered two addi- 
tional lenses. A long crosscut was then 
driven to get under the first shaft, but 
after passing through the first lens it 

process at Golconda, Nevada, and mci>- 
tioned that it was planned to group thr 
tubes in a more compact way. This has 
recently been done, as shown in the ac- 
companying illustration. The apparatus 
is made two or three tiers high, and the 
floor space required is only 6x7 feet. 

Diamond drills have been installed on. 
the property of the Mammoth Chanrel 
^^ining Company at Magalla, Butte county, 
Cal , to test the gravel and find the ex- 
act depth of the channel. It is expected 
to reach the gravel at about 600 ft. depth. 
The drainage tunnel, now 1.X10 ft. long, 
is nearly completed. 



July 4, 1908. 

A New Machine for Use in 
Room-and-Pillar Work 

The economy and speed with which 
coal is mined by lonsrwall mjxhines has 
given rise to a large demand for an ef- 
ficient machine operating on the longwall 
plan for room-and-pillar work. Special 
interest therefore attaches to the an- 
nouncement that the Jeffrey Manufactur- 
ing Company has added to its line of elec- 
tric coal cutters a new room-and-pillar 
machine, known as the Jeflfrey 26-B 
Shortwall Coal Cutter, details of which 
are shown in the accompanying illustra- 

The difference between this and the 
many well-known breast machines, is 
largely in the method of cutting. The 
new type cuts across the face of the coal, 
starting at one side of the room and not 
stopping until it finishes the cut at the 
•■Other side. 

Method or Operation 
A 54-in. steel feed cable wound upon a 
power-driven drum at the front end of 
the machine pulls it across the face of the 
coal at a speed dependent upon, and suited 
to, the hardness of the cutting and the na- 
ture of the coal or clay in which the cut- 
ting is done. This drum when desired 
can be disengaged by means of a suitable 
clutch, so that the machine in finishing its 
cut at the left-hand rib may be angled for 
the purpose of maintaining a uniform 
width of room. Another cable, having no 
connection whatever with the power, is 
arranged to act as a guide to hold the ma- 
chine to its work at a proper angle for 
its greatest cutting efficiency. 

Suitable sheave wheels are provided at 
convenient points on the machine to guide 
the feed cable so that it can be led off in 
any direction, thereby enabling the ma- 
chine to be loaded, unloaded, moved about 
and pulled out from under the coal by its 
own power ; this is a desirable feature, 
and one which strongly appeals to ma- 
chine runners. The gearing is arranged so 
that the feed drum may be operated at a 
sufficiently high speed to move the ma- 
chine quickly about the working place. To 
take care of the heaviest service, an ex- 
ceptionally powerful compound-wound 
motor is provided. 

The operation of the machine may be 
briefly described as follows : It is brought 
into the room on a truck moved by its 
own power or hauled by a mule, depend- 
ing on whether or not a self-propelling 
truck is used. A pipe jack is placed at the 
face of the coal at the right-hand rib and 
the feed cable attached. The motor is 
then started and the machine moved to the 
face of the coal. A simple guiding de- 
vice, consisting of a piece of tee-rail 'and 
one jack, is then set up on the left-hand 
side of the machine and the sumping cut 
is started ; the feed cable pulls the cutting 
frame in under the coal and the guiding 
device serves to hold the machine in line. 

When the sumping cut is completed, a 
?teel anchor hook is secured by a wedge 
in the left-hand rib near the face; to this 
hook are fastened one end of both guide 
and feed cables which lead across the face 
of the coal. The cable is then attached 
to a jack set at the right-hand rib in line 
with the rear drums, and the machine 
started across the room. In operation, the 
feed cable pulls the machine across the 
coal face, and the guide cable keeps it at 
the proper angle to the face of the coal. 

A special flexible brand of wire with 
elliptic stranding is used for the feed and 
guide cables, eliminating any tendency to 
kink or curl up when the tension is re- 
leased, and materially increasing the 
wearing surfaces of the cable. The elas- 
ticity of the cables equalizes the shocks 
and jars on the machine and gives the 
motor an even, steady load. 

(4) it consumes but a small amount of 
power per cubic inch of coal cut ; (5) it is 
handled by its own power with rapidity 
and with httle exertion on the part of the 
machine runners. 

In addition to the machine described, 
the Jeffrey company also builds a side cut- 
ter for thin seam coal, the construction 
and operation of which is essentially the 
same , no advantageous features being 
sacrificed to obtain the reduced hight. 
Both machines cut directly on the floor of 
the seam. 

The motors furnished with these ma- 
chines are of the best modern and im- 
proved types. The frames are made of 
cast steel with laminated pole pieces. The 
armatures are drum wound with form- 
wound coils. The field coils are series 
wound with insulating compound and are 
inclosed in oil and moisture-proof covers. 


Adv.\nt,\ges Cl.mmed for the Machine 

When the machine reaches the left- 
hand rib. the pipe jack is moved to a po- 
sition near the truck, the feed cable at- 
tached, the machine pulled out from un- 
der the coal and over to the truck where 
it is loaded by its own power and is ready 
to move to the next working place. 

Among the advantages claimed for this 
machine are ; ( i ) its construction is sim- 
ple and strong throughout, and the power 
of its motor equipment is large, qualify- 
ing it to perform long and hard service 
and greatly reducing the danger of break- 
down and cost of up-keep ; (2) it cuts 
fast, and but little time is consumed pre- 
liminary to starting up and in removing 
the machine after the cut is finished; (3) 
it occupies little space and permits setting 
the props nearer to the face of the coal; 

The commutator bars are of the best 
quality of hard-drawn copper, and are in- 
sulated with mica of the proper hardness 
to insure even wear and long life. 

At Robinson and Kokomo, in Summit 
county, Colo., bodies of argentiferous 
galena, pyrite and blende, and above the 
water-level their oxidized products, occur 
at the contact between Carboniferous 
limestone and an overlying sandstone, or 
at the contact between the limestone and 
sheets or dikes of porphyry. These mines 
were discovered in 1880, and for a few 
years were worked on a considerable 
scale, several smelting works being 
erected in the district. The mines proved 
disappointing, however, and were soon for 
the most part abandoned, although work 
has been continued in the district to the 
present time. 

July 4, 1008. 



Mine Mules and Their Care 

Bv RoiiEKT Grimshaw* 

It is generally stated by those who have 
to do with mines, that horses and mides 
which work a long time underground be- 
come blind when brought again into day- 
light. Veterinary surgeon Sturm, of 
(iergany, investigated not only this, but 
also the question of cruelty to such ani- 
mals. In the latter particular. Dr. Sturm 
thinks that all reproaches are undeserved, 
lie found that in almost all cases there 
was ample provision for inspecting the 
horses with regard to their health and 
freedom from the pest. It was observed, 
however, that there were a great many 
cases of eye-disease; 90 per cent, of these 
being of one eye, and 10 per cent, of both 
eyes. Where there was any indication of 
cruelty to animals, it was in the case of an 
animal that had bad sight. '1 his difficulty 
(Ini-s nut privfiit the animals from making 

cially where the head was suddenly raised, 
one would see in the background of the 
eye numerous glistening crystals, dancing 
about like snowflakes in the wind. 

Cases of inflammation of the lids, cor- 
nea and iris are also to be found, but usu- 
ally heal rapidly without any inflammation 
of neighboring portions. Also shrinking 
of the entire eyeball and general inflam- 
mation of the whole eye are often found. 
The more seldom cases of slight cloudi- 
ness of the cornea are mostly caused by 
examination with an ordinary mine lamp. 
The horses allow themselves to be in- 
spected with such lights, while, bringing 
an electric lamp near, causes restlessness. 
The tests showed as a rule slight ad- 
justability of the iris, and abnormal size 
of the pupil. Changeable light causes only 
slight pupillary reaction, even when the 
lamp is brought very near to the eye. As 
inflammation cannot be assigned as a rea- 
son for this, the diminished adjustability 
of the iris must be attributed to paralysis 
of the retina. In only two cases was the 
roundness of the pupil altered, where the 

opened and the train is hauled further, 
there is often, in winters a sudden cooling, 
to as low as the freezing point. The draft 
in this section is strong, so that a person 
must hold his hat. Even in the crosscuts 
it is difficult for a miner to keep his lamp 
burning, because of the draft. The re- 
turn trip with the empty cars in the di- 
rection of the draft follows immediately; 
and usually the out-trip with loaded cars 
comes at once after the return with the 

Results of the Vari.ation in Tem- 

This variation of temperature, and the 
strong draft, are the principal causes of 
the inflammation of the eyes. It is a well- 
known fact that cold, as well as heat, can 
cause inflammation of the lens, as shown 
by Midnel. He was able, by placing an 
ice bag before the eye of a healthy animal, 
to cause an opaque cloudiness of the lens, 
which, on removing the ice bag, became 
clear again. On the other hand, glass 
workers who are subjected to intense 



ibr iTKitlar trips; but in siul(k-n turmngs. 
or by the sudden appearance of a bright 
linlil. ibiy would often be shy and show 
themselves unccrlain. This state of affairs 
ton often led the driver to ill-treat them, 
as the reason for the lack of obedience 
was unknown. 

Causes of Hi.iminess 
On lirst investigation, it was thought 
that most of the cases of blindness were 
caused by blows on the head in running 
against obstacles that could not be seen 
in the galleries; this opinion was soon 
changed and the many scars and cuts on 
llu' forehead and eyebrows of the horses- 
were foimd to be the result, rather thali ' 
the cause of the trouble with the eyes. In 
Ho per cent, of the cases the animals suf- 
fered from d'Huliness and degeneration of 
the lens and the vitreous fluid of the 
eyes. This cloudiness (gray cataract), 
shows usually a gray-white or gray-black 
and sometimes even gray-green color, and 
is of various forms. There arc grays and 
blues, also moss-shaped or root-shaped 
figures and branched patterns. In many 
cases there are smoky, beam-like cataracts, 
and within them, and beside them, scabby 
or black grainy, cloudy places in the lens. 
In some instances the cloudiness was 
caused by "synchysis scintillons" or lique- 
fying of llu- vitreous substance. Kspc- 

•Kni;ln.'i'r, IMi'sili'ii (A>. CiMinniiy. 

kns was misplaced. Such a misplacement 
of the lens into the rear chamber of the 
eye was observed by Sturm for more than 
a year. The horse was brought to him 
for treatment, and alluded to as "the one 
with a little button." For about four 
months after the commencement of the 
trouble the lens got gradually more and 
more cloudy, so that a great white chalky 
button projected into the pupil. Only after 
a year was there any cloudiness of the 
other portions of the eye. 

.\n .Analysis op Common Eve Diseases 

The <|uestion now is, what is the cause 
of these frequent abnormal diseases, es- 
pecially of the lens and the vitreous me- 
dium ? 'I his is best answered by Sturm 
by giving particulars of one mine which 
ht inspected. The horses on their way 
toward the shaft^ hauled on an average. 
eight cars, each of IJ.5 cwt. ; the haul- 
age distance was about i(xx) m. or an 
English mile, up a grade of i in 500. and 
at a speed of 1 to 1% m. per sec, or s.iy 
J to J-k» miles per hour. .Vgainst this 
trip, there was n strong draft of fresh air 
coming in at the rate of 4 m. per sec. or 
say 7 to ~',i miles per hour, and at about 
the temperature outside the mine. The 
horses often came warm, or even hot, 
from the cross-galleries into the neightK>r- 
hood of the shaft, and would then stand 
before a door opening, having a tempera- 
tiir.- of (-> (Ue 1-" Wlun ilii^ ,l,„,r i. 

' iii.-r It.Mily fcir tiporatlon 

heat from one side, are subject to gray 
cataract on that side. Therefore the 
above described disease of the lens and 
the vitreous medium are shown to be 
caused by disturbed circulation and 

.■\s regards the paralysis of the retina, 
one must take into account that the ani- 
mals (in contrast to the miners) arc usu- 
ally, and sometimes continually, away 
from the light. The mine lamps and the 
little electric incandescent lights only par- 
tially replace the suidight ; so that paraly- 
sis of the retina takes place. 

In this connection, no reproach cnn be 
made to the management of the mines. 
'1 hese difliculties must be regarded as in- 
separable from the business. The m.tter 
might be bettered somewhat by bringing 
the fresh air from above toward, instead 
of from, the hoisting shaft, as is already 
done in some mines. The stables imder- 
ground are often better than those above ; 
but for all that, the animals should per- 
haps have a change of work from dark- 
ness to daylight from time to time. In 
this way at least, the retina could be kept 
•ictive. and thus be a less frequent cause 
of other troubles. Much crxielty to ani- 
mals could also be prevented, if those that 
are considered as shy, or balky were of- 
tener inspected. Once the reason for shy- 
ing is made known to the driver or 
hostler, much mishandling^ would be prc- 



July 4, ic 

Recent Electric Locomotives for 
Mine Haulage 

The extensive use of electricity as a 
motive power in mine haulage, is proof of 
the fact that its employment has passed 
the experimental stage. The electric lo- 
comotive is compact and simple in con- 
struction, emits no smoke or gas, and 
does not impair the sanitary condition of 
the mine. The same source of power 
that drives the locomotive can also be 
used for operating fans, pumps, hoists and 
other machinery. By combining the power 
requirements in this way, the load fluctu- 
ations are reduced and the entire plant 
can be economically operated. 

The accompanying illustrations repre- 

loaded cars from the room face, the loco- 
motive remaining on the main track with 
brakes set. The reel is mounted vertically 
on a crosstie at the rear end of the 
locomotive. It is driven by a Westing- 
house K- 2 motor, which is mounted on 
a projection of the reel housing and op- 
erates the reel shaft through bevel gear- 
ing. The body of the reel is of cast iron 
and is wound with 300 ft. of 5^-in. steel 
cable which can be readily payed out 
when it is desired to haul cars. The de- 
vice is operated by an auxiliary controller, 
placed within easy reach of the motor- 
man. The reel motor is covered by a 
hood which can be opened on top, thus 
giving ready access to the equipment. 

The approximate over-all dimensions of 
this locomotive are: Width, 4 ft. 2j4 in.; 

ranged as leading units, and three as 
trailers. The leading units are equipped 
with four motor controllers, so that one 
man can readily operate both locomotives. 
The brakes are operated by levers and 
when working in tandem they are con- 
nected by a chain which is guided around 
sheaves suitably mounted in the bumpers. 
The illustration shows a leading and trail- 
ing unit coupled together. 

The track gage is 4 ft. and the weight 
of each locomotive is about 26,000 lb. 
The wheels are 30 in. in diameter, of cast 
iron with chilled treads and spaced 4 ft. 
8 in. apart. The frames are placed inside 
the wheels and are supported on coiled 
springs placed over the boxes. The 
journals are 354x6 inches. 

Each locomotive is equipped with two 
No. IIS motors, of 75 h.p. capacity. The 
motors are inside hung. The width of 
the locomotive is 4 ft. 63^^ in., the bight, 
exclusive of trolley, 3 ft. 2 in., and the 
length 12 ft. 6 inches. 

The two locomotives, when coupled to- 
gether, represent a powerful motor hav- 
ing a total weight available for adhesion 
of 52,000 lb., and a normal capacity equal 
to 300 h.p. 


sent locomotives for mine service recently 
built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works, 
and equipped with electrical apparatus 
supplied by the Westinghouse Electric 
and Manufacturing Company. The loco- 
motive for the J. H. Sanford Coal Com- 
pany is one of three recently supphed to 
this concern. These engines represent 
the type usually built for mine service, 
and are particularly interesting as they 
are equipped with traction reels. The 
gage of track is 3 ft. 6 in. and the ap- 
proximate weight of each locomotive is 
12,000 lb. The wheels are of chilled cast 
iron 28 in. in diameter and spaced 4 ft. 
4 in. between centers. The journals are 
3J4mH • in. The frames are placed in- 
side the wheels, and are of cast iron, with 
bumpers of the same material. 

Locomotives Have Traction Reel 

This locomotive is equipped with two 
No. 60 motors, suitable for 500 volts 
pressure. The motors are inside hung, 
that is, suspended between the axles. They 
are rated at 15 h.p. each. Operating 
equipment is provided at one end of the 
locomotive only. A trolley-pole socket 
is cast in each frame at the operating end 
of the locomotive. 

The traction reel is used for hauling 

In winding shafts located near a breaker the atmosphere is saturated with- 
coal dust, the grease on the winding 
ropes collects the dust, and causes the 
ropes to become dry and gummy. Before 
examining such a cable, all the gummy- 
grease should be removed ; this can be 
done by applying coal oil to the rope. 


^B|k mK^ ''^ ~^W '' li^ 


^m.JK^ .. \ 1 


1 '"^^B 


W " 


bight, 3 ft. 8 in.; length, 12 ft. 4 in. The 
equipment includes hand brakes of the 
screw type, and four sand boxes cast in 
the frames with spouts to all the wheels. 
The United States Coal and Coke Com- 
pany has recently received five Baldwin- 
Westinghouse locomotives, which are ar- 
ranged to operate either individually or 
in tandem. Two of the machines are ar- 

The peat bogs of Germany cover nearly 
11,583 square miles, while in Ireland the 
bogs cover one-tenth of the country. The 
depth of peat bogs usually varies from 
5.4 to 7.6 yd., although Ireland has some 
bogs 16.3 yd. deep. It has been estimated 
that I square mile of bog 5.4 yd. deep- 
contains 1,813,000 metric tons of dried 

July 4, 1908. 



The Origin of Coal 

By H. M. Chance* 

The zeal of the scientist seldom re- 
quires stimulation, but when a tonic is 
needed perhaps the most effective form 
in which it can be administered is as 
skepticism, for the fault finding of dis- 
senters spurs the theorist to action as no 
other known force. It is with this 
thought and with the hope that by un- 
covering some of the absurdities and fal- 
lacies of the generally accepted theories 
of coal formation, impetus may be given 
to the elaboration of some more plaus- 
ible theory, that this article is written. 
The writer has no new theory to ad- 
vance, but desires to direct attention to 
some observed peculiarities of coal beds, 
and of the rocks with which they are as- 
sociated, not satisfactorily explained by 
any heretofore proposed theories, in or- 
der to emphasize the inadequacy of such 

ing this period, there is no valid reason 
why we may not assume that five hun- 
dred or one thousand occurred ; and in the 
absence of other objections the number 
and frequency of required oscillations 
could not be held to justify rejection of 
the theory, but as these and similar con- 
siderations constitute a connecting link 
in the chain of contradictory evidence, 
they cannot be ignored. 

The fireclays underlying the coals have 
been the subject of much discussion, but 
without developing any satisfactory theory 
of origin. While these coals usually rest 
upon such a bed of clay, there are many 
exceptions to this rule, and these ex- 
ceptions are most significant and may 
furnish a possible explanation of their 
origin or mode of deposition. In attempt- 
ing to explain the origin of the under- 
clays it has been assumed that they 
formed the soil which supported the veg- 
etable growth from which the coal was 
made; this contention being supported by 

ferent layers of a bed of fireclay may 
vary materially in composition ; the top 
layer (that next to the coal) may con- 
tain as much iron and alkalies as a t>-pi- 
cal slate, the next layer. may be quite low 
in iron and alkalies ; the next underlying 
layer may contain a large percentage of 
these impurities, and the bottom layer 
may show a composition similar to that 
of the second layer. If these variations 
in composition be due to growing plants, 
it seems difficult to understand why the 
extractive power of the roots should vary 
so irregularly at different depths below 
the top of the soil in which they grew. 

The Orici.v of Fireclay 
If this theory be true, we should ex- 
pect to find the soda, potash, lime, and 
iron extracted from the clay as a con- 
stituent part of the coal. In the case of 
a typical coal bed 4 ft. thick, carrying 
perhaps 8 per cent, of ash and resting 
upon a bed of fireclay 3 ft. thick, this 


A LE.M'I.Ni; .\ND TK.MLI.Vi: 

theories and clear the way for something 

.'\i<E THE Coals Vegetable Ac- 

Referring first to coals of Carboniferous 
age, that is, to those lying between De- 
vonian and Permian strata, the tlieory 
that they are vegetable accumulations of 
marsh or forest growths, requires the as- 
sumption of from 50 to 200 alternately 
subsiding and emerging oscillations, 
whereby the marshes or bogs or swamps 
were submerged and elevated above 
water-level. These oscillations are neces- 
sary to accoiuit for the different layers of 
the coal beds and their intercalary slate 
or bony partings, without taking into ac- 
count those oscillations necessary for the 
accumulation of the material which now 
forms the intervening beds of slate, lime- 
stone, shale, sandstone, conglomerate and 

If this were the only argument to 
be offered in opposing this theory, it 
could be dismissed with scant considera- 
tion, for if one oscillation occurred dur- 

•ConaiiUliic minlnK englm-or. l>n>xi-l luillil- 
Ing, riilladelphln, ronii. 

citations of the frequent occurrence of 
"roots" in the clay, while the character 
of the clay is explained by assuming that 
it was originally mud or clayey mud sim- 
ilar to that from which the shales and 
slates of the intervening measures were 
formed, and that the roots of the grow- 
ing plants abstracted the alkalies and 
alkaline earths, converting them into a re- 
fractory clay. 

This hypothesis, however, fails to e.x- 
plain why some of these fireclays contain 
nearly as much of the alkalies as the 
typical slates and shales, nor why the 
slate partings of coal beds were not like- 
wise converted into fireclay, for they in 
turn must have formed the soil for the 
growth of vegetation from which the 
upper benches of the coals were formed. 
It is perhaps unnecessary to state that 
partings of typical slate from a fraction 
of an inch up to several inches in thick- 
ness occur in nearly all coals, have none 
of the char.ictcristics of fireclay , nor do 
they show evidence of the presence of 
roots; while fireclay partings occur in 
some coals, they constitute an exception 
to the nile. 

.\gain. it has been found that the dif- 

thcory requires that the plants from 
which the coal was formed have reduced 
the percentage of alkalies, from that of 
the slates (which may be taken at 4 per 
cent.) to that of fireclay (which may be 
assumed as I per cent.), involving the 
removal of about 13 lb. of alkalies from 
each square foot of the bed of clay. \i 
each square foot of the overlying coal 
contains about 24 or 25 lb. of ash, this 
ash should contain about 50 per cent, of 
alkalies. It is, however, well known that 
the ash of most coals contains only a 
very small percentage of the alkalies. 

If the coal flora was of such n.iture as 
to require for its normal growth, large 
quantities of the alkalies, then it would 
rot flourish except upon such a soil ; but 
here again our theory is contradicted by 
observation, for coal beds do not always 
become appreciably thinner where the 
tuiderlying clay is replaced by sandstone, 
and it is quite improbable that the orig- 
inal sand beds contained a notable per- 
centage of the alkalies. 

It, therefore, may be as difficult plausi- 
bly to explain the origin of fireclay as of 
coal, and in attempting to do this it 
should be remembered that fireclays not 


July 4, ig 

•overlaid by coal exist at many horizons 
in the coal measures, and extend over 
large areas. 

When we attempt mentally to picture 
the possibility of a marsh, bog or forest 
that over scores or hundreds of square 
miles has produced sufficient vegetable 
matter to form a layer of coal a few 
inches or perhaps a foot thick, and which 
must have a top surface of such nature 
that a layer of mud or clay a fraction of 
an inch or a few inches thick, may be 
deposited upon it, without filtering down 
into the vegetable matter (such mud or 
•clay ultimately making a slate parting a 
fraction of an inch or a few inches 
thick), and when we try to picture a 
further growth of vegetable matter ac- 
cumulating upon this mud or clay suf- 
ficient to form several inches or feet of 
•coal, without disturbing this layer of mud 
or clay, without filling it with a mass of 
roots or causing it to become mixed with 
the vegetable matter above or beloyv, our 
ingenuity and imaginative powers are se- 
verely taxed. And when upon further 
•consideration, we realize that the condi- 
tions necessary to produce these results 
must be repeated not once or twice, but 
perhaps six or eight times to account for 
the formation of a single typical coal 
ted 5 or 6 ft. thick, we may perhaps be 
justified in rejecting the theory as utterly 

I desire to direct attention especially 
to the fact that the separation of a slate 
"parting" from the coal bench above or 
l)elow it, is frequently defined by an ab- 
solutely sharp line, i.e., there is an abrupt 
•change from coal to slate, pure coal is in 
immediate contact with pure slate, no 
transition layers being present either 
above or below the slate parting. 

Transportation of the Sandstone 

Until a plausible explanation is also 
found of the methods and agencies by 
which the sandstones and conglomerates 
were transported and deposited, we can- 
not hope to paint a true picture of the 
conditions existing during the formation 
of the coals. Reference may especially be 
made to the Mahoning sandstone and 
other similar rocks. The Mahoning sand- 
stone is easily identified in Pennsylvania, 
Ohio, and West Virginia, over an area 
measuring about 250 miles east and west, 
and by an equal distance north and south, 
throughout which it is continuous and per- 
sistent, either as a coarse- or fine-grained 
sandstone, or as a coarse conglomerate 
of quartz pebbles ^ to i or 2 
inches in diameter, or occasionally as 
shale, shaly sandstone or sandy shale. It 
varies in thickness from about 20 to 100 
ft. A few feet above it is the Upper 
Freeport coal bed (Bed E) ; within it, 
when split into two members, is a bed 
of coal, sometimes of workable thickness, 
and a few feet above it is the lowest 
persistent coal bed (usually quite thin) 
of the Middle Barren coal measures. 

We do not know by what agencies the 
coarse sand and pebbles of which this 
rock are composed were transported and 
irregularly distributed over this area, nor 
from what source they were derived. The 
transportation of this material a dis- 
tance of hundreds of miles from its source 
is difficult to explain, for the conditions 
of such transportation must of neces- 
sity not be incompatible with a long se- 
quence of changes favorable to coal for- 
mation, followed by a long period in 
which similar conditions existed, but in 
which the coals were thinner and the sedi- 
ments were fine muds or silts with some 
calcareous material. 

If it be asserted that the quartz peb- 
bles of this rock were transported hun- 
dreds of miles by rivers, we must assume 
liydraulic gradients for these streams and 
for their deltas which would leave along 
the course of their channels great 
boulder-filled canons or valleys, which 
stretching for hundreds of miles through 
J.he coal measures and underlying forma- 
tions, could not easily be overlooked ; 
however, no such channels have been 

Other Peculiar Conditions 

While it seems unnecessary to present 
further evidence of the inadequacy of 
current theories of coal formation, if such 
be needed, attention may be directed to 
the frequent occurrence of limestones ly- 
ing upon fireclay; to the carbonate of 
iron deposits ; to the interesting lamina- 
tion of some coals marked by minute 
layers of a materia! which (for want of 
a bettei- name or perhaps because of ig- 
norance of its true nature) is known as 
"mineral charcoal," or "mother-of-coal ;" 
to the large quantity of pyrite in some 
coals ; to the peculiar "rock-faults" which 
often have the appearance of stream 
channels eroded through the coal. 

As the normal lignitic coals and lig- 
nites of Cretaceou;; and Tertiary age ex- 
hibit features similar to those already dis- 
cussed, the same difficulties are experi- 
enced in attempting to explain their origin 
by current theories, and upon extending 
the discussion to certain abnormal coals 
found in the Mesozoic, Jurassic and at 
the base of the Cretaceous, further dif- 
ficulties appear, especially in the case of 
some coals of rather extraordinary com- 
position, which contain as much as from 
r to 9 per cent, of sulphur. The sulphur 
appears to be present in chemical com- 
bination with carbon or with some of 
the hydrocarbons. To explain the origin 
of such coals, it has been suggested that 
they are the remains of asphalt lakes, or 
of lakes of asphaltic oils. If this theory 
be true, some pertinent queries are im- 
mediately presented as to why these coals 
should be underlaid by beds of fireclay, 
and frequently should have an overlying 
slate roof, precisely similar to that of the 
rormal coals of Carboniferous and Cre- 

taceous age, and why the same, or a sim- 
ilar origin should not be assigned to all 
coal beds. 

Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company 

This company owns an extensive coal 
property in the Crow's Nest Pass dis- 
trict of British Columbia, operating coal 
mines and coke ovens at Fernie and 
Michel in that district. The report is 
for the year 1907. The capital stock at 
the close of the year was $3,716,280, hav- 
ing been increased by $216,280 during the 
year. Premiums received on new stock 
were $324,420, which amount was added 
to the reserve fund. That fund amounted 
to $2,124,420 at the close of the year. 

The coal mined in 1907 was 981,939 
tons, an increase of 175,038 tons over 
1906. The coke made was 231,368 tons, 
an increase of 18,073 tons. The net 
profits for the year were $382,986, from 
which dividends of 10 per cent, were 
paid, amounting to $355,179; leaving a 
surplus of $27,807 for the year. 

The president's report says : "But for 
a strike during April and the action of 
the smelters in raising wages, and so de- 
priving us of our coke-oven men in mid- 
summer, and then for the most part shut- 
ting down their mines and smelters for 
the last two months of the year because 
they could not operate under the new 
wage scale, the output would have over- 
reached considerably the million-ton 
mark for the year. 

"The costs of mining and coke-making 
during 1907 were increased greatly by 
reason of the advance in wages to miners, 
the irregular working of the men, the pe- 
riodical scarcity of labor, the expense of 
securing new miners, the higher prices 
paid for all materials used, the heavy in- 
crease in freight rates, the larger cost of 
compensation for injuries to workmen 
and the extremely severe weather during 
the first three months of the year. Be- 
sides, a fluctuating demand for coal in- 
volved pressing the mines at times for 
tonnage, which had the inevitable in- 
fluence of raising the cost. These condi- 
tions were the most unfavorable in the 
history of the company. 

"During the year there has been spent 
on improvements the sum of $414,501 by 
the coal company; $21,735 by the Elec- 
tric Light and Power Company, and 
$57,582 by the Morrissey, Fernie & Michel 
Railway Company (the last two being 
subsidiary companies of the coal com- 
pany), or a total on improvements of 

"A new agreement between the com- 
pany and its employees was reached on 
May 2, 1907, lasting until April i, 1909. 
Increases in some of the mining rates, 
as well as to outside and inside labor, 
were accorded the men and a joint com- 
'mittee agreed upon to settle all disputes." 

July 4, 1908. 


Is the Electric Current Safe in Coal Mines? 

The Death Rate in Foreign Countries Has Been Reduced One-third 

as a Result of Investigations. Apparatus to Prevent Firedamp Ignition 

B Y 



H O S L E R 

Electrical and niiniuK ingiiucrs, as well 
as mint foremen and superintendents, 
while studying the practical adaptation of 
electric power to every kind of work, in 
and about the mines under their charge, 
have come face to face with one problem, 
which demands careful attention. It has 
been found that electrical-power transmis- 
sion offers many advantages which no 
other power can furnish ; but it must be 
acknowledged that electricity is also dan- 
Kerous to some e.xtcnt, in mines which 
give off explosive gases. The subject is 
broad, and one that has engaged the at- 
tention and best thought of the ablest 
scientists and practical mining men in 
every coal-producing country. 

Coal mines may be divided into two 
classes, viz. : Those that do, and those 
that do not generate explosive gases. In 
ttcating these two classes of mines separ- 
ately, 1 will first deal with electric power in 
non-gaseous mines. Notwithstanding the 
enactment and enforcement of laws defin- 
ing the duties and responsibilities of per- 
sons engaged in work in and al)out the 
mines, we still find that accidents occur, 
and will continue to occur, as long as we 
mine coal. Such a thing as absolute safety 
is impossible ; if absolute safety was to be 
attained we would have to slop all human 
activities. What we may call a safe 
agency, therefore, is a reasonable degree 
of safety, or accident reduced lo its mini- 

I be iLinuer.^i resulling from llu- \ise of 
electric power in non-gaseous mines arc as 
follows: (i) Shocks to men and ani- 
mals; (2) fires caused by overheating of 
cables, resistances, motors, lamps, etc. 
Shocks may be received in many different 
ways, chietly by coming in contact with 
uninsulated ca1)Ies, or the opposite termin- 
als of machines, or coming in contact with 
switches and parts of live machinery. 

Some experts advise that we do not 
exceed a .1011 voll current in our miius, 
elainiiiii; lliat .1 current above this may 
result in serious accidents to men and 
mules , the latter because of their shoes 
are mosi susceptible to shocks from a 
hinh-voltage current. I am inclined to 
believe, however, that any current above 
100 volts may become dangerous; it is a 
well known fact, that a person having wet 
hands and wet feet, and standing on a rail 
or damp ground, can receive a worse 
shock from 100 or 150 volts, than a man 

Note — Taper rend Iwforo tlie Y. XI. C. A. 
nistrlet MlnltiK Institute. Tlininslmrc, IVnn.. 
May 7. ISIOS. 

er. Moirls.tale mill 

can receive from a 500-volt circuit, when 
he has dry hands and feet and is on dry 

Gu,\Ri>iNG .-Xgai.vst Er.ECTRic Shckks 

Most shocks that mules receive in the 
mines are largely due to carelessness on 
the part of some drivers and mule hust- 
lers, who. trying to hurry at the end of a 
day's work, attempt to take the mules out 
alongside of an uninsulated wire, before 
thf power is turned oflf. These shocks 
to mules may not always prove fatal, but 
often spoil a good animal. 

To guard against shocks on motors, 
other than the totally inclosed types, all 
live parts should be netted or screened so 
that no one can receive a shock unless 
he first wilfully removes the protection. 
When installing electricity in mines we 
should guard against the high-current 
voltage and insist upon all machine 
terminals and switch fuses being provided 
with cover and these covers earthed and 
marked with white paint, so that there 
may be no doubt as to what they are for. 

Electricity may cause fire in mines 
chiefly by: Motors overheating; heat 
caused by short-circuits; heat caused by 
had connections ; resistances becoming 
ovirhcated; and from underground light- 
ing systems. 

The overheating of motors may arise 
from overload or some defect, but any 
rial danger from this cause is not great; 
however, all inflammable material must be 
kept away from the machine, and it is 
best to have an ample supply of dry sand 
on hand. The circuit-breaker should be 
so adjusted that the motors cannot take 
enough current to overheat them to the 
danger point. 

Short-circuits, in a properly installed 
plant, are liable to occur from defective 
design, bad insulation, something working 
loose, or some foreign substance coming 
i;i contact with parts of the machine. 

Bad connections are things that should 
never exist, and do not exist around a 
plant that has been installed in a work- 
manlike manner and properly looked after. 

Resistance nuist be kept well away from 
all woodwork, anil if starting resistances 
only, they should be used with what is 
sometitucs called a "fool-proof" switch, 
which will not allow the current to pass 
through the resistance after the motor 
has started up, unless the handle is de- 
liberately held or tie<l in some improper 
way. .\ starting and regulating resistance 
should be so designed and proportioned 
that the full-load current will not over- 

heal, then the machine-circuit breakers 
will take care of the rest. 

Risks of fire from underground lighting 
can best be gxiarded against by careful 
and constant investigation and by using 
the best materials throughout the system. 
The most important points, however, are 
to keep all lamps away from timbering, 
coal dust and especially cobwebs, and use 
a low candle-power light ; good materials 
and fireproof cable are essential. It is, 
therefore, evident, that electricity can be 
used for any purpose in non-gaseous 
mines, without any abnormal degree of 
danger, if the proper precautions arc ob- 
served in the installation. 

.Use of Electric Power in G.\seous 

The prevention of ignition of mine 
gases from electric machinery has been 
made the subject of exhaustive experi- 
mental investigation ih Great Britain, 
France and Germany. This subject was 
studied in Prussia by a special commis- 
sion as long ago as 1885. In 1890 a series 
of investigations were made on behalf of 
the French government, and in quite re- 
cent years, in Belgium, in Gennany, and 
in Great Britain, investigations, searching 
and exhaustive, have been made by em- 
inent specialists. Both direct- and alter- 
nating-current motors, starters, resist- 
ances, switches, cables, transformers and 
every other part or parts of machinery 
that go to make up an electrically- 
equipped mine were subjected to tests 
under conditions as nearly as possible like 
those met In actual service. 

In the year iqo-» the British Parliament 
authorized the appointment of a commit- 
tee of experts to inquire into the use of 
electricity in mines. On October 16, igoi 
the warrant naming and authorizing the 
committee lo proceed was issued. After 
their preliminary meetings and organiza- 
tion they assembled many timeSi — extend- 
ing from November, 190A to May the fol- 
lowing year — for the purpose of hearing 
witnesses .ind taking evidence, .\mong 
the various witnesses the following 
branches of the mining industries were 
represented : 

1. Scientific experts, electrical engi- 
neers and manufacturers of electrical ap- 

2. Colliery owners and managers, 
jt. Miners' agents and miners. 

^. Safety and electrical fusemakcrs, 
and representatives from insurance com- 


July 4. igo8. 

Report of the British Experts 

The committee not only examined wit- 
nesses and took evidence, but also visited 
collieries in every district in England and 
Wales, for the purpose of making personal 
observation and experiments. In prefac- 
ing my remarks on the dangers of elec- 
tricity in gaseous mines, I desire to quote 
from the report of this British Royal 
Commission : 

"It is obvious that if an agent so potent 
as electricity is installed with insufBcient 
skill, and handled with carelessness or ig- 
norance, accidents may result, but if prop- 
erly set up and used, it presents, we think, 
no features of such danger as would 
justify its prohibition. Gunpowder and 
nitro-e-xplosives are dangerous, and yet 
they have to be made and stored in maga- 
zines, and even boys under proper super- 
vision, handle guns and rifles safely. Ex- 
plosives in mines may not only cause 
accidents to those engaged in using them, 
but might cause explosions of firedamp. 
unless properly handled, and yet it is not 
too much to say that they present features 
of danger greater than any that are likely 
to be found in electricity if properly em- 
ployed. Steam under high pressure is 
capable of producing terrible explosions, 
and yet it has been used for a century 
without any abnormally dangerous results. 
Our recent experience of motor cars has 
shown the danger than may attend them, 
yet no one has proposed their prohibition, 
only regulation. To use an electric light 
in a mine at first sight appears dangerous, 
for if broken it may ignite firedamp. Yet 
it must be remembered that any miner's 
safety lamp if broken would set fire to 
gas with even greater certainty. Electric 
winding machinery may perhaps alarm 
those unaccustomed to its use, but on the 
Continent we have evidence that it is used 
for winding men and coal from the pit 
with steadiness and safety. Many more 
instances may be given of the successful 
use of dangerous materials — masses of 
molten metal are used at white heat; cor- 
rosive acids and chemicals are manufac- 
tured in large quantities. And when all 
these cases are considered, it is not too 
nmch to say that the well regulated use 
of electricity will, in the future, present 
far less dangers than many other indus- 
trial agencies. On the other hand, these 
powerful agencies may be made to play 
a most important part in diminishing the 
severity of human toil." 

History, in Continental Europe, has in 
a remarkable way, confirmed the views 
thus expressed by the above mentioned 
committee, and the mines there, today, are 
using large, high-tension installations suc- 
cessfully without accident, owing to the 
strict observance of proper precautions. I 
believe that full latitude can be given to 
the great development of electrical ma- 
chinery in mines, but desire to emphasize 
the opinion that those who are to use it, 
and be exposed to the dangers that may 

arise from it, have a right not only to ex- 
pect, but demand that every reasonable 
precaution to secure their safety should 
be taken. There are risks in every occu- 
pation, and do what we may, mining, like 
seafaring and railroading, will always pre- 
sent dangers that are probably greater 
than those of other occupations. 

The dangers from the use of electricity 
in gaseous mines are all those encoun- 
tered in non-gaseous mines, and enumer- 
ated in the first part of our paper, and 
ignition of explosive mine gases by spark- 
ing and overheating. What I have said 
relative to shocks to men and animals, 
and concerning fire caused by overheating 
of motors, cables, etc., is likewise applic- 
able in reference to gaseous mines, and, 
therefore, I will not discuss them further. 

Sparking may occur during the normal 
working of machinery on the brushes of 
direct-current motors, and on making or 
breaking contacts on machinery and 
switches, also by the insulation on motors, 
cables and switch mountings breaking 
down, or it may be caused by cables being 
either broken in two or pulled out from 
their connections. In Prussia and Bel- 
gium, specially prepared galleries have 
been constructed to carry on a series of 
investigations with electrical apparatus in 
gaseous mines, and at a 'testing station at 
Gelsenkirchen, experiments were carried 
on for over a period of three years. The 
first year they confined themselves to ex- 
amining the behavior Of motors and other 
appliances submitted b'y various makers. 
1 he second year endeavors were made to 
ascertain the most suitable devices for 
preventing firedamp ignition caused by 
sparking in electrical appliances, ahd to 
test the various forms proposed ; and 
finally, the third year was devoted to test- 
ing motors constructed in accordance with 
the experience gained in the first two 
years. The result of these extended ex- 
periments and investigations not only at 
the above named place, but in every other 
European coal-producing country, have 
established beyond doubt the following 
facts: First, that electrical apparatus 
in gaseous mines not only may cause, but 
has caused the ignition of explosive gases ; 
second, that electrical apparatus can be 
rendered safe in gaseous mines, without 
undue complications and an abnormal de- 
gree of danger, at a reasonable cost. 

At the above mentioned testing station, 
the following apparatus to prevent spark- 
ing and firedamp ignition caused b'y spark- 
ing, was thoroughly tested ; hermetical 
casings, wire .gauze protectors, labyrinth 
casing, cooling-tube attachments to cas- 
ings, casings with flange ventilators, an- 
nular-grid casings and oil-bath casings. 
Of the different casings tried, the follow- 
ing proved the most satisfactory and 
we will give a brief description of each : 
I. Hermetical casing. 2. Casings in which 
ventilation was secured by means of wire 
gauze. 3. Annular-grid casings. 4. Oil- 
bath casings. 

There should be no division of the 
space inside of the casings into large com- 
partments and connected by small open- 
ings. The surfaces of any parts of the 
casings and covers or manholes should 
take the form of large, smooth flanges, 
without any packing of rubber, asbestos, 
or other weak material. For hermetical 
casing, all parts should be strong enough 
to stand a pressure of eight atmospheres. 
No holes for relieving pressure are per- 

For casings with wire gauze ventilation, 
the wire gauze should be preferably of the 
normal dimensions used for safety lamps, 
viz., of i/7S-in. wire and about 940 meshes 
to the square inch. The best material is 
bronze or galvanized steel wire, and the 
gauze must be uniformly made, clean and 
free from defects. ' The total protecting 
surfaces — the sum of several layers of 
gauze— should be at least 38 per 
100 of internal air space. At least 
two la'yers of gauze should be provided, 
these being set not less than i/s in., and 
not more than 4/5 in. apart. Large sur- 
faces, of gauze should be strengthened by 
ribs.' "f he gauze should be mounted on a 
detachable cover, facilitating the super- 
vision and changing of the sheets. No 
soldering is permissible on the gauze, but 
the latter must be fastened in rigid 
frames, or tightly screwed in place by 
means of such frames. Perforated sheet 
metal, or other similar material should be 
placed over the gauze to protect it from 
external injury. 

Annul.\r-grid C.\sings 
For casings with annular-grid ventila- 
tion, sheet-metal rings of bronze, brass 
or tinned, or galvanized steel are used, 
with a cross-surface of 2 in., and a thick- 
ness of l/SO in. mounted, with spacing 
pieces so as to be not more than 1/50 in. 
apart. Leakage must be prevented so 
that the only communication between the 
interior of the casings and the outer air 
is through the annular grids. The num- 
ber of the rings should be as large as pos- 
sible in order to minimize the internal 
pressure, and should be attached to a de- 
tachable cover to facilitate inspection and 
changing. Some form of external protec- 
tion should be provided for these ventil- 

Sufficient oil should be poured into the 
oil-bath casing to properly cover all 
sparking parts ; the necessary depth of oil 
in the casing should be ascertained by the 
maker of the apparatus, and its level 
marked on the casing. The shape of the 
casing should be such as to preclude any 
e.xposure of the sparking parts, owing to 
violent motion of the oil. 

The foregoing points indicate the fea- 
tures that should be aimed at in making 
the different styles of casing, in order to 
enable the system adopted to afford suffi- 
cient protection against ignition of fire- 
damp. Other measures are also recom- 
mended as contributing to greater safety, 

July 4, 1908. 


such as locking devices, which switch off 
the dangerous parts of the motor, etc., 
before the casing can be opened. The 
opening on the casings should also be 
sealed so that unauthorized persons can- 
not tamper with them. To prevent short- 
circuit sparking, no naked leads or ter- 
minals should be allowed outside the cas- 
ing; the latter should be made very strong 
as a protection in the event of roof falls 
or the like. In actual workings, the cas- 
ing must be kept in a proper state of effi- 
ciency, the wire gauze ventilators in par- 
ticular needing supervision. 

The gauze must be kept clean, and fre- 
quently examined for damage. With oil 
baths the depths of oil must be seen to 
at regular intervals, and suitable oil used. 
Insulation oil should be pure, unmixed 
mineral oil obtained by frictional distilla- 
tion from petroleum, and not chemically 
treated, nor contain traces of cither acid 
or alkali, and have a flash test not below 
365 dcg. F. Amiular grids are free 
from any tendency to undergo injurious 
changes, but moisture and dust must be 
kept away as much as possible. The 
hermetical casing requires the smalkst 
amount of attention. 

With the use of these appliances, and 
the exercise of precautian, it seems that 
there is no longer any hindrance to util- 
izing the great advantages offered by the 
use of electricity in our mines, for the ex- 
periments, though tedious and ofttimes ni>t 
free from dangers, have proved beyond 
doubt that electricity in gaseous mines can 
be used without any unreasonable degree 
of danger. One of the results of the 
British Royal Commission was the adop- 
tion of a code of rules, governing the in- 
stallation and use of electricity in mines. 
Tliese rules are now incorporated in tlio 
mining laws of Great Britain and are in 
force today. 

I firmly believe that an electrical in- 
spector for mines should be appointed. 
His duty would be similar to that of our 
other inspectors, only his whole time 
should be given to the inspection of elec- 
trical machinery. He should examine all 
electrical equipment of mines as to their 
probable dangers of ignition of gases, and 
see that electrical plants were installed in 
strict conformity to the rules that should 
be reconunended and adopted. This elec- 
trical inspector should be a skilled elec- 
trician, and have a broad and extended 
experience with actual conditions that 
exist in the mines, and should report 
direct to the chief of the department of 

The testing stations in Belgium alone, 
through their recommendations, led to a 
reduction in the loss of life froiu 3.19 to 
1.02, or 2.17 men per each 1000 men em- 
ployed. The rate per 1000 men employed 
in the United States for an average of 
five years (1902-1906) was yig, or more 
•than three times what it was in Bel- 
gium during the same period; nearly 2.7 
itimes greater than it was in Great Britain. 

and 3.72 times greater than the death rate 
in France. 

A Novel Electric Hoist 

The following description deals with a 
hoist that contains many novel features. 
The machine was built by the Vulcan 
Iron Works of Wilkes-Barrc, Pcnn., and 
installed for the Hallidic Machinery 
Company of Seattle, Washington, who 
are the engineers for the Carbon Hill 
Coal Company. 

The hoist is of the self-contained type 
driven by two Xo. 83 Wcstinghouse rail- 
way type motors, operafiWg at 550 volts 
direct current, each motor having a ca- 
pacity of no h.p., half hoiir rating. The 
motors are secured to tlie bed plate by 
the nose-spring suspension, thereby elim- 
inating the shock occasioned by starting 
heavy loads. The motors are both 

The loose drum is driven by means of 
a jaw clutch, which is operated by a hand 
lever on the motorman's platform. On 
this platform are also mounted the inde- 
pendent hand brakes of the band type, 
each brake being able to hold the load 
on any point of a 30-dcg. slope. 

All gearing is made of open-hearth cast 
steel with machine-cut teeth, and all cov- 
ered with metal guards, as shown in the 
illustration. The bed plate is of rectan- 
gular box section, being made up of five 
pieces secured with lumed-stcel bolts. 
The connections between pedestals and 
bed plate are also made by turned-steel 
bolts and dowel pins. 

The hoist is sectionalized throughout, 
so that it may be taken through a tunnel 
6 ft. square. The machine is to be lo- 
cated in a damp chamber, which is lim- 
ited to 16 ft. wide and 18 ft. long, with a 
maximum head room of 8 ft. The hoist 
is to operate continuously, or 24 hours 


mounted on a heavy steel shaft. Between 
the motors is the main driving pinion, the 
whole being mounted upon three babbitt- 
lined pedestals. The motors are controlled 
by a type R-6 controller with a separate 
reverse handle, eight points forward and 
eight reverse. 

E.ich drum has a capacity for winding 
1500 ft. of iV^-in. wire rope in three 
layers, the rope pull being about 10,000 
lb. at 600 ft. per min. .\t the end of each 
drum is secured an asbestos lagged brake 
ring, this type of brake being able to 
withstand the heat of heavy braking, and 
outlasts a number of sets of wood lagging. 
One drum is keyed direct and the other 
runs loose on a heavy open-hearth steel 
shaft. Between the drums is mounted the 
main spur gear, which as well as the 
drum is split in halves, and planed and 
secured with turned steel bolts driven 
in reamed holes. 

The drum is carried on three babbitt- 
lined pedestals, which are cast integral 
with the bearings whidi support the motor 
shaft, thereby securing a perfect aline- 
ment of gears and shafts at all times. 

per day, stopping only long enough to re- 
verse between hoists. The location of 
the cars in the slope is clearly shown by 
a positive-dial indicator placed in front 
of the drums. 

.'\t Cerro Gordo, Cal , in a formation of 
slate overlying a compact, crystalline lime- 
stone, intersected by porphyries of various 
characters, veins of silver-lead ore occur 
in the limestone, or at the contact between 
the slate and limestone. The veins dip 
steeply. Their filling is quartzite, in which 
the ore is found in nests, pockets and ir- 
regularly shaped deposits. The ore was 
galena, anglesitc and ccrussite. large 
bunches of compact anglesite with a ker- 
nel of galena being a common occurrence, 
and was rich in both lead and silver. In 
1874 the Union mine produced 12,171 tons 
of ore averaging 47 per cent, lead and 87 
oz. silver per ton. With increasing depth, 
the galena ore predominated. The veins 
varied greatly in width, swelling out to 40 
ft. in places and pinching almost to noth- 
ing. in other places. The Union mine was 
the largest producer and for a while was 
worked very profitably. 


July 4, 1908. 

Colliery Notes 

In cases of accidental tires, collieries 
provided with rescue appliances are in a 
position to deal with the danger quickly 
and promptly and thus save thousands of 
dollars worth of property. 

Changes made in the government min- 
ing regulations of Japan are considered 
extremely liberal, especially as regards 
foreigners. All mining machinery is to 
be admitted free of duty and the e.xport 
duty on copper has been abandoned. 

Locate a concrete mixer as near as 
possible to the place where the concrete 
is to be used ; cement should be used as 
soon as possible after mixing, and should 
not receive too much handling or the mor- 
tar will separate from the coarser ma- 

The velocity of the ventilating current 
at the working faces of a deep, dry coal 
mine should not exceed 300 ft. per min. ; 
il the velocity of current is much over 
this limit, the mine air will become too 
dry and thus increase the danger of dust 

While there is no doubt that blow-out 
shots are more likely to cause an ex- 
plosion of coal dust under ordinary cir- 
cumstances than a shot which does its 
work properly, it by no means follows 
that an ordinary shot is incapable of ig- 
niting coal dust. 

A number of small valves give better 
results in a mine pump than does one 
large valve having the same area as the 
total area of the small valves ; the smaller 
valves have a larger area of discharge and 
offer less obstruction to the pump dis- 
charge. They are also better adapted for 
work under great pressures. 

The best method of cleaning hoisting 
ropes preparatory to an examination is to 
pass them through hot oil. Provide a V- 
shaped steel trough from 15 to 30 ft. long, 
with a steam space of I'/J or i'/, in. 
around the bottom and sides. Fill this 
with oil, heat by means of the steam and 
pass the rope slowly through it. 

In mine accidents where the patient is 
unconscious, lay him on his back' or in 
the position where breathing is most 
easy; undo all tight clothing, around the 
neck, chest and waist. Give the victim 
the purest air available, raise his head 
somewhat if his face is flushed, but keep 
it low if the face is pale ; give no stimu- 
lants by the mouth. 

George Sullivan, an engineer at Bald- 
win mine. No. 4 of the Pittsburg Coal 
Company, though fatally scalded by the 
bursting of an 8-in. steam pipe, remained 
at the throttle of his engine until tlie 
cage containing 10 men was safely low- 
ered 150 ft. to the bottom of the shaft. 
Many such acts of heroism have been ac- 
complished by the men who produce our 

When putting down a drill hole, if it 
appears to be going crooked, it may some- 
times be straightened by shortening the 
stroke or dulling the bit. If this is not 
effective, put a small piece of hardwood 
or iron in the hole, insert the drill and 
drill slowly; the drill will hit the hard 
substance and be deflected into line. In 
case this is not successful, the only remedy 
is to start a new hole. 

In wet shafts, concrete makes a much 
letter lining than wood, as the latter rots 
in a short time. Concrete for shaft lin- 
ings should be made of portland cement 
and common boiler cinders; the strength 
and density of the mixture depends en- 
tirely upon the pressure to which it is to 
be subjected. Where the pressure is great, 
added strength may be gained by im- 
bedding wire netting or twisted iron bars 
in the concrete lining. 

Steam superheaters are important fac- 
tors in ensuring economy. They are 
fixed near the fire and transfer heat from 
the gases, before they have passed over 
a large amount of heating surface, into 
steam, direct. They should be an in- 
tegral part of a water-tube boiler, as they 
prevent wet steam when the boiler is 
worked under pressure, thus enabling an 
engine to do more work than it other- 
wise could accomplish. 

Rock drills should be securely mounted. 
Where holes are drilled downward they 
should be kept partially filled with water : 
when holes are drilled upward, keep the 
drills dry for if wet drills are worked in 
dry holes, they will soon become dust- 
clogged. When cavities or seams in the 
rock are reached, work the bit with a 
short stroke until firm rock is again en- 
countered. Holes which are to be drilled 
up should be started on a level if pos- 

Creosoting of timber is done in the 
following manner : Place a quantity of 
wood in a large boiler, screw down the 
manhole door, extract all air from the 
boiler and pump creosote, liquid into the 
boiler at a temperature of 120 deg. F. 
until a pressure of 100 lb. per is 
reached. This liquid is obtained from 
coal tar and is made up of pitch, creo- 
sote, naptha and ammonia. The mixture 
enters into the heart of the wood and in- 
creases the life of the timber. Its one 
drawback is that it is inflammable. 

The most efficient precautions to be 
taken to prevent gob fires in soft-coal 
riiines have been found to be : (i), the ex- 
clusion of oxygen by closely built gate 
packs; (2) the keeping of a straight 
working face, and the avoidance of leav- 
ing ribs of coal or timber; (3) the clean 
stripping of all coal from the sides of a 
fault, which prevents grinding; (4) the 
removal of all debris; (5) the use of the 
panel system of mining which makes pos- 
sible quick and complete isolation; (6) 
the use of the retreating system of min- 
ing, the gob being left behind; (7) the 

presence of a strong current of air in 
roadways and other places which show a 
tendency to heat. 

Oil insulation for mine motors is re- 
garded by many mining engineers as of- 
fering grave risks of fire ; this fear is un- 
founded for no oil can possibly become a 
fuel unless heated to or above its flashing 
point, and this point is far above any tem- 
perative the switches, or even the trans- 
formers, should reach under ordinary 
conditions. No insulating oil should have 
a flash test of less than 365 deg. P., and 
the burning test should be at least 392 
deg. F. It is unlikely that heat sufficient 
to raise the temperature of the oil to 360 
deg. F. would ever occur. When heated 
to nearly the boiling point, oil should give 
off dense clouds of smoke ; this is in- 
convenient and dangerous in a mine, and 
can be prevented by the use of a tem- 
perature indicator placed in the upper por- 
tion of the oil case. 

Three compartment ventilating shafts of 
large area should be used for mines where 
the workings are extended. One com- 
partment should be reserved for hoisting 
men in case of accident; the other two 
compartments should be used solely for 
ventilating purposes. Two moderate sized, 
reversible fans, independent of each other 
should be used with such a shaft and un- 
der such conditions. Each fan should 
ventilate independently its own portion of 
the mine. Place doors at the top and bot- 
tom of the shaft compartments so that if 
one fan has to suspend operations, by 
opening the doors a connection with the 
entire mine can be made and the work 
of ventilation can be carried on by the 
other fan. In cold weather this arrange- 
ment permits keeping wet shafts clear of 
ice, thus adding to the safety of the men 
and eliminating what is in many mines a 
difficult problem. 

There should be a daily examination of 
all winding ropes by a competent person. 
-\ weekly examination is also advisable. 
1 he examiner should stand at the head of 
the shaft and the rope should be slowly 
raised or lowered through his hand, 
which should be protected by a thick 
glove or piece of waste; the rope should 
not move faster than 40 or 50 ft. per min. 
The observer should feel with his hand 
for broken wires and at the same time 
watch closely for other defects, such as 
excessive wear, loosening of the strands, 
straightening of the lay, kinking or severe 
corrosion. When anything abnormal is 
noticed, the rope should be stopped and 
the suspected portion thoroughly cleaned 
and examined. It is also advisable to 
watch the rope for a short time while it 
coils on the drum so that the position of 
possible punching or crushing can be lo- 
cated and examined. A monthly exam- 
ination is also advisable as it allows the 
examiner to keep track of the normal 
wear of the rope and thus be in a po- 
sition to calculate its remaining life and 

July 4. I'joS, 


Mining and Transportation at Santa Eulalia 

The Conditions Are Favorable, the Mines Are Dry, the Country Rock 
Requires Little Support and Labor Is Good and Not Expensive 

B Y 




I he narrow-gage railroad, belonging to 
tliL' Chihuahua Mining Company, reaches 
several of llie mines both in the middle 
and western camps in the Santa Eulalia 
district, Chihuahua, Mexico. This road is 
iK miles long and has a maximum curva- 
ture of Oo deg. and a maximum grade of 
<> per cent. The difference of elevation 
liclweeii the mines and the lower terminal. 
Hacienda Robinson, is 1500 ft.; 22-ton 
locomotives are used and the ore is hauled 
in trains of 16 cars holding about four 
Ions eacli. 

gage branch, lour miles lung, which con- 
nects with the Mexican Central road at 
Alberto. This aerial tramway is com- 
posed of two parts with an angle station 
and bins between. The upper part be- 
tween the Juarez and the Galdeana is a 
Lcschen automatic-loading tramway, one 
mile long, while the lower tramway, four 
miles long, was made by the Trenton Iron 
Works. In the lower tramway there arc 
three tension stations, while in the upper 
only one. On the loaded side the cable 
is l?')i in. diameter, while the cable on the 

the I'utosi. make only about 1000 gal. of 
water per day, and this is easily disposed 
of by bailing. 

On account of the absence of water in 
the limestone (except in some large caves 
such as occasionally are cut in some of the 
mines), all water used in the district has 
to be pumped from Hacienda Robinson. 
This water is pumped by the Chihuahua 
Mining Company against a head of about 
1500 ft. through a 4-in. pipe and delivered 
to the difTerrnt mining companies, .•\bout 
50,000 gal. per day are pumped. 

rile C'hiluuduia ciiinpaii> liauls its own 
ores and (hat of the Polosi Mining Com- 
pany to the haiii'iitia. while it hauls ore 
from the Hucna Tierre and the tiasolina 
iiiinos to Santa ludalia where the ore is 
loaded into ordinary narrow-gage cars on 
tlio Mineral railroad and taken to the 
Mexican Central road at Chihuahua 
wltere it is loaded into standard-gage cars. 

rile Mina Vieja and several of the 
smaller properties pack their ore on mule- 
back to Sanla Eulalia. But the San Toy 
has obtained a cheap transportation by 
building an aerial tramway system from 
its properties to the hiii> on its standard- 

imloaded size is I in. diameter. Wooden 
towers are used for the upper tramway, 
while steel towers are used for the lower 
tramway. The tramway cost $i»,ooo 
(.gold ) erected. The cost of transportation 
over the aerial tramway exclusive of de- 
preciation of plant, but including repairs, 
is about 210 jier ton. 

The liiiicsioiio i-i quite free from water 
so that the mines are not troubled with 
pumping: in fact, there is not a single 
mine pump in this district. The two 
deepest mines, the Santo Domingo and 


rhe largest hoist in the district is that 
at the I'otosi No. i shaft. This is an 
.Mlis-fhalmcrs tirst-molion hoist having 
a conical drum, the large diameter of 
which is IJ.5 ft. and the small diameter 
8.5 ft. The Mina Vieja and the Vclar- 
defia mines arc equipped with geared elec- 
tric hoists which arc to be run from a 
dynamo .it the Gasolina mine. The 
smaller mines use Fairbanks-Morse gaso- 
lene hoists, there being more than as of 
these in the district. On account of 
greater portability of the fuel and the 



July 4, 1908. 

small amount of water required by gaso- 
lene engines, these are well adapted to the 
requiremenis of the small shafts in this 


. The deepest shaft in the district is the 
Santo Domingo, which is 1850 ft. deep. 
The Potosi No. i and No. 2 are both 1700 
fr. deep, and the Buena Tierra and the 
Gasolina shafts are 1400 ft. deep. 

The Santo Domingo and Potosi No. i 
shafts have three compartments while 
most of the others have two compart- 
ments. The Gasolina, the San Antonio 
and the Mina Vieja (the old shaft) prob- 
ably have the smallest two-compartment 
shafts in the world. These shafts are the 
same size, 3 ft. 4 in. by S'A ft. in the clear, 
and were all sunk' by the same man for 
working shafts. Skips are used in these 
shafts so that a considerable tonnage of 
ore can be hoisted. The Buena Tierra 

5xi5-ft. shaft by hand is about $15, 
the contractors doing the timbering and 
furnishing all supplies except timbers. To 
sink the Juarez two-compartment shaft, 
5x9 ft., by day's pay, it costs about $40 
per meter, or $12.50 per ft. To sink the 
Potosi No. 2 two-compartment shaft, 5x10 
ft. in size, which was sunk by machine, 
cost, including hoisting, timbering, timbers 
and all supplies, about $30 per foot. 

The cost of driving a drift 6.X6.5 ft., 
either by hand or with machines, is about 
$9 per ft., the contractor furnishing every- 
thing but the drills, and, if machines are 
used, the power. The cost of driving vyi- 
compartment raises is about the same. 

The cost of mining I do not know ; but 
much of the ore is mined on contract at 
2Sc. per 14-cu.ft. car delivered at the 
shaft, the company furnishing drills, and 
if machines are used, power. This price 
applies only to the softest ores in which 
only a pick is required to loosen the ore. 

(maestro mincro), $5-$7 ; American fore- 
man, $5 to $7 (gold). 

Most of the companies have an Amer- 
ican foreman, but the Chihuahua and' 
Potosi mining companies, which are run 
by the same management have a Mexican 
general foreman all day-shift, under 
whom is a Mexican foreman and shift 
bosses on each shift. In fact at the 
mines under that management the super- 
intendent, the assistant superintendent, the 
bookkeeper, the train master, the master 
mechanic and the timekeeper are the only 
Americans employed, all the others being 
Mexicans. Some of the companies em- 
ploy American assayers ; but others 
have Mexicans who are good at making 
tire-assays and for analyses for lead, zinc, 
iron and silica, but are not technical 

The Mexicans are good miners in 
northern Mexico. Some of them are al- 
most, if not quite, as good niachinemen 


also uses skips which hold about i}4 

The Potosi No. i and the Buena Tierra 
shafts are equipped with steel head- 
frames ; all the other shafts are equipped 
with wooden headframes. All the mines 
but the Santo Domingo use round l»pe; 
at that shaft flat ropes are used. Most 
of the mines use crossheads with the 
buckets, the ore from cars being dumped 
into pockets and loaded from the pockets 
into the buckets. 

Breskinc Grounij 

,Mpst of the shaft sinking in the camp 
is done by hand and on contract, but some 
of the hand-sinking is by day's pay ; in a 
few cases machines have been used. The 
shafts seldom require any support to hold 
the walls, and timbers are used only to 
hold the guides for the cages or the cross- 
heads. Except where the rock is broken 
up slightly no lagging is used in the 

The price paid per foot for sinking a 


In Other cases the ore is hard enough to 
require machines, and then, of course, the 
cost is many times as great. 

All men work 9-hr. shifts except the 
firemen and hoisting engineers, some of 
whom work 8 hours and some 12 hours. 
The wagts in pesos are as follows : 
Men handling waste or packing ore up 
ladders {peon labor), $i.7s-$2 per day; 
dry-waller (trincherero), $2-$2.2S ; car- 
man (carrero), $2; miner (barratero), 
$2; trackman and timberman (pnlero), 
$3; machineman (perforista), $4; ma- 
chineman's helper {ayudante), $2.50; top- 
man {contra), $2.2S-$2.5o; hoisting en- 
gineer (palanquero), on first motion hoist, 
$6, on geared hoist, $4; fireman {fog- 
oncro), $2.25; skipman or man loading 
buckets at ore-pocket (mantero), $2- 
$2.25; nipper {sora), $$2; black- 
smith (herrero), $$3.5o; helper 
(ayudante), $2-$2.2S ; carpenter (carpin- 
tero), $3-$3-SO without tools, with tools, $4 ; 
shift boss (poblador), $3-$3.5o; foreman 

and timbermen as similar men in the 
United States. By selecting these it is 
possible to organize a good crew of men. 
The Mexican in Chihuahua is a good man 
with the single-jack, he has a fine nose 
for ore, is a good shoveler and when 
necessary will work in places where a 
white man would not, especially in places 
where the ore has to be packed out on 
the back. This is an advantage in pros- 
pecting work in irregular deposits like 
those at Santa Eulalia. The trouble with 
the Mexican is that he will "soldier," 
and it is always best to do as much work 
as possible on contract. As dry-wallers 
they are especially good, for the dry 
walls in the Santa Eulalia mines are 
some of the best, if not the best, that I 
have ever seen; but, of course, the flat 
pieces into which the limestone breaks 
are especially favorable for dry-walling. 

The Mexican bosses are apt to stand in 
with their men if not watched; therefore, 
there must be one man about the mine 
who has had considerable practical ex- 
perience so as to guard against this. If 

July 4, TO08. 


the superintendent is not a good miner 
himself then he should have a white fore- 
man ; otherwise a Mexican foreman is 
possibly cheaper. 

It is well to provide houses for the 
miners so as to have them living near 
Ihc mine, for thus a more permanent class 
of workmen is obtained than if they are 
(iicouraged to live in town. The Chi- 
huahua and Potosi companies are the 
only large companies to provide dwel- 
lings for their Mexican miners, but they 
;ire repaid by the fact that many of the 
miners have worked for the company six 
ur seven years. 

In Qiibuahua the mining companies are 
not troubled by many fiestas; in fact at 
Santa luilalia only about seven holidays 
arc lost in the year. 


In prospecting in this district there i.s 
little to aid the work except that it is 
known that the orebodies occur usually 
.ilcmg northerly and southerly fissures. 
The presence «i linieston<' stained with 

Consequently in many stopes most of the 
ore is mined by pick and shovel. 

The old Mexicans followed the ore 
wherever it went, packing it out generally 
on their backs but sometimes using cars 
and even taking burros right into the 
stopes, the acme of Mexican mining. .\X. 
tirst one may scorn the Mexican's meth- 
ods of mining but a short lime spent in 
the old stopes soon tempers the scorn 
with admiration. In view of the amount 
of ore that the Mexicans have mined from 
-Santa Kulalia one cannot help respecting 
the way that they have followed these 
irregular deposits. 

The American should not despise the 
Mexican method of packing ore out on his 
Iiack when prospecting such irregular ore- 
bodies as those at Santa Eulalia. To mine 
them probably the best method consists 
in following the ore upward until the roof 
of the ore deposit is reached. Then the 
roof is picked and barred down or if nec- 
essary slabs are blasted down until a roof 
of solid limestone is obtained. Underhand 
stoping is then begun, the ore being 

sent to the smeltery at Torreon, belonging 
to the Compaiiia Metallurgica de Torreon, 
to El Paso, Aguas Calicntcs and to Mon- 
terey to the American Smelting and Re- 
fining Company. Several months ago the 
.American Smelting and Refining Com- 
pany completed a 500-ton smelter at Chi- 
huahua, but as yet it has not been blown 
in. The coal and coke bins have been 
filled for some time, and now tke com- 
pany is shipping ore from its Santa 
Eulalia mines to this smeltery so that pos- 
sibly before long the works may be run- 
ning. At least it has served the purpose 
of keeping out, for the present, an inde- 
pendent smeltery. But it is hoped that 
some large independent smelting works 
will be built which will use the Santa 
Eulalia district as its source of lead ore. 
Such a project is feasible for much of the 
ore is mined by companies not over 
friendly to the .■Vmerican Smelting and 
Refining Company. 

The output of the camp is at present 
about 900 tons of ore per day, l)ut this is 
far below normal. The Potosi and Chi- 

irou and manganese oxides is a good in- 
dication of the vicinity of the ore, but 
even that is not a sure sign. 

Owing to the fact that the mineraliza- 
tion docs not extend into the surrounding 
limestone, it is quite possible to pass near 
;in orebody without striking it. The vi- 
cinity of antiguas is a good place to pros- 
pect ; in fact with the possible exception 
of the Potosi mine, discovered in 1902, all 
the deposits have been found near 

Mining Methods 

Drilling is done either by hand or ma- 
chine. Two Mexicans are used on a 
2'4-in. air drill. The Potosi Mining 
Company is using two Waugh air-ham- 
mer drills and these are doing excellent 
work. This company has been using 
these two drills over three months, ami 
not a cent has been required for repairs 
.ilthoiigh the drills were run two shifts a 
ilay by Mexicans. 

While machines are used in mining, 
much of the ore is so soft that a stick of 
powder would loosen tons of material. 

blasted into the raises put up in the ore- 
body. l?y this method large stopes over 
300 ft. wide and -'15 ft. high have been 
mined without timbers and without acci- 
dent, for the limestone is very strong and 
does not air-slack. 

1 be ore is generally too weak for suc- 
cessful overhand stoping ; that method 
was tried at the Santo Domingo and re- 
sulted in a large cave; at the Mina Vicja 
the method was abandoned on account of 
ibe high cost of timbering. The drawback 
iif underhand stoping is the disposal of 
the waste; in case the orebody is not too 
vertical and especially if there are many 
manias this can be piled in the stopc. 
Otherwise a drift can be driven near the 
loi> (if the orebody and the waste which 
occurs mainly on top of the ore can be 
trammed to a neighboring stope along 
the fissure and used for filling. 


1 he Santa Kulalia ore is siuclted crude, 
ibe only exception being that some of the 
heavy lead ore from the San .-\ntonio 
mine is concentrated in jigs. The ore is 

huahua Mining companies, the largest 
producers, are said to ship about 350 tons 
per day from the Galdeana and Juarez 
mines. The .American Smelting and Re- 
fining Company is producing about 22$ 
tons of ore per d.iy. from the Gasolina, 
Mina Vieja. and San .Antonio mines; 
while the Santa Eulalia E.xploration Com- 
pany is producing about 1^5 tons per day 
from the Bucna Tierra mine. 

The Santa Juliana, the San .Antonio and 
Las Tres Mercedes also are producitig 
small quantities of ore, as i^ dsii the 
Cristo mine. 


Santa Eulalia promises to be of far 
more importance than it possesses at pres- 
ent : in fact it appears as though the camp 
has hardly begun to produce, although its 
records show a long and honorable past. 
.\t present there is too much of a ten- 
dency in most of the minc< to mine the 
ore as fast as it is developed. 

The finding of the mixed sulphide ores 
only 'at great depth is promising and the 
persistency of the Santo Domingo and 



July 4. 1908. 

Potosi deposits should encourage the other 
companies in the district if they needed 
any encouragement. The depth of the 
limestone is unknown but nowhere in the 
\ icinity is the base of the limestone shown 
so that it is safe to infer that this lime- 
stone extends considerably below the 
deepest workings. Already a thickness of 
about 2000 ft. of limestone has been shown 
in the district. 

In conclusion I wish to thank B. L. 
Farrar, general superintendent of the Chi- 
huahua and Potosi Mining companies and 
Donald Gillies, president of the San Toy 
Mining Company for the many kindnesses 
which they have shown me. I wish also 
to acknowledge the aid that I have re- 
ceived from the valuable compilation of 
papers gathered together by Jorge Griggs 
and entitled "Mines of Chihuahua". 

In these articles no attempt has been 
made to describe the camp thoroughly 
but only to give the reader an idea of 
the ore occurrence. Therefore many 
promising properties have been no more 
than merely mentioned. 

Testing Galvanized Iron 
By Sherakd Cov^tper-Coles* 

It is a matter of considerable import- 
ance to engineers who use galvanized iron 
to know the amount of zinc that is ap- 
plied per square foot of the surface. The 
thickness of zinc has hitherto been de- 
termined almost universally by the cop- 
per-sulphate test, known as Preece's test, 
which consists in placing the galvanized 
iion in a saturated solution of copper sul- 
phate for one mmute and continuing the 
immersions until it shows a red deposit of 
copper, which is a true indication that the 
zinc has been penetrated and the iron ex- 
posed. This test, when carefully carried 
out, is fairly reliable as regards hot-gal- 
vanized iron, but. it is found quite useless 
for the more recent forms of galvanizing 
which are now being extensively used, i.e., 
electro-galvanizing and Sherardizing, for 
the following reasons ; 

On applying Preece's test to Sherard- 
ized and hot-galvanized articles coated 
with an equal thickness of zinc, the former 
require from three to four times the num- 
ber of immersions which suffice to remove 
the zinc from the latter. When hot-gal- 
vanized articles are placed in a saturated 
solution of copper sulphate the copper is 
precipitated in a loose form, but when 
Sherardized, Cowperized or electro-zinced 
articles are similarly treated the copper 
adheres firmly to the zinc and no fresh 
surface is exposed, apparently, because 
the deposit of zinc applied by these pro- 
cesses has a fine matted surface. 

The Ferric Sulphate Test 
It would appear from these observations 

•Metallurgical eDgineej', rx>ndon. England. 

that the apparently great resistance to 
corrosion of Sherardized iron when sub- 
jected to Preece's test is due to the protec- 
tion of the zinc by the deposited copper ; 
so experiments were made with a solution 
of ferric sulphate, which dissolves zinc 
without forming a precipitate on the zinc 
coating. To test this, known • areas of 
Sherardized and hot-galvanized plate were 
exposed to the action of ferric-sulphate 
solution for an equal period and the 
amount of ferrous salt formed by the re- 
ducing action of the zinc determined. The 
accompanying table shows the relative 
corrosion : 


Zinc per Zinc 

No. Sample. sq.ft., Dissolved, 

grams. grams. 

1. Sherardized 26 908 0.080 

2. Sherardized 26 908 0.074 

3. Sherardized 22.93 0.057 

4. Hot-galvanized 22.12 058 

5. Sherardized 31.116 034 

Sample No. 2 was moistened with water 
and allowed to dry; the oxide formed ap- 
pears to protect the zinc and this protec- 
tion is more marked if water is allowed 
to act for a longer period than was per- 
missible in these experiments. It will be 
noticed that samples Nos. i and 2, which 
had a thicker coating than samples Nos. 
3 and 4, dissolved to a greater extent 
than samples Nos. 3 and 4, which had 
practically the same weight of coating dis- 
solved ; sample No. 5 was Sherardized 
copper and, although the zinc coating was 
the heaviest yet the corrosion was in this 
case the least, probably due to the conver- 
sion of the greater portion of the zinc 
into brass. On testing this sample with 
copper-sulphate solution, as in the other 
cases, instead of a brown precipitate of 
copper a bright metallic deposit was ob- 
tained and no further action seemed to 

From the results of experiments, the 
copper-sulphate test has been found to be 
quite unsuitable for testing electro-zinced, 
Sherardized, or Cowperized surfaces; 
therefore, in future it will be necessary 
to substitute some other test, such as the 
ferric-sulphate test, or a modification of 
the copper-sulphate test. 

Lake Creek, Wyoming, a New 
Mining District 

Bv Wm. Benton* 

Lake Creek, the new mining camp opened 
in Wyoming during the last year, is not 
in an unknown part of the State. It is 
traversed by a public road used by pros- 
pectors and freighters for the last 25 
years. Very little prospecting would have 
disclosed large boulders of copper ore and 
many showings of visible gold especially 
on Joe Davis hill. In the northwest cor- 

•Lake Creek, Idaho. 

ner of the district is Lake mountain, ris- 
ing several hundred feet above the sur- 
rounding country. This mountain is a 
core of basic rock ; from this core to the 
southwest the rocks become more acidic, 
the region being intersected by numerous 
dikes and fissures. The most promising 
orebodies thus far discovered have been 
found at the intersection of these dikes 
and fissures. The ore carries gold in sul- 
phides of iron and copper; the gold does 
not appear in the gangue. 

The chief mineral belt is about two 
miles long, extending along Lake creek 
which drains the district. The principal 
mines in this part of the district are the 
Pollyton, Madem, Joe Davis, Joe Davis 
No. 3, Kansas, Kansas No. 2. Lake Creek, 
Lake Creek No. 2, Extension, and at the 
two ends, the Osceola and the Nugget. 

The Madem claim is considered the best 
in camp. It has an adit 750 ft. long in 
which two distinct ore shoots have been 
discovered. The orebodies are several feet 
wide and 40 to 50 ft. long, yielding ore 
which after some sorting assays about $50 
per ton. The breast is more than 200 ft. 
below the ape-x of the vein, and within 
200 ft. it should cut a vein of gold ore 
opened at the surface by a shaft 12 ft. 
deep from which 60 sacks of ore were ob- 
tained averaging $30 per ton. 

From the portal of the Madem tunnel 
1000 ft. northwest is the Pollyton property 
on which a shaft now 25 ft. deep has been 
in ore all the way from the surface. The 
vein has been opened up for more than 
100 ft. along the strike, and at all openings 
ore is found. This vein is opened several 
hundred feet farther west on the Osceola 
property, by a So-ft. shaft showing the 
same class of ore and gangue material! 
with somewhat more gold. 

