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The unfavorable, conditions under which the second 
Brazilian exhibition was organised; the Empire being 
at the time involved in a war into which it was drawn 
by acts of hostility as unjustifiable as unexpected, 
and all its attention being absorbed by the reparation 
due to its offended national honor ; did not (we 
acknowledge with regret) allow Brazil to figure with 
advantage at the Paris International Exhibition , or to 
give even a proximate idea of her natural riches, of 
her productive forces or of her immense resources. 

In order that Brazil may become one of the greatest 
nations of the world, nothing is wanting but popu- 
lation , and to attract this, it is only necessary to 
render herself known. 

With this object in view we have considered it 
expedient to join to the catalogue some remarks upon 
this Empire, but these remarks are not, and could not 
be at this moment, more than a brief and imperfect 



Geographieal position and extent of Brazil. 

The Empire of Brazil is situated in the eastern part 
of the South American Continent. 

It comprehends 1/15 of the terrestrial surface of the 
glohe, 1/5 of that of the New World, and more than 
3/7 of South America. 

Its coasts extend for 1,200 leagues. 


Its area according to the calculation of Baron Hum- 
boldt is estimated at 2,311,974 square miles of 60 to 
the degree. 

This area is thus divided. 





Cear& . . , 

Bio Grande do Norte 








— 6 — 






Bahia . . 


Rio de Janeiro e ^lunic. da Capital do Imperio. 

S. Paulo 


Santa Catharina 

S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul 























Physical aspect. 

Notwithstanding tlie vast plains which stretch from 
the North to the South of the Empire, the greater 
part of the land is mountainous but at the same time 
traversed by immense valleys. The centre is formed 
4f elevated platearHx , aad numerous mtmntain ranges 
occupy the districts of the E. and "W. 

Mountain ranges. 

The most extensive and most elevated mountain 
ranges of Brazil are three in number, namely ; 

The central chain called Serra do Espinhago or Sefra 
da Mantiqueira; the eastern or coast range CAlled the 
Serra do Mar; and the western chain called the Serra 
dos Vertentes or Water separating mountain. 

— 7 — 

The other ranges are generally no more than subor- 
dinate branches of the above, and with them constitute 
the so called Brazilian system; as the Parima system 
which touches the northern frontier in yarious points, 
but slightly penetrates the Provinces of Par& and Amah 

Of the three mountain-ranges, that of most geo- 
graphical and geological importance is the central 

Its highest points exist in the province of Minas- 
Geraes where it exhibits its greatest development; and 
without passing beyond the 10th and 28tii parallels of 
S. latitude, from the banks of the river S. Francisco to 
those of the Uruguay , it traverses the provinces of 
Bahia, S. Paulo, and Parani, merely touching that of 
S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul on its northern extrem- 
ities, and that of Rio de Janeiro at the point where the 
boundary lines of the provinces of S. Paulo and Minas- 
Geraes intersect each other. This chain bears various 
local names in the different provinces through which it 

It comprises the highest points in Brazil ; they are 
found in the district named Serra d'ltatiaia where the 
average elevation above the level of the sea is 3,140 

The second or eastern chain commences on the 
banks of the River S. Francisco , in 10<» S. latitude and 
'terminates on the banks of the Urugay in latitude 

28» S. 

The third, the most extensive but of the least ele- 
vation, runs from Gear A to the boundaries of the 
province of Mato-Grosso. This long range separates 
the two immense basins of the Amazon and River Plate 
and at the same time supplies the rivers Toeantins, 
Parnahyba and S. Francisco. 

— 8 — 


The principal headlands of Brazil are five in num- 
ber;— Capes Norte, S. Agostinho, S. Thom6, Cabo-Frio 
and Santa Martha. 


There are along the coast of Brasil twenty-three 
islands of which the most remarkable are — the island 
of Maraj6 , at the mouth of the Amazonas, and which 
is 27 leagues broad by 37 long ; the island of Ita- 
parica in the province of Bahia ; that called Ilha 
Grande in the province of Rio de Janeiro; those of 
Santos and S. Sebastiao in the province of S. Paulo; 
that of Santa Catharina in the province of the same 
name; those of Itamaracft and Fernando de Noronha 
in the province of Pemambuco and that of Trindade 
in the latitude of the city of Victoria in the province 
of Espirito-Santo. 


With the exception of the provinces of Amazonas, 
Minas-Geraes , Goyaz and Mato-Grosso all the others 
are considered maritime, as they possess sea-ports ; in 
compensation for this advantage the four central pro- 
vinces have navigable rivers running through their 

There are no less than 42 sea-ports on the coast 

of Brasil ; that of the Capital occupying the first place 

on account of its great capacity and safety , having a 

circumference of more than 30 leagues. After this 

follow the ports of Bahia, Paranagui, Santa Catharina, 

Santos, Pari, MaranhSo, Pemambuco, Victoria, Ilh6os 

and others. 


The largest are those called, dos Patos, Merim, Ma- 
rici, Araruama and Feia, but there are other lakes of 

— 9 — 

greater or lesser importance in the valley of the Ama- 
zonas and in other localities. The first-named is 45 
leagues in length from N. to S. and 10 in width. The 
second is about 26 leagues in length. 



Brazil possesses three great basins besides many 
others of secondary importance. The most remark- 
able is that of the Amazonas, afterwards that of the 
Paraguay (one of the tributaries of the Eiver Plate), 
and finally that of the S. Francisco. 

The majestic Amazonas, which flows through the 
territory of the Empire for a distance of more than 
500 leagues , receives 18 aflBluents of the first order, 
namely; the Xingii, Tapajoz, Madeira, Purus, Coary, 
TeflF6, Myuru&, Hyutuby and Hyavary, from the S. ; 
and the Sary, Peni, Trombetas, Nhamundi, Uatuman, 
Urubi, Negro, Hyupur& and Ic^ from the N. 

Nearly all the above are rivers of the first order and 
some of them have a course of over 500 leagues. 

They afford uninterrupted navigation for steamers 
for a distance of 7 351 leagues above the first falls 
which exist on the boundaries of the provinces of Parii 
and Amazonas. 

The following table demonstrates the distance navi- 
gable by steamer in the basin of the Brazilian Ama- 

Amazonas 580 

Basins of the principal afluents 5,771 

Lesser tributaries, lakes and canals . . . . . 1,000 

Total (leagues) 7,351 

By means of the Amazon and its affluents it is pos- 
sible to reach the Republics of Bolivia, Peni, Equador, 
Nova-Granada and Venezuela. — ^For 14 years steamers 
have been running up and down this river with the 

— 10 - 

greatest regularity performiug in 10 days a distamee 
of 580 leagues between Pari and Tabatinga. (frontier 
of Peni). 

The part of the basin of the Paraguay belonging 
to Brazil has an extent of more than 300 leagues. The 
Parang and Uruguay likewise important rivers and 
which for a considerable portion of their course belong 
to the Empire may be considered as tributary basins. 

These three great rivers and their aflB.uents water 
the provinces of Mato-Grosso, Goyaz, Minas-Geraes, 
S. Paulo, Parana and S. Pedro do Rio Grande do SuL 
Rising in the province of Mato-Grosso, the Paraguay, 
flows for the greater part of its course through Brazi- 
lian territory; it then runs through the Republic of 
Paraguay and the Argentine Confederation, and having 
joined the Parana and Uruguay, assumes the name of 
Rio de la Plata (River Plate) and flows into the sea 
between the latter-named State and the Republic of 
Uruguay. (Banda Oriental), 

It is navigable for steamers from its mouth to Villa 
Maria, situated about 40 leagues from Cuyabi, the ca- 
pital of the province of Mato-Grosso, and from that 
point by its aflluents the S. Lourenco and Cuyaba. 
This basin is bounded on the N. and E, in the terri- 
tory of the Empire by the mountain ranges called Serra 
das Vertentes and Serra do Espinhago 

The River S. Francisco traverses the central part of 
Brazil; it waters the provinces of Minas-Geraes, Bahia, 
Pernambuco, Alagoas and Sergipe, 

Among its affluents, the Rio das Velhas, the Para- 
catii, the Rio Verde and the Rio Grande are all wor- 
thy of notice. 

It is this river which forms the large and majestic 
cataract of Paulo Affouso, and above these falls it af- 
fords still an uninterrupted navigation of some 230 
leagues. — ^Its extent below the falls is about, 49 lea- 

— 11 — 

gues in which not the slightest obstacle occurs to the 
navigation down to its mouth, below the city of Pe- 
nedo in the province of AlagSas, and vessels drawing 
15 palms (10 feet) can enter it here. 

Besides the large rivers abovementioned, others of 
more or less importance fall into the sea, as, the Gu- 
rupy, Tury-assii, Mearim, Itapicurii, Parnahyba, Jagua- 
ribe, Parahyba do Norte, Paraguassii, Rio de Contas, 
Belmonte, Mucury, Doce, Parahyba do Sul and Rio 
Grande do Sul, 

Some of these afford as much as 100 leagues of 
steam navigation. * 

The government convinced of the great advantages 
which must result from the exploration ot* the most 
important rivers of Brasil ; from the knowledge of their 
navigable extent, of the difficulties which may impede 
their navigation and of the means of removing the 
obstacles ; continues to give this subject its most se- 
rious attention. 

To the explorations previously made may be added 
the following of recent date ; by Dr. Jose Vieira Couto 
Magalhaes and the Engineer Ernest Valine, those of 
the rivers Tocantins and Araguay, which should serve 
to establish a regular river navigation between the 
provinces of Goyaz and Pari : the result of their re- 
searches appears in a report and plan which were gi- 
ven in to the Government. 

By the engineer Dr. Joao Martins da Silva Coutinho, 
those of the rivers Puriis and Ituxi, tributaries of the 
Amazon; the result of these also appears in a minute 
and detailed report. 

By the same engineer, those of the rivers Hyapuri 
and Madeira. 

By the engineer Chandler, that, of the river Agury 
an affluent of the Punis. 

- 12 - 

By the engineer Gustav Doelt, that of the river 

By the engineer Newton Burlamaque, that of the 
Parnahyba in the province of Piauhy. 

By the engineer Fernando Halfeld, that of the S. Fran- 
cisco from the falls of Pirapora to the Sea. 

And by the engineer Dr. E. Liais, assisted by Dr. 
Ladislao Netto and Bacharel Eduardo Moraes, that of 
the same river (S. Francisco) from the falls up to its 

These latter explorers have also examined the Rio 
das Velhas, a tributary of the S. Francisco, in the 
province of Minas; — the result of their labors has been 
published in Paris. 

The engineers Jos6 and Francisco Keller have ex- 
plored the Parahyba, from the Pirahy in the province 
of Rio de Janeiro to the town of Cachoeira in the pro- 
vince of S. Paulo ; also the Pomba, one of the tri- 
butaries of the Parahyba, in the province of Minas, 

The river Ivahy in the province of Parana has been 
explored by the engineers Gustav Rumbelsperger, Jos6 
and Francisco Keller. 

The two last named have also explored a part of 
the Paran&, from the bar of the Ivahy to the Parana- 
panema, and the rivers Ivinheima, Paranapanema and 
Tibagy ; also a part of the Iguassii, an afBluent of the 
Parana, from the bar of the Rio Negro to the rapids 
called the Passo da Reserva. 

The engineer Euzebio Stevaux has made explora- 
tions with a view to the canalisation of the rivers 
Pomonga and Japaratuba in the province of Sergipe. 

The engineer VignoUes, for the canalisation of the 
rivers Poxim and Santa Maria in the same province, 
a work already in execution ; and the engineer Carlos 
Demoly for a canal between the Lake dos Patos and 

— 13 — 

the river Mampituba as far as the town of Lag una in 
the provinces of S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul and 
Santa Catharina. 

Besides all this, Commander Jos6 da Costa Azevedo 
has drawn up a chart of the Amazonas which is now 
being lithographed by order of the government. 

Professor Agassiz has explored the region of the 
Amazonas, and has given several descriptive lectures on 
this subject ; these lectures were published in the jour- 
nals of the capital. 

The Upper Uruguay and upper. Parang have been 
explored by sundry engineers and officers "of the Impe- 
rial Navy. 

All these explorations are of great importance not 
only to Brasil but to the shipping and commerce of the 
whole world. 

It will be amply sufficient to call attention to the 
following observations : 

The Amazonas, Tapajoz, Paraguay, Parang and Rio 
de la Plata form of a part of South America a sort of 
fluvio-marine island:— to complete this it would only 
be necessary to connect the sources of the Tapajoz 
with those of the Paraguay, from which they are merely 
separated by a strip of land. — ^If this were eflFected, al- 
most the entire territory of Brasil, Paraguay, part of 
the Argentine Confederation and the Banda Oriental 
would be converted into an immense island washed by 
the Atlantic Ocean and by the aforesaid rivers. 

The S. Francisco might perhaps be joined to the Jar 
guaribe by a canal, thus forming a second fluvio-ma- 
rine island; and once placed in connection with the 
Ocean, as is intended, by the prolongation of the 
Railway of D. Pedro II, Bahia and Pemambuco, the 
ports of Rio de Janeiro, Bahia and Recife will be united 
by an uninterrupted line of interior communication 
with Ceara. 

— 14 ^ 

This line of communication traversing the provinces 
of Rio de Janeiro, Minas Geraes, Bahia, Pemambuco 
and Ceari will thus aflPbrd numerous outlets to their 

With a view to promote the aggrandizement of the 
Empire, by constantly drawing closer international in- 
tercourse and by encouraging the navigation and com- 
merce of the river Amazonas and its aflfl-uents, of the 
river Tocantins and of the S. Francisco ; the govern- 
ment has decreed that from the 7th of next September, 
the river Amazonas shall be open to the merchant ves- 
sels of all nations as far as the frontiers of Brasil ; the 
river Tocantins as far as Gamete ; the Tapajoz as far 
as Santarem ; the Madeira as far as Borba; the Rio- 
Negro as far as Mangos; and the S. Francisco as far 
as the town of Penedo.— The navigation of the tribu- 
taries of the Amazonas • in places where only one bank 
belongs to Brasil will depend on treaties to be made 
with the other riverine States as to the respective li- 
mits and police and fiscal regulations. 

The present dispositions in no wise alter or interfere 
with existing treaties of navigation and commerce with 
the Republics of Peni and Venezuela in accordance 
with the regulations already published, 


The Empire of Brazil enjoys two distinct climates; 
in the torrid zone it is hot and moist during the wet 
season; temperate and dry beyond those limits. 

In the interior of the provinces of Ceara, Pemam- 
buco, Parahyba and Rio Grande do Norte, it is dry 
from the absence of rain in some years , so as to pre- 
sent a psychrometrical difference of 10° Centigrade. 

Meantime in many localities in the torrid zone the 
climate is very mild and modified by the forests, by 
the elevation of the land, and by the prevailing winds. 

— 15 — 

In the localities where the greatest heat prevails, the 
thermometer, as a general rule, does not rise above 
36° centigrade, and in those where the greatest cold is 
felt it is an exception to the general rule when it 
goes below 3% 2; such a case occurs, for instance, in 
the mountain range of Itatiaia, where in June 1858 
axid 1859 the thermometer marked 6° centigrade below 
zero, the daily maximum not exceeding 13 degrees. 
There snow often falls and the small lakes are covered 
with a coat of ice of two inches thick. 

In the plains of the province of S. Pedro de Kio 
Grande do Sul, it sometimes happens that the ther- 
mometer falls to 0° centigrade, and as an exception to 
2, 5 below 0°. 

The climate of Brazil is generally salubrious. 


In the valley of the Amazonas the mean temperature 
is 27'^; meantime the effects of the heat are not much 
felt on account of the East winds which sweep across 
the whole country. 

The difference between day and night sometimes 
attains to 12°; but the mean does not exceed Q^, and 
from summer to winter there is only a variation of 3«. 

The nights are always cool. 

These circumstances become gradually and slightly 
modified towards the provinces of Ceari and Rio Grande 
do Norte, where the mean annual temperature is 26°, 
7; the maximum of the averages during 24 hours 
being 30°, 4, and the minimum 23°, I. 

Temperatures of 36° and 21° are of frequent occur- 
rence; the former only lasts during a few hours of 
the day in summer, and the heat is not much felt on 
account of the extreme dryness of the air. During the 
lainy season and at the same hours , the thermometer 
marks 26^ but the heat is then oppressive. 

— 16 — 

The mean summer temperature exceeds that of 
winter by 3"*, as in the province of Amazonas, and 
between day and night there is only a difference of 7*. 

A series of observations made at the Rio de Janeiro 
Observatory , with the aid of Dollond's meteorograph 
during five years , gives the average of the daily- 
maxima as 27*, 13 ; the average of the daily minima 
as 19% 63 and the mean of the averages as 23% 42. 

The cases have been very rare in which the thermo- 
meter has risen above 32** or fallen bellow le**. 

The minimum almost always occurs in July and the 
maximum in February. 

From Rio de Janeiro to the province of Amazonas 
under the torrid zone the mean temperature is 26*», 0. 

From Rio de Janeiro to the extreme south of the 

Empire the heat sensibly decreases , rendering the 

climate very cool. This occurs in the provinces of 

S. Paulo, ParanA, Santa Catharina and S. Pedro do Rio 

Grande do Sul, as also in a part of the province of 

Minas Geraes. 


The rains in Brazil usually commence in November 
and continue until June; but these periods vary accor- 
ding to the localities. 

It rains • considerably from the Amazonas to the Par- 
nahyba , but little from that point to the S. Francisco, 
and more from the S. Francisco to the South. 

The immense zone of the S. Francisco which com- 
prises those districts which the inhabitants designate 
by the name of Sertao^ is subject to two seasons 
which differ in a notable manner: the rainy season and 
the dry season ; the former lasts from January to May, 
and the latter from May to December; in June all 
vegetation ceases, the seeds are all then ripe or nearly 
so ; in July the leaves begin to turn yellow and fall 
off; in August an extent of many thousands of lea- 

— 17 — 

gaes presents the aspect of a European winter, minus 
the snow; the trees are completely stripped of their 
leaves, except the rare joazeiros (Zisyphus), the 
oiticicas (Moquilea), and a few evergreens; the capim 
(Brazilian grass) which grows in prodigious abundance 
in this desert and in the midst of the woods, dries up 
and serves as a natural hay for the sustenance of 
numerous herds of cattle. This period is favorable for 
the preparation of the Coffee which grows on the 
mountains; picked and laid on the ground which gives 
forth no moisture, but which on the contrary absorbs 
it, surrounded by an atmosphere possessing the same 
properties, it dries rapidly without fermentation. 

From December to January the rains commence to 
fall, and the rivers, up to that time nearly dry and 
only preserving in one place or another a few pools 
which serve as a refuge for the fishes, acquire enor- 
mous volumes of water ; the vegetation becomes once 
more verdant within the space of a few days, and this 
vast country is covered as by enchantment with all 
varieties of flowers. 

At Rio de Janeiro the mean annual rain-fall is 
1,170" 9; — this takes places during 95 days, or rather 
more than a quarter of a year. 

Thunderstorms are not of frequent occurrence. At Rio 
de Janeiro the average number of days on which this 
phenomenon is observed, is 26 per annum. 


Along the whole coast of Brazil the prevailing winds 
are those from the S. E. and N. E., the former from 
September to March, in summer, and the latter from 
April to August, in winter; the Ocean currents vary 
in the same manner. — ^In the vicinity of the coast the 
land-breeze blows from 4 dctok to 9 in the morning, 
and the sea-breeze in the opposite direction from 10 (3clok 

£. I. 2 

- 18- 

in the morning to 6 in the evening; the latter wind extends 
more or less towards the interior according to the phy- 
gical nature of the locality, reaching to a considerable 
distance over the plains, as in the north of the Empire 
and suffering immediate modification in the mountainous 

In the basin of the Amazonas, completely deprived 
of mountains, the East winds penetrate to more thati 
500 leagues in the interior of the country, principally 
from July to November. — ^During this period sailing- 
vessels easily ascend this giant river in 25 to 30 days, 
from Par& to Mangos, a distance of 300 leagues. 

In the interior of the continent, the South winds 
prevail generally during the winter, and the North 
winds during the summer. 


In the mineral Kingdom, Brazil abounds in 

Precious Stones. 

Diamonds are found in the province of Minas, the 
formation extending on the one side towards Bahiaand 
on the other towards Goyaz, as far as Matto-Grosso. 
They have also been found in the province of Parani 
where some itacolumite rocks exist. 

The diamond mines belong at present exclusively to 
private parties, in accordance with the terms and con- 
ditions of the new law for the special administration of 
the diamond mines and their workings. 

Emeralds, sapphires, rubies, topazes, aquamarines, 
euclases and the ordinary zirconites are all met with 
in the province of Minas-Oeraes. 

Garnets, though not of the first quality, are found 

■^19 — 

fhroughout the whole Empire and beautiful amethysts 
are by no means rare. 

Qnartz and its varieties. 

Minerals of this class are found in all parts of the 

Perfectly pure rock crystals are already exported; 
these are extracted in greater or lesser quantity from 
various parts of the provinces of Goyaz, Minas-Geraes 
and S. Paulo. 

Chalcedonies and more especially agates, are plen- 
tiful in the province of S. Pedro do Bio Grande do Sul, 
from whence large quantities have of late years been 



There is scarcely any point in the Empire where this 
metal does not appear. — At liie same time the richest 
mines exist in the province of Minas-Geraes where 
the results of the operations are lucrative ; as also has 
occurred during late years, in the district of Tury- 
assii, in the province of Maranhao. — ^The most impor- 
tant mines are worked by companies, chiefly English. 
In Mato-Grosso the operations are limited to « was- 
hing ». 

Gold-mining is also carried on, on a small scale, in 
the provinces of S. Paulo and Paran&, as also in the 
veins which lie in the province of Bio Grande do Sul. 
— ^In the province of Cearii gold is foimd on the sides 
of the Serra de Ibiapaba, in the district of Ipu, in the 
mines of Mangabeira near Granja and in the mountains 
nigh to Baturit6. 

In the province of Bio Grande do Norte, and at Pian* 

- 90 - 

c6na in the province of Parahyba, gold appears under 
the quartzose form. 

The gold veins which are met with in the alluvial 
soils of the province of Minas-Geraes are usually found 
to be mixed with platina and iridium. 

In the veins of some Mines of the same province the 
gold is found mixed with various minerals, as, for ins- 
tance, tellurium. 

Bismuth is found at S. Vicente, and arsenious py- 
rites in the neighborhood of Marianna. 

In some districts palladium always accompanies the 
gold and is found mixed with it. 

From the assays made at the Rio de Janeiro Mint the 
gold mixed with palladium has been found to give the 
following results : 


Gold 88,9 901/4 92,3 

Palladium 11,1 9 3/4 7.7 


This metal in almost every part accompanies the ga- 
lenic formations. 

There are signs of its existence in the province of 
Ceari ; in that of Bahia on the banks of the river 
S. Francisco; in that of S. Paulo in the districts of 
Sorocaba and Xiririca ; and in that of Minas, where 
some mines were formerly worked at Abaet6. 


Is found in abundance in the province of Mato-Grosso 
and in that of S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul. 

It also exists in the province of Minas Geraes, in that 
of Bahia; in that of Cear& near Villa Vicosa, and in 
the province of Maranhao. 

— 21 — 

Up to the present time it has been found native, in 
an oxidised state, and as malachite. 

In the province of Minas-Geraes it is found in con- 
junction with other minerals, as for instance, Sulphur. 

It does not as yet occupy a place among the com- 
mercial products of the Empire. 


Has been discovered among the sands of the river 
Paraopeba, in the province of Minas and also in some 
of the granite rock of the province of Rio de Janeiro. 

Some traces of this metal have appeared in the pro- 
vinces of Cear& and Santa Catharina but as yet there 
are no reliable proofs of its existence there. 


Is frequently met with in the galenic state, the com- 
position of which is 86 1/2 Vo of lead, 13 1/2 Vo of sul- 
phur, and from 1 to 7 parts of silver in 10,000 of ore, 
and is plentiful at the sources of the river Iguape, in 
the district of Iporanga, and also at Sorocaba in the 
province of S. Paulo, appearing under the form of veins 
in the quartzose rocks. — It is also found under a si- 
milar form in the provinces of Minas-Geraes^ Bahia, 
Parahyba do Norte, Santa Catharina and Rio de Ja- 
neiro; there are also more recent formations at Bahia 
and in the Serra do Araripe in the province of Ceara. 

It is likewise found in seams or beds in the mountain- 
chain of Ibiapaba. 

Chromate of lead is pretty abundant at Cogonhas do 
Campo in the province of Minas ; — ^it is found for a 
distance of some leagues but is not yet availed of; it 
is composed of 31 7© of oxide of lead and 69 °/o of 
chromic acid. 

Sulphide of zinc is also found in Cear& where some 
vestiges of calamine are likewise met with. 

- 23 — 


Its existence in Brazil is not as yet well defined ; 
but at Rio de Janeiro there are to be seen specimens 
of the sulphuret brought from the provinces of Minas 
and Paran&. 


Accompanies the pyrites in some gold-mines, and 
exists in the acid state combined with iron, forming 
scorodite, in the province of Minas-Geraes and in the 
parish of Antonio Pereira. 


There is no fear of error when we assert that there 
is scarcely a point in Brasil where this metal does not 
exist under one or other of its varied forms. — Some- 
times, as loadstone, as at the peak of the Serra de Ita- 
bira in the province of Minas-Geraes, where it consti- 
tutes a colossal mountain ; at others, in dikes of less 
importance, as at Ipanema, in the province of S. Paulo, 
where it has suffered oxidation and has partly become 
martite (Ethiops Martial) as also in Parani and Mato- 
Grosso. — ^Finally it at times appears as olrgistic and 
micaceous iron, of which mineral substances the moun- 
tains of the province of Minas-Geraes are composed; 
it then suflFers by the action of atmospheric agents a 
decomposition at the surface and forms beds of Limo- 
nite which stretch for many leagues. -In other locali- 
ties, as in the province of S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul, 
it appears mixed in a greater or lesser proportion with 
argil. {Clay iron-stone.) 

The richest iron mines, which do not constitute an 
independent formation, are more or less intense seams 
like those of Ipanema and of the provinces of Cear&, 
Rio Grande do Norte and Parahyba. 

— 23 — 

Iron mines exist in Brasil which possess the incon- 
testjtble superiority of a complete absence of pyrites, 
an advantage this, which not even the celebrated mines 
of Danemora in Sweden, enjoy. — The magnetite (load- 
atone) contains 72 1/2 of iron, the hematite (sesqui- 
oxide), martite (black oxide of iron) and the greater 
part of the micaceous iron 70 V-* ;— the other classes 
of ore only contain about 20 7o of iron. 

Iron constitutes one of the most considerable ele- 
ments of the wealth of Brazil, not only because of its 
abundance and quality, but also from the facilities of 
working the mines on account of the vicinity of im- 
mense forests, which are reproduced in the space of 
six to ten years, and thus afford a constant and plen- 
tiful supply of excellent charcoal ; besides the exis- 
tence of several water-falls which can be availed of 
for motive power. 

These advantages will hereafter be more appreciated 
in proportion as new roads are constructed and the 
means of transport improved. 

Already a great deal of iron, produced and wrought 
in Minas-Geraes, is consumed there. 

In the province of S. Paulo, it is to be expected that 
the Grovernment will, as soon circumstances permit, 
direct their attention to the development of the impor- 
tant mine at Ipanema, which is now again working 
for account of the State, 

These iron-works can employ important resources, 
such as: — mineral of excelleut quality, — abundance of 
calcareous substances for casting purposes, — ^refractive 
material for the construction of furnaces, —sufficient 
wateivpower for the principal machinery— and forests 
at hand furnishing the necessary combustible. 

At the distance of a league from there flows the 
river Sorocaba, which while it may serve as motor of 
the most powerful laminating cylinders and other ma- 


chinery, can also assist the preparation of wrought- 
iron, steel, and of agricultural or other implements. 

A school might be with advantage established at 
these works, where foremen and laborers might acquire 
the necessary experience and ability to enable them to 
serve afterwards in private establishment?. 


There* are in Brazil sundry varieties of Granite; — 
dark-yellow at Cear& and very white at Santa Catha- 
rina ; it forms an excellent stone for building purposes. 

The different kinds of gneiss are however more ge- 
nerally employed, and of these some of an itacolumite 
character split readily in one direction and serve excel- 
lently for pavements or for the building of walls. 

Very compact quartz is also found , which gives 
capital flagstones and is used for the same purposes as 
the former. 

Besides the above-mentioned, there exists in various 
parts, pink porphyry, and also black, with crystals of 
feldspar disseminated through it; — abundance of light 
and dark green diorite well suited to paving purposes. 


Saccharoidal limestone is found in many parts of the 
country and is generally eruptive in the gneiss forma- 
tion . 

There are several beautiful and compact varieties; 
black, in the province of S. Paulo ; white, in that of 
Bahia, pink, in Minas and other places, all of which may 
figure among the best marbles. 

The lime used for building purposes on the coast is 
almost exclusively made from the sambaqnis, or enor- 
mous mounds of shells piled up long ago by the abo- 
rigines, or else from the numbers of shell-flsh which 

— 25 — 

form in the various bays beds of coral like those which 
follow the line of coast from the Abrolhos northward. 

In Maranhao and Parahyba do Norte there are cre- 
taceous formations. 

Gypsum is found in Minas-Geraes, Rio Grande do 
Norte, Ceard, Maranh&o and Amazonas. 


Is found in every part, produced by the decomposi- 
tion of the rocks, taking their place and forming moun- 
tains; another kind is produced by the alluvia. 

These clays are extensively used for brickmaking; the 

white varieties are plentiful in some parts and might 
be employed in the manufacture of earthenware. 

Kaoline, in a pure state adapted to the making of 
fine porcelain, is much more rarely met with. 

There are also many refractive varieties, as yet but 
little used, but of which the excellence is proved by the 
crucibles sent from Cear4 to the National Exibition. 


The existence of this combustible in Brazil is now 
well defined; but the geological formation, to which 
that which has been discovered belong&J, is not yet 
positively determined. 

Some there is decidedly Jurassic ; this appears in the 
province of S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul, in the 
mines of the Arroio dos Rates, and not far from Ja- 
guarao; in the province of Santa Catharina, at the 
point called Tubarao and at Boa- Vista. Coal also appears 
at S. Paulo and again at Cear&, where there are vague 
indications of a permian formation , which seems to 
extend towards the N. W. and leads to the supposition 
that there exist carboniferous beds in the interior of 
Piauhy, Maranhao and the valley of the Amazonas. 

— 26 - 

Brown Coal or Lignite. 

Is found in S. Paulo , and peat more or less genuine 
is met with throughout almost the entire Empire. 

Bituminous schists are also frequently found, some of 
them of a turfy origin. 

Near to the mouth of the river Camamii, some yellow- 
schists have been discovered which afford by means of 
distillation a solid matter analogous to Naphthaline, 
and a very volatile carburet of hydrogen which serves 
for illuminating purposes. 

Similar schists exist at Maranhao. 

Graphite. (Black Lead.) 

Is at present known as most plentiful in the province 
of Ceard where it forms undulations in the gneiss, 
and impregnates the eruptive saccharoid limestone with 
small seams, which also appear in the province of Rio 
Grande do SuL 


Up to the present time, sulphur in a native state has 

only been found in the province of Rio Grande do 



Among the salts , that most utilised is Nitre, formed 
in the calcareous caves of the provinces of Minas Ge- 
raes , Cear& , Matto-Grosso and in other places. 

Alum has been seen in the provinces of Parani, Mi- 
nas Geraes and Cear& , as also Sulphate of Magnesia 
and of Soda in the form of efflorescences in the calca- 
reous strata of the Serra de Araripe. (Cear&.) 

Rock-salt exists in Mato-Grosso, in some parts of the 
interior of Par& and in the province of Minas. 

Argil impregnated with common salt is frequently 
met with. 

— 27 — 

On the Rio Negro, salt is extracted from the stoma- 
pods which come upon the rocks below the fresh-water 
and in the strongest part of the current. 

The most curious efflorescence is undoubtedly that of 
chlorid of soda in the gneiss of the Serra da Urubiire- 
tftma , as far as tiie Serra da Meni6ca in the province 
of Ceari. 

Mineral waters. 

There are in Brazil many mineral springs of which 
a lengthy account will be found in the annexed 



The vegetation of Brazil is one of the most wonderful 
in the world. In the plains, on the highest mountains, 
on the coast itself and in the midst of the sands, 
between steep and smooth precipices , in fact every 
where the most vigorous vegetation is continually 

The Brazilian Flora is perhaps the most luxuriant 
in the world by reason of the abundance and variety 
of its species , of which more than 12 thousand are 
already known. 

In the forests of Brazil are found some of the best 
kinds of timber for naval or civil constructions ; and 
for cabinet-woric the richest and most beautiful known 
in this art. 

^mong the first may be mentioned perdba, tapinhoa^ 
cabUma or black jaca/randd (rose-wood) , corcunda » 
pdo-Brazil (Brazil-wood), sdbro (mountain- ash), bacurl^ 
sucupira^ aroeira do sertdo, ipi, pequid^ massaran- 
duba, pdo-ferro (iron-wood) cedar, laurel or bay-tree, 
itaobdy sapucaia, bara'ima and many others. 

The greater part of the woods for building purposes 
belongs to the leguminous family, many to the laurine, 

-28 — 

sapotacean, apocyne, lecythidean, bignoniaceous, cedre- 
laceous, anacardeaceous, antidesmian and proteaceous. 

The oleo (castor-tree), mmrapiruma^ saboa-rana, 
pdo^cruz, vinhatico, pdo^setim ('satin-wood), jacarandd 
(rose-wood), gonQalo^alves ^ sebastido-d'arruday pdo- 
marfim (ivory wood), midra-'pirunga and others are 
excellent for cabinet-work. 

For dyeing purposes the best woods are pdo-brazU 
(Brazil-wood), tatauba, cumaU^ campeche (log-wood) » 
mangite'Vermelho (red mangrove) besides such plants 
as anil (indigo), uriu^u (annatto) and others. 

Besides the foregoing there also spring up sponta- 
neously in the forests, seringeiras from which caoutchouc 
is extracted , as also from the mangabeira, and other 
plants; the carnaMa celebrated for the resin incrusted 
on its foliage; the mystdricas which produce a veget- 
able tallow; the vanilla ^ cocoa and many other plants 
of vast and acknowledged utility are the items of an 
important trade. 

The are also found among the different provinces 
numerous plants of which the fruits, shells, seeds or 
stones are medicinal, as for instance sarsaparrilla, ipe- 
cacuanha, caf^-rdna, uraH^ gvurand, mururd, jalap, 
caroba, the various plants which for their febrifugal 
qualities are known under the name of quina (quinine) 
but which belong to the genus exostemma ; the pdo- 
pereira, abutua^ avenca^ cainca, tamaquari and many 
others; the most precious balsams and valuable oils; 
finally a large variety of resinous, oleose and lacteous 
plants as the jutahi, angico, andirdba, copabiba, copal 
and oiticica. 

In the forests as well as in the plains and on the 
coast there abound both trees and plants affording 
excellent fruits. 

— 29 — 


Brazil is no less rich in the animal kingdom. Her 
virgin forests, her plains and trees are full of numerous 
quadrupeds and birds fit for the food of man, as, the 
tapir, deer, paca (ag-outi), cattHe (peccary), tatoii (ar- 
madillo), coandii (porcupine), perdiz (partridge), co- 
dorna (quail), jod, jacu (Guan), maouco, and many 
species of pigeons. 

The sea, the line of coast and the rivers of the inte- 
rior are abundantly supplied with excellent fish, as the 
mero , bijupird , gardpa, badejo, tainha (mullet), car- 
valla (mackerel), and many others inhabiting sea-water; 
the suruby^ dourado, pirarucu^ robalo, tambaqui, tu- 
cunari , pacu and many others living in the fresh- 
•water : finally the Cetacea suited for the extraction of 
oil as the baUa (whale) and toninha (porpoise). 

The ordinary consumption of the population, both of 
fresh and salt or preserved fish supports considerable 
fisheries: and there can be no doubt that as soon as 
this branch of trade is better regulated, the supply of 
fish for the requirements of the population will become 
a very important business. 

There are also numbers of oysters and other moUusks 
which in some parts form almost the only sustenance 
of the inhabitants. 

Game and fish are by means of salting and preserving 
exported from one province to another. 

Notwithstanding the numerous attempts to improve 
the breeds of the domestic animals of Brazil these 
have not shown any melioration.— r Enterprising indivi- 
duals however still continue their eiforts , and some 
horses produced by the crossing of foreign stallions 
with native mares and which were sent to the National 
Exhibition were duly appreciated. 


The raising of sheep of improved breeds is likely to 
prosper extremely in the provinces of Parani and S. Pe- 
dro do Rio Grande do Sul, and already some 'w^ool 
bas been prepared for market and exported. 

The population of Brazil according to the recent cal- 
culations made by order of the Government, and for 
which besides other data the basis was taken of the 
official census organised in 1817 — 1818, is estimated at 
11,780,000, including 500,000 aborigines not civilised 
mid 1,400,000 slaves. 

The aborigines for the most part inhabit the vii^n 

The Government continues to encourage their civilissu 
tion by means of special regulations ; an item is an- 
nually set apart in the Budget for the foundation and 
maintenance of the villages existing in the various 
provinces where they receive religious instruction and 
where efforts are made to accustom them to labor and 
social habits. 

The slaves are treated with humanity and are gene- 
rally well housed and fed. In the greater part of the 
plantations, they are allowed to cultivate portions of 
land for their own account and to dispose of the pro- 
duce with all freedom. 

Their labor is now-a-days moderate and usually lasts 
only throughout the day time; the evenings and nights 
are passed in repose , in the practice of religion , or in 
sundry amusements. 

This institution was imposed on Brazil by the force of 
particular circumstances which date from the first years 
of her discovery. The questions, on the solution of 
which depends its total suppression , occupy the most 

-^ 31 - 

serious attention of the Government ; the feeling of 
this body on the matter has been lately manifested in 
the reply forwarded to the address of the French Aboli- 
tion Society 

In the following table we give the distribution of the 
population between the diflferent provinces forming the 
Empire of Brazil ; comprising in that of Rio de Janeiro, 
ihe Municipality of the Capital of the Empire, or which 
the population is estimated to be 600,000 souls. 






Rio Grande du Nord 







Rio de Janeiro et Manicip. neutre. 

& Paul 


Sainte Catherine 

Rio Grande da Sud 





































Politieal Constitntion offBrasil. 

Govemment and Dynasty of the Empire. 

Brazil was declared to be a free an independent Stiite 
on the 7th of September 1822. 

- 32 — 

The country is divided into 20 large provinces besides 
the Municipality of the city of S. Sebastiao do Rio de 
Janeiro, capital of the Empire, and which has a special 
administrative organisation. 

Th) Government is an hereditary, constitutional and 
representative monarchy. 

The political constitution (the third in the world as 
regards antiquity) dates from the 25th of March 1824. 

The reigning dynasty is that of His Majesty D. Pedro I, 
Emperor and Perpetual Defender of Brazil, founder of 
the Empire , and father of the present Emperor 
D. Pedro II. 

His Majesty D. Pedro H, Constitutional Emperor and 
Perpetual Defender of Brazil was born on the 2nd. De- 
cember 1825 and Succeeded his august father on the 
7th April 1831. 

Having been declared of age, he took possession of 
the sovereign power on the 23m July 1840. 

He was consecrated and crowned on the 18th Juiy 

He was married by proxy on the SOth May 1843 and 
received the matrimonial benedictions on the 4th of 
September in the same year. 

Her Majesty the Empress, D. Thereza. Christina. 
Maria, his august consort, daughter of Francisco I, king 
of the Two-Sicilies, was born on the 14th March 1822. 

From this marriage the issue is;— I. Her Imperial 
Highness the Princess D. Isabel, heiress presumptive 
to the crown, born on the 20th July 1846, and mar- 
ried on the 15th October 1864 to D. Louis Fhilippe, 
Marie Ferdinand Gaston d'Orleans, Comte d'Eu. — 11. Her 
Highness the Princess D. Leopoldina, born on the 13th 
July 1847, and married on the 15th December 1864 to 
D. Louis Auguste Marie Eudes de Cobourg Gotha, Due 

de Saxe Of this marriage the issue is; — 1. The prince 

D. Pedro born on the 10th March 1866. 

Established Religion. 

The established religion of the Empire of Brazil is 
the Roman Catholic ; but all other religions are tole- 
rated, with their domestic or i)rivate form of worship, 
in buildings destined for this purpose, but without the 
exterior form of temples. 

No person can, in Brazil, be persecuted for religious 
motives. All that is required is a regard for the public 
morals and respect for the religion of the country; in 
the same manner as the constitution respects all other 
religions and even punishes by its penal Code with 
fine and imprisonment all persecutions for religious 
motives or the insults directed against all forms of 
worship established in the Empire. 

Moreover, the powers of the State have more than 
once voted funds for the construction of houses of 
prayer and for the subsistence of ministers of different 
religions : the government even takes measures to pre- 
vent the children of Protestants from being obliged to 
receive the religious instruction given to those who 
profess the Roman Catholic religion in the various co- 

The marriages of Protestants are respected in all their 
legal effects. This matter is now regulated by the law 
which guarantees the civil state of the children, who 
are considered legitimate, whether the said marriages 
be realized in the Empire or out of it. 

There is in the Empire a Metropolitan Archbishop 
whose seat is at Bahia; there are also eleven Bishops 
whose dioceses are Rio de Janeiro, Pernambuco, Cear&, 
Maranhao, Para, Gbyaz, Cuyaba, Mariana, Diamantina, 
S. Paulo, and S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul; twelve 
vicars-general, and one thousand two hundred and 
eighty parishes. 

For the instruction of the clergy there are eleven 

E. I. 3 

- 34 - 

episcopal seminaries ; in the Capital, and in the pro- 
vinces of Bahia, Pernambnco, Cear&, Maranhao, Par&, 
Mato-Grosso, Goyaz, Minas-Geraes, S. Paulo and S. Pedro 
do Rio Grande do Sul. 

With the exception of the first-named which pos- 
sesses an ample revenue, all the others are subsidized 
by the State. 

The course of instruction consists of: latin, french, 
rhetoric and pulpit eloquence, rational and moral philo- 
sophy, sacred ecclesiastical and exegetical history, dog- 
matic theology, moral theology, the canonical institu- 
tions, the liturgy and gregorian song. 

A law has already been passed authorising the foun- 
dation of two theological faculties. 

The Political Po^vers and the IVational Representation. 

The Constitution recognises four political powers: — 
the legislative power, the moderating power, the exe- 
cutive power and the judicial power. 

The Emperor and the general assembly are the re- 
presentatives of the nation. 

All political power in the Empire of Brasil is dele- 
gated by the nation. 

The Legislative power. 

The legislative power is delegated to the General As- 
sembly with the sanction of the moderating power. 

The general assembly is composed of two Chambers 
— ^the chamber of Deputies and the chamber of Sena- 
tors, or the Senate. 

It is the province of the General Assembly to decree 
the laws, to interpret, suspend and revoke them. 

It is the General Assembly that fixes annually the 
public expenditure and the ordinary and extraordinary 

- 35- 

naval and military forces; imposes the taxes, resolves 
the doubts which may arise as to the succession to the 
crown, selects a new dynasty in the event of the one 
reigning" becoming extinct; authorises loans, and exer- 
cises, in short other important attributes which are a 
privilege of the representatives of national sovereignty. - 

The initiative of laws belongs, in general, to the 
members of either Chamber. 

It can however emanate from the executive power 
by means of propositions submitted to the chamber of 
Deputies by one or other of the Ministers. 

All propositions are submitted to the examination of 
a committee which subsequently converts them into a 
bill; this is then discussed and voted in the two Cham- 
bers which can either pass it verbatim, reform it or 
reject it. 

The sessions of the Chambers are public, excepting 
on such occasions as the welfare of the State demands 
that they should be secret. 

Every business is decided by the absolute majority 
of votes present. 

The members of the two Chambers are inviolable on 
the score of the opinions expressed by them in the 
exercise of their funetions. 

No senator or deputy can be arrested by any autho- 
rity as long as his mandate lasts; except it be « in fla- 
grante delicto » liable to capital punishment. 

The Emperor cannot employ any Senator or Deputy 
out of the Empire, and no one of these can go to fill 
an office which will impede his meeting his colleagues 
at the time of the convocation of the ordinary or ex- 
traordinary General Assembly. 

In any unforeseen case whereon the public security 
or welfare of the State depends, and which renders it 
indispensable that a Senator or Deputy should be char- 

— m — 

ged with some special mission, it pertains to the res- 
pective Chamber to authorise such a procedure. 

In all cases of an absolute refusal of one of the 
Chambers the proposal of the other is considered 

At the same time, in the case of amendments or ad- 
ditions, if the Chamber which initiated the proposal does 
not approve of them and continues to judge the project 
advantageous, it can demand a conference or meeting 
of the two chambers, and whatever is then decided by 
the majority of the General Assembly becomes law. 

The veto of the Emperor has a suspensive eflfect for 
the space of two legislatures following on that in which 
sanction was refused to any lav/. 

If during this period the vetoed project is again pre- 
sented twice in succession, it becomes law and produces 
all the same effects as if it had been sanctioned. 

If during the space of one month the Emperor shall 
not have given or refused his sanction, he shall be 
considered to have expressly refused it, 

The Chamber of Deputies. 

The Chamber of Deputies at present composed of 122 
members is elective and temporary. 

The elections are indirect and made by the provin- 
ces, divided into electoral districts of three deputies 
each as the maximum, or of two as a minimum. 

The initiative as to taxes, recruiting and the choice 
of a new dynasty in case of the extinction of the reign- 
ing one, constitute its particular attributes. 

The examination of the past administration and the 
reformation of its abuses should also have its origin in 
this Chamber ;— as should also the discussion of the 
propositions of the executive power and the impeach- 
ment of Ministers of State. 

The Chamber of deputies is elected every 4 years, 
which is the term of duration of a legislature, provided 
it be not previously dissolved; — for by the latter fact 
the legislature is considered as terminated and the new 
Chamber subsists for four sessions if another dissolu- 
tion does not supervene. 

The Senate. 

The Senate is at present composed of 58 members 
chosen for life ; it is organised by provincial elections, 
with special electors who form a triple list of names 
from which the Emperor selects one third of the totality. 

The number of Senators cannot exceed the half of 
that of the Chamber of Deputies. 

The princes of the Imperial House are Senators by 
right on their attaining the age of twenty-five years. 

It is the exclusive attribute of the Senate — ^to take 
cognisance of the offenses committed by the members 
of the Imperial Family, the Ministers of State and Se- 
nators; of the offenses committed by deputies during 
the period of the legislature, and of the responsibility 
of Ministers and Counsellors of State ; in all these cases 
the Senate becomes converted into a Court of Justice. 

It is also the duty of the Senate to convoke the Ge- 
neral Assembly , whenever the Emperor shall have 
neglected to do so within two months after the time 
fixed by the Constitution. 

The Moderating power. 

The Moderating power is delegated exclusively to the 
Emperor as being the Supreme Chief of the nation, and 
its principal representative, in order that he may inces- 
santly watch over the maintenance of the indepen- 
dence, and the equilibrium and harmony of the political 

The Emperor likewise exercises this power with re- 

— 33 - 

gard to the legislative power by choosing the Senators 
— convoking extraordinarily, proroguing or adjourning^ 
the general assembly — dissolving the Chamber of De- 
puties whenever the safety of the State requires it — 
and sanctioning the decrees and resolutions of the Ge- 
neral Assembly in order that they may have the force 
of laws. 

As regards the executive powers by appointing* and 
dismissing at will the Ministers of State. 

As regards the judicial power by suspending magis- 
trates, pardoning or commuting the penalties of those 
condemned and by granting amnesties. 

The person of the Emperor is sacred and inviolable 
and for this reason subject to no responsibility. 

The Executive power. 

The Emperor is the head of the Executive power, 
which he exercises through his ministers. 

The principal attributes of the Executive power are : 

To convoke the new ordinary General Assembly. 

To appoint Bishops , Magistrates and all Civil, Mili- 
tary and Political functionaries of every rank or na- 
ture created by the general laws. 

To declare war and make peace. 

To regulate the political intercourse with foreign 
nations and to make treaties of offensive and defensive 
alliance , of subsidy and of commerce, bringing them 
subsequently before the notice of the General Assembly 
whenever the interest and security of the State will so 

If the treaties concluded in time of peace involve a 
cession or exchange of any territory of the Empire, or 
of possessions to which it has a right, such treaties 
shall not be ratified without being sanctioned by the 
General Assembly. 


All titles, honors or distinctions in recompense for 
services rendered to the State are conferred by the 
executive power. 

It is also the province of the executive power to issue 
the decrees, instructions and regulations for the due 
execution of the laws, and finally to provide for all 
that concerns the home and foreign safety of the State 
according* to Constitution. 

There are seven Ministers, viz : the minister of the 
Empire and of Ecclesiastical affairs, the minister of 
justice, the minister of finance , the minister of foreign 
affairs , th9 minister of marine, the minister of war, 
and the minister of agriculture , commerce and public 
works. • 

Every minister has his secretariate, and various depart- 
ments which are subordinate to his office. 

The execution of all the acts of the executive power 
depend essentially on the counter -sign of the res{)ective 
Minister of State. 

The Ministers of State are responsible for their acts; 
a verbal or written order of the Emperor in no wise 
relieving them of this responsibility. 

The mode of defining and rendering effective this 
responsibility is set forth in a special ordinance. 

The Judicial power. 

The judicial power is independent and is composed 
of judges and juries The latter pronounce a verdict 
as to the fact and the former apply the law. 

The judges are irremovable, and cannot lose their 
situations except by a condemnatory sentence. 

They possess a privileged jurisdiction in crimes of 
responsibility, and can only be suspended by the Mo- 
derating power after being heard, and in order that 
they may be submitted to the competent tribunal for 

- 40 — 

No authority can take away from the jurisdiction of 
another, causes that are still pending, delay them, or 
revive suits once decided. 

The judges are responsihle for all abuse of power and 
for any prevarications which they may commit in the 
exercise of their functions. 

Every person has the right to accuse them before 
the competent authority for subornation, peculation, or 

In criminal cases all the proceedings are public after 
the indictment, as are also the audiences of the judges 
and the sessions of the Jury. 

In civil cases, and in penal cases tried by civil law, 
the parties may appoint arbitrators whose decisions are 
executed without any appeal , if it has been thus 
arranged previously. 

In its judicial organisation, the Empire is divided 
into hundreds and districts, having each of them municipal 
judges (juizes municipaes), law judges (juizes de direito) 
and judges of the affairs of orphans (juizes de orphaos) 
forming the couits of primary jurisdiction. 

There are also four higher courts called a Relaf^oes » 
or courts of secondary jurisdiction, located in different 
provinces, and which have been created to decide cases 
in a second or final judgement. 

In the capital of the Empire, besides the respective 
« Relapdo », there is a Supreme Court of Justice, com- 
posed of judges taken from the courts of secondary 
jurisdiction by order of antiquity; this court among 
other a-ttributes fixed by law possesses that of granting 
or refusing new trials (revistas nas causas) ; of taking: 
cognisance of the offenses or official errors committed 
by its members and those of the a. Relagoes » , by the 
bishops in non-ecclesiastical matters, by the members 
of the diplomatic corps and the presidents of the pro- 

— 41 — 
Council of Slate. 

In Brazil, the Council of State is purely consultative ; 
"but it constitutes one of the most important auxiliaries 
of the supreme administration. 

The hearing* of this body is in general optional , but 
almost always demanded ly the Emperor when he 
purposes using the prerogatives of the Moderating 

It is also constantly consulted on the most important 
branches of the public service under the charge of the 
seven ministers; on the conflicts of administrative and 
judicial jurisdiction, on prize claims and others of a 
quasi-contentious nature, on matters of administrative 
contentious justice etc. 

It is composed of twelve effective members, besides 
which it may have as man as twelve extraordinary 
members all appointed for life. 

Its proceedings are divided into sections correspon- 
ding to the seven ministries, or are carried on in a 
full meeting presided over by the Emperor. The prince 
Imperial on arriving at the age of 18 years has a seat 
in this Council and so have the other princes of the 
Imperial family whom the Emperor may appoint. The 
ministers are present at the meetings of this body, 
although they be not personally Counsellors of State, 
but they do not vote or witness the division when the 
object of the meeting is to decide about thp dissolution 

of the chambers or as to a change of ministry. 


Pipblic Hiuistry (Crown Office.) 

The public ministry is not yet organised in Brazil in 
all the degrees of the judicial hierarchy. 

At the same time important functions of this depart- 
ment are exercised by the « procurador da coroa, so- 
berania e fazenda nacioncd » (Attorney-general) a ma- 

— 42 - 

gistrate of high rank — and also by the Crown-proctors 
(procuradorcs da coroa^ in provinces, the lords advocate 
(promotores publicos) and the solicitors of the public 
tre&sury (fiscaes da fazenda nacional). 

The admlnistratioii of the Pro'vinces. 

The presidents. 

The government of each province is in the hands of 
a president appointed by the Executive , which can 
remove him whenever it is considered advisable for the 
good of the State. 

The president is th3 supreme authority in the province, 
and the immediate agent of the central government. 

His principal attributes are to grant or refuse sanc- 
tion to the statutes and resolutions of the provincial 
assemblies; to suspend, in certain cases, the execution of 
such statutes ; to appoint and dismiss the provincial 
functionaries ; to suspend the general functionaries, all 
of which attributes are defined by law. 

The provincial Assemblies. 

There is also in every province a legislative assem- 
bly charged with the making of the laws on purely 
provincial matters or on those relating to private in- 

These assemblies are elected every two years by the 
same electors that elect the chamber of Deputies. 

Their principal attributes are : 

The organisation of the budget* of provincial and 
municipal receipts and expenditure — the fixing of the 
police force — the creation and suppression of provincial 
and municipal offices. They decree the public works 
of the same nature , and the provincial and municipal 
taxes which do not prejudice the general revenues of 
the State. 

— 43 -. 

The civil, judicial and ecclesiastical division of their 
respective provinces also belong-s to their duties; but 
they must in all their decisions respect the Constitu- 
tion, the general laws and interests, and the rights of 
the other provinces. 

Their laws and resolutions require the sanction of 
the president of the province, excepting in a few 
cases expressly declared by law. 

Their members are inviolable on the score of the 
opinions expressed by them in the exercise of their 

The municipalities. 

In every town or city of the Empire a corporation is 
chosen every four years by direct elections, and this 
body is charged with the economical and municipal 
administration of the town or city. 

These corporations have a revenue to meet their 
respective expenditure, and a fundamental law defines 
their municipal functions, the form of their municipal 
imposts, the application of their revenues and their par- 
ticular attributes. They are composed of nine members 
(vereadores) or aldermen in the cities, and seven in 
the towns, ofwhich number the one who obtains most 
votes is the president. 

The town-councils are in the provinces subordinate 
to the legislative assembly and to the president of the 
province. That of the Capital is subordinate to the 
general assembly and Imperial Government. 

The parishes are divided into districts , each one 
having a justice of the peace elected at the same time 
and in the same manner as the « vereadores », with 
attributes alike defined by law, and of which the prin- 
cipal are to conciliate the parties disposed to go to law, 
preside over the elections and pronounce judgement in 
cases of small importance. 

— 44 - 
The rights of Brazilian subjects. 

The Constitution guarantees the inviolability of the 
civil and political rights based on the liberty, the indi- 
vidual safety and the property of Brazilian citizens. 

Individual liberty. 

The law alone can compel a citizen to perform or not 
perform any action. 

No law can be established without public utility and 
can never have a retroactive action. 

Liberty of opinion. 

Every one can communicate his ideas by words or 
writing, without being subject to censure; but all are 
responsible for any abuse committed in the exercise of 
this right, in the cases and in the form determined by 

Liberty of conscience. 

No one can be persecuted on account of his religion. 

Liberty of travel and of residence. 

Every one can remain in the Empire or leave it as 
best suits him , taking with him his fortune , provided 
that he observe the police regulations and cause no 
prejudice to third parties. 

Liberty of Trade. 


No kind of labor, cultivation, trade or business can 
be prohibited as long as there is no offense to morality, 
to the safety and to the health of the citizens. All 
trade-guilds have been abolished. 

— 45 — 

Individual Guarantees. 

Every citizen has in his house an inviolable asylum. 
No one can enter it, by night, without his. consent, unless 
it be to protect it from fire or inundation. In evejy other 
case the entry of the domicile of a citizen can only 
be effected by day and in the manner determined by the 

No one can be imprisoned without judicial inquiry 
unless in the cases declared by law and even •then the 
authority is obliged to declare, within a short time, offi- 
cially the motive of his arrest, the name of his accuser 
and those of the witnesses, if there are any, and deliver 
a note to this effect to the prisoner. 

Even after the judicial inquiry no one can be taken 
to prison, or kept there, if already arrested, if he give 
sufficient bail in the cases the law so permits, that is 
to say, in nearly all minor crimes. 

Excepting « in flagrante delicto », no one can be 
arrested without a written order from the legitimate 
authority, under penalty of responsibility for the judge 
who gave such order and the party who asked for it. 

No one can be sentenced except by the competent 
authority, in virtue of some law already in existence 
and in the form that law prescribes. 

Neither the penalty, or the dishonor of the culprit can 
extend beyond the person of the delinquent: — the con- 
fiscation of property (attainder) is prohibited in every 

A Criminal Code founded on the solid bases of justice 
and equity, and in which are not found either torture 
or any other penalties forbidden by the Constitution, 
is in vigor in the Empire of Brazil. 

Capital punishment does not exist for political offenses; 
and although only infiicted for the crime of homicide 
and on the leaders of insurrections, it is very rarely 

— 46- 

carried into execution: in no case, however, can the 
sentence of death be carried out without the whole 
proceedings being presented to the moderating po^wer 
accompanied by all necessary explanations, in order 
that the Emperor may decide whether the criminal 
should *be pardoned or the sentence commuted, and the 
latter course is almost always adopted. 

Right of equality. 

The law is equal for all, whether it protects or 
punishes ; and the Constitution guarantees the recom- 
pense due for civil or military services rendered to the 

Every citizen can be admitted to public, civil or mili- 
tary service vrithout further distinction than that of 
his talents and character. 

No one is exempt from a contribution to the expenses 
of the State, in accordance with his means. 

There are in Brazil no privileges but those based on 
the public benefit and connected with the offices held. 

Neither is there any privileged Court, or special 
commission in civil or criminal cases, with the excep- 
tion of those misdemeanors which from their nature 
and by law pertain to summary jurisdiction. 

The rights of property. 

The right of property is guaranteed in all its pleni- 
tude; and if the public welfare require that the State 
should dispose of the property of the citizen, the latter 
is previously indenmified according to its legally veri- 
fied worth. 

A regulative law specifies the cases in which can take 
place this only exception to the right of property and 
sets forth how the indemnity must be paid. 

The public debt is also guaranteed. 

- 47 — 

The rights of inventors. (Patent laws.) 

All inventors have the ownership of their inventions. 
The laws afford them an exclusive, temporary privilege 
(patent), or else they are remunerated for the prejudice 
accruing* from the divulgation of their secret. 

Inviolability of Correspondence. 

The secrets of all letters are inviolable and the Post 
Office authorities responsible for any abuse of this gua- 
rantee committed in their department. 

Right of complaint and other guarantees. 

The Constitution likewise guarantees to all citizens ; 
The right of presenting claims, petitions or complaints 
to the legislative and executive powers. 

The right to denounce all infractions of the Constitu- 
tion and to petition the competent authority to render 
effective the responsibility of the infractors. 

The public assistance ; gratuitous primary instruction ; 
the foundation of schools and universities. 

In case of rebellion or of invasion by an enemy, when 
the safety of the State demands the suspension, for a 
fixed period, of any one of the guarantees of individual 
liberty, this can only be done by means of a special 
act of the legislative power. But if the general assembly 
be not sitting at the time, and the country be in immi- 
nent peril, the government may employ this expedient, 
as a provisional and indispensable measure; under the 
obligation, however, of giving an account of their con- 
duct to the Assembly, at its first meeting. 

No article of the Constitution, relating to the limits 
or attributes of the political powers as well as to the 
political and individual rights of the citizens can suffer 
alteration by an ordinary statute. 

— 48 — 

Such a reform depends on the formalities required by 
the Constitution. Only when by one legislature the 
necessity has been recognised, is a law made for the 
electors of the deputies for the succeeding legislature 
to confer on their mandataries a special faculty to make 
the intended alteration. It is then in this new legisla- 
ture, thus furnished with special powers, that the ques- 
tion is resolved which verses exclusively on the article 
declared reformable by the previous law. 

Public foroes. 


The effective strength of the army, according to the 
new table is 25,844 men, including officers. 

The strength however of the two <( corps d'armde » 
in operation against the Dictator of Paraguay, is at 
present more than 42,000 men. 

Besides this force there are troops of the line and of 
the National Guard doing garrison duty in the capital 
and in the provinces of the Empire. In short, more than 
five thousand men occupy the northern part of Mato- 
Grosso and more than two thousand the southern part 
of the same province. 

There is also a company of artillery apprentices com- 
posed of youths who are being educated for the artillery 

The number of these is already five hundred. 

The surgeons and chaplains who form the sanitary 
and ecclesiastical departments, constitute a part of the 
army system. 

The strength of the National Guard of the whole Em- 
pire, including the reserve, is 440,475 guards, 

The police service of the capital is performed by the 
corps of (c guardas urbanos » lately organised in imi- 
tation of the London policemen. 

- 49 - 

This corps is at present composed of 560 men. 

It is assisted by another corps of military organisa- 
tion, composed of 560 men, obtained by voluntary enlist- 

The fixing* of the police force of the various localities 
being" the provincial assemblies, it has a special orga- 
nisation according to the circumstances one of the 
attributes of each province. 

For the extinction of fires there is in the capital a 
fire-brigade conveniently organised. 



The naval force of the Empire in active serviqe 
amounts at present to 906 officers of different grades 
and 4,640 men. 

The Empire possesses 61 vessels of v^ar with 316 
guns; of which vessels 49 are steamers of 5,912 nominal 
horse-power, including 10 iron-clad^. 

The naval force of Brazil in operation at the ^e^t of 
war is at present 38 vessels, of which 36 are steamers 
of 4,805 nominal horse-power, including 10 iron-clads of 
2,030 horse-power. 

These vessels carry 186 guns apd 4,037 men. 

The naval system also comprises : 

A naval battalion at present 810 strong, 565 of which 
number are on duty on board of vessels of war, in the 
various forts of the Port of the Capital of the Empire, 
and in tiie naval establishment at Itapiira. 

A corps of Imperial marines (imperiaes marinheiros) 
consisting of 3,008 men, of which 2,697 are on duty in 
the sundry vessels of war. 

Eleven companies of na^val cadets, in all 738, in the 
Ca{^tal of the JEmpire and in the provinces of Espiritp- 
Santo, Bahia, Pernambuco, Cear&, Maranhao, Par&, Santa 
Gatharina , S. Pedro do Bio Grande do Sul and Ifato- 

— 50 - 

The Surgeons and chaplains forming the hospital corps 
and ecclesiastical department, constitute a part of the 
respective system. 

Military Arsenml. 

The Arsenal of the Capital of the Empire has a 
director; a secretariate, with an agency for purchas- 
ing ; an intendance , divided into three classes ; an 
establishment of young apprentices and thirteen impor- 
tant work-shops, where the daily labor occupies about 
600 workmen, but in extraordinary circumstances this 
number has risen to above 1,000. 

The general administration is entrusted to a superior 
officer, assisted by three adjutants, who, besides other 
attributes, have; the first, that of overlooking the inten- 
dance and the establishment of young apprentices ; the 
second, that of overlooking the workshops, and the third , 
fhat of superintending the manufactory of arms at the 
Concei^&o fort. 

