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COSTUMES— Middle Ages! 

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New Werner Twentieth Century Edition 










TIN Aral nnstr-tanr voloMtt ol Om N*ir Wcnwr EdMoa eonuln thlny-ene m* uA laMr araclu, wrltMa 
by AaVtcu aaaian, npladnc artklaa «■ almllar lubJacU wrlttn by dlffamt 
■nUMn loc llM or1|lBai nlntt Encllih (Fmico) Edfttao 

New American Supplement 







■ ESQ. 






Encyclopsedia Britannica. 


Vol. III. (ATH— BOI). 

ToUl number of Article*, gBo. > 


ATHENS. Rev. Edwakd L. Hicks, M.A., Fellow of Corpus Christl College, Oxford. 

ATHLETIC SPORTS. H. F. Wilkinbom, one of the Editor* of " The Field." 

ATLANTIC. William B. Carpmtkr, M,D., C.B., LL.D., F.R.S. 

ATMOSPHERE. Albx. Buchak, Secretary of the Meteorologicml Societj of Scotland. 

ATOM. J. Clbrk Maxwell, D.C.L., F.R.S., late Profesior of Experimental Phfaici, UnWeisltj of 


ATTICA. Rev. Hknky F. Tozkr, M.A., F.R.G.S., Author of "Geographj of Greece." 

ATTRACTION, Prof. G. Clerk Maxwkll. 

AUGUSTAN HISTORY. Richako Garkett, LL.D. 

AUGUSTINE. Very Rev. Principal Tulloch. 

AUGUSTUS. Very Rev. Charleb Merivalb, D.C.L., D.D., Dealt of Ely. 


AUSTRIA. David Kay, F.R.G.S. 

AXIOM. G. Croom Robertson, Profeiaor of Logic, Unlvenity College, London. 

BABYLONIA. Rev. A. H. Saycb, M.A., Deputy Profeuor of Comparative Philology, Univerilty of Oxford. 

BACON. Robert Adahson, M.A., Professor of Political Economy, Owens College, Manchester. 

BAGHDAD. Major-General Sir Hbnrv C. Rawlinbok, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S. 

BAKING. James Paton, Corporation Galleriee of Art, Glasgow. 

BALANCE. William Dittuar, F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry, Anderson's College, Glasgow. 

BALANCE OF POWER. Hbnry Rbbvb, C.B., RegisI ar of H. M. Privy Council. 

BALLADS. Andrew Lahq, Author of " Helen ot Troy." 

BALLOT. W. C. Shitk, LL.B., Advocatb 

BALTIC. Dr. Carfrmtrr, C.B. 

BANKING. LsoMARS H. Courtney, M.P. 

BANKRUPTCY. Edmund Robkrtson, LL.D., M.P., Professor of Roman Ltw, Univvnity Colleg«t 

London; (American Law) J. Lowell. 
BAPTISM. Prof. T. M.Lindsay, D.D. 
BAPTISTS. Rev. F. W. Gotch, LL.D. 

BARBADOS. J. L. Ohlbon, Secretary to West India Committee, London. 
BAROMETER. Alet. Bvckan, F.R.S.E. 

BARRACKS. Col. Chas. B. Ewart, C.B., Deputy Director of Works for Barrack*. 
BASILICA. Rer. Canon Vinablbi. 

BATHS. Dr. John Macpherbok, Author of " Baths and Wells of Europe." 
BATTLE. Col. Chbbnby, R.E. 

BEARD. John Dorah, Ph.D., late Editor of " Notes and Queries." 
BEAUMONT and FLETCHER. Algernon Charlrb Swinburne. 
BECHWANA. Rev. Dr. Moffat. 

BEE. John Hunter, late Hon. Secrctarr British Bee-Keeper's Association. 
BEETHOVEN. F. Hurffbr, Author of ■• Wagner and the Music of the Future." 
BELGIUM. David Kay, F.R.G.S. 

BELL. Rev. H. R. Haweib, M. A., Author of " Music and Morals." 
BELLINI. Prof, Sidkry Colvin, Unlvenily of Cambridge. 
BELLOWS. A. B. MacDowall, London. 

BENGAL Hon. W. W. Huntbr, LL.D., Director- General of Statistics to the Government of India. 
BENTHAM. T. E. Holland, M.A., B.C.L., Cbicheic Professor of International Law, Oxford. 
BENTLEY. Rev. Mark Pattison, late Rector of Lincoln College, Oxford. 
BERKELEY. Prof. Robert Adamson, Owens College, Manchester. 
BERLIN. Rev. G. P. Da vies. 
BEZIQIJE. HbAry Tones <" Cavendish "). 
BIBLE. Professor W. Robertson Smith, LL.D. 
BIBLIOGRAPHY. E. Fairfax Taylor. 
BILLIARDS. G. F, Pardon (" Capt. Crawley "). 
BIOLOGY. Prof. Huxley and W. T. Thistleton Dyer, F.R.S. 

BIRDS. Prof. W. K. Parker, Royal College of Surgeons, London; and Prof. Alfred Newton. 
BIRMINGHAM. J. T. Bunce, Editor " Birmingham Daily Post." 
BISHOP. Sir Traverb Twiss, Q^C. 

BISMUTH. H. Baubrman, Fellow of the Geological Society.' 
BLACK SEA. Dr. Carpenter, C.B. 
BLEACHING. Jamx* Paton. 
BLIND. F. J. Campbbll, Royal Normal College for the Blind. 



VOLUMff in. 

Athoa, Bketob M*p ot U 

Atlantic Ocwn (6 Descriptive Sectioaa) 81-24 

Atmoiphera (2 Ghuts) 81 

Attica, Groeca, Sketch of 61 

Ai^biirgi GeFmany, Sketoh Plan of 88 

Anrora Poluia, Diagram of. 86 

^UBtrali*. Sketch Hap of M 

,AaatriB, Sketch Map of 100 

-ATabory, England, Flan of 126 

-Avignon, Sketoh Plan of 186 

',Aiorefl, The, or Western Islands W7 

'Baalbec, Syria, Ground-Plan of Great Temple at 164 

^Backgammon Board 171 

Aaden, Germanr, the Grand Duchy of. Sketch 

Map of 198 

Baden-Baden, Germany, Oround-Plan of 196 

Badminton, Diagram Illuitrating the Game of 197 

Baghdad, Asia, Ground-Flan of SCO 

Bahama Islands, Sketch Map of 2H 

Baking (7 Descriptive Cuts) 217-232 

Balance (9 Diagrams) 226-280 

Balearic Islands, Sketch Map of the 289 

Baltic Sea, Sketch Map of the 268 

Baltimore, Maryland, DesoriptiTe Qroimd- 

Flan of 287 

Baluchistan, Asia, Sketch Map of 287 

Banbury, England, Arms of 266 

Barbados, Sketch Hap of 800 

Barcelona, Groond-Plan of 316 

Bamitaple, England, Arms of S2S 

Barometer (6 Descriptive Outs) 329-881 

Barometrical Heaiurements of Heights SS2 

Baseball. Diagram niustrating the Game of. . . . B60 

Basel,. thrttnri«ii,.Flao of W ' 

BaBiliw» (19 Be— »Cw Cut*) HMtt ; 

BiiiilMmliihii, Fim^if. i1iHw iif 8« : 

Bath, Btaghiodr CMv Jumm and Derfw rf 

BislH^c ^ K4,m 

Bath, Eni^hnd, HIraiifc Owkl-PJan of S74 

Baths (6 fieaoriptii* CMS) UMTS 

Bavaria, fficetoka^eC 390 i 

Bee and Bive (7CMB« 4S-431 

SeethovMM , 486 

Belfast, lMlknd,.SkrtiA]IvCir 143 

Belgium, -BkaU& Bbp of . 444 

Bellows (* Deseviptivv Ooti^ <r4-4T7 

Berlin, G«nnanT,]toseripliTC Flan of US 

Bern, S wi ftser lM J, Tiam at. 819 

Berwick, nigtan^,. Anns of 628 

Berwick-«po»-Tw«ei, EaglBDd.PUnoi B37 

Birds (4»I)eBertptn«Cotrt lOMK 

Bird of Fkraiise, Btandard inng OTB 

Birmin^Kn, Eng^nd, Arms of 67) 

Birmingkttn, Ei^Bd, Sketch Plan rf 671 

Bleaching (t7DeMrip«iT«Ciits> 7D6-TU 

Blowpip«(6I>eMT{ptiTe Outs) 717-730 

Bodmin. Bagland. Amu of 7S7 


Atlantto Ooean IW 

AnatraBa 8ft-8» 

Aostria-Hnngary 113-113 

BttJgal and Assam 488-489 



A THENS fASfnu, Atbxkm) wm the nune al m dukit 
I\ m nine towns in vuiom nrts of the Qredftn worta, 
vaaog which Atlimas Diaiet, m the N.W. of Eobces, a 
town beloneing to the Alheiuan confederalion, ia worthy of 
BMOtian. Bat it wm the capital of Attica which inTeetad 
(he OBine of Athens with an nnd^ing charm for the poet, 
the artist, the philoeopher, the hiatonan, for all time. It 
iscdloaled in long. 23* 44' £L, lat 37° CS' N- towards the 
soath of the centralplain (irid(<»')of Attica, about 4t miles 
from the harbor of FirMens, and nearly 4 frcau the Bay of 
Fhalerain. ^e smrey of I^usanias ji. 2-30). when com- 
pared with existing Ka<iaiD& and ■applementea by the nn- 
neroiB incidental nolicfs of andent anthora, enables ot to 
lam » mora perfect conception of the topography of ancient 
Atliene than of any other Oreeh city. Keceat excaTnUoria 
have added greatly to oar knowledge of it, and the lilero- 
bne of the aalgect is veiy exlengire (see p. 12, infra). Our 
olmet in this article will b« to treat of the topographv of 
AuienS' tma an historical point of new, and to sliow how 
the rise, the greatness, the oecline of the dty may be read 
in the history of its bmldings. 

There seems Sttle reason to donbt that the 

BtiUaM earlieet settlement on Athenian soil was npon the 

cliff afterward famous as Uie Acropolis. Such 

is the expreee statement of Thncydidn (ii. 16), 

who obtwvfs that the Acropolis was commonly 

hftanta appear 

d at Athens i wiXif, much as the oldest part of Lon- 
- ■ - — -. jn^^ earliot inhabftanU 
H> nave Doai reuBKuuni; and though it was the 
the Atheoians that they alone of all Greek etatea 
digtnooa ^aSrrixSovit^ yet their town would &tin] the fint 
hare reoeiTed aoceesiolu from various JMirte of the conti- 
nent, the peacefnl povertr of Attica aflbrding a welcome 
tefiige in those early ana Dnseltled times (Tnncyd., i. 2). 
The most acoenible portion of the Acropolis is the westein 
side, whtoe it is j<nDed by a neck of hill to the Areopsgoa. 
On this side there existed down to later times the remains 
of fortifleatioiis Iniilt br the earliest inhatnlante, with nine 
doorways, om within the other, called tA RtJtaayutiv, or ri 
'■wnffftAsi'. niis fort protected the only entrance to the 
dtadel, which waa aarronnded by a wall, and artificially 
lerelled for the reteption of buildings. Within this forti- 
Bed enclomre stood the shrine of Athena Poliui (Homer, 
mad, ii. 449; Oigneg, *ii. 8 l]i,— afterwards known as the 
Kechtheinm,— and an altar of Zens PolieuB, where the 
strange samiJlceB of the Dipolia were celebrated. A Pry- 
' ' ' g the hearth-Gre of the state, and serr- 
« of the king, would be another iudis- 
iebatura in the primitive town. But while the king 
amd tome of the moat aaered hmlliee probably had dweli- 
iap within tfaa fbrtress itadf, ThnCTdidea (IL 15) points oi 
Ihiit a great part of the early popnlatioii dwelt outside i 
wall^ inidv the eouth side of the clld^ probably withoi 
bctucadon, but retiring to thct citadel in times of peri . 
In this qusxler, towards the Ilissus, stood the oldest Athe> 

t^ of Oallinhoe, aftenrnds omimented hj the Pisistn^ 
tids, and called EaneaoninaB, the water of wlueh was soo^ 
for sacred pumDeee long after the city had outgrown these 
eatiy limits (ThocTd., ii. 15). The region we have been 
desciiUng foimed the nucleus of the liUer city, and there- 
fore, at the subdiTision of all Attica into demes, this quarter 
SB distinguished by Ae name 'Kviodfyiiauiv. 
To the west of the Acropolis there extends tmia N. to 
a range of hilk, the three most prominent hdghts of 
hich are commonly known respecttvdy as the Hill of th« 
Nymphs, the Pnyx, and the Hosdam,— the Nymphs Hill 
bong separated from the Acropolis by the Aret^agns, 
whidi intervenes between. Everywhere npon 
theslopeeof the hills jQBtmenticoied traces have ^^^Im^* 
lately been discovereu of ancient dwellings hewn 
oat of the solid rock. But while all these rock-dwellings 
are extremely ancieal, y^ some appear less primitjve thvi 
others; it is remarked that those which exist on the Are- 
sgos and oa the hill-aidei neaieat to the Acropolis are 
. . a smaller and roder type, Aose mora distant &om the 
dtadel bring somewhat more ooavenient in plan and ex- 
tent Legend declares the Alhenians to have originally , 
dwelt in rock-hewn cavee (Dyer's ASim*, ch. i.), and tt 
would seem that prinutive Athens gradually exten&d Itself 
from the Acropolis in \hia W. and S.W. direction. This 

Suarter was afterwards known as the intramnial deme of 
lelite, a name derived, perhaps, from the balm which then 
grew there (the <££% foSdraa of Theocr., U. 25).* The 
historian E. Cortias {AtHtdit StndUn, pt. i.) has, indeed, 
x^-dwelbass as earlier than 
lis itself Bnt the contrary 
opinioD of Thocydides is worth Bomethiog, and the natural 
strength of the Acropolis wonld make it the most obvious 
spot for primitive occupation. Accordingly, we shall not 
be giving too free a license to our imagination if we con- 
ceive of primitive Athens as a twofold settlement, partly on 
the Acropolis and the low ground at its southern foot, and 
partly npon the eaatam slopes of the hills on the west. It 
may even have been the consolidatioii of these two viUagea 
into one township that gave rise to the legend aseriU]^ to 
Theeeoa the Bwauuaiioc or consolidation of At- 
tica. It would be natural for leg^d to assign Ttuttaa 
to one definite time, and connect with one great JJHJ™*" 
mythical name, that procen of unification which 
probablv was as gradual ss it. was spontaneous. As ths 
population of the early town continued to Increase, two 
more distritM seem to have been incorporated — Collytus, 
extending tram the east of Metite, between the Aeropolia 
and Areopagus, and CerameicuB, or the " Potter^ quarter" 
("TnUeriea''), which extended fitim the same two hills to. 
wards the north and north-west. The regions we have now 
described appear to have made up the Athois of Solrauan 
times. The earliest historical event which illiBtntes Atha- 
nian topography is the rising of Cylon (HenML, v. 71 ; Thn> 
cyd^ i. iS ; Fansan., i. 28). The narratives of that event 

J early times. Not 

the stream, stood the temple of Zeui 

be SMinded by Deucalion (Papsan., i. 16), 

will be said presently, the prednct of Qkh 

kr of^ and 

(Mjmiiia, and other lacred places. 

imply ^at the Acropolis was already fortified by the En> 

Dscn'i 2mIw» M M( Oti^ranhi c/ Orttat,p.Wt: "The moat pliak- 
Ig dtrlvUloD thai bu b«D nneMed fi>r fha nine 'ASfm li Item 
Kthe roolori>*>t,> flower; lad Lobeek pnpoMd to traulale,!! 

br '/tnnm u t.' "-OMd, p. ISL) 


■tof a 

the oatrance of the dtadel gtood aa tilai of the 

Semiue, or Furies, at which Cylon tmd his par- 

tiMDS vie skin. This altar lu* been immor- 
taliied bj ^Xachyloa in the splendid condudcKi of the 
Bumenida, Another eaoied spot in earlf AtfaeoB miM 

r..^ 1..— have i>een the Leocorium, where Hipparchiu 

L««oriain. ^ .gBawinated (Thacr<C i. 20 ; tL cfPThis 
WIS a Bhrine erected in honor of the daughten of Leo, who 
were sacrifloed hj their &ther to Athena, in order to avert 
a pestilence. The natnre of the legend testifies to the an- 
tiquity' of the aite. The words of Thacydidea mpecting 
•^ , J Oylon imply that the early city was already 
J^'f'*"'' snrronnded by a ring-waU, and this probably 

remained intact until the invasion of the Per- 
sians, althoogh the bnildings within the walla underwent 
great alteration and improvem^its nnder the government 
of PiaiBtratus and his lona. 

The reijfn of ihe Pisiitratids 
^1^^ by the ancients as marking an important era in 

Athenian topography. We have already men- 
tioned the fountain of umeacrunua aa being baili b^ them. 
OlTmpfum. ^^ *" PiiistiatOB who laid the fonndations of 
• the great temple of Zeus Olympiug upon the 

anciait site above menliDned. Uis magnificent design had 
an eventfiil hialotyr left onfiniabed by ito author, the 
Athenians, perhaps from dislike to the "tyranl," made no 
efibri to compete IL At length, aA«T receiving additions 
iriona foreign princes, it wis completed bj Hadrian 
A.s,), and Mrmed the grandest emfice in the r^on 
of the dty which, in acknowledgment of the imperial 
"cence, was odled Hadrianopalis. The Olrmpium 
le of the largest templea in the world ; but of its 124 

Crainthian columoa only 16 are now standing. 

The iVlAuun, or sanctuary of the Pythian 
Apollo, near the Olympinm, was also ascribed to Pisis- 
traloB, whose grandson and namesake dedicated an altar 
within it (Thut^d., vi. 64). To PSnstratna was ascribed 
LTodum **" wnndiny of the Jjycenim, or temple of 

Apollo LycetUB, which stood on the right bank 
of the Disaus. a short distance from the dty. The names 
both of Fericlea and Lycui^ns the orator are alio aseod- 


ated with thisbuildi^g: fet It is 
Ue fei 

iw uuiiuA^i^ , jcb Ah tm inn> known who added the 
close by, which afterwards became ftmoos at 
le fevorite haunt of Aristotle, and Ihe birthplace of the 
Feripal^e philosophy. The vet mora bmons seat of the 
rival philosophy seems also to nave owed Mmething to Ihe 
Piaistiatids, for Hipparchna was said to have endosed the 
Attienj -^Boilanu with a wall. This wis a gymnasinm 

surrounded by pleasant gaidena lying to the N. 
of the dty, about a mile from the Dip^lum gate. It owes 
all its fame, <tf coune, to its connection with Plato, who 
lived, laagU, and was buried there. This sit& so fiiU of 
■jorioos memories, cannot now be identified with certain^. 
Its trees, like those of the Lyceitun, were deepoiled by 
fl„ AfOTs. SoUa to make implements of war. The name 

of PisistTatua Is cratneoted with another im- 
portant site. Proftasor E. Cnrtins {AUitAa ShuHeit, pt. 
3) snvpoaes that the moat and^it Athcaiian market lay on 
the & of the Acropolis, and that the Pi^stratids snpeneded 
it by a new market at the northern foot of the Areopagus. 
Be this al it may, we are sure that, aa early as their limes, 
this site formed the centre of Athenian oomtnercial and 
dvic life. The narrow valley between the Pnyi Hill and 
the Aieopagui, where older toposraphen placed the 
Agora, is not a spacious enough dte (or the purpose. The 
obvious localitj for an Agora would be the rectangult 

localiW for 
space endosed by the Xreopagua on the B., b^ the 
AcTO^lia on the E., and on the W. by the eminence 
oocnpied by the Theedum. To the N. and N.E. no barrier 
existed ; accordingly, the entrance was from the Dipylum 
gate on the N.W., and on the N.E. the market received 
exienmon in Boman times. The Agora thus aUmd in the 
region known as Ceramdcua. But as the Ceramdcua 
mded lor some miles in a N.W. directitKi, it became 
divided by the dtj wall into the onler and the 
''^^ Inner Cerameicus. Tiie outer CraamdcuB was 
m. an agreeable suburb, lying on the road to the 
Academy and Colonua, the home of Bophodee ; 
it was here Chat dtiiena who died in thdr count^s 
» rpcdved a public burial. Throogfa gate Mpylnm 
passed into the inner Cerameicus, the moat important 

r of thei^ 

How much this matket-place may have owed to the designs 
of the Plsisintids we cannot now detennina. Iht st' — 

grandson ai .. . _ . _ 

the Agora by building the altar of the twelve gods, 
the Agora belongs to the age of I^aistratna, some of the 
dvic bnildings within it would also be coeval with him. 
Such were the Stoa Baaileius, or Portico, where the aiduB 
basildus presided ; the Boulenterium, where the senate of 
600 hdd its utliiigs; the Tholus dose by it, where the 
Pmanes of the senate sacrificed — a circular building nth 
a dome of stone, from wh^ice it gained its name ; and Ihe 
Prytaneium, said to be founded by Theeous (Thncyd., IL 
16), which contained the hearth-fire (tf the stale, and when 
the Prytanee and pablic bene&dors had the privilege of 
dining at tfao public expense. The statues of the too bnoei 
(eponymi) who gave inur names to the Athenian tribes 
decorated the Agora probably from the flnt ; against thoa 
staOMB were affixed public notices sud prodamatitms. 
Other buildings in the Agora of later and Moertained dales 
w^l be enumerated in thdr proper place. 

The revolution which expelled the Fiaistrk- 
tida (610 B.CL), and gave Athws a free govem- ^Zlt 
ment, le& ils mark npon the lopogt^y of the ^^ 

dty. The old Pelaagic fortress ^riT'Evvciiirv^ov), 
in which " the tyrants" had for a time held ont, 
was now broken down, and the dte occupied by its ruiot 
was devoted by the Delphic orade to eternal dtsolatian. 
Only in the Peloponnedan war, when the country popula- 
tion was crowded within the dty walla, do we read oi thii 

CliMhenee is the first ariangemait of the'Pnyz, _, __ 
or place of public assemt^. The hiU that is *" ™^ 
ctHnmonly known aa the Pnyx ffill omtains we of the 
' 8 in Athenst the dlenca, however. 

The spot in question conaiats of 
sloping down tlie bill towards the Aieop^na, 
a 9.E. The upper terrace indeed, does not 

slope, but ia levelled out of tiie solid rock near the summit 

of the hill, being about 65 yards in length (K to W.), a 
about 43 m breadth at its broadest ^izi (N. to &). It 
is bounded at the back (8.) by a rock-wall, and at the W. 

end there stands a cubical block, allowed to rise oat of Ihs 
solid rock when this upper terrace was levded. There is 
good reason for considering this aa the altar for the laeri- 
fices {ri irifiloTia) with which every assembly of the ecol» 
da was opened (Buraisn PkHologut, 1354, p. SSO.fA; 
Dyet, Alhetu, p. 462). The lower and oonaida«bly larger 
terrace is separated from the upper terrace by anotnei toI 
cut out of the solid rock. Thia wall, whidi is nearly ^^ 
yards long, is not quite straight, but encroaches slightly 
upon the upper terrace, and forms at the oentra a veiy ob- 
tuse angle. At this point there rises, projecting from the 
wall, a large cubical maia, cut out of the solid iwk, resem- 
bling somewhat, though on alargerseal&thealtaidescribed 
above. Itisilsdf 11 feet square and 6 foet high, and stand* 
on a platform consisting of three very manive Steps. This 
remarkable monoment nia been Tecogniied by traditieii as 
(he ai<i>ji Tov iitltoadhitot, and almost every traveller sinos 
Chandler's time haa regarded it as no other than the &moaa 
bema of the andent Athenian nmnmhlj The rock-wall 
from which it projects forms the chord of a vast semidr- 
cular apace, the enclosure of lis arc being a wall of "Cyclo- 
pean" masonry. 'Die radius of the semidtde measuiis 
between 76 and 77 yards from this outer wall to the boma. 
Here, then, was the auditorium of the Pnyx, But aevenl 
difficultin beeet the identification. Towards the bottom of 
the lower bema Prof. K Curtius [AtUKkt Sttdim, pt- L) hM 
diaoovered another iiiinjlar though amall^ bema. Agaiih 
Pluiarch asserts that the bema which had originally need 
towarda the sea waa by the Thirtv Tyrants turned round 
Ihe other way. In thdr hatred of ma maritime democratT. 
Moreover, if the block of marble above mentioned be righlfr 
identified as die bema, tiien it wotiid have Ihe audil(^(>>» 
aloplng downwaids from it, an arrangemoit ill suited &' 
adarcHinK a tnmnituous popular aaeembly^ Dr. Curtiiii 
acoordingly pronounces the entire identification to be a mil- 

lake, md would reeud tliu t 

' ■■ of the Mort H„ _ 

» ftlloired, to diBprore Dr. Cortiiu^s dteor^. 
fVr more nuooable ia the view of Dr. Dver (AiimL App. 
liL). Ha ttuDb that the lower and ■mailer Mma discov- 
oed bj Dr. Curtiaa wai the bema of Clisthenea. which did 
{however much Plntarch's attttemeat ia diacredlted bj bis 
own afanud azplanatioD) face in the direction of the aea. 
llie orator would ihua speak &om the arc of the aemidrd^ 
baTins the audience abore him. The Thir^ maj well 
have oe&oed tie Fnjx, and it woold have been oataral fbr 
^irac^biilua after the aoarcbj to restore it on a laree scale, 
hewing out what ie atill known as the bema, ^viiig the semi- 
areolar wail a wider sweep, and nusing the tiers of eeata 
at least to a level with the new bema, if not above It. For 
thrae is no reason to sappaee (hat the sor&ce of the lower 
terrace haa undergone no change in the lapse of centnrica, 
or ttut the "Cyclopean" wall Burroanding it never ex- 
ceeded ita preaeut height 

A building of greater ardiitecUual import- 
2c thaam! '™' "^ "^ equal interest belongs to this same 
period. Dramatic performances at Athens orig- 
Inallj took place in woodeD theatres ertemporiied for the 
occasion : bnt the &11 of one of these led, in the jear 500 
K&, to the erection of the' marble theatre on a site already 
iiiiiwi lali'il to Dionvsns as the LeoKum. upon the B.E. 
slope of the Acropolis. (Saidas, t. v. Jlparlvoi,) We may 
be sore that the ntst stone theatre was comparatively sim- 
ple in conatmclion, consisting of a nolioi' or aaditorium, 
with tien of rock-hewn seals, and an ipx'M'^P^, or space 
lot the <^oras, while the stase itself and its fumituie were 
of wood. The exctvalion of the Dionyaiac theatre in 1862 
has nude every one ^miliar with the row of marble tbronea 
far the various priests and officers of staC^ the elaborate 
masonry of the stage, the orchestra floor, and other features. 
Bat these and other interesting decorations of the theatre 
belong to a later age. It was under the administrntioa of 
Lycnrgns the orator (S37 B.C.) that the building was first 
mdly completed ; and many of the sculptures which have 
been lately brought to light belong to a restoration of the 
theatre in the 2d, or perhaps even m the 3d, century .A. n.' 
Ekioiigh baa now been B)ud of the condition of Athens 
-. before the Persian War. It was surrounded by a 

I^{i|''** ring-wall of narrow drcnit, some doubtful traces 

of which are supposed to remiun. At its centre 
■taod the Acropolis, already crowded with temples and 

sanctuaries, some npon the summit, some built 
^!^ " at its foot, and otheia— like the famous ^tlo 

of Pan, on the N.W. slope — mere caves in its 
rodi? sides. 

The Peraian invauon, which forced the Athe- 
^baOa nians to take refnge in their "wooden walls," 
J^*" and to leave their city at the mercy of the bai>- 

barian, marked an important epoch in the annals 
irf Athenian bulldli^. Upon the retreat of Mardonin^ the 
Athenians letomed to Attica to find their titj virtually in 
mins. Its fbrtificationa and public buildings had been de- 

Sred or bunt, and the private dwellings had been wan- 
y defaced or ruined by neglect. Amid the entbasiasm 
cf hope which followed upon the great deliverance of 
Oreec^ a natural impulae led the AUteniona to rear their 
city more glorions m>m its ruins. Themisloclcs fanned 
their patriotism with the foresight of a statesman, and 
Athens rose again with marvellous rapidity. This haste, 
however, thou^ creditable to their patriotism, and^ indeed, 
neceeaary in order to forestall the jealous oppoeition of 
Sparta, was not without its evils. The bouses were rebuilt 
m their old utes, and the lines of the old streets, narrow 
and irregular as thev had been, were too readily followed. 
A nmilar haste marked the rebuilding of the city walls, a 
wuk in which men and women, old and young, took leal- 
ooB part, not acrupling to diamanlle any bnilding or monu- 
ment, private or public, which could supply materials fbr 
the bmldlng. But inrebuilding thewalls The- 
K(tnfldlD( mistoclee gave them a wider circuit, especially to- 
^'^ wards the N. and N.E. (Thucyd.. i. 90. 931. At 

e same time he determined 

•hether the "ILoiw balls'' formed a distinct portion of 
hia dedgns; but he may oertainly be regarded as the 

> Ite iMit soooudI jtA/irm of tba Dtoajilai) tbeatie 1* to be tband 
ta Di. I>7ai^ ncent won on Athani. 

founder of the greatness of Athena, (he woiIcb and «nbd' 
lishments carried out by Pericles being (xdy a fulfilment 
of the hr-sighted sinu of Themistodes. ^ncydides (ii. 
13} makes the drcoit of the dtj wall to be 43 atades (abont 

Smiles), ezduslve of the unguarded space between walls ; 
is ia found to oorrespond aocnrately enough with the ez- 
iating remains. In tracing the drcuit of the andent walls, 
we may take our start from the N.W. side of the dty, at the 
one giUe whose site is absolutely certain, the Thriasian gate 
(called also the Sacred gate, as opening upon the sacred 
way to Elecsia, and also rd MwXou, as consisting of two 
rales, perhaps one within the olherj, which is marked by 
the modem church of the Holy Tnnity, a little M. of the 
bottom of Hermes Street — a spot attractive to the modern 
tourist through the beautiful "street of tombs" here laid 
bare by recent excavationa. From the Thriasian gate the 
wall of Themistoclea ran due K fbr some distance ; thenoe, 
skirting the modem theatre, it ran N.E. parallel to the 
modem KiMeus Street as far as the Bank, when it retomed 
in a B.K direction across the ute of the present Mint, as 
far as the Chamber of Deputies. Thence towards the S.E, 
it iucluded nearly all the modem Boyal Gardena, and tbea 
ran 9. W., following the sig-zag of the hills above the north 
bank of the Iliaans, until westwards by a straight course 
rarallel with the Acropolis it reached the Musdum HIU. 
Thence it may be traced in a direction N.W. and N., fbl- 
lowing more or less the contour of the hills, until we retnm 
toourstarting-pointattheDipylnmgate. Eight ,,^^ 
other gates (ezduaive of wick^ mMJtt, which ™'™- 
must nave existed) are mentioned by andent anthon — 
the Pirean, Hippades, Helitidee, Itonian, Dlomeian, IKo. 
charis. Panoply and Achamian. Their exact sites oamtot 
be certainly fixed, but some of them may be determined 
within narrow limits, snch as the Pir«an gate, which led 
out of the Agora, and opened upon the long walls. Hav- 
ing completed the defences of the dty proper, among whie^ 
must be included the building of the north wall of the 
Acropolis (Dyer, p. 121 ), Themistodee proceeded to fortify 
the Fineens. 

Athens, like most of the old Qreek towns, was ^ 
built, for greater security, at a distanca from the „du!* 
coast, and only when more seltied times broogbt boUdln^ 
her greater prosperi^ was a harbor formea at 
the nearest bay of Phalerum, near the modem church of 
8L George. It is said that Themistocles would gladly have 
transported the Athenian popniaticm bodily frwn the upper 

Athens on the seaward side. The Isthmos of ^memL 
tboiigh somewhat more distant than Phalemm, presented 
obvious advantages as a seaport It formed on its north 
side the spadoue and sectare basin of Fineeus (now Port 
Drake), the north and south shores of Which towards the 
entiaoce fall back into two smaller bays — harbors within the 
harbor — known reapectivdy as the ku^ Ai^ and Kii^apof. 
The neck of the iathmus on the aonth ia formed by Fort Zea 
(now Phanari), the oitrance of which was aecuted by Pbre> 
atiy^ the headland of Munyohia. BoUnd to the east of the 
district of Hunydiia, again, and &cing Phalerum, was the 
harbor known andenUy as Munychia, and now as Port 
StratiotifcL Themistodee thus, in giving up Port Phalerun^ 
gave Athens three harbon instead of one. The fortifications 
of PirKens were conceived on a grand scale, and carried out 
with no sign of harry. The whole droutt of Fineeus and 
of the town of Munychia was endoeed alike mi the sea and 
land sides by walla of immense thickness and atiHigtli, 
which were carried up to a height of mwe than 60 k ' 

being only half the height intended by Themistodea t 
lee Grote, Hiit. Oraxx, o. iliv.) The laying out of the 

iport belonged rather to the regime of Perides 
(Qrote, 0. xlviL). It was then that Hippodamni^ the so- 
centric architect, planned the Agora which bore hia namej 
and the various public bnildinga which adomed Pirateaa 
doubUes arcee with growth of Athenian commerce, ^s 
harbor-basin was lined with porticoes, which served aa 
warehooaee and boaaaca. Two theatres existed in tb« 
town, and numerous temples. The local ddty was Ar^ 
temis Uunychia; bnt the large number of fordgnert 

r;:,*™™) wio ; - •■■■-•-■•-'-- 

a became natnraliied at this port led to tba 


haouiniiiM. If notaputoflhamiginaldalgiaof Tbemu- 
todeL it WM at leut a natuial daTelopment of 
iLam, to canj Long Walla" from the tkawlv-fordfied 
PiiMua to the upper citj, and thna combine them both 
into one giaad lyUem of fortificatioa. The ezperimait of 
connecting » town bj Itmg walls with its port had be«n 
alnadjr med between Hegara and NioBa (Qrote, .But. 
Orttet, o, xlr.)i and it was now repeated od a grander 
foal« aoder Gmon. i^otn the portion of the dij wall be- 
tween the Moseiam and the Nrmphi' Hill a sort of bastion 
W*» thiowa out to S-W. (0 ai to Ibnn an iiragolar triangle, 
from the apex of wbkh a "Umg wall," aboat 4 milee long, 
was cairiqa down to th« N. portion of the Finsean fortifica- 
doua: tltii was termed ri B6ptim nixot. Another "long 
wall " of Minewhat eborlar length ran ^wn to the wall M 
Phalemm, which bad hitherto served M the port of Athens ; 
this waa ri teAifpudv rtlxPt. A third walL between the 
two, puaUcl to ibt first, and twt a few yaroa from it Iri 
vdrunr mxac, tA iii /liaon "i jrof), wae afterwardi added by 
FeriolcB, and the muidme fortmoationa of Athens became 
oomplete. But the citj owed sdll more to the munificenoa 
of (Anton. Oat of the apoik of his Peiaian campaign he 
fititified the B. aide of the Acropolis with a mnarkablr 
•olid wall, which terminated in a sort of baatiou at the W. 
cod. Here he reared a little temple of Athena Nike (other- 
wise called the Winglea ViotOTy), aUhoogh 
yuinj^ "'^ exirtiDg scolptnres of the friese are pro- 
nounced on acconnt of their s^le to belong to a 
■Moewhat later date [Pansan., L 28, 3 ; Com. Nep., Otmon, 
a. ; Plataich, Oimem, xiii.). It was dmoD who first set the 

plane treea, and laying out the Academy with treea and 
walks. It is probabla that some of the porticoes in the 
Agora were built by CSmouf at all eTcots, the meet beauti- 
^^ nil one amonnt them wia reared by Piaianaz, 

|^^j,_ his brother-in^w, and the paintings with wliioh 

PalTgnotm, bis ■isler'B lorer, adorned it (repre- 
aeatiiwaoenw uvm the militaiy history of AibeuL legend- 
ary and historical) made itever&mous as the Irodx-ouf^. 
One more buildings the most perfect existing relio of ancient 
,p„„^^ AthoK, was abo built by amon. The The- 

seiom (as we still ma/ Tentur* to call it, in 
sinte of the donbts lately cast upon its idmtlflcatlon^ ' is a 
hexaatyle Doric temple standing on an eminence due N. 
of the Areopagna, and is the first olyect which meets the 
eye c^ the tourist who approachea the city from the Pi- 
iseua. Having served in Bysautine timee for a Chris- 
tian church, it is now a musenin of antiqtiitiesi and con- 
tuns soma of the choicest treasarw discovered by recent 

We have now brought this sketch of Athenian 
topogtapbv down to ua most distinguished pe- 
riod of Athenian history and Atbeoian archileo- 

MS of Pericles. As the chamjiion of Hellenic 

beedom against the Persians, as the head of the Ionic confed- 
eration, Athena had suddenly grown lo be the foremost city in 
Qreeoe. But when one by one the confederate stat«s sank 
into the position of sntgect-aUtw; when the iytpmla of 
Adiens passed inseoBbly into a rcpoivlf (Thoqrd., ii. 63) ; 
wha the oontributiMi m sbipa and men was oommnted in 
mnt osHS ibc a moner paymeat, and the fnnda of the oon- 
ledecB^on were tranaienea from the Apolloninm at Deloa 
to Iba Athenian Acropolis, — an enormous revenue became 
at the disposal of the Athenian Qovemment. It is to their 
otedit that so little of it found its way into private pockels. 
It was natural for the thoughts of a Greek, eepedally of an 
AtheniaiL to tun to the dea»ation irf his city ; it was poli- 
t>e thM the coUnJ cilr of tlu Ionian ccaiiedeinay should 
baadiHDedwithabeau^eqnallo her prealim. Tuebuild- 
inp couMcted with the same of CSmcm b^ been chiefly 
for utUi? or daftnoe: tboae of Pericles were mainly oma- 
nentaL The fiM ediflce completed ^ him seems to have 
oggjQ^ been the Odoium, on the £. of the Dionysiao 
theatre^ to serve ss a place for recitations by 
rtu^aodisl^ and for mnncal perfoimanoea. It was burnt 
by Ariation during Sulla's siega of Alheo^ but aftarwaids 
tebnilL Hendcn has alreadv ben made of the buidiiv 
tf the Long Walla and the hjring oat of the PitMO* vj 
PeridM; but it was (he Acropolis ilaeU iriiioh wilneaed 
UM gie^sat spkndofs of hi* administration. Within its 
< B« Dyer, .UtaMi, fb no, JUL, vba thinlB it la naUr the ta^U of 

mi^en like Hesydkius, than by leoent excavi 
^ teveal that a large temple must have beeni 

limited area aioaa boildiogs and statoea, on wbica hs 
genius of Pbidias the eeulpto^ of Ictinos and Mnnklei 
ue architects, were employed for year* ; while mullibxltt 
<^ artiste and craftsm^i ol all kinds were busied in ctnj- 
out their grand deaigns.* The spoils of the IMu 
.. r bad alruM^ becsi consecrated luder (Snoo loilw 
honor of the national goddeag, in the oaction of a doIcniI 
statue oS Athraa by Phidlaa between the eo- g^tai^ 
trance of the Acropolis and the Ereehthrinm; jukiM 
her warlike attitude gained her the title ol ^*<°*' 
Up6iiaxiK, and the gieam of her hdmet^s plume 
and upliflad spear was hailed t^ the hoDieward seaman m 
he doubled Gi^w Sunium (Pansan., L 28). Bntlhenitiaul 
deity was to receive yet greater hoiKirs at tlie baud of 
Pericla. That an old temple stood on the siu ' 
occupied by the Parthenon is proved, lees by I 
expreesions of Herodotus (viii. 51, 66), and the 

of later ' " 

tioDB, which teveal that a large i 
least begun upon this mpat when the Poiuaa invadsn de- 
stroyed the old buOdinn of the Acmpolis by fire. Hw 
then, Pericles prooeedea to rear whatlisB ever note bea 
known as the Parthenon. The desLgoer of this _. _^ 
masterpieoe of arcbiteotore waa Ictinns; the. ^^^ 
funndMiona of the old temple were at his eug- ■ 

gestion extended in length and breadth, and thus skm | 
upon the 8. side of the Acropolis a magnjfioant tcnpk o( 
the virgin goddess. It waa completed in the year 4SA &a. I 
It stood upon iliehighestplat£»mof the Acn^cdis,sotlis( | 
the pavemMit of the penstvle of the Parthenon waa on a 
level with the capitals of uie oolumns of the east Doitua ' 
of the PrapylMu He temple was built entirely of white 
marble &om the quarries <u Hount Penlelicua. Aseeod- 
ing a Bij^t of thne steps, you paswd through the gnst 
east entrance into the Protiao^ wherein was alondauin 
oollet^ion of sacred objects, diieAy of diver. From lbs 
Pronaoa a msnive door led into the tMa, called Hecatcst- 
pedes (vfuf b 'Bxar^/in-iilof), because it measured in lesgA 
100 Attic feet. The treasure here bestowed oonsisMd 
i^efly of chaplets and other objects of gold. The wtM 

Eirtion of the cella was tiulea off (by ia:Yx^^\, and 
nned the ArlAsnoit proper, i.&. the adytum occupiod by 
the ofarjseI«>hantine statue bv Phidias of Athena Partita 
noa, — a work whidi yielded the pre-eminence only to ons 
other statue by the same artist, via., the Zeus at (Jlympia, 
In this advtum were stored a number of Hilver bowls and 
other arlidea employed at the Panalhenaic festivals. The 
westeromost oompartment at the rear of the cella was the 
Opiathodomns, which served as the nadtmal treasuiy; 
htthec poured in the tribute <^ the Athenian alliea. It is 
important to remembw that the Parthenon was never 
intended as a temple of worahip; for this pnipuse then 
already existed anotfaw temple, presendy to be described 
as the Ereohtheium, — standing upon the primeval site of 
that contest between Athena and Poseidon which established 
the claim of the goddess to the Attic dtadet and soiL Hie 
Parthenon was simply designed to be the centnd point of 
the Panathenaic festival, and the storehouse for the sacred 
treasure. The entire temple shonld be regarded ■ 
vast iviOni"' to the national dei^ 
woiahip. Thus direcdy in front ol 
then stood an erection which has been mistaken for an 
^tar, bnt which ia more probably lo be regarded as the 
platform which the victorious competitors m the Pansf 
thenaic contests ascended to receive, as it were from the 
hand of the goddeo, the golden chaplets and vases of olive 
oil that formed the raizes (see Hichaelis's PartUaon, p. 31). 
This ctmsideration lends significance to the decorations of 
the building, which were the work of Phidias. Within 
the out« pordco, along the outside of the lop of the wall 
of the building, ran a Riese 8 fiwt 4 inchea in h^ht, and 
520 fert in Wal length, on which were aonlptured figures 
in low relief* rqnesenting the PanathMi^ ptooeasiim. 
Nearly all of these sculptures are in the British MuMom, 
and the oitin series baa been reoently made complete bv 
casts from the other fragment^ and arranged in the orderof 
the original design. The marvellous beauty of these relid^ 
which was beightaned originally 1^ color, tun been long 
fomiliar lo all Uie world from nnmerooa Ulnstralad descrip- 
dims. The [vocession of youths and maidens, of piiesU 
and m^jstrata^ (rf oxen for sacrifice, of flule-playeES and 


I dagilBtkm In Plataieh, Aricte, l^M. 
oTlbrBiuUn, .IrMrs J>nMlM,p. ITl. 

iliigv^ fallowed bj die yonthftil chiraby irf Athene on 
piaaeing Heecb, n lepnaeDted la wending lu way from 
the wMt towude the eeatein aitnukce.* OaUide of the 
boiling, on the N. and 8. ddei, the metopee between the 
Doric tnglypfae weie filled with eonlptora rqnceenting 
■ecnee from the myihicel histoi? of Athena, Bat the 

SDrj of the FaitheDoa wen the acnlptaiee of the E. and 
'. pedimcnte. Unhappilj bat % few figorea remun, nod 
nmeaxe wholW perfbc^ of the etataee which fontied theee 
groapa ', and nnaania* i^iean to have thought it aopet- 
SDOos to give a minnte dMoripdon of objeola so familiar to 
jtmnoineaT and ti«T«Der. The aeulptona on the 

i«atBni pediment related to the birth (rf Athena; the cen- 
bal group WM cvlj deatiDTed bj the Bvaottoe OmetlanB 
in ctKLToangthe Parthenon into adinrcL with thePnmaos 
fcr its MM. But nearly all the eoboioiuale fignree are 
BKeerrea in a more or l«ai iuured oendition in the British 
Hoaenni. The noUe head of the hooe of the car of Night, 
the seated female figons of "The Faiee," and the grand 
traao eommoiilT known ia the "Thommt" are bmiliar to 
Di all. It woiud be out of place here even to enmoerate 
the man/ attempta that hare been nude to recxiiutruct the 
groapa ot either pediment, ^e sonlptaree on the W. 
tepresenied the contat between Athwa and Poaeidoa for 
the pc«Mei<» of Attica; and although ecatoely anj por- 
tkioe of theee fignree are now exieting, yet thef are better 
known to w than the E. pediment hj meaae of the faithful 

iif dnm^) sketchea made 1^ the Frenchman Carrey in 
674, when (hey were m a oompaiatiTelr perfect state. 
Those who desire to know all that ii to be known ooncem- 
Ing the acolptures of the Panhenon should consult the 
beaotilnl woi^ of Micbaelis, Der i^triUnon, while the 
meaaDremenls sod an^lectoral details of the edifioa have 
never been so qilendidly eiren es in our countryman Pen- 
nae, in his I\iiapta of AUuaum Ar^iiUetia^ 

We will tumnowtoiheotherboildinge of the Acropolis, 
none of whiofa, however, are so full of significance ss the 
hithenon ilse^ For, indeed^ standing >s it does on the 
hiKbeet point of Atiienian sod, its erection marked the 
euhninanoR point of Athenian historj, literature, politics, 
aodart. Toe "Birth of Athena," over uie eastern entraoce, 
may aymboliie to us the sudden giow^ of Athenian great- 
ness, while in the contest between the armed godden of 
peacefiil wisdom and the violent god of sea, which adorned 
the western front, we mav see an allegoi^ of the loi^ 
rtnwgle between the agricultiuBl and the maridme inteKSle 
whiS forms the centnl thread of Athenian history. 