About one mile to the east of this zone 
is another zone, which promises large 
bodies of ore. The best know-n properties 
in this vicinity, are the Lake Creek claims, 
Nos. 2, 3, 4. Here a large replacement 
vein of quartz in porphyritic-diorite will 
produce good milling ore with perhaps 
some high-grade ore. In the southern part 
of this zone is situated the Kansas group. 
In a 50-ft. shaft and 40-ft. tunnel an ore 
shoot 7 ft. wide and more than 100 ft. 
long is shown. The copper is leached 
out of the ore thus far reached but sul- 
phides of copper and iron, similar to the 
ores in other properties surrounding it 
are expected to be found lower down. 

The Quartzite and Cora-Iva groups are 
situated in the southwest part of the dis- 
trict. Here large veins of quartz in schist 
will produce a good grade of milling ore. 
the surface showing being unusually ex- 

Along the west of this district flows 
Douglas creek, which has the richest 
placer mines in the State. A leasing com- 
pany controls 2500 acres of the ground 
and is carrying on extensive dredging 
operations. The placer gravel is reported 
tcr average 30c. per cubic yard. 

July -1. iyo8. 

rnK F.N(ii.\i:KRi\<; and mining journal. 

The Co?t of Producing Copper in Arizona 

The Low Cost 
to Richness of 


Pound in the Four Chief Districts Is Due 
■ Rather Than to Favorable Conditions 


In igo7 Ari/.)n.i l.ccanic the Ua.ling Al,.,iU i ft. of opening work is neces- 

produc.r of c.pper in the L'nitc.l States, sary to fin.l and develop 15 tons of ore. 

I nlikc Michigan and Montana, each of The cost of this work is stated to be 21 

which has hm a single district, .\rizona t„ 33c. a ton (Shannon). Stoping costs 

contains the four important and distinct are about $2 to $2.80 a ton. Details for 

districts of Hisl)ce, Globe, Cliffn and <,ne year are shown in an accompanying 

Jerome, all differing markedly in charac- uible. 

Kr and, therefore, in costs. The Arizona Copper Company gives its 

The external factors are uniform and costs for mining, including dcadwork, ores 

nnfavr.rable. The situation of the mines purchased, and leaching, as follows: 1904, 

in an arid plateau poprly supplied with 52.81; 190S, $2.46; 1906, $2.50. It seems 

fuel, timber and population, with f^^j^ ^^ assume from this that the under- 

freight rates inevitably high, makes for 
high costs. Wages of white miners are 
$3.50 a shift of eight hours; Mexicans 
are paid $-'..sO a shift. The summer heats 
are debilitating and the energy of the men 
is somewhat less than it would be farther 
north. This is true particularly in regard 
to au-lalhirgical work. 

ground costs are substantially the same as 
the Shannon. The same may be said of 
the Detroit Copper Company. 

Assuming that the cost of mining, in- 
cluding development, is $2.25 to $2.50 a 
ton, and that out of this cost about 50c. 
is due to timbering, it seems fair to say 




Tdtnl orn (tou8) 28 IM.WOO 

T..tillrail.p«r(lb.) 3, 69H 

l'lr»t-<lriHs <iri> (tons) 460 000 

(!<)iiiiMitmtliiK "PI (tons) 57 5 

(:..|i|«>r piT tiin (lb.) 102.893 

Tiinn Hllii'ltiiil KO.lOO 

TouB leailK"! 2 824 000 

I'xipjM'r from IfWlilDK (ll') ■ 353 

(!o\)i>or iMir t«in fnini loacblng (lb.) 










CoHt wnrkliiK mil.™ (.lendwnrk. ..r™ purchft-sod. ^^^ ^^ ^^ 

loncblni!. ctr. 

194.077 l.W 

riiiltlni!. rollnlnK nn<l markPtluK 14/286 0.14 

( lonnral ■ ■ 49!l62 .49 

I iilrrrHt. ftD<l amortization 

27«..126 »'2.46 

2111.846 1.93 

14,430 0.13 

68.908 0.62 



lit .607 




373..'>«0 $i.60 

288,506 2.06 

16.879 0.14 

88,766 0.70 

CiiBl I"T ill. Ill Now Y.irk. 


internal factors vary with each dis- 
Ihese will be described separately. 






Hnuilllin! KOPP""*-'oUanooiiH 

Total oppratlnu ox p«>nw> «»•».««■.'.*.' »1 ■ 92 

23.a00.68 0.124 
■■''■.■ 17,<09.68 0.093 


Clifton-Morenci District 
The Clifton-Morenci district produces Tftx^s.^'rimllrnneo and ii'oBpliai ^-'^^ 

poiphvrv ore in which chaicocite is dis- ^^,[^:::::::::::.:.::v.v:: iwMhi 

seminat;.! In tins respect the orebodies T.n,b..rln« am. framing....... •J.',J^;« 

rcsenible the deposits of Bingham, Utah, 
and of l'.l\, Xev. The ores form large ir 
regular bodies at depths of from 100 to 
300 ft. below the surface. In this raspect 
tlie ore is easy to mine. Hut there is a 
certain irrcjtiilarity, not only in ihc ore- 
bodies as a whole, but also in their inter- 
nal make-up. A certain amount of sort- 
ing may be done to advantage in the 
mines. The ore is fairly hard and firm 
anil is taken .nit by square-setting. Mex- 
ican miners with while bosses :ire em- 

Costs ,ive not generally stated in detail, 
but the reports of the Shannon and .-Vri- 
zona copper companies make plain the fol 
lowing facts: 


per cent, on ore running 3.77 P" cent., 
and in igo6, 69 per cent, on ore averaging 
3.36 per cent. This saving is for both 
smelting and concentrating. 

(2) The Shannon Copper Company 
smelted in 1905, 44 P^r cent, of its total 
output; in 1906, 44/4 per cent.; in 190". 
56 per cent The .\rizona Copper Com- 
pany smelted in 1904, 22 per cent, of its 
total output; in 1905, 20 per cent.; in 1906, 
20 per cent. 

The costs for concentrating, smelting, 
refining and marketing arc not given in 
detail, but in the case of the Arizona Cop- 
per Company these costs lumped together 
were, in 1904, $1.90; >" >905. $193: '" 
1906, $2.06, the costs being based on the 
entire tonnage sent from the mine. If the 
cost of concentrating is 75c. a ton, induJ- 
ing transportation from the mines, the 
cost for smelting, refining and marketing 
would appear to be about $6 per : in 
smelted. On this basis the cost to the 
Shannon company, on account of t'le 
larger proportion smelted, should be $1 Sd 
higher than to the Arizona company. Tins 
sceins to be approximately the ease. 

(3) Certain difficulties have been ex- 
perienced in smelting on account of a 


1803-(. I904.S. 1906-«. 190f.7. 
8mi>Ulne ore (Iohh) 66.008 63,340 eaMi 
Mill oro (tonn) 91,311 138.608 140.683 

Total IS7.S16 188.843 IIO.OM 20t'.r64 

I'or cent. oopiKT. 

Hmellotl or,' 6.28 

por cont. copiicr. 

mill 3. 34 

Por cout. eopp*»r, 

avorai;i« 4.16 

Ooppor, lb. Bavod 

p<Tlon 6-J.84 86.03 

Porcoul. M&vlntr. .. 78.0 73.0 
Fi^el (lovrlopmont 11.931 





ri fc (li>vi<lopni<>nt U.U 

Fr<>li:bt. rfllnlnK. PIC 0.90 

Qonprnl oxi»>ni<<> 0.39 















ToU>lmlnlnKc-o»l 3403.872.6S 32.138 

Or.' rtH-olvprt. 188.866 ion». 

18. 94 



•Mliilnc pnKlniiM-. Nf 

that tlW excess over Lake Superior costs 
is due to the external factors. 

The internal factors that govern the 
cost oi treatiuent are the losses due to 
concentrating, the proportion of concen- 
trates to the crude ore and the smelting 
qualities of the ore. 

( I ) The Shannon Copper Company re- 
ports for 1904 a saving of 75 per cent, on 
.ire averaging 4.16 per cent.: in 1905. 73 

OuU<l.l>' ilpvplopmenta. etc. 1 .08 

Total W.« 

Cost pr lb. at Now York. .. IS. 7c, 
Stoptne cost per ton 31 . W. 

deficiency of sulphur for matting purposes. 
This is particularly the case with the first- 
class ores. In the earlier days this diffi- 
culty added more to the cost than it does 
at present. 

BisBEF. District 
In the Bisbec. or Warren, district, the 
internal conditions arc essentially diflfer- 
ent from those of Clifton. This fact is 



July 4, igoS. 

sufficiently reflected by the mining costs 
which are at Bisbee $6 a ton against $2.50 
or less at Clifton. Dr. James Douglas de- 
scribes the Copper Queen mine in a paper 
in Vol. XXIX, 1899, Transactions of the 
A. I. M. E. The ore yielded, "about 7 per 
cent, copper after a rough selection in the 
stopes where about one-half the total ma- 
terial broken is rejected. To supplement 
the deficiency in filling the stopes, barren 
ledge matter from exploratory drifts is 
used. Though the timbering of worked- 
ou* portions of the mine is thus enforced, 
so violent is the movement of the ground 
that the timbers are dislocated or crushed 
to chips. .'Vbout 30 ft. board measure of 
timber (from Puget Sound) is buried in 
the mine to the ton of ore extracted." 
This is a terrific cost for timber, at an 
average price of $24 per M. delivered at 
the mine. We have on this basis 75c. a 
ton for timber alone. From 7 to 10 tons 
of ore are extracted per foot of opening 
work. A large part of the exploratory 
openings have to be closely timbered, and 
the cost for this work is high. 

impossible to determine their actual size, 
but approximately there has been exposed 
above the 400-ft. level not less than 
10,000,000 tons of ledge matter." Since 
at the time this was written not much 
over 1,000,000 tons of ore had been mined 
above the 400-ft. level, it is probable that 
Dr. Douglas believes that the ores now 
occupy approximately one-tenth of their 
original volume ; the remaining nine- 
tenths being now "ledge matter," mainly 
ferruginous clay. 

Nothing could be clearer than the above 
description as an explanation of the cost 
factors. All the altered residual masses 
must be explored ; this means that the 
mine development, in addition to the 
shafts and drifts necessary to reach the 
ore, must search through 10 cu.ft. of diffi- 
cult mining ground for every cubic foot 
to be extracted. 

At various places in the mines large 
masses, like kernels, of original pyrites 
still exist, surrounded on all sides by the 
"ledge matter." .\Ithough workable ore 
is found along the periphery of these 


«M 30> Feet 


The reason for the conditions described 
will appear very plainly from a consid- 
eration of the structural relations of the 
orebodies. Dr. Douglas says : "With re- 
gard to ledge matter and the oxidized ore, 
my own opinion is that they are the pro- 
duct of replacement and local concentra- 
tion; that where there is ledge matter to- 
day there was, originally, more or less 
compact iron pyrites carrying a small per- 
centage of copper ; and that during the 
process of alteration not only did the fer- 
ruginous solutions of alumina replace the 
pyrites, but the copper, by a process of 
segregation akin to crystallization, was 
concentrated and collected into areas of 
limited size, thus constituting the com- 
paratively small bodies of oxidized ores 
which are disseminated irregularly 
through the very large masses of ledge 
matter. As the outline of the masses of 
ledge matter has never been traced, it is 

masses, the pyrite itself is not payable. 
No concentrating ore has yet been found 
in the district. All the ore raised from 
the mines must be smelted, consequently 
it must be selected as much as possible. 
To sum up — there are in these mines 
thrte powerful factors that make for high 
costs: (l) A very large proportion of 
development work ; (2) soft ground, re- 
quiring slow, cautious working and heavy 
timbering; (3) careful selection imposed 
by the necessity of smelting the whole 
product, thus imposing a high subsequent 
metallurgical cost. This is the most im- 
perative factor of all, for it can be shown 
that in this case lower costs at the expense 
of lower-grade ores might result in 
frightful losses. To mine 4-per cent, ore 
for $3 a ton against 7-per cent, ore at $6 
a ton, smelting costs remaining the same, 
would increase the cost of copper about 
0.82c. a lb., or $16.40 a ton. 

The Copper Queen mine, unfortunately, 
does not publish its reports, and the Calu- 
met & .Arizona, the only other important 
mine at Bisbee, does not give details. The 
figures from the Calumet & .\rizona re- 
ports in an accompanying table throw 
some light on the subject. 


Copper. |„,rLb. Work. 

1904 205.807 15,819 12.562 27,465 

1905 202,952 15.886 14.982 25,577 

1906 236.565 18,735 17.96 14,818 

645,324 50,440 67,880 

Silver, etc. 




Valup of product 1904 



Tons ore per foot of development work, 9.5. 
Cost of copper In New York, 7.76c. per pound. 

These figures include all construction 
work, of which there was considerable. 
The costs may be divided almost equally: 
Mining per ton of ore, $6.06; smelting, 
refining and marketing, $6.05; total, $12.11 
per ton of wet ore. 

Mining on the California Desert 

Special Correspondence 

The desert mining sections in the 
southern portion of California are re- 
ceiving considerable attention these days, 
and a great deal of development is taking 
place at many points. In the Coolgardie 
district, 20 miles north of Barstow, San 
Bernardino county, Henry Mountain, of 
New York, and others are shipping in dry 
washing and concentrating machinery for 
placer mining. Placer gold has been found 
there for many years, but it has been dif- 
ficult to work the ground profitably. It 
is hoped that this new machinery will 
solve the problem. Rich gold strikes have 
recently been made near Wingate Pass in 
the Hidden Springs region of the same 
county, and a rush to the new field has 
set in. The ore is free gold, but little 
development has been done. The new 
field may be reached by wagon road from 
Panamint, or by way of either Daggett 
or Barstow. Twenty Nine Palms dis- 
trict in the same county is now attracting 
some attention. Virginia Dale district 
lies east, Pifion on the south and Morongo 
district on the west. A nimiber of old 
arrastras have been found, which were 
doubtless used before California became 
a State of the Union. The principal 
claims are the Italie, the Gold Park Con- 
solidated, the Mohawk-Nevada and the 
Barber. Some exceptionally high-grade 
ore is being taken from the first named 
mine, and the Gold Park property is also 
yielding well. A 10-stamp mill is about 
to be erected, and a pipe-line will bring 
water to the mines, which are in the foot- 
hills to the southwest of Twenty Nine 

July J\, 1908. 




Mining f Journal 

Ihhu.,.1 W.i.kly by tin. 

Hill Publishing Company 

John X. IliM., Prx iii.l 1 rci>. ll»u>i.T Xi Kkah, Mc'y. 

608 Pearl Street, Now York. 

London Ollicc: 6 BcoTcrio Street, London, E. C. Eng. Ai,iiliK>» "l!><»ii..J»i:a, N. Y " 


>«, poyahle 

■in Mlllngi 
I dinfOntiiine 

ii.hitn", fJ.OO a yrar f) 5J 
in (»• Ui'llrU Nlal—, UrxOr, 
I, lU- ;•/,,' ,,,.i„r,. $0.50 in 

irhilhg I'li'lugr. fS.UO w Hi 
muilf: m- 40jrann. 
lid h- irrllUi, III Ihr Nea ]Vv4 

A'herlMiti/ mpy ghoul'l r 
irttk hffOTc date of ittur 

Entered at New York Punt Offici 
the aeoond cla 


Duilnil 1007 »■( 
,'il)7,.''i<HI ri,i,i,>, of 
Minim. .Ii>i iinai.. 

Our riiriilalinn tor June, 1908, teas 41,000 


July 4 10,000 

Xoiie unit free reiiularly. no back numbers. 

FIfiiin.i II rr ih-r, „r1 Hrrulntinn. 

Contents PAOf^ 

l<:dllurlalH : 

Iron nnd Stppl rioductlon of the World 31t 

The I^oHs iif I'ropcrlv liy I'Mre 30 

VMl\ilni.' iiiul TnxlnK rnmliipd Coal.... 4(1 


!■ .\<lvnntn(;e8 ol FliiHliliiK In Coal 
Milling Ludua W. Mayer 

Work nt HcmpBtcnd CoUlory. 

/). J. Pierce ."> 

Conl III llii" Uiimlnlciin Ilc|ml)llp 5 

•Colli .Vllnlnc .Melhods In Uiindolph 

rmint.v. Mo J. ./. Ilulledue 

New Ki'sciie ApparntuH for Mines S 

A Ciilll'iMiilR rower riant 8 

•Conl Kiist as a Factor In Mine Kx- 

pl<iKlnnH Henry M. Payne 1) 

Wliv Sulphur Abounds Lopally In Certain 

I'oiil Seams J. It. lleekman 14 

•A Mfthod of Working a Thick Coal 

Si.nni nranrille Poole 1.1 

<;old In the Iiomlnlrnn lleimbllc l.l 

• Mliilni; I!v llw IL'trcnllng Hoom- 

and I'llliir sV-iiciii . . //iiriv j/ J. Nelms 17 
•l,oiigwHll Mi-IIuhIm i.r .Milling a Coal 

S..Hm /,ii<iii» ir. Mayer 1!) 

Mi-kcl Ore In Nevada 23 

•The Improved MaequlBten Tnlxv 

W. It. Inoalli 23 
•A New .Machine for l'»e In Itoomand- 

rillar Work 24 

Mine Mules and Their Care. 

Robert arimnhaw 2.i 
•llecent Kleetrlc Locomotive for Mine _^ 

Haulage '-}} 

The Origin of Coal //. M. Chance 21 

Crow's Nest Pass Coal Company 2.S 

Is the Kleetrlc Current Safe In Coal 

Mines? RuKh .V. Hosier 2!l 

•A Novel Kleetrlc Hoist 3' 

Colliery Notes • ^- 

•Mlnlng and Transportation nt Santa 

Kiiialln riauilr T. RUr .3;t 

Testing linlvanlzed or /.Im'ed Iron. 

Shemiil fowiirr-CoIrs 3(1 
Lake Creek, Wyoming, a New Mining Pis 

trlct 11'"". n<ri(on 3(1 

•The Cost of rriKlucIng (dipper In Arizona. 

,/(im(« Knip/i Finlay 37 

Mining on the California Desert 3H 

(*orrespondence ; 

•Berry's Safety Crosshead for Sinking. 

,/ Berry 41 
nie Use of Steel Tamping Bars. 

F. II. aon.HOlun 4'J 
I'loperlles of Explosives. 

/■ //. (;«ii«o/ii.« 42 
I'rospects for Mining Knglneers In 
Auslrnlla. . . . : . .'Ji I'li'l »'■ ir(/r(om« 42 
Annual Keport of froducllon of Butte 

Mining Companies 4.1 

Chrouologv of Mining In .lune 4.1 

.\iuiMlinn 'Smelling and Uellning Company 43 

l'nhini..| ,V llcln •■ 43 

I'lrsonulN lU.llunrles, Societies nnd Tech- 
nical Schools 44 

Siii-clal Correspondence ■••J 

Mining News ■•' 


Iron and Steel Pro(Juction of 
the World 

I'hc pig-iron production of the world, 
which increased rapidly in 1905 and 1906, 
:n 1907 showed a comparatively slight 
change from the previous year, the gain 
being only 2.7 per cent. The figures, as 
collected for The Mineral Industry, are 
given in the following table, reduced to 
metric tons for purposes of comparison : 

Metric Tons. 

1900. tool. cbanges. 

United States . . . 


(Ireat Britain ... 

. 2S,712,10« 20.193,80:1 
. 12,478.0«7 13,(M5,9«0 
. lO.mcnn 10.082.638 

Threeelilef pro- 
ducers 48.4U0,3S1 49.3»,4ei I. 

(•nna<la 580,618 59(1,444 I. 

Belgium 1,431,100 1,427,940 D. 

Franco 3.319,032 3,588,949 I. 

Other Europe.... 4.Ti3,700 6,125.2'20 I. 

Other countries.. 660,000 626,00() D. 


401 ..'>20 

Total 89,074.861 60.680,014 1.1,606,188 

.\s for several years past, the United 
Slates was far in advance in 1907, fur- 
ni'hing 43.2 per cent, of the pig iron of 
the world. Its production exceeded that 
of its two chief rivals, Germany and Great 
Britain, together by 3,065,265 tons. These 
three countries made together 81.3 per 
cent, of the total pig-iron production. 
Germany made the largest proportional 
gain, while Great Britain showed a small 
loss from the previous year. In other 
European countries there was a consider- 
able gain, chiefly from France and Russia. 
Consumption of iron was, apparently, at 
a standstill, since such reports as arc indicate that unusually large stocks 
ot unsold or mnised iron were held by the 
proiluecrs at the close of the year, in 
almost all countries. 

The production of the pig iron as re- 
ported in the table, re-quirod the move- 
ment of nearly 250,000,000 tons of mate- 
rial — ores, flux an<l fuel. 

Metric Ton.s. 

1900. l".i«>7. Clinuges. 

ItDttnd Slates .... 23.772.606 23.733,391 I>. 39.116 

I. 918.M7 

1. 61.442 

Til roechlnf pro- 
ducers 41, 47:1.2111 42.414.136 

Canada 615,200 61ii.30O 

Belgium 1,1S6.(V<I l,l(0,iW<i 1) 

France 2.371.377 2.677,806 

Other Europe.... 3,670.600 3.9«il.tiOO 

Otliorcounlrlos.. 420,000 406.000 













Total 411.636.998 61,183,340 1.1.647,342 

riie Steel production of the world 
showed a little larger proportionate gain 
than that of pig iron, the increase having 
been 3.1 per cent. This was due to the 
increasing pri^portion of pig which is con- 
verted into steel. The figures for this 
iv.akc of steel for two years are as shown 

in the accompanying table, the output of 
all countries being converted into metric 
tons, for purposes of comparison. 

Here, as in pig iron, we find a great 
preponderance in the make of the three 
leading producers. The United States 
alone made 46.4 per cent, of all the steel ; 
while the United States, Germany and 
Great Britain together furnished 82.9 per 
cent, of the total. Germany uses the high- 
est proportion of pig in the making of 
steel, and Great Britain the least. The 
proportion of steel to pig-iron production, 
which was 92.4 in Germany, was 90.6 in 
the United States, and only 65.7 in Great 
Britain. Wrought iron is still an import- 
ant part of British production ; much 
more so than in any country except Bel- 
gium and Sweden. 

Translated, these figures mean that the 
iron and steel industries in 1907 reached 
the top 01 the wave of prosperity, and that 
receding movement began. This change 
was more sudden and more sharply 
marked in the United States than else- 
where. The industries of Europe have 
felt it to a considerable degree, however, 
as a decline in their production has set 
in. Stocks are piling up, and there is a 
general hunt for foreign markets. It is 
row beyond doubt that both pig-iron and 
steel production will show a considerable 
drop in the current year, all nvcr the 

The Loss of Property by Fire 

Attention has lately been directed in 
specific ways, largely through the instru- 
mentality of President Roosevelt, to the 
alarming waste of the natural resources 
of the United States. In this connection 
it is well to consider more seriously the 
waste of property derived from our natu- 
ral resources after the latter have been 
realized in marketable form. The waste 
in the utilization of fuel, food, and indeed 
in almost all commodities is something 
that almost passes belief. If these enor- 
mous wastes could be reduced only 20 per 
cent., or even only 10 per cent., the in- 
crease in the wealth of the nation would 
be so rapid that the whole world would 

.\mong the great wastes is the unneces- 
sary destruction of property by fire, to 
which the underwriters have been calling 
attention for years, without producing any 
great impression. Powell Evans has re- 
verted to this important subject in an ad- 



July 4, 1908. 

dress delivered before the National Asso- 
ciation of Manufacturers, at New York, 
May 20, 1908. He stated that the annual 
fire loss of the United States, on a 10 
years' average, for the years up to the end 
of 1902 (prior to the great Baltimore and 
San Francisco fires) was $146,552,365; 
and up to 1908 was $198,181,188. In 1907 
the fire loss was $215,671,250. Moreover, 
it IS estimated that more than one-third of 
forest destruction arises from fire waste, 
largely preventable. The country now 
sees that too much limber is annually cut 
and used. Mr. Evans asks : "Why not 
lessen this by sub,stantially banishing wood 
from building construction in our cities, 
the use of which constitutes a large part 
of the timber demands, and is at the same 
time a prime cause of conflagration? He 
points out that two admirable and prac- 
tical causes can be effectively served by 
this one step of minimizing the use of 
wood in city building codes all over the 
United States, namely our timber supply 
will be preserved and our fire losses will 
be reduced. 

Valuing and Taxing Unmined 

A case of some interest is on trial in 
the Lackawanna county court at Scranton. 
Penn., which involves the value of an- 
thracite coal lands. It is the appeal of 
several coal companies from the assess- 
ments for taxation made on their lands 
by the county board. The valuations 
placed on the lands are very much greater 
than in previous years, and the companies 
claim that they are entirely too high. It 
appears that the county commissioners 
employed engineers to survey the com- 
panies' lands, ascertain the probable quan- 
tity of coal immined,-.and place an ap- 
proximate valuation upon the properties. 
So far as the approximate extent of coal 
lands and quantity of coal mined goes, 
the engineers seem to have been mod- 
erate ; in fact their estimate of unmined 
coal is not seriously questioned in the 
appeal. The main point is in the valua- 
tion of the coal. 

The engineers in their report, which 
was substantially adopted by the county 
board, placed the value of coal at $100 
per foot-acre. That is, they put the value 
of coal in the ground at $100 per acre for 
each foot in thickness of the vein. Each 
foot-acre will contain approximately i8do 
tons of coal, which would make the value 
of the gross quantity of coal in the 

ground about 5.5 per ton, with no al- 
lowance for waste or for unminable coal. 
This corresponds in some degree with 
the practice of those companies which 
make an allowance for amortization or 
depreciation in value of coal lands, the 
usual amount so allowed being 5c. per 
ton mined. On the other hand it does 
not correspond with recent sales of coal 
lands. The largest transactions reported 
in the anthracite coal country for several 
years were the purchases made by the 
Delaware & Hudson Company last year, 
which covered lands estimated to contain 
a little over 650,000,000 tons of coal. The 
total price paid for these lands was an 
average of o.8c. per ton for the gross 
amount, or 1.23c. per ton of minable coal , 
an allowance of about one-third being 
made for waste or unminable coal. The 
actual selling price of these tracts, in a 
period of high prices, was only about one- 
sixth of the Lackawanna county as- 
sessors' figures. 

This wide difference is only another in- 
stance of the lack of any just or uniform 
basis for the assessment of mining prop- 
erty. The Pennsylvania court is taking 
much testimony as to the real or sup- 
posed values ; but that evidence so far 
does not seem to shed much light on the 
case. Nor is it probable that the decision 
of the court will be either final or 
specially enlightening. 

trade in sheet zinc has been below the 
normal mark. -\ large stock of unsold 
n.ttal has hung over the market ever 
since the first of tlic year, when it was 
about 33,000 tons. It has diminished 
somewhat, but still is large. In the trade 
i' is believed to amount to 25,000 tons even 
now. Of course, no strength could be 
looked for in this market while this con- 
dition existed. Indeed, the wonder is that 
the price has been so well sustained. 
However, the stock has been in strong 
hj'uds; but even they may become tired 
if thcV have to carrv the load too long. 

Lead and Spelter 

The past week has been one of the rare 
periods when lead and spelter have sold 
at the same price, spelter being commonly 
worth 0.5 to ic. per lb. more than lead. 
Ai the nadir of the depression in 1907 
spelter was at 3.97J^c. and lead at 3.40c. 
Since then both metals have recovered 
substantially, but lead much more than 
spelter. This has been due particularly 
to improvement in business among the 
corroders, whose product is used for 
painting. Possibly the abundance of labor 
and lower wages have led many persons 
to take advantage of the opportunity to 
do necessary painting on and in buildings. 
At all events the stock of unsold lead, 
which was large at the beginning of the 
year, has dwindled to comfortable pro- 

On the other hand, spelter has all along 
been the weak sister among the metals, 
the demand from galvanizers and brass- 
makers having continued poor, while the 

What European Miners Want ! 

The International Miners' Congress, at 
Paris, has declared itself in favor of the 
nationalization of mines ; but only on con- 
dition that the labor unions of the miners 
be maintained. All workmen in the mines 
are to be Government employees, with the 
privilege of going on strike against the 
Government, and the power of dictating to 
the Government as to whom it shall and 
shall not employ and of excluding non- 
union men from Government employment. 

.■\ny comment upon these modest de- 
mands would be superfluous. 

Pig Iron Production in the United 
States in 1908 

The production of pig iron in the 
United States for the five months ended 
May 31 has been at the rate of a little less 
than 14,000,000 tons a year. Should there 
be no improvement during the later 
months, this would mean a decrease of 
about 11,500,000 tons from the make of 
1907. There are already indications, how- 
ever, that the reduction will hardly be as 
great as this; though there will be, un- 
doubtedly, a heavy falling off in the total 
for this year, as compared with last. The 
decrease in steel-making pig has been 
slightly greater than in foundry and forge 
iron. As a result of this condition ship- 
ments of coke this year have fallen off 
more than one-half; while there has been 
little traffic in iron ore beyond the shifting 
of accumulated stocks. 

H. Y. L. Brown, government geologist 
of South Australia, states that 21,000,000 
tons of 66-per cent, iron ore and man- 
ganiferous iron are in sight in the de- 
posits at Iron Knob, 40 miles from Port 

July 4. igoH. 


Views, Suggestions and Experiences of Readers 

Comments on Questions Arising in Technical Practice or Sug- 
gested by Articles in the Journal, and Inquiries for Information 



Safety Crosshead for 

My attention has beon called to E. M. 
Weston's article on, "Sinking Cross- 
heads," in the Journai, of March 7, also 
I' I .1 paragraph in the editorial column of 
ihc same date, specially calling the at- 
tention of mining men to the simplicity 
nf the device designed to prevent the 
irnsshead as a guide to the bucket down 
111 the last timbers from being left be- 
hind, and also to avoid "the danger of 
Uk- liMokc-t h.inijiiig to the Berry cross- 
head" when (in the sti-)ps. 

Siice we are both trying to introduce 
ihe best devices for rapid work with in- 
ireascd safety, and Mr. Weston draws at- 
itiitinn 111 what he considers a weak 
imiiit in my device. I am taking this op- 
portunity of drawing attention to what 
I consider the weak points in his ar 

With the arrangement illustrated Ihe 
"ac'hesion" depends on how the taper tits 
;niil the force applied by the engine driver 
when picking up the crosshead. In prac- 
tice a cone jammed into a taper socket 
(such as a twist drill in a drilling ma- 
chine or a ni.-ichine-drill jumper with 
la|Hr has .in unknown amount of 
.ulbesinii, A bur iir a piece of grit will 
upset the most nicely calculated taper 
grip; hence great care will be necessary 
to see that the tapers are not damaged. 
It would also be necessary to test period 
ically the' adhesion hoisting the bucket up 
and lowering rapidly about 2000 ft. before 
bringing it to rest slowly, and then dc- 
leiniining the amount of adhesion. 

In practice all ropes tend to spin, and 
llio crosshead rocks, upon the point of 
tlu- cone as a pivot, the slack left between 
tile guide and the runner. This rocking, 
\iliration and twist would tend to release 
any adhesion left after the bucket had 
leen dumped, unless the cone were 
i.ininu'd hnnu- so tii;bt the bucket 
would remain suspended, the engine 
driver running out slack rope at the stops. 

Should an obstacle be met during a 
rapid descent, say, the head of a coach 
screw or bolt, the shock would release 
the bucket anil leave the crosshead be- 
hind, as it is designed to do when arriv- 
ing on the stops of the bottom timbers. 
without any indication of adhesion. To 
ha\e to surmise after an accident that 
llure IkuI not been enough adhesion, 
would be a poor explanation. 

The accident due to the bucket's being 

held up on my crosshead which occurred 
at one of the mines, was the result of 

'>--i'»f»-' , 


the slops l.iinv' -ft so uiucn out oi level 
that one lever only operated. To make 
the gear fool-proof I coupled both sides 
with a connecting-rod as shown in the 
sketch, so that the levers operate both 
drawbars simultaneously even if only one 
side is provided with stops. 

Another Design 

The other design of my crosshead 
shown in the accompanying sketch has 
both hook levers connected to operate 
from one side. This device has fewer 
joints, pins, levers, etc., to gel out of 
order, and the hooks can be given plenty 
of clearance when disengaged, so that it 
is impossible to hang up a bucket at the 
stops. Four of this design and two of 
the design referred to in Mr. Weston's 
article were in use at Simmer West and 
Jupiter shafts at a depth of nearly 4000 
ft., or until sinking was finished in the 
vertical. These shafts hold the record 
for vertical shaft sinking at great depth. 
Simmer West in one month made 203 ft., 
and the Jupiter the highest average num- 
ber of feet per month throughout a year. 
R. M. Catlin, at that time general man- 
ager of these mines and others of the 
Goldfield Deeps gave me a testimonial for 
the crossheads working in five shafts. 
The Transvaal government safety-catch 
commission took evidence on sinking with 
skips .and cages tcrSKS buckets, and two 
witnesses, R. M. Catlin and Leslie Sim- 
son, gave evidence in favor of buckets, 
when fitted with an approved crosshead 
similar to "Berry's." The findings of this 
commission contains valuable information 
on winding ropes and safety-catch tests 
and was published in Ixxik form last year. 

In view of these facts and the success- 
ful tests made with my crossheads by the 
govenimcnt mining engineer and his as- 
sistants as far back as 190J. the cross- 
heads still in use furnish sufficient proof 
that the device is most reliable imder 
ordinary care. 

The Brodigan improved sh.icklc for 
hoisting buckets is an e.xcellent fastening 
and admits of close connection to the 
crosshead to overcome the swinging of 
the bucket after entering the timbers. 
Sinkers as a rule, however, prefer to have 
some head room between the bucket and 
crosshead, which, although safe enough 
when working under a geared hoist is 
often dangerous with a large direct-acting 
hoist, since the engine driver may set up 
a scries of jerks and shocks in the hauling 
rope like the crack of a long whip, the 
bucket striking the timbers and putting a 



July 4. 1908. 

severe strain on the bridle fastenings and 

I quite agree that a swivel should be 
use. no matter how short the connection 
to the crosshead, or whatever make of 
rope is used in sinking, and on no ac- 
count should a ball-bearing swivel be 
used. An eye bolt could be substituted 
for the hook if a drop pin is used for 
changing buckets. In my crosshead two 
small projections are cast under the 
center brasses; these correspond with a 

The Use of Steel Tamping Bars 


a. lever engaged; a', lever disengaged; 
i>, spiral springs ; r. rope clamp ; A, sheath- 
ing ; e, stops ; f, bottom divider ; O, top 
Jnasses ; h, bottom brasses ; k, sinking bucket ; 
L, levers to connect the sides. 

berry's safety catch for crossheads of 
sinking buckets 

slot in the rope clamp which prevents the 
bucket's acquiring a spin while traveling 
through the shaft. 

J. Berry. 
London, May 25, 1908. 

I notice in the Journal of June 27, on 
page 1299, the following: "The use of 
steel tamping bars in coal mines should be 
prohibited, for if they strike a sulphur 
ball when a hole is being charged, they 
sometimes make a spark which lights the 
powder and causes an explosion. All 
lamping bars should be copper tipped." 
For the past four years the du Pont com- 
pnny has made a special study of acci- 
dental explosions in the United States. 
In addition to this we have records of ac- 
cidents of the English government inspec- 
tors of explosives for a period of about 
35 'years. From these records we find a 
great many accidents have been caused in 
tamping holes when copper, brass and 
aluminum-tipped tamping rods have been 
used. We have come to the final conclu- 
sion that the only safe rod to tamp bore 
holes should be made of wood. Several 
of the largest coal companies in this coun- 
try have also come to this conclusion, and 
prohibit the use of anything but wooden 
tamping rods in their mines. 

Manager Technical Division, 

E. I. du Pont de Nemours 

Powder Company. 
June 27. 1908. 

According to Consul-General Henry B. 
Tvliller, Japan imported 488,434 tons of 
pig iron, steel and steel manufactures in 
1906, of which the United States con- 
tributed 55.289 tons. These imports do 
not include large quantities imported for 
military and naval uses. 

various grades of dynamite are made by 
adding more or less nitroglycerin to the 
absorbent." While this is true in a gen- 
eral way, at the same time it is liable to 
lead people unfamiliar with the composi- 
tion of explosives to have an erroneous 
opinion of their composition. The stand- 
ards which are used to designate the 
strength of high explosives are the differ- 
ent grades of straight dynamite which 
contain the actual percentage of nitro- 
glycerin given. The absorbent used with 
each grade of the diflferent classes of 
dynamite is made up on a certain definite 
formula designed to balance the explosive 
reactions, give a maximum efficiency and 
make a minimum of deleterious fumes. 

On page it 54 of the Journal of June 
6, 1908, you make the following statement : 
"Contact with water lowers the efficiency 
of dynamite." The exception we take to 
this statement is that it is a little too 
broad. The gelatin dynamites are very 
nearly waterproof. In fact the higher 
grades will keep practically as well under 
water as they will in the air. 

F. H. GoNSOLUs, 
Manager Technical Division,. 

F. I. du Pont de Nemours 

Powder Company. 
June 13, 1908. 

Properties of Explosives 

1 notice in the Journal of June 6, 1908, 
on page 11 44, the following quotation: 
"Dynamite containing less than 30 per 
cent, of nitroglycerin cannot be deton- 

I feel it my duty to call attention to the 
error of ihis statement. Dynamite has 
been successfully manufactured in grades 
as low as I2;!<2 per cent. We sell today 
an enormous amount of d'ynamite contain- 
ii;g less than 30 per cent, of nitroglycerin. 
One' of our customers uses a carload 
every five days of a dynamite which car- 
ries only 15 per cent, of nitroglycerin. 
Also a great many of the coal mines 
use a dynamite carrying 20 per cent. 
The author who wrote this statement 
may possibly have been thinking of 
the old kieselguhr dynamite. In this 
the absorbant was the inert infusorial 
earth called kieselguhr. Dynamite manu- 
factured with this absorbent was consid- 
ered impossible to detonate when the per- 
centage of nitroglycerin was below 40 per 
cent. The dynamites manufactured in this 
country today have a definite formula for 
each grade The absorbent can be con- 
sidered a crude powder which adds to the 
strength of the explosive, and it is a great 
mistake to make a statement that dyna- 
mite carrying less than 30 per cent, nitro- 
glycerin cannot be detonated. 

In the Journal of June 13. 1908, on 
page 1201. appears the statenunt : "The 

Prospects for Mining Engineers in 

I have received several letters from 
mining men in the United States asking 
as to chances in Australia. Readers of 
the Journal may be interested in the re- 
ply that I have made to these inquiries. 

I do not think that Australia is a good 
field for young men from foreign coun- 
tries, inasmuch as its several universities 
and mining schools are turning out a good 
many well-trained young men, who are 
taken on as "experience men" at the va- 
rious mines. The local supply is in con- 
siderable excess of the demand. There 
are many mining men in the Common- 
wealth, who hail from the United States, 
especially in base-metal mining. When 
metals rule high in price there is a big 
demand for mining engineers and metal- 
lurgists, and an experienced man has a 
good chance, but at present conditions 
are bad and large numbers of good men 
are out of positions. 

Gerard W. Williams. 

Melbourne. Victoria, ."^pril 29, 1908. 

According to a recent British consular 
report on the mineral resources of the 
Dominican Republic, platinum is found 
in Jarabacoa and Guanuma ; quicksilver 
in Santiago. Banico. .\zua. San Cristobal, 
and in tlie San Francisco hill near Santo 
Domingo City. Tin deposits are said to 
e-xist in Seybo and in the Higuei, pro- 
vince of Sevbo. 

July 4, 1908. 


Annual Repjort on Production of 
Butte Mining Companies 


■| lie ; reports <>i tin- miiiiiiK coiii- 
pinics, required l)y law to 1)C tiled with 
tile county assessor, were made public 
last week, and show the earnings for 1907. 
In view of the fact that the price of 
Copper has been low for some months, 
and also that the mines were shut down 
al out three months during the period 
covered by the report, it is considered 
ll'.al the showing made by the different 
companies is very good. The North 

June 10 — Mohawk Mining Company de- 
clares a dividend of $2.50 per share. 

June 17 — Plant of the Royal Mines at 
Argentine, Penn., is destroyed by dyna- 
niite explosion ascribed to labor troubles. 

June 18— Bar iron sold on "open mar- 
ket" basis. Bar steel and merchant steel 
sold at lower prices. 

June 19 — The Colbran-Bostwick claim 
to $2,000,000 mining property is definitely 
settled, the decision involving liberal 
terms to former ov\'ners of the property. 
Two thousand miners in Colorado coal- 
fields quit work, affecting 30 mines. 

June 20 — Explosion in Elsworth No. i 
mine of the Pittsburg Coal Company, 

Calumet & Heda 

In the trial of the ca-^e between .\ S. 
Bigelow and the Calumet & Hecla, .■Vlex- 
ander L. Agassiz, president of the latter 
company, recently testified that in his 
opinion the probable life of the conglom- 
erate mine of the Calumet & Hecla is be- 
tween 10 and 15 years. It is hoped that 
the company will develop a sufficient 
amount of copper in the properties re- 
cently purchased to replace the old mine. 
Mr. MacNaughton, general manager of 
the Calumet & Hecla. confirmed the esti- 
mate of President .-Kgas.siz as to the life 
of the conglomerate mine. He stated that 
in 1905 about 720 acres had been wholly 


OF HLTTE .M1.\E.S FoK limT. 

Anaconda. Boston & 

Butte & North Butte. 

193 830 284 003 

1 15.620 

Red MeUI. 




8.5. 2ho 


Gross proceeds 

»«,77.1.11K 6."> $T..')ll,47il ill) 

$1,6(1!). 763 66' $3,224,783 01 


$2,080,249 34 

$646,109 31 

$4.57.479 88 of ininiiiK 

$3,905,222 28 $3,262,266. .W 


$990,405 55 

$487,268 .56 

$1,070,272 97 

$303,987 68 

$380,593 97 

KreiKlit on ore 

$733,352 81 $ 

$39,472 92 

$55,305 36 


$.53,628 53 

$10,318 42 

$8,125 93 

Cost of rediieliiiTi ... 

$2,937,965. 15| $2,225,884 17 

$444,020 91 i $1,065,404 11 

$221,881 11 

$884..537 21 

$203,843 3B 

$156,418 42 

Cost of inarkc-liiiK 

$617,513.18' $788,998.27 


$83,028 19 

$60,700 48 

$51,714 88 


$8.214,0.53 42, $6,378,604-74 


$2,111,115 11 


$1,908,438 71 $.574,939 97 

$596,851 20 

Ni-l earnings 

$1.. 561. 065 23 $1,132,875 25 

$295.604 . 84 

$1,113,647 99 

$246,096 06 

Butte and Red Metal companies, inas- 
much as they sell their ores to the 
Washoe smelter on delivery, have not 
gi\en any Jigures showing the cost of 
iii.'.rkeliii.ii. I tie Parrot company was 
tlK only one iiuaMe to show any net 
earninn.-i. The accompanying table em- 
liodies the report of the various large pro- 
tUicing companies. 

Chronology of Mining in June 

Jiiiir I — The .\malgamated Copper 
Company reports to its stockholders a loss 
of $7.5oo.cxx) in net income for the year. 
One thousand coke ovens of the Stonega 
■Coal and Coke Company resume opera- 
tions after an idleness of several weeks. 

.huie 2~ United States Steel Corpora- 
tion reduces the price of bar steel from 
■$.U' to $28 per ton. 

June 3 — .\ deputation from the Mexi- 
can Chamber of Mines calls upon Minister 
Molina and enters formal protest against 
the provision in the proposed new mining 
l.iw restricting the ownership of Mexican 
iiiiiies by foreigners. 

June 4 — The price of iron is reduced 
■if.5 per ton, 

June 5 -.\p|)r,iiser Starretts hands down 
a customs decision classing diamonds useil 
in mining with precious stones. 

June 9^"onference of steel 
luiers decides to cut prices of all steel- 
linished products excepts rails. .\ reduc- 
tion ill the price of ore is also a.nreed 

Monongahela City, Penn., kills several 
miners and injures others. 

June 22 — Eleven men killed in an ex- 
plosion of firedamp in the Loire colliery 
at St, Etiennc, France. 

June 23 — Fires ordered lighted in 1000 
Rainey coke ovens in the Connellsville 

American Smelting and Refining 

.\s is well known, (here have been 
many important changes in the adminis- 
tration of this company during the last 
six months. .Apropos of these. Daniel 
Guggenheim is quoted as saying, upon 
his return from Europe : 

"Before I left for Europe I set the ball 
rolling by redticing my own salary, and 
my brothers, who devote their entire 
time to the affairs of the company, also 
voluntarily re<luced their salaries. Like 
all well-managed companies, we cleaned 
out our .\ugean stables last spring, and 
the cleaning process has now been com- 
pleted. While our salary list alone is re- 
duced by $750,000. I am informed that 
the efficiency of our labor has greatly im- 
proved, and this means another import- 
ant saving in expenses." 

The contr.ict between the Guggenheim 
Exploration Company, and A. Chester 
Beatty expired June i. and has not yet 
been renewed, but Mr. Guggenheim says 
that in all probability Mr. Beatty will re 
main in the Guggenheim employment and 
will be the man.iger of the Guggenheim 
I-'xploration Company. 

worked out. leaving about 320 acres de- 
veloped. 320 acres in which there is a 
fair prospect of finding copper, and i960 
acres known to be barren. The mineral 
land of the Caluinct & Hecla consists of 
2680 acres, of which i960 arc underlain 
by the Calumet & Hecla conglomerate, 
2200 by the Osceola amygdaloid and 2500 
by the Kearsarge lode. 

Four shafts on the Calumet & Hecla 
conglomerate are to be abandoned during 
the coming year. Within two years Hecla 
N'o. 3 will be abandoned, and prob.tbly 
within three years Hecla No. 2 will be 
abandoned. In the 640 acres above re- 
ferred to there still exists in the conglom- 
erate formation between 2O.0CO/X)0 and 
25,000.000 tons of copper ore. The yield 
of the ore mined in 1906 was a verj- little 
over two per cent. The total value of 
the company's equipment is roughly be- 
tween $15,000,000 .ind $i6.ooojx». 

In the fiscal year ended .\pril 30. 1906 
the cost of mining and milling ore from 
the C)sceola amygdaloid was as follows : 
Mining. 96.93c.; hoisting. lo.ic. ; rock 
house. 13.36c.: transportation. $-t4C-: mill- 
ing. 26.3U-. ; other costs. l.8c. : total. 
$t 5(«)4 

.\ recent British consular report states 
that the salt deposits in the mountains 
west of N'eyba tBarahona*. Dominican 
Republic, arc supposed to be inexhaust- 
ible. The salt obtained is clear and trans- 
parent, and perfectly pure. There is at 
Caldcra bay a natural salt-pond of con- 
siderable extent, where salt is also ob- 
taircd from sea water by solar evapora- 
tion ("ur-r? the drv season. 


July 4, 1908. 

H. N. O. Spicer has returned to Den- 
ver, Colo., after a professional trip to 
Mexico, lasting three months. 

S. F. Shaw has established an office as 
consulting engineer for mine and mill 
work at San Bernardino, California. 

Hugh Sutherland has returned to 
Haileybury, Ont., from Rawhide, Nev., 
where he has been for several months. 

P. G. Lidner, of New York, has gone 
to New Liskeard, Ont., in the Cobalt 
mining district, on professional business. 
Frederick Kruse, of Central City, Colo., 
is examining mines in the Telluride, 
Colo., district in the interests of eastern 

Daniel Duryea, manager of .the Empire 
Zinc Company in the Joplin district, has 
gone to Arkansas to examine some zinc 
mining claims. 

C. Berthold Conlin has returned from 
an extended tour of Chihuahua, Mexico, 
in the interests of the Packard Mining 
and Milling Company. 

Marshall D. Draper, of Denver, has 
been appointed superintendent of the Fifty 
Gold Mines Corporation at Black Hawk, 
Gilpin county, Colorado. 

S. F. Stoughton has been appointed 
general manager of the Stoughton Mining 
and Milling Company at Breckenridge, 
Summit county, Colorado. 

Harold Baxter and J. R. Hoyt have 
formed a partnership as consulting min- 
ing engineers, with offices in New York 
and Wendendale, Arizona. 

Prof. H. B. Patton, of the Colorado 
School of Mines at Golden, Colo., has 
been examining mines near Black Hawk 
in Gilpin county, Colorado. 

James P. Evans has been appointed su- 
perintendent of the Colorado Iron Works 
Company, Denver, Colo., to succeed J. H. 
Morcom, recently deceased. 

Frederick Lyon, of Kennett, California, 
has been appointed assistant managing di- 
rector for the United States Smelting, 
Refining and Mining Company. 

Gerard W. Williams, \yho has been 
visiting the leading mining fields of 
Australia, is now engaged in some metal- 
lurgical research work at Melbourne, 

L. W. Trumbull, of Downieville, Cal., 
is in Montana making an examination of 
placer ground. He expects to make a 
visit to Denver before returning to 

George G. Vivian, formerly of George- 
town, Colo., has been appointed superin- 
tendent of the smelter and milling plant 
of the Pittsburg & Montana Copper Com- 
pany at Butte, Montana. 

S. F. Bretherton, general manager of 
the Great Western Gold Company, Ingot, 

Cal, has returned to his office, San Fran- 
cisco, after an extended trip of inspection 
of the company's mines and branch rail- 
road in Shasta county. 

Paul L. Wolfel, formerly chief engineer 
of the American Bridge Company, and 
lately consulting engineer for the Amer- 
ican Bridge Company of New York, on 
July I became chief engineer of the Mc- 
Clintic-Marshall Construction Company, 
with headquarters in Pittsburg. 

Captain William .\llen has resigned his 
position as superintendent of the Newport 
iron mine near Ironwood, and has re- 
moved to Negaunee, Mich., Captain .^llen 
has had charge of a number of mines in 
the Lake Superior region, beginning with 
the Humboldt, about 40 years ago. 

Dr. George I. .^dams, formerly in the 
United States Geological Survey and 
lately with the Corps of Engineers of 
Mines of Peru, has been appointed geo- 
logist in the Bureau of Mines of the 
Philippine Islands and sailed from San 
Francisco on the "Mongolia" June 30. 
His address will be Bureau of Mines, 
Manila, P. I. 

Dr. E. M. Shepard, professor of min- 
eralogy and geology and dean of Drury 
College, Springfield, Mo., has resigned 
from active service to accept the Carnegie 
pension for retired professors. Dr. Shep- 
ard has been a member of the Missouri 
Geological and Hydraulic surveys and 
has done much valuable work in the 
Ozark region. 

Otto C. Burkhart has been appointed 
professor of mining in Virginia Polytech- 
nic Institute at Blacksburg, Va. He will 
begin his work in July, and upon him will 
devolve the organization of the mining de- 
partment. Mr. Burkhart is a graduate of 
Lehigh University, and besides much ex- 
perience in mining and blast-furnace work, 
he has served on the staff of the Engi- 
neering AND Mining Journal, and as as- 
sistant professor at Lehigh University. 

had been manager of the Franklin mine 
for several years, and was interested in 
several other mines. He was twice elec- 
ted mayor of the city of Idaho Springs. 
Samuel L. Wharton, who died in 
Spokane, Wash., June 25, aged 61 years, 
was born in Charleston, S. C, and had 
resided in Georgia and Texas, but for 
18 years past had made his headquarters 
in Spokane. He was interested in sev- 
eral mines in Washington and Idaho ; was 
vice-president and a large stockholder in 
the Reco Mining Company at Sandon, in 
the Slocan district in British Columbia; 
and owned several gold mines in the 
Dahlonega district in Georgia. 


William H. Lees, general manager of 
the Cuartas mine in the .\yiitla district, 
near Guadalajara, Mexico, died at the 
mine June 19, of heart failure. He was 
a prominent member of the .American 
colony of Guadalajara. 

Henry Lomb, who died in Rochester, 
\. Y., June 13, aged 79 years, was one 
of the founders of the firm now known 
as the Bausch & Lomb Optical Company, 
and was one of the oldest and best known 
makers of surveying and optical instru- 
ments in this country. 

George Riley, of Idaho Springs, Colo., 
died suddenly in Denver, June 23. He 
was born in Dover, N. J., in 1855, and 
went to Colorado in 1879, where he began 
mining in the Clear Creek district. He 

Societies and Technical Schools 

Iron and Steel Institute, Great Britain 
— The autumn meeting, it is announced, 
will be held at Middlesbrough, England, 
Sept. 28-Oct. I. A large number of 
papers will be presented. 

Missouri School of Mines — The 1908 
catalog of this school at RoUa, Mo.. 
shows a total of 203 students. The school 
is well equipped with chemical and phy- 
sical laboratories, and offers complete 
courses in mining, engineering and geo- 
logy and in metallurgy. 

Mine Inspectors' Institute of America — 
This association has been organized, at 
a meeting of State mine inspectors held 
at Indianapolis recently. The officers 
chosen were George Harrison, of Ohio, 
president; Thomas Moses, of Illinois, 
vice-president; Thomas Hudson, of Illi- 
nois, treasurer; James W. Paul, of West 
Virginia, secretary. The purpose of the 
organization is to hold meetings of the 
mine inspectors of the country to discuss 
means for the prevention of mine 

Colutnbia University — The following 
courses counting toward the degrees of 
the schools of mines, engineering and 
chemistry, open without examination to 
all students who are qualified, are offered 
in the summer session of Columbia Uni- 
versity, New York, July 7 to -Aug. 14: 

Civil Engineering — Hydraulics, five 1 
hours lectures per week ; structures — re- ■ 
inforced concrete, five hours lectures per 

Electrical Engineering — Electric train 
movement, si.x hours lectures per week. 

Mechanical Engineering — Gas engines, 
six hours lectures, si.x hours laboratory 
per week. 

Metallurgical Engineering — Metallog- 
raphy of iron, steel and industrial alloys, ] 
five hours lectures, five hours laboratory 
per week. Prof. William Campbell. 

-■Mso chemistry, mathematics, mechanics, 

mineralogy-, physics, and shop work. All 

these courses will be of special interest to 

instructors in technical schools, to grad- 

, uate students and to practicing engineers. 

July 4. 1908, 


Special Correspondence from Mining Centers 

News of the Industry Reported by Special Representatives at 
Goldfield, Butte, Salt Lake City, Denver, Toronto and London 


Goldfield, Nevada 

Juiu- J.V -llu- l-.-i'^ W-Kas & Tonopah 
railroad has announced a reduction in 
freight rates on ore beginning August i. 
which will amount to practically $3.50 
per ton on all (loldl'ield ores. This is a 
very great advantage to the small mines 
and leasers and will undoubtedly stim- 
ulate shipments which have been held 
back by high freight and treatment 
charges. A few more railroads and a 
few more mills and Goldfield will shake 
off the "highbinders" who have been 
Miakiiig conditions such that anything un- 
der $50 was low-grade ore. 

The Secretary of the Mine Operators' 
Association estimates that there are at 
least 1800 miners now employed in the 
camp. The monthly payroll amounts to 
$200,000 which is equivalent to a week's 
output from the mines. There arc 18 
shippiut; miiu-s and leases in the camp at 

Salt Lake City 

hiHC .i7— Copper at 7.7c. per lli. is what 
tin- cost sheet of the L'tah Copper Com 
pany shows for May. ."Mthough this in- 
formation has not been confirmed by Gen- 
eral Manager I). C. Jackling, the figures 
are known to be absolutely correct. Dur- 
ing ihe mouth stated the mine produced 
(,i,V),5J<) lb. i^f copper, as against 3.323,000 
l!i in .April. b'rom the mine was de- 
spatched daily an average of 120 carloads, 
.e;'ch coii'..iiiiing 50 t'Mis of ore, to the 
concent rating mills at Garfield and Cop- 
ptrinii. Vine Soo-ton sections of the latter 
were in .cmtinuous operation: the tenth 
i'- nnu 'II conunission and the eleventh 
«ill \h' ruuuinij early in July. So the 
cninp.iiiy is rapidly approaching the basis 
fur a (x),ooo,ooo-ll). annual cipper produc- 
tiim. provided, of course, that the present 
grade ot (.re is maintained at the mill. 
The I'tab I 'upper Company is now operat- 
inis nn it: own account in the Bingham 
camp ,it least 10 miles of standard-gage 
railroad ami has additional trackage 
under construction as a preliminary to 
the opening of new levels for the steam 
shovels higher up on the mountain. The 
removal of overburden from the ore-de- 
posits and its dumping about two miles 
away, will be an important item in next 
year's operating costs. 

The Utah mine at l-isb Springs has dis- 
Inused the usual inuubl) dividend at 
$.1(xxi. The May l)a\ mine in Tintic is 
also on a dividend basis again, the May 
distribution was $8000. 

.Actual developmeiu of the Juab oil dis- 
trict in Juab county has been begun by 
the Juab Oil Company, in which officials 
of the .Salt Lake route are interested. 
.\ drill rig capable of going to 2000 ft. 
depth has been installed. 

Two of the Majestic Mines Company's 
mines have been placed in operation 
again; they being the Harrington & Hick- 
ory and the O. K. mines, the former 
being a lead-silver and the latter a copper 
pioducer. Hoth mines are located in 
Heaver county. 

The hearing on the application of the 
Silver King Con.solidated for an order of 
court permitting its engineers to enter 
certain workings of the Silver King Coal- 
ition mine, alleged to have entered dis- 
puted territory has been concluded. Tlie 
case has been taken under advisement by 
Judge Marshall, of the Federal court. 
Tbe Consolid.ited company has charged 
tin- defendant with' having wrongfully e.\- 
ir.icleil ore. 


J::iif 25 — The Great N'orthern railway 
will probably be opened for traffic be- 
tween UiUte and Great Falls the latter 
part of this week. The Boston & Mon- 
tana smelter, however, . will not l)e ready 
to receive ores for another month. Min- 
ing operations in and around the city of 
Butte are still somewhat curtailed as a 
result of the shutdown of the Boston & 
Montana smelter and the difficulty ex- 
perienced with gases in the Anaconda 
and St. Lawrence mines. These mines 
have been closed down for the past few 
days. The .An.aconda company recently 
completed a new plant for the drying of 
the precipitates which are made at its 
plant in Meaderville. The precipitates 
have heretofore been sacked while wet 
and have failed to dry out satisfactorily 
before reaching the blast furnaces, and 
it is to obviate this difficulty that the 
plant was constructed. 


Jiiiir 30 — .-\s an echo .>f the recent con- 
ference at W ashiugton of the governors <if 
the various Stales, Governor Buchtcl, of 
Colorado, made an address on June 2.4 be- 
fore the Denver Real Estate Exchange, 
advocating the appointment of a forestry 
commission, with ample powers to" pre- 
serve the tintber resources of Ihe State, 
and the passing of such laws as will bring 

about proper working of the coal mines 
of Colorado. 

Representatives of the various northern 
Colorado coal miners' unions have held a 
meeting, and formulated a new scale of 
wages, which will be submitted to the 
unions, and if accepted by them, will then 
be presented to the operators. It is be- 
lieved by the miners that the new scale 
will be agreed to by the mine-owners. 
.About 2500 miners are idle, though no 
strike has been formally called, and so 
far there has been no violence committed, 
nor bitter feelings manifested. 

Regular passenger service on the new 
Denver- Boidder electric line was inaug- 
urated June 26, on a temporary schedule 
of six trains each way per day. or a train 
every two hours. It is expected to double 
this service shortly, putting on 12 trains 
per day, and giving hourly cars between 
the places named. 

The Wisconsin, formerly one of the 
heaviest producers of the Clear Creek 
district, is now being operated by lessees, 
and has re-entered the list of shippers. 

.A 4-ft. vein, yielding high assays in 
gold and silver, is reported to have been 
struck in driving the Saratoga lateral at 
a point 230a ft. east of the N'ewhousc 

It is reported that the I'nitcd States 
Geological Survey is to make an c.\ami- 
iiation of the Breckenridge district, the 
work to begin in -August. 

On June 24. more than the average 
.".mour.t of ore was shipped by the mines 
of Cripple Creek, over 30 properties not 
on the various railroad lines being on the 
list of shippers, in addition to those mines 
loading directly into the cars. .A large 
proportion of the shipments was made by 
dump lessees. 

L'poii inquiry of a broker in Colorado 
Springs, we find that the Bombay Gold 
Mining Company, and the Manhattan 
Consolidated Gold Mining Compjiny. are 
both prol).it)ly defunct, and there is, of no market for their shares Our 
informant gives it as his opinion that 
"neither company is worth ix'Stage writ- 
ing about it." The Secretary of State 
has no report from cither company, as is 
required by law, and it is. therefore, prob- 
able that they are both dead. The prop- 
erties of these companies are outside the 
producing area of the Cripple Creek 

The mines of the Red Mountain dis- 
trict are busy getting to work, as the rail- 
road which connects them with Silverton 
is now open and trains running, and 
great activity prevails. This m.iy also be 



July 4, 15 

said of the whole San Juan region, where 
most of the big mines are at great eleva- 
tiors, and where the snow has now suf- 
ficiently disappeared to permit active work. 
,'Vt present, the most important new 
mine in the Red Mountain district is the 
San Antonio, in which the miners have 
opened a body of copper ore 30 ft. long 
by 25 ft. in width, with every indication 
of being persistent in depth. This ore is 
chiefly enargite, and is similar in char- 
acter to the ores of the Congress. Hud- 
son and National Belle, which were heavy 
producers from about 1886 to 1893, when 
the drop in silver shut most of these 
silver-copper mines down. The ores were 
treated at the Silverton pyritic smelter, 
and had associated with them nearly 
enough pyrite to make them suitable for 
that process. The average yield in cop- 
per of the San Antonio ore is high, and 
this was the case also in the other mines 


June 29 — Several more mines in the 
Joplin district have been closed down this 
week as has been the case every week 
this month. Mines that produce little or 
no lead ore cannot meet the expense of 
the added expenditure for drainage neces- 
sary to hold the rising water in check 
from the proceeds of their zinc ore at 
present prices, and the pumps are being 
drawn after a losing fight to keep at the 
business. With the drainage proposition 
ai- IS to I compared to this time a year 
ago, the expense of drainage has become 
an important item, so many mines having 
to run pumps now that did not a year ago, 
and all of them having the above ratio 
of increase in pumping costs to contend 


June 29 — In affirming a judgment for 
$1000 recovered by complainant against 
the Chandler Coal Company, the Indiana 
Supreme Court recently held that the 
coal mine act of 1905 is constitutional 
and valid. The particular features of the 
statute attacked by the defendant com- 
pany, as making it unconstitutional, were 
that which excuses from its operation 
mines employing less than 10 men, and 
that which makes a mineowner who fails 
to light a shaft absolutely liable for the 
injuries of any miner who is injured by 
falling down the shaft in the dark. Com- 
plainant was trying to enter the elevator 
cage half-way down a mine shaft, where 
there was no light, when he missed the 
cage and fell to the bottom of the shaft. 

The Indiana statute requires two lamps 
at each shaft, "except when electric lights 
are used," and it was urged that this was 
an unfair discrimination against mines 
lighted by other means than by electricity. 
But the court says that this language 
merely means that two lamps are to be 
used, except when the shaft is otherwise 

sufficiently lighted by electricity, so as to 
be safe without lamps. 

The court also declares there is no un- 
just discrimination in the provision that 
the act shall only apply when 10 men 
or more are employed in a mine, because 
this makes it apply to every mine where 
a large force is worked, and takes away 
every mine out of its operation when the 
force is cut down. 

This decision settles a point of interest 
to the miners employed in small mines. 
An effort will be made to have the next 
Legislature amend the statute so as to 
make it apply to all mines, on the ground 
that all miners in the State are entitled to 
equal protection whether working in a 
small or large mine. 


June 27 — The work of the Canadian 
Geological Survey has been considerably 
delayed this season on account of lack of 
supplies. Appropriations were made last 
week which have cnaliled the Survey to 
put additional parties in the field. W. 
Mclnnes has gone to South Indian lake 
and the Churchill river to explore a tract 
of country likely to be opened up shortly 
by the Hudson Bay railway. He will 
endeavor also to examine reported coal 
and copper discoveries north of Prince 
.■\lbert, Saskatchewan. "W. H. Collins has 
left for the Montreal river to study the 
economic geology of the region near the 
head waters. M. E. Wilson is working 
in the district north of Lake Temiskaming 
in Quebec Province. W. A. Johnson is 
continuing topographical and geological 
work in Simcoe county, Ont. J. A. Dresser 
has gone to conduct a geological survey 
along the line of the Grand Trunk Pa- 
cific railway between the city of Quebec 
and the New Brunswick boundary. G. 
A. Young is making surveys covering the 
iron range near Bathurst, N. B. A party 
in charge of Dr. R. W. Ells is mapping 
the oil shales in Albert county, N. B. 
Dr. Ells himself is at present in Scotland 
investigating the oil shale industry. E. R. 
Faribault has started for Nova Scotia to 
continue the work of mapping the gold- 
bearing rocks, and Hugh Fletcher is 
working in Cumberland county. Nova 


June 13 — The big amalgamation scheme 
to pool the Farrar interests in the East 
Rand has been carried, and the names of 
several familiar producers, such as An- 
gelo, Dreifontein, Cason and Comet, will 
now disappear. .»\s to the fairness of the 
scheme there has been much discussion. 
Many of the shareholders in the produc- 
ing mines would, no doubt, have preferred 
to remain as they were. Their mines were 
earning good dividends and they had no 
wish to share them with those who held 
deep-level ground of doubtful value, how- 
ever cheaply such ground might be sold. 
The owners of the deep-level claims are 

now released from an embarrassing posi- 
tion. The work done on their mines has 
been of a disappointing character, and . 
sufficient funds to bring them to the pro- 
ducing stage were not available. The ad- 
vantages claimed for the scheme were 
three: increase in life, increased facilities 
for maintaining a regular grade of ore, 
and reduction of working costs and ad- 
mininstration. Two of these advantages 
could have been obtained equally well by 
amalgamating the outcrop mines, and if 
the scheme had stopped there, probably 
little opposition would have been raised. 
The increase of life depends on whether 
the deep ground is payable or not, and the 
sellers of the deep ground have not in 
this respect a strong case, the develop- 
ments as mentioned above having so far 
proved disappointing. 

Other objectors took another line in 
•opposing the scheme, which "Pioneer" 
well summarized in the Economist of 
May 16. The objections are: (i) That 
in some amalgamations the buyers and 
sellers are the same persons. (2) That 
very few directors are independent. (3) 
That shareholders in Europe have not 
proper representation at company meet- 
ings held in Johannesburg. (4) That in 
every amalgamation impartial experts 
should be employed to hold the scales 
with an even hand, and that the report of 
these experts should be submitted to the 
shareholders, so that they may judge f' n 
themselves whether to vote for amalt;.!- 
mation or against it. 

The result of the voting at the meetings 
of the companies interested goes to show 
that the promoters and directors control 
the situation, and that the average inde- 
pendent shareholder does not take the 
trouble to record a vote. Out of the 
1,000,000 East Rand Proprietary Com- 
pany's shares only 285,336 shares voted,, 
of which 1032 were in opposition. Nearly 
three-quarters, therefore, of the share- _ 
holders failed to vote. In the subsidiary 
producing companies the East Rand Pro- 
prietary held such a preponderating in- 
terest that no combination of shareholders- 1 
could have thrown out the scheme. I 

It is evident that shareholders are at ] 
the mercy of those who control the com- 
panies, and it seems a pity that there is- 
no independent shareholders' association 
to examine and report on schemes of this 
nature. It is not a healthy condition of ^ 
affairs that such large interests should- i 
be bought and sold when only about a \ 
quarter of the shareholders — as appears to- 
have been the case in the East Rand Pro- 
prietary Company — record their votes. 
Directors who are personally interested, 
in two companies which it proposed to- 
amalgamate are placed in an unpleasant 
position, and ought to welcome such an 
association as relieving them to some ex- 
tent of any suspicion of personal bias. 
Hostility to such an association could only 
come from those whose schemes would, 
not bear investigation. 

July 4, 1908. 


Mining News from All Parts of the World 

New Enterprises, Installations o{ New Machinery, Development of 
Mines and Transfers of Property Reported by Special Correspondents 



I'liFiii County 

II. K. DeBarflalcbcii has made all his 
arrangements to begin work on a new 
slope on his property in the Upper 
Cahaba coalfield. He is one of the pro- 
moters of the Alabama Fuel and Coal 

JkI'I-kk.son County 

.Ml tlu' coal mines in this comity are 
beinx |iiil back to work again as fast as 
tiny can be pnt in condition to operate. 

VV.M.KER County 
Several of the large mines in this 
comity have arranged to resume opera- 
tJDMS in July. The demand for coal is 
increasing steadily. 

\\'.\SMI\i.TON CoiINTV 

Mobile I'oilhind Ccmciit Caiiifony— 
This company has been incorporated to 
build and operate a large portland-comenl 
plant ; also incidentally t 1 operate coal 
mines. The cement i)laiil will be erected 
at St. Stephens, where shipments can be by water. The capital stock aii- 
tlinrized is $6,000,000 common an<l $3,000.- 
000 pretcncd. The incorporators are I'. 
J. Lyons, I'".. 1,. Russell, Mobile, .Ma.: C. 
II. I'n-al. W.-isbiiiKton; W. W. b'inlcy, 
New N'ork. 



Ciiltimrl S- Arisoiia — The combined 
ore production from the mines is averag- 
ing about 1500 tons daily, of which 875 
tons are from the Calumet & .\ri/.ona 
mines and 625 tons from the Superior & 
riltsburg mines. The copper production 
af the smelter in Douglas will be well 
above .(,000,000 lb. tor the month of June. 

Supi'iiar & riltshurfi — The Hoatson is 
keeping up its shipments of 250 tons of 
ore daily. On the i,?oo-ft. level a cross- 
cut has passed through 500 ft. of barren 
lime, but recently stringers of ore have 
conic in. and the groiuid looks very prom- 
ising. No. I raise which is coming up 
from the 1300 .and is 125 ft. from the 
(Jueen side line, struck ore at the hight of 
<H) ft., and has already cut 20 ft. of 6 per 
cent, oxide ore. This proves that the large 
orebody on the ijoo extends 40 ft. below 
that level. The shaft, which is again be- 
ing smik. i> 147a It deep, going down 
al the rate of 1 to i ' .. It. per ilay. 

Shaltuik-Arisoiia — There has been a re- 
cent strike of good ore on the 600-ft. 

KmI ni ibi^ company',-, mine. 1 he new 
I. re, which has been drifted on about 35 ft. 
up to date, is carbonate and oxide, carry- 
ing about 7 per cent, copper, and is high 
in irf>n, making it a very good smelting 

Dean-Arisona — Diamond drilling is still 
in progress from the iioo-ft. level. Noth- 
ing is given out in regard to the success 
of this drilling, but it is believed that no 
ore of importance has been discovered. 

H'olvcrine & Arizona — Near the center 
of the Warren claim in this company's 
mine a recent discovery of a body of 
lead-silver ore has created considerable 
interest in the Bisbee district. The ore 
itself is not of great importance, but taken 
with the favorable-looking ground around 
the new orebody, the outlook for future 
copper discoveries is considered very 

Warren Realty and licvclopmcnl—\\\c 
Warren shaft is down 650 ft. One shift 
of 10 men is at work, six men in the 
shaft and four on the surface. 

Anderson Apache Company — The com- 
l-any's mine is about six miles from 
Hachita, Grant county. New Mexico. Re- 
cently the announcement has been made 
that Geo. H. Neale, the mayor of Bisbee, 
is to become the president of the company. 
The purchase price of the property is 
$100,000, of which $20,000 has been paid. 
The outstanding stock is held almost en- 
tirely by Bisbee and Douglas men, and 
an additional 2000 shares of stock are to 
be put on the market in these two cities 
at $2.50 per share. The par value is $5 
per share. 


.\\1 MN'K CiilNTY 

Kennedy Mining and Milling Company 
The tramway for hauling supplies from 
Martell station to this mine at Jackson has 
been put in operation. 

Calwer.vs Col'NTV 

Cramer— C. Nuncr has a force of men 
opening this mine at Stockton Hill and 
lias cut gravel supposed to be the lost 
Cramer ch.innel of Star & Madison work- 

South Carolina — This mine, J. \V. Ber- 
nard, superintendent, is having a loo-toii 
mill test of its ore made. The mine is 
next to the Melones, and it is expected 
that a lo-stamp mill will be put up. 

El. DoRMH) County 
Stony H<ir — New machinery has just 

I. (CM Mi-talU-d in this mine four miles fron> 
Placerville. and some coarse gold is being 
taken out. 

Standard Unit — This mine in Coloma 
canon. Greenwood district, is being oper- , 
Med with a full crew of men. 

Inyo County 
Uhehebc — For this place in the southern 
and eastern end of the county freight 
teams arc hauling supplies and men for 
the development of the newly discovered 
had and silver prospects owned by W. W. 
Watterson anrl others, of Reno, Nevada. 
Contracts have been let to haul out 2O0O 
tons of high-grade ore by teams to Bon- 
nie Clair station. 

Nevau.\ County 

Grey Eagle — This mine, in Washington 
district, has been bonded to Chas. .\. Mar- 
riner and others, who will immediately 
begin work with 20 men. There is a mill 
and other necessary machinery on the 

Iron Clad Mining Company — This mine 
at Rougii & Ready, owned by Plymouth, 
Ohio, men, is soon to be reopened, and 
machinery will be contracted for within a 
month. H. M. Black is superintendent. 

Inkinarque — This mine at Nevada City, 
owned by Rosenfeld's Son.*, of San Fran- 
cisco, is shortly to be started up under 
lease to local men. The water is to be re- 
moved and the shaft retimbercd. 

Plum.^s County 
Del Monte—}. D. Murray, of Bovard, 
Nev., has taken an option on this group, 
owned by John Rickard, and since setting 
men at work, has uncovered a favorable 
body of ore. 

San Bernarpino County 
Dry Lake — The hoist at this mine, near 

Victorville, is now in operation, and a 

small stamp mill will be installed at once. 

.■\ A. Preciado is manager. 
Sloan — G. F. Sloan has shipped two 

carloads of $50 ore from his lease on the 

Jumbo at Hart. 

San Diego Coi'nty 
C/itY/ciiirf-Pj.-iftV— The mill of this 
company has commenced crushing ore 
from the Paling Brothers' lease. 

Shasta County 
Harrison Guleh — .\t this camp t Knob 
P. Ct the Victor company has installed 
a new hoist. The Midas is now down to- 
the laoo level. Work is shortly to begin. 
on the Connor group of mines. 



July 4. 15 

Trinity County 

Mary Blaine — At this property, New 
River, W. E. Sherwood, superintendent, 
work has been resumed. 

Oriole — Eastern men have bonded this 
mine from Collins Brothers & Paulson, 
and will soon commence development 

Tuolumne County 

Big Four — ^.\t this mine, near Tuolumne, 
owned by Deniing, Wilds & Savor, a 
strike of importance has been made. The 
ore is being sacked for shipment to the 
Selby smelter. 

Raxvhidc — This famous old mine, owned 
by W. A. Neville, which has been idle for 
some time, is about to be started up again. 


GiLPi.v County 

Black Hills &■ Denver Gold Mining 
Coynpany — Ohio people are chiefly in- 
terested, and recently they had a meeting 
and decided to resume operations on their 
Boulder Park property. L. A. White, 
Tolland, Colo., is manager. 

Dirigo Mining and Milling Company — 
Southern capitalists are interested in the 
purchase of the Douglas mill in Wide 
Awake district, and they are arranging 
for starting up the Dirigo mine. 

Esculapian Gold Mining Company — At 
a depth of 150 ft. in the Star of the West 
group an 8-in. streak of gold, silver and 
copper ore has been opened up. Chicago 
people are interested, with Stephen Har- 
per as superintendent. 

Gilpin-Eldorado Mining Company — 
Pennsylvanians interested in the Eldorado 
mine in Spring gulch are arranging for 
the resumption of work by July. 

Grand Union — Eastern and Denver cap- 
ital is interested on South Boulder creek 
and will make arrangements at a later 
date for the installation of a compressor 
plant. O. Q. Beckworth, Rollinsville, Colo., 
is manager 

Iowa Girl — Sylvanite ore has been 
found in the tunnel of this property in 
Moon gulch, and assays run high in 
gold. W. S. Dexter, Rollinsville, Colo., 
is manager. 

Leavenworth — This property in Russell 
district has been sold for $50,000 to F. P. 
Reed, of Denver. 

Rock'fordS. T. Harris, of Russell 
Gulch, has taken a lease and option on 
this mine and is installing machinery for 
active operations. 

Troublesome — Milling ore from 5 to 8 
ft in width has been opened up west of 
the shaft at a depth of 165 ft., which 
shows well in gold and makes good con- 
centrates worth $20 to the ton. 

West Concrete — Maloney & Co., of Cen- 
tral City, have opened up some wire sil- 

vci ore yielding high assays, besides some 
gold and lead. 

Winning Mining Company — Denver and 
Pennsylvania capital has become inter- 
ested in the organization of this company 
and in the purchase of the Hall mine in 
Russell district. .■\. G. Rummel, Russell 
Gulch, Colo., is to be manager. 

Lake County — Le.\uvii.i.e 

Crecentia — Recently a controlling in- 
terest in this property. Rock Hill, was 
sold to Lou R. Johnston and associates, 
of Denver. Several improvements are 
now under way and when completed the 
underground force will be enlarged and 
50 tons daily of low-grade sulphide and 
iron will be shipped. 

Helena — In this mine. Iowa gulch, 
drifting from the 500-ft. level to the east 
a good body of lead ore has been en- 
countered, the vein being 4 ft. wide, and 
as development proceeds it becomes 
larger; the ore carries 50 per cent, lead, 
some silver and a trace of gold. 