The uniforms and habiliments of the Army are made 
at the Arsenal as also certain war-stores, among which 
may be mentioned small bore rifle guns on the french 

The young apprentices are at present 149 in num- 
ber ; the full complement is 200 • 

The apprentice who , after proving his state of po- 
verty and fulfilling the other necessary conditions, is 
admitted into this establishment, remains there until he 
is fit to pass into the corps of military operatives in 
which he must serve for six years. 

At the same time,. by special grant and by means of 

an indemnity the apprentices can obtain their discharge 

and embrace whatever trade or profession they please. 

All the expenses of board, clothing, and instruction 

are for account of the State. 

— 51 — 

Independent of primary instruction, they are taught 
elementary geometrical drawing, the practical applica- 
tion of the principles of geometry and mechanics, mu- 
sic and gymnastics. 

They are also taught military exercises, and, among 
the trades relating to the preparation of war materiel, 
they learn that for which each shows most taste and 
physical ability. 

There are a certain number of professors, a chaplain, 
and a physician who superintends the infirmary. 

The manufactory of the Conceiffto fort and the pyro- 
technical laboratory of the Campinho fort are depen- 
dencies of the Arsenal. 

The manufactory of the Conceicao fort is chiefly 
occupied in the repairs and conyersion of flint fire-arms in 
to those of percussion, andean also rifle smooth-bore arms ; 
it is at present composed of an armory and two work- 
shops, one of g^un-smiths and the other of stock-makers. 

Besides the foremen of the respective workshops, 
there is also a professor of primary instruction. 

The laboratory of Campinho where there is always a 
company of military operatives, manufactures all the 
ammunition and materiel, either for artillery, or por- 
table fire-arms. 

Its superintendence is confided to a superior officer. 

In ordinary circumstances some 100 workmen are 
employed at this establishment, and they prepare daily 

Percussion caps 30,000 

Ball cartridges 20,000 

Friction tubes 300 

Fuse for Szrapnell shells • • . 200 
and in similar proportion other kinds of ordnance 

In the provinces of Pari, Pemambuco, Bahia, S. Pe- 
dro do Rio Grande do Sul and Mato-Grosso there are 

- 53 - 

also military arsenals with pyrotechnical laboratories 
annexed to them. 

Gan-powder manufactory. 

This is situated at a distance from every centre of 
population, at the foot of the Serra da Estrella , in the 
province of Rio de Janeiro, near a port in the Bay of 
Rio and at a convenient distance from the terminus of 
the Maua railway. 

Some very solid works have been constructed there 
for the canalisation of a sufficient supply of water to 
the different buildings, separated from each other by 
wild forests. The machinery is set in motion by a 
Fourneyron turbine and an iron hydraulic wheel. 

There is a steam apparatus for drying* the powder. 
The charcoal is obtained from the wood of the trees 
Imbaiba, Mululu and Corindiba in distilling* apparatus 
and by means of the action of steam. 

Excellent gun-powder is made there, and the establish- 
ment is on a scale sufficient to produce 12 thousands 
arrobas (384,000 lbs.) per annum. 

The Government has. resolved to found another gun- 
powder manufactory in the province of Mato-Grosso ; 
at the present moment, however, nothing has been done 
for this purpose, on account of the peculiar circumstan- 
ces under which that province is laboring in conse- 
quence of the war with Paraguay. 

miitavy legislation* 

• * • « 

The military . legislation is now undergoing a re- 
vision. . . 

A commission over which presides H. R. H. the Comte 
d'Eu, Marshal of the Army and conunander-general of 
the Artillery, and composed of general officers and su- 
perior officers of the Army , of learned jurists and of 

- 53 — 

medical men, is now employed in revising' the military 

Its proceedings are carried on either collectively or 
hy sections. The business which it has in hand is in 
an advanced state; it has already presented to the Go- 
vernment a representation with regard to recruitment 
"by conscription. 

The schemes of the penal code and of the form of 
military prosecutions, which have been presented to the 
Government or to the General Assembly, have been 
submitted to the examination of this Commission. 

Naval Arsenals. 

The naval arsenal of the capital of the Empire com- 
prises au inspectorship with its secretariate; a number 
of storehouses; and, besides other dependencies, thirteen 
important workshops in which some 2,296 workmen 
are at present employed. 

In addition to these workshops there are sections of 
ahip-wrights and masons , who form the direction of 
civil and military works and where some 600 workmen 
are employed. / 

The administration of the establish^ment is entrusted "7 
to an inspector aided by three adjutants, one of which 
occupies the post of vice-director. 

All kinds of iron-work can be produced in the work, 
shops of the arsenal , and some engines of 200 horse- 
power have already been made there. Plates for iron- 
clads have likewise been prepared and at this present 
time a workshop, specially destined to this branch of 
ship-building, is being finished, in which a hammer Of 
5 tons weight will be used, 

There is a company of artisan apprentices in number 
200, which has a commander , a professor of primary 
Instruction, a chaplain and a surgeon; also two com- 

— 54 — 

panies of militaTy operatives. One of these composed 
of the artisan apprentices who attain 16 years of age, 
has its barracks in the arsenal and numbers at present 
82 men ; the other consists of 126 men who are allowed 
to reside without the arsenal. 

There is in this arsenal a school of geometry and of 
the pratical application of mechanics. 

Stocks for the construction of vessels of war exist in 
the arsenal , and at the island of Cobras, which is 
opposite, five others destined to the building of moni- 

There is also at the above island an excellent dock, 
and, a second one is in an advanced state of construction. 
Both are hewn out of the solid rock. 

The provinces of Par&, Pernambuco, Bahia and Mato- 
Grosso likewise possess naval arsenals. 

Llgpht-hooses • 

To guide navigators approaching the coasts of Brazil, 
there exist 15 first-class light-houses, nearly all cons- 
tructed on the most modem principles. They are those 
below named and are situated in the provinces of which 
the names are also indicated. 

Rio de JANEmo. — Island of Raza^ at a distance of 
9 miles from the entrance to the bay and port of Rio 
de Janeiro.— Lat: 23% 3', 30", 8.— Long.: 1', 1" 2, E. 
of the Observatory of Rio de Janeiro. The light revol- 
ves every 3 minutes with an eclipse of 5 seconds. 
During the revolution flashes of three colors appear — 
two white and one red. The lantern is elevated 97 
metres (about 318 ft) above the level of the sea, and 
the light is visible at a distance of 30 miles in clear 

CaTpe Frio. Lat.: 23% 0*, 45", S.— Long.: 1% 12', 
28'% E. of Rio de Janeiro. The lantern is elevated 

— 55 — 

143-,25 (about 470 ft) above the level of the sea. The 
ligrht is clear and bright, visible on unclouded nights 
at a distance of 25 miles from the N. E. magnetic 
course to that of the W. The light is revolving with 
4 eclipses of 5 seconds in each revolution of 6 minutes. 
S. Paulo. — Port of Santos.-— Island of Moella. 
Lat. : 24% 2', S. - Long. 3% 51' 41", W. of Rio de Jar 
neiro observatory. The lantern is elevated 32" 94 (about 
108 ft) above the average level of the tides. It is visible 
in clear weather at a distance of 20 to 25 miles. It has 
16 lamps with a like number of Argant reflectors. 

Santa Catharina. — Ponta dos Naufragados. Lat. 
27% 49', S.— Long. 5^ 32', 52", W. of Rio de Janeiro 
Observatory. Height 40'»,42 (about 133 ft) above the 
level of the sea. Visible at a distance of 16 to 20 mi- 
les. Revolution every 4 minutes: light alternately weak 
and brilliant in flashes of 30 seconds. 

S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul. — The Bar. Lat. 32*, 
8', S.— Long. 9% 0', 21", W. of the Rio de Janefa-o 
Observatory. Three eclipses in a revolution of 3 mi- 

This light house is situated at a distance of 91 metres 
from where during the day-time signals are made to 
the vessels making the bar and desirous of entering 
the port. The light is visible in clear weather at a 
distance of 25 to 30 miles. The lantern is elevated 33" 
(about 108 ft) above the level of the sea. 

For the inland navigation of this province, there are 
at the bar of the river S. Gonjalo and in the Lake 
dos Patos some small light houses visible at a distance 
of 7 or 8 miles. 

BAHiA.—Jf orro de S. Paulo ^ at the entrance to the 
port of this nam^. Lat. 13% 21', 40", S.— Long. 4% S\ 
50", 95, E. of the Rio de Janeiro Observatory. Visible 
at a distance of 24 to 28 miles. Revolution of 1 minute, 
15 seconds bright and 45 seconds eclipse. The lantern 

- 56 - 

is elevated 91",8 (about 300 ft) above the level of ib% 

Ponta de Santo Antonio in the port of the capital 
of the above province. Lat. 13% 0' 11", S. — Long. 4% 
82*, 4", 75, E. of the Rio de Janeiro Observatory. Vi- 
sible at a distance of 15 miles. Revolution of 5 minu- 
tes, during" which it shows three lights, one reddish 
and the other two more or less brilliant. 

Each flash is followed by an eclipse, and these suc- 
ceed every 100 seconds. The lantern is elevated 40" 
(about 133 ft) above the level of the sea. 

Island of Santa Barbara (archipelago of the Abro- 
ihos). Lat. 45% 26\ 30" S.~Long. 4% 30', 56", E. of 
Rio de Janeiro Observatory. Situated on the culmina- 
ting point of the island, this light house consists of a 
to'v^er of cast iron constructed upon the rock and sur- 
rounded by a galvanised iron house of polygonal shape. 
The lantern is 51",81 (about 170 ft) above the average 
level of the tides, and the light, which is clear and 
bright visible at a distance of 17 and a half miles. It 
has a revolution of 3 minutes with eclipses every mi* 

AiAGOAS. —Port of Maceid. Lat. 9% 39', 50", S.— 
Long. 7«, 28*, 21", W. of Rio de Janeiro observatory. 
The light , of a natural color , is visible at a distance 
of 22 miles and is elevated 55", 68 (about 183 ft) above 
the level of high water. 

Pernambuco. — Recife. Lat. 8«, 3', 30". S.— Long. 8% 
16", 48" E. of the Rio de Janeiro observatory. Revolu- 
tion of 5 minutes, 3 minutes of intense light, 1 minu- 
te 30 seconds of weak flash and 30 seconds eclipse. Vi- 
sible at a distance of 15 to 20 miles. Height: 21^", 45 
(a*out 70 ft) above the level of the sef . 

Rio GRANDE DO NORTE. — Fortalcza dos Santos Rets 
Uagos (Fort of the Holy Magian Kings) Lat. 5% 45' S. 
Lomg. 7% 56', 30" E. of Rio de Janeiro. Visible at a dis- 

- 57- 

iance of 9 miles. The lantern is about 17* (55 ft) above 
the level of the ordinary tides.— Fixed light. 

Cbaba. — Ponta de Mucuripe, 4 miles from the port 
of the capital. Lat. 3% 41', 10". S. Long. 4°, 34', 36'' E. 
of Rio de Janeiro. Visible, in clear weather, at a dis- 
tance of 10 miles. Eight fixed lights of a natural color. 
Height 36«, 36 (about 120 ft) above the level of the sea. 

MaranhIo. — Island of Santa Anna. Lat. 2% 15', 55" 
S. Long. 0% 30', 15" W. of Rio de Janeiro. Visible at 
a distance of 20 miles. Light revolving with eclipses 
of 32 seconds. 

This province has* another light-house at Itacolomy 
and also three smaller ones , one at the city of Alcan- 
tara and two others at the forts of S. Marcos (St. Mark) 
and of Barra (The Bar). 

ParA.— Pharol das Salinas (Salinas light house) on 
Atalaia point. Lat, 0», 34', S. Long. 4% 28', 0". W. of 
Kio de Janeiro. Visible at a distance of 17 miles. 

The police. 

The police in Brazil is under the charge of the Mi- 
nister of Justice, and has a special organisation with 
attributes defined by law. It is exercised in the capital 
of the Empire and in that of each province by a Chief, 
appointed by the executive, and selected from the class 
of Magistrates. 

This chief has a secretary and a department for all 
matters pertaining to his office. 

In each municipality there is, as a rule, one delegate; 
in each parochial district one subdelegate, and in 
each ward (quartqjrao) one inspector. 

• The flnaiices* 

The administration of the revenue and expendittire is 
entrusted to a board denominated the Tribunal do 
Thesov/ro Nacional (Exchequer). 

- 58 — 

This tribunal is composed of high functionaries and 
the Minister of Finance presides over its proceedings. 

The supreme direction and surveillance of the reve- 
nue and expenditure, the collection, distribution and 
accounts of the public moneis are its principal attribu- 
tes ; it also decides administrative questions relating to 
these matters and at all times defends the interests of 
the Treasury. 

For this purpose, a treasury-office and sundry bu- 
reaux are in each province subordinate to the central 
board and there are special agents in each municipality. 

The Minister of finance is obliged, at each legislative 
session, to present to the chamber of deputies, shortly 
after it meets, a general balance-sheet of the re- 
venue and expenditure of the National Treasury during 
the preceding year, as also the budget of the expenses 
for the coming year, and of the total amount of the 
contributions and public income. 

The suits or actions of the public Treasury enjoy a 
privileged jurisdiction. 

The payment of the capital and interest of the In- 
ternal public debt, funded by. law, and represented by 
bonds, called apolices^ is under the charge of an office 
independent of the National Treasury and denominated 
the Caixa de amortisa^ao (Sinking-fund office). 

It is governed by a committee over which the mi- 
nister of finance presides and composed of a general 
inspector and five Brazilian capitalists, holders of bonds. 

The Treasuries in the provinces where national bonds 
or apolices have been emitted, are subordinate to this 
office, as to all that regards the sinking-fund. 

Public revenue. 

The general revenue of the Empire which, in the fi- 
nancial year 1831—1832 (the first of the present reign), 
amounted to 11,171:527»040 and in that of 1840—1841 

(the first of the majority of the present Emperor] to 
16,310:577»708 has progrressively risen to 59,467:675»163, 
Hiis last being the figure to which it attained in the 
financial year of 1864—1865. 

The provincial revenues, throughout the whole em- 
pire, are estimated at about 13 thousand contos, and 
municipal revenues at about 3 thousand contos. 

The public income comprises the municipal, provin- 
cial, and general revenues. 

The first is decreed by the provincial assemblies on 
the proposition of the municipal councils, and col- 
lected by the proctors and agents of the latter bodies, 
in order to meet the municipal expenses. 

The second is decreed by the assembly of each pro- 
vince, with the sanction of the president, to meet the 
provincial expenses, and is collected by the treasury- 
offices, collectors and revenue-boards, toll-bars and agen- 
cies created, for this purpose, by the said assembly. 

The third is derceed by a law of the general legisla- 
ture, and raised by Custom-houses, excise-Offices, re- 
venue-boards, collectors and other fiscal authorities. 

There are 16 Custom Houses in the capital and ma- 
ritime provinces, of the empire. 

The duties collected by them, in 1865, amounted to 
the sum of 43,427:938*031 to which the Rio de Janeiro 
custom-house contributed nearly 20,000:000*000, this 
being also about the average of its collections during 
the last 5 years of 1860—1865. 

The Custom House of Bahia comes next in order with 
an average of more than 6,000:000* and thatofPernam- 
buco with more than 5,000:000*. 

The fiscal regulations of our Custom-houses and their 
tariff have suffered censure both within the empire and 
out of it; but the truth is that our legislation, on this 
head, is analogous to that of European nations, and es- 
pecially to that of France; the Government and cham- 

- 60 — 

bers of Brazil are aware that some improvements are 
desirable in our custom-houses and that the tariff con- 
tains irregularities and omissions which require alte- 
ration. These two subjects have, of late years, received 
the serious attention of the government. 

We must, however, observe that our tariff is more 
fiscal than protective, as the favor which it grants to 
some native trades, consists more in the exemption and 
reduction of the duties on the raw article or primary 
material, than in the increase of the charges on similar 
foreign productions. 

At the present moment, in order to improve the 
state of the National finances, steps are being taken 
to create new taxes and increase some of those already 
existing; a bill, to this effect, has been offered by the 
1st committee of the budget in the chamber of depu- 
ties, where, in accordance with the Constitution, this 
measure must originate. — The projected taxes do not 
extend to the exports or imports, and the committee 
declares in its report, the reason why it is not expedient 
to raise the customs tariff generally, and that, on the 
contrary, as soon as our financial situation becomes 
more favorable, both the duties on exports and imports 
ought to be reduced. 


The commercial legislation of the empire modelled 
on that of the countries most advanced, consists of a 
Code and other acts of the legislative power, for the 
due execution of which, the Government has issued re- 
gulations, decrees and notifications at different times. 

The commerce of Brazil, which up to 1808, date of the 
opening of its ports to all friendly nations, was very 
limited, has gradually gained development. 

Thus it is that the value of the imports and exports 

~61 — 

which in 1806 amounted to 22,600:000 reached, during 
the financial year of 186ii-1865, thesum of272,662:627», 
that of the coasting* trade attaining* the figinre of 
41,295:491», and one and the other forming together a 
total of 313,958:118». 

The different nations of the Glohe have contributed 
in the following proportions to the result which the 
commerce of seagoing vessels presents. 

TO THE iniPORTS OF 1864-65 


France . . . , 

River Plate 



Haiiseatic Towns 

Other countries .... 


63. 538: 01 5g 




4. 941:9108 







£5^ ..... i I 





River Plate 

O&er eoofitries 









The sea-going vessels which entered the ports of 
Brazil during the financial year of 1864 — 1865 were 
3,069 in number and of 1,144,549 tons burden. 

The coasting trade was carried on by 3,137 vessels 
of 641,950 tons burden, and manned by 44,911 men. 

The inland navigation is carried on by 8,108 vesa^ 
and craft of different sizes, of 405,591 tons burden and 
manned by 45,360 men, 
' In the coasting tra^de there are employed also 106 


steamers of 3,775 horse-power and 22,262 tons burden, 
which are manned by 2,081 men. 

The provinces of Brazil which have foreigpn commer- 
cial relations are those of Rio de Janeiro, Pemambuco, 
Bahia, S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul, Maranhao, Par&, 
S. Paulo, Alagdas, Parahyba, Ceari, Sergipe, Paran&, 
Santa Catharina, Rio Grande do Norte, Piauhy, Espirito- 
Santo and Mato-Grosso. 

There are in Brazil 43,653 commercial houses, besides 
some 4,807 exempt of imposts. 

Brazilian 25,068 

Portuguese 14,449 

Of other nationalities . . . 4,136 

The articles which have constituted the most impor- 
tant part of the exports of Brazil in the year of 1864 — 1865 
calculated at their official value and consequently below 
their real one, are the following: 


Still keeps the first place among our products. The 
disease which during some years attacked with severity 
the coffee plantations, has disappeared ; and although 
the crops, which immediately preceded the last, were 
not so large as the previous ones, still the official value 
of the exports rose to 64,144:555;j^. 


The official value of this article of export rose to 
31,558:63511^. Its cultivation which for some years seemed 
to have diminished, continues to prosper in the Northern 
provinces and is extending itself to the Southern ones, 
where it has been found that certain localties which, do 
not produce either coffee or sugar-cane , are favorable 
to cotton. It is for the above reason that while in 
1862—1863 the official value of the exports of this arti- 

— 63 — 

cle only amounted to 8 thousand contos of reis, in 
the succeeding financial year, reached nearly to 17 
thousand contos and in that of 1864 — 1865 to more 
than 30 thousand contos. 


Sugar maintains its position notwithstanding the ex- 
tended plantation of cotton and of coffee in some pro- 
vinces where the cane was principally cultivated. The 
value of the exports of this article was 16,282:124*. 

Dry and salted hides. 

This is the principal branch of the export-trade of 
the provinces of S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul. The 
value of these rose to 7,521:848*. 


The value of the exports of this article was 2,912:597*. 
It is one of the products best suited to the soil of 
Brazil. That of the province of Bahia, of Borba in the 
province of Amazonas, of Mato-Grosso, of some parts 
of Minas-Geraes, and of the province of S. Paulo is of 
excellent quality. 

During the year 1862—1863 the value of the exports 
of this article was 6,202:010*. 

The difference between the two amounts is owing to 
the increased consumption in the interior. 


Cacao, exported to the value of 1,352:132*, springs 
up spontaneously in the province of Par& and is there 
cultivated as well as in the province of Bahia. 

Herva-Mate (flea; Paragviensis or Paraguay tea). 

This product has been exported to the value of 

— 64 — 

The value of the exports of this article was only 
787:787?>, for the greater part of it is consumed in the 

Hair and Wool. 

The value of the exports of these articles prepared 
in the various provinces was 56i:588#. 


The caoutchouc of which the exported value was 
3,688:053#, is produced from the sap of the seringueira 
which spring's up and grows spontaneously in the North- 
ern provinces, chiefly in those of Par& and Amazonas. 

In Par& it constitutes fully a third of the provincial 
revenue. From the financial year of 1839 to 1840 to that 
of 1863 — 1864 there was exported from Parii caoutchouc 
to the value of 34,996:137*748. 

Jacarand^. (Bosewood.) 

This wood was exported to the value of 995:787$. 
The forests where it is most abundant are situated in 
the provinces of Rio Grande do Norte, Pemambuco, 
Espirito-Santo, Rio de Janeiro and Minas-Geraea. The 
latter exports it by the river Mucury. 

Ck}l(l and diamonds. 

The value of the exports of these articles amounted 
to 6,152:625». 

Sundry articles. 

Of these the exportation amounted in value to 
3,893:540». . 

Articles of general consumption. 

Among the products mostly consumed in the country, 
the principal are sugar, ram, tobacco, mate, cattle, 
jerked beef, sundry salted meats, bacon, cheese, maize. 

— 65 — 


teans, rice, flour of mandioc and other, sundry gums 
and potatoes. 

The coffee consumed in the Empire is about one fifth 
of the production. 

Coasting Irade. 

Although the ports of Brazil were opened in 1808 to 
commerce of all friendly nations, the coasting trade was 
at the same time exclusively reserved for the national 
vessels, and it was only as an exception and by means 
of a special permission and with restrictions, that foreign 
vessels could perform transport service on the coast. 

Lately the Government, authorised by the law of 9th 
September 1862, has given permission by a decree dated 
27th March 1866, to foreign vessels to engage in the 
coasting trade under condition of observing the fiscal 
regulations, from the date of the above decree until the 
end of December 1867. 

The autorisation conceded by the law being ample, 
the government is occupied in collecting information for 
the definite arrangement of this subject. 


In virtue of a regulation, sanctioned by the government 
the merchants of Rio de Janeiro elect on the first day 
(not being a Sunday or Holiday) of the month of De- 
cember in each year, a committee of nine members, to 
whom it pertains to deliberate on all matters which 
interest commerce generally, and to make the neces- 
sary representations to the powers of State and to 
the authorities. 

This committee is at present composed of two Brazil- 
ian members, two English, one Portuguese, one Spanish, 
one French, one German and one American member. 

Similar committees exist in the capitals of the provin- 
ces of Par&, Pemambuco, Bahia and S. Pedro do Rio 
Grande do Sul. 

E. I. 5 

66 — 

Weigbts and measures. 

A law exists of which the object is to render the 
weights and measures uniform throu[r;hout the Empire, 
by the adoption of the french metrical system ; it will 
commence to be compulsory from the year 1872. 

The government has issued several ordinances for its 
execution; it has acquired models of the metrical system 
duly stamped, and has entrusted competent parties with 
the conversion to this system of the weights and mea- 
sures now in use in the Empire. 

Metrologleal system of the Empire ef Brasil used in eom* 
m^ereial transaetiens^ compared with the Areneh metrleal 


IfiOOO rs. in Brazil = 27 pence sterling = 2 francs 74 cent. 



Octave ) equal to 72 grains 
Ounce, equal to 8 octares 
Mark, equal to 8 ounces. 
Arratel (pound) .... 


Qiuntal (cwt) 

Equal to 
Equal to 
Equal to 
Equal to 
Egual to 
Equal to 
Equal to 
Ton . , I Equal to 


Equal to 
Equal to 
Equal to 
Equal to 
Equal to 


Equal to 
Equal to 
Equal td 
Equal to 


Maquia, equal to 2 selamins 
Quarta, equal to 4 maquias. 
Alqueire, equal to 4 quartas 
Moio, equal to 60 alqueires. 


Canada, equal to 4 quartilhos. 
Almude, equal to 12 canadas . 
T&nel, equal to 50 almudes. . 

4,979 Centigrsunmes 

3,585 Grammes 

28,683 Grammes 

229,464 Grammes 

458,928 Grammes 

14,685 Kilogrammes 

58,742 Kilogrammes 

793,028 Kilogrammes 

0,481 Litres 

0,862 Litres 

3,450 Litres 

13,800 Litres 

2,280 HectoUtres 

0,353 Litres 

1,412 Litres 

16,950 Litres 

8,475 Hectolitres 



Pollegada, equal to 12 linhas 
Balmo, equal to 8 poUegadas 
Vara, equal to 5 palmos . . 
BraQa, equal to 2 varas • . 

Equal to 
Equal to 
Equal to 
E(iual to 
E(iual to 

0,00220 Metres 

0,0275 Mdtres 

0,22 Metres 

1.1 Metres 

2.2 Metres 

— 67 — 
Anouymons Banking Companies. 

At Rio de Janeiro: 

The Bank of Brazil^ founded in virtue of the law 
of 5th July 1853, with a capital of 30,000:000#, which 
in 1862 was raised to 33,000:000» is the largest credit 
establishment which the Empire possesses. The circu- 
lation of its notes current in the public ofl3.ces, amounted 
in October 1866 to 86,000:000* , including that of its 
branches established in the provinces of S. Paulo, Minas* 
Geraes, S. Pedro do Bio Grande do Sul, Bahia, Pernam- 
buco Maranhao and Pari. 

The bulUon reserve of the bank then amounted to 
25,000:000* ; and the portfolio of the central establish- 
ment to 83,000;000». 

Since the 14th September 1864 the Bank of Brazil 
has been authorised by a decree of the Imperial govern- 
ment to suspend the change of its notes for the gold. 
The great crisis of 1864, locking up the funds of the 
establishment induced this measure indispensable to its 

The law of 12th September 1866 has reformed this 
Bank, taking away from it the right of emission and 
transforming it into a Bank for discounts and loans on 

The same law concedes to it the space of twenty 
years in which its notes must be retired from circu- 

Its capital if 33,000:000* divided into 165;000 shares 
of 200* each is all paid up. 

Its reserve fund is 4,703:3457*578. 

The dividend paid for the last half year was at the 
rate of 12 ^o P^^ annum. 

Banco Rural e Hypothecario. — ^Founded by the decree 
of 30th March 1863, has a capital of 8,000:000* divided 
into shares of 200* each. 

— 68 — 

Its capital has since been raised but is not paid up. 
Reserve fund 1,382:340»317. Dividend for the last half 
7 '»/o per annum. 

London and Brazilian Bayik Limited. — The head 
office of this Bank is in London where its statutes were 
org'anised and its shares issued. 

The statues having been presented to the Imperial 
government, permission was given by the Decree of 
2nd October 1862 under certain conditions for the opera- 
tion indicated in the said statutes. 

Its capital is of 13,333:333»330, but of this amount 
only 5,200:000» is paid up. 

The last dividend was at the rate of 5 ^/o per annum. 

The English Bank of Rio de Janeiro (formerly 
The Brazilian and Portuguese Bank limited.— Its statu- 
tes were organised in London where the Bank has its 
head office. 

' The Decree of 28th December 1863 gave permission 
for the operations set forth in its statutes under con- 
ditions then stated. 

Is capital of 8,888:888*888, divided into 50,000 shares 
of the value of 177#777 each, has only been half paid 
up, all the shares being issued. The dividend for the 
last half year was at the rate of 3 % per annum. 

Commercial Bank of Rio de Janeiro. — Founded by 
decree of 6th April 1866. Capital of the Bank 12,000:0005!^ 
divided into 60,000 shares, of which only 30,000 have 
been taken. The realised capital is 1,200:000* corres- 
ponding to the first call of 40* on each share emitted* 

The dividend for the last half year was at the rate of 
9 »/o per annum. 

All these Banks, witli the exception of the Bank of 
Brazil, which is forbidden to enter into exchange opera- 
tions, draw on the principal places in Europe. 

In the province of Rio de Janeiro : 

- 69 - 

..'The Bank of Campo5.— Founded in 1864 with a ca- 
pital of 1,000:000:1^ of which about 300:000» is paid up. 

In the province of Bahia : 

The Bank of Bahia.— FounieA in 1858 with a capital 
of 8,000:000» of which half is paid up. 

This Bank discounts securities and receives deposits 
and can issue up to 2,832: 760;s guaranteed by a like 
value in bonds of the puWic debt and shares of the 
railwiays subsidized by the State. 

Caixa Commercial de 5a/iia.— Founded with a capi- 
tal of 2,000:000* which is not yet all paid up. 

Caixa Reserva MereantiL — Founded in 1860 with a 
capital of 4,000:000» of which only a part is paid up. 

Sociedade Comm^rcto.— Founded in 1860 with a ca- 
pital of 8,000:000» of which the greater paid is realised. 

Caixa Eypothecaria. — Founded in 1861 with a capi- 
tal of 1,200:000» which is not yet complete. 

In the proviuce of Perhambuco : 

' ' . , . , _■ . » • '' »• , 

The Bank of Pernambuco,-— Founded in /I8bl y^ith 
a capital of 2,000:000* which is all paid up. It can issue 
up to 1,486:000* guaranteed by an equal amount in 
bonds of the public debt and in shares of the railways 
subsidised by the State. * 

In the province of S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul : 
The Bank of Rio Grande do Sul, — ^Founded in 1857 
with a capital of 1,000:000*, not yet all paid up. This 
was once a Bank of issue; now it is simply one for 
deposits and discounts. 

In the province of Alag6as : 

Caixa Commercial das Alagoas, — Founded in 1861, 
with a capital of 500:000*, which is not all realized. 

In the province of Maranhao: 

The Bank of Maranhao, — Founded in 1867 with a 
capital of 1,000:000* which is not. yet all paid up. 


This Bank has the right of issue tip to 513:300» under 
the guarantee of bonds of the public debt or shares of 
the railways subsidised by the State. 

Savings Banks. 

There was founded in 1860 in the capital of the Em- 
pire, with the guarantee of the State a savings bank 
and a « mont de piet6 » with a view to giving employ- 
ment to the small savings of the depositors and lending 
on pledges at a moderate interest. 

It is managed by a board appointed by the govern- 

In the provinces of Bahia, Minas and others, there 
exist similar establishments but in the hands of private 

Insuranee Companies. 

There are in the capital several native companies for 
marine and terrestrial insurances, against fire, and on 
life ; some foreign companies have jigencies in this ca- 
pital and in those of some of the province. 


In Brazil there is a complete liberty of trade, gua- 
ranteed by the Constitution, as long as it does not offend 
the public morals, safety and health. Trades can be 
exercised either individually or by means of associa- 

No law or privilege restrains them unless in the ex- 
ceptional cases of an exclusive privilege in favor of 
invention or the introduction of a new branch of trade. 

Although Brazil is not in reality a manufacturing 
country still on this account its different manufactories 
have none the less increased and extended themselves. 

Numerous and important manufactories exist in the 
capital and in many of the provinces ; some of them 

— 71 — 

are worked by steam and they employ a larg^e number 
of hands. 

Some of them can compete, as to their machinery and 
products whith those of the countries most advanced. 
The proof of this assertion is found in the larg'e number 
of manufactured objects sent to the Paris Exhibition. 

The State has occasionally subsidised some of the most 
important manufactories and has always assisted them 
with its protection. 

For such manufactories as enjoy privileges or subsidias 
there is a general inspector, who has alway been chosen 
from among the Councillors of State. 

The hands employed in the manufactory of cotton 
Goods are exempt from recruitment, that is up to a 
certain number set down by the Government. 

The products of these same manufactories are exempt 
from all duties in the transport from one province to 
another, as also from all export duties when shipped to 
foreign countries. 

The machinery or pieces of machinery imported for 
the use of manufactories, are generally allowed to pass 
free of import duty by decision of the government 

These favors however are only granted for the space 
of two years. The manufactary of cotton goods called 
Santo Aleixo, that of spinning called Santa Thereza 
in the province of Rio Janeiro; those of Todos os Santos, 
Nossa Senhora do Amparo^ Santo Antonio do Queir- 
mado, Modelo and Conceigdo in the province of Bahia; 
that of Ferndo Velho in the province of Alagdae; and 
that of Canna do Reino in the province of Minas-Geifaes 
employ nearly 800 operatives ; and keep in work 15,000 
spindles and 400 looms. Their machinery is in general 
moved by water, of which the power employed is aboat 
300 horse. They produce annually 4,000,000 metres Of 
cloth and 126,000 kilogrammes of thread in Balls form- 
ing a total value of 2,100:000». 

— 72 — 

Privileges of invention (patents) cannot be granted by 
the government for more than 20 years. Beyond this 
period the concession requires a legislative act. 

The government has on some occasions conceded, as 
a recompense, an exclusive privilege to the introducers 
of branches of useful and important trades, but this 
concession requires the approval of the legislative power. 

The effects of the patent cease : 

When it is proved that the patentee presented false 
statements or concealed essential points in the explana- 
tion or declaration given by him with a view to obtain 
the patent. 

When it is proved to the party stated to be the in- 
ventor, that the invention which he has presented as his, 
has already been the object of a previous decree. 

If the patentee has not put his invention in practice 
within the space of two years from the date of the 
concession of the patent. 

If the inventor has obtained a patent for the same 
invention in any foreign country. 

If the article manufactured has been recognised as 
prejudicial to the public, or contrary to the laws. 

If it be proved that the patentee used his invention 
previous to the concession of privilege. 


Agriculture constitutes the principal source of the 
national wealth, and in it the greater part of the popu- 
lation is employed. 

Nature would appear to have destined Brazil to become 
one of the first agricultural countries of the world. Still 
covered throughout her vast extent with magnificent 
virgin forests, her soil preserves its primitive fertility 
and generously repays the toil of man. Her topographi- 
cal formation, her climate, varying sometimes within 

— 73 — 

the boundaries of a single province, the almost uni- 
formly equal and constant strength of her vegetation, 
render her lands more or less specially adapted to the 
cultivation of all the plants of the globe. 

It is thus, that in almost all the Southern provinces, 
while in certain parts , coffee , sugar-cane, cotton and 
tobacco prosper just as if in the countries most favorable 
to their production , and while tea cac&o , vanilla and 
all asiatic plants also flourish ; — other parts of the 
same province serve for the planting of all kinds of 
fruit trees of grain and of European vegetables.— There 
are in fact provinces where coffee and sugar-cane are 
cultivated and where with the most satisfactory results 
wheat, and barley are sown, and apple pear and peach 
trees are planted. 

Besides the principal articles of export , Brazil pro- 
duces many others for her own consumption as , ex- 
cellent cheese in the Northern and Southern provinces, 
butter, lard, a greater variety of fruits various kinds 
of potatoes and other bulbous plants. 

The real potatoe , vulgarly known under the name 
of Batata ingleza , is already cultivated on a large 
scale , supplying the markets and is in no wise in- 
ferior to the imported article. 

Horticulture and gardening have of late years made 
great progress in the Capital of the Empire and in 
those of the provinces of Bahia , Pernambuco, S. Pedro 
do Rio Grande do Sul and others , as well as in the 

The same thing occurs with respect to the culti- 
vation of exotics, of grafting and of the mode of 

The culture and preparation of coffee, sugar and the 
principal articles of native production have been consi- 
derably improved by the introduction of important ma- 
chinery and agricultural implements, as well as by the 

— 74 — . 

arrang'ement and improvement of the desiccators and 
of the means of transport. 

Although the routine is inveterate and nourished by 
the natural fertility of the virgin lands, still it is now 
being advantageously combated by Agricultural So- 
cieties established in the Capital and in the provinces ; 
by various publications and finally by the interest of 
the land-owners who have been aroused by the exam- 
ple and experience of the more enterprising and in- 
telligent planters. 

Institutes founded by the government , and under 
its inspection , in the Capital of the Empire and in 
those of the provinces of Bahia , Pernambuco , Sergipe 
and S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul , with revenues of 
their own and assisted by the municipal boards , co- 
operate extensively to the development of agriculture. 

The foundation of rural credit is projected and the 
legislation relative to mortgages has for this purpose 
been lately reformed. — All this joined to the construc- 
tion of new roads , to the improvement of those now 
existing , to the greater extension given to the river 
and coasting navigation, to the professional instruction 
for the establishment of which attempts are bein^ 
made in the capital and in the various provinces , and 
to the introduction of honest and industrious colonists 
whom the powers of State are constantly encouraging^, 
— all this must bring about a better distribution of 
rural property, and must fix it on new bases thus raisr 
ing the agriculture of Brazil to the point to which it 
should by right attain. 

The repetition of native and international exhibitions 
cooperates undoubtedly to a great degree in producing 
this result. — Moreover the Agricultural Institutes have 
the obligation to encourage with the aid of the go- 
vernment partial exhibitions destined to the agricul- 
tural products previously announced ; — to distribute 

— 75 — 

pecuniary and other recompenses to the agriculturists 
who have most distinguished themselves by enterpris- 
ing and intelligent labor. — A proposition relative to the 
establishment of this class of exhibitions in the capital 
is at present under the examination of the Imperial In- 
stitute of Agriculture at Rio. 

This Institute , the existence of which dates from a 
few years back , has as a capital a fund of more than 
250:000* to which the Head of the State has contributed 
with the sum of 108:000* from his dotation : it has 
also a subsidy from the Treasury , under condition of 
keeping up and improving the Botanical Gardens , 
which were previously maintained at the expense and 
under the direction of the government. 

His Majesty the Emperor is in the habit of honoring 
witk his august presence and his constant encourage- 
ment the meetings of this Institute. 

The presidents of the respective provinces preside 
over the other Institutes. 

Each of them has a fund to which the Head of the 
State has also contributed by donations from the civil 

That of Pemambuco has been lately assisted by the 
I^slative assembly of that province , which has voted 
the sum of 100:000* for the purchase of lands destined 
to the establishment of a normal or model plantation ; 
and the subsidy of 25:009* for the expenses of main- 
taining it. 

■aritlme and flavlal e^naianleatlMi. 

Steam navigation. 

The State subsidises 14 native companies destined 
for the maritime and fluvial navigation of the Empire, 
and of which the annual expense is 2,723:000*. 

The Imperial Government duly authorised by the le- 


^slative power , has contracted with the « United 
Stiates and Brazil Mail Steam Ship Company » a monthly 
packet service between Brazil and the United States , 
in consideration of the annual subsidy of 200:000* or 
16:666*666 for the round voyage , during the period of 
10 years from the day when the first voyage was 

This subsidy is payable in Rio de Janeiro in the cur- 
rent money of the Empire. 

Post Olllee. 

The postal service by land and sea, of which the 
head office is in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro , 
has branches throughout the whole Empire by means 
of special administrations in the capitals of the pro- 
vinces and agencies in the towns, in nearly all pa- 
rishes and in some important districts. 

There are two English companies ; one undertaking 
the steam packet service, making one voyage per 
month between the ports of Rio de Janeiro and South- 
ampton, touching at Bahia,. Pemambuco, St. Vincent 
and Lisbon; and, by a branch line, between the ports 
of Rio de Janeiro and Buenos- Ayres calling at Monte- 
video. — The steamers of the other company navigate 
under the same conditions beween Liverpool, Rio de 
Janeiro and Buenos-Ayres calling at the above men- 
tioned ports but do not offer the same exactitude in 
the days of departure and arrival. 

There is also a French Steam-Packet Company, mak- 
ing one voyage per month between the ports of Rio de 
Janeiro and Bordeaux, calling at Bahia, Pemambuco, 
Gorea and Lisbon ; and, by a branch steamer, between 
the ports of Rio de Janeiro and Buenos-Ayres touching 
at Montevideo. '• -, , 

All these steamers receive passengers and merchan- 

— 77 — 

dise and enjoy the immunities and privileg'es granted 
to Mail packets. 

Another French Company has a regular line of sail- 
ing* packets , from Havre to Rio de Janeiro twice a 
month and from Marseilles to Rio de Janeiro once a 
month ; — there are 17 fine clipper vessels employed 
in this service. - - 

Means of eommanlcatlon by land. 

D, Pedro II Railway. 

This line is intended to unite the provinces of Rio 
de Janeiro , S. Paulo and Minas ; it is open to trafic 
from the capital as far the Commercio Station , on the. 
banks of the river Parahyba. 

The 1st. section, from the capital to Belem , on the 
flat , is 62,7 kilometres (about 39 miles) in extent. 

The second section, which traverses a steep mountain, 
is a monumental work , both on account of the great 
number of tunnels and of the immense cuttings and 
embankments; its extent is 46,2 kilometres (about 
28 3/4 miles). 

The 3rd. section, following in its descent the course 
of the Parahyba , is 151,7 kilometres (9 1/4 miles) in 
length as far as Porto Novo do Cunha; but it is only 
open to trafic for a distance of 38,4 kilometres (about 
23 3/4 miles). 

The 4th. section, which is to reascend the Parahyba, 
is 154,9 kilometres (96 1/4 miles) in length as far as 
Cachoeira ; but it is not yet in construction although 
the plans are drawn up and approved. 

In all 167,3 kilometres (about 98 1/2 miles) are open 
to trafic. They have cost about 27,000;000#. 

This railway was commenced by a Brazilian Com- 

— 78 — 

pany with a capital of 38,000:000» oa which interest 
at 7 °/o per annum was guaranteed. 

Its average receipts annually are 1,200:000» and its 
expenditure 800:000». 

At the present moment this line belongs to the 
State. The authority to prolong this railway across the 
province of Minas up to the basin of the nyet S. 
Francisco , depends on the resolutions of the legisla- 
tive power. 

A commission of Engineers is at present , employed 
in the necessary studies for the decision of the best 

Bahia railway. 

This line commences in the city of Bahia ; — it is 
intended to run across the province up to the stream 
of the S. Francisco. 

An English Company has obtained the concession. 

The capital of two millions sterling, employed in 
the part of the line already constructed , has a gua- 
rantee of 7 % interest. 

The part already constructed and open to trafic com- 
mences at Bahia and terminates at Alagoinhas at a 
distance of 183,5 kilometres (144 miles). 

The average annual receipts are 250:000» and the 
annual expenses 350:000;>. It is intended to improve 
this state of things by constructing highways which 
converge to the stations on the railway. 

The lands from Alagoinhas to the river S, Francisco, 
which the extension of this line will traverse have 
been explored by the engineer VignoUes 

Pernainbuco ntHway. 

The object of tlus line is to place the port of Recife 
in communication with the interior of the province and 
the river S, Francisco 

— 79 — 

An English Company obtained the concession. 

The capital of £ 1,200,000 sterling employed in the 
part of the line already constructed, has a guarantee 
af 7 °/o interest. 

The part already finished and open to trafic extends 
from Cinco pontas near the city of Recife to the Una 
station on the banks of the river of that name, a dis- 
tance of 126,9 (79 miles). 

The average annual receipts are 450:000* and the 
expenses 300:000*. 

The trafic is constantly increasing. 

S. Paulo railway. 

Is destined to join the port of Santos to the interior 
of the province. 

It belongs to an English Company and the capital has 
7 7o guarantee. 

To the original capital of £ 2,000,000 sterling must 
be added the respective interest paid to the Sharehol- 
ders during the construction of the line, so that the 
guaranteed capital must be considered as elevated to 
£ 2,700,000 sterling. 

The part of the line already made extends from San- 
tos to Jundiahy a distance of 130 kilometres (86 1/2 

It was inaugurated and opened to trafic on the 16th 
February of the present year. 

The district between Jundiahy and Campinas which 
the extension of the line should traverse has been 
explored by the engineers Fox and Bennaton. 

Gantagallo railway. 

Serves the interests of part of the interior of the pro- 
vince of Rio de Janeiro 
It commences at Villa Nova, a port on the river Ma- 

-80 - 

Cacii, navigable up to this point by steamers, and is 
intended to be carried on to Nova-Friburgo, a distance 
of 98,2 kilometres (61 miles). 

Th<^ first section only is completed, a distance of 
49,1 kilometres or 30 1/2 miles— to Cachoeira at the 
foot of the Serra de Nova-Friburgo. 

It belongs to a native company, to which 7 7* is 
guaranteed by the provincial government. 

The average annual receipts are 200:000» and the 
expenditure 180:000:1^. 

Maua railway. 

Connects the port of Maua, in the bay of Rio de Ja- 
neiro, with the base of the mountain-range of Petro- 
polis sometimes called Serra d*Estrella. 

It belongs to a Brazilian Company, which has cons- 
tructed it without guarantee of interest or any other 
pecuniary favor from the government. 

It extends for a distance of 17,5 kilometres, or about 
11 miles. 

It serves for the transport of produce brought down 
from the interior by the a Unido e Industria » road, 
to which it is joined by the carriage road of the Serra 
de Petropolis, constructed on the same system as the 
former, and equally worthy of mention for its perfec- 
tion and costly works of art. 

Its average annual receipts are 555:000* and the ex- 
penditure 300:000* 


There exists therefore open to trafic an extent of 
railway of 601,3 kilometres (373 3/4 miles) namely : 

D. Pedro II . . . 147,3 kilometres 91 1/2 miles. 

S.. Paulo .... 139 » 86 1/2 » 

Bahia 123,5 » 76 3/4 » 

Pernambuco. . . 124,9 » 77 1/2 » 

- 81 - 

Cantagallo . . . 49,1 kilometres 30 1/2 miles 
Maui 17,5 » 11 » 

General receipts . 2,650:000»000 

» expenditure. 1,930:000*000 

Balance .... 720:000*000 

Contracts have been made for other railways in the 
provinces of Ceari, Parahyba, Pernambuco, Bahia and 
S. Paulo. 


The Unido e Industria road from Petropolis to Juiz 
de F6ra in the province of Minas, is a macadamised 
road, constructed with the greatest care, and remarka- 
ble for the perfection of its plan and of its works 
of art. 

Its extent is 146,8 kilometres (91 1/4 miles), 

Its g-ross receipts are estimated at 1,700:000* and 
the expenditure at 1,300:000*. 

The Graciosa road connects the port of Antonina in 
the province of Parani with Coritiba, the capital of the 
same province. 

Constructed at the expense of the government, it is 
not yet completed but the greater part of is already 
traversed by carriages. 

Besides these roads, there are others of greater or 
lesser importance in- the various provinces. 

The explorations for the opening of new roads con - 

For this purpose the following explorations have 
been lately made. 

By the engineer Thomas Denon Lander, the districts 
between the bar of the river Camoci and the cities of 
Granja and Ipd, in the province of Ceari. 

By the engineer Sebastiao Rodrigues Braga Junior , 
tie district between the province of Santa Catharina 

E. I. 6 

— © - 

and Porto- Alegre, in that of S. Pedro do Rio Grande 
do Sul, for the construction of a railway. 

By the engineer W. Smith, the district between Ja- 
guarao . Rio Grande and Pelotas, in the province of 
S, Pedro, also for a railway. 

Explorations have likewise been made for a road to 
place in communication the provinces of Para and 
Goyaz, and also for the Pipiri-gnassu road in order 
to connect the province of Parana in Brazil with that 
of Corrienles in the Argentine Confederation. 

Electric Telegraph. 

It is now 14 years since the establishment of telegra- 
phic lines for the use of the government was commenced 
in the capital of the Empire. 

In 1863, the said lines were connected with the for- 
tresses at the entrance to the bay of Rio de Janeiro by 
means of submarine cables; subsequently the wires 
were carried on to the municipality of Cape Frio and 
by this means important services are rendered to com- 
merce by the transmission of maritime news. 

Towards the close of 1865, it was decreed tliat a line 
should be established which, connecting the capital 
with the province of S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul, 
would render important service to the coast of the 
province of Eio de Janeiro, to the commercial port of 
Santos, and to the coast of the provinces of S. Paulo 
and Santa Catharina , extending for a distance of 1,450 
kilometres (about 901 miles). 

Nearly the whole of the line is now in working order. 
It has been necessary to take it across 16 bays and 
bars of rivers, and to set it up in proper order it has 
been necessary to struggle with all kinds of difficulties, 
the mountain-chains on the route being covered with 
virgin forests, without any civilised inhabitants and 

— 83 — ! 


where there was constant rist of being attaked hy 

It is a double line; at the extremities — Rio de Ja- 
neiro an^ Porto-Alegre as well as at the intermediary 
points of Santos and Santa Catharina the apparatus used 
is Morse's duplex. At the other intermediary points the 
electro-magnetic apparatus of Siemens is employed. 

The same if not greater, obstacles are met with in 
the conservation and maintenance of these lines in 
perfect working order, on account of the great extent 
of uninhabited land they traverse, the difficulties of 
transport and the absence of reliable resources; never- 
theless all these obstacles are being gradually over- 

Immigration and Colonisation. 

As it is universally recognised that one of the prin- 
cipal necessities of Brazil is the increase of her popu- 
lation, the powers of State are using every eflPbrt to 
attain this desideratum, either by facilitating the coming 
of emigrants of industrious habits and good manners, 
under certain advantages ; or by taking measures to 
prevent their suffering privations or annoyances on their 
arrival, and to give them some one to guide them and 
assist their first steps. 

Thus it is that in addition to the immunities and 
other advantages granted to vessels which bring emi- 
grants the government guarantees to te latter : 

1st. The landing free of daties of their baggage and 
all instruments or machinery which they bring with 
them for their respective professions. 

2nd. The payment for account of the State, to the 
exclusive benefit of the emigrants, of the difference 
between the price of the passage from Europe to the 
ports of the Empire and that which it is customary to 
pay from Europe to the United States. 

— 84 — 

The Braziliaa consulates at Hamburg', Bremen, Ant- 
werp and Havre are for this purpose furnished with 
the necessary powers. 

3rd. Their admission into a boarding--house in the 
capital of the Empire, under the inspection of an of- 
ficial Agent, in which they can be lodged and boarded 
at moderate prices marked in a table sanctioned by 
the Minister of Agriculture, Commerce and PuWic 

4th. An official colonisation agency, from which they 
can obtain with the greatest facility the information 
they require before proceeding to their destinations. 
Similar information is also given them by the general 
directory of public lands, which recommends them to 
its delegates in the provinces to which the colonists 
are on their way, or else to some co.npetent person 
to direct them properly. 

5th. The free-passage from Rio de Janeiro to the pro- 
vince or locality which they select, to those who prefer 
to establi^'h themselves as agriculturists by purchasing 
lands from the State. 

6th. The mensuration, surveying and description 
of the lots of land they wish for, and a title of defi- 
nite property as soon as the respective payment is 

7th. The price of one real per square braca (4",9J 
includes that of mensuration and surveying if paid at 
sight; and the term of 5 years, in instalments, to those 
who prefer to pay thus, under payment of interest at 
6 Yo per annum. 

8th. The facilities for naturalisation as a Brazilian 
citizen and the exemption from military service as el- 
sewhere stated. 

Beades the favors granted to all emigrants in ge- 
neral, who come of their own accord to settle in Brazil 
and purchase lands from the State, the government 

-85 — 

guarantees to the associations, eommissaries or repre- 
sentatives of the families of emigrants who propose to 
come to Brazil, and form colonial establisTmients hy 
settling together, the following: 

1st. To reserve in the provinces or localities selected 
by them such an extent of escheated lands as is agreed 
upon, the government advancing the expenses of sur- 
veying, of demarkation and of the description of the 

2n. The price of half a real per square braca (4",^) 
to which must be added the expenses of surveying etc. 
mentioned in the foregoing clause. 

3n. The delivery of a provisional title to a com- 
petent person as soon as the site destined to the esta* 
blishment of the colony has been chosen ; — in this do- 
cument will be stated, at least approximately, the 
respective boundaries. 

This title will be replaced by another definite one of 
fAlf right of property, as soon as the price of the lands 
selected be paid t) the National treasury or to the res- 
pective Treasury board of the district, 

4th. The right of the associartixm, commissary or re- 
presentative of the emigrants to mark out as they 
deem best the extent of land to belong to each family. 
5th. To establish at the cost of the State provisional 
buildings for the reception and lodging of emigrants 
in the locality which shall have been previously settled. 
The government moreover binds itself to pay the 
freight of the vessel which brings to Brazil more than 
100 emigrants; or to advance tilie cost of passage and 
food up to the place of their destination; provided 
that the association, commissary or representative of 
the emigrants engages, under due guarantee, to reim- 
burse the amount within a reasonable time. 

The payment of the price of lands and of the advance 
of the expenses of measuring and demarkation must 

-86 - 

be effected within 5 years, in three instalments, to 
count from the end of the second year , of the estab- 
lishment of the first families. 

. The lands and the improvements which are made, 
remain mortg^aged to the government until the final 
reimbursement, which can be effected previous to the 
expiration of the 5 years if it suits the interests of 
tiie parties concerned. 

If the emigrants come from the United States, the 
price of their passages will be ruled by the scale an- 
nexed* to the contract made with the United-States 
and Brazil Mail Steam Ship Company, 

The government, convinced that at the commence- 
ment, a well directed colonisation should be one of the 
most powerful means of obtaining a spontaneous im- 
migration on a large scale, is seriously occupied in en- 
couraging the development of the colonies founded in 
the various provinces. 

With this view, it has constantly endeavored to im- 
prove the condition and the future of the colonists, 
whether in matters relating to colonial government and 
its material amelioration, or in all that relates to spiri- 
tual succour, primary instruction and the religious edu- 
cation of the children, but at all times invariably res- 
pecting the liberty of conscience of the colonists. 

It is at the same time occupied in regulating the 
colonial expenditure and in affording to the inhabi- 
tants, from the very first day of their arrival, the 
means of gaining a subsistence by their labor during 
the time that they connot obtain it by the cultivation of 
their lands. 

In each colony the government has ordered the pre- 
paration of lots of land, measured and marked out, for 
the establishment of new colonists. 

Some of thesd are beginning to respond to the ideas 
of the government, by serving aa a centre of attraction 

to emigrants coming to settle at their own expense, 
influenced by the invitations oftheir relatives and coun- 
trymen, and by the advices they receive of their pros- 

The government has recently concentrated in one 
statute the laws by which State colonies, hereafter es- 
tablished, are to be governed, as well as those already 
existing, in such part as is applicable to their circums- 

Among the important improvements which this sta- 
tute stipulates, we must mention the new form of go- 
vernment given to the colonies: in future the colonists 
themselves will take part in this, being represented 
by six of themselves to be appointed every three years, 
and constituting together with the physician of the 
colony and under the presidency of the Director, a 
species of Corporate Council, entrusted with* the duties 
of protecting the special interests of the colony, as for 
instance ; the construction and repair of edifices used 
for religious or educational purposes, opening of roads,'^ 
ordinary succour and advances of money to the indi- 
g'ent colonists, the acquisition and distribution of ani- 
mals of superior breeds and of plants and seeds. 

It is this body which is to organise the annual bud- 
get of the expenses of the colony, regulate its revenue, 
and take part by its vote in all matters purely colonial. 

The same statute provides for the reception and pri- 
mitive establishment of the colonists in a special edifice, 
and orders the advance of food for the first ten days to 
all those who ask for this assistance; it also concedes 
an allowance of 20?^ gratis to every single man, and to 
every head of a family a like sum for each person from 
10 to 50 years of age, who is under his charge ; also the 
seeds necessary for the first planting, and the agricul- 
tural implements; and to the colonists, who ask for such 
assistance, labor during the first six months. 


There are in the province of Santa Catharina five co- 
lonies under|the charge of the State ; the most impor- 
tant is that of Blumenau, which has a population of 
6,947 souls. 

In the province of Parani there is a colony with 348 

Ih the province of S. Paulo, in the municipality of 
Cananea there is a colony with 268 inhabitants. 

In the province of Minas Geraes, on the river Mucury, 
there is a colony with 875 inhabitants. 

In the province of Espirito Santo, there are three 
colonies containing in all 2,526.— Total: 10.964 persons. 

The government moreover subsidises in the province 
of Santa Catharina the colony of D. Francisca, one of 
those which offer the greatest promise and which con- 
tains 4,263 colonists ; two colonies , containing 3,205 
Bouls in tjfie province of S. Pedro do Rio Grande do 
Sul ; one colony of 1,239 inhabitants in the province of 
Hinas Geraes.— Total 8,707 colonists. 

There are in the province of Maranhao six colonies 
with a population of 887 persons ; these are private 
enterprises and receive no subsidy from the government. 

In the province of S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul, 
besides the old and very important colony of S. Leo- 
poldo, which contains 16,000 inhabitants, but which 
being now independent has lost the character of a co. 
lony, there are five colonies founded by the aid of the 
provincial revenues and containing 5,513 inhabitants ; 
and two others of the same nature with 718 inhabitants 
in the province of Santa Catharina. 

The whole colonial population, exclusive of that of 
S. Leopoldo, amounts to 26,789 souls, of which 10,964 
belong to tlie State-colonies. 

Including the colonists of S. Leopoldo this number is 
raided to 42,789 persons. 

The total extent of the lands cultivated by these co- 

~ 89 — 

lonists is estimated at 96,195,075 square bracas.— (about 
115,000 square acres.) 

The imports, (exiclusive of some colonies from which 
information has not come to hand in time) are calcu- 
lated acording to the official documents at 150:000* and 
the exports at more than 300:000$, exclusive of those 
of the colony of S. Leopoldo. 

With a view to simplifying* the purchase of lands by 
emigrants who wish to hold rural property, the govern- 
ment continues to order the measurement and marking 
out of the limits of unoccupied lands in the localities 
adapted to agriculture and colonisation. 

In the provinces of S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul, 
Santa-Catharina, ParanJi, S. Paulo, Espirito Santo, Ala- 
g6as and Pari, there is already an extent, of 701,250,000 
square bracas (about 835,060 square acres) on which 
more than 27,000 families or. counting 5 persons to a 
family, more than 138,000 persons can settle. — There 
are also in the districts of the State colonies, exclusive 
of those of Mucury and Blumenau, about 850 lots mea- 
sured and marked out, ready for new colonists, and 
which can be distributed to 850 families or to 4,250 

For the division of the public property there is in 
the capital a department of public lands and in the 
provinces subordinate boards of the same nature. 

The surveying and marking out of lands, as well as 
all matters relative to this service, is regulated by a 
law, similar to that of the United-States but modified 
to suit the circumstances of Brazil. 

The lands, when measured and marked out, are sold 
in lots of 250,000 square bracas (about 300 square acres), 
in half lots, and in quarter lots, in auction or other- 
wise, as the government considers best, at the mini* 
mum price of half a real to two reals per square 
braca (4",9 — or about 52 square feet). 

— go- 


Foreigpnei's are received with all benevolence in Bra- 
zil, their rights are respected and in their civil relations 
they are protected by the laws. 

The schools of primary instruction are gratuitously 
open to them and to their children, in the same man- 
ner as to natives 

They are in like manner admitted to the public aca- 
demies and to the faculties of superior instruction. 

They can travel throughout the Empire with the same 
liberty as Brazilian citizens. — They can avail of the 
giiarantees of the habeas -corpus act, etc. — Observing 
the prescriptions of the laws, they are permitted to es- 
tablish and exercise freely all classes of trade, not 
opposed to good morals and to the public health and 
security; they can possess landed property, using it 
and enjoying its advantages in the same plenitude as 
Brazilian citizens. — They enjoy the greatest liberty of 
conscience, and can never be persecuted on the score 
of religion , being required solely to respect the reli- 
gion of the State. 

The rights of their children born in the Empire, have 
recently attracted the special attention of the powers of 
of State; it has been decided that the right which rules 
the civil state of foreigners residing in Brasil, and not 
employed in the service of their own country, shall be 
also applicable to the civil state of the children of such 
foreigners born in the Empire, but only during their 
minority —On attaining their majority, they enter into 
the exercise of their rights as Brazilian citizens. 

Brazilian women marrying foreigners partake of the 
condition of the latter, in the same manner that foreign 
women marrying Brazilians follow the condition of their 

The law guarantees the civil effects of marriages be- 

- 91 - 

tween protestants celebrated, according' to the religion 
they profess, in the Empire or out ot it. 

Naturalised foreigners. 

Naturalisation is at present obtained in Brazil with 
the greatest facility. 

The law which regulated this matter formerly re- 
quired from the foreigner asking for this favor; 4 years 
residence; the age of 21 years ; the enjoyment of civil 
rights in his own country ; a previous declaration of 
his intention to naturalise himself made before the 
municipal board of the locality, before commencing to 
count the 4 years of residence ; a declaration of his 
religious principles ; the proof of his holding landed 
property, or of bis exercising some profession or having 
a share in some manufacturing establishment. This law 
has since been modified as regards the period of resi- 
dence which has been reduced to two years. Moreover, 
those foreigners who are marrried to Brazilians, who 
have invented any new trade, who have adopted any 
Brazilian, who have taken pari; in any campaign in the 
service of Brazil ; those men who are remarkable for 
their talents or considered deserving, and the children 
of foreigners already naturalised, require no other for- 
mality than a declaration before the municipal board 
of the place of their residence. 

If the foreigner comes to Brazil as an emigrant or 
colonist, with the idea of purchasing from the State 
lands on which to settle, or if he comes at his own ex- 
pense to exercise any trade in the country, or even at 
the expense of th6 Treasury to be employed in agri- 
cultural establishments, in the public works or in the 
formation of colonies, he is naturalised at the end of 
2 years, or before that time, if he is deemed worthy of 
that favor. A title of naturalisation is passed and regis- 

-. 99 - 

tered for him gratis on his taking the oath of Melity to the 
Constitution and laws of the Empire, before the presi- 
dent of the province, the municipal hoard or a Justice 
of the peace. 

Emigrants and naturalised colonists are exempt from 
military service excepting that of the National Guard in 
the interior of municipality. 

Of late years the legislative power has frequently dis- 
pensed with the clauses required by the laws respecting 
naturalisation and has authorised the government to 
grant it upon a simple petition without compliance 
with the above-mentioned conditions. 

It is thus that out of 244 foreigners (exclusive of 
colonists), naturalised during the two last years 201 
have obtained their titles of naturalisation in virtue of 
decrees of the legislative power releasing them from 
compliance with the usual formalities. 

The naturalised foreigner is at once considered a 
Brazilian citizen and enters into the fruition of all the 
civil and political rights appertaining to those born in 
the country, with the only exceptions established by the 
constitution, relative to the office of Regent of the Em- 
pire, Minister of State, and of deputy to the general 

Heritages of foreigners. 

The inheritances or legacies of foreigners dying in 
Brazil, are regulated by the same laws and the same 
authorities as prescs'ibed for those af natives, unless 
there exists a cofi$«;dar convention, in which <^ase this 
latter forms the law. 

Consular conventions have been made with France, 
Switzerland, Italy, Spain and Portugal. 

The authority of consuls is also admitted in the cases 
and in the manner determined by the decree of 8th 
November 1851, in virtue of a simple agreement esta- 

- 93 — 

blishing reciprocity by means of aa interchange of 


Primary and secondary instruction. 

The primary and secondary instruction of the capital 
of the Empire is under the charge of the General 
Assembly and of the government. 

The inspection of these matters is exercised by the Mi- 
nister of the Empire, by a general inspector, a cotmcil 
of direction and by the delegates of the district. 

The exercise of a professorship depends on the autho- 
risation of the goyernment ; the candidate must prove 
his legal majority (21 years in order to teach, and 25 
in order to be the head of a school) his morality and his 

Married women must moreover exhibit their mar- 
riage contract, or the certificate of their husband's death 
if they are widows ; and in case of their being judi- 
eially separated from their husbands, the sentence which 
decreed the separation. 

These conditions are required not only for the pu* 
blic professorships but also for the private ones. 

Assistant professors, those who have passed examinations 
at the academies of the Empire in the higher courses, 
those who have been public professors, bachelors of arts 
of the D. Pedro II college, those who exhibit diplomas 
of foreign academies, duly It^alised; — finally natives 
and foreigners recognised as able teachers, may be re- 
lieved from these proofs of professional capacity by the 

The public schools of primary instruction are of the 
first and second order. 