Oppodle to the Parthenon, on the northern 

ibe most grBcefdl forms of the Ionic order. The Erech- 
theinm appears to be designed expresely (o cootraat with 
the severe sublimity of the Parthenon: and on the side 
which confrimts those mighn Doric shaflB, the columns of 
the smkller building ai« alloweil to tranefbrm themselves 
into Canephori. The tem^e of Athena Polias, whidt con- 
tained the sndeot wooden imiwe of the goddess, and formed 
the centre of her worship, sufiered from fire in tbe Persian 
War (i7Q b.C.). A building so sacred would hardly have 
been allowed to remain for long in rains ; but it was re- 
served for Pericles to set aboat a complete restoration of it 
However, the Pelo^nnesian War seems to have inlerrupled 
his deaigai, and in the year 409 bx. the edifice was stlU 
unfinished,* and soon after this it was totally destroyed by 
fire. But soon afterwards it must have been rebuilt, with' 
oot doubt retaining all its orwnal features. The temph 
in its pieeent state consists of an oblong cella extending 
from EL to W. From each ude of the W. end of the cells 
prefects a porticc^ forming a sort of transept The eastern 
portico formed the temple of Athena Poliae, upon the site 
of her ancient contest with Poseidon. The west portion 
was the Pandnaelom, dedicated to Athena Pandroeoa. 
TiM building thus formed two lemplee in one, and is 
styled by Pataanias a iatTjAv nliai/m. It seems at a later 
tmte to have been coninumly called the Brechtheium, 
becanae of a liadMon that EreohtheQs was buried ou this 

I Ha win] desbei la enjor tJnM saitptaieL ibouU DOma from a 
■ejiiesl of MlahHlt*^ eknaeat work Dtr Parlittait, anil (pend ■ dsr 
h tlH BtltUi MiiKmn vilta tba guide-book In hli baud. 

■ An ImporUnt lucrlptlon In tba Britlih If uisiun gl' 
M the worki m thej atood Id tbit jtti, dnwn up br ■ 
IfpiriBted Ek tba pBxinH. Oet Omk tuerifUaiit fmllH 

•kJen^Mnw tmtktBritlikJ/it- 

Among the many rioriea of the Acropolis, the ] 
Propyliea are described by Pansanias as being 
exeeiitionally msgnificeot (L 22). Tbey rivaUed even the 
Partfaaion, and were the tnoet splendid of all the bolldingi 
of Pericles. Tbe weetnn end of the Acropolis, which A^ 
nished, and sUll fiimlthee, Uie <mly access to the summit 
of the hill, was about 160 fed in brMdth,— a fronti^ so 
narrow, that to tbe artists of Pericles it appeared practicfc 
ble to fill up the space with a single building, wuich, in 
serving the main purpose of a gateway, should contribote 
to adorn as well as to guard the citadel. This work, which 
rivalled the Parthenon in felicity of execudon, and sur- 
passed it in boldness aodori^nahty of design, 'was begun 
m the arehondiip of Enthymenes, in the year 437 B.a., 

entrance to the Acropolis, 68 feet n 
for the grand entrance, and the remainder on either side 
was occupied by winra projecting 32 feet in front of the 
central colonnade. The entire building received the 
name of Propylea from ils forming tbe vestibule to the 
fivb doorwsvB, still in existence, by which the tuladet was 
entered. The wall in which these doors were pierced was 
thrown back about 60 feet from the front of the artifidal 
opening of the hill, and the whole may therefore he said to 
have resanbled a modem f^fication, althouKh, in &ot, the 
Propylna was designed, not for defence, but for decoration. 
The whole buildinp was of Pentelic marble. The Megaton 
or great veatibule in the centre consisted of a front of six 
fluted Doric oolumns, mounted upon four slepe, which 
supported a pedim^it and measured 5 feet in diameter and 
nearly 29 in height, with an intercolumniation of 7 feet 
except between the two central columns, which were 13 
feet apart, in order to fumieb space for a carriage-way. 
Behind this Doric colonnade was a vestibule 43 feet m 
depth.theroof of which WW sustained by six inner columns 
in a double row, so as to divide the vestibule into three 
aisles or compftrtmenls ; and these columns, although onW 
three feet and a half in diameter at the base, were, inolud- 
inff the capitals, nearly 34 feet in height their architraves 
being on the same level with the frieze of the Dorio 
colonnade. The ceiling was laid upon msrble beams, 
resting upon the lateral walls and the architraves of the 
two rows of looic column^ — thoee covering the side aisles 
being 22 feet in length, and thoee covering the central 
aisles 17 feet, with a proportional breadth and thickness. 
Enormous maasee like these, raised to the roof of a huild- 
inf standing upon a steep hill, and covered with a ceiling 
which alt the reeourcea of art had been employed to 
beautify, might well overcome the reserve of a maiter-of- 
fect toptsrapher tike Paasanias, and at once account for 
and jusd^ the unusual warm^ of his lan^oage when he is 

central and largest was equal to the space between the two 
oeDtral oolumns of the Doric portico in front and the same 
also as that between the two rows of Ionic columns in the 
vestibule j but tbe dooie on dther side of the priocipBl one 
were of duoiniahed height and breadth, and the two beyond 
these again were sdll smaller in both dimensions. These 
five gates or doors led from the vestibule into a hack portico 
18 feet in depth, which was fnmted with a Doric colonnade 
and pediment of the same dimensions as those of the 
wcaleni or outer portico, bat placed oa a higher level, there 
being five steps of ascent from the western to the level of 
the eastern portico. Froia the latter or inner portico tiuira 
was a descent of one step into the e^acent part of the 
platform of the Acropolis. 

The wings of the Propyhea were nearly symmetrical in 
front, each presenting on this ude a wall adorned only with 
a friese of triglyphs, and with ant» at the extremities. 
The inner or southemmoet column of each wing stood ilk 
a line with the great Doric columns of the H^aron ; and 
as both these columns and those of the wings were upon 
the same level, the three porticoes were all connected 
together, and the fbui steps wnich ascended to the Uegaroa 
were cimtiuued also along the porticoes of the two win^ 
Bat here the symmetry of the building ended: for, in 
regard to Interior size and distribution of parts, the winga 
were exceedingly dissimilar. In tbe northern or left wini^ 
a porch of IS feet in depth conducted by three doora 
into a chamber of 34 feet by 26, the porch and chamber 
thus occupying the entire spaoe behina the westeni 

,e westeni wall*/ 

tlut iring; whereM the Ronthem or ri^t ning oonriated 
onlf tf ft pordi or gftllei? of 26 feet t^ 16, which, on the 
6. and E. ndei, wm fiinned by » wiiU connected vith 
■nd of tha MOM Ihlckaen as the lateral wall of the 
H«g«ran, ud, on the W. side, had iti toof s^port«d by 
a uuMW piluter, Btanding oetwaen the N.W. column 
of the wing and an anto, which terminated its southern 
waU. In front of the Bonlhem or right wine of the 
Propjhea there stood, so late as the fear 1676, the small 
Ionic temple dedicated to Athena Nike, and commonly 
known by the ancients as the temple of the Wingless Vic- 
tory (Niiii; jnrcpoc), which lias already been mentioned 
u prob^ly one of the buildings of Cimon. Perbape 
before the 18th centniy this building was palled down by 
the Turks, and the only remains of it — parts of the fiieze 
bnllt Into a wall — which were known in his day were car- 
ried off 1^ Lord Elgin, and are now in the British Hnsenm, 
Id 16SG carefbl exc»T*tions were made under the directions 
of Profcarcr Ba«, when not only were the renuins of the 
Propyls* opened op &r more clearly than iMfore, bat also 
nearly all the fragments of this little temple of Victory were 
discoTwed ; they had been nsed for buildlog a Turkish 
battery, and so preserred. Thus the temple was at once 
restored l^a reconstmctionoflheort^aal fragments. Few 

end of the Acropolis. 

Prom tha (Baastroas termination of the Peloponneeian 
war to the yet more fatal defeat at Chsroneia, the aichitec- 
toral history of Athens is a blank, only interrupted by the 

-"n'of the Long Walls and the rebniloing of the 

one of Pir«eus by Conon, both of which Ead beoi 
destroyed by Lysander. The financial genius of the orator 

e. This 
,y. The 

nd other 

fortifications of Pir«eus by Conon, both of which OMd betai 
destroyed by Lysander. The flnnni-iiil geni 
Lycurgus, whose administration lasted from 

replenished to some extent the exhausted i 

oounby. He reorganised her finance, he catali 
rearranged the sacred and national treasuries, an 
ordra and efficiency into every department of sti 
new impnlse made itself felt in nnilding aclii 
JMonyaiao theatre was now fint completed ; an 
as we have already seen, many of the eculptnres 
marbles recently uncovered on its site are tti 
of a very much later age, yet we may confidently assume 
Aat in sil material points the theatre as we are now able 
to view it represents the condition of the bnilding as it 
P^^l^,^ stood in the time of L;^cur™. Another re- 
markable work which signalised his adminis- 
tration was the Panathenaio Stadium. On the aouthem 
side of the Iliseus, at right angles to the sbeam, a hollow 
space was scooped out of the soil, soma 680 feet in lengUi 
and 130 in breadth. It is possible that the tite had been 
used for gymnastic contests oefore the orator's dme; it was 

Herodes Atticus finally to compl 
place with magnificent seats of Peotelic marble, tier upon 
tier, capable of accommodating, at the very least, 40,000 
epectalors. An attempt was recoitly made to excavate the 
Stadium, but it was found that every tisce of antiquity 
had been destroyed, the marble having been used as a 
qnany fbr building parpoase. 

The administrauon at Lycurgns is an important era in 
Athenian architectare ; fbr after his- time we never seem 
to hear of any more buildings haying been reared by the 
Athenian Qovemment The beet-known extant edifices of 
(he period immediately following were the work of wealthy 
private peiBons. Bound the eastern end of the 
§fn|^ Acropolis, suning from the eastern entrance of 
"^ the Dionysiac theatre, then leaving the Odeium 
of Pericles to the left, and thence sweeping westvatd to 
the Agora, there ran a street which formed a favorite 
promenade in ancient Athens, commonly known as the 
'' Street of Tripods." It gained this name from the small 
votive shrines which adorned it, supporting upon their 
•nmmit the bronie tripods which bad been obtained as 
pritea in the choragic contests. The tripods thus mounted 
often themselves served as a frame to some masterpiece of 
acalptiir& such, tat example^ ss the famous satyr of Prax- 
iteles. It had early become the custom to dedicate the 

still stands, and is well known as the monument _„_. 
of Lysicrates. It bears the following Insorip- J('lSK?* 
tion upon its architrave: — "Lysicrates, son of nusT^ 
Lysilheides, of the deme Cicynna, was cliot^ 
agus; the tribe Acamantis nined Uie prise with a chorus 
of boys; Theon accompanied them upon the flute; Lysiades 
of Athens taught them ; Etwnetos was archon," Li othw 
words, the date of this monument was 33S B.C. Fifteen 
years alter that a somewhat similar shrine was reared at the 
topmoet summit of the back of the great theatre, whtt« 
an ancient grotto was by Thrasyllus converted 
into a choragic monnmenL The Bysandne JfxJUS^ 
Christians transformed the building into a irUoa 
chapel of the Virgin, onder the title of Pana- 
ghia Spiliotissa, or Our Ladf of the Orotto. Early tiaV' 
elleis describe this little shnne as oonsisting of three pil- 
asten engaged in a plain wall, surmounted by sn inseribed 
architrave : above was supported a figure of LMoanns, now 
preeerred, but in a mnch injured stue, in Uie Bntish Hd- 
senm. On the top of the statne originally reslad die tripod 
that fbnned theprixe of Thrasyllus. 

The Macedonisn period again marks a new 
epoch in the history of Athenian tepographv, £|^^ 
Henceforward almost every embellishment Atn- pariod. 
ens received was at the hands of the various 
foreign ^rinoee, whose tastes inclined tbeta to patrotuiea 
city BO rich in historical aseodaliotH, and to leedy to re- 
wtud each new admirer with an equal tribute of servile 
adulation. But whatever decoradoD die dty mJBbt owe 
to royal vanity or munificence, her conneotion with these 
foreign potentates brought her far more of ii^nry than 
advantage. She became entangled in their wars, and 
nsually found herself upon the lodng side. 

Upon the death of Alexander the Athenians claimed 
their liberty, but they at once had to submit U> Antipater 
(322 B.C.), who placed a garrison in Munychia. It perhape 
was he who defteed the ancient Puyx ; at all events, from 
this lime forward the polidcal oratoiy of Athens became 
silent for ever. In 318 b.o. Demetrius the Phalerean was 
made governor of Athens by Gassander, and receiTsd eveiy 
kind of homage from his serrlle sabjeets. Bot as *oom 
ss the other Demetrius, sumamed PolioroeCea, speared 
in the Pirseug, the Athenians weloomed him with open 
arms. For restoring to them the fiirms of democracy ha 
wss extolled with abject aduIatiiHi, and had as^gned to 
him a residence in tne Opisthodomus of the Parthenon 
itself where he proved the ssnotuary of the vimn goddess 
with unbridled sensuality. Upon the defeat of Antigonta 
at Ipeos (301 b.c.1, Demetrius fled from Athens, and an- 
der Lachares. the leading demw^ue of the time, the city 
eqjoyed the shadow of independence. But the demagogue 
soon developed into a tyrant, and when Demetrius reap- 
peared in 296 B.C. and beu^^ the dty, Lachares had to 
fly from the indunadoa of the citizens, taking with him 
the golden shields that adorned the eastern boat of the 
Acropolis, and having rifled die chryselephandne statae 
itself. Again, in 263 B.C., Athens endnied a long ai^s 
from Antigonns Qonatas, wlio hud waste the snrrounding 
by Phiiin 

by Philip V. in 200 &0» who,^tcfaing his camp at C 
sarra, destroyed eTerythiDg that lay aroond — the tei 
of Heracles, the gymnasium theie^ and the Lyeeiui 


. sracles, the gymnasium theie^ and the Lyeeium as 
well. At length, in 146 B.C- Qieece became a Boman pn>v- 
inoe, and Athens snccnmbedpeaoefuIlT to the Boman y<^e. 

During the ioglorions penod of Atnenian history which 
has just been sketebed, several new bnildings were reared 
hv the munificence of foreign princes. Ptolemy Phtladel- 
phns save his name to a laive gymnasium — the Ptelam&nm 
-—built by him near the Theseium. Attains I^ king of 
Pergamus, erected a stoa on the north-east of the Agora, 
and laid out a nrden In the Academy. His iiiii miiiii, 
Eumenes II. [197-169 B.a), built another stoa near the 
great theatre. Antiochna £piphanes designed the comple- 
tion of the Olympinm, a woi^ which was intempted by 
his death. 

Under the rule of the Bomana Athens ei^oyed 
die privileges of a libera eiviiat, u., no garrison ?^^ 
was introduced Into the tewn, no trilrate was 
levied upon U, and the constitutitm was nominally leA 

levied upon it, and the 
unallereo. The Areopa 

the Bo«ile and Ecdeaia. The revlsioo also of the laws hj 

Hidfiiu would, of ooone, introduce Bome chuges. Yet 
it msf ean\j be nuunUuned that Athens ander the Boman 
dominion wa> hxMhi beller position th&n in the days be- 
hn the taking of Corinth by Hommiua, when the had 
been it the mercT' of each micceniTe Macedonian preten- 
d». ^M Bomaot appear to have Bhown a remarkable 
ivpect for the feelinga of the Athenian people. It would 
be laperflaoai here (o recall the warm expresgioua of admi- 

oted Boman aa a kind of pilgrimage.' One 
J^^ ^«at diaaaier Atheiu did indeed undergo at 

Qie bands of Bome ; this was the si^ and plon- 
der of the d^ b; Sulla in the Hithiidatie War. Yield- 
ing to the thieats of the king and the represenlatiooB of 
the TillainoDE Aristioa, the Atheniain had joiued the cause 
of the king of Pontus, and Sulla deliberately leeolved to 
- "jy his TOTenge (Athemeua, t. 47, Jdll. ; Plut., StJia, 
After a protracted si^, in which the inhabitants 

ted the extreme of &niin& mocked at once by the 

intoloice of Ariation within, and preteed by a remoiseless 
he without, Athens at length was taken on March 1, 86 
B.C. Many of the public buildings (happily not the most 
iniportaDt) were orerthrowcL much of the sacred treaaore 
~u riBed by the soldiera, and many works of art, togelhr~ 


alone would si 
ory. " " 

with the libtarr of. Apellicon, containing the collections 
of Aristotle and Theophraetus, were carri^ off by the cul- 
UT*l«d Bulla. The lora of life wis also great: large num- 
heis were butchered by the soldiery, and the Agora of 
CeiamdcDS flowed wi^ blood. We are told that Bulla 
wn wont to take credit for having "spared Athens." He 
" ' » indeed destioy it, but his conduct on this occasion 

" — """ '" " — n indelible stain upon his mem- 

B exception, Athena prospered 
r the Boman rule, and stutlenls from all parts of the 
Onco-Boman world flixJced thither to attend the lectures 
of the phiioBophers and rhetoricians, or to view the count- 
lea -wqAs of art that adorned the citv. Athenian society 
grew more and more academic The current lone of 
educated circles was antiquarian even to pedantry.* The 
iDSCriptioDS relating to the Boman period clearlj reveal 
to us the chief iaterests of coDtemporaiy Athenian life. 
Epitaphs in abundance testify to the SaaiSaiiavla which 
delighted in proper names derived from deities and reli- 

B'ons ceremonies,* and the pride of genealogical pedantry, 
onorary decrees abound to justify the charge of aduladon 
which was the reproach of the later Athen^ns. But the 
commonest class of monuments are the ^mnastic inscrip- 
tion^ which give us lists of the students Irom all quarters, 
who, while puisuing their studies at Athens, enrolled 
themielvea at a gymnasium, and there had the advantage 
of a Eodal lite and r^ular discipline, which reminds one 
nmewhat of the college system in the English nniver- 

But enoogb has now been said of the condition of 
Athenian society nnder the Boman rule ; it is time to 
ennmerate the enbellishments which the city leceived 
daring this period. It is uncertain at what exact dale the 
Horologium of Andronicos of Cyrrhua was 
erected, which is generally known as the Tower 
of the Winds. It is first mentioned by Varro 
{pt Se Riut, iii. 5 17), and is therefore older 
, than 35 b-c, though certainly not earlier than 
the Boman conqneet. This monument, so familiar to 
evoy scholar, is described by Vitruvius (i. 6, 4) as an 
ectagonal tower of marble. It stands at what anciently 
farmed the eastern extremity of the Boman Agora, pres- 
oitly to be described. On each &ce, beneath the cornice, 
is Kulptnred the figure of the wind which blew from the 
eonespondin^ quarter ; on the top of the roof was a ped- 
Mai sDppoTting a bronze triton (now destroyed), which 
■u constraolea to torn with the wind, and to point out 
tiie wiitd'g quarter with a wand which he held in hit hand. 
The scnlptored figures of the winds are in good preeerva- 

««. (DtS. 

. thanSJ 

' Tb« beaatlful eltgy al 


, of Omt JkHP^iMflu in lia 
and CumumdH. 'tmy^mtal 'Anulh hnt4itfitat. 

•8m Oreek IkterfpUimi «■ Ma BrlOilt Mtamnn, No. K, iDd fiiU. 

tion, though of a declining period of art Tliey r< . 
the four cardinal points and the intermediate quarten 
between ^ese. Each has' his emblems : Boreas, the north 
wind, blows his noisy conch ; Notut^ the rainy sondi wind, 
bears bis water-jar : Zephyros, the west wind, has his lap 
full of flowers, and so on. Under each fignre are the 
remains of a sun-dial ; and besides all these external fea- 
tures, the interior was constructed to form a water-cloct 

supplied with water from the spring at the Acropolis called , 

Clepsydra. Thus in cloudy weatier — ■---'--- 

~ led for the dial and the si 

t£er a substjtule was pro- 

The Agora in Cerameicus has already been described, 
and it was there noticed that the name Cerameicus often 
appears to be employed alone to denote the Agora. This 
may be easily acoounted for. By the munificence of 
Julius &asar and of Augustus, a propjlreum of four Doric 
colnmiu, wbidk still exist, was reared at the S.E. extremity 
of the Cerameicus Agora. The space between the centim. 
columns is about 12 fee^ between the side columns not 
qniie 6 feet. Over the pediment is a pedestal, with an 
inscription in honor of Lucius Cssar, the grandson of 
AngustuLwhose equeetrian statue it appears to have sup- 
ported. This propyheum has by some archieolog^ls been 
regarded as a portico of a tempie to Athena Arcbe^ietis, 
to whom we learn, from an inscription on the architrave, 
that the boilding was dedicated out of the moneys give* 
by Julius and Augustus. But there can be no reasonable 
donbtthat these columns formed the entrance into a new 
Agora, dedicated to Athena Arch^;etis, juat as 
it was customary with the Bomang to dedicate h™m 
a forum to some deity, and intended chiefly, it Agora. 
would seem, for the sale of the olive oil which 
formed so large and characLeristic an export from Athena. 
This appears to be proved by the leogthy inscription (see 
B5ckh, Cbrp. Inter. Ortee., No. 355) which exists immedi- 
ately within the entrance, and contains an edict of the 
Emperor Hadrian regulating the sale of oil and the dudes 
payable upon it. It is easy to understand how, after the 
erection of the Boman Agor^ the old market would 1m 

"Tower of the Winds," whidi had p 
formed, with its useful timepieces, an appropri 

the north-eastern extremity. Themarkel was en- 

previooslv bt 
I appropriate 

closed by a wall, aod it was reserved for Hadrii 
plete its decoration by building a ma^ficent stoa on its 
northern side. Augustus himself received the honor of a 
small circular shrine upon the Acropoli^ dedicated to Au- 
gustus and Boma. TTn son-in-law Anijqia was honored 
by an equestrian statue in front of the Pcopyltea, the pedes- 
tal of which still exists. The Agrippeium was a theatre 
erected by Agrippa in the Cerameicus. It is possible, 
moreover, that the Siogeneium — the only gymnasium 
mentioned in tbe Ephebic inscriptions of the imperial 
period — was built about this time. Its site has recently 
been thought to have been discovered about 200 yards east 
of the Tower of the Winds. Whatever lioentiousneta 
and misgovemment might mark the reign of succeeding 
emperors, they at all events refrained from doing injury 
to Athens. It bad beui proposed to finish the ff^at tern 
pie of Zeus Olympius in honor of Augnslus, but the design 
fell through, and it was reserved for Uadrian to finally 
complete the building of this magnificent temple, some 
six centuries from the time when the first stone was laid. 

The reign of Hadrian made literally a new „ .. ^ 
era in the history of Athens.' For Greece, and 2lh«^ 
especially for Athens, this emperor entertained 
a passionate admirarion. He condescended to hold the 
office of archon epon^us ; in his honor a thirteenth tribc^ 
Hadrianis, was instituted; and the emperor shared with 
Zeus the title of Olymnitw, and the honors of the newly- 
finished temple. While, however, many portions of the 
city twre witness to his munificence, it was in the south- 
eastern quarter that most of his new buildings arose, in the 
neighborhood of the Olympium. This suburb was accord- 
ingly styled Hadrianopoiis, or Kew Athens, to distinguish 
it from the old dty of Thesens and of Themistoclea. The 
arch of Hadrian still stands in a fairly perfect state, and 
marks the boundary between the ancient town and the new 

tiiD» for tbe old murksl ; thaf liwtjt inuf nt " tha Agon." Vta- 
•ulu iiiea both mirdi in their more moderD meuiLiin i«tpeot<talf. 
•Hanr lOBCrlbtd documenta ire found, diled "from HadiWl 
Bnt ridt." See DltlenberRBC Id CIm Btrmit, ISTl, f. 31S. 

10 ATHl 

■obdrii embellished bj Hwlriu). Oc the north-weatem 
front of the Brchitrare la the iiucription nliP elf* 'AB^vm 
Oiivlut i) wpiv trili! ; on the Other front, ol'I' tie' 'Alptavoii 
«al obxt S^afuf ir^(. At the same time manj of the older 
buildingg nndenrent renontion tt hii command. Nor was 
hit boonty ahown ia works of baUding alone. He ceded 
to the Atheniani the island of Cephal^a, and bcsloved 
upon them Urge preMnta of money, and an annnsi largess 

"tb* immediate soooeaon of Hadrian were gnided br his 
example. AnUHunoi Hna oompleted an aqnednct which 
Hadnan had commMiced tot bringing water into the town 
from the Cephinu. Ifarens Anmim Tisited Athaia for 
the purpose of initiation at the Eleurinian mysteriea. 
„^. The lift of dislingairfied penoin who made 

^M^ tltemselTes fiunonaaabendlKSon of Athens may 
be said to close with the mune of Herodes AtU- 
ens the ihetoridan. Herodee had cotmted Marcus Aure- 
tioi anto^st his pupils, and woa sure- of a distinguished 
oreer at Some ; but, like the friend of Cicero, he preferred 
the more peaceful atmosphere of Greece, uid took the sur- 
name of Attiona. His ambition was to eicet as a sophist, 
tet he owed his ftme yet more to the enormous wekllh he 
inherited from his &ther, which he spent in works of pub- 
lic munificence. Various towns of Greece and even of 
Italy were enriched by his bounty, but Athens most of all. 
In addition to Iiis manr other tt^efactioDS, two architec- 
tural works in particular immortalized his name. One 
was the Stadinm, which he adorned with magnificent mar- 
ble aeats. The other was the Odeium (see PauBan.,Tii. 20), 
the ruins of which are still to be seen under the south-west 
of the Acropolis. An odelum resembled a theatre in ita 
general plsn and the purposes it served : it differed appa- 
rently in being roofed in. The andeat theatres were open 
to the Aj : bat the most remarkable featare (^ this ode- 
inm, built by Herodcs in honor of his deceased wife Re- 
gillft, was ils roof of cedar, fr^menla of which were actu- 
ally discovered in the excavations made np(m this site 

It is a fortunate drcumstance that the best 
and only extant account of ancient Athena came 
from the pen of a traveller who visited the city 
ioBt at the time when the monificenoe of Hadrian and of 
Herodes had left nothingmore to be added to ils embellish' 
menu The Odeiam of B^lla, indeed, had not been com- 
menoed when Pausanias visited Athens, and he descrilKB it 
later on in bis seventh book. We maj place his tour 
through Atheoi atMmt the year 170 A..D. His manner of 
description is as methodical as a modem guide-book, and 
his vety knowledge and appreciation of the endless master- 

Eiecea of Grecian art prevent him from covering his pa^es, 
ke some modem toaiiBts, with rapturous word-painting 
and expressions of delight. He be^ns his account of 
Athena (bk. i. ch. i.-ii. } 1) with a descri^ion of the 
Firceoa and the harbors, and his first tour is along the 
toad from Phslemm to the citr. where he enters by the 
Ilonian gat^ within which he nnds a monument to the 
Amazon Antiope. In his next tour (ch. ii. { 2-ch. v.} he 
snppoees us to start again f^m Pineeus and approach the 
tiij aloDK the remains of the Long Walls. Thos entering 
the city by the I^man gate,' he conducts us along the 
nothem side of the old Ag'va (which he styles the Cera- 
mmcus), describing all the buildings that occur npon the 
way, from the Btoa Banlous and anotlier itoa near iL 
adorned with a statue of Zeus Elentheriue^ in an eaatwatd 
directiiHi past the temple of Apollo Patrons, the Hetronm, 
the Bonleuterinm, and Tholus, and other bnUdinKS, which 
lay at the northern and norih-easlem fbot of the Areo- 
n^ns. His walk ends with the mention of the temple 
Euclda and the Eleusininm. It is not easy to see why 
Pansaniaa here introduces an account of the fountain Bn- 
neacnmns and the temple of Demeter and Core, which 
ereij ardiBolopst hitherto has placed near the Uusns, in 
the sonth-eastem extremity of the dty.* In his next walk 
(ch. xiv. j 5-xviii. i 3), having already described the 
lonth side of the Cerameicos Agora, he starts again from 
the Stoa Ba^leina, describes the buildings on the west 
and north of the Agora, and then enters the newor Boman 

< Curttni imd otben are prabiblr mlitikui In ■npposlni tha Dlpr- 
hm to ba tbe nts lnlsDd«d br Pnowulu. 

■ Dr. Dtv, Id bii Tcc«nt work an Alhsm, Appendix L, SBdrnvon 
lo axiiklii thli dUBcnltf by SMnmlng tbe axlitcnee ot two finataln> 
■alM Oslltrriiae, ona of whieh (bnasenuiiu) bs jlaom on tha north- 
WSStgf theAaiepoiy. 

Agora. In this tonr he mentions the altar of Mercv, tha 
gymnasinm of Ptolemy, the Theseium, the temple of 
Aglaums, and the Prrcaneiam, In his next walk he 
starts from the Piytsneium, and proceeding eastward (<^ 
xviii. I 4, xix.), he mentions the temples of Sarapia and 
of Beithnia, until, leaving the eastern Mtd of the Acropo> 
lis at some distance on his right hand, he paasea throngh 
the arch of Hadrian, and describee the Olympium and the 
other buildings of tnat emperor. This tonr included th« 
temple of Aphrodite tii Kfiroit, the Cynosan^, the Sta- 
dium, and other buildings on both sides of^the Uiseus. 
For his next walk he returns again to the I^taneiom (clu 
xx.-ziviii. i 3), and enten the Street of Tripods, whidi 
leads him to the temple and theatre of Dionysus, which he 
describes. Thus be at length reaches the western extremity 
of the Acropolis, and entering through the Propytoa, he 
describes in order each abject which adorned the summit, 
with an accuracy fully borne out by recent exesTationa. 
His Ust walk in Athens [ch. xxviii. J 4, xxix. 1 1] con- 
ducts us through tlie various buildings at the western base 
of the ActopoBs. Prom the temple of the Semme he passes 
to theconrt of the Areopagus, and themeotionof this leads 
him to speak of the other judicial courts of Athens. The 
rest of his first book is occupied with an account of the 
Buhnrbs of Athens — the Academy, the sacred way to Eleu- 
sis, Ac., and the topography of Attica in general. 

A few words may suffice to describe the ulti- 
mate &te of Athens. In the reign of Valerian Sj|Smi°J?* 
the northern barbarians first appeared in the aSuu. 
north of Greece, where they laio si^e to Thee- 
salonica. This extraordinary apparition having alarmed 
all Greece, the Athenians restored their dty wall, which 
Sulla had dismantied, and otherwise placed the town in a 
state of deface sufficient to secure it against a eo^cf»> 
motn. But under Gallienus, the next emperor, Auieoa 
was beeieged, and the archonahlp abolished, npon which 
the strat^oe or general, who had previously acted as in- 
spector of the Agora, became the chief magistrate. Under 
Claudius the city was taken, but recovered soon afterwards. 
Conatantine the Great gloried in the title of General of 
Athens, which had been conferred upon him, and expressed 
high satis&ction on obtuoin^ from the jpeople the honor 
of a statue with an inscription,— a distmction wfaiiji he 
acknowledged by sending to the city a yearly gratuity of 
grain. He also conferred on the governor of Attioa and 
Atliena the title of Xtyat Aouj, or Gnmd I>ake, which soon 
became hereditary ; and his son Constans bestowed several 
islands on the dt^, in order to supply it with com. In the 
time of Theodosiua L, that is, towards the end of the 4lh 
century, the Ooths laid waste Theesalv and £pirus ; but 
Theodorusj general of the Oroeka, acted with so much pra- 
dence, that he saved the Greek dties from pillage and the 
inhabitants from captivity, a service which was most grate- 
fully acknowledged. But this deliverance proved only 
temporary. The &tal period was now fast approaching, 
and, in a real barbarian, Athens waa doomed to experience 
a conqueror yet more remorseless than Sulla. This was 
Alaric, king of the Goths, who, under the emperois Arca- 
diuB and Honorios. overran both Ital^ and Greece, sack- 
ing, pillaging, and destroying. Never, indeed, did the tarj 
even of baruirian conquest discharge itself in a fiercer or 
more desolating tompesL The Peloponncaian dties were 
OTertumed: Araadia and Iiaoedtemon were both laid waste ; 
thegulfsof Lepanio and .dVina were illuminated with the 
fiames of Coriiiui ; and the Athenian matrons were dramd 
inchainstosatisfythebrutaldesiresof thebarbarians. Tbo 
invaluaUe tieasuree of antiquity were removed ; stately and 
munificent stmcturee were reduced to heaps of min ; and 
Athens, stripped of tbe monuments of her andrat splen- 
dor, was compared by Synesius, a writer of that ag^ to a 
victim of which the liody h^ been consumed, snd the skin 
only remained. 

Aflar this dreadful visitation Athens sank into indgnlf- 
icance, and became as obscure aa it had ouoe been illustri- 
}us. We are indeed informed that the dties of Hellas 

earthquake, and those of Athens, which had ^en into 
decay throngh age. But flxim the time of thia emperor a 
chaam of nearly seven centuries ensues in lis liistory ; ex- 
cept that, about the year 1130, it furnished Boger, the first 
king of Bidly, with a number of artificers, who there in- 
tiodnoed the cxdtute of silk, which afterwards paaed into 

n>e wonw, it imii mii, lud b«ai broaght from IndU 
.. .. Htantinople u tba reign of JostiniuL 

Doomad, i^pMOotlj, to become the piey of eTer7 ipculer, 
AtlMoa aolu emmca from obllTioa In the 13th otatair, 
nndec Bddwin mm U( cinaadan, at > time irheit It waa 
bskgwi bgr * «a«nl of Theodora* Lucmn, the Oredc 
tmperot. In 1427 it ma takca hf Saltan Amnnth IL; 
botMuetlmvaftennTdBitiraareooTered from the infidel* 
bf aDothar bodr of craaadeia nhdei the muqnia of Hont- 
Inntt^ n poircrml baron of the Weal, who bMtowed iL along 
mlh nebca. on Otho da U Booh^ one of hi* principal 
fcllowen. For k eonaiderable time both citiea were sot- 
cmed b; Otho and hii dwwndanl*, with tbe title of dntca ; 
but bow nnable to iwintMn themaalw in thur Qreek 
nriacipafi^, the; were at length aaixeeded bj Waller of 
Brienn^ whiv ■<>■>*> *Am hia auooeanon, waa expelled b; 
hla new anltjeol^ aided br the Spaniuds of Calakinia. The 
next mien of Atheiia were the Acd^uoli, an opulent '"~ 
ilr 4^ Fteittoat, in wboae pow M aion it remained until liuu, 
wWiitwwUkenbf Omu, ■ general of Uahomet II.,Bna 
Ihna Ml a aecond tune into l&e haadi of (be barfaaiiane. 
nte Tictoiioa* aaltan tattled a Mahometan colotrr in hia 
new ooaqneat^ which he inoocpoisted with the Ottoniaii 
entire; and Aihen^ *■ well aa Greece, continued to fbrm 
an mtecral part ot Ibe Turtatb dominimi^ ontil itw tn«^ 
of Adnanojda in 1829, Ibilowinir np the providonB and 
atipnlaliona of the treaty of I<oDdon, 7th J11I7, 1827, ««tab- 
liaked widUn certaia umils the new atate ot Oreeo^ of 
whidi AthcDB ia now the coital. 

From the period of the Ottoman oonqueat to 
■™<n (^^ GommoicemeDt of the ioamreotion in 1821, 
Athena waa only known in IkistoiT hv two at< 
tonpla, on the port of the Venetiane, to ezpel the Turk* 
and make themaelrea maateta of the d^. The fiiat ot 
tiiaae took place In 1484, only nine jean afUr it* c^>tnre 
by the Oamaulia, and proved an entite biliue. But the 
Momid, whidi waa nndertaken in 1SS7, more than two oen- 
tnriw later, was crowned with ■ tempomrr and hXtl boo 
liiai In the mtnith of September of that year. Count 
KOoIgnBark, a Swede in the aerrioe of Venice^ having dia- 
emba^ed at the FirMoa a force of 8000 foot and 870 fioiae, 
fuming put of the armantent under Fianoeaco Horoeini, 
afterwarJadDflCkmarched to Athena, and having munmoned 
Ike dtadel without efibc^ he ereOed a baUerj of heavj 
ordnance on tbe hill of the ^jx, and placing two mortan 
near the lAtin convent at theweatern fcMDt of the Acropo- 
lis bMnbarded it for Bevenl days. The fire of the 

s continued, 

withoot Intermiaaica, to throw abeib into the dtadeL The 
ceoaeqiiaKe waa, that the beautiful little temple of Nike 
AptaDV^ the Mtte ot which ia now in the Bfitish Mu 
— I completely destroyed by the breachins batteij 

•tains batteij: and 
jured by the bunt- 

the Parthenon, beudea being greatly inii 

ing of the ghelli, waa, towaraB the doae of the attack, 

''~iatrait inniecei by'' ' ' 

. which reduced the 
min^ threw down tbe whole of the wall el the et 
tremity, and jnedpilated to the ground every 
the eaalem jtediment. The western extremity waa fortu- 
nately leai unured, and a part of the OpUthodomoa 
Mill left itandmg, together with some of the lateral colui 
of the peiii^le acjioining to the cell. But the shock 
nnertheleat abundantly disastrooa ; and when the Tarka 
afterwards rt^ained poa cmi on of the citadd [from which, 

n thla oceawon, they were ex{>eUed)^ they did all in their 
loo<Hnpleta the deslniction which the Veietiaoa had 
_ looalr oegun, by defiunuR, mutilating, or burning for 
lime'every fragment of the edi&je within Uieir reach. 

the Turks into the dtadel, tbc7 ertabUabed a strict blockade 
«f liw fill li aw which was continued until the advance of 
the fttb* at the head of 4000 men induced th«n to aban- 
dco their cnttfpriae, and fly, with the Athenian)^ to 
Salamis and .fgina. Two months aitenrards, the Pasha 
iaving left Athens to tbe defence of 1500 men, the Greeks 
again Ttntauad to attack the town, and ancceeded in oblig- 
ing tiie Tmka to aedc reftige in tbe dtadel, which they 
fbrthwith delersiined to besiege: but, from ignorance and 
want of meanly no progress wnalever was made in the 
apoaliaa nntU the; obtamed pcascaaioo of tlie well which 


supplied the ganisoo with water, irtien the Turks agreed la 
capitulate upon condition of bung immediately eiimarked 
with their fiunilies and sent to Aaa Uinor. Ou varioua 
preteooea, liowever, embarkation wai delaved from time to 
time; and whea intelligenae at Icmgth arrived that a la^a 
Turuah force was advantung apon Athene the Palkari, 
inalead of manning Ihe walls and preparing ibr a vigorona 
defsBOC^ mahed in a body to the honaea whoa the pmonen 
were confined, and oommviced an indiscriminate Hiaaaore. 
For this atrodt^ it is no pailialion In remembw that Ih* 
Qredi diararter had monlly ■nfierad from centuries of 
servitude and that thm bad larrible arrean of vengnanca 
to exact The tiiird siege was laid by tbe Turks in 1828. 
The Gre^ had left a strong Karrison in the Aeropdl^ 
with providons for several monUi* ; and a spring of watN 
havii^ been discovered in ttie cave of Pan, and ^doaed b; 
Odysseus within Ihe defences of tbe dtadd, there was no 
danmi of Its Itung starved into a sarrender. But tlis 
Tarts having established batteries near the Pnyx and on 
the hill of we Muieinm, and liaving drawn a line of 
trraehes round the dtadel, with the view of intercepting 
all communication bMween the besi^ed and the Greek 
army.thegarrisonwas hard pressed; and although ColoneJ 
Fabvler tnoceeded in forcing his wa/ throu^ the Turkiah 
lines with 600 men and a supplv of ammunition, and thoa 
B0brding immediate rdie^ vet the total defM of the Greek 
amy nnder General Churcn at the battle of Athens, foughl 
in the hope of rusing the siege, led soon afterwards to the 
sunender of the Aci^wlia, Which remained in the hands ot 
tbe Turka until the termination of the revolutionary war. 

In 1812 Athens oonld boast of a nopnlation 
of 12,000 Ronls, bat during the war the greater ^]^u^ 
pan of the dly was laid in ruina, and most of 
the InhahilantB were dlipeised. In 1634 it was dedarea 
the capital of the new kingdom of Greece. Great exertions 
have been made since then to reston the d(; ; streets have 
been opened, levdled, widened; the indent aewers have 
been cleared and reiMured, and the macshea of Cephisos 
drained. Excavations of ancient sites and boildlnga have 
been carried onl, cbieBv trough tiie efforts of the Aich- 
■iolK[icat Sodetr of Athena, but the aatiquaries and 
scfaotars of all Europe have anxionaly watched thdr eo- 
deavon, and France and Prussia have vied with Gnat 
Britain in the prosecution of Athenian discovery. The 
Tbeeeium has become a treasury of andent scnlpbire, and 
a new archeolog^cal museum has been also erected to con- 
the ever-increasiug si ' ■ ■ ■ ■ -■ 

the highest part of tbe gentle eminence which risefl from 
the level of the Ilissas and Cephisos towards Lyobettos. 
The XJniveraity (iroiwirurrf/uov) was founded in 1837, and 
nnmbeia over 1200 students, wnile its staff of 62 profmson 
includes the names of aonje of the moat learned Greek 
ardueologists in Europe. In bet, the schools and otha 
educational inadtutiouB of Athena are very numerous, and 
thoroughlr efficient The archnologdcal Journala of AtboN 
are full of information concerning the progreee of excava- 
tions, and publish the texts of newly discovered Inscri[^ 
tions. Tbe po^iuladon in 1871 was over 48,000, exduaiva 
of the papulation of the Pir«eus, which wootd bring the 
total np to about 60,000. The harbor is visited b^ shin 
of all nations. A nulway connects tiie Pineeus with the 
dty, and enteiB the andent (own about half-way between 
the site of the Dipylum and Pinean gates. The terminus 
stands in the midst of what once waa the Agora in Ceram- 
dcua. The prindpal street is Hermes Street, running 
from west to east, a little north of tbe lerminn^ until il 
reaches the royal palace. Two other good streets, Athena 
Street and .£olaa Street, travene this at right angles. The 
other BtreelB, with the exception of Stadium Street on the 
N.E., between the chamber of deputies and the Univend^, 
ore generally narrow and wiitding. Allogetha*, Athens, 
tike the rest of Oreeoe^ U in a condition of increasing 
prosperity, and reaps the blesungs of freedom. It is true 
that in our own coantry (he ardent philhelleniam of for^ 
^ewa ago has cooled down, and Greece is no loDgM an ob- 
ject of papular and sentimental admiration. Yet new 
did the scnolars of Europe turn with keener test to the 
study of her andent monumendi ; and if Attica wei« 
deared for ever of brigands, and furnished witii satiabdory 
roads, then in numbeis tenfold greater than now would 
reverent travellers from the west of Europe delight n 


Ths follawing ve Mine at the mcxt impiirtBiit worki on thi 
nU ant I— Leak*'! Topogrnpl^ cf Atluni i VoTiMworOi't Adktiu 
omI Auiaa j Bnrdui'l &D$rrasAu »■ fMteluntaiui, mud uiioli 
" Athena " in PwiIt'i Stat-Sue^icplidu, 3d ad. ; B. Cnrtin^i 
AtHtlu Sludit»i Iljtr'i Aiuitut Allkrttj Wxhinintli'* Bit 
Aoill AUuH in jHOriJUML (■. L. K.) 