International — The tonnage from this 
property, Robinson, is on the increase 
daily and is now close to 100 tons. A 
great deal of development work has been 
going on at the different levels and the 
ore zone has been opened in them all. 
This is a continuation of the old Rob- 
inson vein. 

Little Jonny — On this mine, Breece 
hill, Hahnewald Brothers are leasing on 
No. 4 shaft at the 1200-ft. level, where 
they have a large body of sulphide ore. 
During the week in the center of this 
body appeared a streak 2 in. wide of 
ore running very high in gold, and so far 
they have taken out 300 lb. with the 
streak still in sight. It appears to be a 
concentration of the auriferous values in 
the heart of the sulphide body; the gold 
is all in the form of wire. The mine is 
producing in the neighborhood of 7000 
tons per month and is employing about 400 

South Evans — The Luema Mining Com- 
pany controls the Valley. Forest Rose 
and Dispute claims comprising 16 acres 
of patented groimd. A new shaft was 
sunk on the Valley to a depth of 700 ft., 
and a good body of sulphide ore opened ; 
the ore zone is being opened and at 
present daily shipments of 30 tons are 
being sent to the smelter. Other prop- 
erties in the gulch, including the Fanny 
Rawlins, Favorite, Louise, etc., are ship- 
ping regularly. 

Teller County — ^Cripple Creek 

Prince Albert — This company, owning 
26 acres of ground on the e-xtreme south- 
east slope of Beacon hill, adjoining the 
Gold Dollar Consolidated, will hereafter 
work directly the mine, which has hereto- 
fore been operated under the leasing sys- 
tem. The deepest shaft on the Prince 
.Albert is only 275 ft., and work has never 
been done to any extent below the 200-ft. 

point. John Nicholls, formerly superin- 
tendent of the Midget, has been put in 
charge of the work by Henry Hand, presi- 
dent of the company. There is a vein 
which is exposed in the gulch which sep- 
arates Grouse and Beacon hill, and it is 
proposed to drive an adit on this vein 
for a distance of 1200 ft. The tunnel 
will cut the Prince Albert claim at 6oo ft. 

Republic Gold Mining Company — A 
two-years' lease, with royalty of 20 per 
cent, flat on all ores marketed, has been 
secured on the Beacon hill group of three 
claims owned by the Republic Gold Min- 
ing Company, by Dan Stewart and as- 
sociates. Work on the Janet W. claim, 
on which the main shaft is situated, has 
commenced and development work on an 
extensive scale is projected. The prop- 
erty, containing about nine acres patented, 
lies south of El Paso Consolidated. 


Shoshone County 

Tamarack & Chesapeake — Repairs to 
the compressor, which was damaged some 
time ago, have been completed and the 
plant is again in working order. Develop- 
ment will be pushed with as many men 
as the present power justifies, which 
means that three machines will be kept 
busy, and a crew of hand-drillers will be 
worked besides. A stockholders' meeting 
was held in Spokane a few days ago at 
which all the old directors were re- 

Hercules — Work is progressing stead- 
ily, about 250 men being employed. They 
are engaged on the second, third and 
fourth levels. Last month was the rec- 
ord month for the Hercules in ore pro- 
duction ; 23,000 tons of ore were shipped, 
of which 16,000 tons represented con- 
centrates. The ore is going to the East 
Helena smelter of the .American Smelting 
and Refining Company 

Charles Dickens — More than 2500 tons 
of ore are now broken down, and the 
manager estimates that sufficient will be 
ready by the time the new concentrator 
is completed to keep the mill running one 
month. A crew of 25 men is now em- 
ployed, mostly engaged in breaking ore. 

Stewart — A report from Wardner states 
that this mine is to reopen again, .'\uthor- 
ity for the statement is not obtainable 
from the owners, but it is known that the 
management has been in consultation 
with the Cceur d'Alene Development 
Company, upon whose land the mill 
stands, for a release of injunction which 
will permit it to rim. 

Snowstorm — This mine has been forced 
to close on account of the floods which 
have prevented handling cars to haul the 
ore. The bins are full. 

Mcrning — This property, owned by the 

July 4. IS 


J'cdcral Smelting and Refining Coin|>any, 
which opened np less than two weeks 
ago, is finding diflicnlty in securing suf- 
ficient experienced machine men. Small 
bodies of men are daily arriving, but the 
crew does not exceed 125 men. The com 
pany intends to put the mine on a full 
running basis as soon as possible. 


Zi.Nc-LF..\[) District 
I'rank llunl and associates have taken 
a lease on the ulil .Murphy ground near 
(ialena, and have begun drilling. This 
ground was drilled years ago, and sheet 
ore was reported at 250 ft. depth. 



Mohawk — Sinking is in progress in all 
of the company's five shafts ; each shaft, 
with the excei>tii>n of No. > is eciuipped 
with a pernianeni hoisting plant. .\o. i 
shaft, the newest of the openings, is to 
have a new hoisting equipment. .\ high- 
duty engine was purchased from the Wol- 
verine mine and will be assembled this 
summer. Conditions throughout the mine 
arc very satisfactory and rock shipments 
of from 2000 to 2200 tons daily are being 
made to the mill. 

Wyandot — This company has begun 
crosscutting eastward from the bottom of 
its exploratory shaft, wdiich is down 
about 800 ft. This crosscut will be driven 
to the sandstone ami will cut the various 
lodes that cross the pro|)orty. 

Copper Raiijic — The shaft on the Globe 
tract, held under option by this company 
is down about 1000 ft., and is bottomed in 
a formation believed to be the Baltic 
lode, but carrying pnictically no copper. 
The shaft encouiUereil this formation at 
a depth of gSo fl. ami will be continued 
until it cuts through it. when drifting on 
the M-iii will be started. DeveloptueiUs 
ill llic lateral openings will be watched 
with interest, as it is upon this that the 
f.;l. of the tract, as far as this company 
is concerned, depends. 

I'laitktin — The Franklin. Jr.. property 
is opening the Pewabic lode, by means of 
crosscuts from the 21st and 23d levels 
of the Conglomerate shaft. 

Seneca — This company is carrying on 
diamond drill work anil a complete cross 
section of its lands will be obtained. .\ 
shaft is also being sunk to open up the 
Ke.irsarge lode; this shaft is being sunk 
(x) ft. from the footwall. .Xs levels arc 
establisheil crosscutting to the lode will 
be started. 

liaiicotk—No. I shaft is sinking below 
the thirteenth level and at that point a 
crosscut is being driven to encounter the 
West lode. Drifts on this lode from the 
iippL'v Kvels are showing good rock. No. 

2 shaft is down below the looo-ft. level 
and is sinking in a very hard formation 
of conglomerate intermixed with sand- 
stone. During sinking copper has ap- 
peared from time to time and one promis- 
ing amygdaloid formation was passed 
through. 1 he calculated vertical distance 
to the West lode from the collar of this 
shaft is 2000 ft. At the annual meeting 
of the company, held recently at Hancock, 
Mich., the old board of directors was re- 

Keweenaiv — The company is drifting 
and blocking out ground, sinking being 
temporarily suspended until such time as 
the openings are sufficient to keep the mill 
in operation. A thorough test is to be 
made on the Medora-shaft rock and the 
I'hfcnix mill is to start stamping early 
next inonth. This mill is being over- 
hauled and put in first-class working or- 
der. Woodbury jigs have been ordered 
for the concentrating department. The 
Keweenaw Central railroad has completed 
its road into Calumet and a regular run- 
ning schedule is now in effect between 
there and Mandan, the northern terminus 
of the line. 

AUoucz^^Wm: crosscut from the sixth 
level of No. I shaft has been holed 
through to No. 2, thus connecting the two 
shafts, which is very important for ven- 
tilation and affords another passage to 
and from this shaft. Ibis crosscut inter- 
cepted No. 2 shaft at a point 1659 ft. from 
surface and approximately 700 ft. above 
the point where No. 2 shaft will cut the 


ZiNC-LE.\D District 
The Oakwood and Carbonate, two large 
shi ct-ground mines near Webb City, have 
shut down. The Oronogo Circle at Oro- 
nfigo, a large producer, has also closed. 

Endeavor — This company is just coin- 
lileiing a S25-ton mill on its lease at 
I'losperity. It has a 40-acre tract with 
.1 12-ft. face of sheet ore, shown by nine 
drill holes and two shafts. 

McCullagh & Murdoch — Two ii-in. 
lift pumps have been installed on the 
tr;.ct of this company adjoining the Her- 
ald mine at" Cave Springs. Many other 
old mines will have to be unwatercd be- 
fore work in the ground can be stirted. 

Sncsboy — .\ company has been organ- 
ized to reopen this old mine on the Bos- 
ton-Ducnweg tract at Ducnwcg. H. W. 
Dale ami Martha F.. Bennett own the 
stock. The mine was worked at the 140- 
ft. level and a large quantity of ore pro- 
duced. The i8o-ft. level will now be 

/ 'ii/i.'d^'i' — This company has started 
pumping the upper levels of its ground at 
Webb City This will not help the other 
mines in the neighborhood, as the water 
encountered in the upper levels has no 
connection with that in lower ones. 


Butte District 

Butte & Superior — .\ depth of 1200 ft. 
has been reached on this property. The 
shaft will be sunk so ft. further and a 
station will then be cut on the 1200 and 
electric pumps installed, capable of hand- 
ling 300 gal. of water per minute. While 
some exploration work will be done on 
the 1200, it is generally understood that 
the company intends to sink several hun- 
dred feet more, when the greater part of 
the exploration work will be done. 

North Butte Extension — It is expected 
that this company will soon be able to 
straighten out financial tangles, and that 
the property, now closed down, will re- 
sunie operation?. The shaft is down 600 
ft. Soine time ago an electric pump of 
large capacity was ordered for the 1000 
level, with the expectation that the shaft 
would be sunk to a depth of at least 1500 

British-Butte — The early part of this 
week the company instituted suit against 
E. D. Moore, alleging that the defendant 
had attempted to rc-locatc its Jessie 
placer claim. The action is brought to 
secure an injunction against the at- 
tempted re-location proceedings and to 
(|uiet title to the company's ground. 

Missoula County 

Amador Mining Company — Some weeks 
ago the experts sent out to examine the 
company's properties published an unfav 
orable report. .■Xt a recent meeting, a' 
tended by a number of the str>ckholderr(, 
some dissatisfaction was expressed with 
the report and steps have been taken to 
secure the services of another engineer 
to make a further report. 



Output — Production for the week end- 
ing June 2.? varied little from that of last 
week : it was handled as follows : Com- 
bination mill, 640 tons, value $iq,2oo; 
Nevada Goldtield Reduction Company, 636 
tons, $6j,6oo; Western Ore Purchasing 
Company. 874 tons. $1)6,140: total. 215 
tons, value, $178,940. The producers 
were : Consolidated. 704 tons ; Jumbo, 
,^58 tons; Engineers' Lease, 28 tons; 
Mushett Lease, 26 tons; Sandstorm No. 
5, 15 tons: Knickerbocker Lease, 30 tons; 
H;:yes Curtis. 55 tons; Ellsworth-Baum- 
gartiier Lease, 6 tons, $1090 per ton; Com- 
bination F'raction. 87 tons : Mohawk. 40 
tons: Rogers Syndicate, 403 tons: Mo- 
hawk Combination. 156 tons: Byers Sand- 
storm Lease, 4 tons ; Little Florence, 40 
tons; Van Riper-Mohawk, 183 tons: 
Parkinson Victor Lease. 24 tons. In addi- 
tion 39 t<ins of $75-ore were received from 
the (ireat Western at Hornsilver. 

.\tolia-ik Combination — Final returns 
for the four days run of this lease, the 



July 4. 15 

time allowed to it by the board of arbitra- 
tors, shows 742 tons of an average value 
of $90.40, equivalent to a total of $67,077, 
or a daily production of $16,769. 

Rogers Syndicate— This lease on the 
f.imous Florence has paid its seventh 
dividend of $30,000, bringing the total 
paid since March 28 to $215,600. Two 
days' output from this lease for which 
settlements were received last week 
amounted to $.35,750. 

Jumbo Annex Lease — A cave has oc- 
curred in these workings which runs to 
surface and is so near the Bullfrog rail- 
road that traffic may be held up tempor- 

Cominou-iVealth— This strike is proving 
up well ; 60 tons of $60- to $70-ore are in 
chutes awaiting hauling to' the mill. 

Codd-St. Ives Lease— A pump will be 
installed to take care of the water on the 
SOO-ft. level where good showings have 
been eticountered. 

Gcm-Flurence — A si.x months' extension 
has been granted this lease. 

Elk Consolidated Leasing — This com- 
pany, operating on the Yellow Tiger, will 
continue its shaft from the 6oo-ft. level, 
where a large body of mill ore has been 
proved to the goo-ft. level. 

EsMER.ALDA County — Hornsilver 

The mine owners and operators have 
given notice that beginning July i the 
Tonopah wage scale of $4 and $4.50 will 
be adopted. If any opposition is shown 
by the union men the operators will de- 
clare the camp open and enforce the scale. 

Frances Lime Point Mining Company — 
This company operating the Murray & 
Robinson property will make another ship- 
ment by the teams which are to haul its 
hoisting machinery from Goldfield. 

Great Western — Both the east and west 
drifts on the 200-ft. level encountered new 
orebodies last week which are reported 
very high grade. Ore is being sacked 
from the loo-ft. level. 

Great Eastern — This property, which 
lies two miles southeast of Hornsilver, 
has a 4-in. streak of jaspery quartz which 
runs aliTiost $1000 per ton. This is the 
kind of stuff the "old chloriders'" packed 
300 miles to Candelaria 40 years ago. 

Gold Mountain District 
Nevada Empire — All the material for 
the mill at Gold Mountain has been 
shipped and construction will begin as 
soon as it arrives. 

North Star — Lessees on this claim of 
the Keystone Mining Company have 250 
sacks of $50 ore on the dump ready to 

Nevada Empress — All the lumber and 
other building material for the Nevada 
Empress mill is either at the mill site or 
at the railroad at Cuprite awaiting teams. 
The machinery has all been shipped and 
will be on the ground as soon as it can 

be used. .\n aerial tramway will prob- 
ably be built to convey the ore from the 
I'pper tunnels to the mill. 

NvE County — Lodi 
Lodi, situated 30 miles southeast of 
Fairview, 45 rniles east of Luning and 60 
miles west of .A.ustin, is to have a smel- 
tery. The contest between the Lodi Mines 
company and the Lodi Townsite company 
has been settled by giving four-fifths 
of the water right to the Mines company 
and one-fifth to the Townsite company. 
A 100-ton water-jacket furnace will be in- 
stalled. The machinery will be hauled 
from Luning, the railroad point, by two 
traction engines which will subsequently 
liaul ore to the plant. 

Nye County — Tonopah 
Belmont — One of the most important 
discoveries in the history of Tonopah was 
made this week when pay ore was found 
on the looo-ft. level on the north side of 
the Mizpah fault. Thus far all the known 
veins on Oddie mountain have been cut 
on their east trend by the Mizpah fault 
which strikes northeast and southwest 
and it has been commonly predicted by 
mining engineers that no ore would be 
found north of this fault line. This fault 
material has been crosscut for nearly 200 
ft. It consists of country rock and quartz. 
On the north or hanging wall side of the 
fault 3 ft. of quartz was encountered 
which carries benches of high-grade ore. 
Development work is now being watched 
with great interest by both the Belmont 
company and local mining men in general, 

Nye CouNiY — Round Mountain 
By automobile to Goldfield was brought 
one day last week $12,000, the clean up 
from a 15-days' run at the Round Moun- 
tain mill and $6000 the result of a week's 
work by the Round Mountain Hydraulic 
Mining Company. The former company 
has distributed $32,000, its first quarterly 
dividend. The latter company is operat- 
ing three giants on the Sunnyside and 
Great Western properties. Operations at 
one of these points have uncovered a 
quartz ledge from 20 to 40 ft. in width 
eight samples from which assayed from 
$4 to $56 per ton. 

Seven Troughs ■ 

Macuma Hills— The Mazuma Hills mill 
has just made a lo-day clean-up amount- 
ing to $20,000. This was from a run on 
high-grade ore and the results are so 
satisfactory that the company will treat 
all its own ore hereafter. 

Seven Troughs Kindergarten Mining 
Company — The mill of this company 
known as the Kindergarten or Friedman 
mill has been running continuously for 
nearly a month and is giving good satis- 

Seven Troughs Mining Company — Work 
has been started sinking the company's 
shaft from the present 52S-ft. point to 
the lOOO-ft. level. 


Tlie State Mining Department, through 
George Harrison, chief inspector of mines, 
on June 24, issued the following import- 
ant notice, addressed to all mine oper- 
ators, mine superintendents and mine 
bosses, operating or having charge of 
mines in Ohio: 

"On and after July i, 1908, all mining, 
machine cuttings, or what is known as 
'bug dust,' must be sent out of the mine,, 
and no portion of it can be thrown back 
in any room or working place or used as 
ballast on any track or haulway in any 
part of the mine. 

"The law requires that in any entry 
or airway in any mine which becomes so- 
dry that the volume of air is liable to be- 
come charged with. dust, that whoever is- 
operating said mine as owner, lessee,, 
agent, or in any capacity, shall have such 
entry or airway thoroughly sprayed and 
sprinkled with water, or cleaned in such a 
manner that the air will not become- 
charged with dust. The same law makes 
it imperative that the inspector must not 
allow an accumulation of dust in any 
mine. The specific penalty for failure to- 
comply with this provision of the mining- 
law is a fine of from $200 to $500 in each 

"Notice is hereby given that every mine 
inspector will prosecute to the fullest ex- 
tent every case of violation coming to his- 
attention on and after the above named 


Baker County 

Hidalgo — The vein in this mine, near 
Sumpter, has been cut in the adit drivem 
by Tompkins Brothers, the owners. The- 
face of the adit is now goo ft. from the 
entrance and about 300 ft. below the sur- 

Quebec — Negotiations are in progress- 
foi the reopening of this mine near Sump-, 
ter. A good deal of development work 
was done on it several years ago. 


.\xthracite Coal 
For the past week the Lackawanna, 
county court has been taking testimony 
on the appeals of the Delaware, Lacka- 
wanna & Western, the Delaw-are & Hud- 
son and other coal companies from the 
assessments placed upon their property by 
the county commissioners. The county 
board employed engineers to put a value 
on coal lands, and these experts esti- 
mated the quantity of coal unmined and 
valued it at $100 per foot-acre. There is 
no serious difference as to the extent of 
the coal, the appeals being taken chietly 
on the valuation. It is understood that 
the companies are willing to abide by the 
decision of the court. A large number of 

July 4, iyo8. 


experts have testilk-d on both sides, but 
their estimates of the value of coal in the 
ground differ very widely. 

Pine Knot Colliery — Regular mining 
operations were started at this colliery at 
Coal Castle on- June 29. Development 
and construction have been going on for 
some time, and the mine is one of the 
largest in the anthracite region. It is 
expected to ship 3500 tons a day. It is 
owned by the Philadelphia & Reading 
Coal and Iron Company. 

Bituminous Co.\l 
/'illsburg-Buffato Coal Company— This 
company is rushing work on its new plant 
at .Marianna in tlic Pittsburg district. 
Three shafts have been sunk, and coal is 
being produced on a small scale. A con- 
tract was awarded June 22 for a 550-kw. 
generator with a Reynolds-Corliss engine 
t'1 drive it. This is the first of six great 
generators lo operate the plant. The com- 
pany has built 50 houses for miners, and 
on June 22 let a contract for 50 more, and 
(he number will be increased by 150 addi- 
tional houses before the end of summer. 
.Ml these houses are to be of brick con- 
struction, and each will contain a bath 
room, an inmlvatiori in miners' dwellings. 

South Dakota 

L.wvKF.NiE County 

./((irnViDi liagli- — President Geo. A. 
Code, of Minneapolis, has taken full 
charge of the property in Bald Mountain. 
General manager Goldblooni and J. E. 
1 i()wns, the mill constructor, have re- 

A ma Queen — Work has started again 
with the Sherman boys doing considerable 
development. Ore is to be hauled to the 
Custer Peak company's mill. 


Ju.\B County 

Tinlic Shipments — The mines of this 
district shipped 66 carloads this week, as 
follows: Centennial liureka, 39; Eureka 
Hill, 6; May Day. 6; Uncle Sam Consol- 
idated, 6; Carisa, i; Mammoth, 3; Grand 
Central, 3; Yankee Consolidated, 2; May 
Day (concentrates), 2 cars. 

Sioux Consolidated — The initial ship- 
ment of ore from this mine netted $.vS6o 
for .?5 tons. 

Summit County 
I'ark City Shipments — The mines of 
this camp shipped last week 846 tons, as 
follows: Daly Judge, 286; Silver King, 
350; Daly West, 200 tons. 

Okanoc.\n County 
Xiflht Haivk — A new concentrator is 
now being installed at this mine and it 
is expected that it will bo in operation 
within a few weeks. The mine has 
shipped much ore in the past, but owing 
to loni; distances and high freight has 

been compelled to equip for local 

Ruby — Manager Harman has gone East 
to confer with stockholders with a view, 
it is stated, of securing funds and per- 
mission to erect a reduction plant at the 
mine, situated near Loomis. The Ruby 
contains principally silver ore, some be- 
ing rich ruby silver, but the excessive 
freight rates to the Tacoma smelter, 
where it is treated, are too great a drain, 
and much of it cannot stand shipment. 
The mine is well developed with adits 
and upraises, and a large quantity of 
valuable ore is on the dumps. Several 
cars were shipped to the smelter early in 
the spring, but this is to be discontinued. 


Zinc-lead District 

A new corporation, with a capital of 
$1,000,000, has been formed to take over 
the new pyritic separating plant and the 
leading Platteville mines, including the 
Empire, Acme, Enterprise and probably 
the Hodge. The new company is backed 
by the Platteville Separator' people. 

Calvert — In this mine at Benton the 
shaft has been completed at the oil rock 
at 112 ft. depth, and drifting has been 
begim. The orebody is showing up a 
strong sheet formation, with a 10 o'clock 
course. It seems to be the west pitch of 
the Frontier mine. 

Dau'son — This mine at Benton has been 
started up by Chicago people, who bought 
out the local interests. 

Fox — This mine at Hazel Green has 
opened up richer ground, and has de- 
veloped into one of the large shippers of 
the district. 

Frontier — This mine at Benton has set- 
tled down to a weekly production of 
about 150 tons of concentrates; the mill 
is running one shift, milling 700 to 800 
tons of rock weekly. In spite of heavy 
water and low prices of ore, the operators 
are said to be netting $1600 to $1800 
weekly, after paying 10 per cent, royalty. 

Kennedy — At this mine. Hazel Green, 
,a second mill is being erected. It is in 
the gulch west of the old mill, where 
there is more room for the tailings. 

Scrabble Creek — The shaft at this mine 
is being unwatered. This shaft will also 
be used by the new Cleveland Mining 
Company, until its mill is erected. 


Ontakio — Cobalt Di.strict 
Ore Shipments — Shipments of ore for 
the week ending June 20 were as follows : 
La Rose, 104.670 lb.; McKinlcy-Darragh, 
f.0.000; Xipissing. 239.880; O'Brien. 
ij8,I2o; Trothowcy, 65.670. Total, 398.340 

Cochrane — This property lies directly 
south of the Temiskaming. and it is be- 
lieved that one of the rich veins of the 
litter crosses it diagonally. Work was 
started lajt year, but was suspcndcil on 

account of the miners' strike. Operations 
■ are now being resumed under direction of 
rio'yd Harmon, formerly superintendent 
of the Temiskaming. A first-class plant 
will be installed. 

La Rose — A discovery has been made 
at the depth of 35 ft. and 60 ft. southwest 
of the main shaft. A blind vein of rich 
ore 20 in. wide in places and running par- 
i'llel to the main vein was disclosed. The 
value of the find is confirmed by W. E. 
Hidden, who was at the mine when the 
vein was encountered. 

Lazvson — Work has been resumed and 
the old shaft, which was down 40 ft. is 
being sunk deeper. A crosscut will be 
run at the 40-ft. level. 

Xipissing — The company has a force of 
302 men employed in mining and pros- 
pecting, and is working to reach the new 
find on the Kendall vein struck recently 
by diamond drill. It is expected that this 
will be effected in about 10 weeks. .About 
$15,000 worth of silver per week is now 
being mined. 

Ontario— Hastings County 
Big Dipper — A thorough test has been 
made of this gold property which belongs 
to a Buffalo syndicate, resulting in the 
installation of a lo-stamp mill. 

Golden Fleece — Hastings county, Ont., 
This gold mine in Kaladar township was 
purchased recently by a New York syn- 
dicate and operations are being steadily 
carried on. A lo-stamp mill is working 
and the output is satisfactory. 

Nova Scotia 

Dominion Iron and Steel Company — 
The annual meeting of the shareholders 
was held in Montreal June 25. President 
J. H. Plumnicr put before them the terms 
of settlement of the dispute with the Do- 
minion Coal Company as proposed by the 
latter company. The basis of settlement 
suggested was that the case before the 
Imperial Privy Council should go on, but 
that the results of the appeal should he 
limited by an arrangement in advance of 
the decision. It was proposed that should 
the coal company succeed it must give 
$1,250,000 to the steel company, whereas 
il the steel company should be successful 
it should not receive more than $2,000,000 
damages. .An alternative proposal fixed 
these amounts at $1,500,000 and $1,750,000, 
respectivel'y. In either case the price for 
coal hereafter is to be $1.50 per ton for 
slack and $1.80 for run-of-minc, adjustable 
yearly, the coal company guaranteeing lo 
supply 25 per cent, in slack. The pro- 
posals were unanimously rejected. .\ 
resolution was adopted authorizing the 
directors to increase the common stock by 
$5,000,000, and to issue $ con- 
solidated bonds to retire the outstanding 
l)cnd issue, and provide for the floating 
debt, improvements and extensions 

Lae Laronge CopperAeld — The rush to 
this district continues, eight outfits having 


July 4. 1908. 

lefl Prince Albert. Sask., on June 24. A 
stage road is to be opened to Montreal 
Lakg^ 75 miles further north. 

^^^ Yukon Territory 

Yukon Gold Company— A large con- 
signment comprising 31 carloads of steel 
pipe for the hydraulic plant is on the way 
to Dawson by the White Pass & Yukon 
railway. This pipe was made in Germany 
on a special design and is 44 in. in diam- 
eter in 30-ft. sections, each section weigh- 
ing 5 tons. It is for use in the inverted 
siphon crossing the Klondike river two 
miles above Dawson, and when put in 
place will complete the line. The pipe is 
the first of its kind to be used in mining 
operations in the Territory. 



Ficdras I'crdcs — R. S. Towne has 
bought from the estate of Buenaventura 
Becera, of Urique, the Piedras Verdes 
mines, which he has held under option for 
about two years, and which are located 
about five miles north of the surveyed line 
of the Kansas City, Mexico & Orient 
Railway, in western Chihuahua and near 
the Cieneguita district of Sonera. 

Promontorio — The Promontorio mine, 
in the Cusihuiriachic District, owned by 
Delgado & Barcenas, which is now under 
lease and bond to Los Angeles capital, is 
now being examined by R. B. McGinnis, 
of San Francisco, for the Los Angeles 
people who are sinking the shaft several 
hundred feet deeper. 

Ojinaga — The third well of the Hearst- 
Keene syndicate, in the Ojinaga district 
of eastern Chihuahua, has struck oil at 
700 ft., but will be continued to a depth 
of 3000 ft. with the hope of striking a 
heavier flow of oil. 


Jiiiiulco Mining Cnnif>any — This com- 
pany, owning large copper mines east of 
Jimulco in the State of Coahuila, which 
has been closed down since last fall, was 
opened up again on the first of June by 
A. L. Tutlle with 150 men. The same 
company owns the Panuco copper mines, 
in the northern part of Coahuila, where 
experiments are being made for concen- 
trating the ores. 

Feoer.'^l District 
The new bill providing for the paving 
of 50 or more streets in Mexico City 
with asphalt specifies that the mate- 
rial shall come from the Mexican asphalt 
fields at Ebano, State of Vera Cruz. 

Maine & Nebraska Mining Company 
— This company has obtained a concession 
to build a railroad from its mines to con- 
nect with the Balsas river branch of the 
Mexican Central Railroad ; the construc- 
tion work will begin in July. 


San Sebastian— l\\e Navidad Mines and 
Reduction Company, of Berkeley, Cal., 
operating near San Sebastian, in the State 
of Jalisco, is receiving and erecting the 
tanks for its 200-ton cyanide plant. 


Tavichc — The San Juan de Taviche 
Railroad Company has been organized to 
take over and push to completion the 
road from Taviche to Ejutla. It is be- 
lieved the road will be completed this 


Lucky Tiger — The Lucky Tiger Gold 
Mining Company, famous by reason of 
a long drawn out litigation, has greatly 
increased its operations, having now about 
300 men employed, and producing at the 
rate of more than $100,000, Mexican, per 
month, with close to $25,000, Mexican, 
profit per month. 

Moctezuma Copper Company — One-half 
of the new 2000-ton capacity concentrator, 
Nacozari, is completed and in operation. 
The concentrator is in two units of 1000 
tons capacity each. The second half will 
be completed in about two weeks. The 
old concentrator of 700 tons capacity is 
still being operated, which brings the 
amount of ore treated per day up to ap- 
proximately 1500 tons. In the new plant, 
several departures from the regular mill- 
ing methods have been made, and all are 
apparently successful. The new power 
plant is also in operation. 

Cananea-Duluth — In this mine of the 
Greene-Cananea company, Cananea, on 
the 300 level large quantities of ore are 
continually being opened up. The ore 
averages about 4 per cent, copper and 8 
oz. silver. 

Democrata Mining Company — Since the 
shutdown of this company's smeltery sev- 
eral months ago, considerable develop- 
ment work has been done in the mine. At 
present there are seven machines in opera- 
tion, all on development work. 

Sierra de Cobre — This property, which 
is one of the Phelps-Dodge interests ad- 
joining the property of the Greene-Cana- 
nea company, is practically shut down. 
Pumping is being done from the 500-ft. 
level, and two prospect drifts are being 
run by contract on the same level. Noth- 
ing is given out as to when operations 
will be resumed. 

Ver..\ Cruz 

Huastcca Oil — The Huasteca Petroleum 
Company has obtained a concession from 
the Federal government for the explora- 
tion and exploitation of petroleum pro- 
ducts and mineral oils on the company"s 
land in the Huasteca district in the north- 
ern part of the State of Vera Cruz, bor- 
dering on the States of San Luis Potosi 
and Tamaulipas, and in return for this 
concession has obligated itself to fncnd 

$500,000 in five years, construct pipe lines, 
build the necessary railway, and organize 
as a Mexican company under the coun- 
try's laws. 

Mazapil — The company made a material 
reduction in wages on June i because of 
the continued low price of the metals, and 
trouble was averted by the presence of 
Federal troops. 



Exports of metals from Spain for the 

four months ended April 30 are reported 
by the Revista Minera as follows, in 
metric tons : 

190". 1908. Changes. 

Pig and manu. iron 19,611 6,777 D. 12.834 

Ck>pper 2.793 3,824 I. 1.U31 

Ctopper precipitate 6,707 8,2ir> I. j.53s 

Spelter 398 404 I. C 

Lead 03,820 61,848 D. 1,972 

Quicksilver 1.036 848 D. li-8 

Exports of sulphur were 3 tons only. 
Exports of ores and minerals were as 
follows : 

1907. 1908. Changes. 

Iron ore 3,234,360 2,769,930 D. 464,430 

Copper ore 487,226 406.153 D, 82,072 

Zinc ore 63,612 36,693 D. 20,!'19 

Leadore 2.044 1,221 D. aj3 

Manganese ore 27.329 9,601 D. 17,82'i 

Pyrites 434,320 498,971 I. 62,651 

Salt 166,024 220.116 I. 55.i.'J2 

Imports of sulphur this year were 4037 
tons. Imports of phosphates and of basic 

slag for fertilizers were 31,133 tons: 


West Africa 
Gold production in May is reported at 
24,227 oz. bullion, which is 881 oz. less 
than in April, and 1085 oz. less than in 
May, 1907. For the five months ended 
May 31 the total was 122,344 oz. bullion 
in 1907, and 126,259 in 1908; an increase 
of 3915 oz. The bullion reported this 
year was equal to $2,454,299, or 118,737 
oz. fine gold. 



The Mines Department has reported 
the production of metals and minerals, 
other than gold and coal, for the quarter 
ended March 31, 1908. The production of 
metals was as follows, the figures in 
parentheses being the outputs for the cor- 
responding quarter of 1907 : Silver, 203.- 
344 oz. (177,704 oz. in 1907) ; copper, 2754 
tons (2602) ; tin, 1246 tons (1318') ; lead, 
1382 tons (865). Of the tin 372 tons were 
alluvial and 874 tons lode tin. 

The production of ores was: Man- 
ganese ore, 330 tons (125) ; iron ore, 59 
tons (717) ; antimony ore, 7 tons (210') ; 
wolfram ore, 73 tons (98) ; bismuth ore, 
6 cwt. ; bismuth-wolfram ore, II tons 
(■5) ; molybdenite 3.5 tons (8.25). The 
limestone quarried as flux was 31,666 
tons, an increase of 26,092 tons over last 

July 4, ujo8. 



Metal, Mineral, Coal and Stock Markets 

Current Prices. Market Conditions and Commercial 
Statistics of the Metals, Minerals and Mining Stocks 


Coal Trade R 


Mezi' York, July i — The coal trade in 
ilic West shows no material change, the 
li(,'ht demand for steam coal continuing 
Id he manifest everywhere. The Lake 
Irade has begun to move, which will ini- 
jirove matters a little. The only increase 
in ))usiness reported is from the Pittsburg 

Ill the Kast also biluininous trade is 
dull almost everywhere. Steam coal is in 
litjht demand and consumers are hesitat- 
ing about putting in stocks ahead. The 
anlhracite trade, which has hitherto kept 
up fairly well, is falling off and shows 
marked signs of dulness. 

Co.M, Tkaitic Notes 
Tomiage originating on Pennsylvania 
Railroad lines east of Pittsburg and Erie, 
ytar to June 20, in short tons: 

1907. 1908. ChaiiKes. 

Anthroclti' 2,6'.>a.724 2,r,7.'i.8g0 I). 122 844 

BltunillKiua 17,»6r>,624 lr>.0fl9.8iH) D. 2,886,734 

OokO n.fi90,li;)7 3,177.41IU 1). 3,5l;).447 

Total a7.:i48,28.'i 20,823.2110 1). 0,.'S22,02r> 

Total decrease this year to date was 
-M.I) per cent. 

Coal tonnage reported by Southwestern 
Interstate Coal Operators' Association, 
llirec months ended March 31, short tons: 

1«I7. 190H. ChnilKi'S. 

MlBN.MMl 714,(!BR 887.IS28 I. 1.12,870 

KanHllB 1,623,315 l.H76,»B« 1. 253.641 

ArkllllHlls 675,101 r.70,:ttO l. 9B,22« 

OkllllKima 722,402 877,6(18 I. Iri5,10fi 

Total 3,636.476 4,292,382 I. BS(1,90« 

The total increase this year was 18.1 

por cent. 

New York 

.\n niu Mil !■ 

July I — Both prepared and small steam 
si/es are inactive and the market is very 
dull. The Lake traftic is at present very 
light, but it is believed that with the ar- 
rival of ore shipments this month the 
traffic up the Lakes will begin in earnest. 
Price cutting is .general, in some cases 
as much as 2qc, per ton for prepared 
sires. The diS'connt on tidewater prices 
is reduced loc. today. 

Prices arc as follows: Broken. $4.5,^: 
egg, stove :ind chestuul, $i.8o; pea, 
$.125^.1.5o; buckwheat No. t, $j.,^5(rj:2,so ; 
buckwheat No. z or rice, $i.(io(iT'2; barley. 
$i.Vs(Wl.5o; all f.o.b. New York harbor 


ll there is any improvement in the 
snft-coal market it is very slight indeed. 
Ill the far Last a few consumers are tak- 

ing on coal, but an indifference prevails 
throughout the trade and business is ex- 
tremely light. 

Transportation from mines to tide takes 
about a week. In the Coastwise vessel 
tra<le there is a shortage of small craft 
in Philadelphia, but not in New York 
harbor. Vessel captains seem to be will- 
ing to charter in order that they may get 
home to tie up. Freight rates arc as fol- 
1 nvs from Philadelphia: To Boston. Salem 
and Portland, 50@5sc. ; Lynn, 55ffi6oc. ; 
Newburyport, 75c.; Portsmsuth. 55^j<x)c.; 
Saco, 90c. ; Bath, 6o@6sc. : Gardiner. 65c. ; 
Bangor, yc/giysc.; to the Sound. 45'ffi5oc. ; 
towages where usual. 


June 29— Considerable interest is still 
manifested in what the commercial coal 
operators of Alabama will do July i, 
when the contract with the union miners 
expires. The commercial operators are 
the only interests in the Slate who recog- 
nize the union and they have demanded of 
I he miners the same w.ige contract as ex- 
ists at the non-union mines, in order that 
the competition can be met. There are 
less than 4000 union miners in Alabama at 
present. There is a large quantity of coal 
being mined just at present and the de- 
mand is good. Several old mines will re- 
sume operation during July, while two or 
three new mines are to be started. 


June JO— Summer business runs more 
and more to line coals, with lump suffer- 
ing. Domestic coals arc weak and should 
be kept out of this market for a while. 
Eastern coals are a good deal troubled 
with demurrage, and bring cut prices. 
Illinois and Indiana screenings and the 
lower-priced run-of-mine coals get the 

Lump and egg from Illinois and Indiana 
bring $1.-5(0^2 for most sales: $i.65(jri.8s 
for run-of-mine, and $1.50(3:1.65 for 
screenings. Brazil block is dull at $2.10 

Smokeless nin-of-niine is in light de- 
mand, but with large receipts, and smoke- 
less lump and egg have very light sales. 
Hocking 's selling under circular price, 
and Youghiogheny has little movement 
e.vcept on contracts, .\nthracitc has been 
dull, the end of June discount bringing 
only light orders. 


June 20— The recent unexpected ad- 
vance in the retail price of coal and coke 

of 25 to 50c. a ton is explained by the 
dealers to be due to a corresponding ad- 
vance made by the operators on account 
of the increased cost of mining, due to the 
absence of demand for steam or mine-run 
coal, and the necessity of supplying do- 
mestic coal alone. 

There is a marked decrease in the ni»n- 
ber of idle coal cars on the coal carrying 
roads, and this has given rise to the t>e- 
lief that the retail yards arc stocking up. 
This belief is strengthened by the in- 
creased demand at the mines. 

June jc>— There is no material change 
in the coal situation. Nearly all the rail- 
road mines are in operation and the pro- 
duct is going to Lake ports for the north- 
western trade. While the demand is light, 
prices are being maintained on the basis 
of $1.15 a ton for mine-run coal at mine. 
Slack has been quoted for several weeks 
at around 75c.. but sales have been made 
during the week as low as 40c. All the 
river mines are running and a large ton- 
nage has accumulated in the pools and 

Connelhville Coke— No particular im- 
provement is noted. Not more than one- 
third of the 37,000 ovens in the Connclls- 
ville regions are in operation, but prepara- 
tions are being made to put some addi- 
tional ovens in blast. It has been dis- 
covered that many coke workers have left 
the region and operators will have diffi- 
culty in securing a sufficient number of 
workmen when business revives. The 
Courier in its summary for the week gives 
the production in tioth fields at 162.404 
tons. The shipments were 6355 cars as 
follows: To Pittsburg. 2522: to points 
west of Connellsvillc. 3412; to points 
east of Connellsville. 418 cers. 

Foreign Coal Trade 

Nova Scotia coal shipments, by com- 
panies, five months ended May 31, long 


K.S. Sl.^.|.... 



looT. laos. 

■.w.Tar. i,i>2..Mr. 

ll'v),fl->7 •££?.«<« 

143,2-10 IIS>,23M 


tW.:^ 112.678 

I. 123. T80 
I. Sti.8«» 

1. r.ow 

I. )!>.643 
I. 3.IIS 

T"lnl 1,527,391 l.;&».8a2 I. 232,43« 

Total increase in shipments this year 
was 15.2 per cent. 

Imports of coal into Spain for the four 
months ended .\pril 30 were 62S-irA 
metric tons, a decrease of 72.976 »ons 


T nnrr- of coke were the four months ended April 30, are re- for the best ConnelhviUe, with contract 

Satatnr^n .n;rr;ft;S to::^ ported as foliows, in long tons: somewhat large. 

' „ . -.f TLT 11 1)1, .fl, 1907. 1908. Changes. 

HP' W^fc Coai Tradi—Messrs. Hull, Bhth ^ ^^^ 30,459 i. 28,70i Cleveland 

& Co., London and Cardiff, report cur- ^^,-;:::r::::::::. 402,501 256,973 D. 146,628 ^^^^^^ ^^_.^l^^ ^^^^1^^^ ^^^ Lake freights 

rent prices at Welsh ports as follows, i„,p^rts of manganese ore were 59,345 j^ ^^j ^^ 3,1 promising. Some season 

under date of June 20: Best Welsh steam, ^^^^^^ ,^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^6 in 1908; an m- ^j^^^j^^g i,^,,^ ^gen made for ore on a basis 

$3.90; seconds, $3.66; thirds, $3-54; drv ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^g^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ Duluth or Superior, which 

coals, $3-84; best Monmouthshn-e, ?3.3&; .^ j^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ g^^^on As low as 

seconds, $3.30; best small steam, $2.28; Baltimore 65c. is said to have been accepted. The 

seconds, $2.10. All per long ton, f.o.b. ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^,^ ^^^, .„,l,j,, ,,,,, ore companies, howevxr, have 

"'""" " — - - -^ ->r. -'^ f -Th " =t rilTS tW-rmTderd for 

Iron Trade Review v.ii.ed sh^s to L.erpool.^ Jhere was the^co^^U^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 

. -i'^" expoiKu .., .-, forward. Rates are 30c. to the head of 

Nciv York, July I— The iron and steel ^''tterrlam. ^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ Lake Michigan 

markets continue dull, but little new busi- _ points. 

ness coming forward. Buyers do not feel Birmingham 

any confidence in the present steel quota- y^^^^ 29— Southern pig-iron producers Philadelphia 
tions ; the concessions made were sufficient ,eport conditions fairly good. Sales have Philadelphia. July i— The last week of 
to induce a hope of further cutting, and ^,^^ ^^^^ 35 active as during the first ^,_^ j^^jj ^_^^^ ^^.^^ particularly devoid of 
little will probably be done until that p^^j ^f ^^^^ month but almost all of the {^^.^j^^rj... j„ pjg iron. The vacation period 
point is settled. The only considerable producers have booked orders for at least ^^^^ already set in and many heads of 
sales have been of bars ; structural steel y^^.-^^ ^^ ,n„ch iron as they can make ^^'^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ j^^. ^^^ summer. There 
coming next in activity, but very far be- ,!^,ring July. The Republic Iron and Steel ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ inquiries of consequence 
hind. For other material, the market is Company will blow in its third furnace at ^j^.^ ^^^^^ Negotiations were opened two 
in a waiting condition. Thomas this week. Williamson furnace, ^^ ^^^^^^ weeks ago between two con- 
There has been some business in pig ,„ Birmingham proper, recently leased by ^^^^^^^^^ j„ ^^ih territory and Alabama 
iron. Foundries are not fully supplied ^ ^p^mer employee of the Tennessee com- ^^^^.^^.^ |_,yj ^^^^, ,^3^^ fgHen through, 
yet, and there has been some call for pg,,^.^ j^ jo be blown in. There is a healthy ^^^ foVoe-iron furnaces are doing next 
basic pig. A large contract for Alabama shipment of pig iron from this section ^^' ^^^^,^?^ ^j^ 2X foundrv maV be 
basic for second-half delivery is reported ,^.,,11^ ^j^^ i^ome consumption is increasing. ^^^^^^ ^^° ^^ furnace 
made in the West. The cast-iron pipe concerns are busy. The 5,7/,,,_No important transactions 

Iron and Steel £.v,oW.-Exports of machine shops and foundries are doing a JJ^'^^ZlZ^^^^ 

iron and steel, including machinery, from hltle better. ' ^. • u „» 

the Unitei States fo^ April, and the Pig-iron quotations are strong between Bar.-The recent concessions hav^ not 

four months ended April 30, are valued $,2 and $.2.50 per ton, No. 2 foundry, the stimulated business. The usual quotation 

-IS below bV the Bureau of Statistics of the better part of the iron now selling bring- is i.^oc, which in some cases is undor- 

Denartment of Commerce and Labor: ing in between $12.25 and $12.50. But slood to mean the delivery price. The 

' little iron is being shipped out from this small mills run regularly so far as they 

, rii illTum siswTsig dS'su district for export. The Tennessee com- do run. Consumers generally are out of 

Four montiis.V, 62,:ni',457 58,:U6,:!06 D. 4,026,161 p^^^^. (^35 3]] jj^ furnaces, with but one or iron. 

Leading items of export for the four ^^.Q exceptions, on basic iron. Besides Slwels—'YW conditions which have pre- 

months, in long tons: iron for the Ensley steel plant an order ^..,iiecl for several weeks continue, and 

1907. 1908. Changea. for something like 85,000 tons of basic pig ^,^^^, uttlc change is probable before 

Plglron 28,346 11,903 D. 16,443 ^35 been accepted. There is a little de- 3^,^„„n 

Bluets, ingots Abloom. 39.728 54.327 1. 14,599 ^^^^^^^ ^^^._^ ^^^ ^j^^^^^^, ;^^,^^ ^^.,^i^,, ^ells ^^^ i/,„.,,„,_Heavv steel scrap con- 

'*r'V--,-.-,-,iateB "sot Ko d! 13,669 ^t $22 per ton. ji,^^^5 i,^ ^1,^ ,^3j 3,„, 3I1 other kinds are 

T' tl 44 390 47,280 I. 2,890 

^""""''^"^ 2,881 49,376 D. 3.506 _,. (irsgglng. 

■s,,,l-.,-nMl -pikV-s!;!;'!!. 19,660 15,736 D. 3,925 ChlCagO 

There were increases in billets and in /„„,, 30— Sales of pig iron have not Pittsburg 

structural steel, with decreases in all other i.^-n heavy in the last week but have ^^^^^^_ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

items. Icen well distributed. The market is no ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ conditions in the iron and 

Iron and SU-el /mAor/.v-Imports of so strong as a week or two ago and the ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^.^^ ^.^^^ 

iron and steel, including machinery, into feeling of melters seems to be that an- ^^^ ^ ^^._^^ ^. ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ .^ ^^ 

the United States for April and the other sag is possible. Furnace agents ^^^^^ ^^^^.^^^^^ ^^ any consequence going 

four months ended April 30 are valued uphold the view that with the "^"a July ._^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^.^^^^ ^.^^^-^ ^^ .^ p.^ 

as follows : ''"'-- P^^^^, *''"^ ."•' ' ^J^ ^J^S i™"'- " A" 'he plants of the Republic Iron 

1007. 1908. canges. tendency upward in prices ^ d consump- ^.^^ ^^_^^ ^^ ^.^^^.^,^^ 

Anrii $3 723 176 »1,633,812 D. »2,n89,364 tion. With Sales running from carload j j . u v fi..»H fnr 

FSm^montiisV.:.:f3:;42:284 7;o94,O03 D. 6,647.381 ,^,^ ^^ ^^„5_ buying is again coming ton'ght and no date has T^een fixed for 

Leadino- items of imports for the four j„ ,,oser deliveries but a certain amount >-esumption. The company operates one 

months, hi long tons: of contract iron for fourth-quarter needs arge steel plant on a non-union basis 

1,07. 1908, Changes, is being sold. btit its 1 1 iron plants have been for years 

Kglrou 216,983 39,235 D. 176,748 ^^ ^ s^^,ji^^^„ f„„„j,.y j^ selling for governed by the annual Wage Scale of the 

Scrap 5,461 i.bii i". ^."*" a, ^ . ■D-„„;„„i,^,,, I'trft ^ciWifi 8c Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel 

Ingots, blooms, etc 5.427 3,030 D. 2.388 $i2@i2.50 Birmingham (*lO.35(a'I0.03 o 

Bars S-"!)! lo.'s' I- ^'^^^ r-, • ^ J \T„,ti,o,-„ w,. -, fnr «T7^ and 1 HI Workcrs. This year the com- 

mrB;od^ 5,666 3.798 D. 1.868 Chicago) and Northern No. 2 tor *I7CS. -' . 

Tin-pliates.V.V.V.V.V:.... 19,117 21,637 I. 2,620 .^ The lower prices probablv obtain pany refused to make a settlement with 

There were decreases in all items ex- „^;,^ generally than furnace representa- tbe Amalgamated, except imder terms 

cept bars and tinplates. tives are willing to admit. that the men would not accept. If the 

Irrn Orr MowmriiZ-Exports and im- Iroa and steel products are not moving .company attempts to operate Us iron 

'"■" ^"^ iviovcmLHi Y . p , . . J, m, Is on a r.on-uiion basis the officers of 

ports of iron ore in the United States for briskly in an\ line. Coke is quiet at 5.4.90 

July 4, 1908. 



I he workers' organization promise a stiff 
fight. Tlie independent iron mills in the 
Pittsburg district arc running about as 
Msual and will continue. The Western 
Bar Iron AssQciation, which includes the 
independent concerns, has a continuous 
..igreemcnt with the Amalgamated As- 
sociation which permits the plants to op- 
.{•rate under the present scale pending ne- 
gotiations. A conference will be held in 
Detroit on July 7. The Homestead 
works of the Carnegie Steel Company 
arc running nearly to capacity and its 
other mills in this district are in satis- 
factory operation. 

The wage conference between ' the 
,\mcrican Sheet and Tin Plate Company 
and the .•\nialgamated Association closed 
last night with a settlement. The reduc- 
tion in the linplate scale is less than S 
per cunt. The cut in sheets averages 
al)out 2 per cent. 

Pig Iron — The largest sale of pig iron 
noted this week was 200 tons of off-bes- 
scmer iron which went at $15.75, Valley. 
There were a number of sales of carload 
lots. Prices for delivery during the sec- 
nnd half are as follows: Standard bes- 
scmer. $i6(fi)i6.2S ; malleable bessemer, 
basic and No. 2 foundry, $i5.25ff?/; 
gray forge, $I4(S'I4,25, all at Valley 

5/cf/— Billets arc $25, Pittsburg, but 
there is no buying. Plates arc 1.60c. and 
^tcel bars, 1.40c. 

Sheels — The market is fairly active for 
a dull period. Prices remain at 2.50c. for 
lilack and 3.55c. for galvanized sheets. No, 
jS gage. 

I'l'iTo-Miingaitcsc — .\ few sales for 
prompt shipment have been made at 
$46(346.50; for later delivery $1 a ton 
in. ire i< i|nn(ed. 

Foreign Iron Trade 


lr,<n Trade — E.\ports of iron 
and steil iind their products from Great 
Britain fur ilu' live months ended May 31 
N.ihuil by Ho.ird of Trade returns as fol- 

1907. 1908. ClinnBCS. 

I'l. £I0.9r,6.;)8C fl«,4(l2.71!t D. £:i.5(W,«73 

8.8(17.C'20 9.47;i,«i<.l I. 608.009 

4,«89,«I5 S.IKW.U-Jll D. 781 .0*9 

Tntnl £;13.523.101 £i».844,;l08 U. £S.ll77.7;i3 

Ihe total quantity of iron and steel was 
-•.,(oo,,V2 long tons in 1907 and 1,791,023 
in t9o8: decrease, 509,309 tons. Exports 
of pig iron to the United States were 
Ki.Si I tons, a decrease of 245.45S tons ; of 
tinplates, 20,"J2 tons, an incre.ise of 1290 

Imports of iron and steel, and of ma- 
chinery into Great Britain for the five 
months were : 

190". 1908. ClinliKi>9. 

l.£ :lG0,fll3 
I. SA7.488 

were 342,366 tons in 1907, and 420,887 in 
1908; an increase of 78,521 tons. 

Imports of iron ores into Great Britain 
for the live months were 3,302,695 tons in 
1907, and 2,402,147 in 1908; a decrease of 
900.548 tons. Of the 1908 imports, 1,794,- 
038 tons Were from Spain. 

Metal Market 

Gold and Silver Exports and Imports 
NKW YORK, .July 
At all V. .S. I'oils In .May and yi'ii 


Gold : 
May 1908. 

•■ 1907. 
Year 1908. 

■■ 1907. 

May 1908. 

" 1907. 
Yoar 1908. 

■• 1907. 



t 3,069,402 


Exp. $23,486,511 


•■ 21,964.634 

Imp. 6.874.713 

Exp. 666,168 




Kxijorts from the port of New York, wcok 
I'ndod ,Iune '27 : (ioM. »79.8]0. clilpflv to tlio 
Wc.m Indloa ; Kllver, *n!>0,Or>.l, to Londun and 
rarU. Imports: Cold, S!13.5.48.j. from Ontral 
and South America ; silver, $i:i.7r)2, from 

Specie holdings of the leading banks of 

the world June 27, arc reported, as below, 
ill dollars: 


ASH'd New York 














Silver. Total. 

... $316,670,200 


$18«.21»..'>()6 819.497,940 

83,005,000 2>l3,295.000 

134.2.'iO.000 212.:t0<l.0OO 

21,;i27.0«0 6'.l.«42.500 

lo,:|-i;,ni'.6 31,1:111,000 

21. .500,000 2O2.l>.<l,0OO 

38,2.V..I)00 697.:)'.'ll.000 

66.0115,000 300,1,95,000 




The New V'ork banks do not separate 
gold and silver. The foreign statements 
are from the Commercial and Financial 
Chronicle of New York. 

Silver Market 



Sllvor. 1 




a s 






4 81195 


25 '4 








New Y'ork <inotatloiis are for fine allver. 
per ouDCO Troy. London prices are for ster- 
ling silver, 0.025 flue. 

Messrs. Pixley & Abell report silver 
shipments from London to the East for 
the year to June 18: 

1908. ChnnBos. 

£3,836,668 D. £2.011.686 




Total £4.469.709 £5,377.208 I. £917 .499 

The total quantities nf iron and steel 

Total £6.372.606 £4.432.668 V>. £1,940.038 

Receipts for the week were £5000 from 
the West Indies and £182.000 from New 
York : total, £187,000. Exports were 
i\2~.>oo to India. 

The silver market has reacted rather 
sharply the past week, on cessation of the 
active demand for the Indian bazaars; 
closing at 24ii/i6d. in London. 

Indian Exchange has revived a little, 
and for the first time in several weeks 
there were 10 lakhs of Council bills of- 
fered in London this week. The bills 
were all taken at if.gid. per rupee. 

Copper, Tin, Lead and Zinc 

i>Aii.y runK.s i»i- .mi.tai.s. 










c c 



t — 











12 '4 








57 ,S 

27', 04.60 


©4 35 





4 3D 





27>, |S)4.60 






4.46 4.:<0 




27>. ©4.47; 

(S4.50 /»4.M 




4.46 1 4 30 





27>, ISM. 46 

04.5U (H 36 




4.46 1 4.30 




56 !, 

27>, 04 46 

04..V) rSM.35 




4.45 4..10 




56 '4 

27>4 ®4.46 

^.50 l«S>4.3S 

London qnotatlons are per long ton 1 L'240 
111. I standard coppiT, which Is now tlii> etpilva- 
li-nt of ilie formiT t.m.b's. Tlio .Ni'w York 
quotations for flfciroytlc ooppir are for 
<ak(>s. incots or wiri'liars. anil rcpri'scnt Ihe 
bulk of the tran.snctlons nuiilt* with con- 
suiniTs. basis. New York. cash. The price of 
cathodes Is (ML'uc. Indow that of electrolytic. 
The i)Uotallons for lead represent wholesale 
transactions In the open market. The ipiota- 
llons on spelter are for ordinary We-iiera 
brands: special brands command a' premium. 

Copper — The stagnation reported last 
week was short-lived. The discouraging 
advices received from Europe induced 
holders to reduce their prices, whereupon 
a heavy demand for home trade developed, 
resulting in relatively larger transactions 
than for some time past. Domestic con- 
sumers appear now to be in the frame of 
mind which was experienced in the case 
of European buyers late last year, in so 
far as they arc willing to anticipate their 
requirements, feeling that prices cannot 
possibly recede very much from the pres- 
ent level. It is, therefore, expected that 
on every slight concession heavy purchases 
will be made. The market closes uncer- 
tain at i2^@i2f'4C. for Lake copper: i2}i 
@i25^c. for electrolytic in ingots, cakes 
and wirebars. The average of the week 
for casting copper is I2'4®I2^ cents. 
* The standard market in I-ondon has 
shown a declining tendency throughout 
the week. The lower prices have not en- 
couraged new speculation and the close 
is weak at £56 5s. for spot, £57 for three 

Statistics for the second half of June 
show an increase in the visible supplies 
of 4000 tons. 

Refined and manufactured sorts we 
quote: Englith lough, £59 ios.@£6o los. ; 
best selected. £59'ftio ids.; strong 
sheets. £71 ios.fiff£72 los. 



July 4, 1908. 

Exports of copper from New York and 
Philadelphia for the week were 3330 long 
tons. Our special correspondent gives 
the exports from Baltimore at 2980 long 

Manufactured Copper— Shftitis. cold- 
rolled, i8c.; hot-rolled, 17c. Wire, I454c. 

•fm—The London market has again 
been suffering from almost an entire ab- 
sence of interest on the part of American 
buyers. While during the latter half of 
last week it showed quite a steady tone, it 
has become weak at this writing. The 
close is cabled at £124 7s. 6d. for spot, 
£125 7s. 6d. for three months. 

The domestic market anticipated some- 
what the decline in London, and trans- 
actions among dealers took place at some- 
what below the import figures. Consum- 
ers continue to be indifferent toward this 
metal, and the quotation for spot at the 
close is about 27J4 cents. 

Statistics for the month of June show 

orders. San Francisco, large lots nominal 
at $43.50, domestic, and $42, export; small 
orders, $45@46. London is i8 per flask, 
with £y 17s. 6d. quoted by second hands. 
Platinum— Tht market is without life 
and prices remain unchanged at $23.50 per 
oz. for hard platinum, $21 for ordinary 
and $16 for scrap. 

Missouri Ore Market 

Jopl'm, Mo. June 27— The highest price 
paid for zinc ore was $37-75 per to", the 
base price ranging from $33 to $35-50 per 
ton of 60 per cent. zinc. Average price 
all grades $32.04. 

The highest price paid for lead ore was 
$66 per ton f.o.b. Galena, medium grades 
selling at $62 to $64 per ton, and all 
grades averaging $62.08. 

As will be seen by the assay base quo- 
tation there was an advance of $2 per ton 
on the medium and lower grade ores, and 
this was quite general, though the in- 

creased sales of silicate prevented the 
a decrease in the visible supplies of 1500 ay^rage price being proportionately ad- 
tons, vanced. 

Following are the shipments from the 
district for the week ending June 27, and 
the total for the first half of igo8: 

Lrarf— Speculators who bought heavily 
at the lower prices which ruled some time 
ago, and who have now to take delivery 
of the quantities sold them, have been 
anxious to unload. Buyers are quick to 
realize this, and business could only be 
mduced at concessions in prices. The 
close is Iowlt at 4.425/2@4.4Sc. New York. 
Forced sales in the London market 
have established a lower level, and the 
close is cabled at il2 6s. 3d. for Spanish 
lead, £12 8s. gd. for English lead. 

Spelter — Business continues of a retail 
character, and the market has eased off 
further to 4.30@4.35c. St. Louis. 4.45® 
4.50C. New York. 

Reports from Europe are very dis- 
couraging and prices again close lower at 
£18 ss. for good ordinaries, £19 for spe- 

Zinc Sheets — Base price is 7c.. f.o.b. 
La Salle-Peru, 111., less 8 per cent. 

Zinc, lb. 

Webb City-Carterville 

















Totals . 







' 2.466 


Other Metals 

Antimony — There have been a few small 
sales by dealers who are tired of holding 
out for higher prices. The manufacturers 
are indifferent and are not buying. Prices 
are 8^@8.>4c. for Cookson's, 8i4@8^c. 
for Hallett's and 8@8}4c. for ordinary 

Aluminum — Ingots, American No. 1, in 
large quantities, 33c. per lb. Rods and 
wire, 38c. base ; sheets, 40c. base. Foreign 
metal is offered at rather lower prices. 

Cadmium— In loo-lb. lots, $1.25 per lb., 
at Cleveland, Ohio. 

Nickel — According to size of lot and 
terms of sale, 4S@50C., New York. 

Quicksilver— ' York price is $44 per 
flask for large lots; $45 for jobbing 









January ... 
February . . 







October — 



January ... 
February . . 
















Shipments for week ended June 27 
Lead 8u] 


ore, lb. 

HazelGreen 502.000 

Platteville 294,700 

Benton 238,680 

Highland 196.700 

Livingston 130,000 

Days Siding .. 88,000 

Linden 14.070 

CubaClty 69,500 

Harker 56,810 

Dodgevllle 42,000 



Six months 240,270,680 37.267,240 $5,084,682 

Zinc value, the week. $164,631 ; 6 months. $4,089,441 
Lead value, the week, 68.982; 6 months, 995,141 

Average ore prices in the Joplin mar- 
ket were, by months : 


Wisconsin Ore Market 


Total 1,691,360 531,350 

Year to June 27 42,905,445 6.045,725 

Hazel Green, not reported last week, 
shipped then 724,000 lb. zinc ore. In ad- 
dition to the above there was shipped this 
week to the electrostatic separator at 
Platteville, from Benton, 230,200 lb. ; from 
Dodgeville, 59,900 lb. ; from Cuba City, 
60,300 lb.; from Rewey, 60,400 lb.; from 
Linden, 49,200 lb. Shipped to the Enter- 
prise roaster at Platteville, from Straw- 
bridge, 188,200 lb. ; and to the Joplin Sep- 
arator Works at Galena, from Benton, 
70,700 lb. zinc ore. 


New York, July i. — The general market 
is quiet, but this is to be expected at this 
season. It is believed in the trade that in 
August a firm market will prevail and 
hand-to-mouth buying will be superseded 
by substantial contracts. Dealers in clays 
and earths report fair business, and pro- 
ducers of pyrites have closed some large 

Copper Sulphate — Demand is fair and 
some small shipments have been made. 
Standard goods remain at $4.65 per loo 
lb. for carloads and $4.90 for smaller lots. 

Nitrate of Soda — The market is quiet 
and business has been light, and for im- 
mediate delivery. Prices remain at 2.30c. 
for spot and 2.32^ for other positions of 

Phosphate Rock— J. M. Lang & Co. re- 
port shipments of phosphate rock through 
the port of Savannah, Ga., at 9917 tons 
in May, 1908. Of these 7825 tons went to 
Germany and 2092 tons to England. 

Platteville, Wis., June 27— -The highest 
price paid for zinc ore this week was $35, 
the base price advancing to $34 per ton of 
60 per cent. zinc. Lead ore sold as high 
as $62 per ton. 

Mining Stocks 

.Yi'if York, July I — The general stock- 
markets have been quiet, not to say dull, 
with small fluctuations and rather a lower 
range of prices. Summer quiet seems to 
set in. 

On the curb also, matters have been 
dull. A little activity in the copper 
shares soon ended, leaving them quiet. 
There was little change in prices though 
dealings were moderate. 

A sale of Homestake, of South Dakota, 
was made June 27 on the Stock Ex- 
change ; 100 shares changing hands at $76 
per share. On June 30 another sale was 
made at $76.50 per share. 

The Anaconda Copper Company today 
declared the usual dividend of 50c. per 

July A- '908. 




Juiti' 30 — A .sliari) advance in a few of 
llie liiKli-graiU' copper stocks has been the 
feature in tliis market. Otherwise price 
changes are unimportant. Osceola has 
Iiad the most marked advance, being up 
$11 for the week to $103. Of this ad- 
vance, $5 occurred today. The dividend 
lieriod is near and expectations arc that 
there will be a resumption of dividends, 
(if which there have been none for a year. 
'I'amarack , another Hiselow stock, has 
also K'ven an account of itself, being up 
$6.75 to $62.75, hut with no dividend men- 
lioned. Quincy also did well, advancing 
$2.50 to $87 on limited dealings. Calumet 
& Hecia is off $S to $655 on very limited 
dealings. Copper Range and North Butte 
have, as usual, been the leaders in ac- 
tivity. The fiirmcr is $1.50 higher for 
die week at $72.50. President Paine, who 
has just returned from the Copper 
Range, speaks rather discouragingly of 
the Globe tract on which $400,000 has 
been spent to date in putting down the 

A little activity developed in some of 
the prospects, hut it was short-lived. Kim 
River touched $1.62^, Mass ^.Sy'A and 
Wyandot $i.87'/j. Accompanying these 
.idvances were reports of expectations of 
striking the Lake lode. 

On the curb Ahmeek, a Bigelow 
Mock, rose $4 to $78. 

Several payments due on the Davis- 
I )aly property July i will be taken care 
of l)y the vendors. No plan has yet been 
formulated for a reorganization. 




ino 3U 

Namo or Cump. 


Alaska Mint) 








BrltlHli Col. Cop.. 


Butto Ji I/<>iiilon.. 

BtittH Coalition... 


Colonial Hllvor.... 


Cum. Ely MlntQK. 


Davis Daly 


Dominion Cop 


Douiilas i:opper.. 




Fostor Col)alt 


Furnaco Crook.... 




Gold mil 


Qoldllold Con 


Qrueno Hold 

Groonod. Si S 


Groonwr J: D.Val. 




OnKiton. Ei|) 



McKlnli-v Dar*... 


Minos I'.i. of Am.. 



Mont. 8I10.C 


Nov. Utah M. * S 


Nowholls.^ M. 4: 8 


Nli>ls..i|ni; Minos 
Old Hundrod 



Sllvor gnot^n 




Tonnoi.«oo Cop'r. 







t (ah t'oppor 

33 >4 

Yukon Oold 


Namo of Oomp. 




lAm. Zlne 



Arizona Cora 





1 Boston Con 

11 '4 

Cnluniot «: Ariz... 

108 V, 

Calumot (t Hocla. 




C'on. Moivur 


Cop|>or HnnKo*. .. 


Daly- West 

10 », 











11 ». 

North Dutto 




Olil Dominion.... 

83 X 



Ithodo Island .... 


iSanta Fo 







62 '4 



I nlU'd Cop., com. 


t'. s. on 


II. S. Smit. & Bof.. 


t'.S.Sni.,* Ro.,pd.. 

42 << 

t'tali Con* 










Am. Agrl. Chom.. 
Am. Smelt, tc iutt. 
Am.Sni. A: Ut) 
Colo. Fuol k Iron. 
FodnralM. J!8.,pf. 

Intnr. Salt 

National IX'Bd. . . . 
National I-<' 

I'lttshut); Cool 

liiipubllc- 1. \- H... 

Standard oil 

U. S. Kod. A: Ui-f.. 

U. 8. SUiol 

U. S. Stool, pf .... 
Va. Car. Chom . . . 




8T. liODIS June 27 

N. of Com. High. Ix»w 


Am. Nottlo. 
Contor Cr'k 
Cont. (,'. kC 
C.C. k C. pd. 
Cont. on... 
Com Coal.. 
Doo Run... 
Kra. BImot. 
St. Jo» 



3. IX) 

102 >i 

LONDON July 1 


Ahmook I 72 

Black Mt [ 14', 

East Butto J65, 

Hancock Con ' t4J-4 

Ki'woonaw 6 

Majnstlc .66 


Name of Com. CIg 




Dolores . . . . 
Camp Bird.... 


El Orr 


010 7) 


Furnished by Weir Bros. & Co.. New York. 

Namo of Com p. Clg, 

C0M8TOCK Stocks 


Best k Bolchcr.. 




Con. Cal. & Va.. 
Crown Point.... 


Oould A: Curry.. 
Halo k NorcroHH 






Sierra Nevada.. 



Yellow Jacket.. 




Ooldon Anchor... 

Jlni Biitl.T. 



North Star 
Tono'h Ml 

West End Con 





Columbia Mt 
Comb. Frac . 
Cracker Jack 
DIa'dllelil B. B. C. 
Holdfleld Belmont 
G.d<lneld Daisy. 

Great Bend 

Jumbo Extension 
I^ne Star.. 
May Queen, 

Beil Hill 


Sandstorm . . 

Name of Comp. 

Silver Pick.. . 

St. Ives 


Br 1,1. Fitod Stocks 
DiUlfn.g Mining., 
liullfrc.g Nat. B... 


li.dd liar 

lIoineMtake King. 
M..ntg..niery Mt.. 
M..nt. Shoshone C. 
iirlKlnnI Bullfrog. 

Tramp Cons 

M.k.NinT'N Stocks 
Manhattan Cons. 
Manhal'n Dexter. 
Jumping Ja(*k.... 
Stray Dog 


Golden Boulder.. 

Bonnie Clare 

L<»eQold Grotto.. 

Nevada Hill!. 




Name of Comp. Clg. 


Black Bell 

C. C. Con 


Doctor Jack Pot.. 


El Paso 


Oidd Dollar 

Gold Sovereign... 



Jennie Sample.... 
Jerry Johnson.... 
Mary McKlnney,, 



m. (lolil Mines.. 

Vindicator , 




•Kx.Plv. tEx. Rights, j (Last •luotatton. 


Dellnq. Sale. 


Blrchvllle. Cal 

June 20 July 


Bullion. Nov 


17 O.OS 

July 17!Aug. 
July SJuly 

Chollar. Ni>v 

30; 10 

Con. Imperial. Nov 

Jnui- IT.JiUy 

91 01 

Con. Virginia. Nov 


31 0.2.1 

Conndence. Nov 

June 10 June 30| 0.20 

Lead King, flah 

July IJuly 

28 0.(11 

Little Chl'f. llall 


7| 0.01 

Lucky Dulchman. Nov 

June .'U) July 

20 01 

Mounlaln Dell, riah 

June 24 J. nv 

13 irj 

N. V. B.'nnn«n. Ctah 

June 9 


30, 0.K2 

Oro Cobre. Cal 

July 16 


3| 0.112 

Uvernian. Nov 

June 19 


101 O.IB 

Peruvian Con.. Utah 



7i nl 

Silver King Con., Utah 

June 11 


30l 0,10 

Siwinlsh Hldgi>, Cal 

June 1 




Tomahawk. Nov 

Julp 10 





Union C..n.. Nov 

June 15 




Moolhly Average Prices o( Melali 

I'xr;. : 1908. 

January 68.67366.678 

February 68.835 66.000 

Mari'b 67. 51066. 3<S 

April 66.46254.506 

May 165.98162.705 

June 67.000 53.663 

July 68.144 .. 

August 68.745 .. 

September 167,702.. 

Octolier 102.435.. 

Novemt>or '68.677 .. 

Decemlier i5l.666 . 










New York, cents per Bne ounce : London, 
pence per standard ounce. 


Electrolytic Lak^ 

1907. 1908. 1907. 1908. 1907. 19<«. 

January... 24.4O4|13.72r.'24.W5llS.901 106.7S»1 02 38*. 
February, .iai 
March .... T, 

April jt 




August . . . . 
Octol>er . .. 

22.C1V'. 12 J 
21.130 ... 
18 366 ... 
15 666 ... 
13.168 ... 
13.391 ... 
18.163 ... 

Sir, 13.098 107 366 68.786 

•ij 12.ST5 100.594 58.761 

...Ji pj.lCis <JH 1^25 .'*.331 

■: o7J rj.7Bj< 102 376 57.387 

. M 140'12.h77 97.272 


Year 20.004 ».661 ; 87.007 

70 670 
60. lU 


New York, cents per pound. Electrolytic l» 
for cakes. Ingots or wlrelmrs. London, pounds 
sterling, per long ton. standard copper. 



1907. 1908. j 

Month. 1007. 


January ... 
February . . 





41.548 17.380 
42 1»2 28.0T8 
41.313 30.577 
40.938 31.702 
43.140 30.0161 
42.120 28.0241 

Julv 41.091 

August 37.667>r 36.680 
oct..w-r.... 32.020 
N..v..nilH.r. 30.833 
De.-emtier.. 27.026 

; Av. year. 38.166 

Trices ore In cents per pound. 









Year . 

New York. London. 

1907. 1008. 1907. IWS, 


8.601 10 828 
8.726 10.531 
3.838 10.708 
3.008 10.976 
4.258 10 
4.466 ».188 

6.836 10.034 


New York, cents per pound, 
pounds sterling per long ton. 

1907. 1908. 

8t> Louis. London, 

1907. 1908. 1907. 19(»). 

Januarv ....| 6 732l 4.613 6.6821 4 .Vti /T liS 

Febriiarv... 6 814 4.788' 6.664 !• 

March 6 W7 l.(i« 6.687 t 

April 0.C85 t.CAy 6 &.1S 11 

Mav 6.441 4. an H ■--'! 1 . 

June 6.419' 4.5(3 >' 

6 072 .• ■> 

August .. .. 
Octobi>r .. . . 


Year 6.003 5.813 38.771 

4!775;;;!;;: 21:438 

4.104 30.076 

New York and St. Louis, cents pec pound. 
Ijondon In pounds sterling piT long ton. 


July 4. 1908. 



Bort, good drill quality, carat.. 
O^borundum, t.o.b. Niagara 

Falls, powd lb. 

Grains • " 

Corundum, " 

Orvished Steel, t.o.b. Pitts- 
burg. " 

Emery, In kegs: Turkish 

flour " 

Grains " 

Naxos flour " 

Grains " 

Chester flour " 

Grains " 

PeekskUl, fo.b. Easton, 

Pa., flour " 

Grains, In kegs " 

Garnet, per quality,... 1. ton 

Italian, powdered " 

Lump, per quality .... " 

Bottenstoue, ground " 

Lump, por quality " 

Bouge, per quality " 

Steel Emery, f.o.b. Pitts- 
burg " 


Aoetlc28% lb. 

Boric " 

Hydrofluoric, 30% " 

48% •• "6 

60% ■■ -10 

Hydrochloric acid . 20°, per ih 1.25(31.60 

Nitric acid ,38° per 1 b . 4.26ffl4.62ic. 

Sulphuric acid, 60°. bulk, per ton.. 112 up. 

60", 100 lb. In carboys .8601.12K 

60", bulk, ton., 16.00(318.00 

66°, 100 lb. In carboys 1.00(31.26 

66°, bulk, ton 

Oxalic " 

ALCOHOI.— Graln9o»„ gal. 


Beflned wood. 96(397* •• 

A 1,1 >I— Lump 100 lb. 

Ground " 

Chrome Alum lb. 

ALIMIMM— Sulphate, com". ■■ 
AMMONIA— 24 deg. lb 














.02 ?i (3.03 





.41(3. 41 






Bromide lb. 

Carbonate " 

Muriate grain " 

Lump " 

Sulphate, 100 1b 

Bulphocyanlde com " 

chem. pure " 
ANTIMON V— needle, lump lb.. 
ABSENIC— White '■ 

Bed " 


Barbadoes per ton 

Westlndles.. " 

Egyptian lb. 

OUsonlte, Utah ordinary per ton. 




Carb. Lump, 90090% Ig. ton. 

Precipitated 96(398% 

Powdered. 80(390i< lb. 

Chloride com'l ton. 

Nitrate, powdered, In casks.. lb. 

Blanc Fixe per lb, 


Am. Ground *h. ton. 

Floated " 

Foreign floated " 

BISMITH— Sub-nitrate lb. 

BLEACHING POWDER— 36%, 1001b 1.26(31.40 
BLliE VITRIOL— (copper sulphate). 



.03>4(3 04 



to. '10(380. 00 

SO. 00036. 00 

. 112(3. 02J 
38,00(340 00 






carload, per 100 lb. 

BO\E ASH lb. 


CALCIUM— icetate, gray, 100 lb. 

Acetate, brown " 

Carbide, ton lots t.o.b. Ni- 
agara Falls, N. Y., tor 

Jersey City, N. J sh. ton. 

Ohlorlde,l.o.b. N. Y " 


Portland, Am. 600 lb bbl. 

Foreign •• 

" Rosendale," 300 lb •' 

(In sacks) 

Blag cement " 


New Caledonia 50% ex. ship 

N. Y per Ig. ton 

BrlokB, t.o.b. Pittsburg. M . . " 

COBALT— iTlde lb. 


COPPER.VS- Bulk 100 lb. $0.66 

In bbls •• .65(3.75 

In bags " .60(3.70 

CRYOLITE lb. .06i(3.063 

I'ELDSPAR- Ground ton. 10. 5r (316.00 


American per M. 30.00(340.00 

Imported " 30.00(346.00 

St. Louis No. 1..... " 18.00 

N0.2 " 16-00 

Extra " 20.00(323.00 

FIRE CL.\Y—F. o. b. St. Louis. 

St. Louis, extra quality per ton 6.00 

" ordinary " 2.50 


Domestic t.o.b. shipping port : 

Lump Ig. ton. 8.00(310.00 

Ground " 11.60(313.50 

Foreign crude ex. dock 8.00(310.00 

FULLER'S E.VRTH— Lump, 1001b. .76(3.86 

Powdered " .75(3.85 

GR APH ITE— Cey Ion 

Flying dust, fluest to best. . . lb. .01(3.04 

Dust ■■ .OUi0.O5 

Chip ■■ .02K(3.07y, 

Lump " .04(310 

Large lump " .07(3.10 


Fertilizer sh. ton. 5.00 

Ground sh. ton. 4.00(37.00 


Ground Am. best lb. .01% 

French Ig. ton. 66.00 

German lb. .02i(3.02J 

LEAD— Acetate(8ugarol) brown lb. .OIH 

Nitrate, com'l " .08>iO.0834 

M A <;\ESITE— Greece. 