In those of the first order, the teaching is limited to 
moral and religious instruction, reading, writing, the 
elements of grammar^ the elementary principles of arith- 

— 94 — 

metic and the system of weights and measures in vigor 
in the municipality. 

Those of the second order comprise: the whole of 
arithmetic with its practical application, the study of 
the Gospel and the knowledge of sacred history, the 
elements of history and geography especially of Brazil, 
the principles of the physical sciences and of natural 
history, elementary geometry, surveying, linear pers- 
pective, music and singing, gymnastics, the complete 
system of weights and measures in use in the capital, 
compared with that in use in the provinces and in fo- 
reign countries, the french metrical system, which forms 
an integral part of all primary instruction. 

There is a cla?s of professors who under the deno- 
mination of assistants, aid the public professors in their 
scholastic labors, and prepare themselves for the post 
of teachers. 

The professors of primary instruction and the assis- 
tants are always appointed after competitive exami- 

The director of every private establishment of pri- 
mary, secondary or mixed instruction must shew tes- 
timonials of their morality and professional ability. 

The masters and mistresses of schools of primary 
instruction, although they do not themselves exercise 
the professorship, must give proofs of their ability by 
undergoing an examination in the Christian religion, 
sacred history, reading, writing, Portuguese grammar, 
arithmetic, and the system of weights and measures in 
use in the Empire. For the mistresses of schools of se- 
condary instruction the examination comprises reading, 
writing, arithmetic, geography, french or english; — 
and for the masters, arithmetic, geography, french op 
english, latin and philosophy. 

The government can exempt from examination the 
masters of schools who are in the same circumstances 

— 95 — 

as those who for the professorship are exeratt from it; 
— and from testimonials of morality those who enjoy a 
good reputation and are generally known. . 

They must further, before opening their establishmen- 
ts, present the programme of the studies and the pro- 
ject of the internal regulations, the indication of the 
locality, the arrangements, the situation of the edifice 
and the names and diplomas of the professors. 

The masters of schools who do not profess the Roman 
Catholic religion are obliged to maintain a priest for 
their Roman Catholic pupils. 

They may adopt for the instruction of their pupils 
the compendiums and methods which they think best, 
as long as they are such as are not expressly prohi- 

Pupils of both sexes cannot be admitted into the 
same educational establishment ; — and in those of the 
female sex no person of the other sex, over 10 years of 
age, can reside, except the husband of the mistress. 

Tire primary public instruction is gratuitous', and in 
accordance with the present regulations it will become 
compulsory as soon as the government considers the 
occasion opportune. 

The State spends annually about 120:000* for 42 
schools of primary instruction in the capital of the 
Empire, of wich 25 are for the male and 17 for the fe- 
male sex ; — in this amount the expenses of inspection 
are not comprehended. 

The simultaneous system generally adopted in the 
private establishments of primary and secondary ins- 
truction, and other causes which will change in time, 
render the organisation of complete statistics of educa- 
tion very difficult. 

The result at which we have been enabled to arrive 
and which is far below the reality, is the following. 

— 96 — 





Capital of the Empire (and its District) 






Mato-Grosso (*) 






Rio Janeiro 

Rio Grande do Norte 

Rio Grande do Sal 

Santa Gatharina 

S. Paulo 
































28,219 107,483 

The secondary public instruction is in the capital of 
the Empire g'iven at the D. Pedro II Colleg-e, which is 
divided into two establishments — one for boarders and 
one for day-scholars. 

The greater part of the pupils pay a quarterly sum 
but so trifling' that the government expends for the 
maintenance of the two establishments the annual sura 
of about 120:000». 

In the boarding establishment there are educated 
at the cost of the government 25 boarders, and in the 
establishment for day-scholars some pupils educated 
gratis^ and of these latter the number in some years 
has been over 100. 

[*) The result of this province Is not known on account of the extraor- 
dinary circumstances in which it is at present placed. 

- 97 - 

Each of the establishments has a provost charged 
with the direction and inspection of the classes as well 
as with the discipline of the college; also a vice-pro- 
vost, a chaplain and other functionaries. 

The professors are appointed by the government after 
a competitive examination. 

The course of studies is divided into seven years for 
*he following subjects: 

Sacred history, Portuguese and latin grammar; latin, 
french, english, greek, gfineral geography and cosmo- 
graphy , general history , chorography and history of 
Brazil, rhetoric, poetry, litterature and philosophical 
grammar, philosophy, elementary mathematics, physics 
and chemistry, elements of natural history, german, 
Italian, drawing, music, dancing and gymnastics. 

Besides 22 professors there are tutors to assist the 
pupils to study and prepare their lessons. 

The two establishments were last year attende 1 by 
327 pupils, of which 16 have since received the degree 
of bachelor of arts. 

The number of pupils attending- the private establish, 
ments of secondary instruction in the capital is estima- 
ted at 2,718 and at 4,771 that of similar establishments 
in the provinces, forming a total of 7,816. 

This figure is below the reality as it does not com- 
prise the pupils of private establishments in some pro- 
vinces from which the necessary information as to last 
year was not received in time. 

The primary and secondary instruction in the provin- 
ces is regulated by the legislative assembly of each 
province in company with the president. 

In all these establishments the government is endea- 
voring to render the system of education uniform , 
taking as a basis that in vigor in the capital of the 

E. I. 7 

Faculties of Medicine. 

There are two faculties of medicine , one in the ca- 
pital of the Empire and the other in the province of 
Bahia, both using the same plan of studies, which 
comprises six years and the following* subjects; general 
physics especially as applicable to medicine, chemistry, 
mineralogy, decriptive anatomy (anatomical demons- 
tration) botany, zoology, organic chemistry, physiology, 
general anatomy , internal and external pathology , 
midwifery, diseases of pregnant women and new-born 
children , topographical anatomy, medical operations, 
instruments, materia medica^ therapeutics, hygiene, 
history of medicine , medical jurisprudence , pharmacy, 
with attendance at a pharmaceutical laboratory. 

These subjects are taught by 21 professors. There 
are also 21 tutors who take the places of the professors 
in case of any impediment and who attend to the pra- 
tical studies. Both are appointed by the government 
after competitive examination j^. 

The faculties have a special course of pharmacy and 
another of obstetrics. 

The 1st is for 3 years and comprises the following 
studies; physics, chemistry, mineralogy, organic che- 
mistry, botany, 'rnateria mcdica and pharmacy. 

The course of obstetrics is formed of the chair of 
midwifery in the medical course, and of the corres- 
ponding practice at the Misericordia hospital. 

Each faculty possesses a chemical laboratory, a cabi- 
net of physics, of natural history, of anatomy, of 
materia medica, a surgical arsenal, a pharmaceutical 
laboratory and the necessary amphitheatres for the 
lectures and demonstration. • 

The botanical gardens situated in the neighborhood 
of the faculties supply the want of special botanical 


Each faculty is governed by a Director and an as- 
sembly composed of the professors of the faculty; it 
has a secretariat for all its correspondence and a 

In the faculty of medicine of the capital, 183 students 
inscribed their names in the years 1865 for the medical 
course and 45 for the pharmaceutical course. 

In the first course, 23 students received the degree 
of Doctor of Medicine; — 10 completed the second course 
and obtained their diplomas as apothecaries. 

In the faculty of Bahia, 151 students inscribed their 
names for the medical course; — 22 for the pharmaceu- 
tical course. 

Fourteen of the former received the degree of Doctor 
of Medicine and four of the latter obtained their diplo- 
mas as apothecaries. 

The Doctors or Bachelors of medicine and the Surgeons 
authorised to practice in virtue of diplomas from foreign 
Academies or Universities must pass an examination 
before one or other of the faculties if they come to 
exercise their profession in the Empire. 

To be admitted to this examination it is necessary to 
present their diplomas or original titles, and in the 
absence of these, some other authentic documents which 
replace them with authorisation of the government , 
proof of personal identity and documents attesting the 
morality of the pretendant. 

These titles, diplomas or documents must be visaed 
by the Brazilian consul resident in the country where 
they are made out. 

Acting or retired professors of the Universities or of 
Schools of Medicine recognised by the respective go- 
vernments, are exempt from this examination as soon 
as they prove this fact before either of the Brazilian 
faculties, by means of certificates of the Diplomatic 


Agents, or of the Brazilian consul residing in the coun- 
try where they have been professors. 

Candidates who desire to inscribe their names for the 
medical course, must have passed examinations in latin^ 
french, english, history and geography, rational and 
moral philosophy, arithmetic, geometry and algebra up 
to equations of the first degree. 

For the course of pharmacy; in french, arithmetic 
and geometry. For the obstetrical course; in reading, 
writing the four first rules of arithmetic, and french. 

The government spends annually with these two 
faculties the sum of 211:770*. 

Faculties of Law. 

For the teaching of the social and juridical sciences 
there are two Faculties of Law ; one at S. Paulo, capital 
of the province of that name; the other at Recife, ca- 
pital of the province of Pernambuco. 

They are both governed by the same regulations. 

A course of preparatory studies, necessary for the 
inscription in the. superior course, has been annexed to 
each faculty. These preparatory studies are; french, 
english, latin, arithmetic, geometry, history, rhetoric 
and philosophy. 

The superior course is divided into 5 years and eleven 
chairs, comprising; the law of nature, universal law, 
analysis of the Constitution of the Empire, law of na- 
tions, diplomacy, the elements of Roman law, ecclesias- 
tical law, civil law, with analysis and comparison with 
the Roman code, criminal law, military law, maritime 
and commercial law, juridical liermeneutics , civil cri- 
minal and military proceedings, forensic exercises, poli- 
tical economy and administrative law, 

Eacii faculty of law is under the immediate super- 
vision of a director, to whom it pertains to inspect the 

- 101 — 

studies , and , besides , his other attributes , to preside 
over the assembly of professors, which is charged with 
all that relates to the economy and discipline of the 

The faculties have a secretariate for their correspon- 
dence and a library. 

In the year 1865, 375 students inscribed their names 
for the superior course, and 207 for the preparatory 
course ; 60 of the former received the degree of Bachelor 
of Law, a title which enables them to enter the magis- 
tratic career or the profession of an advocate; one 
received the degree of Poctpr of Law. 

The preparatory course was attended by 525 students 
at Recife and of the 440 students who inscribed their 
names 90 received the degree of Bachelor of Law and 
one that of Doctor of Law. 

In the two faculties there is, besides the degree of 
Bachelor, that of Doctor of Law, for which it is neces- 
sary not only to have studied and passed an examina- 
tion in the 5 years of the superior course, but also to 
maintain theses on each of the above-mentioned sub- 

This degree enables the recipient to teach in the su- 
perior course of the said degree. 

Each of them has 11 university professors, and six 
substitutes; one and the other appointed by the gov- 
ernment after a competitive examination. 

The annual expenditure of the two law colleges 
amounts to 155:3080;!^. 

Military Instruction. 

The military studies are performed in the following 
establishments :— 1st, The regimental'schools ; 2nd, The 
preparatory schools : 3rd, The military academy ; 4th, 
The central college. 


AU these establishments are subject to military dis- 
cipline and under the superintendence of the Minister 
of War. 

Begimental Schools. 

The Regimental school intended to train up non-com- 
missioned ofilicers for the army, comprises the following* 
subjects for the three arms: reading", writing, christian 
doctrine, the four first rules of arithmetic, vulgar and 
decimal fractions, metrology, linear perspective, the 
principal prescriptions of the military penal legislation, 
the duties of a private or corporal, a quarter-master 
and sergeant in all circumstances both of peace and 
war ; and further for each arm the special practical in- 
struction laid down in the programme organised by the 
educational council of the military school. 

Preparatory Schools. 

The preparatory schools comprise the study of the 
subjects required for the inscription in the superior 
military course, and for the elementary practical in- 
struction in the use of the different arms. The course 
lasts for two years, during which are studied, Portu- 
guese and French grammar, history and geography, 
especially of Brazil, arithmetic, elementary algebra, ge- 
ometry, trigonometry, linear perspective, practical ge- 
ometry and the administration of companies and bat- 

Military Academy. 

The military academy has a course of three years ; 
the subjects taught are : the higher principles of alge- 
bra, analytic geometry, experimental physics, preceded 
by ideas of mechanics, inorganic chemistry and its ap- 
plication to military pyrotfchnics, topographical de- 
sign, topography and examinations, of territory, tactics. 

— 103 - 

strategy, castrametation, military history, temporary 
and permanent fortification, elementary principles of 
ballistics, principles of the law of nations, elements of 
the law of nature and of common law in all relating* 
to military affairs, the military code, design of projec- 
tions, descriptive geometry, comprising the study of 
numbered plans and their application to defilements ; 
differential and integral calculations, mechanics, theo- 
retical and practical ballistics, military technology, ar- 
tillery, the principal system of permanent fortification, 
the attack and defence of strong -holds, military min- 
ing, design of fortifications and machinery of war, the 
manual exercises, gymnastics, swimming, and practical 

The two first years form the course of cavalry and 
infantry and three years, that of artillery. 

For the Staff and for Engineer corps there is besides 
these three years a supplementary course at the central 
college, which, for the Staff, comprises : — the study 
and practical exercise of geographical design, astrono- 
my, topography, geodesy, botany, zoology and the ele- 
ments of organic chemistry ; and for the Engineer corps, 
the study and practical exercise of mechanics as applied 
to constructions, the principles of civil architecture^ the 
property and resistance of materials of construction, 
ideas on the course of rivers and the movement of bod- 
ies of water in canals and aqueducts, natural and artifi- 
cial internal navigation, railways and telegraphs, miur 
eralogy and geology, architectural design, the arrange- 
ments, and decoration of civil and military edifices and 
the execution of plans. 

The military academy is governed by a commandant— 
a general officer who must have belonged to one of 
the three arms and not be employed in teaching ;;^gjid 
by a sub-commandant— a superior officer, assisteu by 

— 104 - 

one or two adjutants — officers of the army — and by a 
secretary in charge of the correspondence. 

The educational staff is comprised of 8 professors, U 
tutors and one or two assistant professors. 

There is a school of gunnery, subordinate to the 
military academy, at Campo Grande not far from the 

In this school, which has been advantageously at- 
tended by a considerable number of pupils, the follow- 
ing matter is taught : — The nomenclature of the va- 
rious kinds of cannon, their framework, limber, cais- 
sons, carriages, tackle, forges and other furniture; the 
nomenclature and use and manufacture of the various 
kinds of projectiles ; the nomenclature and service of 
the different instraments of force employed in mount- 
ing and dismounting guns ; the practical means of 
judging distance ; the nomenclature and use of the va- 
rious tools for the extraction or insertion of fuse , and 
for sighting and pointing the different guns ; the theory 
and practice of firing guns and congreve rockets, that 
is, direct, horizontal, plunging, and ricochet firing; 
the graduation of fuse to the different distances and cor- 
responding trajectories ; estimation of the explosive 
force of gunpowder by the various recognized methods. 
. There is a long range of fire for theoretical and prac- 
tical instruction, and for the piesent the system adop- 
ted is that of St. Omer, by Panot. 

The personnel of the school of gunnery at Campo 
Grande is composed of a commandant, 1 adjutant, 1 
general instructor, 2 assistant instructors, 1 secretary 
and 1 quartermaster. 

Since the commencement of the present war this 
school has suspended its functions through want of the 
aecessary staff. 

105 — 

Central College. 

This establishment is chiefly destined for the teach- 
ing* of mathematics and the physical and natural sci- 
ences; its course lasts six years and comprises the 
following subjects : — algebra, geometry, plane and 
spherical trigonometry, linear and topographical per- 
spective ; topography, analytical geometry, the general 
theory of projections, differential and integral calcula- 
tions, mechanics, experimental physics, the graphic 
resolution of problems of descriptive geometry and 
their application to the theory of shading; inorganic 
chemistry and its analysis ; the sketching of machinery; 
astronomy, topography, geodesy, botany and zoology; 
principles of organic chemistry, geographical design, 
mechanics as applied to construction, civil architecture; 
the theory of river systems, the movement of bodies of 
water in canals, navigation, roads, bridges, railways, 
telegraphs, mineralogy, geology, architectural design, 
the arrangement and decoration of civil and military 
edifices and the execution of plans; hydrodynamics 
practically applied, motive power of hydraulic machin- 
ery, improvement of rivers as regards navigation and 
floods, navigable canals, canalis^ation and supply of 
water; artesian wells, the safety and preservation of 
ports ; the removal of banks and formation of anchor- 
ages; political economy, statistics, the principles of ad- 
ministrative law ; sketches for building and for hy- 
draulic machinery and for practical exercise during the 

This college has two courses for civil students ; one 
for the profession of civil engineer and the other for 
that of geographical engineer. 

The former is composed of the study of all the above- 
mentioned subjects and of the corresponding practical 

— 106 — 

exercises. The latter comprises the studies of the four 
first years of the general course, which include: alge- 
bra, analjrtical geometry and the general theory of pro- 
jections ; the elements of differential and integral cal- 
culations ; mechanics, plane and spherical trigonometry ; 
topographic astronomy ; geodesy, experimental physics, 
chemistry, botany, zoology, principles of organic chem- 
istry; the graphic solution of the problems of descrip- 
tive geometry and their application to the theory of 
shading ; linear and topographical perspective ; sketches 
of machinery and geographical design ; practice at the 
Observatory and geodetic operations. 

The college is under the charge of a director, who 
must be a general officer of one of the scientific arms 
and not a public professor. He is assisted by two ad- 
jutants—one of them a superior officer — and by a sec- 
retary entrusted with the correspondence. 

Tiie educational staff is composed of 11 university 
professors, 5 tutors, 2 drawing-masters, 2 assistant 
drawing-masters, and several assistant tutors. 

It has a library, a cabinet of physics, a laboratory 
of chemistry, a mineralogical cabinet, and a room for 
models of the most important constructions and of ma- 

The professors are appointed by government after a 
competitive examination. 

The Imperial Astronomical Observatory is a depend- 
ency of the Central College, and is destined to the 
teaching of practical astronomy to the pupils of the 
fourth year attending the said College, and to the publi- 
cation of astronomical and meteorological observations. 
It is there that the chronometers of the war and marine 
departments are regulated, and it signals ds^ily the 
mean time. 

— 107 — 

It has published an important work consisting of me- 
teorological tables with the diflFerent curves. 

It is situated on an eminence in the city of Rio de 
Janeiro ; its employes have been frequently sent in 
commission to various parts of the Kmpire to study and 
make observations. 

The meteorological facts observed during each day 
are published in the daily papers on the following 

There is also an observatory in the capital of the 
province of Pernambuco. 

Native and foreign scientific commissions have been 
usefully occupied in the study of these matters in 
various parts of the Empire. 

The military instruction costs the public Treasury 
an annual sum of 302:890*500. 

Naval Academy. 

The naval college comprises in the same building a 
boarding establishment and one for day scholars ; — in 
both of which is taught a complete theoretical and 
practical course of nautical matters and such accessories 
as are indispensable to those who embrace the mari- 
time profession. 

This course lasts for 4 years and comprises: french, 
english , algebra, geometry, trigonometry, calculations, 
astronomy with practical observation, ballistics, physics, 
chemistry , nrwal ta'!tics , the history of navigation , 
hydrography , topography , manceuvres and practical 
exercises •. — the study of steam-engines as applied to 
navigation ; naval construction , drawing , gymnastics 
and swimming. 

The teaching of the subjects pertaining to the 4th 
year, ntimely ; naval tactics, the history of navigation, 
practical exercises and regular astronomical observa- 

- 108 — 

tions, especially for finding the longitude at sea> 
artillery exercises , hydrography , and drawing , the 
practical details of naval construction as applied to the 
service of war; is given on board a fully armed vessel 
and during a sea- voyage. 

Only those who desire to become midshipmen (guar- 
das-marinha) or those obtaining a special permission 
from the government are admitted into this college. 

Every year during the vacations, the candidates who 
have passed their examination make voyages of in- 
struction in one or more vessels of war. 

The administrative staff of the naval school is com- 
posed of a director, — a general oflScer of the navy — , 
a vice-director , — a superior oflScer , — a chaplain , a 
surgeon, and other employes. 

There are five university professors and five assis- 
tants ; six drawing-masters and two assistants ; all 
appointed by the government after competitive exami- 
nation ; - one fencing-master and professor of gym- 
nastics ; and one teacher of swimming. 

The educational council composed of the director and 
vice-director, of the professors and two of the oldest 
assistants , is charged with the deliberations on all 
matters relating to the instruction and practical or 
theoretical education of the pupils. 

The pupils , as soon as they have completed the 3rd 
year , are made midshipmen (guardas-marinha) ; and 
the government grants to two of them who have con- 
ducted themselves well and distinguished themselves 
in their studies the honors of the post of second lieu- 

The Naval College has a library, a cabinet of physics 
aod another of chemistry. 

Last year , the classes of this Ck)lleg6 w^e attended 

- 109 — 

by 94 pupils , of which 71 naval cadets and 23 civil 

Sixteen cadets completed their cour^se of education 
and became midshipmen. 

The Naval College costs the annual sum of 115:429*800. 

Practical school of artillery for the Navy. 

This school is chiefly intended to train up artillery- 
men with the necessary knowledge to enable them to 
fill on board the ships of the fleet , the posts of gun- 
ner , magazine-keeper and raatross : — from this esta- 
blishment have already come a great many artillery- 
men sufficiently instructed to perform the duties of 
gunners or matrosses. 

The administrative staflF is composed of the director 
and his adjutant , of a naval officer with the title of 
professor of practical gunnery , and of 150 soldiers and 
non-commissioned officers of the corps of Imperial Ma- 
rines and of the Naval Battalion. 

At this school practical instruction in gunnery is 
given and also in the use of fire. arms , sword and 
cutlass as employed in the Navy. 

The soldiers of this school go twice a month accom- 
panied by their respective professors , to attend the 
operations of the naval pyrotechnical laboratory in 
order to learn the mode of handling the fire-works 
used on board ship. 

In the province of Bahia there is a school for pilots. 

Commercial Institute of Rio de Janeiro. 

The subjects taught at the Commercial Institute of 
th^ capital form a course of 4 years and are the 
following : — french , english , german , arithmetic as 
applied to commercial operations , algebra as far as 
equations of the second degree , geometry , geography 

^ 110 - 

and commercial statistics, commercial law, and the 
customs and consular legislation compared with those 
of the countries in the closest commercial intercourse 
with Brazil , and book-keeping. 

The institute is inspected by the Minister of the Em- 
pire through the intermediary of a government com- 
missioner and by the director. 

The most important questions respecting the esta- 
blishment generally , or the teaching and discipline, 
are decided by a board composed of the professors 
appointed by the government, and the director as pre- 

During the past year 53 pupils inscribed their na- 
mes for attendance at the course of the Institute ; — 
two completed the course of instruction and received 
their diplomas. 

The annual expenditure is 18:000;!^. 

Imperial Institute for the blind. 

This establishment consists of a boarding-school , in 
which the blind children of both sexes receive, besides 
primary and secondary instruction , the professional 
education compatible with their ages and abilities. 

It is superintended by a director appointed by the 
government and is subject to the Minister of the 
Empire , who exercises his inspection by means of a 
government commissioner; — it has also a chaplain a 
medical man and some other employes. 

The educational course lasts 8 years and includes — 
reading, writing, catechism, explanation of the Gospel, 
vocal and instrumental music , the rules of counter- 
point and instrumentation, Portuguese grammar ; french, 
arithmetic , algebra as far as equations of the second 
degree, geometry, the general principles of mechanics, 
chemistry and physics, ancient and modem history 

-Ill - 

and geography , Brazilian history and geography , and 
the mechanical arts and professions. 

For the teaching of these subjects , the method of 
Mr. Braille has been adopted. 

The institute possesses a library of about 1,000 vo- 
lumes , and also a printing office , where many com- 
pendiums or compositions of the pupils are printed by 
themselves according to the above-named method ; — 
there is also a book-binding workshop. 

The poor pupils , destined to the mechanical profes- 
sions , receive in the establishment , or out of it, in 
special \^ork-shops , practical instruction in the art or 
profession for which they show most talent. 

The lessons are given by six profess jr^s appointed by 
the government , who have each more than one chair; 
they are assisted by four tutors , three of whom are 
pupils of the institute. 

There are pupils of this establishment who play 
several musical instruments and who now earn their 
living by the talents they have acquired. 

Last year, the number of pupils rose to 30, of which 
number 24 were educated at the expense of the State ; 
— the expenditure of the government amounted to 

Deaf and Dumb Institute. 

This is a boarding-school founded with a view to 
giving to the deaf and dumb of both sexes, the in- 
struction they are able to receive. — It contains at 
present 13 pupils of the male and 3 of the female sex. 

The subjects taught are : — morality and religion , 
Brazilian language , arithmetic and algebra , history 
and geography, writing , drawing, artificial articulation 
and reading by the movement of the lips ; — the girls 
are also taught sewing and embroidery. 

The establishment is confided to a master and mis- 

— 112 - 

tress who teach all the subjects except , drawing for 
which there is a special master; — they are however 
aided by 4 tutors , of whom three are pupils of the 
Institute and are employed in it in different ways. 

The Institute has a carpenter's workshop ; and the 
trades of tailor and shoe-maker are also taught. 

The government assists this establishment with the 
annual sum of 16:0005>. 

Academy of the fine arts. 

It is intended for the teaching of the fine arts and 
is superintended by a director assisted by effective and 
honorary professors. 

The course of study is divided into five sections ; 

Architecture , sculpture , painting , the accessory 
sciences , and music. 

The 1st section comprises the classes of: — geome- 
trical design : ornamental design ; and civil architec- 

The 2nd section the classes of: ornamental sculp- 
ture ; engraving of medals and of precious stones ; and 

The 3rd section the classes of: sketching of figures; 
landscapes ; flowers and animals ; historical painting ; 
and living models. 

The 4th section the chairs of: application of mathe- 
matical principles ; anatomy and physiology of the 
passions ; history of the arts ; aesthetics ; and archoeo- 

The 5th section is formed by the conservatory of 

The instruction is divided into two courses — one 
diurnal and the other nocturnal. 

In the former are taught ; industrial , ornamental and 
figural design ; — ornamental and figural sculpture ; 

- 113 - 

elementary mathematics including* practical arithmetic 
and g-eometry ; the elements of mechanics and living 

The nocturnal course was established hs an indus- 
trial school for the advantage of the working-men , 
who have gladly availed of it. 

The effective professors are appointed by the govern- 
ment after competitive examination ; the honorary pro- 
fessors are appointed by the absolute majority of votes 
of the academic body — on the proposal of the di- 
rector or of three members — and their appointment 
afterwards receives the approval of the government 

They cannot take possessiou of their offices without 
presenting to the academic body one of their works 
M^hich remains the property of the establishment. 

The honorary professors are obliged , when named 
by the director, to fill the place of the effective ones 
in case of any impediment. 

There is also a class of corresponding members , 
composed of distinguished artists residing away from 
the Capital. 

The classes of the academy were last year attended 
by 216 pupils of which 48 obtained prizes.* 

Every year there is opened for the space of three 
days in the saloon of the Pinacotheca a public exhibi- 
tion of the works of the different classes and after 
this ceremony is over the distribution of the prizes 
takes place. 

Every two years there is a general exhibition of all 
the works of art executed in the capital and in the 
Provinces: this lasts for fifteen days. 

All native or foreign artists have the right to exhibit 
their works as soon as these are accepted by the aca- 
demical jury. 

There is an extraordinary prize for the most distiu- 

£. I. 8 

— 114 — 

giiished Brazilian pupil; — this consists in a yearly 
pension for him to study in Europe , during six years 
if he is a historical painter, sculpter or architect; 
and during four years if he is an engraver or lands- 
cape -painter. 

The academy possesses a library, a Pinacotheca and 
a secretariate for its correspondence, etc. 

The annual expenses of the academy are 37:300». 

Conservatory of music. 

Although this establishment is a section of the Aca- 
demy of the fine arts, it is nevertheless governed by a 
special director, with a special code of regulations, is 
in a separate edifice and has its own revenue. 

The instruction, which is completely, gratuitous for 
both sexes, is composed of : — the elements of music 
and solfeggio, and the general principles of singing for 
the male sex ; — the same subjects for the female sex ; 
— singing for both sexes ; — the rules of accompani- 
ment and of the organ ; of string and wind instru- 

Classes for composition and others will be established 
as soon as the resources of the conservatory permit of 
this, and the progress of instruction demands it. 

The administration of the conservatory is composed 
of a director, a treasurer and a secretary entrusted 
with the correspondence. 

Several excellent pupils have come out of this esta- 
blishment ; some of them who were once without any 
fortune have earned the means of subsistence of which 
they now dispose. 


The National Library occupies a vast edifice and pos- 
sesses 66.000 volumes, among which some works of great 

— 115 — 

The Naval Library possesses nearly 2.800 charts, nu- 
merous plans and about 10.000 volumes; — in these 
figures are included 23 special libraries of vessels of 

There are also in the capital other Libraries belon- 
ging to private associations, of which some are very 

In the capitals of the provinces of Bahia, Pemam- 
buco, S. Paulo, CearA and others, there are also public 
Libraries, maintained by the provincial revenues. 

The Press. 

Capital of the Empire. 

Daily papers. 

Jomal do Commercio — (Commercial Journal) is in 
its 46th year and has a circulation of 13.000 copies per 
diem. — It employs 200 hands, and consumes annually 
6.600 reams of the largest sized paper, (each sheet gi- 
ving two copies) the weight of which is 377.009 kilo- 
grammes (376 tons) and 660 kilogrammes (13 cwt) of ink. 

Correio Mercantii (Mercantile Courier) — in its 24th 
year employs 120 hands. 

Diario do Rio— is in its 47th year. 

Diario Official — is in its 3rd year. 

Apostolo — a paper destined to religious subjects is 
published periodically ; — Brazil Historico — a pamphlet 
treating exclusively of subjects relating to the history 
of Brazil is also published periodically ; — likewise sun- 
dry political papers, some illustrated Journals and Re- 
views of Literary and Industrial Societies ; — there is 
also published annually an Administrative, mercan- 
tile and industrial Almanack of the capital and pro^ 
vince of Rio de Janeiro ;— this useful publication 
has now attained its 24th year. 

The Diario do Rio also publishes on the eve of the 

_ 116 — 

departure of the transatlantic packets a paper in the 
french language. 

Two literary Journals, V Impartial and VEstaffete are 
also published in the same language :— in english, The 
Anglo-Brazilian Times, which treats principally of 
matters relating to colonisation and immigration ; and 
the « Bio Commercial Journal » solely devoted to 
-commercial matters. 

The following papers are published in the provinces: 

Voz do Amazonas (2nd year). 
Amazonas {1st year). 

Biario do Grdo Pard (14 th year). 
Jornal do Amazonas (8th year). 

Coaligdo (5th year). 
Publicador Maranhense. 

Moderapao (3rd year). 

Pedro II (27th year). 
Gear ens e (21st year). 
Tribuna Catholica {2nd year). 

Rio-Grande do Norte. 
Correio Natalense. 

Publicador (6th year). 
Biario da Parahyba. 

Biario de Pernambuco (43rd year). 

This ia the journal of the widest circulation in the 
north of the Empire, and rivals the large sized daily 
^pers of the capital. 

— 117 — 

Correio do Recife (3rd year). 
Jornal do Recife. 

Correio Sergipense. 
Jornal de Sergipe, 

Jornal da Bahia (13th year). 

Biario (12th year). 
Inter esse Publico (2iid year). 
Commercial )lst year). 
Pharol (3rd year). 

Rio de Janeiro. 
PaU'ia (12th year). 
Mercantil (Hth year). 
Germania (2nd year) published in Germaja. 

Paiz (3rd year). 

Monitor Campista (30th year). 



Parahybano (4th year). 

S. Paulo. 
Correio Paulistano. 

Biario de S. Paulo. 

Revista Commercial. 


Iris Bananalense. 

A Verdade. 



Echo popular, 



Commercial do Par and (6th year). 
Phenix {1st year). 
Dezenove de Dezembro. 

- 118 ~ 

Santa Gatharina. 
Colonie Zeitimg (published in German). 

S. Pedro do Rio Grande do Sul, 
Diario do Rio Grande (20th year). 
Echo do Sul (13th year). 
Commercial (11th year). 
Artist a (5th year). 
Jornal do Commercio (4th year). 
Rio Grandense (2th year), 
Deutsche-Zeitung (published in German). 

Minas Geraes. 
Diario de Minas. 
Constitucional (2nd year). 

Correio Official. 


The State also maintains a national printing'-offlce 
where the Diario Official is published and where re- 
ports and other official documents are usually printed.— 

It has two mechanical presses and thirteen worked 
by hand. 

There is also a stamping and printing office where 
are printed the bonds of the public debt, promissory 
notes, bills of exchange, bills of lading, postage stamps 
and stamped paper. 

fSeientiile literary and Industrial Societies. 

In the capital of Empire. 

Brazilian Societies. 

The Imperial Academy of Medicine, the Historical 
Geographical and Ethnographical Institute: The Insti- 

— 119 - 

tute of the order of Brazilian Advocates, ihe Polytech- 
nical Institute, the Rio de Janeiro Pharmaceutical Ins- 
titute, the Institute of Bachelors of arts, the literary 
Atheneum, the Society of Literary Essays , the Flumi- 
nense Library, the Society for the Aid of National 
Industry, and the Lyceum of Arts and Trades. 

This Lyceum is intended to oflfer instruction to wor- 
kingmen by providing a nocturnal course. 

The Historical and Geographical Institute publishes 
quarterly a Review which has now been in existence 
28 years; it has rendered many important services to 
the study of the history and geography of Brazil. It 
holds its meetings twice a month and these are always 
honored with the presence of H. M. the Emperor. 

Its library among other works of great value, pos- 
sesses the American collection of Dr. Martins, author 
of <c The Brazilian Flora, » 

The Society for the Aid of National Industry publishes 
every month a pamphlet of a few pages. This Society, 
whose meetings are often honored with the presence of 
H. M. the Emperor, is consulted by the government 
on many affairs relating to the trade and agriculture 
of the country. 

The Imperial Academy of Medicine holds regularly 
its meetings in which are discussed important topics 
relative to hygiene and the public health. The minister 
of the Empire is the Honorary President. For 36 years ' 
this Academy has published a Review first entitled the 
Semanario da Saude Publica, afterwards the Revista 
Medica Flurainense^ more recently the Revista Medica 
Brazileira and at present under the title of Annaes 
de Medidna Braziliense, 

In the provinces of Maranhao, Pernambuco, Bahia, 
S.. Paulo and others there are similar associations and 
some of them publish interesting reviews. 

^ 120 — 

Foreign Societies. 

The British Library, German Library, Portuguese 
Library and Portuguese Retiro Litterario (Literary 

The National Museum, established in the capital, 
is formed of four sections : 1st of comparative anatomy 
and zoology ; 2d of botany, agriculture and the mecha- 
nical arts ; 3d of mineralogy, geology, and the physical 
sciences; 4th numismatics, the liberal arts, archaeology, 
the usages and customs of modern nations. 

Each section has a director and an assistant ; one of 
the four directors is chosen by the government for the 
post of director-in-chief of the museum. 

The sections of mineralogy and of zoology are the 
most complete; that of numismatics is also becoming 
important, and in the ethnographic division, relative to 
Brazil it possesses many rare objects of great scientific 

In the archaeological division there is a beautiful 
collection of vases and works of art of great value, 
extracted from the ruins of Pompeii and presented to 
the Museum by H. M. the Empress of Brazil. 

The National Museum exchanges the duplicates of its 
collection for those of foreign museums. 

Philanthropical societies, established in tbe capital. 

Brazilian Societies -^ Brazilian Benevolent, Benevolent 
Union of commerce and arts. Unity and Benevolence, 
Rio Grandense Benevolent and Humane , Brazilian 
Apothecaries, Benevolent for the Aid of the mechanical 
and liberal arts^ Workmans philanthropical, Rio de Ja- 
neiro printers Benevolent Musical, Municipal Benevolent 
Fund, Benevolent of Perfect Friendship. 

- 121 - 

Foreign Societies — French Mutual Assistance, English 
Benevolent, German Benevolent, American Benevolent, 
Belgian Benevolent^ Spanish Benevolent, Italian Bene* 
volent, Portuguese Benevolent, Portuguese attached to 
Monarchy and Benevolent, D. Pedro V fund of succour, 
Madrepora, and Swiss Philanthropic. 

In nearly all the capital of the provinces and populous 
towns are similar native and foreign societies, which 
distribute succour to their associates. 

Cluiritelil3 Establishmeafs. 

The principal charitable establishment in the Empire 
is the Santa Casa da Mi^ericordia (Misericordia Hospital) 
at Rio de Janeiro; it possesses a considerable revenue 
derived from house property and bonds of the public 

It is entrusted with the public hospital, the foundling 
hospital, the orphan asylum, and the lunatic asylum. 

The ordinary revenue of these diflferent establishment 
amounted last year to 831:058*850 and the ordinary 
expenditure to 608:332^314. 

All the poor, of whatever nation or religion, are 
treated gratis with the greatest care; and not only 
the poor, but those parties who are employed in a ma- 
ritime life, have the right to be treated gratis at the hos- 
pital; for this reason are levied certain imposts on 
wines and on shipping called — Subsidio dos vinhos 
and Despacho maritimo — collected by the Custom- 
Hoiise and which during the last financial year yielded 

At the commencement of the year there w^re in the 
hospital 1,001 patieots; during the year 11,220 patienta, 
chiefly foreigners, were admitted; the average mortar- 
lity was 13 "/o. 

For the crews of vessels arriving at Kio de Janeiro, 

— 122 — 

on board of which epidemics or contag'ious diseases 
have broken out, there is a hospital in a very healthy 
situation, at a distance from the city, where the patients 
are treated with every attention. 

In the capitals of nearly all the provinces, and in 
the most thickly populated cities there exist hospitals 
(casas de caridade); the principal are those of S. Luiz 
de Maranhao, Recife, Bahia, Santa Catharina, S. Pedro 
do Hio Grande do Sul, Potto-Alegre, S. Paulo, Santos, 
Ouro-Preto and S. Joao d'El-Rei. 

In the capital, the religious orders of S. Francisco de 
Paula, Nossa Senhora do Monte do Carmo, S. Francisco 
da Penitencia and of Bom Jesus do Calvario have hos- 
pitals with all the necessary accommodation for the 
treatment of their sick brethren. 

The Portuguese Benevolent Society possesses a mag- 
nificent hospital where the sick of this nation receive 
gratuitous treatment. 


In the capital there is an Opera House which is not 
at present open ;— three Dramatic Theatres, of which 
two are open ; — and many other places of public amu- 

There are also Dramatic Theatres in the capitals of 
nearly all the provinces and in many of the populous 


The Capital of the Empire is lighted with gas. 

The service is performed by an English Company to 
which were transferred the rights and obligations set 
forth in the contract made in 1851 with the Baron of 

The number of burners is over 5,000 and the expense 
amounts to more than 600 contos por annum. 

— 123 — 

The cities of Recife and Bahia are also lighted with 
gas, and the necessary operations for applying the same 
mode of lighting to the capitals of the provinces of 
Pard, Maranhao and Ceard are in course of execution. 

The Hint. 

The Mint is established in the capital of the Empire 
and is a dependency of the Minister of Fin- nee. A 
large edifice uniting all the necessary conditions has 
been constructed for this special purpose. The Governor 
of the Mint is entitled the provedor. — ^The machinery 
for casting and coining is moved by steam and cons- 
tructed on the most perfected principles. 

In the assaying of gold 200 milligrammes are now 

The refining is performed in platina vessels of the 
latest invention. From July 1840 to July 1864, there 
were coined 38,808,890 gold coins, and 13,765,553,500 
silver coins, making a total of 52,574,443,500 besides 
many medals of various metals. 

In 1866 the coinage was 940:760* in gold and 1,334:666* 
in silver.— Total: 2,275:426*. 

This establishment possesses a collection of the coins 
struck in the ancient monetary establishments of the 
country as well as 572 gold, silver and copper coins of 
foreign countries. 

It has also 83 dies of Brazilian medals, and 1,027 fo- 
reign medals. It has also a shool for oil-painting, for 
plastic sculpture and for engraving. 

Each workshop has its respective library. 

Ho«se of Correction. 

In the capital of the Empire and in those of most of 
the provinces of the Empire, there are Houses of Cor- 
rection and Detention, for the untried prisoners and for 
those under sentence. 

— 124 — 

That of the Capital, the construction of whi<;h is not 
yet concluded, comprises a radius of 200 cells, and 
another containing" the workshops and dependencies of 
the est iblishment. — Tn its construction and organisation 
the Auburn system has been adopted. 

The condemned prisoners work, for their own benefit, 
at the trades of carpenter, tailor, quarrier, shoemaker, 
bookbinder and others.— There is in the establishment 
a bakery, wash house and a quarry. in charge of the ad- 

Different articles made in the House of Correction 
and sent to the National Exhibition, prove the perfection 
of the work and the excellent direction of the esta- 

Hnnlclpalityj of the Capital of the Empire. 

This Municipality (called also the neutral municipa- 
lity) has a special administrative organisation 

The affairs which in the provinces are in charge of 
the provincial assemblies and the presidents, are in the 
neutral municipality, the competency of the general 
assembly and central government to which the muni- 
cipality is subordinate.— Consequently it pertains to the 
government to sanction provisionally the municipal or- 
dinances, when the general assembly is not sitting ; 
to fix each year the receipts and expenditure of the 
municipality on the proposal of the corporation, and 
to decide the appeals taken from the resolutions of that 

In the capital the municipal revenue is raised from 
the municipal imposts, the rents of lands belonging to 
the corporation, the product of fines inflicted for mis- 
demeanors by the police, or for infraction of the bye- 
laws, rents on all lands recovered from the sea, licenses 
to open shops and exercise various branches of trade. 

— 135 — 


including theatrical representations and other public 
amusements ; from sums granted by the government 
for certain purposes; from the increased rate voted 
for the tax on houses in order to pay for the paving 
of the streets with stone parallelopipeds ; and finally 
from an item voted every year by the legislative as- 
sembly for the special works of the municipality. 

The revenue for the current year, not including the 
last-named item, has been estimated at 670:430^590 and 
the expenditure at a like sum. 

The property of the corporation comprises, besides 
the edifice which serves as its palace and other pro- 
perty in the City, sesntarias (lands) which have been 
granted to ic at various times, the markets and the 
public slaughter-houses.— It also possesses some bonds 
of the public debt. 

Certain imposts, which in the provinces form part of 
the municii:al revenues, are in the neutral municipa- 
lity considered as general taxes, and produced last year 
the sum of 1,500:000». 

In recompense, the government undertakes certain 
expenses, which in the provinces are charged to the 
provincial or municipal revenues; — such as lighting, 
water-supply, the House of Correction, the police force, 
and some others. 

The city of S. Sebastian do Rio de Janeiro (capital of 
the Empire) contains eleven parishes. 

In these there are, besides the parish churches, 69 
secondary churches or chapels in which divine service 
is regularly celebrated. 

Some of these churches are distinguished for their 

There are 7 convents, 6 lay-orders, and 2 houses of 
prayer founded and maintained by their respective com- 
munities — one for the Anglican Episcopalian Church, 
and the other for the German Evangelical Church, 

— 126 - 

The municipality also comprises 8 parishes outside of 
the city. 

There are two districts of police delegates which 
comprise the whole municipality. 

The city has 14 police sub-delegates and 16 justices 
of the peace. In the parishes outside of the city there 
are eight districts of police sub-delegates and 9 justices 
of the peace. 

The city includes within its boundaries 78 public edi- 
fices , 19,470 houses, of which 6,015 are of more than 
one story, 1,096 of one story, and 12,359 on the ground 
floor; 5,575 houses of busines including 12 trapiches 
{bonded warehouses), 1,585 workshops and 493 manufac- 

In commercial pursuits there are 55,570 persons em- 
ployed ; of these the fifth part are natives ; in the work- 
shops and manufactories 41,560 persons are employed 
and of these the third part are natives. 

Within the boundaries of the city there are Public 
Gardens where many exotic plants are to be found. 
In the suburbs are also the Botanical Gardens, under 
the care of the Imperial Institute of Agriculture, but 
destined likewise to the recreation of the inhabitants. 

In the public squares 614 hackney coaches are daily 
on their respective stands. 

Some of the squares are planted with trees, and nearly 
all of the streets are very well paved. 

In the centre of the Praca da Constituicao (Constitu- 
tion Square), planted as a garden, is a magnificent 
equestrian (bronze) statue of the Founder of the Empire. 

The population of the municipality is estimated at 
600,000, of which 520,000 are in the city and 80,000 

The salubrity of the climate is proved by the follow- 
ing table showing the mortality during the seven years 
below mentioned. 

- 13' 

/ — 

1859 . . . 

. 9,389 

1860 . . . 

. 11,018 

1861 . . , 

. 8,586 

1862 . . , 

. 8,634 

1863 . . . 

. 9,407 

1864 . . . 

, . 8,159 

1865 . . 

. . 9,600 


The total mortality during' this period has been in the 
proportion of 1,78%; during the year 1860, when it 
reached its maximum, it was 2,6 Vo. 

During' the above period no epidemic disease has pre- 

The city of Rio de Janeiro has 7 forts and batteries 
which defend the entrance to the Bay and the interior 
of the port ;— besides two others in course of construc- 

A large number of omnibuses at moderate fares run 
to all the different suburbs, up to a distance of about 
two leag-ues (six miles) ; and there is at present a pro- 
ject for the reconstruction of the railway to the foot of 
the mountains of Tijuca, as well as to make a new one 
out to the Botanical Gardens. Each of these will have 
an extent of about six miles. 

A road lately constructed, with costly works of art, 
affords an easy and safe access for all sorts of vehicles 
to a point beyond the top of the mountain of Tijuca, 
one of the most picturesque and healthy localities in the 

Another, uniting this point to the Botanical Gardens, 
will afford the same facilities as soon as the declivities 
have in some places been modified. 

Botofogo, S. Christovao and other suburbs have the 
advantage also of steam ferry-boats running frequently 
during the day at fixed times. Other steam ferry-boats 

— 123 — 

run every half hoar between the city and the capital of 
the province of Rio de Janeiro, (usually known as Praia 
Grande ani S. Djmiug'os) ; other steamers leave the 
city daily for the Islands of Paquet4, Governador, and 
other points in the province. 

The capital of the Empire is supplied with water 
from various springs rising* in the granitic mountains 
existing at little more than 3 miles away from its 
central point. These waters collected in a reservoir at 
a height of more than 240" (about 787 feetj above the 
level of the sea, furnish in 24 hours a volume of above 
^6,000,000 litres (7,920,000 gallons). 

In the same mountains there are other springs which 
will later on be availed of, anl which joined to those 
already canaUsed will produce in 24 hours a supply 
of water o( more than 80,000,000 litres (17,6000,000 
gallons) . 

This water is remarkably pure and the temperature 
is Ur^arly the same at all the various points where it 
is collected. 

The pipes us3d for th3 conduction and distribution 
of this water have a total extent of 215 kilom., 749",3. 
(about 134 miles). 

Stone conduits, and iron and leaden pipes are em- 
ployed for this purpose. 

The aqueduct, called the Carioca, constructed more 
than a century ago, is the most remarkable of all 
these works.— It extends for more than 8 kilom. (about 
5 miles) and , at the spot where it crosses from the 
hill of S. Theresa to that of S. Antonio over a double 
order of arches, it is at an elevation of 17°»,6 (57 3/4 ft) 
above the level of the ground. 

For the drainage and sewerage of the streets and 
houses a contract has been made with the English 
Company denominated — Rio d'j Janeiro City Impro- 
vements. Their sewers aud other works , constructed 

- 129- 

according to the most approved system, and comprising 
an extent of 36 english miles , are now nearly com- 

Indastrial EsLhibitions. 

The first Brazilian Exhibition was inaugurated with 
great solemnity by His Majesty the Emperor on the 
2nd December 1861 , the anniversary of His Majesty's 
birth, and it remained open until the 16th January 

There where exhibited 9,862 objects belonging to 
1,136 exhibitors ; it was visited by 18,453 persons , not 
countinig those who visited it on the free days. 

The second Brazilian Exhibition was inaugurated 
with like solemnity by the Emperor on the 19th Octo- 
ber 1866 , being the day of the Patron Saint of His 
Majesty , and it remained open until the 16th December 
of the same year. 

There were exhibited 20,128 objects belonging to 
2,374 exhibitors ; it was visited by 53,838 persons not 
counting the visitors on free days. 

In the second exhibition there was consequently an 
increase of 10,266 objects exhibited , 1,238 exhibitors 
and 35,085 visitors. 

Both Exhibitions were ordered by the Government 
and all the expenses were for account of the State. 

It is owing especially to the interest which His Ma- 
jesty the Emperor has taken in this institution and to 
the special protection he has bestowed upon it , that 
so favorable a result has been obtained in these two 

The first time, 1,495 objects were, forwarded to the 
London Universal Exhibition. 

On this occasion there have been sent to the Paris 
International Exhibition 3,558 objects, belonging to 
684 exhibitors , as shown by the catalogue. 

E. I. 9 

. The Braziliau GoYeniment has accepted the imitation 
oi H. I. and R. ajpostolic Miy'esty to taka part ia the 
Vienna Universal Exhibition of 1870. 

Undoubtedly (if God permit), the third Brazilian Ex- 
hibition will more fully demonstrate the extent of the 
wealth and the industrial process of this much favored 

Direetive Comioittee of the National 



Josfi IiDBvoNso D£ SowzA Ea^o& „ Memh^ of His. Ma- 
jesty the Emperor's CoujbucU, S^jxfttoiottke Empire, 
Bachelor iu social aaid juridical sciences, Commanddr 
of the Order of Christ, Chevalier of that of the Rose, 
Vice-president of the fi;3cal council of the Imperial 
Institute of Agriculture, Menjber of the Historical 
and Geographical Institute of Brazil, and of the Sa- 
ci«ty far the Aid of National Industry, ex-Minister of 


Luiz Pedbeira. no Couto Febraz, Member of His Ma- 
jesty the Emperor's Council , Councillor of State , 
Chamberlain of H. M. the Empress, Doctor in social 
and juridical sciences, professor of the legal faculty 
of S. Paulo, Officer of the Imperial Order of the 
Cross, and of the Order of the Rose, Chevalier of the 
Order of Christ, Inspector-general of the Amortization 
department. President of the Imperial Institute of 
Agriculture^ 1st Vice-president of the Historical and 
Geographical Institute of Brazil ^ Member of the 
Society for the Aid of National Industry,. Government 
Commissioner in sundry Institutes, ex-Minister of 


1st secretary. 

Antonio Jose de. Souza Rego , Doctor of Medicine, Ba«r 
cheloc of. Arts, Official of the Secretariate of State for 
Financial AflEairs , President of the Commerce and 
Transport Section of the Society for the Aid of Na- 
tional Industry, and Member of the Directive Council 
of public Instruction in the province of Rio de Ja- 


2d secretary. 

Jose Pereira Rego Junior, Bachelor of Arts, Secretary- 


general of the Society for the Aid of National In- 


Manoel Febbeira Lagos, Commander of the Order of the 
Rose, Chevalier of the Order of Christ, of the Portu- 
guese Order of Nossa Senhora da Conceicfio de Villa 
Vigosa, and of the Imperial Turkish Order of Medjidi6 
of the 3rd class; first OflScial of the Secretariate of 
State for Foreign AflTairs : Director of the Section of 
comparative Anatomy and Zoology at the National 
Museum, and Member of the Historical and Geogra- 
phical Institute, of the fiscal council of the Imperial 
Institute of Agriculture and of the Society for the 
Aid of National Industry. 

Matheus da Cunha, Chevalier of the Order of the Rose; 
Bachelor of Arts and in physical and mathematical 
sciences, stereoraeter of the Rio de Janeiro Custom- 
House, Member of the Council of the Society for the 
Aid of National Industry, and effective Member of the 
Brazilian Polytechnical Institute. 

Raphael Archanjo Galvao Junior, Bachelor in physical 
and mathematical sciences, Civil-Engineer, director of 
the works in construction at the Rio de Janeiro Cus- 
tom-House, effective Member of the Brazilian Polyte- 
chnical Society and of the Society for the Aid of 
National Industry. 

Gabriel Miutao de Villa-Nova Machado, Chevalier of 
the Order of the Rose, Doctor in Mathematics, Staff- 
Captain of the Artillery, Professor at the Central School, 
effective Member of the Polytechnical Institute and 
of the Society for the Aid of National Industry. 

JoAQum Antonio de Azevedo, Officer of the Order of 
tl^e Rose, 2nd vice-president of the Society for the 
Aid of National Industry, and Member of the board 
of Directors of the Imperial Institute of Agriculture. 

Brazilian Commission at the Paris Inter- 
national Exhibition. 


BabIo op Penedo, of H. M. the Emperor's Council, 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of 
Brazil at the Court of London, Doctor of Civil Law 
of the University of Oxford, Grand Dignitary of the 
Order of the Bose, Chevalier of the Order of Christ, 
Grand-Cross of the Portuguese Order of Christ, of S. 
Gregorio Magno, of Francisco I, and the Imperial 
Turkish Order of Medjidi6 of the 1st. class. 


Viscount Barbacena, Grandee of the Empire, Dignitary 
of the Order of the Rose, Commander of the Order of 
Christ, Member of the board of Directors of the Imperial 
Institute of Agriculture. 

Jos6 BiBEiRO DA SiLVA, Minister resident of the reserve 
diplomatic body. Officer of the Order of the Rose, 
Grand Cross of the Orders of Francisco 1.* of Naples 
and of S.» Anna of Russia, of 2nd. class. 

Juuo CoNSTANCio ViLLENEuvE, charg6 d'aflfaires in Swit- 
zerland, Commander of the Order of Christ, honoured 
with the Order of Medjidi6 of the 5th. class, and 
Commander of the 2nd class, of the Order of the 
Ducal House Ernestine de Saxe. 

Manoel de.Araujo Porto-Alegre, Consul-General of 
Brasil at Lisbon, Conunaader of the Order of the Rose, 
Chevalier of the Order uf Christ, retired professor of 
the Central School and of the Imperial Academy 
of the Fine Arts, Member of the Historical and Geo- 
graphical Institute of Brazil. 

Manoel Ferreira Lagos, Member of the directive Com- 
mittee, (q. V.) 

- 184 — 

Mabianno Pbocopio Febbeiba Lage , Officer of the Order 
of the Rose, Colonel of the NationM-Giiard aad Pre- 
sident-director i^f the Uni&o and Indastria Company. 


Joio Mabtins ba, Sliva Coutinho, Officer of the Gsdeor 
of the Rose, Bachelor in physical and mathematical 

•Miguel Antonio da Silva, Eachelor in physical and 
:iDathematical sciences, Captain in the Engineer Corps, 
Tutor at the Central School. 

ios& de Saldanha da Gama, Junior, Bachelor in phy- 
sical and mathematical seiences, assistant professor at 
the Central School, Gentleman of the Palace. 

Dyonisio Goncalves Mabtins , Doctor in Mathematics. 

Fbancisco Manoel Chaves Pinheibo, Chevalier of the 
Older of the Rose, Professor of Statuary at the Aca- 
demy of the Fiae Arts. 


Preface Pag. 3 

Situation and extent of Brasil* 5 

Area 5 

Physical Aspect 6 

Mountain-raogea 6 

Head-lands 8 

Islands . , 8 

Ports 8 

juaxces - . . . o 

jLUYers. ••..••..••. tw 

Climate 14 

Temperature 15 

Rains. 16 

Winds 17 

Minerals 18 

Precious stones 18 

Quartz and its varieties 19 

Gold M 

Silver. 20 

Copper 20 

Tin 21 

Lead 21 

Antimony 22 

Arsenic 22 

Iron 22 

Rocks 24 

Limestone 24 

Clay 25 

Coal. . . . , 25 

Lig^nite. .• ...*.«» . 2d 

Graphite Pag. 26 

Sulphur 26 

Salts 26 

Mineral waters > 27 

Vegetation 27 

Animals , . . 29 

Population . 30 

Constitution of Brasil 31 

Ctovemment and reigning dynasty 31 

Established Religion 33 

Political powers and National representation . . 34 

Legislative power 34 

Chamber of Deputies 36 

Senate 37 

Moderating power 37 

Executive power. 38 

Judicial power 39 

Council of State 41 

Crown office. 41 

Administration of the provinces . 42 

Presidents .....; 42 

Provincial Assembl6s . 42 

Municipal Board 43 

Bights of Brazilians . 44 

Individual guarantees. 44 

Liberty of thought .... 44 

Liberty of conscience 44 

Liberty to travel or reside 44 

Liberty of trade 44 

Right of safety . : . ^ . . • . ... 45 

Right of equality 46 

Right of property 46 

Right of inventions 47 

Secrets contained in letters. . 47 

Bight of complaint &c 47 

Public forces 48 

Army. . Pag. 48 

Navy 49 

Military Arsenals 50 

Gunpowder manufactory 52 

Military legislation 52 

Recruitment 52 

Naval arsenals 53 

Ligthouses 54 

Police 57 

Treasury , 57 

Public revenue 58 

Commerce 60 

Coffee 62 

Cotton , 62 

Sugar 63 

Dryand salted hides 63 

Tobacco 63 

Cacao 63 

Herva-mate 63 

Rum 64 

Hair and wool 64 

Caoutchouc 64 

Rosewood 64 

Gold and diamonds ............ 64 

Articles not classified 64 

Articles of consumption ......;%«.. 64 

Coasting trade ". 65 

Exchanges 65 

Weights and measures ^ ■ . . . 66 

Metrological system of the Empire of Braadl as*, 
used in commercial transactions- compared 
with the french metrical system^ . . . .69 

Anonymous Banking associatioats « . . . . . 67 

Savings Banks , . . . 70 

Insurance Companies . .•>... . . .' 1 * ' 70 

Trade Pag. 70 

Agriculture 72 

Maritime and fluvial communications ... 75 

Steam-navigation 75 

Post-ofllce ....,.....;,.., 76 

Irrestrial communication. ...*.-.... "77 

Railways, *%.... 77 

D. Pedro II Railway *77 

Bahia. do^ .......... . 78 

Pernambuco do 78 

S. Paulo do 79 

Cantagallo do 79 

Maui do 80 

Recapitulation. 80 

Roads 81 

Uniao and Industria road. . 81 

Graciosa road. , . , . 81 

Electric Telegraph. ........... 82 

. ... . • 

Immigration and Colonisation . , 83 

Foreigners .. . 90 

Naturalised foreigners. ,91 

Heritages of foreigners. 92 

Primary and secondary instruction 93 

Faculties of Medicine 98 

Faculties of Law. 100 

Military instruction 101 

■Regimental schools 102 

^Preparatory schools 102 

Military Academy* 102 

Central Ck)llege 105 

Naval Ajcademy. • ♦ 107 

'Practical school of Artillery for the navy ... 109 

Commercial Institute of Rio de Janeiro. ... 109 

Imperial Institute for the Blind 110 

Deaf and dumb In.stitute HI 

- 139 - 

Academy of the Pine Arts Pag. 112 

Conservatory of Music 114 

Libraries 114 

The press 115 

Scientific, Litterary and Industrial Societite . . . 118 

Nacional .-•... 118 

Foreign 120 

Nacional Museu 120 

Phiiantropical Societies established in the capital. 120 

Charitable institution . 121 

Theatres 122 

Lighting 122 

The Mint 123 

House of Correction 123 

Municipality of the capital of the Empire. . . . 124 

Statistical table of mortality for 7 years 1859—1865. 127 

Industrial Exhibitions .129 

Directive Committee of the National Exhibition. 131 

Brazilian Commission at the Paris International 

Exhibition 133 

Assistants : . 134 

Chorographical Map of the Empire of Brazil. . . 134 


V y^jz4xM dC 








^ M 9>* > ^ ^ n 

FIRST GROUP. — Works of Art. 


Glass L —Oil Paintings 1 

Glass II. — Divers paintings and drawings i 

Glass IIL — Sculpture and Engraving on Medals. .... 2 

Class V. ^Engravings and Litliographes ^1 

SECOND GROUP. — Materials and Application 

in the Fine Arts. 

Class VI. — Productions in Printing and Books 3 

Class VII. — Stationery, Binding, and Materials of the Arts of 

Painting and Drawing 3 

Glass VIIL — Application of Drawing and Plastergraphy to the 

used Arts 5 

Class IX.~Proofs and Photographic Apparatus 5 

Class X. — Musical Instruments 6 

Glass XI. — Apparatus and instruments of the Medical Art. . 6 

Glass XII. — Instruments necessary for teaching the Sciences . 7 
Glass XIII. — Charts , and Geographical and Gosmographical 

Apparatus 12 

THIRD GROUP. — Furnitare and other Haus- 

hold Objects. 

Glass XIV. —Articles of Luxury. 12 

Glass XVI,— Crystals, Glass Shades, and Window-g^ss • • 12 

Glass XVIL —Porcelains, Faience, and other Ceramic objects . 13 

u iHmz or GftouM 

GbflB XYUL — GaipetB, HangiiisB, and other stuff firiirics . . 13 

GUSB XX.— Cutlery 14 

Oasi XXL— Gold and Sftveramifliiiig. U 

Clan XXV. —Pterfimiet ih 

CbflB XXYL —Artickt of Morocco, Oder ,&€., te. ... 15 

FOURTH GROUP. — Dress (GomprehendiDg 
Fabrics) and other Objects for private use. 

ClaiB XXVIL —Cotton Cloth and Thread. 17 

Gla» XXVIIk-«>f1an and BttD^mannfactuied* Th»ead, 9ai^ At. 17 

Glaas XXXa —Shawls 

Ctos XXXIIL —Laces , Blonds , Passements. 2Q 

Qass XXXIV. —Caps and Unen Clothing , ar^e^ helawjlng 

to Dr«8s. ^ 

Class XXXV.— Dress for both Sex^s.. 2^ 

Glass XXXVIL — Flre-Arms. 25 

Cbtis. XXX.VUL -^Olioftta fot trufefling and camping ... SSi 

Glass XXXIX. —Children's Playthings.. 25 

FIFTH GROUP. -- Produces (Raa-Hlaterials and . 
Hlfrovgiit) of* Productive Industry. 

Class XL. — PirodnctBOf tho ExploratMMi of Mines and Melallargy. 

Glaas XLl.— »Prodacts of Exploration and Forest Induslvy. . 33 

Class XLIL — 'Producu o£ Hunting FtsWog and Crops ... 57' 

Clan XLin.— Forest Prodacts. 82* 

dan XLIV.— Chemieal andpharmacentieal Prodact» • . . Ifi^ 
Class XLV.^-J^peeim^s of the> cheadca^ proeosseo of bleadteg^ 

4teg, priotiAg, and Aefir proparatEons* . . • 136« 

Class XLVL —Leathers and SUns. .135 

SIXTH GROUP. — Instruments, etc., oTthe 

common arts. 

Class XLVIU. — Artides of rural and forest hidnstry. . . . 139" 

Glass XLIX. —Nets and hnntihg, fishing and harvest mstmments. 139 

Class L. — Articles of agricolliiral and alimentary industry • . tikO 



Glass LI. —Apparatus of the chemical, pharmacy and tanning 

sciences. 1/^0 

Glass LIU. — General mecanical machines and apparatus. . * i/iiO 

Glass LV. —Material and articles of spinning and cord-making . l&l 
Glass LVn. —Materials and applications of sewing and fabrication 

of clothing 1^ 

Glass LIX. —Material and process of writing, hangingpapers and 

impression i^/^ 

Glass LX. — ^Machines , instruments and application used in 

differens works 145 

Glass LXII. — Objects of harnessmaking and saddlery. . . . 1/|5 

Glass LXIV. — Telegraphic material and its application . . . ih6 
Glass LXV. — Engenees, ciyil , public and architectural works, 

its application iU^ 

Glass LXVL — Na?igation and salvation material ii!i7 

SEVENTH GROUP. — Alimentary (fresh or 
prepared) in varied preparation. 