ATHENS, the nuno of seTeral towna in th« United 
States of AmeriCk, th« chief of which ue the fbllowiuR: — 
(1.) The capital of a couDtj of the same name in the B.E. 
of the Bt&te of Ohio, finely gitualed on the Hocking Baver. 
It Ib the Beat of the Ohio univenitT, which was founded in 
1804. Population of county, 23,768. (2.) The capit&l of 
Clarke coua^, Georgia, on the W. bank of the Oconee 
Kver. It ii the seat of the Oeorgift univenitj', which yne 
founded iu 1801, and the central town of a large cotton- 
growing district Fopnlbtiou in 1870, 4261, of i^om IS67 

ATHEBTON, or Chowbeht, a township in the pariah 
of Leigh and hundred of West Derby, in Lancashire, 200 
miles Bota Lcmdon. It is one of those places which have 
grown to wealth and po^ulousnen through the extension 
of the ootlfHi tnde. Besides its IWilories, it has collieries 
and ironworks. Fopnlation in 1871, 7631. 

ATHLAB, Joseph, a celebrated rabbi and printer at 
Amsterdam, whose editions uf the Hebrew Bible are noted 
for the genent correcUiees of the texL Although be was a 
learned Hebraist, there are occasional errors in the points, 
sspedallv in the edition of IMI, but many of these were 
corrected in that of 1667. He also printed several editions 
of the Bible in the corrapted Hebrew spoken br the Jews 
of Bpain, Qermanj, Poland, and England. He died in 

ATHLETJB {iBXirral), among the Oreeks and Bomang, 
was the designation of persons who contended for prises 
l^iBia) in the public ssjnee, eiclusive of musical and other 
ooat«sls. where bodil]' strangth was not called into play, 
though here also the word was sometimes applied, and it wis 
even extended to horses which had won a race, and again 
metaphorically, e.g., to persons who had exerted themselves 
in good deeds (aijAfrof ruv xcMni Ipyuv), On the other 
hand, the term was restricted so as to exclude those who, 
for mere eiarcii '"' -->■•■ ' 
Used in the dai 

name was ifoyi , _ __. ..._ ._. 

necessary in the later period of Oreek history, when 
tnuned athletes liecame a profemonal class (400-300 b. c). 
Yet it was not the value of the prizes themselves whidi 
led men to devote their lives to athletic exercises. That 
was at most very insignificant. Bnl &om the heroic 
legends of competitions for priiea, such as those at the 
obsequies of Patr6clus {Iliad, xxiiL 257, /oO.), from the 
great antiquity of the four national games of Qreece (the 
Olympian, Pythian, Nemean, and IstWian, with the local 
PuiatlieniE* at Athens), and from the high social position 
of the competiloia in early times, there gradually Mcame 
attached to victory in one of theae games so mudi gloir, 
that the townsm«i of a victor were ready to, and frequently 
did, erect a statue to him, receive him in triumph, and 
care for him for the rest of his life^ Against specially 
trained athlelce the better class of ddiens refused to 
aompete. and the lists of the public games being thus leA 
practically open only to professionals, training became 
more a matter of system and study, particolarly in regard 
to diet, which was rigorously prescribed for the athletes 
1^ a public functionary, styled the Aleiptea, who also had 
to salve theb bodies when piactinng. At wm time thedr 
principal food consisted of Ireeh ^eese, dried tea, and 
whealen bread. Afteiwaids meat was introduced, gene- 
rally beef or pork; but the bread and meat were taken 
iei»rately. the former at breakfast (A/iumiv), the latter at 
dinner (itlmmi). Except in wine, the quantity was 
anlimited, and the capacity of some of the heavy weights 
(^opclf i0}jrTal] must have been, if such stories as those 
sjmut Milo are tme, enormous. Cases of death from 
apaplex7 are not unknown amon^ them. The Tarendne 
Icons waa an example of the strKtesI abstinence. Their 
lutmctim consisted, besides the ordinary ^mnastic 
exercises of the palntnL in canying heavy loa^ lifdug 
weights, bending iron rods, striking at a suspended leather 
■ack (i^invDr) filled with sand or flour, taming bulla, Ac 

Boxers had to pracUae delving the ground, to strem^en 
their npper limbs. The competitions open to ^letea 
""*" '" "'—ing, leaping, throwing the ducns, wrestlings 
le jPancratiom, or combination of boxing and 

boxing, and thePancratiom, oi 

wrestling. Victory in this lain km* lue utg»a» acuicTe- 
ment of an athlete, and wis reserved only for men of 
extraordinai7 strength. The competitors were naked, 
having their bodies salved with oil. Boxers wore tha 
aeatiM, (.«., strajM of leather, round the wrisU and fore- 
arms, with a piece of metal in the fls^ which was aom»- 
times employed with great barbarity. An athlete could 
begin his career is a boy in the oonlcets set apart fbr boya. 
He oould appear again as a yoath against his equals, aiid 
though always unsuccessful, could go on competing dll the 
age of 3S, when he wae debarred, it being assumed that 
dUr this period of life he could not improve. It some- 
times bapp«ied that an athlete would agree to allow hie 
rival to win ; but for that and other cases of disbonea^ a 
fine was impoaed, and the money expoided in erecting 
statues, called ZitiTc, widi warning inaenptions. The moat 
celebrated of the Qreek athletes whose names have been 
handed down are Milo, Hippoathenee^ Polydamas, Promai- 
chus, and Olaucua. Cyraie, &moua in the time at I^ndar 
for its athletes, appears to have still maintained its rmnita- 
tion to at least uie time of Alexander the Qreat ; for in 
the British Museum are to be seen dx prise visea carrie^l 
off from the games at Athens by natives of that district. 
These vsses, found in the tombs, probablj;, of the winners, 
are made of clay, and painted on one side with a repra- 
sentation of the contest in whidi they were won, and an 
the other side with a figure of I^lss Athena, with an 
inscription telling where they were gained, and ir 

Among (be Bomans, fond as tbey were of exhibitions of 
phyBical skill and strength, the prefesuon of athletes waa 
entirely an eiotic, and was even under the empire with 
difficulty transplauled from Greece. The svatem and the 
athletes themselves were always purely Qreek. (a, b. v.) 

ATHLETIC SPORTa Althoiigh this term is un- 
doubtedly derived from the ancieint Qiirrai^ the derivation 
does not exactly indicate its present meaning, insamueh 
as our modem athletes are distinctly defined to be amiteurs, 
in contradistinction to profenionaJs. In heA, the former 
pursue the agonistic art, and should be s^led " sgonisdcs," 
if we may M allowed to invent sooh a word, tather than 
athlUcs. How the pastime came to be thus named in 
Britain some fifteen years ago it is hatd to say. Till about 
1860, all exercises wherein the feet played the prindpol part 
were rightly styled " pedestrianism." Up to tnat p^oa all 
priiok whether contended for by amateurs or proKutmals, 
were mvariablv in money. As the practice ot the pastime^ 
however, rapidly spread amon^ the former, it wis naturaUr 
found they were loth to compete on the same terms with, and 
for similar trophies as, die latter. Hence arose the modern 
definition of an amateur athlete, vis., " Any person who 
has never competed in an open competition, or for public 
money, or for admissicai money, or with profesdonals for a 
prize, ptihlic money, or admission money ; nor has ever at 
any period of his life, tau^t or assisted in the pursuit 
of athletio exercises is a means of livelihood; nor is a 
mechani<^ artisan, or laborer." The moment this defini- 
tion WIS brought into force a wide barrier arose between 
the two claBsee, and amateurs ceieed to compete for money 
prizes amongst themselves, or against professionals, <hi anr 
Cermsj nnless they were willing to forfeit their status. A 
generic term wss required for the new pasdme, and in lien 
of a better it was entitled " athletic sports," snd its votaries 
" athletes." Henoe the haphaiard origin of the name. The 
birthplace of the modem jMstime was undoubtedly the great 
universities and the military and pnblic schools. Cricket 
has alwa^ been jnstiv considered the national game <rf' 
Great Britain during the summer months, and football EUla 
the same position in the winter, For a month or six weeks 
' and autumn the weather and condition of the 
re in a transition state, and fit for neither of theae 
psstimes, snd slhletio sports step in and appropriately fill 
■' - - -• Royal Military 

I sprmg a 

i vacuum. About the year 1812 (he Royal Military 
i^llege at Sandhimt inaugurated modem ntnledc sports ; 
but £e example was not followed dll about 1840, when 
Rugbv School, Eton College, Harrow School, Shrew^ury 
Boyal School, and the Royal Military Academy, Woolwidi, 
came to the front. Fifteen years later collie meedngs had 



EcMiMtaa anmi 
Htica of KBtlteriiii 
Oolkge Ud the vu 

Loadoo, whilst Ghellenh&m 
Kialiab pablio Bchooli. After 
' - Oxford IT. Cmmbridge 

ad is jnitly oonaideral 
if the vbole jmt, the fntemt shown 
w of ipectAton bilng littl^ if uiTthing, 
iHithau Bttheaiuuial boat nee between th« lame two KsU 
of leunlDtf. Two jeui Iftler th^ ■n■^^ »^ TiTnirtimr chAD^ 
piooihip tmetfaigwu fbonded ki London, when th«Oxfonl 
nd Gunbridge Tielon meet r c tirewn Uti T M from kII parts 
of the United Eluidoai, and CMiland for the "Mae 
libandi" of the Tanou* emtL The iniDdpel athletic 
■ode^ atpnMDt in existeaoe ii nndoabudlr the "London 
Athletic Qnb," which takra the lead In all oiaUen per- 
taining u> atbletice throo^ont the TJnilad Kingdom. la 

impottano^ and prob^y not a ^i^ univerN^ or Mhool, 
whudi does not hold its annual gUnering for athletic pur> 
posea. Acnei the bolder the profeadomd itUl fiw edipaea 
the antaicur dement, and there ia no meeting at amaleora 
whitji can b^ anj meaua be mmpaced with the aotamn 
Highland gathering at Braemar and eliewhw^ Until re-. 
ecotly the two d eme e contended indlKrimioatelr together, 
md the pjow « dbplsTed br inch amatetm u the late 
FraAaor Wibon aflurd* ample 

woe qnit« okpable of holding 

NOiiak. The nnmbei of annual amalear 

• ample teuimiHij that gentli 

cxtcodi bevond tl 

with Bdinbnrgh, St. ADdiewhOlMgow, and Aberdeen. _ 
Irelind the oripn of the [Mailmn ti again auribuuble to 
the IcaiUng miivenitj, m., Trinity Gollege, Dablin, where 
the deadon of isolated erenla, from about the jaar 1S45, 
hie given rise to the meetiiui now annnally held in the 
pietDRaqiM Collc^ Park at DabllD. The Irish dvil ser- 
fiee meeting was 18fl7, since whicb time the 
partime has made marreUont strides in the Island^ as is 
d hf Important mertinn now held snauall? in 
tj^ CSork, and Galwar; whilst the recentlj formed 
a Athletie Chib takes the lead, and stands 
dation to Ireland as the London Athletic 
Qab doea to the whole of Great Britain. Athletic sports 
ate alao now eztending on the Continent, at manj great 
walsring-placcB where Ensliahmen are in the habit ofcoo- 
tttgating. Our great oolonies of India, Aoslralia, New 
Zealand, and Canada, too, aa well as the United Btat«a of 

Belb^Gork, an 
Irish Qiampioa I 

Ans^o-8ax€a n 

The oontests i 

IT competiton 
w ohttslficd u 

IhroTOig the hammer, and putting the weight Leaping 
and nmning are respectively identical with the S^^ta and 
Ipiftot of the sndoit pentathlon; whereas throwing the 
*HT"'"' and potting the weight bear some resemblance to 
throwing the dfmrac. Spear-hnrlin^, aK6vrioii, u never 
pTBctiseS bat bja few ^mnastie societies; and wrestling. 
rU«^ between amatenn is ratelf witnessed. Running and 
kapng, however, are nearlj always comUned on eveiy 

1, the nonhem coantiee of 

. from 1 mile to 7, „ .„ . -.-^. 

-tunning comprises ail distancn from 100 yards 

np to 4 miles. Leapine may be divided into three principal 
hcada, vi^ nmning high-leaping, runniw wide-leaping: 
~ ' ' g pole-leaping, which are found to be incmdM 

in neariy^eroy athletic programme. Adiu 

the running hop-atep-and-jump, standing high-leaping, and 
slaitding mde-leaping, all of which are fiivorite pastimes 
b the northern and midland oountiea of England. Vault- 
ing^ toOj is aotnetimes practised, but belongs rather to the 
gjnmaainm than ooldoor athletic arena. Bteeplechssing 
proper can only be praotised over natarat oooisee acrora 
ODuntiy. Ita home ks to be fbnnd at Rugby School, aod 
anu»^ membeis of hare^nd-bonnds' duos, who keep 
IhemaelTn in exercise thereby dnriiw the winter months- 
Artificial ste^echase conrsca are oSea made on athletic 
gromida; bat the leaps are RUterally far too seuaationaJ, 
tnd constrncled rather to aobrd merriment to the spec- 
latocs than a Ikir test of the competitor^ leaping powers. 

A prettier aight than a well-contested hurdle race can 
scarcely be imagined ; but few flnt-clisa hurdle rscen are 
met with oataide the universities and public schools. Scot- 
land is undoubtedly the birthplace both of hammer throw- 
ing and patting the weisfat, yet they are oow practised at 
nearly ererr English and Irish meeUns. 16 Oi is the usual 
weight of UM miinle except in Ireland, where a ^Ib, and 
sometimeB a S6-Ib weight are pal, though in a very unsat- 
isfaotoiT fiuhi<». Athletic sports may be pnMS&ed in a 
well-ioUed gram field, but the b«et arena is an enclosure^ 
with a regiuarly laid down running tra«h, the foundation 
made of ctinken and rubble, and the surface of well-rolled 
fine cinder ashes. (h. r. w.) 

ATHI/DNE, a market-town and parliamentary borough 
of Ireland, lying partlr in West Meath and partly in 
Roscommon, 76 milee W. of Dublin, The river Shannon 
divides the town into two portions, which are connected 
l^ a handsome new bridge, opened in IBH, The rapids 
of the Shannon at this point are obviated by means of a 
canal about a mile long, which renders the navigation of 
the river practio^e tor 71 miles above the town. In 
the war of 1688 the poescaaion of Athltme was considered 
of the greatest importanoe, and it consequently sustained 
two siegce, the flrat by William III. in person, which 
Imled, Md tiie second by Qeneral Ginkell, who, la the face 
of the IrislL forded the river and took poneaion of the 
town, with the loss of onty fiAy men. At the lime of the 
last war with France it was atronglv fbrUAed on the Bos- 
CMnmon side^ the worics covering IS acres and containing 
two magastnes, an ordnance slor& an armon' with 16,000 
stand of arms, and barradu for IwO men. lliere are two 
nuish diurchies, two Roman Gatholio parochial diiH>el& a 
Franciscan and Augustinlan chapel, Presbyterian, ^ptist, 
and Methodist meeting-houses, a ooart-hoase, bridewell, a 
union work-hoose, and two branch banks. It has a woollen 
&ctory, as wtO as other industries, and an active trade Is 
carried on with Shannon harbor and Limerick by steameis, 
and with Dublin by the Qrand and Royal Canals and sev- 
eral railway lines, while the importance of its fairs and 
markets is increasing. There is also a valuable fisheryin 
the river. Market-days, Tuesday and Saturday. Tbt 
borough returns iHie member to parliament. Popolatioa 
in 1871, 6566; ooustituency In 1873, 336.— Thom's Irith 
Almanae for 1875. 

ATHOR, Athtb, Satbor, the name of the Egyptian 
divinity corr«eponding to Aphrodite or Venus. Her name 
meant " the aWe of Hor" or Horns, and she was the 
mother of that deity in some of his types, and as such a 
form of Isi&^of whom she was a higher or celestial mani- 
leatation. Her name occurs as early as the 4th dynasty, 
when she is styled the mistress of the tree, or sycamonv 
neka. or the tree of the south. Berides the local titi«s of 
(he aiflbrent dties over which she presided, she was entitled 
regent of the gods, living mistrem of the upper and lower 
world, mistress of the heaven and r»enl of the West, and 
pupil or eye of Ra, or the Son, with whom she was con- 
nected. In her celestial coaracter she is represented as an 
Egyptian female holding a Kcptie, her head anrmounled 
br the sun's disk, boms, and uneus, and her flesh colored 
bine, the color of the heaven, or ^low, that of gold and 
bcsMtr (aocM^ing to Egyptian notions), a term also applied 
to Aphrodite in Qreek mythology. In her terrestrial cha- 
racter she was. the godden who presided over sports and 
dancing, music and pleasure, like the Oreek Aphrodite, the 
goddess of love: but her particularly spedal type was the 
white or spolleu cow, the supposea mother 01 the sun. 
The solar deities Shu and Temut were her diildren. la 
certain legends abe Is mentioned as the Kven oows of 
Athor, which appear in the Ktual or Book of the Dead. 
These cows, like the Maine, or &(ee of Greek mythology, 
appeared at the births of legendary persons, and predicted 
the course and events of tiieir lives. It is in this capadty 
that Athor is connected with Ptah, or the Egyptian He- 
pbEEBtuB, and Is allied to Sekhet or Bas^ called the wife 
or mistress of Ptah, the seven cows being the mystical 
companions of tiie Apis, the second life or incarnation of 
the Eod of Uemphis. She was also represented under thft 
attribiilea and with the tities of the goddess Nut, or the 
EWplinn Rhea. The cow of Athor wore on its head the 
Bolor disk, and hawk fteiUher plumes, like Amen Ba; and In 
this character as the great cow she has on some monnments 
her human head replaced bv that of a cow wearing a disk, 
or the disk and plumes. Tnis emblem also appeaid In h^ 

r peHod, irim bar head ii repnHnted with 
MTled into » i^nJ at the too, and she hu 

the aboda of the a 

r Ita cornice, emblem of 

handle of Ihe idatniiD, a muvcal initninMiit vilh ban, 
was generally made in xhape of thli head and comioe, at 
wera alao the capitala of the coiosniB of Abnumbal, 
Denderah, and other temple^ and the agia and prowa 
of oertun arfca. Ai th« godoeaa of beaatjr and yooUi, 
man? of the qaeena of fcn>****oniedbert7peai>dat- 
tiil)atei^aad70QngtemaIeeafterdeath,atdiePtoleniaic • 
and aafaaeqnent p^odc, had their namea preceded by 
that of the godoeaa, as both aexta had "Onrii" from 
the period of the 19th dynaa^, that of Atbor beinc < 
a later rabatitut^ and »r femalea only, ^le thira 
niMilh of the Esypdan year waa named Atbor after 
her, and the &h eUtn or lalui, a kind of carp, wis 
tacT«d to her. The namea and titlea of Athor were 
TOiy DomeKHU, and she is named in the inscriptioDi 
the lady or nuEtnaa of Bllailis, Abuaimbnl, IWlch^ 
Omba& Hermonlbia, Apollonopolia Magna, and Helio- 
polie ; bnt the chief aite of her worthip was Dendenh, 
or Tentyris, where ahe is mendoned under many namea, 
and all the different feetiTala held in her honor are r»- 
ooided in the calendar of the temple. Athor is one ot 
the ddeat of the Egyptian deitiea, and her wotahip con- 
tinned Ull the WTof P ■ ' 

a« the laat of sorenunal aboot 
■faoTtlr aftenrarda tbeia followed th< 
(rfrt •tp^puv), Valopedi (ParowUun 
•Safiyiiivmr). The Ikmily of Uie 
beatowed great privU^ea on the exiatliif 

added to uialr nombar. In the reign o. 

Ponly Slavonic momwtery (that of Chilaodari) waiboadtd 
bj the Serrlan ^inoe Stephen Nemeqja. Tiw taUi« «f 


t Pantheiam and iobaUtation at 
Chriitianity. Her woiahip paaed from Egypt to the 
neighboring ialea, oow-headed figarta of the goddem 
having bevi discovered in Cyprus. Her fignrea and 
repraentation are common. Jablonaki, AinlA. / Wil- 
kinson, JfotHun and Oulonit, iv. 387; Birch, OalL 
Antig., p. 26 ; Dnemichcn, Bamrkunde dtr Oatdtra, 
Lap. 1806. (a. b.) 

ATHOS is, atriotly speaking, the terminal peak of 
themoateasleniof the three peninsular ptomontoriea which 
atretch south from the coast of Turkey (JfaoedonKi), like 
the prongs of a trident, into the Arcfaipelaao. The name 
is, however, frequently extended to the whole peninsula 
which was lonnerly known as Acte. The peak rinea like 
a pyramid, with a ateep aummit of white marble, to a 
height of S780 feet, and can be aeen at sunaet from the 
plam of Troy on the one hand, and on the other from the 
alopea of Olympus, The whole peninanla is remarkable 
for the beauty of its scenery, with rocky heighia and richly- 
wooded fianks, ravines " embowered from the light," and 
glimpsee or fi^ outloolc over the surrounding sea. The 
climate is for the moat part healthy i ' ' ' ' 

the western side is perhaps too mudi 
of summer ; and I^ician aaauroi us that in audent times 
the inhabitanta were ftuuous for longevi^. Several towns, 
snch as Bane, Dinm, Olophyzus, Cleone, ai« mentioned by 
Greek and l^atin wrileia as existing in the Peninsula ; but 
none of them seem to hare attained any great im^rtance, 
and the most remarkable event in the ancient history of 
Athos is the construction by Xentea of a ship-canal across 
the isthmus between the outer sea and the Singitic gulf. 
Traces of this canal, which was ngarded by Juvenal as a 
Greek myth, have been found almoat right acroee the neck 
of land, and leave no doubt of the tmtfi of the story. In 
more modem timee the district of Athoa has been fiunous for 
the number of hermits and monks that have found shelter 
in ita retreats. No fewer than 635 churches, chapedi, and 
oratotiee are said to ezisL and many of the communities 
poweas considerable wealth. It is believed tha^ with the 

Athos - . . 

Europe; the shrinea are in many cases richly decorated 
with goldamith's work of great antiquity ; the wealth 
of the mcoiastic libraries in illuminated manuscripts has 
long been celebrated; and nowhere, according to Mr. 
Toier, can the Byiantine school of painting tie studied 
with e^ual advantage. The dale of the oldeet religious 
foundation in the peninsula is not clearly ascertained, and 
the trodi^fHial chronologr of the monks tbemselvee can 
hudly bft trusted. A bull of BiuuaniiB Lecapenns epeaka 
of the rerton^on of the monasleiy of Xeropotomn in 9Zi, 
and aa early as 885 a rescript of Basil the Macedonian 
forbids the moleatodoo of the "holy hermits." Lavra, on 
Ifmnt Athoa proper, was founded by St. Athanasioa in 
960 i the Tillage of Cuyes or " The Haiels," was appointed 

Bk«t«h-lf ^ of Athoi. 

I, and led them tc 

Under the Palieologi uiey recovered their proeperity, ud 
were enriched by gifia from various sources, In the 14th 
century the peninsula becajne the chosen retreM of several 
of the emperoiB, and the monaateriea were thrown ioto 
commotion by the &mous dispale about the mystical 
Hesj^ihaats. Their numben were gradually InoMsed by 
the foundation of St. Diooydos^ Simopeira, CMatanuadtn, 
Rnssioo, St. Paul. In the 16th centniy the monks midi 
terms with the Turkic conooeror Ajnnrath, and )ian 
since been moleated by none of the aultana, except Bolimaa 
the Uagnifioen^ who uid waste some parts of the peninsnla. 
In 1546 Stavrouieela, the last monaaten, waa added to tha 
list The boepodan of Wallachia, who were recogniied 
as the protectors of Athoa, enriched the conunnnida with 
lands : out a process of seouIarizaUon waa oonuneoced by 
Capodistriaa, who conGacated their holdinsa In Greeoa; 
and more recently they have been atripped of their pM- 
sessioDS in the Danubian prindpalitiea. They still lelun 
some property in parts of the Archipeliwo. A TuAiah 
official resides at Ca^ea, and ooUecta the taxc& which 
amount to about ten shillings a head; but for the meat 
port the peninsula is autonomous, being governed by an 
administrative body of four preeiaeita (iirurrdrot) one al 
whom bears the title of "First Man of Athc^'' and a 
repreaentative body called the Holy Synod, whim oonsWi 
of twenty memben, (me from each of the monostoriel 
proper. Tbeee twenty communitice ate partly CcoioUti^ 
witb a common stock and a warden, and partly Idiorrfayth- 
miCj with a kind of republican government and gnat 
individual liberty. Beddea theae regular m<»aa(erii^ 
there are a number of ^K^ripia, or sketee, wbidi CMisist of 
several small aasodations gathered round a central dmrdi, 
and nomeroua little commnnjtiea known as adKortani, or 
retreats, as well as genuine hermitagea. Harmony Is not 
always ouuntuned Mtween the different establishments, m 
was ahown by a bitter dispute about a watercourse between 
Catltunnal and Pantocratoros, which led to Ibe iuteritnan 
of the British consuls at Salonica and Oavalls, in anaww 
to an t^peal fmn aome Ionian monka who wne BritlA 
sulgectt (1858). For the moat part, however, the inhabit- 
ants of Athos are quiet and moderately induMnooa. tbtj 
are said to number about 3000, all men ; for no frms^ 


•m of the lower animajg, is permitted 
pndDdB of the. Holy Hountkin. 

-Dweriptto Hanti) Atho at nil. ^u Hoaut.," bj Jo. 
CmnoiDi in Uont&QeoD'* Falmtgrapkia Grmea ; OeorgirmiM, 
BrxrifHa* of Frttnl Stall of Samot, PatmM, Ifiearia, and 
JTiMl Adat, LoDd., 1078; Lleat. Wabbw Smith, "On Honat 
AUw^" *«.. in Joum. Sof. Gm. Sot, 1S3T ; Cunon, YUiU (s 
JfcawMWaa IB Ikt Lnaat, IMS; FdlmermTer, FragnaMa out 
itm Oriml, 184ft ; Qui, Ocwimtnialia HMoriaa, to., uDd Zur 
OwlVckX, A«., 18U! Buinsr'i BuU Tat,:lunl.ueh, 18S0 (ut. 
bj PlMkoD) ; lUport by M. Minoids Hiu«, 1840 ; J. HUller, 
BnimaUr in <Un Kastttm «» Ailun i Luigloii, AHm, Ao.j 
Didnni*! loonoqraphh CkritiumtEj 1844 ; Jonrvtl Anatimu, 
1847 ; Tom'j SigUantU of TWi^, ISSV. 

ATHT, » nurket-toim of Ireland, county of Eildmre, 
S4 miles &W. of Dublia. It is k slatioa on the Great 
Soathera and Western iUilwaj, and is intersected bj the 
river Bmtdw, irhich is here croaod bv a bridge of Are 
aidtes. It baa & church, a Soman Catholic chapel, a 
Preat^rtariaii and a Uethodlst meeting-house, court-houM^ 
jkil, two banks, hospital, dispatusry, barracks, Ac. Adjoin- 
ing the town is a small chapel, an andent oemeterr, wd a 
■mall Dominican monastery. PrcTious to the Union it 
ntaned two members to the Irish parliamenL The prin- 
cipal tiade is in com, which Is groand at the nei^boring 
■ulb. Populadtm in 1871, 4610. 

ATINA, A town of Nsplca, prorince of Terra dl I^Toro, 
BMT the Helb, and 12 miles RE. of Sora. It has a 
eatbednj, conTcnt, and hospital, with about 5000 inhabit- 
■iitB: but it is chieflj' remarkable for lis ancient remains, 
eoiNistliig of portiooB of its walls, the ruins of an extensive 
■qaednct, and nnmerona other structures, besides monu- 
ments and InBCriptioaB. The ci^ is of frreat antiouity, 
mad was a place of importance down to the days oi the 
Kfrmwp empire. It is remarksble now, as of old, for the 
exceptiMial coolness of its altnation. 

ATITLAN, a lake in the department of Bolola, in 
Onatemala, 20 miles long, with an average breadth of S 
iHJIwi It seema to oocupy the ctater of an extinct volcano, 
and its depth is imported to be very fitM. The sceoerj in 
the neu^Dorhood is atrikiiu and pidaresque, the volcano 
of Atitbn rearing its bead 12,600 feet above the level of 
the sea. A little Indian town, Santiago de Atitinn, nestles 
attbefootof the ■ '- 

S.E, of the Chattahoochee River, at an elevation of UOO 
feet above the sea. Laid out in 1S45, and incorporated as 
m city in 1S47, it has since rapidly increased. It is the 
txotre of a large trade in grain and cott<Hi, and has ezten- 
KTe railway communication in all directions. Eiwneering 
work of various kinds is carried on, as well ss the manu- 
fiwture of cast iron, flonr, and tobacco. There are two 
nwliTrnwl and two savings banks. Educational ii 

are anmerons. r—' '-" •'■~ ■"—••■ ^i- '■ 


libnuy contai— -^ 

aboot thirty churches of different denominations, the 
Methodists being most largely represented, and one of 
thcdr churches ranking among the finest buildings in the 
dtr. During the war Atlanta was the centre of important 
military operations, and suSered greatly in consequence 
(1864). It waa strongly fortified by the Confederates, and 
defeiued, first by General Joseph E. Johnston, and then 
h^ Qeneial Hood, against the attack of General Sherman. 
Hood was oompelled to evacuate the city, and Sherman 
aflerwards retired to ChBUanoc^a,'~moTements which occa- 
sioned the destruction by fire of the greater part of the 
boildings, both public and private. Population — (1S60), 
95mT(1870), 21,78B. 

Pf^^L ATLANTIC OCEAN. The designslion At- 

lantic Ocean, originally given to the sea that 
lies beyond the great rahge of AUas in Norlb-wealem 
Africa, has come to be appUed, with the extension of geo- 
gr^bical knowledge, to the whole of that vast ocean wliich 
oocnpiea the wide and deep tiooKh that separates the New 
from the Old World. Its limits are variously defined; 
some geographeis regarding it ss extending from pole to 
pole,.wliiUt others consider it as bounded at its northern 
and southern extremities by the Arctic and Antarctic 

more appropriate to describe them under a separate head 
(FoiAB BuiOMs], the Atlantic will be here treated as 
bounded at the north by the Arotie rirole, which nearly 
oorresponda with the nabiral olosing-in of its b^n by the 
approai^ of the coasts of Norway and Oreenland with 
loeland Ijring between them; iriule at the sonth, where 
the baain is at its widest, its only booiMiary la the Antarctic 
drcle. The line which separates its eooUiem exteuion 
from the Indian Ocean may be considered to be the 
meridian of Cape Agulhss, the loaihernmoet point of the 
Africsn continent; whilet the boundary i>etween the South 
Atlantic and South Pacific would be ibrmed in like manner 
by the meridian of Cape Horn. Although the Baltic and 
the Mediterranean are coigmonly regarded as appendages 
to the Atlantic^ yet their physical oonditions are so peculiar 
as to require separate treatment. (Bee Bai/tio and HxdI' 

Every nhysical geographer who has written upon the 
Atlantic has noticed the curious parallelism between its 
eastern and its western borders, — their salient and retiring 
angles corresponding very cloeeiy lu each other. Thus, 
banning at the north we see that the projection fiirmed by 
the British Islanda (which extends moch fbrtber westwanb 
at 100 bithoms below the sur&ce than it does above the 
sea-level) anawers to the wide entrance to Baffin's Bay; 
whilst, on the other hand, the projection of the American 
coast at Newfoundland answers to the Bay of Biscay. 
Eurther sonth, the great rounded prominence of Northern 
Africa corresponds with the vsst bay that stretches from 
Nova Scotia to St. Thomas; whilst the angular projection 
of South America towards the east corresponds with that 
receding portion of the mid-African cosst-Une which is 
known as the Quif of Guinea. 

This oomspopdenoe sn^^BBled to Humboldt the idea that 
the Atlantic basin was onginally excavated by a very vio- 
lent rash of water from the sooth, whichj being repulsed 
by the mountain ranges of Braiil, was directed hj them 
towards the coast of Africa, and formed the Golf of 
Guinea; bung there checked and turned to the west by 
the mountains of Upper Guinea, the stream excavated the 
Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico; and issuing 
between the monntains of North America 


lOcitv and i 

speaks of the basin of the AtTsnt 
iyj some terrible force, which rent the surfsoe-land asunder, 
but left the edges of the rarine to show by their form that 
they had once been connected. For neither of these specu- 
lations, however, is there the smallest foundation in laot. 
What has to be accounted for, indeed, in regard to either of 

indaries that 


1 1 .Uler omupjlng tba dtr tes weaki Omen] 

ocean originally universal by the boui 

close it; in -''■ '- — ' *- • 

bottom of it 

is the proportion of the luid-Burface of the ^lobe t ... 
water-sur&ce scarcely more than one-third (being as 1 to 
2-78), but the entire mne of the land which thus covers 
little more than one-fourth of the siu^we of the globe is 
quite insignificant in comparison with that of the water 
which ooveiB ^e remuniug three-fourths. Eor whilst the 
average elevation of the whole land is certainly less than 
one-finh of a mile, giving from 9 to 10 millions of cubic 
miles OS the total maas of land that rises above the sea- 
level, the Bvemge depth of the sea (so br ak at present 
known) may l>e taken ^ about 2 miles, giving a total of 
nearly 290 millions of cubic miles of water, which is there- 
fore about Airly lima the masB of the land. Prom the oom- 
putation of Keith Johnston, it appears that, " if we conceive 
an equalising line, which, passing around the globe, would 
leave a mass of the earth's crust above it, just sufficient te 
fill up the hollow which would be left below it, this line 
woulJ then fall nearly a mile below the present level of 
the sea." This is tantamount 1o saying that, if the solid 
crust of the earth could be conceived to be smoothed down 
to one uniform Jefel, its entire surface would be covered 
with water to the depth of about a taiile. Hence it is 
obvious that ss the elevation of that crust into land over 
oertaia areas must be accompanied by a corresponding 
depression of the sea-bed over other areas, sach depression, 
augmenting in thoseareas (he previous depth of the aqueous 
covering or the glob& would be quite sufficient to sccouut 
for the existence of the great ocesnic bakins, without any 
Sberauu sdTanced to SaiuiDah.— Ansa. Ed.} 


tntlng ■ 

ckhic agencT. Faitber, •■ the miantit; of solid matUr 
th&t must hB?a been removed (on Humboldt'B hTpotbesu) 
in ihe esoTHtion of the Atlnjitic valley masl hive been 
Dearly four timee is great as that which forms the whole 
known land of the {[lobe, and u it ii imponible to conceive 
of an; mode in which auch a man can haTe been dispoaed 
of, we mxy diamiH that hypothesis aa not onlj untenable in 
r^ard to the Alhtntic basin, but as equally inapplicable to 
■nj other valley of similar width and de^Ih.' ' 

The general directiop of geological opinion, indeed, hna 
of late been, on pbyaical groanoa, towards ^« high an- 
tiqni^ of the great oceanic basins, not exactly aa at preaent 
booDded, bot as areas of depmsion having the same rela- 
tioD aa they have now to the areas of elevation whkb fonu 
the sreal continents. Thus Sir Charles I^ell was strongly 
imprtased bv the &ct that the mean depth of the aea u 
not improbably fifteen times aa great as the mean hraght 
of the land ; and that depKsritMia of the sea-l>ottom to a 
depth of three miles or more extend over wide areas, whilst 
elevations of the land to similar heicht are confined lo a 
few peaks and narrow ridgea. Hence, he remarked, " while 
the efifect of vertical movements equalling 1000 feet in 
both directicau, upward and downward, is to cause a vast 
Jrao^csition of land and sea in those areas which are now 
sontinaitaL and adjoining to which there is much 
exceeding 1000 feet in (•--"- 
would have no tendetii 

In the Atlantic or Pacific 0<»ans, ._ ._.... _. 

and continental areas to change places. Depreasions of 
1000 feet would submerge lai^ areas of the exiBiins land ; 
but fifteen times as much movement would be reqmi«d lo 
convert such land into an ocean of average depth, or lo 
cause an ocean three miles deep to replooe any one of the 
existing continents."* And FrDfeasor Dana, who, more 
than any other geolt^t, has studied the structure of the 
existing continents and the succession of changes oonoemed 
in their elevation, has been led, by the consideration of the 
probable direction of the forces by which that elevation was 
efiected, lo conclude that the denning of the present con- 
tinental and oceanic areas bwan wiui the commencement 
of the solidification of the earth's crust. " The oontineotiil 
areas are the areas of l^t contraction, and the oceanic 
Oasins tboee of the greatest, tlie former having earliest had 
e. solid cmsL After the continental part was Qius sUfiened, 
snd rendered comparatively unyielding, the oceanic part 
went on cooling, solidifying, and contracting Uirougbout; 
consequently, it became depressed, with the sides of the 
depression somewhat abrupt. The formation of the oceanic 
basins and continental areas was Uius due to 'unequal 
radial contraction.'" In the opinion of Professor Dana, 
there has never been any essential change in the relations 
of these {preat features. "It is hardly poBsible," he says, 
" to conceive of any conditions of the oontiacting forces that 
should have allowed of the continents and oceans in after 
time changing places, or of oceans, as deep nearly as exist- 
ing oceans, being made where are now the continental areas; 
although it is a neoessary incident to the system of things 
that the continental plateaus should have varied greatly 
in their outline and outer limits, and perhaps thousands of 
feet in the depths of some portions of Ihe overlying seas, 
and also that the oceans should have varied la the extent 
of their lands." ..." The early defining, even in Arch^an 
times, of the final features of North America, and the con- 
formity to one ETSlem visibly marked out in every event 
through the whole history — in ihe poeitions of its outlines 
and the formations of ils rocks, in the character of its 
oscillations, and the courses of the mountains from time to 
time raised — sustain tlie statement (hat the American con- 
tinent is a regular growth. The same facts also make it 
evident that the oceanic areas between which the continent 
lies have been chief among the regions of the earth's crust 
that have -jsed the pent-up force in ihe contracting Bph< 
to carryforward the continental developr"-""- ^'"'' ■ 

Dultr o' wh( 

igb aa Ihtt 

If this 

«, like Ihe Atl«nilc, a port 

:umKrib«t hj thv elcTiUoD of ll> bocdi 

irigiai] %w» or dsprenloii, 

tme of the North American condnent, the some in prind- 
ple was law for all continents."' 

Dtmenstoni nf Qit AQaiiiit. — The length of the Atlmlie 
basin, considered as extending from the Antic lo the Aoi- 
arclic circle, is nearly 8000 geographical miles. The oeu^ 
est approach of its Doundsries is between Greenland and 
Norwav, whose coasts are only about SOO miles apid. 
They thence reoede from each other towards the aoatK, m 
far as the parallel of 30° N. laL, wher^ between the pmia. 
sula of Florida and the western coast of Marooco, tboe it 
an interval of 70° of longitnde, or abont 3600 geogtaphinl 
miles. The channel then npidly narrows as it ptnes sonib- 
ward, so that between Cape St. Boqne in Branl {S° & IsL) 
and the coast of Sierra Leone (between 6* and 3^ N. liL) 
the African and American conUnenCs approach within 1500 
miles of each other. The sudden eastward recesdoa of the 
African coast as It approaches the •quatiK', and the wnt- 
ward trend of the South American ooasl-line between Cipi 
" ■" - " •" iriden out the South AtliDtic 

that of the North Atlantie in 
the parallel of 30° N.,— the interval between Ihe Cue of 
Good Hope and the estuary of 1a Plata, in the parallel of 
35° 8., being no les than 73^ of lon^tnd^ or abcat 3600 
gewraphical miles. 

The depth of the North Atlando has been mora on- 
fully and sjrstemadcally examined ^in that of any ('' ~ 
oceanic basin ; and the general contonn of its nodull 

sea-bed mav now he r^arded as pretty well detc 

^ iue the older souudiugs as utterly nntrtutwofthr, 
and acoeptiiw only those takeo by the modem methoiM, 

whose reUabOity bos be«i amply tested by the accordiooe 
of divetaified experiences, we can now amert with coni- 
deuce that scarcely any portion of its fioor has a de[«k 
exceeding 3000 bthoms, or about 3'4 miles, the grolcM 
iie;)th determined by the recent " Challenser" soundii^ 
which was that of a ii»ni'«1 depression about a bundrad 
miles Ifl the north of St Thomas, having been 3S7fi fiuh- 
oms, or about 4'4 miles. Except in the nwghboriiood of 
its ooaat-linea, and in certain snallflwer areas to be pr»- 
ently specified, the floor of the basin at ils widest put 
seems to lie at a depth of from 2000 to 8000 btboms, iti 
slopes being extremely gradual. The central poftion of 
the principal basin of Ihe North Atlantic, however, is occu- 
pied by a plateau of irM^Qlar shape, of whidi a comidtf- 
able part lies at a less depth than 2000 {Mheana. Of thu 
plateau the Acores mav be n^rded as the calminslioD; 
and that group being taken as Its centre, it may be said lo 
extend to the north as far as lat. 50°, and to the goulh-nsi 
as &r as the tropic of Cancer, The northern exleiuion of 
tliis plateau narrows out into a sort of isthmus, which con- 
nects it with the plateau that occupies a great |iMt of the 
Atlantic basin lo the north of 50° H. lat. ; and it is ««ro" 
this isthmus, and along the IwClom of the deep narrow vil- 
!ey on either side of it, that the tel^raph cables are laid 
between Ireland and Newfoundland. Whether ils south- 
westera prolongation, known as the " Dolphin Rise" (fig. 'i 
iirfro), extends lo the equator, so as to became contmuoni 
with the elevated area wliich culmuuOes in St. Paul's roiss, 
and by a further southward extension becomes continacos 
either with the volcanic elevation of St. Helena and Abc» 
sion Island, or with the elevation in the middle of the 
South Atlantic which culminates in the island of TrisWi 
da Cunha (fig. 2), has not yet been ascertained. Acgm^ 
ing lo the view already suggested as to the formation of 
the Atlantic basin, the plateau might be r^arded "J^ 
resenting the original sea-bed (from which the Ampcs have 
been lifted up by volcanic action), whilst the deep vall^ 
on either side of it ore "areas of subsidence" oosweringto 
the "areas of elevation" of the land that borders them. 

Generally speakins, the deptlis of these valley iacifssa 
pretty rapidly with the distance from the shore-line, so that 
the contour-lines of one and two miles follow the aioi* 
lines pretty closely. But there are two localities m wbirt 
shallow water extends to a much greater distance from land 
than it appears to do elsewhere. One of these lies " ™ 
neighborhood of the British Isles. For a distance of abont 
230 miles to thewistwaid of Ireland there isaslope of only 
abont 6 feet in a mile ; but in the next 20 miles there u i 
fall of 9000 feet, after which there is little change of lenl 
for 1200 miles. Hence as the depth of the sea immcdi- 
ately surrounding the Brldsh Isles is nowhere 100 fiU"™ 
(so that an elevation of their whole area to that smount 

< " On wme Reiulls of the Earth's ConWaottoi ftom CooUaft" !• 
Ajuiit. Jlmra. qf Seiatei, June, 1BT1. 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 


IBB ouHUfnafc VI fduniiw^, h 9 i 
lAiah th«7 Mat b noJlr, altbo 
of the Und-maN of JSmnpa. 
■hklloira ii that (rf whidi Um B 

waaldmiUa these Uaadiiiotoal/loaachothwlat alio to 
Ae eoatinaat ol Earow), it b obriow that the platfomi on 
'r, although BOW mibiiMrged, ft put 

Another ai theae ezteoaiTe 

Bank* irf Newtbandbad Ibnn 
the highad part: and of the existcnoe of this a probable 
ezpbiMtioB nuj be (bond in the aoaimplntion <d the rodc- 
maaeea that are brought down bj iodiciga «7«rj nuniner 
from the rnaitn of QreoUand and lAbiador. For it u noir 
goMiallf admitted that theee icebeisi aie i'«ally parte of 
riacien^ that were oHginaUr fcmuia on the monntain- 
Movea of Qreeolaod and Luirador, and then deMended 
TaUsTa wliich opia out on tbeb ooaeta, ao ae, on airiTing 
at the moutha of these valleji, (o detach themsdve* and 
float BWB7, being bome aonlhwajrds bjr the Polar Current to 
be preeentlj described. Hcet Arctio icebe^ of wliich a 
near view oan be obtained are obeerred to liave npoD them 
a oonaidetable amnber of pecee of rock, eometimee of a 
Tei7 conaiderable aiie; and tbeM are. of oonrae depouted 
oa the iea-bed when the icebens melt (which the^ tuuelly 
do on thebordentrf theOnlf Stream], thua forming avast 
ie bed, to whidi panlleb are not improbablr to 
TariouB BCoIogiMl ^mcha. 
OtafMidol Agt tfAt AtlamHe Awm.— Onided bf the 
pindple that great ooeanio bauna are to be ramndered 
zather ai original marine areag that have been limited bf 
(be eleratian of their boondariee, than as having been 
formed bv the ezcavalion of terrestrial areas, we have to 
inquire what evidence tbeie ia that the basin of (he Atlan- 
lio iua nndeigone maj oonsidentble cltange within a com- 
paiatitel; recent period. 