Crude (960 ton. 8.00(310.00 

Calcined, powdered sh. ton. 30.00(340.00 

Bricks, domes, per qual. 

t.o.b. Pittsburg M. 160(3200 


Chloride, coml 100 lb. .80(31.00 

Sulphate (Epsom salt) ... 100 lb. . 86(31 . 00 


Foreign, crude, powdered : 

70(376* binoxlde lb. .01(®.01>i 

76(385i< blnoxlde " .01)i(3.01>j 

86(39« blnoxide " .01>^(3.06 

90(396* blnoxlde " .061 

Ore, 80%-86% sh. ton. 18.00(340.00 

M .VRBLE— Flour sh. ton. 8.60(310.00 


Slag, ordinary " 19.00 

Selected " 26.00 

Bock, ordinary '' 32.00 

Selected " 40.00 


Guar. 97)(, with 6* Thorium 

oxide, nominal lb. .08 and up. 


Oxide, crude, lb. (77%) 

for fine metal contained.. .47 

Sulphate, single lb, .09(3.11 

double " .06i(3.08 

MTRATE OF SODA— lOOlb. 96)(tor '08 2.30 

96% for 1909 2.30 

96% tor 1910 2.32J 
96% Is 60 higher per 100 lb. 

OZOKERITE-best lb. .14(3.17 


Litharge. Am. powdered — " .06^(3. 06) 

English glassmakers' " .08}(3.08} 

Llthopone " .03J(3.07 

laetalllc, brown sh. ton. 16.60(322.00 

Red " 14.00(318.00 

Ocher, Am. common " 8.60(39.00 

Best " 16.00 

Dutch, washed lb. .02J(3.03 

French, washed " .01i(3.02i 

Paris green, pure, bulk " .26 

Bed lead, American " .06J(3.063 

Foreign " .08j(3.08J 

Turpentine, spirits bbl.. per gal. .43 

White lead. Am., dry lb. .05i(3.06 

American, in oil " .06jO.06| 

Foreign, In oil " . 101(3. lo| 

Zinc white. Am. extra dry.. " .05X(3.06| 

French, red seal, dry " .08}®. 08} 

Green seal, dry . . " .10J(3.10| 

I'HOSPH.VTES- Acid 60c per unit 

•Fla., hard rock 9.60O10.( 

land pebble m% 4.00(34.25 

tTenn , 78(380% 6.00(36.50 

76% 4.60(36.00 

68(372% 4.00(34.26 

J80. Car. land rock 6.76(37.00 

" ■■ river rock 7.00(37.26 

•F. 0. b. Florida or Georgia porte. tF. o. b, Mt. 
Pleasant. tOn vessel Ashley River, 8. C. 


Bicarbonate crystal lb. I.OSJffl.O* 

Powdered or granulated . . " .09(3.0»J 

Bichromate, Am " .08|(».0» 

Scotch " .103 

Bromide " .16(3.17 

Carbonate (80(386*) " .0310.0* 

Caustic, ordinary " .04J(3.06] 

Elect. (90*) ■■ .05i(3.06 

Chloride (muriate), 100 lb.. 190 

Chlorate, powdered " .09iO.O»3 

Crystals " 09O09J 

Cyanide (98099J„') 

Carloads ('30,000 lb.) " 18c, 

5-ton lots " ISJc. 

Less than 5 tons " 19c. 

Kainlte, long ton, bulk. 8.60; bags, 9.60. 

Permanganate lb. .09i(ff.l0 

Prussiate, yellow " .14(3.H'2 

Bed " .32® 31', 

Sulphate 100 lb. 2.18i02.21J 

Domestic, non-arsenical, furnace 

size, f.o.b. mines per unit 11(311 Je. 

Domestic, non-arsenical, fines, per 

unit, t.o.b. mines 10ffllOi«. 

Imported non-arsenical, furnace 

size, per unit 12J0.1S 

Imported, arsenical, furnace size, 

per unit 12(3.12* 

Imported fines, arsenical, per unit. .08i(3.0J 
" " non-arsenical, per 

unit 101(3110. 

Pyrlte prices are per unit of sulphur. An al- 
lowance of 26c. per ton is made when delivered la 
lump form. 
SALT— N. Y. com. fine 280 lb. bbl. .72(31.11 

N. Y. agricultural sh. ton. 3.80(34.60 

S.M.TPETER— Crude 1001b. 4. 60/36. M 

Beflned, crystals " 6.50(36.00 


Ground quartz, ord'ry Ig. ton 10.00(316.00 

SUex •■ 13.00(340.00 

Lump Quartz ■' 6.00(36.00 

Glass sand " 2.76 

SILVER— Nitrate, crystab-.... oz. .36(3.39 


Acetate lb. .04^(3. 04X 

"Alkali," per 100 lb., 68/48 80(3. 8TH 

Bicarb, soda, per 100 lb 1.111,31. 10.-. 

Soda, caustic, per 100 lb., 76/60. .. 1.75(31. 86 

powdered 02\(3.l)«} 

Salt cake, per 100 lb, bulk .40 

" bbl 65(3. 86 

Soda, monohydrate, per lb 1.4(31. 76c. 

Bichromate lb. .07>i(3.07i 

Bromide •■ .16(3.17 

Chlorate, com'l " .09(3.0»i 

Cyanide ("100,% KCN") 

Carloads (30,000 lb.) " I80. 

5-ton lots " 184c. 

Less than 5 tons " 19c. 

Hyposulphite, Am ■* 1 . 36 up 

German •■ 1.60(31. 'ft 

Phosphate 100 lb. 2.10/32.10 

Prussiate " .08J(3.09} 

Sal soda, t.o.b. N. Y lOO lb. .66/3.70 

Foreign, t.o.b. N. Y " . 80/31. tO 

Silicate, com'l 100 1b. .80(31.1$ 

Sulphate,com'l,(Glauber's salt) 1001b. .60(3.76 
calcined 66(3.8$ 

STRONTIUM— Nitrate lb. .07?i(3 S.S 


Loulslana(prime)to New York,BoBton 

or Portland Ig. ton 22.00 

To Philadelphia or Baltimore.... " 22.00 

Roll 100 lb. 1.86(351.1$ 

Flour •• •■ 2.00(32.40 

Flowers, sublimed " ■■ 2.20/32.60 

TERR.\ ."VLB.*— French &Eng. 100 lb. .66(3100 

T,\LC— Domestic sh. ton. 16.00/326.00 

French " 16.00/326.00 

Italian, best ■• 36.00/310.00 

TI N- Bichloride. 60% lb. .08>i 

Crystals " .18>^ up 

Oxide, lb .330.36 

URANIUM— Oxide '■ ' 3.60 


Chloride solution, com'l 20° " .oaj 

Chloride, granular ■■ .041/3.0$ 

Dust " .06(3.051 

Sulphate " 2.16 up 

Note — These quotations are for ordinary 
wholesale lots in New York unless other- 
wise specified, and are .generally subject to 
the usual trade discounts. In the cases of 
some of the important minerals, such as phos- 
phate rock, pyrites, and sulphur, in which 
there are well established markets, the quota- 
tions fully represent the latter. But In the 
cases of some of the minor mineral products, 
the quotations represent what dealers ask 
(>t consumers and not what producers can 
ronlize in selling their outputs as matters of 
prlyate contract. 

Jiil.V -4. 1908. 



Tlic cflitors of this paper read all the important publications of ihc world that relate to mining and the treatment of min- 
erals. 1 his index is published as a reference for all interested and to make it impossible for readers of the Engineebing ami 
Mining JouRN.^L to miss any important article published anywhere. 

Wc will undertake ta furnish a copy of any article Cif in print) in the original language, for the price quoted. Where 
no price is quoted the cost is unknown. These papers arc not kept in stock, but must be ordered from the publisher: hence 
there will be some delay for foreign papers. 

No .iccounts can be opened for these small amounts, but remittance must be sent with order. For the convenience of 
those making small but frequent remittances, coupons are furnished at the following prices: 20 cents each, six for $1.00, 
ihirly-thrce for $5.00 and one hundred for $15.00. This arrangement will be especially appreciated by foreign readers and in distant mining camps. Where remittances are made in even dollars we will return the excess over an order in 
roupons iijion rcriiu'sl. 


• !.-.7li .Wri.MoNV Sll.l-miiK I'urlly 

.uiiil Volnilllly iif I'riMliilhilicI .Antimony 
SiilplUilc. I.iwls A. Vnitz. i.lDiirii. .Viii. 
Clic'iii. .Stic. .rum-. 1!)IPM; 17 |i|i. 1 Ki>suU.s of 
' cxpi'i'linvnlg luken up to lilscovir wlictlier 
pun' imtliiioiiv Irlsuliihldi' iciukl hi- nlitalMi-d 
l.v piiiliillullon liv liviUoKiii sulplilUo, the 
vi.lMilUly (i( the pi-oilui-l <i( pn^clpltatlon 
<'i>iiilui! up liiclili'nii'.lly III I 111' rourue of tlii' 
work. NOc. 

TIO.N >'.iir'ktroiiniilvtisclii'n Bestlmmung 
ilrs .\uilmoiiK. <). Schii'n. 1 Zi'lt. f. Elek- 
InichiTU., .May S. IJHIK; li'.. .pji.) Discusses 
pii'vli.iis mi'lliiiilH. iiriil ilii'h- ihoori'tlcal as- 
pi'cis : ill scrllic's ti ni'W mi'lhml and I hi' spi'clal 
iipininiliiM i'i'i|iiii'i'il. and tnhiilatPH i-mnpara- 
ilvc ri'suliK. nil-. 


<irj-K— COMl'OSITION — Tlio Nature of 
r.iiu.\lli'. I Kng. and MIn. .lourn.. May 30, 
l!<m; % p. I .\ short ri'vlpw of tlii' history 
cf Ihi' disiiiviTy of Imuxltn and an outllni- 
.of Ihi' viirloim opinions as to Its nature and 
ciiinpiiHltlon. liOc. 


r,r,7;i i:i,i;( •■nini.vric iii;ii;ic.\iina 

■riuN of lllsMMilli. F. .1. .Mi'lzpT and II. T. 
Iii'iins. i.Iiinni. Am. riii-ni. Sm-., April, 1!)08: 
:i-'i pii. I Till' mldillim of Imrlc acid to Iho 
l);:lli li:is a ili'.ldcd I'lTi'cl iin the I'liurncter 
of 111!' depo.sli, and In addition. It serves to 
hrliiK alioiii ihi' cniiipleti' solution nf bismuth 
hvdi'i.xidi' wltliniM ihi' addlllon of verv large 

■ piinillM.'H ..r M.'.'ll.- mill. Mil'. 


r,.-,sM iii.MI'iisilloN op IK.MKNT Kin 
S'nilli'iipliiii I'lir die wellere KrforschunK der 
hyilrMiiliseheii Iliiidi'inlltel. K. Zulkowskl. 
(Siiihl 11. I'llsi'ii. May i:t. lims: :( jip. 1 A 
dhi'iisslon of ilie eheinleal roniposltlon of 

■ 'oil hind lement. To he ooneludcd. -tOc. CONNKYlNfi MACm.N'KKY In the 
riii'lliind Cement I'lant. r. .1. Tomllnson. 
( rroe, A. S. .M. K.. .Mine. IPdH: 4 pp.) 
.\ sliidy of this machinery with a view to 
ilecldlnK "n a more economical or Inlelllgent 
tisi' of the same, especially under present con- 
(III Inns, where capacllles are Increased and 
Hie duties heavier and more exacting. 


(I.-iS-.i AN.M.V.SIS lilt, iniliialiim of the 
Value of Cor.l for Sleaiuliin riirpuses. Klch- 
anl K. Mcmle. i.Mlii. SiL, May 21 and ■-'!<, 
lims; '.iij pp. I A loiiilmiallon of the de- 
Hdlptlnn of the nx'thiid employed In the 
miMlvsIs (f coal In d.'lernilnlnir Its heating 
ipi:i lilies, with formulas and terms of cx- 
|.r.-M..n. 40c. 

r,.-,s:i ANKYLOSTOMIASIS: "Miners' 

Aiicnilii ;" .^ Iti^sum* of Kuropean Kxpcrl- 
' enecs. Krancls William tJiay, flourn. Jlln. 
Soc. of Nova .Scotia, Vol, XI,. 11108; T2 1 /It 
pp.1 Notes on this disease written from the 
stnndpoint of the mlnlnK engineer, 

<i.-|S4 AKTII'MCIAL KVKI^-'t'oalesIne" 
■•'nil from Itcfuse. llerhert (1. Toales. (KiiB. 
Iti'V., ,Iune, llio.s; ;i pp.i The article deals 
Willi the conversion of refuse from ash lilns 
Into fuel. 40c. 

i!,-.s,% AfSTK.VI.IA Coaltlelds anil Col- 
lleihs of Aiislrallii— IX and X. K. Panvers 
I'owc;-. (.\ust. Mill. Stand.. .Vprll !,"> and 
•-'•J, I'nis: 1; pp. I These numhers take ii|i con- 
dition's In South Austnilla. Western \iwira 
lla :u'd Tasmania, lioc. 

ll.-.,S(i- Ai:STItALIA~ Coainelds and Col- 
lieries of .\ustralla — XI. F. Itanvers Power 
(Aiisl. MIn. Stand., .May «, 1!)08: 2 pp.) 
Contlniiiillon of the urtlele on the coalllelds 
and I'ollliTli's of Australia, and dcallne prin 
ilpally with the positions and diilies of ofll- 
ciiK iind men imployed at a colli, rv. To be 
conllnui'd. 4iic. 

(J.-..S7 AISTItAMA— Coaldclds and Col- 
lieries of .Viislralln- Xll. K, Iianvers Power, 
lAiisI, MIn, Stand,, May 0. lOOS 2 pp.) 
Conllnuallon of the article on the coallli'lds 
and collieries of .\uBtralla, This number 
deals larjiely with the shlpplii); faelHIIes at 
various ports. Illustrated, To be continued, 

(i,-,SSi— ItnAZir^Thc Coal of Southern 
Ilra/.ll, H. .1. Dos Santos. (MIn. .lourn.. .May 
:;(i, ItlOS: u.. p. 1 r.oes into the geology of 
the coal-bearing formallons and describes the 
coals of several different dislrlcls, 40c, 

(l,%Ni» BUIglKTTINr; Hinders tor Coal 
l!ri(|iiets, .lames K. .Mills. (U. S. Geol. 
Surv. Bull, ;14:<, lOiPK; ."il pp.) ..\ complete 
and comprehensive discussion of all phases of 
this important subject, based upon Invesilga- 
tlens made nt the fuel-testing plant, St. 
I.ouis. Mo. 

l!.-|!iii- nniiJfKTTING — The f'oal-Brliiuel 
I'lant at I'ankhead, Alberta. Canada. Ed- 
w.ird W Parker. iBI Monthly Bull. A.I.M.E.. 
-May, l!(is; -i<, pp. I Descrlliea the two units 
of the plant, and goes Into the details of 
the ii|ierntlons: illustrated, 

l!,-.!il BrilTISIl COAI.KIKl.D— The Kent 
Coallleld. iMin. .lourn., May 2.t. 1008: 1 p.) 
Discusses the gei logy and early work done 
In County Kent, England, and describes some 
of the collieries: Illustrated, 40c, 




iif Can,, llili' 




A de 

sirlpllon of the topography, transportation, 
limber, geology and coal at Telkwa river and 
vicinity, British Columbia, 

l!.">ii:t--COAI, .MI NINO— Special Methods 
for Alining Coal In England. (Jeorge Itavlton 
Dixon, lEng, and MIn. .lourn.. June 1.1, 
loris: 3 1 .t pp,i Modlflcallona ..f sMnlard 
plans to suit special conditions. Details of 
an economical system of pony haulage. 2ilc. 

tl.-.n4 COAI, MIMNi; — The l.ongwall 
Viet hod of Working In England. i;eorge 
Kayllon Dixon. 1 Eng. and .MIn. .lourn.. 
.Iiiue ti. UMi.s : .'IH pp.1 Sets forth the 
advantages of the system anil gives details 
of operation and plans for supporting the 
loof : goes Into the rate of pav for miners: 
illustrated. 20c. 

(l.V.),-. -CO.VI. MININt; -Working .1 Coal 
Seam of .Moilernle Thickness, lieorge Uavl 
ton Dixon. I Eng. and MIn. .lourn.. .June iO. 
lliiis: 2 pp. I Describes the method of ex- 
tracting pillars without causing crush and 
creep. The haiilai:.' system Is Ilexible. and 
Utile timber is lost, 2i>c, 

li.Vii; -COAI. MININC, PLANT— The Kwh 
ler Coal Mine. Erank A. Young. 1 Mines 
and Mill.. ,lune. IIH'S: :iS pp, 1 Description 
of the St, I.i.uis. Kocky .Mountain and Pacific 
Company's new mine nt Koehler. .New Mexico, 
the systems of mining, haulage, venlllatlon 
and the tipple; illustrated, 20c. 

«.-.li7 -COAI. MININt; PLANT The Bols 
Sevan Plant of the Pocahontas Consolidated 
Collieries Co. i>rines and MIn., .lune, lOOS: 
31.J pp.1 A description of the new plant of 
the Pocihonlas Consolidated Collieries Com- 
(•any. Inc., at Itoissevain, Va,. surface nr 
raiigemeuis, niethml of raining. transportHtlon, 
etc. : Illustrated. 2i'e. 

ii,-.!is fOAL WASHER — The Trimus" 
Coal Washer. iColl. (iuardhin. .lune ."■. llio.s ; 
I p. I In Ibis washer the coal movs In the 
-vvalir Instead of having the water agitated 
I V iiieiirs of a plung.r. 40e, 

li,!i— DETEKIOllATIUN of Coal, S, W. 
Parr and W. E, Wheeler, iJoum, .\m, Cbem. 
Soc, June, iao8: CVi pp. 1 Pertains to n de- 
terioration which cannot 1 .- ascrilud to 
weathering proci sses. but rather to the simple 
fad of the reliase of ihe malirlal from the 
conditions which have surroundi-<l It In the 
seam, 80c, 

(tliiiii DETEUIOllATION "Weaiherlng" 

of Coal, Myles Browi. iGas Eng, Mag.. May 
1.-.. lilO.s: 1 p. ( Discusses the variations lo 
the composllion, structure and nature of 
coals, and gives the results of two eiiierl 
luents on the effect on weathering. 20c. 

ern Electric Coal Mining Eiiulpment. Krank 
C. Perkins. I.MIn. WId.. June l.t, loii.s ; 1 1 .'I 
pp.1 DescrllK'S the installation of electric 
power in the opereilon of a mudern coal 
mine. Illustrat'd with photographs. 20c, 

110112 EXPLOSION at the Mines of Com- 
panin Carhonliera de Sablnns. Manuel 
Schwarz, I.MInes and .MIn., June, Urns ; 1^4 
pp, I Describes conditions existing at the 
mines of Compai'ila Carhonif. ra de .Saliinas. 
Ill Rositn. Mex.. gives the probable couse of 
tile explosion, and sets forth the measures 
which have bien adopted for the nrevenllon 
of similar accidents ; Illustrated, 20c, 

litlo.'t-EXPl.OSlOX— Notes on the .Monon- 
gah Explosion, James .\shworlb. iMinei 
and Mln„ June. IDQK : 1 i>v, pp. 1 CIves some 
Ideas suggested by llie lay-out of the mine 
and methods of blasting, and discusses the 
watering of dust and explosions from air 
pfrcusston, 20c, 

fitiOt- EXPIX^)SION — ReiK.rt of the French 
State Conimissb n on the Coiirrl^res Explo- 
sion of the 10th March. ItlOO. (Can. MIn, 
Journ,. June I. litii.s; i»; pp.i Analyu-s the 
conditions existing before the catastnifihe, 
mentions Its probable cause, and sets forth 
Ihe steps to be taken as a result of this ex- 
plosion in order to prevent similar occur- 
rences, 20c, 

fifio,-! — FORMATION OF COAL— Some 
Problems of the Formation of Coal. David 
White. (Econ. <;eoI., June-July. 1008: 27 
pp-l The formation of coal Is considered 
from Ihe standpoint of the geologist and pale- 
intologlsl. and the need of further Held ob- 
servation on their part is pointed out, liOc. 

(JCim- PEAT as a Steam Fuel, W. C. 
.Milne, (Can. Eng.. June .'. 1008: ^ p.) De- 
scribes and discusses the different i-nmmercial 
forms in which peat Is marketed. 20c, 

liti(i7_PEAT— Tile Ziegler Process of Peat 
Manufacture, Otto K, /wlngentxTger. (Eng, 
Journ. of Can.. June. inoS: 1^ pp.i The 
method of manuracturing peat by the /iegler 
luoci'ss Is disciLssi d and various types of cok- 
ing ovens are described, 20c. 

Oi'.Os PERT -The Cerro de Pasco Coal 
and Coke Plant. A. B. Cullberg. (.MIn. WId., 
June 1:1, 10(18: 1 1 :{ pp.1 -fhi, article .le- 
scribes the metho<ls used by the Cerro de 
Pasco Mining Company at Its coal washery 
In Peru, Extract from Bull, Am. Soc, of 
Swi-dlsh Eng., Nov,. 1907. 20c. 

IHisetela-Danao Coal Field, Warren D. 
Smith, iMIn. WId.. Mav 2.1, Ifios ; 1 p.» 
History of Ihe coal mining induslrv In Cel.u, 
and a general discussion of ivonomic condi- 
tions: Illustrated. Extract from rhilipnint 
Jniirn. of .tciVnrr 20c. 

(!(iIO- ITRCIIASE AND tSE -(^lal from 
the Standpoint of the Enui:.. - 1..., H. .Vsh- 
ley. (Sibley Journ. of I ..i8 - 7 li 

pp.) Deals with the • , charac- 

ter of coal. Its iiurchii- 


July 4, 1908. 

and prospects, localities worked for coal, 
transportation facilities, mapping of tne field 
and general geology. 

0C12— SHOT FIRING — Group Electric 
Shot Firing. Sydney F. Walker. (Eng. and 
Min. Journ.. June 20, 19U8 ; 1 V4 pp.) It is 
pointed out that the uncertamty in groiip 
shot firing is due to the differences in the 
fuses themselves. 20c. 

Johnstone. (Indus. Advocate, May, 1908;! 
p.) No attempt is made to deal wits the 
many different phases which may present 
themselves, this paper dealing with the sub- 
ject in a general way. 20c. 

SOURCES. I. C. White. (Eng. and Mm. 
Journ., June 6, 190S ; 2 1/3 pp.) Discusses 
the waste of natural gas and coal, and gives 
the probable duration of the Appalachian coal 
supply. 20c. 

6615— WEST SCOTLAND — Reports of 
Mines Inspectors for 1907. (Iron and Coal 
Tr Rev., May 22, 1908: % p.) Gives the 
output of mineral in this district, and inter- 
esting and valuable data regarding machinery 
used, accidents, explosives, safety lamps, etc. 


PANY. (Eng. and Min. Journ., June 6, 
1908; % P-) Abstract of the important parts 
of the report of this company for 1907. 20c. 
6617 — BRITISH COLUMBIA — Mining in 
the Boundary District of British Columbia. 
Frederick KefEer. (Iron and Coal Tr. Rev., 
June 5, 1908; 1 1-3 pp.) The mming opera- 
tions and methods of handling ore in this 
district, which produces copper from exceed- 
ingly low-grade ore, is discussed. Illustrated 
with cross-sections of workings. Abstract of 
paper before Brit. Instn. of Min. Engineers. 

6618— CALIFORNIA— Copper Deposits in 
the Western Foothills of the Sierra Nevada. 
William Forstner. (Min. and Sci. Press, May 
30, 1908; .oVi PP.) A general description of 
the belt, with short descriptions of some of 
the deposits which emphasize the geological 
conditions ; illustrated. 20c. 

BRASS INDUSTRIES — The Chemist's Rela- 
tion to the Copper and Brass Industries, 
Ernest A. Lewis. (Journ. Soc. Chem. Ind., 
May 30, 1908; SVi PP-) States the position of 
the chemist in these industries, and discusses 
and points out the best methods of sampling 
fuel, copper, spelter, scrap metals, and etc. 

ING INDUSTRY in 1907. John B. C. Ker- 
shaw. (Electrician, June 5, 1908; H4 PP-) 
The article contains an account of the pro- 
duction and price, the details of various 
works, new developments and processes. 40c. 
Production of Electrolytic Copper. J. Leeds 
Brown. (Mines and Mining, May 22, 1908; 
114 pp.) Outlines the steps involved in the 
production of commercial copper from crude 
ore. 20c. 

Tank House and Copper Furnaces of the 
New Addition to the Earitan Copper Works. 
Frank D. Easterbrooks. (Electrochem. and 
Met Ind.. June, 1908 ; 5 Vt PP- > A complete 
description of the construction and equip- 
ment of the tank house and copper furnaces 
in the new addition at this works ; fully il- 
lustrated. 40c. 

Verbrennungs-, Ueberhitzungs- und Korro- 
sionserscheinungen am Kupfer und an dessen 
Fabrikaten. W. Stahl. (Metallurgie, May 
22, 190S ; 3 pp.) Discusses the composition 
of overheated copper, its weaknesses, and a 
number of methods for counteracting them. 

r.ivjl 'rKUI'— Los Yacimiontos cupriferos 
dr IliMi-.i iiiifirtel. J. J. Bravo. (Boletin 
,1,. Min,, . I iiiia, Peru, Apr. 10, 11108; 5 pp.) 
Ii( ,(i-iii-^ ilir '^..-ology and the copper ore oc- 
ciurcnci's In the coastal region of Peru. 

FROM :MINE waters at Butte. Mont. 
Floyd Bushnell. (Min. Sci.. June 4. 1908; 
2 pp.) A history of the methods employed 
in recovering copper from solution in the 
water from the Butte copper mines and mills ; 
illustrated. 20c. 

6626 — SMELTING — Modern Reverberatory 
Smelting of Copper Ore— I. C. Offerhaus. 
(Eng. and Mm. Journ.. June 13. 1908: 4 1/3 
pp.) Describes the application of the rever- 
beratory furnace for the reduction of ores. 
The latest furnace at Anaconda is shown in 
sectional plan and elevation together with 
many cross-sections illustrating its construc- 
tion. Dimensions and details of furnace are 
given and its operation described. To be 
continued. 20c. 

6627 — SMELTING — Reverberatory Smelt- 
ing of Copper Or(? — XI. C. Offerhaus. (Eng. 
and Min. Journ., June 20, 1908: 5 pp.) The 
second instalment of this article on the 
smelting of copper ores in reverberatory fur- 
naces. It follows the charge from the time 
it is introduced into the furnace until the 
matte is tapped, and treats of the starting 
up of a reverberatory furnace. Illustrated. 

6628 — SOUTH AFRICA — Areachap Copper 
■Mines. (So. African Min. Journ., May 16, 
1908; 2 pp.) Description of the workings 
and geological features. This is another 
African copper mine, which, although very 
young, is expected to be a large producer 
eventually. 20c. 

6629 — SOUTH AFRICA — The Messina Cop- 
per Mine. (So. African Min. Journ., May 
16 1908; 1% pp.1 Completion of the con- 
centrating plant ; ancient and modern meth- 
ods ; the scheme of treatment detailed. This 
is one of several copper mines in Africa for 
which a great future is predicted. 20c. 

6630 — TASMANIA — Mining at Mount 
Lyell. R. C. Sticht. (Am. Min. Rev., June 
6, 1908; % p.) Metliod of mining, reduction 
work and metallurgical practice at this fa- 
mous mine in Tasmania. To be continued. 


6631 — ALAB.^MA— Notes on Some Gold 
Deposits of Alabam.T. H. D. McCaskey. (Geol. 
Surv., Bull. 340-A, 1908; 17 pp.) Discusses 
the geology of the district and describes the 
ore-bodies ; gives the production of the dif- 
ferent fields and describes some of them in 

6632 — ALASKA — The Fairbanks and Ram- 
nart Quadrangles Yukon -Tanana Region, 
Alaska. D. M. Prindle. (U. S. Geol. Surv., 
Bull. 337, 1908; 102 pp.) This report is a 
second of a series on the Yukon-Tanana re- 
gion, which extends westward from the in- 
ternational boundary between the Yukon and 
Tanana rivers to their confluence. The ar- 
ticle treats of the descriptive and economic 
geology, and the various groups of placers in 
the district. Illustrated. 

6633 — ARIZONA — The Mineral Deposits of 
the Cerbat Range. Black Mountains, and 
Grand Wash Cliffs. Mohave County. Ariz. P. 
C. Schrader. (Geol. Surv., Bull. 340-A. 1908: 
31 PP ) A description of the region, its topo- 
graphy and drainage ; discusses the orebodies 
and geology of the district in detail. 

6634 — 'ASSAYING — Experiments in Fire 
Assaying at the Rcdjang Lebong Mine. Su- 
matra. G. V. Hogenraad. (Journ. Chem. 
Met. and Min. Soc. of South Africa, April, 
1908; 2 pp.) This is a discussion by J. E. 
Clennell of a previous paper upon the use 
of borax in the assay of gold and silver, in 
which discussion it is held tliat the loss of 
gold and silver is not due to the use of 
borax. 60c. 

6635 — BLACK SANDS — Beach Sands of 
the Pacific Coast. J. L. Mallery. (Northwest 
Min. Journ., May, 1908; IVi pp- 1 This 
article contains notes on the economic treat- 
ment and value of the beach sands as a 
source of iron and platinum. 20c. 

6636 — BRITISH COLUMBIA — Nickel Plate 
Mine and Mill in British ""olumbia. C. 
Arthur Alpbonson. (Min. Wld., May 30, 
1908; 214 pp.i A complete history of this 
mine and the district in which it is situated 
with a description of both mine and mill ; 
illustrated. 20c. 

6637 — CALIFORNIA— O'Hara Pocket Mine. 
(Min. and Sci. Prpss. June 6. 1908; % P-> 
The ore occurs in iii"U.i- s,.mewhat similar 
to those of the l; min.- near Sonora, 
Tuolumne Counl.v. 1 aliiuinui. 20c. 

bv Charcoal. D. Avery. (Journ. Soc. of 
Chem. Ind.. Mar. 31, 1908; 21/2 pp.) Re- 
counts some attempts which were made to 
prepare charcoal free from all occluded re- 
ducing gases, so that the part played by the 
charcoal alone might be determined. SOc. 

66.39 — COBALT — Notes on Cobalt's Past, 
Present and Future — I. and II. Alex. Gray. 
(Min. Wld., June 6 and 13. 1908; 4 pp.) 
Comments on the in.iustice done to mining 
interests by irresponsible criticism, and dis 
cusses geology, ore reserves, shipments and 
the possibilities for the future: illustrated. 
The second instalment compares the various 
shipping mines in the district, and mentions 
briefly the present conditions. 40c. 

6640— COLORADO — Gold Placer Deposits 
near Lay. Routt County. Colo. Hoyt S. Gale. 
(Geol. Surv.. Bull. 340-A. 1908; 12'/4 PP-) 
Description and general geology of the dis 
trict ; takes up the distribution, character 
and origin of the auriferous deposits. 

6641 — COLORADO — Primary Gold in a 
Colorado Granite. John B. Hastings. (Bl- 
Monthly Bull. A. I. M. E.. May, 1908; 6% 

pp.) Discusses the gold occurrence in a 
large area of unconsolidated lake beds, situ- 
ated about 10 miles from Hartsel, near Ante- 
lope Springs, in Park County, Colo. 

6642 — COLORADO- The Various Mining 
Districts of Colorado. G. W. Miller. (Min. 
ScL, May 28, June 4 and 11, 1908; 5 pp.) 
Second, third and fourth articles of a series 
descriptive of the different mining camps, 
their geology, history, ores, methods of mm- 
ing and ore treatment, dealing in the present 
instalments with the Cripple Creek district. 

6643 — CYANIDATION — Laboratory Meth- 
ods Used in Modern Cyanide Mills. Clyde H. 
Jay. (West. Chem. and Met., May, 1908; 
8 pp.) An article which gives information, 
most of which may be found in text books 
or papers, in such a concise and compact 
form that it will greatly aid the young en 
gineer in readily taking up the work re 
quired in the laboratory of a cyanide mill. 

6644— CYANIDATION— The Separation of 
Slime in Cyanide Treatment. Horace G. 
Nichols. (Min. and Sci. Press. April 2o, 
1908; 3V, pp.) Describes a process which 
first suggested itself in connection with the 
dewatermg of tailing at a property in Cen 
tral America ; accompanied by sketches. 20c. 
6645 — CYANIDATION — Laboratory Tests 
on the Use of Coarse and Fine Lime for 
Cyaniding. W. J. Sharwood. (Journ. Chem. 
Met. and Min. Soc. of South Africa, April, 
1908: 41^ pp.) Experiments to ascertain 
the rapidity with which commercial lime in 
various states of division would be dissolved 
when distributed through a charge of inert 
sand subjected to the action of percolating 
water or cyanide solution. 60c. 

6646— CYANIDATION — The Chemistry of 
Silver Sulphide Cyanidation. W. A. Calde- 
cott. (Eng. and Min. Journ., June 27, 1908; 
IX P.) Abstract from paper read before the 
Chem Met. and Min. Soc. of South Africa, 
March. 1908. 20c. 

Mines. H. J. S. Heather. (Inst, of Mm. and 
Met.. April 2. 1908: loVi PP-) The trans- 
mission and distribution of electric power is 
described in connection with the electrical 
equipment of gold mines. 

6648 — GUANAJUATO — Rgsum^ of Mine 
Operations for Six Months. (Mexican Mm. 
.Tourn. June. 1908: % p.) Some interesting 
facts and figures taken from the recent re- 
port of the Governor of Guanajuato to the 
State Legislature. 20c. 

6649 — HOMESTAKE MINE — Beneflcio de 
minerales de Oro. I. D. Osso. (Boletin de 
la Soc. Nac. de Mineria, Feb., 1908 : 10 pp.) 
Describes in great detail the operations and 
the results attained at the Homestake mine. 
South Dakota. 

Report on Gold Values in the Klondike High 
Level Gravels. R. G. McConnell. (Geol. Surv. 
of Can., 1908; :34 pp., 1 map.) This report 
deals principally with the value still remain- 
ing in the bench and creek gravels, and espe- 
cially in the important high level deposits 
known as the white Channel gravel. 

6651— MEXICAN NOTES. Mark R. Lamb. 
(Mui. and Sci. Press. May 23 and 30. 1908; 
4V2 pp.) A general discussion of conditions 
in silver mining, showing the contrast be- 
tween the old and new arrangements of treat- 
ment plants ; illustrated. 40c. 

6652 — MEXICO — The Ore Deposits of San- 
ta Eulalia. Mexico. Claude T. Rice. (Eng. 
and Min. Journ.. June 20. 1908; 4 1/3 pp. 
The occurrence in manias and abras, and 
the prevalence of large open caves, is char- 
acteristic of this district in Chihuahua, The 
article describes this old Mexican district and 
is the result of the author's observations made 
recently. Illustrated. 20c. 

Method of Analysis in Roasting Sulpho- 
Telluride Ores. William H. Davis. (West. 
Chem. and Met.. May, 1908; 11 pp.) De- 
scribes the microscope work done at the 
Wano mine, near the northern boundary of 
the Boulder county telkiride belt, about 45 
miles northwest of Denver. Colo., where 
there is in operation a 50-ton dry-crushing, 
roasting, cyanide mill. 60c. 

6654 — MONTANA— ■Gold Deposits of the 
Little Rocky Mountains, Montana. William 
H. Emmons. (Geol. Surv., Bull. 340-A, 1908; 
20 1-3 PI). 1 Goes into the history of devel- 
opment, geology, ore deposits, character of the 
ore, and gives a detailed description of some 
of the mines. 

6655 — NEVADA — Round Mountain, Neva- 
da. George A. Packard. (Min. and Sci. 
Press. June 13. 1908; 2 pp.) Describes the 
geology and ore occurrence at this Nevada 
camp. 20c. 

6656 — NEV.\DA — Geology and Mineral Re- 
sources of the Osceola Mining District. White 
Pioo County. Nev. P. B. Weeks. (Geol. Surv.. 
Bull. 340-A. 1908; I61-4 pp.) Contains a 

July 4, 1908. 


general description of tij.- Himke ranBe, and 
goes Into the physical features, general geol- 
ogy, history of developrneat, mining, genesis 
of the ore and dislrlliution of the mines In 
the Osdcola mining dlnlrkt. 

Ii«57 — NEVAI)A — (;oldllelil. Nevadii I. 
T. A. Klckard. (Mln. and Scl. Press, April 2f3, 
H)0« ; 3 1/:', pp.) Contains munv Intercsllng 
tacts about the early history lif Ijoldllc-ld 

(i(ir.8— NKVADA- (Joldlleld, Nc^vada— II. T. 
A. Klckard. (Mln. and Scl. Press, May 10, 
1!I0«; ;)% pp. J Gives some historical data 
on the flow Ih of (Joldfleld In which Ueorge 
Wlnefli^ld Is (ho central llKiire. 20c. 

Oti.jii M;\ ADA— (Joldlleld, Nevada — III. 
T. A. Klckard. (Mln. and Scl. Press, May 
ao, J!i08; -I'/b pp.) This numher goc-s Inn. 
the dllTerent sclentlllc Invesllgutlons of the 
dlstrlcl and discusses lis gioloKy ; Illustrated 

OOflO— NKVADA— (Joldlleld, Nevada — IV. 
T. A. Klckard. (Mlu. and Scl. Press, June 
0, IDOH; ;i'^ pp.i This Is the fourth In- 
HlaliEieut of the article on Goldlleld and Its 
il.h.-s. It treats c,r the f.iliulousl v rich ore 
vvlikli 1ms been fonii.l In this district, and 
the jirevalence of "high grading." 20c. 

(illOl MltlCOU.V — Mines of the Kiddles 
yiuulniiigle. Dregon. .1. S. iJlller aand C. F. 
ivay. iCeol. Survey Bull. ;f40A, 1!)(I8; .) Vi 

pp. I Discusses the geoldgy anil <,n> deposits 

and iles.-rilies some of the prlncljial mines. 

0llli2 IM,.\c|';K .MIM.Nt; Coiislrucllrii.' a 
I'bicer Sluice. Dennis II. Slovall. (Mln. 

Scl .luiii. n. ii»oH: :y, ,,., 'n,,. method of 

building sluices for placer mines Is described 
and Illustrated by a photograph. 20c. 

COfW HAND MININC- Present Mining 
< ondltlons on the Kand. Thomas II 
gett. (l!l. Monthly Hull. A. I. .M. K., .May, 
I!)0«; It pp.) A compri'henslvi' view of the 
Industry and Its surroundings as a whole, 
marking Its general development and the lines 
of Its future progress. .\n abstract of this 

.lilt I^.^•.u, of .lune 

Obti4- SIKKKIA Kupfer-, Sllber und (iold- 
gewlnnung Im Altai. !■'. Thb'ss. (Zell des 
(iberschleslschen 1!. u. IDittenm. ViMelns 
Aim-., 1!miS; .s pp. I .Vl.sinici of a chapter In a 
hiisslaii piilili.'Miinn giving an historical re- 
vl.'w "1 III,' gi.lil. silver anil copper Indus- 
tries <,r Altai, Western Siberia. 

lititiC- -SIl.VEK PKODIICTION A Geologi- 
cal Analysis of the Silver I'npdiiction of the 
United Slates In 1000. Waldemiir Miulgren 


In A. 

l.i pp. 

f.nes Into general geological conditions and 
discusses the output of ores according to 
llielr classlllcatlon Into silver-base metal ores, 
slllclous silver ores, silver-lead copper ores, 
silver gohl ores, and silver ores. 

(;(!(!(! STAMP MII.MNG— A Few Notes on 
Stamp Milling. \V. II. .Iaui>. (.lourn. Chem. 
Met. and .Mln. Soc. of South Africa, April, 
^'■"ix: I p. I Ilileily discusses tile operation 
and thenry .,( the stamp battery. 00c. 

0007 STATISTICS- Die Stutl.stik der 
I'.di'lmetalle als Material zur Heurtelluug 
wiris,li;inilcher Fragen. Ernst, liledermann. 
I'cil- I. 11. H. u. S-wesen, lOOH, 1 Heft • 
ION iMi.. ;! jibites.) .V very detalb-d and ex- 
niisiive disiiisslon of the world's produc- 
llnii. ■xiliani;'' and consumption of gold and 
silver. illusirMted with numerous diagrams 
and tables. It discusses the relative values 
ot the two metals, the Inlluence of production 
n|H:ii prices, the consumption ot the metals 
tor Industrial purposes, etc. $1. 

liOrtS— TI.'BE MII.MNO -The lOconomlcs of 

ube Milling. U. \V. Fo.v. (MIn.'s and .Mln.. 

.lime lOOS; -1 iip.i .s,.|s forlli e.vperlments 

showing Ibe relation bi^tween the amount of 

ei-e. p,.|il,i,.s, anil .solution and the amoinit of 

1: contains Interesting charts 

VIKoN GOLD. o. It. Perrv. (Mln. 
Press. April 23. lOOS ; 1 U pp.) A 
uiialnliig some remarks and Ogures 

0672— ALABAMA— The Iron Ore Industry 
In Alabama. Eugene A. Smith. (Eng. and 
Mln. Journ., June 0, 1908; % p.) Describes 
the principal ores of Iron, their occurrence 
and utilization. 20c. 

C07:i ALLOYS— New Steel Alloys. (.Mech. 
Kng.. June .",, 1!»08; % p.) A particularly 
tough and hard metal, having a high tensile 
strength and with little susceptibility to In- 
lury from shock or Impact, consists, of a 
eoniblnatlon of nickel, titanium, manganese, 
and chromium, with Iron or steel of various 
carbon contents. 20c. 

0074— ANNEALING— Novel Air and An- 
nealing Furnaces. (Foundry, June, 1008; 
3H PP-» Describes the fur/iaces In use at 
the new plant of the Allegheny Valb-v 
.Malleabict Iron Company. New Krnslngton, 
Penn.. by which the llnie of making hials 
and annealing the castings Is reduced to 
three days; Illustrated. 20c. 

The Flohr Improvement of the Basic Besse- 
mer Process. (Iron Age, May 28, 1008; Ip.) 
In this method the temperature during de- 
carbonizing Is higher than during the de- 
pho.sphorlzing stage in the basic bessemer 
converter. 20c. 

0070-- BASIC STEEL- Das DOdellnger 
\ erfahren zur Durchfiihrung des Thomas- 
prozcsses. p. (;oerens. IStahl u. Elsin, May 
l.'i. 1008; 4Vj pp.) Discusses a number of 
recent developments In the Thomas open 
liearlh process. 40c. 

0077— BLAST FIKXACE— Zur Berechnung 
und Proflllerung d.-r Elsenhochilfen. J. von 
Ehrenwerlh. (I)cst. X.elt. f. B. u. II., .May 

0, 1008; 4'/j i>p. I Discusses tl (Tect of 

furnace profile upon the smelling reactions, 
with referi'nee to Its design under given con- 
<litions. -10c. 

TIONS. S. J. Koshkln. (Iriui Age, .May 28. 
1008; 4»1 |)i>.) Describes the mi'thod of cal- 
culating a blast furnace charge, together with 
the formation of the slag. The blast and 
escaping gases are also consldiri'd. 2iic. 

coal and (Joke as Blast-Furnace Fuels. R. 
II. Sweetser. 1 Bi-.Mimlhly Bull., A. 1. M. E., 
.May, 1008 ; 7'^ pp. 1 Descrll)es the turnacis 
and gives the data of comparative runs made 
with charcoal and coke at the works of 
the .\lgoma Steel Company, Sault Ste. Marie, 

MENTS— ITeber neuere llochofenbeglehtungen. 
O. Slmmersbach. iSlahl u. Elsen, .May 
and 1;!, 10118; 10 pp.) Discrilies and lllus 
nates a number of recent Improiements In 
German blast furnaces, especlallv In con- 
nectbai with charging devices. GOc. 

Manufacture of Cement and Bricks from 
BIftst-Furnace Slag. C. C. de Schwarz. (Eng. 
Kev.. June, 1908; 7 pp.; Iron and Coal Tr. 

Kev.. May l."., 1008; 1 >^ pp.) Contains the 
history of the manufacture of cement and 
bricks from blast-furnace slag and the utillzn 
lion of such slag for manufacturing cement. 
The arllcle contains description of tiie varl- 
pioyed in such work. Paper 

'I Institute 

IIUISE- The Standard 

le Oliver Iron Mining Co. 

Lake Superior .Mln. Inst.. 

8 plates. I The standard 

Iron Mining Com- 


radons of thi' Yukon Gold Com 
ilit..riai comment. 20c. 


0070— MONTANA -Gypsum Deposits of 
Montana J. P. Row. (Eng. and Mln. 

of til, 

20. lOOS; 2 pp.! A descripliu.. 
gyiisum Uelds ot .Montana. This 
s large gypsum resources as any 
Union. Illustrated. 20c. 



\I..\I1.\MA I'll,. i!r 
• .\1.mI..uiim 1. 1111,1 
111 Age. June ■ 
list instalment 
geology of the 


. n Iron Ore De- 
1. Wllihim B. 
and 11, 1008; 
is devoted en- 
.Vlabaiua Iron 

I elds, llie si'cond part deals with the pro- 
uuction for a period of years and contains 
some remarks relative to ihe future produc- 

before Ihe Iron 

0082 - BOILER 
Holier House of t 
A. .M. Gow. (Proc 
.lune, 10(18 ; 15 |>p 
boiler house of th 

liany is treated under the head f.f the . . 

the boiler setting; the fronts and appurte- 
nances ; the slack and breeching : Ihe huild- 
liig. coal trestle and elevator; costs. The 
article contains a full set ot working draw 
Ings reduced to it convenient size. 

OBS.'i- CANADA— The Iron Ores of Canada. 
C. K. Lelth. (Econ. Geol., June-July, lOOS ; 
L'M: pp.) The cinssincatlon ,.f Iron ore de- 
posits In Cnnaila is Imsed u|M.n recent detailed 
studies of the Lake Superior ores and ores 
of \Vestern United Stati-s. Describes the 
various types, togi'ther with Ihe commercial 
liii|i,o laiiee of several classes of ores. 00c. 


1 1101. Carlion an<I Sulphur. Donald .M. Levy, 
and Coal Tr. Rev., .May 15. lltiis ; 1 I ;t pp. 1 
Suppb'inents previous research work by a 
complete thermal and melallographic Investi 
gallon of the subject. 40c. 

01585— CAR WHEELS The Chilled Cast 
Iron Car \VheeI. P. II. Grlllln. ilron .\ge. 
June 4, 1008: 2', pp.1 The dltUcullles with 
which the manufacturer has to conlend, the 
small margin of price betw<H>n new and old 
wheels, mixtures, chills, and other consblera 
tlons are discussed. 20c. 

f.OSO— CASE1IARDENIN«— Tlio Gas Pro 
cess of Case Hardening. J. F. Springer. 
(Iron Age, May 28, lOOS : 4 Vi pp.) .\ de- 
scription ot Ihe method of case-hardening de- 
veloped by Adolf W. Matschh'p. sui>erlnten- 
denl of the .Vmerlcan Gas Furnace t ompanv. 
Ell/alieih. N. J. ; illiistraled. 20c. 

6687— CAST STEELr— tterstcllung und Ver- 
wendung von Stablguss. lEUen-Zeltg.. Mav 
2.1. 1008; 2 pp.) Discusses the cost of man- 
ufacturing cast steel. 40c. 

0688— CAST IKON In Ihe Construction of 
Chimlcal Plant. F. J. R. Carulla. (Iron 
and Coal Tr. Kev., .May 15. lOus ; 1 1-3 pp.i 
Lays down some simple rules on the use of 
cast Iron, a substance that the chemical man- 
ufacturer cannot well do without. 40c. 

.Molds. Edgar A. Custer. (Joum. Frank 
Inst., June. 1008; 20'.4 pp.) Describes m.ih 
i>ds and apparatus for casting piiK-s in per- 
manent molds which are not destroyed bv 
molten Iron and which allcvlal>-K unequa'l 
heating and cooling: Illustrated. 60c. 

0000 illKo.Mir.M ST;:EI^-Eln neuer 

ihromw.-rkzeugstuhl. iCentralblatt der H. u. 
Walzwerke, .May 15. 1008; Vi p. 1 Describes 
a new chromium tool sleel made In the elec 
trie furnace. 20c. 

Deposition of Zinc for the Protection of Iron 
and Sled Surfaces. Sherard C.iw|»-r Co|.-s. 
I Iron and Coal Tr. Rev., May 15. 1908: 
•'•'/Si pp.) Outlines and discusses ibe f„ur 
methods usitl at pn-seni for applying zinc lo 
Iron and steel : Illustrated. 40c. 

6602 — COLORADO— Die Colorado Fuel and 
Iron Company. F. Friillch. cZelt des 
Verelnes Deutscher Ing<-nleure, Mav 9, 1908; 
I! pp.) Di'scribes the plant In s.".me detail, 
discusses lis o|)eratlon and enumerates Ihe 
sources of Its crude materials. 40c. 

660:{— CORROSION- The Rusting of Iron. 
J. Newton Friend, ilron and Coal Tr. Rev. 
-May 15. 1908; % p. 1 Gives and explains 
several theories why Iron c.rrodes when ex 
posed lo Ihe cimiblned action of the air and 
ivater. 40c. 

6604 — CORROSION -.Methods for Prote.-i 
Ing Iron anil Sled Against Corrosion. Geo. 
B. Ileckel. 1 Journ. Fnink. insi.. June. 10U>» ; 
15 pp. I A general dlscussbm on this sub 
Ject with a review of the work which has been 
done In connection with It. 60c. 

6695— CUPOLA PRACTICI-: — Kupolofenbe- 
Irleh In Anierlka. O. Leyde. 1 Stahl u. Elsen. 
May 20. 1908; 5V2 pp.) A discussion of 
cupola furnace practice In the United Staieti. 
quoting largely from American authorllles. 

Ensley, Alabama, ilron .\ge. May 21, 1908; 
18 pp.) The new Ensley bessemcr and open 
hearth plants of the Tennessee Coal. Iron 
and Railroad Company and the connected 
blast furnaces are described in great detail. 
The arllcle contains many working drawings 
and reproductions of photographs. 20e. 

Irlsche Ofen von Ischewskl. B. Neumann 
(Stahl u. Elsen, May 20, 1O08 ; 1H pp.1 
Illustrates a revolving electric fnmao- for 
continuous operation. 40c. 

of Furnace for Smelting Iron. B. Igewiiky. 
iMech. Eng.. June 5, 190s ; 2'- pp.) Iron 
and Coal Tr. Rev., .Mav 15. 1908; IVj pp. 1 
Description of a rotatlitg electric furnace In 
which a high voltage Is usi-d. Paper read be 
fore Ihe Iron .nnd Steel Institute. 40c. 

6099- ELECTRIC FURNACE— Slahlform 
guss aus dem • leklrlschen Ofen. B. Osann. 
(.Mech. Eng.. June 5. 1908; 2V5 pp.; Iron 
lustrales a number of castings fmurcd from 
Ihe Sterr.ins electric furnace, describes Ihe 
arrangement of the furnace, and Itemlies Ita 
cost of operation. 40c. 

FURNACES. (EnglniHTlng, Juno 5. 1908: 
2>i pp. I A comparLson of Ihe H^roult. Kel- 
ler. Gin. Harniet, and various other electric 
furnaces Is given In Ihe first Instalment. To 
be continued. Inc. 

«7((1 — EI.EITKIC STEEI- — i\immerclal 

Electric Sled and Gas Power. ( EleclriM-hem. 
and .Mel. Ind.. June. 1908: IS pp.) Tells 
what the el<H-trlc furnace can do In sii-el 
manufacture ; contains a table which shows 
what Is actually being done at a plant now 
In commercial operalbm. 4<'c. 

6702 — EI.Ei-ritlCALLY |)I!I\ 1 \ Ml I; 
Siahlwerke. (Iron and Coal 1 
15. 19(18; I ', pp.1 Descrlb. s 
working method of a modern ■- 
outpiii. provldi-d as far as iMissll.i. »iib :nito 
matic auxiliary machinery. 40c. 

Cargo FI«-I Iron Co.'s Works. ilron Tr. 
Rev.. June 4. 1008; 5 pp. 1 Treats of the use 
of electric motors In Iron and steel works. 
Descrllx-s the Installation at the Cargo Fleet 
Inin Comiiany's plant In England. 20o. 

Cast Iron and Steel In Mexico. Frmncis 
Lonvrler. (Mln. Journ.. May .10. lOOS; 1 p. 1 
.V review of the conditions' In Ihe Iron ore 
Industry In Mexico, iwlnling out the ad- 
vnnlagi-s and economy of irenilng the ore In 
,^„ .I..,.-:, f,-ra:i,T. 4('c. 


July 4, 15 

(iTO.'i- EQIII'MENT — The New Equipment 
at the Newport Mine. (Iron Tr. Rev., June 
1 S. 1 no.S ; 9 pp. I The new shaft "D" has 
, been eompleted and supersedes the old 
shaft "A." A description of this shaft Is 
given and illustrated by drawings and photo- 
graphs. 20c. 

6706— FATIGUE TEST — A New Fatigue 
Test tor Iron and Steel. T. E. Stanton. 
I Iron and Coal Tr. Rev.. May 15, 1908; 1% 
pp. ) Outlines a test which gives a combina- 
tion of rolling abrasion and alternate tend 
ing; fullv ilhistr.itivl. T'aper read before the 
Iron and St. .t [iisliluir 40c. 

OTiiT IdlXhKV I'l. Involved in 
the Er.rtinii jii.l K,|,rii.iii.Mit of a Modern 
Foundry. W. 'I'. Ilalcb. (Foundry, June, 
190s : 'A pp. ) lUsousses the many questions, 
general in character, which must be con 
sidered in building and fitting up a modern 
foundry. 20c. 

6708 — FR.VNCE — Le Mineral de Fer dans 
I'Ouest de la France. L. Campredon. (Metal- 
lurgie. May 20, 1908; % p.) Describes the 
occurrence of iron ores in some of the western 
districts of France. 40c. 

on the Action of Water on Galvanized Iron. 
W. F. Monfort. (Can. Eng., June 5, 1908; 
1 p. I Treats of the action of a partially soft- 
ened water upon the zinc coating of galvan- 
ized iron pipe as affecting their durability. 

6710 — GAS INCLUSIONS — • Gaz Occlus 
dans li's Ariers. G. Bclloc. (Bull, de la Soc. 
d'i;n. p.iiir I'lnd. Nat., April, 1908; 25 pp.) 
1)1 -I 1 it>H^ III. apparatus and method used, 
atol i;i\.s .Iriailed results of a series of care- 
ful . xpcrinii'iiis into the nature of the gases 
incliidiMl in strci and into the conditions under 
wbi<li they are absorbed and given off. 

0711 -1N<;((TS — Piping and Segregation in 
S1..1 inu..i, iBi-montbly Bull, A. I. M. E.. 
Ma\, nil's; J'.i pp.) Discussion by members 
of III.' Iii-.:iiiii.' of Prof. H. M. Howe's paper 
on I 111- :ili..\.- siib.iect, wTiich was previously 
m.'ntion.'d in this Index. 

Zur Organisation moderner Eisenhiitten- 
laboratorien. \. Wencelius. (Stahl u. Eisen, 
May 13. 1908: 314 pp.) Describes the plan, 
equipment an(l management of the modern 
laboratory for iron worics. To be concluded. 

071.3— LAKE SUPERIOR— Kohle und Eisen 
in Nordamerika. Prof. Baum. (Gliickauf, 
May 9 and 16, 19(i.>> ; 12 pp.1 Continuation 
of article previously indexed. Tliis section de- 
scribes the mining and shipping methods in 
use on the Lake Superior ranges. 60c. 

perguss in .\merika. C. Geiger. (Stahl u. 
Eisen, May 13. 1908; 1 p.) Compares the 
properties of malleable castings made in 
different ways. 40c. 

tion of Malleable Castings — V. Richard 
Moldenke. (Foundry, June, 1908; 2 pp.) A 
continuation of this article, discussing mix- 
tures for making various grades of malleables 
and methods of calculating the furnace 
charges. 20c. 

6716 — NEW YORK— Future Adirondack 
Iron. George F. Arclier. ( Sibley Journ. 
Eng., June, 1908: 1 >4 pp.) Describes the 
geology of this district and some of the 
more important mines. Goes briefly into the 
possibilities of the future for this Adiron- 
dack mountain district; illustrated. 40c. 

6717— NITROGEN IN IRON — L' Azote et !e 
Fer. (La Metallurgie, May 27, 1908; V2 p.) 
A study into the influence of nitrogen upon 
the fracture, and the mechanical properties of 
iron and steel. 20c. 

6718— PHYSICAL QUALITIES of Steel in 
Relation to its Mechanical Treatment. James 
E. York. (Iron and Coal Tr. Rev., May 15, 
1908 : 1 V2 pp. ) Reviews the existing meth- 
ods for the mechanical treatment of steel. 
and suggests some changes which the writer 
believes will result in the production of 
more reliable steel rails and other similar 
sections than those now produced by ordinary 
methods. Paper before the Iron and Steel 
Institute. 40c. 

Preliminary Results of Trials in Refining 
Iron and Steel by Means of Vapours of Me- 
tallic Soilinm. .\Ibert Hiorth. (Iron and 
<-..:il Tr l;,.v.. May 15, 1908; 1 p.) Dis- 
. n^~.'^ III. ..|Ti>ct of different elements, drill- 
in- i"i . h.'iiiical analysis, the causes of de- 
feL'i.> iu casting and mechanical tests. 40c. 
Warmetechnik des Siemens-Martinofens. F. 
Mayer. (Stahl u. Eisen, May 20, 1908; 
pp. I Discusses results of an exhaustive 
series of tests on the operation of a re- 
generating basic open-hearth furnace. 40c. 
Methods of Calculating the Charges. M. B. 
Smith. (Foundry. June. 1008: 1 Vj pp.) 

Goes into the origin, chemical mixture and 
methods of making semi-steel : gives some rep- 
resentative analyses and tells how to calcu- 
late mi.xturers. 20c. 

6722 — SILICON IN IRON — La Metallo- 
graphie de la Fonte. (Gfnie Civ., May 23, 
1908; 2'/. pp.) Discusses, with photomicro- 
graphs, the influence of varying proportions 
of silicon upon the properties of cast iron, 
particularly upon the condition of the car- 
bon c«ntents. 40c. 

6723 — SLAG ANALYSIS — A Systematic 
Scheme for the Analysis of Basic Slags, Etc. 
Gordon Mills. (Iron Age, June 11, 1908 : 
l?.i pp.) Describes a method proposed by the 
author which is said to have the advantage 
of being conducted in a s.vstematic manner, 
combined with accuracy and rapidity. 20c. 

6724 — SPECIAL STEELS — Function of 
Chromium and Tungsten in High-Speed Tool 
Steel. C. A. Edwards. (Iron and Coal Tr. 
Rev., May 15, 1908; V2 P-) Traces the in- 
fluence of chromium on tiigh-speed steels, and 
throws some light on the term "red hard- 
ness," which was introduced by Mr. Taylor in 
his paper on "The Art of Cutting Metals." 

G725— SPECIAL STEELS— Die Spezial 
stable im Automobilbau. (Metailurgie. April 
22, 1908; 9 pp.) States the composition and 
properties of certain special steels suitable for 
automobile construction. 40c. 

OT.'O -STKKL PLANT — The Keystone 
StriTilitial Works of the Jones and Laughlin 
Ste.-l Co. ( Tr. Rev., June 4, 1908; 3% 
pp.) Gives the general plan of this plant, 
and describes the system of cranes, the girder 
shop, and the power plant ; fully illustrated. 

ard Moldenke. (Iron Age, June 18, 1908: 2 
pp.) Describes methods of using the alloy 
and gives numerous tests with titanium vary- 
ing from to 0.15 per cent. Paper read 
before .\m. Fdymen's. Assn., June, 1908. 20c. 

Titan als Ziisatz zum Gusseisen. B. Feise. 
iSi.lil 11 i:i^'-n. May 13. 1908; 2% pp.) 
Itis. n-^^.s, 11. .Ill experiments, the influence of 
vai'viiiL- iiii.i...rtions of titanium upon the 
mci-lianical properties of cast iron. 40c. 


6729 — ANALYSIS — .\dvancc Notes on the 
Peroxide Method for Lead. W. S. Medell. 
(West. Chem. and Met., May, 1908; 4% PP.) 
Discusses and points out some of the faults 
and inaccuracies in the (letermination of lead 
by volumetric methods, and describes in de- 
tail the peroxide method. 60c. 

6730 — DETERJnNATION — Technical 
Method for the Determination of Lead in 
Ores, Etc. A. H. Low. (Journ. Am. Chem. 
Soc, April. 1908; 1% pp.) The chromate- 
oxalate method (levised by the author is sub- 
stituted for the method of separating as oxa- 
late and subsequently titrating with perman- 
ganate. 80c. 

Notes on Lead — I. A. Humboldt Sexton. 
(Mechan. Eng., May 22, 1908; 5% pp.) 
(Toes into the physical and chemical proper- 
ties and descriijes the ores of lead ; discusses 
the occurrence and the industrial conditions 
in the different producing countries of the 
world : first paper. 20c. 

6732— ORE TREATMENT— Notes on 
Lead — II. A. .Humboldt Sexton. (Mech. Eng., 
June 5, 1908; 41/2 PP-) Preparation of lead 
ores, the air reduction processes, the amount 
of lead produced, the slag, chemistry of the 
process, influence of foreign constituents, 
and various processes are (jescribed in this 
instalment. 20c. 


6733— WEST VIRGINIA— Limestone in 
West Virginia. G. P. Grimsley. (Eng. and 
Min. Journ., June 0, 1908; 1 p.) A geologic 
and economic discussion of the limestones of 
tliis State. 20c. 


6734 — .\RTIFI(1.\L M.VCJNESIA — Ueber 
dio mineralogische Zusammensetzung kunst- 
licher Magnrsitsteine, insbesondere liber ihren 
(iehalt an Poriklas. F. Cornu. (Central- 
hlatt f. Mineralogie. May 15, 1908: SVj pp.) 
A chemical and microscopical study of the 
composition of calcined magnesite. 20c. 


Beitrag zur Kenntnis des Mangans und seiner 
Legierungen mit Kohlenstoflf. A. Stadeler. 
I Metallurgie. May ,s and 22. 1908; 27 pp.) 

Describes the apparatus used and gives re- 
sults of a series of experiments into the 
nature and characteristics of these alloys. 

6736 — GEORGI.\ — Mining and Preparatioiv 
of Georgia Manganese. Thomas L. Watson- 
(Min. Wld., June 13, 1908; H4 pp.) 
Georgia is the third largest producer of 
manganese ore in the L'nited States. Min- 
ing is done by open cuts, shafts and tunnels r 
illustrated. Extract from Bull. No. 14 of the 
Geol., Survey of Georgia. 20c. 


during 1907. (Petrol. Rev.. June 6, 1908; 
I Vj PP) The article deals with the chief 
poFnts in the yearly report of Vice Consul- 
Macdonald concerning the petroleum trade of 
Baku during 1907. 40c. 

6738— B.VTOUM — The Petroleum Trade of 
Batoum during 1907. (Petrol. Rev., June 6. 
1908; 114 pp.) This is the annual consular 
report upon the trade and commerce of 
Batoum for 1907. 40c. 

6739— 'ITALY — The Petroleum Industry ot 
Italy. (Petrol. Rev., June 6, 1908; 1 p.) 
The development of the petroleum industry in 
Italy during recent years is described briefly 
bv the German Consul General at Genoa. 

view of Statistical and Technical Facts Sub- 
mitted to the President by the Commissioner - 
of Corporations. L. H. Eddy. (Cal. Derrick, 
May. 1908; 4 pp.) A continuation of this 
report, dealing with tests and comparisons ol 
values and prices of Standard and indepen- 
dent lubricating oils. Deals also with trans- 
portation of petroleum. 20c. 

6741— OKLAHOMA — ^The Glenn Pool. . 
(Petrol. Rev.. May 23, 1908; 3% PP) In- 
teresting details of developments in the Glenn 
pool, one of the most important oilfields in- 
the United States. 40e. 

6742 — WELL B0RIN(5 — Improvements in • 
the .A.pparatus for Deep Well Boring. (Pe- 
trol. Rev., May 23, 1908: 1 p.) Describcs- 
an invention, the object of which is to provide 
a core-bearing tool which may be suspendetJ-- 
and lowered by a chain or the like as the 
boring proceeds, thus overcoming the neces- 
sity of lengthening the shank or stem and" 
the consequent disadvantages. 40c. 


(Am. Fertilizer, May, 1908: 1% pp.) Review 
of the present conditions and the future out- 
look, based upon the annual tour of the phos- 
phate commission. 20c. 

6744 — TENNESSEE— Phosphate Rock Itt-. 
Tennessee. H. D. Ruhm. (Eng. and Mm. 
Journ.. June 6. 1908; 1 p. > Contains 
statistics of production for 1905. 1906 and' 
1907. with comments on the industry in this- 
State. 20c. 


6745— DIAMOND — Neue Festellungen tiber- 
das Vorkommen von Diamanten in Diabasen 
und Pegmatlten. H. Merenskv. (Zeit. I. 
prak. Geol.. .\pr., 1908: 3V4 pp.) A re- 
view of opinions as to the origin of the- 
diamond, as influenced b.v the finding of 
diamonds in pegmatite and in diabase. 4Ge. 

6746— DIAMONDS— The Origin of VaalJ 
River Diamontls. Hans Merensky. (So. 
African Min. Journ., .\pr. 4, 1908; i p.) Dis- 
cusses the characteristics of river diamonds, 
their distribution and occurrence, and ex — 
plains some of the peculiarities of the de- 
posits. 20c. 


6747— COLORADO— Occurrence of Vana- 
dium near Tellurirtc. Colorado. Edward R. 
Zaiinski. (Eng. and Min. Journ., June 6,- 
1008; 11/3 pp.1 A few notes on the 00 
currence of vanadium on Big Bear Creeks . 
about 14 miles west of Telluride, C!olorado,- 
and about 2 miles south of Wilson station, on.- 
the Rio Grande Southern narrow gauge rail- 
road. 20c. 


6748— 'FI-SION PROCESS of Salt Mann 
facture. (Chem. Trade Journ.. May 23. 1908: 
1 ^i pp.) Describes the direct production of 
white salt from rock salt by what is known 
as the fusion process, in which rock salt is 
fused or melted, and the impurities separatett ' 
whilst the salt is in a molten state. 40c. 

TURE — Salt : its History. Occurrence and' 
Manufacture. A. A. Hayward. (Journ. Min.. 

July 4, i(/o8. 



Hoc. of Nova Scotia, Vol. XI, l!)i)S ; ]7Vi 
pp.) (;ocK Into tile hlHtory of salt, ItH origin, 
Bomc of H» ju'lnelpal occurrences, with a de- 
scription of some of the methods of manu- 


(;7.-iii .\SS.\VI.\<; A W.I .M.lhcd tor the 
Assay of Tin In On^H, ICIc. (So. African .MIn. 
.I.jurn.. .May 2, I'JflH : % p.l O'lvi-s a simple 
and ri'llahle process ff>r (he detfrmlnatlon 
of iln III tin ores liy the wet method. 20c. 

Ii7.-i! KI.KfTKOl.VTlc HEKiNlNG— Die 
KliklrLsche Itallliiatltpn des ZInn. O. Stelner. 
(Kieku-ocliem. /,elt»<lirlft, .May. I!t(l8; .3 
pp.) IMscusHcs the subject from a theoretical 
stiindjiolnt, and gives conclusions from a 
Ki-rli s of experimental operations. To be con- 
cluded. .tOc. 


r.7.-i2 - TrN(;.STic ACID i)i;ri;it.Mi.\A- 

TION — A New ami *<''<iit Method for the 
1 ii'lerinlnallon of 'i'ungstlc Acid In Tungsten 
ures. ,Iohn B. Kkeley and George I). Ken 
dull, .Ir. (Univ. of Colo., .Tourn. of Kng. No. 
I. 1»<)7-1!I()8 ; 4 pp.) Details of a practical 
and accurate method for the determination 
of lungstlc add In lungslen ores. 


6753— .IIGS and .Ilgglng In the .loplln Zinc 
Lead District. Olio kiilll. 1 .Mln. W 1<1.. .Mav 
80, 1008; 3 1/3 pp.) Describes tin- con- 
struction and operation of the hand Jig, 

which Is etllclent In treating so-c.ill.'d fi 

ore; describes an<l comments on the dlfferf-nt 
styles of llgs and sets forth the re(|iilrements 
of a serviceable Jig; llUistratr'd. 20c. 

(I7ri4 -MKTAI.M'KtiY of Zinc— I. and II. 
(Aust. Mln. Stan<l.. .\prll 2!) and May ti, 
111(18; 2 1/3 pp.) The author disi-usses the 
various machines used for the conci-nlration 
of zini' ore. and points out Improvements Id 
wilier eonceiil ration. tlOc. 

(17.-I.''. MlOT.M.l.l'ltCY of Zlnt — III. .T. \V. 
Ilichards. I Kleclroch.Mii. and Mel. Ind.. .lune, 
I'.iilS; 1% pp. I Dlscnssi's and gives tables of 
ilie vaiior lerisldii m' -/Iim' ; slales and solves 
M problem 111 the rediiellon of zinc sulphide. 

(17r.n (IHH T R E A T M E NT— Economical 
Treatment of Zinc Ores. U. C. Canby. (Mln. 
Wld.. .lime I!, IPOS; I p.) Discusses the 
si'piirallon and coiicenlratlon of the zinc In 
some of llie ccpiiiple.x nies found In the western 
plU-l of (he rillled Sillies. 2(ic. 

(i7.-i7 ORE ■TUE.\TMKNT The Mechani- 
cal rreparatlon of Ores In Sardinia. lOrmlnto 
I'errarls. ii;i-Monlblv Bull. A. I. M. E., 
.Mav, 1!I(I8; 2,'i',4 pp.) Reviews the mining 
liHliislry since 187(1, and goes fully Inlo the 
I liisslllcallon and separation of lli<' ori'S ; 

(17.'->.s I'RODrCTION AND C()NST:M1'- 
rioN of ZIne In 1907. Walter Kenton In- 
i-'Mlls. (Eiig. and Mln. .loiirn.. .lune i:i, IJIos ; 
I pp.1 Statistics of zinc ore production In 
Ihe lulled States, Canada and .Mexico; 
spelter production ; and consumption accord- 
ing to uses. The |)rnducllon of zinc in 1007 
Is compared with that In lOOB. 20c. 

Notes on Zliu' IV. A. Iliimholdl Si'xion. 
iMech. lOiig., .May S. 1008; 3 ^» pp. 1 (;oes 
Inlo Ihe smelling and rellnlng of zinc, the 
miiniil'iicliiri' of zlni' while, iiiid di'seribes some 
eli'clrolylle processi'S ; lo be eoilllliucd. -Jdc. 


(17(li» ItltlllSIl col, I'MlllA -The Correla- 
tion of the Inlernalloiial Strata- II. Horace 
E. Evans. iMIii W Id., .lune 13, 1008; 2 
pp.) II Is proposed lo Introduce n new 
system of nomenclntiiri- whicb would be com- 
njon to Cauiida and Ibe Inlled States and 
would ovi'ri'oui.' local prejudice. 20c. 

(17(11 CANADA Report on a I'lU-tlon of 
Norlbwsleni Onliirlo Traversed bv the Nn- 
ilonal Tianseonilneutal Railway Between 
Lake Nlplgon and Sturgeon Lake. W. H. 
Collins. (Can. Dc-pl. of Mines. Geol. Surv. 
Ilranch. loos ; 2:1 pp. I map). This Is 
ri'port on Ihi' region betwieii Lake Nlplgon 
and Sturgeon lake, bordering the National 
Transconllnenlal railway line. The report 
covers the topography, and Ihe geology, econ- 
omic gi'ology. glacial geology, etc. 

11702 C.\NAI)A— A I'arllal Bibliography 
of Publluillons Referring lo Ihe Geology and 
Mineral liesoiircs of Alberta. Brlllsli Co- 
lumbia and the Yukon, .1. C. Gwllllm. (Can. 
Mln. .loiini.. .Imie I. 1008: 2 pp.) A con 
lluuatlon of Ibis bibliography. 20c. 

f.7(i:( DIVINING ROD--A Sclenlinc Test. 
]■;. T, Wherry. (Eng, and Mln, .loiirn.. .lunc 
0, 1008; li, p.) lleaeribes the divining rod 
and gives the result of a test made. 20c. 

•J7H4 — GEDRITIC — On the Occurrence of 
GeUrlle In Canada. Norton Evans and J. 
Austin Bancroft. (.Vmer. .lourn. of Scl., 
.lune, 1008; 3'/4 pp.) A geologic description 
of the district In which this mineral is 
found. (iOc. 

Tnconformily and Deposits. Olio Rubi. (Mln 
and Scl. I'ress, .June <i, 1008; 2H pp,) It 
Is shown bow the application of the Idea, 
llial deposits cimlalning Ihe useful metals 
were always accompanied l>y dynamic move, 
meni resulting in great Ussuns, and fracturi s 
in which the ores were deposited, eompit-tely 
mlsronslrued the facts In ascribing an origin 
for the lead and zinc ore deposits of the 
.Missouri-Kansas district. Illustrated. 20c. 

070I1- GENESIS OF ORES In llie Light of 
Modern Theory. Horace V. Winchell. 1 1'opu- 
iar Scl. Monthly, ,lune, 1008; H\i, pp.) A 
general discussion of this Iniiiortant subject, 
liolntlng out some of the more Important 
fads which I'Xperlence and science have 
broughl to life. -IOc. 

0707- GLAI'BER SALT— Das Vorkommen 
von Glaubersalz (.MIrahlllt) uiid Solquelien 
am .lenlssej-l'lusse in Sibirien. M. A. No- 
womejsky. (Zeii, f. prak. Geol., Apr., 1008; 
;i pp.) Itescrilies the discover.v, Ihe geologl- 
eal occurrence, and composlllon of these so- 
dium sulphate deposits, and suggests their 
economic value. 40c. 

ORE BODIES and the Occurrence of Shoots 
in .Metalliferous D.^poslls. R. II. Sales, F. L. 
Ransome, M. Boehmer. (Econ. (ieol., .lune- 
,Iuly, 1008; 14 pi>. ) Discussion of J. D. 
Irvlng's article in the .March issue of 
■■Economic Geology," dealing with ore shoots 
at Butte, Mont., the relation between certain 
ore bearing veins and gouge-lllle<l llssures 
and secondary enrichment and Impoverish- 
ment. r.Dc. 

(17tiO--M.MlVI,AND The Succession of 
Faunas in the Portage and Chemung Forma- 
tions of Marvland. (Hiarb'S K. Swartz. 
(.lourn. of Geld.. .May-June, 1008; 18i.i pp.) 
The author proves the existence of Ihe Ithaca 
fauna In Maryland. GOc. 

WATERS. .lames F. Kemp. (.Mln. and Scl. 
I'ress. May 23, 1008; 3 '4 pp. 1 A general 
discussion of meteoric and magmatic waters, 
mori' especially In Iheir relation lo the origin 
(.f ore deposits. 20c. 

(1771 — NEW .lERSEV— Features Indicative 
Id' I'hyslographic Conditions Prevailing at 
the Time of the Tra|) Extrusions In New 
.lersev. C. N. Fenner. I.lourn. of Oeol., 
May-.Iune, 1008; 28 1/3 pp. 1 Treats of the 
elastics, the shales, the sandstones, the con- 
glomerates and other rock formations of New 
.lersey. IlluslralcMl. (tdc. 

(1772 ORE DETOSITS— Tendencies in the 
Study of Ore Deposits. Waldemar I.ind 
gi-en. I Mln. and Scl. Press, April 2ri, 1008; 
4V4 |>|i.) Gives the :;istory of Ihe study of 
ore deposits, the advances made and the 
methods employed ; points out the trimd of 
modern thought as compared with opinion 
bilil In bygone years. 20c. 

(1773 SOUTH AFRICA — Ueberslcht Uber 
die nutzbaren Lagerstiltten Slldafrikas. F. 
W. Volt. (Z<dt. f. prak. Oeol., Apr., lOOS ; 
.s pp.1 A descrlptUui of the character and 
geological occurrence of the gold-hearing rocks 
of South Africa. 40c. 

0774- -TEXAS— Paleozoic Formation in 
Trans Pecoc, Texas. G. B. Richardson. 
lAmer. .lourn. of Sci., .Tune, 1008: lOUj pp.) 
.\ discussion of the Cambrian, Ordoviclan, 
Silurian, Carboniferous and Guadalu|>ian 
roiks. 00c. 

tl77.'V- WEST AUSTRALIA -The DIslrlbu 
tlon and Occurrence of tlie Baser Metals In 
Western .\u8tralia. Edward S. Simpson and 
("has. G. Gibson. (West. .Vus. Geol., Surv.. 
Bull. No, 30; 1007; 120 pp.) A bulletin 
compiled with the obji'ct of assisting pnw- 
peelors and persons lnterest<»d In (he search 
for metals other than gcdd ; meompanled 




(177(i BLASTING STUMPS— Methods and 
Coat of Blasting 1100 Slumps. (Eng.-Con., 
.lune 3. 1008; 1 p.) Dato which Is of Interest 
In connection with Ihe construction of wagon 
roads In a wooded country. 20c. 

0777— BRAZII, — Atoplte and the Manga- 
nese Deposits of Miguel Burnler. Brazil. E. 
Ilussak. (Mln. .lourn.. May 30, 1008; V(, 
p.) .\ short geologic disciisslim of (he de 
posits which occur chiefly in the State of 
Slinas Geraes. 40c. 