Class LXVJl. — Cereal and others products and comestibles with 

their origine ii!i8 

Glass LXVIU. — Pastry and bakery products 150 

Glass LXIX. — Oily alimentary substances 160 

Glass LXX. —Meats and fishes 162 

Glass LXXL — Vegeubles and fruits. • 163 

Class LXXU. — Condiments and stimulants : sugar and confectio- 
nary products 166 

Class LXXIU. —Fermented liquors 188 

TENTH GROUP. — Objects expecialy exposed 
in sight to meliorate the physical and moral 
condition of the people. 

Class LXXXIX. —Material and methods of teaching children. . 197 




Oil Paintings. 


1 Henrique IVIeol&o Vinet. (Gity. ) 
An oil painting, (landscape.) 

A halt of muleteers on the road to Macah6, near the 
village of St. Mary Magdalena. 

It VIetor melrelles^ de I^lma. (Gity.) 
An historical painting representing Moema. 

The subject is drawn from the Brazilian epic poem Caramuni. Moema, 
a yoxing Indian girl in the neighbourhood of Bahia, feU in love with 
Diogo Alvares Gorr6a, sumamed Caramuru, one of the Portuguese who 
first settled in Brazil. As he was preparing to set sail for Europe, she, 
out of her senses from despair, plunged into the sea and swimming up 
to the vessel wherein he stood, pursued her course until worn out she 
sunk and was drowned. The artist represented her dead body cast on 
shore by the waves. 


Diverse paintings and drawings. 


S Antonio Jo^e da Boelta* (City. ) 
Two miniatures on ivory. 

4 #08^ Tltomaz da Costa C^almaraes. (City.) 
Miniature on ivory. 

^ I^eopoldo Heek. (City.) 
Likeness of. H. M. D. Pedro II. , made with the pen 
on parchment. 

A drawing with the pen , (copy from Tonny Johan- 
- not). .J 
Likeness of a little girt, drawn with a pen. 

• Mariano Jose de Almeida. (Gity.) 
A drawing with the pen. 

c I. I 

— 2 — 


Seulplare and Engraving ton Medals* 

9 THLlvkU (aty.) 

Medal of H. M. the Empress of Brazil, august patron- 
ess of destitute infancy. 
Medal of the D. Pedro II. Railway. 
Medal of Our Lady of Piety. 
Medal, project of military prize. 
Medal comemorative of National Exhibition of 1861. 
Medal of the calendar for 1867. 
Medal of the birth of H. H. Prince D. Pedro. 
Medal of the army and navy of Brazil. 
Medal of 2d class prize of the National Exhibition of 

Medal for the project of coin. 
Medal of H. I. H. Princess D. Isabel. 
Medal of H. I. H. Princess D. Leopoldina. 
Medal of H. R. H. D. Louis, Conde d'Eu. 
Medal of H. R. H. D. Augustus , Duke de Saxe. 
Medal of Mr. Ag-assiz. 

9 I*. HI. Cltairefli Pinltelro. (City.) 

Statue of H. M. the Emperor on horseback, entering" 
Uruguay ana, (modeled in plaster.) 

• UllSiiel Bolslimo & Co. (City.) 

Imperial Crown (coat of arms) wrought in marble of 


Engravings and LItliograplis* 


to Flelass Brotlters & I^lnde. (City. ) 
Lithographic pictures, (various views of the D. Pedro 
II. Rauroad.] 

it #os^ Joaqalm da Costa Pereira Braffa* (City.) 

Picture, (a chrome lithographing.) 

it LeopoldO Heek. (City. ) 

I LeopoidO Heeb. (uty. ) 
Picture with works in lithography. 

— 3 — 





Prodaetlons In Printing and Books. 


«S B« de IHiinos. 

Printed books, in pamphlet. 

«4L Curios Seldl. 

Printed books, bound. 

tft li^aelo Sob€ Ferrelra* 

Printed books, bound. 

iC Jlos^ Mariii Corr^a de Frlas. 

Printed books, in pamphlet. 

«t Jlo0^ lHathlas. 

Printed books, in pamphlets. 


«9 E. & H. liaeinmert. (City.) 
Printed books, bound various. 
Natural History in 2 volumes. 

A catalogue containinff the first part of the works 
published in their library 

t« Imperial Artlstie Institute, (aty.) 
Printed book. 

W^ Jlos^ Jloaquiiii da Costa Pereira Bra^a. (€ity.) 
TypogTaphic picture. 

M liOuren^o MTlnter. (City.) 
Printed books. 

tM IFIlleneoire & Co. (City. } 
A collection of the Journal of Commerce. 


Stationery, Binding, and Materials of the Arts of Painting 

and Draining. 


M Vranelgeo da Costa Junior. 

Copying press. 

— 4- 

t4 Antonio Cnstodlo Montelro. (City.) 
Writing-ink, violet colored. 
Writing-ink, in large bottles. 
Writing-ink, in half bottles. 
Copying-ink, black, in bottles. 

tft Penitentiary , or Honse of Correction. (City.) 


1 Rich album bound in calf, with galvanized cameos. 

1 Album, full bound. 

1 Album bound in macotiara wood. 

1 Album bound in Goncalo-Alves wood. 

1 Book, full bound, gilt. 

7 Printed volumes in half binding. 

8 Volumes of foolscap in boards and stitched. 

2 Registers of printed paper, being. 

1 full bound, and 
1 half bound. 

9% Jloao Fernandes Clapp. (City.) 
Writing-ink, black. 
Writing-ink, violet colored. 

M Jlorse I^euzlns^r. (City.) 
Blank-books, bound, and ruled for book-keeping. 

S9 Jomfp. Anfonlo C^omes* (City. ) 
Writing-ink, black. 
Writing-ink, violet colored. 

M9 #• B. liombaerts. (City. ) 


Album, Brazil picturesque. 

L'Enfer de Dante, 

Constitution Beige, 


Livre, de priSres. 

2 Registers. 

La Dame des Camelias. 

so Manoel do Rego ITiweiros* (City.) 
Writing-ink, red. 
Writing-ink, black. 
Writing-ink, violet colored. 


Si Jlorge SeeUer. 

Album, wood-binding. 

— 5 — 

MM Emillo Wldemann. (aty.) 
Books for book-keeping (day-book). 

CLASS vni. 

Application of Dranrlng and Plastergvaphy to the nsed Arts. 


SS Jlos^ Berna* (City.) 
Imperial Crowii, in plaster. 
Imperial Crown, in stone-board, gilt. 

S4 Baymondo Odonl* (City.) 

Specimens of drawing upon glass, with the necessary 
preparations for engraving. 


Proofis and Photograplile Appafatns* 


Wk Carneiro & Cia^par. (Qty.) 

Photographs (likenesses), 
ae E. #. IFan nrywel. (City.) 

Photographs (likenesses). 

99 J. Insley Paelteco* (City.) 
Photographs (likenesses). 
Colored photographs (likenesses). 

9% #orse lieaaElnser. (City.) 


Panorama of the city of Eio de Janeiro. 
Panorama of the city of Nlctheroy. 
Panorama of the Jsle of Cbbras. 
Views of the city of Rio de Janeiro. 
Views of Tijuca. 
Albums with small photographs. 
Photographs of factory workshops. 

S# Same Ferreira C^ulmaraea & Co. (City.) 

1 Large likeness (photography). 

2 Pictures with 36 different photographs. 

40 iflodeato Aasusto da lillira Blbelro. ^Gity.) 
1 Frame with photographic visiting-cards. 

3 Passe-partout (likenesses). 

— 6 — 

41 litAhl & Waltnseltaire. (City.) 
Photographs (landscapes). 


Musical InstmrneAts. 


Mf Proirlnelal Cominlssloii* 

Carnaiiba clarionet. 
Camaiiba guitar. 


Apmiratas and Instruments of the Medleal Art. 


4S Jl. B. Blanehard. (City.) 


1st. Orthopedical apparatus working on nine articula- 
tions, for the different deformities of the feet and legs, 
invented and fabricated in the city by J. B. Blanchard- 


2nd. Lithotriptor , to be used after lithotomy, accord- 
ing to the idea of Dr. Albino Moreira da Costa Lima, 
made for the first time in this city by J. B. Blanchard. 

3rd. Amygdalatomo, modified according* to the idea of 
Dr. Bustamante Si, surgeon of the Misencordia hospital, 
made for the first time in tlys city by J. B. Blanchard. 

4th. Dilator Air-valvular for strictures of the rectum 
invented and made in this city for the first time, by J. 
B. Blanchard , and successfully employed by different 
surgeons of this city. 

5th. Needles for metallic sewing, invented and made 
in this city, ever since 1864, by J. B. Blanchard, and 
employed with great success by nearly all the surgeons 
of this city in numerous operations. 

6th. Case with instruments for the operation of Ovarito- 
my, fabricated in this city by J. B. Blanchard according 
to the latest models adopted in France. 

— 7 - 

7th. Obstetric porta-la§o. 

8th. Apparatus for the luxation of fingers , toes and 

9th. Instruments for cutting needles when deep caused 
by inflammation after dressing*, invented and fabricated 
in this city by J. B. Blanchard. 

10th. Pincers for ligatures , torsion of arteries , pin- 

Uth. Collection of bistouries, some only commenced, 
and others finished. 

12th. Collection of needles, erignas and knives for eye- 

13th. Incisor for the lacrymal fistula. 

Uth. Urethromo, working backwards or forwards. 

15th. Whalebone exploring probes. 

16th. Spiral whalebone probes for opening strictures of 
the urethra. 

Instruments for Dentists. 

17th. Pincers for the drawing of teeth , American 

18th. Pincers for drawing teeth, English model. 

10th. Key for tooth-drawing. 

20th. Pincers for plugging teeth. 

21st. Porte-lima (nle) for separating teeth. 

22nd. Saw for cutting teeth. 

23rd. Collection of implements for cleaning and plug- 
ging teeth.. 

24th. Levers (or raisers) for the extracting of the roots 
of teeth. 


Instrnments neeessary for teachliig the Sclemees. 


44 Paraense Seltool. 

Geometrical figures made of the woods of the province. 

4ft milt. (CHy.) 

Models of the weights of the national coins made of 
an alloy of palladium and silver, six pieces. 
Model of tne 2* piece made of pure palladium. 


4« #00^ Slaria dos Rets. (Gty) 

N*. 1. — An eye-glass with mounting and case of fine 
gold, of rich workmanship and in high relief, representing, 
on one side, the imperial crown, TT. MM. D. Pedro andD. 
Theresa , a crown of tobacco and coflFee , geographic 
glohe, telescope, compass, scale, semi-circle, stars and 
diflFerent other ornaments. This face symbolizes science. 

2nd. face. — A lyre, trumpet , fiddle , album of music, 

{►edestal, sphere with stars and different ornaments. This 
ace symbolizes music. Value 120# 

N". 2. — Lunette or eye-glass, 1st face.— A steamer, bale, 
cask, cross, star, Mercury, anchor and different ornaments. 
Symbolizes commerce. 

2nd. face. — A wind-mill, bee-hive, rake, pitchfork, sheaf 
of wheat, crown of tobacco and coffee, and other orna- 
ments. Symbolizes agriculture. Value. . . . 120# 

N*». 3.— Eye-glass, 1st face.— Pedestal, dentate wheel, 
hammer, scale, compasses, square, star, Minerva, and dif- 
ferent ornaments. Symbolizes the arts. 

2nd. face. — The sea, steamer, America, sphere, crown 
of tobacco and coffee, and different ornaments. Symbol- 
izes progress. Value 120# 

N°. 4.— Eye-glass, 1st face. — Column, geographic globe, 
map, semicircle, compasses, telescope, scale, pen,imperial 
crown and different ornaments. Symbolizes the sciences. 

2nd. face. — ^Minerva upon a column, a dentate wheel, 
hammer, compasses, square, scale, sphere with stars and 
different ornaments. Symbolizes the arts. Value. 120?> 

N". 5. — 1st face.— Wind-mill, bee-hive, sheaf of wheat, 
mattock, shovel, sickle, rake, pitchfork, fiail and differ- 
ent omaments. 

2nd. face. — ^Mercury, steamer, bale, cask, crown of to- 
bacco and coffee, sphere with stars and different orna- 
ments. Symbolizes commerce. Value .... 120# 

N^ 6.— Eye-glass, 1st face. — Imperial crown, D. Pedro 
I, in the centre of a shield , a palm-tree and different 

2ni. face. — Imperial arms and different ornaments. 
Value 120» 

N<». 7. — Eye-glass, 1st face. — Pedro and Theresa, head 
of an angel, crown of tobacco and different ornaments. 

2nd. face. — ^Hercules sundering chains, a painter's pal- 
ette and different ornaments. Symbolizes liberty. 
Value, 100» 

- 9- 

N«. 8. — ^Eye-glasSj 1st face. -A bee with diflferent or- 
naments. Symbolizing industry. 

2nd. face. -^Basket of flowers with different ornaments. 
Value, 100» 

N«. 9.— Eye-gflass, 1st face.— Bouquets of flowers with 
turquoises, painter's palette and different ornaments. 

2nd face.— Dito. Value, 100» 

N^ 10. — Eye-glass , 1st face. — Cross, angePs head, 
sphere with stars , crown of tobacco and coffee and dif- 
ferent ornaments. 

2nd face.— D. Pedro I., America and different orna- 
ments. Value, . lOOl^ 

N^ 11.— Eye-glass , 1st face. — Cross, Aurora, hand 
with alms, and different ornaments. Symbolizing faith, 
hope, and* charity. 

2nd face.— Pedro and Theresa , palm-tree , painter's 
palette, and different ornaments . Value, . . 100» 

N*. 12. — ^Eye-glass, 1st face. — Imperial arms, angeFs 
head, lyre, and diflerent orma.ments. 

2nd face.— D. Pedro II. , imperial crown, palm-tree , 
lyre , and different ornaments. Value , . . . 100» 

N*. 13.— Eye-glass, 1st face.— Anchor and different or- 
naments. Symbolizing hope. 

2nd face. — America in the centre of a crown of to- 
bacco and coffee, and different ornaments. Value, 100# 

N**. 14. — ^Eye-glass, 1st face. — Pedro and Theresa in the 
centre of a crown of five stars, symbolizmg the impe- 
rial family, and different ornaments. 

2nd face.— America, crown of tobacco and coffee, lyre 
and different ornaments. Value , 100* 

N**. 15. — ^Eye-glass , 1st face.— A deer in the woods, 
and mosaic of gold. 

2nd. face. — Horse in the woods , and mosaic of gold. 
Value, . • . ... . .... . . . . . lOOll^ 

N<». 16. — Eye-glass , 1st face.— AppoUo , with different 

2nd. face. — Vase of flowers, lyre, and different orna- 
ments. Value, . 100» 

N**. 17.— Eye glass all of mosaic of gold in five dif- 
ferent colors. Value, 100» 

N.* 18. — Eye glass all mosaic of green and yellow gold. 
Value, . . 100» 

N<>. 19.~Eye-glass all of flowers in rubies, and orna- 
ments. Value, . 1G0» 

N<». 20. — Eye glass all of flowers in turquoises , and 
ornaments. Value , . 100» 

- 10 — 

N*. 21. — Two eye-glasses, alike, open worked and car- 
ved. Value, each; 80» 

N*. 22. — Two eye-glasses, alike, openworked with 
mosaic in the centre. Value , each , . . . . 80# 

N*». 23. - Three eye-glasses , alike , with braided bor- 
ders, and centre carved. Value, each,. . • . 70» 

N°. 24. — Three eye-glasses , alike , carved , and with 
different ornaments. Value, each, . ... 70» 

N°. A.— Eye-glass, transparent, with checkered work 
in turquoise. Value, 120# 

N^ 25. Five pairs of stout gold spectacles, of cristal. 
Value , each , 30» 

N°. 26.— Two pairs of curv^ed gold spectacles, of cris- 
tal, each, 30» 

No. 27.— Three pairs of stout fine gold spectacles , of 
cristal, each, 30» 

N". 28. — Three pairs of stout fine gold spectacles, 
plain, each, 25» 

N®. 29. — ^Four pairs of superior gold spectacles, curved, 
each, 20» 

N^ 30.— Five pairs of fine gold spectacles , curved , 
each , 20» 

N**. 31.— Two pairs of superior gold spectacles curved, 
each, 20» 

N*. 32. — One stout pair of fine gold spectacles curved, 
(coquillos), value, 30» 

N*. 33.— One pair of stout fine gold spectacles for of- 
fice use, value, 30# 

N^ 34.— Three pince-nez, open, of cristal, with catches 
of fine gold, each, 25» 

N^ 35— Four pince-nez of fine gold, braid-fashioned, 

each, . 20» 

N*. 36.— Two pince-nez of fine gold, smooth, each, 18# 

N^ 37. — Six fine gold pince-nez , Uruguayana , of 
cristal, each, 30» 

N^ 38. — Three stout fine gold pince-nez, Uruguayana, 
each , 25» 

N°. 39. — ^Four pince-nez Uruguayana, lighter, each, 20» 
N^ 40-— Two super fine pince-nez Uruguay ana, each, 18# 
N^ 41. — Two fine gola pince-nez, old style, each, 20» 

N*. 42. — Three fine gold pince-nez, to close up, with 
springs, of crystal , each , 30^ 

N'. 43. — Three pince-nez, of crystal, to close up, with 
springs, new fashion, each, 25» 

— 11 — 

N^ 44.— Two eye-glasses (pince-nez) of fine gold, 
twisted , (senators) , each, 30;^ 

N°. 45.— One pince-nez of fine gold, stout. . 30» 

N^ 46. — One pince-nez of fine gold , light , . 259 

N°. 47. — Two pince-nez of fine gold, stout, (improved) 
each, 25» 

N». 48. — One pince-nez of fine gold, smooth, stout 25# 

N». 49. — Two pince-nez of fine gold, lighter, each, 209 

N». 50.— Two pince-nez of finegold, very light, each, 209 

N**. 51. — Twelve eye-glasses of fine gold, of different 
fashions, each, 169 

N°. 52. — Theodolite repeator , system of Jos6 Maria 
dos Reis (an invention) , value , 3509 

N^ 53. — Plane-table of triangular support , of Jos6 
Maria dos Reis, value, 1009 

N°. 54. — Plumb eclimeter of the french army Colo- 
nel M. Bichot , modified by engineer M. A. , and fabri- 
cated by Jos6 Maria dos Reis, value, .... 309 

N». 55. — Prismatic and azimuthal standard needle, Dol- 
lon system, perfected by Jos6 Maria dos Reis, value, 3009 

N«. 56. — Compass for iron vessels , presented for the 
first time by Jos6 Maria dos Reis , value , . . 3009 

N». 57. — Compass improved by Jos6 Maria dos Reis , 
value, 3609 

N». 58. — Cabin compass, {tell*tale), value, . . 509 


N**. 59. — Gyroscope , improvement of Jos6 Maria dos 
Reis, value , 409 

N«, 60.— Machine for graduating circles of mathemat- 
ical instruments , invention of Jose Maria dos Reis, 
value, 3009 

N**. 61 — Observation rise, invention of Jos6 Maria dos 
Beis, and belonging to H. M. the Emperor. 

4' Misnel Cooto dos Santos. (City.) 
Cast-iron weights (decimal system). 

M llrbano Despajols. (City.) 
Marine calculator. 

— 12 — 


Charts 9 and Geographleal and Cosmographleal Apparatus. 


4* (iopertnteiftdeiit-lii-Cltlef of Ae Department 
or iMrrlealture , Coinmeree and Pablle 

Works. (City.) 

Atlas of the river San Francisco. 

«0 Flelass Brothers & Linde. (aty.) 
Map of the yiver Amazonas. 
Map of the province of Espirito-Santo. 
Map of the port? of Brazil. 
Hydraulic works of the Custom-House of the city. 




Articles of Luxury. 


M House of Correetlon. (City.) 

1 Secretary of satin-wood. 

1 Desk of vinhatico-wood for papers. 

1 Carved rosewood chair. 

1 Plain rosewood chair. 

1 Carved mahogany chair. 

M matheos da Cunlia. (City.) 
Frame with fish-scale flowers (from Santa Catharina). 


Crystals, Glass Shades , and 1/Vlndoiv-glass. 


M Collherme aelber. (Petropolis.) 
Tumblers of cut glass. 

- 13 — 

Porcelains , Faience, and other Ceramle abjeets. 


S4L Esberard* (City,) 

Collection of crockery ware. 

M niAdel & Sons, (City.) 
1 Water-jar with filter, n. 1, of stone. 
1 Water-jar with filter, n. 3. 
1 Water-iar sand system. 
1 Cylindrical filter, of stone. 

1 Box filter, carbonic system. 

• •■ » , . 


A6 Provlnelal Coinmi^slon. 

2 Earthen vessels, embossed. 


Carpets , Hanglpigs , and other staff f abrles. 


§9 Torqoato Antonio de liouza. 

Carpet of muiratingueira bark. 


B^ Provlnelal Conamlsson* 

Camaiiba matting. 



»• Aufn»to €. IVfiirarro. 

Venezian blind of piassaba. 



^ #. B. Blaneltard. (City.) 
Razors (commenced). 

— 14^ 

•i Raymond Odonl. (Gity.) 

Razor stones. 


Gold and Sllversmlthtng. 


•t Doiiilii9os Faraitl & Brotlters. (City.) 
Imperial arms, wrought in silver. 

mm m. S. iralentlm. (City.) 
Diflferent decorations. 

mm Iiitendenee of tlie Imperial Bealdenee. (City,) 

Four silver shields of the Imperial Residence. 

mm irietor Benae. (Gity.) 
Different decorations of the country. 


mm Provlnelal Commlanlon. 

Bowl of mat6, ornamented with silver. 




m9 Manoel Flrmlno da Sllva. 

Cologne water. 


mm Pompillo da Pranf a Amaral. 

Virginal milk. 


•• Coatlnlfto iTIaima & Boalalo. (City.) 
Cologne water. 
Lavender water. 
Philodontine water. • 

Spirits of jasemine. 

Spirits of mint. 

Spirits of thyme. 

Spirits of wormwood. 

Spirits of musk. 

Snirits of lavender. 

Spirits of lemon. 

Spirits of rosemary. 

Spirits of cloves. 

Spirits of vervain. 

Spirits of peppermint. 

Spirits of peppermint., colored. 

yo S. C. I<aii9 & Co. 

Wash-balls, lb. 300 rs. 

Vi I«eao & Alires. (Ciry.) 
' Perfumed oils for the hair. 

Oil of baboza. 

Oil of turnips. 

Oil of macassar. 

Oil of neat's foot. 



Arfleles of Mdroeeo, Osier 9 ete* 


yit Provincial Coinmlssloii. 

Tea-service made of carnaiiba wood. 


ys — Idem. 

Jewel caskets of tortoise-shell. 

Small trunk covered with tortoise-shell and orna- 
mented with silver. 
Small trunks covered with tortoise-shell. 


y4 Amaro Jos^ Perelra. (City.) 

Little boxes of carved ivory. 

yft Carlos Spani^enlierif* (Petropolis.) 
Necklace and bracelets of peroba and coflFee-wood. 

— 16 - 

Tumblers of taquarussii with embossed work of cork, 
each, 10» 


96 House of Correction, (aty.) 

Inlaid boxes of native wood. 

77 Eduardo Assis doa Santos Barata. (City.) 

Tortoise-shell snuff-boxes. 

99 Pedro II. mad-House. (City.) 

Little baskets with flowers. 

Vases with flowers. 

Bead baskets. 

Bead bed. 

Bead table. 

Bead basin and jug*. 

Bead purse. 

Garland of flowers. 

79 tloaqulm Antao Fernandes I^eao. (City.) 

A vase with bunch of flowers made of fish-scales 
from Santa Catharina. 
»a J. JW. p. de Ollvelra. (City.) 
1 Painter's case, of rosewood. 
1 Casket for jewels. 
1 Fancy box. 
1 Watch-case. 

1 Box for bracelet. 

2 Boxes for brooch. 

2 Boxes for larg^e ear-ring's. 

2 Boxes for small ear-rings. 

2 Boxes for pins. 

2 Boxes for pins. 

2 Boxes for rings. 

2 Boxes for ear-rings. 

2 Boxes for ear-drops. 

2 Boxes for shirt sleeve-buttons. 

2 Surgeon's pocket instrument-case. 

^* ■'©"■•en^o maearlo Domlni^ues. (Qty.) 
Work-boxes of inlaid wood. 

M D. marla I«ulza BItteneourt. (Clly.) 
Vase of feather flowers. 



M Jos^ Candida da SUva Jllnrlel. 

"Sassafras Tumblers. 
Quassia tumblers. 

- 17 - 

94 Antonio ^oaqului da Costa & Brotlier. 

Piassaba brooros. 

9ft Henrique Antony. 

Piassaba brooms. 

90 I^naelo do Reiro Barros Pessoa. 

Piassaba brooms. 
99 Joao mareellino Taireira P&o Brazil. 

Piassaba brooms. 

99 «f oaquim Bodriffuea Soares. 

Piassaba brooms. 

99 «fo8i4^ I^naelo Cardoso. 

Piassaba brooms. 

90 manoel Jos^ de SouaEa Coellio. 

Piassaba brooms. 


91 Provincial Commission. 

Carnauba brooms. 


•9 Franclseo Sampalo ITIannsi. 

Piassaba brooms. 


98 Asronomleal Soelety (Colonia D. Pranolscn). 

Cip6-liaca brooms. 


DRESS (comprehending FABRICS) AND OTHER 


€oUon Cloth and Thread. 


•4 Antonio Joaqnlm da Costa & Srotlier. 

Cotton thread in balls. 

G. I. 2 


Cotton braid. 

Maiaoel Somge da SUva Mm^M^j 

Cotton thread. 

•r Pedro Honorato C4MP«<6a ^Mlvanda^ 

Cotton thread. 


•9 Sous CoiuitautiHW'dM MiireliPi»>€o#llw.. 

Cotton manufactured. 


•• Antonio PodlHMio de''AlMH|«erq«0'. 

Cotton manufactured. 

The !acU>ry denominated. « 'Todos os SaAjbosi » belonging to Com- 
mendador Pedroso de Albuquerque, continues to make progress, pes- 
gessing important machines and employing every year a greater num- 
ber of hands. The fabrication of cottons, canvass and duck has been 
extensive, satisfying the consiunption and exporting largely to the 
provinces of the north. 

The employees, who are augmenting constantly , consist, of ft^e 
persons, generaUy belonging to families in the neighborhood. Annexed 
exist workshops for founding, carpentering, etc:, and also schools for 

It is the principal factory in the country. 

§•0 THe Cotton Paetory « Santo Antonio doa 
Quelmadon^ » 

Cotton manufaotured. 


tot nanooI'VorMl^tt I«air<Mi (City); 

Hammocka nwl^tuiit Ooar^- 
i09 Miranda (City). 

iOS Francisco Antonio Alvarca dc Sanaa (Paraty). 
Cotton thread in balls. 

i04 Jo«^ Antonio dcAran|oFiliraclraa& Co* (Bfag«). 


Check, 1st. quality? 

Check, 2nd quality. 

The national factory of Santo Aleixo is situated in the province of 

- 19- 

Rio de Janeiro, municipality of MSjfS',* in a fifi6 locality, wi£fi"proBV 
of water, and capable of being augmented when necessary. I&s laetoiy : 
employs abouth one hundred and seventy hands, young and old all 
told, the greater part being Portuguese and Germans; It works lip 
about 1,500 arrobas of cotton, raised in the northern proTihces. An- 
nexed to the factory there is a night-school, for primary iastmclioil, 
for the youths of both sexes, 


4#ft Fellclano IVepomuceito Prates. 

Trouser patterns of cotton. 


490 B. PoluTOita da» CliM^flf Alniir^cl^ '^dlivetfas). 

Cotton fabrics. 


409 Pranclseo Jos6 de Oliiretra* 

Cotton check for trousers. 


Cotton goods. 

AH* Pellpiie Keller.' 

White calico, striped. 
Colored calico, scnped. 
Stout calico, striped.' 

4i# Pelippina liliideriiiejrer. 

Native cotton thread. 

iii Prederleo CSuiliieriiie Bartltolomy & Carloa 

Cotton quilts. 

4M Joirn Proadfootl^ 

Cotton quilts. 

CLASS xxvm 

Flax and ^emp' mannfiietaretff Thready 1 etc* 


its Barao de Kalden. 

Linen goods. 
Linen goods, coarse. 

- 20 - 

tfl4 FeUppe Jaeoli Sellliaeli. 

Linen goods. 
Linen thread. 

lift Pelippe Keller. 

Linen goods. 

Linen goods, colored. 

•Linen goods, woven. 

IM Prederleo C^nUherme Bartliolomy & Carlos 

Native linen check. 
Linen cloth. 

117 Joao Antonio de Andrade. 

Linen ticken. 

Sack, made of native flax. 
Bolster, made of native flax. 
Linen and cotton goods. 



IM Imperial Institute for Blind Children (Gty). 
Woolen cloaks. 


Laces 9 Blonds 9 Passements. 


IM Aniorlni & Brother. 

Trimming of tucum for net. 


ilto Provlnelal Commission. 

Lace of curaui fibers (specimen). 

iti Dlreetreae of the Sehool of the S« S« Heart 
of iHarir* 

Cushion embroidered with wool and floss upon velvet. 

iSM D« C^rtudes Antonla de Mello Braneo. 

Towel embroidered in point of labyrinth. 


MS Provlnelal Commission* 

Lace (common point]. 
Towel, crochet work. 

- 21 — 

M4 Provincial Cottinileeloia* 


Labyrinthine laces. 
Labyrinthine towel and lace. 
Embroidered handkerchief. 


Mft* — idem* 

Specimens of lares. 

itM O. Ularla Auf^ustn de Cerqueira Uma €or< 

Samples of lace. 

M7 0« Maria de C Caliral Chaires. 

Sample of lace. 


199 Foundling^ Hospital (Recife). 
Chasuble, embroidered with gold. 

ilt9 Peniale Orphans' ^rliool (Recife). 
Stole, embroidered with gold. 


ISO Costa Real & Pinto (City). 
One pair of epaulettes for H. M. the Emperor. 
One pair of epaulettes for a Marshal. 
One pair of epaulettes for a navy officer. 
One pair of epaulettes for a Captain of cavalry. 
One Marshall's sash. 
Four pairs of bands for epaulettes. 

iSt Pedro II. IHiMl house (City). 

Large embroidered cushions. 
Small embroidered cushions. 
Velvet caps, embroidered. 

tt« Imperial Institute for Blind Children (aty) 


Crochet- work. 
Crochet towels. 

tSS D* mapla Carolina Tiei^as (City). 

Frame with embroidery in floss. 

tS4 Fellclaiio ]Vepoiiii|ieejno PratM* 

Open-worked borders *for petticoats. 


Caps and Linen Clothing, jsif^cles .^^^^n^^ |o.^Py;e«s. 


tSft Antonio Ferrelra Paelieeo* 

Cane of Frei Jorge (wood). 
Cane of marajA (wood). 


iSS Carlos Spani^enborif (Petropolis). 

Carved walking-cane, n. 1 ^200»000 

Carved walking-^sane, n. 2 «5vMa 

Carved walking-cane, n. 3, 25^00 

Carved walking-caue, n. 4, 15*000 

Carved walking-cane, n. 5, 10*000 

Carved walking-ca?ie, n. 6, ..... . ^fiQ^ 

Carved walking- cane, n. 7, w500 

Carved walking-cane, n. 8, ..... . 3*000 

Carved walking-cane, n. 9, 3*5#0 

Carved walking-cane, n. 10, 81*000 

Carved walking-cane, n. 11, 1*500 

Walking-cane of twisted liane (woodbine) , n . 1 , 3*000 

Walking-cane of twisted, jiape (woodbjne), n.2, .3|M6Q0 


iSy Catliii|rflx^o|tr|iilto (City). 
Unj.J?rellas and parasols, assorted. 

iS» Imperial Inntltute for Blind Cliiliiffit (GMy). 
Cotton stockings. 


MB Amaro Joe^ Pcroira* 


i4MI Manoel Antonio Tlelra* 


Mi o. Anna Florlnda Hlliclro. 


Mt Pellppe Kiaiop. 

Linen towels. 

— 98- 


i4« Ppovlnelal CommiMtom. 

Camaiiba hat. 


444 Antonio Joaqulm da Silva Baatoa & €•• 

Men's hats of different qualities. 


t4ft Aifoaitolw -Utaoliado & Co. (aty). 
Hen's hats assorted. 

445 'Ali^aMi d^Avmadn (City). 
Men's hats of difFetent qualities. 

147 A. M. Moplam^ (City). 
Ladies' shoes, assorted. 

t49 B^rnardes & Bajrtli (City). 
'Men's hats assorted. 

149 Brai^a Costa & Co. (City). 
Men's hats, assorted. 

MO House of Correction (City). 
Complete equipment in use in the army. 
Mens boots and shoes (assorted). 

ifti Costa Brasa & Co. • (€3ty). 
Patent silk, castor/ arid lelt bats. 

4M Fe||ppo Corr^a de Mesqnlta Boryes (City). 
Men's ^hats, assorted. 

iftS C^onfalves Bra^a (City). 
Men's hats, assorted. 

iM CJonsai^a (City). 
Stockings and jacket made of ass's for. 

tM Ciuilliernie Seliueli de empmueWim (jCkji). 
Bombonacea straw hat. 

««• Imperial Institute for* Blind Clilldron(€l^). 

Carpet slippers. 

tn Jos« Atttotilo de '^fieuetra (aty)- 
Men's hats, assorted. 

iM Jos^ Araufo de Cotto (City). 

Men's hats assorted. > . 

- 24 — 

MMfB Joa^ Caetano Carreiro (City). 
One pair of boots, Napoleon fashion, Russian leather. 
One pair of boots, common leather. 
Four pairs of boots, assorted. 

MO J. Campas & i^on (City). 
Biding boots (chasse k courre). 
Riding boots (ecuyfere). 
Boots & paulista, Benoiton ornaments. 
Boots k mineira 
Servant's boots. 

Balmoral bootees, of Russian and patent leather. 
Scotch bootees, yellow. 
Balmoral booteef^, black Russian leather. 
Patent leather and silk bootees for dancing. 
Patent leather and calf s skin bootees with buttons. 
Calf skin and common leather bootees with buttons. 
Common leather bootees, simple fronts. 
Calf skin bootees, round fronts. 
Patent leather regimental bootees. 
Calf skin bootees, English style. 
Calf skin bootees moulded in a press and without a 

Calf skin bootees, plain. 
Balmoral bootees of common leather. 
Bootees, simple fronts. 
Fine patent leather shoes. 
Fine calf skin shoes. 
Fine yellow shoes, for country. 
Shoes, modern fashion (ville), with buckles. 

!•! Som6 Feruandes de Campos Arcoe (City). 
Men's hats of different qualities. 

Mm J. in. da Cunlia & Co. (City). 

Merino bootees, for ladies. 

flUS Hachado & »la» Alirea (aty). 

Men's castor and felt hats. 

i«4 A. P. Cluillierme (aty). 

Ladies' shoes, assorted. 

tM Perelra de Castro & Brother (City). 
Men's hats, assorted. 

KoeselE Fr^res (City). 

Ladies' boots and shoes, assorted. 

— 25 - 


Fire-Arms. ' 


tS9 jnanafaetory of Fire-Arm« of Cancel^ ao. 





Objects for -Travelling; and Gamping. 


IM Olrector of the flotitie of Ueientlon. (Recife.) 
Wooden cans. 


1419 Claudlo Soi$€ de Ollveira (City.) [ 
Travelling" bags. 

iVO «f oao MaMellliio da Sllva & Co. (aty.) 

Valise, varnished. ' 


19 1 Agrronomleal Soeiety (Colonia D. Franclsca. ) 


Children's Playtfilngs. 


i9t Edyardo A»sl» doe Santoti Barata. (City. ) 
A set of ivory back-gammon counters. 
A set of ivory back-gammon counters, smaller. 

iVS Hodplclo de Pedro O, IMad taioiiae. (Glt^) 

A dressed doli. 

— 26- 


PRODUCES (raw-materials AND ^WROUGBX) 

Prodnets of the ExploFatton of Mnes and lletalli»|py* 


194 Joao MarcAllliio Tavctra P&o Braall* 

Sharpening stone. 
Pumice Stone. 

tyft Joao miartlits da ISIlira Coutliilto* 

Earth from the left bank of the river Maranatuba. 

t9% Joaqalm lioovoslldofde fltonaa Coeltaio* 

Pumice stone. 

This stone, lighter than water, is of volcanic origin. ^There bdng 
no volcanoes in the province of Amazonas, either in activity or extinct, 
we must attcibute the presence of pumice stone, found on the b«Bks 
of the river Solimons (Upper Amazonas), to the foiee of waters de- 
scending from the volcanoes of the chain of the Andes, either in ancient 
or modem times. The fact of finding fragments of this stone floating 
down the river confirms the opinion which we venture. 


tn «f oa^ iTerlaalmo dc llattoa* 

Pumice stone. 


199 Antonio liUlx Soarea. 

Yellow grit stone. 


t99 Aii^tnA damiea BrMOll* 


tMI K«ioviii«lal #aaai n i aai a n . 

Calcareous stone. 


Yellaw /Ofihce. 

Ferruginous coacretions. 
Bujity clay. 

Naiiye i^oda. 

Washed} plwnb.^me. 
Graphite plumbagine. 


iM' Provlnetol CaiiMiitMiifMn. 

Iron minerals. 

194 flil«uel' Bodrieu^A'Vtoiiiia- 
Native sulphur. 


iM;#«Hio.fjrMi6 d«^ Almeida. 
Calcareous stone. for bulding- 

Blue marble. 

Calcareous stone for bulding. 


199 Plrinliio Rodrljfiies Tlelra. 

Bluesh lime-stone. 

Lime-stone with cgjoredvveias. 

Black marble. 

199 Joao Baptieta C^omea. 

Fine-grained grit (grind-stone). 
Ferruginous grit. 


\t9a AAtoiiio ^VmmnmUimo ^das Santas (ttirausli 
.Jjnao Ceslntliva). 

Turf of Peat. 

Existing on ,t(ia ri^t b^nk^pf l^lie river^|i{p|vM, at the .water'9 CKlfi^y 
in a place accessible to vessels of 800 tons burthen: priee'^JSIper ion put 
on board at the same place. 

The collection of geoguostic procluaUQUs, fieom / the pvovince ofBakia, 
being more interesting than eo^ooB,' yetoflsrlbg'.toiheeoiiiioiaBenrs 
specimens by which to form an opinion of 4b6 goil«ad itft'fom«tion and 

-28 — 

extent, and especially of the profits that industry already derives, and 
may yet derive, therefrom. 

It is not only on account of its marble, jasper, gypsum, grit, argil - 
lous strata, etc., that this province may be appreciated ; the combustible 
fossils or minerals are also of great industrial value. The beds of 
turf, which are very extensive in its territory, are incontestably founts 
of considerable riches, not so much ou account of the combustible which 
they present, but principally on account of the products . that modern 
industry extracts from them, such as : oils, mineral tar, and especially 

If the extraction of precious stones in this province has made the for 
tunes of some, it has also been the cause of great loss and ruin to many 
imprudent persons, who, influenced by the example of the fortunate, 
yet have found only misfortune and misery. The activity, labor and 
capital thus sacrificed and completely lost, might have been well 
and profitably employed in industry, taking for base combustible 

The geognosy and mineralogy of the province of Bahia considered on 
this side, offers to scientific speculation a wide horizon, where profound 
naturalists wiU not have to lament their time lost. 

MO Paulo Som^ de Teive e Ar^ollo. 

Crystallized gypseous liiiie-stone. 

Mi Zeferiuo Som6 Corr^a, 

Jasper (lapidated precious stones). 


tot House of Correetlon. (City.} 
Iron half -moon helm, for sloop. 
Boat-hook, for sloop. 
Tin canteen for use of the army. 
Tin coflfee-strainer. 

iOS mint, (aty.) 

Practical assay of gold. 

Small laminae of palladiumized gold (natural alloy). 
22 drams 24 grains of paladium pure , in lamina , 
wire Bind bar. 

i04 Pranelflco CSon^aliree Bauioa. (aty.) 
Large faucet vith springs. 
Middle-sized faucet with springs. 
Small faucet with springs. 
Straight faucet with springs. 
Large faucet, duck's head. 

- 29 - 

Small faucet, duck's head. 
Three brass basins. 
Four copper boilers. 
Two iron axes. 
Two iron scythes. 
One iron mattock. 
One iron boiler. 
One iron spade. 

tOft madei ^ons. (City.) 

Works in tin. 

1 Machine for making ices. 
1 Machine for making tea. 
1 Machine for making- coffee. 
1 Machine for making* tea. 
1 Machine for making* tea. 
1 Oval watering pot, for garden. 
1 Wash-stand pitcher (English model). 
1 Wash-stand pitcher (American model). 
1 Slop-bucket. 
1 Slop-bucket. 
t9ft nilsael Coiito do0 SniiiiMi. (City. ) 

Garden rakes. 






Shield of cast-iron (Imperial arms). 

Cast-iron picture-frames. 


i%9 Clniidlo Jrose lHachado* 

Procelaine clay. 
IM Imperial Iron li¥orUf$ off H. JToao de Ipa- 


Wrought iron in bars. 
Bar iron. 
Iron mineral. 
Martete ore. 
Magnetic oxide ore. 
Ore in crystals. 

In the province of S. Paulo, in S. Joao de Ipanema, the beds Of 
iron ore are rich and extensive. 

- 80 - 

The iron works established there are Bitualed' within 3,75 leagues 
from Sorocaba, and occupy a space of 0,66 of a square league, besides 
a small piece of ground on the Tatuhy road/ and distant halfii league 
firom the principal establishment. 

This establishment being founded in 1810, the operatiotis were first 
commenced there by a small Swede colony , using the old furnaces 
know by the name of « Sttickofen », and only in November, 1818, 
was run off, for the first time, the iron smelted in the new furnaces. 

This establishment possesses two new furnaces, measuring 8 m1^ 
ters in height, and supplying regularly .3,000^ kiUograms of smelted 
iron every 24 hours. 

The machines are propelled by hydrauli& power, wrought by the 
water of the river of S. Joao de Ipanema on the banks of which 
the works are situated). The propelUng*^ power is, during the dry 
season, of 40 horses, and capa1>i)6 of being, after 'some* necessary con- 
structions, considerably increased* ' 

The ores employed^ are the 'martet^ wsd magiietic oxldid, theiricfaness 
of which are well known , and their centre of extrfteti^' is within 
4,000 metres of the furnaces. 

The only combustible used is "wood, as the grounds of the' estab- 
lishment are nearly all covered with forest, and also vTithin five 
leagues, in the directions of the roads of Campo Largo, Porto Feliz. 
and Tutuhy, there is abundance of that article, some of which is 
virgin forest. 

The specimens of timber and firewood that were sent to the exhi- 
bition exhibit those that are commonly used in constructions and as 

As smelting material, are used, lime and dioHte, which are derived 
from beds existing there. 

In the construction of ihd edifices and of 'the 'body of the furna- 
ces, and in the lining of the latbM«,''ar€l<* empt^fdd * tbd gristane-, oi? 
the bricks made of the argile designated in the foUbwingoolledtlom 

F^W locaMi^ "unite, v^tUItt so i9m^< a spacer' such gmt adivatf^ 
tages for the development of so much important indu^ti^. 

t99 Imperial Iron ll¥ovUm of S.i^iOkO^ d49 Ip^ 


Refractory ochre for making bricks. 

Refractory ochre for making tiles.* 


R^ractopy grit.^* 

Fine-grained grit. 


tao Sanies Jdhnson. 

Iron stone. 


tot Antonio Caetmio da Ollvelra IVKAjiliAio. 

Stones from sulphur springs. 

MO Proiriiiclal CommlsBloii* 

Calcareous stone. 
Iron mineral. 

MO Florlndo I<uis Artloo** 

Iron mineral. 

tOdv^Otn^ Candiiio dw Oiiva MUBvlely ! 

Oxyde.of iron-j 

MM HKHtfoel Afcttonio W^wnpel^m 


MO Modesto Ciomf alwes Cordelrck 

Ii^on mineral. 


Mf>iPOd#o AiojA O»lto»ev« 

Ore of antimony. 

Ii*6n miaaeral. 


MO Ttoconde dc Barlioeeiia. 

Stone Coal. 

Both , th^ mineralogy and geognosy of the province of S. Oaihc^^^ 
line are interesting, considered scientifically or ' industriaUy;' 

Thd soil contains collection of minerals already -weU known in th^' ' 
ciA)inets of the Mtlseuni, some of whidi minerals, as --the iron, only ' 
await the enterprise of w^ directed industry and capital/ in good^^^* 
active hands. 

Mines of silver are supposed to exist there, which were diiicovefed^ 
Ui remote times, and afterwards aU vestiges lo6t, th^fre remaining'' 
only the traditten and thB suspicion of their plan and'dedeription 
in the public archives of the province. HdWever, at prastnt; thi^'' 
attention of enterprisers erplolring is called in general*, only* to the bedsj 
of fossil' combustifole; denomlnated'Stdne-Mcoal. Th^se are rich and^ 
extensive, and in very favorable -condition, both^'withregafd^^o the!" 

- 32 — 

mining and to the transport of the productions, situated as they aie 
on the banks of rivers of easy navigation. 
The geognostic collections are also of equal utility and value. 

SiO liTeiieeslao lUfirtliiii da €osta» 


«ii irilhelm Hfiuety. 



SIS nrathaniel Plaiit« 

Stone Coal. 

The specimens were extracted from beds in which this kind of 
coal abounds, and which are found in the district of S. Sepe, on the 
margins of the river Vaccacahy. 

The geognosy of this province is a rich as could be desired by an 
people who have great industrial necessities to supply, either for the 
present or for the future. It presents numerous mines, whence abun- 
dant products are extracted, and which may be further explored during 
centuries to come : and although, relatively speaking, all are of equal 
importance, yet the coal mines are of such moment as to merit spe- 
cial notice. 

The beds of this combustible, named in the province oCoal mines 
of Arroio dos Ratos, » are situated within 2,376 meters of the banks 
of the stream of that name, and separated from it by a plain of bosomy 
land that covers them, and are 12 kilometers distant from the town of 
San Jeronymo, which is a port on the river Jacuhy, and which is 80 
kilometers distant from the capital of the province, by good and unin- 
terrupted navigation. 

The borings made, the gentle inclination of the stratific£ition, and the 
similarity of the ground, lead to suppose that on the right bank of the 
river Jacuhy, and in the part already explored, there exist seven mil- 
lions of tons of coal; the depth is insignificant in comparaison with 
similar beds in Europe. These conditions lead to the conclusion that 
233 years would be the time requisite to exhaust the beds of the said 
mine if the daily extraction were 100 tons ; and repeated borings on 
the left bank of that river show that the depth at which the beds 
are found continues to be 56 metres, beyond the margin. 

There are in the mine of « Arroio dos Ratos, » properly so called^ 
three shafts, the depths of which are respectively, 54 metres, 54^,34, 
and 57n»., where have been found several layers of coal of different 
richnesses, and variable depths, differing also as to the quality of 
the combustible, according to the layer. 


The depth to which the exploration descends being a matter that 
should not be overlooked in appreciating Ihe conditions in which the 
^xplorable beds are found, a comparison between the mines of Arroio 
dos Ratos and those of Lancashire, the most productive in England 
and in the world, will demonstrate not only the richness but also 
the advantageous circumstances which the former enjoy. In the Bra- 
zilian inines one meter of good coal is found for 32"',13 of depth, in 
the English mines each meter of layer corresponds to 37" ,62 of depth, 
in une of the principal shafts, and 59«>,4 in the others. 

From the immediate experiments that have been made, both in 
the steamei's of the Government and in those of the Company, results 
worthy of mention, have been obtained: 

1st. The Bio Grande coal produces steam in the same time as the 
English coal of New-Castle. 

2d. It does not stick to the bars ; and dirties the tubes of the 
boilers very little ; these being very notable advantages. 

3d. It leaves 25 o/o of residue. 

4th. It requires greater activity in the service of the fire, for the 
combustion to be complete; in order to extract the cinders, which, 
•as is clear, is more abundant than with the English coal. 

5th. It requires, in consequence, larger coal lockers in the steam 

However, the company « Jacuhy », that for 8 years have employed, 
in their steamers, the coal from the mine « Arroio dos Eatos » con- 
sider that the difference in the price makes compensation for the 

As to the transport of the products extracted from the mines, it 
is carried on by mules, each ton of coal requiring three of those 
animals, although with rails or a tramroad, one mule might trans- 
port 6 tons at a time. 

The ground lying between the mines and the port of Ai'foio dos 
Ratos is admirably adapted to this kind of road. 

Products of Exploration and Forest Industry. 


MS Antonio Hlouteiro. 

Muirapiranga. [Ccesalpinia echinata. Lam.) 

c. I. 3 

— 34 — 

914 Commission Proirlnolal* 


Lead laurel. 

Sucuiiba [Plunieria Phagoedceiiica. Mart.) 

From the tree commonly known by this name in the province of 
Amazonas. Its wood is suHiciently strong to be used in internal works, 
as well as in those exposed to the weather or immersed. The trunk of 
the tree measures 9°»,90, 13«,20 or 17^,60 in height, and 0",66, 1",U 
or 1™,32 at its greatest circumference. It is common in the forests and 
in the dry lands of that province. 

IJcuiiba. {Myristica surina^nentis. Rol.) 

From the tree vulgarly known by that name; very abundant in 
the forests of the province of Amazonas; it is much esteemed on 
account of the utility of its fruit which contains an adipo serosa 
sub-aromatic and soft mass of which candles arc made. Its sap is 
applied in medicine. Its trunk measures 4",40 to 8ra,80 in height, and 
1™,10 to l'»,32 in its greatest circumference. The wood is not of suf- 
ficient consistency to be employed in works of any duration. 

91 & Doiiiiii9os Jos6 de CnrvAllio. 


Itauba amarella. [Acrodiclidium.) Vid. pag. 35. 


Queen wood. [Centrolobium paraense.) 

Arary muiri. 


Inamuhy laurel is the name of a well-known tree in the province 
of Amazonas from which a wood of the same name is derived. It 
is frequently found on the banks of the brooks. The wood is only 
made use of in internal works. 

916 ^oao jflarcelllno Tavelra Pdo Braiiil. 

Precious wood. [Mespilodaphne preciosa. Nees.) 

M7 Jom6 JToafitiim Palheta. 


Anhuiua, white. 

Anhuiu^, black. 

Sweet laurel, [Aydendron.) 

Muirapiranga, {(Jmsalpinea echinuta. Lam.) 

919 Jos6 Rieardo Kanny Paeltlnoy-. 

Caraip6 carbonized. 

Mil Leonardo Antonio jUalcher. 

Precious wood. 

— 35- 

MO JUanoel de Cupertino Salffado* 


Extracted from the tree commonly known by this name in the pro- 
vince of Amazonas and abundant in the forests. The wood is very 
durable and is employed in works, in-door or out-door, immersed 
or underground. The trunk measures (6"»,60 to 15",40) in height, and 
(2" ,20 to 2™ ,64) in its greatest circumference. 

Andira-uichi. [Andira.) 

Angelim. [Machmnum heteroptenim. Fr. All.) 

The wood derived from this tree is very hard and is employed in 
internal and immersed works. The trunk of the tree measures (ll»,CO to 
22>o,00) in height and (2°^,64 to 3n.52)in its greatest circumference. Here 
are two kinds known, both having the same properties. The tree found 
in dry ground is preferred. 

Copaliibeira. [Copaifera nitida. Mart.) 

From a tree vulgarly known by this name and abounding in the 
dry grounds of the province of Amazonas. The wood is hard and is 
employed in in-door and immersed out-door, works. The trunk measures 
17">,60 to 22n',00 in height, and 1«»,10 to 1«»,54 in its greatest circum- 
ference. From this tree is extracted the oil known in medicine by the 
name of copahiba. 

Cumaruzeiro. [Dipterix odorata, W.) 

From the tree vulgarly known by this name, very common in the 
forests of the province of Amazonas. Its fruit produces the bean from 
which the oil of that name is extracted and used as a perfume. 
The trunk measures from 4™,40 to 6™ ,60 in height, and from 0»,66 
to 0«n,88 in its greatest circumference. The wood is employed in 
in-door works and in cabinet-making. 

Gaariuba. [Galipea utilissima. Fr. All.) 

From the tree commonly known by this name, whose trunk is 
from 13'n,20 to 17n»,60 in height, and 0«»,88 to l'»,76 in its greatest 
circumference. The tree abounds in the forests of the province of 
Amazonas. The wood is hard and of great duration^ and therefore 
is employed in in-door and out-door works. 

Itauba preta. [Oreodaphne.) 

From the tree vulgarly known by this name, very common in the 
forests of the province of Amazonas, there being four diflferent kinds, 
of equal value in constructions, denominated the yellow, the red, the 
black and the penima or variegated, all of great consistency and very 
durable, so that they are employed in immersed and out-door works, 
and others ; the penima might be used even in cabinet-making. The tree 


— 36 — 

grows to colossal proportions; its trunk measures from 19"y80 to 
24«»,20 in height and from 2" ,2 to 3" ,08 in its greatest circumference. 

Itauba bahina. 
Ing*&-rana. [Inga.] 

From the tree commonly known by this name, whose wood is 
employed only in some works of joinery, in the province of Ama- 
zonas. The tree abounds in the forests and dry grounds of this pro- 

Ip6-pana. [Tecoma.) 

From tlie tree commonly known by this name, in the province 
of Amazonas. The wood is less consistent and less durable than the 
genuine Ip6, and therefore it is used only in the in-door works and 
joinery of the province. 

Ipadii-rana. [Erythroxilon.) 

Jarana. [Mimosacea.) 

Jacar6-uba. [Calophyllum brasiliense. Mart.) 

From the tree conmionly known by this name and which is abun- 
dant in the forests of Amazonas. The trunk measures from 24" ,20 to 
28»,60 in height, and from 2™,20 to 3" ,08 in its greatest circumfe- 
rence. It is employed only in in-door works because the wood is 
not of long duration when exposed to the weather. 


Louro cascudo. 

Louro da terra firme. 

Louro do Igap6. 

Louro. (Cordia.) 

Louro abacate. [Per sea,) 

These trees are very common in the province of Amazonas. Their 
wood is sufficiently consistent to be employed in in-door and out- 
door works, and in cabinet-making. Their trunks measure from 8" ,80 
to 13- ,26 in height and 1»,76 to 2'»,20 in their greatest circumference. 
These trees are found in the forests in the dry, and wet ground, 
and in the marshes of the province. 

Mata-mata. [Lecythis coriacea. Mart.) 

From the tree commonly known in the province by this name, 
frequent throughout the province of Amazonas. The trunk measures 
from 3«,o2 to 4'-,40 in height, and from 0-,44 to 8-,88 in its greatest 
circumference. Three kinds are known, all of equal value in cons- 
tructions. They are the wild, the domestic, and the black. Tliey are 
employed only in in-door works as the wood when exposed to the 

— 37 — 

weather is not of long duration, excepting the black whose consis- 
tency is sufficient for all kinds of works. 


From the tree commonly known by this name, and which abounds 
in the province of Amazonas. The trunk is from* 8*,80 to 13»,20in 
height, and from 1™,32 to 1"«,76 in its greatest circumference. On 
account of its consistence it is employed in all kinds of works. 

Macucii. [Ilex macucua. Pers.) 

From the tree commonly known in the province of Amazonas by 
this name. Its wood is of sufficient consistence to be employed in 
in-door works. The trunk measures from 8n»,80 to 13™ ,20 in height 
and from 0«,44 to 0"»,88 in its greatest circumference. 


Bed-wood. I P^Z^o^'tn^ macrolobium. Fr. AIL) 

This tree abounds in the forests and is frequently found in the 
dry grounds of the province. From the tree commonly known by 
this name and by that ofguarabu. It abounds in the forests of the 
province of Amazonas. Its trunk measures from 6™ ,60 to 11°»,00 in 
height, and from 0,44 to 0™,88 in its greatest circumference. The wood 
besides being hard is also tough ; it is employed in in-door, and out- 
door works, in cabinet-making, in wheels and pulleys. 

Rose-wood. [Dicypellium caryophyllatum.) 

From the tree generally known by this name , common in the 
forests of the province of Amazonas. The trunk measures from 6" ,60 
to 11" ,00 in height, and from 0,22«» to 0«»,66 in its greatest circum- 
ference. Its wood is of sufficient consistency to be used in in-door 
and out-door works and in cabinet-making. 

Bow- wood. (Tecoma,) 

From the colossal tree commonly known in the province of Ama- 
zonas by this name. Its wood is very hard and tough and is em- 
ployed in all kinds of internal and external works, as well as in 
turning and carriage building. The tree abounds in the forests of the 
province and is also found in the dry grounds. 


From trees commonly known in the province of Amazonas by this 
name. This wood is too hard to be employed in internal or external works 
or in cabinet-making. Three kinds are known of equal value in cons- 
tructions — the common or real pequi^, the false or piqui&-rana, and 

— 38 — 

the black piquia. Their trunks measure from 6,60"» to 8,80" in height 
and from 2»,20 to 2n>,64 in their greatest circumference. The trees 
abound in the forests of the province and are also found in the 

Sucupira. [Bowdichia virgUioides.) 

From the tree commonly known by that name, and frequently met 
in the province of Amazonas and in the other provinces to the south 
of this. The tree is very large and even colossal ; its trunk measuring 
from IT-jGO to 22"' ,00 in height, and from 1",76 to 2" ,20 in its greatest 
circumference. Its wood is very hard and very durable, employed either 
in in-door, out-door, under-ground or immersed works. 




Sti lUanoel UTIcoI&o de niello. 


SIM Bepartmeiit of public ivoriiS. 

Amag*o de Sucupira. [Bodwdichia virgiloides. Mart.) 
Sealing-wax wood. 

The common name of a tree well known in the province of Ama- 
zonas. Its wood is somewhat hard and is employed in in-door works. 
The trunk of the tree measures from 4»,40 to 6«,60 in height, and from 
0">,44 to 0'",88 in its greatest circumference. This tree produces a resin 
from which it derives its name. 

HtS THuvj & Brothers* 

Genipapeiro. [Genipa american. L.) 

From a tree commonly known by the name of jenipapeiro, the fruit 
of which is sometimes used in medicine in the internal cure of hernias. 
This tree abounds in the forests of the province of Amazonas. Its 
trunk is from 6" ,60 to ll«n,00 in height, and from 0",88 to 1"»,32 in 
its greatest circumference. The specific weight and smoothness of this 
wood, make it useful in cabinet-making, in gun-stocks, and in some 
in-door works, but it is unfit for out-door works because it is not 

J8car6-iiba. [Calophyllum brasilieyisis. Mart.) 
Macaca-uba- [Legtmiinosa.) 

From a tree commonly known by this name, it is frequently found 
in the forests of the province of Amazonas. There are four different 
kinds, all of equal value. They are the common, the wild, the domestic, 
and the main-land macaca-uba, each of their trunks measuring from 

— 39 — 

4n»,40 to 6»,60 in height, and 0°»,88 to 1«»,32 in its greatest circumference. 
This wood is used in all kinds of works. 



••4 AlTouso IMLoiisini Desiiieotirt. 

Maparajuba. {Mimusops excelsa.) 

From the tree commonly known by this name. It is 0"-,88 to V^y^ 
in circumference, and 8™ ,80 to 13«»,20 in height. It is employed in 


MS Anlceto Cleiuente IMlalclier. 

Massaranduba. [Mimusops excelsa.) Vid. pag. 41. 

996 Provineial Coinniissloii* 

Caraar^ ou Cambarii. [Lantana camard. L.) 
Cajueiro Wild. 

From the tree commonly known by this name. The trunk measures 
S^,dd to ll'n,00 in height, and from 1",10 to ln>,32 in circumference. 
It takes the place of the beach on account of its lightness and other 
charact^istics. The wood is white, a little inclining to rose color. 
It is subject to insects, is used in joinery, and the leaves serve as 
sand-paper; even after being dry, the joiners of the province damp 
them and use them as sand-paper. This tree produces much resin. 

Five wounds. 



Guaracica. (Ducuna fissilis,) 

tt9 Isnaclo Effydio Qou^al%'ei9 dos Santos* 

Yellow Acapii. 

Angelim. (MachcBnum heteaoptefiim. Fr. All.) 

Kose laurel. 

Holy-wood. [Kielmeyera.) 


Ip6. (Tecoma. Mart.) 

Ip6 tabaco. 

Jacarandi, Wild. 

Mangue canoS. 

- 40 — 

Pequi^.. (Caryocar brasiliensis^) 

M9 Joao Henrique Diiilz. 

Satin-wood {plank,) 

From a tree commonly known by this name, which is from 0«>,8ft 
1",10 in circumference and from 8«,80 to 17»,60 in height. It is em- 
ployed in ship and housebuilding, and in cabinet-making. 

999 Joaiiaim Bodrlsues dos 9aiito«i. 

Muirapinima, Macacaiiba or Queen-wood [centrolobiiim 

It is from 0«n,22 to 0",66 in circumference, and from 6«,60 to 11»,0(> 
in height ; and is employed in ship and house-building, and in cabinet- 

9SO I411IZ Thomaz Correia* 

Yellow laurel. 

991 Manoel Antonio Plmenta Baeno* 


From a tree commonly known by this name. It is from 1"»,76 to . 
2»,20 in circumference, and from 6" ,60 to 15™,40 in height; and is 
employed in house and ship, building. 

Andiroba (Carapa guyanensis.) 

This tree is from 2™,20 to 2" ,64 in circumference, and from 8*,80 
to 17" ,60 in length, and is employed in house-building. 

Angelim. Vid. pag. 35. 

This tree is from ln»,76 to 2«»,20 in circumference, and 11",00 to 
22^' ,00 in height, and is employed in building. 


Cumani. (Dipterix odorata. W.) Vid. pag. 35. 



From the tree commonly known by this name, which is from l",32 
to ln»,54 in circumference, and from 17" ,60 to SS,^)© in height ; used 
in house and ship-building. 

Chestnut-tree. [Bertholletia excdsa. Humboldt.) 

This tree is from 1",76 to 2",64 in circumference, and from IS* ,20 
to 22b ,00 in height. Used in house and ship-building. 

— 41 — 

Giiariiiba. (Galipea utilissima, Fr. All.) 

Gaiipapo. [Genipa brasiliensis. Martius.) 



Jutahy. iHymenea) 


Rec laurel. 


Mumre. [Bichetea officinalis.) 



Muira-cutiara. (Centrolobium.) 

Massiranduba. {Mimusops elata.) 

From i\e colossal tree commonly known by this name, and which 
abounds ii tlie forests of the province of Par&, and of the other prov- 
inces to tht south of it. It may be confidently asserted that this tre e 
is found thtoughout nearly the whole empire. In Par& three kinds of 
it are kno.\wi, all of equal value in building ■— the common, the wild 
and the redmassaranduba. The trunk of each measuring from 22™,00 
to 26™ ,00 inheight, and from 2™,64 to 8™ ,00 in circumference. 

The wood which is rather hard, is used in aquatic and underground 

The sap d this tree, which is white and extracted by incisions, is a 
very savory milk, and is taken with tea and coffee ; it is also taken 
mixed with gruels ; it is very nutritive and substitutes cow's milk. 
It is appUec in medicine, internally, as an analeptic, and a pectoral ; 
and externily, in poultices. 

This sap congeals in 24 or 30 hours and then it appears like gutta- 
percha, th^ only difference being that gutta-percha is dark, while the 
sap of the Jiassaranduba congealed is whitish ; both, however, have 
the same degree of elasticity. 



Macicii. {Ilex macuciia.) 

Yelbw wood. 

Frou the tree commonly known by this name. It is from 1«,32 
to ln»,6 in circumference, and from 13"»,20 to V7'^,Q8 in height. It 
is empoyed in house and ship-building, and in cabinet- making. 

R<se-wood. [DicypelUwm caryophyltaium.) 

Ths tree is from 1«»,70 to 0",66 in circumference, and from 6",60 
to 1*^,00 in height. It is employed in ship and house-building and 
in dbinet-making. 