A* ha* I>een pointed oat bj Prof. Wyville Thomson 
i^Dtptiu ^ At Sia, p. 473), it b difficult Co show that aaf 
oidllatioDa have occurred Id the north of Surope aince the 
tarmioatioD of the Seconder; period, to a greater extent 
Uian from 4000 to 6000 feet,— thie being the extreme ver- 
tioal depth between the base of theTertiarieeuid the high- 
est point at which Tertiary or poat-Tertiary ahelb are found 
on the dofies and ridges of moontaina. Sooh oectlla^onB, 
while cottsiderablj; modifying the bonndariee of the Allan- 
tie, would not eerionsly aSect the condition of the deeper 
parts of itt sea-bed ; and hence it may be concluded tnat 
the two deep vall^B, one on the European eide of the mod- 
em volcanic platfarm of the Aiorea, and the other on the 
American, earn having a width of 600 or 700 milea, and 
an average depth of 16,000 Ee^ eoold neither have been 
filmed by sncn osdllatimia^ nor could, when onoe Ibrroed, 
' have been converted into dry land. It will be presently 
ahowD that thb idea of the existence of an Atlantic basin 
corrttponding generally to that now exuting, as far back 
as the later ^oondary period, b strongly supported by the 
evidence recently obtuned of the continuity of animal life 
(D the Atlantic sesrbed from the Cretaceous epoch to the 

u border^ at no considerable dbtaooe from the coast 

of North AinoL there are three principal groups, — the 

s, Canaries, and Cape Verd, — all of which have an 

towarda its oonUneotal shoreline, 
ocean, lies the group of the Aiores, which also b volcani<^ 
and risea from ue plaleaa already spoken of; bat between 
thb area and the slope from wliich the Madeiras and 
Oanaries are based b a very deep channel, nugiog down- 
wards to at leMt 16,000 feel; and a like depth b also 
fbond between the Aioree and (he coast of Portugal The 
straeCore of all these groups of islands gives obvious 
indicBlioaa of their fbrmatiouoy separate igneous eraptions 
in a sea of great depth ; and the earlieM <tf these amptions 
iiiimn to have taken place in the lalei Miocene period. 
Aj soon as the Bnt soUd bvss raised their heads above 
water, and were thus exposed to the action of the 
wavea, frwmeaU were detached and rounded on the 
slxKe; ana (heaa beii^ swept o^ with the d&ri* resulting 
from their attrition, Ibrroed depoaita of various kinds upon 
the slope of the cone, in which corals, shells. Ac, were 
emhedcbd. These fceriliferous depcatta have been snbse- 
qnenlly elevated to hugbts of from 1600 to 2000 feet 
above the level of the sea, showing a rise of the base of the 
t TeiM nL— 88 

craiets; progra 

ITS additions have beei 

npper part 1^ the pUinj^ np of Iwsaltio end trachytic lavas.' 
That thb state of aetinty still cmKinuea b proved by the 
bot that in 1611 a new Island was temporarily ibnned in 
the Asores group, off St. Michael, by tne thrtiwii^ np of 
aahest and tne formation of a cone about SOO feet mA, 
with a crater in the centre. Thb bland, to which Uia 
name Sabrioa was giwea, was soon washed away by the 
wavea. And only a few years since, another submarine 
emption in thb neighborhood was indicated by earth- 
quakea, jeb of steam and columna of smoke, and Boating 
rnunecs of scoria. All these considerations concur (as Sir 
Charles Lyell, Joe. sit. Justly urges) to negative on geolog- 
ical grcnnds the hypotheab which hss been advoc^ed w 
some eminent natuialista^ that the Aiores, Hadwras, ana 
OuHuies are the last remaining frtumeats of a continuous 
area of laud which ones connected them With the west of 
Europe and North Airier 

Proceeding to the south of the equator, we meet with 
simiiar evidence of volcanic activity in the structure of tbs 
only two islands, Ascension and SL Helena, which lie near 
the line atretohiug from the Cape Verd gnmp to the Cepe 
of Qood Hope; and these also arise m>m a plateau of 
coQuderably leas depth than the drcnngacent area whcse 
eastern slope gradnallyshallows to tiie aoaet<rf South Africa. 
Thb plateau sttMohes in a north-westerly direction toward* 
the equator, so as to meet it in from SCP to 22° W. long. ; 
and here indications of volcaoio activity — earthqiukea, 
troubled water, floating scorin, and columns of smoke- 
have been several times observed since the middle of the 
last ctmturv, lietokening the probable formation of an island 
or an archipelago in t^t locality. 

Nearly midway between the southem prolonntitms of 
the African and American continents, the solitary peak 
of Tristan da Cunha (fig. 2) lifts Itaelf above the ocean ; 
thb also b volcanici and seems to rise from a broad bsM 
of general elevation, resembling the plateau of the North 

The entin chain of the Greater and LcMer Antillea^ 
which Htretchea from the delta of the Orinoco to the penin- 
sula of Florida, and forms the eastern boundary of the 
Caribbean Bea, seems to have been in like manner elevated 
by rolcanio action. That thb elevation, like that of (he 
groups of islands on the eastern side of the Atlantic look 
place for the meet part during the later Tertiary period, b 
shown by the oocurrence of shells, corals, Ac, of upper 
Miocene age, in the uprabed sedimentarir beds of several 
of the blands: while the preeence of " fringing reeb" of 
coral around the shores of many of the West India blands 
b an indication that they lie in an area in which elevation 
b still proceeding. The channeb by which they are sepa- 
rated are so deep as to render it very unlikely that there waa 
ever a continui^ of land between them ; and the occa- 
sional recurrence of earthquakes and volcanic eniptiooi at 
diSerent pinnb of thb line of flre," showe that the 
plutouio action by which the islands were raised b still 
gtdngon beneath. 

The case b verv difierea^ however, in retard to the 
Bermuda Kroop, which cmatitutea a singular exception to 
the generd fact of the absence in the Atlantic of thoee 
coral bbndi tiiat are so nnmerous in the Pacific. Thb 
group consbts of about 300 islands, of which, however, 
only five are of any considerable aiie ; and these rise from 
a shoal or platform of about 23 milea long by 13 miles 
broad, the channeb between the islands bdw very shallow, 
while at a small distance from the edge ollhe ahoal, the 
bottom rapidly deepens to 16,000 feet The islands are 
entirely composed of upraised beds of coral, shells, &a, 
(the highest elevation bem^ only about 180 feet above tbe 
sea-level) ; and the shoal itself appears to have the like 
Btnjcture throughout, no traces of any other rock than a 
limestone fom^ by the metamorpboees of coral being 
aoywhero met with. Henc^ as thb insulsr platform 
prorea (o be the summit of a submarine ooiumn of 16,000 
feet high, rising frvm a very small base, and as nothing we 
know of the straotnre of monntaim — volcanic ot otMr — 
would justily us in suppoaing that a column of anch a 
height coula be formed in any other way than by coral 
growth, the structure of the Bermuda group would seem 
to indicate a progreenve aubaidence of the bed of thb 
part of the Atlantic during its formation, correaponding 



to dut whloh (teoording to tlie ireU-knawa viem of Hr. 
Dttrwin) i* at premnt in progreei orer ft Urge ftrea of the 
Padfio. It ti probable tiaX this oonl growth wu deter- 
mined io the fint iiutaiice bj the existence of a gnbmarine 
BKNintBiD, i^ which the sninmit laj Dear the surface, or 
liAed itself aboTe il; that as soon sa this came to b* 
■abmerged, the oorsl formation commeoced ; and that bj 
its contiaued growth at the summit, at a rate equal to 
that of the subaidenoe of its base, the platform baa been 
ka>t up to the sea-level. The ^ght elevation which has 
raised Its highest portion above that level may not improb- 
ably have taken place in conoectioD with the much larger 
recent elevations already referred to. 

Tbna, then, we have evidence of considerable recant 
local modifications in the level of the Atlsn^c sea-bed, 

seems in favor of the remoteneea of the principal de[>Tes- 
■ion of the Atlantic area, even if we do not regard it sa 
di^ng back to the period when the surface of the globe 
Vas nret undergoing solidification. 

OurrenU r^ 5« lliantic—Bj the term "cnrrwit" will 
be here meant that aenn6fe movement of ocean water in 
particular directiona which can be generally traced, dir«ctly 
or indirectly, to the action of wind upon its aurfiice. A 
current thus directly impelled by wind is termed a " drifl- 
caneat," whilst a current whose onward movement is 
Biutained by the mi a ttrgo of a drift-current is called s 
"stream-current." But there is another source of current- 
movement, which has been overlooked by most writers on 
this sutfjec^ namely, the indraught which necessarily takes 
place to keep up the level of any area from which uie sar- 
oco-water is constantly being drifted away. Such currents, 
which may be designated as "indmught or "supply cur- 
reats," complete me "horizontal circulation" that must 
Deoeeasrily take place in any oceanic area of which one 
part is subjected to the action of a wind almost constantly 
blowing in the same direction. Of such a circulation we 
have a very characteristic example in the South Atlantic, 
the principal currents of which we ehail see to be very 
easily accounted for. 

The initial movement of the current-system, alike of the 
North and of the South Atlantic, is given by the trade- 
winds, which are continually driving the water of the intei^ 
tropical r^on firom the African towards the Amencsn 
side of the basin, ao as to produce- what is known as the 
Ejualorial Ciarail. The position of the northern and 
southern boundaries of this current sbifta, like the area of 
the trade-winds, in accordance with the northward and 
southward declination of the sun ; — a steady westward drift 
being generally met with to the north of the tropic of Can- 
cer ill the summer of the northern hemisphere, and to the 
south of the tropic of Capricorn in the summer of the 
southern, whilst in the winter of each. hemisphere the bor- 
der of the drift lies within the tropic of that hemisphere. 
But as the tiervvd equator ties from two to three degrees to 
the north of the geograpkkat equator, the entire lone of the 
trade-winds, and of the Equatorial Current propelled by 
them, is wider on the northern than on the southern side of 
the latter ; and while the northerly trade olten reaches 30° 
N. in Julv, and rarely eitends south in January within 2° 
or 3° 01 tne geographical equator, the southerly trade does 
not extend birther thso 25^ 8. in January, and generally 
crosses the equator in July, even extending occasionally as 
fat as 5° N. As between the northerly and southerly 
Iradea there is a region of " equatorial calioa," so there is a 
corresponding interval between the northern and southern 
divisions of the Equatorial Current; and in this interval 
there Is a oounter^iurreQl {resembling the "back-water" 
often to be noticed in a stream that is flowing rapidly past 
some obstacle, such as a vessel at anchor, or a projecting 
angle of a river-bank) that runs eastwards, sometimes witF 
considerable velocity, towards the Bight of Biafrti, which 
may be considered the "head-water" of the Equatorial 
Current, From the recent observaUooB of Capl- Nares in 
the " Cballenoer," it appears that the Equatorial Current, 
like other dnfl-currenta, is very shallovr, its depth bdng 
not much greater than 50 fathoms. He estimates its rate 
at the Eur&ce to be about 075 miles per hour, or 18 miles 
per day, whilst at 60 fathoms it only moves at about half 
that rale.' Its surface temperature generally ranges be- 
ir, Btales the avenge Taladlr u tie betwwn 

10 ud 30 m&e* 


tween 76" and 80° ; bnt the thermometer falls to 60° at ■ 
depth of little more than 100 b^onis, — the temp^atore </ 
this belt of water, as will be hereafter shown, oeinc kepi 
down by the continual rising of polar water from bdaw. 

The Eouatorial Current passes directly across the Atlan- 
tic towsros the chain of the Antilles and the ooagt of Sontfa 
America ; and as not only the whole of the ixn^em divis- 
ion, but a considerable part of the southern, strikta the 
American coast-line to the north of the salient angle of 
C»pe St. Bogus (about 6° 8. lat), the portion of the aa- 
rent which is deflected Into the northern hemisphere is 
much greater than that which is tamed to the southwud. 
It is a general fad, that where a current enconnteis any par- 
tial obstruction, — each as a coast-line meting it obliquely, 
a narrowing of its channel, the lateral pressure of anothci 
current, or even that of a mass of stationary water, — iti ve- 
lodty increases ; and so the portion of the Equatorial Car- 
rent that ia pressed to the Dorthwaid by the coast-line be- 
ivtea Cape St. Koque and the month of the Orinoco 
(known in the fltst part of its coarse as the Ocf>» St. fte^ 
OoTTtnl, and afterwards as the Ouiana Owrent) acquires i 
greatiy augmented rate, running ordinarily at the rate of 
from 30 to 50 miles, and occaaionaily at a rale of 80 miles, 
in the 24 hours. Entering the C^bbeon Sea, it is rein- 
forced by the portion of the Equatorial Current which 
flows in between the Lesser Antilles ; and it then paws 
westwards along the northern coast of South America, 
antil it is deflected northwards by the coaat-line of Central 
America, and driven between the peninsula of Yncatan 
and the western extremity of Cuba into the Golf of Ifei- 
ico, at the rale of &om 30 to 60 miles per day. A poriioD 
of it passes direct to the N.E. along the norUiem shore of 
Cuba; but by far the larger part sweeps round the gul( 
following the course of its coast-line, and approaches the 
coBst of Cuba from the N.W. as a broad deep stream of no 

£±at velocity, seldom running at more than 30 miles per 
y. The reunited current, being met by the Equatorial 

the southern extremity of the peninsula of Florida, and on 
the other by the coast of Cuba and the Bahamas. He 
rate of movement of the powerful current that flows 
through this channel, henceforth known ea the Qvif Strson, 
ia considerably augmented in its narrowest part, which is 
also its shallowest; but althongh its velocity sometimes 
reaches 4 (nautical) miles per hour, or even more, its aeo^ 
age rate through the whole year may be confldenlly stated 
at not more than 2 miles per hour, or 48 miles per day.* 

The Gulf Stream current, however, does not by any 
means occupy the whole of the set^onal area of the Flor- 
ida Channel ; for it is separated from the American coast 
by a band of cold water, which occupies about three-eighths 
of its total breadth of 40 miles, and which also dips under 
the outflowing current. The movement of the cold supers 
ficial band is perceptibly inwards, and that of the cold 
understratum is presumably so; and it is the opinion of 
the American surveyors that the depth of the warm out- 
ward current is not more than one-third of that of the 
cliarmel through which it flows. It is probable that the 
rate of movement decreases from the surface downwards; 
but upon this point we have as yet no certain information 
The meaning of the cold inflow will hereafter become ap- 

The course taken by the Oolf Stream in the flrst in- 
stance is nearly parallel to the line of the United Statee 
coast, from which it is everywhere separated by a band of 
cold water, — the boundary line between the two being so 
distinct as to be known as the "cold wall." It does not 
show for some time any great diapoei^on to spread itself 
out lalcrHlly, though a division into alternate bands of 
warmer and colder water, the cause of which seema to lie 
in the contour of the bottom of the Florida Channel, be- 
comes perceptible before it reaches Charleston, and Is very 
marked off Cape Hatteraa. The Stream there presents the 
form of a fan, its three warm bands spreading out over" the 
Atlantic sur£tce to an aggregate breadth of 187 miles, 
•TtalBiUtamant, which li much lower than that adopted br moat 
writerg on the Gulf Streim, !■ bucd on Ibe entire ttgngitt of ob- 
KrritlODa collected bf tbe Mel«onjtogIcHl Dtpartosht, wbtch tui^ 
ther >how thsL for six nonthi of the jeti, the monthly mean a<ei- 
ueaaiilyl'fiiilleaperhaur, or34 mllM par duf, whUtt for ihe othir 
ux moDLha It oul/ BTerr — '»»^ —n i.~.._ — aa—ei— _» j.- 

It oulf RrerBcei 2}^ niUa 

or 60 milH per Atj 



e breadth of 52 mikH 

)f an «gn«g>le 
interpoMd between tbem- l^he io 
ii ihe one which exhibits the highest tempenture uid 
gi WL te et rate of Bow, its Telocity being greatest where it is 
pnwed on Imterallj dt the Arctic Ciin«nt, so that a rate of 
4 tailtm per boor is oocaeionallT obeerved. Capt. Naree 
H<iiiiilwi the depth of the Btream in this part of its course 
•t abont 100 bthoms, and its itMe of flow in the line of 
moat rapid morement at 3 milee per hour. The ouCannost 
band, w) the other band, graduates insensibly, both as lo 
lempeiatiue and nle of movement, into the general snr- 
Cace-water of the Atlantic It is whoi paning Sandy 
Hook thai the Onlf Stream takn its decided turn east- 

i bend of the United States coast-line, and partly 
.V tuD ecetn <^ «a»lvrl\i mommtam which it bringa from 
the lower latitude in which it issued from the Florida 
CbwineL Its graeral rate of flow past Nantucket Beems 
not to exceed 1 mile per hour, and to be frequently lees ; 
bat se*et>l degrees to the eastward of this, the current bss 
been fbond occauonally mnoing at the rate of 4 miles an 
faoor, — this acoeleratioa being probably doe to the lateral 
preivare of the Aretie Ourrent, which, during the early 
Kontbs of the year, ia driven southwanls at the rate of 10 
or 12 milea per day by the N. and N.V. winds then pre- 
VMtling along the coast of Labrador, and which, tnming 
westwards round Ihe sooth of Newfoundland, keeps close 
to the coast of the United States (being left behind in ^e 
rotation of the earth, in consequence of iU di^deneg of 
eaMerly momentam), and follows it southwards, erery- 
where separating it &am the Qalf Stream. 

By the gradual thinnins-ont and expansion of the Qnlf 
Stream afler passing the Banks of Newfoundland, by the 
»«gressive redaction of its rate of movement, and by 
uie Ion of that excess of temperature which previously 
diatingniiihed it, as well as of ito penuliar bine color (whii^ 
probably depends on its holding in sospcxiwon the finest 

botes, aa to be no longer leeogniuble to the east of the 
noetidian of 30° W. IouRi^ — there duenerating into the 
general easterly drift of uat region of the Atlantic which 
la kept DP by the prevalence of westerly winds, some- 
times called " anti-trades." Whei« the Florida Current 
or true Golf Btream can last be distinctly rect^nixed, it 
forma a stratum not more than 50 fathoms in thickness ; 
■nd it is there flowing abnctt du^ out, at a rate which 
would require about 100 days to bring it to the land's 
End. The only valid evidence of the extension of- any 
|iait of it lo the western shoree of Europe (the ameliora- 
tioa of their temperature being otherwise accounted for, 
while the transport of trunks of trees, drif^timber, fruits, 
•faells,&c.,toibe Western Hebrides, the Orkney, Shetland, 
and Faroe islands, and the coast of Norway, may be Jhirly 
■et down to the surbce-dritl sustained by the prevalence 
of S.W. winds) is aflbrded by the variable current known 
as Reiuuitt, which, flowing eastwards into the southern 
nut of the Bay of Biscay, is deflected in a N.W. direction 
bj (he trend of its coast-line, bo as, to cross the British 
Oiannel towards the Sdlly Islands, whence it passes to the 
S.W. coast of Ireland, its strength mainly depending on 
Uie continued prev^ence of the westerly anti-trades. (See 
Plate I.) 

Of the whole mass of water, on the other hand, that is 
brought into the mid-Atlantic by the Gulf Stream, it may 
be sUted with confidence that the larger proportion turns 
•onthward to the east of the Azores, and helps to form the 
IforUt AfrietM Carrmt; the other tributary of which may 
be considered as originating as far north as Cape Finisterre, 
under the influence of the northerly winds which prevail 
along the coast of Portugal. As this current flows past the 
entiwice to the Strait of Qibrallar, a part of it, forming 
what is known as the OiimZlar Ourrent, is drawn in to 
keep up the level of the Mediterranean, wliich would other- 
wise be reduced by the excess of evaporation from its sur- 
face: bnt tbegreaterpartkeepeilscouiBeMUthwardsalong 
the Harocoo coast, reinforcing the south-flowing extension 
of the Gulf Stream. On arriving at the bower of Uie 
northerly trade, the North African Current divides into two 
parts, — Uie we^«m division being at once carried into Ihe 
cotuse of the eqcalorial drift, whilst the eastern, which 
■tay be considered aa essentially an indraught or supply 
cnrrent, follows the A&icau coast-line, and turns aaslward 

parUy di 
that floK 

into the Gulf of Guinea, forming the (Pnowa CWrsai, , 
_i!.i _ 1.. with the eastward "back-water" already 

^imi itnMvr ui iiiv £jquaiurjiu ^>urrvai j auu idh circuiauoa 
thus completed may be considered aa recommancing &oni 
this " head-water." The large area of comparativelv still 
water which lies in the interior of this North Atiuitic dr- 
cnlation is called the Sargeuo Sea, — a corruption of the 
oatne (Mar de Sargaco) which it received from Colnmbus 
and the early Spanish navigators, on account of the quan- 
tity of sea-weed that floats on its surface. The boundariea 
of this area, which is of an irregularly elliptical shap^ 
and nearly equals that of Continental Europ^ are soma* 
what variable ; bat it may be considered to lie between die 
parallels of 20° and 35° N., and between the meridians 
of 30° and W W. Into it is collected a large propor- 
tion of the drift or wreck which floats about the North 

Proceeding now to the South Atlantic, we meet with a 
circulation of Ihe same kind, uncomplicated by any em- 
baying of the Equatorial Cnrrent. The smaller division 
of this current which strikes the coast of South America 
to the south of Cape St. Roque Sows along the coast of 
Brazil at the rate of from 12 to 20 mites a dav, forming 
the Bnutil Ourreal, which, however, is separated from the 
land by an intervening band of lower temperature, that 
has, durins the winter months, a distinct flow towards the 
equator. The Bnudl Current can be traced southwards, by 
ils temperature rather than by its movement, as far as thv 
estaary of the La Plata, before reaching which, however, 
a great part of it takes an easterly direction, and cnssea 
the Atiantic towards ihe Cape of Good Hope, forming 
what is known as the Soulium Oonneeting Ourreni. The 
easterly movement of Uiis current seems to be parUy due 
to Ihe westerly anti-trades, and partly lo Ihe excess of 
easterly momentum which is retained by the Brazil Current 
its southward couise from Cape St. Boque; whilst it. 
depends also on the junction of an Antarctic' current: 
)WB N.IC. from Cape Horn, meeting the Brazil Cur~ 
rent ofl" the estaary of La Plala, just as the Arctic Carrent 
meeta the Oulf Stream ofl" Newfoundland, — dense foa 
being produced, in the one case as in the others throng 
the predpitation of the vapor overlying the Equatorial 
Current, by the colder air that overlies the Polar. Chi 
meeting the ooost of South Africa, the Southern Connectintt 
Current turns northwards, and runs towards the Bight of 
Biafra, forming the SouiA African Current, the movement 
of which is partly sustained by tiie southerly winds which 
prevail along that coast, but is partly attributable to the 
indraught set up to supply the efflux of the Equatorial 
Current. In its passage thither, however, the part of it 
distant from the land is draughted weetwaras by thd 
lem trade, forming the most southerly portion of tha 
equatorial drift. Between this and the Southern Ccoi- 
necting Current is a central space, lying between tha 
parallels of 20° and 30° S., and the meridians of 0° and 
25° W., over which there are no r^uUr cnrrenta ; and to 

no Saivssso Sea is some'' ''' "" ' — 

»i.A>vu-u .tA uirww hnn no mv 
Plata I.) 

Tempavlure t/ the AUanlie. — The distribution of surface 

Xature over the area of the Atlantic has now been 
out with considerable accuracy; and it corresponds 
closely with what has been already stated as the course of 
the surface currents. There is, of course, a seasonal 
change, alike in its northern and in its southern division, 
this change being more and more marked as we recede 
from the t-quator. Following the course of the mean annual 
isotherms, however, we find that they cross the South 
Atiantic at nearly regular intervals, in an east and west 
direction, the principal departure Iron that direction being 
shown at their western end in the bend they take towards 
the south under the influence of the warm Brazil Current, 
and at their eastern in the still stronger bend they take 
towards the north under the influence of the cold South 
African Current, which reduces to about 75° the temperature 
of Ihe southern equatorial that flows alongside the Guinea 
Current, whoee temperature is 82°, In the North Atlantic, 
however, the influence of the movement of oceanic water oa 
the surface- temperature is very much more marked. The 
annual isothemu, which cross Ihe Sargasso Sea with neul/ 




ngulsT pBnll«li«ni, and on the Alriaui side tend Bomewhsl 
to the Eoalh, where ther meet the colder wster of the 
North African Current, ahow * strong northwatd bend oo 
the Amencau side, along the early course of the Oulf 
Stream ; but a» its excess of temperature above that of the 
AtlanUo Keaerall; diminishee as we trace it towards the 
^^nks of Newfonndlftnd, this nortfawaid deflection pn^ree- 
avalr becomes less. The marked contrast in tempo^tiire 
whiii is often there exhibited between two cootiguona 
fconds of water, — a thermometer hanging from a ship's bow 
showing a temperature of 70°, whilst anollier hanging from 
Ijie stem shows only 40°, — is due a-A so much to Uie eleva- 
don produced bjr the Gnlf Stream as to the depresaion pro- 
duced bj the Arctic Current. This depression manifeste 
itself in the sonthwaid bend giren, on the American side, 
•like to the summer and the winter isotherms (see Plate), 
beyond the summer isotherm of 70° and the winter iso- 
therm of 80°, which may be considered as having nearlj' 
their nonud position; whilst the northward tendency of 
these same isotherms on the Earope&n side not Lcm con- 
spicuously indicfttea a flow of warm wat^ towards the 
western ooasta of the British Isles, Norway, and even 
Iceland and Spitlbei^en. It has been cnatomary to r^^ard 
this flow as an extension of the Gulf Stream ; but if that 
terra be limited (as it ought) to the current that issues from 
the Qulf of Mexioa through the Florida Channel, the 
hypothesis ia found to be untenable so soon as the thermal 
phenomena of that current are carefully examined. For, 
in the first place, the popular idea that the Gulf Stream 
retains its high temperature with little diminution during 
its paasaM fint northwards and then eastwards is clearly 
disproved by observadiH], as is shown by the following table 
of average temperatures taken -• •""■- — ' — ■'-- 







35 N. 







S.E.Df NantaokatBtioali 

From this it appears that, while the high surface temper- 
Mure with whichtheQuIfStream leaves the Florida Channel 
is retained in summer w!lhontyG°reductionaafar asNoya 
Scotia, there is a reduction of 5° in winter during its north- 
ward passage to Cape Hatteras, and a further reduction 
of no Ics than 10° during its eastward passage from Cape 
Hatteras to Nova Scotia, making a total reduction of 15°. 

86° N. The explanation of Ibis is plainly to be found in 
the fact that in the early part of the course of the Oulf 
Stream its superheated stratum is a thick one, so that wben 
its snperGcial film is cooled down by a superincumbent 
•Imoaphere of lower temperature, it is replaced hj the 
nprising of a deeper stratum having nearly its ordinal 
temperature. But as the stream spr^s out superficial!/, 
its superheated stratum becomes proportionally thinner, 
and will consequently be more and more tspidlj coolea 
down by the superinctunbent atmoephere. Even auppoaing, 
therefore, that it were not subjecleil to any special cooling 
influence, it appears certain that as the rate of the curr^iC 
«Uckena and lU depth diminishes, the cooling process must 
«oDtinue at an increased rate, so as to bring down tho 

I locality, 

influence — that of the Labrador Current with its fleet oi 
icebergs, which melt awsjr wben borne into it; and this 
produces such an immediate reduction of its surfaoe-tem- 
perttnre, that it thenceforth shows very little excess, 
although its subsurface stratum still appears to be warmer 
than that of the ocean through which it flows. 

But, farther, the Qulf Stream, where it is last recog' 
BiHble as a corrent, is flowing due east, and lis aouthera 

portion tonw first aoutli-east and then south, whilst, on the 
other hand, the couna of the isothennal lines (see Plaie} 
clearly shows that the flow of warm water whtdi caniei 
then northward spreads across the whole breadth of the 
Atlantic, from the British Isles to Labrador, even ezteodii^ 
up to the west of north into Baffin's Bay. When we con- 
trast litis immense body of north-moving water with the 
thinned-out film of what is by oomparison a mere rivnlet, 
it becomes obvious (1) that its northward flow cannot be 
attributable to the m» a tergo of the Florida Current, whilst 
(2) its convection of heat to the Arctic Sea cannot be 

a stratum, moving north-east at a rate of (at most) 4 or 6 
milee per dav, must soon be brought down to that of tlie 
atmosphere soove JL 

Influenced by these condderations, sevetal eminent 
h^drographen, both British and American, have be^ 
disposed to deny, not onIy_ that the lemperatDte of the 
North Atlantic is modified in any oonsid^able degree by 
the true Gulf Stream^ but that iaj other agency than that 
of warm 8.W. winds u concerned in producing the climatie 
amelioration popularly aftributed to It. They maintained, 
in fact, that the sur&we-temperature of the North Atlaatlo 
and Arctic Seas foUoiBt that of the superincumbent air, — 
the atmospheric temperature not being in any degrea raised 
by that of warmer water beneath. This doctrine, boverer, 
is found to be inconsistent with the results of caretlil com- 
parisons reoently instituted between marine and atmcspbOTO 
temperatures along the western coasts of Sootlano, Iha 
Orkney, Shetland, and Faroe Islands, and especially with 
those obtained along the western coast of Norway. For it 
is found that during the winter months there is a constant 
eCMM of sea-temperature above that of the air, averaging 
e°'2 Fahr. along the western coast of Scotland and its 
islands, and rising to 14°'fi at Fmholm near the North 
Cape. And it is also a very significant fact (ascertained by 
the careful inqturiea of Ur.Buchan), that while the nHwur 
isotherms cross the British Islands nearly esst and west (tha 
temperature diminishing pret^ r^ularly from south to 
north), the wtnter isotherms traverse them nearly north and 
south fthe temperature diminishing from west to east) ; 
whilst in Ireland the isotherms seem to envelop the islands 
in their folds, which increase in warmth imm the centre of 
the island to its sea-board. So in Norwav the isothermal 
lines run parallel to the coast-line, and tfiis alike in sum- 
mer and in winter, — the temperature &lliii^ In winter, and 
rising in summer, with the increase of distance from the 
sea. Nothing could prove more condusively than sncta 
bets as these (taken in connection with tlie absence of ico 

incumbent atmoephere; and we have now to inquire h< 
this ^reat N.K movement of a stratum of warm water 
sufficiently thick to retain a surface-lemperatme ooo- 
aiderably higher than that of the air above it is to ba 
aooounted for. 

The solution of the problem seems to be afibrded by tlio 
doctrine of a Omervl Oeeonie (XreulalMn, sustained 1^ 
opposition of temperature only, which was flrat distinotlj 
propounded in 1845 by Professor Lena of St, Petersborgi 
on the basis of observations made by him during tfao 
second voyage of Eotiebue (1825-1828). Others had 
been previously led to surmise that " Polar Currents" flow 
along the floors of the great oceans, even as far as tlia 
equator, balancing the superficial counto'-curr^its which 
are observable in the opposite direction. But Lena was 
led to conclude that iht whole of the deeper portion of tho 
great ocean-basins in communication with the polar areas 
IB occupied by polar water, whicli is constantly, th<.jgh 
slowly, flowing towards the equator ; whilst oonversdf 
the whole npper stratum of equatorial water is as co-»' 
stantly, though slowly, flowing towards one or both of th^ 

Bles. And he particularly dwelt on the existence of a 
It of water under the equator, colder than that whivh 
lies either north or south of IL as an evidenoa that polar 
water is there continually risins from beneath towards 
tlie surfaoe, — a phenomenoa whidi, he ooiuddered, admiti 
of no other explanation. He further adduced the tow 
salinity of equatorial water (previously noticed by Hum- 
boldt, and confirmed by his own obserrations) compared 



with that of troinc*] wiler. h evidenre that (he equatorial 
w*Ur of th« siirfBoe Is deriTed boat the polar imderfloir. 
And h« altribtiCed the mainteDuce of this circtilation la 
Ihe coDtinnallj renewed diatarbanoe of equilibrium between 
the polar and equatorial colnmiu, — the greater lateral 
(becune downward) prenur« of the former' CMuing a 
iodon ool^ioiB of polar water in the direction of the 
latter, whilat the reduction of level thus occasioned will 
produce % uerftut vndrmighl from the warmer towards the 
colder areai. 
Hie doctrine of Lent, to far from meeting with the 

Sneral acceptance to which it had a fair claim, — alike on 
eoretical groanda and from ite accordance with the facts 
■Hcertaiaed bj careful observation, — eeems to have been put 
■nde and forgotten, a preference being given to the doc- 
trine of the prevalence of a uniform deep-sea temperature 
of 39°, which was auppoaed to be eatabliahed bv (he 
thcrmometrio observations made in the voyages of lyurville 
and Sir James Sosa. So inch precaution waa taken, 
however, in these obeervations ta that to wliich Lenz had 
tvaoaitiB, to ohviate the effects of the tremcDdous pressure 
" ' D per squate ioch for every 800 fathoms of depth) to 
h deeMea thermometera are exposed : and it is now 

-which di 

certain that the lemperatores at great depths recorded by 

ivri_:ii A -Djjgg ^f^^ several d^reea too hiah. 

e ignorance of Ihe doctrine ofLenc, and 

lyDrville and Boas w 

onder the infinence of that of lyUrville and Ross, which 
had been stamped with (lie great weight of Sir John 
Herachel's weight of authority ' that Dr. Carpenter com- 
Btcnced in I86S (in concert. with Professor Wyville Thorn- 
■on) a conrae of inquiry into the thermal condition of 
the deep sea, which at once convinced him of the fallacy 
of the oniform 39° doctrin^ and led him to conclusions 
eas^tiatly accordant with thoae of Leni. For in the 
dannel of from 600 to 600 fathoms' depth between the 
notth of Scotland and the Faroe Islands, tbey found the 
deeper half to be occupied by a stratum of glacial water, 
wbose temperatare ranged downwards from 32° lo 29°-5 ; 
whilat the upper half was occupied by a stratum warmer 
than the normal temperature of tbe latitudes. This 
phenomenon wsa interpreted by Carpenter as indicat- 
ing a deep rladal Sow from N.E. to S.W., and a warm 
upper flow itom S.W. to N.E., and finding that to the 
west of this channel, on the border of the deep Atlantic 

basin, the excess of warmth extended to ■ depth of more 
than 500 fathoms, he came to the conchision that the 
north-moving slratam which brought it could not be an 
extension of the true Qnlf Stream, but must be ai^ed on 
by some much more general force. A series of tempera- 
ture-Bonndtnga taken alon^the west of Ireland, the Bay of 
Biscay, and the coast of Portugal, confirmed him ii ' ' 

Atlantic at a depth of from 700 to 900 fathoms, the whole 
maa9 of water below this having either flowed into the 
basin from the polar area, or having had its temperature 
broagbt down to from 39° to 3&''-b by mixture with the 
polar inflow. And this conclusion was confirmed by the 
result of tempenitore-soundinga taken at corresponding 
depths and under the same parallels of latitude in the 
Meditonauean ; for as they showed a uniform temperature 
of from 64° to W, from beneath the stratum of 100 
fathoms that was superheated by direct insolation, to the 
very bottom, it became clear that depth pW- le could have 
no effect in reducing the bottom-temperature; and that 
the cause of the excess of temperatare in the mass of water 
occupying tbe Mediterranean basin above that of Atlantic 
water at Uie same depths, lies in the seclusion of the former 
from the polar underflow which brings down the deep 
temperature of the latter. This conclusion having received 
marked confirmation from temperature-soundings taken in 
the Eastern seas, was put forward by Carpenter as Justify- 
ing the doctrine of a vertieal oceanic circulation sustained 
by opposition of temperature only, quite independent of 
and dbtinct from the horaorUal circulation produced by 
wind, — which doctrine he eipreesed in terms closely cor- 
respouding with those that had been used by Lenz. And 
the collection of data for the establishment or coofutatioa 
of this doctrine was one of tbe objects of the " Challenger" 
expedition, which haa already made, in the determination 
of the thermal stratification of the Atlantic between 33° 
N. lat. and 3S° S. laL, what may be &irly characteriied as 
tbe grandest single contribution ever yet made to terrestrial 


following are the most important of the facts thus 
established : — Of the water which fills the deep trough of 
the NoHb Atlimlic (fig. 1) between Tenerifle (lat. 281"! N.) 
id St, Thomas (lat. 18}° N.), divided by the "DolphiQ 

Pis. 1.— SMtlon of North Atlantic Oosan bstwsen BL Thomas aad Tensriffs. 

in the western basin — apparently under the 

Ihe Antarctic underflow — the bottom-temperature sinks to 

Innoi lo contract dow 

■an 17° ud 2(r> Fibr. wxon 

fTHli vatw In cooUoi balow 3»° 
Ha flrsa^Df point, which 11« bi 
■ It la itUroT afltaled. 

84°'4. A tolerably regular desoent is shown in thb seo- 
tion, from a slirHsce- temperature rising near 8L Thomaa lo 
75°, to tbe bathymelrical isotherm of 45°, which lies be- 
tween 400 and 600 fathoms' depth ; there is then a eiratuin 
between 46° and 40°, of which the thickness varies from 
about 250 to 460 fathoms tbe isotherm of 40° lying at 
between 760 and 1000 fathoms' depth while below this, 
down lo the bottom at between 2000 and 3000 fathoms, the 
further reduction to 34°'4 is very gradual. 
The same general condition prevails in Ihe Bontfa 



34j° S.), this trough Also being divided into two basing bj 
tho eleTadan of the bottom which culmimitcs in the island 
of Trittan da Cunha. The temperature of the water that 
occupies it, however, la lower through its whole vertical 
range than that of the North Atlantic. The stratification 
U nearly onifona from the snr&ux downwarda to the 
bnthetm of 40°, which lies at fiom 800 to 450 fathomf* 

nd 38° also lying wiihia 

then a alower reductioa 
down to the isotherm of 35°, which liea between 1400 
and 1600 fathoms; wliile the whole sea-bed is covered bj 
a stratum of about 600 bthoms' Ihicknen, whose lem^ 
lure ranges downwards &om 36" to 33° '^' 
this deepest stratum is colder than any water tuat is ioodiI 
in the coireepondlng portion of the North AtUatic, except 
near St. Thomas. 

ae lemperai 

Fia. 3.— Seotion 

It Is not a little remarkable that the sub-surface stratum 
of water, b&viiig a temperature above 40°, is thinner under 
the equator tlian it is in any other part of the Atlantic 
from the Faroe Islands to the Cape of Good Hope. Not- 
withstanding the rise of the surface-lempemture to 76°-S0°, 
the thermometer descends in the fiist 300 fathoms more 
rapidly than anvwhere else; so that polar water is met 
with, as shown in fig. 3, at a much leas depth than in the 
North Atlantic (Bg. 1), and 100 fetlioms nearer to (he 
surface than even in the colder Bouth Atlantic (fig. 2) ; 
whilst the temperature of (he bottom is but little above 
32°. Thus the influence of the polar tinderflow is more 

Sronounced under the equator than it is elsewhere' as is 
istinctly seen in the section shown in flg. 4, which is 
taken in k north and south direction so as to exhibit the 
relation of the thermal Btnttification of the North to that 
of the Bouth Atlantic, and of both to tliat of the equatorial 

F:a. 3.— Sootion of Equatorial Atlantin. 

telt. The Isotherm of 40°, which in lat 22° N. lies at a 
depth of about 700 fathoms, gradually rises as the equator 
is' approached ; and it is between the equator and 7° S., 
where the aurface-temperalure risfs to nearly 80°, that co!d 
water is soonest reached, — the isotherm of 40° rising lo 
within 300 fsthoms of the surface, while that of 55° which 
in let 38° N. lies at nearly 400 fathoms" depth, and in iat. 
22° N. at about 250 fathoms, actually comes up under the 
aquator within 100 blhoms of the surface. At the same 

time, while the bottom-temperature nnder the equator is the 
lowest anywhere met wilh^ namely, 32° .4.' the ihicknen of 
the stratum beneath the isotherm of 35° is not leas Ihaa 
600 fathoms. In passing southwards, the superficial iso- 
therms are observed to separata again from each other, 
partly by the reduction of the surface-temperature, and 
partly by the descent of (lie isotherm of 40° to a, depth of 
something less than 400 &tfaoms, which it keeps with little 
reduction as far soalh as the Cipe of Good Hope. The 
signihcance of these facts becomes more remarkable, when 
we consider that if a portion of the oceanic area under the 
equator were to be secluded, like the Mediterranean or the 
Bed Sea, from all but local ioflHences, the temperature of 
its water from the sub-surface slratam downwards lo the 
bottom — whatever its (depth — would be Its iaoeheinial or 
mean winter-temperalure, which, in the equatorial lone, 
would be certainly not below 76°, 

Nothing, Dr. Carpenter contends, could more condu- 
it sively support the general doctrine of a Veriieal OeaoM 
2 CSreulation susloinM by oppoBilion of temperattm^ thsn 
tiie precise conformity of the fads thus detarmiited by 
observation to the predictions which his confidence in the 
theory had led him to put forth. These predictions were 
eventially as follows : — 
I " I. That Inittid of tha loeal dspmilODi of bottom'tM- 
I perstars impntud by pnTioni wrilen to polar aarnots, tlii 
* lemperatnra of overy part of tha dnp tu-bed in oommmii- 
I cation with aithsr of tba polar anu would b« not many ds- 
I grMi aboire that of th« polar areu themmlvM. 
" "2. That ttai) nncrol dapniiion of bottom -t«niper»lan 
■ ■ - ■ - ^ Mhallow glaoi.1 

■a troa the polu 
areas D[ warer propfliifla towards thsoi by wlnd-earrsnts, bat 
upon a orMplog How of lbs whole aader-atratnai, bailDi • 
thiakaBii of from 1000 to SOOO fathoms. 

" !. That as th« dspniiion of bottom -temperatnt* in aoy 
port of ths genaral ooeanto boain woald be proportioaol la 
the frcsdom of DommDnioation batwoen its dw p<r portion and 
that of on* or other of the polar anas, ths tMitlom-tem pen- 
tun of the South Atlanlio would probably laogs dowawordi 
32°, while that of tba Horth Atlantis would not b« bolow 33', 
leept where it flnt receives tbe Arctic Bow, or comu aadei lb* 
iSuenea of tbe Antarotio uaderflow, which would very pnbably 
itand ilHir la Iha north of the eqnotor. 

1 Th«t the b 

linn were taken 
•ugh which ths 

.h AtluUc, Ii attributable ta 


' i. That •■ th* Antlfl uid AalanHo andsrflowi mut mMt | woold b« k aoatlnnk 
M or ■aU' tba (qiutei, whiitt tlui niTfxNi-rtntam Im than bod- iboving Itletf bj ■ oi 
VmmaUj bainf dnngktad off tbaoea t«iTUil« aithar pala, than i in the inWr-tropiDal tl 

uaaol ot gUelkl nur aidw th* liBi^ 
irOBoh of oold watar ID tha iutCki* ' 
.(nplaU «HM." 

Fia. 4. — SootiOD of Mid-Atlautio, Ukan nearly north and k 

It WM further ^Inted OQt by L«ni, and mora receutlj 
(in ignmance of hu doctrine) hj Carpenter, that additional 
«Tidenoe of nich ascent ia furaiBhed br tlie low Mlinitj 
of the Eoriace-WBler of the equatorial belt correspoDdine 
with that of polar water. For, as was origionll; obeerved 
bj Humboldt, then by Lenz htmBelf, and subsequently by 
many other Toyagera, the apectfic gravity of the surface- 
water of the AtUotic gradually increases as either tropic is 
approached from the polar side of its own hemisphere, 
reaches Its maximum a little nearer the equator, aod then 
npidlj ilJTYiini^tiff, oomii^ down under the equator to the 
standard of polar wal«r. llius ameanof eightobserrations 
taken in the "Challenger" expedition between Bermuda 
(32" N.) and St. Thomas (ISJ" N.) gave 1027'2 m the 
■p. gr. of nu^iiM-waftr, whilst a mean of seventeen obserrs' 
bons between the Cape Verd Islands (16^° N.) and Bahia 
(13° S.) g«M a sp. gr. of only 10263. Now, since between 
8l Thomas and Bermuda the eight " Cballeoger " obeerva- 
tiona of boltom (polar) water gave a mean pp. gr. of 10263. 
irhilBt between Cape Verd and Bahia the toean sp. gr. of 
the bottom-water was even slightly lower [the results Being 
in all cases expressed accortung to a oommon atandard of 
temperature), such a dose conformity subsists between the 
salinity of the equatorial water of tba surface aad that of 
the polar waters of the bottom, as can scarcely be accounted 
br in any other way than by the continual and tolerably 
rapid ascent of the latter. 