077S— COLORADO — The Montezuma Mln 
Ing nisirlct. Etienne .\. Ultter. (Mines 
and Mln.. .Tune. lOOS ; 4 np.) Location of 
the district, nnd a description of Ihe sulphide 
belt, the ores, ond methods of mining and 
trans|>ortatlon ; illnstrated. 20c. 

IN PLACE — The Relation of iieasity, 
Porosltv, and Moisture to the Siieclflc Volume 
of Ores. Warren .1. Mead. lEcon. Geol.. 
June-July. 1008; « pp. 1 The methods of 
determining speclflc gravity. |>oro8iiy and 
moisture are drserilied. and the use ol a dia- 
gram in deiernilning the cubic contents of a 
material, as It lies on th- ground. In order 
lo estimate the amount In place or tonnage 
ripresented by a given excuvallon. or to 
compare dllTerent grades of ore is explained. 

0780— CONVEVIN<; of Mat. rials. i« hem. 
Engr., May. 1008; 14 pp.) In this number, the- 
methods of conveying In which Ihe material 
is moved in a more or less steady stream 
are considered. 40c. 

0781- DIAM(jNIi DRILLING— Notes on 
Cost of Diamond Drilling Id the Boundary 
District. Frederick KelTer. (Can. Mln. 
Journ., Mar. I.">. lOOH ; 2'-.. pp.i Contains 
tables giving In detail the progress and costs 
of drilling work which has liein cirrled on 
more or less continuously in the min<-s cf the 
itritish Columbia Copper Company for the- 
last three years. I'ajwr read before Can. 
.Mln. Inst. 20c. 

0782— FIRE EXTIN(;i ISilMi:\T— I'an 

Steam be Used as a Fire Exdngiilshc-r : .V. 
G. Williams. (Pracl. Engr.. .lun.'. 10i'8: «1 
p.) An old woolen mill near Bradford. Eng- 
land. was made a« Inflammatory as p<isslble 
and sit on lire. .\ full head of steam, U- 
(roduced into Ihe building, prevented con- 
llngatlon. 20c. 


Use of Carbon Dioxide. Sydney F. Walker. 
(.Mines and .Mln., June. 1008: 2 pp.) Give* 
melliods of generating and using this gas 
In extinguishing mine flres. and mentions 
examples of its successful appiir.tiiou. '.'Oc. 

0781- <;UATEM.\L.V — -Mining and Trans- 
portation In ("jiiatemala. t'larence *'. Sample. 
(Eng. and Mln. Journ.. June i:i. 1008; 1 ij 
|)p. ) Conditions In the mining industry of 
Guatemala are described and attention Is 
called to the fact that the government doe» 
not look favorably on (he advent of pros- 
[leclors into the country. 20c. 

078.-, — HEAD FRA.MES .Mine Head 

Frames. E. E. Ward. iNorlhwest .Mln. 
.Ni"Ws. June. 10(i8: 1 p. 1 Various ty|M'« of 
head-frames are, discussed and Illustrated by 
ilrawings. diagrams anil photographs. Paper 
read before the Mln. Eng. Soc. Washington 
School of .Mines. 20e. 

.Method of Water Storage Employed at No. j 
Pit of the I'Zscarpeile .Mines. Snlnle-Clnlre- 
Deville. (Trans. North of Eng. Inst, of Mln. 
and Mech. Engr.. April. lOos : 7 pp.) De- 
scriiitlon of a simple Inslalbition having re- 
gard lo the more or less mmiilete fliling of 
the hollows left by working, (o (he settlement 
which the stradi undergo, and to the In- 
fluence of the process upon the maintenance 
of the roads. 

07.S7 -MINE SUPPLIES- The Ijilmratory : 
Its Economic Value. .\. Mc\. Johnston. 
(Journ. Chem.. Mel. and Min. Soc. of South 
Africa. April. 1008: 2 pp. 1 Author's reply 
lo dLscusslon by members of the Society. 

B7S8_.MINE WATERS: Their Composition 
and Value. .Mfreil C. Ijine. (Mln. Wld.. June 
0. 1008; 1 p.) Discusses mine w.iters and 
their relnllon (o ore ileimslts. with six-clal 
reference to those of the Ijike Superior 
copper and Iron districts. "JOc, 

0780— NORWAY- Mining In Norway. F. 
E. Drummond-IIay. (Mln. Journ.. May .3". 
lOO.S ; \ p.l Reviews the Iron ore trade 
and the copper induslrv during 1007. and con- 
tains notes on nickel and silver, and th<» 
manufacture of linc from low-grade or.-«. 

11700 — PERU a.s a Field of Inlpml to 
Mining Men and Investors. L. Lima. (Mln. 
Scl.. June 4 and II. 1008; pp. 1 A short 
aciMiuni. written l>y a citlien of Peru, of 
the topography, climate, and mineral re- 
sources: contains also nlher Inli resting facts : 
illustrated; to bo continual. 4(ic. 

0701 — PIPE — Tests of (^aat Iron and Rein- 
forced Concrete Culvert PI|X'. Arthur N. 
Talbot. (Univ. of 111. Bull. No. 22. April. 
100s ; 00 pp.) Tests of cast Iron, concrete 
and relnforcwl concrete pipe to determine 
their resistance to pn'ssur<- for culverts in 
railway embankment. 

TIES -Capitalizing and Promoting Mining 
Properties, W. A. Crooks. (Mln. Wld.. 
June 0. 10(18; 2'< pp.) Shows how mining 
enteri>rlses are promoted and states the 
|)i>sltlon of the proraotor and the public. 

0703— QUEBEC -The Mlmral Industry of 
Qnebec. (Eng. and Mln. Journ.. June 2o. 
lOOS; >i p.) This Is an abstract from the 
report of (he Suix'rIntendeni of Mines for 
the Province of Queb<v dui*lng lfK">7. and 



July 4, I903. 

contains a description of the mineral re- 
sources, consisting of iron, copper, gold ana 

6794— QUEBEC— Mining in tlie Eastern 
Townsliips of Quebec. Fritz Cirkel. (Can. 
Min. Jom-n., June 1, 1908: 2 pp.) A d s- 
<!ussion of tlie mineral resources of tnis dis- 
trict with special reference to the asbestos 
and chrome industries : illustrated. 20c. 

07!).-.— REPORTS— Current Monthly Re- 
ports of Mines. H, S. Hcnny. (Eng. and 
Min. Journ,, June 6, 19US : 3 pp.) Tells 
how to collect information concerning opera- 
tions and arrange the data so that they may 
be easily compared and summarized. 20c. 

CT'.H)— KTSSIA— Mming in the Batoum 
District Russia. Consul Stevens. (Mm. 
.loiirn May Ho. 1908; 11/2 PP.) Discusses 
t\u- copper! manganese, and petroleum in- 
dustries iu this district: accompanied by a 
map of consular districts of Batoum. 4()c. 
6707- SHAFT LININ'i Al"lictitung cines 
Kiivelagebruchs im,i \l <U-r baar 
^nd Moselbergwerksges..lK,l,:,,, .u Karlingen 
Lothringen. F. Jungsi. H.lii.kiiiil. May 
It! 1908; 31/2 pp.) Descnl,es the occurrence 
of' a break in the cast-iron lining of a coal 
mine shaft, and the means taken to repair 
it. 40c. 

,j7<)S_SHAFT SINKING— Deep Shaft Sink- 
mg and Mining in South Africa. (Iron and 
Coal Tr, Rev., June 5, 1908, 1 p.) .inis 
irticlc is the result of five years' experience 
tn shaft sinking in South Africa, . and dis 
cusses such points as labor, explosives, tim- 
be?fng, and briefly mentions other points of 
interest. Paper read before No. Stafford- 
shire Inst, of Mm. and Mechan. Engmeers. 

fjTnq SHAFT SINKING — Methods of 

Shaf? Sinking. (Iron and Coal Tr. Rev 
Miv -i" 1908: 1%. pp.) Describes the Kmd- 
Chaudi'on method, the freezing process, smk- 
fng by means of drop shafts, and subaqueous 
sinking by means of sackborers, arid gives the 
applicatidn of the diffeent methods: illus- 
trated. 40c. 

fiSOO— SHAFT SINKING in Quicksands and 
Boulders. George W.,.Stuart. , (•Tou'in- M'° 
Soc. of Nova Scotia, \ ol. XI, 1908. oV* PP) 
Description of a method employed in a 
countrv far from transportation, where m- 
gcnuity played the principal part. 

6801— STREAM DIVERSION-^Methods 
and Cost of Building a Concrete-Steel Cul- 
ver to Carry an Irrigation Canal Under a 
Creek Bed. Henry A. Young. (Eng. Con.. 
June 10. 1908: 11/3 pp. I The data m this 
-article should be valuable to the minm« 
engineer who is confronted with the problem 
of diverting a stream. 20c. 

R802--STREAM DIVERSION— Diverting 
the Rivers at the Loretto Mine. (Iron Ir. 
Rev. June 18, 1908 :. 3% pp.) /n interest, 
Ing and unusual engineering undertaking at 
the Uoretto mine on the east end of the 
Menominee range. By diverting the course 
of the Sturgeon river the mine workings 
were made safe. Illustrated. 20c. 

6S0;i— TASMANIA— Mining in geehan 
-silvn 1 c ■nl li'irbl T;ism:uiia. Ralph Stokes. 
',Mi„ \VM, .1,.,,;. .;. I'.ns; 2% pp.) Men- 
li, IIS ilh> cliscivi-ry nf i_';ili'na and its ef- 
fect iiiiiiii siork sj.iTiiliii ion ; goes into the 
' Kcologv nf the silver-lead ilPiiosits. and also 
into Industrial conditions; illustrated. -Oc. 
6804— TIMBERING— Mine Methods and 
TimberiTiu' W. H Storms. (Am. Min. Kev., 

June 6. inns- 1 1, ,,1. . Tlie neeessilV iind 

usefulne.- .. he.nvr- M, -lien.: ';;•« .tJ^V 

are pi .1 ; m ininiiim lll.i-ireted 

liy- drawiuiis. To lie ei)u!iuui;tl. -"': 

680.5 TIAIBERING — Mine Methods and 

Timbering. W. H. Storms. ( Am. Min. Rev., 
Mav •' 19118: % p.) Discusses the placing 
(il ■|iinii'is in inclined shafts and lining the 
ueis the necessity for perfect align- 
nniii eiiil eautions against carelessness: to 

and Sci. Press, June 13, 1908; 2 1/3 pp.) 
The old cumbersome Cornish pumps were 
insufficient to handle the volume of water on 
the Comstock lode and the mines were forced 
to shut down. New pumping installations 
have enabled these mines to resume opera- 
tions. Illustrated. 20c. 

6810— WASHINGTON— The Lake Chelan 
Country. S. G. Dewsnap. (Northwest Mm. 
Tou?n May, 1908 ; 2 pp.) Briefly describes 
fhe ra'inerYr resources of this Washington 
district. 20c. 

TICE— VI E. Davenport Cleland. 1 Monthly 
.iiurn. Chamber of Mines of W. A Mar. 31, 
1908; 19 pp.) A complete illustrated de- 
scription of the methods of stoplng and tim- 
bering and the costs of the same. 8<)c. 


6800— TIMBERING— Steel Supports for 
Mine Drifts. R. B. Woodworth. (Eng. and 
Min Journ.. June 13, 1908: 11/3 pp.) An 
imnroved form of steel support for mine 
•drifts is described and illustrated with draw- 
ings. Abstract of a paper in Proc. Eng. Soc. 
of W. Penn. 20e. 

6S0T — TRINIDAD — Mineral Resources of 
■Trinidad. John Cadman. (Iron and Coal 
Tr ''ev., June 5, 1908; 2/3 p.) Iron Ores, 
erf-n'-itic schists, limestone, coal, bituminous 
TOirerils manitU :i-)ilialt and petroleum 

form the pri -lal productsof this 

island. Absiie.' .1 1 i- read betore the 

Instn. of Min. Imiuiii-i lOc. 

n^os- TTINNF.l. l,lNlNi;S Si reekeiiansleni 
mittels Eisenbeton. W. Siail. 1 1 iln. Kar.i , 
■May 9. 1908: 2 pp.) Deserilie. Ihe nieili.ul. 
of ll-ii'g a coal mine entry 111 <,eriiKiiiy 
with reinforced concrete. 40c. 

6809— UNWATERING— Recent Work on 
the Comstock. Walter D. O'Brien. (Min. 


6812— CRUSHING— Ore Reduction Pjac- 
tice W A. (Aust. Min. Stand., May 6, 
1908: % p.) The article discusses tli6 vari- 
ous conditions influencing the selection of 
rock crushers. 40c. 

Dressine Sulphide Ores. E. B. >\ ilson. 
^Mhfeslnd mFu., June, 1908 v^^ "?„' «Vr? 
some causes for poor results in concentra 
tion and points out the importance of adapt- 
ing tlic methods of treatment to the peculiari- 
ties of the ores. 20c. 


METALS— Folgerungen lur (Ik; 1 .m hniK aus 
dem heutigen Stande unseia r Likeniit us a(?s 
elektischen Leitungswides^tandes ' " '«« 
talleelerungen. W. Guertler. (Melallurgie, 
May 22 1908; 4 pp.) Discusses the relative 
conductivity of several metals and their al- 
loys. 40c. 

6815-LABOR.\TORIES-The .*Ieta""^gl- 
cal and Chemical Laboratories in the INa- 
?fonal Physical Laboratory. Walter Rosen- 
bain (I^on and Coal Tr. Rev., May 15, 
1908 • 3 pp.) An account of the present 
state 'of the department with special regard 
to the work which is either in hand or which 
Se department is capable of undertaking. 
Paper read before the Iron and Steel In- 
stitute. 40c. 

6816— SMELTER— Constructing a Crude 
Smelter for Prospectors. Francis C. Nicholas. 
^Min Wld., June 6, 1908; 1% PP.) De- 
scribes an old Spanish-American smelter 
Ind tills how it may be utilized profitably in 
regions far distant from transportation or 
a "modern smelter. 20c. 

6817— SMELTER SMOKE— Solving the 
Snielter Smoke Problem, (Min. Sci., June 
11 1908- 1"/. pp.) This article describes 
various tests and experiments made to over- 
come the difliculty caused by smelter smoke^ 
Gives an account of a method evolved by 
C B. Sprague. 20c. 

6818— SMELTER SMOKE— Arsenic in Veg- 
etation Exposed to Smelter Smoke. B. lb.. 
Swain and W. D. Harkins. (Journ. Am. 
Chem Soc, June, 1908; 13 1/3 pp.) Dea s 
with the distribution of the more notable 
constituents of the smelter smoke, particularly 
arsenic, over the district to the vicinity of 
a copper smelter near Anaconda, Mont. 8UC. 
Dou'-ail Furnaces. Evans W. Buskett. (Mm. 
Wld, June 13, 1908; % p.) Adoption of a 
system which prevents the formation of scale 
in pipes and makes possible the utilization of 
impure water. Ulnstrated. 

Smelting of White-Metal Drosses and Rest- 
dm s and Ihe Mtinttfaeture of Solder and 
r.iM.iii MetaN Lionel D. Waixel. I Brass 
\\\.l line r.iOS: 3% pp.) Deals with the 
1,,, ] iiniiii ■ Ml ilioss from white metal or other 
leu'suieliii," alloys. Illustrated. 

Journ,. June 6, 1908;, % P'j,„,..Df "'jjlf ,^Ji': 
dilterent types of blowing engines of this com 
pany ; Illustrated. 20c. „„,„iv- 

Some Results Due to Improvement in Boll- 
^"aTd' Furnace Design. A Bement^ (Journ^ 
West Soc Eng., April, 1908: i4 pp.) J^"is 
MPer presents one'^ feature of an extended 
studv to improve on present practice, which 
can "be materially advanced. 40c. 



6826— CALCINING KILNS. Greville Jones 
r " C"a?ci^n?n1 Tn' ^o^l^'^}^ 


of Min. Engineers. 40c. 

6827-COMPRESSORS-Les Compresseurs 



r,8''8— CONVEYING— Continuous Convey 


g?vilig^ their capacity, .Po^er /•equ'i'ed, and 
Sther valuable information: illustrated. 

Pana'ma Canal. F. B. Maltby. (Eng.. Con 
Tnne^O 1908 ; 2 1/3 pp.) Gives a brief de- 
icnlnon of the machinery used in connection 
with the Isthmian Canal Commission, and 
ncludes four distinct types of dredges of 
entirely different characteristics. From Proc. 
Eng. Club of Philadelphia, Jan., 1908. .t>c. 

trie Furnace at the Village Deep. C. A. 
Manne"heim (So. African Min. Journ Ma.v 
16 1908 ■ 1 p.) A new design of electric 
Ji^nice used in South Africa to heat drills 
before sharpening. 20c. 

6831- ELECTRIC POWER at the Claus^ 
thai Mines Alfred Gradenwitz (Eng. and 
Min Journ., June 6. 1908 :. 41/2 PP.) Com- 
p rte description of a plant in which ctarrent 
fi'om producer gas engine and turbine plants 
drives the ore-dressing works during the daj 
and the mine hoists at night; illustrated. 


68"1— 'AERIAL ROPEWAY at a Spanish 
Mine (Engineer. Lond., May 22. 1908: 3 
np ) Disenssien '.I a ropeway haulage in- 
stallatinn at ilie .\sluriana mines in Spain, 
"using the siiiiile riiilless rope system, one 
rope perfuiiiiin^ tlie double duties of haul- 
ing and supporting ropes. 40c. 

6822 — BELT CONVEYOR. C. Kemble 
Baldwin. (Proc. A. S. M. E., June, 1908: 
■'41:, \-,y< ) Iii<^(ii«<es the different kinds of 
r,eli" iiieir propcr arrangement. 
ea|iaeii\. iliseiiai -lai; devices, and the driv- 
ing maeliiiieiy ami power required: illus- 

6823— BLOWING ENGINES— Allis-Chal- 
mers Blowing Engines. (Eng. and Min. 

fiS-lo—FUELING EQUIPMENT— 'Engineer 
ing Pnictice as Applied to the Fueling Equip- 
ment of Power Houses Harry P. Cochrane 
I.Tourn. Frank. Inst., June, 1908, 22% pp.) 
The article deals with the economy of me- 
chanical devices for handling fuel and de- 
scries the machinery for power plants of 
varying capacities. Illustrated. faOc. 

6833-GAS ENGINES and Prodttcers W. 
B Tuttle. (Elec. Trac. Wkly.. June 4 1909. 
"'pp ) The paper deals with the action of 
producer gas in gas engines, and gives the 
average consumption of various coals and 
gas. 20c. 

6834— GAS PRODUCER PLANT--Test of 
a Small Suction Gas Producer Plant H. B. 
MacFarland. (Journ. West. Soc. Eng., Apiil. 
1908 -35% pp.) Describes the essenti.11 
features of a gas producer, gives its require- 
ments, describes its operation and a tisi 
which was made. 40e. 

6S3.5— GAS PRODUCERS- Producer Gas 
and Gas Producers. R. T. Strohm. (Pract. 
Fngr" .Tune, 1908: 3% pp.) The economy 
and efliciency of steam engines and gas pro- 
ducers are discussed, together with the dura- 
tion and automatic control of the gas. 20c. 
it.s •(; IKIIST Mine Hoist Operated by Im- 
nuNe Wall Wbeels. ( Kni. and Min. Journ., 
Tune c. I'los ■_' nil 1 lieseribes a mine hoist. 
the ilruiii nf whieh is driven by a pinion on 
the shaft of the reversing wheel, the rope 
being carried 750 ft. to the head sheave: 
illustrated. 20c. % 

6837 HOISTING — Winding Engine Tests, 

with Notes and Suggestions on the Design 
and Testing of Plant. S. L. Thackcr. (T-on 
and Coal Tr. Rev.. June 5. 1908: 2 pn.) The 
article contains methods of testiner. '"'''" 
ments employed, description of plants tested, 
steam consumption and design of hoistmg 
nlnnts. Abstract of naper read before the 
Brit. Instn. of Min. Engineers. 40c. 

CHINERY. George F. Titcomh. (Proc. A. S. 
M F. June. 1908: 331/2 pp.) Discusses in 
detail the machinery for imloading ore on the 
Great Lakes and goes into the methods or 
hnndling and storing coal by the Dodge 
system ; fully illustrated. 

6839 — HOISTING DRUM — A New Winding 
Drum at the Robinson Deen. Ltd. E. G(iffe. 
(.Tonrn Transvaal Inst. Mech. Fng.. May. 
'908 ■ 2V^ pp.) Describes the installation and 
'letnils of construction of this drum; illus- 

The Efigmeering and Mining Journal 


NEW YORK, JDLY 11, 1908. 

NO. 2. 

The North Side of the Coeur d'Alene District 

Deposits of Lead, .Silver and Gold in This Region Promise to 
Become as Productive as Those of the More Famous South .Side 



'I lie Otiir d'Alcnc district cmliraccs 
thai niouiuainoiis region in the iiorth- 
raslern portion of Slioshonc county, 
Malm, which is drained by the North 
iikI South forks of the Ca-ur d'Alene 
nver and their numerous tributaries. 
The Nortti fork sweeps along the north- 
mi and western borders of the district 
while its southern limit is defined by 
the St. Joe range. To the cast rises 
a rugged chain of mountains marking 
the dividing line between Idaho and 

drainage li.ism-,, ilrained by the .\orlh 
and the South fork of the Coeur d'Alene 
river, respectively. 

On the South Side lie VVardner, Burke, 
Mace, Gem, Wallace, .\lullaii and other 
canip.s, with their mines which have madi 
the Coeur d'Alene famous as a lead pro- 
ducer, while on the North Side are Delta, 
Eagle City, Murray, Liltlefield and Ra- 
ven, all big gold producers in their day, 
and a large section of senii-dcveloped 
miner.d country de-iliiied to add greatly 

liagle. Heaver and Union, and embraces 
a gold, a lead-silver and a copper belt. 
It comprises a succession of serrated 
mountain ranges and sharp ridges whose 
loftiest peaks rise to a bight of more 
than 6,00O ft. The general topography 
is made up of sleep and rugged hills 
set among a tangle of tortuous valleys, 
intersecting gulches and narrow ravines. 
The angle of the hills rising abruptly 
from these affords excellent opportunity 
for deep explnratiiin liy adit-., and most 


It the Hitter 

iH-ur d'.Mene 

llu- district 


Mniitaiia. Ihcse an- .pur 
Ko'U iMii^e. known a. ihe 
mniinlaiiis and from ihi' 
lakes its name. 

IMie district has l)een locally subdivided 
iiu.l llie North Side and the South Side, 
a -uli.livision which hinges upon the fact 
ihal tlu' region is traversed near its cen- 
t'T li> a rid^e of mountains trending 
iMsl and west and giving rise to two 

•iJi'iM'Viil ninuiiin>r. liillca (;oli!i.n Chest 
I'ompnn.v,, ^i)rtay, Idaho. 

>f the Coeur d'Alenes. 
copper production of 

to the lead output 
and to the gold an< 
the districl. 


The miner.d resources of the South 
Side have received occasional mention 
in periodicals and technical publications, 
while those of the North Side have 
iK\er lieen more than touched upon. 
The North Side is divided into si.x min- 

of the mines are worked in tbi> ni.iiiner. 
The rocks of the region h.ivc Iwen sub- 
jected to extensive di>integration; the bed- , 
rocks are covered with detritn^, '\n 
many localities to a depth of hundreds 
of feet, and only in the most precipitous , 
places docs the unaltered country rock 
show up. The detritus of the higWands 
has been washed into the main ralleys 
in such quantities that the larger streams 
possess but very slight fall, and in lower 
ing districts, i.e., Sunmiit, Cceur d'.\lene, portions of their course, become, nieaij.. 



July II, ig 

deriiig streams. During the major por- 
tion of the year the water supply is 
plentiful, but with the advent of the 
summer, usually lasting from July i to 
October i, the creeks run very low and 
at times are almost dry. 

In some period of geological time this 
region was submerged by the Pacific 
ocean. Later m the earth's history the 
Cascade range was thrown up, which de- 
fined the western boundary of a great 
inland sea. During the existence of this 

country rock, and they became channels 
through which hot mineralized solutions 
ar.d vapors from the earth's interior 
found their way to the surface, deposit- 
ing their mineral contents as they passed 
among the rocks which lined the fissures. 
It was during this era that most' of 
the gold-bearing veins appear to have 
Ijeen formed, .^t some subsequent pe- 
riod a series of syenite dikes forced 
their way through the sedimentaries pro- 
ducing additional folding and fracturing 
of strata and causing contact metamorph- 
ism in the vicinity of the intrusives. The 

from shales through slates to sandstones 
and quartzites. The nietamorphism 
which they have undergone has destroyed 
all traces of fossils, but by correlation 
with igneous formations Ransome has 
shown them to be Algonkian and Pre- 
■ Qambrian in age. Their total thickness 
is known to exceed 12,000 ft. These sedi- 
mentaries are probably underlain by 
granite and syenite, stringers of which 
come to the surface as dikes or lacco- 

The Prichard slates, which cover a 
large area, constitute the oldest and the 


inland sea its shallow waters deposited 
enormous masses of sediments. Subse- 
quently the bed of this sea was elevated 
and became dry land. The sedimentar- 
ies, under enormous pressures produced 
by this upheaval were folded, crumpled 
and shattered, while innumerable fissures 
were formed. In this complex folding 
process intense heat was developed and 
this, in the presence of water, produced 
the phenomenon known as nietamorphism, 
changing the silts and shales into slates, 
and the sandstones into quartzites. 

Many of these fissures followed closely 
along the general dip and strike of the 

(luartzitcs affected were converted into 
dark, fine-tc.\tured rocks, of the horn- 
fels type, and the silicious slates were al- 
tered and in places recrystallized. 

These syenite dikes possess a north- 
cast trend, while the productive lead- 
silver veins strike northwest. It is prob- 
able that the lead-silver , deposits and 
possibly some of the gold deposits owe 
their formation to these plutonic dikes. 

Rocks of the Region 

The country rock of the Coeur d'Alene 
region comprises a series of sedimentar- 
ies of great age and thickness, varying 

dominant formation of the region. They 
attain in places a known depth of 8000 
ft. These slates vary in color from blu- 
ish black to light gray, and contain nu- 
merous strata of sandstones and "quartz- 

Resting coniformably upon the Prich- 
ard slates, is the Burke formation, grad- 
ing from thin-bedded and light-colored 
sandstones to gray and white sericitic 
quartzites. In its widest exposure this 
formation shows a thickness of about 
2000 ft. The Burke gradually merges 
into the overlying Revett formation, 
which consists of thick-bedded white 

July II, 1908. 



<)n;irtzitc-s, having a niaximuiii thickness 
of about 1500 feet. 

All the auriferous formations arc 
ftjunci in the Prichard slates, while the 
principal lead deposits occur in the Burke 
quartzite, although some smaller ones are 
found in the Revett quartzite, and the 
Prichard slates. 

The only known eruptives of any con- 
secpicncc are syenite, and porphyry. An 
important scries of steeply dipping syen- 
ite dikes traverses the country in a north- 
west-southeast direction, cutting across 
the sedimentary formations. These dikes 
vary from a few feet to several miles in 
width, and come to the surface in many 
places. The largest known is the one 
running northeast from Gem to Nine 
Mile cafion and thence through Sunset 

111 these. The main structural faults ap- 
pear to have been formed subsequent to 
tlie deposition of the ore. 

i'issures are frequent, and generally 
mineralized to a greater or less degree 
They cut the formation in a general 
northwest-southeast direction, and their 
size in many places seems to depend 
upon their proximity to the intrusives. 

Three general types of commercial ore- 
bodies are known : Placers and veins 
yielding gold, lead-silver deposits and 
copper ores. The vein filling of the gold 
deposits consists of quartzite, slate, cal- 
cite, siderite and chlorite. .As a rule, 
the ore lies wholly in the sedimentaries, 
although it is known to occur at the 
contact of the sedimentary formation 
.uul the svcnite. 

intersect the main vein. Rich pockets are 
often found where breaks or depressions 
in the strata occur. 

Cha^acteb of Oke 

The mineralized rock is often identical 
with the country rock on either side. 
Quartz seems to be the main indication 
of gold, but 'this docs not always hold, 
for places are known where silica 
abounds but the metal fails. RiblKm 
quartz generally carries persistent anil 
rich gold ore. 

The gold is orften in a very finely di- 
vided state. It is foun<l sprinlcled about 
in the gangue smd a large part of it ap- 
pears to be locked up mechanically in 
the pyrites. It varies in fineness between 
750 anil 000. the remaining units conslst- 

ii'FN iissrm;. ihmiii iiii.r.. coliikn eiiKsr 

M 1 .N K 

in \\ N i;iiri;K, inuin vfin, golpex ihkst mi.vk 



muuntain ;muI into (iiMiiile and Cement 

TiiK Ohekodies 

rile entire region has been subjected 
to extreme dynamic metamorphism, both 
regional and contact, and at the time 
<if these disturbances the great pressures 
exerted caused cleavage planes and 
joints. These generally occur at right 
singles to tlie dip of the rock. In fresh 
fractures tlie joints arc often scarcely 
perceptible, but as weathering progresses 
tliey show plainly, and the rock gradual- 
ly falls to pieces. Although folding un- 
doubtedly affects the deposition of ore in 
the gold deposits, it does not appear to 
iiilluence the deposition of lead-silver 
■■^res. Faulting is very common, and in 
many cases due to the eruptive intrusions ; 
the faults generally occur at right angles 

riie gold ores are found in veins strik- 
ing north and inter-bedded with and ap- 
p,irently conforming in strike and dip to 
the country slates. In many instances. 
Iiciwever, there is a slight difference, both 
between the strike and the dip of. the 
gold veins and their inclosing strata. Al- 
though gold-bearing fissure veins occur, 
the general form of gold deposit is the 
bed vein. 

Ore is found at varying intervals along 
the vein as "shoots" or "chimneys," the 
area between these shoots generally con 
sisting of poor or barren vein matter. 
The shoots pitch in every direction. They 
sometimes occur as Iwidies, having a well 
defined lenticular or columnar shape, but 
are often entirely lacking in any distinct 
outline or regularity of fonn. General- 
ly the ore deposits are of greater size 
and value where other veins or branches 

ing of lead, silver and copper. The gold 
as a rule carries little silver. 

Tungsten is -known in several proper- 
ties and occurs in considerable quantities 
in the Golden Chest mine, which pro- 
duced 15 Ions of scheelite in 1907. the 
ore assaying from 61 to 77 ■ per . cent. 
WOi. At the Golden Winnie tungsten is 
also found, generally as a concentrating 
ore, with occ;>siiinaI pieces tht size of an 
apple. Several tons of concentrating ore 
are now on-.-the dump at this mine. 
Scheelite wa«i frequently found in the 
sluice boxes while placer operations Were 
carried on 'in Trail and Pony giilcTies. 
In Eagle gvilcli Dunlap & Smith fiifl 
.scheelite in tlwir- boxes, and one small 
vein has been uncovered niear Ihe Colum- 
bus group. .!!''!■ i ' 
'LEKrtvJSlLX'ER '■ ' '■ 

The Icad-ilh'cV ■^<M'es^'lgtn*rally. lie in 



July II. 1908. 

northwest fissures, cutting across the 
country formation. They occur as plain 
fissure fillings and as metasomatic de- 
posits. A distinctive feature of the 
Coeur d'Alene lead deposits is the asso- 
ciation of quartzite with the ore, all the 
great orcbodies found occurring in 
quartzite formation. 

Although networks of quartz veinlets 
often penetrate the lead ore, the veins 
do not carry any great amount of quartz. 
Lead ore occurs in shoots similar to 
those carrying gold. The lead shoots 
often increase in width and length as 
depth is attained. 

Cerussite, anglesite and pyromorphite 
occur in the oxidized zone as alteration 
products of galena. The carbonates are 
ridier in silver than the sulphides. Iron 
carbonates are common in the upper 
zones,., of the gold veins, as well as in 
■ those of the lead deposits. 

unaltered, the ore diminishes in quantity 
and quality until. it gradually fades away 
into the country reck. 

Deposits of Gold Ore 
The gold ores were formed subsequent 
to disturbances which rendered the rocks 
schistose. Some gold-bearing fissure 
veins are known but the gold deposits 
occur mostly as bed veins. The mineral 
coritents of these bedded veins appear to 
have been introduced by fissures and are 
not due to surficial sedimentary deposi 
tion, as is generally supposed. The form 
of these gold veins is probably due to a 
large extent to the softness and solubil- 
ity of the rocks in which they occur. 
There is a series of such bed veins ex 
hibiting remarkable continuity, and ex 
tending over rather a wide stretch of 
country, but possessing the same charac- 
teristics wherever exposed. They are 

these ascended from the earth's interior 
the silica and sulphides were deposited 
'by reduction of pressure and tempera 
ture as well as by chemical reaction. In 
some instances metasomatic interchange 
has taken place, and the vein matter and 
country rock cannot be differentiated 
Gold frequently occurs with mispickel 
and is sometimes associated with anti- 
'mony, apparently in some mineralogical 
combination. The outcrops of the gold 
veins are generally stained brown frpm 
decomposed pyrites and often have a eel 
lular structure. 

Ores of Other Metals 
The majority of the lead-silver depos 
its in quartzite are metasomatic fissures 
Mineral-bearing solutions circulated 
through these fissures, altering their walls 
and impregnating the adjacent crushed 
quartzite with iron, lead and zinc com- 



^ ^ 


^mbr^r^ ' 







mmk ^ ' ^ 



^^^Hl X 


■ %^^ 



' \^^Mm 





"'3, i ] ^#^^^^^^^1 


The fault-plane fissures generally car- 
ry a gouge. In the quartzite formation 
the predominating class of fissures are 
those having but one principal plane of 
Assuring, although fissures with tvVo 
planes are not infrequent. The fissures 
possess a width varying from that of a 
knife edge to hundreds of feet, and those 
carrying lead-silver ores generally have 
a dip greater than 40 deg. They are usu- 
ally accompanied by a gouge, and one 
■or both of the walls may be slicken- 

The preexistence of an open space, 
liowever slight, to give passage to the 
■ore-bearing solutions, was the essential 
, factor for the formation of orebodies. 
;'i'he greater the shattered area adjoining 
the fissures the greater was the area of 
■contact afforded the mineralized solu- 
tions, and the greater the ore deposition. 
Where the fissure grows smaller and the 
country rock becomes har^ and more 

found in a belt about five miles wide by 
ten miles long, and embrace the follow- 
ing properties : Gold Dust, Golden Chest 
••uid Mother Lode group, Buckeye Boy, 
King, Winnie, Crown Point, Fanny, 
Wake-up-Jim, Fay Templeton, Mammoth 
and Evolution, ■\lthough dissected and 
altered by folding, faulting and erosion, 
there is little doubt that at one time they 
constituted a series of continuous veins 
covering a large territory. 

These veins occur wholly in the Prich 
ard slate formation, this formation vary 
ing from shales to silicious slates and 
containing occasional inter-bedded ribs 
of quartzite. In many places the shales 
have undergone extensive pyritization 
and where the slates have been shattered 
silicification has generally resulted. 

The mineralizing solutions of the gold 
deposits were probably deep-seated, hot, 
carbonated and alkaline waters laden 
with silica and metallic sulphides. As 

pounds. In some cases the iron com 
pounds were subsequently metasomatical- 
ly replaced by lead and zinc sulphides 
Where zinc is plentiful magnetite fre- 
quently occurs. 

Crystals of galena are unusual, the 
mineral being generally of a fine-grained 
texture, which would indicate substitu- 
tion for fine-grained quartzite. The ga- 
lena is often slickenslided and frequently 
contains pieces of quartzite, iron pyrites 
and iron carbonate. The orebodies are 
generally very irregular and the gradual 
gradation of ore into country rock indi- 
cates that the ore was not deposited in 
preexisting open spaces. In slate forma- 
tion the lead deposits generally have a 
hanging and a footwall, but the shoots 
are very irregular and usually of no 
great size. 

The copper deposits have been but 
slightly developed. The general form of 
'deposit appears to be an impregnation of 

July II, 1908. 



quartzite with sulphides ami carbonates in. to s ft. in width. About 150 ft. be- 

ef copper. 

TiiK fini.DEN Chest Property 
The Ciolden Chest series and the Moth 

ncath is the Ciagett vein, varying from 
2 to 6 ft. in thickness. About 25 ft. be- 
low the Ciagett is the Hanging Wall 
vein, which carries from 3 in. to 12 ft. 
er Lode veins have been the heaviest gold of ore. Below the Hinging Wall vein 

r ^«*7>^^^^-^- 

MURk.\>i, Ili.MK 

iJora. The slate filling between these 
veins is seamed with quartz threads and 
stringers, and in many places is badly 
fractured and twisted. Besides the veins 
mentioned, several arc known to exist 
in the upper portion of the hill, but as 
yet they have not been explored. 

Nature of the Deposits 
The veins consist of quartz and slate 
carrying free gold, tellurides, tetrahed- 
rite, pyrite, mispickel, chalcopyrite, ga- 
lena, sphalerite, and scheclitc, the latter 
mineral uccurring in commercial quanti- 
ties, a large tonnage being now exposed. 
Some of the richest lodes consist of 
ribbon quartz, in which the ore occurs 
between the layers of slate and quartz. 
The ore is found along the fi:ot or hang- 
ing wall, often extei'ding from wall to 
wall and at times scattered in bunches 
throughout the vein. 

The veins from time to time widen 
out into ore shoots of considerable mag- 
nitude. One of the most extensive of 
these bodies is in the Klondike tissure on 
the Katie and Dora veins, and from it 
large quantities of high-grade ore have 
been extracted. The Klondike is in 
many ways an exceptional orclx)dy, and 
has produced several fortunes. It is the 
largest and one of the richest gold shoots 
in the entire region. 


producers, liul uiuiuious other lodes have 
coutriliuted coUsi(UT:il)le aniounls. 

I'he (ioldeii Chest group lies about a 
uiile due east of .Murr.iy and embraces 
.\(i claims, mostly patented, in tlie heart 
of the .Murray gold lielt. These claims 
cover Idaho hill. Chest liill and a larj;e 
portiou of Reeder liill. They arc oper- 
.iled l,y the United (ioldeu CMM Miniu^; 
iind Milling Company, .1 consolidation ol 
ilu iiiilden Cliest Company, Katie X 
I )or,i Company, Paymaster Company, 
Unite Creek Placer Company and vari 
ous smaller interests. 

The Chest hill stands at the hea.l of 
Keeder jjulch slightly less than ,1 h.ill 
mill' alioxc the st.imp mill and attains a 
niaxinuim ili-\ation of about 4500 ft, 
rile earliest workings of the property 
are located upon this hill whicli has been 
honeycombed with many miles of tun 
uels. crosscuts, stopes and shafts. The 
Iiill is composed of shales, graywackes. 
-lales .uiil i|uartzites with iuteruieiliate 
\:nietics of ihesc. the sl.'itcs prcdominat 


.\ -erics of iuiporiant ^olil-bearing 
veins are found in this hill, and these 
conform approximately in strike and dip 
with the inclosing country rock. The 
veins possess a general sirike of north 
15 deg. west and dip to the west at 
angles varying from 30 to 60 degrees. 

The uppermost of the series is the 
Gold Rrick vein, which ranges from 6 


and separated from it by jo feet of strati- 
fied gold-bearing slate, is the Footwall 
vein possessing a width of 3 in. to 3 ft. 
I'rom this vein some very rich ore has 
been taken. 

The Hanging and Footwall vems arc 
locallv known as the Katie and the 

.\ short distance within the Idaho tun- 
nel is a large shoot of high-grade ore. 
called the Jumbo, 30 ft. wide, which con- 
tinues for ISO ft. when it is cut off by a 
fault. A few feet beyond thi.s fdult a 
large fissure vein known as the Idaho or 
Paymaster vein is encountered and the 



July II, 1908. 

tunnel follows this for more than 800 ft., 
continuing in ore practically all the way. 
This vein has an average dip of 40 deg 
and follows the general lay of the coun- 
tiy formation. The footwall consists of 
very hard quartzite and the hanging wall 
is slate. Next to the hanging wall is a 
clay gouge, in places ij'2 ft. thick and 
averaging 6 in. A number of tunnels 
and shafts penetrate this vein at various 
points along the hillside, exposing an 
enormous tonnage of low-grade ore, with 
occasional shoots of high-grade material. 
The north slope of Ophir mountain 
rises abruptly to a hight of 1500 ft. above 
the waters of Prichard creek, and in this 
mountain, directly across the creek from 
the Golden Chest, is the Mother Lode 
series. The formation here is almost flat 
and the strata consist of thin layers of 
quartzites and silicious slates with oc- 
casional interbedded quartz veins. The 
Mother Lode series comprises two veins 
conforming to the general country for- 
mation and separated from each other by 
a vertical distance of about 250 ft. These 
two veins are known as the LIpper and 
Lower, or as the Treasure Box and 
Mother Lode veins. Their general strike 
is northeast and they dip to the north- 
west at an angle varying from horizontal 
to 20 deg. The ore is generally in ir- 
regular shoots, raking to the west. The 
pay vein ranges between 2 and 6 in. in 
width. The veins are without doubt a 
continuation of those encountered in the 
Chest ground. 

The Treasure Box, Mother Lode, Oc- 
cident, Daddy and Yosemite companies 
operated on these veins for many years 
and extracted more than $500,000. They 
proved low-grade as a whole but con- 
tained occasional pockets of e.xtremely 
rich ore, much of it free gold. The veins 
were drifted upon for several hundred 
feet, and flat stoping was employed. As 
the veins were followed into the hill the 
ore became too base for the stamp mills 
to handle^ and the mines were closed. 

Prichard V.\llev 

From Littlefield to Reeder gulch a 
great deal of placer gold has been found 
in Prichard valley, especially along the 
north rim. The main valley paid well 
from Wesp gulch to Gold Run. Op- 
posite Dream gulch and about one mile 
below Murray is the "Pit," owned by the 
Coeur d'Alene Placer Company. The north 
rim at this place yielded considerable 
gold. The pit is, as the name indicates. 
a great vi'ater-tilled excavation in the 
gravels of Prichard creek. 

These gravels are hydraulicked, then 
run through riffle boxes and finally 
stacked by means of a lo-in. hydraulic 
elevator, the power for which is fur- 
nished by a 22-in. pipe line, about 22,000 
ft. long, bringing water from the vicin- 
ity of Raven, and delivering it under a 

head of about 90 lbs. per sq. in. at the 
pit. The gravel here is from 18 to 30 
ft. deep, and contains a great number of 
large boulders. 

The gold is found in the immediate 
vicinity of the bed rock, or lying directly 
upon it. The top gravel is practically 
without value. No reliable data are 
available, but the gravel at the pit prob- 
ably runs in the neighborhood of 50c 
per cu. yd., and under present conditions, 
it should cost from 40 to 50c. to move a 
cubic yard of gravel. 

Be.^k Top Le.\d- Silver Mine 
The Bear Top vein outcrops on the 
north slope of Bear Top mountain about 
1200 ft. above Bear Gulch. The crop- 
pings show a mass of white fractured 
quartzite about 20 ft. wide with frequent 
stringers, and bunches of galena and 
carbonates throughout its entire width 
The vein varies in strike from east-west 
to north 60 deg. west and dips from 
45 to 70 deg. to the south. 

The vein was drifted upon to east and 
west, and an ore shoot was discovered 
to the west of the main ore shoot as weli 
as one to the east of it. The main ore 
shoot was found to be 70 ft. long and 
varied from 4 to 35 ft. wide. A raise 
was made from this level to the surface 
and continued in ore throughout its 
length. Over 1500 tons of high-grade 
lead ore carrying silver, gold and copper 
were shipped from this stope. The west 
shoot is about 40 ft. long, and carries 
from 3 to 6 ft. of concentrating ore. The 
east shoot is about 40 ft. long and con- 
tains from 3 in. to 3 ft. of steel galena 
of shipping grade. 

Manager Kiebler is now runnmg a 
1500-ft. crosscut to tap the ledge about 
500 ft. below the present workings, and 
according to late reports has encountered 
4 ft. of galena carrying silver, gold and 
a little copper. 

The Bear Top vein is a metasomatic 
fissure, the hanging wall being well de- 
fined and slickenslided, while the foot- 
wall is generally indiscernible. Two 
faults are known, but the throw in neith- 
er case exceeds 30 ft. The Bear Top 
has the best lead-silver showing on the 
north side. The company owns a con- 
centrator of 75 tons daily capacity and 
the property is well equipped with steam 
and water power besfdes a compressor 
r,nd sawmill. 

The British vice-consul at Santo Do- 
mingo reports that the Anibaje springs, 
east of Santiago de los Caballeros, Do- 
minican Republic, contain sulphur and 
iron. In the western section of the Re- 
public there are numerous sulphur 
springs, and in the Yayas de Viajama a 
sulphur mine has been reported. In the 
same district there are various thermal 
springs strongly impregnated with sulphur. 

International Nickel Company 

This company controls the nickel bus- 
iness in the United States and a large part 
of the foreign business also, holding the 
stocks of a number of constituent com- 
panies in this country, Canada and 
Europe. Its report is for the year ended 
March 31, 1908. 

The bonded debt at the close of the 
year was $10,390,837, of which a total of 
$747,000 was held by the sinking fund, 
and a further $292,000 was held in the 
treasury for future sinking-fund require- 
ments. The capital stock was $17,735,288, 
of which $8,822,662 is common and $8,- 
912,666 preferred. The current liabilities 
were $2,590,083, and the current assets 
$4,433,592. There was $2,216,799 in the 
surplus funds. 

The income statement for the year, con- 
densed, is as follows : 

Net earnings constituent coinpaiues 

in .America S2, 434. 952 

General expenses, taxes, etc $149,583 

Depreciation of plants. 215,975 

Mineral exhaustion 94.352 

Bond sinking fund 168,2.50 

Interest on bonds 482,050 

Total charges itl.110.2 10 

Net profit for the year $1,324,742 

From the net profits dividends of 6 
per cent, on the preferred stock were 
paid, amounting to $534,733, leaving a bal- 
ance of $700,009, added to surplus. 

During the year the sum of $1,548,482 
was expended for new construction, equip- 
ment and replacements. There was ap- 
propriated from the surplus for further 
depreciation of properties $300,000. All 
buildings that are not of fireproof con- 
struction are fully covered by insurance. 
In addition to the above, a fund is being 
accumulated which, at the end of a short 
time, will be sufficient to enable the coin- 
pany to dispense with purchase of outside 

President A. Monell's report says : 
"During the past fiscal year the power 
plant at the falls of the Spanish river, 
in the Province of Ontario, Canada, has 
continued in successful operation. The 
installation of electric mine hoists and 
compressors referred to in our last report 
has been completed, and the machinery is 
now in operation. The third unit at the 
power plant, also referred to, is now in 
cc^urse of erection. 

"The board of directors has deemed it 
advisable to appropriate from the surplus 
a further sum of $300,000 to write down 
the cost of the properties. Our efforts 
during the past year to introduce nickel 
into new commercial arts have been vigor- 
ously continued. As the business condi- 
tions of the past year, especially the latter 
part thereof, are so well known, it is 
hjirdly necessary to state that our own 
business felt the general depression." 

July 1 1. icjoS. 



The Mines of Northwestern Altar, 
Sonora, Mexico 

By fJEoi((;K VV. Mavxarii* 

The early development of that part of 
the Altar district l;oiinded hy Arizona on 
the north and the (julf of California on 
the west was confined to the wet-and-dry 
washing of the nold-hearinR surface out- 
crops of (|uartz veins '! lure are no re- 
liahle records of the unlpnl, hut that the 
work extended over an extensive area is 
evident from the pits, trenches and tail- 
ing heaps. 

The principal workings were contiguous 
111 El Plomo, a small village which took 
its name from the early discovery of lead 
ore on the property denounced as Ahun- 
dancia, suhsequetit development fully 
justifying the name. The situation of El 
flomo is shown on the general map of 
ihi- (listricl. It is ahout 40 miles south of 
the I'l ii(,il Slates houndary and ahout 65 
nules from the Gulf of California. 

There are two ways of reaching El 
Plomn. one from Santa Ana on the So- 
nora railway, which extends from Nojales 
on the United States houndary to Guay- 
mas on the Gulf and thence hy road via 
the town of Altar 125 miles, and the other, 
and better, route from Tucson via Sasahe 
<in the houndary, where there is a suh- 
eustoni house, 123 miles. The distance is 
easily covered in 10 hours hy automobile, 


I he allilnile is only Ijoo ft. Xntwith- 
standnig the low altitiulc the midsummer 
temperature is not oppressive for the rea- 
son that a cooling breeze comes up from 
the WT'St every afternoon. The winter 
climate is delightful. Malarial fevers, and 
cither diseases incident to semi-tropical 
cnuntries, are tmknown. During the sum- 
mer the foliage is always green because 
of the unfailing w-ater within 30 to 40 ft. 
of the surface as has been proved by the 
sinking of numerous wells for d'>meslie 
and milling purposes. 

Mining Develoi'.vknt 

I be lirst systematic development in the 
<listrict was carried on hy the National 
Mexican .Mining and Development Com- 
pany from i8()6 to i8()8. The work was 
confined to the I.eones and Ruizena groups 
six miles from IT IMomo, and other out- 
lying mines. On the formation of the Il- 
linois Development Company in 11)05 the 
holdings of the National Mexican coni- 
jiaiiy were taken over together with the 
.\bund;ineia mines. 

The (|iiartz outcroppings of the .\bun- 
dancia lode are in a prairie country and 
practically coiitimious for more than half 
a mile. .\t several points the outcrops 
indicate the existence of three or more 

veins within a width of 150 ft. The gen- 
eral strike is north and south and the dip 
westerly. The surface dimensions of the 
group are on the strike 4920 ft. with an 
average width of 1748 feet. 

'I he geology has not been worked out 
in detail, but the country is in the main 
rhyolitc, sometimes showing fine grained 
felsitc, then again crystals of feldspar 
(fclsile porphyry) and frequently both 
(|uartz and feldspar fquartz porphyry). 
I he surface outcrops show the carbonates 
and sulphates of lead with a peculiar 
brownish incrustation or varnish of hem- 
atite. Barite is also found in the out- 
crops. The country rock adjoining the 
outcrop has become kaolinized ; in fact, 
kaolinization has in many places extended 
as far as the veins have been opened in 

La .\ia NUA.NllA Ml.NE 

M the time of the purchase of the 
property by the present owners, the work- 

exception these minerals carry relatively 
high silver and gold contents down to 
the lowest workings. The final sampling 
of the north ground showed a width of 
vein in places as high as 6 to 7 ft. The 
average, however, of 59 samples was 2.5 
ft. and the total average value in lead, 
silver and gold $21.54 per ton. 

During the progress of development 
daily samples were taken of the entire ex- 
posure for a period of si.v months The 
average of the entire sampling for six 
months was : Lead, 23.43 per cent. ; silver, 
$4 : gold. $3,55. The mode of occurrence 
of the gold in the oxidized lead ore has 
not yet been determintd. At the bottom 
of the winze the first small bunch of ga- 
lena was found, the forerunner of the un- 
oxidized ore in depth. 

The south workings on the lode consist 
of a 335-ft. drift at 100 ft. north of a 
shaft 176 ft. deep, and cross-cuts which 
have shown the existence of parallel veins. 
In addition to the lead ore bunches of 


iiigs had been conlined to the sinking of a 
vertical shaft near the north end of the 
ilaim to a depth of 75 ft. From the 
bottom of the shaft a level was driven 
north, 120 ft. and south too ft. between 
well defined walls and in ore for the en- 
tire distance. Sixty feet north of the 
shaft a winze was sunk 28 ft. in ore. For 
120 ft. in length the ground was stopcd 
nearly to the surface leaving, however, 
some blocks of high-grade ore. Drifting 
at the north end now amounts to 500 ft. 
with no variation in the character of the 
vein. Farther sinking could not be car- 
ried on on account of water. The extreme 
ilevelopmert in depth at this point is but 
103 ft. The ore thus far developed in 
(be north end of the lode is cerussitc 
(lead carbonated and anglesitc (lead sul- 
phate), the latter predominating. Without 

chalcopyritc arc frequently found and in 
places there are evidences of the persis- 
tence of copper sulphides in depth. 

On an average the grade of the ore at 
the south end is not as high as at the 
north, but where copper comes in it is 
higher. Some of the samples contained 
6 to 8 per cent, copper. Where copper oc- 
curred, as a rule there was no lead. The 
loo-ft. level has been extended 211 ft. 
north of the shaft and lacks but 300 ft. 
of connecting with the level which has 
been driven south 210 ft. from the north 
workings. It has not, however, been ab- 
solutely determined that the two lo'els 
are on the same vein. The extreme north 
and .south development are 1160 ft. apart. 
of which 860 ft. have been opened ap. 
leaving but 300 ft. to Ik driven to prove 
absohitelv the continuir\- of the lode. 



July II. 1908. 

The Leones .\nd Ruizen.«i Groups 

These are six miles south of El Plomo 
on the east and west slopes of Ruizena 
mountain. The road is practically level 
to the foot of the mountain. The moun- 
tain mass is granite. Professor Guild, of 
the University of Arizona, has identified 
the basis dikes as camptonite, a rock con- 
sisting of crystals of hornblende in a 
ground mass of plaglioclase feldspar. 
The composition is the same as diorite, 
and in the field these dikes are usually 
called "diorite dikes." The term "camp- 
tonite"' refers mostly to the structure 
which cannot be made out without the 
microscope. The granite has been weath- 
ered more or less on the surface and im- 
mediately adjoining the veins in depth. 
The veins, which, as a rule, are well de- 
fined and readily traced on the surface, 
bisect the formation at angles ranging 
from 20 to 35 deg. from the vertical. The 
general definition of the veins is strongly 
marked, and they are readily followed. 
The vein mass or filling is made up of 
quartz and kaolinized country rock. The 
hydration and consequent displacement of 
the rocks which inclose the vein cause 
slips and local faultings which throw the 
vein, but a careful study of these phenom- 
ena has made it possible to catch the 
vein when faulted. 

The metamorphism adjoining the veins 
has been more extensive and complete on 
the west side of the mountain than on the 
east, and as a result the veins are more 
easily followed and the mining is less 
costly. On the east side the ore lacks the 
continuity which characterizes that on the 
west, and where it does occur it adheres 
to the vein filling, which is largely quartz, 
so that the cost of mining is much greater 
than on the west side. 

As the east side mineralization dil¥ers 
so widely from that on the west, it will 
probably be found that the veins do not 
coincide w'hen the west side levels are 
driven through the mountain. 

To P. W. K. Robertson, of Parral, is 
due the rapid development of the Abund- 
ancia mine under very adverse labor con- 

Leones Group on West Side of the 

This group covers 4845 ft. on the strike of 
the veins already determined and a width 
of 656 ft. from the foot of the mountain 
to the summit. The development has 
been carried on through five adit levels. 
The two lower levels have not been driven 
far enough to cut the vein, but the three 
upper levels are in ore for 375 ft. on the 
strike. The levels are connected by 
winzes to a depth of 330 ft. The east 
ends of the levels are in ore, so the extent 
of the vein is still to be determined. 
For the purpose o,f arriving at the value 

"Camptonite was named by Rosenbusch be- 
cause the sample of rock sent to him was 
found at Campton in the Pemigewassett val- 
ley, New Hampshire. 

of the ore already opened up, the ex- 
posures were broken down as they would 
be for shipment to the mill. The total 
amount was 39,952 lb. Each lot was 
passed through a Comet crusher and 
then into Cornish rolls set to s/l6 in. The 
mixing and quartering for assay was car- 
ried out in the usual manner. The aver- 
age assay value of the entire sampling 
was $9.77, and the average width of the 
workable veins 2 feet. 

By pan amalgamation 59 to 72 per cent, 
of the gold contents was extracted. The 
tails from the amalgamation were con- 
centrated and contained 0.90 to 9.20 oz. 
of gold. 

In the lowest workings iron pyrite be- 
gins to come in and a little water. 
RuizEN.v Group 

This group is on the eastern slope of 
the mountain and nearly in line with the 
Leones. The length on the assumed strike 
is 2191 ft. and 984 ft. in width. The 
veins occur in granite, but unlike the west- 
ern slope the weathering has been very 
limited, and the definition of the vein is 
not as marked as in the Leones, and as 
the ore is distributed through the gangue 
and adheres more closely to it, close cob- 
bing or dressing is necessary. The ore is 
for the most part galena and iron sul- 

The development consists of an adit of 
680 ft., and slopes from 60 to 100 ft. and 
some inacessible workings below the adit 
level. There are no records of the ton- 
nage mined and sent to the dressing plant 
at El Plomo, so that the number of tons 
which went into the dressed ore is an un- 
known quantity. The only reason for 
giving the mine any consideration is that 
the returns from the Pueblo and El Paso 
smelting works from 286 tons of concen- 
trates and 150 tons of hand-sorted ore, 
making a total of 436 tons, gave a net 
yield after the payment of freight and 
smelting charges, of $60,663.72. The con- 
centrates are said to have averaged $150 
per ton. 

Prospects of the District 

The foundation of successful mining in 
the El Plomo district will rest primarily 
on the development of the Abundancia 
group, and the work thus far done amply 
justifies vigorous exploration. Remote- 
ness from transportation and traveled 
routes is the only explanation of the ignor- 
ance of the district. 

Intelligent exploratory work on the lines 
already inaugurated for, say, 18 months, 
should put enough ore into, measurable 
reserves on the Abundancia, to warrant 
the next step, viz, the building of a rail- 
way from Port Libertad on the Gulf of 
California to El Plomo and to extend 
eventually to Tucson. The reasons for an 
independent road to the gulf are mani- 
fold. Primarily, to the bringing in of sup- 
plies for the establishment of a large min- 
ing and smelting works, subsequently the 
supply of coke and the shipment of matte 

and base bullion to the Pacific terminus 
of the Tehuantepec railway and over that 
road to the .Atlantic terminus when Euro- 
pean smelting works could be reached. 
The Tehuantepec road is now offering 
very favorable rates. At both ends of the 
road the most approved machinery for 
handling heavy freight is now being in- 
stalled. -At the present time coke is being 
laid down at Santa Rosalia on the Gulf. 
the port of the Compagnie du Boleo, a 
French company, at $8 per long ton. On 
the completion of the Panama canal the 
cost will be materially reduced. 

Port Libertad is the best port on the 
coast north of Guaymas ; it is sheltered 
by high blufl^s from the northwest winds 
and has deep water up to the shore line. 

-Apart from the development referred to 
in this paper, important discoveries of 
copper ores just south of the .Arizona line 
have been made at Cobota and also at 
Caborca, south of El Plomo. 

The drawback to development of the 
district has been the lack of reduction 
works and transportation facilities. When 
these are established this corner of Sonora 
will be controlled by those who have the 
capital and patience to tackle the problem 
on the lines indicated. 

Nickel-Copper-Platinum Ore in 

By A. M-\URicE Thompso.n'* 

A deposit of ore similar in many re- 
spects to that at Sudbury, Ontario, has 
been the object of considerable investiga- 
tion and development in southeast Ne- 
vada. It is situated at the west end of 
the Virgin River mountains, about five 
miles west of the Nevada-LTtah boundary. 
The district is reached from Moapa, on 
the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake 
railroad, by a 35-mile stage ride, passing 
through Bunkerville. 

The country consists of mica schists 
and limestones, into which lenses of dia- 
base have been injected. The lenses range 
from 10 to 50 ft. thick, and from 50 to 
600 ft. long, and have a northeast-south- 
west strike. 

.\t one locality, about 5000 ft. of de- 
velopment work has been done, reaching a 
maximum depth of 400 ft., and blocking 
out 150,000 tons of ore. An average of 
25 samples taken throughout this develop- 
ment shows copper, 3 to s per cent. ; 
nickel, 2.5 per cent. ; and platinum. 0.3 
oz. per ton. Certain specimens have been 
reported to carry as much as I2 per cent, 

Deposits of this nature are of wide ex- 
tent in the district, and, w-ere it not for 
the distance from nickel-refining centers, 
a large output of ore could easily be 
made. The platinum seems to be uni- 
formly distributed throughout, as every 
sample shows a yield of this metal. 

*BiinkervilIe, Xev. 

July 1 1, 1908. 


Ore Contracts from the Smelter's Standpoint 

Smelting Involves a Great Many Varying Items of Cost 
Which Can Not Be Fairly Apportioned under a Flat Rate 


The article by H. M. Adkinson on ore 
contracts in the Jouknai. of May 16 has 
.iltracted my attention, owing more, per- 
li.!|)S, to its representinK a very common 
liilkf that the average smelter manager 
is ill liusiness merely to make all he can 
nut of each individual lot, than to its cor- 
rectness. In fact its many discrepancies 
and incorrect conclusions lead me to a 
desire to show : ( I ) that his method of 
comparison was wrong and necessarily 
leads to uncertain, if not incorrect, con- 
clusions; and (2) that the reasons for 
tin- so-called peculiar methods of calcu- 
lation are based on justice' and snuiid 
reasoning, and are intended to lie as f;ir 
as possible e(|iiital)le lo both sides anti 
that the flat rates so much desired by 
Mr. Akdinson and everyone else would 
involve uncertainty and unfairness, and 
are consequently not used except in 
special cases, 

I do not mean to say that competition 
is not advisable. Far from it. Hut I 
do consider that with the exception of 
his last two contracts the dilTerences were 
not so much <lue to the contract as to the 
peculiar phases developed by changes in 
prices or grade or composition of the ore. 

1 will state in passing that I have been 
in the past connected with a customs 
suulter and expect to be in the future, 
.ilthough not now actively so. 

V'.\KJ.\IU,KS .\Mi 1>I,\(.K.\MS 
To take up the lirst part of my thesis. 
I wish to call attention to the fact that 
Mr Akdinson's tables contain, or arc 
alTected by eight independent variables, 
i.e., the prices of lead and silver aiul the 
percentages of lead, silver, gold, insoluble, 
iron and sulpluir. besides the dependent 

Now it is impossible for human in- 
genuity to construct a diagram to repre- 
sent so many changes and will be until the 
mind can comprehend multidimension Consctpiently the tables merely 
represent phases of the changes, isolated 
points as it were; and the peculiar results 
.ire frequently due to some overlooked other than the contract to 
wliich Ihey are ascribed. The best we 
can do is to limit our variables to quan- 
tities whose variation we can observe, 
s.iy two or three, taking planes in space 
rather than points. 

I have, therefore, made certain assump- 
tions derived from Mr. .•Vdkiuson's figures 
and data which, although not adhering 
closely lo any one case, arel approximately 
inie of all. I'nfortunately his data do not 

always agree with his tables as will here- 
after appear. 

I have assumed that for every unit of 
lead there were in the ores 0.005 oz. gold 
and 0.4 oz. silver, and that, beginning 
with an ore running 45 per cent, lead and 
14 per cent. Fe the iron increased one 
per cent, for every decrease of 2 per 
cent, lead; that the insoluble was con- 
stant at 8 per cent. ; and that all assays 
were fire assays. In Fig. 1 I have plotted 
the value from the ores of different grade 
under tin- different contracts assuming a 

third contract, marked 5 and 50 respec- 
tively, the former l>cing the terms as he- 
states them, and the second or lower, 
the terms as they actually were as shown 
by his figures in Tabic 5. Before con 
tinning I wish to note that although his 
assays run from 21 to 45 \kt cent, lead 
the actual averages hung pretty closely to- 
30 per cent, lead as shown hy his tables, 
except under Table No. 5. 

Me.\ninc of the Case Stated 
l-'rom these figures we may conclude 

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l*rlc« of L«ad CC«nu) 


•MelMllursrlsl. I'ali\K,.nln 


constant market price for lead and silver 
of 4c. per lb. and (x)c. per oz.. respec- 
tively. In Fig. 1 I have plotted two 
ores running 22 and 42 per cent, lead 
respectively, with a varying price for lead 
as shown by the abscissas, the ordinates 
showing the value received by the miner 
as in the previous case. 

The curves arc numbered to corres- 
pond with Mr. Adkinson's tables, curve i 
representing the results under the con- 
tract or arrangement shown in his table 
No. I. Two curves are given for his 

that matters happened abovit as follows. 
( for convenience let \is call the miner or 
bis company E and the smelters X, )' 
and 7.) : 

Miner B. having from time to time 
small shipments of ore naturally took 
them to the nearest .smelter and there- 
disposed of them at a tariff, curve I, in- 
tended for small or irregular shipments, 
necessarily higher than for a regular or 
large shipper. Such a rate is usually 
ntadc more favorable for low-grade ores ; 
and for such it compares favorably with 



July II, 15 

most of the others, particularly under the 
circumstances. It was intended to en- 
courage the shipper of low-grade ores, 
but bears rather hard on the high-grade 
man who can presumably better afford it. 
This is, broadly speaking, a general prin- 
ciple ; but it must be borne in mind that 
small irregular shipments are more ex- 
pensive to handle than large regular ones. 

Finding that his shipments were regular 
B obtains a contract, curve 2, which was 
the best arrangement for very low-grade 
ores with lead at 4c. that he ever received, 
and for his average ore was better than 
any except the last two, and but little dif- 
ferent from one of them. Yet, Mr. 
Adkinson calmly informs us that it was 
not so advantageous as No. I. 

The trouble appears to be that as a flat 

CoNTR.\cT OF Another Type 
.\t the expiration of this contract, I re- 
gret to say, there appears to have been a 
little jockeying and curve 3 represents the 
smelter's move. This was obviously un- 
satisfactory to everyone concerned except 
Mr. 'Adkinson, who calls it the best so 
far. Reference to Fig. I shows that with 
lead at 4c., the miner received less than 
any arrangement except that represented 
m curve 5. Reference to Fig. 2 shows 
that this statement holds for high- 
and low-grade ores at all prices of lead 
above four cents. 

At the close of this period contract No. 
2, curve 4 was agreed upon, which with 
lead at 4c. is not so good as his first con- 
tract, though at all prices above 4.2c. 
it is better (Fig. 2). It is an arrange- 








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Percent Lead 


price was paid for lead, the smelter re- 
ceived all the advantage of a rise and suf- 
fered all the loss due to a fall. In the 
case given the price rose to 4.32c., at 
which price the terms of No. 2 are sur- 
passed by his first open rate and the sec- 
ond and last two contracts. Had the price 
fallen he would have had a different story 
to tell. 

Contracts of this type are very unsatis- 
factory to the purchaser, but are often 
made at the solicitation of the miner who, 
"wants to know what he is going to re- 
ceive for his ore." I am not revealing a 
professional secret when I add that they 
are not often or intentionally made on a 
falling market. They are best avoided. 
Roulette or faro offers a surer method for 
one who is looking for financial difficulties 
on a small scale. 

nient similar to No. i, but better by about 
$1.50 per ton in most cases. I regret to 
.see that Mr. Adkinson says it is "the least 
favorable so far," for it is better than No. 
1 in all similar cases with lead below sc. 
and better than No. 3 in all probable cases 
and better than No. 2 in most probable 
caseS4 on ore of similar grade and com- 
position at the same market price for 

Under a contract giving a fixed price of 
lead, as in Nos. 2 and 3, the miner's per- 
centage rises as the market price falls ; 
but under a contract with a fixed deduc- 
tion from the market price the miner's 
percentage increases with, a rise in price. 
This difference should be constantly borne 
in mind, both in examining the tables and 
in practice when the price is varying ac- 
cording to its usual custom. 

At this point B appears to have tried a 
bluff, or else to have lost his head, for 
he makes a new deal which he apparently 
does not understand. At the best the 
data given with the table are incorrect. 
This contract was especially unfavorable 
to low-grade ores, a 17-per cent, ore 
yielding nothing under its terms. 

An Examination of Mr. Adkinson's 

Mr. Adkinson states that the miner re- 
ceived a bigger percentage than under the 
former contracts. He would have re- 
ceived a bigger percentage still under any 
of the other contracts on ore of the same 
grade and at the same price. He also 
states that the smelter paid the freight. 
He is doubtless correct, but equally doubt- 
less it was charged up against B in the 
account in spite of the, "increase in favor 
of the miner." 

For convenience I give his tables omit- 
ting the percentages in the last column. 
New York Vaiues. 

8566 .56 


2,811 50 

Gold at $20.67 . 
Silver .it market 
Lead at market 

Total value of produit 


Producer's portion $2,169. 11 




Smelter's portion $1,978 88 

Total $4,147,99 

The terms of this contract as indi- 
cated by Mr. Adkinson are: Gold, at $19 
per OZ. : silver 95 per cent, at New York 
market price ; lead, full contents at 4Sc. 
per unit, this price based on a lead quota- 
tion of $3.75 per cwt. ; for each 5c. in- 
crease or decrease add or deduct ic. per 
unit to or from the above price ; treat- 
ment : $6 per ton over 30 per cent. Pb and 
$<S per ton under the same. 

Examination of this shows that the lead 
is paid for at the New York market price 
less i.Sc. Proceeding to our calculations 
on the above basis we find that the gold 
al $20.67 equivalent to $566.56 is equal to 
$520.79 at $19 per oz. ; 95 per cent, of the 
silver value is $731.43, giving a combined 
credit of $1252.22. Deducting this from 
the "producer's portion" we have a credit 
balance of $916.89, evidently due to the 
lead, to which must be added the treat- 
ment charge $476.27, giving us a total 
credit of $1393.16 on the assumption that 
the smelter paid the freight out of its 
deductions. Deducting this $1393.16 from 
the lead value $2811.50, we have a smel- 
ter's portion of the lead $1418.34. This 
we have seen is equivalent to ij^c. per 
lb.: hence the $1393.16 must represent 
1.47c. per lb., giving a total New York 
market price of 2.97c. per lb., which is 
contrary to the data given and also ab- 

, If, however, we assume that the freight, 
though paid by the smelter, was charged 

July II, 15 



against the shipper's credit, wc must add 
that amount $526,27 to the lead credit pre- 
viously obtained, giving a total of $1919.43 
credit from the lead. Deducting this from 
the $2811.50 we obtain a smelters portion 
of $892.07 to represent the iHc deduction 
from which we calculate that the New 
York market price was 4.73c. per lb. 
which corresponds with the balance of 
the figures and is, therefore, probably cor- 
rect, though the data given call it 4.05 

The Ore Under Earliek Contracts 
If we take the terms given under the 
previous contract and assume the insolu- 
ble and iron as accompanying the table 
we may calculate the yield for this ore 
under the second contract. The result 
is rather startling and is as follows : 

Oold . . 
Silver . 
Lead. . 

|.-)20 79 

731 43 

1,601 30 

Total »2,S53.01 

Treatment 45f) 31 

Producer's portion S2.397 30 

Producer's portion 57. 9 per cent. 

From which we see that the contract 
called by Mr. Adkinson "least favorable" 
when applied to the ore sold under this 
improved, made-to-order-contract actually 
yields a greater percentage to the miner. 
Evidently B recognized the necessity of 
raising the grade under this contract and, 
as it was by all odds the poorest of the 
lot, on its expiration he hastens to Z for 
a contract that was really an improve- 
ment for higher-grade ores and at high 
prices though nothing startling on me- 
(lituii or low-grade ores, being surpassed 
by others under some circumstances. The 
last contract was apparently drawn by a 
company needing lead; for its terms arc 
especially favorable, though 1 have not 
examined its figures carefully from the 
smelter's standpoint. 


I do not contend by any means that 
competition is inadvisable or even unnec- 
ess.iry, but 1 do contend that comparison 
by means of a table like thai of Mr. .\d- 
kinson is inequitable and unfair to both 
parties, and leads, as it led him, to in- 
correct conclusions. It is impossible to 
slate without knowing all the conditions, 
probability of change of price, grade of 
ore, composition and regularity of ship- 
ments, which contract would be the best. 
Some would be better with a rising, others 
with a falling market, some with increas- 
ing lead, others with decreasing. About 
Ibe only general statement seems to be 
that tlu conclusions drawn were wrong 
and even that statement has its exceptions. 

It is well to remember that as values 
increase, no matter from what cause, so 
docs the miner's percentage (Fig 3) and 
also that as the proportion of the value 
in gold and silver rises compared with 
the value of lead, so does the miner's 
proportion, because he gets from 02 to 95 
per cent, of the precious metal values and 

rarely above 75 per cent, of the base metal. 
I reatment charges are excepted in both 

The arrangement given in the tables 
fails entirely to allow for these variations 
under one and the same contract. I know 
of no simple method or short-cut for the 
.so-called mysteries of smelter contract for 
those who do not know. Blind luck, and 
trust in the purchaser which is not often 
abused, employment of one who does 
know, or sufficient study to inform one's 
self of all the conditions involved are the 
only ways. The last of which simply 
means a little plain hard work and applies 
to the smelter man who does plenty of it 
himself on every contract involving new 
conditions or any considerable amount. In 
fact the amount done on some would very 
likely be a revelation to many shippers. 
Nor is there a desire to beat the small 
shipper as is often believed, for it is to 







1 1 

1 1 





■ 1 


■s in 












' ; 1 

Percent Copper in Ore 
Kii^ 3. producer's portion with varying 


their interest to encourage small ship- 
Tiunts ; but small shipments arc expensive 
to handle and for that reason are fre- 
quently charged extra. 

Principles Involved in Calculating 
Smelting Costs 

In order to consider why the flat rate 
cannot be successfully given it will be 
necessary to examine roughly certain prin- 
ciples involved in smelting and, since I am 
more familiar with copper than lead, I 
• will take up the matter from that stand- 
point. The principles apply equally to 
both cases. 

Roughly costs, i.e., the cost of treatment 
of any metal containing rock by smelting 
and subsequent refining, may be and are 
divided into two large classes, each of 
which is in turn divided into two smaller 
classes, dependent on the nature of the 
material handled. 

The two classes arc A those dependent 

on and caused by the metal portion of 
the ore; B those dependent on and caused 
by the ore itself as a whole. Class A 
is divided into two classes (i; caused by 
the nature of and in proportion to the 
percentage of metal present; (2) fixed 
costs independent of the quantity. Simi- 
larly B is divided into those (i> depend- 
ent on the bulk of the ore, and (2) those 
dependent on its composition. These four 
classes of costs, independently variable, 
depend on entirely difTercnt causes and 
are the source of the complex (?) smelter 

The smelter man usually keeps his costs 
by several methods, notably ; per ton gross 
burden smelted; per ton charge proper; 
per ton net ore ; per (on silica smelted 
(or in basic regions per ton FeO or CaO 
smelted) ; and per pound copper pro- 
duced. He bases his charges on these 
figures and on the losses which may be 
included in the costs as above divided. 

As an example oi A (1) wc have vola- 
tilization (not flue dust which is here 
not taken into account, it presumably be- 
ing returned constantly) of gold, silver, 
lead and copper. In these cases a definite 
amount of blast will volatilize a definite 
amount of silver (or lead) under the 
same conditions as to surface and tem- 
perature ; and, since surface, generally 
speaking, is dependent on the amount 
present so is the volatilization. An ex- 
ample of the fixed cost per pound or ounce 
is the refining charge. An example of 
the cost in proportion to the mass of the 
ore is the cost of handling; while B (2) 
IS represented by the fluxes necessary due 
to the composition. 

Smelting Losses 

Silver recovery is usually taken at 95 
per cent. This figure is more or less un- 
certain, and published data are admittedly 
unsatisfactory. The loss undoubtedly 
often is 10 per cent, and with especially 
well supplied plants may fall to 2 per cent. 
The low figures published are frequently 
due to neglected amounts in fluxes or ores 
low in silver, and where roasting has been 
adopted (because necessary), the loss 
probably runs nearer 10 per cent. The 
copper metallurgist usually treats a 
charge so low in silver that the errors in 
sampling and assaying obscure the resuh, 
and this is also true of gold and to a 
greater degree. Having recovered, say, 
95 per cent, of the silver, allowing the slag 
loss as part of the 5 per cent., the smelter 
must still p.Vy for the refining and sale of 
the silver so he actually pays more for it 
than he finally receives, compensating 
himself and finding his profits by other 
charges, while the miner promptly calls 
him a thief and a robber and a liar. 