Black wood. 
Bow wood. 

This tree is from S^j^O to 2'n,64 in circumference, and froBC Q'^fiO 
to 8°»,80 in height. It is employed in ship and house -building and in 
cabinet making. 

Peririqneira. . 

Sorva. [CoUophora utilis.) 

Sapucaia. (Lecythis grandiflora,) 

This tree is from ln»,32 to 2™ ,64 in circumference, and m»re than 
22" ,00 in height. It is used in ship and house-building, andi^roduces 
quite a large fruit ; the almonds are agreeable to the taste. The emul-. 
sion made from the almonds of this fruit is anti-catan%al and anti- 



Tauaiy. (Courary guianesis,) 

Tatajuba. {Madura,) 




«S« Pliito & Brother. 


From the tree commonly known by this name, and whch is from 
0",88 to 1^,32 in circumference, and from 8n»,80 to 13»,S) in height. 
It is emploj^ed in ship and house-building, and in cabinet-naking. 

Cedar. {Cedrela) 

This tree is from 0"',66 to 5" ,28 in circumference, and fom 18«»,10 
to 30"',80 in height. It is employed in house and ship-buildug, and in 

Sapucaia chestnut. 
Capahiba rana. 
Red copahiba. 

From the tree commonly known by this name. This is the geiuine 
copahiba which produces the well-known oil of that name, and whch is 
used so much in medicine. The wood is useful in house-builUng, 
and in building canoes. 

-43 — 

Copahiba ting*a. 

From the tree commonly known by this name, it is the most infe- 
rior variety of the copahiba. It is of little use in building, and is gen- 
erally used for firewood. 

Jar ana. 

This tree is from 0°»,44 to O^jSS in circumference, and from 4'",40 to 
11",00 in height. It is employed in house and ship-building, and in 
cabinet-making. There are different species of jacaranda, or rose- 
wood, peculiar to different provinces. Among them is ranked the 
Machaerium scleroxylon. (Fr. All.) 

. Muira-tau§, 

Massaranduba. (Mimusops ewcelsa.) 
Bow wood. 
Black wood. 

From the tree generally known by this name, whic^ is used in house- 
building and in cabinet-making, and, in general, in light works, it is 
from 0«n,88 to 1"»,10 in circumference, and 9"»,90 in height. 

Yellow itaiiba. 


MS Proirinelal 

White baracutiira. 

From the tree commonly known by this name. It is used in dyeing 
and in cabinet-making. The fruit is considered poisonous. The trunk 
measures from 6" ,60 to 8" ,80 in height and from l",!© to 1«»,32 in cir- 
cumference. The wood is hard and of striped color like the angico but 
with smaller lines. 

Cork tree. 

From a cip6 or woodbine which grows to the proporti(ms of a tree. 
It is, in general, from 2«»,20 to 3m,30 in height and from 0*,22 to 0",44 in 
circumference. It is used to support the banks of rivers; tt resists hu- 
midity and is used for stakes. 


From a leafy tree commonly known by this name. The wood is 
white and light, and is used in making clogs, tables and household 
articles. Its height is, generally, of from 4«»,40 to 6«,60 and its circum- 
ference from 0">,28 to 0»,44. 

— 44 — 


From the tree commonly known by this name, and which grows to 
the height of ll»n,00 or 13«',20 and thickness of 0«,88 to 1«,32. It is 
used in house and ship -building, and also in making wooden bowls and 
other such articles. 


There are different species of ing&s, (inga dulcis) the opeapuba, (ing& 
vellutosa) the hairy, wliich abounds in Pari, (ingd tertaphylla) the beau- 
tiful, (inga edulis) the ing&. The greater part of these species are used 
in house and ship>building, wrought into boards and beams. 


From a tree commonly known by this name, and which is employed 
in house and ship-building. The wood is of a dark yellow color, 
very hard, and splits easily. The trunk measures from 6">,60to 8",80 
in height and from 1™,10 to 1™,32 in circumference. 

Jurema. (Acaciorjurema. Martius.) 

From the tree commonly known by this name. The bark is bitter 
and astringent and is applied in medicine as a narcotic. The trunk 
measures from 6ffl,60 to 8»n,80 in height and from 1"»,10 to 1«,32 in 
circumference. The wood is used in house and ship-building. There 
are two kinds, the yellow and the black, both very hard. 


From the tree of this name. There are — the sweet lemon (citrus 
limonum edulis), the sour (citrus limonum), and the wild (citrus medica 
efferata). The specimen is of the last. The trunk measures from 3",30 
to 4»,40 in height, and from 0",88 to 1"*,10 in circumference. It is used 
in house-building, in making handles for tools, etc. The wood is white, 
yery hard, and splits easily. 

Massaranduba. Vid. pag. 41. 
Sapucaia. Vid. pag. 42. 

From the cip6 commonly known by this name. It grows to the 
height of 2-,30 or 3»,30 and to the thickness of from 0",22 to 0",33. It 
is used in making walking-sticks. 

Tatajuba. [Maclura, Mart.) 
Tucum. [Astrocaryum tucum. Mart.) 

From the palm of this name, which is very strong and used in 
house-building. It produces the well-known thread of the same name, 
and from the fruit, oil is extracted. 

— 45 — 


SSA Provincial Contntiasion. 

Sieves of carnauba straw. 
Fire-fans of carnaiiba straw. 
Baskets of carnauba straw. 


SSS Proiiiicial Coniiiiisaioii. 


From the tree commonly known by this name. It is used in turn- 
ing, for posts, door-posts, stakes, etc., but it is not of long duration 
when under ground. 

White Chau&or Massaranduba. [Luctimaprocera. Mart.) 

Employed in cabinet-making. The best laths used in covering 
houses are made from this tree, which grows on the sand-hills and 
on the table-lands. 

Goity trub& 

This tree grows to great proportions in height and thickness. 
The wood is used in door-posts, in flooring, in manioc flour presses, 
and in aU works not exposed to the weather. 


Commonly known by this name. It is employed in house-buildi ng 
and even under ground it will last for many years. 


Commonly known by this name. It is employed in house- building 
and in cabinet-making. It lasts long under ground, is used in beams, 
door-posts, etc. 

Jatobahy. [HymencBa. Mart.) 
Mangue canoS. 

This tree has the singular property of growing on high lands, far 
from salt water. It also grows in ground bathed by the sea, and 
some of the trees are 4^,40 in circumference. This plant is used in 
the construction of all kinds of pipes or tubes. 

Mangue manso. 
Mangue ratimb6. 

This species has the peculiarity of being tortuous and is proper for 
the ribs of vessels, as it grows large enough for this, especially the 
mangue of Macao, a place where this tree abounds. This is em 
ployed as the other species. 


Mangue, shoemaker. 

The bark of this species, being too adstringent, is used in tanuing. 

Mangarobeira. {Caladium. Mart.) 

Martim. Ivory wood. {Phytelephas macrocarpa,) 



Red iron-wood. {Bocoa proveansis.) 

Commonly known by this name. It is useful in house-building, 
or props, rafters, and any other work that does not require a wood 
particularly strong. 

Black wood. 
Holy wood. 

Known commonly by this name, and which is considered the best 
wood in the province, on account of its general usefalness, its solid- 
ity and its durability, either in hydraulic constructions, in house 
building, or in cabinet-making. 

Peroba. (Aspidosperma.) 

This wood has different applications in house-building, ship-build- 
ing, and in cabinet-making. It makes excellent boards for flooring. 
The dimensions of the tree are from 2™ ,20 to 2™ ,64 in height, aad 
from 0",66 to 1™,32 in circumference. 

Pequi&. Vid. pag. 37. 
Sucupira. Vid. pag. 38. 

This is an excellent timber, used in house and ship*building, and 
preferred in making cars and in putting up mills or presses, but it 
does not last when interred. 

Jatob&. {HymencBa stilbocarpa. Mart.) 

This is good timber for house-building and cabinet-making. From 
the tree resin is extracted, and the under bark produces a fibrous 
texture, very strong, and which, with fire, gives a honey much used 
in the cure of ruptures. 

Juc&. {Cmsalpinia.) Vid. pag. 47. 

sse Ulsuel Blbelra Dantas. 

Jatahy. (HymencBa,) 

This is one of the best trees that the province produces for 
making props; it keeps well under ground. The wood is yellow, 
but soon looses its color, and for this reason is not used in cabi- 

Bow wood. 

— 47 — 

M99 ^''roiriiiclal Contiulssloii. 

Mang'ue, shoemaker. 

SS9 Cyprlaiio Arroxelltis €>alirao. 

\ellow bow- wood. 


Jitahy or Jatob^. {Hymenma. Mart,) 


From a tree commonly known by this name. The tmnk meas- 
ures from llmjOO to 13m,20 in height and from ln»,32 to 1°»,76 in 
circumference. The wood is red and very strong, and is used in 
house and ship-building. 

Jurema. [Aeacia,] 

From the tree commonly known by this name. The trunk mea- 
sures from ll-mjOO to 13",20 in height and from 1»,32 to lm,76 in 
circumference. The wood is strong amc^ red, is used in house aiH) 
ship-building, and in cabinet-making. 

9SO Doinlciaiio Lueas tie Souza RaiiseU 

Wild cashew. 

•40 Is;iiaeio do Ke^o Toseano die Brito. 


Iron-wood. {CoBsalpinea^) 
Louro cassudo. 

From a tree commonly known by this name. The trunk measures 
from 5m,50 to 6«»,60 in height and from 0'n,66 to 0"a,88 in circum- 
ference. The wood is of a white red color and is used for props, 
handles and house-building. 

Sweet laurel. 
Condurii. [Brosimum.) 

From a tree commonly known by this name, and which abounds 
in the interior. The trunk measures from ll^jQO to 13«,20 in height 
and from la^jlO to 1°»,32 in circumference. The wood is red and 
strong, and is employed in house and ship-building, and cabinet- 

t4i JToao Coelho de !^ouza« 


Sweet laurel. • 


tM #oaqiiliit Jos^ Henriques da Mlva and JTaao 
Lapea lHaeliado. 


— 48 — 

From the tree commonly known by this name. The trunk mea- 
sures from 9m,90 to 11™,00 in height and from l^jlO to 1^,32 in 
circumference. The wood is yellow and strong. It is used in 
house-building and in cabinet-making. From the bark is ejLtracted 
an excellent yellow dye. 


ti4S Some Cantito de Siiula Rosa. 

Angico. {Acacia Angico.) 
Aroeira. (Astronium.) 
Emburana. [Bursera leptophlcBOs.) 

From a bush commonly known by this name. The trunk meas- 
ures from 4m,30 to 5°»,50 in height and from 0°>,44 to 0n",66 in cir- 
cumference. It is of no use in building, and grows where the sea 
flows. From the fruit is extracted a juice like currant syrup. 

Parahyba. (Simaruba versicolor, St. Hilaire.) 

944 So»^ Carlos da Costa Rllielro. 


S46 JTose da ^ilva Pereira* 

Goncalo Alves. (Astronium,) 

From a tree commonly known by this name. The trunk measures 
from 13"»,20 to 15«»,40 in height, and from 1^,32 to l«n,76 in circum- 
ference. It is used in cabinet-making and in house and ship-build- 
ing. The wood is yellow, grained with black. 


Sweet laurel. 


Red bow-wood. 



946 JTos^ Tairares da Cuulia Belle. 


949 Leoitardo Bezerra JFacome. 


Red bow-wood. 

Sweet laurel. 

Pitii or piquid. (Caryocar brasiliensis.. St. Hilaire.) 

949 milBuel da Sllira Tavares. 

Jit6. (Giiarea.) 

From a tree commonly known by this name. The trunk measures 
from 11«",00 to 13«,20 in height, and from l'n,10 to l^jas in circuia- 
ference. The wood is red and veiy strong. It is employed in house 
and ship-building. 

— 49 — 

94B Francisco Hiiitoel de S^lquelra* 

Amarello. Yellow (plank). 

19SO Rtiflito Som6 de Almeida. 

Root of yellow (plank). 


itSt Antonio DIaa €oellio c niello. 

Aricu-rana [Hieronima alconrioides). 

Commonly known by this name ; its diameter is 4 to 5 palms (0«,88 
to ln»,10) , and its height 40 to 50 (8^,80 to 11«>,00). 

Grauna red. 

Sapucaia. [Lecythis grandiflora, Aubl.) 

Goncalo-Alves [Astronium fraxinipholium^ Schott.) 


Gitahy yellow [Himenmay Mart.) 

Is abundant in the forests of the province. Its greatest diameter Is 
3 to 4 palms (0n»,66 to 0n»,88) , and 50 to 60 (llm,00 to 13m,90) in 
height. It is employed in house-buildings. 

Tapicurii femea. 

Bow- wood. 

Landy marsh or Jacar6-iiba. 

Commonly known by this name. The resin of this tree is applied 
in the veterinary art; but is of no use in building. 






t69 Some Corr^a l>anta9 Serra. 


Ms Some Corr^a Dantas Serra and Mauoel Gaspar 
de mello IHenezes* 

Almecega [Bursera balsamifera, Pers.) 

The wood of this tree , having the same name , is used in build- 
ing ; the resin extracted from it is used in calkmg. There are some 
species, the resin of which is aromatic and like incense. 

Angico [Acacia angico, Mart.) 

From the trunk of this tree a gum is obtained as useful as gum 
The wood is used in house-building and in cabinet- making. Its 

C. L U 


greatest diameter is from O^iSS to 1,32, and its height from 8" ,60 
to 8,m80). 

Arueira [Schinus aroeira^ Veil.) 

This tree is 0«»,22 to 0",44 in circumference and O^jOO in height. 
It is employed in building and cabiaetrmaKing : in the Qeigbborh^i4 
of the sea it grows to the height of 11«»,00, and bloom in October ; 
when it grows for from the sea it blooms in August. 

From the fruit, is extracted the rose-tint used in dyeing; its 
bark is adstringent and contains a great quantity of stryphno 
which precipitates iron of a blue color. The extract of the aroeira 
is a substitute for cato. A. distilled water for the toilette is made 
from the fresh leaves. It is considered anti-febrile. There are four qua- 
lities known. Putting it near the fire, there transudes from it a 
balsam , which , formed into a plaster with the addition of other 
adstringent barks , is considered very useful , by the natives of the 
province, principally in the cure of chills, rheumatisms, arthritic 
pains , distension of tendons , &c. The distilled water of the leaves 
and fruits is a diuretic, and contains anti-syphilitic properties. 

BaJsamo de cheiro eterao [Myrospermum). 

Also called Cabureicia ; it belongs to the family of the legoxa^. 
This tree is notable for the balsamic scent that it emits. The balsam 
called cabucicica is like the peruvian. It is found on lands of the 
Tinguy mill , on the bank of the river Sergipe , in the distrijct of 
Our Lady of the Dores. Its diameter is from O'*,^ to lw,10, and 
its height 8°»,80 to ll'»»,00. 


Graiina or baraiina [Melanoxylum brauna). 

Ck)mmonly known by this name. The tree grows to lln>,00 in height , 
and its diameter is 0'",44 to 0™,88. The wood and the bark contain 
a substance used as a dye. 

Carahyba [Simaruba versicolor, St. Hil.) 

This tree grows to the height of 4»n,40 to 5«,28; its diameter is 
from 0°»,44 to 0"»,88. It is common in the province as well as in 
Bahia, Minas and Goyaz, and is used in house-building and in 

fJedar [Cedrela brasiliensis). 
Mangabeira [Hancornia speciosa, Gom.) 

In the bark of this tree a viscous milk is found which is used in 
medeclne. The mangabeira commonly grows on the table lands. It 
is employed in making dififerent articles of furniture, &c. 

Murici [Byrsonima verbascifolia). 

— 51 — 

There are also the murici-pinima [Byrsonima chrysophylla , and 
Byrsonima sericea): in Bahia, the murici-pitinga ; in Bahia and Per- 
n&mbuco J Byrsonima crassifolia. This wood is employed in house-huild- 
ing, and in cabinet-making. 


Comuaonly known by this name. It is employed in ship-building, 
good masts are made of it, &c. Its height is 11™,00 and its diameter 
from 0^,44 to 0n»,88. 


Visgueiro (Birdlime tree)- 

M4 mnnoel CiMipar de Hello llleiiezes. 





tiS6 Praiteisco Sanipalo irianita. 


Its size is from 0"s22 to 0°>,44 and its height 13'n,20. It is employed 
in house-building, and in pulleys. The conduru of the islands has 
the wood redder. 


Its size is 0»,44 and its height 13™ ,20. It is used in house- 
building , and flowers in October. 

%IM Vntlieliiio da Sllva Tosta* 

Jaqueira (big plank). 

Its size is 0,88 and its height from 8«»,80 to 11°>,00. It is used 
in ship and house-building. Its fruit is large , and contains farinaeeous 
seeds covered with a sweet , soft agreeable pulp , of a very strong 
scent. This fruit may be eaten , either boiled or roasted , and is a 
common article of food with different classes in this province. 


967 ITIeCorliie JFos^ Perelra. 

Goncalo Alves. 


«M JknkHkee Politdrelle. (aty.) 
A frame with 186 specimens of woods of Brazil. 

tiS9 DIreetorlal Coiniuissloii. (City.) 

Woods in the deposits of the Dock-yard. 

Angelim. Angelim pedra do Par&. 

Aderne. Corcunda {Corcunda an- 


- 52 — 






Mirindiba white [Termi' 

Mangalo [Perattea). 
••O JToaquIni martins Corr^a 


Peroba, red. 



Tapinhoan [Sylvia nava- 

lium^ Fr. All). 
Vinhatico of Bahia [Echy- 


(Petropolis. ) 

Angelim bitter. 

Angelim rose. 



Ararib& yellow. 

Ararib& rosa. 



Bicuiba [Myrisiica), 



Canella, captain. 

Cauella, fragrant. 

Canella, stinking. 

Canella, lemon. 

Canella, marcanaiba. 

Canella, oil. 

Canella, sassafraz. 

Canella, tapinhoa. 




Cangerana [Cabralia), 

Catucanhem [RhophiUa). 


Cedar of Bahia, 

Flor of Maio {Flower of 

Grapiapunha (A|)frfcki). 
Grauna [Melanoxylum]. 
Graiina Wack. 
Goncalo Alve5. 

Tapinhoa grosso [Sylvma]. 
Tatd (Ta^ea). 

Guarubii [Peltogyne). 
Guaranhem [Chrysophyl- 

Ip6 do campo. 
Ip6 tobacco. 
Ip6 una. 
Jatahy mirim. 
Jacarand& cabiiina. 
Jacarand& rosa. 
Louro, brown. 
Oleo caborahyba. 
Oleo jatahy. 
Oleo pardo. 
Cleo vermelho. 
Peqiiii wild. 
Pequii ivory. 
PeqniA rosa. 

Peroba, yellow. 
Peroba, Vhite. 
Peroba,' black. 
Vapeba sapucaia. 

-53 — 

ttti JFose Saldanha da €>auia* (City.) 
Angelim rosa [Andira sti- Guaraiina brown [Melano- 

xilon b?^auna). 
Guaraiina black. 
JacarandA cip6. 
Jacarandd purple. 
Pequi&, yellow. 
Pequi&, iVory. 
Sepipira [Ferreira spector 

Sucupira, red. 
Sucupira, yellow. 
Tapinhoa, grosso {Sylvia 

navalium, Fr. All.) 

Biculba (Myristica). 
Canna fistula [Cassia bra" 

siliana^ Mart.) 
Cinnamon, marsh. 
Cinnamon, jacu&. 
Cinnamon, lemon. 
Cinnamon, mulatinha. 
Cinnamon, black. 
Cinnamon, stinking. 
Jequitib& rosa. 
Goncalo Alves. 
Guarajuba [Terminalia), 
Guaranhem [Chrysophyl- 

turn glycypholeum). 

t%t steward of the Imperial palaee. 

A mosaic fiame of the woods of Brazil. 


MS Aiitoulo Pereira Beliou^as Son. 

Araticum wild. 
Araca piranga. 

Commonly known by this name. Its size is from 0"»,22 to 0",66 
in circumference, and from 4",40 to.6n»,60 in height. It is employed 
in house-building. 

Ararib^ white [Arariba alba, Mart.) 

Commonly known by this name. It is from 0™,88 to 1™,10 in 
circumference , and from 8",80 to 11™,00 in height, and is employed 
in house-building. 





Yellow ciimBmon[Laurus) . 

Guava cinnamon. 

Cangerana [Cabralea can- 

girana, Veil.) 
Carvalho Oak [Qicerciis). 

Cabiiina [Pterecarpus ni" 
aer , Veil. ; Miscolo- 
bium violaceum, Yog,) 


Embui& yellow. 





— Si- 



Peroba yellow [Aspidos- 

per ma). 
Red pine [Araucarici^, 
Taruma or five wounds 

Urucii-rana ( Hieromina 


Guarapary white. 


Pine cinnamon. 

Black cinnamon. [Agatho- 

phyllum aromcUicum, 

Yellow cinnamon. 
Jacarand& branco [Bigno- 

nia leucoxylon , Lan.) 
Jacarand^ pitang'a. 
Jacarand&, purple. 

••4 JToae Candida da SAlira IHuriel. 


This plant grows on the coast as well as in the interior, and reaches 
the height of 15 meters, and diameter of 0^,60. It serves in cabinet- 
making , and is employed for in-door beams. 

Black sassafraz [Ocoiea). 
Pin knots. 

)M6 HI. de Almeida Terres. 

Pine knot. 


1t6C Imperial Iron Warks of 8. JToao de ipa- 









Peroba iqueira. 


Ararib& (Cenirololium) 

9%9 s. jr. Aulbertin. 

Vinhatico root. 












9M WeneeiAao INtartii 

Pindaiina yellow. 
Pepper cinnamon. 
Marsh cinnamon. 
Black cinnamon. 

m da Co9ta< 

— 55 — 

Yel low-cinnamon . 

It is 0m,44 in thickness and 13™ ,20 iu height, and is employed 

in house-building. It blooms in September. 

CamarA {Geissos permum, Fr. All.) 

Cabiiina [Bignonia hrasiliana, Macherium). 

It is 0«»,44 in thickness , and 11,00™ in height. It is employed 
in house and ship-building , and engine-wheels. This wood is very 


From a tree commonly known by this name. It is from 1,32™ tOg 
1™,54 in thickness , and from 17™ ,60 to 22™,00 in height ; and i 
employed in ship and house-building. 

Pigeon-frait [Erythroxilon anginfugiim^ Mart.) 

Figueira [Tig tree). 


Rabo de macaco (Monkey tuil). 





Alma de serra. 


From a tree commonly known by this name. It measures from 
11™,00 to 13™ ,20 in height , and from 1™,32 to 1™,76 in circumference 
and is used in ship and house-building. 

Jacarand&, red. 
Lyco-rana (Hironimor). 

From the tree commonly known by this name. It is little used 
in house-building. 



Ai'aribi [Arariba^ Mart). 


From the tree of this name. It is employed in house-building, and 
cabinet-making , and measures 18",30 in height and from 0'n,44 to 
0">,66 in circumference. There are also the arariba piranga or caa- 
mirim (Araribd-rubra , Martins) , and the arariba-tinga , or caa-assii 
lAraribd-alba , Martins). 



Inga [Inga edulis). 

Baga de periquito. 



Guainirim, red. 

Guamirim, white. 

Guamirim arac&. 




Genipapo [Genipa brasiliensis). 

From the tree commonly known by this name. It measures from 
11°»,00 to 13»,20 in height, and from ln>,10 to l'»»,32 in circum- 
ference. The wood is dark yellow and very strong, and is em- 
ployed in ship and house-building and in cabinet-making , and also in 
making cog-wheels and pulleys. Very good spirits is made of the fruit. 




Goiabeira [Psydium pommiferum^ Lin.) 



Pindahyba, red (Xylopia frutescens^ Lin.) 




Peroba, red. 



AracA [Psydium arapd, Raddi). 




Peroba white. 


W%9 Frederico C^ullhernte Bartholomay and 
Carlos Buss. 

Bark of Santa Rita, ground for tanning. 

- 57- 

t90 Fraiiclseo Munes de iniranda* 


f7i Fell|»pe Jacob Selbaeli* 

Acoita cavallo {Luhea grandiflora, Mart.) 

It is employed in medecine to cure arthritic tumors and diarrheas. 
The wood of this tree is employed in the province in manufacturing 

Ang-ico white. 
Canellinha red. 

It is employed in house-building. Tlie bark of the root is adstrin- 
gent and anti-febril. The diameter of this tree is from 0«>,44 to 0»»,66 
and its height from 8«,80 to 11»,00. It also gives good red ink. 


Coqueiro [Cocoa tree). • 

Grapiapunha [Garapia apulea polygamea). 



This tree is of from 4m,40 to 6«,60 in height and from O^jSg to 
0»,66 in circumference. It is used in house and ship-building, and 
for pulleys. 



t't Germano C*rossl&opli* 

Black LaureJ. 

t7a Paulluo Isnaelu Teixelra. 



Products of Hanting , Fishing ^ and Crops- 


*94 Aiiiorlni & Brother^ and Antonio Joaquiiu 
da Costa & Brother. (Mandos.) 
Raw pitch. 

t9ft Antonio JToaquIni da Coata & Brother. 

Puxury beans. 

t7^ Antonio de Jesus Paasos. 

Cumani (fruits). 

Fruit of a tree commonly known by this name. It is used in per- 
mmery. The oil extracted from it is also applied in medicine to cure 

- 58 — 

ozena and ulcerations in the mouth. The tree is abundant on the 
banks of the river Amazonas and its tributaries. 
500 rs. per lb. 

997 Antonio IHonteiro. 

Muirating^a (sap of). 

99% Idem. 

Turury (milk of). 

From the tree commonly known by this name ; the Indians derive 
the tow with which they pack up articles and make dresses ; the use 
of its sap is unknown. 

n9 Barboza & Brother. 

Oil of Tamaquar6. 

990 Carlos Baptlsta Ulardel. 

Aromatic beans. , 

Resin iauara-icica. 

tiSi Idem. 

Oil of copahiba. 

Extracted by incisions made in the tree commonly known by this 
name. It is applied in medicine , internally and externally , and has 
also some industrial uses. 

t^M Prowluelal Comntisstlon. 

Seeds of mirity. 

The stones of the fruit of the palm known in the province of Ama- 
zonas by the name — muriti or miriti , and in the provinces of the 
South by that of burity (mauritia vinifera , family of palms) , are 
employed in the fumigation of the caoutchouc in the want of the stones 
of the urucury. From the French colonies cargoes of muruty stones 
are sent to the metropolis under the name of— vegetable ivory where 
they are employed in industry. This palm springs up spontaneously 
and abounds in all the province. From the pulp of the fruit they 
make a drink like assahy , and a wine much appreciated ; its jam 
and jelly are also in high estimation. The new leaves give straw and 
fibres for hats , baskets , mats , co£irse cloths, nets, cords, &c. The 
exterior part of the trunk gives very durable boards, plane or convex- 
The latter are employed in the making of oil and manioc flour. The entire 
trunk also is used as a floating landing-place. Medicinal properties 
are also attributed to the roots. 

ti^S Ctuilhernte Som6 IHorelra. 

Fine caoutchouc. 
Coarse caoutchouc. 

994 Henrlqiue Antony* 

Tucum Raw. 


W^B Henrique Sot^ AflPoiiiio Jos^ and Cardoso lla« 

Oil of copahiba, bottle 500 rs. 

IMH Henrique Jose AflTouso. 

TJichy liso (stones of). 
Uauassii (seeds of). 
Bacabahy (seeds of). 
Dichy-curu^ (stones of). 
Tucuman- assii (stones of). 

MM Joao marcellino Taveira Pdo Brasil, Joa- 
quint Soares Rodrii^ues, IHanoel Tertu- 
liauo Fleury da Silva, Vietorino IHantiel 
de lilnia. 

Resin of jutaicica. 

Extracted from the tree commonly (called-jatay (hymenasa). It is 
known in commerce by the name of gum or resin copal Brasiliense* 
It is used in the preparations of varnishes , and the natives of the 
province of Amazonas, employ of the varnish for their earthen-ware. 
In medicine it is employed to cure diseases of the lungs, in emulsions, 
tod to cure chronic coughs , &c, 

tSS Joao martins d» Siiva CouUnlio. 

Puxury beans. 

Seeds of the fruit of the tree so called. It is used in medicine 
to cure pains in the stomach ; and as a spice or condiment. 

t99.— Idem. 

Raw caoutchouc. 

The resin which remains in suspense in the sap extracted from 
siphonea elastica (family of the euphorhiaceas) , is among us called 
borracha, seringa or gomma elastica (india-rubber or gum-elastic), and 
in France caoutchouc , a corruption of the cahuchu of the Indians- 

The sap of this tree contains about 30 ^/o of this resin, in a glo- 
bulous form with the appearance and consistence of milk. This is 
the result given by Messrs Bourguer and La Condamine, who in 1736 
gave a scientific description of this valuable substance. 

The gum elastic is extracted by deep transversal incisions in the 
trunk of the tree , a few feet above the root. In order that the sap 
may run more abundantly another vertical incision is made above 
and descending to the transversal one , and besides these , other 
oblique incisions are made at short distances aU running into the 
vertical. Often this operation is assisted by tightly winding cords 
^ound the trees which not unfrequently kills them. In a few honts 
the sap fills the vessels that are placed to catch it , these are then 
emptied into others , where the sap in a short time becomes thick 
and solid by the evaporation of the watery part ; and they are ac- 


customed to dry it completely , exposing it to a light heat , by sus- 
pending it over a fire of certain plants, the flame of which is fed by 
uricury stones , so that it receives the smoke, which makes it black ; 
the color with which it generally appears in commerce. While the 
elastic gum is liquid , by moulds , they give it whatever form is re- 

The fruit of the tree is small , and contains a white almond , of 
an agreable taste , from which they extract an oil , of a light purple 
color , like that of old Port wine ; the process of extraction is generally 
like that employed in the extraction of the castor oil. It is used to 
substitute linseed-oil , but it is not so drying. Mixed with copal gum 
and turpentine, it makes a good varnish , and may also be advanta- 
geously employed in making hard soaps , and in making printers', 
and perhaps lithographers' ink. 

For a long time the elastic gum was exported in a solid state, 
elastic, and somewhat hard ; until the late Mr. Henry Antony Strauss, 
succeeded in preserving it in a liquid form , and that without its 
being hermetically sealed. 

Ammoniac is at present generally used in the province to preserve 
the india-rubber in a liquid state. 

Mr. Strauss's process for preserving it solid without fumigating it, 
is now publicly known , it consists in the use of alum. 

By the experiments made by Mr. Goodyear , of the United States , 
it is known that the india-rubber mixed with 1/5 of sulphur , acquires 
a rigid consistence which renders it capable of being polished, 
carved and cut into all shapes, thus serving for an infinitude of 

The caoutchouc tree grows in abundance , in a wild state, in the 
provinces of Amazonas and Par^ ; on a smaller scale , it is found 
in the provinces of Maranham , Cear& , and Rio Grande of the North. 
In these provinces it reaches the height of from 8°»,80 to 17™,60, 
and circumference of from 2" ,20 to 2«»,64. It prefers \vet grounds- 

The price of india-rubber varies much ; it has been sold at 40^ per 
arroba , and has fallen often to 12$. 

The foreign exportation of elastic gum in all states , wrought and 
unwrought , from the port of Pard , was for the year 18G4 — 1855 , 
227,571 arrobas , official value 8,619:978)9085. 

The extraction of elastic gum , iu the province of Ceard is , as yet i 
carried on only on a small scale. 

WO Joao niartfins da «llva Coatlnlto. 

Oil of tamaquar6. 

«9i Joaqulm Cfomes Frelre da Silva. 

Copahiba crystals. 

^61 — 

999 Joaqulni I^eoveslldo de Soiaza Coellto. 

Resin of iauara-icica. 

This resin is applied in medicine, to cure the head-ache, by 
smelling its smoke while burning; it is also applied to the tem- 

999.— Idem. 

Mungfiiba raw (fibres). 

The process which the Indians follow in the extraction of these 
fibres is simple. 

They take from the tree the bark which they macerate in water 
for two or three weeks , at the end of which time the fibres become 
separated ; then after being washed , and dried in the sun , they are 
spun in cords. 

994. — Ideiu. 

Cubio (seeds of). 

A fruit of a bush commonly known by this name in the province 
of Amazonas ; it is frequently found on the dry grounds , wild or 
cultivated. The fruit is cool and bitter, and from the pulp a sweet- 
meat is made. 
99ft. — I dean. 

Munguba (seeds). 

Fibres of curaua, raw. 

996 Joaiiiilm Pedro de Castro. 

Fine caoutchouc. 

997. — Idem. 

Muni-muni (stones of). 

A very thorny palm , commonly known by this name in the pro- 
vince of Amazouas. Its fruit is employed in the fuming of india-rubber 
and serves as food for swine. 

999 Som^ Joaquim Pal lie ta. 

Ipadii (powdered leaves). 

The Indians make great use of this powder, chewing it ; they believe 
it is nutritive as it takes away the appetite and reduces the stomach 
to a state of inertia. It is supposed also that the dried leaves may be 
used to cure flatulences. 

999. — Idem. 

Seeds of the uixi. 

The uixi is the common name of a colossal tree that abounds in 
the forests of the province of Amazonas. From the pulp of its fruit 
the Indians extract oil for their lamps ; the bark is very adstringent 
and is used in medicine. 


SOO Jose Joaqulm Palltetii. (S. Gabriel.) 
Piassaba: arroba 1#500 a I»700. 
Turury bark. 

sot maitoel Alve» dod {ilautos. 

Copahiba oil. 

S09 niaiftoel Caefimo Prestesi 

Murur6 (inilk of). 

Extracted from the tree of the same name. It is applied in me- 
dicine as a depurator, and is a powerful anti-syphilitic medecine, 
and therefore it is commonly called vegetable-mercury, 
SOS Idem. 

Jacar6-uba (milk of). 

Copahiba oil. 

Goats-bear fpiassaba). 

S04 i^laiioel JiBHtinlano de Selxas* 

Camarii wild (fruits of). 

Known also in the province of Amazonas by the name of Cumanl- 
rana. The bean is very poisonous and used for destroying rats , 
cock roaches , and other insects. 

9Wk nianoel llrtoano da Enearita^ao. 

Caiauh6 (stones of). 

A palm known to the South of Amazonas by the name of dend£ 
{elais guayanensis). 

From the cocoa-nuts of this palm they extract the oil known by 
the name of caiauh6 , in Amazonas ; and of — dendd — in the other 
provinces ; it is more commonly called palm-oil. 

There are two qualities , according to the way it is made ; one is 
made from the outer fibrous husk and the other is obtained from 
the interior kernel. The second is generally called palm -butter , it is 
whitish , and solid, even in warm climates ; in the province of Bahia 
it receives the name of fragrant oil , and is exclusively employed in 
food , as it is very pure ; the supply is limited , because the price 
is very high. 

The other , a coarser oil , is of a reddish yellow color, is slightly 
aromatic , and of a sweetish taste , it has the consistence of lard or 
batter and becomes liquid in the ordinary temperature of warm cli- 
mates even at 29o centigrades , and then it takes a deeper reddish 
color, like tomato-paste. It is employed in cooking, but more ge- 
nerally in making fine soaps. 

S06 Idem. 

Jacar6-uba (milk of). 

Extracted from the tree of the same nam^, and applied in medi- 
cine to cure rheumatisms. It is used in industry as a dissolvent of 
pitch for the calkers use. 


S07 itiaiioel IJjrtoaiio da Kneartta^ao* 

Oil of tamaquare. 

Extracted from seeds of the tree commonly known by this name, 
and applied in medicine , externally, to cure herpes, the itch , scurvy, 
and rheumatism. 

90^ Idem* 

Sarsaparilla (root of). 

S09 Tliiiry &. Brotliers* 

Muirating-a (sap of). 

This tree is commonly known by this name in the province of 
Amazonas , and abounds on the dry lands. The sap , which is a 
milky liquid , is applied in medicine externally in the treatment of 
rheumatisms , swellings , contusions , &c. 

•to IdeMi. 

Raw pitch. 
Oil of copabiba. 

Sit Torf|uato Antonio de Soiiza. 

Bark of turury. 
Tucuma-assii (seed). 

SM iTictorlno IHanoel de Misca. 

Resin of white pitch. 


•IS Afl!0ii0o Moflgriii Dejftiieourt. 

Conci-ete milk of massaranduba. 

Si4 AMtonto Joaqalnt de Almeida Tlaiina* 

Taperebi fruits (in conserve). 

Sift Ben to Jofli^ Bodrlffuea Tlanjia. 

Guaran4 fruits (in conserve). 

SIS Provinelal Commission. 

Tatajuba (milk of). 

Extracted from a tree conunouly known by this name in the pro- 
vince of Pari , and which is found on the dry grounds. Different 
substances used in dyeing are also extracted from this tree; a^d 
from its bark tow is prepared. 
Si7 idem. 

Fruits of bacaba (in conserve). 

From this fruit the natives of the province of Pari make a beverage 
like that of the assahy , which is used by almost all classes of the 
population , it is oily , but very agreable to the taste , and very 
nutritive. They also extract from it a fragrant oil which substitutes 
the olive-oil. 

— 64 — 

Si9 Provincial Cotiinilssloii. 

Assahy fruits (in conserve). 

Seeds of the frait of the palm commonly known by this name. 
When ripe and fresh they serve for the preparation of a beverage 
of which the natives make great use : but dry, they are beginning 
to be used for the extracllou of an oil , of the same name , the qua- 
lities and application of which are not yet known, 

Si9 Idem. 

Seringueira (milk of) prepared with ammonia: ar- 
roba, 86»000. 

The seringueira or caoutchouc is a tree which abounds in the pro- 
vince of Para. From it is extracted a sap, the samples of which are 
ou exhibition. Being left in contact with the air , this sap congeals 
soon after extraction, but adding a little ammoniac from 1 part to 13 of 
caoutchouc, it will remain liquid any length of time. 

S«0 Idem. 

Timb6 (milk of). 

A sap employed as an ichthyotoxic , and extracted from the bush 
known in the province of Par& by this name which is applied to 
all the plants , that enjoy similar properties. 

S9i Idem. 

Guaxinguba (sap ot). 

This sap is applied in medicine as an anthelmintic, it is extracted 
from the tree of the same name, common in the province of Pari; 
in the provinces south of this, it receives the name of gameleira or 
wild-fig-tree. Some tribes that reside in the valley of the Amazonas and 
its tributaries , believe that this sap has the virtue of making the 
women prolific ; however , this is not yet ascertained or confirmed 
by authenticated facts. It also gives caoutchouc , but of an inferior 

SM Idem. 

Seeds of ucuiiba. 

^- From the stones of the fruit of the tree, commonly known in the 
province of Para by this name , a substance is extracted, of which, 
in this province , they make candles very like those made of animal 
tallow. The former are , however , of longer duration , and easily 
made. By pressing, an oil can be obtained from this substance. Itie 
products of this tree are used , at present only privately , as they 
have not yet been explored for commercial purposes. 

StS Idem. 

Sap of assacii. 

Extracted from the colossal tree known commonly in the province 
•f Par& by this name , and frequently found in wet grounds. Taken 

— 65- 

in large doses it is extremely poisonous , but taken by drops it is 
a vomit or a purge. This sap falling on the skin , produces ulcers 
•which are very difficult to be cured and therefore in medicine it is 
applied externally to cure herpes. The leaves, or any part of the tree 
froiii which this sap is extracted, becoming decomposed in the water, 
■will cause the appearance of bad fevers, as typhoids , &c., in those 

S?4 Provincial Cominiiislon. 


Cip6 amb6. 
Cip6 i)ixuma. 
Cip6 timb6 titica. 
Cip6 pa^6. 
Cip6 jacitar^. 
Cip6 tiiiib6 assii. 
Cip6, black. 
Cip6, king. 

The forests of the province of Par& produce an immense quantity 
of different cipos , almost all very useful. 

Some serve as cords, others in the making of different articles, 
and from many filaments and fibres extracted of which hats, 
baskets and mats are made, and one called timbo-assu is woven into 

S«ft. — Idem. 

Ainap& (Milk of). 

Extracted from the tree commonly known by this name. It is applied 
in the external treatment of ulcers, sores and cuts. 

St6. — Idem. (Porto de Moz.) 
Sorva (Milk of). 

Extracted from the tree of this name. It is applied in medicine 
as food for weak persons, and in the cure of diseases of the chest. 
In industry a varnish is prepared after it is reduced into a resin. 

899. — Idem. * 

Native bees wax. 

The province of Pari is covered with immense forests which by 
their denseness impede the growth of plants and flowers that attract 
bees and therefore this province does not present that unlimited number 
of species of bees which is met in other provinces where the fields 
are more frequent : however, there are found here many bees of dif- 
ferent species which furnish good honey for medicine, and wax for 
certain industrial uses. As yet they have not the species of bee called 
in Europe Apes melliflua communis, indiginous to Africa. In the country 
native bees-wax is used for the illumination of private habitations. 
CI. 5 

— 66 — 

St^ Proviiielal CoininlsMiloBt* 

Leaves of tucuman. 

«M.^ Idem. 

Capin) marinho. Sea-green. 

Straw of ubus3Ti, 

Sprout of jauary. 


Sprout of mururii. 

SSO.— Idem. 

Espafno of leaves of the carana palm-tree. 

SSI.— Idem* 

Anany (Milk). 

SSt.— Idem* 

Pupunha maraj^ (Seeds of). 

SS8.— Idem. 

Fruits of pacova catinga (wild banana-plant). 

S84 Idem. 

Jutahy (fruits of). 
InajS; (stones of). 
Tucuman (stones of). 

SSft.— Idem. 
Stones of Tucuman. 

SS6.— Idem. 

Embira of uassima. 
Embira of quiabo. 
Embira of carrapato. 
Embira of branco. 
Embira of berib^. 
Embira of itu&. 
Embira of mamao rana. 
Embira of piriquit^. 

SSf.— Idem* 

Fruits in alcohol. 

MaracujA. Caftma. 

Divers fruits. Maraj6, 

Marupi. Muruxi. 

Banana. Jupaty. 

Berib&s. Araca. 

Anany. Ucuiiba. 

SS8.— Idem* 

Milk of Caoutchouc, arroba 86». 

9MB.— Idem. 

Oil of copahiba. 

— 67- 

S40 Provineial CommlMiloii. 

Resin of jutahy or jutaicicai. 

S4i. — Idem. 

Bark of turury. 
Bark of anauer&. 

S49.— Idem. 

Seed of bicuiba 

S4S. — Idem. 

Seed of margarida (called in Rio de Janeiro — official 
da sala). 

S44.— Idem. 

Miiiratinga (Milk of). 

S4M». — Idem. 

Murur6 (Milk of). 

S46. — Idem* 

Sucuiiba (Milk of). 

S4f. — Idem. 

Massaranduba (Milk of). 

S49.— Idem. 
Pagimarioba Seed. 

S49. — idem. 

Mucuna-assii sap. 

SiO David Joaquim I«eal. 

Carana fruits. 

From the pulp which surrounds the nut they obtain a drink similar 
that made from the muruty. This nut may be used in making 
it tie fancy articles, buttons, &c. It is employed in fumegating caout- 
chouc iu the want of urucury-nuts. 
Ui DoiAilusos Caslmiro Pereira liima. 

Jauary sprouts. 

Ut.— Idem. 


SM. — idem. 

Fruits of uxycurui (in conserve). 
Fruits of jauary (in conserve). 

Sft4.— Idem. 

Cip6 titica. 
Cip6 timb6 assii. 

Sftft Domiusos Soares Penna. 

Cupuassii-rana or acapu-rana. 

A tree commonly known by this name in the province of Par& 
and which abounds in dry grounds. The bark is applied in medicine 
as an adstringent. 

-68 — 

SS6 »omlnso0 Soares Ferreira Penita. 

Milk of massaranduba, coagulated. 
Sft7 Esievao I^ulz de Hollaiida. 

Glue of cumaty (fish). 

Sft^.— - Idem. 
Glue offish, a kind of whiting [pescada and pirahiba], 

Sft9 Florentino jM. Tavares. . 

Fruits of uichi. 
Wild cumaru fruits. 

S4IO Fraiidtico Ciaudencio da Costa & Sons. 

Inferior india-rubber (2d quality). 
Fine india-rubber (first quality). 
Sernamby india-rubber. 

The borracha, seringa or cau-diu ( india-rubber) of the natives, is 
obtained from the sap of the seringueira, as it is called, and which 
abounds in this province. It is the siphonia elastica, family of the 

The sap is obtained by making incisions in the trunk, and pla- 
cing earthen- ware vessels to catch it. This sap is then transformed 
into india-rubber, by being exposed to the smoke of urucury-nuts 
and, in the want of these, of others. The province bought from the 
late Strauss, the patent of the invention by which the india-rubber 
is prepared without the necessity of exposing the laborer to the in- 
jurious effects of the combustion, or the marshy soil in which this 
tree generally grows : and now the article can be prepared in one's 
own dwelling. The Strauss process is now in possession of the public; 
it consists in the solution of a certain quantity of alum (sulphate of 
alumine) in water which is put into a certain proportion of the milky 
sap. Custom has opposed the propagation of the use of this simple 
and advantageous process, The india-rubber is one of the principal 
sources of the wealth of the province, yet it unfortunately draws 
away the rural population from their proper occupations, and exposes 
the people to the sad consequences of their neglect. As to the qua- 
lity of the elastic gum , commerce qualifies it into fine , entrefine , 
sernamby, and negro-head. The price of the fine fluctuates at present 
between 16^ and 2(Wf per arroba. From the milky sap of many other 
trees elastic-gum can be obtained as fine as that of the caoutchouc - 
tree : for example, they have lately discovered, in Gurup&, that the 

sap of the mompiqueira or Amai*o da Silva gives excellent elastic 

aet Cleraldo Ferreira Bastos. (Vigia.) 
Sap of cork-tree. 

set Hllario Ferreira lUoulz. 

Embira Red (wood, bark and cord). 

-69 — 

S6S Hildetorando Il'uiies I^lsboa, 

Fine india-rubber. 

S64 Ignasio Kgridio Gron^alves dom Santos. 

Patau& fruits (in conserve). 

A much esteemed oil, which substitutes olive oil, is extractefl from 
this fruit. 

SSft. — Idem. 

Cip6 tiaib6. 

S66 Jaclntlio lHacliado da Sllva. 

Wood of tipitiii embira. 

869.—- Idem. 

Cip6 jacitar^. 

S68 Januarlo Prudenelo da Ciiiiikiia. 

Cip6 titica (peeled). 

S69. — Idem. 

Bark of urucury. 

S90 Joao Henrique BInlz. (Acari.) 
Maparajuba (Milk of). 

Extracted from the tree commonly known in the province of Par& 
by this name, and which is a variety of the magarandubay it abounds 
in wet soil. 

891. — Ident. (Acarl) 
Sucuiiba (Milk of). 

Applied in medicine, internally as an anthelmintic, mixed with 
coffee or castor-oil ; and externally in the preparation of plasters to 
cure inflammations of the spleen caused by intermittent fevers; and also 
to put on the articulations in cases of dislocations. 
S9«.— Idem. (Bel^m.) 

Embira of carrapicho (bush). 

Excellent fibres for weaving are derived from the plant commonly 
known by this name in the province of Pari. 
SVS. — Iflem. 

An)ap& (Milk of). 

Muiratingst (sap of), 

S94 Joao Valente do Couto. 

Mangabeira india-rubber. 

The milk of the tree denominated, mangabeira, hancomia speciosa^ 
family of the apocineas, gives a very fine india-rubber ; but both for 
fear of hurting the life of the tree, the fruits of which are very 
good to eat and much esteemed; and also on account of the com- 
parative scarceness of this tree, the india-rubber of the mangabeira 
never appears except as a curiosity. 

— 70 — 

SVft Joao M^aiizeler de Altouquerque SobrlnKo. 

Amapi (Milk of). 

Curau& leaves. 

S79 JToaquiin Bodirifruas (Aos Sa«ito9. 

Amap& (Milk of). 

S98. — Idem. 

Sucuiiba (Milk of). 
999, — Idem. 

Copahiba oil. 

S90 Jo0^ Antonio Correla de Seixaa. 

Fumegate caoutchpuc (common process). 
Sun dried caoutchouc. 
•M.— Idem. 
Fruit of maraji (in conserve). 

•M.— Idem. (BaiSo.) 
Mangaba (Milk of). 

By the working of this s£^ a kind of caoutchouc of a superior 
quality is obtained, but it is not much in vogue because the tree is 
not so common in the forests of Par&, nor so large and also because 
its fruit makes very good jam, when green, and is eaten when ripe. 
•*•.— Idem. 

Sering'ueira (seed). 

Coquilhos (seed). 

S94 JTose de Araujo Boso Danlii. 

Tucuman fruits (in conserve). 

The fruit-stones of the palm denominated in this province— tucu- 
manzeiro, [Arystocarium tucumdj family of palms), are exceedingly hard, 
and wrought into rings, heads and ferrales for walking-canes, and 
other little fancy articles. This palm abounds in all the forests of 
the province, where it grows wild. It is of the greatest utility ; the 
pulp of the ripe fruit is nutritive and agreeable to the taste ; it gives 
a coarse oil very like that denominated palm-oil, and also a fine article 
proper for illumination and all industrial uses. From the inferior leaves 
they make some domestic articles ; as baskets, boxes, mattings, fire- 
fans, hats, &c., and also derive from them the fibre which is so like 
the flax known as the tucum flax. 
99B.^ Idem. 

Seeds of vegetable musk. 

The fruit of this plant is employed to put in drawers and places 
where clothes are kept, in order to keep away the moths. 

SStt.— • Idem. 

Par& Chestnuts. 

— 71 — 

The seed of a tree commonly known here as the chestnut-tree. This 
fruit is prepared for the market by breaking the outer shell that ge- 
nerally contains from 12 to 25 chestnuts, which, without any other 
process, are put up in sacks, or stored away in the granary. The 
gathering takes place in the months of March, April, and May, 

The chestnut is eaten raw or roasted, it is made into sweets and 
confections; a milk, used as cocoa-nut milk is extracted from it, 
and also a clear yellow-transparent oil of an agreeable taste as that of the 
fresh fruit itself. This oil is employed as a condiment in cooking, 
as a perfume to soften the hair, and also in the manufacture of hard 
soaps, and for lamps. 

From the chestnut- tree they derive good tow which is used in 
calking, and in the provinces of Amazonas and Par& scarcely any other 
tow is employed for this purpose. 

In the year 1863 — 1864 the province exported 18,862 alqueires of 
chestnuts , to the value of 36 : 851^400. During the past half year, 
from January to June the exchequer of Manaos shows an exporta- 
tion of 9,276 alqueires. Each alqueire of chestnuts costs from 6 to 7 
mil reis. The alqueire is equivalent to 13 litres. 

The chestnut-tree is very large, and the wood of a superior qua- 
lity, proper for building. 
899 Sam4 de Araujo Koso Danin. (Bel^m). 

Grease of the pequiS. (tree). 

Extracted from the fruit of the tree commonly known by this name. 
This tree is large and the pulp of its stone is nutritive and savory ; 
the grease and the oil, of the same name, are prepared from it. Both 
are used as condiments. 
M9.-~ Idem. 

Boiled when green, and roasted when dried, these nuts are very 
savory, in this state, and crusted over with sugar, they are used 
as confectionery, and considered better than sugar-almonds. 

The shell of this nut is a strong caustic, as well as the oil that 
is extracted from it. In certain cases it is used in medicine. 

The resin or gum which exudes from the tree serves in medicine 
for hemoptysis, and all afifections that require the gum principle. 

The wood, in general, is white, subject to worms, and abounds in 
potash, therefore its ashes may be advantageously made use of. 
S99.--- Idem 

India-rubber-tree seeds. 
S90. — Idem. 

Muruty fruits. 
S9i. — Idem. 

Concrete milk of massaranduba. 

-72 - 

SM So»6 de Arau|o BO0O Danln. (Beldm.) 
Quaxinguba (milk of). 

S9S.— Idem. 

Cauarec& (Water of). 

S94. — Idem. 

Amap^ (milk of). 

S9ft.-— Idem. 

Fruits in alcohol. 

Pupunha. Taxy membfe. 

Tucuman. Jaboty. 

S96.— Idem. 

Cip6 jacitar^. 
997. — Idem. 

India rubber (common process). 

S99.— Idem. 

India-rubber (new process). 

S99. — Idem. 

White Embira. 

400.— Idem. 

Comb-wciod Embira (tree)* 

40i Soh4 Caetano Bltoeiro. (Bragan^a.) 

Murur6 (Milk of). 
409 Jos^ Calandrlno de Azevedo. 

Bark of turury. 

40s Josie Cailato Fiirtado de Meiidoiifa. 

Fruits of andir&-uxy (in conserve). 

404.— IdeiBi. 

Quaxinguba (Milk of). 

40ft.— Idem. 

Mamor6 sap. 

406 Jo»e Callsto Furtado de lUendoiifa and IWa- 
noel Jorye da Sllva I^obo. 

Anany (Milk of). 

409 JoB^ Henrique Dlnlz. 

Muiratitica (Water of). 

The water derived from this plant supplies the want of common 
water where there is a lack of the latter. It is extracted from the 
stalk of a cip6 commonly known in the province by this name. 

408 Jose da Silva Lelte. 

Amapa (Milk of). 

409.— Idem. 

Tucuman (seeds). 
4iO.— Idem. 

Cip6 amb6. 
Cip6 timb(3-titica. 

- 73 — 

4ii Jo0^ Verlsslmo de ]IIano8« 

Cip6 jacitar^. 

4M. — Idem. 

Leaves of jauary. 

41S. — Idem* 

Leaves of tucuman. 

414. — Idem. 

Fruits in alcohol. 

White goiaba. Igapd. 
Aran^^-rana and uariuft. Camar&. 

Marajd. Jacary. 

Assahy. Pitomba. 

Muruxi. Puxury anduxyrana. 

Ucby-pu caia. Sucunizeiro . 

Jurubeba. Uxy-pucii and purua, 

Jar^-bacabahy. Piririma/-mumbaca. 

Tucum-cahy Pupunha. 

41ft liUlz Thoniaz Correia. 

Fruits in alcohol. 

Taperaba. Uxy. 

Jacitar^. Tucuman. 

416 I^uiz ViceiUe Estevesi. 

Pirahyba (glue of). 
Pescada (glue of). 
Gurujuba (glue of). 

Glue, extracted from the fishes gurujuba^ pirahiba, piraructi and 
others, is an article of exportation in the province. Arroba 27$. 

417 Mauoel DoiiaIukos da Sllva Busso. (Barbacena.) 
Mumty (milk of). 

419 ]9laiioel Ferreira da Palxao* 

Marimary seeds. 

419 Ulanoel Sorge da Silva I^otoo* 

Pupunha fruits (in conserve). 

This palm is very common and abundant in the province of Ama- 
zonas, it is cultivated in different parts of this province. Boiled in 
water with salt its fruit is used as food by the people, who consider 
it very savory. The Indians of the tribes that inhabit the margins of 
the River Negro and its tributaries have large plantations of it, and 
from its fruit prepare a spirit caUed by them cachery. 

4tO«— Ideiii. 

Jutahy water (tree). 

- 74 - 

4f i IHanoel Jose de Mello Preire Barato* 

Wild cashew resin. 

Used in binder's glue, to prevent the insects from entering the 

4M Ulaiioel Rayiiiuiido de Atliayde* 

Araci fruit (ia conserve). 

4ltS« — Idem. 

Tucuman fruit (in conserve). 

494 niartlnlio Isldoro Pereira Ciulmaraes* 

Monpiqueira or Amaro da Silva (congealed sap). 

Extracted from the tree commonly known in the province of Par& 
by this name ; it abounds in dry grounds. This tree produces a co- 
pious quantity of sap, which coagulated is very similar to the com- 
mon caoutchouc. This article is of recent discovery. 

495. ~ Idem. (Gurup^.). 
Ucuuba (milk of). 

496.— Idem. 

Guaran^ seeds. 

497 mig^uel da CiiiiHa Peiialber. 

Muirating'a sap. 

Extracted from the tree commonly known in the province of Pari 
by this name ; it abounds in dry lands. It is used in making calico 
dyes and others. 

499.— Idem. 
link water. 

499«— Idem. 

Juquiriacii water. 

4SO.— Ideiu. (Garup§.| 
Macaco cip6 (milk of). 

4Si.— Idem. 

Murur6 (milk of). 

4S9.— Idem. 
Powder of ipadii leaves. 

4SS Pedro Hoiiorato Correla de ]IIIranda« 

Cip6 jacitari. 

4S4 Babello & Brother. 

Cip6 peu&. 
Cipo jacitarii. 

4SII. — idem. 

White embira. 

4MB Severino E. de Hiaiios €ardo9a« 

Tucuman fruits (in consarve). 

— 75 - 

4S9 Souxa & Almeida. 

Marup^ (or simaruba). 
Manacan (root). 
MatamatA (cip6). 
Herva chumbo. 
Abutua (cip6). 
Buranbem (or monesia). 

4S9. _ Idem. 
Resin of almecega (aicica). 

4S9. -^ Idenii. 

Guarana 'seeds. 

440.— Idem. 

Juxury beans. 
Camarii beans. 

441.— Idem. 

Caferana root. 

44t. — Idem. 

Copahiba seeds. 

S4S. — Idem. 

Marapuama (bark of). 

444 ^iVoolfando Alves Carnelro. 

Turury bark. 


44ft Antonio Jos^ Pirea &tma. 

Pariry resin. 
446 A. M. de Carirallio Ollvetra. 

Embira taiiary. 
449 JToao Mareelllno da Sllwa* 

Raw pitch. 

449 JTose Barbosa I^opes* 

Maporonima milk. 

440*— Idem* 

Jutaicica resin. 

4ft#«— Idem. 

Almecega resin. 

4ftl.— Idem. 

Cer61, natural. (Shoemakers wax.) 

4ftif Jo8^ Rodrlsues Tidal Junior. 

Copahiba oil. 

— 76- 

4AS manoel Joi^o TIeira. 

Massaranduba sap. 

4ft4 Sergio Aitionto TIeira. 

Andiroba (nuts and fruits of). 

4M. — Ideiii« 

Paina tyberina. (Paina, a kind of vegetable silk), 


4ftG Joao da Sllwa de nilraiida* 

Fish glue. 


459 Antonio de Oliveira Bor^es* 

Powder of the camaiiba palm. 

^M Provineial CommlBsion. 

Cij46 titara (substitutes the rotim). 
Fence cip6. 

4ft9.— Idem. 

Piqui nuts (in conserve). 

4GO.— Idem. 

Angica resin. 
Almecega resin. 
Jatob^ resin. 

4Gi.— Ideiu* 

Imbu-rana seeds. 

4Gt. — Idem. 

Thread of camaiiba palm. 

4GS. — Idem* 

Raw camaiiba straw. 

464 manoei I^ouren^o de lUenezes* 

Almecega resin. 


465 Provineiai Coinmisiiioii* 

Almecega resin. 

Hundreds of arrobas of this article are exported from a place called 
Bahia Formosa. 

466.— Idem. 

Powder of carnaiiba palm. 

469.— Idem. 

Angelim (fruits of). 

— 77 - 

469 Proirincial Coininlssion* 

Ju6 scraping's 
MangirioDa seeds, 
Embiuba seeds. 

469 Estevao Jos^ Burboza de mioura* 

Angico resin. 

490 mlii^uel Bodriii^ues Tianna* 

Benjoim resin (tree) 

Extracted from the tree styrax benzoim ; the taste is sweet, aromatic 
and agreeable at first, but soon becoming bitter; it has a very sweet smell, 
but active. It is employed in perfumery and pharmacy; is a pow- 
erful stimulant, tonic, and anti-septic. Four kinds are known. It is 
found in great abundance in the vicinity of Bahia Formosa, whence 
hundreds of arrobas are exported. 


491 Provincial Comnilssioii. 

Angico resin. 

49!t JToaquim Jcis^ Heiiriques da Sllva and Joao 
liOpes Ulacliado* 

Wool of barriguda (paina). 

This wool is extracted from the large bean produced by the tree of 
the same name, which becomes thick in the centre of the trunk 
having the figure of a hogshead. The wood is weak and the wool 
is gathered in December to February. It is used for filling beds 
and pillows. In the province all paina is known by the indigenous 
name of sumauraa. 

Arroba 4^ to 6$. 

49S. — Idem 9 idem« 


494. — Idem 9 Idem* 

Resin of coco Nay&. 
Resin of coco macambira. 

495. — Idem, Idem. 

White sumaiima (paina). 

496 I^eonardo Bezerra JTaeomo* 

Mangabeira (milk of). 

499 l<ulz Estanlsldo Bodrlffues Ciiaves. 

Resin of cashew-tree. 

— 78 — 

499 I«ulz Estaiil9l4« Roiirlirneti Cfcftve»« 

Jatobi resin. 

499.— idem. 

Almecega resin. 


490 Bartholomen Fraitclseo de Souza & Co. 

Angico resin. 
Angico resin. 

49i J.oaa Ferreira da SHTa. 

Sapucaia (fruit of). 

4M. — Idem* 

Carnica (stones of) 

49S. — Idem* 

Fruits of jaracataia (conserved). 

494 Joaiiuim de Almeida Plnte. 

Black ipecacuanha root. 

4M Joaqulm de mello Cau. 

Copahiba oil. 

496 THnurtino Pinto de Almeida. 

Matta-pasto (seed of). 


499 rirmlna Rodrl^ues TIelra. 

Angico resin. 

499 Franelseo PIntO Iiobao. 

Mulung^ seed. 

499 Jose Anfostlniio do. IVaselmento. 

C6cos of the shore. 

490 Jfom6 Constantino da Sllveira CoelKo. 

Andiroba (kernels of). 

491. — Idem* 

Turqueymaw Paina (tree). 

499 So»6 matfceus I^elte Santpaio* 

Vegetable beads. 


499 Pranelseo 9an&pai9 TIanna* 

Copahiba oil. 

494. — Idem. 

Glue of the maw of pescada (fish). 

— 79 — 

495 Vranclseo i^ampalo Tlaniifi* 

Straw of tabiia. 

496. -— Ideui* 

Paina of barriguda. 

49?.— Idem* 

Piassava (cocos of). 

499. — Ideiia* 
Angelim fruit. 

499 JToao Ferreira lilitia* 

Resin of jatoba. 

ftOO illaiioel «ios6 A Ives €orrela« 

Whale oil. 


Mi Antonio Joaquini Soarea Bibelro. 

Resin of cashew tree. 
Resin of jatahy. 

M9 JToao da tSllva de Miranda. (City.) 
Bees-wax « Urussu ». 
Bees -wax « Mundury ». 

MS nianoel lilnhares. (City.) 
• Prepared horse-hair. 


M4 Severlno I^oaren^o da Costa* 

Veg'e table wool from cip6. 
Wool from the palm-tree. 
(From the valley of the river Doce.) 


595 IProvineial CommlBslon* 

Embira of embaiiba. 

509b — Idem* 

Resin of guaricica. 

MY Felielano Mepomneeno Prates* 

Embira of ortiga braba. (Wild nettle). 

M^ Joao Antonio de Barros J^nnlor* 

Nhutinga (national nutmeg). 

509 Jose Candldo da Sllva Mttrlel* 

White paina. 


ftiO Jos^ Caiidldo «la Sllva Ularlci. 

Native yellow wax (Sahyqui). 

There exists in all the provinces of the Empire a great variety of 
species of native bees, which in general produce much honey and 
little wax, and even that little dark colored and resinous, and not 
easily whitened or hardened ; it is, however, employed in domestic 
uses. It is to be hoped that at no distant future attention will be di- 
rected to the improvement of this valuable article. 