Another indication of this ascent is given by tbe moder- 
ation of Che iur&ce-temperature of oceanic water, even 
under the equator. If there were no ascent of colder water 
from beneath, there seems uo reason why tbe constant pow- 
erful insolation to which equatorial water is subjected should 
not raise the temperaCare of its surface to the highest pos- 
sible elevation. The limit to that elevation, which is obvi- 
ously set by the cooliug indueuce of evaporation, is probably 
that which is met wiui in the Bed Sea, where the monthly 
average for August rises Co 86P and for September to 88^, 
whilst the maxima rise much higher, temperatures of 100°, 
106°, 100°, and 96° having been noted on four consecutive 
days. Moreover, along the Ouinea Coast, and especially 
in the Bight of Biafra, the surface-temperature is slated to 
tange as nigh as 90°. But in theee cases there is no reduc- 
tion of surface- temperature by the upward movement of 
polar water; for this is altogether excluded from the Red 
Sea by the shallownes of the Strait of Babehnandeb, 
whilst the depth of the bottom along the Ouinea Coast is 
too imsll to allow of its being ove^owed by Che glamal 
tialum. Now, over the deeper parts of the equatorial 
Atlantic the surface-temperature usually ranges oetweeu 
75° and 80° ; and this is its ordinary range in ihe Mediter- 
ranean dqring the months of August and September. That 
the temperature of an equatorial ocean should be thus kept 
down to that of a sea of which the greater part hee between 
the paraUels of 40° and 35°, con scarcely oe accounted for 
■n any other way than bv the continual i^vrising of polar 
waters from beneath 

admitted, fblly acoounls for 
Id of north-western Europe, 
which (as already shown) cannot be fairiy attributed to 
the Florida Current or true Gulf Stream. For it ia obvious 
that a continual efflux of the lower stratum from tbe polar 
areas towards the equatorial must involve a continual 
indraught of the upper stratum towards the polar areas; 
and this indraught will be much more marked in the 
Northern than in the Southern Atlantic, on account of the 
progressive narrowing of Che farmer, whilst Che latter 
progressivelv widens out. Of such a slow northerly set of 
a stratum of water, extending dowuwards to a depth of at 
least 600 &thoms, we have evidence in a comparisoo of the 
CemperaCure-soandings taken in the "Porcupine" expedi- 
tions of 1S69 and 1S70, between the ooasC of Portugal 
{31° N.) and the Faroe Islands (59i° NO, from which 
the section Eg. 5 has been worked out. For it is there 
seen that, although the suriace-tem[>erature is reduced by 
the thinning out of the superficial stratum, there is but a 

Fis. £.— SeetlDD o( North Atlantic, (akan nearly north and wulli 
slight change in the position of the balhymetrical Ih^ 
therms of ^° and 10° ; so that there ia an obvious conti- 
nuity of a sliaCum of many hundred fathoms' thidcniss 
between these two points, notwithstanding their separnlion 
by 25P of latitude. The contrast between the position of 
the botherm of 40° at 800 fathoms' depth off the Paroea. 
and its position at less than 300 &thot^ depth under the 
equator, u meet remarkable. We have seen that the iso- 
cheimal in the latter area would not be below 76°, and yet 
we find water colder than 40° lying at within 300 fathoms 
of the surface; whilst, on the other hand, the normal >bo- 
cheimal at 59^° N. would certainly be below 40° (pn^ 

ably no more than 35°), and yet we find water above 43° 
extending downwards to 600 fathoms, and water above 40° 
fathoms. Thm the vertical oceanic drcolation ci 


ri«s A vait nun of witer which Is Mow lb« narmal off the 
cout of Portugal, into a r^on where it id above the nor- 
ail, with very littJe loss of heat by the w«y. eicept in its 
■urface-SIm ; and a little consideration will show that snch 
a moTement must be iDDCh more efiectnal a« a haiUr than 
A correeponding movement of a thin stratum of much 
warmer water. For the latter, when it patseg beneath an 
Atmosphere much rolder than itself, will soon be brought 
down to B like standard, not haring warmer water from 
below to take its place when it has been cooled down; 
whilst in the former, each sorb ce- layer, when cooled 
below the temperature of the warmer stratum beneath, 
will sink and be replaced by it. Now since the trus Oolf 
Stream, when we last know it, has been w> thinned out 
that it could not long retain any 'excess of temperature, it 
' ceems inconceivable that it should exert any decided efiect 
on tl.e temperature of the Faroes and the c(«st of Norway, 
unleee (as supposed hy Dr. Pelermann and Professor Wy- 
ville Thomson) its thickness nndersoea an increase from 
lew than 100 bthoms to 600. But unce the course of Dr. 
Pelermann's isolherms shows that the northward flow ex- 
tends acroas the whole breadth of the Atlantic between 
Newfoundland and the Bdtish Islea — a distance of shout 
2000 miles — wo are required to believe that a rivulet (for 
■uch it is by comparison) of 60 miles' breadth and 100 
fethoms' depth (see section, fig. 5), of which the j;reater 
part turns southwards round the Azores, and of which the 
remainder is flowing due east when we last recoguiie it, is 
able to impart a northerly movement to a stratum of 2000 
miles in breadth, and at least 600 fathoms' depth. On the 
other hand, the eastward set of this stratum, considered as 
A northward inlraught into the polar area, is readily ac- 
counted for bj Ihe excess of easterly momentum which it 
derives ft«ni the earth's rotation, this being onl^ half as 
rapid in laL 60° as it is under the equator ; and since there 
ii a still more rapid reduction in the rate of this rotation 
in yet higher latitudes, the continually increasing excess 
of easterly momentum will gi^e to the northward flow a 
prCffressively stronger eastwud set. 

On Ihe other hand, the deficiency of easterly momentum 
in the cold underflow coming from the pole towards (he 

7iO. t. — B«otiDn from Bermada to Halifai. 

equator will lend to produce a Isgdng-behind, or mtheard 
■et of that underflow; and this has been shown by the 
"Challenger" temperature-soundings to be the case, — (he 
cold deep strata of the Western Atlantic surglne upwards 
•long the slope of the North American coast-tine, as is 
■hown in 6g. 6, where we see not only the bath v metrical 
isothemis of 60 ,55°, and 50°, but the yet deeper isotherms 
of 45° and 40°, successively rising lo the sur&ce ss we 
approach the land ; while at a depth of only 83 fathoms a 
temperature of 35° was encountered, which, at no great 
dialance lo the sooth, would only be found at a depui of 

2000 lathome. That the cold walnr should thma nn 
hUl is qnite conformable to what we see in other 
which a heavier nnder-stratum has a definite set ti 


of the Arctic underflow, no other explanation of it 
has been suggested. We now see titat the cold Labrador 
Current overlies a band of water as cold as itself; and the 
soodiward extension of this cold hand, far beyond (hatirf 
any definite current-movement, and ita entrance into the 
Gulf of Mexico, through the Florida Channel, at the nde 
of and beneath the outflowing Oulf Stream, are thai a» 
counted for. 

The remarkable accordance of so many &cts of actml 
observadon, in the Atlantic area, with the probalnlitMi 
deducible from a theory whose soundness can scarcely be 
disputed, seems now to justify (he admiaiion of the eegieni 
(vertical) oceanic circulation sustained by o[)pcmtion of 
(emperature as an accepted doctrine of lerreatrial phydcs. 

DUlribntmn of Organic Lift.— Ali that wiU be attempted 
under this head will be to indicate the general conditions 
that seem, from recent researches, to have the greatest 
influence on the distribution of plan(a and animals through 
this great oceanic basin. 

The distribution of marine plants seems mainly deter- 
mined by light lempereture, ana depth. — afortber inflaeDce 
being exerted by the character of the shores. The dimlnu- 

falhoms may be regarded as almost it 
in conformity with this we find a very rapid dimiout 
of Algal life below tho depth of 100 fathoms. The upper 
stratum is occupied for tue most part by (he larger and 
coarser forms of the Paeaeea, or olive-green sea-weeds, 
whilst the more delicate Cenaniaeea, or red sea-weeds, fre- 
quent deeper waters ; and, ss it nppeare from expervnenli 
made in aquaria that the latter do not flourish in full lighli 
but gruw well in shadow, it may be concluded that t£m 
preference for a moderate depth is rather for reduced light 
and stillness than for depth per se. At a depth of ISO 
fathoms very few ordinary sea- weeds maintain their ground; 
and betow this we seldom find any Alg», save the Coral- 
lines and Nulliporee consolidated by calcareous deposit 
The distribution of particular types over different parts of 
the Atlantic area appears to be mainly r^nlated by tem- 
perature ; and this would seem (o be remarkably the case 
with tlie floating DiaiomacaK, which, though they form 
green bands in the surface- water of polar seas, have not 
Been encountered in like abundance in the Atlantic, and do 
not contribute largely, by the subsidence of their siliceous 
lorifos, lo the composition of its botlom-depodt Although 
it is the habit of the lai^r Algse lo grow from a base of 
attachment (their roots serving no other purpose, however, 
than that of anchorage), the enormous mass of Oulf-weea 
found in the Sargasso sea seems quite independent of any 
such attachment. It was at one time supposed that this 
originally grew on the Bahama and Florida shores, and 
was lorn thence by the ^werful current of the Gulf 
Stream; hut it seems certain that if such was ita original 
source, the "Gulf-weed" now lives and propagates whilst 
freely floating on the ocean-surface, having become adapted 
by various modifications to its present mode of existenD& 

The distribution of the animals that habiluallv live in 
that upi>er stratum of the ocean whose dtgree of warmth 
varies with the latitude, seems maidly determined by tem- 
perature. Thus the "right whale" of Arctic sess, and ill 
representative in the Antarctic, seem never lo enter the 
inter-tropical area, generally keeping away from even the 
temperate sea^ whilst, on the other hand, the sperm-whale 
ranffss through the parts of the ocean where the "right 
whales " are never seen. 

The distribution of fishes seems generally to follow the 
same rule; as does also that of floating moUusks. Tha 
the tittle cSu (a Pteropod mollusk), which is a princffal 
article of the food of the "right whales" in polar sea^ ii 
rarely met with in the Atlantic, where, however, other 
pleropods, as Byalaa, present themselves in abundanoch 
On the other hand, the warmer parts of its area swarm with 
Salpa-cfasins, which are not frequent iu higher latitud(i| 
and the few representatives of the Nautiloid Cephalopo^ 
that were so abundant in Cretaceous seas, are now restndM 
to tropical or eub-Iropical areas. And the distributiaa of 
the molluska, echinoderms, and corals, which hiiMtmJIj 


Bre QB tlM liadMii, weaim to be determine^ within wrtun 
liBut* (t I«Mt, bj tempermtore nther than by deptli. 

The bMbjiDetrioJ ninge to which uiiintJ Ufa of uij 
bigfaer iTpe tlwn the ^liiopodil might extend, was uatil 

I bj the "Challenger" expedition, hare 
fbllj estkbliahed the eztatenoe of a varied aod abundant 
&iina in ooeaiMlepthB ranging dowDwaida to 2000 fotboma. 
And tbcM reseudiee have fuither establiihed that the 
diatjUntion of thia ftooa is munly detenmned hf tha 
tempeMtnre of the sea-bed ; so Ihat whilat in the cfaannsi 
between the north of Bcotland and the Faroes there were 
Iband at the nine depths, and within a few miles of each 
other, two itaam almost «atirelT distinct — one a boreal and 
the ather a warmer-temperate — on sea-beda having respect- 
iTelj the tetnperatores of 30° and 43", various types to 
whidi a low temperatore is congenial are traceable oon- 
linDoasIj' along the whole abymal SM-bed that intervenes 
between these northern and toathem polar areas within 
which thej present themselves at or near the gnr&ce. And 
hence ft becomes clear that, since glacial t^MS are eveli 
DOW bein^ embedded in the itcata which are in prooeas of 
fbrrnatioD bcaeath the eqnator, no inferences aa to terres- 
trial climate can be drawn bixa the character of marine 

<tee verr remarkable feattire which presents itself over 
a targe proportion of the Atlan^ basin is the abaodaace 
of the minate Qtolngerinie and other Poraminifera, the 
aocnmnlatioD of whose shells and of their disint^rated 
lemains is giving rise to a calcareous deposit of unknown 
tbicknoB, that eormpoDds in all enential particulan to 
CSialk. This deposit, id some parts of the North Atlantic, 
is replaced by an Arctic drift of fine sand, whilst in other 
psirts there is a mixture of arenaceous and of calcareona 
comptmenta, sndi as is fonnd in certain beds of the 
Crdaceoos formation. Now on the surface of this deposit 
there have been found so many living ^pes, especially 
belonging to the gTOupe of Echmoderms, Corals, Siliceous 
Spongea, and Foraminifera, which closely correspond with 
tjpt» hitherto itguded as characteristic of the Cretaceous 
epoch, that the question naturally suggesta itself whether 
the existing are not the lineal aescendsnta of the fossil 
types, — the diflerences they present b^ng 
mar be fairly attributed to the proloi 
dilleieoces of tempermture, food, prenure, ac And when 
Iheae &cIb are taken in connection with those previoosly 
stated aa to the probable remoteness of the jperlod 
when (if ever) the preset sea-bed of the Atlantic was 
dry land, the doctrine first put forth by Prof. Wyville 
lliomson, Ihat theie has beoi a oonlinuoua formation of 
Glolngerina-mnd on the bottom of the Atlantic from 
the u^aoeoDS WKh to the present time, — or, in other 
words, that the formation of chalk on the sea.bed of the 
Atlantic did not oease with the elevation of the European 
area, but bss been going on ibroagh the whole Tertinry 
period, — most be samitted aa (to say the least) a not 
'hesiB. That eonie considerable change 
conclusion of the Cretaceous epoch, by 

nee of the 

Uia and chambered cephalopods characteristic of the 
Oretaceous fiuuM, may be fairly assumed from their diaap- 
p^oanoe: bnt this would not so much affect the deeper 
part of the basin, in wliich those lower types that seem 
mora capable of adapting themselves to changes in external 
eonditioQs wonid continue to hold their ground. That the 
like conditions hsd prevailed also through long previous geo- 
logical periods, nav be surmised from the persistence, over 
varioos parta of the Atlantic sea-bed, i 
wbidi carriee us back tc 

fmprobahle bypothesiB. 
looc place at the ooncli 

type, which cart 
the i^gttew tM B 

. iting 31»* 

irvNUda do not diflbr more fi-om Oolitic types than the 
Itiler difi^ amtxtg each other. Going back still farther, 
we fnd in the penUeooe of certain Foraminiferal types 
from the Curbonifetons limestone to the present time, and 
in the character of its deep-sea beds, a strong indication 

that thm originated in a Foraminifenl deposit, represent' 
tng in all eascotial partiealara that which is now going on ; 
waile the penistence of the Linguia from the early 

the condition of deep se« thiooghont the whole sc 
auoccBsion of geological changes. 

BiBUoa&iTHT. — In addition to the ordinarr bootms of 
information, the following publications may be epeciallr 
referred to for recent information in r<^:ard to the physic^ 
geography of the Atlantic: — "Reports of the Deep-Sea 
ExploratioUB carried on in H.M. SteAm-venels ' Lightning,' 
' Porcupine,' and ' Shearwater," " in Procefdingi of iKt Boyai 
Jbeiefy for 1868, 1869, 1870, and I8T2; "On the Gibraltar 
Current, the Onlf Stream, and the Cieneral Oceanic Circula- 
tion," in the Joumai of Ihe Boi/at OeograpUrai Soaetu for 
1B71; and " Further Inquiries on Oceanic Circulation" 
(containing a summaiy oi the "Challeuoer" Temperature 
Survey of the AUantic), in the same journal Ibr 1874; 
OurreniM and SurfoM-Temperalure of the jioiih and SouUi 
Allantie, published by the Meteorological Committee; and 
The DtpAt <^tlLeSea,bj Prof. Wyville Thomson. 



ATLANTIS, Ataladtis, or Atiastica, an island ni_ 
tioned by Plato and other claasical writers, coooemiDg the 
real existence of which many disputes have been raised. 
In Ihe limau, Critias relates how his grandhther CHtias 
had been told by Soton some remarkable events in early 
Athenian history which he had learned from the I^jptiaii 
priests at Sus, whcse records went much further oack 
than the native accounts. "The most famons of all the 
Athoiian exploits," Solon had been told, "was the overthrow 
of the island Atlantis. This was a continent lying over 
agunst the pillars of Hercules, in extent greater than 
Libya and Asia put together, and was the passage to other 
islands and to another contin^it, of which the Uediter- 
ranean Sea was only the harbor; and within the pillais 
the empire of Atlantis reached to Egypt and Tjnrnenia. 
This mtghly power was arrayed against Egypt and Hellas 
and all the countries bordering on the Mediterranean. 
Then did your city bravely, and won renown over the 
whole eutn. For at the peril of her own existence, and 
when the other Hellenes had deserted her, she repelled 
the invader, and of her own accord gave liberty to all the 
nations witiiin the pillais. A littie while afterwards there 
was a great earthquake, and your warrior race all sank into 
the earth ; and the great island of Atlantis also disappeared 
in (he sea. This is the explanation of the shallows which 
are found in that part of the AUantic ocean." — (Jowett^i 
Inirodiietum to Iha Tnucui.) Such is the main substance 
of the principal account of the island fiimisbed by the 
ancients, — an account which, if not entirely fictitious, be- 
longs to the meat nebulous rc^on of history. The story 
may embody some popular legend, and the legend may have 
rested on certain historical circumstances ; but what these 
were it is (aathe numerous theories advanced on the subject 
may be held as proving) impossible now to determine. 

ATLAS ('ArAof), in Oreei Mt/thotopy, called sometimes 
a son of Japetus and the nymph Asia, or of Uranus and 
Oaia, and at other times ti^uxd to a diflerent parentan^ 
but always known as the being who supported on His 
shoulders the pillars on which the skv rested. He knew 
the depths of the sea (Otfyney, vii. 24G), and in the first 
instance seems to have been a marine creation. The pillais 
which he supported were thought to rest in the sea, 
immediately beyond the most western horison. But by 
the time of Herodotus (iv. 184), a mountain is suggested 
as best suited to hold up the neavena, and the name of 
Atlas is transferred to a hill in the N.W. of Africa. Then 
the name is traced to a king of that district, rich In flocks 
and herds, and owning the garden of the Heeperidee. 
Finally, Alias was explained as the name of a primitive 
astronomer. He was the father of the Pleiades and 
Hyadee. Perseus encountered him when he searched for 
Medusa. Heracles took the burden of the sky from bia 
shoulders, but cleverly contrived to replace it. Atlas bear- 
ing up the heavens is mentioned aa being represented on 
early works of art, e.o., on the chest of CVpselus fPanaan., 
v. 18, 1), and on the throne of Apollo at Amydie (Pausna, 
ill, 18, 7) ; and this subject occurs on several existing works 
of ar 

. . . , considering it . 

_._ the Atlantic to Cape Bon, tl^ north-east point ol Tnnii^ 
while others include under the name the whole moontaiB 
system between Cape Nun and the greater Syrtia. In 


this latter seoBe it forms the moaDtsin-land of th« conntriea 
of Harocco, Algeria, Tunis, and TripolL It is composed 
of rau^ Mid groups of mounUuoB, eDcloBinft weU-vu«red 
and fertile TallejB and plaioa, and hsTing a general 
diiecdoQ bom W. to E. Tim bigheeC peaks are supposed 
lo attain an eioTstioo of Denri/ 15,000 feet; uid although 
none of tliem reach the height of oer^ual inow, some of 
their loftiest summita ire coTered with snov during the 
greater jjart of the year. Mount MilMin, 27 miles S.K 
of the city of Marocco, vs« ascertained by Captain Wash- 
ingtm lo be 11,400 feet hi^h. The greatest heights are 
in Marocco, from which point tliej appear to diminish in 
elerafion as they extend towards the E. These luountains, 
except the loftier gummils, are, for the moet p&rt, covered 
with thick ibresla of pine, oak, cork, while poplar, wild 
olive, and other trees. The inferior ranges seem to lie 
principally composed of Becondary limestone, which, at a 
greater elevation, ia succeeded by micaceous schist and 
quartt-rock ; and the higher chains are said to consist of 
granite, gneiss, mica-slate, and clay-slate. The Secondary 
and Tertiary formations are frequently diatnrbed and 
upraised by trap-rocks of comparatirely modem date. 
I^ad, iron, copper, antimony, sulphur, and rock-salt occur 
frequently ; and in the Marocco portion of the range gold 
and silTer are said lo exist. In tiie Algerian division are 
mines of copper, lead, Bilver, and antimony. The lion, 
hyena, boar, and bear are common throughout the moun- 
tains. None }f the riven which take their rise in the sys- 
tem are of any great importance. The Tafilet is absorbed 
in the sands; the Tensill and Draa flow into the Atlantic; 
and about five or six End tlieir way to the HediterraiieM). 
Dr. Hooker has explored the botany of many parts of the 
range, and the travels of Bohl& ha*e added lugely to our 
general knowledge of iL 

ATMOSPHERE is the name applied lo the invisible 
elastic envelope which surrounds Uie earth, the gaseous 
matter of which it is composed being usually distinguished 
by the name of air. Storms and weatlier generally, solar 
and terrestrial radiation, ihe disintegration of rocks, animal 
and vegetable life, twilight, and the propagation of sound, 
are some of the more stnkinR phenomena which are either 
to a large extent or altc^etner dependent on the atmo- 
■pbere. That air possesses weight may be shown by the 
simple experiment of taking a hollow globe filled with 
air and weighing it; then removing the contained air 
by means of an air-pump, and again weighing the globe, 
when it will he found to weigh lem than at first. The 
difierence of the two results is the weight of the air whidi 
has been removed. From Kegnault's experiments, 100 
cubic inchee of dry Mr, or air containing no aqueous vapor, 
under a pressure of 30 English inches of mercury, and at 
a temperature of 60° Fahr., weigh 31'0352S grfiins; and 
since 100 cubic inches of distilled waler at the same pres- 

d lempenUure wdgh 25,252} gnuiu, it follows that 

I3'67 Umes lighter than waler. 

s an elastic fluid exerts pressure upon the earth or 
any substance on which it rests, the action of a boy's 
sucker and of a water-pnmp being familiar instances 
showing the pressure of the atmosphere. When air is 
renjovM from a water-pump, the water rises in the pump 
only lo a certain height ; for as soon as the water has risen 
to such a height that the weight of the column of waler in 
the pump above the level of the surface of the water in Ihe 
well just balances the pressure exerted by the atmosphere 
on the surface of the well, it ceases to nse. If the pres- 
sure of the atmosphere be increased, the water will rise 
higher in the pump; but if diminished, the level of the 
water will sink. The height to which Ihe water rises 
within the pump thus varies with the prenure of the 
atmosphere^ the height being generally about 34 feet. 
Since a given volume of mercury weighed in vacuo at a 
temperature of B2? Fahr. is ID'569 times heavier than the 
same volume of water, it follows that a column of mercury 
will rise in tmeno to a beigfat 13'569 limes less than a 
column of water, or about 30 inches. If we suppose, then, 
the height of tbe mercurial column to be 30 inches, which 
is probably near the average height of the barometer at 
•eo-level, tuid iU base equal to a square inch, it will contain 
80 cubic inches of mercury ; and since one cubic inch of 
mercury contains 34267 graioB, the weight of 30 cubic 
Inches will be nwrly 14-7304 tti avoirdupois. Thus the 

Ewre of the almoepher« is generally, at least in these 
todei, at sea-level equal to 14'73a4 tb on each square 

air is 8 

inch of the earth's sarfiw». Bit JtAa Heraefad has eat< 
culated that the total weight of an atmosphen averaging 
30 inches of piessupe is aboat 111 trillioas of poonds; 
and that, making allowance for the space occupied by the 
land ^>ove the sea, the mass of such an atmumhere is aboat 
TTV^isir P"^ "^ ''"'' "^ ^^ earth iCselt This enormoo* 
pressure is exerted on the human fnune in common with 
all objects on the earth's surface, and it is calculated that 
a man of the ordloaiy siie sustiuos a prennre i^ about 14 
tons ; but ss the preosure is exerted eqtiallf in all direo- 
dons, and permeates the whole body, no inconrenienc* 
arises in consequence of it. 

A pressure agreeing approximately with the average 
atmospheric pressure at sea-level is oflen used as a nmt 
of pressure. This unit is called im afawspAsre^ aod is 
employed in measuring pressures in sleam-engitMs and 
boilers. The value of this unit which has been adopted, 
in the metrical system, is tbe pressure of 760 miilimitres 
(29922 Eng. inches) of the mercurial column at 0° C. (32° 
Fahr.) at Paris, which amounts in that latitude lo 1033 
kilc^iammes on the square cwitimfitre. In the E^liah 
system, a» atmoaphera is the pressure due to 20'90S inchea 
of the mercurial column at 32° Fahr. at London, amonnt- 
ing there lo nearly 14} lb weight on the square inch. The 
latter atmosphere is thus 0-99968 of that of the metrical 

As regards the distribution of atmospheric prenare over 
tbe globe, there wss little beyond conjectnr^ drawn front 
theoretical considerations and for the most part erroneooa, 
till the publication in 1S68 of Buchan's memoir "On the 
Mean Pressure of Ihs Atmosnhere and the Prevailing 
Winds over the Globe." ' By tlie monthly isobario charte 
and copious tables which accompanied the memoir, this 
important physical problem was first approximately aolved. 
Since then (Le Bntiah Admiralty lus published charts 
showing the mean pressure of the atmosphere over the 
ocean.* The more important general conclusions r^arding 
the geograpbicai distribution of atmoepherio pressure are 
the lollowing: 

There are two regions of high pressure, the one nortli 
and the other south of the equator, paning completely 
round the globe as broad bells of high pressure^ They 
enclose between them the low pressure of tropical regioDs, 
through the centre of which runs a narrower bdt o? still 
lower pressure, towards which the north and south tr 

throughout; but the belt north of the equator has a very 
irregular outline, and great differences in its breadth and in 
ils inclination to the equator — these irregularities being 
due to Ihe unequal distribution of land and water in the 
northern hemisphere. Taking abroad viewof tbesul^act, 
there are only three regions of low pressure — one round 
each pole, IxHinded by or contained within the belts of 
high pressure jnst referred to, and the equatorial belt of 
,low pressure. The most remarkable of these, in so far as 
yet Itnowu, is the region of low pressure surrounding the 
south pole, which appears to remain pretty constant 
during tbe whole year. The depression round the north 
pole is divided into two distinct centres, at each of whidi 
there is a diminution of pressure greasy lower tliaii the 
average north polar depremiou. 'These two centres lie in 
the north of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans respectivdy. 
The distribution oF pressure in the different months of the 

J ear differs widely fiom the annual average, particularly in 
anuary sod July, the two extreme months. In January 
the highest pressures are over the continents of the north- 
ern hemisphere, — and the larger the continental mass 
the greater the pressure, — and tbe lowest presurea are 
over the northern portions of the Atlantic and Pacific, 
South America and South Africa, and the Antarc^c Ocean. 
In the centre of Asia the mean pressure of the atmosphen 
in this month is fully 30-400 inches, whereas in the Kortb 
Atlantic, round Iceland, it is only 29-340 inches, or up- 
wards of an inch lower than in Central Asia. The area 
of high barometer is continued westwards throngh Osntnl 
and Southern Europe, the North Atlantio between 6° and 
45° N. iat., North America, except tbe north and north- 
west, and the Pacific for some distance on either side of 
15° N. Iat It is thus an exaggerated form of tbe high bell 

1 TVniu. Bbv. SfC Sfbt., voL in. n. UTS. 

t nytoat OariK^ Uie PadJIc, Aam^le,aK^MIm C«l«M,I«a<. 



df Bunnkl mean i»a«tiTe, Bpresdin^ howeTer, orer t, madi 
craatn breadth in North Americi, and ■ Btill gre&ter 
Dteadth in Abu. 

In Jolj, on the other huki, the mean preamre of Central 
AaU !■ ooij 29'4BS ino^ea, or nearlj an inch lower than 
4aiiag January; <», puttinc thia imkiiig result in other 
woTtb, about a thlkleth or the pmnire of the atmo- 
•phcM la removed from thia ngion dariag the hotted 
montha of tha feat aa compared with the winter aeason. 
Tha knreat preMurca of the northern hemisphere are now 
diatiibatad over tha continent^ and the lar^r the coa- 
tinental maaa the greater ia the depremion. At the same 
tiiH the liighot are oTer the ocean between 60° N. and 
KT'B.UL, partienlarlr over the North Atlantic and the 
North Pacific hetween 2S° and 40° N. laL, and in the 
Mmthem hemiaphero over the belt of high mean annual 
Ewcnnr^ which in this month reaches its maximum hnight. 
PrcMure is high in South Africa and in Aoatralia, Jual u 
in the winter of the oorthem hemisphere prennrea are 
hiKh over the continents. 

Ofer tha ocean, if we except the higher latitndes, 
atmonberic preaanre ia more r^nlar Ummghoat the 
Tear than over the land. In the ocean to westwards of 
«ach of the contineita there occun at all aeuona an area 
of high prcanin^ from O'lO inch to 0*30 inch higher than 
what prevaila on the coast weetward of which it Hes. The 
«lia»anca of theae apacee of high preeeure ia generally about 
30° of longitude ; and their longitudinal axes lie, roughl; 
^keaking, about the lones of the tropics. The maximum 
ia readied during the winter months, and these areas of 
high pTCBUTe are moat prominently marked west of those 
ooatinenta which have the greats breadth in 30° lat. ; and 
tba nttmpat barometric graaienta are on their eaatem aides. 
It is scarcely poeeible to overestimate the importance of 
theaa regions of high and low mean preBsuiea, from tbdr 
Intimale bearinf[ on atmoqiherio phyaus, but more putio- 
■lariy from their vital conneotion with pievailing winds 
and the genwal eLrcnlation of the atmoepna«. This i^a> 
tioa mil be apprehended vh«n it ia eraiaidefeiil ^att winda 
an simply the Bowing away of the ^ from r^<uia where 
tbcfa ia a surplus (regions of high pieeaure] to where there 
!■ a de&cieDc; of air (regions of low pressure). Even- 
wben over the globe thia transference takes place in strict 
accoidaitoe with Buys- Ballot's " Iaw of the Winds," which 
may be thus exprened; — The wind neither blows round 
the apaoe of lowest pressure in circles returning on them- 
•elna, nor does it blow directly toward that space ; but it 
take* a direction Intermediate approaching, however, more 
■tearlr to the direction and coarse of circular curves than 
of rami to a oeolre. Hare exactly, the angle is not a right 
angle, hot from 45° to 80°. Keeping this relation between 
wmd and the distribution of pressure in mind, the isobaric 
linea give the proximate caiues of the prevailing winds 
over the globe, and through these the prominent features 
of dimatea. As r^anls the ocean, the prevailii^ winds 
Indicate the direction of the drift-ciirrenia and other sur- 
fcce enrrmts, and thereby the anomalous distribution of 
Ote tempeiature of the sea as seen in the Chili, Ouiue^ 
and othpT ocean currents, and the peculiarly marked 
dimalea of the coaats past which theae enrrenta flow, are 
explained ; for observations liave now proved that the 
pcerailiiig vrinds and suriace-currenla of all oceana are all 
imt abaolutely coincident. 

As i^aida the annnal march of pressure through tha 
"""fiw of the year, curves representing it fbr the different 
TOjciona of tbe earth diffir from each other in every con- 
Mtvahle way. It is only when the resulU are set down 
■D (heir proper places on charts of tbe globe that the 
(Digect can b« well understood. When thus dealt with, 
many of the reaulta are characterized by Kreat beauty ana 
•implid^. Thm, of all inflnenoes which determine the 
faamnetrio fluctuation through the monllu, tbe most im- 
pMtant are the temperature, and through the temperature 
tba homidi^. Comparing, then, the average pressure in 
Jaonaiy with that in July, which two montha give the 
aieaWil ponible contraats of temperature, tha following ia 
vie bttma result : — 

The January exceeds the July pressure over the whole 
of A^ except Kamtchatka and the extreme north-east, 
the grealeat excess being near tha centre of the continent; 
ov^ Europe to south and east of a line drawn from the 
White Sea sooth-westward to the Naae, thence southward 
Id the mcNitb erf the Weser, theo to Tonis, Bordeaux, and 

after paMing throuBfa the north of Spain, ont to sea at 
ComDa; over North America, exoapt the north-east and 
norih-wesb On tha other hand, the July exoeeda tbe 
Januarr preaaure generally over the whole of tha aonthatn 
bemisphere, over the norUiem part of tba Hwth Atlantio 
and nylons immedialalv adjoining (the exoeaa atuonndnfli 
in Iceland to 0'307 inch), and over tha northem part o7 
the North Padfie and surrounding regions. I^oa the 

S-earure which ia ao largely removed from the Old uid 
ew Continents of the notihem hemisphere in July ia 
transferred, partly to the southern hemisphere, snd partly 
to the northern portionsofthe Atlan^o and Pacific OcMoa. 
Atmoapheric pressure ia more unifbtrnlydiatributed over 
the globe in April and October than in any of the other 
months. In May and November, being the montha 
immediately following, occur the great annnal riae and 
fall of temperature; and since these rapid changes take 

5 lace at very different rales, according to the rdative 
istribution of Uud and water in each region, a comparison 
of the geographical distribution of May with that fbr the 
year brings out in strong relief the more prominent causes 
which inflnenoe climate, and some of the more etriking 
TesultB of these canses. This comparison shows a dbninn- 
tion of pressure In Hay over tropical and sub-tropical 
r^ons, indnding nearly the whole of Asia, the sonliieam 
half of Europe, and the United States. An excess prevails 
over North America to the north of tha I^keB, over Arctic 
America, Greenland, the British lelee, and to the nortii of 
a line passing Uirongh Che EkigUah Channel in a nralh- 
easteriy dlrectlim to the Arctic Sea. The excess in the 
southern hemisphere indudee the southern half of South 
America and of Africa, the whole of Anstralia, and a^H^ 
omt parts of the ocean. The influence of the luid of Uie 
aonthem hemisphere, whidi in this month is colder than 
the surrounding seas, brings about an exceea of preaanie ; 
on the other hmd, the influence of land over those regions 
which are mot« inunediatdy under the sun brings about a 
lower preBsur& Intereatinf examples of which o~~- '- 

preasore follow more or leas clcsely the o . . . 
coasts. Thus the diminution ia greater over Italy and 
Turkey than over the Adriatic and Black Seas. The 
greatest diminution occurs in Central Asia, where it ex- 
ceeds 0'200 inch, and the greatest excess round Iceland, 
where it exceeds O'SOO inch. It is to the noeition of Qreat 
Britain, with reference to tbe deficiency of pressure on tha 
one bond and the excess on the other, that the general 
prevalence of east winds at thia season is due. These east- 
erly winds prevail over tbe whole of Northem Europe, as 
lar south aa a line drawn from Hodrid and passing In a 
north-easterly direction through Qeneva, Munich, Aa. To 
the south of this line the diminution of pressure is laaa, and 
this region the winds which a ' ' 

rly, but southerly. Crossing the 

ndng on Africa, we approach anc „ 

preaaure^ towards which easterly and north-easterly winds 
agmn acquire the ascendency, as at Halta, Algeria, Ste. 

This, In many cases great, variation of the pressure in 
the diSerent months of (he year must be kept carefully in 
view in dedudne hdghta of places from observations made 
by travellers of the pressure of atmosphere, by tbe barome- 
ter or the temperature of boiling water. In redudng tha 
observadtms, it is necessary to assume a sea-Ievd preeanta 
if tbe place is at a considerable distance from any meteor- 
ological observatory. Previous to the publication of Bo- 
chan's Mean Prature qf Us Almoiphert, it appears that a 
mean sea-level preeanre of 29*92 or SO'OO inches was in 
such cases universally saiiimed. The mean presura at 
Barnaul, Siberia, bewg 20-636 inches in July, 30-293 
inches in January, and 29-954 Inches Ibr the year, it fol- 
lows that, by the former method of calculating the height^ 
observadons made in Jonuarv to ascertun the height of 
Lake Balkash would make tbelake 350 feet Coo high, and ob- 
servations made in July would make it 330 feet too low, — 
tbe diflference of tbe two observations, each set being sup- 
posed to be made under the most favbmble circumstancH^ 
and with the greatest accnracy, bemg SSO feet Thia illus- 
tration will serve to account for many of tbe diaorepandes 
met with in books regarding the hdghta of mountains and 

Of the periodical variations of atmospheric pressure, the 
most marked is the d^y variation, which in tropical and 



phenamena. £i higher latitudn the diurnal oscillation u 
masked by the freqaeot dactaatioiu to which Ihe preaeure 
ia lubjected. If. however, bonrly obaervationB be legulvly 
made foriome tune, the diurnal osdilatioti will become ap- 

rarent The results show two maxima occurring from S to 
I A.H. and 9 to 11 p.h^ and two minima occoinng from 3 
to ft ut. and.3 to 6 F.M. ' The followiDg are the extreme 
variations for January, April, July, ana October from the 
daily mean prenure at Calcutta, deduced from the ol|BerTa- 
tions made during six years, viz^ 1S57-62 : — 





















+ 010 











+ 003 





















__ , ^ . ■.^." ., 

a large extent, of the diamal barometria oacillaliona ii 
tropical and temperate regions. At Calcatta the amounta 
are Urge, and the dated of the occurreuoe of the maxima 
and minima very r^lar from 3 to 4 and 9 to 10 a.m. and 
f.x. respectively. On the other hand, the oscillations at 
Vienna are much Emaller and more variable in amount, 
and the dates of occurrence of the critical phases take place 
through a wider interval, viz., from 3 to e and 9 to 11 A.M. 
and p.u. reapectively. 

Though the diurnal barometric oecillaliona are among 
(he iMst-ma^ed of meteorological phenomena, at least in 
tropical and sub-tropical regions, yet none of these pbe- 
Domena, except perhaps the electrical, could be named re- 
apecUng whose gei^raphical distribution so little is really 
sbown, whether as r^ards the amount of variation, the 

pcQd. This arises chiefly from the want of a suffidcnt 
number of ascertained facts ; and lo remedy this deficiency, 
observations have, in the preparation of this present article, 
been collected and calculated from upwards of 250 places 
in different parts of the globe, and the data set down on 
charla. The chief results of this inquiry are the following, 
sttwition being entirely confined to the chief oscillation, 
viz., that occurring &om the A.M. 

The A.H. Mazmum. — la Jan\iary this occurs from 9 to 
10 in tropical and temperate regions as far as 50° S. lat. ; 
in higher latitudes the time of occurreuc« varies from S a.m. 
to noon. In July it occurs from 9 to 10 everywhere only 
a« far as about 40° N. lal.; the time at Tidia (41° 42' N. 
laL) being between 7 and 8 a.m. In higher latitudes the 
time varies from 8 to 11 a.m., the last hour being general 
in Dotth-weetem Europe. 

Tht P.M. Jftntmum. — In Januaiv this ocean from 3 to 4 
P.M. nearly everywhere over the globe, a few exoeptiona oc- 
cnrring in north-western Europe, the extremes being 2 p.m. 
at Utrecht and 6 P.M. at St. Petersburg. It is quite differ- 
ent in July, when the time from 3 to 4 P.M. is regularly 
kept as lai north as about 40° N, lat. In higher latitudes 
the hour is very generally 6, but at some places it is as 
early as 4 p.m., and at others as late as 6 p.m. 

In the northern hemisphere^ in summer, the altemoon 
minimnm &lls to a greaier extent below tlie me*a of the 
day than the forenoon maximum rises above it, at 82 per 
cenU of Ihe stations ; bnt in winter the percenlafp is only 
61. In tha southern hemisphere the same relstioa is ob- 

served in the summer and winter months, thus showing 
that in the summer of both hemispheKS the inflnence of 
die sun lends to lower the minimnm at 3 lo 4 P.M. lo a 
greater extent than to raise the 9 to 10 a.m. maximuai. 

Dareane bettteen Moryung Maximwn and Aflemoon Min- 
imtan. — Of the four daily oecillatiooe, this is the most im- 
portant. When the amounts at dinerent places are ai> 
tered on charts of the globe, it is seen that tl^e amplitude 
of this fluctuation is, speaking generally, greatest Id ibe 
tropics, diminishing as we advance into higher latitudes; 
greater over the land than over the sea, increasing greatlj 
on proceeding ioland; nexrly always greater with a dr* 
than with a moist atmosphere ; and generally, but by 
no means always, it is greatest in the month of highcat 
temperature and greatest dryness combined. The rwou 
of largest amplitude include the East India Islands, East- 
em Peninsula, India, Arabia, tropical Africa, and tropical 
BouUi and Central America, where it eillier closely ap- 
proaches or exceeds O'lOO indi. At Silchar, in Assam, it is 
0*133 inch. In the tropical parts of the ocean the osdlla- 
tion is from 0'020 to 0-030 inch less than on land. The in- 
fluence of the Mediterranean Sea in lessening the amount 
over all r^ons bordering it is very Btroogly marked. The 
line showing an oacitlation of 0'050 inch cruescs North 
America about lat. 44°, corves southward at some distance 
from the east coast to lat. 23°, then north-esstwArd along 
the coast of Africa, passes eastwards near the north coart 
of that continent, thence strikes northwards, cutting the 
eastern part of the Black Sea, and eastward acrosa the (Ka- 
plan to a point to northward of Peking, and then benda 
Bouthward tb the Loo Choo Islands. The line of OiHO 
incli cuts the N.W. of Spain and N.W. of France, and runs 
northward through Great Britain as far the Tweed, theocs 
to Christiania, then southwards to Copenhagen and to Cn^ 
cow, the latitude of which it follows eaatwaw through Asia. 

The more marked seasOQBl changes are these: — In India 
the oecilUUons during the dry and wet seasons, or in Jan- 
ua^ and JuEy, respectively, are — Bombay, 0'120 and 0*067 
inch ; PSonah, 0*133 and 0-059 inch ; and Calcutta, 0*132 
and 0'091 inch. At Madras, where the rain-bringing cha- 
racters of the monaoona are reversed, the numbeis are 0*114 
and 0*115 inch, and at Roorkee, where rain falls all the 
year round, 0*088 and 0*079. Xgain, at Aden, in Arabia, 
where the weather of July is peculiarly hot and dry, the 
oscillation in December is 0-10^ but in July it rises to 0-137 
inch. The point to be insisted on here is, that, whatever 
be thecauseorcauses to which the duly barometric oscilla- 
tion is due, the absolute amount is largely dependent on 
comparatively local influences. 

While illustrations similar to the above may be adduced 
from many other parts of the globe, showing the influence 
in the same direction of prevtuling diy or wet, hot or cold 
seasons on the amplitude of the oscillation, the North At- 
lantic and regions adjoining present an apparent eiceptioa 
to the law which seems to be indicated by these resultA 

terrajiean and its immediate sea-board may be added, are 
strikingly characterized by a small summer oscillation; 
and this diminution is most strongly marked along the 
eastern part of the ocean. Thus, in July, at Ponia Del- 

Sida, in the Azores, the oecillation is only 0'06 inch ; at 
ngra do Heroisms, also in the Azores, 0010 ioch: at 
Funchal, Madeira, 0*011 inch; at Oportij, 0018; Lbbon, 
0*030; and Lagos, 0021; at Naples and PaJeri-io, O-QOS; 
and at Malta, 0*020 luch. Now, with reference to this ex- 
tensive r^iou, it is to be noted that the rainfall of July is 
either zero or very small ; and yet with this dry slate of 
the atmosphere and hi^h temperature (the annual maii- 
mnm occurring at the time), this oscillation is extraordi- 
narily diminisned, being exactly Ihe reverse of what takes 
place during the dry and wet seasons in India. The dimi- 
nution on the western half of the Atlandc, though not to 
great, is also striking, the January and Jnly oscillationB be- 
ing 0'056 and 0*036 inch in Barbadoes, 0*080 and (rOX at 
Jamaica, 0082 and 0*064 at Havana, 0*053 and 0*024 in 
the Bahamas, and 0*054 and 0*022 in Bermuda. Over ths 
whole of the r^ion here indicated the rainfall of July is 
largely in excess of that of January 
ceptional character of this refpon u 

, that is, oi 

It of land, than atanyolhs' 


MMon, Ax thu time the HedltertaiMaii, which is com- 
pl^elj ^ul in hj Und, •od the Atlantic, which is boDnded 
by two grml contineats, ahow a much smftUer oecilUcioD 
tnan prevmilt oyer the land Bdjoiniog them, and the lines 
of equal oacillatioa now attain their annoal maiimnm. On 
the other band, in January, when the bud's rays fall per- 
peodicularlj over the meet tmifoim auHace, or oTsr fhe 
mmxjmiim extent of ocean, the liuee btb almoet everywhere 
pauallel with the paiaUeU of Utittida.- 

Again, on advancinB inland from the Atlantic, the efiecCs 
(tf compantively local influences are very strilung, as the 
following mean Jnly oacillaticna, from places sitoated in 

fr04B; Odeaaa, 0-024; and Hflis, 0-077; Limerick, 0010; 
Helaton, 0-007 ; Psri8,0-020; Qeneva, 0015 ; Turin, 0052; 
Borne, 0-036; Palermo, O-r* 

eva, 0-015; Turin,0052; 
d Malta, 0-020. But the 

. !8; Fort ChurohhUl, 0-091; Washingtou, 0063; 

Anna do Heroisma, 0006 ; Lisbon, 0030 ; Campo Maior, 
0^; Palermo, 0008; Tiflis, 0077( and Peking, 0060. 