In the case of gold, which is more fav- 
orable, there is usually but little loss to 
the smelter by volatilization or in the slag, 
although that is appreciable. It is per- 
haps 2 per cent., but in some cases it may 
rise to 4 or 5 per cent. The determination 


is rarely sufficiently well done to give volving an increased slag loss which was Our first ore will have an excess silica 

exact figures, and errors of assay, samp- covered by that method using a sliding of 0.92 tons to be fluxed to a slag, or 

ling and neglected and undetermined scale. This charge could not be covered 0.92 -^ 0.4D := 2.30 tons slag containing 1.38 

quantities in fluxes, etc., usually mask the by a flat rate if the grade of the ore tons CaO or 2.76 tons limestone. We may 

exact result. The loss in slag varies with changed, nor could it be covered by a assume that 12 per cent, coke will be re- 

thc amount on the charge and the matte percentage arrangement if the price quired. Tabulating the costs we have the 

or lead fall, but the percentage loss un- changed. In the latter case let us sup- accompanying table. 

doubtedly decreases with increased pose we deduct 20 per cent, from the cop- trade 

amounts; hence the higher price paid for per or the price, the result being the "^^^^^siLfciOUS COPPER ORE. 

larger amounts. I am inclined to estimate same. Then with copper at loc. the smel- ., ^^ ^^^^ limestone at 50c SI. 38 

actual gold losses at 5 per cent., although ter would receive only 2C. per lb. to pay (b) 2'76 tons limestone. 12 per cent, coke ^_ 

usually masked by the causes mentioned, 2^c. If, however, the price rose to 2Sc. (^^ 2^76 \ons limestone, "labor,' etc.',' at 

so that they appear less. and the deduction of 20 per cent, were $1.50 i_\* 

Allowing four months for investment taken, then Sc. would be taken to pay Total S9 -jy 

from time of sampling to finally returns ^/.c., manifestly unjust bo«h times. (d) 1 J^jJ^-^^lfXe! lator,'el'c'. a\ Vl'.50 __r50 

and interest at 6 per cent, a year, we have Handling and Fluxing the Ore Mass .j^^^, $12.43 

an additional loss or expense of 2 per t- 1 • 1 d r n\ s:io„ in== 01 t„r,o of n k nor font -'7 6 lb 

. taking up our class B of expense, we (rj blag loss. 2.3 tons at u.b per teni. .(.dhj. 

cent., and since $19 is about 92 per cent. , ., , „• ,• r j- » copper. _ 

. , , , ^,. , ^ ' have the handling, sampling, feeding etc., 2.76 lb. copper at lOc* 2. ,6 

of the actual value, this leaves i per cent. ^^^^ ^^^^j^^jy ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ .^1^^ ^M^^^et price of copper taken at 12.5c per lb. 

to pay for refining and coinage. These ^^^^^ ^^^^ -^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^-^^^ ^ A^,^ ij f.o.b. N. Y. 

figures for interest apply to silver also, j,^^^,^^^ ,^^^ ^^,y ^^^ ^^^j ^f ^^^ A^,^ l^^,j ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^ A^^ ,o5,5 

When $19.50 per oz. gold is paid we ap- jj^ handling, fuel to smelt it, increased dependent on the mass of ore involved 

pear agam to have a loss to be met by 5,^^ j^^^ j^,^ t„ it^ presence, increased and amount to $2.94, from whi'ch we may 

other charges. The miner frequently feels ,.^,„,„g „f ^j^g^ p^.^^p, decreased saving assume a smelting charge of $3 per ton 

that he >s being robbed if he does not get j^,^ j„ decreased matte fall, etc., all of of ore- a b and c are dependent on the 

$20 an oz. for gold, and all his silver at ^i^;^,^ must be considered ; it is obvious insoluble in the ore and since the total 

market price, and will admit an increased that these charges could not be covered cost $9 49 is due to 92 units of silica, it is 

smelting charge rather than decreased ^y a figure dependent on the weight of correct to charge the smelting cost at 

payments. Competition and this psycho- ^he precious metal contents. ,0 ,c or in round figures at loc. per unit, 

logical fact have frequently resulted in -j-,,i5 ^^^^ accounts for the bonus paid Cost / is dependent obviously also on the 

peculiarly worded contracts. for iron and penalty for silica. If wc as- silica The price of copper was taken at 

I remember one case in which a contract ^nnie an extreme case, as of pure quartz j2i/,c New York, less the 2'/2C. for con- 
was offered with the usual premium of „ith gold, the smelting charge in the verting refining, etc. Reckoning this cost 
IOC. a unit for iron and corresponding de- Southwest today by regular open sched- per unit of silica, we have an additional 
duction for insoluble. The miner's view ,des would be $10 penalty for insoluble charge of 3c. per unit, making a total 
of the matter, as reported to the ofiice, ^nd $3 smelting charge, which is not un- penalty of 13 cents. 

was, ''Tlie Lord Almighty put the silica jnst as will be seen later. I am excepting. We still have our profits to account for 

in the ore and I won t pay for it. The of, special cases such as the use of and it seems most equitable to proportion 

ore was fairly uniform, and perhaps quartz ores for converter linings and sim- jt to the investment in the ore and its 

slightly higher in iron than the insoluble, ilar cases. To make matters clear I shall value : therefore we will take 10 per cent, 

so the contract was adjusted satisfactorily, take two cases of an extreme type and of the copper as profit. Since this yields 

I believe, by striking out the penalty for for simplicity will omit silver and gold only loc. per lb. to the smelter, i.e., at the 

silica and the payment for iron. values. I will assume that the ore and assumed price of I2i4c., New York, the 

fluxes are pure, that no flue dust is made, profit on this ore will be 10 per cent, of 

Cost of Producing Copper ^^ at least is resmelted as fast as made, 120 lb., or 12 lb. which at loc. equals 

Turning to copper, the fixed costs for and that the coke has no ash. The figures 51.20 per ton; this must also cover any 
this metal are due to its converting and given will represent extreme cases and losses above 95 and 92 per cent, in silver 
subsequent refining, and may be calcu- will, therefore, be exaggerated examples and gold, should the ore contain the^c 
lated on the actual weight of the copper, of actual variations occurring on a smaller nietals, and represent the profit for hand- 
since they are almost wholly dependent scale. jjng, 

on that. Converting may be taken at ^c. Typical Cases Jlie figures I have taken as to costs are 

per lb. shipment East as converter bars at I will assume (i) a low-grade silicious actual figures at different plants in the 

Vzc. per lb. Refining costs about YiC ore carrying 6 per cent, copper, 92 per West, but not from the same plant nor 

per lb., but the smelters usually pay about cent, silica and ij/^ per cent, sulphur; (2~1 taken at the same time. For example, $12 

54c. for that operation ; sales commission a high-grade silicious ore carrying 60 per coke is a high assumption at this moment, 

and remelting cathodes to wire bars ^c. ; cent, copper 15 per cent, sulphur and 25 but it was not last year ; $1 for power, etc . 

interest on investment for four months per cent, silica. For costs I will take applies to a medium-sized plant; 50c. for 

yic. Insurance may be included in the coke at $12 per ton, limestone at 50c., la- limestone is unusually low, etc. 

shipping charge. bor 50c. Power, repairs, supplies, taxes. 

We thus have expenses of 2Hc. per lb. general expense, management, superintend- AppLiCiTioN of Results 
directly chargeable to the copper. It is ence, etc., at $1 per ton of ore and fluxes We may now base our tariff on the 
this 2iXc. that appears as a reduction of handled. Slag losses will be taken at 0.6 figures obtained. It will run as follows: 
from 2^4 to 3c. or more off the New per cent, copper per ton* of slag, and slag gold, $19 per oz. ; silver 95 per cent, of 
York market price of electrolytic copper, at 40 per cent, silica, and that all neces- New York market price; copper, 90 per 
depending upon whether the particular sary fluxing will be done with lime, the cent, at New York market price of elec- 
manager includes certain losses in this average run of ores of the plant carrying trolytic wire bars, less 2i/4c. per lb. ; treat- 
amount or not, and whether he figures sufficient iron to permit this. We will ment, $3 per ton; insoluble charged at 
profits here or elsewhere. I know of one simplify matters by neglecting flue dust, 13c. per unit. This tariff certainly has a 
contract that called for 6c. reduction from matte fail, grade of matte, difference in familiar appearance and carries the usual 
the market price on certain ores. The value of slags owing to changed composi- variations. Let us see how it would work 
ores in question were low-grade silicious tion, etc. Lime will be taken at 50 per -on the higher-grade ore. In the smelting 
and required a large amount of flux in- cent, available CaO. charge 0.25 tons silver requires 0.375 tons 

July II, iyo8. 


linic or 0.75 tons limestone, and makes 
0.625 tons slag. 


0.7.5 ton limestone $0 373 

7. I ton. 12 per cent, coke at »12 1 08 

0.7.5 ton. labor, etc., at $1.50 1 12.'. 

1 ton on-, labor, etc. at J1..50 1..50 

1 ton coke 1,44 

Copper 0.62.5 tons at 0.6 per cent. Cu. 

= 7. .5 II) 0.75 

Total . 


Treatment 1 ton at $3 

25 per cent, silica at 13c 

16 27 

f.i 00 
3 25 

Total $6.25 

I he prolit on this ore would lie 10 per 
cent, of 1200 11). copper or 120 lb. at loc. 
which equals $12. This seems large Iml ii 
must l)c reniemljcrcd that it is a very ricli 
ore, involves a large investment, and infire- 
over, there is usually a sliding scale treat- 
ment charge in favor of the high-grade 
ores. Also ores of this grade would come 
in small amounts and involve more e.\- 
prnse in handhng. 

Plotting this ccjutracl. using as ordiu- 
ates the "prnducer's percentage" of the 

1 i ; , 

























I'rica of Copper ( Coot* ) 

l-ll,. 4. rKolJlH-IK'.S .SHARE FOR ,\ lO-I'ER CENT. 



VAin l.\(, PRICE OF I OI'I'ER 

total value and as abscissas the per' cent. 
of copper in the ore, and assuming a 
Mcuirai ore with no excess silica, we get 
llie curve sliown in Fig. 3 showing that 
as the grade so does the miner's 
percentage. Plotting the curve shown in 
hig. 4 for a 10-per cent. ore. using a 
variable price as abscissas, we see that 
the same thing happens for an increase in 
jirice. .-\ moment's thought will show that 
as the proportion of gold and silver in the 
total metal value rises so will the miner's 
Iiorcentage. In other words, anything 
which causes an increase in the total 
value of the metal contents will increase 
the producer's portion, e.vcepting the suh- 
stuiiliou of large amounts of base metal 
for noble metal, and Mr. .\dkinson's tables 
arc more representative of this condition 
of alTairs than any other one thing 

1 have necessarily omitted all reference 
lo many things effecting the linal results, 
such as linciK-ss, sulphur, alumina, risk of 
change in market price, relative value of 
dilTerent ipiotations, etc.. but 1 think I 
l-avc shown that the pecidiar ( M wording 

of contracts is based rjn justice and 
sound reasoning, and that flat rates an 
applicable only in special cases and are 
extremely liable to be unjust to one party 
or the other. 

Shorthand by Machinery 

According to the London Txmcs, a ma- 
chine has been devised for writing short- 
hand — a machine so simple that anyone 
can master it, and so efficient that even 
ihc highly trained stenographer cannot 
hope to do more than rival it. The "Steno- 
ty|)cr," as this wonderful contrivance is 
called, is in bulk and weight a mere frac- 
tion of the standard typewriter, and can 
readily be worked on the operator's knee. 
It has only six keys, and by permutations 
and combinations of these six keys, taken 
two or three together, a complete alpha- 
bet is built up — an alphabet of dot and 
dash, similar in kind to that of the Morse 
code. The learner has simply to commit 
this alphabet to memory, and the ma- 
chine will do the rest. With less dili- 
gence than is often devoted to the ac- 
quisition of a mere parlor-game, any 
ordinary person should be able to write 
"stcnotypy" at a serviceable sjieed. 

This new shorthand is not based on pho- 
netics. Its units are not single sounds, 
but syllables, many of which can be 
formed by one touch of the hand on the 
keyboard. As if playing the piano, the 
operator simply strikes a chord and im- 
prints a character decipherable to the 
trained eye at a glance. Unessential 
vowels and consonants can be dropped 
out, for the grouping of the symbols indi- 
cates how they are to be read. Thus 
ihe second con.spicuous advantage of the 
MiiiMiyinT is attained, i.e., the '•note" 
which it writes is legible, not only to the 
operator, but to anyone else who has 
mastered the alphabet. Wilful idiosyn- 
crasies and accidentally imperfect out- 
lines cannot be introduced into "stcno- 
typy." T he note is necessarily correct in 
form, and, therefore, legible to all steno- 
typists, and at any distance of time. The 
third great advantage of the machine is 
that it can be used with equal facility for 
any language — provided that the Oper- 
ator knows that language. 

The construction is of admirable sim- 
plicity. The keys print on paper that is 
self-feeding from .in endless roll. .V 
spring-lever and a few cog-wheels make 
up the essential working parts. There is 
none of the mechanical intricacy of the 
typewriter, and, therefore, there is noth- 
ing to go wrong. The machine is so 
easily portable and works so silently that 
there is no reason why it should not be 
used in ordinary reporting work: but for 
conunercial purposes its usefulness is 
still greater: for the notes taken by one 
operator can be distributed for transcrip- 
tion among any number of clerks. 

Volumetric Estimation of Lead 

.\. H. Low (Journ. Am. Chem. Soc., 
XXX,. pp. 587-589) describes a method 
for the determination of lead in which 
the lead is precipitated as oxalate and 
subsequently titrated with permanganate. 
Calcium and antimony do not interfere 
with the method, nor does bismuth in 
small amounts In a mixture containing 
10 per cent, bismuth and 2.1 per cent. lead, 
the result was only raised 0.36 per cent. 
One-half gram of the ore is dissolved, 
heated with sulphuric acid and Altered 
on a 9-c.m. filter in the usual manner. 
The lead sulphate is dissolved from the' 
filter by means of a jet of hot sodium 
acetate solution. The sodium acetate so- 
lution is prepared by diluting a cold 
saturated solution of commercial sodium 
acetate with an equal volume of water 
and adding 40 c.c. of 80-pcr cent, glacial 
acetic acid per liter. 

The original flask is replaced by a 
small beaker containing a little potassium 
dichromatc and the washing continued. 
If any lead chromate appears, add the 
mixture to the original filtrate. If any 
precipitate shows in the flask, redissolve 
by boiling. 

To the flask is now added 10 c.c. of a 
5-per cent, .solution of potassium dichrom- 
ate. the solution is brought to a boil, and 
boiling continued gently for a few min- 
utes to render Ihe precipitate basic and 
easily filtered, which condition is shown 
by its reddish yellow color. 

The solution is filtered hot and the 
flask and filter each washed once with 
hot water. The lead chromate is washed 
back into the Hask with a jet of hot 
oxalic acid, using from 25 to 40 c.c. 'and 
the sides of the flask arc washed down 
with a little hot water. The oxalic acid 
solution consists of a cold saturated so- 
lution of commercial acid 1 part, water 
J parts. Grain alcohol is added to the 
mixture in the flask and the whole boiled 
until the chromic acid is all reduced and 
the lead converted to oxalate. 

The solution is then diluted with 30 
c.c. of cold water and thoroughly cooled. 
The cold solution is filtered through an 
1 1 -cm. filter, the flask washed out with 
cold water and the filter and precipitate 
washed ten times. The washed filter and 
precipitate arc thrown into a flask con- 
taining .ibout 125 c.c. of a hot dilute sul- 
phuric-acid solution (5 c.c. strong sul- 
phuric acid to IJO c.c. water). The solu- 
tion is then titrated with a standard per- 
manganate solution. The oxalic value 
of the permanganate multiplied by 1.642 
gives the lead value: but under working 
conditions 1.669 is a better factor It is best 
to standaidize on, say. 0.2 gram of pure 
lead, running through the whole pro- 
cedure. If desired the lead oxalate may 
be dissolved from the filter with a slightly 
strongcr sulphuric-acid solution and the 
t-ltcr washed well with hot w.iter. 



July II, 1908. 

El Rayo Gold Mine, Near Santa Barbara, Mex. 

The Veins Are Developed from Adit Levels and the Silicious 
Ore Is Treated by Cyanidation and Zinc-dust Precipitation 

B Y 




The El Rayo property is situated in 
southwestern Chihuahua, Mexico, about 
10 miles east of Santa Barbara. The dis- 
trict is sometimes included in the Santa 
Barbara camp, but since the ores are dis- 
tinctly gold ores carrying little silver and 
practically no lead, and since the vein is 
entirely in an andesitic breccia, while at 

turing was the direct result of the violence 
of the intrusion. 

The Ore Occurrence 

The main veins in the district have an 

approximately north and south strike and 

dip about 50 deg. to the west. The ore 

coni^ists nf iron pyritc-;, nci-nnipnniffl in 


the ore was formed by impregnation. The 
ore carries mainly gold but there is also 
a small amount of silver present ; at 
present, the ore treated at the mill aver- 
ages about $19 gold and 4.5 oz. silver per 

The zone of oxidation is very irregular, 
for in one place oxidized ore has "been 
found at a depth of 850 ft., while in an- 
other place sulphide ore is found within 
joo ft. of the surface. 

The veins vary considerably in width 
along the strike, apparently being widest 
near those places where a series of faults, 
having a strike of roughly north 60 deg. 
u est, have cut across the veins, displacing 
ihem slightly (generally only 4 or 5 ft., 
but never more than 15 ft.). Near these 
faults the silicification and impregnation 
has extended into the wall rock forming 
larger bodies of ore at those points than 
elsewhere along the vein. 

There are three main veins : the West 
Pettit, the San Jose and the El Rayo ; 
from these, fingers or branch veins put 
off into the wall rock, some of which re- 
unite with the vein while others do not. 

The West Pettit vein, which runs at an 
angle with the two other veins, has been 
developed for a distance of 500 ft. on the 

Santa Barbara the ore is mainly silver- 
lead occurring in a shale country rock, it 
seems better to consider this, the Azules 
district, separately from the Santa Bar- 
bara district. 

The Azules district, in which the prop- 
erty is situated, is not new, for ore was 
discovered by Mexicans about 18 years 
ago on the Azules property. Later, 
Americans discovered ore in other parts 
of the district and now all these properties 
have been combined under the El Rayo 
Mines Company, of Maine. 

The district comprises a band of in- 
truded or extruded andesite cutting in a 
north and south direction through the in- 
durated cretaceous sediments which form 
the country rock in the greater part of 
southwestern Chihuahua. In this andesite 
a lens or egg-shaped mass of diorite has 
been intruded. While it is not clearly 
shown that there is any connection be- 
tween the intrusion of this diorite and the 
formation of the orebodies, still, since the 
veins are roughly parallel to the diorite 
lens, it seems probable that the intrusion 
of this rock has caused parallel fractures 
to form in the andesite. Merely the 
shrinkage of the diorite mass may pos- 
sibly have been the cause of the fracture, 
but it seems more probable that the frac- 


certain parts of the vein by a little galena, 
chalcopyrite and sphalerite, in a gangue of 
quartz and silicified andesite. 

Much of the quartz shows crustification, 
but considerable of the ore is simply silici- 
fied andesite, so that, while some of the 

adit level. 750 ft. below its outcrop. This 
vein is not as large as the San Jose or the 
El Rayo, for it only averages about 2j4 
ft. in width, but the ore is of good grade. 
The El Rayo and the San Jose are both 
much larger veins, and, therefore, they 

ore was formed in open spaces, other of 'have been developed much more exten- 

July 1 1, 1908. 



sively. lioth have a general north and 
south strike and both vary in width from 
2 to 18 ft. On the El Rayo vein are the 
Dcscubridora, the North Rayo and the 
South Rayo workings, while on the San 
Jose vein are the San Jose, Adele and 
Azules workings. 

Method of Df.vk[,opment 

All these veins have been developed by 
adits, for the rough, steep hills, in which 
the veins are found, encourage such de- 
velopment. These different adit levels 
have been connected by raises, and on the 
El Rayo vein several winzes have been 
sunk, the deepest of these being 150 ft. 
deep, and from the winzes short drifts 
have been driven. Considerable develop- 
ment has been done in the property, for 
over a mile of drifts has already been 
ilriven, but as yet little stoping has been 
dune. The present company hasjnined only 
30,000 tons of ore and the older companies 
did not ship very much ore owing to the 
fact that the railroad to Parral was not 
completed until 1900 and to Santa Barbara 
not until 1902. 

.■\s has been said, the veins are de- 
veloped mainly by adits and as these adits 
have developed several hundred feet of 
liacks much of the ore for many years 
will be mined from above them. 

The walls of the stopes vary greatly in 
strength so that several different methods 
of overhand stoping will be used. In some 
parts of the vein a smooth fault plane 
forms the hanging wall, in other places 
I tic wall is jagged, being broken up by 
many small fractures or jointings, while 
in still other parts of the vein the bound- 
ary of the orebody is entirely a com- 
Tiiercial one and there is no hanging wall. 

Where the wall rock is strong, ore filling 
will lie used in the stopes, but where the 
walls are somewhat broken up by fractur- 
ing so tlint in time slabs would scale off 
and mi.x with the ore filling if such a 
method were employed, open stuU-tim- 
bered stopes will be used, the stope being 
tilled with waste from time to time as 
mining advances. Hiii in those parts of 
(be mine where the wall rock is so weak much waste rock is blasted down 
with the ore, the ore will be blasted upon 
singed stulls, and the waste sorted out 
will be used for filling. 

Single-hand drilling and also machine 
drilling are used. Formerly only piston 
machines were used, but recently Waugh 
air-hannner drills have been introduced in 
the .stopes, and it is expected that the 
nmnber of men on the pay roll, now 400, 
will soon be considerably reduced. 

.Since the mine makes considerable wa- 
ter the company will have suflicienl . fur 
all future milling requirements. The com- 
pany also owns considerable timber land. 
so that it can furnish for several years all 
llie timber and fuel required by the mine 
;'.nd the mill; it is, therefore, in a favor- 
able condition compared to other mines in 
I'orthcrn Mexico. 

The wages paiil at the mine are some- 

what higher than in Parral, for miners 
and peons get 2 pesos, while timbermcn 
get 3 pesos per day. A timberman has 
two helpers, instead of one as in the 
United States, so that they can handle the 
long stulls required in many of the stopes. 

Mill Treatment 

The north adit of the mine is connected 
with the mill by a short aerial tramway, 
but the ore from the south adit is 
trammed to bins in the mine cars, and 
then, after being hand-sorted, it is hauled 
by mule in a 6-ton car to the mill bin. 

The ore is broken first by Blake crusher 
and then by roughing and finishing rolls 
to about f^niesh size. Then it is fed to 
Huntington mills where it is crushed to 
pass through a 50-mesh screen. The pulp 
is concentrated on Frue vanners and the 
tailings are cyanided after being separated 
into sands and slimes. The lime is fed to 
the ore at the crusher, and so a good mix- 
ture of ore and lime is obtained; at pres- 
ent while treating oxidized ore 16 lb. of 
lime arc added per ton of ore crushed. 

In the cyanide plant the sands are treated 
by downward percolation in 25x6-ft. cylin- 
drical tanks to wdiich the pulp is fed by 
modified Butters-Meins distributors. The 
tanks hold 115 tons; it takes 36 hours to 
fill them, 150 hours for percolation, and 24 
hours for draining and emptying the tanks 
so that the complete cycle consumes 210 
hours or about 8^ days. Strong cyanide 
solution carrying 2.5 lb. cyanide per ton 
is used most of the time and then weak 
solution is used for washing. 

The slimes are agitated in 2Sxi6-ft. 
tanks by means of mechanical stirrers for 
a period of 24 hours. The strength of the 
cyanide solution is 3 lb. per ton ; com- 
pressed air is admitted at the bottom of 
the tank so as to obtain proper aeration. 
.\ Merrill automatic discharge slime press 
and a Butters filter have been installed to 
handle the slimes. Experiments regard- 
ing the sands are now underway to de- 
termine whether to use complete sliming 
or not. 


Zinc-dust precipitation is used in treat- 
ing the solutions, and this works admir- 
ably. At Mercur, Utah, the zinc dust is 
fed to a tank in which the dust and solu- 
tion are agitated by means of compressed 
air and then fed by gravity to the filter 
presses, but here the zinc dust is fed by 
hand to a small cone where it is agitated 
in water by compressed air. This zinc- 
dust emulsion overflows through a small 
pipe to a larger 6-in. pipe placed low 
enough so that the solution from the 
'gold." tank will flow into it. This 6-in. 
pipe serves as a well for the suction pipe 
of the solution pump and consequently the 
zinc dust is intimately mixed with the 
solution as it is pumped to the Merrill 
precipitation press. Since this press is 
aoo ft. away from the well, a good agita- 
tion of the zinc and solution is obtained. 

and plenty of time is given for precipita- 

The length of pipe, through which the 
solution and zinc dust is pumped, is very 
important, for the precipitation does not 
appear to be instantaneous, either because 
a time factor enters into the precipitating 
reaction, or because of the failure to get 
an intimate mixture of the dust and so- 

.^t present the zinc dust is fed to the 
cone by hand at certain intervals, but it 
is planned to install at some later time 
the unpatented automatic feed used by 
Mr. Merrill at Lead, South Dakota. This 
consists of a feed belt, the drive-wheel of 
which is fastened by rope to a float in the 
gold-solution tank. As the surface of the 
solution falls, the belt is moved ahead a 
certain distance. On the belt throughout 
the distance which the belt moves during 
the emptying of the tank, the amount of 
zinc dust necessary for the precipitation is 
spread in an even layer, so that by this 
belt an even feed of zinc dust in the right 
proportion is obtained. The zinc dust falls 
from this belt into a cone-and-wcll system 
such as has been already described, so 
that everything is automatic. 

This obtaining of an automatic regular 
feed is important in zinc-dust precipita- 
tion, especially in Mexico, for little pre- 
cipitation of gold occurs in the press it- 
self. Besides, by this method of feed the 
zinc-dust consumption is greatly reduced. 
The great advantage of zinc-dust precipi- 
tation, in addition to the excellence of the 
precipitation obtained by this method, is 
that the precipitate is always locked up 
and so all temptation to steal is removed ; 
this also is an important advantage in 

The tailings are impounded and not al- 
lowed to flow into the orroyo. because the 
Mexican government, owing to the de- 
pendence of the inhabitants upon the sur- 
face streams for water, strictly forbids 
any pollution of these streams. 

The zinc-dust precipitate is shipped to 
smelters, without refining, for in those 
districts of Mexico far from the railroad, 
such as the Azules district, the cost of 
freight and chemicals is too great to make 
it economical to refine the precipitate at 
the mine. 

.■Ml labor about the mill and cyanide 
plant is Mexican except three on day 
shift and two on night shift, and of course 
?.n English-speaking superintendent. 

Extraction Obtai.veii 

The mill and cyanide plant treat 110 
tons of ore per day. .\t present the mill 
is designed for sand and slime treatment, 
but probably the ore will finally be 
treated by complete sliming and filtering. 

The head sample now assays about $19 
gold and 4.50 oz. silver. .\ly>ut 40 per 
cent, of the extraction is obtained from 
the vanners. which makes a concentrate 
assaying about $125 geld and 15 oz. silver 
per ton. The sand going to the tanks as- 


July II, ic 

^ays $10.31 gold and 3.6 oz. of silver 
per ton, while the slimes assay $14.70 
gold and 4.65 oz. silver. On the slimes 
an extraction of about 90 per cent, 
was obtained when treating the sul- 
phide ore in the Merrill presses, while on 
the sands the percentage of extraction is 
about 75 per cent. As at present about 35 
per cent, of the crushed ore is slime and 
6s per cent, sand, a total extraction of 
.88.15 per cent, is obtained, 18.9 per cent, 
of the total production assay value being 
obtained from the slimes, 29.25 per cent, 
from the sands, and 40 per cent, from the 

While treating both sand and slime, 
four tons of cyanide solution were used 
per ton of ore treated, but at present, 

Comp.-iiSied Air 

Electric Power for Cement Plants* 

By J. B. Porter! 

The present consumption of cement is 
enormous. The great advantage of electric 
power for cement plants lies in its flex- 
ibility and capacity for economical sub- 
division, A small saving such as one 
cent per barrel justifies an elaborate ex- 
penditure, yet the cement industry is 
behind others in the application of electric 
power, while the opportunities for its 
successful employment are greater. 

The manufacture of cement permits the 
division of plants into departments, each 


when only the sands are treated, only 
three tons of solution are required. When 
treating slime and sand 1.2 lb. of zinc dust 
is used per ton of ore treated, but when 
treating only the sand 0.6 lb. of zinc dust 
is required. Owing to the presence of a 
small amount of copper in the ore the 
zinc-dust consumption and the consump- 
tion of cyanide is higher than it would be 
otherwise. The head solution assays $3.75 
gold .and about i oz. silver per ton, but 
after zinc-dust precipitation they assay 
only a trace in both metals. 

The wages of the mill men per shift of 
12 hours are 2.50 pesos and at the cyanide 
plant 2.25 pesos, but the vanner man, a 
Mexican, gets 4 pesos. A total of 23 men 
are employed on both the shifts at the 
mill and the cyanide plant. 

containing one operation comparatively 
independent of the others. This al- 
lows, with the employment of electric 
power, a close watch on the power con- 
sumption of each department. 

The vital factor in cement manufacture 
is the kiln output, as this controls the 
output of the entire plant. The kilns 
should be worked to their full capacity. 
The factors which afifect the output of 
the kiln are variation of speed of kiln, 
variation of feed of raw 'ihaterial,- and 
variation of coal feed for combus- 
tion. Electric power applied to the kilns 

•Abstract of the paper read before the 
Association of American Portland Cement 

tOf the Light and Power Department of 
the General Electric Company. 

permits of a much higher degree of 
control than does any other form of 
power. For the crushers, a belt drive 
from an electrically driven line shaft, 
the motors to be equipped with automatic 
circuit breakers, provides the best protec- 
tion for both motors and crusher. Sud- 
den clogging of the crusher will throw 
off the belt and the gradually acquired 
overload will cause the automatic circuit 
breaker to work. 

The buildings of a newly designed 
plant, where electric power is to be in- 
stalled, can be arranged so as to permit 
the extension of each building as the ex- 
pansion of the plant may require, while 
the designer will be independent of the 
necessity of accommodating the position of 
his buildings to the need of economy in 
the transmission of power either by steam 
pipes or rope drives. 

One of the difficulties hitherto attend- 
ing the use of electric power for driving 
cement machinery has been lack of infor- 
mation on the power required. Measure- 
ments have not been made in the past 
and, where motors have been employed, 
the power required to start the machinery 
has been so great and the changes so 
sudden that it has been impossible to 
take a reading. The writer hopes that 
a curve-drawing meter will solve this 
difficulty. Because of inability to deter- 
mine the starting torque in the past, 
motors have been used with a capacity 
greatly in excess of the requirements. 
The writer admits that the starting tor- 
que, which is sometimes two or three 
times the running torque, will not permit 
the economical operation of motors cap- 
able of handling it and consequently 
running far below full load. 

Alternating current installations are 
recommended because of the readiness 
with which motors may be protected 
from dust, the fewer spare parts needed, 
the extent to which wiring and automatic 
devices can be inclosed, thereby lessen- 
ing the fire risk, the suitability of the 
motors for overloads, and the lesser first 
cost due to the higher voltage that can 
be employed. 

Electric power is especially recom- 
mended because of the ease with which 
it is subdivided without loss of efficiency ; 
each machine, having its own motor, can 
be shut down for repairs without af- 
fecting other machinery or requiring an 
expensive line shaft to be kept turning. 
.\s compared with steam, electric power 
is recommended because of 'the ease 
with which the power can be measured, 
not only for total consumption but for 
each department. It is thought that these 
advantages will more than compensate 
the mechanical losses due to generating 
povver in a ste^m plant, converting to 
. electric power in a dynamo, and using 
this through a motor. 

July II, 15 



Short Talks on Mining Law — III 

l!v A. IF. RiCKETTS* 

All valuable mineral deposits in lands 
Ijclonging to the United States, both sur- 
veyed and unsiirveycd, and the lands in 
which they are found, are free and open 
10 exploration, occupation and purchase, 
except, by statute, in the States of Mich- 
igan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Missouri, 
Kansas and Alabama, or if within a 
subsisting Indian, military, naval, and 
possibly park reservation, or land which 
is withdrawn from sale under authority 
of Congress or an executive order, or 
mineral lands below high tide, except in 
the district of Alaska (but without right 
10 patent ) ; coal or iron lands within the 
limits of a railroad grant, and all mineral 
lands within the limits of the right of way 
<if a railroad. Mineral lands within an 
unpatented townsite, and land known to 
be mineral at the date of the application 
for patent for the townsite, are subject 
to Idcatiim: mineral land, if situated 
within a forest reservation, or the 
limits of a grant to a State or railroad 
lie fore patent issues is open to location. 

Meaning of Certain Terms 
I'he term "public land" as used in the 
legislation of Congress means such lands 
as are subject to appropriation as a min- 
ing claim, or subject to sale, or other dis- 
position under general laws. The terms 
"unoccupied," "unappropriated" and "va- 
cant" refer to land that is not in the pos- 
session of one who claims the right of 
possession by virtue of a compliance with 
the law,. or who is diligently prospecting 
for mineral. 

The terms "location," "mining claim" 
and "mine" have not the same meaning 
although sometimes used as of equal 
import. Strictly speaking, the term 
"Incation" refers to the acts constituting 
the appropriation of a segment of the 
.public domain under the requirements of 
law ; but it is often applied to the land 
taken up. A "mining claim" is a parcel 
of land containing mineral. In other 
words it implies a perfected location. It 
may consist of as many locations as may 
he deemed expedient to include therein. 
No land cm be a "mining claim" unless 
based upon a location or its equivalent, 
otherwise it may be "mining ground," or 
a "mine," which are nearly synonymous 

It has been held that the term "mining 
.; round" includes the vein specifically lo- 
tted, all the surface ground located on 
uh side of it and all other veins or lodes 
having their apexes inside the surface 
lines. Yet, it has been held that if the 
term "mining ground" was equivalent to 
the terms "lands valuable for minerals" 
and "valuable for mineral deposits" it 

'Momlipr of ihc Sun Frnnclsco Rnr. Snn 
rinnolsoo. Cut. 

"would lead us into bogs and ferns of un- 
certainty respecting its interpretation as 
some lands have been held to be subject 
to location under the federal laws, which 
are scarcely to be regarded as the sub- 
ject of mining in the ordinary sense." 
For instance, building stone worked as a 
quarry only, or bog iron or guano, which 
are not minerals. 

It has been held that where land cov- 
tred by an agricultural patent is worked 
for its minerals it is mining ground and 
not a mining claim within the meaning 
of a State law giving the right of lien to 
a miner for his unpaid work upon a 
"mining claim." So also that land within 
a Mexican grant is not a "mining claim" 
under that law, although many mines may 
have been opened within its boundaries 
and the owners of the grant claim such 
mines as their own. 

A ditch appurtenant to and furnishing 
water -to a mine has been deemed to be 
"mining ground" within the meaning of 
a State statute requiring the consent of 
a majority of the stockholders of a cor- 
poration to the sale of its "mining 
ground." While the bed of a navigable 
river within a State is not subject to lo- 
cation as a mining claim because it be- 
longs to the United States, it is mining 
ground if mining is conducted thereon by 
the dredging process. 

It has been held that an unworked 
placer claim was not a mine in the sense 
"f a State statute providing for the sum- 
mary sale of a mine in probate proceed- 
ings, the court saying that a mine or min- 
nig ground has no necessary identity what- 
ever, with land patented as a placer min- 
ing claim. 

The existence of mineral is not neces- 
sary to constitute a mine unless it is a 
"known mine" within the purview of the 
lederal laws. In that case it must be an 
actual opened mine producing mineral at 
a profit, or shown to be capable of so 
doing, not theoretically, but as a fact. In 
general the existence of a mine is de- 
termined by the mode in which the min- 
eral is obtained and not by its chemical 
or geological character. 

T he term "mine" implies that actual 
mining operations are being conducted on 
the property. The "process of mining" is 
the prospecting or developing of ground 
by shaft, tunnel or other opening or by 
quarrying, or the dredging of the bed or 
banks of a waterway to obtain mineral 


It follows that land subject to the pro- 
cess of mining is "mining ground," or .n 
"mine" without regard to the nature of 
the title to the ground in which they lie, 
whether the work done yields profitable 
returns or not, or because the exigencies 
of some statute requires it to be placed in 
such category; that it is a "known mine" 
only when its exploitation shows it pos- 

sesses tangible commercial value ; that 
land is a "mining claim" when title is 
obtained in pursuance of the raining law, 
i.e., by location or by virtue of holding 
the same in the absence of an adverse 
claim for a sufficient time under the local 
statute of limitations and possibly tbe 
payment of taxes, to operate as a right 
against the United States for a patent 
therefor. Such possession is the equiva- 
lent of a location. 

Although the Mining Act, in terms, 
limits the right of appropriation to cit- 
izens of the United States and those who 
have declared their intention to become 
such, a location made by an alien is 
merely voidable and subject to attack only 
by the United States in proceedings 
termed "inquest of office found," or by 
the land department in proceedings to ob- 
tain patent ; or the question may be raised 
in an adverse claim suit by a party 
thereto, that is, a suit brought in opposi- 
tion to the claim for patent It is too 
late to raise this question for the first 
time in an appellate court. Naturaliza- 
tion before judgment acts retroactively 
upon the right of the alien to obtain the 
patent. The question of alienage is im- 
material in all actions other than those 
above named, as until "office found," an 
alien may, under the weight of authority, 
exercise the same right of ownership in a 
mining claim as may those who arc de- 
clared by statute to be competent locators. 

It follows that an alien corporation 
may locate and hold an unpatented claim, 
but it cannot secure the government title 
thereto, in its own name, nor under the 
rulings of the land department obtain the 
same through a trustee. A patent issued 
to an alien is not subject to collateral at- 
tack upon that ground. By the terms of 
the act an alien may acquire patented 
mining property. 

In 1898 Congress enacted that native- 
born subjects of the Dominion of Canada 
should be accorded certain mining rights 
and privileges in the district of Alaska, 
but the act has been declared to be im- 
practicable and inoperative. 

Generally a location may be made by 
any natural or legal person, without re- 
spect to the age of the former upon any 
day. It is not usually necessary for a 
locator to make location personally, nor 
specifically to authorize it to be made in 
his name, nor does it affect the validity of 
the location nor the right of such party 
therein that he did not know his name was 
to be used. All persons named in a location 
become co-tenants, or co-owners, as the 
act terms them, in the claim, with fro- 
rala interests therein, unless the contrary 
is stated in the notice. 

Expenditures or Assessment Work 
There does not seem to be ans-thing in 
terms of the Mining .\ct to prevent a re- 
location by one who has defaulted in as- 
sessment work. 
The actual commencement of labor or 


July II. igo8. 

making improvements upon the land upon 
the last day of the term and its comple- 
tion in the ensuing year is sufficient to 
prevent adverse relocation if continuous. 
It is "continuous" although suspended on 
Sundays, and holidays. The law of as- 
sessment work applies to both lode and 
placer claims. It is wise and salutory and 
must be complied with to prevent pos 
sible adverse location until the land is 
paid for, as evidenced by the receipt of 
the receiver of the local land office. Noth- 
ing else excuses its non-performance, ex- 
cept when the claim is held adversely and 
the expenditure is prevented by force, or 
threats of personal violence by the per- 
son in possession. 

As stated in a previous article, the 
work may be done within or outside of 
the claim or a group of contiguous claims. 
Such work must enure to the benefit of 
all and equal tlie amount that would be 
required if they were separate and inde- 
pendent, i.e., the work done must have 
a direct bearing upon the present or 
future improvement of the property, 
whether done within or outside of the 
property, as say, by the running of a 
tunnel from another claim or the con- 
struction of a wagon road say, leading to 
the claims. It is a question of fact 
whether such work, when done, tended to 
develop the locations within the group not 
worked upon, but it has been held that 
a court cannot substitute its own judg- 
ment as to the wisdom and expediency of 
the method employed in good faith for 
developing a claim. The number of lo- 
cations embraced in such group is im- 
material, except in case of petroleum-oil 
placer claims. In the latter case, under a 
special act, the group upon which the 
work is to be done must not exceed five 
claims in all, and the labor thereon must 
tend to the development or to determine 
the oil-bearing character of the locations 
within the group. In that act the annual 
expenditure is in terms confined to "labor" 
and "improvements" not being found 

Personal expenses, or the value of 
time spent in the effort to obtain means 
to develop property, is not sufficient — but 
the services of a watchman may be con- 
sidered as in compliance with the law, if 
necessary to preserve tunnels, buildings 
or structures erected to work the prop- 
erty. That is, if it is intended to make 
use of the same within a reasonable time. 
But, if it is not intended to use appropri- 
ately the same within such time, or the 
watchman merely lives in a house upon 
the claim, or if his services are upon a 
naked mining claim to warn others 
against a relocation, his services do not 
constitute annual labor. 

As was stated in a previous article, a 
statiitory record of annual expenditure in 
the form of an affidavit is merely prima 
facie evidence of the facts therein stated 
and does not preclude other proof as to 

the truth or falsity of such statements. 
It may be filed before the time allowed 
by statute, but, if after such time, it is 
without legal effect. A failure to file 
such an affidavit within, the statutory per- 
iod cannot work a forfeiture of the claim. 
Its existence merely facilitates the prov- 
ing of the facts shown therein. 

Transvaal Mining Notes 

Special Correspondence 

A syndicate has commenced work on the 
Transvaal silver mines, not far from Pre- 
toria. Ecksteins did considerable work 
on this group many years ago, but it has 
been idle ever since. The present syndi- 
cate—consisting of B. and J. Weil, Sir 
.\ubrey Woolls-Sampson and John R. Wil- 
liams, formerly consulting metallurgist to 
H. Eckstein & Co.— has a working capital 
of £4000. Ten stamps are erected and 
will start work this month. The rich 
ore dump is sufficient to keep the mill 
going for 18 months or so. It is thought 
that the present mill can prodvice 100 
tons of concentrates each month, going 
about 70 per cent, lead and 18 to 20 oz. 
of silver. On a conservative basis it is 
thought that the syndicate can earn 
about £4000 per year. It has a five years' 
lease on the property. 

Last week the Goerz group of mines 
held the annual meeting, and the chair- 
man gave a full account of the operations 
on the different mines during the past 
year. Many of the mines of this group 
are of the struggling class, and one of 
them — the Lancaster — is now running at 
a heavy loss. 

In reading over the reports one is 
struck by the fact that there is far more 
hope in the future for the Eastern' Rand, 
than there is for the Western Rand. The 
Lancaster and several other struggling 
mines of the group are on the West 
Rand, while the results obtained in the 
development of the two mines on the 
Eastern Rand, namely the Geduld and 
the Van Dyk properties, encourage one to 
think that here they will get two dis- 
tinctly payable mines. 

It is satisfactory to note that the Ge- 
duld is doing so well, for there was a 
fraud perpetrated on the public at this 
mine when the reef was first struck. In 
some way or other the samples were 
salted, and the assays showed such very 
rich results that the shares jumped away 
up. On re-sampling it was found that the 
\alues were very low and the shares 
dropped. This incident gave Geduld a 
bad name, and as the values kept low 
for a long time it was feared that the 
mine would prove a failure. There has 
been a steady improvement, and the di- 
rectors have decided to erect a so-stamp 
mill as a start. The Van Dyk is also con- 
sidered good for a mill. 

I he profits made by the Rand gold 
mines for April amount to £979,028, an in- 
ciease of £1135 over the previous month. 
The working costs varied on the mines 
from $7.72 per ton on the Jumpers mine, 
to $3.08 per ton milled on the Robinson 
mine. The average working costs for all 
the mines of the Rand w^orks out at about 
$4.44, while the average for the whole of 
the Transvaal is $4.48. The average 
working profit per ton milled made by the 
mines of the Rand was $3.26. while the 
average recovery value was $7.69 per ton. 
During the past few months one or two 
of the shares of the Rand have steadily 
advanced in price, in spite of the bad 
times. One of the most conspicuous has 
been the Nev; Modderfontein mine. This 
mine has forged ahead in fine shape, and 
promises to be one of the great mines of 
the future. To start with, it has a very 
large area, over 1200 claims. The profits 
are now about £20,000 per month. At a 
special meeting of the directors held last 
week it was decided to increase the pres- 
ent capacity of the reduction plant from 
30,000 tons per month to 45,000 tons, by 
the erection of additional stamps, tube 
mills and necessary accessory plant and 
buildings. It is calculated that the cost 
of this work will be approximately 
£100,000, and it will be met out of accum- 
ulated profits without interfering with the 
continued payment of dividends. The 
additional plant will probably be at work 
in about nine months' time. It is then ex- 
pected that the New Modderfontein will 
earn £30.000 per month. 

It is a great disappointment to many 
people to hear that the Gordon stope drill, 
from which so much was expected, has 
not come up to expectations. It appears 
that when tried for long periods, the ma- 
chine is found wanting. Had it solved 
the great Rand problem of economical 
stoping in narrow stopes, it would have 
made a fortune for itself, and been a bene- 
faction to the Transvaal. 

F. H. P. Cresswell, the champion of 
the white labor policy, is stumping the 
Rand, preaching his doctrines. Like Peter 
the Hermit, he is full of his subject, and 
he is drawing many people to hear him. 
.\11 are agreed that something should be 
done to increase the employment of white 
labor in the country, or the white man 
will be forced to the wall. The question 
is how to do it? — and it is not an easy 
one to answer. 

With pig iron costing $25 per ton, old 
carwheels $20 and scrap averaging $16, a 
large foundry has sold 6oo-lb. wheels for 
$9@'lo each, or about 1.5c. per lb. f.o.b. 
cars at works. At this price there was 
still a small profit. The capacity of this 
foundry was upward of 500 tons per day. 

Platinum ocurs with gold in the sands 
'1? the rivers in the Chnc^ and San Juan 
regions, Colombia. 

July II, I'joS. 



Handling Blast Furnace Bullion at 
the Selby Smelting Works 

By James C. Bennett 

The accompanying drawings illustrate a 
method of handling bullion which has, 
after considerable experiment, been 
brought to a point where it gives good 
satisfaction ; perfection would be too 
strong an expression to use, as the sys- 
tem is not entirely ideal, owing to the 
fact that it is still necessary to cool and 
re-melt the bullion. It will be under- 
stood that, in this smelter, the refining is 
done on the premises, hence it would be 
desirable, if conditions perniillcd, to avoid 

and the bullion therefore cools very 
slowly. In view of these two objections, 
it was thought advisable to seek some 
other means of handling, and the present 
method has, as has been stated, been 
finally l)rf)UKht to a state of comparativj 

The New Svste.m 
As the drawings show the arrangement 
of the parts, a detailed description is un- 
necessary. It may, however, be well to 
gjve some detail as to the operation and 
the difficulties that were encountered. In 
operation there is always a pot standing 
beneath the spout of the lead-well, for as 
the filled one is drawn away the empty 
is pushed into its place If the lead be 

until the temperature again approaches 
that of the bullion. This is accomplished 
by successive filling and emptying, a little 
at a time, thus avoiding the necessity of 
any special provision for maintaining the 
temperature during the time that the fur- 
nace is not in active operation. After 
the pot reaches the temperature of the 
bullion, there is no further difficulty on 
that account, as the interval between em- 
ptying and filling when running normally 
is insufficient for the temperature of the 
iron to drop greatly below that of the 

Mandlino and Making the Molds 
When solid, the bars arc loosened by 
the use of a particularly sharp poll-pick 

akrangement of casting plant for bullion 

cooling the bullion. For the average 
smelter, however, which does no refining, 
the method here described would seem 
to approach very nearly to the ideal. 

The Cooling Pot Syste.m 
The method formerly used was that 
very coimnonly employed, of collecting 
the bullion in a "cooling pot," from which 
it is bulled into individual molds, then 
turned out and placed upon a car or 
truck for transportation from the fur- 
nace. This is, of course, a laborious way 
of handling, and, in the event of an un- 
"siially high lead production, becomes in- 
pable of disposing of the output, as the 
"'Ids have no interval in which to cool 

running quite freely a stopper, of clay is 
placed in the spout during the change, 
otherwise it is allowed to continue run- 
ning, as the little which falls to the floor 
can be easily cleaned up when a sufficient 
amount has accumulated. The full pot is 
drawn to the mold farthest from the cen- 
ter and gradually pushed back as the suc- 
cessive molds are filled. The capacity of 
the bowl or pot is just equal to that of 
the 10 molds which comprise one side; 
thus it is unnecessary to leave a small 
amount in the bowl to form a button. If 
the furnace has been hung up for a time 
for some repair, the pot will cool to such 
an extent that when again started the 
lead will chill .and nearly fill the bowl 

which is driven into the bar with a short 
quick stroke, and the bar is pulled up and 
toward the workman, only enough to en- 
able him to grasp it by the ends so that 
he can transfer it to the car or truck It 
will be seen by the drawings that the 
width of the mold is slightly greater at 
one end than at the other. The wide end 
is set away from the pot, thus rcndi ring 
it easier for the workman to remove the 
bar, especially if there he any uneven - 
ness in the casting With the exception 
of cutting a shallow groove or slot in the 
edge of the bowl spout, tictter to guide 
the stream into the molds, there has been 
no change made in the truck fro:ii the 
design shown in the drawing. The molds. 



July II, iQ 




July II, 1908. 


however, gave a considerable amount of 
trouble and have required a good deal of 
experimental changing. The original 
molds vi-ere cast in blocks of five each, 
cored out, making the bottom and sides 
in one piece with the five molds, the wa- 
ter being passed through them at the 
regular service pressure of about 40 lb. 
This will be recognized as similar to the 
practice of making cast-iron furnace jack- 
ets. In order to secure a smooth surface 
on the inside of the molds proper, they 
were cast bottom upward. The foundry- 
man, however, found so much difficulty 
in keeping the core from floating, thus 
causing the iron to be very thin in the 
bottom of the block, that this plan was 
modified by casting the molds and sides 
in one piece, leaving the bottom open and 
securing the cast-iron cover-plate to the 
block by means of cap screws. This form 
developed a new difficulty, or rather an- 
other, as it is prohal)le that it existed un- 
exposed in the first attempt because the 
thin bottom condemned the casting before 
anylhiug else cnjuIiI develop. 


On casting the bottom-plate in a sep- 
arate piece, the molds proper appeared to 
have porous or spongy bottoms, as they 
allowed the water to seep through the 
iron, thus rendering the mold and its en- 
tire block useless. The water came 
through in a somewhat irregular line 
running lengthwise of the mold. While 
the iron was cold (he castings appeared 
perfectly sound, even when subjected to 
a pressure somewhat in excess of the 
40 lb., but very soon after the molten 
lead was poured into it, causing the iron 
to be alternately heated and cooled, the 
leak developed. After trxini; two or three 
blocks to make certain that the trouble 
was not with an individual casting, one 
was broken up, when the cause was at 
once revealed. Bearing in mind still that 
the molds were cast bottom upward for 
the purpose of insuring a smooth inside 
surface, it will be seen that the iron, in 
casting, was obliged to spread over the 
top of the block and then to rise simid- 
taneously on the sides of all the molds, 
finally joining the two sides at the bottom' 
of each mold. The sheets of molten iron 
thus forming the sides were so thin— 
H in.— that the faces or edges chilled be- 
fore reaching the line of juncture along 
the bottom and so failed to unite or weld 
Ihorou^jbly, so as to sneak, thus form- 
ing what the foundryman terms a "cold 
shut" in each individual mold. 

After trying a second foundry in the 
hope that this difficulty might be over- 
come, die plan of having a multiple mold 
block was abandoned, and the general 
plan indicated by the accompanying draw- 
ings was adopted. A fresn problem pre- 
sented itself with this arrangement, the 
leakage of bullion between the molds. 
This was not unforeseen, but the surprise 
was caused by the persistency with which 

the lead went into the pan. The first 
molds of this type were made with a 
flat ledge running along the side instead 
of the grooved one here shown. The pos- 
sibility of lead leakage was thought of, 
but it was believed that the iron would 
chill the lead so that it would not get into 
the pan between the molds. When put in- 
to service, however, the lead seemed to 
granulate on striking the iron, as the pot 
passed from one mold to the next, and 
rolled through the cracks and into the 
pan, where it piled up, making dams the 
full length of the molds, and one between 
each two. Then followed the present 
grooved ledge, which was planned to con- 
tain a gasket of clay, oakum, lead pipe, 
or whatever might prove to be best suited 
to the purpose. The first attempt used no 
gasket whatever, and it was found that 
the lead itself formed one, the groove 
appearing to collect the particles until it 
had filled solid, after which compara- 
tively little lead reached the pan. It is 
still necessary to clean the pan occasion- 
ally, but this can be done during the times 
of temporary shutdowns, and is thus 
cheaper than making machined joints be- 
tween the molds. Attention is called to 
the fact that in these molds the only ma- 
chine work necessary is the drilling and 
tapping of the hole for the supply pipe 
and those holes required to hold down 
the angle-irons and the hand-hole covers 
over the launder. It will be noticed that 
this style of molds, while water-jacketed, 
is not subjected to any pressure, as the 
top is open to the air— thus neither pan 
nor mold is so liable to leakage on account 
of a slightly inferior casting; and if any 
mold proves defective, it can be removed 
by loosening the angle-irons and without 
disturbing any of the others. 

Capacity of the Apparatu.s 
The quantity of water used is small, 
but. owing to the use of salt water at 
this smelter, it is found advisable to use 
pipes of liberal dimensions to provide for 
the filling up with the accretions carried 
in the water. The 20 molds of this type 
have never been crowded even when, on 
a few occasions, the bullion product of 
the furnace has been abnormally high , 
whereas with the old arrangement of 3,5 
plain molds it was at times all but im- 
possible to take care of an abnormal pro- 
duction with a furnace whose capacity 
was considerably less the present one. 
This incapacity of the molds was due to 
the absence of the water-jacket, for the 
reasons that have already been stated. 

Turkish Quicksilver Mining 

In Kasstjiiui Mmcraria, .\pril 11, i>o8, 
page 138, F. P. Monaci has given some 
details in regard to two plants for mining 
and smelting quicksilver ores in Asiatic 
Turkey. The mines are the Kara Bour- 
nou and the Koniah, both belonging to an 
English company. 

The Kara Bournou mine is 30 km. from 
Smyrna and 3 km. from the sea. The 
ore is a silicious rock impregnated with 
cinnabar, the mineralized portion being 
in such a large mass that it can be quar- 
ried in open workings. This circum- 
stance greatly reduces the cost of produc- 
tion and permits the treatment of very 
low-grade ore, even as low as 0.25 per 
cent, mercury. The average contents of 
the output mined and treated in the year 
1006-07 was 0.75 to I per cent., and the 
average monthly output of mercury was 
250 to 275 flasks. 

The smelting plant includes two Spirek 
tower furnaces for coarse ore, and a Cer- 
mak-Spirek furnace for finer ore. The 
total capacity is 40 tons per day. The 
plant was completed and went into opera- 
tion in May, ipoO, since which lime it has 
been in uninterrupted operation. 

The Koniah mine is near the town of 
the same name, in central Anatolia, and at 
an altitude of-i8oo m. Operation is some- 
what hindered by the severe winters at 
this elevation. The district is richly min- 
eralized, and mining operations date back 
to antiquity, judging from the relics of 
former mining villages and smelting 
plants. The ore occurs as an impregna- 
tion of cinnabar in a zone of silicious 
limestone. Work is at present confined 
to an upper layer of limestone in which 
about 13.000 tons of ore, averaging i per 
cent, mercury, has been blocked out. The 
smelting plant at this mine includes one 
Spirek tower of is-tons daily capacity, 
and one Cermak-Spirek furnace of 8-tons 
capacity per day. The workmen, Turks, 
Armenians, Greeks and Kurds, are indus- 
trious and docile. 

Knocking the bottom-post from under 
the swinging doors of a cupola is gener- 
ally done with a sledge. This practice has 
resulted frequently in death or injury to 
the cupola tender. By attaching a ring to 
the bottom of the post and* conducting a 
chain to a simple lever about 30 ft. away 
the post may be pulled from under and 
all danger eliminated. 

The immense size of its great orebodies, 
the fair grade of the ore, and the favor- 
able natural conditions for their exploita- 
tion combined to make the Ccrur dWIene 
become the greatest lead-producing dis- 
trict of the United States, its only draw- 
backs having been remoteness from the 
great smelting centers and labor difficul- 
ties. The lodes are so situated that they 
can be worked to a large extent through 
adits levels. Up to 1903 at least 70 per 
cent, of the ore previously mined had 
been extracted through adits, at no charge 
for hoisting and pumping, and of the re- 
maining 30 per cent, at least two-fifths had 
been hoisted through underground shafts, 
to be subsequently hauled out through 
tunnels. The Tiger-Poorman was the 
only mine operated always by shafts from 
the surface. 



July II, 1908. 

Fighting Fire in an Anthracite Coal Mine 

Many Problems in Timbering and Ventilation Were Encountered. 
Mine Was Flushed Full of Clay. Dangers from Gases Overcome 

B Y 


D E V E R S* 

The Jersey mine ot the Delaware, 
Lackawanna and Western Railroad Com- 
pany was opened about i860 in the Red 
Ash seam, in the southwestern section of 
the Wyoming valley coalfield. The mine 
was developed by two slopes. The orig- 
inal slope is about 350 ft. long on an 
average dip of 35 deg. at a depth of 350 
ft. Two gangways were driven on thi.- 
strike of the seam, one east of the slope, 
for a distance of 2000 ft., and the west 
gangway about 5000 ft. Chambers were 
turned at right angles to both gangways 
<.nd driven directly up the pitch to within 
50 ft. of the outcrop ; at this point a 

the slope, an overlap fault was struck. A 
tunnel was driven in the conglomerate 
measures through a fault connecting the 
Jersey and Avondale workings. At this 
time the counter slope was converted into 
a gravity plane; and all the coal mined 
afterward in the Jersey mine was lowered 
to the Avondale. 

Securing a Water Supply 
About 1893, the Avondale mines under- 
went a general squeeze, which cut ofif all 
the workings no.rth of the shaft, including 
the Jersey workings. On May 18, 1901, 
at about 7:30 p.m.. a large volume of 

niountamside, a distance of 4500 ft. to a 
reservoir situated about 300 ft. north- 
east of the slopes. Two 3-in. siphon pipes 
were laid from the reservoir to the fire. 
.\ Jeanesville pump having a capacity of 
750 gal. per min., and built for a lift of 
1000 ft. was taken from No. i shaft, 
.■\.uchincloss mines, and installed at the 
swamp to pump water to the fire against 
a head of 375 feet. 

The work of installing the pump and 
laying a pipe line was completed with all 
possible despatch, but the fire had lost no 
time. The timbers had burned out in 
lioth slopes, and cave-ins had allowed the 


chain pillar was left to prevent the sur- 
face water from flowing into the mines. 
After several chambers were driven up to 
the chain pillar on the west gangway, the 
coal was drawn out and the rooms 
abandoned. A counter slope was driven 
from the head of the original slope diag- 
onally across the pitch, also across old 
chambers driven from the west gangway 
of original slope. The counter slope in- 
tersected the west gangway driven from 
the original slope about 450 ft. west, and 
was continued for two lifts below, or a 
total distance of 1200 ft. At the foot of 

♦Assistant district superintendent. Del,-, 
ware, Lackawanna & Western Coal Com- 
pany, Plymouth Township, Penn. 

smoke was noticed coming out of the 
original and counter slopes. The of- 
ficials of the Avondale mine were 
promptly notified and at once went to the 
scene. Upon their arrival they found a 
large fire raging about 300 ft. below the 
surface on a counter slope. The officials 
at once organized a large gang of fire 
fighters and immediately started to lay a 
line of 4-in. pipe from the mouth of both 
slopes to the artesian well about 4000 ft. 
northeast. Although the pipe was laid 
within a short time, unfortunately the 
water supply 'from this source soon gave 
out. This made it absolutely necessary 
to lay a line of 8-in. pipe from the Avon- 
dale swamp at the Ross shaft up over the 

fallen debris to attain to a white heat. 
The men were employed reopening the 
counter slope, which had to be accom- 
plished in face of the most intense heat, 
gradually fighting the fire as they ad- 
vanced. Good progress was made for 
about 75 ft. between the head of both 
slopes. At this point an empty chamber 
30 ft. wide, and on fire, was encountered. 
After making a heroic eflfort to fight the 
fire back and cross this chamber to fol- 
low the fire down the slopes, the plan had 
to be abandoned. A large slush box hold- 
ing 2000 gal. of water was erected on the 
surface and a sluice was laid from the 
outlet of this box to the empty chamber. 
A large gang of laborers was employed to 

July II, 190S. 



lill i1r- sluice with clay, while the box was 
lillint; with water; this operation required 
four minutes, 'Ihe water was then in- 
stantly liberated into the sluice and the 
clay was washed into the empty chamber. 
After .1 time this plan also had to bo 

I he officials then tried to sink a new 

assumed charge of the lire on Oct. i, reach the tire with two streams of water. 

'901. ' The moment water was turned on the 

tire, the steam and sulphur fumes drove 
us out to the surface. We shut the wa 
tcr off, waited for the steam and sulphur 
fumes to clear away, fastened both lines 
of hose so as to reach the fire, withdrew 
our men and turned the water on. After 


About four months after the lire had 
started, V\^ F. Powell was appointed 
foreman on the opposite shift ; one week 
lope through an old chamber 600 ft. west later we got together and decided other five hours of impatient waiting, the fire 
if the counter slope and through the plans had to be adopted in order to sue- had cooled sufficiently to allow us to pro- 
liain pillar. I might add here, that the cessfidly combat the flames. While work- ceed. The flames here raging proved to 

clianilur referred to was opened from a 
water-level gangway driven along the 
sirik'- of the seam above the chain pillar, 
which is left at the face of those cham- 
liiTs driven from the west gangway of 
the original slope; the outcrop of the 
se;;ni is 300 ft. higher on the mountain on 
the west side of the slopes. A force fan 
was erected by the time the men reached 
I In- cli.iin pillar, and air was forced to 
iluiii .\fler working two days on a pil- lluy succeeded in 1 reaking a hole 
llirniigli to an old chamber, but this feat 
c:iMu- ne.-ir costing the lives of the men on 
llie shift. The great outrush of carbon 
iiini (i.xide (white damp), which was 
pi-iiiud up ill iild workings, immediately 
louiid Mill ,uh1 overtook the men before 
tliey could retreat; fortunately, the miners 
did escape, and had enough presence of 
mind to drag their semi-conscious com- 
IMi-ions with them to safety. All tools,, etc.. were lost. The cause of this 
-luiden outrush of gas was due to the hole 
luiiig driven through the chain pillar at 
;.ii elevation 50 ft. higher than the mouth 
I if both slopes. 

When the hole was broken through the 
cli.iiii pillar, the slopes immediately be- 
caiiu the downcasts, and the hole the out- 
let This change in the direction of the 
:iir currents allowed the latter to cross 
Ihe lop of the old chamber on the original 
^lii|H. ,ind to start to force their way 
dnwii the counter slope through the fire 

ing on the night shift, I discovered an old 
crosscut on the east side of the original 
slope and innnediately stopped the three 
o'clock shift from working at the face, 
and started to explore the old workings 
on the east side. After working our way 
through the crosscut we found ourselves 
close to the face of an old chamber and 
a crosscut leading to the next chamber on 
the cast. We worked our way gradually 
across five of these chambers, which were 
driven from the cast gangway of the ori- 
ginal slope. 

It was here foniid possible to descend 
with a rope and we lowered ourselves 
iibout .150 ft. to a l-.ody of water, which 
was fiiiind 1(1 be the east gangway, and 


on the upper rib. Some planks were sent 
down, and a raft constructed; two of us 
pushed our way back toward the original 
slope on the raft, and found, after coming 
back to the fifth chamber, that we had 
reached the original slope pillar. I may 
also add, that our print was incomplete, 
but accurate, all there was to it, as only 
the gangways, slopes and tunnels were 
shown. Mo surveys had been made of 
the chambers or airways. 

I bus finding it possible to reach the 

be at the entrance of the old chamber, 
which we found so much trouble to cover 
over between the slopes. We loaded out 
the cooled debris, timbered and forcpoled 
our way through the cave; put in a frame 
set at the entrance to the chamber, se- 
cured nozzles made out of l-in. gas pipe 
in 8-ft. lengths, pushed them as far as 
po.ssible up the pilch into the fire, with- 
drew our men and turned on the water. 
It was our intention to cave the chamber 
and prevent any sudden fall from closing 
in on our gangway timbers and entombing 
our men. 

This caving plan proved so successful 

that we immediately adopted it and caved 

all our open chambers as we advanced on 

ed to within about 3 ft. of the roof the gangway for 1250 ft. through a solid 

wall of fire. In all, we crossed 36 cham- 
bers on this gangway, on some occasions 
requiring two weeks to cross one cham 
her. 'I he delay in crossing was due to 
rushes of coal and rock all on fire, which 
at times filled the gangway for 25 ft. 
On again reaching the face after these 
rushes of fire, we always found a pitch 
chamber partly opened and could see the 
chain pillar at the face on fire, also the 
roof of the chambers were at a white heat. 
This was a beautiful sight and was simi- 
lope on the gangway, changed the whole lar to standing and looking into a blast 

plan of fighting the fire, for it gave 
valuable information. .After consulting 
with Mr. Powell, foreman, and .Montrose 
Honnard, district superintendent, it was 

Ihe loading and handling decided to install boilers and a pair of lox 
12-in. Lidgerwood hoisting enicines on 
the surface east of the original slope; it 
was also decided to drive a hole through 
the chain pillar in line with the engine: 
erect a sheave wheel and start a slope 
across the old chambers and through the 
pillars to a point we had reached on the 
raft above water level through the slope 
pillar to the west turntable or fire gang- 
way. This work was started on Oct. 11, 
1901, and on Oct. 21, we had reached the 
west gangway, as we thought then below 
the fire. It was here discovered that the 
west gangway on the slope pillar was 
blocked with baked clay, which accounted 
for the large body of water east of the 
slope. Evidently this was the clay and 
water that had been flushed into the open 
chamber from the slush box. 

mill cave 

of .ill ileliris to be accomplished in 
wlieelbarrows by two men being hooked 
up in h;irncss to pufl, while another 
imslied on the handles. 

While some progress was thus made, 
tile men found themselves working in 
liinse rock 40 ft. over the coal seam, with 
tile lire underneath. Tliis plan was then 
aliaiidoned, streams of water were left 
running over the loose rock and a new 
plan Was .idopted. This latter scheme was 
to work down the original slope, and was 
carried on successfully to the first cross- 
cut driven on the west side to the old 
chamber, which had given so much 
Irotihle. .V windlass was erected in this 
crosscut and a counter slope was started 
across the old chamber, which had caved, 
also throiiiib llie pillar under the counter 
slope. The iiilenlion was to get on Ihe 
slope, reopen it, and follow the fire. The 
wimllass was useil to hoist a small truck, 
and four men were employed to turn the 
windlass on each shift. Such were the 
disciHiragiiii,; conditions under which 1 

.\ SiHiESSFi-L Pl,\x of Oper.vtion 

1 he gangway was open for about 50 ft.. 
but a large fire could be seen in the dis- 
tance. We proceeded carefully, timbering the slojie into the lower workings, which 
every inch of the ground until we could afterward proved to be correct, but Mr. 

furnace. We at once forcpoled the tim- 
bers to the cave with 25-lb. T-rails, and 
.1-in. pipes and covered the same with 
sheet iron to prevent any more rushes 
coming in on the gangway. 

We then proceeded to push i-in. gas 
pipe nozzles up to Ihe fire, fastened on 
the hose, withdrew our men and turned 
on the water. The water coming in con- 
tact with the fire caused heavy explosiors 
and in a very short time caved the open 
chamber, thereby allowing all the rock 
and coal to rest on timber. We then pro- 
ceeded as before to open the gangway to 
the next chamber. About the time we 
reached the point where the counter slope 
intersected the west gangway. R. A. 
Phillips, superintendent, paid us his first 
official visit. On passing by this place. 
Mr. Phillips, called my attention to the 
large amount of heat comin:< up and said, 
'■young man the fire has gone below you 
on this slope." I had purp<-isely passed 
this point to see if Mr. Phillips would 
notice the heat coming up; as Mr. Bar- 
nard, district superintendent, and I ha<I 
alw.ays differed on this question. I had 
maintaineil that the fire had gone down 


July II, 15 

Barnard was of the opinion that the heat the men worked in relays of about 3 min., 
from the fire on the gangway was work- naked with thfe exception of gum boots 
ing down through the west chambers and and trousers. After the slope was con- 
nected to the tunnel, we had the fire sur- 
rounded, and it was then decided to erect 
a dam in the tunnel. This tunnel was the 
only opening which was driven through 
the fault. 

The line of fault also passed from the 

coming up the slope 

. An Old Shaft was Reopened 

After this investigation it was decided 
to erect I2xi4-in. Lidgerwood engine boil- 
ers and a derrick at the old shaft, 1000 
ft. west of the slopes, and reopen this 
shaft. The timbers of the shaft had rotted 
out, allowing a large quantity of clay and 
debris to fall down completely filling the 
shaft for a distance of 130 ft. This pit 
passes through the Red Ash seam at a 
point 40 ft. on the pitch of 45 deg. south 
of the gangway that we were working in 
at the slope end. Our reason for re- 
opening this shaft was to work our way 
up through the chute to the gangway to 
meet the fire and if possible to prevent it 
from spreading. Upon reaching the fire, 
our intention was to drive a chamber out 
to the surface and cut the fire off. 

After opening the shaft, we made good 
progress for a short time, but the firemen 
at Woodward, Pettebone and .\vondale 
mines went on strike and shortly after- 
ward the miners at these collieries joined 
the strike in sympathy with the firemen. 
The strikers were not satisfied until the 
fire fighters had joined their ranks. Al- 
though no coal had been mined -in the 
Jersey workings since 1893, this strike 
hampered us to a great extent. But after 
employing new men, whom we had to 
board and protect on the property, we de- 
cided to retreat 250 ft. west of the shaft 
and reopen a chamber, which was 98 ft. 
wide, pitching 45 deg. on the line of the 
shaft, and work our way up ; upon reach- 
ing the face, we proposed to drive to the 
outcrop. This plan proved a large and 
dangerous undertaking. We constructed 
a jugular manway along the right rib 
and gradually worked our way to the face, 
and drove a chute through the chain pil- 
lar to the water-level gangway. 

As a reward for our labor we got a 
shower of fire, which nearly trapped our 
men. We built an iron battery in the 
chute to prevent the fire falling into the 
chamber, and laid two lines of hose up the 
manway, making a desperate effort to get 
our water-level gangway to cut the fire 
off, but with little success. About this 
time H. G. Davis was appointed dis- 
trict superintendent, Mr. Barnard having 
resigned. Wm. E. Walters was foreman on 
the opposite shift. After holding a con- 
sultation, it was decided to sink a new 
shaft from the surface a depth of 130 ft. 
to the water-level gangway about 400 ft. 
west of this chamber. It was also decided 
to reopen a gangway leading from No. 9 
plane, Avondale mines to the Jersey tun- 
nel, which was driven through the fault at 
the foot of the counter slope, and reopen 
it to cut the fire off and meet the men 
working down through the fire from the 
west gangway. This was also accom- 
plished, but the heat was so intense that 

(blackdamp) or carbon monoxide, CO 
(whitedamp), also the approximate num- 
ber of gallons of water pumped to the 

All set timbering consisted of a S'/a-ft- col- 
lar between notches, 7-ft. legs having 21/2-in. 
pitch to a foot ; this stood on a mud sill 
8 ft. 5 in. between notches. The center 
of the collar was lagged and forepoled 
bottom of the slope near the foot of the where necessary with 3-in. wrought-iron^ 
old shaft and intersected the fire gangway pipe, 25-lb. T-rails and sheet iron, 
about 300 ft. west. The gangway from Four employees, called hosemen, were 
this point ran parallel with the fault. We constantly on duty patrolling the gang- 
worked our way in this gangway until way and openings left in the rear of the 

men employed at the face, to watch the 
timbers and prevent the same from burn- 
ing out. 


All known systems of ventilation were 
tried at various times during the progress 
of the fire. Hand fans were used in iso- 
lated hot holes and a steam jet was em- 
ployed in the timber shaft on the outcrop' 
to keep the current heavily charged with 
CO2 (blackdamp) moving in the same di- 
rection. A force fan was driven with a 
water-wheel by using the water which 
ran down the counter slope to the tunnel 
through the fault, and gave good results. 
The force-fan method did not give good 
results at the old shaft ; its use drove 
carbonic gas up about 40 ft. in the shaft, 
at which hight the gas remained making 
it impossible for us to descend. 

The exhaust-fan system gave good re- 
sults in the old shaft, located at the same 
point and ventilating the same workings 
where we had tried the force-fan system ; 
the same fan was used for both methods. 
The fire itself was used to good ad- 
vantage at times, when feasible to pro- 
duce ventilation. All blasting was done 
with C. Atlas 40-per cent, dynamite. The 
dynamite was placed on top of hot rocks 
and wrapped in water-soaked canvas or 
blue clay and fired with a short fuse; no- 
holes were drilled in the rocks at any 
time, although, approximately, 25 short 
tons of powder were used during the 
period the fire was fought. 

During the progress of the fire it was a 
common occurrence for men to be car- 
ried out unconscious, overcome by car- 
bonic acid, CO2, or carbon monoxide, CO'. 
These victims were quickly treated and 
restored to consciousness by resorting to- 
artificial respiration and using the power- 
ful heart stimulant, ammonium nitrate, in- 
haled by saturating a handkerchief. The 
patients were also given medicine con- 
taining ingredients prescribed by Dr. D. 
H. Lake, Delaware, Lackawanna & West- 
ern surgeon. 

Amount of Water Used 

The approximate amount of water 

pumped to the fire in 33^ months, or 

1000 days, by a 20x7i4x24-in. Jeanesville 

The following is the method of timber- duplex pump, running 200 strokes per 

ing, ventilating, blasting and treating per-' minute, and in operation 22 hours each 

sons overcome with carbonic acid, CO: day amount to 990,000.000 gal, besides the 

e found a chamber driven to the water- 
level gangway, and in which no crosscut 
was driven to the west; this made a good 
chain pillar, so we decided to erect a 
dam on the gangway on this pillar. We 
were considerably hampered during the 
erection of these dams by the large per- 
centage of carbonic acid gas (blackdamp) 
which was flowing into and mixing with 
our air current from the fire and old 

The construction work was accom- 
plished by gangs of men, one gang reliev- 
ing the other about every five minutes in 
order that the men who had been work- 
ing on the dams might go back into a 
fresher air current, .^fter completing the 
dams and reopening the water-level gang- 
way from the new shaft, until we reached 
the fire at a point not exceeding 40 ft. 
west of the line chamber, we retreated 
60 ft. west of the fire on the water-level 
gangway and reopened a chamber through 
to the shaft 50 ft. deep on the outcrop, 
and constructed dams across the water- 
level gangway on the chain pillar. This 
completed the actual work of fighting the 
fire underground, with the exception of 
building flumes from the surface to the 
foot of the counter slope ; also to the head 
of the old shaft and to the hole we had 
driven to the outcrop. We also sunk a 
6-in. bore-hole from the surface to the 
face of the chamber on the shaft line, and 
built a flume on the mountainside, con- 
necting same with the bore-hole. We then 
laid 4-in. water mains to the flumes and 
employed a large number of men with 
teams, plows and scrappers, and started to 
haul clay, which they had plowed up, to 
the flumes and then washed it into the 
mines. This plan was continued until the 
entire mine was filled with incombustible 
material and the fire put out, after four 
years of the most hazardous and difficult 
work. The work of extinguishing this 
fire was fortunately accomplished without 
serious accident or loss of life. The last 
chamber driven to the outcrop and also 
the dams constructed on the water-level 
gangway were done under the supervision 
of M. V. Lewis, inside foreman, at the 
.\vondale mines. 

Method of Timbering 

July 11, 1908. 



large amount of surface water caught on 
the mountain water shed and conducted to 
the reservoir, and siphoned to the fire 
during the wet season of the year. This 
vast amount of water had to he rcpumped 
up the No. I slope and the Ross shaft, 
Avondale mines from the No. 2Yi west 
lift, Red Ash seam, by a 24.x.j8-in. Duplex 
Jeanesviile pump, besides the regular mine 
water against a head of 440 feet. 

During the time" the clay was being 
Hushed into the workings through a hole 
driven through the chain pillar at a cham- 
ber 600 ft. west of the slopes, and the 
hole was being filled to the surface level, 
an explosion occurred, which blew the 
baked clay and ashes for hundreds of feet 
on the mountainside, similar to a volcano 
sending up lava and ashes from its crater. 
This hole was immediately reflushed and 
has since remained intact. 

■| he method of crossing hot chambers 
above the seat of the fire was to con- 
struct overhead canvas airways, which 
were kept continually wet to prevent the 
canvas from burning: the hot air and 
gases were passed back over the heads of 
the men. This method proved successful. 

The following is a report of David T. 
Davis, inspector of mines 8th Anthracite 
district, to the Department of mines on 
the fire, in his report for 1905: "I am 
pleased to be able to report that this 
stubborn and serious mine fire, if not en- 
tirely extinguished, has been so sur- 
rounded by incombustible material that 
\\ will be practically impossible for it to 
spread into any olber part of the adjacent 
old workings." 

The fire was iliscovered on May 18, 
I'joi. I be origin has always been a 
mystery. It has cost the company a tre- 
mendous amount of money. The officials 
and workmen engaged at this work have 
also suffered a great many trying ordeals, 
and are well pleased with the conditions 
existing at present, as the work of fighting 
a fire of the magnitude of this one in old 
abandoned workings where no system of 
ventil.ilion could lie adopted or applied, is 
a problem that taxes the .ibility of the 
most competent mining men. 

Many ways of decreasing the injurious 
effects of coal dust on miners have been 
tried in foreign countries. In these meth- 
ods either the dust is allayed by spraying 
or it is prevented from entering the lungs 
of the miners by respirators. With re- 
gard to the latter devices, the miners ob- 
ject mainly because such machines ham- 
per conversation with a near-by partner. 
At the St. John del Rcy Mine. Brazil, 
helmets supplied with air from the com- 
pressed air pipe are worn by the machine 
men. The small rubber pipe, which brings 
the air to the helmet, can be detached in- 
stantly by means of a comiection. the 
valve in which closes automatically when 
detached. Expansion cools the air, and 
renders work in a hot .seam more pleas- 

Coal Mine Dust 

In Annates des Mines, Dec, 1907, F. 
Brcynsrt states that systematic watering 
of coal-mine entries has not become gen- 
eral in England, and is practiced only in 
Wales and in a few collieries in Durham. 
In the Cardiff district, 62 mines are pro- 
vided with systems of water under pres- 
sure, having about 250 miles of pipe. The 
Llwny^ia colliery has a water main pass- 
ing through all the principal entries; for 
a distance of 200 yd. from the shaft the 
entries are sprinkled with a hose and 
nozzle; beyond this distance the mains 
are furnished with jets from point to 
point, which shoot out sprays of water 
into the entries. 

Cost of Inst.\llation 
The cost of installing such an arrange- 
ment is about as follows : 

8.8 mllM of 1 i/j-In. pipe $.',000 

.7unctlon8 lo.l 

Brackets and haogprs !(!.'. 

%ln. nipplos 340 

Labor of InHtallatlon 4S0 

Hose 00 

Total $0150 



In the mine wherein this equipment is 
installed, the expense of watering amounts 
to 0.4c. per ton of coal hoisted ; this 
figure includes interest on the cost of 
the plant but not its depreciation, nor the 
cost of the water, which might in some 
circumstances, be considerable. In the 
Durham collieries, the cost is estimated 
at 2c. per ton. 