As to the honey, it is used not only by the natives but also by many 
of the white inhabitants of the interior. The most notable of the 
honeies is that of the jaty bee, long known and employed in medicine 
in the treatment of coughs and ladies' diseases. The bee, acclimated 
and known in Europe, originated in Africa (apis mellifera communis), 
so estimated for the great quantity of wax produced in the hives, and 
which is so easily whitened, for some time back has existed in the 
country, thanks to the efforts of Mr. Manoel Jos6 Pereira de Se- 
queiros, who in the year 1839 succeeded in importing it from the city 
of Oporto. This bee is found acclimated in aU the provinces of the 
empire, principally in the south, where flowery fields have favored its 
propagation, and the production of the wax of this specie is already as- 
sisting to supply the demand in diflferent places. This branch of indus- 
try is not expensive, and the attention required is not great. The pro- 
duction has progressed and promises to continue to do so. 
Mi. — Idem. 
Pines and pine fruits. 

Fruits of wild pines, abundant in the province. The timber of these 
trees is very large and very good. The best pine forests are on the 
mountains, and therefore, for want of roads, the pines of Paran&, which 
might supply all the Empire, are useless. 

Silt Jfome Pedro da Sllira Carvalho* 

Oil of copahiba. 

IliS lHodeiito Gon^alves Cardelro. 


5i4. — Idem* 

Purgative pines. 

Sift manoel Jose da Cuiiha BlUeneoiirt. 

Oil of copaliiba. 

5iG Tlcente Ferreira de I<oyola. 

Bark of dragons-blood. 


M9 Aiiiaro JO06 Pereira. 

Oil of copahiba. 

- 81 — 

AM Carlos OCto ScMapp. 

Cip6 abutir&. Cip6 

Cip6 imb6. Cip6 

Cip6 mil-homens. Cip6 

Cip6 catinga. Cip6 

Cip6 silvado. Cip6 

Cip6 macuna. Cip6 

Cip6 quina. Cip6 

Cip6 timbdsinho. Cip6 

Cip6 do morro. Cip6 

Cipo inibi-merino. Cip6 

Cip6 junco. Cip6 

Cip6 timb6 branco. Cip6 

Cipo rabo de macaco. Cip6 

Cip6 timb6 vermelho. Gip6 

Cip6 canoa. Cip6 

Cip6 pennas. Cip6 

Cip6 (graminous). Cip6 

Cip6 liso. Cip6 

Cip6 cascudo. Cip6 

Cip6-liaca. Cip6 

Cipo vermelho. Cip6 

Cip6 espinho. Cip6 

Cip6 maracajii. Cip6 

Cip6 capitao-do-mato. Cip6 







pau preto. 


mimo do sertSo, 




unha de gate. 

da gruta. 

tiQ)b6 pdra. 




pau vermelho. 






ftiH ProTlitdal Commlssloii. 

Thorny Embira. 

ftjM Franz Hefner. 

Copahiba oil. 

Mi Job6 Felleiano Alves de Brito. 

Silk Paina. 

Mt Wenee^lde martins da Costa* 

Cip6 pau branco. 
Cip6 macuna. 
Cip6 de S. Jofto. 
Cip6 imb6-guapii. 
Cip6 batata. 
Cip6 chibata. 
Cip6 mil-homens/ 

Cip6 alho. 
Cipo de pello. 
Oip6 caboclo. 
Cip6 pau yermelho. 
BiGuiba (stones of). 

G. I. 


— 82 — 

Forest Products. 


Mft Am^Hin & Brothers. 

Anani pitch. 

This article is derived from a tree commonly called Anani , and 
is employed on ship-board , for calking and other uses , by the 
vessels which navigate the river Amazonas , and its tributaries. It 
is sold in a raw state , and also prepared with the juice of a certain 
potato f in order to render it less brittle. It is also applied , in 
fumigations, to cure cephalalgy. 

M4 Antonio BaTid de Tafseoncellos Caaavarro. 

Guarand; [imitation of ananaz). 

A resinous gum , manufactured from the fruits of the cipo com- 
monly known by this name. It is applied internally in medicine in 
the cure of dysenteries and intermittent fevers. The Indians use the 
red stalk of the fruit to dye their teeth with, which they consider 
an embellishment. 

The following is the process which the Indians use in preparing 
this article. They gather the fruit before it is well ripe, put it in 
water, take away the fleshy part, and keep the seeds, which are 
toasted and pounded in mortars till reduced to powder, which is 
afterwards made into a paste, of the consistence of dough, and this 
is finally baked in proper ovens. In order to avoid fennentation , 
they take care only to prepare what may be required for the day. 
Price per lb. 1$, 

Mft Antonio Montoiro* 

Tambaqui glue. 

ftlM Antonio Joaqnlm da Costo & Brothers* (Rio 
Fibres of curau&. 

The curau^ is a very fibrous plant like the pine apple plant* Its 
fibres are like those of the flax ; but coarser ; and less durable when 
made into cords and ropes. 

MV.~ Idem. 

Tauari (under-bark) . 

Under-bark of trees known commonly by the names of bow-wood, 
jwrupd and xuril. Among the diflerent species of this article, there 
is one that appears like fine paper, it is used for cigarette wrap- 


M^ Antonio JToaqalm da Costa & Bratlters* 

Chestnut-tree tow. 

M9 Barboza & Brotfcerii. 

Chestnut-tree tow, 

ftSO Provlneial CommlBslon* 

Andir(5ba oil. 

Extracted from the fruit of a tree , commonly called andirdba, by 
means of trituration , fermentation and decoction , and also by ex- 
pression. It is used , in the province of Amazonas , in lamps , and 
it gives such excellent light that it is considered almost beyond com- 
petition ; and many consider it good in the manufacture of soap. It 
is applied externally in medicine , as a disobstruent , in oppressions 
of the liver and spleen ; and it is put hot on wounds , to avoit te- 
tanus , and used as a component part of suppurative plasters. 

•Si Carlos Baptlsta UlardeL (Moura.) 
Fibres of uassima. 

ftSit. — Idem. 

Inaja oil. 
Andir6ba oil. 

MMM Estulano AlTes Camelro. 

Fibres of tucum. 

Fibres from the palm iucum , and used to weave fine fabrics , though 
a little darker than flax. This article is used also in the manufac- 
ture of all kinds of cords and ropes , which are more durable than 
those made from flax or hemp. Also it is employed by the Indians 
of the province of Amazonas in making hammocks and flshing-nets. 
It is already an article of exportation. 

MM Francisco Antonio Montelro Tapajox. 

Carajurii (Dye). 

SSS C^abrid Antonio Blbclro Gulmaracs. 

Guaran^ (imitation of a snake). 
Guarana (imitation of a dog*). 
Guarana (imitation of a pine). 

SSS Henrique Antiiony* 

Piassaba clean. 

Filaments extracted from the bark of a palm of this. name. This 
article is sent to market in a raw state , and also in ropes , cords , 
brooms and brushes. 

The piassaba of Amazonas is superior to that of many other of 
the southern provinces. Price , per arroba, 1^500 to IfflQO. 

M9 iloao Marceiiino Taveira Pao Bfe*asil. 

Sapucaia tow. 

- 84 - 

ftS» Jmo miireellliio Taveira P4o Brasil. 

Carajurii (dye). 

SS9. — Idem. . 

Guaran& (imitation of berib^, a fruit) . 
Giaaran^ (imitation of a pine). 
Guarana (imitation of a pine-apple). 
Guaran^ (imitation of a snake). 
Guaran^ (imitation of a stick). 

MO Jofto marttnw da Mlva Coutlnlio. 

Andir6ba oil. 
ft4[i Joaqutm Ereov^jSiMo de Sousa CoelKo. 

Carajurii (dye). 

ft4!t.— fdeAi. 

Castor beans. 
ft4S jroafiutm Pedro de Castro. (EUo Solimoes.) 
Chestnut-tree tow. 

This article is derived from the chesnut tree by macerating the 

bark. It is used in calking the vessels that navigate the Amazonas 

and its tributaries , and is an article of increasing exportation to 
the province of Pard. 

ft44 Joaquim do Be^o Barros* 

Roots of Arrow-root (in conserve). 

S4ft Joa^qittm Rodrlirues j^oareti* 

Ananl pitch. 

S4G Jos^ Cardoso BattialHa* 

€arau& fibres. 

ft49 Jfom^ Isnaelo Cardoso* 

Carajurii (dye). 

ft4».— Idem. 
Tururi tow. 

ft40 Jfom6 Joaqutm Palheta. 


MO.— Idem. 

Ananl pitch. 
Sicanta pitch. 

Mi.— Idem. 
Carujurii (dye). 

MO. — Idem. 

MatamatS, tow. 

Derived from of the tree commonly called matamatd in the pro- 
vince of Amazonas. It does not differ from the article derived *&dbi 
the bark of the chestaut-trre. 

— 85 — 

UM JToaqulm Jos^ Palfceta* 

Curau& fibres. 
CurauA fibres, raw. 
Tucii thread. 

Sj^4. — Idem. 

Powdered tobacco (a bowl of the Uanp6 Indians). 

Mft. — Idem. 

Tauari (under-bark). 

MH Sot^ marla da Sllva I^abareda* 

Guarana (imitation of a pigeon). 
Guarana (imitation of a pine-apple). 

MY I<alz Antonio IVaveeea* 

Anani pitch. 

M9 liUlz llartins da Sllva Contlnlio. 


The cotton is called in the general language of the Indians, amamua : 
it is employed by them in the province of Amazonas in the weaving 
of fabrics for nets , hammocks and other articles. The capsule of the 
plant contains an abundance of fibres, which are very lustrous and 
easily separated from the stoue. As the culture of this article i$ 
limited , the province exports little. 

ftft9 nianoel Caetano Preste». 

White pitch. 

ftSO jManoel Joaqalm Belem. 

Tauari (under-barlq . 

ftCi. — Idem. 

Uxi puci, oil. 

ftClt nianoel IJrIiano da Eneanaafao* 

Castor oil. 

Extracted from a plant commonly called in Brazil , mamona , and 
by some , carrapato. There are two qualities of this oil , according 
to the process by which it is extracted , either by expression or by 
decoction. It is used in lamps , and also in medicine as a purge. 

JMS manoel Justlntano de Selxas* 

Jauaraicica pitch. 

This is a resin , rather hard , of a dark color , acrid taste, strong 
small , and transparent. It is used as a bitumen and in tarnishes. 

ftC4 Blf^rrellluo Cordelro. (Rio Negro.) 
Muruti fibres. 

IMft.— Idem. 

Tucu plat 

— so - 

ftGG Ssablno AnConio Braiidao. 

Uixi-pucii, oil. 

wn Torquato Antonio de Souso. 

Guarana (imitation of an allig-ator). 

569. — Idem. 

Shoemaker's wax. 

ftCH Tliury & Br0»thers. 

S6rva pitch. 

Extrcictecl from the sorva-tree, and used in the making of glue. 
Tha Indians use it , in manufacturing their graters , to glue small 
angular stones on boards. The milk is used as food , and is good 
in diseases of the breast. 


ft90 Alfonso ]tl'^»ng;ln Bestneourt. 

Anani pitch. 

591 Ant«Knlo jro»^ d'O' de Almeida. 

Muruti fibres. 

M!t Candldo do Prado Pinto. 

Assai oil. 

59S.— Idem.. 

Par^ chestnut oil. 
Cocoa-nut oil. 

1194. — idem. 

PatauA oil. 
Bac^ba oil. 

MS Gas Company* 

Cold drawn cocoa-nut oil. 

The palm that produces this nut does not flouiish well in the tI- 
cinity of rivers ; it prefers the sea shore and a maritime climate ; for 
this reason the production of this fruit , at this place , is very li- 
mited, and its culture may become advantageous, only on the sea 
coast of this province. 

596.— Idem* 

Andir6ba oil. 

599 Provlnelal Commlsalon* 

Bacaba oil. 

This is extracted from a fruit of that name , which abounds in 
the province. This article , when well manufactured and puriiQyed , 
is of a light green color. It is employed in lamps , and for cooking^ 
in which it may substitue olive oil. 

— 87 - 

599 Provlnelal Coinmlssloii. 

Maraj6; oil. 

579.— Idem. 

Jupati oil. 

ftSO. — Idem. 

Patau^ oil. 

SM.— Idem. 

Bombussii or ubussii oil. 

AM.— Idem* 
Xuri tow. 
Sapucaia tow. 
Chestnut-tree tow. 
Cacador tow. 
Matamat^ tow. 
Embira tow. 

d^M.— Idem. 
Sapucaia tow. 
Curaufi, fibres. 
Cbestnut-tree tow. 
Muruti fibres. 
Tururi fibres. 
Bacaba scraping's. 
White embira fibres. 

ft»4U— Idem. 

Tauari bark. 
ft»A.— Idem. 

Muruti plat and sprouts. 

99tt* — Idem. 
Carana fibres. 
Uaissima fibres. 

ft^y.— Idem. 
Uaissima fibres. 

I^M.— Idem. 
Plat of curaui fibres. 

S99«— Idem. 

Acapii-r&na fibres. 
Tururi fibres. 

ftHO. — Idem. 

Tobacco prepared in bundles, arroba 20* to 60#. 

The soil of the province of Par& produces the best quality of to- 
bacco, which is almost aU used up in the interior. The most cele- 
brated is that from the parish of Irituia , on the banks of the nver 
Guamd. The only manner in which it is prepared is in bundles, 
which is the principal reason why its exportation is not greater. 

- 88- 

BIB1L Provincial €oiniiii«sion. 

White pitchr. 

••».— Idem. 

Anani pitch. 

BIBM David Joaquim liOai. 

Muruti oil. 

ft94.— Idem. (Melga^o.) 
Tobacco prepared in bundles, arroba 20# to 60^. 

ft9j^ Bominsos Casimiro Pereira I<ima« (Oarem.) 
Tauari bark. 

^••. — Idem* 

Marmor6-tree tow, 1;|^500. 
Matamat^-tree tow, 1^500. 
Chestnut-tree tow, 2^. 
Jauarireiia-tree tow. 

4Mf, — Idem* 

Curaua fibres. 

Very strong fibres taken from a variety of the wild ananas ; it is 
used in making fishing-nets and bow-strings. In domestic use , it is 
employed in embroidering handkerchiefs and other fancy articles. 
This plant grows spontaneously in nearly all the province. 

The fibre is white , but not so smooth as that of flax. However, 
it is thought that, with the addition of tar , it might be wrought up 
into ropes , &c. , for vessels and other uses. 

The fibres of the curaud must not be confounded with those of 
the young curud , which are not so strong. 

99% Bomiiiii^os Soares Ferreira Penna. 

Acapii-rana fibres. 
Curaud fibres. 

BBS Franeiseo Auf^usto de A* Vianna. (Bel^m.) 

Extracted from the ftnit of the Par& and Maranham chestnut-tree. 
It becomes bad when left open to the air. When fresh, it is used* 
as a condiment, and substitutes hog's lard. It is good for the ma- 
nufacture of hard white scented soap , and serves in lamps ; and, in 
medicine : is applied as an emollient. 

••O Franeiseo Miffuel Tavarea. (GurapS.) 
Fibres of piriquiti (tree). 

#^i F^let(iiii» Ramofii Beiil!e«. 

Muruti oil. 

•M Ignaelo Ei^dta Cion^alves dos Santov. 

Muruti fibres; 

— 89 — 

•OS Isidore FevreirA daCc^eta. 

Guaran^ (imitation of a water -fowl). 

•04 Joao Henrique Dinlz. 

Curau4 fibres. 

•Oft J oao Martins da Sllva Coiitlnita* 

Anani pitch. 

•06.— Idem. 

Carajurii (dye). 

•09.— Idem. 

Guaran4 (seeds). 

Guaran4 (stalks and leaves). 

e09 Joao da Sllva IVeves. (Portel.) 
Tobacco prepared in bundles , arroba 20# to 60^. 

OOO Joao TorqiKato Calvao TInliaes* 

Raw-cotton, arroba 3^. 

Great quantities of this article may be raised in the province of 
Para ; but it is indispensable that it be gathered at the proper season* 
as the rainy weatlier injures it much. However , if it be gathered 
daring the three months of the dry season , this haim can be 

Almost all the cotton produced in this province goes to foreign 
markets. The exportation , during the year 1864 — 1865 , was 13,149 
arrobas , official value 177:847fl598 , averaging 14)51638 per arroba. 

•iO.— Idem. 

Embira tow. 
Curau& fibres. 

Oil Joao Wanzeler de Albuquerque •obrlnha. 

Jupati oil. 

Oilt Joaqulm F. A. IHonlz. 

Tucuma oil. 

Employed in lamps and in making soap. As yet it is prepared and 
used only by private persons, though the soil of the province of Par& 
could produce a sufficient quantity of the fruit of the tucuman palm 
to supply a regular manufactory, on a large scale. 

OiS Joaquim de Ollveira Santos. 

Guaran& (sticks of). 

Oi4.— Idem* (Oeiras.) 
Curaua fibres* 

— 90 — 

Sift Jos^ Autonlo Correla de 9elx»0. 

Chestnut-tree tow, 2^ per arroba. 

Obtained from the bark of the tree , and employed in calking vessels: 
its price is from 3fi to 4S per arroba. This tree abounds in the pro- 
vince , unfortunately those who make this tow , frequently destroy 
the leaves of the tree, taking off the bark all round. 

The chestnut-tree is the monarch of the Par& forests ; it grows to 
a great size ; its products are many , useful and varied ; the wood 
is excellent in ship and house-building ; the nut is eatable ; from it 
a milk , used as a condiment, is extracted ; its oil is a perfect sub- 
stitute for that of sweet almonds; it also gives an excellent light; 
each pericarp commonly contains 20 chestnuts , and one pound of the 
latter produces 10 ounces of oil ; the price of the oil is 800 rs. a 

One workman , assisted by a boy or by his wife, can gather and 
break , per day , sufficient pericarps to produce two alqueires (pro- 
vincial measure) of chestnuts , the price of which is QHWO to 7g per 

The chestnut is an important article of exportation to the different 
markets of the United States and Europe. But little is gathered , 
yearly , and that , what falls spontaneously. 

The province of Par& , alone , could furnish chestnut oil for in- 
dustrial purposes , to supply all the world ; and it is surprising that 
this branch of industry has not yet been explored on a large scale 
in this province. In domestic medicine they make use of tea , of the 
chestnut- tree tow , for chronic liver complaints. The chestnut is also 
said to be good for catarrhs. 

616 Joa^ de Araujo KO0O Baiiin. 

Chestnut oil. 
Tucuman oil. 

619. — Idem. 

White pitch. 

6i(^.— Idem. 

Curau^ fibres. 
Banana plant fibres. 
Muruti nbres. 
Uaissima fibres. 

619. — Idem. 

Plat of uaissima fibres. 

6tO.— Idem. 

Tobacco prepared in bundles, arroba 1#500. 

— 91 — 

Tow of tatajiiba tree; arroba, 1»600. 

6]i!t. — Idem. (Brauga.) 
Uaissima fibres. 

In a natural state, this artiele serves for bands; properly prepared, 
it makes very good cords and ropes. The uaissima plant is abundant 
in this province , and in all the empire. 

The forests of the province of Pard abound in textile plants which 
produce fibres of different qualities and uses ; some employed only in 
making coarse ropes , and others are woven. Among those, here re- 
'ferred to , the ones most worthy of mention are known in the pn>> 
vince by common names of inajd , muriti and curaud. From the two 
former they derive fibres and straws for the manufacture of cords , 
hats, mats and coarse fabrics : from the latter , fibres for fine fabrics, 
as lace, etc. 

69S Jofl^ Callsto Fartado de Mendonfa. 

Cocoa-nut oil. 
Tucuman oil. 

Otd. — Idem. 

Ash pitch. 

6!tft Joa^ Geraldo Barroao da Silva. 

Curu& fibres. 

6!tS. — Idem. 

Tow of matamatA (tree) ; arroba, 1»500. 
Tow of tatajiiba (tree) ; arroba, 1#500. 

Sty Joa6 Joaqulm de OllTeira s^antos and Jom 
do O* de Almeida* 

Tobacco prepared in bundles; arroba 20# to 60». 

%%% Jos^ Terlasimo de Hiattoii* 

Curau& fibres. 
Curumicai fibres. 

699 — Idem. (Obidos). 
Tobacco prepared in bundles ; arroba, 20# to 60;>. 

•SO liUias Tliomaz Correia. 

Seeds of anil (indigo). 

•Si liUiz T. da €o0ta« 

Oil of andir6ba; libra, 200 rs. 

•SS maiioel liomliiyaeB da Silwa Basso* 

Murutl tow. 

— 92 — 

6M IHanoel Bominsues da Ml%ra Su0«o« 

Muruti plat and sprouta. 

•S4. — Idem. 

Muruti oil. 

•Sft jMLaiieel Jfo^rne d» Silva l«abo. 

Babosa water. 

Applied in medicine for washing the head and keeping it clear of 
dandruff. From the leaves they also prepare a pectoral syrup , and 
tbese are also employed as anti-ophthalmic , and in the external cure 
of hemorrhoidas. The juice is used a& a drastic medicine. 

•Stt. — Mem. 

Anani wax, composed of bees'wax and leaves of po^ 

•89 maiioel Pereira Miiia* 

Curuat&-assii fibres. 

•S9.— Idem. 

Andir6ba oil. 

The oil extracted from the chestnut of the tree , denominated in the 
province , andirobeiraj is generally employed by the population ,.ia 
lamps. Its price is from 9^ to 10^ a jar , which contains about one 
cubic foot. In medicine, the fruit is considered anthelmintic, and the 
bark adstringent : the expressed oil is applied in the cure of ulcers and 
herpes. In household medicine, they make plasters of the oil of an- 
diroba , mixed with the new leaves of anil , pounded ; and apply them 
to cure inflammations of the spleen and liver. The andirobeira is very 
abundant in all the forests of the province. Its timber is much esteemed 
in house and ship-building. The preparation of the oil is , as y«t , 
carried on , only by private persons , all over the province , and by 
rustic methods. 

They also make use of the andiroba oil in preparing cominon 

••• Jllartliifi & Tedeselil. 

Chestnut oil. 
Patua oil. 
Andir6ba oil. 

•40 Misuel da Cunha Penalber. 

Ucuiiba (dye). 

•41. — Idem. 

Curaufi, fibres. 

•4!t Misael Joaquim Fernandea* 

Carrapato oil. 

— 98 — 

The oil of the carrapato , ricino , inamona or palma-christi (castor 
oil) , is obtained from the fruit of the plant known in the province 
by the name of carrapateiro (Bicinus communis) ; this product is less 
abundant than the andiroba oil , though the plant grows well in all 
the province , and some varieties produce large seeds. The farmers, in 
general , are accustomed to sow the carrapato in their new grounds, 
but they only prepare sufficient oil for their own consumption. Some- 
times this berry is sought for exportation. The oil is used in lamps; 
when pure, it is employed in medicine as one of the most useful purges ; 
it is the castor oil. The leaves and roots of the plant are also medi- 
cinal. The preparation of this oil is, as yet , only carried on in private 
households , in this province. But in the provinces of Rio de Janeiro , 
Alag6as , Sergipe and Rio Grande of the South , it is well manu- 
factured , and exported on a large scale. 

64S ini^uel Joaqulm V>emiindm« 

Castor berries. 

644.— Idem- 
Yellow castor berries. 

64ft Pedro Honor ato Correla de Miranda. 

Wbite pitch. 

646. — Idem* 

Urucii seeds. 

The numerous red seeds, found inside the capsule covered with 
thorns , and which forms the fruit , serve as a dye , though it is not a 
fixed color. In the culinary ai't these are employed as a condiment, 
and substitute tomato paste ; and this article is also used to color 
butter , chocolate and other articles. 

The Indians keep of the mosquitoes, anointing their bodies with 
oil mixed with unicti. 

The medical faculty consider the urucu as a slight purge, a stomachic, 
and perhaps an expectorant. The mucilage , produced from the sprouts 
kept in water is an aiiti-ophthalmic , and also considered as an anti- 
dote against the poison of the mandioc. 

647 Pinto & SIlTa. (Santarem. ) 
Cotton , from the interior; arroba, 3'^. 

649. — Idem. 

Tow, from 1:he uaissima bush ; arroba, 3». 

646. — Idem* 

Carana fibres. 

6ftO Rabello & Brother. 

Matamatd-tree tow. 

— 94 — 

•Si Raliello & Brother. 

Uxi-pucii oil. 

•ftt Raymundo Pereira liinia* 

CurauA fibres. 
Sapucaia tow. 
Chestnut tow. 
Matamat& tow. 
Muruti fibres. 

6ftS Ray m undo Manocl Rodrlnaes. 

Tobacco prepared in bundles ; arroba 20# to 60#. 

6ft4 Sab In o Joo^ do Souza Albuquerqae. 

Tobacco prepared in bundles. 

•M !^4»uza & Almeida. 

Cold drawn oil of pechurim. 
Cold drawn oil of cardamine. 
Cold drawn oil of Para chesnuts. 

•ftS. — Ideui* 


•M Sulpielo Cardoso de Almeida. 

Inaj^ oil. 

•ftS ll^olfando Alves Carneiro. 

Curan^ fibres. 


•ftO Provlnelal Cominloslon* 

Tucuneiro fibres. 

•GO Rloffo Antonio do0 Rels. (Pinheiro«) 
Inaj^ oil. 
Piqui oil. 

•M. — Idem. 

Cro^ fibres. 

669 Joao mareelllno da Silvelra. 

Fibres of fragrant embira. 

Fibres of Gravatit. 

Fibres of tow. 

Fibres of embira p6-d'anta. 

Fibres of embira pente-de-macaco. 

Fibres of embira-tauari. 

•SS Jose Rarboza I^opea* 

Macaraniua shoemakers' wax. 

••4 Joa6 Joaqulm Telxelra Tlelra Relfort* 

Raw cotton. 

It is well known that the cotton plant thrives , with little labour , 

— 95 — 

in all Brazil , and Uiat it is caltavated In a large scale, in tlie central 
provinces, consisting of Maranham, Pernambuco, Alagdas and Minas- 

The great call for this article , in foreign markets , in consequence 
of the foilure of the supply from the United States , caused by the 
calamitous war that desolated the cotton-raising portion of that country, 
has elevated the prices, and encours^ed the cultivation of cotton in 
Brazil. The planters of the North of the Empire have raised much, 
and new plantations, on a large scale , have commenced in the pro- 
vinces of Kio Grande of the South , Santa Gatharina , Parang , and 
especially S. Paulo. The efforts of the Government and of the society 
« Auxiliadora da Industria Nacional » , by a liberal distribution of 
cotton seeds, have helped on this progress. The provinces of S. Paulo 
and Rio Grande of the South, give promise of soon becoming exporters 
of this product. 

The principal varieties of cotton known in Brazil are the following : 
1st. Long , black whole-seed cotton. The pericarp is long containing 
within it three pods , full of silk ; this is called seed cotton , and is 
very common in Maranham. The silk or wool is coarse ; the plant 
lasts two years , and does not ramify much. 

2nd. Brown whole-seed cotton. The pericarp is thicker and shorter 
than the preceding ; it contains four cells ; the fibre is strong and 
smooth. The plant grows stouter , ramifie^ much , and lives many 

3d. Green whole-seed cotton. The pericarp , like that of the preced- 
ing , contains four cells or pods ; the wool is abundant , white, fine, 
smooth , soft and strong. The tree is like the preceding one. 

4th. Black whole-seed , nankeen or dark colored cotton. The peri- 
carp contains three or four pods. The wool is smooth , strong and 
yellow. The plant is lasting. 

5th. Cloven-seed cotton, or of loose seeds covered with white 
down. It is a native of India : its pericarp is small , and contains 
three pods with seven black seeds divided and covered with silk or 
down, very fine and white. This plant is a vine and durable. The 
flower is red, like fire. 

There in Brazil, another cotton-plant, also indigenous to India, having 
black, cloven seeds; white smooth down, and tree higher than the 

Some varieties of wild cotton-tree are also known in Brazil. Two 
of them are like the India plant, in the tree, £md in the seeds ; one 
of them having the down dark colored and coarse, formant of cul- 

The herbaceous cotton is an annual plant which grows to the height 
of from 2 spans 11/2 inches to 2 spans 3 inches (49 to 54 c.) and in 

— 96 — 

certain climates it some times reaches the height of from 7 to 9 

The fruit of this cotton-plant consists of a pericarp of about from 
1 to 2 inches in length (4 to 6 c), which contains, in different pods, 
a fibrous, downy substance, involving the seeds, to which it generally 
adheres. In the cotton-trees, and cotton bushes, the seeds grow all 
united in a pyramidal form, but in the herbaceous cotton they grow 
by twos and are completely enveloped by down. 

The cotton grows in all soils, but prefers those improper for any 
other cultivation, and those near the ocean. 

The seeds or stones of the cotton-plants are-white, black, brown 
green or yellow, according to the species. 

Cotton is picked, generally, from August to December, but when 
the season is hot, it is veiy common, to see plant in flower during 
the same time, and also green buds : so that it is not rare to have 
to pick the cotton at different periods. In Brazil, the herbaceous cotton 
gives two or three crops annually. 

Cotton is also distinguished by the length of its fibre, there being 
the long silk and the short silk; the former being finer, more lustrous 
and strong; and the latter, generally, less soft, but almost always pretty 

Much of the Brazilian cotton is the long silk; that of Pemambuco 
s generally clean, of a good color, a little dark, having the fibres re- 
gular, thick and strong : that of Bahia does not present any regularity 
in color, fibre or cleanness; it is sometimes fine and smooth, of a 
white color or a little yellowish; that of Maranbam has stout strong 
hard fibres, of a dark color, and generally not very clean : that 
of Minas, especially of Minas-Novas, is well liked, has long, 
straight, fine^ strong, brilliant fibres, and its color is generally 

The cotton of the provinces of Par& and Amazonas is of a dark 
oolor, having fine strong fibres, but not very clean : that of Bio de 
Janeiro, S. Paulo and Rio Grande of the South, is like that of Minas; 
but the color is generally white: that of Cear&, Parahyba and Bio 
Grande of the North is like that of Pemambuco ; the best of tham 
being that of the mountain of Maioridade in Bio Grande of the North, 
while that of Alag6as and Espirito*8anto is like that of Bahia. 

The seeds of the cotton-plants are excessively oily, and have been 
made to yield an oil, very good for burning; for soaps; for the use 
of machines; and also used in medicine. It is extracted in the same 
manner as the castor-oil. 

The foreign exportation of the province of Maranham, for the year 
1864—1865, was 249,243 arrobas, official value 4,784:0519000, averaging 
19^194 per arroba. 

— 97 — 

Those of Par& and Ama/.onas are of a dark color, and the threads 
are fine and strong, but they are not very clean. 

Those of Rio de Janeiro, S. Paulo and Rio Grande of the South 
have the same qualities as that of Minas, but the color is generally 

Those of Pernambnco, Oeard, Parahyba and Rio Grande of the 
North are alike, while those of the mountain Maioridade, in this 
last province merit particular mention. 

Those of Alagdas and Espirito-Santo are like those of Bahia. 

The seed of the cottontree is extremely oily, and from them an oil 
for burning has been extracted, which is also used for soap, and the 
use of engines ; and it is also employed in medicine. This oil is ex- 
tracted in the same manner as that of the castor-beans. 

The foreign exportation from Maranham for the year 1864—1866 
was 349,143 arrobas, official value 4,784:051^000, averagmg 19^194 per 

IMI6 JO06 Joai|uiin Veixeira Tlelra Belfort* 

Raw cotton. 

69C« Idem. 

Oil of c6co babussii. 
Oil of castor-beans. 
Oil of gergelim. 

IMI7. Idem. 

Oil of chestnuts. 

669 J 00^ iviaria Tianna, (Caxias.) 
Leaf tobacco. 

669* Idem* 

Fibres of the embira (monkey's comb). 

690 Maria B. de F. lifsboa (D.) (Gururupii.) 

Raw cotton. 

691 • Idem* 

Raw cotton. 

6YI9 Sergio Antonio Tieira* 

Cotton in the seed. 
Raw cotton. 

6YS« Idem. 

Oil of tucuman. 
Oil of pea-nuts. 

694* Idem* 


c I. 

Fibres of the fragrant embira. 

— OS- 

Mft Provliicl»l CoinmlASton. 

Cotton in the seeds. 
Indian cotton. 

Oil of highland-palm cocoa. 

•tV. Idem* 

Oil of piqui cocoa. 

6Y9* Idem. 

Bees- wax. 

•til* Idem* 


d^O JoAiiuIni Jofii^ Barbeza* 

Herbaceous cotton, ground plant. 

dM Jos^ FrAuclisco d» Sllvft Albano* 

Herbaceous cotton. 

dSd ]flarroco0. 

Herbaceous cotton. 

dSS Paulo Cfon^alwes de Souza. 

Silk cotton. 
Raw cotton. 
Creole cotton. 

d94 Rayiuando W. da Costa Tairareii* 

Cocoa-nut oil, purified. 


d§ft Prowlnclal Commlasion* 

Camaiiba wax. 

Obtained from the carnauba palm (coriphera cert f era) which abounds 
in Ceard and Bio Grande of the North, being found also in the con- 
tiguous provinces : it resists the most severe droughts, is always green 
and flourishing, and is of inestimable utility. From the trunk, when 
cut at the proper age, they extract a light strong fibre, which is 
susceptible of a fine lustre. The wood is used for props and other 
purposes in house-building; as, laths, fences, etc., etc. 

From its cabbage , wine , vinegar and saccharine substance is 
obtained. The root is considered more energetic than the sarsapa- 

From the leaf of tlie camauba-palm a powder or glutinous paste 
is extracted by means of a very simple process. They split the leaves 
and put them on the sun to wither ; after three or four days they 
beat these leaves in a place where there is no wind, this process 
1 eaves a very white powder, which, melted in the fire, produces a 
yellow tough glassy wax. This wax is much used in making candles 
which are extensively consumed in the provinces of the North, espe- 
cially in Ceard, where this article is already an important branch 
of exportation. From the port of Fortaleza (capital of Ceard) there is 
annually exported to the other provinces and to Europe, from two 
to three thousand arrobas ; official value, from 15 to 16 thousand mil 
rgis. From the port of Aracaty, is exported to the same destinations 
about 30 or 35,000 arrobas, value 300 to 310 thousand mil r6is. From 
the ports of Acaracii and Granja, and from the interior also, go great 
quantities to the neighbouring provinces. The annual exportation may 
be calculated at 50,000 arrobas, and the internal consumption at 40,000 
arrobas, the annual production in the province of Cear^ amounting, in 
value, to about 900:000^5(000. 

Even the refuse of the leaves gives a salt which has not yet been 
studied, a specimen of which was sent from Oear& to the Exhibition, 
and also a potash much employed in manufacturing soap. 

They make musical instruments, tubes and pumps from this tree, 
as the outside of it is very hard, and the interior fibres may easily 
be bored out. Its great durability makes it inestimable in all these 
and a number of other uses. 

The soft fibrous substance in the interior of the stalk of the leaves 
substitutes cork. 

The fibres of the trunk of the camauba, when ripe, are black and 
strong, interlaced with one another and united by a medullary sub- 
stance very hard and whitish. 

From the cabbage, which is smaU, and when tender, very tasty 
and nutritive, by means of repeated washing, a great quantity of 
gum like sago is extracted; which is very agreable to the taste, and 
has been of great benefit to the inhabitants of Ceara and Bio Grande 
of the North, in times of drought. 

The fruit of the camauba is of the size of a a hazel-nut, and its 
pulp and kernel, which are oily and emulsive are eaten. From this 
fruit a specie of farinha or maizena is extracted and also an emul- 
sive whitish liquor, which they call milk, and which has the same 
uses as that of the fruit called the Bahia cocoa-nut. Of the dried 
leaves they make matting, hats, baskets of all kinds, fans, brooms, etc., 
and the fibre of the leaves, when new, gives a strong thread of which 
cords, nets, hammocks, etc., are made. Of the roasted kernel they 

— 100 — 

make coflfee which is said to be very agreable, and might substitute 
the real poffee. 

The consumption of the products of the camaiiba, in the country, 
is very great, but no statistics exist about it. There is also some 
foreign exportation of the products of the camaiiba palm. 

The straw of the camaiiba is sent to Europe and there made into 
fine hats, some of which return to Brazil to be sold. 

69tt l*rowliiei»l Comnilmilon. 


•M Estevao ^oae Barboza de Jlloura* 

Oil of cocoa. 


•M €arlo» €o«llta d'Alwersa. 

Fibres of gravat^. 

699 Provincial Coiumlsalon* 

Fibres of the melon-S.Caetano. 

The extract of this plant is employed in verminous colics, in in- 
digestions, in uterine diseases, in asthmas, in rheumatic pains, etc., 
and is said even to cure Elephantiasis. 

It substitutes soap in washing clothes. 

690 Epaiuinondaii de Sousa Correia* 

Fibres of field mallows. 

•9i Ei'arlf^lo Sabluo de Ollvetra e Ulello* 

Oil of cocoa. 

•99 Franeiseo Alves de Soiiza Carvallto* 

Oriole cotton. 

•99. Idem. 

Red cotton, ginned. 

•94 Frederieo do li<^o Vaseauo Barreto. 

Fibres of tucuman. 

•96 Jeroiiymo Cabral Bodrlsues Cltavea* 

Fibres of ananaz (pine-apple), 

•96 Joao ropes maeliado and jroafiulm Some Hen- 
rlqiueii da Sllva. 

Silk cotton. 

This is one of the principal sources of the wealth of this province. 
Its culture is extensive and produces large crops and a great deal af 
it is exported. Bavv it costs 16^1 per arroba. 

- 101 - 

The foreign exportation of this article was in 1864—1865, 247,988 
arrobas : official value 4,900:593iSI900, average price 191J762 per arroba. 

B97 Jeao Iiopea iilAcliAdo and jroaqfiim Jmm^ 
Henrlciues d» Sllva* 

Red cotton in the seed. 

•99*-^ Idem. 

Brittle cotton, per arroba 16#. 

••• Joao I^naelo de niasalltaes* 

Oil of the castor-hean. 

900 Joao liopesi Blaeliad* and Jaaqulm Jos^ HenF 
rifiiieii da iSllva. 

Fibres of the gravat&-assii. 
90i._ Idem. 

Pith of aquatic grass. 

909 Joaqulm Tlctor Pereira* 

Oil of nay&. 

YOS Iiulz C0taiil»l&o Bodrl^uea Chaires- 

Tar of almecega. 

904.— Idem. 

Fibres of macahyba. 
Fibres of jangadeira. 

Extracted from the bark of the tree of this name. These fibres 
serve for bands and to fabricate cords, and are in general use in the 
province. On account of being of less specific weight than water, 
the wood of this tree is used for rafts, and hence it derives its 
V06 Misa^ da i^llva Tavares* 

Oil of batiputA (tree). 

YOe Maiiael Tidal da sllva. 


Pure villager's snuff. 

Pure villager's snuff mixed with toasted. 

Pure villager's snuff, compounded with Meuron. 


Y09 Antonio Maria de Brito. 

Prepared tobacco. 

Y09. — Idem. 

Cigarretes of different qualities. 

va« Corlolano Telloao da Sllvelra* 

Embira tow. 

— 102 — 

9iO Inspector of the Morlne Arsenal* 

Red embira. 
Embira tow. 

9ii Isae. 



9M Affitonio Bias CoeUio e niello* 

Tobacco from the 1st. to the Srd. quality. 

Vis I<eonelo Armando do Esplrlto-Santo* 

Cocoa oil, 1st. quality, Canada, 3#000. 
Cocoa oil, 2d. quality, Canada, 2$000. 

This oil is fabricated here on a large scale, and during the last 
few years it has become an article of exportation ; being sent to the 
province of fiahia, where it is used not only for machines, but also in 
perfumery. Its annual exportation according to official documents aver- 
ages from 2:000S to 3:000iSI000. 


914 Bastos & H'epheiv. 

Raw cocoa oil. 

9ift. Idem* 

Tobacco of S. Felix (crop of 1865—1866). 

The production of tobacco in the province of Bahia is extraordi- 
nary; it constitutes an important branch of commerce in that pro- 
vince whence was exported in the year 1864—1865, 447,854 arrobas 
of tobacco in leaf, to the official value of 1,731 :304|ifl45, averaging 
3/11865 per arroba ; and of roll tobacco 103,082 arrobas, official value 
329;6C9a600, 3»197 per arroba. 

Vitt Provinetal Commlsiilon* 


YiV. Idem* 

White cotton. 

919. Idem. (Ilh^os.) 
Satin cotton. 

919. Idem. (Ghique-chique.) 
Common cotton. 
Nankeen cotton. 

MO« Idem. 

Cotton (seed from Maranham) 
Cotton (seed from Perii). 

— 103 — 

tiSi Provincial Coiiiiiils0lon« 

Oil of cocoa. 

t9l» Franelseo Saiupalo Tlaiiiia* 

Cotton from the highlands of Itiuba. 
Cotton from the town of Porto Seguro. 
999m — Idem. 

Oil of cocoa. 

99^.— Idem. 

Castor-beans (seed). 
9196.— Idem* 
Paina of Cayenne cane. 

9lttt. — Idem. 

Urucii seeds. 

999 Cfustavo A« Seliiiorbuseli^ 


999 Joao Ferreira lilma. 

Cigar bands (fibres). 

999 Joa^ Pinto Bodrlffaes da Casta. 


9ao !<• HI* Ferrare* 

Clean piassava. 
Prepared piassava. 

ISi Manoel Candido de Oliveira Cluimaraes* 

White cotton. 

999 Paulo Jos^ de Telire e Arsollo. 

Cotton (Sea islands). 

999 Porflrio Pereira de Castro* 

Wild cotton. 

994 Vmbelino da Sllva Tosta. 

Leaf tobacco. 


996 Ernesto Prederieo dos Santos and Joao Frait- 
ciseo dos tiantos. (City.) 

Fibres of carrapicho, colored. 
Fibres of carrapicho, combed. 
Fibres of carrapicho, bleached. 
Fibres of carrapicho, natural. 
Fine tow of carrapicho. 

999 Imperial Plantation. (Petropolis.) 
Tobacco in leaf. 

— 104 — 

VST Cullhernie Sehuoh de Capaneiua. (City.) 

Bombonassia (husk). 

9M^ Culniarftes Bastes & €^ (aty.) 

Cigarettes (diverses qualities). 
Cut tobacco for cigarettes. 

9M9 Imperial Instituto Fluiiiineiise de Acrieal- 
tura. (City.) 
Herbaceous cotton. 

V40. Idem. (City.) 
Fibre of yuca. 
Fibre of guaxima. 
Fibre of pandanus. 
Fibre of pita. 

941. idem. (City.) 
Lealf tobaco (Djebel) . 

94t. Idem. (City.) 

Clean paina. 

94S Idem. (City.) 

Bombonassia husk. 

944 #oao Clirysostomo da Costa Ouimaraes. (Oty.) 
Coarse Carioca snuff, 1» per lb. 
Rose snuff, 1# per lb. 

»4« JToao Paulo Cordelro. (City.) 
Macaroca snuff. 
Snuff, princess fine. 
Snuff middling coarse. 

The manufacture of snuff has taken great proportions in the city- 
several establishments manu&cture it by secret processes, and it i^ 
nearly all consumed in this province; some however, is exported to 
the others, though they aU manufacture it on a larger or smaUer 

'Cotton*"*"" »*««^*»»»o *e ©uelraz. (Araniama.) 

'5? f ®««l"*m Martins Corr^a. (Petropolis.) 
Tobacco (amostrinha). 


— 105 — 

949 JTos^ marla de Meiidon^a (aty.) 

9411 jr. F. da Roeha Sobral. (City.) 

Snuff princess, mixture. 

9ftO I<isaur IVovaes. (Nictberoy.) 
Brown paper cigarettes, bundle 100 rs. 
Tobacco paper, cigarettes, bundle 100 rs. 
Straw cigarettes, bundle 100 rs. 
White linen cigarettes, bundle 120 rs. 
White oriental cigarettes, bundle 160 rs. 
White havanah ci^rettes, bundle 200 rs. 
Dark Garibaldies cigarettes, bundle 120 rs. 

9M.— Idem. 

Round cut tobacco, 1/2 lb. package 400 rs. 
Curly tobacco (Werwick), 1/2 lb. package 500 rs. 
French tobacco, 1/2 lb. package 400 rs. 
Cut Havana, lb. 800 rs. 

9ft!t. — Idem. 

Nicot snuff, coarse and fine lb. IftOOO. 
French snuff, lb. 1»000. 

9IM I<iii2 Baret. (City.) 

Prepared tobacco, 1st quality, package 230 grams 1*. 

Prepared tobacco, 2nd quality, package (regular) 230 
grams 1^000. 

Two glass jars with similar tobacco. 

In Rio de Janeiro tobacco is cultivated but not on a large scale* 
The foreign exportation from the city is supplied by the produce of 

Minas-Geraes and S. Paulo. 


In the city the manufactories of cigars and cigarettes are numerous, 
and so are those of snuff. Much tobacco from the province of Bahia 
is used in cigar manufactories of the metropolis. 

The exportation of roll tobacco during the year 1864— -1865, was 
877,031 arrobas, oAcial value 804:604^600, averaging 9^246 per arroba. 

9BA Manoel de Ollveira Pinto Junior* (Vassouras.) 
Cigarettes, thousand, 10^000. 

7SA VeAvo Antonio CastiAnhern • (Gity.) 
Cigars, 7 boxes. 

The manufacture of cigars and cigarettes is nov^ an important branch 
of industry in Hio de Janeiro. The great consumption of these pro- 
ducts increases the number of the manufactories here every day, and 
also the quantity of foreign products of the same kind. In the market 
our goods have reached such perfection that they are beginning to 
gain the preference. 

— 106 — 

9S6 ^aitoel loupes de Oliveira. 

Cotton, long-silk. 

Herbaceous cotton, white seed. 

Nankeen cotton. 


91S Daniel da Rocha Ferrelra. 

Roll tobacco. 

9S9 Frauelseo VIotti. 

Cut tobacco. 


959 Doinlelaiio Correla lielte* 

Pig-tail tobacco. 
Leaf- tobacco. 

960 Franeiseo David Perneta. 

Merino wool. 

961 Fellelaiionrepomaeeiie PratiMi* 

Cotton, cultivated by the Indians. 

969. Idem. 

Yellow wax. 

965 JTesuino Mareoitdea de Oliveira e 6&t 

Pure negrette wool. 

Wool, half negrette and half merino. 

Pure rambouillette wool. 

964 JToaquIni Franeiseo I^opes* 

Guaxima fibres. 

96ft JToaquiin Severo Correla and Manoel Ante* 
nie Ferrelra* 

Nankeen cotton. 

966 #00^ Caiidldo da Sllva BMIurlei* 

Cigarettes of maize husk. 

969. Idem. 

Fibres of white embira. 

969. Idem* 

Fibres of tucum. 

966 Ideiu. 

Small castor-beans. 

— 107 — 

lyo JTese Joaqulni Teixelra Baiiios* 


171 Jos^ Pereira I«liiharea. 

Pigtail tobacco. 

992 l<aara Maria do IVascliiteitto Borgpes. 

White wax. 

yys jUanoel Anfonlo Ferreira. 

Cip6 sumo in powder. 

794 Maitoel Antonio Verreira and Joaqalm Se- 
vera Correla. 

Fibres of guapeba. 

91S Modesto Gonfalves Cordeiro. 

Fibres of criciuma. 
Fibres of imbaiiba. 

976 Rosa I<eite Fernandes. 

Oil of the castor-beans. 


999 Antaro Joae Pereira. 

Oil of pea-nuts. 

999. — Idem. 


999 Barao de Sehneebouri;. (Colony Brusque.) 
Herbaceous cotton (seed from colony of Santa Cruz, 
Rio Grande of the South). 

990 Carlos Otto fi(elilapall. (Colony Angelim.) 
Fibres of white embira. 

Fibres of cork embira. 
Fibres of imbaubi. 
Fibres of reed embira. 

991 Provlnelal CommisBioii. 

Tow made from flax-husk. 
Tow made from prepared flax. 

99St Estanisl^o Antonio da Coneei^ao & Sons. 

Snuff, fragrant princess' mixture. 

This branch of industry already established in Santa Catharina pro- 
mises to be successfol, as the consumption must extend to the neigh- 
bouring provinces, where the production of tobaccos is not so consi- 

99S Joao Pinto da liuz. 

Castor beans. 


994 Jol^o Plato da i.i9z* 

Oil of Indian walnut. 
Oil of pea-nuts. 

795 •Peaquim Soares* (Itaboraby.) 
Fibres of flax. 

996 JTorgpe Trueter* (Lages.) 
Tobacco in roll. 

999 Jallo Beaiimsarter* (Colony Blumenau.) 
Virginia cigars. 

999 Maneel Antonio VIeIra* 

Prepared flax. 

990 Mareellino Antonio Diitra* 

Herbaceous cotton (Georgia). 
Herbaceous cotton (Kentucky). 

900 Marx. (Colony Blumenau.) 
Tobacco in leaf. 

In the province of Santa Catharina as well as in the other pro- 
vinces where tobacco is cultivated, it is prepared in all the forms 
known in Santa Catharina; it is wrought up on a large scale^ as 
well for home use, as for exportation ; and the cigars and cigarettes 
of this province are in high estimation and much sought for. 

In almost all the provinces of the North and South of the empire, 
the production of tobacco is abundant, and this article gives promise 
of becoming one of the most valuable products for national expor- 

90t RIsehbieter. 

Herbaceous cotton. 
Smooth cotton. 

90t Todenehini. 

Herbaceus cotton. 

90S Tobias. 


9114 Todeflchlni. 

Fibres of flax. 

90S Weneesl^o IHartlnM da Costa* 

Fibres of the Agave, (pita). 

From the th.reads of the leaves of this plant, excellent cords are 
made. Of the sap which is extracted by means of trituration, and 
thickened by evaporation, soap is made, by the addition of sishes. They 
serve to cure wounds or sores, when roasted on coals ; and are excel- 

- 109 - 

lent antisyphilitcs, and cure leprosy, when fresh. This is also an 
antidote against the poison of the mandioca. In doses of from one to 
two scrnples the extract is a powerful medicine against ascite, and 
hydropisias in general. 


996 Barao de Kalden* 

Leaf tobacco. 

White flowered leaf tobacco. 

V91,— Idem. 

Carded flax. 

999 Carles Ahreitv* 


V99 Carlos Bu^iU and Frederic© ©uUiierine 

Flax threads. 
Prepared hemp. 

900. — Idem. 

Flax seed. 

90t Carlo« Soitite. 

Leaf tobacco. 

909 Carlos SeltMrerlm* 

Yellow wax. 

90S Blrectlon of ilie Colony Moira iPetropolls. 

Flax threads. 

904 Entlllo 9elillder. 

Prepared flax. 

905 rraneiseo Ferreira C>ulinardes* 

Cotton, seeds Sea Island's and mostarda. 

The fibres of this cotton are as long as those of the— Sea Island's 
Cotton— and when full grown, the difference between the two cm 
be discovered only by the seeds as those Sea Island's are clean and 
free from fibre and are pointed at the extremity, while the native 
cotton, leaves some fibres adhering to the seed. 

The native cotton acquires many of the qualities of the Sea Island's^ 
when they are planted together , and it is natural to suppose that 
the latter acquires some of those of the former ; in this case, the Sea 
Island's which requires to be planted every year, may become more 

— 110 — 

For some time, flax has been planted in this province, and with suc- 
cess, but the production is small, not being yet sufficient to supply 
the manufacture there, and for this reason they import. 

The seeds of the flax are much usud in medicine, and produce the 
well known linseed-oil. 

906 Fraiiel0eo Ferrelra Cuimaraes. 

Native cotton. 

60t VranelMo Hlllil«r. 

Tobacco (seed from Havanah). 
Tobacco (seed from Paraguay). 
Tobacco (seed from Virginia). 

609 Felippe Jaeob Sellbaeh* 

Raw cotton. 

SOU — Idem. 

Raw flax. 

6iO Felippe Keller* 

Flax and cotton threads. 
Prepared hemp. 

6ii Caspar Frederieha. 

Hops (flowers). 

The flowers of this plant are more used in the brewing of ales than in 
medicine. Until very lately all the hops consumed in the country 
was imported, but on account of the increase of national ale, the 
colony of S. Leopoldo, in the province of Rio Grande of the South, 
has commenced its cultivation, which, favored by the climate and 
1»y the agronomic qualities of the soil, promises to be very favora- 
ble, and to be continued because the imported hops (which are injured 
by the sea voyage) arrive at the Brazilian market to a very high 
price. Thus the cultivation of the only product which this province 
imported for the fabrication of ale is commenced. 

Mt Cialliieriite Braat* (Taqaary.) 

Leaf tobacco. 

MS Jaeob Feldena* 

Herbaceous cotton. 

M4. — Idem. * 

Fibres of flax. 

MS Jaaa CirawtUMler* 

Threads of prepared flax. 

- Ill - 

M6 Joae Sauter* 


919 Jolin Proudfoot. 

Cotton, a mixture of New -Orleans and Sea-Island's. 

919 Joii6 Barbeza Ferrelra da Sllva* 

Sheep's wool (English breed). 

Long time ago they have reared sheep in Brazil, especially in .the zone 
comprehended between Minas-Geraes and Kio Grande of the South, 
where there are large flocks. In this latter province the wool pro. 
duced has been sufficient for the home consumption, in all its appli- 
cations, even to the filling of beds, the weaving of some coarse articles 
as riding-capes, which are famous ; and still some wool has remained 
for exportation. The sheep of Minas-Geraes supply the inhabitants 
with a great part of the wool that is consumed there, where they 
weave many important articles, as blankets, quilts, etc., and yet they 
have sufficient sheep to supply the shambles of the Capital. 

The province of Parand, finally, seems to be awaked from its lethar- 
gy, to the industry of sheep-rearing. Animated and encouraged by the 
Imperial Government, that has sent there some specimens of the me- 
rino breed which have easily become acclimatized and give promise 
of a good production, improving the Creole breed, by crossing it. This 
province sent diminutive samples to the national exhibition, among 
which were some of the fine and highly prized breeds Bambouillet 
and Negrette. The latter of the merino class and the former reared 
from that in France. 

Rio Grande of the South, where sheep are abundant, and among 
them, many of the Spanish merino breed, sent only one sample of 
wool of English breed. 

It is necessary to introduce in the country the Mauchamp of recent 
breed, of pure merino origin ; especially in the province of Minas- 
Geraes, which supplies the capital, as this breed produces a great 
quantity of the finest smoothest wool, and is at the same time very 

Sin JTos^ Pedro lllaeltado* 

Native cotton in the seed. 

%tO I<eao & Alves. 

Oil from seeds of sun-flower 
Oil from turnip-seed. 
Oil from seeds of jew's-mallow. 
Oil from seed of bull-shade. 

— 112 - 

Oil of peach-kernels. 
Oil of orange-seeds. 
Oil of piranga-seeds. 

9tt I<eao & AlYes* 

Oil of linseed. 

Oil of pumpkin-seed. 

Oil of pea-nuts, 1st extraction. 

Oil of pea-nuts, 2nd extraction. 

Oil of cotton-seed. 

MIf. Idem. 

Oil of andauassii. 

The collection of oils of the province of Rio Grande of the South, 
is of those manufactured in the imperial manufactory of Porto- Alegre, 
the capital of the province. In reference to the castor-oil, the prin- 
cipal article of the establishement, all the raw material brought to 
the market is bought up there, and yet the supply is not equal to 
the demand, for which reason, in order to encourage the cultivation 
of the castor-bean, the proprietores have fixed the price of it at 5/5K)00 
the sack, of two alqueires. At the manufactory, castor-oil is sold in 
tin boxes, at the rate of 500 rs. per lb.; in bottles, at 13^000, per dozen ; 
in half-bottles, at 7ji|700; and quarter bottles, at 4^300 per dozen, 

9/9M Ulamiel I<alz da Costa. 

Herbaceous cotton. 

M4« Idem. 

Satin cotton. 

99S Haurleio lllorjgeiisterii* 

Prepared flax. 


Chimieal and pharmaceutieal products. 


M6 Carl on Baptlsta j^ 


Sty Joao Jllareelliuo Taireira Vho Braitl* 

Tincture of genipapo. 
Tincture of cumaty. 

- na- 
vies jroaciuini Ireove^lldo d^ Softiza 

Fine india-rubber (in the shape of a pigeon). 

9*11.— Idem. 

Grease of jacar6 (alligator). 

Extracted from the adipose membrane of this animal, and applied in 
medicine in the external treatment of rheumatism. It is also used in 
lamps, calking, and the making of bituminous plasters. 

^SO Joaquini de Reipo Barros* 

Bees' honey. 

9Si Jfom6 Coelho de Ulranda I<eao. 


Fruit of the epidendrum vanilla. The beans of this plant vary from 
130 to 220 millimeters. The vanilla grows wild in the humid and 
shady places of the hot regions of America, especially of Brazil and 
Mexico. The variety known as vanilla of S, Domingos gives green 
and white flowers and black fruits, neither of which have any scent. 
The Brazilian varieties bear, generally, a larger bean than the Mexican, 
and are called by the French, large vanillas, (vanillons). In Sergipe 
these beans are from 8 to 10 inches long, and from 6 to 12 lines 
wide ; those of Mexico average from 6 to 7 or 8 inches in length, 
and from 2 to 4 lines in breadth. The vanilla is often badly pre- 
pared in Brazil, because, instead of really cultivating it, they only 
gather it, already open, in the woods. The vanilla has medicinal 
properties, and is much employed by the medical faculty of Spain, 
in the cure of different diseases; it is used as a stimulant and a 
stomachic, and for that reason it is very good in the preparation of 
Chocolate, which it makes more digestive. It is also used in con- 
fectionery and perfumery ; by means of alcohol all its scent is ex- 
tracted from it. 

The Spanish people separate it into six qualities, namely : the 
large fine vanilla, the fine chica vanilla, the azacata vanilla, the re- 
zacata vanilla, the simarona or palo vanilla, the vassura vanilla. 
The best quality (vanilla aromatica) is generally called in Mexico, the 
legal vanilla, and the most esteemed is of a dark purple color, 
neither inclining to black - nor to red ; to the touch it is very sticky 
and not very dry ; the beans are long and narrow and appear very 
full and light, the aroma keen and agreeable ; the bean when fresh 
and sound, is full of black, oily, balsamic liquid, and also contains 
a great quantity of very small black seeds, almost imperceptible and 
excessively aromatic. 

CI. 8 

- 114 - 

The vanilla is prepared by putting the beans, for a tew moments, 
in boiling water, suspending them immediately after, and leaving 
them to dry for some days in a well ventilated place. As soon as 
the beans begin to dry there commences to run from them a vis- 
cous liquid, which is extracted by slightly pressing them several 
times a day. 

The drying is difficult, and should be done slowly. The beans 
are also repeatedly moistened with oil of cashew-nuts, in order to 
make them flexible and to preserve them from the insects; and 
they are bound round with thread that they may not open. For 
want of this last precaution the vanilla beans from Brazil arrive in 
Europe open, and therefore do not bring so good a price as those 
from Mexico. As soon as the beans are dry they are wrapped in 
paper and packed in tins or glass jars, and hermetically sealed, that 
they may not lose their aroma. 

The culture of vanilla is one of the most lucrative ; the plantation 
is done by means of stakes, and the essential care for the fructifica- 
tion consists in the artificial fecundation, which is attained by open- 
ing or cutting the masculine flowers in order to spread the pollen 
over the feminine ones. 

9S9 Manoel Caetano Prestes* 

Bees' honey. 


^MM Antonio Joao Cromes. (Macapi.) 
Grease of piar&ra (red fish). 

9S4 Bernardino JTose Perelra. (Vizeo.) 

Applied in family medicine for fomentation during parturition, and 
considered of great efficacy in this application. 

»W Candida do Prado Pinto. 

Tincture of anil (indigo). 
Tincture of caferana. 
Tincture of camapii. 
Tincture of sucuiiba bark. 
Tincture of umery bark. 
Tincture of cip6-jabuty matdmatd. 
Tincture of douradinha. 
Tincture of jui. 
Tincture of manacan. 
Tincture of marapuam. 
Tincture of white murum. 
Tincture of pajamarioba root. 

- 115 - 

Tincture of tatA piririca. 
Tincture of timbo cunamby. 

9S6. Candldo do Prado Pinto. 

Oil of cumarii. 

Mt ProYlnelal Contmlasion. 


9S9. ^Ideni. 

Grease of sucurujii (snake). 
MO. ^Idem. 


94i. —Idem. 

M9. ~Idem. 

Butter made of the larvas of insects that live in the 
tucuman palm. 

Applied in medicine for the fomentation of articular swellings. 

945. —Idem. 

Giboia lard or oil. 

%AS. —Idem. 

Tincture of mucunam bark. 

^4A €>ai» Company* 

Raw naphta. 

946. —Idem. 

Naphta varnish. 

An oil made at the gas-works of the capital of the province of 

941 JToaquinr Prudenelo da Cunlia* 

Guariba grease. 

Applied in domestic medicine for the fomentation of bruises and 
sweUings. It is also used in cases of rheumatism. 

949 #oaqainft Bodriff aea dos Santos. (Santarem.) 

949. — Ideuft. 

Grease of pirarucii (fish). 

9ftO. —Idem. 

Grease of sucurucii (snake). 

- 116 — 

Mi Joaqalm Honorlo d« SUw Baliello. 

Liauid shoe-blacking. 

m2 from the ^Id cashew, a variety of the sea-shore ««hew 
(,^J1 ocdientam. The fabrication of this -t^^le ^sUtutes 
he regular business of the inventor, whose process is ^ot yet d^ 
Lm The wild cashew abounds in aU the province; it is a large 
i'iganf U its fruit is in great demand, and is -^sider^^ 
i-fiwUtic ; W also attribute the same quaUties to a ^ne whxch 
they extract from this fruit. 
M« Som^ae Araujo Rose Uaiiln. 


MS. —Idem . 

MA Jroa^ Henrique Blnlz. 

MS Jro«^ Verlfiitilme de Mattoft. 

Tiacture of muruxi. 
»M Manoel Ferelra I-liiia* 


Ml Martliiti & Tede»cl»t. 


M9. —Idem, 

Oil of orange-peel. 
Oil of cumarii. 
M«.— Idem. 

Tincture of cunamby. 
Tincture of caferana. 
Tincture of douradinha. 
Tincture of cip6 mat&mat&. 
Tincture of sucuiiba bark. 
Tincture of umery bark. 
Tincture of marapuama Dark. 
Tincture of ipecacuanha. 
Tincture of artimisia. 
Tincture of beribi bark. 
Tincture of muruxy bark. 
Tincture of manacan bark. 
Tincture of ginger. 
9eo nilffuel da Ctinlta Peiiallier« 

^•1. —Idem. 

Tincture of curimbd. 

96t. —Idem. 

CumatS varnish. 

— 117 — 

^•S Pedro Honorato Correla de mirandai 


§64 Pinto & Brother. 


9SS Babello & Brother. 


§••.— Idem. 

Fat of xixi sap. 
MT i^oasa & Almeida « 

Sucurujii-grease . 

909.-^ Idem. 

Balsam of copahiba oil. 

9G9.— Idem. 

Carbonate of potash. 

§70.— Idem. 

Butter of cac&o. 

Wi.— Idem. 

Expressed pataiia oil. 
Expressed cumarii oil. 

99 1. — Idem. 

Essential oil of pichurim. 

WS. — Idem. 

Tincture of caferana. 

Tincture of assahy. 

Tincture of murur6-milk. 

Tincture of jalapao. 

Tincture of matamat&. 

Tincture of jarubii, or Para cresses. 

W4. — Idem. 

Glossing varnish. 

MA.— Idem. 

Varnish spirit. 
M6.— -Idem. 

Jarubii syrup, or Par& cress syrup. 


979 Bloffo Antonio do0 BeUu 

Tincture of ginger. 

W^ #ofto Mareeliino da Mi velMi« 

Purified pitch. 

990 jroacfiilm Son6 VIelra. 


— 118 — 

Aromatic castor-oil. 

Colored castor-oil. 
MO J, S. T. T. Belfort. 

Crystallized common salt. 
9M manoel moreira da Silva* 

Concentrated essence of caroba. 
9M Manoel Pereira lUarfliia & Brother. 