Il follows from what hw been stated that much which 
has heen written regarding these fluctuaUons, and in ex- 
planation of them, doee not reUon iacts; and nearly erery- 
thing vet requirei to tie done in the way of oollecliiig data 
towuoB the tepreeentation and expluiation of the dailT oecit- 
lalions of almoapberic preaanre which are, as ngordB two- 
thitiia of the gbhe, perhaps, as already staled, the most 
resplar of reonrring phenomena, and an explanation of 
which cannot hnt throw much light on many of the more 
important and difficult problems of the atmosphere. The 
data chiefly required are— harometric data fn>m which the 
mplitade of the four duly osctilations can be represented 

1 their distribution and t 

the a 

s of 

for each of 

which the diumal march of temperature for <«ch month 
caobeaMertained; hygrometric data Ibr hourly valuep; nin 
data aba for the bours ; wind observations ccmdncted on a 
tatisfactoty and nnifbrm plan ; together with magnetic and 
elecCrical observations. It is siagularly unfortunate that 
the dispositioa of meteorologista of recent years baa been 
to recommend as boura of obeervatioaBforplaces which ob- 
serve (miy twice or thrice daily, hours which do not cor- 
Tespond with the times vheu the great barometric and 
Ihermometric daily phasea occur ; hKice these phases • 
not be noted except at the great obaervatoriea, which 
loo few and far apart to ^ve sufficient data for the proper 
discnsaion of many of those questions. 

Bince the two maxima of ^ily pressure occnr when the 
temperature is about the mean of the day, and the two 
minima when it is at its highest and lowest respectively, 
there is thna suggested a connection between the daily bar- 

amountof vapor and humidity of the __ 

tertained by many of Uie causes of tbe daily oscillations may 
be thus stated .- — The fartmrni nuammrn is conceived to be 
due to the rapidly increasing temperature, and [he rapid 
evaporation owing to the great dryness of the air at Uiii 
time of the day, and to the increased elasticity of the loW' 
^nnost stratum of air which results therefrom, until a 
aleady ascending current has set in. As the day advances, 
the rapor becomes more equally diflused upwards through 
the air, an ascending current, more or less strong and 
ste«dy, is set in motiou, a dimiaudou of elasticity follows, 
and the pressure falls to the a/lemoori nwntTnum. From 
this point the temperature declines, a system of descend- 
ing currents set iu, and the air of the lowermost stratum 
approacbes more nearly the point of saturation, and from 
the increased elasticity, the pressure rises to the evening 
maximum. As the deposition of dew proceeds, and the fall 
of temperature and consequent downward movement of 
the air are arrested, the elasticity !s again diminished, and 
prenure &Jls to the morning minintum. Since the view 
propounded some years ago, that if the elastic force of 
Tapor be subtracted from the whole pressure, what renu 
will show only one daily maximum and minimum, baa 
been confirmed by observation, it follows that the above 
•xplanation is quite insufficient to account (or the pbenom- 
eoa ; indeed, the view can he regarded in no other light 
thma s^ply as a tentative hypothesis, 
einf ilarly enough, Lamcait and Broon, a few jean ago. 

were led, independoitlj of each other, to tana an (^Jniaa 
that the daily barometric oscillations were due to the 
m«neto-electric influence of the sun. It admits of no 
douDt, looking at the ^(s of the case so br as they hare 
been diadosea, that the daily barometric oacUladons 
originate with the son, and that more than the sun's 
'nfluence aa exerted on the diumal march of the temper- 
iture and humidity of the atmosphere is concemea in 
bringing them abouL But from the facts adduced, it is 
equally certain that, be the ori^nating cause what it may, 
ita eflecls are enormously modified hy the distribution of 

BUiallness of the ai 

forenoon maximum to the afternoon r 

North Atiantic as far south as lat. 30°, and its diminished 
amount, as far south at least aa the equator, will no doubt 
plav an important part in the unravelliDg of this difficulty. 

One of the mint important steps that could be takoi 
would be an extensive series of observations from such 
as India, which offers such splendid contrssls of 
climate at all seasona, baa a surbce covered at one placs 
with tlie richest vegetation, and at others with vast' stretches 
of sandy deserts, and presents extensive plateaus and sharp 
ascending peaks — all which conditions are indispensable in 
collecting the data required for the solution of this vital 
problem of atmoaphenc physics. 

Tbe ancients thoiwht that air was one of the four ele- 
ments from which all things originated, and this doctrine 
continued lo prevail till 1774, when Priestley discovered 
oxygen gas, and showed it to be a constituent oort of air. 
Nitrogen, the other constituent of air, first called otota, waa 
discovered soon after, and the marked diSerences between 
> gases oould not lail to strike the moat careless <^ 
It is remarkable that Bcbeele independently dis- 
covered both oxygen and nitrogen, and was the flrst IC 
enunciate the opinion that air consists essentially of a 
mixture of these two gases. From experiments made by 
him to ascertain their relative volnmte he concluded that 
the proportions are 27 volumes of oxygen and 73 volumes 
of nitrogen. It was left to Cavendish to show from 600 
analyses that the relative proportions were practically con- 
stant, and that the proportion is 20-833 per cent, of ozTKeo. 
The results obtained by Cavendish, though not attended to 
for many yean after they were published, have been shown 

atvcent and more refined analyses to be wonderfully exacL- 
e moat recent analyses of specimens of air collected 
under drcmnstances which ensure that it is of averaga 
purity, give ss a mean result the following: — 

Csibooio aoid „„ 0-04 " 

The drcumstances under which these proportions vary, 
and the other gases and substances which are found in the 
air, will be afterwards adverted to. 

Besides these three constituents of air, there is a fourth, 
viz., tbe vapor of wal«r, from which no air, even at the 
lowest temperatures yet observed, is wholly Free, so that 
absolutely d^ sir does not exist in the free atmosphire. 
The dry air of the atmosphere — oxygen (inclusive of otone), 
nitrogen, and carbonic acid — is always a gas, and its quan- 
tity is constant from ^e«r to year; but the vapor of water 
does not always remain in the gaseous state, and the quan- 
tity present in the atmosphere is, by the processes of evap- 
oration and condensation, varying every inatanL Water 
evaporates at all temperatures, even the lowest, and rises 
"into the air in the form of an invisible elastic gas called 
aqueous vapor. The elasticity^ of vapor varies with the 
temperature. At 0° Fahr. it is capable of sustaining a 
pressure equal to 0044 inch of the mercurial barometer, as 
calculated from Rocuautt's experiments: at 32° (freezing), 
0-181 inch ; at 60°, 0'518 inch ; at 80°, 1-023 ; and at 100°, 
1'918 inch, being nearly -^ uie average pressure of ths 

In investigating the h^grometry of the atmosphere, the 
chief points to be ascertained are — (1), the temperature of 
the Eur; (2), the dew-point ; (3), tbe elastic force of vapor, 
or the amount of barometric pressure due to the vapoi 
present; (4), the quantity of vapor in, say, a cubic foot of 
air; (5), the additional vapor required to saturate a cuino 
fbot of air ; (6J, the relative humidity ; and (7), the wai^ 



of ■ cubic foot of *ir at the prenure ni tbe time of obter- 
TBtiuQ. The rapor of the atnicephere ia obeerred by metuiB 
of the hnrometer (see Htorokkteh), of which it is 011I7 
neoenuyliere to refer to Begnault* as the meat exact, and 
Atigtttfi OS tbe moat coQTeairait, and, coasequently, the 
ODe in most general use. August's hygrometer consiUs of a 
diy and a wet bullk with which are observed the tempera- 
ture of the air and the temperature of evaporation. Of 
Ihew two observed data, the fonanta of reducUon, as 
deduced from Apjobn'e investigations, is as followa: — IiHL 
F be the dastic force of ealunited vapor at the dew-point, 
/ the elastic force at the temperature oF evaporation, d the 
dlffiireuM between the dry and vet bulb, and b the baro- 
metric pressuie, tlien 

' 88 30 

«h«n the reading of the wet bulb ia above 32°; and 

■* 96 30 
when below it. Prom Rwuault's values of the elastic force 
of vapor, / is found, and d aud b being observed, ¥ is 
cslcnlated. From F the dew-point ia found. In calcu- 
lating relative humidity, saluration is uauallj assumed to 
be 100, perfectly dry air 0. The humidity is found by 
dividing the elastic force at the dew-point by the elastic 
force at the temperatnre of the air, uid maltiplying the 
quotient 1^ 100. 

The elastic force may be regarded as Tepreaenlins 
approzimatetr tbe absolute quantity of vapor suspended 
in the air. It may be termed the absolute humidity of 
the atmcephere. Since the chief disturbing influences at 
work in toe atmoaphere are tbe forces called into plar by 
iu aqueous vapor, a knowledge of tbe geographical distri- 
bution of this constituent through the months of the year 
is of the utmost possible importance. Hence erecy effort 
ought to be made to place the observation of the hygrometry 
of the air, and tlie reduction of the observed oats, on a 
sounder basis thou has yet been done. As r^ards geograph- 
ical distribution, the elastic force is greatest within the 
tropics, and dimiuishes towards the poles; it is greater over 
the ocean, and decreases on advancing inlan^ ; greater in 
summer than in winter; and greater at midday than in the 
morning. It diminishes with the height generally ; bnt in 
parlicubr caaea, dlfibrent strata are superimposed on each 
other, difibring widely as regards drynene and humidity, 
and the transitions from the one to the other are often, 
shaip and sudden. 

The relative humidity of the air may be regarded as the 
d^ree of approach to saturat40n. It is greatest near the 
surface of the earth during night, when the temperature, 
being at or near the daily roinimom, approaches the dew- 
point; it is also great iu the morning, when the sun's rays 
(lave evaporated the dew, and the vapor is as yet only 
diffused a little way upwards ; and it is least during the 
greatest beat of the day. 

Between the humidity, both absolute and relative, of the 
air and tbe temperature there is a vital and all-important 
connection. Observation Bhows that when the quantity of 
vapor in the air is great, and also when the relative 
linmidity is high, temperature blls little during the night, 
even though Uie sky be perfectly clear; but when the 
quanlily of vapor is small, or the relative humidity ia low, 
temperature rapidly &1U. On the other hand, during the 
day the temperature rises slowly, w^en the quantity of 
vapor is great, or relative humidity high, even though the 
tky be clear, but when the quantity of vapor ia small, and 
humidity low, temperature rapidly rises. Theae iiictH jire' 
explained by the clrcumntance that perfectly dry air ia 
diathermanoUB, that ia, it allows radiant heat to pass through 
it without being aenaibly warmed thereby. Add vapor 
to this air, and its diathermancy ia diminished. The dia- 
thermancy ia also reduced if the temperature approach 
nearer to the dew-point; in other words, if the relative 
humidity be increased. Hence, with an increase of vapor 
or with increased humidity, the effects of both solar and 
terrestrial radiation are much less felt on the surface of the 
earth — the vapor acroen performing, in truth, one of the 
moat important conservative functions of the atmosphere. 

Sinoo ascending currents fall in temperature as they 
ascend, through diminished pressure and consequent dila- 
tation, they increaM their relative humidity i and since 


Q (eiDpeT«taT& and o 

qnently rednoe their relative humidity, it fi^ows that, 
over a r^on from which ascending cnrrenla rise, solar and 
t«rrestri&r radiation )« very consideiAbly obatrncted, but 
over a r^on upon which currents descend, radiation is 
much leaa obstructed. Moat of oar exoeptionally hot 
summer and cold winter weather is to be eiplained in this 
way, on which occasions there is generally obaerved a hi^ 
barometric prewure overspreading acomparativelylimiled 
region, on which a slow downwud movement of the air 
Of the solar heat which reaches tbe snrftce of the 

the heating tays ; a;id since there is no mobility it 

S articles of the land, the heat can be communicated 
Dwnwards only by conduction. On the other band, the 
solar heat which lolls on water is not, as in the case of 
land, arrested at the surface, but penetrates to a consider- 

very considerable depth, 
the surface of the ocean on which the afjoosphere rests is 
much leffi heated during the day thiin is the mr&ce of the 
land. Similarlv it is also less cooled during the night 
by terrestrial radiation. 

This points to a chief acting force on which the great 
movements of the atmosphere depend, viz., umnltaneous 
local irregularities in the distribution of temperature in 
the atmosphere. The local expansion of the atmosphere 
by heat during the day is greatest over land, where the air 
is clear, dry, and comparatively calm, and least over the 
ocean, where tbe sky u clond«l, and the air loaded with 
moistnre. On the other hand, the local contraction by 
cold during night is greatest over land, where the air u 
clear, dry, and calm, or nearly so, and least over tbe 
ocean, where the air is clouded, and loaded with moisture. 
As familiar illustratiomi of atmospheric movements result- 
ing from local expansions by heat and contractions by 
cold, we may refer to the land and sea breeces, and what 
depend upon exactly tbe same principle, the dry and rainy 
monsoons in difierent parts of the globe. But the illustra- 
tion of the principle on the broadest scale is the system of 
atmospheric circulation known as the equatorial and polar 
currents of the atmosphere, which originate in the un- 
equal headng fay the van of the equatonal, temperate, and 
polar regions. 

The other principal motive force in atmoapheric circu- 
lation depends on the aqueous vapor. The many ways 
in which tliis element acts as a motive force will be seen 
when it is considered that a large quantity of sensible 
heat disappean in the process of^evapo ration, and reap- 
pean in the process of condensation of the vapor into rain 
or cloud ; that saturated air is specifically lighter than dry 
air; and that the absolute and relative amount of the 
vapor powerfully infiuences both solar and terrestrial 
radiation. The question lo be carefully conaidered here 
is, how in these ways the vapor produces local irregular- 
itiea in the distribution of almonpheric pressnr^ thua 

equilibrium that has thus been disturbed. 

It is from these local irr^ularities — using the w<nd 
local in a very vide Hense — in the distribntioD of atmo- 
spheric pressure, whether the irr^nilarities originate in the 
temperature or aqueous vapor, that all winds, from thft 
lightest breeietothe most destructive hurricane, take their 
rise; for, as already stated, wind is merely tbe flowing 
away of the air from where there is a surplus of it to 
where there ia a deficiency. 

In examining weather charts embracing a comdder^l* 
portion of the earth's surface, such, for instance, as those 
published in the Jimnvd of the Seottuih MttatrUogiad 
Soatty, vol. ii, p. 198, which include a large part of the 
northern hemisphere, there are seen two different systema 
of pressure changing their forma and positions on the globe 
from day to day — one set being systems of low pressura 
marked off by concentric ieobarica enclosing preasures 
successively lower as the central space is approadied, and 
the other set being syKtems of high pressure marked off by 
roughly concentric isobarica bounding pressures succes- 
sively nigher towards their centres. These two ifrsl«itu 
an essentially distinct from each other, and withoa BCHoe 


twnrlcdge of lliem the circnladoti of the mlmoBphere can- 

1. Attn of ZrOK Prantn, or Ojl<ione*. — The annexed 
woodcDt, fig. 1, it • good represenUtion of t, cyclone 

Fra. 1. — Weather chart, ihowiDg ejclooe. 

Ihe Birmn show the direction and (bice of the wind, the 
force riaing with the number of feathen on the arrowe. 

The two chief points to be noted are the following : — (1.) 
The diraiUm of the arrowa Bhown a vorticoae motion of 
th« air inwardi upon the Hpoce of lowest pressure, the 
■ntion being contrary to that of the hands of a watch. It 
■ill be obaerred that the wind* biow in confonnlty with 
what ia known as Buya-Ballol's "Law of the Winds," 
•Irtadj referred to, but which may be olherwiHe thus 
put:— ^tand with your back to tlie wind, aad the Lowest 
natometer, or centre of depreaaion, will be to your left 
ID the northern hemisphere (in the southern hemisphere 
lo the riBht); this rule iiolds universally. (2.} The 
font of the wind is proportional to the barometric gra- 
aimt or the quotient of the distance between two places 
lUled in mites by the difference of pressure stated in 
inches of mercury as obeerred at tlie two plocea. Hence 
in the Channel, where the isobarics are close together, 
vinds are high, but in the north of Scotland, where the 
isobuin are far apart, winds are light. This rule also 
holds uDivereally, though the exact relation requires still 
la be worked out by observatian. As regards the im- 
pcnint dimatic elements of temperature and moisture, 
the lir in the S.S.E. half oflhe cyclone ia mild and 
hnmld, and much rain falls; but in the other half it 
ii coid and dry, and little rain falls. A succession of 
low pnsBures tntesiag eastward, in a course lying to 
nortliwanls of Great Britain, ia the characteristic of an 
(fien winter in Great Britain ; on the other hand, if the 
(ydonea follow a coune lying to the soulliward, the win- 
ten ate severe. This is a chief point of climatic im- 
portance connected with the propagation eastward of 
ibese cyclonic areas. 

2. Areas of Htoh Pretmra, or Anlicydtma. — The ac- 
mnpanying weather chart, Sg. 2, for 2-4th Angust, 1S68, 
fmraeofa an anticyclone or region of high pressure, 
which oreispread Uie greater part of Europe at that 
linie. Here the highest pressure is in the centre of the 
•yHen, and, as usually happens, the isobarics are less 
ifinioetritaJ than those near the centre of a crc]0D& The 
winds, as usual in anticyclones, are light ; ihis, however, 
is the essential point of difference^the winds do not 
fc" inwards upon the centre, but outwards from the re- 
poo of high pressure; and it will be observed that in 
many egses they cut the isabarics at nearly right angles. 
AoMher importaul point of difference is in the air over the 
ngicn covered by the anticyclone being, particularly in ila 
■ntiai portion, very dry, and either clear or nearly free 
mxn clouds. 
Climatically, the signiGcance of the anticyclone coDsists 

dryness and clearness, more fully under the influence 
of both solar and terrestrial radiation; and consequently 
in winter it is accompanied with great cold, and in summer 
with great heat. As ehown by Buchan, in reviewing the 
weather of north-western Euroi>e for 1868,' the intense 
heat which prevailed in Gr«at Britain during 2-4lh August 
of that year was due to the high barometric prrasure accom- 
panying this anticyclone, the comparative calmness of the 
Btmosphere, the clearness of the sky, the dtynees of the air, 
~ ' ' strong insolation which took place under these 

Thus, then, the tendency of the winds on the sur&ce of 
the earth is to blow round and in upon the space where 

Eressures are low and out of the space where pressures are 
igh. Now, since vast volumes of air are in this way 
poured into the space where pressure is low, wilhoitf 
increasing that pressure, and, on the other hand, vast 
volumes flow out of the space where pressure ia high, 
without diminishing that pressure, it neceesarilv follows 
that the air poured in is not allowed to accumulate over 
this space, but must escape into other r«^ons; and also 
that the air which flows out from (he anticyclonic region 
must have its place supplied by fresh accessions from above. 
In other words, the central space of the cyclone is occupied 
by a vast ascending current, which slier rising to a con- 
siderable height flows away as upper currents into sur* 
roundinK r^ons ; and the central space of the anticyclone 
ia filled by a slowly descending current, which is fet! from 
upper currents, blowing towards it from neighboring r^ons. 
when the area of observation is made sufficiently wide, 

cyclones in proximity to them, the better marked anti- 
cyclones having two, and sometimes more, ^clones in their 
vicinity. In fig. 2, a part of a cyclone in IceUnd is seen, 
and another cyclone in the Crimea accompanied the anti- 
cvclone there figured. Hence the cyclone and the anticy- 
clone are nroperly to be regarded as counterparts, belonging 
to one and the same great atmospheric dbtiirbance. 

Ff6. a.—Wsalher chart, al 

■iag antiayoloD 

From this it follows that observations of the winds 
cannot be conducted, and the results discussed, on the 
siippuaition that the general movement of the winds felt on 
the earth's surface is horizontal, it being evident that the 
circulation of the atmosphere is effected largely through 
iAOuUeUonlofitiKdtrOtHnialBlrtAtpMal, Annie itta. D. SB. 


■atudactoiy way of 
Iq their cUnutic i 

Koppeu of St. Petenboi^, > . . , 

IhiUful results in inTeetinting tJie weather of that ptac 
during 1372 aitd 1ST3. In attemptiiig an explaaation oi 
these phenomena, we are met with Beveial as yet insuper- 
kble oc«tacl«E.' — (1.) An imperfect knowledge of the mode 
of formation and propasalion of low-preaauro mtems; (2.) 
Imperfect knowledge of the relations of the RirmUion of 
cloud and aqneotu precipitation to barometric fluctuations ; 
(3.) A want of intormatioQ with reference to the merely 
mecbanioal effecU of osoending, descending, and horizontal 
curreuls of air on the barometric pressure ; in other words, 
we do not know bow Ear the barometric pressure is an in- 
dication of the mass of air in the column rerticallr over 
it. when that rolumn is traveraed by air-cnrrenlE ; (4.) An 
almost total absence of really good wind observations ; and 
(5.) Deficient Information \a nearly erer^tbiog that ra- 
spects aqueous Topor—ils relation to radiant heat, both 
solar and terreetrml ; its mode of diSuBion vertically and 
horiiontallj in the free atmosphere, especially from an 
evaporating surface; the influence which its coodensation 
into cload and rain exerts on aerial currents, — in reeard to 
all which more astislactory methods of observing this vital 
element, and discussing the results of observation, are 
greatly to be desired. There are here large important 
fields of inquiry awaiting experimental and observational 

The law of the dilatation of gases, known as the " Law 
of Bo vie " or " Law of Mariotte," is tr 
cupiea by a gas is in inverse rs 

which it exists, if the temperature remains uie same; or 
the density of a gas is proportioned to its pressure. Con- 
sequently^ ur uoder a pressure equal to tliat of two atmo- 
spheres will occupy only half the volume it occupied tinder 
the pressure of one atmosphere ; under the pressure of 
three atmospheres, one-third of that volume, &c. By doub- 
ling the pressure we double the dasticily. I^ however, the 
temperature be increased, and the air occupy the same 
space, the pressure will be increased; but if the prenure 
is to remain the same, the air must occupy a larger 
space. From Begnault's experiments, it is concluded that 
the co-efficient which denotes increase of elasticity for 1° 
Fahr. of air whose volume is constaat equals -002036; 
and that the co-effidcnt which denotes increase of vot- 
nme for 1° Fahr. of air whose elasticity is coastant equals 

Those portions of the atmosphere in contact with the 
earth are pressed upon b^ ail the air at>ove them. The air 
t tha top of a mountain is pressed upon by all the 

} pressure whatever upon it. Thus the pressure of the 
atmosphere constantly diminishes with the bdebt. If, 
dien, the prewure of the atmosphere at two heigbls be 
observed, and if at the same time the mean temperature 
and humidity of the whole stratum of air l^ing between 
the two levels were known, the difference in height be- 
tween the two places could t>e calcuhUed. For the devel- 
opment of this principle, see BAsoxin^BIc MsiA8Dbb- 
icEina or HmaHi^ p. 332. 

The air thus diminishing in density as we ascend, if it 
consists of ultimate atoms, ss is no doubt the case, it follows 
that the limit of the atmosphere will be reached at the 
height where (be force of gravity downwards upon a single 
particle is equal to the resisting force arising from the re- 
pulsive force of the parlicies. It was long supposed, from 
the results of observations on the refraction of light, that 
the height of the atmosphere did not exceed 45 milee ; but 
from the observationE of luminous meteors, whose true 
i^arat^er as cosmical bodies was established a few yeara 
ago, it is inferred that the height of the atmosphere is at 
least IZO mites, and that, in an extremely att^iuated form, 
it may even reach 200 miles. 

Though there are considerable diSbrences in the spedfic 
gravities of the four constituent gases of the atmosphere, 
viz., oxygen, nitrogen, oarbonio acid gas, and aqueous va- 
por, there is yet no tendency to separation among them, 
owing to the law of diffusion obtaining among elastic fluids 
mixM together. While the proportion of these gases is in 
a general sense constant, there are, however, consistent dif- 
brencee in the amounts of oxygen and nitrogen in the air 

of unwholesome placet, as flnt sbown by BqituulL 1W 
Ibllowing figures, sbowing the volome per cenL of oxjpm, 
rest on the authority^ of Dr. Angus Bmilh, who has arm 
much atteaticHi to this subject :--8ea-ehore of Scotland sod 
AtlanUo (lat. 43° 5' N., long. 17= 12' W.), 20W; tops of 
Scottish hills, 20-93 ; in sitting-room feeling close but not 
excessively so, 20'8(l : backs of houses and closets, 2070; 
under sh^ in metalliferous miues, 20-421 ; irhai csndks 
go out, 18'50 ; when it is very difficult to remain in the ail 
many minntes, IT'20. The variations in the amounta of 
carbonic arid in di^rent situations are great ; thus — in the 
Loudon parks it is -0301 ; on the Thames, -0343; where 
fields b^n, -0369; in London streets in summer, -0380, 
during fogs in Manchester, -0670 ; in workshops it rises to 
-3000, and in the worst part* of theatres to '3200 ; and thg 
largest amount, found in Cornwall mines, is 2-5OO0. 

Great differences have been observed by Dr. A. Smith 
iMtween country rain and town rain: country rain is neu- 
tral ; town rain, on the other hand, is add, and corrodes 
metals and even stones and bricks, destroying mortar rap- 
idly, and readily spoiling many cnlors. Much informatioa 
has been obtained regarding impurities in the air of towns 
and other places hy examining the run collected in diflar- 
ent places. The air freest from impurities is that coUeetsd 
at the sea-coast and at considerable heights. Again, am- 
monia is found to diminish, while nitric add increases, u 
ascending to, at least, habitable heights. As r^ards ct^ 
ganic toMtet in the ur, it corresponds to a consideiable 
extent with the density of the population. As mi^it havt 
been supposed from the higher temperature, more nilrio 
acid is contained in rain collected on the Continoit than m 
the British Islands. This inquiry, which b only vet in its 
infancy, will doubtless continue to be vigorously prose- 
cuted, pnr^cularly since we may hope thereby to amve it 
the means of authoritatively denning the safe limits of the 
densi^ of populaliou, and the extent to which mannbc- 
tures may be carried on within a given area. The influ- 
ence of atmospheric impurities <m the public heallhliM 
received a good deal of attention. 

The relation of weather to mortality is a very impMtoiit 

inquiry, and though a good deal has been knoim regarding 
the question for some time, yet it baa only recently been 
systematically inquired into by I^. Arthur 

the question for some time, yet it has only r< 
systematically inquired into by I^. Arthur Mitchell u" 
Ur. Bucban, the results of the investigation which deals 
with the mortality of London being published in the /osr- 
fuU of the ScoUith MeUorotogiBol SaaOy (Mew Seri«s, Nes. 
43 to 40). Considering the weather of the year as made 
up of several distinct climates dlfiering from each other 
according to temperature and moisture and their relstiom 
to each other, it may be divided into six distinct dimatei, 
characterized respectively by cold, cold with dryness, dry- 
ness with heat, beat, heat with moisture, and cold with 
moisture. Each of these six periods has a peculiar bSn- 
ence in increasing or diminishing the mortality, and eadt 
has its own group of diseases which rise to the tnasinmn^ 
or fall to the minimum mortality, or are subject to a rapd 
increase or a rapid decrease. The mortality from all 
causes and at all ages shows a large excess aliove tb« 
average from the middle of Kovemtier to the middle of 
April, from which it &lls to the minimum in the end of 
May; it then slowly rises, and on the third week of July 
suddenly shoots up almMt as high as the winter maximum 
of the year, at which it remains till the second wedi of 
August, falling thence as rapidly as it rose to a secondary 
minimum in October. R^rding the summer eice*, 
which is BO abrupt in its rise and fall, it is almost oltogeChtr 
due to the enormous increase of tlie mortality amon^ mers 
infknta under one year of age; and this iocrease is due 
not only to deatlis at one age, but to deaths bom one 
class of diseases, via., bowel complainls. If the deslbs 
from bowel complaints l>e deducted from the deaths tna 
all causee, there remains an excess of deaths in the cM 
moutlis, and a deficiency in the warm months. In othei 
words, the curve of mortality is r^ulated by the lsiB« 
number of deaths from diseases of the respirati»y oTgaat. 
The curve of mortality for London, if mere in&nta b< 
excepted, has thus an inverse relation to the tempetaUu^ 
rising as the temperature falls, and falling as the tempera- 
ture rises. On the other hand, in Victoria, AuatralUi 
where the summers are hotter and the winters mildv, ih* 
curves of mortality and temperature are directly related to 
each other — mortality and temperatnre rising and blUog 
tngMher; the reason being that ir "' '" i— .i-- *— 

1 Victoria deaths &«■ 


boirel complaints are mach greater, and Itioae from dMoaaaa 
of tba iMpiratorj organs much leas thtm in London. 

The cnires show that ibe maximam annoal mortatit7 
Inm the difimsnt diacasta groups around certain specific 

re and moisture combined. Thus. 

■ aecom[NUiied with a high death- 
__j, heart diseasee, diphtheria, and 

, . ', with a high deaUi-rate from bron- 

ehilii^ piMomonia, etc ; eold and dry neoAer, with a high 
drath nlip frimi brain diseasee, whooping-oough, conviil- 
fiooi: warm aad dry veather, with a high denth-rate from 
Boicide and imall-poz ; i^ uaiilicr, with a high death-rate 
from bowel complaiDts; and varnt raoitt iteatlur, with a 
high death-rate from scarlet and tjphoid feren. (See 

CLuute.) (A-B-J 

ATMOSPHERIC RAILWAY, a rdlwaj in which the 
pre^ra of air is used directly or indirectly to propel cai- 
riagea, aa a snbautnte for steam. It was devised at a time 
when the prindples of propulsion were not so well ander- 
•tood aa they are now, and when the dangers and Inconve- 
» attendant on the use of iocomotivea were verj much 

eiugeraled. It had been long known that small objecla 
cou^be propelled for great distances through Cube ' 
prenore, but a Mr. Vallance^ of Brighton, seems 

to hai 

„__■ traffic He pngected (about 1825) 
a railway, coosisdng of a wooden tube aboaC 6 feet 
D iDcnea in diameter, with a carriage ronning inside it A 
diaphragm fitting the tube, approximately air-tight, was 
■ttachea lo the carriage, and the air exhausted from the 
front of it by a stationary engine, so that the atmospheric 
prearare b^uod drove the carriage forward. lAter invent- 
on, commeutdng with Henry Pinkus (1S35), for the most 
part kept the carri^ee altc«ether outside the tube, and 
coonecled them by a oar wiui a piston working inside it, 
this piston bemg moved hy atmoepheric pressure in the 
way just mentioned. The tube was generally provided 
with a slot upon its upper side, closM by a continuous 
valve or its equivalent, and arrangements were made by 
whidi this valve should be opened to allow the passage of 
the drivioK bar without permitting great leakage of air. 
About 1840, Heteis. Clegg & Samuda made various experi- 
ments with an atmospheric tube constructed on this prin- 
ciple upon a portion of the West London Railway, near 
Wormwood Scrubs. The apparent success of these i: 

, ^ A Dalkey, where it was in operation in 1S44. 

Later on, the same system was adopted on a part of the 
South Drvon line and in several other places, and during 
the years 1344-1846 (he English and French patent rec- 
ords show ft very large numb^ of more or lev practicable 
and ingenious schemee for the tubes, valves, and drivtcg 
gtsr of aUnoapheric railways. The atmospheric system 
was nowhere permanently succenful, but in all cases was 
eventually supeiBeded by locomotives, the last atmospheric 
line being probably that at SL Qermaina, which was worked 
until 1862- Apaii from difficulties in connection with the 
working of the valve, the maintenance of the vacuum, Ac, 
other great practical difficultiee, which had not been indi- 
cated by the experimenlB, soon made theuiselvea knowu 
in the working of the lines. Above all, it was found that 
stationary engines, whether hauling a rope or exhausting a 
tabe, ctHild never work a railway with anything like the 
ir the convenience of locomotive^ a point which 
' ' IS settled by engineer, but which was 

.. Jibpatch" tq.v.), to the transmission of 

Bnall parcels in crainection with pottal and telegraph work, 
I u.-i. ^l ),„ proved admirably adapted. (See 

for which purpose 

paper by Frot Sternberg of Carlsrnhe in Hensinger 

Waldegg's HaHdback fur ^>eeitUe EueiJxilmteeltnil^ V( 


1) _ 


[ [infiof) is a body which cannot be cat in two. 
The atomic theory is a theoi7 of the constitution of bodies, 
which asserts that they are made up of atoms. The op- 
posite theory ii that of the homogeneity and continuity of 
bodies, and asserts, at least in the case of bodies having no 
apparait organization, such, for instance, as water, that as 
vu can divide a drop of water into two parts which are 
Mch of them drops of water, so we have reason to believe 

that these smaller drops can be divided again, aad the 
theory goes on to anert that there is nothing In Uie nature 
of things to hinder this procesi of diviaion from being 
repealea over and over a^ain. times widiout end. This u 
the doctrine of the inSnite divisibility of bodies, and it is 

I direct contradiction with the theory of atoms. 

The atomists anert thai after a certain number of such 
diviuwH the parts would t>e no loiwer divisible, because 
each of them would be an atom. The advocates of the 
continuity of matter assert that the smallest oonoeivable 
body has parts, and that whatever has parts may be di- 

In ancient times Democritns was the founder of the 
atomic theory, while Anaiagoras propounded that of con- 
tinuity, under the name of the doctrine of homceomeria 
f'O^uMc^iifiui), or of the similarity of the parts of a body to 
the whole. The arguments of the atomists, and their 
repliea lo the objections of Anaxagoras, are to be found !■ 

In modem times the study of nature has brou^t to 
light majiy properties of bodies whidi appear to depend on 
the magmtude and motions of their ultimate constituenla, 
and the question of the existence of atoms has once more 
become conspicuous among scientific inquiries. 

We shall be^n by stating the opposing doctrines of atoms 
and of continuity before giving an outlme of the state of 
molecular science aa it now exists. In the earlieBt times 
the most ancient philceophei* whose speculations at« 
known to us seem to have discussed the ideas of number 
and of continuoDB magnitude, of space and time^ of matter 
and motion, with a native power of thought which has 
probably never been surpassed. T^eir actual knowledge^ 
however, and their scientific experience were necessamy 
limited, because in their days the records of human thought 
were oidy beginning to accumulate^ It is probable that 
the first exact notions of qusntity were founded on the con> 
sideradon of number. It is by the help of numbers that 
concrete quantities are practically measured and calculated. 
Now, number is discontinuous. We psss from one number 
to the next per taitittn. The magnitudes, on the other 
hand, which we meet with in geometry, are essentially 
continuous. The atteuiptto apply numerical methods to the 
oomparison of geometncal quantities led to the doctrine 
of incommensurables, and to that of the inSaile divbibility 
of space. Meanwhile, the same considerations had not 
been applied to time, so that in the days of Zeno of Elea 
time was still r^aided as made up of a finite number of 
" moments," while space was confessed to be diviuble with- 
out limit. This wss the state of opinion when the cele- 
brated argum«i(s against the possibility of motion, of 
which that of Achillea aod the tortoise is a specimen- 
were propounded by Zeno, and such, apparently, continued 
to be the stale of opiaioo till Aristotle point^ out that 
time is divisible withaut limit, in precisely the same s«is» 
that space is. And the slowness of the development of 
scientific idess m^ be estimated from the fact that Bayl« 
does not see any force in this statement of Aristotle, nut 
continues to admire the paradox of Zeno. (Bayle's Dia- 
lumary, arL " Zeno.") Thus the direction of true scientific 
progress was for many ages towards tiie leoognitiou of the 
infinite divisibility of space and time- 
It was easy to attempt to apply similar aiKuments to 
matter. If matter is extended and fills space^ the same 
mental operation by which we rect^niie the divisibility of 
space may be applied, in imagination at least, to the matter 
which occupies space. From this point of view the atomic 
doctrine might be r^arded as a relic of the old numerical 
way of coDoeiving magnitude, and the opposite doctrine of 
the infinite divisiiuUty of matter might appear for a time 
the most eci«otiSo. The alcHnists, on tlia other hand, 
asserted very stronglv the distinction between matter snd 
spaca. The atoms, they said, do not fill up the universe; 
there are void spaces between them. If it were not ao, 
Lucretius tells ns, there could be no motion, for the atom 
which gives way fiiat must have some empty place to 

" Qupi 


r losai Mt iDtaetni, inans, v 

ReipoMent; iiamqDa,ot 
OBloan atqoa obitan, id in omul 
Omalbni : huid igUai qnloqaam ; 
Prinoipinm qaoniiua MdeDdl nnlll 

id eorporia aiital, 
tsmpors adMut 
prooeders posss^ 

_. nulla daret ru." 

O* Ann I/amra, L Uk 

S4 a 

Hie opposite ichool munUined thai, aa thej bare al- 
ways don^ that there 1b no Tacuam^liiat everr put of 
■pace is full of matter, that there is ■ nnirerMl plenum, 
•nd that all motion ii 1ik« that of a fish io the water, which 
Tields ia &«at of the fish becanse the fish leaves room for 

" 0»d«ra aqiuiiugvrii latiow nitentibni ainnt 


— i. srs. 

_ ... 1 held that, aa it is of the 

enence of matter to be extended in length, breadth, and 
thickness, so it is of the 


" Ac proindi il qoantnr quid flst, il Dnis anfcnt omne nor- 
pni qnod in aliquo tssv eobtinBtnTj et autlom aliad in abl&ti 
lodam T«nin pannittatT nspondflndnm eit, raaii lat«ra libi 
InTiMm hoB Ipeo fon oonligna. Com inim inlar dno oornara 
nihil inteijwxl^ neossn Ht nt M mntoa taogut, u manifcita 
rcpngoat at dlitsnt, lirs at later inu lit diitaatia, ct tamsn 

Priieipia, 11. 18. 

This IdentiGcation of extension with suhetance runs 
through the whole of Deecartce's works, and it forms one 
•f the ultimate foondations of the STStem of Spinoia. Des- 
cartes, consistently with this doctrine, denied the existence 
of atoms as parts of matter, which by their own nature are 
indivisible. He seems to admit, bowerer, that the Deity 
might make certdn particles of matter indivisible in this 
sense, that no creature should be able to divide them. 
These paiticles, however, would be still divisible b^ their 
own nature, because the Deity cannot diminish his own 
power, and therefore must retain his power of dividing 
them. Leibnitz, on the other hand, regarded his monad 

tution of bodies, which have had their adherents both in 
ancient and in modem times. They correspond lo the two 
methods of rc^carding quantity — the arithmetical and the 

K metrical. To the atomist the true method of estimating 
quantity of matter in a body is to count the atoms in 
it. The void spaces between the atoms oount for nothing. 
To those who identify matter with extension, the volume 
of space occupied by a body is the only meMiire of the 
qnantity of matter in it 

Of the different forms of the atomic theory, that of 
Boecovich may be taken as an example of the purest 
mooadism. According to Boscovich matter is made up 
of atoms. Each atom is an indivisible point, having 
position in spaoe, capable of motion in a oontinnous path, 
and posBeseing a certain mass, whereby a certain amount 
of force is required lo produce a given change of motion. 
Besides this the atom is endowed with potential force, 
that is lo sav, that any two atoms attract or repel eacli 
other with a force depending on their distance apart. The 
law of this force, for all distances greater than say the 
thousandth of an inch, is an attraction varying as the 
inveise square of the distance. For smaller distances the 
force is an attraction for one distance and a repulsion for 
another, according to some law not yet disoovered. Bos- 
eorich himseir, in older lo obviate the posBihility of two 
atoms ever being in the same place, anerls that the ulti- 
mate force is a repulsion which increases without limit as 
the distance diminishes without limit, so that two atoms 
(an never coincide. But this seems an unwarrantable 

] same place. This opinion is deduced from 

onr experience of the behavior of bodies of sensible size, 
but we have no experimental evidence that two atoms may 
not sometimes coincide. For instance, if oxygen and 
hydrogen combine to form water, we have no qxperimenlal 
evidence that the molecule of oxygen is not in the very 
same place with the two molecules of hydrogen. Many 
persons cannot get rid of the opinioD that all matter is 
extended in length, breadth, ana depth. This ia a pre- 
judice of the same kind with the last, arising from our 
experience of bodies consistiog of immense multitudes of 
atoms. The system of atoms, according to Boscovich, 
occupies a certun region of space in virtue of the forces 
acting between the component atoms of the system and 
any other atoms when brought near them. No other 

nmem of atoms can oocnpr the same region of space tt 
the same time, because, before it could do ao, the mutual 
action of the atoms would have caused a repulsion betweeo 
the two systems insuperable by any force which we on 
aHnmand. Thu^ a number of soldiers with flManns n 

Ib ibis way B 

bodies consisting of atoms, each of which is devoid a( 
extension. Accordisf; }o Boscovlch's theory, all aedou 
between bodies is actiou at a distance. There is no sudi 
thing in nstare as actual contact between two bodita. 
When two bodies are said in ordinary language to be ia 
contact, all that is meant is tbat they are so near togetbtt 
that the repulsion between the nearest pain of atoina b^ 
lonsing to the two bodies is verj great. 

Thus, in Boscovlch's theory, the atom has continoitf of 
e in time and space. At any instant of timeitis 
point of space, and it is never in more than one 
a lime. It pauses from one place to another along 
jous path. It has a definite mass which cannot he 

diminished. Atoms are endowed with the 

power of acting on one another by attraction or rniulsoo, 
the amount of the force depending on the distance between 
them. On the other lumd, the atom itself baa no parts or 
dimensions. In its geometrical aspect it is a mere geo- 
metrical point. It has no extension in space, tt has not 
the so-called property of Impenetrability, for two ttoois 
may exist in the same place. This we may r^ard is 
one extreme of the various opinions about the constitiition 
of bodies. 

The opposite extreme, that of Anaxagoras — the thewy 
that bodies apparently homogeneous and continuous are to 
in reality — is, in its extreme form, a theory incapable of 
development. To explain the properties of any sc ' 
by this theory is impossible. We can -'- -^ 
observed properties of such substance s 
There is a certain stage, however, of scientific pn^ren ia 
which a method corresponding to this theory is of service. 
In hydrostatics, for instance, we define a Quid by means of 
one of its known properties, and from this definition we 
make the system of dedncUons which constitntcs the sd^ice 
of hydrostatics. In this way the sctenoe of bTdroatalio 
may be built npon an experimeatal basis, without any con- 
sideration of the constitution of a fluid as to wheth^ it is 
molecular or continuous. In tike manner, after the Prcndi 
mathematioians had attempted, with more or less ingoiiii^, 
to construct a theory of elastic solids Arom the hypolhess 
that they consist of atoms in equilibrium under the action 
of dieir mntual forces, Stokes and othera showed that ail 
the results of this hypothesis, so for at least as they agreed 
with facts, might be deduced from the postulate that diadc 
bodies exist, and from the hvpothesls that the smallcel 
portions into which we can divide them are sensibly homo- 
geneous. In this way the principle of continuity, which 

1 only admit Che 

of the method of Fluxions and the whole of 

modem mathematics, may be applied to the analysis of 

Eroblems connected with material bodies by assuming then, 
>r the purpose of this analysis, lo be hom<weneoBS. All 
that is required to make the results applicable to the real 
case is th^ the smallest portions of the substance of which 
we take any notice shall be sensibly of the same kind. 
Thus, if a railway contractor has to make a tunnel through 
a hill of gravel, and if one cubic yard of the gravel is so 
like another cubic yard that for the purposes of Uie ccmtract 
they may be taken as equivalent, then in estimating the 
wort reauired to remove the gravel from the tunnel, he 
may, without fear of error, make bis calculations as if the 
gravel were a continuous substance. But if a worm has to 
make his way through the gravel, it makes the gieatest 
possible difierence lo him whether he tries to push ri^l 
against a piece of gravel, or directs bis couise thniugh 
one of the intervals between the pieces ; to him, therefore, 
the gravel is by no means a homogeneous and oontinuoos 

In the same way, a theory that some particular substance 
say water, is homogeneous and continuous may be a good 
working theory up to a certain point, but may fail wben 
we oonie to deal with quantities w ' 
that their heterogeneity of structui 
Whether this heler<^eneity of si 
sistent with homogeneity and continuity of si 
anotlier question. 