In the Browncy colliery, Durham, a 
plan has been adopted which is econom- 
ical of power and water. The water is 
applied wherever it is most wanted, 
while the scheme does not permit the dis- 
cbarge of an excessive amount, to the de- 
triment of the passageway. The installa- 
tion includes a little pump of 2-in. diam- 
eter, and 6-in. stroke, which gets its 
water from a small tank fed from a main 
and regulated by a float-valve. The pump 
is driven mechanically by the passage of 
the trip. In an entry where head and 
tail rope are used, the tail rope passes 
over a pulley which transmits its power 
to the pump. Where an endless rope is 
used, the pump is driven by a chain which 
engages the cars as they pass by; in this 

case the pump works only when a trip is- 
going by. Each pump delivers water to 
one, two or three pipes which span the 
entry at a distance of 300 ft. apart. On 
the under side of each of these pipes are 
spaced five or six spray jets made of 
J^-in. pipe, closed at the end and pierced 
by a very small hole. A little paddle- 
wheel affair, made of sheet tin soldered 
together, is fastened to each jet to aid 
in pulverizing the stream of water. One 
form is shown in the accompanying 
figure. The atnoimt of water projected 
by one of these sprays is about one quart 
per minute. 

Labor and Accidents in British 
Columbia Coal Mines 

The report of the Department of Mines 
of British Columbia for the year 1907 
gives the following statement of the la- 
bor employed at the coal mines of the 
Province during the year: 

l'n<li>r- Sur- 

Mnnaei-inent and onii-c. \li M 176 

Million* 1,871 .... 1,871 

MIikth' lii'lprre .%flO sfio 

EnElncmon Ic vafvbanU-f Ml S34 l.OT.'i 

LnlHirors 7.M1 493 l,2Sa 

H'lyH I.S8 47 'JOS 

.ln)>nncs<- 132 4'i 174 

Clldii'SO i7S 47U 743 

InillnilH 3 10 13 

Tolnl 4.389 l.«0 •,0B9 

The total coal mined during the year, 
with its disposition, was as follows, in 
long tons : Sold for consumption in 
Canada, 916,262 tons (41.3 per cent, of to- 
tal) ; sold for export, 673,114 (30.3) ; used 
for making coke, 419,541 (18.9); used at 
collieries. 165,931 (7.5) ; added to stocks 
on hand, 44.760 (2.0) ; total, 2,219,608- 
tons. The average coal mined per em- 
ployee, including all classes, was 366 tons ; 
per miner, n86 tons. 

I he production of coke was : Sold for 
use in Canada, 155,579; sold for export, 
60,110; added to stock, 7224; total 222,913 
tons. The average yield of coke was 53.1 
per cent.; that is 1.85 tons of coal were 
used in making a ton of coke. 

The number of accidents in coal mines 
for two years past is reported as follows : 

,-Suml«T-, -PorlOOOEniii.-, 
190« 191)7 1906 1907 

Klllml IS 31 s.ia S.U 

S«rlously Injured... 3« 61 7.49 10.07 

siiRiiiij iDjuroii 33 m CM 10. a 

Total 83 IM 17.27 9«.4a 

The increase in the numt)cr killed and 
injured last year was large; 85.5 per cent, 
in number and 47.2 per cent, in proportion 
per 1000 employees. The causes of acci- 
dent reported were : Gas explosion, I 
killed and 19 injured : falls of coal and 
rock. 10 and 37 : mine cars and timber, 8 
and 42; powder explosions. 1 and 6; mis- 
cellaneous underground, I and 8; on sur- 
face, 10 killed and 11 injured. Falls of 
coal and rock were responsible for 323 
per cent, of the deaths, and 303 per cent 
of the injuries. In 10 years there have 
been 413 employees killed and 656 injured 
in British Columbia collieries. 



July II, 1908 

Colliery Notes 

It is better to have a good fire and a 
bad boiler, than a bad fire and the best 
possible boiler. 

In order to reduce the dust in German 
mines, holes are drilled in the solid coal 
and water at a high pressure is forced in 
for some considerable time before the 
coal is shot down. 

A considerable falling off took place 
last year in the quantity of foreign coal 
imported into Spain ; the returns just is- 
sued show a total of only 1,888,032 tons 
as compared with 2,199,097 tons the pre- 
vious year. 

In designing a mine car, remember that 
it is of the utmost importance to keep 
the wheels as large and the axles as small 
as possible, consistent with the strength 
of the latter; upon the ratio of the two 
depends tlie friction. 

Although the coal mines of Belgium are 
looked upon as being am^ng the most dan- 
gerous in the world, such care is taken to 
insure the safety of the miners that the 
total death rate during 1901-1904 was only 
10.10 per 10,000 employed. 

Pressure gages on steam engines should 
te tested by occasionally shutting off the 
steam and letting the pointer run back to 
zero. The average or safe-working pres- 
sure of a boiler should be indicated on the 
pressure gage b.v a prominent red line. 

The Erie Coal Company, of Pittston, 
Penn., hereafter, will discharge and re- 
fuse to take into their employ any 
foreigner with a police record. The com- 
pany will be furnished with a list of the 
same by the city and county authorities. 

During the year 1907. 25 coal mines 
were worked in Africa. The gross ton- 
nage produced 3,969,884 tons, valued at 
£796,361. The white men employed num- 
bered 498, while there were 10,076 col- 
ored workmen. There were only 35 fatal 
accidents; 291,991 ft. of workings were 
•driven, and 3089 ft. of shaft were sunk. 

In plants worked by mechanical draft, 
an economizer is an important item, as 
the saving effected will pay the running 
e.xpenses of the fan and the final tem- 
perature of the gases may be reduced con- 
siderably below what is necessary to 
maintain the chimney draft. It is pos- 
sible to work with e.xit gases below 200 
■deg. Fahrenheit. 

Pounding in a pump indicates that tlic 
pump chamber is not filling as it sliould. 
This defect may be overcome by an air 
•chamber located on the section pipe near 
the boiler; this will induce a continuous 
Row of water to the suction valves and 
so remedy the trouble. Pounding is usu- 
ally due to a defective suction pipe, though 
sometimes it is caused by defective valves 
or water lagging behind the plunger. 

Hfiicient pipe lagging is all important in 
the prevention of condensation in steam 
pipes. Not only the barrel of the pipe, 
but the flanges also should be lagged. 
Leaky joints are often the residt of pipes 
put up without proper provision for ex- 
pansion. Good spring-bends, heavy 
flanges and thin joints which cannot blow 
out, will remove all cause for anxiety 
;ibout the inconvenience of flange covers. 

The manufacture of briquets from black 
grass meadov/ mud is an important indus- 
try of Russia and Holland. This mud is 
carboniferous in character, and is a lower 
vegetable deposit than peat. It is chiefly 
composed of vegetable inatter, rotted 
under water, intermixed with earthy sub- 
stances. But little preparation, aside from 
drying after leaving the briquetting ma- 
chine is necessary to convert this mud 
into briquets. 

Breathing appliances should be used 
with a considerable degree of caution. 
The explorer should have had ample ex- 
perience before undertaking rescue work 
and should be thoroughly acquainted with 
the mine itself. Facts go to show that 
rescue work in a mine after a disaster 
is very uncertain and that rescue appli- 
ances, although excellent in themselves, 
may lead to further disaster when im- 
properly used underground. 

For a slow-speed engine, a receiver 
near the engine and small pipes with a 
high velocity of steam is more economical 
than large pipes; but with high-speed 'en- 
gines, the receiver is only a source of 
condensation and loss. Steam traps are 
used to deal with the condensation, and 
often add to the losses by heavy leakage. 
Do not bury them or hide them away 
where they cannot be seen, but treat them 
with suspicion and keep them under close 

The wear and tear on mechanical ash 
(.cnveyers is great ; for this reason, ash 
pits under boilers with a light railway, at 
a lower level, into which the ashes will 
run without much assistance is often a 
more economical arrangement than con- 
veyers. In cases where elevators must 
be used, they should have few wearing 
parts and these should be lubricated with 
hard grease instead of oil, as the latter 
washes grit into the bearings while the 
former helps to squeeze it out. 

The statement is made that soft coal is 
to take the place of anthracite in the 
freight service of the Lackawanna rail- 
road. There will be no change in the pas- 
senger service, unless the company should 
change its present plans. The change will 
be made for economic reasons. The sav- 
ing resulting from the use of bituminous 
coal will amount to thousands of dollars 
a year. .•\nother reason favoring the 
cliange, is the claim of higher efiiciency 
v.-ith soft coal, which makes a hotter and 
quicker fire. Bituminous coal has already 
been in use on tlie Buffalo division for 
several years. 

Lr.ring 1907 the death rate in the mines 
of New Mexico was 1.04 per cent., which 
compares with a rate of 0.0382 per cent. 
during 1906. This increase is credited 
mainly to carelessness on the part 
of the miners and the pernicious 
habit of shooting off the solid. The 
mines of the territory are quite dusty, 
and the principal danger to be guarded 
against is the explosion of this dust. '1 he 
system of paying for run-of-mine coal in- 
stead of clean coal has led to the increase 
of shooting from the solid, which lias 
greatly increased the number of fatal ac- 
cidents resulting from dust explosions. 

.■XU engine bearings should be exam- 
ined systematically; they should not be 
screwed up too tight as this increases the 
friction. If they are tightened in the 
morning before starting operations, when 
they are cold and contracted they are 
likely to be screwed up too tight. The 
best time for such examinations is right 
after work is finished for the day when 
ihey are expanded from the friction of 
working and are in their operating con- 
dition. Care should be taken to guard 
against the possible accumulation of dust 
as it increases friction. When undue fric- 
tion exists in the bearings, examine the 
lubricant on them and you will find metal- 
lic particles in the oil. 

Nothing will keep a plant and the work- 
ing staff in such good order as periodical 
tests and the recording of data intel- 
ligently supervised. The educational 
value on the men, of single day full tests 
is great, as it emphasizes the importance 
of attention to small details. The work- 
men soon learn how to improve their 
methods and get the best value out of 
the plant. There is also the stimulant of 
healthy competition among the men on 
different shifts if they are tested under 
similar conditions and their work com- 
pared. Much could be learned and many 
improvements made if the working staff 
responsible for the management of a col- 
liery knew more concerning the items 
which go to make up the working ex- 

Beech props are not used extensively 
in English mines owing to their weight, 
which exceeds that of most other timber. 
Such props when employed are generally 
used in return airways as they stand the 
weathering effect of the air current well. 
Pitch pine is used for supporting the roof 
and sides in wet places. It is of a 
resinous character and extremely durable 
in wet places, but cannot be used with a 
large margin of safety anywhere else as 
it burns quickly and is therefore danger- 
ous. Oak is the timber of permanence 
and durability and is used for main roads 
or in any place where permanence is re- 
quired and where the pressure is great. 
Roads timbered with oak have been 
knowm to last over 50 years. It is the 
most durable timber and stands weatlier- 
ing well. 

July II, 1908. 



Mining cJournal 

ImhiumI Wi.ekly by tho 

Hill Publishing Company 

605 I'l.arl Street, Now York. 

London OIHce: B Bouvcrie Btrcet, Loudon, K. C, Eng. 

Cabi.ii Ai'i'lmx "Kn<i>iii.j»i'>, N. Y " 

Sulmrri/ithri, payaliU in ailvttnrf, $5.00 a year oj 5'J 
nnm'en, including jtjxl'iyf In the United Statue, Kexi'o, 
Cu*.. Porto Rico, I/uicuii nr ihr I'M-ppina: ft.50 in 

To roreiijH Inunlrle; inrtuiiiig pithtiigr, fS.llO or ill 
equintl'iil, .1.1 Jilllintii US maikt : or 40 Jrann. 

yotire to ditironliinie thoulj lie irritten to the Neu> York 

A'herliKiuy ropy iihoutil rtoih Nrie i'ork ojUce tiij Thurmlay, 
a irrek hr/ore daU 0/ i.e,ir. 

F„r mie by all iieir«*(l'r.. gr„ri,illy. 
Entorod at New York Post Otllco uh mail miitter of 
tbo BocaiKl oLtHK. 

cincuLA riox sta tkmen t 

Iturlnij 1907 we printcil iinil circulatetl 
noT.ridO copies of The Knoineeuino and 


(iiir rirniUitUm for Jiiiii-. lOOR, was 41.000 


■lulu 1 iii.ono 

./»(;/ 11 D.rpOII 

.\tinr «riil fnr rniiihiilii. ih. h'irk iiumhera. 

ritiurix III! lirr, ,1, I ru, llhlliull. 

Contents p 


Till' ('i)pii(T Market 

Dry Air lllast in Stuel Making 

raiiinhirii us a By-product 

Alexander L. AKasslz. 

Tliu KlKlU-hour Uay in British Coal Mines. . 

Hol(i Minini! Prospects in Caiifornla 

•Till' Norili Side of llio Cociir d'Alcne Dis- 
trict Herbert S. A ucrbacli 

IiUiTiiational Nickel (;onipany 

•Tile Mines of Nortliwestern Aitar, Soiiora, 

Mexico Giiirge IT, Maiimiril 

Niclcel-ropper-I'latlnuni Ore in Nevaila. 

A. Mauricf Thimipson 
*(>re Colli nuts from tlie Smelter's Staiul- 

poinl Clurrncc A. (Irabill 

Volumetric lO.stiniation of Leail 

.Sliorllnind by Machinery 

•m Hayo (lold Mine, Near Santa Barbara; 

Mexici, CIniiile T. Hice 

.<li.irl lalK.s oil .MiiiiiiK Law— ill. 

.1. //. Uickill.i. 
Transvaal .MIiiiiiK Noles 

'HandliiiK Blast l''iiriiiui' Kiilhon ul the 
Selby Smell i UK Works. 

Jtimi's C. Urnnell 

Turkish Quicksilver MiniiiK 

'FlKlitiiiK I'ire in an Anthracite Coal Mine. 

P. //. Do'fTS 

•I'oal Mine Dust. . 

I.ulior anil .Vccidents in Britlsli Columbia 

Coal Mines 

Colliery Notes 


Canadian MiniuB Institute E. Jacobs. . . . 

I'acts Concerning CarditT Mine Explosion, 
(ico. tS. nice 

Mining Supplies G. T. B. 

•Safety Sinking Hook. . 77ios. H. Priak 

I'riiduclion of Mica in North Carolina. 

Josej'h Hiiile I'ralt 
Ueforin in the Coinstock Mining Coinpaity. . 

Gold stealing in Western Australia 

Questions and Answers 

New I'liblieations 

The Lake Superior Mining Institute 

St. .lohii del Key Hold Mining Company. . . . 

An Kiiglish Cold Mine ' 

Personals. Oliiiuiiries, Societies and Techni- 
cal Scliools 

Sllecial Correspnililellce 

Milling News 

Marlcels. etc . . 

" rated. 

The Copper Market 

About a fortnight ago the copper 
market, which previously had been (lull, 
developed weakness, owing to the desire 
to sell on the part of some producers 
whose nerves were unable to stand the 
strain. However, on the decline, domestic 
consumers manifested more interest than 
for a long time previously, and consider- 
able purchases were made by them, es- 
pecially at I2^c. for electrolytic. At that 
point there were found to be a good many 
inquiries in the market, with the proba- 
bility that a small further concession 
would bring about very large business. 
.American manufacturers appeared to be. 
iiulccil, ill the frame of mind that the 
luiropoans were in last November, when 
they realized that the price for copper was 
low and appreciated the advantage of 
providing for future retiuirements, even 
if the latter were not immediately in 

.'\merican manufacturers also recog- 
nized thai copper was cheap at that time, 
luit ihey did not have the money to in- 
vest. Since then, nearly nine months 
have elapsed. The supply of money has 
become abundant. Business is showing 
some signs of improvement. Confidence 
is being gradually restored. Consequently, 
it is the part of wisdom for American 
manufacturers to provide for their fuUire 
retiiiircments of copper. Under these cir- 
cumstances, it was perfectly natural that 
there should be some recovery in the 
price for copper as has been experienced 
during the past week. 

Dry Air Blast in Steel Making 

The Gajley dry-air blast system,- as is 
well known, has been used with marked 
success at several blast furnaces during 
the last three years. Recently a series of 
tests was undertaken at the South Chi- 
cago works of the Illinois Steel Company, 
the object being to prove the inventor's 
belief that the drv blast wouUI be 
equally bcneticial in connection with the 
bessemer converter. The dry-air plant 
already con.-ilructed for the South Chicago 
blast furnace was used, and a run of 
two days was made, the average reduction 
ci moisture in the air blown into the 
converters being from 5.98 to j.jg grains 
of moisture per cubic foot. 

The results obtained were so remark- 

able that so high an authority as P. H. 
Diidley, who tested the ingots and rails 
produced, feels justified in speaking of the 
test as "of technical and historical im- 
portance. ... A great step in advance 
for the bessemer process from every 
standpoint of consideration and practical 
operation." The results obtained with the 
dry blast were encouraging in the direc- 
tion of increased capacity for carrying 
scrap, and other items bearing on cost ; 
the enlarged control of high or low sili- 
con irons ; the most significant, however, 
being the great improvement in the pro- 
duct, as shown by Mr. Dudley's test. The 
ii'gots cast from steel made with the dry 
blast were more solid, free from blow- 
holes, e.xccpt at the extreme top, and the 
blooms made from them showed unusual 
solidity and freedom from segregatitm. 
Throughout the test a better and more 
nearly uniform grade of steel was appar- 
ent. The blooms were used, with only the 
usual discard, in rolling loo-lb. section 
steel rails ; and in careful tests of these 
rails only i per cent, were rejected as 
defective or of second quality. This is a 
very unusual proportion. 

The results thus shown may be of gre-it 
importance in restoring confidence in the 
bessemer process, and putting the con- 
verters again on a parity with the open- 
hearth furnaces as far as the quality of the 
product is concerned. The lest was on 
such a scale and so carefully made thai it 
may be accepted as fully confirming Mr. 
Gayley's claims for the ndvant<iges of 
using dry air in the converter as well as 
ill the blast furnace. It is not impossible 
that in this application may be found the 
solution of the steel-rail question, over 
which there has been so much controversy 
during the past two years. If parallel re- 
sults can be secured in continuous opera- 
tion — and there is no apparent reason why 
they cannot— ! here will be no necessity of 
abandoning the bessemer converter and 
resorting to the open-hearth furnace for 
rail-making metal. 

Years ago Dr. William B. Phillips pre- 
dicted that the next great improvement 
in iron making would be in the dry-ing of 
the blast. He was not able to find sup- 
porters, or to carry out his ideas into 
practice at the time : and it was reserved 
for Mr. Gayley to devise the metliod of 
drying the air, and to test it on a scale 
which has demonstrated the technical 
and commercial value of the improve- 


July ir, 190S. 

Cadmium as a By-product 

Some of the producers of zinc ore in 
the Joplin district have discovered that 
their ore contains considerable cadmium, 
sometimes upward of 0.5 per cent., and 
as a local newspaper puts it, "The pro- 
ducer receives no extra money for his 
cadmium, although in many instances its 
value will be more than $10 to the ton 
of zinc." Certain of the mine operators 
have suggested that there be some method 
of receiving pay for this by-product. We 
fear that they are doomed to disappoint- 
ment in this respect. 

It is quite true that the Joplin blende 
contains a comparatively high percentage 
of cadmium, indeed more than we know 
of in any other ore produced in large 
quantities, but tmfortunately the uses of 
cadmium are few. The production of 
metallic cadmium in 1907 was about 
70,550 lb. in Silesia and about 15,000 lb. 
in the United States; this represents the 
world's production. 

Although under present conditions cad- 
mium fetches a high price, its value in the 
United States being $1.25 per lb., it is one 
of the substances in limited demand for 
which a high value is maintained only so 
long as the production is small. The in- 
auguration of competition in such in- 
dustries invariably leads to a tumble irt 
price that is disconcerting and dispelling 
of fond hopes of immense profits. Recent 
experiences in the production of bismuth, 
cobalt oxidfe, lithia and other substances 
are illuminating in this respect. 

At present radium is perhaps the most 
precious of substances, but its extra- 
ordinary value is decreed by the fact that 
the world's supply in marketable form is 
scarcely a spoonful. If some one should 
be able to supply a cupful there would 
probably be a debacle in radium. 

With respect to cadmium, the amount 
that can be recovered as metal is only a 
tithe of what exists in the ore. But even 
so, the present producers could furnish a 
vastly greater quantity if they could sell 
it, and moreover the smelters of silver- 
lead ore could also furnish it. 

The producer of zinc ore is not refused 
anything to which he is entitled when he 
is not paid for the cadmium in his ore. 
On the contrary the smelter is a good deal 
more likely to object to its presence. He 
has to be constantly on his guard to avoid 
paying for cadmium as zinc, because with 
the careless chemist cadmium may be 

reckoned as zinc in the assay; and, more- 
over, a considerable portion of the cad- 
mium goes into the spelter, to which some 
consumers of spelter object; unreasonably 
we think, but still they do object. 

Alexander L. Agassiz 

In his recent examination in connection 
with the trial of the suit of A. S. Bigelow 
against the Calumet & Hecla Mining Com- 
pany, Alexander L. Agassiz, president of 
the Calumet & Hecla, became righteously 
indignant and said : "I have served the 
Calumet & Hecla Mining Company from 
the beginning; I have been perhaps an 
autocrat in running it. But I defy anyone 
to find anything in my conduct which will 
in any way show that I have benefited in 
the least at the expense of any of tfie other 
stockholders. If working tooth and nail 
for 40 years means anything, all I can 
say is that it is not wOrth the while of 
anybody to work, if what I have done is 
subject to the attacks such as I have been 
subjected to during the last six months." 

Mr. Agassiz has had so many reasons 
for feeling irritated under the wild 
charges made in connection with this liti- 
gation that he will readily be forgiven for 
displaying some indignation. However, 
he can rest easy with the assurance that 
everyone in the mining industry whose 
opinion is valuable recognizes the great 
work that he has done in building up the 
Calumet & Hecla Mining Company, and 
any ordinarily well . informed person 
knows what has been the position of the 
Calumet & Hecla in the copper trade and 
marvels at the ridiculousness of the 
charge that it has been attempting to 
create a trust. On the contrary, the 
Calumet & Hecla has ever been the great 
exponent of the open market, and as such 
has been the champion iconoclast of the 

The Eight-hour Day in British 
Coal Mines 

The Eight Hours Bill for limiting the 
working hours of coal miriers in Great 
Britain is now being discussed by Par- 
liament. As to the necessity of the bill 
there is considerable difference of opin- 
ion. It is recognized that if it is passed 
the cost of production will be increased 
and that prices will rise, which will have 
a serious effect on the iron and steel and 
other industries. Practical men, such as 

the chairman of Pease & Partners, one of 
the large caal and iron companies of the 
north of England, complain of the inter- 
ference of government departments and 
of the expense and waste of time in mak- 
ing complicated returns. If this bill is 
passed, clerical work of this nature will 
be still further increased. The evidence 
brought forward to show that the hours 
of miners are already too severe is not 
weighty. It is well known that colliers 
do not always work six days a week. At 
the collieries of Pease & Partners every 
Saturday and Monday there are 20 to 30- 
per cent, of the miners idle. For the eight 
weeks ended Sept. 28, 1907, the average 
time lost was 2.^.19 per cent, of that 
which would have been made if the men 
employed in the mine had worked full 
time. The causes of the loss of time were 
17.4 per cent, simply idle, 3.17 off through 
illness, and 3.62 per cent, off through 

That the bill as it stands is likely to 
have a far-reacliing effect on the in- 
dustries of Great Britain, appears to be 
causing alarm to the government, and im- 
portant amendments modifying the hours 
of labor and postponing the operation of 
the measure have already been accepted. 

Gold Mining Prospects in California 

The unusual scarcity of water this sea- 
son, which is due to the light snowfall on 
the Sierra Nevada last winter, will prob- 
ably cause an early closing of all the 
mines along the Mother Lode in Cali- 
fornia this season. The mining situation 
will be the dullest in several seasons be- 
cause of this lack of water at the mines. 
The scarcity w-ill affect the mines as far- 
south as Tuolumne county. In that county 
the ditch and power men think that they 
will be able to supply water up to Sep- 
tember, but hardly expect to do so be- 
yond that time, until the winter rains 
come. Therefore many of the mines ex- 
pect to close for a while in about three 
months from now. 

The recent formation of several new 
associations, intended mainly for the dis- 
cussion of coal-mining methods and of 
means for the prevention of accidents,, 
cannot fail to be productive of good re- 
sults. The interchange of experiences and' 
the discussion of local methods wilF. 
broaden the views of managers and lead. 
to the adoption of many improvements- 

July ir, 1908. 


Views, Suggestions and Experiences of Readers 

Comments on Questions Arising in Technical Practice and 
Debatable Points Sugi:;ested by Articles in the Journal 


Canadian Mining; Institute 

I licre wore several mislakcs in the ac- 
count of the niccliiig of the western 
branch of the Canadian Mining Institute, 
held at Rossland. I!. C, on May 14, as 
published in the Joi h.nai. of June 20, 
which I shajl esteem it a favor lo be per- 
mitted to correct. 

When I was at the Tyee Copper Com- 
pany's smelter, ' Ladysmilh, , Vancouver 
Island, a few weeks prior to the meeting, 
the manager, W. J. Watson, was good 
enough to explain to me the advantages 
he was obtaining in using a matte separ- 
ating forchearlh, which was his own 
adaptation of tlic old Orford settler to a 
water-jacket receiver. My notes, read at 
our mectinji, were to the efTect that among 
other advantages atTorded by the use of 
this matte separator are ihe elimination 
• of danger of men being burned when tap- 
ping, the much cleaner slag made (this 
causing a saving which in one month 
more than pays the cost of installation), 
the economy effected in the services of a 
tapper Ijcin'j; dispensed witli in each of the 
<hree shifts, llie reduction in the wear and 
te.-ir of Hi.iltc' pols (llie stream of matte 
not striking llu- side of the ])ol ;is in tlie 
ordinary tapping operation), and in the 
saving of tapping-clay. A pliotograph and 
blue prints of drawin:.^s illustrated this 

Next, in cmnerlion with C. M. Camp- 
bell's exeelUu; p.iprr nu "(Iranliy Mining 
Methods," Ihe Cr.mby niines up to the 
time of the meeting had not produced 
"over 5.000,000 tons of ore," as staled in 
the JouRN.\L. These figures arc about 
1.(00,000 tons in excess of the actual pro- 
ilnelion, and they do not appear in the 
carbon copy of Mr. Campbell's paper sup- 
plied to the secretary. Neither do I find 
any statement to tlie efTect that in one 
place the ledge, measured horizontally, is 
70C ft. in width. Mr. Campl)ell di<l slate, 
however, that "at the place where this 
section is taken a crosscut could be started 
in ore at the footwall and driven for over 
600 ft. before again encountering waste 

1 hen, llie gold medal presented to 
Frank I'., l.alhe was not given by the in- 
stitute, but by last year's president. As 
that gentleman. Frederic KeefTer, was 
prevented by important business from at- 
tending the meeiing, he sent the medal to 
the president of the branch. A. B. W; 
Hodges, and requested him to take ad- 
vantage of Mr. l.,itlu's presence at the 

meeting to publicly present liim will) tile 
medal, which was for the best paper sub- 
milted by a student last year. Incidentally 
I would like to add that the judges of the 
students' papers described Mr. Lathe's 
paper as "an excellent monograph, care- 
fully written, with full attention to details, 
and especially to the costs and expenses of 
manufacture; a point in which many tech- 
nical papers are deficient." 

F'inally, Ihe paragraph in the Joi;rn.\l 
relative to my reading "a paper from notes 
by Mr. Miller of the Tyee smelter," is 
also incorrect. What I did read was a 
few notes 1 made on "Ore Hoisting Ap- 
pliances at the Tyee Copper Company's 
Smelter," which I also obtained when 
visiting the works. In particular I de- 
scribed a trolley designed by Mr. Watson, 
the manager, which has been found to 
work effeclively in hoisting ore from ves- 
sels into bunkers on Ihe wharf at Lady- 
smith. Photographs and blueprints of 
drawings were kindly supplied by Mr. 
Watson at my request, to better show the 
devices I endeavored to describe. 

E. Jacobs. 
Sec'y Western Branch of C. M. I. 

\'ictoria. B. C. June .>5, i(>o8. 

Facts Concerning Cardiff Mine 

In the communication of 11. N. Dodge in 
ihe Journal of May 23, regarding mine 
e.Kplosions, I was surprised to see certain 
statements relating to the explosion at 
Cardiff. 111., several years ago. Noting in 
the Journal of June 6 that another cor- 
respondent refers to this subject I think 
it is important that such statements, upon 
which theories are liable to be buih, 
should be quite exact. I, therefore, wish 
to correct Mr. Dodge when he states that 
no gas had been found before the ex- 
plosion. .Assuming the usual meaning of 
"gas" in mining parlance, to be marsh gas 
either pure or diluted, to my personal 
knowledge, several "feeders" had been 
found. .Vs Mr. Dodge was night fore- 
man at the time of the explosion, I think 
he will need only a spur to his memory to 
recall at least one feeder which was 
ready to light on all occasions, issuing in 
a small jet from the floor at the mouth 
of one of the rooms near the seat of the 

Whether or not marsh gas had any 
effect in the first explosion is a matter I 
ain not prepared to state; briefly, the 
origin of the trouble this : .\ section 

01 tile mine had iieeii temporarily aband- 
oned, to be reopened to pull pillars at a 
later period. Meantime it was being ven- 
tilated and supposedly examined daily. 
The facts that developed were, that a 
heavy fall of roof in a room in a thick 
upper seam dropped on to the floor, knock- 
ing a hole in this through strata about 6 
ft. thick into workings of a lower seam. 
There was a little water standing in this 
room and when the "soapstone" of the 
upper seam roof came in contact with it 
spontaneous combustion set in. When 
discovered the gob fire was burning so 
fiercely, having set fire to the coal in the 
pile, that the local management concluded 
they could not put it out by direct means 
and undertook to brattice off the whole 
district. Before this was completed an 
explosion occurred blowing out the stop- 
pings. .\n attempt was made to flood the 
seat of the fire and at the same time to 
re-cn-ct liratticcs across the return air- 
ways. This work was never finished, suc- 
cessive explosions covering several days 
causing Ihe loss of nine men in all, 
wrecking the mine and setting fire to it. 
The hoisting shaft lining burned out and 
allowed quicksand to run in. This in turn 
pulled the steel tower down into a hope- 
less tangle. 

The lesson to be learned from this 
heavy loss is, unceasing vigilance in in- 
spection of old workings and prompt ac- 
tion at the immediate scat of fire, first 
trying to put it out by direct means and. 
if the mine makes gas. using brattices 
with great caution. If brattices have to 
be erected they should be placed as close 
to the fire as possible on the return side 

Geo. S Rice. 

Chicago. III., July 2, iqo8. 

Mining Supplies 

There are a few classes of supplies 
which all mines use, upon which little in- 
formation is obtainable, except that fur- 
nished by selling agents. This is all 
right, so far as it goes, except that each 
contradicts all the others. I refer par- 
ticularly lo drill steel, lubricants, packing 
for pumps, engines, air and steam pipe, 
and compound for lubricating and preser- 
vation of hoisting ropes. In visiting 
mines, one sees a different variety in use 
at each one. The master mech.inic al- 
ways swears by his particular brand and 
condemns all the others, which, of course, 
he has tried and found worthless. Con- 
ditions vary somewhat, but there must be 




July II, 15 

information floating around, if it could 
only be corralled, which would save a 
great deal of the experimenting, which 
is now done each man for himself. The 
conditions vary, as I have said, but the 
principles must remain largely the same. 
Engines are a good deal alike and must 
be lubricated. Steam only varies in pres- 
sure and temperature. 

I am particularly interested in the ques- 
tion of rope compounds. There must be 
some best lubricant for the inside wires 
of a hoisting rope. Can it be combined 
in varying proportion with the best ma- 

Safety Sinking Hook 

I have read with interest in the Journal 
of April 18 the paper by Henry Louis on 
"Safety Sinking Hooks." I should like 
to add to the illustrations already given 
another sketch showing a hook which was 
designed by myself for Wheal Kitty and 
Penhalls United, Ltd., and which gave 
every satisfaction in shaft sinking. It has 
no springs or other delicate parts to get 
out of order. It is impossible for the 
bucket to drop off the hook. It is easily 

frisk's winding hook 

terial for resisting water more or less 
acid, or must some other ingredient be 
combined to get the ma.vimum result? 
Not the greatest length in the life of the 
ropes necessarily, but the best results for 
the money expended; balancing the cost 
of the rope against that of the compound 
and the e-xpense of applying it. 

The cost of compound made by the 
manufacturers is very high. When sales- 
men insist on taking your order for a 
large trial shipment, at prices ranging from 
10 to 35c. per lb. f.o.b. the factory, noth- 
ing to be paid unless its use is successful 
(that is, unless it proves more economical 
than the brand in use, whatever it may 
be), I am forced to the conclusion that 
there is considerable profit in its manu- 
facture. This is a subject on which I de- 
sire information. If anyone has definitue 
figures on the cost of the ropes as af- 
fected by using dift'erent compounds, it 
would be distinctly a gift to the profes- 
sion to make them public, and in my case 
would save wasting time and money in 
trying some brands. The cost of rope 
and compound is a small charge against a 
ton of rock hoisted, but in a large mine it 
amounts to a considerable sum in a year, 
ard as such commands attention. 

G. T. B. 
Globe, Ariz., June 27, 1908. 

attached and detached, and is so simple 
that it can be made by any ordinary 
smith. In my opinion this hook is su- 
perior to any of those illustrated by Mr. 

Thos. H. Prisk. 
St. Agnes, Cornwall, May 20, 1908. 

Production of Mica in North 

Bv Joseph Hyde Pr.\tt* 

Reform in the Comstock^Mining 

Speci.vl Correspondence 

F. B. Sturgis, Pennsylvania coal-mine 
operator, who recently secured controlling 
interests in several of the old Comstock 
Lode, Nevada, mines, has stirred things 
up in the offices of those companies in 
San Francisco. He suggested that the 
mines were run on a "top-heavy" sys- 
tem, and that salaries of office forces 
should be largely reduced. This proposi- 
tion has met with the unanimous approval 
of the directors of the several companies 
affected and the following adopted the 
recommendations: .A.lpha, Andes, Sierra 
Nevada, Union, Consolidated, Ophir, 
Mexican, Consolidated California & Vir- 
ginia, Savage, Chollar, Potosi, Gould & 
Curry, Bullion, Julia and Exchequer. In 
most cases the salaries of the presidents 
and secretaries have been cut in half. 
After three months the positions of as- 
sistant secretaries are to be abolished. 
All supplies will hereafter be purchased 
under contract from the lowest bidder 
.Auditing committees on each directorate 
will pass on all expenditures. The cut in 
salaries alone will total an annual saving 
of $55,000. Sturgis is now attempting to 
secure a reduction in the water rates from 
the Gold Hill & Virginia City Water 
Company, whose revenue from the Com- 
stock mines for supplying them with 
water, is reported to be not less than 
$1,000,000 per annum. 

It is notorious that a number of the 
Comstock companies have been run for 
a long time for the benefit of the official 
staff', deficiencies being made good by as- 
sessments on the stockholders. Mr. 
Sturgis has, apparently, taken hold in 
the expectation of making money by min- 
ing, and expects that most of his costs 
will be made at the mines, and not in the 

There still .:ontinues to be a large de- 
mand for North Carolina mica, and dur- 
ing 1907 there was a slight increase in 
the produc'ion over that of the previous 
year. The production' for 1907 amounted 
to 645,221 lb. of sheet mica valued at 
$209,956. Besides this, there were 1371 
tons of scrap mica produced, valued at 
$15,250, As can be judged from the ratio 
of the price to the pounds produced, a 
large proportion of the North Carolina 
mica was of comparatively large sheets, 
some of which were valued at $3 or more 
per pound. This production was obtained 
from nine counties in the western part of 
the State. 

~ ♦State geologist. Chapel Hill, N. C. 

The bulk of the tungsten ore produced ^^,^^^^ statistics were collected by the U. S.. 
in the United States comes from Colo- GeoIoKical Survey and the North Carolina 

^,^^^^j^^l ^^^ ETOnomic Survey in eoBper- 
rado. ation. 

Gold Stealing in Western Australia 

Gold stealing in Western .\ustralia has 
been greatly reduced since the authorities 
endeavored seriously to put a stop to it. 
The returns of gold production furnished 
to the Mines Department and the amount 
of gold sold to the mint or entered for 
export from the State, showed a dif- 
ference of £485.000 in 1905. In 1906, when 
the Gold Stealing Commission instituted 
inquiries the difference, was £247,437. In 
1907, when the new laws were enforced 
and special detectives were employed at 
the cost of the mines, the difference was 
only £104.327. 

The production of iron ore in Japan in 
1906 was 40,766 tons; of iron pyrites, 42,- 
155 tons. 

July 1 1, 1908. 



Questions and Answers 

. . liKiiilrlcs for InfM'mallon ait- annwiTi'd In 
thiH dopHi-lnn'iit a» prompllv aH p'lHsihlf, but 
inori- nr Iosh delay Is often unavoidable. 
Many lnf|iilrlfs hivnlve a «ood deal of In- 
voHllKalloi] liii.l iIm . . .'m lie answered only 
when Ihc' Lrji.i;il ini.t. si In the subject Ik 
concelveil I., Ill hu ilic. espendlliire of the 
(line i'ec|iiir.-.l 1 .ii r. |,Mij.|eMis should refrain 
from asking i"i' -hIvh-.- iliai out'lil lo be ob- 
tained by iir.iiessiiinal rcusuHail..u with an 
enplric'er. We will iiol iinswiu- i|uc-sllons per- 
lalnlni; In Ihe value of speellle nilnlni; enter- 
prises. Jn<|ulrles should be framed eonclsely. 

M \RKET RiK Infusorial Earth 
I am ondeavoring to fmd a market for 
iIk- product of my infusorial earth mine. 
The material is high grade and I am de- 
sirous of securing the names of the firms 
wild arc in the market for it. 

.\. B. L. 
We suggest that you correspond with 
W. H. VVhittaker, 245 Front street, New 
York City, or llammill & Gillespie, 240 
I'Vont street, New York City. 

Barium CARnoN.\TE 

Please give nie the names of reliable 
wholesale establishments that can furnish 
b.iriuni carbonate, precipitated, 98 per cent. 
|)iire, in large quantities. 

H. O. E. 

Gabriel & Schall, 205 Pearl street. New 
York City, make a specialty of all barium 
products. Hammill & Gillespie, 240 Front 
street, New York City, and John C. 
Wiarda, _'5<) Grecnpoint avenue, Brook- 
lyn, .V. Y., also handle barium products. 

Market for Tungsten Ore 
Is there any custom concentrator for 
tungsten ore in Pittsburg, Penn., ready to 
treat or purchase the crude ore? What 
concerns ;ire interested in the purchase of 
tungsten concentrate? 

F. T. 
I lenry E. Wood & Co., Denver, Colo., 
buy crude tungsten ore for concentration. 
The Primos Chemical Company, of 
Primes, Delaware county, Penn., is a 
purchaser of tungsten concentrate. 

Vai-uf of .\rsenic Ore 
What is the market for mispickel ore 
carrying from $6 lo $30 per ton in gold? 
1 have communicated with the smelter at 
Evcrell, W.ish., but fiml it will not pay 
for the arsenic. 

W. .\. H. 
Iho only concerns in the United States 
which recover arsenic from ores are the 
Piiget Sound Reduction Company, of 
Everett, Wash., and the .\naconda Copper 
Mining Company, of .A.naconda, Mont. In 
Canada the Dcloro Mining and Reduction 
Company, of Deloro, Out., treats arseni- 
cal gilil ore and produces white arsenic. 
riic fact that the smelter at Everett will 
not iipinly pay for the arsenic as such 
does mil imply necessarily that no pay- 
nuiit is made Payment may be made in 
tlic form of a lower treatment charge than 
otherwise would be demanded, which, 
of course, is equivalent to an allowance 
for the arsenic, although it does not ap- 

pear as such on the face of the returns. 
We know that certain shippers of arseni- 
cal ore to the Everett works obtain in 
this way an allowance for the arsenic 
value of their ore. 

Generally speaking, a smelter which is 
equipped for recovery of arsenic as a by- 
product can afford to pay about one-third 
of the market price of white arsenic for 
the arsenic content of the ore in excess 
of 10 per cent. For example, if the price 
for white arsenic is 3c. per lb., an ore as- 
saying 30 per cent, arsenic would be 
worth 20 .X (30 — 10) X $0.01 = $4. 
This basis of payment leaves a fair margin 
for profit to the smelter, but, of course, 
as pointed out above, the arsenic value 
may be paid for in the form of a reduced 
treatment charge. 

.Market for Ozokerite 

I am in a position to furnish the best 
quality of ozokerite in quantity and should 
like to know where I could find a market 
for the material. I should also like to 
know how much ozokerite is imported 
into the United States, and how it is 
packed for shipment. A. K. S. 

Ozokerite is produced chiefiy in .\us- 
tria, where the industry is controlled by 
a trust. The production in the United 
States is practically nil, Colorado and 
Utah producing small amounts which, 
however, is probably not all true ozok- 
erite. The total imports of all waxes 
into the United States is about 8,000,000 
lb. per annum, and of this quantity it is 
estimated that true ozokerite consists of 
25 per cent. Ozokerite is used chiefly 
for mixing with waxes for the purpose 
of hardening them; and as an insulating 
material for wire cable. The best grades 
of true ozokerite are worth about 17c. 
per lb. to the consumer; the price grades 
down to IOC. per lb. for the poorer qual- 
ities. If you have the true ozokerite you 
will doubtless find a market for it in this 
country, for the demand is good. Messrs. 
Stanley Jordan & Co., 100 William 
street, New York, and John S. Lamson 
& Brother, Maiden Lane and William 
street. New York, are dealers in this 
material, and we suggest that you send 
them each a i-lb. sample, representing the 
average grade. The material is packed 
in bags for shipment. 


What are the uses for cryolite and 
what is its value? J. J. 

Cryolite is used in the manufacture of 
sodium salts, the manufacture of certain 
special kinds of porcelain and glass, and 
as a flux in aluminum smelting. For the 
last purpose, however, the demand has 
lately been greatly diminshed by the sub- 
.stitution of a product derived from fluor- 
spar. By far the major portion of the 
cryolite imported into the United States 
is employed for the manufacture of 
sodium salts. The business is entirely in 
the hands of the Pennsylvania Salt Man- 
ufacturing Company, of Natrona, Penn. 

The average value of the cryolite im- 
ported into the United States in 1904 was 
$14.30 per 2240 lb. ; in 1905, $14.05 ; in 
1906, $19.72; and in 1907, $22.51. 

Use and Value of M.\cnesite 
What is the composition of commercial 
niagncsite? How much carbon dioxide 
will it yield? What is the value of liquid 
carbon dioxide? In burning magnesitc, 
how much residue remains in the kiln? 
What percentage of fuel is required? 
What is the value of calcined magnesite? 
W. I. 
.Magnesite should be high in magnesium 
carbonate. The commercial mineral fre- 
quently contains as much as 98 per cent. 
In burning a charge of 90 per cent, of 
high-grade magnesite mixed with 10 per 
cent, coke, 50 per cent, of the weight of 
the magnesite is obtained in the form of 
carbon dioxide. The price of liquid 
dioxide depends upon the use to which it 
is to be put, the maximum price being 
about IOC. per lb. However, the price 
is very variable and must be determined 
by negotiation. About 48 per cent of 
the weight of the magnesite remains 
as residue in the kiln, plus the weight 
of the ash of the coal or coke used. 
Coal or coke may be used as fuel. In the 
case of coke, the requirement is about 10 
to 12 per cent, of the weight of the mag- 
nesite. The value of calcined magnesite 
i'" $14 to $15 per 2000 pounds. 

Price of Gvpsum 

What is the market price of gj'psum, 
and who are dealers in this material? 
S. L. L. 

Ground gypsum is quoted at $4@7 per 
short ton, f.o.b. New York. J. B. King 
& Co., t Broadway, New York City, is a 
dealer in ground gypsum. The U. S. 
Gypsum Company, 1123 Broadway, New 
York City, is the largest miner of gypsum 
in the United States. 

Loss OF Vanadium 

Is there any loss of vanadium in the 
manufacture of ferro-vanadium from fer- 
rous vanadate? 

A. H. n. 

This is a subject on which there are 
only one or two authorities in this coun- 
try; little of value has been published re- 
garding it. In processes of this kind there 
are inevitable losses. In this particular 
case, the loss would depend on the charac- 
ter of the vanadate, the kind of alloy de- 
sired, the type and intensity of the funiace 
used, and many other things 

.\ consular report from Calcutta stales 
that the Burma Oil Company, of Ran- 
goon, inaugurated on .\pril 12 a new pipe 
line for transporting oil from the Yenan- 
gjaung oilfields to the pumping station at 
Pyinbinhla. 25 miles above Prome. The 
section is now opened in the northern- 
most part of the line, which in future will 
feed Rangoon refineries. 


New Publications 


Government Printing r. mic 

July II, I'joS. 

Power Gas Producers, Their Design 
AND Application. By Philip W. 
Robson. Pp. 247, illustrated. sM^SH 
in.; cloth, 10s. 6d., London, iQoS: 
Edward Arnold. 
The Principles of Mechanics for Stu- 
dents OF Physics and Engineering. 
By Henry Crew. Pp. 295, illustrated. 
5i4.x8j4 in.; cloth. New York, 1908: 
Longmans, Green & Co. 
The Telkwa River and Vicinity, B. C. 
By W. W. Leach. Geological Sur- 
. vey of Canada. Pp. 23, i map. 6! 4x 
914 in.; paper. Ottawa, 1907: Gov- 
ernment Printing Bureau. 
Summary Report of the Geological 
Survey Department of Canada for 
the Calendar Year 1906. Pp. 206. 
6!^x9i/^ in.; paper. Ottawa, 1906: 
Printed by S. E. Dawson. 
Illinois State Geological Survey, Bul- 
letin No. 4. Year-Book for 1906. 
H. Foster Bain, Director. Pp. 260, 
illustrated. 5^4x8^4 in.; .cloth; Ur- 
bana. 1907 : University of Illinois. 
Binders for Coal Briquets. Investiga- 
tions made at the Fuel-testing Plant, 
St. Louis, Mo. By James E. Mills. 
U. S. Geological Survey, Bull. No. 
343. Pp. 56. 554x9 in. ; paper, Wash- 
ington, 1908: Government Printing- 
Annual Report, Geological Survey of 
Canada. 1904. Vol. XVI. (New 
Series) Reports A, B, C, CC, G, H 
and S. Illustrated, including maps in 
separate cover. 6j'lx954 in- ; cloth. 
Ottawa, ipob; Printed by S. E. 
Geology and Mineral Resources of the 
Controller Bay Region, Alaska. 
By G. C. Martin. U. S. Geological 
Survey. Bull. No. 335. Pp. 141. il- 
lustrated, including maps. 554x9 in. ; 
paper. Washington, 1908: Govern- 
ment Printing Office. 
Physical Geography of the Evanston- 
Waukegan Region. By Wallace W. 
Atwood and James Walter Goldth- 
wait. Illinois State Geological Sur- 
vey, Bulletin No. 7. Pp. 102. illus- 
trated. 6.K9 in.; cloth. Urbana, 190S: 
University of Illinois. 
LTebersicht L'eber die Nutzbaren Lan- 
gerstaetten Sued.\frikas. By Dr. F. 
W. Voil, Sonderabdruck aus "Zeit- 
schrift fur Praktische Geologic." 
XVI, Jahrgang, 1908, Heft 4 and 5. 
• Pp. 38, illustrated. /J^xiol!^ in.; 
paper. Berlin, 1908: Max Krah- 
The Ceratopsia. By John B. Hatcher, 
based on preliminary studies by O. C. 
Marsh. Edited and completed by 
Richard S. Lull, U. S. Geological 
Survey, Monograph XLIX. Pp. 294. 
illustrated. 9x1154 in- ; cloth. Wash- 

ington, 1907 : 
The Design of Typical Steel Railway 
Bridges. An Elementary Course for 
Engineering Students and Draftsmen. 
By W. Chase Thomson. Pp. 178, 
illustrated. 6x9^ in.; cloth. New 
York and London, 1908 : The Engi- 
neering News Publishing Company. 
Report on a Portion of Northwestern 
Ontario Traversed by the Na- 
tional Transcontinental Railw.«lY 
between Lake Nipigon and Stur- 
geon Lake. By W. H. Collins. Pp. 
23, I map, ilustrated. 6^x954 in.; 
paper. Ottawa, 1908: Canada De- 
partment of Mines, Geological Survey 
I'he Falls of Ni.\gar..\. Their Evolu- 
tion AND Varying Relations to the 
Gre.\t Lakes; Characteristics of 
the Power, and the Effects of its 
Diversion. By Joseph William Win- 
throp Spencer. Pp. 490, 2 maps, illus- 
trated. 6'/4x954 in.; paper. Ottawa, 
1907: Canada Department of Mines, 
Geological Survey Branch. 
I'he Fairbanks and Rampart Quad- 
rangles Yukon-Tanana Region, 
Alaska. By L. M. Prindle, with a 
Section on the Rampart Placers. 
By F. L. Hess, and a Paper on the 
Water Supply of the Fairbanks 
Region. By C. C. Covert. U. S. 
Geological Survey, Bull. No. 337. Pp. 
102. illustrated, including maps. 554^9 
in.; paper. Washington, 1908: Gov- 
ernment Printing Office. 

Mines and Minerals of the British 
Empire. By Ralph Stokes. Pp. 403; 
illustrated. Si^xS'/S; cloth, iss. Lon- 
don, 1908: Edward Arnold. 
The author was formerly mining ed- 
itor of the Rand Daily Mail, of Johan- 
nesburg. His book is the account of his 
travels among the important mining dis- 
tricts of the British Empire, during which 
he visited nearly all of them. The reader 
is bound to admire his industry in pur- 
suing his subject. His observation was 
keen and his description and analysis of 
what he saw are intelligent. The work 
that he assigned to himself was well 
done, and his book is not only interest- 
ing to read, but also is a valuable con- 
tribution to knowledge. 

Record of the Mines of South .Aus- 
tralia. Fourth Edition. H. Y. L. 
Brown, Government Geologist. Pp. 
382. 6x954 in. ; paper. Adelaide, 
1908 : C. E. Bristow, Government 
Contents : A short account of the chief 
geological features of the State of South 
Australia. Early history of South .Aus- 
tralian Mining. Copper. Silver-Lead. 
Gold. Iron. Mineral Phosphates. Brown 
coal, lignite, etc. Manganese. Miscel- 
larcous. Gems and rare minerals. Me- 
tallic minerals, earthy minerals of eco- 

r. mic importance, and gems (chief lo- 
calities). Return of Annual Mineral Pro- 
duction since 1840. Index. Map, show- 
ing approximate area occupied by metal- 
Ijearing rocks. 

The Architect's and Builder's Pocket- 
Book. By Frank E. Kidder. Pp. 
161, illustrated. 4^x7 in.; leather, $5. 
New York, 1908 : John Wiley & Sons. 
This is the fifteenth edition of the well 
known pocket-book which among archi- 
tects and builders ranks as Trautwine 
and Kent do among engineers. The 
changes in the new edition consist of the 
correction of typographical errors and the 
rewriting of the chapters on "Fireproofing 
of Buildings" and "Reinforced Concrete." 
This work has been done by Rudolph P. 
Miller, who was for 10 years connected 
with the Department of Building, New- 
York City, and for the last five years as 
its chief engineer. At the time of 
Mr. Kidder's revision for the 14th edition, 
he was not satisfied with these chapters, 
and would have revised them personally 
if he had lived. 

Lehrbuch Der Bergbaukunde Mit Be- 
sonderer Beruecksichtigung Des 
Steinkohlenbergbaus. Erster Band. 
By F. Heise and F. Herbst. Pp. 604, 
illustrated. 6^x9»4 in. ; cloth. Price, 
II marks. Berlin, 1908: Julius 
Even to enumerate the contents of this 
work would require a column of our 
space. It will be sufficient to say that it 
is the latest among the monumental books 
dealing with the art of mining, of which 
those of Goupilliere, Kohler and LeNeve 
Foster are illustrious predecessors. Pro- 
fessor Heise is director of the mining 
school at Bochum, while Mr. Herbst is 
professor in the well known technical 
high school at Aachen. Thus they are 
well equipped for the subject which they 
have undertaken. This first volume re- 
lates chiefly to coal mining; the authors 
hope that they will be able to publish the 
second volume before the lapse of two 

Such criticisms as we might be dis- 
posed to make respecting the volume be- 
fore us are disarmed by the disclaimers 
of the authors. Their work is distinctly 
intended for the use of the student in 
school, rather than for the technical man 
in practice ; and they have limited their 
discussion of methods to those which are 
employed in Germany. However, these 
limitations will not prevent the book 
from receiving the appreciation to which 
it is entitled among technologists, to 
whom it will be valuable as well as to the 
students, and it is bound to take rank 
among the classics of engineering liter- 

The manner in which the book is pub- 
lished, including typography, printing, 
binding and its noteworthy engravings, is 
of an excellence that excites our admira- 
tion, and last, but not least, the book is 
provided with a comprehensive index. 

July II, 15 



Lake Superior Mining Institute 


The thirteenth annual session of the 
Lake Superior Mining Institute, held last 
week on the Minnesota ranges, was one 
of the liest meetings ever held by that 
organization. Not only was there a larger 
jnd more representative attendance than 
usual, but the trips taken were of greater 
interest in that there wera more new 
things to see. Those who attended the 
Minnesota meeting of the American In- 
stitute of Mining Engineers, four years 
ago, will recollect the admirable program 
then carried out, and the comfort of the 
special trains (veritable traveling hotels) 
then used. The program for this year, 
and the arrangement of special trains for 
tliree days were similar, only possibly 
more complete than those of four years 
ago. The party, leaving Duluth on Wed- 
nesday night, traveled in two trains. The 
two Minnesota ranges were traversed 
from the east end of the Vermilion range, 
at I'.ly, to the west end of the Mesabi 
range operations, at Coleraine ; the entire 
distance from and to Duluth was 450 

Business MF.ETixfi 

The business meeting of the institute 
was held at Hibbiug, in the new high 
school which contains a splendid audi- 
torium capable of seating 700 persons. 
The following officers were elected for 
the ensuing year: President, M. M. Dun- 
can, of the Cleveland Cliffs Iron Com- 
pany, Marquette range; vice-presidents, 
W. J. Richards, of Corrigan, McKinney 
& Co., Crystal Falls, and Chas. Trezona, 
general superintendent of Vermilion 
range mines for the Oliver Iron Mining 
Company ; managers, T. E. Keese, Ish- 
peming; W. J. Urcn, Calumet; L. M. 
llardeuburg, Hurley; treasurer, E. W. 
Hopkins, Cominonwealth ; and secretary, 
A J. Yungbluth, Ishpeming; the latter two 
were re-elected, and the choice was a 
tribute to the two men who have served 
Icmg and well in their respective positions. 
The election of Mr. Duncan foreshadows 
a meeting next year on the Marquette 
range. Seventy-two applications for mem- 
bership were favorably considered, bring- 
ing the active membership to 547; the 
treasury balance showed $4670 on hand. 
About 240 members participated in the 
trip, while 40 or 50 more joined the party 
at points en route. 

In the course of his presidential ad- 
dress, delivered at Virginia, Minn., Presi- 
dent T. F, Cole referred to the brighten- 
ing outlook for the metals, especially iron 
and copper, in which the members of the 
institute arc particularly interested. He 
spoke of the conservation of natural re- 
sources, not alone in the saving of 
materials we are using but in the utiliza- 
licm of others that lie about us. referring 
1 ' the water power of the St. Louis river 
i.i-ar Duluth, which when fully utilized. 

will be equivalent to the consumption of 
1,300,000 tons of coal annually. This 
power the institute had visited the pre- 
ceding day. He referred to the time when 
mining companies would be compelled to 
use steel for mine supports, and said that 
the Oliver company was even now con- 
sidering the use of steel in main lateral 
openings, and is already using it in shafts. 
He outlined the future of the new Minne- 
sota works of the United States Steel Cor- 
poration, stating that there was every rea- 
son to expect that this plant would supply 
all the steel consuming territory lying 
west of the Great Lakes and north of a 
line, between Duluth and, say, Denver, in- 
sofar as that territory could be supplied 
by steel from Lake Superior ores. To in- 
clude all this region, there were needed 
but a few short railway links to connect 
nearby points and give the proper rates. 

Of the trip on the Vermilion range it 
is unnecessary to speak, other than to 
mention the steel shafthouses, four of 
them about 165 ft. high extending over a 
distance of little more than a mile. This 
gives an idea of the importance of the 
orebodics beneath. These were inspected 
and also the three Sullivan automatic 
hoists at the Pioneer, Zenith and Savoy- 
Siblcy power houses. At Vermilion lake 
the geologically inclined among the party 
examined some of the most notable ex- 
posures of folded jaspers and dioritic in- 
trusions to be seen anywhere, and dis- 
cussed with some acidity the meaning, 
origin and necessity of the word "taconite" 
as adopted by the Minnesota survey for 
the jaspilite of the Mesabi range. 

At the Norman mine, Virginia, the 
party was interested in the problems aris- 
ing from the stripping of a caved under- 
ground mine, in which the work had been 
done so long ago that the underground 
workings were wrecked. The rooms, 
drifts, winzes and crosscuts had filled 
solidly with earth and boulders. Steam 
shovels, operating, on supposedly solid 
ground might, in a moment, disappear 
from sight in some old working. The 
cost of taking out the old surface is es- 
timated to be eight or nine times as great 
as would have been the case if there had 
been no prior openings. Notwithstanding 
this, there has been removed from the 
Norman surface in the last twelve months 
about 1,000,000 cu.yd. of overburden, 
averaging 35 ft. thick, and the property is 
expected to produce in the next three 
years as near 6,000,000 tons as is possible, 
on account of the expiration of the lease. 
The change from underground to open- 
pit methods was brought to the attention 
of the members even more sharply on the 
following day, at the great Monroc-Tencr 
mine, near Hibbing. This property, con- 
taining some 45,000,000 tons of ore, was 
planned as a milling pit, only four years 
ago, after elaborate and extensive ex- 
ploration and a very thorough study of 
the situation, as it then existed. A large 
area was opened to ore, lying at a depth 

of 75 to go ft. beneath the soil. Three 
steel shafts were sunk, extensive and 
elaborate laterals were run into the ore, 
many mills were raised to surface, a com- 
plete underground electric haulage plant 
was installed, and all was made ready for 
a product of two million or more tons 
per year. Aside from the stripping, all 
this is to be abandoned, the shaft houses 
removed, the tramming system taken 
away, and a long surface approach is to 
be constructed for steam-shovel mining. 
Even the milling system is too slow, and 
a mile-long approach is to be cut to en- 
able locomotives to pull trains of ore 
out of this enormous pit. 

At Mountain Iron the chief attraction 
was the Oliver Iron Mining Company's 
clubhouse, open to its employees and all 
citizens, and without doubt the most com- 
fortable, convenient and well arranged 
clubhouse in any town of its size. 

Treatment of Sandy Ores 
Saturday was spent at Coleraine, where 
the Oliver company is opening the Can- 
isteo mines and experimenting with a 
washery to treat the sandy ores of the 
west Mesabi range. The announcement was 
made that the experiment is a success, 
and that the company was >ust beginning 
the construction of a permanent washing 
plant, on the shore of Trout lake. This 
plant will consist, at first, of five units, 
each capable of treating not less than looo 
tons per 10 hours. By the use of a ma- 
chine called a turbo, the loss has been re- 
duced to 13 per cent. This machine is 
similar to a screw conveyer, segmented, 
and running in an open curved trough; 
through the bottom water is forced, agi- 
tating the material as it is carried along 
the The loss will be further re- 
duced about one-half by the addition of 
settling tanks, through which the tailings 
water will pass. Experiments in the small 
mill erected here show that 40 tons can 
be treated in about 15 minutes. The ore 
going into the works is as low as 35 per 
cent, iron, the washed ore being about 
59 to 60 per cent., with better structure; 
with the present loss this makes a con- 
centration of about two into one, for the 
lower grade. No details as to cost were 
given, and perhaps cannot be, on account 
of the experimental nature of the work so 
far. The successful outcome of this ex- 
periment, however, has added many hun- 
dred million tons of ore to the resources 
of the Mesabi range and the tonnage of 
the Steel Corporation, and too much 
credit cannot be given the tenacity of 
purpose and the bravery of execution that 
has countenanced an expenditure exceed- 
ing $4,000,000 on an experiment, however 
justifiable. Four million yards have been 
stripped at Canistco and Holman and only 
30.000 tons of ore have been shipped. Big 
shipments cannot begin for two years. 

The production of asbestos in the 
United St.ites in 1907. was 950 short tons, 
valued at $11,900. 




July II, 15 

St. John del Rey Gold Mining 

Special Correspondence 

The St. John Del Rey Mining Company 
owns a gold mine in Brazil and in respect 
to age, it is one of the oldest established 
mining companies in existence. The an- 
nual meeting held this month is the 
seventy-seventh, so that the formation of 
the company must have been in the year 
1830. During its long career it has twice 
been reconstructed, and has now an issued 
capital of £646,265, divided into 546,265 
ordinary £1 shares and in lo-per 
cent, preference shares. There are also 
debenture bonds outstanding amounting to 

The net profit for the year ended Feb. 
29, 1908, was £70,840, which compares 
favorably with the average profit of the 
six preceding years, £58,747. According 
to the sectional plan of the mine at- 
tached to the report the lowest workings 
are at a depth of 4000 ft. below the adit 
at which depth the lode is reported to 
compare favorably, both as regards area 
and quality, with the workings above. 
Attention is called in the report to labor 
difficulties. It appears that the company 
imported a large number of miners from 
Spain, but failed to get more than a small 
proportion at the mines. Most of the 
men found that there was a demand for 
their services at Rio de Janeiro, and were 
able somehow or other to evade their 

The 120-stamp mill of the Morro Velho 
mine was in operation during the year, 
crushing 151,454 tons (2240 lb.) from 
which gold to the value of £324,882 was 
produced. E.xcluding gold won from low- 
grade stone, rusty sand, etc., the average 
recovery was $10.15 per long ton crushed 
or calculated on the ton of 2000 lb. a re- 
turn of $9.05 or, say, 9 dwt. fine gold. The 
working costs at the Morro Velho mine 
are classified as follows, per long ton 
crushed : 

Mine department $319 

Reduction 2.34 

Mechanics and general 1.37 

Total $6.90 

To this must be added for duties, trans- 
port charges, development and London 
expenses, $1.11, making a total of $8.01 per 

On the short ton the costs are in round 
figures $7.20 per ton. A statement is 
given showing the details of the capital 
expenditure for the period March i, 1901 
to Feb. '29, 1908, amounting to £229.839. 
The bulk of the expenditure has been in 
connection with the installation of new 
power plant. The funds have been raised 
partly by an issue of shares and to the 
amount of £132,065 by transfers from 

Attached to the report of the directors, 
is a lengthy report by George Chalmers, 
superintendent at the mines. Full par- 
ticulars are given of the work done and 
estimates are made of what may be ex- 
pected in the future. The ore reserves 
are estimated to be sufficient to continue 
the present output on a safe basis for six 
years, and it is confidently expected that 
this reserve can be maintained by de- 
velopment below the present bottom of 
the mine. The average width of the lode 
at bottom is 10 ft. In discussing the sani- 
tary condition of the mine the superinten- 
dent says that dust protectors have been 
provided but that the men will not use 
them. In all mines it is difficult to get 
men to use safety appliances to reduce the 
dangers of miners' phthisis and Morro 
Velho is no exception. As regards labor 
the manager refers to its poor average 
quality, and expresses the opinion that it 
would be more economical to employ, if 
it were possible, first-class miners at the 
highest rate of wages, rather than poor 
labor at a lower price. The average gold 
recovery is given as 91.06 per cent., as 
against 97.93 in 1907 ; and considering the 
refractory character of the ore, which con- 
tains sulphides to the extent of 30 to 40 
per cent, this extraction is praiseworthy. 
The manager describes the numerous ex- 
periments that have been made from time 
to time and explains how the success of 
the present process is largely due to the 
introduction of the cyanide process and of 
tube mills for finer grinding. It is of in- 
terest to note that tube mills at this mine 
are of local manufacture. The secondary 
process used for extracting gold from the 
slimes is called the o.xygen process, and 
was answerable during the year for 21.68 
per cent, of the recovery. Attention is 
called to the fact that the mine is situated 
in an isolated part of the country, far 
from factories or coalfields and that con- 
sequently it has to be made as inde- 
pendent as possible. The company enters 
into a number of trades to supply its 
wants and has heavy establishment 
charges. A large output is therefore re- 
quired, so that these charges may be of 
moderate amount compared with the total 

As explained above, a considerable cap- 
ital expenditure has already been made to 
equip the mine so as to enable it to main- 
tain a large output. The benefit of this 
expenditure is now being felt and the 
good results may lead the directors to still 
further expand the production by carrying 
out some railway work, which would con- 
nect some of the outlying mines with the 
central mill at Morro Velho. 

The report is drawn up in somewhat an 
old-fashioned manner, but it is none the 
worse for that. It strikes one as being 
thoroughly straightforward, and one in 
which no attempt is made to conceal from 
the shareholders any weak spot in the 
finance or in the condition of the mine. 
Facts and figures are intelligently put for- 

ward, and it is not necessary to be an 
accountant or a professional mining man 
to understand the past results and the fu- 
ture prospects of this admirably managed 
company. Perhaps it is because the di- 
rectors are aware that their report, as a 
leport, is above the average that they 
mark it "price one shilling." It is worth 
it anvhow. 

An English Gold Mine 

Speci.^l Correspondence 

About a year ago a mysterious syndi- 
cate, called the Chastan Syndicate, was 
formed which claimed to have discovered 
a new goldfield in England. The forma- 
tion, it was said, was similar to that of 
the Rand, and the property had, therefore, 
immense possibilities. No information 
could be obtained for a long time as to its 
situation. This had to be kept dark until 
all the available ground had been legally 
secured. This story seems to have satis- 
fied some people. At all events shares 
were bought and sold at high prices, to the 
advantage of the vendors and at the ex- 
pense of the credulous public. A case in 
the courts last week throws some light on 
this business. The syndicate brought an 
action against a gentleman whose name 
had been put on the share register with- 
out any authority by his cousin, one H. 
A. Trower, described as a financier, who 
had been connected with the Whitaker 
Wright companies of evil reputation. The 
claim was for calls unpaid and the syndi- 
cate took its case. The property is situ- 
ated in die Forest of Dean, Gloucester- j 
shire, and the mine appears to consist of 
some beds of old red sandstone, which 
are said to be auriferous, but not in pay- 
ing quantities. It came out on the trial 
that one of the promoters, a Mr. Ken- 
nedy, who was vendor, managing director 
and solicitor to the company, has netted 
£6000, while a statement that H. A. 
Trower, who did not appear, had made 
£26,000 out of the business, was left un- 
challenged. In cross-examination Mr. 
Kennedy announced that some of the 
shareholders were bringing an action 
against him for the return of £11,000 paid 
for shares, and it is to be hoped that this 
gentleman and the other promoters will 
be made to disgorge. It is only fair to 
say that the defendant in the action just 
tried withdrew the allegations of fraud 
and misrepresentation that had been made 
against the plaintiffs in the pleadings. 
There appears to be a conglomerate form- 
ation and there appears to be gold in it. 
But it does not appear to be payable, and 
the promoters do not appear to have 
done their duty in calling in competent 
professional men to report on the merits 
Of the undertaking before offering shares 
for sale. 

July I r, ifX)H. 




Mlnlni; and mt'tallurglcal engineers are In- 
vited lo kept) TiiK KNiirsi:f:Bi.N<; Asu Minino 
.loUKNAt, Informed of their movements and 

Forbes Julian, of London, is on his 
way to Mexico on professional business. 

Bernard MacDonald, who has been in 
New York for the last three weeks, has 
ri turned to Guanajuato, Mexico. 

C. F. Moore, of Salt Lake City, is back 
in Mcrxico City after an extended trip 
into the southern part of Mexico. 

Wonj; Kokshan has been appointed 
tiianaKcr of the Ping-han-yeh Coal and 
Iron Company, of Mankow, China. 

F. N. Atkins, of the firm of DcGolia & 
Atkins, San Francisco, is examining min- 
ing property in Tuolumne county, Cali- 

A. H. Bromly has been appointed man- 
ager of the Pacific Copper Company, with 
headquarters' at Siliu.itanejn, CJitorrero, 

John D. Ryan, managing director of 
the Amalgamated Copper Company, is in 
the Lake Superior copper cmititry for a 
^hort visit. 

Clive n. Newcoiub arrived in the City 
of Mexico, July 8. He will be associated 
with George ^L White as metallurgist 
and mill builder. 

Donald n. Gillies, cif 'lOnr.pah, N'evada, 
is in Mexico with a uitnibcr of the stock- 
holders of the San Toy Mining Company, 
of Chihuahua, Mexico. 

W. Murdock Wiley on July I resigned 
liis position as president and director of 
the San Grcgorio Mining and Railway 
Company, of Guanajuato, Mexico. 

George F. Ross, recently with the 
Acadia Coal Company, has been appointed 
manager of the Lake Copper Company, at 
Copper Lake, Aiitigotiish, N'ova Scotia. 

R. M. McGinnis has returned to San 
I'rancisco from an examination of the 
I'roniontorio mine, in Cusihuiriachic, Chi- 
huahua, Mexico, for California people. 

Prof. C. F. Rowe, head of the School 
df Mines, University of Texas, is spend- 
ing the suiumer in Colorado and will 
make Denver his headquarters during 
iliat time. 

Raiubridge, Seymour & Co., mining en- 
gineers, formerly of i St. Helen's Place, 
London, Fngland, have moved into their 
new oflui-i .it 352-S Salisbury House, Lon- 
don Wall 

.■\ustin II. Brown, for some years past 
general manager of the Trinity Copper 
Company, has severed his conueclion with 
lliat company. His address is at Redding. 

H. F. Lcfevre, of New York, has been 
in Nevada and Mexico on professional 
business, and is now on his way to Central 
\merica, where be expects to remain 
about a month. 

T. H. Oxnam has returned to Los 
.Angeles from an examination of the 
Santa Barbara mine of the Rio de Plata 
Mining Company, near Guazapares, Chi- 
huahua, Mexico. 

J. P. Hutchins, consulting mining en- 
gineer, of New York, has gone to British 
Columbia on professional business, which 
is likely to occupy him for a considerable 
portion of the summer. 

Roy N. Bishop, manager of the Balak- 
lala Consolidated and the First National 
Copper companies, is now also manager 
of the Trinity Copper Company, with of- 
fice at Coram, Shasta county, California. 

Wm, Howard has resigned his position 
as superintendent of the cyanide mill of 
the Esperanzas Mining Company, El 
Oro, Mexico, to take a similar position 
with the .Amparo Mining Company, near 
Etzatlan, Jalisco, Mexico. 

Captain Charles Trezona has been ap- 
pointed general manager of all the Oliver 
Iron Mining Company's mines on the 
Vermilion range in Minnesota. He has 
I ccn in active charge of the mines for 
some time. 

Randolph Boiling, recently consulting 
metallurgist of the Nova Scotia Steel and 
Coal Company, Ltd., at Sydney Mines, N. 
S., severed his connection with that com- 
pany last March. He is now engaged in 
professional work in Virginia. 

Dr. W. C. Heracus has been awarded 
the John Scott legacy premium and medal 
of the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia, 
for his improvements on the Heraeus-Le 
Chalelier pyrometer, and for the accuracy 
and intercbaugeability of the thermo- 
couple which he has devi.sed, known as the 
Heraeus element. 


Charles Vincent Potter died June 1, at 
Balwyn. near Melbourne, Victoria, Aus- 
tralia. He was the inventor of a nnmlicr 
of mechanical and metallurgical devices, 
the best known being the Potter flotation 
process for the treatment of sulphide ores, 
which is now in use at Broken Hill. New 
South Wales. 

Joshua Walter Rhodes, who died at De- 
troit. Mich., June 30, was born in Pitts- 
burg in 187J, and was brought up in the 
iron trade, in which his father is still 
prominent. He was interested in several 
iron companies, and organized the Cherry 
Valley Iron Company at Leetonia. (Ihio. 
This was merged in the I'nited Iron and 
Steel Company in 1905, Mr. Rhodes be- 
ing .active in the management i>f the new 

Societies and Technical Schools 

L'nivcrsily of Xcivdii — The new cata- 
log of this institution at Carson City. 

Nev.. shows full courses in mining and 
metallurgy. The mining department is 
housed in the new Mackay building, re- 
cently described, and has 61 students. 

University of Utah — In its new catalog 
this institution at Salt Lake City reports 
190 students in the School of Mines. A 
new building 104x62 ft. has recently been 
added, and is well supplied with milling 
and smelting machinery, and an assay- 
room with all necessary appliances. 

Kituminotis Mute Foremen's and Fire- 
hosses' Associalion — ^This association has 
been formed with headquarters at Bames- 
boro, Penn. John Hayes. Carroltown, 
Penn., is secretary. .At the request of the 
Chief of the Bureau of Mines of Penn- 
sylvania, the association sent a delegate 
to the conference held at Pittsburg, July 
7-9, on the proposed new mine law for the 

Colorado School of Mines — On the 
basis of gifts from Thomas F. Walsh and 
others, the trustees have established .« 
separate fund, to be called the Vinson- 
Walsh fund, to be used to maintain .•» 
bureau of original research. The first work 
of this bureau will be to investigate the 
occurrence of rare minerals and metals 
in Colorado, their uses and possibilities. 
This bureau will be under charge of Dr. 
Herman Fleck, professor of chemistry, 
with Sidney W. French as special 

IVeslern University of Pennsyhaiiia — 
The 1908 catalog of the School of Mines 
of this university at Pittsburg shows a 
number of courses, permitting a wide 
range of subjects to be chosen by candi- 
dates for the degree of mining engineer 
and metallurgical engineer. In addition 
to the reg^ilar courses, special or 
courses arc provided, especially intended 
for men who have had practical experi- 
ence in mining, and desire to fit them- 
selves for positions as foremen, superin- 
tendents, etc. The school has been thor- 
oughly reorganized and its teaching fa- 
cilities much enlarged. 

University of .Irkansas — The Uepart- 
nicnt of Geology and Mining of this uni- 
versity, at Fayetteville, .\rk., will ofTer 
next fall a four-years' course for the de- 
gree of "bachelor of science in cement 
engineering." Besides the general cngi- 
nctrinjf, gcologj-, etc.. special work ex- 
tending over two years will be given in the 
geologj*, occurrence, examination and test- 
ing of cement materials and in designing 
and operation of cement plants. Besides 
the nearness of the well equipped plants 
in the Kansas gas district the university 
is especially well situated for this work, 
since in the immediate vicinity of Fay- 
ettcA-ille are several well exposed outcrops 
of limestone and shale, suitable for mak- 
ing Portland cement. .\t least two nirnths' 
actual work at a cement plant will also 
be required before the degree is granted. 


July II, ig 

Special Correspondence from Mining Centers 

News of the Industry Reported by Special Representatives at 
Goldfield, Butte, Salt Lake City, Denver, Toronto and London 


San Francisco 

July 2 — The Standard mine, near Cima, 
San Bernardino county, idle for the past 
year owing to litigation, is being reopened. 
The ore carries both gold and copper. 
The deepest shaft on the property is 256 
ft., and some 4000 ft. of crosscuts and 
drifts have been cut. 

The Tecopa silver-lead mines at Te- 
copa in Inyo county, on the border of 
San Bernardino county, will be shortly 
started up again under superintendence 
of J. H. Lester, the former manager. 
The mine last year shipped all its ore to 
Salt Lake smelters, this ore carrying both 
lead and silver. The mines ceased ship- 
ping a few months ago while a concen- 
trator is being erected. The two mines 
operated are the Gunsight and Noonday, 
which are about a mile apart. Extensive 
development work is about to be under- 
taken and some 50 men will be set at 
work. Mines were worked in this section 
in the early seventies and some high- 
grade ore hauled out by team. When the 
Tonopah & Tidewater railroad was built 
within a few miles of the properties much 
lower-grade ore could be shipped at good 
profit. The ore is of a desirable fluxing 
character and in demand at the smelters. 
Leasers on the Alexandria claim of the 
company have recently shipped consider- 
able high-grade ore. The properties are 
35 miles south of Greenwater. W. A. 
Starr is president of the company. 

There have been, several oil excitements 
in the desert region of San Bernardino 
county, but nothing has come of them 
thus far. Now, however, some hundreds 
of prospectors are rushing to a tract five 
miles south of Daggett, where traces of 
oil have been found. Some thousands of 
acres of land have already been located, 
and boring will begin at once. The dis- 
covery of oil was made in a well sunk for 

The mining engineers who have been 
e.xperting the numerous properties of the 
Champion Mining Company at Nevada 
City, have completed their examinations 
and will forward their report to H. G. 
Torrence in London. These are the most 
important quartz mines in Nevada City 
and comprise some 30 or more claims at 
that place and others in other parts of the 
county. After long litigation, and re- 
sultant idleness, the Champion won its 
suit and last year again became produc- 
tive. The owners, however, have not 
sufficient funds to carry on necessary ex- 
plorations on so extensive a property and 
have accordingly bonded it. The recent 

f.Kaniinations were made in the interest of 
English capitalists holding the bond. 