Marrow of the andiroba chestnut. 


MS Alexandre Correla de .4rauJo e Mellot 

Camaiiba salt. 
M4L JToao da Roelia moreira* 

Resin of potato. 


MS Provlnelal Couftinlasloni 

Grease of rattle-snake. 
Mil.— Idem. 

Common salt. 

The province of Rio Grande of the North possesses important sa- 
lines in the town of Mac&o, and in the city of Assu. Great quanti- 
ties of salt are accumulated in heaps in the vicinity of the area 
where this product is deposited, in heautiful crystallizations. They 
are accustomed to cover the heaps with the straw of the carnauha 
or of any other palm, they then burn this straw in order to form 
a glassy crust, which covers all the heap and preserves it from 
the rains. Hence it is taken away, packed in panniers, caUed there, 
paneiros or capivaras, and carried to market. The product is suffi- 
cient to satisfy the demand of the province, and for considerable 
exportation, not only to other provinces, but also to foreign ports. 

For want of reliable statistics, the quantity of salt that is annually 
exported cannot be determined; it is certain, however, that this ar- 
ticle may be explored on a large scale, and become an important 
branch of commerce. 


MT Jofto Ijgnaelo RIbeIro Boma* 

Syrup of jurubeba. 
M9 #oao I<opez maehado & Joaquini Joa^ Hen- 
rlqaiMi da Sllvat 

Jatahy honey. 
Jundairi honey. 
Moca branca honey. 

-119 — 

Honey of streaky bees. 
Honey of urussii bees. 

The swarms of this insect, of dififerent species, are increasing con- 
stantly in almost all the provinces of the Empire, especially in 
those where the forests are not so dense and shady as in the valley 
of the Biver Amazonas, because there the trees are so high and 
leafy, and thick, that the bees can seldom reach the flowers. What 
appears certain is, that none of the species or varieties of this insect 
is yet domesticated and educated here for the production of honey, 
like that obtained from the European bee, domesticated and accli- 
mated to the country. This difl&culty, however, is not such that it 
cannot be overcome in time, by study, labor and patience, and 
choosing for this end those most adapted from amongst the dif- 
ferent species. 


999 Antonio Baymundo Paes ]9Iello» 

Camaiiba candles. 

Carnaiiba candles, mixed with tallow. 

990 Bariliolonieu Francisco de Souza & Co* 

Syrup of jurubeba. 

Syrup of fedegoso. 

Wine of jurubeba. 

Ferruginous jurubeba wine. 

Jurubeba pills. 

Jurubeba plaster. 

Pomatum of jurubeba. 

Tincture of jurubeba. 

Oil of jurubeba. 

Hydro-alcoholic jurubeba extract. 

Jurubeba in alcohol. 

Velame froot of). 

Syrup 01 velame. 

Extract of fedeg-oso. 

Fedegoso in alcohol. 

991 Francisco So96 dos Passos C^iilniaraes. 

Wax candles. 

9M ]9Ianocl Francisco da Costa & Co. 

Different soaps. 

91IS Joaifulm dc Almeida Pinto. 

Jurubeba wine. 
Oil of jurubeba. 
Extract of jurubeba. 

- 120 - 

Tincture of jurubeba. 

Syrup of muluDgii. 

994 #aimuliii de Alniclflii Pluto* 

Strong glue. 

^M Joaquim die Mello C&u. 

Common salt. 


99^ Felix Xeferlno Cardoso. 

Sea salt. 

This is one of the principal articles which this province ex- 
ports to Bahia, Bio Grande of the South, and others. Its price 
varies from 800 rs. to 1$ the alqueire, the salt of the river of the 
same name being in greatest demand. 

999 Flrmlno Bodrli^aes Tlelra. 


9(99. — Idem . (Propria. ) 

999 Jos^ AsotCitlnKp do ^'aselniento. (Rio do Sal.) 
Common salt. 

•OO Joao Constantino da Sllireira Coelito. 

Tincture of wild orange-tree. 

••i PoniplUo da Franea An»ai*iil« 

Cordial of wild vine. 


•0!i A. Pereira da Silva- 

Camailba and tallow candles. 

•0S Franelseo Sampalo Tlanna. 

Medical artificial stones. 
Pulp of tamarind. 

•04 C^aldino Fernandes da Sllva. 

Purgatives of potato. 

MIS Jos^ Antonio Telxelra Eopen. 

Holland tallow candles (imitation) . 

I<ourenf o Soarea de Plnito. 

Leather-clippings glue. 

•oy Thontas Telxelra da Cunlia. 


— 12i — 

909 Alel&o ©ary & Co. (City.) 


Carbo-azotiG *cid. 
Nitro-phenisic acid. 
Aloetic acid. 
Chromic acid. 
Camplioric acid. 
Artificial Oxalic acid. 
Artificial Tartric acid. 
Pyrogallic acid. 
Ammoniac arseniate. 
Ammoniac bromuret 
Bromuret of cadmium. 
Butarr^te gf zipc. . . 

Citrate of iron and quinine. 

aSfula^ed^aS^^l^ citrate of magnesia. 

Chloruret of pure manganese. 



Cafeine. , i. x ^4? ;«r^T. 

Granulated aad off^rve^cant ^carton^te ot iron. 

Soluble cremor of tartar m lammas. 

Pure emetine. 


Helicine. . ., . ^ 

Ferruginous cod-hver oil jelly. 

Plain cod-liver oil jelly. • 
loduret of crystallized mercury. 

loduret of lead. 

loduret of iron in in^^ter^ble laminae. 

lodhydrargirate of ioduret of potasn. 

Carbido of iodine. 

loduret of soluble sulpbur. 

Creosote solidified. 

Lactate of iroa, 

Pure mannite. 

Permanganate of potash. 

Phosphate of ammoniac. 

Phyrophosphate of iron. 

Pure strychnine. 

Sulpho-arsenite of quinine. 

- 122 -~ 

Sulphate of magnesia. 

Subnitrate of bismuth. 

Sulphate of alumina, pure. 

Sulphate of crystallized red ammoniacal copper. 

Sulphate of inalterable granulated white iron. 

Sulphate of iron dried in laminas. 

Sulphur crystallized, n. 1. 

Sulphur crystallized, n. 2. 

Tartrate of potash and iron. 

Rose -colored pastils of santonin. 

Pastils of ipecacuanha. 

Pastils of peppermint. 

Pastils of sulphur. 

Tannate of quinine. 

Rubro indiano. 

Valerianate of quinine amorphous. 

Valerianate of quinine crystallized. 

Nitrate of silver crystallized. 

»09 Antonio Auffusto doi» Santos I.uze». (City.) 
Varnish (different qualities). 

**J? An^oiilo Jos^ Alves Ckilmaraes & Co.(aty.) 
Candles of carnaiiba, arroba 14»080. 
Tallow candles, arroba 12*800. 

9ii Bernardo Basnan. (Qty.) 
Neat's-foot oil. 

Hit Coutlnlio Tlanna & Bofllslo, (Nictheroy.) 
Orange-flower water. 

9iS.— Idem. 

Oil of lavender. 
Oil of lemon. 
Oil of orange. 
Oil of bergamot 
Oil of rosemary. 
Oil of cloves. 

•*!?• ?!?™*«K®« Marque* de Couvto. 

Distilled orange-flower water. 

^^a ■V^™Ansofl Manoel de Araujo. 

Candles of carnaiiba. 

Fine candles of carnaiiba mixed with tallow. 
Candles of carnaiiba and tallow, (holland.) 
9i6 Felix Faraut. (Qty.) 


Acid Gallic, crystallized. 
Chlorate of potash lozenges. 

- 123 — 

Rhmbarb lozenges. 

Citrate of magnesia lozenges. 

Citrate of magnesia and soda lozenges. 

Sydenham's white decoction lozenges. 

Ipecacuanha lozenges. 

Santonin lozenges. 

Infusion of tartarized senna lozenges. 

Bismuth lozenges. 

Magnesia calcined by the system Fleury. 

Magnesia granular. 

Valerianate of quinine. 

Valerianate of zinc. 

Extract of quin and iron. 

OraDg-e-flower water. 



Valerianic acid. 

Emetin Brown of the French Codex. 

Granulated arseniate. 

Copabivate of iron. 

Acetate of quinina. 

Pyro-phospnate of iron and soda. 


Quinina white and pure. 

Quinina, raw. 


Essence of cop^hiba. 

Resin of pure jalap. 

Resin rubra. 

Resin of yellow quinine. 

Extract of quina rubra. 


9M F. Trlblanl. (City.) 
Copal varnish. 
Different varnishes. 

919 CvOtttlilere & UTapner. 

Barege water. (Artificial.) 
Pyrmont water. (Artificial.) 
\ichy water. (Artificial.) 
Spa water. (Artificial.) 

•19 Imperial InstUuto Fliimliieiise de i^ffrleul- 
tura. (City.) 

Tincture of chenopodium ambrosioides. 
• Spirits of camphor. 

Ascetic ether. 

Ethereal oil of bitter orange-peel. 

— 124 — 

••O Iffnaclo Jo0« Malta, (aty.) 
Double orange-flower water. 

991. Idem. (City.] 
Pectoral ana anti- hooping-cough syrup. 

•9t. Idem, (aty.) 
Plaster for ruptures^ 

•9S. Idem, (aty.) 

Cumani oil. 

••4. Idem, (aty.) 
Lemon syrup. 

9WB Idem, (aty.) 

•tM Soho Domlnffues TIelra. (aty.) 


Proto-ioduret of mercury. 

Bioduret of mercury. 

loduret of potash. 

Arseniate of potash. 

Arseniate of soda. 

Santonin (semen contra) 

Mannite (Manne). 

Cafeine (S. Paulo coflfee). 

Daturina (extramonio of Portugal), 

Pure emetin (ipecacuanha of Mato-Grosso). 

Cremor of tartar soluble, crystallized. 

Bioxyde of mercury. 

Chlorate of potash. 

Sulphate of zinc. 

Hydrogenous iron (Quevenne system). 

Carbonate of copper. 

Citrate of ammoniacal iron. 

Benzoic acid. 

Blaud's pills, modified by Vieira. 

gyrup of ferruginous quinine and orange 

Ferruginous orangized cod-liver oil. 

Pure orangized cod-liver oil. 

9Wf Joao Fernandee Clapp. (Oty.) 
Shoe-blacking, in tins. 
Shoe-blacking, in pots. 

•99 Joao Verrelra de Carvalho. (aty.) 
Tallow oil. 
Paste blacking. 

— 125 — 

•19 Joao Ferrelra de Carvallto* (City). 
White soap, 240 rs. per lb. 
Brown soap, 100 rs. per lb. 
Yellow soap, 100 per lb. 

•ao Idem. 


•Si Jo0^ Franelflico de Freltaa 


•St. Som6 ]?larla deH SantofS Carnelro. (City). 

Wax candles. 

9SS. Jo«^ IVotli. 

Varnish, desatonic. 

Varnish, morocco. 

Varnish, anatomic. 

Varnish, negative. 

Varnish, florentine. 

Varnish, black. 

Varnish, copal (1st, and 2d quality/. 

Varnish, japonic. 

Varnish, for leather 

Varnish, metallic, gilt and clear. 

Varnish, metallic, red. 

Varnish, metallic, blue. 

Varnish, metallic, black. 

Varnish, metallic, simple gilt. 

Varnish, green. 

Varnish, purple. 

•S4 I<ulz Bonlfaelo liliidembers, (City). 
Coarse salt. 
Fitte sftlt. 

•Sft MiWkix Jose de Souza. (City). 
Purgative pills , of the Le Roy species (6 vials). 

•S€ Manoel Jom Fernandes de Maeedo* (Clity)« 
Yellow soap. 

•sy Idem. 

Tallow candles. 

9M» Manc^el Telxelra da Cowta. (City). 
Tallow candles. 

•S9 Tlieodavo Peekolt. (Gantagallo) 


Potato (from a kind of centaury called fel de terra). 

— 126 — 

Jew tobacco. 
Sapucainha fruits. 
Queimadeira or arrediabo nuts. 
Brasilian cork. 

Timb6 or timb6 of pharmacy. 
Bark of red oleo or balsam. 
Brasilian licorice. 
Timb6 Fish (used to catch fish). 
Broom (a shrub) Bitter. 
Cong'onha Mild (a species of mat6). 
Congonha long leafed. 
Small leafed congonha. 
Coflfee tea. 

Flowers of the herb Cora^ao (heart) of Jesus. 
Leaves of the herb Cora^ao (heart) of Jesus or toad- 
Leaves of wild clove. 
Leaves of caioba, purple or black. 
Leaves of carobinha or small c&roba. 
Bark of carobinha. 
Captain-plant (hydrocotyle). 
Massambar^ seeds. 
Seeds of miSio or ox-heart. 
Pijericii or wild pepper. 
Sabonete or soap fruit. 
Jaborandi Wild. 
Brazilian nutmeg. 
Seeds of Santa Maria. 
Wild cucuml^er. 
Wild apple. 
Massambar^ meal. 

Meal of lagrimas de Nossa Senhora (Our Lady's tears). 
Jatubi fruits. 

Almecegueira (mastick) fruits. 
Wild herb. 

Sawdust of red oleo (a tree) . 
Coflfee parchment. 
Camphor-treer partrigde-foot. 
Velame white of the fields. 
Vetiver or musk-rood. 
Jucii fruits. 

Powdered Brazilian licorice. 
Fruits of the gingeira or wild peach tree. 
Diconroqu6 or caboclos'bean. 
Extract of hydrocotyle. 
Extract of timb6. 
Extract of national licorice. 

- 127 - 

Extract of broom. 

Resin of the saw dust of red oleo. 

Resin of red oleo bark. 

Gum of red oak. 

Gum of red cedar. 

Gwm of indai^-assii. 

Carobao resin. 

Angelin-pedra resin. 


Hydrochlorate of angelina. 

Jatub& sugar. 

Stearo-carpotrochic acid. 

Molasses of coflfee-pulp. 

Water of gingeira bark or of national cherry laurel. 

Distilled water of wild apple. 

Spirit of menthastro (wild mint.) 

Capivara oil. 

Oil of sapucainha. 

Oil of copahiba. 

Oil of red copahiba. 

Oil of sweet paty or patioba«nut. 

Oil of paty-nut. 

Oil of brejaiiba-nut. 

Oil of pindoba-nut. 

Oil of jureua-nut. 

Oil of milol6 seeds. 

Oil of quaresma-nut. 

Oil of (baba de boi) ox slaver-nut. 

Oil of indai&-ass\i-nut. 

Oil of macaiiba or catarrho-nuts. 

Oil of arillo or paste of the banana of Madagascar or 

Urania. (Arbre desvoyageurs.) 
Oil of ^ueimadeira or arrediabo-stones. 
Oil of iequitib&-assii-seeds. 
Oil of balsamo or coral-stones. 
Peruvian balsam of Brazil. 

Balsam of saw dust of red oleo 6t artificial Peru- 
vian balsam. 
Balsam of red oleo bark. 
Oil of the pericarp of the indaii-assii-nut. 
Oil of Brazilian nutmeg. 
Essential oil of red copahiba. 
Essential oil of wild clove. 
Essential oil of the saw dnst of red oleo, 
Essential oil of the saw dust oil of cedar. 
Essential oil of the forest aroeira seeds. 
Essential oil of Negra-Mina leaves. 

— 128 — 

Essential oil of the dandelion. 

Essential oil of bitter orange. 

Essential oil of china orange. 

Essential oil of tangerina orange. 

Essential oil of navel limes. 

Es.^jential oil of Persia limes. 

Essential oil of lemon. 

Essential oil of flowers of the Cora^ao of Jesus. 

Essential oil of wild miince. 

Essential oil of Santa Maria herb. 

Essential oil of the bark of dragons-blood. 

Essential oil of pipe herb. 

Essential oil of capericoba or Marianica or Anica. 

Essential oil of capericoba, white. 

Essential oil of saffron flowers. 

Essential oil of timb6 fish. 

Essential oil of pijericii. 

Essential oil of sassafras bark. 

Ethereal extract of Santa Maria. 

Balsam of carobinha. 

Oil of the pulp (pericarp) of the macaiiba-nut. 

Oil of the India tea seeds. 

Oil of the coffee seeds. 

Prussic acid of mandioca Sepsicolytina. 

Essential oil of pine resin. 

Essential oil of black cinnamon; 

Essential oil of red oleo bark. 

Essential oil of paratudo bark. 

Essential oil of wild rue. 

Essential oil of alevante or wild mint. 

Essential oil of vetiver. 

Essential oil of onces ear. 

Essential oil of cabureiba or gray oleo . 

Essential oil ojf Brazilian nutmeg. 

Essential oil of lixa or wild coffee. 

Essential, oil of the flowers of wild cardamomum or 

Essential oil of citron. 
Essential oil of guava tree leaves. 
Essentia! oil of sweet grass or cidrilho. 
Essential oil of gingeira bark. 
Essential oil of marroio or Macah6 herb 
Essential oil of stinking cinnaJmon. 
Essential oil of affiou leaves. 
Essential oil of wild cardamamum. • 
Essential oil of S. John's herb. 

— 129 — 

Essential oil of assa-peixe. 

Essential oil of flowers of sassafras. 

Essential oil of leaves of pitangueira. 

Essential oil of wild cabbage. 

Essential oil of jaborandi. 

Essential oil of coffee seeds. 

Essential oil of coffee leaves. 

Essential oil of coffee flowers. 

Butyric acid of coffee stearoptfina. 

Essential oil of Parana mate plant. 

Essential oil of rose-wood. 

Essential oil of seeds of Santa Maria plant. 

Essential oil of large mangericon. 

Essential oil of small mangericon. 

Essential oil of liydr6cotyle. 

Essential oil of leaves of garlic-wood. 

Essential oil of cedar bark. 




Resin of hydrocotyle. 

Resin of congdnha leaves. 

Resin of India tea. 

Resin of Urania seeds. 

Resin of the pind6ba cocoa-nut. 

Red coloring principle of earth-gall. 

tied coloring principle of guaran& seeds. 



CaffiSin from seeds of India tea. 

Caff6in from coffee seeds. 

Cafffein from coffee parchment. 

Caff6in from coffee flowers. 

Cafffein from Parana mate. 

Caff6in from leaves of domestic congonha. 

Caff^in from guaran& seeds. 

CaffiSin from shell of guarani seeds. 

Amygdalin from the fruits of the gingeira. 

Saponin from the soap-tree fruit. 

Monesin from guaranhem bark. 

Resin of carobinha bark. 

Resin of guacani paste. 

Resin of guaran^ seeds. 

Resin of timb6 de peixe (offish). 

Resin from the leaves of wild clove. 

Resin from Brazilian nutmeg. 

G. I. 

— 190 - 

Red coloring principle from gingeira bark. 
Red coloring principle from leaves of timbo-peixe. 
Red coloring -principle from pindoba nmt. 
Blue lac from the anil creeper. 
Acid, mate-pvrot&nnico. 
Acid, mate-tannico. 
Acetate of angelina. 
Acid, manili6tieo. 
Carobina of carobinba leaves. 
Carobintk of catobinha bark. 
Abacat estrutbantina . 
Acid, arauc&rico. 

Acid, apoliustico, or of congonha. 

Myroxylina of oleo-vermfelho bark. 
Myroxylina of oleo-verm§lho saw-dust. 
Acid, guaranhem-t&nnico. 
Acid, guaran^-tannico. 

Caffeine of ervadepassarinho (mistletoe of orang-trees). 
Caffeine from tbe leaves of Id^ge 6ongrotiha. 
Apoluastic acid, from coffee leaven. 
Apoluastic acid, from the leaves of India tea. (New- 
Caffeic oil acid*. 
Palicuric acid, sublimated . 
Benzoic acid, from oleo-vermelho saw-dust. 
Glycyrrhizine of Brazil licorice. 
Carobic acid, from the leaves of the carobinha. 
Resinous acid from mammee seeds. 
Acetate of carobina. 
Cong6nha green. 

940 TIcente I^a^arde. 

Aerated lembflades of cashew. 
Aerated lemonades of lemon. 
Aerated lemoBiades of orange. 
Aerated Ifetoonades of coffee. 


941 Antonio Caetano 4e Mlveim» 

Sulphureous water from the Thereza colony. 

In Brazil there is a greater number of mineral springe 6f dilferenft 
qualities. But the greater ^t of them has not yet been analyied, 
so we give a succinct notice, only of those best knowB. 

— 131 — 

Minfnral Waters. 

These are found nearly all through the Brazil. In the capital of 
the Empire, nine sources have been examined, two being within the 
city. Those considered the most important on account of their abundance, 
and for containing greater proportions of iron, are, the springs of 
Andarahy-Pequeno, Larangeiras, rua do lUachuelo, and Lag6a de 
Bodrigo de Freitas. 

The two fbrst have well constructed public hydrants, in two of the 
most agreable and healthy suburbs. They are much frequented, and 
with benefit. 

In the capital and in other parts of the pibvinces of Bio de Ja* 
neiro, there exist eleven of these springs, already examined; and in 
the province of Minas-Geraes, seven, the one in the capital, having 
a public hydrant. There are* five in the province of Pemambuco, 
and some in the provinces of Maranhao , Piauhy , Espirito- Santo, 
S. Paulo and elsewhere. All, in general, contain iron in the state of 
carbonate, dissolved em exeesso of carbonic acid ; but in very varied 

Aerated Waters. 

The best and most frequented are the following in the province of 
Minas-Geraes, ones : the Agtuu Virtuosat; the spring which lies 
about three leagues from the city of Campanha, and sixty from the 
capital of the Empire; and the spring of Gaxambu, in the munici- 
pality of Baependi. The Government has paid and continues to pay 
some attention to the two former, in order to preserve them pure 
and to make them more commodious for the numerous visitors who 
frequent them every year. The other springs also are beginning to be 
looked after by the public authorities. 

The Aguas Virtuosos have, in general, been very beneficial, espe* 
cially in cases of derangement of the digestive organs. The springs 
of Gaxambu are recommended, principally in cases of the liver 
complaint. The waters of both these springs contain a great quantity 
of carbonic acid, and a small portion of salts, chiefly: bicarbonate 
of soda, cbloruret of magnesium, of sodium and calcium, sulphate of 
soda, and others. 

In the waters of Campanha, carbonic acid forms two thirds of the 
volume in dissolution. These waters are very like the Seltz, and their 
use is becoming more general, even in plsuies distant from the springs , 
as, in the Capital, and at other points. 

In the province of Pemambuco, at a place called Pajeu de FlOre^ 
there are several springs, which, in their composition, are like the 

-« 132 — 
Saline Waters. 

The most notable are those of Itapicorii, in the province of Bahia. 
They flow from the mountains in the neighbourhood of the River 
Itapicuru, and extend along its margins, about eleven leagues. The 
principal springs are : the Mai d'agua do c%p6 ; near the Town of 
Soure ; that of the Mosqu^te ; that of the Town of Itapicurd : the 
Rio Quente and others. They have been examined by orders of the 
general and provincial governments. These waters present a tem- 
perature superior to that of the ambient air, the different springs 
varying from 31o to 41o. They contain carbonic acid, sulphate of 
soda, chloret of sodiuA, of calcium, and of magnesium ; silicic acid, 
and peroxyde of iron in small portions. They are laxative, and have 
been successfully employed in baths, principally in cases of dartres 
and other cutaneous disei^es. 

The provincial government is about enlarging and improving an 
establishment which exists at the springs. 

Thermal Waters. 

Appreciated as such, are those of Santa Catharina, known by the 
appellation of Caldas de Bittencourt, temperature 35o 1/2; Caldas do 
Norte do Cubatdo, temperature d&* ; Caldas do Sul do Cubatao, tempera, 
ture 450 ; and Caldas do Tubardo. 

For the use of persons visiting these waters there is a road, which 
with some repairs, would be a very good carriage road, and an 
establishment, entitled « The Hospital das Caldas da Imperatriz » 
with accommodations and private baths for the sick, having a 
reservoir and pipes recently repaired by orders of the provincial 
government. It is situated in an agreable and healthy place, near 
a falling brook of excellent water ; and extensively shaded by virgin 

These waters are not in the least sulphureous; and, when cold, 
ard very agreable. Their use has been very efficacious in many cases 
of paralyses, chronic rheumatism, cutaneous diseases in their com- 
mencement and others. 

Besides these, there are other thermal springs in other provinces, 
which have not yet been examined ; as, those of the mountains of 
Serid6, in the province of Rio Grande of the North, about six leagues 
from the town of Principe. Their waters are brackish and always 
tepid, and cause the persons who enter them to perspire freely. 

Like these, are those of Lag6a Santa, in Minas-Geraes; the waters 
of which, for a distance of nearly half a league, and width of a 
quarter are always tepid. Medicinal virtues are attributed to them. 

— 133 — 

Thennal Alkaline Waters. 

There is abundance of these in the district of Santa Cruz in the 
province of Goyaz. They rise in the vicinity of the very high moun- 
tain of Galdas, at places denominated : Caldas Novas, Caldas Velhas, 
and Caldas do Parapitinga. At the first named place 18 springs are 
used as bathing-places; and there are besides, many others in the 
bed of the brook Lavras. At the second, there are several springs 
V7hich rise in a quartz rock and at a distance of 200 fathoms from a 

The springs of the third place unite and form a pond of 250 pahns 
long, and 15 or 20 wide; in whose bed there ^re many springs. 

The temperature of the waters of this pond or lake is almost 48o 
so that the diseased, in order to use them, are obliged to run them 
of into deposits, and wait there until the temperature becomes com- 

These springs were all examined by order of the president of Goya; 
in the year 1839, when, only during the month of September those 
who used the waters, exteriorly and interiorly, were more in number 
than 110 persons. 

In 1842, by order of the government they were examined again ; 
and though the accounts of their wonderful effects in the treatment 
of leprosy, are at present, considered exagerated still, there can be 
no doubt of their wonderful effects in cases of tetter, and other 
diseases of the skin ; in chronic rheumatisms, old sores, scrofulas and 
other diseases of this nature. 

Chlorets, carbonates aud silicates of potash, soda, lime, magnesia 
and alumina in a small quantity, predominate in these waters. Their 
temperature, in general, varies from 34° to d6o. 

Thermal Sulphureous Waters. 

The most frequented, and incontestably the principal in Brazil^ as 
yet known, are those of the province of Minas-Geraes. There are 
three of these springs, six leagues distant from the town of Caldas, 
having a temperature of 4St^ ; and one on the right margin of the 
Rio Verde, one league distant from that village, having about the 
same temperature. Their use has been very beneficial in those dis- 
eases that require the continued use ^f sulphur. The provincial 
government has proposed constructing reservoirs, bath houses, and 
other improvements, where these springs exist. 

In the town of Apodi, in the province of Rio Grande of the North, 
there is a hot spring, which is also said to be sulphureous. The 
water, though not so hot as the preceding, has been found useful in 
the cure of different cutaneous diseases. 

— 134 — 

Gold SttlphMBeoiu Walen. 

These are found in great abundAnce at different spring in the 
Town of S. Domin^os de Axax& on the confines of the provinees of 
Minas-Geraes and Goyaz. They are mentioned in the Ghoragraphy 
of Ayres do Casal, and in the works of Mr. Auguste de St. EUlaire. 
Besides their application in the infirmities for which solphnreons 
waters are commonly recommended ; that writer states, they are much 
sought after by the wild animals, and made use of by the farmers of 
the place, for their cattle, as a substitute for common salt, which is 
sold very high there. 

There are also some springs of these waters on the margins of the 
Hio Verde, in the province of Minaft-Geraas. 

•4!t Provincial (L-ominlfMlou. 

White wax. 



•44 Firiiiliio Soaree de lUelrelles* 

Wax candles, lb. 1»500. 

•4S S^h^ de Mlvelra Barboxa. 

Varnish for negatives (photographs). 

•46 jroaqiilni JToae Illariiiiea de Soiixa. 

Caiap6-root powder. 

•47 Som^ Cantlldo da Sllva IHuriel. 

Oil of strawberry-pumpkin seed. 
Castor oil. 

•49. — Idem. 

•49. — Idem* 

Carnaiiba candles. 

•ftO Jo8^ Hiiro de Frelta«. 

White wax, in leaf. 
White wax, in roll. 

•M I^aara Maria do Itfaselmento Bi^rsea (••) 

Wax candles; libra, 1»800. 

•M lllaiioel Joa^ da Citiilia BtH e u eattrt. 

Oil of tea seeds. 

•M mareelllna JTos^ IVosuelf a and S096 Candida 
da Sllva ]II«rlel« 

Castor oil. 

Sft4 Pedro Aloys Seherer. 

Velame-root powder. 

9U Wif ewkie Ferrelra de I^oyola* 

Mariric6 gura. 


MS military Colony. 

White wax. 
Yellow wax. 

•M Duarte & Slquelra (Desterro.) 

•ft9. — Idem. 

Tallow candles. 

•&• Bleehbleter, 

White wax. 
White wax in leaf. 


0SO F. C. I^a^s & C. 

National soap. 
Black soap. 

fWt Pblllpiie Kley. 

Fine varnish. 

• JToao MauIx Huebber. 


•S JTo&o banter. 


%%A I^eao & Alvee. . « , , 

Oil and seeds of cathartic pme kernel. 

S€K. — Idem. 

Refined neat's foot oil. 
Refined lard oil. 

••• mathlaa IHarcoa irieira. 

Crystallized extract of erva-mate. 
Liquid-extract of erva-mate. 

••9 ITalentim Umtont^yvr. 


- 186- 


Sipeclmeiis of thc^ chemical processes of bleaching^ 
dyeing) printing, and their preparations. 


••9 Estalano AlTes Carnelro. 

Cicait6 dye. 

From the seeds of a plant, commonly called Cicait4, a writlBg-ink 
is made, which does not lose its color with citric acid nor with 

••• jr^ao Pereira da Sllvelra. 

Urucii dye. 

•yo jroaqatm I^eovei^lldo de Soaaea Coelbo* 

Cumat6 dye. 

•Vi.— Idem* 

Macacii dye. 

Extracted from the fruit of a tree commonly called macacti. This 
article is made by grating the fruits and macerating the result in 
water for the space of two days ; and afterwards, filtering the liquid, 
that is employed to give a black color to gourds and wooden objects, 
which are immersed in this liquid for some time. This gives them 
a reddish color, and they are finally rendered black by being exposed 
to the vapor of cold urine. 


•y* Bento domes FelliL. 

Cumatfi dye. 

•ys Provlnelal ComntUisloii. 

Fibres of uassima dyed. 

•94. — Idem* 

Cotton thread dyed with pacuan. 

•Vft. — Idem, 

Cumatft dye. » . . 

Pracaii dye. 
tJcuiiba dye. 

99B Bomliiifos Caaimtro Perrtra Iiima. 

CumatS dye. 

— 137 — 

Extracted from the bark of the plant commonly called eumatS, This 
article is prepared by beating the bark, msu:erating it in water and 
exposing it in the sun, for the space of 24 hours; at the end of this 
time the liquid is jBlltered. It is used for the same purposes, and 
applied exactly in the same manner as the macacii dye. 

9t7 DomiiigroB Caslniiro Perelra lilnifi. 

Mang*aratjiia dye. 
Andirobeira-bark dye. 
Muruxi-bark dye. 

•79 Fraiielseo IHIsuel Froet*. 


999 Joao Henrifiue lll;niz. 

Pariri dye. 

•SO Joaqnlm Fellclano I^epes. 

CumatS dye. 

•M Joaqalm Honorlo da Silica Bebello. 

Dye for gourd bowls. 

9^ft Joaqulm Bodrlf^ues dois Santos. 

Muruxi dye. 

•SS jroaqulm Seeundo Chaves. 

Dye of orSIha de onca. 

•S4 Jos^ Callsto Ftirtado de ]IIendon9a. 

Cumat6 dye. 

•Sft Som^ iTerlsBluio de Mattes. 

Ca&piranga dye. 

•se manoel Sorge da SUva I<olio. 

Cumat6 dye. 

Dye of papa-terra (tree). 

•97.— Idem. 

Cotton "thread dyed with mangarat&ia. 

Cotton thread dyed with anil. 

Cotton thread dyed with con. 

Cotton thread dyed with urucii. 

Cotton thread dyed with bark of mamaon-rana. 

•SS martlnho Isldoro Perelra CHlmaraes. 

Muruxi dye. 
Andirobeira-bark dye: 
Pariri dye. 

— 138 - 

PaiBa or sumaiima dye. 
Genipapo dye- 

Abacate (aligator's pear) dye. 
Uaxi& dye. 

W^9 misuel da Cunlta Penallier. 

Corimoc6 dye. 
Cumat6 dye. 

••O nrlcolino Bllsuel de Araffao. 

CumatS dye. 

•91 Pedro Honorato Correta de Ullranda. 

Cumat6 dye. 

Pequia fruit-peel dye. 

••• Baymuiido Peretra Iiiiiia. 

Pequifi fruit-peel dye. 
Cumat§ dye. 

••S Souza & Almeida. 



•94 Rey'hner Brotlierfl. (Capital.) 
Dyed silks. 


Leathers and Skins < 


991k JTeae l<ulz Pedroao & €*. (Capital). 
Russia leather, black, to cover cars 
Russia leather, colored, to cover cars 

Shoe leather, patent 

Calves'skins, patent, colored, dozen 
Calves'skins, patent, black, dozen 
Calves'skins, patent, black, dozen 
Sheep'skins' colored, 26# to . . 
Fancy moroccos, large, colored . 
Goats'skin moroccos, dozen 30# to 
Sheep skin moroccos, colored* dozen 
Smooth bl»ck cordovan, prepared . 




— 139 — 




Articles of rural and forest industry-. 


••• Flamliieiise Imperliil inmtHute of Ai^rtcuK 
ture. (Capital) 

Clod breaker. 

Plough, System Kleyb. 

Glasl cleaner or extirpator. 

Weeding machine. 

Uprooter, or root extirpator. 

Jogo dianteiro, (fore- wheels), invention of Glasl. 

Glasl furrower. 

Variable harrow. 

J6go dianteiro, (fore-wheels), simple. 

Glasl root extirpator. 
99f JTnao Frederieo Blelisen. 

CoflFee ventilator. 
99^ liUias Francisco Beloucbe. 

Coffee pulping-machine. 


IWetSf and hunting^ fishing and harvest instruments* 


••O Provincial Commission. 

Camaiiba fishing lines. 

From the cama^ba they prepare ropes, nets, baskets, fans, hats 
aud many other articles of domestic n^e. Large tracts of the provim^ 
are covered with camaiiba palms ; generous planjbs that shade the 
regions of the north from the excessive heat and droughts, . fertilize 
the lands, and aflford to the inhabitants of those localities the houses 
which they inhabit; the f^cula, extracted from the roots, which 
supports them ; the light derived from the wax of the leaves ; and 
the cloths woven from the fibres of the prepwred straw.. 

— 140 - 

tOOO Fmnelseo iiampalo Tlaniia. 

Tucum thread. 

To cum threads (spun). 


Articles of agricultural and alimentary industry. 


i^Ot Franeiseo Coit^alwes BanMs. iCapital.) 
Copper still, complete. 


Apparatus of the chemical 9 pharmacy, and tanning 



iOOt liC»yolla. 

Earthen crucibles. 


i^OS Director of the Homne of Detention. 

Wooden casks. 

Wooden tub. 

Wooden tub, for kitchen. 

Bathing tubs, for kitchen. 



Cfcneral mechanical machines and apparatus. 


t004 Franelseo C&on^alve« Bamos. (Capital.) 
Hydraulic pump. 

t#Oft— Idem. 

Two clocks, water graduators. 

tOOe IWaniMl Ferreira I«aaro0. (Capital.) 
Pump, made of the trunk of the camadba. 


t009 Besls Conteville. (Capital. ) 
Balances for the rail road (model) 


Material and articles of spinning and eord-mal^inic. 


§•09 Antonio Joaqnim da Costa & Brother. 

Cord of uaissima. 

tlNI9 Hernteneslldo de Souza Barbosa. 

Cord of piass&fea. 

Made of filaments derived from the bark of the piassabapalm, the 
frait of which is said to be very oily, and itaboands on the margins 
of the Rio-Negro and its affluents. As the manufacture of this article 
is carried on only by the indians, and all the operations executed 
by hand, it is therefore only in its rudiments; but, even so, the 
products of the piassaba are exported, both to supply navegation, and 
to prepare different articles of domestic use ; as brooms, brushes 
etc. The government formerly possessed a rope- walk in Barara& (now 
Thomar), which is at present dismantled. 

tOtO Joao iHareelllno Taveira P&o Brasll. 

Cord of tucum. 

The ropes, etc., made from the fibres of the tucum palm, are 
superior to those made from flax or hemp, in their strength^ natural 
flexibility, and durability, even when exposed to the weather. Tet 
the manufacture, in the province of Amazonas, is still carried on 
by the primitive processes, as in the case of the piassaba. 

toil Joafaulm Ckimos Freire da Silva. 

Cord of nwiigiiba. * 

Cord of uaissima. 

tOilt JTos^ JToaquInt Palbeta. 

Cord of mongiiba. 

tots lHanoel Caetano Freotes. 

Cord of uaissima. 

tOt4 Torquato Antonla-dl^ mmmm* ■ 


- 142- 

tots Provincial Com mission and Torquato Crai- 
irao ITiniiaes. (Porto de Moz. ) 
Curau^ cord. 

tots Provincial Comntission. 

Pau-de-macaco cord. 
Jururi cord. 
Muruti cord. 

tOtY Sot^ de Araajo Boso Uanin. 

Crina cord. 

tOtd liUiz ]IIax.imino de Miranda. 

Crina cord. 

tOtO mareolino Ferreira IVovaes. 

Crina cord. 

AOOO .— Idetti* 

tJaissima fibres and colored cords. 

tOM Pedro HOnorato Correia de IMiranda* 

Periquitd cord. 

MM Proeopio Antonio Roiia. 

Tururi cord. 

tOM Baymnndo Pereiva Irinta. 

Curaud cord. 


(load Provin^^l ConMuisaion. 

Palm tjrammels. 
Palm twine. 


toitft ii^naeio do Be^o Toscano Barveio. 

Cord, from the fibres of field mallows. 

tO«S JTose Tavares da <OanBa e Hloilo. 

Gravatft cord. 


tO«9 Franriseo Sovorino da Coata* 

Red embira cord. 

— 143 — 

totd Fraiielseo Sampato Tlanna. 

Crina or sedenho cord. 

tot*.— Idem. 

Piassaba cord covered with embira. 
Piassaba cord covered "with b§ta. 


iOSO Ernesto Frederleo dos Santes and Sofk^ 
Franelseo dos Santos* 

Fine cords of earrapicho. 

Stout cords of carrapicho. 

GuachSta for machines, of carrapicho. 

iOSi Som6 Duval. 

Stream cable. 

Leather or hide cable 

Flax cables, tarred. 

Tarred flax cords of diflferent sizes. 

Untarred flax cords of different sizes. 


Small linfes. 

Boat-line, tarred. 

Boat-line, untarred. 

Agave cord. 

Brass cord. 

iOS« Bopery of the marine arsenal. (Capital. ) 
1 Piece of white leather. 

1 Piece of white linen. 

2 Piece of sounding* material. 
6 Piece of boat-line. 

2 Piece of special line. 
4 Piece of white marline. 
4 Piece of tarred line. 
4 Piece of tarred marline. 


loss Provlnelal Commission. 

Tucum twines or cords. 

i0S4.^ Idem. 

Strike or hank of flax. 

— 144 - 

iOSft Franetsco Perelra Alwofli. 

Rack of flax. 

iOS6 Fraiicleco x:avler de Aiisls. 

Rack of flax. 


tOSY Franelsco ^09^ de Ollveira. 


tOSft niaiBoel Antonio TIelra. 

Cords of white embira. 

iOS9 Agrronomlral Society. 

Cords of gravata. 

i040 Wencenl&o martins da Costa. 

Cords of pita. 


i04i Cmlllo Sehllder. 


Flax Ton (canMmo grosso). 
Flax-cords fcanh&mo). 
Flax-cords (for silhas). 
Cords for carpenters 

104t Manoel Perelra da Sllva IJIiatuba. 

Cords for boUys girths. 

104S HI* Hforicenstern. 

Thick flax-cord. 


Haterials and Application of sewing and falirieatlon 

of elotliing. 


t044 Adolpbo I<eterre. (Gity.) 
Forms for boots. 


Material and Process of Writing, hangingpaper and 

impression • 


t94M JTos^ Beel&er & Brother. 

Machine to mark paper. 

— 145 — 



Machines 9 InstriiiiieiK.ts and processes used in different 


t04S mint. (City.) 

1 Machine, complete, to mint. 

1 Circular tissor, moved by steam, to ctlt metalstrips. 


Objeots of Haraessmaliing; and Sad^cry. 


i04Y rraneisco Catliiot. (City.) 
Harness for cars. 

t049 Joao i»aareellliio da Sllx«i. & €. (aty.) 
1 Patent saddle, for lady. 
1 Patent saddle, for lady, bordered. 
1 Patent saddle, for men. 
1 Saddle with elastic springs, for men- 
1 Saddle for children. 
1 Leather cushion. 
1 Do. do. 

iOAS Iittencleiiee of tlie Imperial Bestdenee* 

Leather saddle from Rio Grande do Sul, painted, with 
all necessary accessories, as used in tnait Provinee. 

lOftO Tar qa Into Tiaeoioiiio de Abrea C&ulj(Aa- 
raes. (City.) 
Saddles of different shapes. , 
Complete harness, dressed. 
Two pairs of leather boots of snake-skin. 


iOSi Fellelano IVepomaeeito Prates. 

Stuff of coarse wool. 
Girth of finer wool. 
Wool and cotton-sttfff. 

G. I. 10 

— 146 - 

tOM Fmiiekieo Ularttiis de Avaai^. 

Wool-carpet for saddle. 


tOMB C&ulllieriiie Clarlvtlano I^epes. 

White Leatherhamess. 
Black Leatherharness. 


tOft4 Antonio duentlter Hulinllcifldh. 


tOftft Ernesto Bupertl. 

Luxurious Harness covered with Tigerskin. 

tOfttt Jolin Proudfool* 

Coars wool-stuff to put under the saddle. 

tow in* llloryenstem. 

Leather-bridle for horses. 

iOM Blta Maria Duarte. (D.) 
Whip of Otterskin. 


Tele^aphic material and it« applleation. 


iaft0 Teleffrapli«ofllee. (City.) 
Dial ^ith alidade 
Paratonner, system Digney. 


Engeneer , eivU 9 pnblic and arekltectnral Wovliu and Its 



iOSa Provincial CommiWiion. 

Bricks and boards of Muruti-wood. 

— 147 — 



§•01 Bnlhoes & Farla. 


flOSlt Joaqulm Antonio de Amorim Carrao and 
Mariano Antonio de Amorim Carrao. 


flOSS Rouseot Aln6. (City.) 

Hydraulic square tiles. 


rVavigatiton and salvation material* 


flOS4 maria Au^asta B« Ferreira. (»•) 

Model of carcas for montaria (canoe.) 
Model of carcas with his necessary. 
Model of carcas canoe, with necessary. 
Model of bridge with his necessary. 


iOOS Proirineial Comntission* 

Model of jangada. 


t066 IVaval Arsenal. 

Model of an Ironclad Steam-corvette. 

Model of an war transport, moved by helice. 

fltlOY.— Idem. 

Model of an Ironclad. 
Model of War transport 


flOSS House of eorreMion. (City.) 
Model of salvation Buoy. 

1 Model of anchoring" Buoy. • . . x » • 

1 Model of markation Buoy. . 

— 148 - 





Cereal aad tether Products , and eomestililes 'with thelfr 



flOS9 JToa^ Joaqalm Pallieta* 

Water farina of the manioc-root. 

The fabrication of that root differs from the dry, viz : They put 
the manioc in water for four or six days and afterwards kneat it 
with water and press to extract the juice. The farina which re- 
main is sieved and baked in earth- oven. They all ways add some fresk 
manioc-paste which is fermented. There are in the Province of Ama- 
zpnes fourteen kinds of manioc, the ones are white the other yel- 
low. Several of them get their complete development in six months 
other ones in twelve. The Indians profit the low water to plant 
the six months manioc in the bottom of the river which is uncoverd 
all the summer time. 

t090 JTos^ Joaqulm Palheta* 

Dry farina of manioc root. 

Dry process made by the Indians in the province of Amazonas 
for the dry farina fabrication is the foUowing. The manioc is ras- 
ped by hands , water added within and put to be pressed for 
drying, sieving and then it is baked. 

. The juice is reposed for several time for deposing the starch, which 
is washed three times, afterwards dryed in the sun, than they bring 
it lit the market to sale, caUed gum. They fabricate the tapioca^ 
puting that starch in the oven. 

From the juice of manioc after being weU boiled is changed mto 

tOVf •«- Idem. 

Farina of tapioca. 

iiwra JTes^ Bleardo Zaiiiijr Paalnoty. 

Water farina of the manioc root. 
Farina of dry manioc. 

— 149 — 
409S THuy & BratlaeiF«. 

Perii indian-com. 

This plant is cultivated in the dry grounds, and it grows hi^^ei^, 
and has broader leaves than the common maize. It gives a crop, six 
months after being planted, and is used for food either in soups or 
gruels. This maize is the principal sustenance of the graniv^ous 
animals of the province of Amazonas , especially of the fowl. I\ is 
supposed to be an indigenous plant of Per^. 


t094 Aiiiceto dlemeiite MalelteiF (AcarS). 
Star of mandioc, alqueire 4*500. 

i07S. ~ Ifl«iii (Acar^). 

Tapioca of mandioc, arroba 4* to 8;(^. 

t09e Bernardino Jos^ Perelra (Yizea). 
Dried meal of macacheira (aipim), alqueire 2#500. 

1099 Provtneial Commission. (Santarem). 
Meal of mandioc, alqueire 2#. 
Meal of mandioc coarse, alqueire 2Jtt. 
Meal of mandioc yellow, alqueire 2*. 

flOV^.— Idem. 

Farina of the water of yellow mandioc, alqueire 2#- 
White corn- meal. ' 

fl099. Idem. (Vigia). 

Tapioca of mandioc, alqueire 3*500. 

M90« Idem. (Fort of &ioz). 
Tapioca of macacheira (aipim), lb. 400 rs. i 

40M.— Idem. 

Rice in the chaflF. 

^O^t.— Idem. ' 

F6cula of mairi potato. . • 

M9S Bavid Joaquim Iieai. 

Carima of macacheira, alqueire 4#500. 

The eariman is prepared, by softening the puba mandioea in tvaler,' 
after which it is strained and pressed in a umpemba or siev^, and 
given the form of little balls; and it is in this state that it cdio^es 
to market, though sometimes it is reduced to farina. It is used in 
gruels aud other similar: things, according to the custom of eac^' lo^ 
cality or province. ' i 

t4M4.— Idem. 

Dried meal of macacheira (aipim), alqueire 2S5|OQ./ 

. .1 

— 150 — 

f 09ft Kslevao liuiz de Hollanda. 

Carima of mandioc, alqueire 3^500. 

i090 Vraiiciaco ILavter Armando de Oltvelra« 

Meal of mandioc, alqueire 2^. 

t099.— Idem. 

Tapioca of mandioc, alqueire 3#500. 

10S9.^ Idem. (Acar^ River). 
Beiju of mandioc, lb. 200 vs. 

t099. idem. (Capim RiverJ. 
Starch of mandioc, arrooa 4#500. 

tOUO Hllarlo Ferreira jMoiilz. 

Dried meal of mandioc, alqueire 2^500. 

iOHt.— idem. (MelgaQo). 
Beijii of mandioc, lb. 200 rs. 

t09t.— Idem. 

Tapioca of mandioc, alqueire 3?^500. 

The feculas extracted from the mandioc, are those most commonly 
manufactured in the province, being presented in the markets in the 
different states in which they are used. Feculas of other roots or 
bulbs are very rarely manufactured. 

t09S Jamiarlo Prudeneto da Cuiilaa* 

Water farina (mandioc), alqueire 2^. 

i094.— Idem. (Rio Gairary.) 

Meal of yellow mandioc, alqueire 2», 

t09ft #oao Henrique Dliiix. (Rio Acart.) 
Tapioca of mandioc, alqueire 2:^^800. 

t09«.— Idem. 

Farina of water-mandioc, alqueire 2$. 
Dried meal of white mandioc, alqueire 3#. 
Dried meal of yellow mandioc, alqueire 2t- 

t099 Joao niAreellliio Taveira P4o Brasll* 


i099 #ofto Wanaelev de Allmqtierque SobrtnliO. 

Starch of mandioc,* arroba 4(^500. 

i099 Jos^ de Arawio Bo0» Daiiln. (Santarem)'. 

F6cula, Arrow-root, arroba 4^500. 

The arrow-root plant (Maranta arundinacea) produces a fine and 
delicate fecula, eminently nntritiye. 

The lands of the province of ParJi are good for the cultivation of 

-151 — 

this plant, of which two qualities are known, one has a large ioet» 
and is called there— the long—, and the other is small aHd is deno- 
minated — Once*s paw — on account of the likeness it hears to the fore- 
foot of that animal. The first produces the most fecula. 

MOO Jose de Araujo Roao Banin. 

Meal of white mandioc. 

tiOt.— Idem. 

Farina water, alqueire 2;!^. 
Arrow-root farina. 

tIO».— Idem. 

Starch of mandioc, alqueire 411^500. 
Tapioca of mandioc, arroba 3;i^. 

MOS Som^ Caetono Btbetro. 

Starch of mandioc, arroba 4*500. 

It04 Jos^ Calisto Furtado de llleitdon^. 

Meal of mandioc, alqueire 2;|^500. 
Water mandioc meal, 2*. 
Meal of macacheira, 3^. 
Meal of mandioc, 2^. 

ttOJ^a — Idem. 

Starch of mandioc, arroba 4»500. 
Tapioca of mandioc, 4;i^500. 
Tapioca of mandioc, 3»500. 

tlOO #os^ ITerlssimo de MwMom* 

F6cula of arrow-root. 
F6cula of itua. 

It09. — Idem. (Obidos). 

ttO^ J« Bernardo Brandfio. 

Maizena (of indian-com). 

ttOO I«uix A. Correla. 

Water farinha of mandioc. 

ItiO milsuel da Cunlia Penalber. 

Water farinha of mandioc. 

Ittt ]IIi§:ueI #oa<|utm FernaaMftes* 

Gergelim (seeds). 

The oil of the .seeds of this vegetable is used in making soap, also 
for illumination, and in food; though it is not so pore as almond 
oil, it is used besides in perfumery; and in medidne, in cases of 

— 152 - 

ophthalmy. Meal send tapioca is made firom the gergelim. The seed 
of the gergelim being roasted and afterwards mixed with mandioca 
dieal, or sometimes with pea-nuts, roasted and ground, forms a stimu- 
lating food. 

ItM Pedro Honorrattf Correla de lM[ir»nfla. 

Meal of yellow mandioc, alqueire 28. 

The mandioc farinas are generally fabricated in the difibrent places 
from whence these samples have come. That denominated the — water 
mandioc— is the plant most commonly used ; the dry is prepared only 
for persons accustomed to it. Indian meal is little used and that 
of maird is of recent discovery, and inferior to the mandioc meal. 

tits — Idem. 

Farina of f6cula of white mandioc, alqueire 4<^ 

Mi4. — Idem. 

Starch of mandioc, alqueire 4$. 
Starch of arrow-root, alqueire 4»500. 

MM« — Idem. (Igarapi-mery.) 
Tapioca of mandioc, alqueire 3;|>500. 

Mt% Pinto & Brother. 

Shelled rice, arroba 2»600. 

Bice abounds in aU the places here mentioned; especially on the 
river Acar&, where the production of this grain is considerable, as 
the soU is very fertile. The shelled rice is prepared in the suburbs 
of the capital, in several establishments, which make use of machi- 
nes worked by hydraulic and steam power, particulcurly that one in 
operation at the mouth of river Uno, where they prepare most exten- 
sively for home consumption and for exportation. 

ttI9 Baymundo Antonio Pereira de Castro. 

Tapioca of mandioca, alqueire 4#. 


tti^ Antonio Ce«ar de Berredo* (Itapkarii). 
Gom-meal (tapioca). 

Itt9« — Idem. (Itapicurii-mery). 
F6cula of indian-com (maizena). 

tMO A. ۥ de Mendonca BItteneoart. (Garufopii). 
Feculas of tapioca de forno. 

iMi.— Idem. (Ganiropii). 
Tapioca of arrow-root. 


tiM Aiitoiil4» #000 Pires I^lma* 

F6cula of arrow-root puba. 

The arrow-root, subject to the action of running water, is sometimes 
buried in the mud until it ferments and becomes a plastic mass, to 
which they give the name of puha; as they do, in like manner, to 
the mandioc, when it undergoes a similar process. 

UtS. — Idem. 

Tapiofca de forno. 

ttt4 Provlneial Comnilssloii. 

Rice in the chaflF. 

tttft #• S. T. IT. Belfort* 

Water farina (mandioc). 
Dried meal (mandioc). 

IMS.-;- Idem. (Rosario). 
Tapioca of arrow-root. 

±1Mf Serffto Antonio ITIelra. (Gotim). 

Feculas of starch. 


4M9 Provineial Commission. 

Meal of mandioc. 

This is the staple article of food for the whole population. There 
are about 14,000 manufactories, and their tot£^ production is calcu- 
lated at more than 500,000 alqueires. In the abundant years , the 
farina falls to less than 2^ the alqueire, but in the scarce years, it 
not mifrequently rises to above 88 per alqueire. The exportation h^ 
reached more than 30,000 Mqueires , but of late years it has been 
reduced to almost nothing , in consequence of a tax of ^ imposed 
on each sack exported ; which tax was, fortunately, abolished in 1865. 

flt!tO«— Idem. 

Fecula of mandioc (starch). 
Fecula of arrow-root. 

ItSO.— Idem. 

Yellow pumpkin starch. 
Mango starch. 

tiSt #oao Cftferal de liello. 

White rice. 

ilS9 Joao da BoeHa Ifiorelra. 

Potato starch. 

- 164 — 

iiSS #00^ Joaqoini de Sousea Sombra* 

Macap& rice. 

iiS4 Som^ da SUva Alliano. 

' Meal of mandioc, alqueire 4^, 

tlM Manoel I«oiirenco dos Santos. 

White rice, Carolina (in the chaff). 

itsa Paulo Ooii^alves de Sonxa. 

Red rice chatao. 

Itsy Bayniundo Francisco da Costa Tavares. 

Saquarema rice. 


tlS9 Provincial Commission. 

Carnaiiba starch. 


tlS9 Antonio Quirino de Souza* 

Meal of macacheira (aipim). 

tI40 Carlos Coclho Alverf^a. 

Meal of mandioc. 

tt4I.~ Idem* 

F6cula of arrow-root (starch). 

iM9 Francisco Alves de Sonza Carvalho. 

F6cula of mandioc (starch). 


ti4S Birector of the military Colony of Fimen- 

Rice in the chaff. 

1144 #os^ Felix da Caniara Pimentel. 

Meal of mandioc, alqueire from 2^1^ to 4;*. 

114ft IjOuren^o Bezerra Carneiro da Cunha* 

Maize flour. 
Paste of mandioc. 

1140 Bamaus^. 

F6cula of bananas. 


1149 Antonio Bias CoelHo e .nello. 

Tapioca of <maiididc. 


ttM Plrmliio Bodrlffues ITIelra. 

Fecula of arrow-root. 

**i!? f •^^ Correia Bantas Serra* 

Meal of mandioc. 


i»0 Provincial Cammtsston. 

Starch of bitter potatoe. 

tMl Joao de Cerqaelra l.lnia Son* 

Fecula of arrow-root. 

* V-r* ?*"^® Pereira IMEontelro. 

Meal of mandioc, 

iiM.— Idem. 

Meal of tapioca. 
F6cula of arrow-root. 

*"f .^■»*«*ino da Sllva Tosta. 

ijeiju of mandioc. 


Meal of mandioc. 
Meal of inhame. 


•t«6 Iii^erlal Instltuto FlumlneuM de Affrleul- 
. tura. (aty.) 
Farina of bread-fruit. 
Farina coarse. 

mS ^^ ^^^™' ^®** ^^^ ^' qualities (amylo). 

race m the chaff. 
Indian-corn in the cob. 

IMS Joao Jos^ Rebello. 

Meal of mandioc. 

ttfta #oao JMarlnKo da Fouseea aad Jnarlnho & Ir- 

Meal of mandioc. .7 r 

Indian-corn meal. 

Meal of Demerara potatoes. 

Meal of tapioca. 

Fecula of potato. . . . - ■ 

**•• f •ews Arlsiidea de Maeedo WwtAtmm. 

Onea mandioc meal, sack 20». 

- 166- 

1161 #ose Franclseo de PauIq^ I^eltfta* 

Meal of mandioc. 

M6t #os^ Pedro de Azevedo i9ad,r^« 

Starch of Brazilian potatoes. 
Flour of mandioc gratings. 

il6S-^ Idem. 


1164— Idem. 

Cangica (Hominyj. 

This is the name given to the maize after It has passed through ft 
certain process. 

It is broken and put to steep, and pounded until deprived o( all. 
its pellicles ; then it is dried in the sun. In other pro>vinc66 the name 
of cangica is given to a very delicate article of food, prepared of 
green corn, with cocoaruut milk, sugar and butter, and boiled uatU 
it takes a plastic consistence, which increases as it cools. 

1166 liUix Ulanoel de Azevedo Soares. 

Mandioc flour. 

This is a starch extracted by compression from the grated root of 
the mandioc ; the liquid extracted by compression deposits a starch, 
which, after being washed and having the moisture evaporated by the 
heat, is free from the poisonous principle it contained in itg natoial 
state ; in this condition, it is employed for different uMt , such as 
paste, starch for washed clothes, &c. 


1166 Baroneza de Saiit*Anna« 

Fine flour of arao^-root. 
Fine flour of corn-meal. 
Fine flour of rice. 
Tapioca of mandioc. 
Fecula of mandioc (starch). 
Meal of mandioc. 
Hominy of white corn. 

1169— idem. 

Rice in the chaff. 


116» Antonio Oomea ITIdaL 

Meal of white indian-corn, alqueire 4^ 

-157 — 

M%9 Ausu0to StellfelA. 

Sarrascen wheat. 

ttVO Provincial Commlfisloii. 

Oats, alqueire 5^. 

1191 Feliclaiio IVepomuoefei^ Pva 

Fecula of mandioc (starch). 
Meal of white indian-corn. 

119t Joao Antonio Barros Junior* 

Fecula of mandioc (starch). 

119S* — Idem. 

Meal of mandioc. 

1194 Joaqulm liette ]licNa4o««^ 

Eice in the chaff, sack, 6# to 8#. 

119ft Joaqulm JPeroIra Alve»* 

Fecula of arrow-root (starch). 

1196 Jos^ Caittdldo da Sllva IMLurlcl. 

Pine starch. 
Pine farina. 
Shushii starch. 

1199.— Idem. 

Starch of tai^ (inhame). 

119^ Sof^ Pereira lilnlaares* 

Pine Fecula (starch). ' 

1199 #• Scvero Correla. 

Jacatupe starch. 

Extracted from the bulbous root of the jacatupe , a cip6 whose 
leaf is poisonous, wherefore the culture of it is very ctiffieolt Tbii 
starch is yery substantial, and is used in soups, puddings, gruels and 
other food : it possesses very important medicinal qualities , and is 
advantageously employed for dysenteries, nephritic diseases and others. 

IIMI Manoel da Cms Carneiro. 

Meal of red indian-corn. 
Meal of white indian-corn. 

1191 aiariano de AlmeMa Torreik 

Meal of white indian-com. 

U»9 modeoto Aon^alves CordtAro. 

Meal of mandioc. 

1195 Tleente Ferreira l^oyola* 

Starch af shusM (of the bulb). 

- 168 — 

1194 Vicente Verreira Aa I«iu^ 

Arrow-root starch. 


iMJ( Barao SeKneebours* 

White rice. 


M9««— Idem, 

Meal of mandioc. 

tM9 Carl Kopke. 

Fecula of arrow-root. 

1199 Carlos OUo SeUapell. 

Starch of mandioc. 

1199 DIreetory of the eolonla D. Franelsea. 

Rice in the chaff. 

1190 Direetory of tite eoliinla Blunieiiau. 

Maruhy rice. 

1191 Franelseo Jo9e de Ollvelra. (Desterro). 
( arima. 

1199 fiieMeu. 

Meal of mandioc. 

1199 Joaqulm 9oare8* 

Meal of mandioc. 

1194 Ruehl. 

Rice in the chaff. 

119J( Jlianoel Pereira* (Barreiros). 
Meal of mandioc. 

1196 Asroiiointe Society* 

Meal of mandioc, alqueire l;i^280. 
Meal of mandioc, alqueire 1#400. 

This article is produced on an extensive scale in the province of 
Santa Catharina, where they employ improved machines ; especiaUy 
in the colonies. These farinas supply the markets of the Capital, and 
of the other provinces. The foreign exportation of mandioc meal 
during 1864—1865 wa9 .14^,722 alqiwes, omc|»l,yftlue 190:792|i|880, 
averaging ljif309 per alqueire. 

119V,— idem. 

Meal of white indian-corn (fine hominy) . 

— 159 — 

tfl«9 irelmanii & Bade. 

Meal of mandioc. 

M99. ~ Idem* 

Meal of tapioca. 


flSOO Carlos BuHS aad Frederico OullKerme Bar^ 

White rice in the chaff. 

Barley 1st. quality. 

IJtOI.— ldein. 


tSOt.— Idem. 

White oats. 
Brown oats. 

tSOS.— Idem. 


The flours of the grains of this province are exceUent : that of the 
wheat is now beginning to supply the consumption of the vicinities 
in which it is raised; and it is to be hoped that, within a few years, 
tliis province wiU again be able to supply the Capital and the other 
provinces of the Empire, as formerly. Without doubt, Rio Grande of 
tbe South is destined, one day, to be the granary of this country ; 
because the cultivation of the cereals is constantly increasing there- 

ft1M4 Eduardo von Borousky. 

North-araerica indian-corn, yellowish. 

flJtOft Felippe Jacob Sellbacla. (City). 


flf an I«eoiitdlo Antonio da Sllvelira. 

Starch of arrow-root. 

MMOV Manoel Perelra da Silira 1Jliatulia« 

Corn-flour (maizene). 

flt09. — Idem. 



Pastry and [(Bakery Produets. 


M09 Antonio Som^ do Couto. (City). 
Biscuits, crackers, rusks, &c., of different qualities. 

— 160 — 

Oily alimentary substanees* 


if to Alexandre Paulo de Brito Aoaiorliu. 

Oil of native chestnuts, 
Caiaue oil. 

Mti CarloM Baptlsta Mardel. 

Oil of pupunha. 

iff* Emlllo Ajren PalKeta. (Man&os). 
Caiau6 oil. 

ItiS Joao .^Sareelllno Taveira P&o Braail. 

Turtle grease. 

This is extracted from the eggs and fat of different species of 
chelonia, of the order emis, known generally by this name, (turtle). 
The process foUowed is fermentation and decoction. This grease is 
yellow and opaque, when badly prepared ; but liquid and clear whea 
purified ; it has a peculiar scent. It is used by some, especially by 
the poorer class, as a condiment, and also as a hair-oil. It is applied 
in medicine externally for rheumatisms, and there was a time when 
it was said to cure elephantiasis, but facts did not confirm this as- 

tM4 Maiioel Jor^e da Eneariuif ao. 

Caiau6 oil. 


Mtft Candida do Prado Pinte. 

Oil of the eggs of turtle. 

itiO*— lde«i« 

Oil of pupunha. 

Used as a condiment and substitute for the olive oil. Its mana- 
facture is very limited, because the article from Which It is extracts 
is used as a dessert-fruit. 

itif Provtaeial OommtMioii. 

Oil of turtles' eggs. 


itiO #oae de Apanjo Boso Banin. 