TIm extreme fbrm of llie doctrine of conlinui^ ia tltat 
tfkted bT Deamtes, who tnaiDtuns that the whole univerae 
if eqnallj foil of matter, ODd that this matter is all of one 
kina, having no ecBeotial propertj besides that of extension. 
All the ptoTCitiee wliich we perceive in matter he reduces to 
ita parts being movable among one another, and eo capable 
of all the varieliea which we can perceive to follow from 
the motion of its parte (Pritteipia, ii. 23). Descart^a own 
attempts to deduce the different qualities and actions of 
bodies in this wa^ are not of much value. More than a 
oentuiy was required to invent methods of investigating 
th«- conditions of the motion of sjBtems of bodies such as 
Descartes imagined. But the hydrodynamical discovery of 
Helmholu that a vortex in a perfect liquid jweseesee cer- 
tain pennanenl chaxacteriatics, has been applied by Bir W. 
Tliomsm to form a theory of vortex atoms in a homo- 

1, inoompreesible, and frictionless liquid, to which 

" ' rn at the proper tim& 

We begia by asaming that bodies are made up of parts, 
tMch of which iE capable of motion, and that these parts 
act OD each other in a manner consistent with the principle 
of the conservation of energy. In making these aaaump- 
(iom^ we are justified by the facts that bodies ma; be 
divided into amaller parts, and that all bodies with which 
Te are acquainted are conservative eystema, which would 
not be tlie case nnleea their parts were also conservative 

We may also aaeume that these small parts are in motion. 
This is the most general aBsiimption we can make, for it 
includes, as a panicnkr case, the theory that the gmall 
parte are at rest The phenomena of the diffusion of gases 
Mid liqnids throngh each other show that there may be a 
Diotion of the small parts of a body which is not perceptible 

We make no aisnmption wid) leapect to the nature of 
the small parts — whether they are all of one magnitude. 
We do not even assume them to have extension and Sgure. 
£aeh of them most be measured by its mass, and any two 
trf them must, like visible bodies, have the power of acting 
od one another when they come near enough to do so. The 
propertica of the bod^, or medium, are determined by the 
OMtngorstion and motion of its sm^l parts. 

The first itep^ in the inve^igation is to determine the 
MDOonl of motion which exists among the small parts, 
indeHiidcnt of the visible motion al the medium as a 
vluNe. For this purpose it is convenient to make use of a 
gemeral theorem in dynamics due to Clausius. 

When the motion of a material system is such that the 
dme average of the quantity S(ms^) remains constant, the 
state of the system is said lo be that of stationary motion. 
When the motion of a material system is such that the 
tam of the moments of inertia of the system, about three 
Kxea at right angles through its centre of mass, never varies 
bj more Uian small quantities from a constant value, the 
■jvtem ia said to be in a state of stationary motion. 

Tbx kinetic energy of a pu^cle is huf the product of 
its man into the B<iuare oV its velocitv, and the kinetic 
energy of a system is the sum of the kmetic energy of ail 

M parti 

When I 

iVbea an attraction or repulsion exists between two 
poiiils, half the product of this stress into the distance 
between the two points is called the virial of (he stress, 
mnd is reckoned positive when the stress is an attraction, 
and D^^ve when it is a repulsion. The virinl of a syelem 
ia the sum of the virials of the stresses which exist in it. 
If the system is subjected to the external stress of the 
pressure of the aides of a vessel in which it is contained, 
this stitBB will introduce an amount of virial jpV, where 
B IS the pressure on unit of area and V is the volume of 

The theorem of dansius may now be stated as follows: — 
In a material system in a stale of stationary motion the 
tame-average of the kinetic energy is equal to the time- 
average of the virial. In the case of a fluid enclosed in a 


i2{me>J-|pV + lS2(Er), 
where the first term denotes the kinetic energy, and is half 
the sum of the product of each mass into the mean square 
of itt veted^. In the second term, p is the 

m. 35 

onit of surhce of the venel, whose volume Is V, and th« 
third term expresses the virial due to the internal actiona 
between (he parts of the system. A double symbol of 
summaUon is used, because every pair of parts between 
which any action exists must be taken into account. Wo 
have next to show that in gases the principal part of tha 
pressure arises from the motion of the small [ULrts of tha 
medium, and not from a repulsion between them. 

In the first place, if the pressure of a gas arises &am the 
repulsion of its parts, the law of repulsion must be inversely 
as the distance. For, consider a cube filled with the gas 
at preeeure p, and let the cube expand till each side ia n 
times its former length. The pressure on unit of surlace 

according to Boyle's law is now -^, and since the arets 
of a &ce of the cube is n' timet what it was, the wtu>l« 
pressure on the lace of the cube is - of its original valne;. 
But since everything has been expanded symmetricallj, the 

distance between corresponding parts of the a~~ 

times what it was, and the force is n times ' — 
Hence the force must vary invenely as the 

But Newton has shown (Priaeipia, bk. i. prop. 93) thai 
this law is inadmissible, as it makes the eflect of the dis- 
tant parts of the medium on a particle greater than that of 
the neighboring parts. Indeed, we should airive at tha 
conclusion that the preasure depends not only on the density 
of the air but on the form and dimensions of the vessel 
which contains it, which we know not lo be the case. 

I^ on the other hand, we suppose the pressure to ansa 
entirely from the motion of the molecules of the gas^tha 
"iterpretalion of Boyle*! law becomes very simple. For, 

H than it was. 


The&isttermis the product of the jirennre and the volnmev 
which according to Boyle's law is constant for the sama 
quantity of gas at the same temperature. The second term 
is two-thirda of the kinetic energy of the system, and wa 
have every reason to believe that in gasas when the 
temperature is constant the kinetic ener^ of unit of mam 
is also constant. If we admit that the kinetic energy of 
unit of mass is in a pven gas proportional to the absolnta 
temperature, this equation is the expression of the law of 
Charles as well as of that of Boyle, and may be written — 

where 9 is the temperature reckoned from absolute zenv 
and B ia a oonatant. The fact that this equation eipitmem 
with considerable accuracy the relation between the volum^ 
pressure, and temperature of a gas when In an extremelj 
rarefied state, and that as the gas is more and more com- 
pressed the deviation from tbjs equation becomes mora 
apjiarent, shows (hat the pressure of a gas is due almost 
entirety to the motion of its molecules when the gas is rar^ 
and that it is only when the density of the gas is consider<- 
ablv increased that the effect of direct action between tlta 
molecules becomes apparent. 

The effect of the direct action of the molecnlea on each 
other depends on (he number of pairs of molecules wUeh 
at a given instant are near enough to act on one anotkr. 
The number of such pairs ia proportional to the squat* of 
the number of molecules in unit of volume, that is, lo Iha 
square of the density of the gas. Hence, as long at Iba 
medium is so rare that the encounter between two moleculea 
is not affected b^ the presence of others, the deviation from 
Boyle's law will be proportional to the square of th« 
density. If the action between the roolecufea is on the 
whole repulsive, the prenure will be greater than that given 
by Boyle's law. If it is, on the whole, attractive^ tha 
pressure will be leas than that raven bv Boyle's law. It 
appeals, by the experiments of Bwnault and others, that 
the pressure does deviate from Boyle's law when tha 
density of the gas is increased. In the case of carbooia 
add and other gases which are easily liquefied, this devia- 
tion is very great. In all cases, however, except that of 
hydrogen, the preeeure is lees than that given by Boyle's . 
law, showing that the virial is on the whole due to ottros- 
Itw forces between the molecules. 

Another kind of evidence as to the nature of the actioa 
between the molecules is furnished by an experiment mada 
by Dr. Joule. Of two vessels, one was exhausted and the 
other filled with a gas at a-presaure of 20 atnioapheres; 

u)d both were placed Bide br tide id k T«aeel oT water, 
which wu comtaDLly ■tirred. The lempersture of the 
whole was observed. Then a commuiucatioa wa« opened 
between the veesela, the compressed gas ezpaoded to 
twice itB volume, and the work of ezpansioa, which at 
first produced a strong cnrrent in the gas, wag soon con- 
verted into heat b; the iotemal friction of the gat. When 
all was agwn at net, and the temperature unifonn, the 
temperature was aeain obeerved. In Dr. Joule's original 
expetimeuta the ooeerved temperature was the same as 
before. In a series of experiments, conducted bj Dr. Joule 
and Sir W. Thomson on a different plan, bj which the 
thermal effect of free expansion can be more ac<Hirate1y 
mcMured, a slight cooling effect was observed in all the 
gases examined except hydrogen. Since the temperature 
depends on the velocity of agitation of the molecules, it 
appeara that when a gw expands without doing external 
work the velocity of agitation la not much aOected, but 
tbat in most cases it is slightly diminished. Nov, if the 
molecules during (heir mutual separation act on each other, 
thdr velocitv will increase or diminish according as the 
force is repulsive or attractive. It appeals, therefore, from 
the expenments on the free expansion of gasee, tbU the 
Ibrce between the molecules is small but, on the whole, 

Having thus justified the hypolhesis that % gas consists 
of molecules in modem, whicli act on each other only 


which constitnte the greater pari of theii 

scribing free paths, and are not acted on by any molecular 

force, we proi^ed to inveaCieale the motion of such a system. 

The mathematical iuvesti^lion of the properties ofsnch 
a Eystem of moleculee in motion is (he foundslion of molec- 
ular science. ClausiuB*waB the first to express the rela- 
tion between the density of the gas, the l^igth of the 
f^ee paths of its mol'eculea, and the distance at which 
they enconnler each other. He assumed, however, at least 
in his earlier investigations, that the velocities of all the 
inoleciilee are equal. The mode in which the velocities 
are distributed was first investigated by the present writer, 
who showed that in the moving system llie velocities of 
Che molecules range from zero lo infinity, but that the 
number of molecules whose velocities lie within given 
limits can be expressed by a formula identical with that 
which expreeses in the theory of errora the number of 
«rtors of observation lying within corresponding limits. 
The proof of this theorem has been carefully investigated 
by Boltimann,' who has strengthened it where it appeared 
weak, and to whom the method of taking into account the 
action of external forces is entirely due. 

The mean kinetic energy of a molecule, however, has a 
definite value, which is easily expressed in terms of the 
auantilies which enter into the eipresaion for (he distribu- 
tion of velocities. The most important result of this in- 
vestigation is that nlien several kinds of molecules are in 
motion and acting on otie another, the mean kinetic energy 
of a molecule is the same whatever be its mass, the more- 
Cllles of greater mass having smaller mean velocities. 
How, when gases are mixed their temperatures become 
equal. Hence we conclude thai the physical condition 
wliich determines thai the temperature of two gases shall 
be the same is that the mean kinetic enerpes of agitation 
of (he individual molecules of the two gases are equal. 
This rwiiC is of great importance in the theory of heat, 
though we are not yet able to establish any similar result 
for bodies in the liquid or solid slate. 

In the next place, we know that in the case in which the 

. whole pressure of the medium is due to the motion of its 

molecuIeB, the pre»ure on unit of area is numerically 

gnal to two-thinJs of the kinetic energy in unit of volume, 
ence, if equal volumes of two gases are at equal pressures 
the kinetic energy is the same in each. If they are also 
*t equal temperatures the mean kinetic energy of each 
molecule is the same in each. If, therefore, equal volumes 
of two gases are at equal temperatures and pressures, the 
nnmber of molecules in each is the same, and therefore, 
the nuases of the two kinds of molecnlee are in the same 
ratio as the deoutira of the gases to which the^ belong. 

This statement has been believed bv chemists since the 

time of Gay-Luesac, who firet established that the weights 

of the chemical equivalents of different subslances are 

1 aunnoMturieJat irr S. K. Akad„ tWm. 8C»i Oct, iSSS. 

• [Bodoir Julioi E. (1S21-8S|, a Pomenclin, ^ndntte of BotIId, 

klMtla theory of hau, vrota tiIi 

LD, gndiMte QI BerllD, pmfwK 

proportional to the densities of th«M substances wheo hi 
the fbrtn of gas. The definition of the word molecule^ 

however, as employed in the statement of Gay-Lnasac's law 
means identical with the definition of the sinie 
in the kinetic theory of gases. The chemitli 
by experiment the ratios of (he mawcs of Ifaa 
different substances in a compound. From these they 
deduce the chemical equivalents of the different subslances, 
that of a particular substance, sav hydro^, being taken 
as unity. The only evidence made use of is that furnished 
by chemical c6mbinBlionB. It is also assumed, in order lo 
account for the facts of combination, that (he reason why 
substances combine in definite ratios is that the molecalei 
of the substances are in the ratio of tlieir chemical equiva- 
lents, and that what we call combination is an action 
which takes place by a union of a molecule of one sub- 
stance to a molecule of the other. 

This kind of reasoning, when presented in a proper brm 
and sustained by proper evidence, has a high degree of 
cogency. But it is purely chemical reasoning; it is not 
dynamical reasoning. It is founded on chemical experi- 
ence, not on the iaws of motion. 

Our definition of a molecule is purely dynamical A 
molecule is that minute portion of a substance which moves 
about as a whole, so (hat its paita, if it has any, do not put 
oompany during (he mo(ion of agitation of the gaa The 
result of the kinetic theory, therefore, is to give os labx- 
matioD about the relative masses of molecules conddered 
as moving bodies. The consistency of this information 
with the deductions of chemists from (he phenom^iaof 
combination, greatly strengthens the evidence in lavor of 
the actual existence and motion of gaseous molecules. 

Another confirmation of the theory of molecules is 
derived from the experiments of Dulmtg and Petit on (ha 
specific heat of gases, from which they deduced the U« 
which bears their name, and which aeaerts that the apecifio 
heats of equal weights of ga«es are inversely as their coai- 
bining weights or, in other words, that the capacities for 
heat of the chemical equivalents of different gases are 
equal. We have seen that the temperature is determined 
by the kinetic energy of agitation of each molecule. The 
molecule has also a certain amount of energy of internal 
motion, whether of rotation or of vibration, but Uie hy- 
pothesis of Clausius, that themean value of the internal 
energy always bears a proportion fixed for each gas to (lie 
energy of agitation, seems highly probable and consistent 
with experiment The whole kinetic- energy is therefore 
equal to (be energy of agitation multipli^ by a cerlam 
factor. Tlius the ener^ communicated to a gas by he«tu« 
it is divided in a certain proportion between the energy of 

itation and that of the internal motion of each molecule. 

r a^ven rise of temperature the energv of agitation, say 
a million molecules, is increased by tlie same amount 
whatever be the gas. The heat spent in raising the tem- 
perature is measured by the increase of the whole kinetic 
energy. The thermal capacities, (herefore, of equal num- 
bers of molecules of different gases are in the ratio of the 
factors by which the energy of agitation must be multiplied 
to obtain the whole energy. As this bclor appears to b« 
nearly the same, for all gases of the same d^ree of atom- 
icity, Dulong and Petit's law is true for such gases. 

Another result of this investigation is of considerable 
importance in relation to certain theories,* which assume 
the existence of Kthers or rare media consisting of mole- 
cules very much smaller than those of ordinary ^ses. 
According to onr result, such a medium would be neither 
more nor less than a gas. Supposing its molecnles so 
small (hat they can penetrate between the molecules of 
solid substances such as glass, a so-called vacuum would be 
full of this rare gas at tlw observed temperature, and at the 
pressure, whatever it may be, of the stherial medium ia 
space. The specific heal, therefon' of the medium in the 
so-called vacuum will be equal to that of the same volume 
of any other gas at the same temperature and premore. 
Now, the purpose for which (his molecular Kther is assumed 
in these theories is to act on bodies bv its pressure, and for 
this purpose the pressure is generally assumed to be veir 
gr^ Hence, according to these tiieories, we should find 
the specific heat of a so-called vacnum very considerable 
compared with that of a quantity of ur filling the same 

:u. O. Harar.) 

)r physio* at Zurich and Bran, ooatrlbnIeA Uigelr to the 

We haT« DOW made a certun definite amcnint ofprogT«w 
lowanla a oomplete malecnilu- theory of gases. Ws know 
the mean velocilf of the molecnlcs of each gas in metiea 
per MCODd, and we know the relative miaaee of the mole- 
cnlea of difibrent gues. We also know that the molecalca 
of one and the same gas are all eqnal in mass. For if they 
are not, the method of dialjais, as employed bj Graham, 
'would enable us to separate the molecules of smaller mass 
from thoae of greater, as thej would stream through porous 
aabataiKee with greater velocity. We should thus oe able 
to smrate a gaa, say hTdrogen, into two portions, bav- 
iag diBerent densities and other phyBiod properties, difler- 
wit oombining weights, and probably difierenl chemical 
propertiee of other kinds. As no chemist has yet ob- 
tained specimens of hjdrofren difieriuK in this way from 
other specimens, we conclude that all the molecules of hy- 
drogen are of sensibly the same mass, and not merely 
that their mean mass is a statistical ctHvtant of great sta- 

Bnt aa yet wc have not considered the phenomena which 
enable tis to form an estimate of the actual mas and 
dimensions of a molecale. It is to Clausius that we owe 
the fiist definite conception of the free path of a molecule 
and of the mean distance travelled by a niolecnle between 
anccessive encounters. He showed that the nuraber of 
«Dcoon(en of a molecule in a giren lime is proportional to 
the velocity, to the number of molecules in unit of volume, 
and to the square of the distance between the centres of 
two moleculea when they act on one another so as to have 
an encounter. From this it appears that if we call this 
distance of the centres the diameter of a molecule, and the 
volume of a sphere having Ibis diameter the volume of a 
molecule, and the sum of Uie volumes of all the moleculea 
the molecular volume of the gas, then the diameter of a 
molecule is a certain multiple of the quantity obtained by 
diminishing the free path in the ratio of the molecular 
volnme of the gas tu the whole volume of the gas. The 
natnerical value of this multiple diSers slightly, according 
lo the hypothesis we assume about the law of distribution 
of velocities. It also depends on the definition of an 
encounter. When the molecules are regarded ss elastic 
nihera we know what is meant by an encounter, hut if 
thej act on each other at a distance by attractive or repul- 
aive forces of finite magnitude, the distance of their 
eemtres varies during an encounter, and is not a definite 
quantity. Nevertheless, the above statement of Clausius 
diahles na, if we know the length of the mean path and 
the molecular volume of a gas, to form a tolerably near 
eetimate of the diameter of the sphere of Che intense action 
of a molecule, and thence of the number of molecules in 
unit of volume and the actual moss of each molecule. To 
coiupleie the investigatiou we have, therefore, to determine 
the mean path and the molecular volume. The first 
Dumerical estimate of the mean path of a gaseous molecule 
was made by the present writer from data derived from the 
tntemsJ friction of air. There are three phenomena which 
depend on the length of the free path of the molecules of a 
gas. It is evident that the greater (he free path the more 
rapidly will the molecules travel from one part of the 
medium to soother, because their direction will not be so 
often altered by encounters with other molecules. If the 
molecules in diBereut parts of the medium are of different 
kinds, their pn^ris from one part of the medium to 
anoifaer can be easily traced by analysing portions of the 
medium taken from diflerent places. The rate of diffu- 
aion thus found furnishes one method of estimating the 
length of the free path of a molecule. This kind of 
diftusion goes on not only between the molecules of 
different gsses, bnt among tne molecules of the some gas, 
only in the hitler ease the results of the diffusion cannot 
be traced by analysis. But the diffusing molecules carry 
with them in their free paths the momentum and the energy 
which they happen at a given instant to have. The 
diflusion of momentum tends to equalize the apparent 
motion of different parts of the medium, and constitutes 
the phenomenon called the internal friction or viscosity 
of pses. The diffusion of energy tends to equalize 
the temperature of different narts of the medium, and 
[the condufAion of heat in 

1 of I 

', of 

BOticm, and of heat in ^lases — have been experi mentally 
l(ivw>ifaled, — the difibsion of matter by Qraham and 

»M. 37 

Loechmidt, the diffuuon of motion by Oscar Meyer sod 
Clerk Maxwell, and that of heat by Btefan. 

These three kinds of eiperiments give results which in 
the present imperfect state of the theory and the extreme 
difficulty of the ezperimenti^ especiaJIy those on the con- 
duction of heat, maj be re^mled ss tolerably consistent 
with each other. At the pressure of our atmosphere and 
at the temperature of melting ice, the mean path of a 
molecule of hydrogen is about the 10,000th of a milli- 
metre, or about the fifth part of a wave-length of green 
lighL The mean path of the molecules of other gasee is 
shorter than that of hydrogen. 

The determination of the molecular volume of a gas la 
subject ss yet to considerable nncertaintr. The most 
obvious method is that of compressing the gas till it 
■ssumes the Liquid form. It seems probable, fmra the great 
resistance of liquids to compression, that their moleculea 
are at about the ssme distance tram each other as that at 
which two molecules of the same substance in the gaseous 
form act on each other during an encounter. If this is th» 
case, the molecular volume of a gas is somewhat less than 
the volume of the liquid into which it would be condensed 
by pressure, or, in other words, the density of the moleculea 
is somewhat greater than that of (he liquid. 

Now, we know the relative weights of difierent malecniea 
with great accuracy, and, from a knowledge of the mean 
path, we can calculate their relative diameters approxi- 
mately. From these we can deduce the relative densities 
of difierent kinds of molecules. The relative densities so 
calculated have been compared b^ Lorens Meyer with the 
observed densities of the liquids into which the gsses may 
be condensed, and he finds a remarkable oorreepondence 
between them. There is considerable doubt, however, aa 
to the relation between the molecules of a liquid and those 
of its vapor, bo that till a larger number of comparisons 
have been made, we must not place too much reliance on 
the calculated densities of molecules. Another, and per- 
haps a more refined, method is that adopted t^ H. Van 
der WoaJs, who deduces the molecular volume from the 
deviations of the pnnure from Boyle's law as the gas is 

The first nnmericat estimate of the diameter of a molecale 
was that made by Loschmidt in 1866 from the mean path 
and the molecular volume. Independently of him sod of 
each other, Mr. Stoney, in 18SS. and Sir. W. Thomsoo, in 
1870, published results of a similar kind^^ose of Thom- 
son being deduced not only in this way, but from considera- 
tions derived from the thickneas of soap-bubbles, sod irom 
the electric action between dno and copper. 

The diameter and the mass of a molecule, is estimated 
by these methods, are, of course, very small, hut by no 
means infinitely to. About two millions of molecules of 
hydrogen in a row would occupy a millimetre, and about 
two hundred million million million of them would weigh 
a milligramme. These numbers must be cousidered oa 
exceedingly rough guesses'; they must be corrected by more 
extensive snd accurate experiments as science advances ; 
but the main result, which appears to be well established, 
is that the determination of the mass of a molecule is a 
legitimate object of scientific research, and that this mass 
is Dy no means immeasurably amolL 

IxNchmidt illustrates these molecular measurements by 
a comparison with (he smallest magnitudes visible by means 
of a microscope. Nobert, he tells us, can draw 4000 lines 
in the breadth of a millimetre. The intervals between 
these lines can be observed with a good microscope. A 
cube, whose side is the 4000lh of a miUimetre, may be taken 
as the minimum vUibiU for observers of the present day. 
Such a cube would contain from 60 to 100 million moleculea 
of oxygen or of nitrogen ; but since the molecules of 
organized sufaetances contain on an average about 60 of the 
more elementary atoms, we may assume that the smallest 
organised particle visible under the microscope contains 
about two million molecules of organic matter. At least 
half of every living organism consists of water, so that the 
smallest living heina visible under the microscope does not 
contain moreUian about a million orpinic moleculea. Some 
exceedingly simple oi^;aniam may be supposed built up of 
not more tlian a million simiiar molecules. It is impoesiblt^ 
however, to ocmoeive so small a number sufficient to form 
a being fiimished with a whole system of specialised 

logical thaoriea. It forbida the phyiuolonet from imagining 
tfa&t Btructural del&ili of iiiGnit«lj small dimeHsions on 
fumish an explanation of tlie infioil« variety which exiata 
in the [woperties and functions of the most minnte o^an- 

A micToacopic germ ie, we knoT, capable of development 
into a hishl; organized animal. Another germ, equallj 
nicrcecopic, becomw, when developed, an animal of a 
totall7 diJQerent kind. Do all the diSerencn, infioils in 
nnmber, which diatinguish the one nnintal from the other, 
arise each from some difference in the stnicture of the 
respective eermaT Even if we admit this as posaible, we 
ahatl be called upon by the advocates of Pangenesis to 
admit atill greftter marveU. For the microseocic germ, 
according to this theorj, is no mere individual, but a rep- 
resentative body, contajoing members collected from every 
tsnk of the long-drawn ramiBcation of the ancestral tree, 
Ibe number of these members being amply sufficient not 
only to famish the hereditary characteristics of every organ 
of Che bodj and every habit of the animal from birth lo 
death, but also to afford a stock of latent gemniulee to be 
passed on in an inactive state from germ to germ, till at 
last the aaceatral peculiarity which it repreaenls is revived 
in some remote defendant 

Some of the exponents of this theory of heredity have 
attempted to elude the difiBculty of piaduK a whole world 
of wonders within a body so smull and so devoid of visible 
Btrnctare aa a germ, by using the phraae atructurelea 
germs.' Now, one material sjstem can differ from another 
only in the confiRuiation and motion which it hsa at a 

Siveo instant. To explain differences of function and 
evelopment of a germ without assuming differences of 
strtMture is, therefore, to admit that tlie properties of a germ 
are not those of a purely material system. 

The evidence aa to the nature and motion of molecnles, 
with which we have hitherto been occupied, has been 
derived from experiments upon gaseous media, the smallest 
•aMnble portion of which cnataiiu miltioos of millions of 
mofecules. The constancy and uniformity of the properties 
of the gaseous medium is the direct result of the incon- 
ceivable irregularity of tne motion of agitation of its 
molecules. Any cause which could introduce regularity 
into the motion of aritalion, and marshal the molecules 
into order and method in their evolutions, might check or 
«ven reverse that tendency to diffusion of matter, motion, 
and energy, which is one ofthe most invariable phenomena 
of nature, and to which Thomson has given the name of 
tiie dissipation of energy. 

Thus, when a sound-wave is passing through a mass of 
air, this motion is of a certain definite type, and if led to 
■(self the whole motion is passed on Co other masses of air, 
and the sound-wave passes on, leaving the air behind it 
at rest. Heat, on the other hand, never passes out of a 
hot body except to enter a colder body, so that the energy 
of sound-waves, or any other form of energy which is prop- 
agated BO DB to pass wholly out of one portion of the mniium 
and into another, (snnot M called heaL 

We have now to turn our attention to a class of molecular 
tnotions, which are as remarkable for their regularity as the 
motion of agitation '.a for ita irre^larity. 

It lias been found, by means of the spectroscope, that 
the light emitted by incandescent subelonces is different 
according to their state of condensation. When they are 
in an extremely rarefied condition the epectnim of their 
light consists of a set of sharply-defined briglit lines. As 
the Bubstnnce approaches a denser condition the apectnira 
tends to become continuous, either by the lines becoming 
broader and less defined, or by new lines and hands appear- 
ing between them, till the spectrum at tent^ loses all ils 
oharacteristics and becomes identical with Chat of solid 
bodies when raised to the same temperature. 

Hence the vibrating systems, which are the source of the 
emitted light, must be vibrating in a different manner in 
these two cases. When the spectrum consists of a number 
of bright lines, the motion of the system must be com- 
fmiinded iJ a corresponding number of types of harmonic 

In order that a brighC line may be sharply defined, Che 
Tibralot; motion whiiih produces it must be kept up in a 
perfectly r^ilar manner for some Hundreds or thousands 
of vibratioiM. If tb« motion of each of the vibrating 

>B» F. Oaltop. "Od Blood Relatiaaslilp,'' Pnc Bm. At, Juoe 

while it lasts, the resultant disturbance of the lamini&roos 
medium, when analyied by the prism, will be found to 
contain, besides the part due to the regnlar vibratiooi, 
other motions, depending on the startinic and stoppinc of 
each particular vibrating body, which will become manifesl 
as a ditTiised luminosity scattered over the whole length of 
the spectrum. A spectrum of bright lines, therefore, 
indicates that the vibrating bodies when set in motion art 
allowed to vibrate in accordance with the conditions of 
their internal aCrocture for some time before they are again 
interfered with by external forces. 

It appears, therefore, from apectrMCopic evidence that 
each molecule of a rarefied gas is, during the greater pari 
of its existence, at such a distance from all other molecules 
that it executes its vibrations in sn undisturbed and rt^olar 
manner. Thie is the same conclusion to which we were 
led by considerations of another kind at p. 36. 

We may therefore r^ard the bright lines in the roectmm 
□f a gas as the result of the vibrations executed by the 
molecules while describing their free pMhs. When two 
molecules separate from one another af^ an encounter, 
each of them is in a state of vibration, arising from the 
unequal action on different parts of the same molecule 
during the encounter. Hence, though the centre of mas 
of Che molecule describing ita free path moves with unifonn 
velocity, the parts ofthe molecule tave a vibrator)' modoo 
with respect lo the centre of mass of the whole molecule, 
and it is the disturbance of the luminiferoua medium com- 
municated to it by the vibrating molecules which constilutet 
the emitted light. 

We may compare the vibrating mi^ecnle to a bdL 
When atruck, the bell is act in motion. This motion is 
compounded of harmonic vibrations of many diflerait 
periods, each of which acts on the air, producing notes of 
as many different pitches. As the bell commanicotes its 
motion to the air, these vibrations necessarily decay, same 
of them faster than others, so that the sound contains fewer 
and fewer notes, till at last it is reduced to the fundamraiCal 
note ik the bell.' If we suppose that there are a great 
many bells precisely similar to each oCher, and that they 
are struck, first one and then another, in a perfecdy 
irregular manner, yet so that, on an average, as many 
bells are struck in one second of time as in another, and 
also in such a way that, on an average, any one bell ia not 
again struck till it has ceased to vibrate, then the audible 
result will appear a continuous sound, composed of the 
sound emitted by bells in all states of vibration, from the 
clang of the actual stroke to the final hum of the dying 
fundamental tone. 

But now let the number of bells be reduced while the 
same number of strobes are given in a second. Each bell 
will now be struck before it has ceased lo vibrate^ so that 
in the resulting sound there will be less of the fundamaital 
lone and more of the original clang, till at last, when the 
peal is reduced to one bell, on which innumerable hamm^i 
are continually plying their strokes all out of timt^ the 
sound will become a mere noise, in which no musical note 
can be distinguished. 

In the case of a gas we have an immense number of 
molecules, each of which is set in vibration when il 
encounters another molecule, and continues to vibrate *■ 
it describes its free path. The molecule is a material 
system, the parts of which are connected in some definite 
way, and from the fact that Ihp bright lines of the emitted 
light have always the same wave-lengths, we leom that ths 
vibnitions corresponding to these lines are alwaya executed 
in die same periodic time, and therefore the force teniling 
to restore any part of the molecule to its position of equi- 
librium in the molecule must be proportional lo its dis- 
placement relative to that position. 

From tlie mathematical theory of the motion of such a 
system, it appears tliat the whole molJon may be analysed 
into the following parts, which may be con^dered each 
independently of the otbeis : — In the first place, the centre 
of mass of the svslem moves with uniform vdocity in a 
straight lino. Tliis velocity may have any^ value. In the 
second plaoe, there may be a motion of rotaUoo, the angular 
• Pirtor theeDergT<)f'a'>tioDla,lD the cua oT ths Inll, dluiiwud 
la the lubsunce of the bell Id Tlrtue or th< y\aevilj of the metti, 
■nd uiuiass ths rarm of hmt. bat It li nat Deosasarr, for the pur- 
po« ar llliutratloo, to Uke this came of Ibe d«car of vlhritlnulBU 

B Kimj-ntimi of the BjHiBm abool ill centre of mm remaiii- 
ii^ during the free path coostanl io magoitade and direc- 
tMD. Tina angnUr momentum mav have any value what- 
tmt, and Ha axii ma; have any mrecliaa. Id the third 
phm^ tha reroaioder of the motion is made up of a namber 
of component motions, each of which is an harmonic vi- 
bnlion of a given tjpe. In each type of vibration the 
periodic time of vibration is determined bj the nature of 
the tjtUxn, and is invariable for the same Evstem. The 
tdative Moount of motion in difierent parts of the system 
is ibo determinate for each type, but the abeolnte amount 
of motion and the phase of the vibnUion of each type are 
determined bv the paiticolar tdrcumstancea of the last 
oKOonter, ana may vaij in any manner from one encoan- 
(«r to another. 

The valuea of the periodic timta of the diSerent t^pes of 
vibration are given bv the roots of a certain equation, the 
form of which depeods on (he nature of the connectiooa of 
the system. In certain ezceptiooally simple cases, as, for 
iDstauoe, in that of a uniform string stretched between two 
tied pointy the toots of the equatioo are connected by 
timple anthmtfical t«lations, and if the internal stmcture 
of a molecule had an analogous kind of simplicity, ire 
might expect to find in the sp«ctmm of Ihe molecule a 
«enes of bright lines, whoee wave-Ienglhs are in simple 

Bat if ire suppoee the molecule to be constituted accord- 
ing to Bome lu&^rent type, as, for instance, if it is aa 
eltstic sphere, or if it consistE of a finite namber of atoms 
kept in their places by attractive and repulsive forces, the 
noes of the equation will not be connected with each other 
by any simple relatioDS, but each may be made to vary 
iiklependently of the olhen hj a suitable change of the 
GonneclioDs of the system. Hence, we have no right to 

rteL..„ ,-- - .. 

ve therefore due to the harmonic vibrations of the mol 
coles of the gas during their free paths. The only effect 
of the motion of the centre of mass of the molecnfe is to 
liter the time of vibration of the light as rec^ved by a 
•tUionarj obeerver. Whrai the molecule is coming lowajds 
the observer, eadi sncceseive impulse will have a shorter 
distance to travel before it reacEee his eye, and therefore 

_e case if the molecule is receding from the observer. 
The bright line corresponding to the vibration will there- 
fore be shiftel in the spectrum towanls the bine end when 
the molecule is approaching, and towards the red end when 
it is receding &om the obeerver. By observations of the 
displacement of certain lines in the spectrum, Dr. Huggins 
UM othera have measured the rate of approach or of 
KCtasion of certain stars with respect to the earth, and Hi. 
Lockyer has determined the rate of motion of tomadoee in 
the sun. Bat Lord Ravleigh has pointed out that acoord- 
ing to the dynamical theory of gases (he molecules are 
moving hither and thither with so great velocity that, 
however naxrow and sharply defined any bright line due 
to a single molecule may be, the displacem^t of the 
litie towards the blue by the approaching molecules, and 
towards the red by the receding molecules, will produce a 
pertain amount of widening ana blurring of the une in the 

due to this cause will be in proportion to the velocity 
of agitation of the molecules. It will be greatest for the 
moleculaofsmaUeatmaSH, BS those of bydn^n, and it will 
increase with the temperature. Hence the measurement 
of the breadth of the hydrogen lines, such as C or F in 
Ibe ipectnim of the solar prominences, may furaish evi- 
iaux that the temperature of the sun cannot exceed a 
certain valne. 

Oh thb Thzoby of Vobtkc Atomb. 
The equations which form the foundations of the math- 
ematical theory of fluid motion were fuliv laid down by 
bigtange and the great mathematicians of the end of last 
cealnry, but the number of solutioos of cases of fluid motion 
which bad been actually worke>l out remained very small, 
and almost all of these belonged to a particular type of 
Aoid motion, which hM been since named the irrotatiooal 
type. It had been shown, indeed, by Lagrange, that a 

perfect fluid, if its motion is at any time irrotational, will 
continne in all time ooming to move in an irrotstiotial 
manner, so that, by assuming that the flnid jras at ooa 
time at rest, the calculation of its sabeeqnent motion ina7 
be very mudi simplified. 

It wss reserved for flelmholt* to point ont the very 
.remarkable properties of rotational motion in a homo- 
geneons incompressible fluid devoid of alt viacceity. We 
must first define tbe physical properties of such a fluid, th 
the first place, it is a material substance. Its motion is 
continuous in space and time, and if we follow any portioa 
of it as it moves, the man of that portion remains invari- 
able. These properties it shares with all material sub- 
stances. In the next place, it is incompressible. The 
form of a given portion of the fluid may change, but its 
volume remains invariable ; in other worJs, the densitjr of 
the fluid remains the same during its motion. Besides 
this, the fluid is honogMieons, or the density of all parts 
of the fluid is the same. It is also continuous, so that the 
mass of the fluid oontained within any closed sur&oe is 
always exaeiiy OToportional to Che volume contained within 
that surbce. This is eqtuvalent to asserting that the fluid 
is not made np of molecules ; for, if it were, the mass would 
vary in a discontinuonB manner as the volume increases 
continuously, because fiist one and then another molecule 
would be included within tbe closed surface. Lastly, it is 
a perfect fluid, or, in other words, the stress between one 
portion and a contiguous portion is always normal to the 
surface which separates these portions, and this whether 
the fluid is at rest or in motion. 

We have seen that in a molecular fluid the interdiffuaion 
of the molecules causes aninterdiffusitmof motion of difi^ 
ent parts of the fluid, ao that the action between contlguoua 
parte is no longer normal but in a direction tending to di- 
minish their relative motion. Hence tbe perfect fluid can- 
not be molecular. 

All ^at is necessary in order (• form a correct mUiw- 
matical theory of a material system is that its properties 
shall be dearly defined and shall be coDsialent with eadi 
other. Thia is essential; but whether a substance having 
such properties actnslly exists la a question which comes to 
be oonsiaraed only when we propose to make some practi- 
cal application of the results of the mathematical Uieorj. 

„j deduce remarkable results, some of which may 

be illustrated in a rough way by means of fluids which are 
by no means perfect iu the sense of not being viaooos, sudi, 
for instance, as air and water. 

The motion of a fluid is said to be irrotational when it is 
such that if a spherical portion of the fluid were suddenly 
solidified, the solid sphere so formed would not be rotating 
about any axis. When the motion of the fluid is rotationd 
the axis and aiwnlar veloci^ of the rotation of any small 
part of the fluid are those of'^a tmaU spherical portioa sud- 
denly solidified. 

The mathematical expression of these definitions ia as 
follows :— Let it, v, w be the oomponenls of the velocity of 
the fluid at the point (z, y, i), and let 

da ^dv a *?_*? y *?_* (\\ 

""^ d^'^^'dx <U''~dy ib: " ' '' 
then a, 0,y are the componenia of the velocatj of rotation 
of the fluid at the point (i, y, i). The axis of rotation is 
in tiie direction of the resultant of a, |9, and 7, sad the ve- 
locity of rotation, u, is measured by this resultant. 

A line drawn in tbe fluid, so that at every point of th« 

1^ 1^ Id; 1 ,„, 

where « is the length of the line up to the point s, y, s, la 
mlled a vortex line. Its direction coincides at every point 
with that of the axis (rf rotation of tbe fluid. 

We may now prove the theorem of Helmbolta, that the 
points of the fluid which at any instant lie in the same 
vortex line continue to lie in the same vortex line duiing 
the whole motion of the fluid. 

The equations of molioa of a fluid are of the {brm 

whoi p ia the denuty, which in the case of oni homoiMift[^ 

40 AT 

DDK iDcompresBible flnid we may uannie k> be onitj, the 
opentoi TT- repreeenta the rate of Tariatioii of Ihe Bjmbol to 
which it b prefixed at a point which 'u carried forward 
with the fluid, so that 

Ju da dit du du ,., 

the fint, we find 

Perfonnins the diScren^atioDB and rememberiDg eqiw- 

— * — + — It 
dx dy dx 

m du Ju dv 


Now, let oa mppoee a vortex line drawn in the fluid lo 
■■ always to b^n at the same particle of the fluid. The 
osmpoDenta of the velocit/ of this poiot are ii,t^ v. Let us 
fliid thoae of a point on the moTing vortex Hoe atadistance 
(b fnon thii point where 

dt-<^ .... (8). 
Tlie Qo-otdinates of this point are 

x*ada,S+Pda,i+rde , . , (9), 
and the componenti of its velodt^ an 





datdx. dudy,di 
dxdo dy do di 



Bnt this Tepreaents the valoe of the component o of the ve- 
\odVf of the fluid itself at the same point, and the same 
thing maj be proved of the other componentB. 

Henoe the velocity of the seoond point on the vortex line 
ia identical with that of the fluid at that point. In other 
word^ the vortex line ewims along with the flnid, and u 
alwaira Ibrnied of the same row of fluid partictea. The 
Tonex line is therefore no mere mathematioal symbol, bat 
his a physical existence continuous in time and apace. 

By difierentialing eqaationa (1) with respect to x, y, and 
1 respectively, and adding the reeulls, we obtain the equa- 


it iij di 
This b u] equBiioo of tbs n 


6 fonn with (6), which 
expresHB the condition of flow of a fluid of invariable 
density. Hence, if we imEigino a fluid, quite independent 
of the original fluid, whose components of velocity are a, 
fi, y, this imaginary fluid will flow without altering its 

Now, consider a closed curve in space, and let vortex 
lines be drawn in both directions from every point of tliis 
curve. Th«ec vortex lines will form a tubular surface, 
wliich is called a vortex tube or a vortex filaipent. Since 
the imaginary fluid flows along the vortex lines without 
^ange of density, the quantity which in unit of time 
Bows through any section of the same vortex tube must be 
the same. Hence, at any section of a vortex tube llie 
product of the area of the section into the mean velocity of 
rotation is the same. This quantity is called the ttraigtii 
of the vortex tube. 

A vortex tube cannot begin or end within the flnid ; lor, 

if it did, the imannary fluid, whose velocity conponaiti 
^re a, 0, y, would oe generated from nothing at the becia- 
ning of the tut)e, and reduced to nothing at the end of it 
Hence, if the tnbe has a b«;inning and no end, they moil 
lie on the surface of the fluid toaas. If the fluid u tnfiaita 
the vortex tube must be infinite, or else it must return inlo 

We have thus arrived at the following remarkib1« 
theorems relating to a finit« vortes tube in in infioiu 
fluid: (1.) It returns into itself, forming a closed rine. 
We may therefore describe it aa a vortex ring. (2.) u 
always consists of the same portion of the fluid. Hence 
its volume la invariable. (3.J lis strength remains slv>^ 
the same. Hence the velocity of rotation at any section 
varies inversely as the area of that sectioa, and thit of «ly 
segment varies directly as the length of that segment. {L) 
No part of the fluid which is not oriK>nally in a state at 
rotational motion can ever enter into that state, and no put 
of the fluid whose motion ia rotational can ever cease tD 
move rotationalty. (5.) No vortex tiibe can ever pia 
through my other vortex tube, or through any of its own 
convolutions. Hence, if two Vortex tubes are linked to- 
gether, they can never be separated, and if a single voitei 
tube ia knotted on itself, it can never become untied. (6.) 
The moUon at any instatit of every part of the Quid, in- 
cluding the vortex tings tliemselvcs, may be accuratdj 
represented by conoeiving an electric current to occnpj tlw 
plaee of each vortex ring, the strength of the rairrratbeii^ 
propordonal to that of the ring. The magnetic force it 
any point of apace will then refirssent in diredioa aitd 
magnitude the velocity of the fluid at the oomspcodiiig 
point of the fluid. 

These properdes of vortex ringa suggested to Sir Williua i 
Thomson' l£e posaibilily of founding on them a new fonn 
of the atomic theory. The conditions which mnst be nl- 
iaSed by an atom are — permanence in magnitude, capabililr 
of internal motion or vibration, and a auffidcn't amoonl m 
possible characleriatica to account for the difieience between 
atoms of diflerent kinds. 

The small hard body imagined by Lucretius, and adwited 
by Newton, was invented for the express purpose of ic- 
counting for the permanence of the properties of bodies. 
But it (ails lo account for the vibradons of a molecale is 
revesled b* Ihe spedrosoope. We may indeed suppose 
the atom elastic, but this is to endow it with the very prop- 
erty for the explanation of which, aa exhibited in iggre- 
Cl>odies, the atomic consUtution wis originally assumed. 
massive centres of force imagined by Bosoovich may 
have more to recommend ibem to the mathematician, who 
has no scruple in supposing them lo be invested with Ihe 
power of attracting and repelling accoiding to any law of 
tlie distance which it may please him lo assign. Sach 
centres of force are no doubt iu their own nature indiviuble, 
but then they are also, singly, incapable of vibralioo. To 
obtain vibrations we must ima^ae molecules conustinvc/ 
many such centres, but, in so doing, the possibility of tbeae 
centres being separated altogether ia again introduced. 
Besides, it is in questionable scientific taste, after using 
stoma BO freely lo get rid of forces acting at sensible dis- 
tances, to make the whole functi<ra of the alonia an action 
at Insensible distances. 