Nevada county is about to advertise its 
mineral resources in San Francisco, by 
installing a permanent display of gold 
quartz, nuggets, etc., in the Mining Bureau 
quarters in the Ferry building. Cabinet 
specimens are now being collected for 
this purpose and it is expected that some 
$20,000 worth will shortly be on display. 
\s many, mines as possible will be repre- 
sented. Nevada was the banner gold 
county of California for many years con- 
tinuously although now the dredges in 
Butte county show the largest output of 

The Pennsylvania Dredging Company, 
at Oroville, which has been enjoined from 
working by the efforts of Sutter county, 
did not have its dredge working in the 
Feather river at all. The pit in which the 
dredge floats is separated from the river 
by a rim of some 20 or 25 ft. in width, 
and 3 ft. above the level of the river. 
Nevertheless the Anti-Debris people as- 
sert that a large quantity of the tailings 
escape daily into the Feather river. The 
matter will be brought out clearly in the 
coming trial. It is noteworthy, however, 
that the dredge is not working, nor has it 
been, in the river bed proper. 

"Paddy" Campbell's once famous Blue 
Point hydraulic mine, near Smartsville, 
Yuba county, is being put in shape to be 
again productive, but this time, the gravel 
will be worked in water-power arrastras 
and not by hydraulic process. The new 
company has paid all delinquent taxes, 
cleared off a $45,000 mortgage, and is 
now making headway in clearing away 
brush and trees along the old water ditch, 
which has been idle for years. The ditch 
in former years supplied a great many 
farms with water, winding about in a 
devious course, until it reached the 
gravel diggings. It was a big revenue 
getter, but since Campbell ceased mining 
operations it has been altogether ne- 
glected. Its entire length of 38 miles has 
been overgrown, but the men clearing it 
out have only about 10 miles yet to go be- 
fore their part of the work will be 
finished. The company intends to en- 
large the ditch to 6 ft. at the bottom, 12 
at the top and 4 ft. deep, carrying a 
larger volume of water than ever. The 
work of completing this task will be slow 
and costly; and in places attended with 
much difficulty. 

The I'ightner mine at Alleghany, Sierra 
county, continues to yield very largely. 
The last clean-up was $102,000, taken out 

in one week by four men. A sale of this 
mine recently fell through because the ex- 
pert reported it to be "pockety." H. L. 
Johnson has since taken out as much as 
he offered to sell for and the phenom- 
enally rich ore still continues. Numbers 
of miners have started prospecting and 
reopening old claims in the Alleghany 
section, attracted by this rich find in the 

The Hidden Treasure drift mine on the 
Forest Hill divide in Placer county, is 
the most extensive mine of its character 
in California, and the most completely 
developed and equipped. It has been 
worked for many years and is now in 
charge of Harold M. Power, son of Har- 
old T. Power. This same channel has 
been in charge of the grandfather, son and 
grandson successively, three generations 
of the same family having taken their 
turn at managing the working of the 

The trouble between the Lawley heirs 
over the ownership of certain properties 
resulted last week in the sale at public 
auction of the Cloverdale quicksilver 
mine, in Sonoma county, by the referee 
of the court. It was bought by Mrs. Mary 
Patten, one of the heirs, for $15,000. The 
mine has been worked by Lawley Brothers 
for a number of years in a small way, the 
production being a few hundred flasks of 
quicksilver yearly. 

At the annual meeting of the Steifer 
Mining Company, which is working a 
gravel channel on the Magalia ridge in 
Butte county, some dissatisfied stockhold- 
ers criticized the management for failure 
to bring forward promised returns on 
the investment. Nevertheless Steifer 
Brothers, who own the controlling inter- 
est in the property, were again elected 
officers and directors, the majority of the 
stockholders being satisfied with the re- 
ports of progress. P. B. Steifer is presi- 
dent and M. Y. Steifer secretary of the 
company. A great deal of development 
work has been done on the property within 
the past years, but there have been no 
profits as yet. 

.As soon as the testimony taken at 
Quincy, Plumas county, can be trans- 
cribed, the mineral land case of the Gov- 
ernment against E. V. Darby, N. F. 
Golden and others will be placed in the 
hands of the Susanville officials for deci- 
sion, after which it will be taken to Wash- 
ington to be passed upon by the Com- 
missioner of the General Land Office and 
perhaps the Secretary of the Interior. 
About 960 acres are involved, the Govern- 

July 11, 1908. 



ment's witnesses contending that the land 
is more valuable for its timber than min- 
eral, and the defense arguing to the con- 
trary. The Government, probably because 
of the taking up of land by corporations, 
is becoming more strict in its inquiries, 
and, as this case shows, demands definite 
information, development work on mining 
claims and a dchnite estimate as to min- 
eral values. 

Greenwater, the copper camp of Inyo 
county, which two years ago attracted so 
much attention, is again to the front, 
after being dead for many months. It is 
now reported that the shaft sunk by the 
Charles M. Schwab interests on the Cop- 
per Queen No. 2, about half a mile "south- 
west of the town of Greenwater, struck 
an orebody between the 960- and :ooo-ft. 
levels, and that assays of this ore show it 
to average high in copper, with a fair 
showing of gold. The strike, it is said, 
was made about June i, but was kept as 
quiet as possible until the Schwab in- 
terests could secure control of contiguous 
territory. Meantime there is again a 
rush of prospectors and others into the 
camp, incited by this reported discovery. 

An important sale for the gold camp 
of Randsburg, Kern county, is that of 
A. C. White's Sydney mine to Eastern 
men, represented by E. V. Williams of 
Los Angeles. The price is reported at 
$75,000. The mine has been more or less 
productive for the past 10 years. The 
new owners of the property will arrange 
for e.xtensive development, and one of 
the methods the syndicate is said to be 
considering is the tunneling of the moun- 
tain from the Garlock side, which will 
greatly facilitate the removal of ore. 

Goldfield. Nevada 

July I — .\. IJ. Tarkir. vice-president of 
the I'lorence-Goldficld Mining Company, 
arrived this week and thoroughly in- 
spected the properties. He absolutely de- 
nies any sale or intended sale of the 
Florence to the Consolidated, although it 
is tacitly admitted that the ape.x (rouble 
between the Jumbo E.\tension and the 
Consolidated, the former a Parker-Lock- 
hart property, will bo amicably adjusted. 
The third quarterly dividend of lOc., 
amounting to $105,000, was posted, pay- 
able July 15. President Lockhart has been 
adjudged in contempt of court for refus- 
ing to pay into the custody of the court 
the $117,935, which is ordered impounded 
upon the prayer of the Little Florence 

The controversy between the Consoli- 
dated and O. Mackenzie, who controlled 
the I'Vances- Mohawk Leasing Company, 
passed through another stage this week, 
hut is still in the hands of the court. After 
the lease had expired a big cave-in oc- 
curred. The Consolidated accused the 
leasers of bad mining, and brought suit, 
placing an attachment on $125,000, which 
was to the company's credit in the bank. 
The end is not yet. 

J. R. Egan has brought suit against the 
Frances-Mohawk company and the Keanc 
Wonder Mining Company for the recov- 
ery of 160,000 shares of stock of the latter 
company. He alleges in his complaint that 
the Frances-Mohawk company took up, 
without his knowledge or consent, the last 
four notes issued by the Kcane W<jnder 
ccmpany and held by the State bank, and 
also the block of stock mentioned which 
he allowed to be used as security, together 
with over 800,000 shares advanced by 
Homer Wilson merely as an accommoda- 
tion. This is another interesting echo of 
the looting of the State bank of its valua- 
ble assets by favored customers after the 
officials had taken the cream. 

Henry Weber has been found guilty of 
embezzlement by the jury and sentenced 
to seven years in the penitentiary. Weber 
was one of the many young men who in 
the boom days here made money so fast 
that they overlooked the fundamentals. 
The communit'y at large sympathizes 
with Weber, but deprecates the immense 
harm done to Goldfield and Nevada by 
these wild-catting affairs. Weber was al- 
lowed bail pending his appeal, on account 
of his poor health. 

Three companies paid five dividends 
here in June, amounting to $235,000. This 
does not include $32,000 from the Round 
Mountain Mining Company, which is 
owned here whence the dividend was paid. 

The Loftus-Davis Leasing Company 
has been reorganized under the name of 
the Loftus-Davis F'ederated Mines Com- 
pany, and the capitalization increased 
from 50,000 to 250,000 shares. No stock 
was offered to the public and all subscrip- 
tions were at par. 

Combination Fraction has about the 
only live stock on the local market this 
week, and that, due to the activity of this 
stock in San Francisco, where George 
Wingfield is said to have been buying all 
the shares offered. Rumor has it that .A. 
D. Myer, who with Tom Murphy, owns 
the control, has sold out his entire interest 
to the Consolidated, and that Wingficld's 
buying is for the same account. The 
facts are not yet obtainable. 

Salt Lake City 

July 2--The property of the St. Joe 
Mining Company in Bingham has been 
sold under an execution for $25,000. It 
was bid in by some of the leading 

The United States lead smelter at 
Bingham Junction will resume operation 
not later than Aug. I. The company has 
begun receiving custom ore and has 
ordered production started again from the 
Richmond- Eureka mine at Eureka. Ne- 
vada, which has been idle for about six 
months. One converter at the smelter is 
now in commission, cleaning up a lot of 
matte and silicious ores which were not 
used up when the plant was shut down 
last February. 

The quarterly report of Coal Mine In- 
spector J. E. Petit has been submitted to 
Governor John C. Cutler and covers the 
second quarter of the year. General con- 
ditions of the mines are reported good 
and with a single exception found them 
to be free from firedamp. Some careless- 
ness with explosives at the Pleasant Val- 
ley mine of the L'nion Pacific Coal Com- 
pany, and in the property of the Inde- 
pendent Coal Company, at Kenilworth 
were reported, but mine officials promptly 
corrected the fault on being notified. 

A deed has been filed conveying all the 
property of the South Columbus Mining 
Company, to the South Columbus Consol- 
idated Mining Company, the successor of 
the former. 

Judge Marshall, of the Federal court, 
has granted the application of the Silver 
King Consolidated Mining Company, for 
an order of court permitting its sur- 
veyors to enter the Silver King Coalitiort 
mine at Park City for the purpose of 
surveying certain workings alleged to 
have been extended into the property of 
the former. The court also granted the 
Silver King Consolidated officials the 
right to tear out any bulkheads or other 
obstructions should any be found to ir.- 
terfere with the work of the surveyors. 
In event of any caves being found, the 
court instructs that prompt notice thereof 
be made known, when such relief a<5 
necessary will be forthcoming. The Sil- 
ver King Coalition Company is defend- 
ant in suits involving the unlawful extrac- 
tion of ore. A similar order was marie 
on the same date permitting engineers in 
the employ of N. Treweek and others, 
owners of adjoining property, to enter 
certain levels of the Coalition mine for a 
like purpose. The suit pending involves 
between $3,000,000 and $5,000,000, the 
value of ore alleged to have been unlaw^- 
fully taken. 

The T.iylor & Brunton Sampling Com- 
pany, has concluded to erect a sampling 
mill in the Tintic mining district not far 
from the new Tintic smelter. It will have 
capacity for 600 tons of ore per day. 
Work on the plant is to begin right away. 

The Ohio-Kentucky Mining Company, 
with headquarters in Salt Lake, but op- 
erating at Pioche, Nev., has purchased the 
property of the Nevada-Pioche Mining 
Company, where the main works will be 

A special meeting of shareholders of 
the American Flag Mining Company, his 
been called for July 11, when the mattt- 
of issuing $150,000 in bonds will receive 
consideration. It is proposed to raise 
funds in this manner sufficient to provide 
milling facilities. This company operates 
at Park Citv 


July 2 — The .Anaconda mine resumed 
operations yesterday after a shut-down .^f 
several weeks. The line of the Gn;.t 
Northern Railway, connecting Butte and 



July II, K 

Great Falls will be ready for traffic in a 
few days. The annual meeting of the 
stock-holders of the East Butte company 
has been again postponed on account of 
the absence of some of the directors, and 
July 8 fixed as the date for the meeting. 
Work on the new 300-ton concentrator of 
the Pittsburg & Montana coinpany is 
being pushed rapidly. The Mountain View 
mine of the Boston & Montana company 
is closed, awaiting the repairing of the 
sm.elter at Great Falls; the Pennsylvania 
mine of the same company is also shut 
down while the shaft is being re-timbered. 
At the annual meeting of stockholders of 
til. Tuolumne Mining Company, recently 
held in Butte, directors were elected in 
place of F. A. Heinze, resigned, and D. J. 
Hennessey, deceased. 


j„ly 3— In the Cripple Creek district, 
the output for June is given at 64,150 tons, 
with a gross value of $1,302,530. The 
deep drainage tunnel has now been driven 
3700 ft., the intermediate shaft being down 
460 ft., and is expected to reach the level 
of the tunnel by September. 

In the suits of the Portland Gold Min- 
ing Company, against Stratton's Inde- 
pendence, Ltd., to recover $400,000 and 
damages for value of ore alleged to have 
been extracted by the latter's lessees from 
the ground of the former, a decision has 
been rendered in the Court of Appeals, 
denying a motion for a re-hearing of the 
case, which was decided in favor of Strat- 
ton's Independence by the United States 
Court, and afterward sustained on appeal 
to the higher court. It is said that the 
case will be taken to the Supreme Court 
of the United States. 

The annual stockholders' meeting of the 
Elkton Consolidated Mining and Milling 
Company, will be held at Colorado 
Springs July 13. 

In the Silverton district, the old North 
Star, on Sultan mountain, is credited 
with an important strike of 4 ft. of $80 
ore, of which $60 is gold. At the close 
of 1882, this mine had produced, accord- 
ing to the director of the mint, 100,000 
oz. silver, and 1,500,000 lb. lead, the aver- 
age of the ore being about 0.5 oz. gold, 
40 oz. silver to the ton and 50 per cent, 
lead. It is a fissure vein in monzonite, 
the character of the ore being galena and 
gray copper. The new shoot is said to 
have a length of 14S ft. and a known 
depth of 800 feet. 

In the 'Vampa coalfield, Routt county, 
the Perry mine, on Oak creek, has now 
a slope on the seam 600 ft. in length, and 
the mine is being opened up and equipped 
with up-to-date machinery for the pur- 
pose of supplying the locomotives of the 
Denver, Northwestern & Pacific railway 
with coal. The grade of this railroad is 
completed to the foot of the dump, and 
rails will be laid and trains operated prob- 
ably in November. The seam shows 10 

ft. of bright, dense coal in all the open- 
ings, and 65 tons per day are being taken 
out in doing deadwork alone. This is 
the first mine being systematically opened 
in this new coalfield. 

Peoria, Illinois 

The recent act requiring coal miners in 
Illinois to obtain- certificates of compe- 
tency having been referred to the legal 
department of the State for an opinion 
on certain of . its provisions, Attorney- 
General Stead holds that the miners' qual- 
ification act applies only to men actually 
engaged in cutting and digging coal, and 
has no reference to others employed at 
the mines. He also holds that managers 
and examiners who hold certificates from 
the respective boards must, if they dig or 
cut coal in addition to their duties, obtani 
certificates of competency. Miners en- 
gaged in their work July i, and for two 
years prior to that date, are entitled to 
certificates upon proof of such service 
without answering the 12 questions re- 
quired by the law. Everyone to whom a 
certificate is granted must pay a fee of $1 
to the examining board. 

In view of the impossibilify of examin- 
ing all miners and issuing certificates be- 
fcre the law took effect on July I, it is 
understood that no prosecutions for viola- 
tion of the law by working without a cer- 
tificate, or by employing unlicensed min- 
ers, will be begun until a reasonable time 
lias elapsed. 

T oronto 

July 6— Extensive bush fires near Co- 
balt have done considerable damage to 
some of the outlying mining properties. 
The district affected was the southeastern 
portion of Coleman township. On June 
28 the fire destroyed the buildings and 
machinery of the Columbus, Coleman De- 
velopment, Cochrane, Lumsden, Sham- 
rock and Fisher-Eplett companies and 
many other properties narrowly escaped. 
The smoke was dense rendering it difficult 
to fight the flames, but the miners worked 
heroically and saved many buildings. The 
Temiskaming lost its powder house. The 
fires did not reach Cobalt and none of 
the large shipping mines were touched. 
The fire finally burned itself out and 
heavy rains, which fell on July I helped to 
subdue it. 


June 27— An attempt is being made to 
raise capital in order to restart one of the 
old tin mines of the St. Just district, Corn- 
wall. The new company that it is pro- 
posed to form is to be called the Boscas- 
well United Tin and Copper Mines, Ltd., 
with a capital of £200,000, half of which 
is in ordinary shares and half in deferred 
shares. A lengthy prospectus, describing 
the past history of the mines and the 
future possibilities according to J. H. Col- 
lins and others, has been somewhat lav- advertised. And to make the venture 
the more attractive, a plan of the locality, 
fairly bristling with lodes, has been issued, 
as well as a section containing the most 
precise information as to the ore reserves. 
Slopes worked out, stopes containing pil- 
lars of ore and payable deads, ore devel- 
oped on one side and on three sides and 
ore not developed at all are shown to the 
future shareholder. Considering that the 
greater part of the old workings must 
be inaccessible, the valuation of a mine 
or these lines is ridiculous, and is not 
creditable to the professional men con- 
cerned. The mines may be worth reopen- 
ing, granted that sufficient capital is pro- 
vided, but there must necessarily be much 
uncertainty as to the value of the ore and 
as to the capital required in a mine of this 
class. The condition of the old levels 
and shafts must be more or less a doubt- 
ful quantity, and past records as regards 
tonnages and values of old Cornish mines 
are notoriously of a vague character. 
Valuations and estimates such as occur 
in this prospectus are to be deprecated. 
They certainly m.ust fail to inspire bus- 
it;ess men with confidence, especially if 
they take professional advice before mak- 
ing an investment in mining property. 

There are other features in this pros- 
pectus which call for unfavorable com- 
ment. It is stated that the vendors are 
taking the whole of their purchase con- 
sideration in deferred ordinary shares, 
which do not rank for dividends until 7 
per cent, has been paid on the ordinary 
shares. Yet among the contracts it ap- 
pears that the Cornish Finance Syndicate, 
Ltd., which is the immediate vendor and 
piomoter of this company, is to receive 
iio,ooo in preferred ordinary shares or 
cash from the new company as considera- 
tion for paying all preliminary expenses. 
As noted above, the amount spent on 
advertising has been heavy, but if the ex- 
penses come to less than £10,000, the pro- 
moters will not be paid entirely in de- 
ferred shares, and that statement does not 
appear to be quite straightforward. 

Another point to be noticed is that the 
articles of association allow the directors 
to proceed to allotment, if 10 per cent, of 
the shares offered are subscribed for. The 
directors, however, say that they will not 
proceed to allotment unless at least 15,000 
of the shares are applied for. Mr. Col- 
lins has estimated that £75,000 will be 
sufficient to equip the combined properties 
on a large scale, so that to go ahead with 
only £15,000 seems to be courting disaster. 
It is, however, stated that Mr. James, the 
company's general superintendent, con- 
siders that £12,500 will make a portion of 
the property payable; and it looks as if 
the directors intend to go ahead if only 
£15,000 is subscribed. The vendors in that 
event will, it is to be hoped, take their 
consideration of £10.000 for preliminary 
oxpenses in the form of shares ; otherwise 
the working capital will be trivial. 

July II, 15 



Mining News from All Parts of the World 

New Enterprises, Installations of New Machinery, Development of 
Mines and Transfers of Property Reported by Special Correspondents 



HiuB County 
Woodward Iron Company — This com- 
pany has begun work on a new brown 
iron-ore mine at Woodstock, where the 
company's ore fields are. Two miles of 
new track arc being constructed from the 
Alabama Great Southern railroad to the 
proposed slope and the necessary ma- 
chinery, which has been purchased, will 
be installed in due course. 

Ketchikan District 

// Copper Mine — Work has been begun 
i.M a tramway 5200 ft. long from this 
mine to Kasaan bay. I'or 1200 ft. from 
the mine the tramway will be worked by 
gravity ; the remaining 4000 ft. beini; 
nearly level. At the bay a wharf 1200 ft. 
long is being built out to deep water, per- 
mitting the direct transfer of ore from 
cars to vessels. 

Jessie — Work on this gold mine at 
Dolomi is advancing well. The shaft is 
now down 80 ft. and is in ore. Drifting 
will be started at the loo-ft. level. 


YUM.\ ColtNTV 

Cohratla — One of the richest n-.ineral 
•sections of Arizona has been opened up 
by the building of the .'Vrizona & Cali- 
fornia railroad. At present the road cx- 
tmils to Parker at which point a steel 
bridge is being constructed, .\tnong the 
most productive properties of that sec- 
tion of the territory is the Cobralla prop- 
erty which was discovered about 18 
months ago and has rapidly gained prom- 
inence. Development during the past year 
has exposed bodies of sulphide ores in a 
lime and porphyry formation similar to at Bisbcc, Clifton, Morenci and 
(ilolie with the exception that the Co- 
l'r:dl;i ores run high in v;<'ld ami silver as 
Will as copper. 


A.M.MHiR County 

Bay Slate — Men are repairing the re- 
cently burned hoist at this mine near Ply- 
ntoiuh, preparatory to reopening the prop- 

I. it lie Illinois — The company holding 
muler bond the Little Illinois mine at 
Drytown is preparing to reopen it. 

liuTTE County 

Blue Lead — In this property at Bangor 
the looo-ft. tunnel has been completed, 
and paying gravel reached. 

Butle Creek Consolidated Dredging 
Company — The timbers for the new 
dredge of this company have arrived on 
the ground and construction will now 

Cape Horn — .'Ml the machinery is now 
in place at this mine, including the gravel 
mill, and work on the mine is to be done 
on a large -scale. 

C.^L.\vER.\s County 

Dredge — T. C. Huxley, of Oakland, has 
bought the Green Mountain placer mine, 
the Eastern Extension, the Green Moun- 
tain Extension, and the Chile Gulch 
hluming Company's mine, near Chile 
Gulch, and will organize a company to 
dredge the ground. 

Stockton Ridge Consolidated — This 
company, operating the Hcxter tunnel 
gravel mine near Mokelumne Hill, Stephen 
llf.ghes, superintendent, now has its tun- 
nel m 1725 ft. and small seams of 
cemented gravel are being found. 

Ulica Mining Company — In this mine at 
Angels a rich' pocket containing a few 
thousand dollars was found recently, 
which was exaggerated in the newspapers 
up to several hundred thousands. 

El Dor.\do County 
Prevolcanic Channel Gold Mining Com- 
pany — This company, near Pacilic House, 
is runmng drifts to ascertain the extent of 
the cemented gravel, and will put up a 
mill to crush it 

Inyo County 
Empire — .\t these silver claims, J. B. 
Ellis, superintendent, near the junction of 
Black and .Marble caiions, some shipping 
ore is being taken out, and development is 
being advanced. 

Kkrn County 

CottoniKOi^d — Miners working on an 
abandoned and hlled-in prospect hole in 
Cottonwood creek, on the south side of 
the Piute, have struck rich ribbon rock. 
.Along the same creek W. E. Congdon is 
having a number of holes sunk with a 
well-drilling apparatus to determine the 
value of the sands. 

.\l.\Riix)S.\ County 

No. 5 — Doctor O'Brien and associates 
recently purchased this mine near Horni- 

iu:>, and development having proven its 
richness, they are now at)out to erect a 
mill. The mine has been idle many years. 

Nev.kda County 

Celina — At this property, Washington 
district, three shifts of miners are at 
work in the new tunnel, and as soon as 
the vein is intersected a mill and other 
surface improvements will be built. C. L 
Stokes is manager. 

Erie — M this mine, near Graniteville, 
Geo. Mainhart and associates are doing 
preparatory work in the reopening opera- 

Inkmarque — The four miners who have 
leased this Grass Valley mine for two 
years from Louis Rosenthal have un- 
watered it and commenced active mining. 

Plu.mas County 

Del Monte — J. D. Murray, who has a 
bond on this group of mines on the North 
fork, has uncovered a good ledge, which 
is being developed. 

Gruss — L. R. Gruss has purchased a 
new hoist for this mine, the Geneset. 
The 15-stamp mill will shortly be running. 

Seneea — The production of gold from 
this mine (formerly the White Lily) at 
Seneca, is attracting many miners to that 

San Bernardino County 

Orange Blossom — .\t the property of 
this company, near Bagdad, a rich strike 
has been made. The corporation is a 
close one with .John Denair, of Los An- 
geles, superintendent. 

Oro Belle Mines Co}npany — This com- 
pany, formed of Duluth, Minn., capitalists, 
has made final payment ,lo Hart & Hilt for 
the Oro Belle and Oro Belle Fraction 
mines at Hart, and active operations have 
been inaugurated. 

San DiEco County 

Buckhorn — R. P. Macphcrson has l)een 
appointed superintendent of this property 
at Dulzura. and extensive preparatory 
operations have commenced. 

Eneinilas — This old camp is talcing on 
new life and more extensive developments 
arc being made than formerly. 

Shasta County 

t. P. Connor Group — Connor & Cor- 
h;(re have formed a company to develop 
this group of eight claims at Harrison 
gulch cKnob P. 0.1. 



July II, ig 

Vicior Gold— At this property, Har- 
rison gulcli, they are building a gallows 
frame for the new hoisting plant. 

Sierra Countv 

Forest City— This company, operating 
the Mabel Mertz mine, near Forest City, 
expects to reach gravel in the main tun- 
nel this month. 

Grksly CnnsoUdatcd—V. F. Roddy and 
associates have leased this mine near 
Poker Flat. 

Poker Flat-^A shaft is being sunk 
through the laVa to strike the gravel in 
this mine at Poker Flat. M. Duval is 

Siskiyou County 

Blue Ledge— This copper property, near 
the Oregon boundary line, has been closed 
down until financial affairs are in better 
condition. Large sums have been spent on 
the property, but both a smelter and rail- 
road are needed to put it on a paying 

Tuolumne County 

Dreisam— The recent strike in this old 
mine contmues to yield well. W. W. Par- 
lin has become a part owner in the prop- 

Fair Oaks— A new hoist is being in- 
stalled at this mine near Columbia. C. 
F. Layman is superintendent. 


Boulder County 

Ida Mining and Milling Company— This 
company has been organized with $25,000 
capital and Denver people are interested. 
One of the directors has invented a new 
machine which is being used for working 
the dump of the famous Caribou mine 
near Cardinal. 

Mtmart7i— Messrs. Waltemeyer and 
Wolcott, of this company, operating the 
Wano mill at Jamestown, Colo., have 
gone to Omaha, Neb., "to consult with 
their associates as to increasing the 
capacity of the mill and additional facil- 
ities for larger operations at the mine. 
The monthly returns from their mill are 
about $10,000, the ores averaging about 
$10 per ton. 

Clear Creek County 
Colorado Central— Ruhy silver has been 
opened up in the Ocean Wave level, 
which is being worked under lease by 
F. A. Maxwell, of Georgetown. 

Mint— This mine, on McClelland moun- 
tain, is to have a plant of machinery op- 
erated by electric power, for the purpose 
of driving the big crosscut. J. U. Harris, 
Georgetown, Colo., is manager. 

Princess of India — A lease and bond for 
one year in the sum of $30,000 has been 
given to New York people, and a heavy 
compressor plant is to be installed in their 
tunnel on Columbia mountain. J. J. 
White, Georgetown, Colo., is manager. 

Lake County — Leadville 

Carbonate Hill— The Morning and 
Evening Stars are working steadily and 
shipping in the neighborhood of 350 tons 
daily of an excellent grade of iron. The 
Little Nell, on the crest of the hill, is 
shipping steadily a good grade of iron and 
some sulphides. On the lower part of the 
hill the Starr people continue to ship from 
the recent strike and the values hold up 
to the standard. From the Jolly shaft 
shipments are steady and the lessees are 
driving into new territory. 

Champion — M. M. Bohen and associ- 
ates, of Leadville, are working this prop- 
erty, on Battle mountain, and for the 
last few weeks have been developing a 
body of sulphide ore. A few days ago a 
sireak, 2 in. wide came in about the mid- 
dle of the sulphide and this was sacked 
and 100 lb. of it taken to an assayer at 
Leadville and it netted in thq neighbor- 
hood of $30 per pound. The streak is 
simply a pocket and Mr. Bohen expects 
to have it worked out in a few days. The 
sulphide body is of a good grade and 
shipments are being sent out regularly. 

Dinero Tunnel — On this adit, Sugar 
Loaf district, 240 ft. were driven during 
the month of June leaving only 360 ft. 
to be driven before the Dinero veins are 
cut. At present the tunnel is being driven 
through black flint. 

Down Town Section — The lessees on 
the Penrose, Midas and Coronado are 
shipping regularly from the upper levels 
of the different properties, and at the 
same time are doing considerable pros- 
pecting in new territory. The present 
month will see the ore tonnage greatly 
increased as orebodies have been opened. 
The ore that will be shipped will be prin- 
cipally iron of a good grade. Prospect 
work is being carried on at the Hibschle 
shaft. East Seventh street. 

Helena — At this mine, Iowa gulch, the 
ore that was caught at the soo-ft. level 
shows every sign of being in place and as 
work proceeds the vein widens ; the grade 
is medium and shipments will be started 

Sunday Tunnel — The work of cleaning 
up and re-timbering is nearly completed, 
and when the electric plant is installed 
the work of driving ahead will be started. 
A station will be cut well in toward the 
breast and at this point the electric plant 
will be installed. 

Mineral County 

Rio Grande — This group on Campbell 
mountain, near Creede, has been leased to 
a syndicate composed of Creede and Den- 
ver people. Work is to begin at once 
on a large scale. 

San Miguel County 

La Sal — James H. Hill, of New York, 
has taken a lease and bond on this copper 
mine at Cashin. The bond is to run one 

year. It is said that the Denver & Ricf 
Grande railroad will build a branch down 
the Paradox valley to reach this and other 
mines in the district. 

Teller County — Cripple Creek 

During June an advance of 187 ft. was 
made in the drainage tunnel. The total 
length on June 30 was 2670 ft. The rock 
encountered during the month was ex- 
tremely hard. The intermediate shaft 
was lowered 98 ft. in June and was 453. 
ft. deep at the end of the month. 

Mary McKinney — The directors have 
declared a one-cent dividend on the is- 
sued capital, making a disbursement of 
$13,085, payable July 25. This will bring 
the total dividends paid to $814,150. The 
directors ceased the payment of dividends 
in April, 1907, but since then the treasury 
accumulation warrants the payment of 
the above amount, besides leaving enough 
to carry on development work and to pay 
the company's subscription to the deep- 
drainage tunnel. Another announcement 
is that the company has leased the main 
workings of the property down to 700 ft., 
comprising about 35 acres, to the West- 
ern Investment Company. The lease, 
which runs for two years, provides that 
the main shaft be sunk to water level. 

Ophir — A depth of 200 ft. has been at- 
tained in the new vertical shaft on this 
mine on Raven hill, and a crosscut has 
been started to the main Ophir vein. At 
the same time, operations are being car- 
ried on from the old incline shaft and a 
good grade of ore is mined therefrom. 
The Ophir is owned by the J. J. Cone 


Idaho County 

Idaho Mascot — This is a group of three- 
claims near Elk City and adjoining the 
Del Rio grdup, which has been recently 
located by John and Ed. Massam, of 
Spokane, as quartz-gold mining claims. 
There is a vein of rich ore 600 ft. from 
the Del Rio vein which has made a good 
showing under a small amount of de- 
velopment. The owners have been quietly 
working to locate the lead for about a . 
year, having found much float near the 
foot of the hill. An adit is now being run 
to the lead, but it will take 400 ft. of 
work to reach it. 

Espy — There is now being installed a 
new five-stamp mill in addition to the 
three-stamp mill that has been in use for 
over a year. The mine was bought last 
fall by eastern capitalists who have put 
a local man in charge with instructions to 
open the mine on a large scale. Two 
adits have shown good results, and now 
a third is to be run. 

Crackerjack — This mine on June 21 
came into the possession of M. J. 
Sweeney, of Spokane, who secured it on 
a mortgage for $8000. The mine is said' 

July II, 1908. 


to have owed about $20,000, as a great 
deal of work had been done toward 
opening up the large, but low-grade de- 
posits. It has been rumored that Mr. 
Sweeney is acting for the American 
Smehing and Refining Company, but con- 
firmation cannot be had. It is not known 
whether any work will be done this sum- 
mer or not. 

Shoshone Countv 

Caff''!' King — At a special meeting of 
stockholders, held in MuUan, June 15, it 
was decided to drive a long crusscut adit 
on Ihc property to open the ore at depth. 
Work will be started within 30 days, ac- 
cording to a statement by the manage- 
ment, and will be pushed vigorously. This 
property has been inactive since the 
Grcenough interests declined to take up 
an option they held on it last fall. 

Charles Dickens — At the annual stock- 
holders' meeting in .Spokane last week the 
following officers were re-elected : Presi- 
dent, W. II. Taylor ; vice-president, W. 
N. Nickerson ; secretary-treasurer, W. A. 
Elliott; manager, .'\. D. Gritman. Man- 
ager Gritman states that the mill will be 
started up shortly. 

with offices at Gate's Station, has made an 
assignment. The assets are greater than 
the liabilities. Homer Hood owns a con- 
trolling interest and is general manager. 
The company has been in operation for 
five years and was originally established 
by Toledo men. The property is likely 
to change hands. 


.'\fler being under probation for more 
llian a year, 52 miners employed at the 
Siiinmit mine were expelled from the 
United Mme Workers of America on 
June 30, because they refused to submit 
to fines for participating in a "stampede" 
strike, as provided in the district agree- 
ment between miners and operators. The 
minors were out eiglit days on a .stampede 
strike and $8 were deducted from each's pay. Of the 420 men employed. 52 
in all, contrary to the advice of the dis- 
trict officers, brought suit and recovered 
tlu' aivounts deducted from their pay, the 
court holding the fining clause invalid. 
The district association made the amounts 
recovered good to the operators and will 
reinstate the expelled members as soon as 
they repay the association the amount of 
fines; four li.ive already been reinstated 
and are now employed by the operators. 

Greene County 

Golden Knob — The machinery of this 
mine, the property of an Ohio company, 
is being taken out and shippoil away. The 
mine was operated in a small way nearly 
four years. 

P. & I. Coal Mine — This mine, near 
Jasonville, is again in hard luck, or, 
rather, the stockholders are, owing to the 
insolvency of G. G. Hadley & Co., of 
Chicago, operators. There is a labor in- 
debtedness of $1200 hanging over the 
mine, besides other bills. Judgments have 
been taken and executions issued against 
av.iilable property. The mine and equip- 
ments have been seized by the sheriff. 

Parke County 
/vi(.i/i Coal Company — This company. 


ZiNC-LEAD District 
Hartford — This company has just com- 
pleted a new mill on its lease south of 
Galena, and is installing a six-drill air 




Keiijeenatu—'Yhe. temporary shaft house 
at the Medora shaft is nearing comple- 
tion and will soon be in shape to handle 
rock. The rock crushers are on the 
ground and arc being assembled; the 
Phoenix mill is practically ready to begin 
stamping. The spur connecting the mill 
to the main line has been widened to 
standard gage, and barring some unfore- 
seen delays all will be in shape to begin 
the mill test on this rock tlie latter part 
of July. The company's new, or No. 2 
shaft has reached the ledge, passing 
through about 15 ft. of overburden. 

Ojibtvay — Sinking continues at No. i 
shaft, which is down about 230 ft. ; the 
first level will be started at a depth of 
SCO ft. from surface, when a crosscut will 
be driven to cut the lode. At No. 2 shaft 
drifting at the first level, 350 ft. from 
surface has been suspended in the north 
end, but continues toward the south ; the 
total length of this drift is about 150 ft. 
Preparations are being made to resume 
sinking at No. 2 shaft and the next level 
will be established at a depth of 500 ft. 
The formation in the drift is somewhat 
disturbed, probably due to surface in- 
fluences and it is believed that, as dcptli 
is obtained, conditions will become settled 
and a more uniform copper-bearing rock 
will be disclosed. Work has been started 
on the spur connecting the mine with the 
Keweenaw Central railroad, and with this 
connection made the property will be 
given ample railroad facilities. 

Superior — Preparations are being made 
to install two skips in the shaft. Work 
on the railroad connecting the mine and 
the Atlantic mill, will be started soon and 
will be rushed to completion ; when fin- 
ished a thorough mill test will be made. 

Alimeek — This company will sink two 
new shafts during the summer; several 
sand pipes have been driven down to test 
the overburden and get a contour of the 
ledge. The proposed shafts will open up 
the central and northern portions of the 
tract. The present shaft commands the 
ground in the soulheni end and the north- 
eni shaft will intercept the lode at depth 
and will be in close proximity to an ex- 

tension of No. 5 Mohawk, which is show- 
ing up exceedingly well. 


Umpire — This mine, on the Cascade 
range will resume operations in a week or 
two. The company closed down the mine 
early in the year, laying off about 50 men. 

Brule Mining Company — This company 
has resumed operations at its Chatham 
mines at Stambaugh. Only a small force 
is employed at present. 

Zinc-lead District 

The Little Princess, Elking and Dia- 
mond Jack mills have been shut down. 
The Fullerton mill has been totally de- 
stroyed by fire. The Yellow Dog has laid 
oflF 60 men. 

Big Chief — This company is putting up- 
a 200-ton mill on its lease, north of the 
Mission mine at Baxter Springs. 

Big Fly — This company made its first 
turn-in recently, and promises to be a 
regular produce. Its mill is at Alba. 

Continental — This company has started 
its mill at Johnstown, after a long shut- 
down. A 10-in. and a 6-in. pump were 
necessary to drain the mine. 

Diamond Jack — The derrick and tram- 
way at this mine have been destroyed by 

Eclipse Land — .\ company — composed 
of H. H. Black, Charles Humes, E. M. 
Hunt and J. H. Jackson — has leased I2 
lots of this land south of Carterville, and 
is sinking a shaft to the ore, which was 
encountered in an abandoned mine at 85 
ft. depth. 

Granby Mining and Smelling Company 
— This company has discontinued its office 
a^ Webb City, and consolidated it with the 
Oronogo office. 

Hall Land — McGee & Co. have opened 
up iS ft. of high-grade silicate, .it 95 ft. 
depth, on their 20-acre lease on this land 
south of Ducnweg. 

Hermit — This company has opened up 
ore at 112 ft. on its lease on the Granby 
land at Chitwood. The mill has been re- 

Kelley Land — .X good drill strike was 
made on this land, near the northeast 
corner of the Giautauqua ground at 
Carthage. Ore was found at 188 ft. depth. 

McConnell — This company is opening 
up a 40-acre tract south of Duenweg. An 
8- ft. face of silicate ore was found at 32 
ft. depth. 

Paragon — This company is sinking a 
shaft to open up the sheet ground on its 
20-acre lease west of Joplin. 

Tailings Mill—D. Cooper, C. J. Gunth 
and L. K. Roberts have bought the Water 
Oak mill, and are moving it to the West 
Side mine at Alba, to work the tailings. 

I'nnlage — This company has started 



July II, 1908. 

two ii-iii. pumps in the old cave near the 
Silver Dick. An incline is being built to 
run skips down into the cave. 


Butte Distkict 

Parrot— In view of the fact that this 
company was the only one of the larger 
Butte concerns which failed to make any 
showing of net earnings in the recent an- 
nual reports, the strike in the Little Mina 
last week is of interest. The strike was 
made in a drift on the looo-ft. level. Some 
years ago the mine was closed down as 
the result of litigation between the com- 
p:iny and the Heinze interests, but was 
started again in 1906 when the fight be- 
tween H-jinze and the Amalgamated in- 
terests was settled. Since then the shaft 
has been sunk from the 80D- to the 1000- 
f[. mark. The strike, while of no great 
importance, has revealed ore of a much 
liigher grade than was formerly en- 

Copper Eagle Mining Company— The 
property is located in the northern part 
of the Butte district, north of Walker- 
ville. While no development work has 
been don.- recently, the shaft, down 225 ft., 
has been kept free from water and is in 
condition to resume operations at short 
notice. It is reported that negotiations 
are now being carried on to secure capi- 
tal with which to sink to the lOOO-ft. level. 
The upper levels have thus far shown 
silver ore, but no copper. 

Amy-SUversmith — This mine, located in 
the silver belt of the Butte district north- 
west of Walkerville, is being worked by 
leasers. In times gone by several for- 
tunes have been taken from the property, 
ores of which run high in gold and silver. 
Butte Central & Boston Copper Com- 
pany — Last week a petition was filed in 
the Federal Court by the creditors of the 
company asking that the company be ad- 
judged bankrupt. For some time past 
there have been dissentions between the 
stockholders. The Tri-National com- 
pany, of Boston, instituted suit against 
the company several months ago for the 
payment of a note for a considerable 
amount. The minority stockholders there- 
upon petitioned the court for permission 
to come in and defend the action, alleging 
in their petition that the company's direc- 
tors were about to confess judgment. This 
suit is still pending. The company owns 
the Ophir mine, one of the oldest in the 
camp. Up to the time the company 
secured control, two years ago, this mine 
had been worked intermittently for silver 
ore, but it was thought that copper 
would be found with depth. The company 
has sunk the shaft from the 300- to the 
500-ft. level, and has also installed a well 
equipped surface plant. 

Davis-Daly — All leasers operating upon 
properties formerly owned by the Daly 
estate and now optioned to the Davis-Daly 

Estates Copper Company, have ceased 
work, pending a settlement of the financial 
difficulties of this company. The claims 
held under option from the Daly estate 
inchule the Silver King, Hesperus, Red 
Chief, Lizzie and Yellow Jack. 

Beaverhe-^d County 
P()/(i/-/.f^Superinterident Harry Arm- 
stead states that arrangements are being 
made for the resumption of work about 
August I. The mines and smelter have 
been closed down since last December. 

MissouL.^ County 
Cape Nome Mining Company — The 
property of this company is located near 
Clinton. The Speculator Mining Com- 
pany, former owner of the North Butte 
pioperties, owns the Black Hawk group 
of claims in the immediate vicinity of the 
Cape Nome, and has also secured an 
option on the claims whfch directly ad- 
join the latter. For the purpose of pros- 
pecting its own ground the Speculator 
company, according to a mutual agree- 
ment, sunk the Cape Nome shaft from the 
300- to the 500-ft. level, whence it will run 
drifts into its own properties. 


Esmeralda County — Goldfield 
Ore Shipments — The camp's production 
this week while maintaining the tonnage 
fell off a little in value, being 2061 tons 
valued at $148,315. The Western Ore 
Purchasing Company handled : Rogers 
Syndicate, 291 tons; Mushett lease, 200 
tons; Little Florence, 73 tons'; Engineers' 
lease, 222 tons; Oddie dump, 33 tons; 
Van Riper dump, 132 tons. The Nevada 
Goldfield Reduction Company treated: 
Jumbo, 149 tons ; American mill tailings, 
9 tons; Diamondfield Black Butte, 3.', 
tons ; Mohawk Combination, 33 tons ; 
Sandstorm, 80 tons ; Victor lease, 40 tons. 
Kendall lease shipped to Bonnie Claire 
mill 100 tons. The Combination mill 
treated 665 tons of Consolidated ores and 
made a special run on 30 tons which was 
valued at $60,000, which amount is not in- 
cluded in the above total. 

Mohawk — In view of the reduction in 
freight and smelter rates the Mohawk is 
reported to be about to resume shipments 
of high-grade ores. 

Mohawk Combination Lease — This lease 
has paid a dividend of $40,000, largely 
from the ore extracted during its last 
four days of existence. As soon as it 
disposes of its machinery and equipment 
the last of the famous Mohawk leases 
will have passed into history. This lease 
had quite a history. It was a union of 
the Kalfus lease on the Mohawk and the 
Sheets-Ish lease on the Combination. 
This latter lease was the cause of apex 
litigation between the Combination and 
Mohawk, which, however, was ended 
when both companies became part of the 
Consolidated. The Sheets-Ish people, 

however, took up the cudgel against the 
Kalfus lease and this was settled by the 
forming of the Mohawk Combination 
Leasing Company. When the lease had 
but four days left to run a serious cave 
occurred and the Consolidated shut the 
leasers from the premises and sued for 
damages. By agreement of both parties 
the matter was finally arbitrated, the Con- 
solidated being awarded $9500 damages 
and the leasers being given four days to 
mine rock after a certain length of time 
granted for putting the workings in re- 
pair. A force of 120 picked men were 
put to work on three shifts and they ex- 
tracted 900 tons of ore of an actual value 
of over $67,000 in the 96 hours allotted 


Shipments have been made this week 
from the properties of the Rawhide Tiger, 
Coalition, Consolidated, Rector, and 
Queen. All the shipments were made 
1 y leasers. 

Hu.MBOLDT County 
The San Francisco, Idaho & Montana 
railroad which is building from Caldwell, 
Idaho, to Winnemucca, has weathered the 
monej- stringency and is pushing work 
again. It is e.xpected to start work north- 
ward from Winnemucca soon. This road 
will open up a rich mineral country. 

Lander County 
Austin Manhattan Consolidated Mining 
Company — This company has definitely 
outlined plans for its immediate future de- 
velopment. The 6ooo-ft. tunnel has al- 
ready been cleaned out past the 2000-ft. 
station, and is being timbered by three 
shifts. The tunnel will be piped for ven- 
tilation and for compressed air and wired 
for electricity. 

Nye County — Tonopah 
Ore Shipments — The ore shipments over 
the Tonopah & Goldfield Railroad for the 
v.eek ended June 25 to the Western Ore 
Purchasing Company, consisted of 90 tons 
from the Tonopah Extension. The Ton- 
opah company sent 3550 tons, the Belmont 
company 700 tons, the Montana-Tonopah 
iioo tons, the North Star 40 tons, the 
Midway 100 tons, the MacNamara 150 
tons, and the West End 50 tons to the 
mills, making the total shipments for the 
week 5780 tons. 

Tonopah Mining Company — At a meet- 
ing in Philadelphia- this week the directors 
declared a dividend of 25c. per share, 
amounting to $250,000. It is stated semi- 
officially that similar dividends will be 
paid quarterly. 

New York 

Essex County 
Cheever Mine — This iron mine, near 
Port Henry in the Lake Champlain dis- 
trict, has been closed down for the pres- 

July II, 1908. 



ent. Aljout 75 men were cniploytd at the 

Icspie, of Pittsburg, and no sale will be 


Zinc-lead District 
The Lincolnville district, south of Bax- 
ter, Kan., in Oklahoma, is pretty quiet, 
there being only three mills runninR. 
Eight miles southwest the Miami camp 
is booming. There are only four mills 
completed, but they are running full blast. 
This is the richest strike that has been 
made in this region. There are five more 
mills building and a sixth is to be bid 
oil soon. The ore here seems to be more 
liitjlily mineralized than that in the Lin- 
■ ..Invillc district, but it does not break 
' free from the gangue and so the mills 
I' not making as good a recovery. A 
ii.iction line is under consideration to run 
from the town to the mills, 5.5 miles. 
John Hall is the engineer in charge. 


Antiik.mitf. Com. 
I.i-high & Wilkcs-Barrc Coal Company— 
\ suit has been brought by the city of 
VVilkes-Barre and others, property owners, 
111 enjoin this company from dumping 
culm into Solomon's creek, and to com- 
pel the company to dredge out the creek 
and remove obstructions already placed 

ritlsbnrn-Buffalo Coal Company— This 
CMinpany has made an issue of $3,000,000 
ill ,S-|)er cent. 30-year bonds. Of these 
liiiiids, $1,265,000 were used to retire old 
binds outstanding; $735,000 to pay for 
nnv work and property; the remaining 
$i.oix),o<in being held to provide for future 

Butler County 
111 iIk new McBridc oilfield, the Hoff- 
man No. I well, which was the first to 
dr.iw attention to the field, is still flowing 
at the rate of 20 bbl. per hour. The Hoflf- 
I man & Ocsterling well, which gave only 
^ a small production at first, responded 
j largely when shot. On June 30 a third 
, well, the ShalTncr, 125 ft. from the Hoff- 
man, began to fiow at the rate of 15 bbl. 
por hour. There is much excitement in 
tile district, and preparations are being 
m.-ule to drill :i nuiiiln-r of wells. 

South Dakota 

Custer Countv 
iirtford and Croud Junction— J. W. 
Leer, a mining engineer, has com- 
■d an examination of these two prop- 
s. which will probably be consolidated 
operated jointly. 

i"Mi,- .1/a.v— H. McClelland has had a 
ber of men examining the properly, 
it is expected that announcement will 
lly he made of a deal and resumption 
ork on the ground. 

ondcring Boy — The owners have dc- 
•d to extend the option to VVm. Gil- 











Se\'ier County 
Details are being worked out for the 
construction of the Kiioxville & Sevier- 
ville railroad, which will be about 26 
miles long and will penetrate the heart 
of the Sevier county iron-ore field. The 
plans include the opening of mines on a 
considerable scale. 


Pocahoulas Consolidated Collieries 
Company — An order has been entered in 
the United States Circuit Court at Lynch- 
burg, Va., dismissing at plaintiffs' costs 
the suit instituted in that court on Jan. 
14 last, by a minority of the preferred 
stockholders of the Pocahontas Collieries 
Company ngainst this company. The Poca- 
hontas Consolidated Collieries Company, 
Inc., a corporation of the State of Vir- 
ginia, was formed through a merger 
on July I, 1907, of a company of the same 
name with the Pocahontas Collieries 
Company, with a capitalization of $2,800,- 
000 preferred stock and $4,520,000 com- 
mon stock, and an authorized bond issue 
o» $20,000,000. The terms of the merger 
provided that the preferred stockholders 
of the Pocahontas Collieries Company 
should accept, in exchange for their stock 
the new bonds of the merged company. 
This exchange not having been made by 
all the preferred stockholders of the Poca- 
hontas Collieries Company, a suit was 
instituted by those who refused to make 
such exchange, for the purpose of secur- 
ing an appraisement of their holdings 
under the Virginia laws, or as an alterna- 
tive, a receivership for the merged com- 
pany. This suit is now dismissed. 

West Virginia 

R\LEiGH County 
iriiilc Coat C())H/>uii.v^This company is 
pushing the work of development on its 
coal mines near Bcckley. Many of the 
surface buildings are complete, and a con- 
tract for sinking the shafts has been let 
lo Patterson & McNeil. Work is pro- 
gressing on the branch line from the Vir- 
ginian railway up Shockley creek to the 
mines. The company has an ll-ft. vein 
of coal at 280 ft. depth. 


/l\riK\ll Dl.STRICT 

I'linlu-r curtailment of zinc ore and 
increased production of load ore arc 
noticeable. The zinc-ore output of this 
district for the first six months of 1908 
falls short only about 3000 tons of the 
figures for the corresponding period of 
1907. During the first three months of 
this year the weekly average remained at 
500 tons : in spite of continued restriction 
of output in many quarters, however, the 
production during the last three months 
has steadily increased and shows as large 

a total (13,334 tons) as any equal period 
in the historj' of the district. Moreover, 
the average grade of zinc ore now shipped 
out is considerabFy higher than was form- 
erly the case. 


British Columbia— Bou.vdaky District 
British Columbia Copper — Some addi- 
tional details have been published regard- 
ing the operations for the fiscal year 
ended Nov. 30 last. It appears that the 
company in that time produced from its 
smelter, 8,643,133 lb. of copper, 101,114 oz. 
silver, and 24,967 oz. gold, for which it 
received a total of $2,159,414. The copper 
was sold for 17.52c. per lb. Excluding the 
loss occasioned by the rapid decline in the 
price of copper, it would appear that the 
cost of production was about 13c. The 
first car of blister copper since produc- 
tion was resumed was shipped on June 8, 
and since then the converters have been 
turning out nearly a car a day. The 
mines have been producing 11,500 to 
12,000 tons weekly, which would supply 
the smelter at nearly its full capacity of 
2000 tons daily. 

Ontario — Cobalt District 
Ore Shipments — Shipments of ore for 
the week ending June 27, were as fol- 
lows : Buffalo, 42,680 lb. ; Coniagas, 63.- 
210; City of Cobalt, 116,400; Drummond. 
40,000; McKinley-Darragh, 58,120; Nipis- 
sing, 62400; O'Brien, 63,320; Right-of- 
Way, 60,480; Temiskaming, 120,000; 
Trethewey, I33>SOO; Watts, 60,160; total. 
820,270 pounds. 



Gold production in May is reported 
S3,i88 oz. fine, being 2470 oz. more than in 
April. For the five months ended May 31 
the total was 251,083 oz., or $5,189,886. 
For the corresponding period in 1907 the 
total was 236,857 oz. ; but the compari- 
son is not accurate, as last year the re- 
ports were made in bullion, but this year 
nearly all the companies report in fine 

Other production reported for May 
was: Silver, 28,025 oz. ; copper, 9 tons: 
lead, 113 tons; chrome ore, 556 tons; coal. 
14,432 tons. 


.■\ terrible explosion has occurred in the 
Rikovski coal mine near Yusovo, in the 
Donetz basin. The explosion was of gas, 
according to the accounts sent by cable, 
and the force was very great, many of 
the bodies recovered being badly torn and 
mutilated. The cable reports say that 267 
dead bodies were taken out by the rescue 
parties. ,ind 150 men were still in the 
mine when further work was stopped by 
fire in the mine, started by the explosion. 
It is hardly possible that any will be 
found alive, so that the loss of life was 
over 400 in all. 



July II, 1908. 

Metal, Mineral, Coal and Stock Markets 

Current Prices, Market Conditions and Commercial 
Statistics of the Metals, Minerals and Mining Stocks 


Coal Trade Review 

Nciii York, July 8 — The coal trade in 
the West shows some signs of improve- 
ment. In Indiana the mines are more 
active and there seems to be a better de- 
mand for coal. There are also better re- 
ports from other quarters, and some man- 
ufacturing concerns are starting up. in- 
creasing the call for steam coal. The 
mines everywhere are running rather 
slack, but with no interruption from labor 

In the East the bituminous trade is 
very quiet, with small demand reported 
in most places. Midsummer dullness has 
settled down on the anthracite trade, and 
there is little doing. The Coastwise trade 
is the lightest known for years, and many 
vessels are going out of commission. 

Co.\L Tr.ilFfic Notes 
Tonnage originating on Pennsylvania 
Railroad lines east of Pittsburg and Erie, 
year to June 27, in short tons : 

1907. 1908. Changes 

Anthracite 2,ft37,134 2.6R9,901 D. 147,23.-) 

Bituminous 18,735,831 16,690,393 D. 3,04.'i,«8 

Coke 6,986,112 3,298,11.5 D. 3,687.997 

Total 28.559,077 21.678,409 D. 6,880,668 

Total decrease this year to date has 
been 24.1 per cent. 

Shipments of Broad Top coal over the 
Huntingdon & Broad Top road for the 
year to June 27 were 290,913 long tons ; 
a decrease of 206.711 tons from the first 
half of last vear. 

New York 


July 8 — The market for hard coal is 
dull and inactive and sales are light. The 
Lake traffic shows signs of starting up 
in earnest. The independent dealers con- 
tinue to cut prices is@2oc. below the cir- 
cular for both prepared and small steam 

Prices are as follows : Broken, $.'!..SS ; 
egg, stove and chestnut, $4.80; pea, 
$3-25@3-5o; buckwheat No. i, $; 
buckwheat No. 2 or rice, $i.6o@2; barley, 
$i-3S@i.5o; all f.o.b. New York harbor. 


There is no activity in the soft-coal 
market and the only business seems to be 
among those consumers who must lay 
in large winter stocks. In New York 
harbor trade is at a standstill and good 
grades of steam coal fetch $2.4S@2.5o 
with few takers. 

Transportation from mines to tide is 
fair. In the Coastwise vessel trade there 

is little disposition to charter at the pres- 
ent rates. Freight rates are unchanged, 
as follows : To Boston, Salem and Port- 
land, So@SSc. ; Lynn, SS@6oc. ; Saco, 90c. ; 
Newburyport, 75c. ; Portsmouth, S5@6oc. ; 
Bath, 6o@6sc. ; Gardiner, 6sc. ; Bangor, 
70<Si7Sc. ; to the Sound, 45@5oc. ; towages 
where usual. 


July 7 — The coal production in Ala- 
bama has been reduced some by the clos- 
ing down of the commercial coal mines, 
the contract with the union miners having 
expired. The commercial operators have 
demanded of the miners that they be al- 
lowed the same mining wage as that which 
is paid at the non-union mines, 47V2C. 
per ton, while the union miners have 
offered a flat rate for the year of S5c. per 
ton. .^ strike will probably be called this 
week. The union has between 3500 and 
4000 members. There is a steady output 
at the non-union mines. None of the 
iron manufacturing compafiies in the 
Birmingham district recognizes the union, 
and there is a belief expressed that the 
commercial coal operators will now give 
the men a fight, the object being to drive 
the union from the mines of the State. 

Coke shows a little improvement with 
the production about the same as reported 
two weeks ago. 


July 6 — The coal market is in its usual 
summer condition, sales being light and 
fine coals in demand. Western coals es- 
pecially run to fine si?es in general de- 

Standard quotations are: Illinois and 
Indiana lump or egg, $i.7S@2.25 ; run-of- 
mine, $i.55@i.7S: screenings, $i.So@i.65. 
Some lump is down to $1.60, and is not 
easily sold. 

Eastern coals are weak. Smokeless and 
Hocking are I5@25c. under circular quo- 
tations with sales light and receipts heavy. 
Youghiogheny on contracts is firm at $3.15 
for ^-in. Anthracite is dull. 


July 6 — The beginning of the second 
half of the year finds the coal-raining in- 
dustry in an improved .condition. The 
situation has been clarified by the set- 
tlement of the wage question, mine rules 
and the equalization of joint freight rates 
on several of the coal-carrying roads. The, 
market has an encouraging outlook. On 

the whole the volume of orders at the 
mines is larger than for several years 
this early in the summer trade. The rail- 
roads have begun hauling large quantities 
of Indiana coal to dealers and consumers 
within and outside of the State. A slight 
increase in the price of coal at the mines, 
due to the increased cost of mining, is 
also assigned as a cause of better trade 
with dealers wdio wish to store a supply 
before another increase is made. 


July 7 — About 80 per cent, of the rail- 
road coal mines in the Pittsburg district 
are in operation and the bulk of the pro- 
duct is going to Lake ports for the north- 
western markets. There is little local de- 
mand. Prices continue firm on the basis 
of $1.15 a ton for mine-run coal at mine. 
No shading is being done, as operators de- 
clare lower prices would not bring out 
any more business. Nearly all of the river 
mines are running and the coal is being 
loaded for a rise. Slack is a drug on the 
market. The large producers are still 
quoting it at 7Sc., but no sales are re- 
corded that that price. What little was 
sold during the week went at considerably 
less, as low as 40c. being paid in some 

ConncllsvUle Coke — There are strong 
indications of an improvement in the 
coke trade and operators are busy looking 
for men to take the places of the workers 
who left the fields when the depression 
came last fall. Many inquiries have been 
received during the past few days. Prices 
remain firm, furnace coke being quoted at 
$i.65@i.7S and foundry at $ a ' 
ton at ovens. The Courier in its weekly 
report gives the production in both fields 
at 164,839 tons. The shipments were 6469 
cars as follows: To Pittsburg, 2549; to 
points west of Connellsville. 3450; to 
points east of Connellsville, 470 cars. 

Foreign Coal Trade 

United States Coal Exports — Exports 
of coal and coke from the United States 
five months ended May 31, long tons: 

1907. 1908. Changi'S. 

Total coal 4,429,890 4,082.297 D. S47.693 

Coke 348.680 297,843 D. 50,837 

E.xports do not include coal furnished 
to steamships in foreign trade. Canada 
took this year 2.973,393 tons of coal, or 


72.8 per cent, of the total. The coke lowed shortly liy other departments of Rails — Traction roads are ordering 

went chiefly to Mexico and Canada. the industry until the whole plant has sonic rails for quick delivery. Repairing 

United States Cool Imports—Imports Ix^^^" P"t '>:'cl< ^" work. nquirements for traction lines are larger 

of coal and coke into the United States, 'h's year than ever before. Light rails 

five months ended May 31, long tons: p, • ■'"■e also called for irregularly. 

1907. iao8. amni:m. , , r tx ■ , ■ ^''^ Material— The larger scrap dealers 

A.Mhrftcito IS 1IS.02:) 1.16.010 J"'y ''— Ihc Ton market continues take a more hopeful view though actual 

"'"""'"""" i!!:!!^ '"^■'*^ ^»ll«*i ^l"i^'' ^i'h a f"v large inquiries but noth- ,,^,,.5 ^^e trilling. They have had some 

■'•■■""'•"oi "9,744 719,871 D. 79,873 mg to indicate suddcn change from the intimations which have started two or 

*^'""' «'■"''' o^''" '■• '»•"• condition of steady buying for-necds of .h^ee of them on the hunt for heavy steel 

Oin.-ida fiirni.shcd this year 445,48f) tons the next three months, chiefly in lots of scrap, which is quoted this week 50c 

of coal and nearly all the coke; Australia, a carload to 500 tons. higher 

218,284 tons of coal. The greater part Northern iron is firm at $I7@I7.50 and 

of tlic imports are on the Pacific Coast. Southern at $i2<n) Birmingham p- 1 

li^elsh Coal Trade-Messrs. Hull, BIyth f$'f'35jS .6.85 Chicago) for No. 2^ The ^^,^^. situanoln-oks a little bet- 

& Co., London and Cardiff, report cnr- •[-".nuA for Northern is fairly steady : for ,^.^ ,^.^ ^^,^,^,^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

rent prices at Welsh ports as follows, f" ^ern it is erratic but averages fair. ^^^^^^^ i„,provement. Reports of a de- 

imder date of June 27: Best Welsh steam. Southern iron for delivery within .-,0 days ^.^^^ betterment of conditions in the 

$3.90; seconds, $3.66; third.. $3.54; do' '^ ^"'' =" ■' '•«" P^co of 25 or 50c but the p.,^^^^ ^.^^^.^, ^^^ ^^^.^ ^^^ ^^^^ 

<-mk liiSi- hi-st Mnnmniiilichirp «i ifi • market gencrallv holds to the $12 mini- , • • , , ... 

toais, :i>3.04, DLSt ivionmoutnsnire, $3-3o, "^ - ^ by prosperity wishers have no foundation, 

seconds, $3..3o; best small steam, $2.28; ""';" . , . ,u 1 . H'ough it is true that additional mills have 

spronrk t^in All ni.r 1r,ii<T tr.n (nU >''^"' ""Oil apd stccl products the market , . . , . . 

seconci.s, ^..w. All ptr long ton, t.o.b. ' . been put m operation at some of the pants 

shinninir nort gencrallv is dull. Coke is selling well on , .v /~ ■ c , r- -r-. ■ 

*'"" '"^ port. - ,.,,.,,, , of the Carnegie Steel Company. The p ac- 

contracts and rather lightlv on spot re- . , , ..... 

-.1. .u 1, . /- 11-11 . '"K of 35.000 tons of steel rai s by the 
I T^ I r-» ■ riuircments. with the best Conncllsville at „". . ^1 ■ r, •• . . . ' 
Iron 1 rade Review *, „„ n,ir-,„o Baltimore & Ohio Railroad last week is 
3*4.90. i^nic.igo. , J . . y .i « - 
, regarded as a starter for rail buying. 

Nrw Ynrk, July 8— The pnstnt month •'^'1 ''ic independent sheet and tinplate 

is almost always a dull one, and it was Cleveland makers have accepted the wage scales ar- 

to be expected lliat this year it would be /"'.v 7 — The ore movement is still slow, ranged by the -Amalgamated and the lead- 

diilU r than i\ir. There has been nothing 'he total for July being about 2.500,000 '"K producer. The only scale not adjusted 

new (hirin;; llic week, and no tendency in tons, or tons less than last is for the iron workers. The Amalga- 

eitlier direction can be detected. Matters .vear. The shipments from docks It fur- mated opened a conference in Detroit to- 

havc been simply drifting. naces are also slow. Vessel canncilv to <lay with the Western Bar Iron Associa- 

There luis been some buying of pig iron, move about 700.000 tons from T,ake Supe- <'0"- It is expected that a settlement will 

hu'. in such small quantities would rior norts has been contracted for at fisc t>e reached and also that later the Repub- 

bc hardly noticed in ordinary times. In which is Toc. below last vear's rate. Even I'c Iron and Steel Company, which re- 

finisliod maleri.i! also, very little is doing, ^'"e. Ins boon reported, but not cnnfirined. jected the proposition of the Amalgamated 

A few coitlraols far structural work are "'" reopen negotiations. No one antici- 

pcnding, but tliorc is a disposition to hold pi .1 j • , . P='<^s any labor troubles this year. The 

back, proliably .because belter prices are rhiladelphia j-hj^f Jcsire of everyone seems to be to 

expected. ■'"'.*' 7— Tho immedi.-.te outlook of tbo get the mills started on a long, steady run. 

Judge (;.ny, of ijio .Suol Corporation, P'^-'ron industry has improved even with Small orders continue to be placed in 

has sailed for luiropo. and it is hardly ^^'^ intervention of a holiday. The fea- nearly every line and prices are being 

piobable that any positive action about *"''^'' "'"'''• ''ff'i"'"C furnace stocks, in- firmly maintained. Since the cut of $4 a 

price chaiiKOS will be taken in his absence, "fusing third-quarter requirements ard ton was made in steel bars, contracts were 

an incro.iso in actual consumption needs, closed aggregating fully 6oo,ooo tons. 

p.. , Prices are steady. No. 2X runs close to This tonnage .seems large, but the bulk 

hJirmingham $i6<fJ>i6.5o: gr.iv forge. $16 and basic the of it is for deliveries extending over a 

July (jplh, second halt of the year s^nie. period of one vear. 

Starts off Willi the demand (|uiet. quota- r,-., , -ri 1 1 .• . n- r c- . j- . i 

, ^ c 1 ,, , ■ , r • • «i//i'/.5— I ho low prices hive stirred up Pis; Iron— Some shadini; has been done 

t'ons lirm, and the shipments of pig iron „ ■ -.i 1 , ,r ■■ ■ , 

«„;. „„.• Ti .1 r- 1 J ''"'"'' forrospondcncc with large con- bv a Vallcv merchant-furnace interest. 

quite active. 1 he stocks of iron on hand ,. -r'. , / . , . 

aro being reduced steadily. The demand '"'"' ^ ^''<= ^^t" '°" "T '"'t 

is in small lots and the inquiry is a little /'"''•'-THe averaee business is done at as off-be.ssemer iron at $.5.75 was really 

slack. The production is about 70 per '^^^'Soc Some business is in sight in standard besscmer. It is reported that a 

.„.,. I -.1 .• t • , car lots. sale of 300 tons also was made at that 

cent, normal with preparations bein? made . ,' ,- „ , 

to improve these coiulitions. The iron -^'"•■•'^-The reports given today show "^"^^ Cither \ alley furnace interests ar< 

quotations in the Birmingham district "" change. The larger consumers will Holding firmly for $16 for third quarter 

range bctwoon $,. and $12.25 per ton, No ""» "'^^e or-iers until there is a stronger ;•""' ?'6-.\ f-^-- '^'' ^""'"- ^Ij-HeaWe 

- f 1 , , ■ , . ,. ;nr(>niiv>< (Inn if r.ri<c«n» bcsscmer. basic and No. 2 foundr>- for 

2 foundrv, willi carload lots, immediate '"c^'itne man at present. , . ,. j «. V 

j„i: 1 ■ ■ , ■ , » _, n-,. J T- I Ti ■ early dclivcrv are quoted at $is. (jray 

aelivcrv, bniiKiivj; as high as $l2.i;o. The Pipes and Tiihrs— There is more prepa- ,.," »,, „ , 

u, . . . . ' .^. .• f , 1 ■ J . . , , forge IS firm at $14, Vallev furnaces, 

nonie consumption is increasing. The ration of stock in some donartmenis of the -r ■». . 

re;uinption of operations this week at the locomotive works. The boiler shops arc ^'<-<-'— The crudc-stcci market continues 

rolling mills of the Tennessee Coal, Iron working slack. fl""- ^ut prices arc firm. Both besscmer 

and Railroad Company at Bessemer, Ala., Plalcs-The Pennsylvania -plate mills ""<' <^P™-I'«;arth billets are quoted at $25. 

is the feature of tho week. As far as are not booVinc new "business of import- ^J^Jf'""'^- ^•"' *""' ^"^ ' ""^ ='"*' P'^*" 

possible, eniployniont was given to the ance. A moderate amount of counfv '•"*'*^- 

ojd labor. The stool plant of the Tcnnes- bridge work is coming along. ' ^/icff.?— Conditions remain unchanged 

j see company at I'lisloV is doing well. The Structural }fat.-rial-tio mid-summer ''""' ^^""^^ '^"^ "" ^'"'1"°'''^ =»' ^Soc. 

foundrv of the United Slates Cast Iron improvement is in sight. So far as cilv •''"'' salvani/ed at 3.55c. for No. 28 gage. 

Pipe and l'"ouiidry Company at Annis- „„,] near-by demand is concerned it is Fcrro - Manganesf — There is an im- 

toii. lias luen started up and will be fol- „ot worth notin.g. proved demand and indications point to 


July II, 15 

higher prices before the end of this quar- shipments from London to the East for 
ter. For prompt delivery at Pittsburg the year to June 25 : 
prices range from $46 to $47 per ton. 

Foreign Iron Trade 

Gcnium Iron Ore 
exports of iron ore 

Trade — Imports and 
in Germany for the 

four months 
metric tons : 

ended April 30 were. 

1907. 1908. 

.. 2,077.040 1.939.283 

D. 137,767 
D. 271,376 

Council bills in London. 

1,M3.134 1.171.759 

Imports are from Spain, Sweden and 
Russia. Exports are chiefly of minette j^^^, silver market has remained fairly 
ores from Luxemburg to Belgium and stgajy dunng the past week at 24 l3/l6d. 
France. in London, but closes lower at 24 9/i6d., 

on speculative .sales in London. 

Exports of copper from New York and 

Philadelphia for the week were 6921 long 

1908. Changes. tons. Our special correspondent gives 

£3,929,168 D. £2,120,766 the cxports from Baltimore at 406 long 

616,400 I. 616,400 ,„^^ 

90,610 D. 463.602 tOUS. 

Manufactured Co/i/xr— Sheets, cold- 
rolled, i8c.; hot-rolled, 17c. Wire, 14MC. 

Tin— In sympathy with the copper mar- 
ket, tin has had quite a good advance in 
London, where it closes at ii27 ss. for 
Indian Exchange continues steady at spot and £128 5s. for futures, which is 
iS.gid. per rupee, with sales of 10 lakhs of equal to an advance of £3 los. from the 


India £6,049,924 


Straits 644.012 

Total £6,693,936 

Receipts for the 

£4,636,068 D. £2,067,868 

week were £178,500 
from New York. E.xports were £2000 to 
Egypt and £103,500 to India; £105,500 in 

Metal Market 


nd Silver Exports and Imports 

NEW YOKK, July 8. 
;. S. Ports in May and year. 


May 1908. 

" 1907. 
Year 1908. 

•■ 1907. 

Silver : 
May 1908. 

" 1907. 
Year 1908. 

" 1907. 



$ 3,069,402 


Exp. $23,486,611 


" 21,964,634 

Imp. 6,874.713 

Exp. 666,168 






Sliver. 1 





































24 ft 

Copper, Tin, Lead and Zinc 


Exports from the port of New York, week 
landed July 4 ; Gold, $305,343, principally to 
Germany ; silver $380,928, chiefly to London. 
Imports : Gold, $130,611 ; silver, $G9.468. 
both from the West Indies, Central and South 

Specie holdings of the leading banks of 
the world July 4, are reported, as below, 
in dollars : 

Gold. Silver. Total. 

Ass'dNewYork $306,623,600 

England $183,036,966 183,036,966 

France 628,643,016 $188,530,840 817,173,866 

Germany 178,440,000 73.9.'>0,000 252,390,000 

Spain 78,075,000 134,920,000 212,995.000 

Netherlands.... 38,517,500 21,373,000 69,890,500 

Belgium 20,763.336 10,376,666 31,130.000 

Italy 181,125,000 21,500.000 202,625,000 

Russia 668,610,000 38,440,000 697,060,000 

Aust.-Hungary. 234,420,000 66.965,000 301.385.000 

Sweden 19,430,000 19,430,000 

Norway 7,265,000 7,265,000 

Switzerland.... 18,170,000 18,170.000 

The New York banks do not separate 
gold and silver. The foreign statements 
are from the Commercial and Financial 
Chronicle of New York. 

Silver Market 











.M — 



















12 \ 

4. 42 J 











12 JS 








66 Ji 

27 Ji 






4. 42 J 






67 « 





12 'i 

12 S' 









®4 45 




12 M 





013 . 



28 ■„ 


04 45 


low point reached. The New York mar- 
ket has closely followed the trend of that 
of London, with the exception of spot tin, 
which is again being concentrated, and for 
which a slight premium is obtained. Quo- 
tations are made at the close at about 28 
@28;4c. per pound. 

Shipments of tin from the Straits, four 
months ended April 30: United States, 
2689; Great Britain, 12,960; other Europe, 
3017; India and China, 822; total, 19497 
long tons, an increase of 1748 tons over j year. 

Visible stocks of tin reported on July 
I, long tons: 

In Store. Afloat. Total. 

London 6,061 4,166 9,217 

HoUand 693 183 776 

U. S., exc. Pacific ports .... 1,843 2,619 4.162 



Ix)n(1on q\iotations are per Ions ton (2240 
lb.) standard copper, which is now the equiva- 
lent of the former g.m.b's. The New York 
ipiotatlons for electroytic copper are for 
cakes, ingots or wirebars, and represent the 
bulk of the transactions made with con- 
sumers, basis. New York. cash. The price of 
enthodes is 0.125c. below that of electrolytic. 
The quotations for lead represent wholesale 
transactions in the open market. The quota- 
tions on spelter are for ordinary Western 
brands : special brands command a premium. 

New York quotations are for fine silver, 
per ounce Troy. Ijondon prices are for ster- 
ling silver, 0.925 fine. 

Messrs. Pixley & .A.bell report silver 

Copper — The better feeling on the part 
of .\merican consumers reported in our 
last issue found continued expression this 
week in thq transaction of considerable 
business, and it is particularly note- 
worthy that purchases have not, as here- 
tofore, been restricted to early deliveries. 
The European consumers, too, have come 
again into the market. The demand was 
freely met by some of the producers so 
that prices as yet show little change, but 
that little is for the better. The market 
closes at I2j4@i3c. for Lake, i2'/2@i25/^c. 
for electrolytic in cakes, wirebars or in- 
gots. The average of the week for cast- 
ing copper has been i2''/i@l2]Ac., the 
market being I2.)^@i2^c. at the close. 

The standard market in London has 
been strong and advancing, closing at 
£57 los. for spot and £58 5s. for three 
months, or over £1 higher than last week. 
\ large business was done. 

For refined and manufactured sorts wa 
quote : English tough, £6o@6i ; best se- 
lected, £6o@6i ; strong sheets, £72(0)73. 

Total 7,187 6, 

The total shows a decrease 
tons from the June report. 

Lead—The demand for this article is 

good, but it continues to be supplied by 

4.27J speculators who bought at lower prices. 

Business is being done at 4.42^4<a'4.45c. 

New York. 

A better demand has developed abroad 
at the lower prices which were recently 
established. The market closes strong, 
v.ith Spanish lead at £12 15s. and English 
lead at £12 17s. 6d. per ton. 

Spelter— The market remains sluggish, 
and prices went off to 4.25(0)4.30, St. 
Louis, but at the close there was a little 
improvement, business having been done 
at 4.27y2@4.32y2C. St. Louis. 

The European market, also, has de- 
clined somewhat, good ordinaries being 
quoted at £18 and specials at £18 iss. per 

Zinc Sheets — Base price is 7c., f.o.b. 
La Salle-Peru. 111., less 8 per cent. 

Other Metals 

Aniimony — No sales have been reported, 
and the market is without interest. Prices 
remain unchanged at 85/i@8j^c. for Cook- 
son's, 8%^-S'Ac. for Hallett's and 8@8>4c. 
for ordinary brands. 

Aluminutn — Ingots, American No. i, in 
large quantities, 33c. per lb. Rods and 
wire, 38c. base ; sheets. 40c. base. Foreign 
metal is offered at rather lower prices. 

Cadmium — In lOO-lb. lots, $1.25 per lb., 
at Cleveland, Ohio. 

July II, igo8. 


Nickel — According to size of lot and 
terms of sale, 45^500., New York. 

Quicksilver — New York price is $44 per 
flask for large lots; $45 for jobbing 
orders. San Francisco, large lots nominal 
at $4350, domestic, and $42, export; small 
orders, $45(0)46. London is i8 per flask, 
with iy 17s. 6d. quoted by second hands. 

I'hitinum — Prices remain unchanged at 
$23,50 per oz. for hard platinum. $21 for 
ordinary and $16 for scrap. 

Imperil and ExporU ol Metalt 

I'.xports and imports of metals in the 
Initcd States for the five months ended 
May 31 ,ire reported as follows, in the 
iri-;isuris usual in the trade: 

ExportH. ImportH. Balance. 

CopiKT. I""K t'ins 189,793 :)0.481 E.\p. 109,3:)2 

IJoppnr, 19U7.... 66,179 .'.3,79.1 Exp. 11.386 

Tin. limK tons.... 130 U.69a Imp. 14,66.') 

Tin, l».i7 Ul 17.726 Imp. 17.684 

Load, short tons. 33,313 47,429 Imp. 14,116 

Luad, 1907 10,340 32,248 Im|i. 21.903 

Hpoltur, ah. ti>na. 1.655 33K Exp. 1,217 

Spoiler, 1907.... 304 479 Imp. 175 

Nickel, lb 6.388.855 6,089.531 Imp. 700.670 

NIekel. 19117.... 4.784,103 8.206.284 Imp, 3,481.121 

Antimony, lb 3,2«1.496 Imp. 3.201,496 

Antlmiiny. 1907 4