Oil of dend§. 

itiO. — idem. 

Oil of pupunha. 

— 161 — 

IMH mariins & TedeseM. 

Turtle oil. 


iCti #ofi^ Joaqviim TelsLelra TIeIra Belfort. 

Oil of dende. 


IMt Provincial Comnitosion. 

Oil of dende. 

MWB E«tevao Jfom6 Barbosa de Moura, Urbano 
Hysldlo da SUva Costa and Provincial 
Co ntmlflUilqit. 

Batiput^ oil. 

The plant which produces the hatiput^ is known by the same name, 
and is found in great quantities on the table lands of the mountains 
of tho province of Rio Grande of the North; it never grows high, 
and its wood is of no value. It blooms in January, and in April 
the seeds are ripe. The flowers grow on fine stalks, of about eight 
inches in length, and are of a beautiful yellow color. The fruit has 
different forms but its size never exceeds one inch in diameter; in 
the sarco-carp are found the seeds from which the oil is extracted. 
When ripe, the color of the frait is a very deep carnation, and the 
seeds are striped with black , and are then very easily separated 
^om the pulp ; which is not eaten : but the seeds are much esteemed 
on account of the many uses made of the oil extracted from them. 
The process of extraotioa practised in the province is the following. 
The fruit is boiled until the outside covering opens, then it is put 
in cold water for some hours, then squeezed with sufficient force to 
separate the stones from the pulp; this being done the seeds are 
then boiled in water on the fire, and the oil is carefully skinuned 
off as fast as it rises to the surface of the water. When boiled 
sufficiently, the decoction is left to cool and then the remaining ofl 
is easily skimmed off. The oil is finally put on the fire a second 
time to be purified. Its most common uses in medicine are to 
cure rheumatic affections, and eruption of the skin. It is also highly 
esteemed to fry fish with. 
iM4 E«tevao #o«6 VaitiM9«a:4e »]IKOilMi« 

Oil of dendfi. 


ItM Jo0^ Tavares da Cunha e Mello. 

Oil of dende. 

CI. 11 

— 162 — 


itf • Vranel^co Som6 dii Bodia* 

Fine oil of dend*. 


tM7 S. Ft Walllot&Co. 

Fresh butter. 
Natural milk. 
Cow grease. 

CLASS l:^x. 

Meats and fishes. 


4|lt» Munoei #Q0e de tSouan CoHlttt. 

Pir4-cuhy (Meal of fisb). 

A food prepared from toasted fish. In this atate they is^^ out tl>e 
bones, pound it, and after dry it qu flat eartbfP P^s. 

This niethod oi preserving fish, and which m^kes i\, y^ry dur^b^, 
. is used in seyeral provincas of the North. 

UMII. — Idem. 

Pirarucd (Fish). 

A large fish the length of which is almost 2n,2 . After beii^ 
caught they are taken to the fishsfa^s, scalisd, split, salted «bd j^aoed 
in layers, where they remain three hours, and are then spreful out 
and dried in the sun. This article is one of the principal branches 
of the commerce of the province of Amazonas. 

The peculiar method of catching this fish is interesting beeause it 
is first shot with an arrow, then harpooned, then speared. When 
it is at a distance from the boat, manned by two persons, it is shot ; 
approaching it they throw a large harpoon into it, and finish the ope* 
ration by spearing it with a spear 4xed in a- iftrge staff and mana- 
ged by the man in the bow of the boat. 


MSO FraiiHi«co Somk dii UtotAia* 

Dried fish. 


ItSi A. Castasnier & Brother, (aty). 
Shrimps in grease. 

Dry shrimps. 
Pickled Garoupa. 

fltM Claudlo C«iRiMFill0. ^ictbcroy)* 
Sardines in oil (equal to those of Nantes). 

MSS Oouiblere & Warner. (City), 
Fish put up in oil fbijupirii). 
Pig's head (prepared). 
PicMed fish (bijupira). 
Fish in oil (lulas) . 

MS4 I.. P. Halllot & Co. 

Boiled beef with cabbage. 

Boiled beef with carrots. 

Stewed beef. 

Minced beef. 


Meat broth. 

Julienne soup. 

Concentrated broth. 




MSft Proirlnctel C«iMmlMi«n# 

Barrels of salt beef. 

Barrels of dried or jerk beef. 

nnm Maiiioel Perelra da Silva IJbafiilia. 

Extractum camis, libra 5$. 



i9S9 SamS de Araujo Basu Daittii. 

SmaU beans. 

In general the caltiyation of this vegetable is very Umited , each 
farmer raising only sufficient for his own use; the common supply 
is imported from the other provinces to the aouj^.c^ this, 


i9M Pravlneial ConuwlMlaii* 

-164 — 

iJM9 MLaitoel A A SIlwA Albiino* 

Cord beans. 

Landim beans. 

Mulatto beans. 

Sheep'a-eye beans. ' • 

Black beans. 


M4t Commandes or tlie n^tn prlcton Vernimdo 
de HVoronliA. 

Macass^ beans. 

1949 Director of mlliUiry eolonlA Fimentelros. 

Mulatto beans. 

1949 raanoel Son^ do E0ptrlto-9Aitto. 

Mulatto beans. 


' * . ' ' 

1944 «roao Paulo da 9llva. 

Owl b6ans. 


i94S Pr^netoeo 9ainpalo Ttanna. 

Dove's-eye beans. 
Black beans. 
Lead beans. 


1949 A. Caftfaffuler & BroOior. (Gty). 
Palmito preserved. 
Cooked beans. 

t V 

1941 Contlilere & 

Kidney beans. 

Palmito in a nlctoral state; ':..'. 

1949 Flumlnense Imperial Iitsittute of Ayrleal- 

Dried bananas. 

This fruit is very abundant in all Brazil. It is pleasant, nutritive, 
and is in general use as !66d, plain and in Weets. The leaves of 
the plant and even the fruit are swUf4ti9«v»dkin4>tb»'4iikid9 i|Eir 
tremely adstringent. Of its fibres they make cords and o6uM' mw¥^ 

-165 — 

fine fabrics. In Brazil there is a great variety of ttie banana plamt, 
indigenous and exotic. ' ' 

i«49 nmnlitenM Imperlia Instltnteoff Asriral- 

tare. (City). 

Boiled bread-fruit. \ 

Dried bread-fruit. 

MftO Mj. F. Halliot & Co. 

Cooked beans. 


Peas in shell. 

Unripe beans in grain. 



tMi llAil&eu9 da Cunbii. 

Horse beans. 
Small beans. 
Pea-nut beans. 


i9M BaroneBA de Siint'AitiftA. 

Pea-nut beans. 

Baet8,o beans. 

White beans. 

Horse beans. 

Fradinho beans. 

Guando beans. 

Yellow guando beans 

White mangald beans. 

Purple mangalS beans. 

Butter beans. 

Mulatto beans. 

Black beans. 

Striped beans. ■ ' 




IMS Jm« CandMo da Sllvm Hurltrl* 

Kidney-beans. . . 

i9ft4 Martono de Almeida Torres. 

Black beans. '^ 


I •!'. 

IMS Carloa iMto 9elilapeU. 

Pe«rnut beans. ' •• •.••'•-•'.■•* . •;..•»•• - . .:-Mii' <! 

Small white beans. 

MMI Direction of «Ke e^^onlo B» Vroti^lMO* 

White beans. 
Horse beans. 

tMV «roilo Flnto do I<UK« 


MM. — Idem. 

Kidney beans. 

iM9 Jlom6 Verreira Barreto. 

Mulatto beans. 
ttMO Eruiz IVlemeyer. (Colony D. Francisca.) 
White beans. 


net Auffasto Kmeser. 

Black beans. 
Umm Carlos Bu0« and Vrederleo Culllierme Bar 

Common white beans. 

Small white beans. 

Blac beans. 


Striped beans. 


MCt £duardo von Barousky. 

Asparagus in conserve. 

if 04 Vellppe «raeoli Selliaeli* 

Black beans. 

IMS «roao Agrallia* 

Beans, four kinds. 

ttSS Joao Hal£. 

Black beans. 
tMV Iieonldio Antero da Stlvelra. 

Small white beans. 


Condlmevts aad stinralftnts t smgars Jiad eoafeetioaarf 



M09 J^oaqalut Iieoveslldo de Souza Coellio* 

Pichuna tucupy. 

— 167 — 

Thus the Indians of the prorvinee of Amazonto easa a maeeraticm 
of mandioca, boiled and exposed to the sun* It id a condiitieRt which 
they eat fish with. 

4t«9 J^oaqalin do Beffo Barros* 

Conserve of cubio 

PR0Vt*dB d* PkkL 


:ltVO Anleeto Clemente Halelier. 

Raw sugar, dry, arroba 2*500. 
Purified sugar, arroba 4^^000. 
Eefined sugar, arroba 5JJ000 

The cultivation of sugar-cane is only commencing in the province 
of Par& , notwithstanding the great natural resources of which this 
prdTiiiee disposes , and to the profusion of which , perhaps this back- 
wardness is owing. For this culture the planter uses only, an ax to 
eat down tiie trees , and fire and tergado (a kind pruning knife) to 
elean off the grounds^ after and during the harvest. Yet the lands 
do not become poor , because they are flooded twice a day by the 
flax and reflux of the tide , which deposits on the soil the fertilise 
ing principles consumed by vegetation. The crop is gathered irre- 
gularly , the planter commonly losing much cane , and not even ex- 
tracting all the sugar from what !ie does gather. All Che attention 
is concentrated in the making of sugar and spirits , to the negleet 
of cultivation. This is owing perhaps to the prodigious fertill^^ at 
the soil. It will be understood how small the cost ntust be of the 
conveyance of the cane to the^ fiiiBs, wheti i1» is known that is carried 
on , always , on the rivers and brooks ^ ai»d the v^scle made use of 
ig the— batelSo-^ (rustii) bdatiike^ a mm^:Xhey 9^^$fB jxrefer to 
toanuf^ture brown sugar , ^hich is duported : and spirits which finds 
att 6^y market. The intemial denond is 8u|ypUed with; whitt sugar, 
iiD^rted fr6m tiie provinee of PeorhambucA^ ,$sdA :WMdh ia refined ia 
some refineries of the capital. The province possesses at least qv^r thirty 
steam sugar-mills and probably double that nmqn})^ « .wor)^e(l ivy 
hydraulic power. 

MVt Antoiilo «roBe Plnlielro. (Monte-Akgre^) 
Vinegar of cane-juice. 

The manufacture of these articles is , in the province of Par&, an- 
nexed to that of vTines and cordials. The factories of the city Of 
Skntarem produce most; mid after them, those of the capital. In 
the former they prefer indig'enou^' f^ts as the t>rime artfcle , anft 
in the latter dregs or damaged wines. T,b« hofne supply of this 
article is sufficient. for atf the interior, as t^ fio^ftitSe dttbsn^tln^ 
pert any at aU.' - •- • - » u i...,.., -,. , . 

— 168- 

nt9 Frovlnelftl Commlwlmi* • 

Conserve of tucupy. 

f tVS.— Mem* ^ . . 

Conserve of pinienia. • ■ • . 

it94.— Idem. 

Bry sugar, white, arroba 2#506. 

tttft.— Idem. 

Assorted cordials, 8# per dozen. 

Cinnamon cordial. 

Rose cordi&l. • i . .* * 

Anise-seed cordial. 
Orange cordial. 
Clove cordial. 

The preparation of cordials is a branch carried -on extensiyely by 
the two manufactories of Santarem , by somb in the capital of the 
province, and also by an occasional private establislpnent; the great 
quantity of wild and cultivated fruits offering abundance of prime 
article for this purpose. 

All that is manufactured is consumed in the interior , besides some 
finer cordials, whidi are impotted: 

f f VS David Joaqiilm I«eaL 

Conserve of pimenta. 

ittt.— Idem. 

Chocolate of cupuassii. 

The preparation of thiB article is carried on only by a few esta- 
blishments in the province of Par& , the principal of which is that 
of the capital, which prepares on the largest scale^ The cupuass^, 
chocolate is merely an attempt ; its fabrication , up to the present 
time , has not succeeded' oti^ aecomt' of its being Very hygrometrical,' 
and on the other hand of a very inferior taste, compared with cac^ 
1999.— Idem* • .••.♦■ la-^- »u- 

Granadilla jelly. :. 

Fruit jelly. 

Large bacury jelly. ' * * •♦ 

Cupuassii jam. ' ' ' 

tty9 DoMilnyos €«elmtro Perelra lilmA. 

Conserve. of pimenta. 

i990 Feilelaiio BAmM Beiites. 

Muruty jelly. 

MM FortaitAto Alves de Souzn., . ^ -. 

White sugar, arroba 4». ,'...• 

f ^ ' ••...» 

— 189 — 

MM Htlarlo Ferreli<ft monim. 


tt^t «raiiuarlo Antonio da 9llva. 

White sugar of 2(1 sort, arroba . . . . . . 4»000 

White sugai' of 1st sort, arroba. . ... . . 51^)00 

Brown sugar, arroba. . ... . . . . . 4$000 

Refined sugar • 6»5p0 

Refined sugar ...... . "I \ .' 7*000 

Refined sugar :,..,.... 5»60O 

±M9^ «roao Antonio Cypriano de Fario. 

Chocolate, medicinal, and not mecUahial. * ■ -' 

flltM «roao Slartina da Silva Coutinlio. 

CrSme (cordial). 
Creme of cacto. 
CrSme of synamomo. 

fllt^O Joao l¥anzeller de Alliuquerquey IVepliewr* 

Conserve of pimenta. 
Conserve of tucupy 

AMY «roaquini Honorio da Silva Kelielio« 

Conserve of pimenta. 

. I 

49M. — Idem* 

Cashew vinegar. 

flt99.— Idem. 

Cordial of ananas, per dozen bottles. . * . 12JMHK) 
Cordial of cacio, per dozen n ... 24#000 

Cordial of coffee. 
Cordial of orange-flowers. 

twpo Ji om6 de Aranjo Boao. IHinin* - . 

Cac&o jelly. 

Sugar-cane honey. ... 

t!Mi Som€ Caetono Blbeiro. "" '" 

White sugar, arroba 5»000. 

• c . • • • 'J 

i«9t Jofii6 do Sllva Iieito. 

Conserve of pimenta. ..... 

The province ojt j^ar^^ poBJ^Q^sa^ Orpr^f^iKiQiVPi^wri^Mfli oirili«jC6li4ii^ 
ment — pimenta (or peppers) — as may be iSeeB .ftcjm tIio«^ " that- are 
here mentioned. Nearly all„t|:ki\jl^i& rajf^d i^ ppt ki fiM0^i In>>iii9 > 
vinegar manufactories. ' . ' - 

IMS.- Idem. (Obido^:^ =^^ ' t* " '' * '/ ' ' * *' 
Cacio vinegar, 2* per bottle. ' 

■A ' 

— 170 - 

itM4 «roii^ da Sllva I.elte. 

Gac^o jelly. 

M^ft «rofii6 TerlMlmo de Naiteiik 

Conserve of large peppers. 

MOS liUlz de iiii-Boqae. 

Raw sugar, dry, arroba -'^ 

Clarified sugar, arroba • 4(|000 

Milt JUnrttiis & TedeMHI. 

Cac&o vinegar. 

ilM9 Pinto & Bi^oth^r. 

Cashew vinegar. 
Sugar-cane vinegar. 

itM9.— Idem. 

Conserve of tucupy. 

taao.— ideM« i 

White sugar, arroba 5#000. 


tSOt Antonio Jos^ Plreti I^lnw. (Gararapii.) 

Vinegar of sugar-canne 

itOf J. J. T. T. Beirort. (Rosario.) 
Vinegar of sugar-canne. 

itOt— Idem. 

Sugar, 1st. sort. 
V^hite-sugar, refined. 
Crystallized sugar. 

iS04 I^nls FereitfA Iinpa. (Islaiid»> 

Cashew vinegar. 

ttOft Serfflo Antonio TIelrn. 

Conserve of tucupy. 

tSOS.— Idem. (Gatim.) 
Cashew vinegar. 

itOl*— Idem, Idem. 

Cashew cordial (ratafia). 
Oenipapo cordial (ratafia). 


iSOft Provlnoloi CommUiiilon. 

Imbii vinegar. 

- 171 - 
Banana vinegar. 

ftSflO Jose Cabral de itiello. 

Cleaned coflFee, arroba 6» to ;7»000. 

The cultivation of this article is the latest introduced in the pro- 
vixK^e, |)ut it is beginning to develope itself on. the mountains of 
Maranguape, Aratanha, BaturitS , Aiaripe, MibChado , Uraburetama ; 
though the quantity produced , has been dimishing ever since 1863 
on account of the plant being attacked by the blight or worm. How 
ever , it continues to be the second article of exportation in the pro- 
vince. During the year 1862—1863 there were exported to other parts 
of the Empire 32,808 arrobas ; and to foreign parte 147,776 arrobas ; 
total 189,584 arrobas ; official value 1,239:257^5(715. During 1863—64 the 
total exportation was 151,839 arrobas , official value §3S:981ir780. Bwc* 
ing 1864—65, arrobas 69,965, value 446:393jS(926. DnWng 1865-^^, 
arrobas 103,390 , value 611:885^884. The general price varies from 6jK 
to 1$ per arrobsu 

^Mtt Jlom6 Vranctoeo da Coata JJft^titt* 

Pulped and washed coflFee. 

tHif liUlz Blbelro da Cuiilia. 

Gleaned coflFee, dark. 

«Slt ltlau«#l Ferreira Vielra. 

Gleaned coflFee. 

iiSi4 MAnoel IVaneft de Hello. 

Cleaned coffee. 

fl^ift Ularroeos. 

Cleaned coflFee, darit. 


tSM Caetano EatelUta Cavaleantl FeSiSoa. 

Raw white sugar. 

The sugar-cane is one of the sources of the i^ealth of Brazil, and 
notwithstanding the rivalry of the beet-root sugar , that of the cane 
supplies almost the whole demand of the world. The cane which 
grows without the labor of the cttttivalor , in tfoe, Nqi^th of Bxs^l , 
is easily cultivated in ibey south ; and ifi the saocharine plant fi^m 
which the sugar, used Ih the country and exported , is extracted. 
Though the manufacture of sugar is not yet so perfect as it might 
be , still latterly , the want of hands in this laboui* ba» 'Ibe^h la a 
great measure supplied by steam and mechanical-worited iriaehines, etc* 

- 172 - 

The soil and climate of Brazil, so favorable to the caltiYation of 
the sugar-cane , render this article capable of chasing from all the 
markets in the world the sugars obtained from others vegetables 
that have not the saccharine crystalUzable mattejpthat the cane paB<- 

This province exported during 1864 — 1865 to foreign countries 
176,669 arrobas of sugar , official value 290:542$120 , averaging 19644 
per arroba. 

The greater part of the product of this province is sold in Per- 


f tit Provlnelttl Comnilsiiloift. 

Guava jelly. 
Cashew jelly. 

iSi^ Doinleliino I^ncas de IS^oaza BAUffel. 

Sugar-cane vinegar. 

iti^ Franelseo Alves de Soiiza Curvallio. 


Raw brown sugar is one of the principal products, and branches 
of commerce and exportation , of this province. To foreign ports 
they generally only export brown sugar. The quantity during the 
year 1864—1865 was 400,998 arrobas, official value 620:955|i[600 averag- 
ing l^lb per arroba. Formerly the foreign exportation was greater, 
being in 1861—1863, of 742,545 arrobas, official value l,123:703|)00O, 
averaging l/if513 ; which average rose in 1863 — 1864 to 189QS per 

The white sugar is consumed in the province or is sent to Per- 
mambuco , where Parahyba sends a great part of her products , es- 
pecially sugar and cotton, 

tMO liUlz da Cifama Fjurto* 

White -sugar. 

• * » 

■ ' ■ 



iS9t Antonio Foes de IMello Barvolo* 

Clarified white sugar, arroba 3;|200. 

ittt Provlnrial CommtsBloii. 

Raw white sugar, 1st sort. 

Ra^jT white sugar, 2d sort. . r 

Raw white sugar. 3d sort. 

— 173 — 

Raw white sugar, 4th sort. 
Brown sugar, 1st sort. 
Brown sugar, 2d sort. 

J1«9S Delouclie &. Oadaut. 


. This article is manufactured here only in one establishment, lately 
set up in the prov^ce by the expositors Delouche & Gadaut. This 
manufactory is well arranged and capable of supplying the market. 
It receives the cac&o and the vanilla from the provinces of Maranham 
and Par&. The chocolate made here is quite equal to the samples, 
is well received in the province , and often prefered to the foreign 
imported article. The establishment makes use of improved steam 
machines, imported from Europe. The chocolate is sold at 800 rs. 
per lb., and in the same place artificial ice is made , which is spld 
at 100 rs. per lb. 

tSltA Jos^ Felix da Camara Plmentel. 

Clarified white sugar. 

The province in which the cultivation of sugar-cane has prospered 
most , in Pemambuco , because its soil and climate are best adapted 
to it. Jn the numerous miUs that exist th«re , new processes have 
been sidopted , steam machines and other improvements. The sugars 
of Pernambuco are , in general , more in demand in the markets 
than those of any other place.' 

The exportation in the year 1864—66 was 2,806,671 arrobas, official 
value 5,806:450/St. " 

tS^S I^oiz Antonio Cronf alvea Penna &Co. 

Eefined white sugar, arroba 6;i^00 

Raw brown sugar, iarroba . 3^0 

Refined white sugar. 

mttt Iii^io d^ Souza e 

White sugar crystallized, arroba ..;.'. 61^000 

White sugar refined, arroba . ... . . . 6»000 

tstv lUanoel niarqaea de OilVeira & Cd« 

Syrup of tamarinds , bottle HK)00 

Syrup of apples , bottle 1»000 

Syrup of lemons j bottle . . . 1»000 

Syrup of orange; bottle 1»000 

Syrup of ros^g, bbtfle : , . ".' rr r' ! I»(W& 

Syrup of quinces, bottle '. . . '. . . . '. 1*000 

11999.*— Idem. ••.*;r.^ - #.«.,,; .\ I . ., »«»v . ■ «i , '# i'.'i 

Cr^me (cordial) of apples, bottle. .. .. , .. . -. 1*600 

Cr6me of granadilla, bottle -. . * . . ... 1|600 

— 174 — 

Cr6me of senipe d'Alpes, battle lltt50O 

Cr6me, imperial, bottle. . l;i^O 

Cr6me of pears, bottle . • l»50O 

Crfime of chemes, bottle I;f500 

CrSme of peaches, bottle ...... . . 1^500 

Cr^me of orange flowers, bottle 1;|^500 

Crgme of neitAo, bottle 1»500 

Crfime of rosolio , bottle l»50O 

er6me of strawberries, bottle l:i^50O 

Crdme of saubac , bottle ... .... ll^OO 

Crgme of pansies, bottle 1|»500 

GF^me of currants, bottle ^ l)li500 

iSfH Rab«llo & Branr^. 

White sugar refined, arroba 6»000. 
Raw white sugar. 


iSSO rellx Zeferlno Cardoso. 

Sugar refined and clarified in milk. 

Sugar refining is not much carried on , in this proYince ; it is , 
in general , exported , in a raw state , to the other proyinoes, aiMl 
to foreign markets. The province exported during the past year aboat 
332,726 arrobas, official value 651:370/i«17, averaging l|}9B7per ar- 

ttti Franeloeo Pinto I^oliao. 

Conserve (giquitaia). 

Conserve of pimenta malagueta. 

Refined sugar. 
White sugar clarified. 

iMt Fomptllo da Franca AwmmrmM. 

Jambo cordiiiJ. 


4SS4 AnUmla AMvmrem tfoa Santpiik 

Roasted cac4o. 

flfftft AMvedo & Co. 

Crystallized sugar 1st quality. 
Crystallized sugar 2d quality. 
Crystallized sugar 3d quality. 
Crushed sugar 1st quality. 
Crushed sugar 2d quality. 


Crushed sugar Sd quality. 
Crushed sugar 4th quahty. 

Bahia produced a greater quantity of sugar than auy o^e^r pro- 
vince of BrazU. The foreign exportation, dnwing the year 1864t-18^ 
-ms ; of terowp sftg^, 2,^,005. ^rrobas, official value 5,281 :908jSI788, 
ayerage price 1^99? per arroba ; of white sugar , 365,506 arrobas , 
• official value, l,034:fi86g?05 , averting ?)S(830 per arroba. 

Much sugar is also sent from this prov^i^ice tp the others. 4* P^^®" 
sent there are in the province many mills wrought by modern ma- 
chift^ry , and there alsp exist , in a prosperous state, several sugar- 

Con^eyve of diflf^rent legumes. 

tSSf Franeleeo Sampalo VlaniiA. 

Sugar-cane vinegar. 

Mt9.— Idem. 
India cloves. 

tSS9 Joao Cezlinbra. 

White vinegar pf sugar-cane. 

Red vinegar. ♦ 

C^cito washed of Ilheoa. 
Cacio washed of Canavieirss. 
C^cAo unwashed of Valen^a. 

This profluct i^ prepared for market by gathering the fruit when 
xipe, extracting the seeds and drying them in the sun. With it the 
natives indians of the province of Amazonas , for domestic use, make, 
by the old process , their chocolate , soap , and some other articles. 
It grows well on the plains, and in almost all the province , es- 
pecially on the margins of the rivers Madeira and Solimons ; it gives 
two crops a year , the first , fTom December to Janua>ry , and the 
other from May to July ; the latter being the most abundant. Neither 
the cultivated nor the wild, appear to suffer with the overQowiAps 
of the rivers , though some times , on these oceaaloftfi , the trunks 
of the trees are under water some feet. 

The cacao tree is raised in the provinces of Amcizonas > Par4 , 
Maranham, Bahia , and, on a siQall scale, Bio de Janeiro ; in other 
places its cultivatiou is rare. , . 

In the provinces of Amazonas wd Par&^.the ca^^treiea grow of 
themselves without any labour of cultivation , a»d, in; genecal, once 

— 176 — 

planted in the proper season , these trees require no more care till 
the time of the harvest. For this reason as means of an income , 
the planters of these regions are accustomed to settle them on their 
daughters for their portions; 

They extract from the cac&o the* oily part , which , when purified 
is of a light yellow color, it is of the consistence of butter, 
employed in confectionery , perfumery and pharihacy. Prom the pulp 
of the fruit they make good vinegar. 

The cacdo of Brazil contains a great quantity of adstringent-tannin 
principle in its fecula with which the chocolate is 'manufactured. 

The exportation of the excellent cac4o of Amazonas is carried on 
hrough Par&, in conjunction v^rith its production. Official documents 
show that daring the year 1864—1866 , the foreign exportation from 
Par& was 216,485 arrobas, value 1,170:180^380 , averaging 5)Sf417 per 

tt4i VinbelliiO da Sllira Tosta. 

Vinegfar, white and red. ^ 


iS4it Aiitonlu Cornello dos Santos. 

Shelled coflFee. 

iS4S Autonio J^oaiiulm Soares BIbelro. 

^ White sugar of cayana-cane . . arroba of 4J> to 5l^ 

Sugar of purple cane arroba of 4# to 5> 

Sugar of green canne. .... arroba of 4» to 5» 

Brown sugar of cayana cane . . arroba of 3# to 4# 

Sugar of purple cane arroba of 3# to '4# 

Sugar of green cane . . . . . arroba of 3» to 4> 

4S4I4 Antonio Som^ Barbosa de Andrade. 

jglShelled coffee, unwashed. 

tSift Barao da Bella«-Tlsta. 

Ground-dried coffee, shelled. 

tt4S Barao de Itaffualiy. 

Shelled coffee. ■'>■ 

it4f . — Idem. 

White sugar. ^ " . ^ 

tS49 Barao de IVova Frlburso. 

Pulped coffee, arroba 9*. 

Pulped coffee, ground-dried, arroba 7»2Q0 to 7JW00. 

Huaked coffee. 


^ 177 — 

J1S49 Barao do Hlo IVqwo. 

Pulped coflfee, seed of Porto Rico. 
• Pulped coflFee, seed of Jamaica. 
Pulped coffee, seed of Mocka. 
Pulped coffee, myrtle-seed. 
Pulped coffee, native seed. 

MftO ClauMo Capdevllle. (Nictheroy.) 
Ananas or pine-apple. 
Cashew in conserve. 

flSfti Coutlnlio iriaiina & Bost«lo« (Nictheroy. } 
Cr6me (cordial) of cac&o, bottles, per dozen . 24» 

Crfime of tea, bottles, per dozen 15» 

CrSme of coffee, bottles, per dozen .... 15» 

Noyau creme. 

Creme of mint. 

Estomacbic crSme. 

CrSme of anisette. 

Cr§me of cinnamon. 

Cr§me of cloves. 

CrSme of roses. 

CrSme of curacio. 

tMt.— Idem. 

Syrup of oranges, bottle ^|^4D0 

Syrup of gum, bottle »400 

Syrup of pitanga, botte JMOO 

Syrup of cashew^, bottle #400 

Syrup of vanilla , bottle #400 

Syrup of sarsaparilla, bottle #400 

Syrup of rasp berries , bottle J>400 

Syrup of lemons, bottle ;|MS0 

Syrup of cttrraats, boMe 4^400 

Syrup of orange-flowers, botte *40O 

Syrup of pine-apple, bottle J^OO 

Syrup, plain, bottle #400 

Syrup of capill6, bottle *400 

4SftS Fraitetoco Innoeeitelo I^emia. 

Fruits and leaves of coffee (in alcohol). 

Mft4 Franelseo Marenndea Ulaeliado. (A.pparecida. ) 
Coffee in the husk, dried. 
Shelled coffee. 
Pulped coffee, arroba 9#. 
Hushed coffee. 
c L 12 

— 178 — 

fMft Fraaicltfco UlazarM. (Nictheroy. ) 
Cordial, chartreuse, bottles, per dozen . . 18# 

Elixir estomacal, bottles, per dozen .... 18* 
Cordial, Bravos de Uruguayana, bot., per dozen. 18^ 
Cordial, coracao, bottles, per dozen .... 18;^ 
Cordial, anisette, botJes, per dozen .... 18^ 
Cordial oil of roses. 
Cordial of vanilla. 

tSMI Ferii:«udo Olmm Paes Leme and Pedro Dia» 
Oordllho Pftes I^eme. (Itaguahy.) 


White sugar. 
Brown sugar. 
Refined brown sugar. 

This important branch of Brazilian commerce is among those that 
are extensively carried on in the province of Rio de Janeiro. The 
district of Campos is the principal emporium of this article. There 
hey cultivate the sugar-cane on a large scale. The margins of the 
river Parahyba are admirably adapted to its growth though, indeed 
the other parts of t'nis district are scarcely less so. 

The rational system for the cultivation of sugar-cane begins to be 
established on some plantations , so that the quantity raised on them, 
testifies its efficacy ; and also the improvements introduced in the 
manufacture of the raw sugar and in refining , have raised , to a high 
degree of perfection, the products which supply the home and foreign 

The system generally used, of boiling the sugar-cane-sap over a 
plain fire , is now being substituted bv steam apparatus. The miU- 
crank worked by oxen is also beginning to be abandoned for hand- 
somer contrivances, propelled by steam or by water. 

Many sugar-refineries already employ all the new inventions and 
apparatus used in the large refineries of Europe. 

The foreign exportation from the city of Rio de Janeiro for the year 
1864— 1865 was , white sugar, 116,092 arrobas , official value 564:475jif 
average price, 4^862 per arroba: brown sugar, 167,085 arrobas 
official value 40;225j$l; average price , 2^694 per arroba. 

1M9 Ciaeomo Berrlnl. (aty. ) 

Chocolate, per libra #800 

Chocolate, vanilla, per libra 4^00 

Chocolate, cinnamon, per libra ;(^800 

Chocolate, homoeopathic, per libra ;^00 

Chocolate, moss, per libra. . #800 

— 179 — 

iSM douthlere & Wagner. (City.) 

Abacachi in conserve. 
Ananas in conserve. 

iSftO Imperial Fazenda de Santa Cruz. (City. ) 
Green tea. 

iS60 Flumlnense Imperial Institute of Asrl- 
eulture. (City.) 
Conserves of diflferent qualities. 

Vinegar of aromatic seeds. 
Vinegar of herbs. 
Vinegar of sugar-cane. 
Vinegar of american grape. 

iSlli Joao de Almeida Perelra Flllto. 

Refined light brown sugar. 

tSttt Joao Bernardo Wosuelra da SUva. 

Tea Paquequer, per libra 2»000 

Black tea, per libra 2»400 

Green tea, per libra 2»000 

tSttS JoBo Henrique Habliert. (City. ) 

Red vinegar, per pipe 40# 

White vinegar, per pipe 40# 

iSII4 Joao Jos^ Carneiro da Sllva. 

Light brown sugar, refined. 

tSOS floao 91 aria da Fonseea lUarlnlio & Brother. 

Refined white sugar. 
Coarse white sugar. 

iS6e Joaqulm Antonio de Carirallto A^ra. (Nic- 

Cashew vinegar. 

tS6V Joaqulm €>omes Jardlm. 

Ground-dried coffee, arroba 7#500 

Washed coffee, arroba 8»500 

tS69 Joaqulm Mariano de Azevedo Soares. 

Washed coffee prepared, arroba. . . 7* a 9#000 

Husked coffee, arroba 7»000 

Washed coffee, arroba 7» a 9»000 

tSSO Joaqulin Marlniio de Quelroz. 

Shelled coffee. 

Husked coffee. 

Coffee in the husk dried. 


— 180 T- 
The following samples accompany there oaffees. 

Powder of coffee. 
Earth of coffee. 
Coal of coffee* 

iSVO Joaquliii Pelxoto da Foiaseca. 

Shelled coffee, cleansed. 

iSVi Jo0^ Caetano Cariielro da Sllva. 

Refined brown sugar. 

iSVt Jo0^ Ildefoii0o de Souza Rniuos. (Fazenda das 
Tres Barras. ) 
Coffee in the husk, dried. 
Pulped coffee (unbusneshed). 
Pulped coffee. 
Stone-dried coffee. 

The cojffee-plant grows in nearly all parts of Brazil, as the me- 
dium temperature, of At least 20» centigrades, which it requires, is 
found throughout nearly all the empire. It prospers even in places 
fexposed to the cold, and appears to vegetate with more vigor ; but 
the fruit is not so abundant, nor has it the precocity and regularity 
necessary to render the crops advantiLgeous. 

If the cultivation of the coifee-plant is not yet general throughout 
IhiB country, it is on account of the want of laborers and of the means 
of conveyance. 

The seeds employed in Brazil are of good qualities, and many of 
the planters think that in this respect, they are in no way behind 
other countries which produce this article. 

In fact, as far as we know, no scientific experiment has ever yet 
recognized in the Moka coffee, (the most celebrated), intrinsic qua- 
lities or chemical properties, which render it superior to other coffees, 
and this question now is reduced only to the method of preparing 
it, or to other circonstances, foreign to the nature of the seeds. 

We are fain to confess that man/ of our planters, for a long time, 
paid but 'little attention to the perfecting of their products. But this 
defect, which was not general, was owing, principally, to the fact that 
they were not stimulated to that attention, but any difiference In the 
prices which their coffee produced Uiem. 

At present, however there is more desire for perfection ; proper 
terraces for drying the coffee are prepared ; and different improved 
machines are employed in the other preparations of it. 

That which above all has contributed to depreciate the coffee of 
Brazil, in foreign markets, is the custom of selling our best coffees 
as coming from other countries, and of r^erving the name of Bra* 
zilian coffees, for those of an inferior quality. 

- 181 - 

Hiere has appeared, in Bio de Janeiro, a sample of artifidsd coffee, 
made of flour, and imitating, with remarkable perfection, a good 
quality of Brazilian coffee. It certainly was not fabricated in Brazil, 
where the workmanship would have far exceeded in expense, that of 
real coffee. 

Experience shows that the varieties designated as Moka, Java and 
others, tend to become confounded with th Brazilian coffee, and that, 
in a short time the fruit of trees broaght from other countries and 
planted in this soil does not present the least difference from the 
native coffee. 

According to the testimony of all those who made the experiment, 
this was what happened, when the Government, in 1867, had some 
coffee-plants brought from the Isle de laEeunion. 

The coffee-found in the Brazilian markets and which has the ovoid 
form of the Moka coffee, is derived from the older Brazilian coffee- 
trees, and also from the higher branches of the young cdffee- trees, 
which are found more exposed to the solar rays. These grains are 
separated from the others, afterwards, by means of bolters. 

The same phenomenon has been observed in the Island of Marti- 
nique, where the Admiral of Makau in 1818 introduced the Moka 
coffee, and at the end of a few years, this coffee differed iu nothing 
from that always cultivated ou the island. These facts call for atten- 
tion and study. 

The gathering and the preparation of coffee do not require any 
hard work, and they may be done by women and children ; but they 
require much attention and care, 

The flowering, and the fractification which follows it, taking place 
twice, that is towards the ends of September and October, it is 
therefore necessary that there be two gatherings. 

It is absolutely necessary, during the dryng, that the coffee shouM 
never come in contact with the earth, as this would seriously da- 
mage its quality. And consequently, on large plantations, it is indis^ 
pensable to have terraces paved with stone, or some other material 
analogous. On small plantations, they use platforms of bamboos, or 
•taquarussus, a plant which abounds almost every where in Brazi'l. 

As the above-mentioned terraces are very expensive, coffee-pulping 
Biachines are to be preHerred, as extensive 'terraees wiU then be un- 
-aecessary. However those machines are net without <th€$ir ex- 
pense, especially on account of the water arrangements required to 
be put up, to work them. 

In the future, when the general system of our agriculture shall be 
ihe intelligent, economical and industrial, which is based on the re- 
gular division of labor, on the better improvement of time, of hands 

— 188 — 

*nd of capital, the small planters will sell to the larger ones their 
crops, and thus double their produce, contribute to their mutual 
profit, and to the general increase of the public wealth and pros- 

The coffee being dried, then follows its cleaning, ventilation and 
burnishing. For these and like purposes, the improved machines, 
used by some, have no particular superiority. The use of them is 
merely a question of the saving of time and labour. It is rather an 
economical than an industrial question, once that there is every care 
taken in the application of the method which may by preferred. 
Nothing can be more simple and primitive than the apparatus used 
by the people whose coffee is most preferred in the European mar- 

The official value of all the coffee exported from the Empire du- 
ring the year 1864—1865 amounted to 64.144:555/il. The consumption 
within the Empire is calculated to be one fifth of the total product. 

It is the principal article of cultivation in the provinces of Rio de 
Janeiro, Minas-Geraes and S. Paulo, where greater fortunes have 
been made than ever were derived from the richest diamand or gold- 
mines. The two first-named provinces and a part of the latter ex- 
ported, in the said year, 8,791,247 arrobas, worth 53,225:452^470; and 
the other part of the latter exported, through the custom-house of 
Santos 1,672,486 arrobas, worth 9,002:l45|i(516. The price of the coffee 
during that, and the four preceding years, averaged 5S por arroba. 

The cultivation of coffee is not only the present principal source 
of our wealth, is more than that; it is a pledge of the future of a 
great nation, on account of the abundant recompense it gives for the 
^abor required in it. 

In a area of 15,000 square fathoms, one can plant 11,720 coffee 
trees, at a distance from each other of 8 spans by 16, which is the 
best method, especially on small plantations ; and besidf^s, the grain 
most necessary to supply the domestic, establishment can be planted 
on the same grounds. 

Such a piece of land can be obtained from the Government for 15lil, 
payable in 5 years, with an intarest of 6 ©/a, or 900 rs. per y«ar, 
and, whoever wishes can buy it from private persons, in the vicinities 
of the D. Pedro 11 railroad, and of the Union and Industry car- 
riage-road, for 20 rs. per square fathom, making for the 15,000 fa- 
thoms, 300$, which, with an interest of 7 <>/o will produce an ex- 
pense of 21$ per year. 

Five robust laborers, or. a toiily of ten pessons oomprisiiig men 
and women of different ages, may take care of this plantation, and 
at the same time of the grain, vegetal)le, and aoim^ls reqjoired for 

— 183 — 

their susteDance. This coffee plantation, which commences to pro- 
duce at the end of three years ; in six, will be worth from 2 to 4 
thousand mil r^is, according as its situations is nearer to or farther 
from the market roads, and will produce from 600 to 1,200 arrobas, 
each a arroba worth, on the spot where it is raised, 8^, and in the 
market 5jSf, or upwards, in both cases. 

The method here indicated dispenses with the necessity of spare 
lands, which would be required by the system commonly adopted ; 
but even calculating on treble the land, there is no exaggeration in 
affirming that the well directed cultivation of coffee leaves a nett in- 
come of more than 500^ for each laborer. This facto has been de- 
monstrated and certified by the personal experience of all those who 
understand its cultivation. And if this were not the case, the great 
fortimes amassed by so many planters would be entirely inexpli- 

From the coffee seeds, oil may be extracted, and from the pulp- 
spirits; but in a country where the sugar-cane grows abuudantly, 
where there are so many seeds which contain much oil, it is not 
worth while, economically speaking, to make use any thing more 
of the coffee berry than its seed; and the shell which makes an ex- 
cellent manure. 

An infusion of the coffee fruit, fresh-gathered, is employed with 
efficacy in the cure of arthritic gout. From the leaves of the coffee, 
plant a species of tea can be made. 

iSVS Jom^ Pedro Dlas de Carvallto. (City. ) 
Husked coffee. 
Shelled coffee. 

i8V4 Jofie de 8ouza da MVv^ Bra^a. (City. ) 
Argent of water-melon seeds. 

iSVft Jo0^ TIeira Armando. 

White and light brown sugar. 

iS9tt Juliao BIbeIro de Castro. 

Brown sugar, refined. 

iSVV K^oii I^elden & Co. (City.) 
White vinegar. 
Red vinegar. 

iSVS liulz Boiitfaelo Iilndenibergr* (City.) 
Refined salt. 

iSV9 liUlz manoel de Asevedo Soares. 

Unshelled coffee, washed. 

— 184 — 

iSSO Ettlis dtt Ho^lita Miranda. 

Shelled coffee. 

iSSi l^aurlaiio BodHsuea Ae AiAdl>ade. 

Shelled coffee. 

ia»« nianoel Antonio Ayrofia. 

Pulped coffee, shelled* 
Pulped coffee, unshelled. 

lasa Manoel Carneiro da Sllira. 

Brown sugar, refined. 

iS»4 in aiioel Francisco de Ollxelra. 

Pulped coffee, unshelled. 

iaM Manuel iVepomuceno Baiptlsta Percira, 

Pulped and shelled coffee. 
Unveiled coffee, (murtha seed). 
Unshelled coffee, (round). 

iS96 Manoel da Uoelta l^eao. 

Coffee (green gilt), arroha 7»500 to . ... 8»00a 

iMY Mansell Carr« & Co. 

White loaf sugar, per arroha 6»800 

Powdered white sugar, per arroba 6^^000 

Powdered white sugar, per arroba 5»600 

Powdered white sugar, per arroha 5»200 

Brown sugar, per arroha 3#200 

laM Pedro Antonio Brazil, (Nitheroby.) 

White vinegar, per pipe 65#000 

Red vinegar, per pi^e . 65*000 

iS99 Pelxoto Brasa & Bro^ber. 

Coffee crSme, 
Orange cr6me. 
Anise crfime. 
Almond crfime. 
Rose cr6me. 
Anizette cr6me. 

laoo QuelroK & MenetBM. 

Dried sweetmeats, crystallized. 
Conserved natural, pme apples. 

taoi S& & riffuelredo. (S. Fidelis.) 
Powdered pepper (imitation of Cayenne)* 

tail* ¥lrsollno da Cosia dulnparaee. (MaDgaraUba^J 
Sugar-cane vinegar. 

— 185 — 


f S9S Ba^ones de SaMt'Anna. 

Pulped coffee, unshelled. 
Shelled coffee. 

Ground-dried coffee, plantation of 2 years in cultivation 
Ground-dried coffee, plantation of 4 years in cultivation 
Ground-dried coffee, plantation of 8 years in cultivation 
Ground-dried coffee, plantation of 16 years in cultivation 
Ground-dried coffee, plantation of 20 years in cultivation 
Ground-dried coffee, plantation of 30 years in cultivation 

iS94 Iflanoel Teixeira de Souza. 

Uchim tea. 
Aljofar tea. 
Pearl tea, 


fS9ft manoel de Aisular Vallinl. 

Moka coffee. 

Jav«, coffee. 


Mfl« A.B&f<»iklo domes Tidal. 

Quince syrup. 

iS9V FIrniliio Jos^ dos Santos lilmat 

Mmtte in leaf. 

iM^ #oa«iitMi Seirero Correla* 

W hite sugar. 

i«90 JO!^ CAiidldo da «llva Muriel • (Coritiba.) 
Cordial of quinces. 
Matte cordial. 

1480 JFos^ ^4iCiq[aliMi freteeira JRaittoia. (D.) 
Quince syrup. 

14101 l;aura Hiarla do iviifieliiiento lloi«es. 

Bees' honey, prepared for sweetmeats. 

140t tsanoei Jo«^ da Cunha BltUnneiottpt. 

Green tela. 

140ft — lde«ii. 

Po^JwSrered matte. 
Leaf matte. 

1404 Hftwrlo Mtqiielliia de fBomies. (D.) 
-Green tea. 
!Bita(4c tea. 

The culture of the tea platkt is begm&ing to be developed and ;giy«s 
{good hopes for libe future, on account of Its good q *> ality and abun~ 

- 186 - 

dant growth. The value of this article and the small space in which 
a great quantity can be packed up and made ready for the market, 
and its facility of transport, and light freights, are advantages not 
to be overlooked. 

The leaves of the tea-plant are classified as adstringents and aro- 
matics, for they contain the same principles as the coffee and the 
guarana : its adstringent qusUities are owing to the great quantity of 
caffeine that exists in its composition. The tea prepared in the prov- 
inces of Brazil has not yet been exported, it is used only at home. 

The Paquequer tea is well known, and is appreciated for its qual- 
ities and fine preparation. 

t40S Vicente Ferreira da I<uz« 

Matte, southern style. 
Powdered matte. 
Leaf matte. 
Fine herva matte. 
Herva matte missioneira. 

The matte, or rather the herva-matte, is a favorite drink with 
many of the inhabitants of South America. 

The matte tree is no more than a bush of the family of the 
aquifolaceas, of the order of the white thorn [houx], this specie be- 
ing the ilex mate, or more generally known as the ilex paraguay- 

This bush grows wild in the woods of Rio Grande of the South, 
and Parana, preferring the low damp grounds. It would be well if 
this plant were cultivated, as then it is better in quality, grows 
better, and even becomes a shady tree, much larger than when 
wild in the woods. 

Two varieties of matte are generally known, one called the mild 
herva or caamihi, the other, herva de palos or caau&na. The former 
is the most appreciated : the latter is not liked so well on account 
of its extremely bitter taste, but repeated experiments have shown 
that when this plant is cultivated it loses much of its bitterness » 
and becomes tolerable. 

The matte contains tonic and diuretic properties, and is useful in 
intermitten fevers, on account of its bitter principle; and as it is 
very diuretic, it certainly ought to be a usefol preservative from 

It has the same immediate principled as teft and coffee, and a 
certain weight of matte will contain as much of these principles as 
the same weight of the leaves of the tea*plant, and more than is 
found in an ^qual weight of coffee-seeds. 

In the provinces of the South of the Empire, and in the repabli<^ 

— 187 — 

of Spanish origen, they do not make use of the matte in the same 
way as the tea is commonly taken. They pour boiling water into 
a little gourd or calabash, which contains the matte already mixed 
with the necessary quantity of sugar, and this solution they ab- 
sorbe through a kind of curved smoking pipe having the head fuU 
of small holes, to impede the ingress of the dust or grounds ; in 
this manner the drink acquires a peculiar flavour. 

In the other provinces of Brasil it is used, powdered or in leaves, 
and prepared and taken like tea. 

This article is only exported to the republics of South America. 

Moe Tictorlno A Ives dom Santos. 

Vine leaf vinegar. 


MOV R. J, Paschann. 

White sug*ar. 

1409 Carlos Otto Seltla|>all« 

Powdered matte. » 

1400 Olrectlon of the Colony Blumeneau. 

Shelled coffee, 8# per arroba. 

MiO — Idem. 

White sugar. 
Brown sugar. 

Mil Joao Pinto da liUS* 

White vinegar. 
Red vinegar. 

1419 florupe Triieter. 

Leaf matte. 

141S Tedesehlni. 

Powdered matte. 


1414 Carlos Bass and Frederleo C^uUiternie Bar* 

Powdered matte. 

14M ClirlsttoCrel (Frederleo). 
Cordial, bitter extract. {Boomkamp of Magbiiter.) 

14ie Dutra Talen^a & Co. 

Powdered matte. 

141V c;ullfcerme dtrlsttofTel. 

White vinegar. * 

Red vinegar. 

- 188- 

Powdered matte. 

Coffee of the acems of the European oak , accompa- 
nied by the same fruit. 

The acorns here mentioned are from two oak trees, the seeds of 
which came from Europe 14 years a^, jand were then planted in 
one of the subwrbs of the «ity of & Leopoldo. These trees are now 
of from 2"" ,64 to 2">,86 in height to their first ramification, and 
I'^fl to 1^,32 in their greatest circumference. In the countries of 
these trees are natives such development is attained only In the 
course of 40 or 50 years. 

The oak gives several productions known to industry and which 
are in continual use in Europe. Besides the wood, there considered 
the best, the bark, upon which the gall-nut growns, is among those 
that contain most tannin, and the nut is still richer in this organic 
composition. The fruit, when green, is very good food to fatten 
swine on. 

The bark, ask well as the nut, is applied in European medidcie as 
adstringentfli, aad the coffee made from the fruit serves as a one 
for diarrhoea and other diseases. 

The above-mentioned trees produced in 1866 three alqueires of 
fruit, which were sold at 80 the alqueire. 

The ground coffee of oak acorns is sold in the S. Leopldo colony 
at 2^ a pound. 

i490 maitoel Pereira da Sllva UfeatalMi* 

Conserve of tomate. 

Mtl ^ Idem. 


MM niutlilas Mareos Vlelrat 

Powdered Matte. 


Fennemted liqaors* 


f 4«S Attton&o J<0«6 JUlM^tro. 

Anise brandy, 80» per pipe. 

i4t4 Provincial eomnilssilon. 

Mandioc brandy. 

14M David Jcaqtalm I<eal. (Melga^o.) 
Mandioc brandy. 

— 189 — 

14te Franelseo Bernardes da Mlva. (Ganiairfp6.) 

Sugar-cane brandy, 70» per pipe. 

i4l«7 Joao ^lartlna da tlllira ContinlAO. 

Cashew wine. 

i4t9. — Idem. 

Cashew alcool, 38 degrees. 

i4«0 Joao Torquato C&alvao ITlnhaea. 

Mandioc brandy. 

i4SO Joaquiiii Hoiiorio da Sllva Rabello (Santardm.) 

Orange wine, bottles, per dozen 6}^000 

Cashew fWine, bottles, per dozen ... . 8»000, bottles, per dozen 6*000 

Cashew wine achampanhado. 

The manufacture of wiaes is becoming general in the province, 
where there are already several notable manufactories, both in the 
capital and Santarem. 

t4Si. — Idem. 

Cashew brandy, 7»680 per dozen bottles. 

i48«.— Idem. 


f 4Sa Joe^ de Arau^o Radio Banlii. 

Gin brandy. 
Anise brandy. 
Grange brandy. 
Genipapo brandy. 

i4S4l Jose Cordeiro Pereira Hoittelro (Alemquen) 
Sugar-cane brandy, 800 rs. per flaggon 

i4Sft Jose Cutyehlo da Boeka I«eao« 

Sug*ar-cane brandy. 
Anise brandy. 

i4S6 Jo«i6 da Silva I<ette. 

Cacao brandy. 

f 418V JoM Ve«>liielm« do Mattoa. 

Cac&o brandy. 

f 4S9 JasCo Joo^ Clarela de nUranda. 

Genipapo brandy. 

Spirits are distilled only from the sugar-cane, except occasionally, 
when it is distilled by private persons from some fruits. How«v«r 
there abound in the province many wild and cultivated fruits from 
which great qu&ntlties of spirits might be made. 

— 190 — 

i4S9 liiilx de 1» Boque. 

Brandy of 22° Cart., 140* per pipe. 

M40 Mauoel Doininsos da Silva Rusiio (Barcareoa.) 
Sage brandy. 

i44i Paulo da Costa. 

Sug*ar-cane brandy 

i44t Pedro Honorato Corr^a de miranda (Vigia.) 
Genipapo brandy. 

1448 Pinto & Irmao (Santar^m.) 

Cashew wine, bottles, per dozen 12*000 

Cashew wine, bottles, per dozen 14*000 

Sugar-cane wine, bottles, per dozen. . . . 6*000 

1444. —Idem. 

Gin in bottles, per dozen 6*000 

Sugar-cane brandy, per flaggon 1*000 

Whisky, in bottles, per dozen 4* to. . . . 6*000 


i44ft A. ۥ de Ulendon^ BItteneoart & Maria B. 

de F. lileboa (D.) 
Sugar-cane brandy. 

i44e J. A. F. Blbelro (S. Luiz.) 
Cashew wine. 
Grange wine. 
Murici wine. 
Cupii wine. 

i44V J. J, T. IT. Belfort (S. Luiz.) 

Cashew wine. 

i449. — Idem (Rosario. ) 

Sugar-cane brandy. 
Genipapo brandy. 
Fig-tree brandy. 

1449 maiioel liopes llasalHaes (Vianna.) 
Cashew brandy. 

Whild cashew-tree brandy. 

i4ftO Mareos Aurello doa Bels (Alcantara.) 
Wine of pine apple. 
Genipapo wine. 


144^1 Franelaeo liUls Carrelra. 

Cashew wine, bottles, 10* per dozen. 

This expositor, who is one of the first mamifiactarers, obtains 

— 191 - 

wine by the following process : The jaice of the cashew is set to 
ferment in vessel of wood or crockery, and after 8 to 10 days fer- 
mentationy it is poured into barr-els or pipes, putting first in each 
barrel of a 5th, three gallons of spirits of 35* of the same cashew 
wine, and three ditto of syrup of refined sugar. After two months 
the liquid is transferred into other vessels, adding to it, one gallon 
more of the said spirits. This is again repeated at the end of two 
months more, and then the liquid is clarified with fish-maw, which 
is dissolved in cashew wine, and of which solution one bottle is 
put into each barrel, with also one pound of prunes. At the end of 
three months more the wine is clarified again, with the white of 
eggs, and 30 days ifrom then it is well bottled. 

This manufacturer sells much of this wine, for this and other 
provinces, at 10|K800 per dozen bottles. 

i4M. —Idem. « 

Orange brandy, bottles, S^ per dozen. 
Cashew brandy. 

i4SS Jeroiiynio H. de Abreu. 

Sugar-cane brandy. 

1454 Jose Cabralde IlleUo. 

Sugar-cane brandy. 

14M Joa^ Franelseo da Sllira Albaiio- 

Cashew wine. 

14ftS IHamede. 

Cashew wine. 


i4M Joao Jofi^ Salaontt, 

Pine apple wine. 

1449 manoel HTunea Boufao. 

Cashew wine. 


i4S9 Vrbaito Esydlo da Sllva Coata. 

Cashew wine. 

i4«0 Ewarlsto Sablno de Ollveira e aiello. 

Sugar-cane brandy. 


i4ei Coriolano Telleao da Stlirelra. 

Coflfee brandy. 

— 192 - . 

i4lttf Joafiulm de Ulellli €&u. 

Alcohol, of 30% Canada 2». 
Hloney brandy, Canada 1». 

146^ J. Perreira fSonies. 

Cashew wine. 

I4«4 Jairenclo Plres Valeau. 

Cashew wine. ^ 

This expositor is manufacturing, and always trying to improve, 
this wine for the last twelve years. It is made of the juice of the 
fruit of the cashew, with sugar, and adding a little spirits of a 
superior quality, distilled from sugar cane. It may also be fer- 
mented as the grape wine. 

Among the samples on exhibition are wines made in 1868 and 
in 1865. The manufacture of this wine is becoming very general 
throughout the province, and costs about 1$ per bottle. 

The expositor attributes to it medicinal properties ; besides facili- 
tating digestion, it is anti-febril, and is applied with advantage in 
intermittent fevers, in cases of obstruction of the spleen, and in 
chronic splenitis. 

1465 manoel Ularqiies de OUvetra & C. 

Alcohol, of 38% Canada 2*400. 

1466. — Idem. 

Vermuth, Canada 8*. 
Orange gin, Canada 2#. 


1467 A«rlplii6 CfuUherine da 611 ¥a. 

Brandy of camboim, 240 rs. per bottle. 
Brandy of sug-ar-cane syrup. 
Sugar-cane brandy. 

1466 Haiioel Moreira de 6ouKa Maelelra* 

Sugar-cane brandy 

1469 Poniplllo da Fraiifa Amaral (Estanda.) 

Sugar-cane brandy, of 28° Cart. 

An important manufactory of spirits and cordials is established on 
the left banjt of the river Piauhytinga. There they employ tl|a 
urucfi, the cochineal, and the peppermint as coloring materials in 
the preparation of cordials. 


1470 Azevedo & ۥ 

Alcohol of 40° Cart. 

— 193 — 

Portugiiese spirits of 26° Cart. 
Whisky of 21'^ Cart. 

f47f Joao Cezlinbra. 

Molasses brandy. 

i49«. — Idem. 

Brandy, of 22° Cart. 

i49S Jofi^ Joaqiiiiii Pereira de Castro. 

Alcohol, of 36°. 

Brandy, imitation of wine. 

14V4. — Idem. 


i49S niaiioel Jos^ de Teive e Argollo* 



1476 Antonio Joa<i|iiim Soares Ribeiro (Maricl) 
Sugar-cane brandy, of 22 1/2° Cart., 80» to 100;{^ per 

i4VV Antonio Jose €>onies Pereli*a Bafntos. (City.) 

149S Antonio RIbeIro de Castro* (Campos.) 
Sugar-cane brandy. 
Brandy of pitanga. 

1479 Couilnho Vlanna & Boslsio. (City.) 

Wine of pine apple, bottles, 18;|> per dozen. 
Cashew wine, bottles 18;i^ per dozen. 

14»0. — Idem. (City.) 
Spirits, (Paraly) retified of 20° Cart. , per measure. ;(>800 
Orangeat, superior and retified of 18 and 20° 

Cart., in bottles, per dozen 6;^000 

Rum , of 22° Cart., imitation of Jamaica, in 

bottles, per dozen 8^000 

Old brandy, of 22° Cart., in bottles, per dozen. 10^000 
Orange brandy, of 22° Cart., in bottles, per dozen. 8|^000 
Kirschwasser, of 22° Cart., in bottles, per dozen. 12S000 
Green absinthe, of 27° Cart., in bottles, per 

dozen 15*000 

Ardent spirits of aniz, superior retified, of 19° 

Cart., in bottles, per dozen ...... 6;>000 

Rhenish brandy. 

14§1. — Idem. (Nictberoy.) 
Gin; imitation of holland in flasks, per dozen. 4^200 

c. I. 13 


i4M Coiitlnho Vlanna & BoaIsIo. (Niciheroy.) 
Alcohol, of 40« Cart. 
Spirits of wine 2» per measure. 

i49S Fernando DIas Paes I<ente & Pedro Dla« 
C&ordllho Pae0 l^enie* 


1494. — Ident. 

Sugar-cane brandy, 90<> per pipe. 

i4M Fraaelseo Innoeenelo I<e«aa. (Gantagallo.) 
Sugar-cane wine. 
Sweet grape wine. 

1496 Franelneo iTIazaini. (Nictheroy.) 

Green absinthe in bottles, 16» per dozen. 
1491. — idem. 




1499. — idem. (Nictheroy.) 

Orangeat (spirits) in bottles, per dozen . . . 5W0 

Rum, in bottles, per dozen 10^000 

14911 Coutlilere & Warner. (City.) 

Wine, (imitation of champagne), in bottles, 

per dozen 6»000 

141IO. — idem. (City.) 

Cashew juizes. 

Pine apple juices. 

1491 Fluinlnense imperial laisiltute of Asrlenl. 
tare. (City. ) • 

Anize cordial. 
Cinnamon cordial. 

Mango cordial. • 

Diospiro cordial. 
Terminalia cordial. 
Black plum cordial. 
Jambo cordial. 
Murici cordial. 
Caj& cordial. 
Jaboticaba cordial. 
Vanilla cordial. 
Sugar-cane cordial. 

149t. — Idem. (City.) 
Sugar-cane brandy. 
Aipim brandy 
Coffee-husk brandy. 

- ig5- 

i41IS Soho SoM^ JVunes de Carvalho. 


1494 Joao Marlfi da Fosiseca jllarlnho & Irinao. 

Sugar-cane brandy. 

1495 Joaqalm Antonio de Carvollio Asm. (Nict 
Orange wine. 

1496 JOae Antonio C&ontos. (City. ) 
Barley wine, bottles, 4# per dozen. 

1499 Jofl^ ililefonso de Scuza Romos. 

Brandy of 25« and 30". 

1499 Som4 Bodrlsues Tllloreri. (aty.) 
Cognac, imitation of Jamaica. 

1499 I^^on Iieldou & €. (City.) 

The brewing of beer is progressing in all the province of Rio de 
Janeiro. In Petropolis there are four breweries, and in the city 
eight, the productions of which have considerably diminished the 
importation from abroad, but it must be observed that all employ 
only foreign ingredients, from the hops to the barley. 

iftOO Mauoei Olas da Cruz. 

Ripe wine 1st quality, bottles, per dozen . . 16»000 
Ripe wine 2d quality, bottles, per dozen. . . 14#000 

il^at MauMll Carr^ & €. (City.) 
Alcohol, of 36^ 

il^09 Pedro Antonio Brazil. 


il^as. — Idem. (Nictheroy.) 
Orange brandy, 1» per measure. 

11^04. — Idem. (City.) 
Spirits of wine 

Mlll^ Fedro Maehado da Oama. (City.) 
Sugar-cane brandy, 80» per pipe. 

M09 PelsLOto Brasa & Irmao. (City.) 
Anize brandy, bottles, 3# per dozen. 

umf Tlrsollno da €o»ta C&almaraes. (Mangaratiba.) 
Orange wine. 

MO^ Idem. (Mangaratiba.) 
Spirits (imitation of the Portugese). 

Altona gin. 

— 196 — 


IftfMI Ijifiiacio Jose de Araujo. 

Orange wine. 

Grape wine (Imperial). 

Grape wine (National). 

IMO Jose Aiitoulo da saliva Braica- 

Grape wine. 


151C Anaeleto DIas Baptista. 

Brandy of rnatte. 

I«l«. — Idem. 

Orange wine. 

l«ia nitiioel Intonio Ferreira aiul J, Seveeo 

Canninha (spirits). 

1414 iVkaiioel Jose de Soiiza. 

Sugar-cane brandy. 

151* Vietorino Alires do.^ Santos. 

Gin, flask 1^. 


1416 Barao «ehllei^bour«|^. (Brusque Colony. ) 
Sugar-cane brandy, of 2h Cart. 

1519 Estanlslsio Antonio da Coneeieao & Sons 

(Desterro. ) 

Catharinense coflfee brandy. 


1519 Benno Onoss. 

Spirits, of 75°. 

1519 Jneob Datseli. 

Lime brandy. 

Brandy of sugar-cane bagasse. 

Orange brandy. 

Wine brandy, 1^ per bottle. 

l5tO Joaqulm Jojie Verelra Penua. 

Orange wine brandy. 
Peach brandy. 
Quince brandy. 

— 197 — 

iMl JoM Perelra da Sllira Pelxotii. (Pelotas.) 
Orange wine. 

IMt Sebastlao Ruschel. 

Peach brandy. 




Material and methods of teaehln^ children. 


IMS Imperial Instltate of blind ehlldren. 

Printed frames. 

^» .. r -#\.- J ■; . ., 











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