On the other hand, the vortex ring of HelmhtJti, 
imagined as the true form of the atom by Thomson, sat- 
isfies more of the conditions than anj^ atom hitherto 
imagined. In the first place, it is quantitatively perms- 
nenL aa r^ards ita volume and ita atr^igth— two lode- 
pendent quantities. It ia also qualitatively pennaneol as 
r^ards its decree of implication, whether "knoUedoess* 
on itself or " hnkednesa'' with other vortex rinos. At tbs 
same time, it ia capable of infinite changes of form, and 
may execute vibrations of diflerent periods, as we know 
that molecules do. And the number of essentially diKr- 
ent iuipiications of vortex rings may be very gre«l with- 
out supposing the degree of implication of any of tbem 
v^ high. 

But the greatest recommendation of this theory, tiom a 
philoBopbical point of view, is that its success in exptiin- 
ing pbeaomena does not depend on the ingenuity with 
which its contrivers "save appearances," by introducing 
first one hypothetical force and then andther. When the 
vortex atom is once set in motion, all its properties art 
absolutely fixed and determined by the laws of motitw at 
1 "On Yortai Atoms," Fret. «o». ate. JtUia.. ISth FctiniSTT, 1M7 

■be primitiTe floid, vMch u« flilly expreaeed in the flinda- 
■mdUI equmlioDB. The disciple of Lucretina maj cut and 
ovT« hit MtUd atoms in the nope of gettins them to com- 
' 'a worlds; the follower of Boaeoricn ms; imsgine 

I pnmitive fluid bss no other properties 
IhsD inertia, JDvaHable den«iC;, and perfect mobility, and 
IIm melbod bj which the motion of Ihis fluid is to be 
Innd i« pore mathematical analTsis. The difficultiee of 
this method are enormoos, but the gtorj of surmonnting 
thrai would be unique. 

There seans to be little doubt that an enconnter between 
two vwtex atonu would be in its general chancier similar 
to those which we have already described. Indeed, the 
escoonter between two smoke rlof^ in air ^ives a very 
UtgIj illustration of the elaaticitj of vortex nnsg. 

But one of the flrat, if not the t6tj fiist desideratum in 
a complete theory of matter ia to explain — -first, mass, and 
Kcoi)4 gravitation. To expltun mass may seem an absurd 
sdiievemenL We genersllj suppose that it is of the 
^KQce of matter to oe the receptacle of momeotum and 
ener^, and even Thomson, in bis definilion of his primi- 
tiTe fluid, attributes (o it the paesession of maa. But 
sccording to Thomson, thoueh the primitive fluid is the 
only true matter, yet that which we call matter is not the 
]»imitive finid itself, but a mode of motion of tliat priml- 
die fluid. It is the mode of motion which constitutes the 
TOttex rings, and which furnishes us with examples of that 
permanenoe and continuity of existence which we are 
accoMomed to attribute to matter itsel£ The primitive 
fluid, the ouly tme matter^ entirely eludes our perceptions 
wben it is not endued with the mode of motion which 
MovertB certain portions of it into vortex rings, and thus 
rendeis tt molecular. 

In Thomson's tfaeorv, therefore, the mass of bodies re- 
quires explanation. We have to explain the inertia of 
what is only a mode of motion, and inertia is a property of 
mitter, not of modes of motion. It is true that a vortex 


rings would have such momentum and energv as we know 
tfaem to have is, in the present slate of the theory, a very 
fiiScutt task. 

It may seem bard to say of an Infant tlieoi7 that it b 
bound to explain gravitation. Since the time of Newton, 
(be doctrine of gravitation has been admitted and ex- 
pounded till it has gradually acquired the character rather 
of an ultimate (act than of a fact te be explained. 

It seems doubtful whether Lucretius considers gravila- 
lioD to be an essential property of matter, as he eeem^i to 
■Bert in the very remarkable Imeg— 

"Ham li tantiiodem stt in Una glomtn, qauitam 
Coiporis ia plumbo eit, taDtaDdem pendare par sat: 
Corporii offlaiam Sit qnoniun p rem ere omDia dsonam." 
—Di Strum tfalura, i. 3BI. 

If this is the tme opinion of Lucrelios, and if the down- 
ward flight of the atoms arises, in his view, from their own 
pavity, it seems veir donblful whether he attributed the 
wught of sensible bodies to the impact of the atoms. 
The latter opinion is thai of Le Sage, of Geneva, pro- 
pounded in his I/ttoia Nanloniea, and in his TraUi 
it Pkftique Mkaniqw, published, along with a second 
treatise of his own, by Pierre Prevoet, of Geneva, in 
1818.' The theory of Le Sr^ is that the gravitation of 
bodies towards each other is caused by the impact of 
streams of aloma flying in all directions through space. 
These aioms he calls ultramundane corpuscules, because he 
conceives Ihem to cone in all directions from regions far 
beyond that part of the system of the world which is in 
any way known to ns. He supposes each of then te be so 
small tJiat a collision with another ultramundane corpus- 
cale is an event of very rare occurrence. It is by striking 
Wainst Ihe molecnles of gross matter that they dischai^ 
their function of drawing bodies towards each other. A 
body placed by itself in free space and exposed to the 
impacts of these corpnscules woold be bandied about b^ 
Ibem in all directions, but because, on the whole, it 
noetves sa many blows on one side sa on another, it can- 

18m ako CoattKiiMM ib la UMtr%, i^, [lar la P. Larar, Parli, 

m. 4] 

not thereby acquire any sensible velccnty. But if there am 
two bodies in space, each of them will screen the other 
from a certain proportion of the corpnscular bombardment, 
so that a smaller number of oorpusotilee will strike either 
body on that side which is next the other body, while the 
□umber of corpuscuies which strike it in other directions 

Each body will therelbre be urged towards the other by 
the eSeCt of the excess of the impacts it receives on the 
side farthest from the other. If we take account of the 
impacts of those ooipuscules only which coma directly from 
infinite space, and leave out of consideration those which 
have alr^y struck mundane bodies, it is eas^ to calculate 
the result on the two bodies, supposing their dimensions 
small compared with the distance between them. 

The force of attraction would vary directly as the product 
of the areas of the sections of the bodies taken normal to 
the distance and inversely as the square of the diMonoe 
between tliem. 

Now, the attraction of ajavitation varies as the product 
of the ntosMi of the bodies between which it acts, and 
inversely as the square of the distance between them. 11, 
then, we can imagine a conattlution of bodies such that the 
eficctive ai'eas of the bodies are proportional to their maeees, 
we shall make the two laws coincide. Here, then, seems 
lo be a path leading towards an explanation of the law of 
gravitation, which, if it can be shown to be in other respects 
consistent with &cls, may turn out to be a royal road into 
the very arcana of science. 

Le Sage himseif ^ows that, in order to make the efl«ct- 
ive area of a body, in virtue of which it acts as a screen 
lo the streams of ultramundane corpuscuies, proportional lo 
the mass of the ix>dy. whether the body be large or small, 
we must admit that the size of the solid atoms of die body 
is exceedingly small compared with the distances between 
them, so that a very small proportion of Ihe cotpiucnles 
are stopped even by the densest and largest bodies. We 
may picture to oitrselves the streams of corpuscuies coming 
in every direction, like light from a uniformly illuminated 
sky. We may ima^e a material body to consist of a con- 
geries of atoms at considerable distances from each other, 
and we may represent this by a swarm of inseoU flying in 
the air. To an observer at a distance this swarm will be 
visible as a slight darkening of the sky in a certain quarter. 
This darkening will represent the' action of the material 
body in stopping the flight of the corpuscuies. Now, if l^e 
proportion of li^ht stopped by the swarm is very small, two 
such swarms will stop nearly the same amount of light, 
whether they are in a line with the eye or not, but if one 
of them stops an appreciable proportion of light, ^ere will 
not be BO much left to be Slopped by the other, and the 
effect of two swarms in a line with the eye will be lees 
than the sum of (he two effects separately. 

Now, we know that the effect of the attraction of the sun 
and earth on the moon is not appreciably different wheo 
the moon is eclipsed than on other occasions when full 
moon occurs without an eclipse. This shows that the 
number of the corpuscuies which are stopped by bodies of 
the size and mass of the earth, and even the san, is verj 
small compared with the number which pass strught 


Such is the ingenious doctrine of Le Sage, by which he 
endeavors to explain imiveisal gravtlaUoo. Let us try to 
form some estimate of this continual bombardment of 
ultramundane corpuscuies which is being kept up on all 
sides of -us. 

We have seen that Ihe sun stops but a vety small frac- 
tion of the corpuscuies which enter iL The earth, being a 
smaller body, stops a still smaller proportion of them. 
The proportion of those which are stopped by a small 
body, say a 1 tb shot, must be smaller still in an enormous 
d^ree, because its thickness is exceedingly small compared 
with that of the earth. 

Now^ the weight of the ball, or its tendency towards the 
earth, u produced, according to this theory, by the excess 
of the impacts of the corpuscuies which come from above 
over the impacts of those which come from below, and 
have passed through the earth. Either of these quantitiea 
is an exceedingly small fraction of the momentum of the 

42 AT 

whole number of oorposcolcs vKicb pan throDKli tlie ball 
ID 8 second, md their difference is a Email fraction of 
either, and fet it ie equivalent to the weight of a pound. 
The velodtj of the corpescules must be enonneual; greater 
than that of anj of the hesTonlj bodioi, otherwise, as may 
ewilr be shown, thev would act as a reeisting medium 
opposing the motion of the planets. Now, the energy of 
moving BjBtem is half the product of it- ■""""■-•"■" ■-'" >'■ 

yelocily, Hf "" '"" " ' """ "" 

their imnacls 

the earth, must be a number of foot-pounda equal to the 
nnmt>er of feet over which a corpuscuie traveU in a second, 
that is to say, not leas than thousands of millions. But 
this is only a small fraction of the energy of all the impacts 
which the atoms of the ball receive from the innumerable 
streams of corposcules which fall upon it in all directions. 

Henoe the rate at which the enei^ of the mrpueculee 
ia spent in order to maintain the gravitating property of a 
■ingle pound, is at least millions of millions of foot-pounds 
per second. 

What becomes of this enormous quantity of energy? If 
the corpiMcules, after striking the atoms, &y off with a 
velocity equal to that which they had before, they will 
carry their energy away with them into the ultramundane 
regions. But if this be the cas^ then the oorpnsculea re- 
bounding from the body in any given direction will be both 
in number and in velocity ezact^' «"■■'"• i->"' if-tti"" ~ii!.^h 
are prevented from proceeding ii 

be the case whatever be the shape of the body, and however 
many bodies may be pr««ent m the field. Thus, the re- 
bouudlog oorpnacules exactly make np for those wnich are 
ileflectedby the body, and there will be no excess of the 
' (a on any other body in one direction or another. 



The explanation of gravitation, therefor^ &lls lu the 
ground if (be corpuscules are Uke perfectly elaatic spheres, 
and rebound with a velocity of separation equal lo that of 
approach. If, on the other hand, thev rebound with a 
smaller velocity, the eSect of attraction between the bodies 
will no donbt be produced^, but then we have to find what 
becomes of the owrgy which the molecules have brought 
with them bat have not carried away. 

If aay appreciable fraction of this energy is communi- 
cated lo the body in the form of heat, the amount of heat 
•0 generated woald in a few seconds raise it, and in like 
manner the whole material univeise, to a white heat. 

It has been suggested by Sir W. Thomson that the cor- 
puscules may be so constructed as to carry off their ener^ 
with them, provided that part of their kinetic energy is 
tjinaformed, during impact, from energy of translation to 

'-otalion or vibration. For this purpose the cor- 

ust be material systems, not mere points. Thora- 
Km snggesls that they are vortex atoms, which are set into 
a state of vibration at impact, and go off with a smaller 
velocity of translation, hut in a state of violent vibration, 
He has alsosu^ested the possibility of the vortex oorpus- 
cnle regaining its swiftness and losing part of its vibratory 
agUation by communion with its kindred oorpiisculee in 

We have devoted more space to this theory than it seems 
to deserve, because it is ingoiious, and because it is the only 
theory of the cause of gravitation which has been so far 
developed as to be capable of being attacked and defended. 
It iota not appear to us that it can account for the temper^ 
ature of bodies remaining moderate white their atoms are 
eipoved to the bombardment. The temperature of bodies 
must tend to approach that at which the average kinetic 
energy of a molecule of the body would be equal to the 
average kinetic energy of an ultramundane corpuscuie. 

Now, suppose a plane surface to exist which stois all the 
corpuscules. The praaure on this plane will be p - NMu' 
where M is the mass of a corpuscuie, N the number in unit 
of volume, and k its velocity normal to the plane, _ Now, 

_ e preosure p, which would 

be exerted against a body which stops all the oorposcnleB. 
We ■ - • ■' ■■■—- -<--■ *■ ■ ' 

know that the verv greatest preMure existing 

ee most be much lees than ttii 

ed against a body which stops all 
also tolerably certain that N, the number of cor- 
puscules whicb are at any one time within unit of volume, 
tt small compared with the value of N for the molecales 
of ordinary bodiM. Hence, Mu' must be raiormoiw com- 
pared witi the corresponding quantity for ordinary bodie^ 
and it follows that Uie impact of the corpnsculee would 
raise all bodies lo an enormous temperatnre. We vaf also 

observe that according to this theorr the habitable univeise, 
' ■ ' 1 .. - of a mag- 


I theorv t* 
which we are accustomed to regard ai 
nificent illustration of the conservation of ai ^ 
fundamental principle of all nature, is in reality n 
tained in working onler only by an enormous expendi 
of external power, which would be nothing lea tiian r 
ous if the supply were drawn from anywhere else than from 
the infinitude of space, and which, if the contrivances of 
the most eminent mathematicians should be found in any 
respect defective, might at any moment tear the whole uni- 
verse atom from atom. 

We must now leave these speculations about the nature 
of molecules and the cause of gravitation, and contemplate 
the material univeise as made up of molecules. Evny 
molecule, so far as we know, belongs to one of a dednitA 
number of species. The list of chemical elements mav be 
taken as representing the known species which have beeii 
examined in the laboratories. Several of these have been 
discovered by means of the spectroscope, and more may 
yet remain to be disoovepKl in the same way. The spetv 
troecope baa also been applied to analyse the light of the sun, 
the brighter stars, and some of the nebuln and comets, and 
has shown that the character of the light emitted by theae 
bodies is similar in some cases to that emitted by terrestrial 
molecules, and in others to light from which the molecule* 
have absorbed certain rays. In (his war a considerable 
number of coincidences have been traced between the sys- 
tems of lines belonging to particular terrestrial subotancs 
and corresponding lines in the spectra of the heavenly 

The value of the evidence furnished by such coineideooes 
may be estimated by considering the degree of accuracy 
willi which one such coincidence may be observed. The 
interval between the two Mots which form Frannhofei'* 
line D is about the five hundredth part of the interval be- 
tween Band Q on Kirchhoff's scale, A discordance between 
tlie positions of two lines amounting to the tenth part of 
this interval, that is to say, the five thousandth part of 
the length of the bright part of the spectrum, would b« 
very perceptible in a spectroscope of moderate power. Wa 
may define the power of the spectroscope to be the num> 
her of times which the smallest measurable interval is con- 
tained in the length of the visible spectmm. Let us denote 
this hyp. In the case we have supposed p will be about 

If the spectrum of the sun contains n lines of a certain 
degree of mtensity, the probability that any one line of th« 
spectrum of a gas will coincide with o — -' "'■ 

le of tiiese n lin 

and when p is large compared with n, this becomes nearly 
If there are r lines in tiie spectrum of the gas, tb« 
probability that each and eveiy one shall coincide with m 
line in the solar spectrum is approximately --. Hence, 'n 
the case of a gas whose spectrum contains several lines, we 
have to compare the results of two hypotheses. If a large 
amount of the gas exists in the sun, we have the strongest 
reason for expecting to find all the r lines in the solar spec* 
trum. If it does not exist, the probabilitv that r lines oat 
of the n observed lines shall coincide with the lines of the 
^ is exceedingly small, If^ then, we find all the r lines 
m their proper places in the solar spectrum, we have very 
strong grounds tor believing that the fiB exists in the snn. 
The probabili^ that the gas exists in the sun is greatly 
strengthened if the character of the lines as to relative io- 
tenuly and breadth is found tD correspond in the two spectra. 

The absence of one or more lineb of the gas in the solar 
spectrum tends of coaise to weaken the probability, but 
the amount to be deducted from the probabilitr must de- 
pend on what we know of the variation in the relative 
intensity of the lines when the temperature and the pre*- 
sure of the gas are made to vary. 

Coincidences observed, in (he case of several terrestrial 
substances, with several systems of lines in the spectra of 
the heavenly bodies, tend to increase the evidence for the 
doctrine (hat terrestrial substances exist in the heavenly 
bodies, while the discoverr of particular lines in a celestial 
spectrum which do not coincide with any line in a terree- 
trial spectrum does not mn^ weaken the general turgu- 

mcnl, bat ntber indicate either that > Bubatsnce axiaa io 
the Wvenlj body not yet detected bv chemists on e«rth, 
or that the lempentiue of the faesvemy body is such that 
lome safaBtance, nndeootnpGmible bj our metfaodB, i» there 
Iplit np into compcwenb unkuovn U> he in their separate 

We are thus led to believe that in widelj-eepoialed parta 
of the vkible univene molecules exist of various hinds, 
the molecnlcB of each kind having their various periods 
of vibration either identicsJ, or bo nearly identical that 
oar ■pedroscopea cannot distingnish them. We miKbt 
argne from this that these molecules are alike in all other 
respects, as, Ibi instance, in mass. But it is sufficient for 
oar preaeot purpose to obeerrQ that the same kind of mole- 
cule, saj thai of h/drogen, has the same set of periods of 
vibratioD, whether we procure the fa/drt^en from water, 
£rom cod, or from meteoric iron^ and that light, having 
the same set of periods of vibraUon, comes Io us from the 
ran, from Birius, and from Arcturus. 

The same tund of reasoning which led us to believe 
that hydrogen exists ia the sun and stars, also leads as to 
believe that the molecules of hydrogen in all these bodies 
had a oommoQ origin. For a matenal system capable of 
vibration may have for its periods of vibration any set of 
Talaee whatever. The probability, therefore, that two 
material systems, quite iodependent of each other, shall 
have, to the degree of accuracy of modem spectroscopic 
measurements, the same set of periods of vibnitioD, is eo 
very small that we are forced to believe that the two sys- 
tems are not independent of each other. When, insi^ 
of two such systems, we have innumerable multiludes all 
having the same set of periods, the argument is immensely 

eel relation between 
any two molecules of bydrogen, let us consider what this 
relation may be. 

We may conceive of a mutual action between one body 
and another tending to assimilate them. Two clocks, for 
instance, will keep lime with each other if connected by a 
wooden rod, though they have diSerent rales if they were 
disconnected. But even if tlie properties of a molecule 
were as capable of modification as those of a clock, there 
is no physical conneclioa of a safficient kind between 
Birius and Arcturus. 

There are also methods by which a large number of 
bodies differing from each other may be sorted into sets, 
BO that those in each set more or leas resemble each other. 
In the manufiudure of small shot this is done by making 
the shot roll down an inclined plane. The laigcat speci- 
mens acquire the greatest velocilieSj and are projected far- 
ther than the Biniuler once. In this way the various pel- 
1^ which differ both in size and in roundness, are sorted 
into different klods, those belonging to each kind being 
nearly of the same siEe, and those which are not tolerably 
^hencal being rdecteo altogether. 

If the molecules were originally as various as these 
leaden pellets, and were afterwards sorted into kinds, we 
should have to account for the disappearance of all the 
molecules which did not Mi under one of the very limited 
nnmber of kinds known to us ; and to get rid of a number 
of indestmctible bodio^ exceeding by far the number of 
the molecules of all the recognizea kinds, would be one of 
the severest labors ever proposed to a cosmogonist. 

It is well known that living beings may be grouped into 
a certain number of species, defined with more or less pre- 
daion, and that it is difficult or impossible to find a series 
of individuals forming the links of a continuous chain tie- 
tween one species and another. In the case of living beings, 
however, the generation of individuals is aJwaj^s going on, 
each individual differing more or less from its parents. 
Eadl individual during its whole life is undergoing mod- 
ification, and it either survives and propagates its species, 
or dies early, accordingly as it is more or leas adapted to 
the drcoiiutBaaea of its enviroanent. Hence, it has been 
found possible to frame a theory of the distribution of 
oiganisniB into spedes by means of generation, variation, 
and discriminative destruction. But a theory of evolution 
of this kiod canaot be applied to the case of molecules, 
br the individual molecules neither are bom nor die, they 

3M. 43 

buried in the earth as coal for untold ages, while the odier 
has been "occluded" in the iron of a meteorite^ and aAer 
unknown wanderings in the heavens has at last fallen into' 
the bauds of some terrestrial chemist 

The process by which the molecules become distributed 
into distinct epecies is not one of which we know any 
instances going on at present, or of which we have as yet 
been able to form any ment^ representation. If we sup- 
pose that the molecules known to us are built up each of 
some moderate number of atoms, these atoms beiuB all of 
them exactly alike, then we may attribute the limilad 
number of molecular species to the limited number of 
ways in which the primitive atoms may be combined so as 
to form a permanent system. 

But though this hypothesis gets rid of the difficulty of 
accounting (or the independent origin of different apecifs 
of molecules, it merely transfers the difficulty from the 
known molecules to the primitive atoms. How did Ihs 
atoms come to be all alike in those properties which are in 
[faemselvea capable of assaming any value? 

If we adopt the theory of Bcecovich, and assert that the 

Srimitive atom is a mere centre of force, having a certain 
efinite roaaa, we may get over the difficulty about the 
equality of the mass of all atoms by laying it down as a 
doctrine which cannot he disproved by experiment, that 
mass is not a quantity capable of continuous increase oi 
diminution, but that it is in its own nature discontinnous, 
like number, the atom being the unit, and alt masses being 
multiples of that uniL We have no evidence that it ii, 
possible for the ratio of two masses to be an inoommensur- 
able quantity, for the incommensurable quantities in geom- 
etry are supposed to be traced out in a continuous medium. 
If matter is atomic, and therefore discontinuous, it is un- 
fitted for the construcdoD of perfect geometrical models, 
but in other respects it may fulfil its functions. 

But even if we adopt a Uieory which makes the equality 
of the mass of difierent atoms a result depending on the 
nature of mass rather than on any quantitative adjustment, 
the correspondence of the periods of vibration of actual 
molecules is a fact of a different order. 

We know that raditidons exist having periods of fibr«- 
tion of every value between those correepondiog to the 
limits of the visible spectrum, and probably &r beyood 
these limits on both sides. The most powerful spectroscope 
can detect no gap or discontinuity in the spectrum of ths 
light emitted by incandescent lime. 

The period of vibration of a luminons iiarticle is there- 
fore a quantity which in itself is capable of assuming any 
one of a senee of values, which, if not mathematically 
ich that consecutive observed values differ 

from each other by len than the ten thousandth part of 

""'"" "" '" ^ ^^efbre, nothing in the nature of time 

iriod of vibration of a molecule frtHD 
asaumiug any one of many thousand different observable 


values. That which determines the period of any partio- 
ular kind of vibration is the relation which subsista between 
the corresponding type of displacement and the force of 
restitution thereby called into play, a relation involying 
constants of space and time as well as of mass. 

It is the equality of these space- and Ume-constaots for 
all molecules of the same kind which we have next to 
consider. We have seen that the very different circum- 
stances in which different molecules of the same kind have 
been placed have not, even in the course of many nges^ , 
produced any appreciable diflerence in the values of these 
constants. If, then, the various processes of nature to 
which these molecules have been subjected since the world 
began have not been able in all that time to produce any 
appreciable diflereuce between the constants of one mole- 
cule and those of another, we are forced to ooDclude that it 
is not (o the operation of any of these processes that the 
uniformity of the constants is due. 

The formation of the molecule is therefore an event not 
belonging to that order of nature under which we live. 
It is an operation of a kind which is not, so far as we ara 
aware, going on on earth or in the sun or the stats, dther 
now or since these bodies began to be formed. It must ba 
referred to the epoch, not of the formation of the earth 
or of the solar syBtem, but of the establishment of the 
existing order of nature, and tili not only thoe worlds 
and systems, but the very order of nature itself is dissolved, 
we have no reason to expect the occurrence of any open^ 
tion of a aimilar kind. 




bi the present rtale of science, iherefbre, we have aUong 
iMMm for beliering Ihat ui a molecule, or if not in ■ 
tnolecul^ in one of ite component atoms, we have something 
which has existed either from eternity or at ieaat from 
timet anterior to the existing order of nature. But beeides 
this atom, there are imiDense numbers of other atoms of 
the same kind, and the constants of each of these atoms 
are incapable of adjustment bj any process now in action. 
Each is physicallj independent of all the others. 

Whether or not the conception of a multitude of beings 
existing from all eternity is m itself self-oontradictorj, the 
conception becomes palpably absurd when we attribute a 
relation of quantitative equality to all these beings. We 
Are then forced to look beyond them to some common cause 
or common origin to explain why this singular relation of 
-'"■y exists, rather than any one of the infinite number 


possible relations of inequality. 
Science U incompetent to reason upc 

ipetenl to reason upon the creation of 
■natter itself out of nothing. We have reached the utmost 
limit of our thinking faculties when we have admitted that, 
tiecause mhtter cannot be eternal and self-existent, it must 
hare been created. It is only when Ire contemplate not 
■natter in itnelf, but the form in which it actually exists, 
(hat our mind dnds something on which it can lay hold. 

That matter, as such, should have certain fundamental 
properties, that it should hare a continuous existenoe in 
Bjiace and time, that all action should be between two por- 
tions of matter, and so on, are truths which may, for anght 
we know, be uf the kind which metaphyslcianB call neces- 
sary. We may use our knowledge of such truths for pur- 
poses of deduction, but we have no data for speculating 
their origin. 

But the equali^ of tlie constants of the molecules is 
^l of a very difierent order. It arises from a particular 
distritution of matter, a eolhealion, to use the expression 
of Dr. Chalmers, of things which we have no difficulty in 
imagining to have been arranged otherwise. But many of 
the ordinary instances of collocation are adjustments of 
constants, which are not only arbitrary in their own na- 
ture, but in which variations actually occur; and when it 
is pointed out that these ai^ustments are beneficial to living 
beings, and are therefore instances of benevolent desi^, it 
is replied that those variations which are not conducive to 
the growth and multiplication of living beings tend to their 
dtfliruction, and to the removal thereby of the evidence of 
Any adjustment not beneficial. 

The constitution of an atom, however, is such as lo 
render it, so far ss we can judge, independent of all the 
dangers arising from the struggle for existence. Plausible 
reasons may, no doubt, be atnigned for believing that if the 
constants had varied from atom to atom through aoy sen- 
wble range, the bodies formed by aggr^atee of such atoms 
would not have been so weli fitted for the construction of 
the world as the bodies which actually exist. But as we 
llRve no experience of Itodies formed of such variable 
Jitoms this must remain a bare conjecture. 

Atoms have been compared by Sir J. Heischel to munu- 
nctured articles, on account of their uniformity. The 
nniformity of manufactured articles may be traced to very 
different motives on the part of the manufacturer. In cer- 
tain cases it is found to be leas expensive as regards trouble, 
as well as cost, lo make a great many objecb exactly 
alike than to adapt each to its special requirements. Thus, 
shoes for soldien are made in large numbers without aoy 
designed adaptation to the feet of particular men. In 
anotlier class of esses the uniformity is intentional, and is 
designed to make the manufitctured article more valuable. 
Thus, Whitworth's bolts are made in a certain number of 
Kiea, so that if one bolt is lost, another may be got at once, 
mnd accurately fitted to its place. The identity of the 
arrangement of the words in the different copies of a docu- 
ment or book is a matter of great practical importance, 
and it is more perfectly secured by the prooess of printing 
than by that of manuscript copyiog. 

In a third class not a part only but the whole of the 
value of the otyect arises from its exact conformity to a 
fiven standard. Weights and measures belong lo (his 
class, and the existence of man^ well-adjustea material 
standards of weight and measure in any country furnishes 
evidence of the existence of a system of law reflating the 
transactions of the inhabitants, and enjoining in all pro- 
fessed measures a conformitv lo the national standard. 
There are thus three kioas of usefulness in numuiactured 

articles — cheapnen, serviceableaess, and quan^ta^ve acctt- 
racy. Which of these was present to the mind of Sir J. 
Herschel we cannot now positively affirm, but it was al 
least as likely to have hem the last as Ihs first, though It 
seems more probable that he meant to asmrt that a ntimbcr 
of exactly similar things caimot be each of them eternal 
and self-existent, and must therefore have been made, aitd 

that he "* ■■ -' " * ■ ' ■' ' •• - 

(he idea 

rby Thyesles, 
It Zeus, la the 

great numbers. 

(J. CM.) 

ATOOI, one of the larger Sandwich Islands, in tha 
South Pacific Ocean. Towards the H.E. and N.W.,the 

oountrv is ru^ed and hroben, but to the sonthward it is 
more level. The hills rise from the sea with a gentle 
acclivity, and, at a little distance back, are coTereawilh 
wood ; the central peaks attain an elevation <^ 7000 feet. 
The chief ports are Waimca and Hanalei. The bland WM 
one of the stations chosen for the observation of the transit 
of Venus In 1874. It is nearly 40 miles in length, and 
contains about 10,000 inhabitants. Long. 169° 40' W- 
laL ai" 57' N. 

ATRATO, a river of Colombia, South America, which, 
after a couise of 250 miles, almost due N., for the mcst 
part through a low and awampy r^ion, falls into the Quif 
of Uraba or Dorien. The gold and platinum mines of 
Choco were on some-uf its affluents, and its sands are still 
auriferous. The river has attracted considerable attention 
in connection with schemes for the constmction of a ship- 
canal across the isthmus. It is navigable for boibU vessels 
for about 140 miles. 

ATREK or Attbdck, a river which rises in the moun- 
toina of Khorason, and flows W. along the borders of Peru* 
and the BuBsian posMSsions, till it falls in the soulh-eostem 
comer of the C^pian, a short distance to the N. of 

ATBEUa, in Ortet Legend a son of Pelops, had, with 
his brother Tbyest«s, seUltd in Mycenn, where be succeeded 
EurvBtheus in the sovereignty, in which he was secured 
by the poeaeasion of a lamb or ram with a goHen fleecfc 
His wife Aerope, a daughter of Minos, bribe 
assisted the latter to carry off the ram. B 
interest of Atreua, wrought a miracle, causing the sun 
which beforo had risen in tlie west to rise in the east. 
Thyesles was driven from Hycenn, but returned lo hit 
brother begf^in^ to be forgiven. Atreus, appearing to wel- 
come him, invited him to a banquet to eat of his own son, 
whom he had slain. From this crime followed the ilb 
which befol Agamemnon, the son of Atreus (.fscfaylnsL 
Jffo™. 1583,/oa.). 

ATBI or Atrla, the ancient Hadria, a town of Naplc^ 
in the province of Abruzzo Ulteriore I., Ntuated on a iteep 
mountain 6 miles from the Adriatic, and 18 mites 8.E. M 
Teramo. It is the see of a bishop, and has a cathedral, a 
parish church, and several convents and hospitals. It con- 
tains 9S77 inhabitants. Remains of the ancient city have 
been discovered to the S. of the present site, consisting oS 
the ruins ot a theatre and baths, with pavements and vase* 
of Greek manufacture. It was a very flourishing commercial 
port at an early period, but had declined into a small town 
in the time of Btralto. Its modem revival has been 
furthered by the excavation of new canals. 

off the veMtibtiiitm, a clear space between the middle of the 
house and the street, formed by the projection of the two 
sides. It was generally quadrangular in shape, and was 
roofed all over, with the exception of a square opening, 
called contpJuvium, towards which the roofs sloped, and br 
which the rain-water was conducted down to a basin 
i;^u>nu>n) fixed in the floor. The opening in the roof 
ims BOmelimca to have been called unp^uotan (Terenc& 
. in,, iii. 6 [ PhontL, iv. 4). In the early petioda of 
Boman civilization, the atrium was thecommon public apart- 
ment, and was used for the reception of visitors and clientc^ 
and for ordinary domestic purposes, as cooking and diniuf. 
In it were placed tlie ancestral pictures, the marriage-coucu, 
the /oeu^ or hearth, and generally a small altar. Hcrc^ 
too, were kept the looms at which the mistress of the houss 
sat and span with her maid servants. At asomewbat later 

Kriod, and among the wealthy, separate apartments were 
lit for Irilcheos and dining-rootns, and tne atrium was 
kept OS a general reception-room for clients and viutors. 
It appears sometimes to have been called eatUHfuHa, bnt 


lbs reladon of thsM two is Bomewhkt obtcnre. According 
lo some BOthoriCKs, the eoxBdnan vu umply the open 
^«w formed irheu the inpiavium wu wrrouoded wilh 
piUan to mpport Ihe roof; acoordiEg to others, the oone- 
dmm WM reulj the principal room, to which the Urium 

Atriiiii, in EtitlaiaMioai AfilijvMet, draotaa u open 
pUoe or coart beibre a cborch. Il eoosialed of a lai^ arem 
or sqosre plat of groand, surrounded with a portico or 
cloisler, sitoated between the porch or veBtibafe and the 
body of the church. In the ceotre was placed a fonntain, 
wherein the worahipperB washed their hands before entei^ 
ing cbarch. In the atrium those who were not auSered 
to advance farther, and more particnlarly the firat clasB of 
pHiitenu, stood to aolicit the pra<rerB of the faithful u 
ihej went into the church. It was also used aa a burying- 
groond, at firat <m\j for diatingniabed persons, but afler- 
war di fo r all belierers. 

ATROPHY (a priT., rpo^, nouriahment), a term in 
medicine used to describe a state of wasting doe to some 
interference wilh the fmiction of healthy nutrilion. In 
Ihe living organism there are ever at vrork changes involv- 
ing the waste of its component tinues, which render nens- 
»ry, in order to the preservation of life, the supply and 
proper animilation of nalrilive material. It is also easen' 
tial for the maintenance of health that a due relation exist 
between these prooeaea of waste and repair, so that the 
one may not be in excess of the other. When the appro- 
priatiou of autriment exceeds the waste, hypertrophy or 
' increase in bulk of the tissues takes place. (See HyPEn- 
TBOPHY.) When, on the other hand, the supply of nutritive 
matter is snapended or diminished, or when the power of 
Bssiniilation is impaired, atrophy or waating is the result. 
ThiM the whole body becomes atrophied in many diseasea ; 
and in old age every part of the &snie, with the single 
ezceptionofthebeaitiDiHlergonatrophicchaoge. Atrophy 
■nay, however, affect single organs or parts of the body, 
i r rt s pectivaof the gomal state of nutriti(»i, and this may 
be brought aboat in a variety of ways. One of the most 
freqacoUy observed of such instances is atrophy from 
disuse, or cessation of function. Thus, when a limb is 
derived of the natural power of motion, either by paralysis 
taaj painful joint disease, the condition of exercise esson- 
tial to its nnlnlion being no longer fulfilled, atrophy of all 
its textures soonor or later takes place. The brain in 
imbedlee is ftwqueatly observed to be shrivelled, and in 
many cases of blindneM there is atrophy of the opUc nerve 
and optie ttacL This form of atrophy is likewise well 
evempllGed in the case of those organs and structures of 
the body which sabserve important ends during Gxtol life, 
but which, ceasing to be necessary after birth, undergo a 
sort of natural atrophy, such as the thymus gland, and 
certain venels spedally coocenied iu the tietal circulation. 
Tba ntanis aiWr parturition undergoes a certain amount 
of atrophv, and toe ovaries, after the child-bearing period. 
become sAranken. Atrophy of a part may also be caused 
1^ interruptioa to its normal blood supply, as in the case 
of the ligature or obstruction of an artery. Agaia, long 
standing disease, by aSecUng the nutrition of an organ and 
by inducing the deposit of morbid products, may result in 
atrophy, as frequently happens in aSections of the liver 
and kidney Parts that are subjected to continuous pres- 
sun ate liable to become atrophied, aa is sometimes seen 
in internal organs which have been pressed upon by 
tumon or other morbid growths, and is well illustrated in 
(he case of the feet of Chinese ladies, which are prevented 
from growing by persistent compression exercised from 
birth. Atrophy may manifest itself simply by loss of sub- 
stance ; but, on the other hand, it is often found to co-exist 
■itb d^^erative changes in the textures afleded and the 
formation of adventitious growth, so that the part may not 
be reduced in hulk although atrophied as r^ards its proper 
Btmcture. Thus, in the case of the heart, when sBecied 
with fatty d^^neration, there is strophy of the proper 
muscular texlur^ which, however, being largely n>placod 
by btiy matter, the organ may undergo no dimunition in 
volume, but may, on the contrary, M increased in size. 
Atrophy is usually a gradual and alow process, but some- 
times it proceeds rapidly. In the disease known by the 
name of oeute vellov atrep&j/ (^ l&s Juxr, that organ under- 
goes such rapidly destructive change as results '" ='■ 
shrinking to half, or or ' '-" " ' 

a few days. 

one-third, of its normal size ii 

The terra pro^rcH 

»ftv .(synonyms, » 

or erMpui^ |><<^) is applied to an affection of tlie muscnlsir 
system, which is chacacteriied by the atrophy and sub- 
sequent paralysis of certain muscles, or groups of mosdee, 
and is associated with morbid changes in the anterior 
roots of the nerves of the spinal cord. This disease 
iK^ns insidiously, and is often first observed to affect the 
muscles of one hand, generally the right. The attention 
of the sufferer is fiist attracted by the power of the hand 
becoming weakened, and then there is found to be a wast- 
ing of certain of its muscles, particularly those of the hall 
of the thumb. Qradually other muscles in the arms and 
legs beoome affected in a similar manner, their atrophy 
being attended with a corresponding diminution in power. 
Although sometimes arrested, this disease tends to progress, 
involving additional muscles, until in course of time the 
greater part of the muscular system is implicated, and », 
fatal result ensues. (j. o. a.) 

ATROPOS (a priv., and rplKctr, to (urn), the eldest of 
the three Moirai, Parcce, or Fates. Her name, the Unal- 
terable, indicates the part generally played by her, via., 
that of rendering the decisions of her sistera irreveisible or 
immutable. This is the function sscribed to her by Plato 
(Rep., X, S20), who also assigns to her supremacy over fu- 
ture events (617). Ancient authorities, however, are not 
unanimous in their distribution of the parts of the three 
sialeiB. Alropos is most frequently represented with scaletk 
a snn-dial, or a cntting iosimmenl, the " abhorred shears,'' 
with which she slils the thin-apun (bread of life that baa 
been placed on the spindle by Clotho and drawn off by 
Lacheaia. See Pabc& 

ATTACHMENT, in EngUiK Lau, is a nrocea trota m 
court of record, awarded by the justices at their disoretioD, 
on a bare suggestion, or on their own knowledge, and la 
properly grantable in cases of contempt. It difiers from 
arrest, in that he who arrests a man carries him to a person 
of higher power to be forthwith disposed of; bnt he that 
attaches keeps the party attached, and presents him in 
oourt at the day assigned, as appears by the words of the 
wriL Another difierence is, that arrest is only upon the 
body of a man, whereas an attachment is often upon his 
goods. It is distinguished from distress in not extending 
to lands, as the latter does; nor does a distress touch the 
body, as an attachment does. Every court of record baa 
power to fine and imprison for contempt of its authority. 
Attachment bein^ merely a process to bring the defendant 
before the court, is not necessary in cases of contempt in 
the presence of the court itself. Attachment will b« 
granted against peers and members of Parliament, (oUy for 
anch gross contempts as rescues, disobedience to the Queen's 
writs, and the lite. Attachment will not lie tgainst a 
corporation. The County Courts in this respect are regu- 
lated by the 9 and 10 Vict. c. 9Sl j 113, and the 12 and 
13 Vict, c 101, i 2. They can only punish for contempts 
committed in presence of the court. (See Cohtkhpt or 
Court.) Attachments are granted on a rule in the first 
instance to show cause, which mu^ he personally scrred 
before it can be made absolute, except for non-payment of 
costs on a master's allocatur, and against a sheriff for not 
obeyii^ a rule to return a writ or to bring in tbe bodr. 
The onender is then arrested, and when committed wiO (e 
compelled to answer interrogatories, exhibited against him 
e instance the proceedings tMtve been 
examination when taken is referred lo Ihv 
maater, who leports thereon, and on the contempt beii^ 
reported^ the court gives judgment according (o its dis- 
credon, in (he same manner as upon a convicdoa for s 
misdemeanor at common law. Sir W. Blackstone observes 
that " (his method of making the defendant answer upon 
oath to a criminal charge is not sgreeable lo the genius 
of the common law in any other instance," and it may 
he added that the elasticity of the legal definitions of 
conlempt of court, especially wilh n ' 

judicial proceedings, is the Bubjec( ot miicn coi 

Attacbvent out of Chakcery enforceu answers 
and obedience to decrees and orders of that court, now 
merged in the High Court of Justice under the Judicature 
Act, 1873, and was made out without order upon an aifi- ■ 
davit of the due service of the process, Ac, with whose 
'rementa compliance wassoughL A corporation, how- 
is proceeded against by distringss and not by attoch- 

is proceed 

formerly competent (o the plaintiff 

mpel Ihe t^jpearance of a defondant 



■tUchiDfliit, bat tbe nsual courw «m lo enter appearance 
for him in o«e of default. By the propoBed rules 
ander chs Judicature Ac^ 1873, a writ of attachment is 
Id ba*e the same force and effect ai the old attachment 
out of Chancery. It is one of the modes of eiecntion 
allowed for the reooveiy of property other than land or 

Attachment op the Fohew is the proceeding in the 
Courts of Attachments, Woodraote, or Fortv Days' Courts. 
These courts have now fallen into absolute desuetude. 
They were held before the Tcrdereis of tbe royal forests in 
difTereat parts of the kingdom onoe in every forty days, 
for the purpose of inquiring into all oSencee against "vert 
and venison." The attachment is by the bodies of the 
offenders, if taken in the very act of killing venison, or 
Blealio^ wood, or preparing lo to do, or ^ fresh and 
immediate pursuit after the act is done ; else they must be 
attached by their goods. These attachments were received 
by the verderers and enrolled, and certiGed under their 
seals to the Court of Justice seat, or Gwetnmote, which 
formed the two superior of the forest courts. 

Attachkeht, Foreign, is an important custom pre- 
vailing in the city of London, whereby a creditor may 
•ttach money owing to his debtor, or property belonging 
'--1 of third parties. The person 

le nn , 

m. The 

all peraons are entitled to the benefit of the 
plainliS' having commenced his action, and made a satis- 
factory affidavit of bis debt, is entitled lo issue attachment, 
which thereupon affects all the money or property of the 
ddiendant in the hands of the third party, who in these 
proceedings is called the gamalue. The garnishee, of 
conrse, has as against tbe attachment all (he defencea 
which would be available to him against the defendant, 
faia alleged creditor. The garnishee may plead payment 
uuder tbe attachment, if there has been no &aud or coUu- 
«ion, in bar to an action by the defendant for bis debt or 

Koperty. The court to which this process belongs is the 
ayor's Court of London, the procedure in which is ns- 
ulated by 20 and 21 Vict. c. 157. Tbia custom, and ^1 
proceedings relating thereto, are expressly exempted from 
the ci>eration of the Debtor's Act, 1860. Bimilar customs 
exist in Bristol and a few other towns in England, and 
Also in Scotland. See Ahrebt and Arrestment. 

Attachmest ow Debts. — It was suggested by the 
,-._ :_: ;_ ^ggg ^^ ^ remedy 

their debtors. Accordingly, the Common Law Procedure 
Act, 1854, enacted that any creditor, having obtained 
iudement in the superior courts, should have an order that 
the judgment debtor might be examined as to any debts 
due ana owing to liim before a master of the court. On 
affidavit that the judgment was still uusatisfied, and that 
any other person within the juriitdiction was indebted to 
tbe judgment debtor, the judge was empowered lo attach 
r11 debts due &om such third person (called the ffomithee) 
to the judgment debtor, to answer the judgment debt. 
This Older binds the debts in the hands of the garnishee, 
and if he doea not dispute his liability execution inues 
ogainnt him at oDce. If he disputes hie liability the 
question must be tried. Payment by tbe garnishee or 
'-iQ against him is a complete discharge as against 

3 and 34 Vict, c 30, it is enacted that 
attachment of the wages of any servant, 
laborer, or workman shall be made by tbe judge of any 
uniit of record or inferior court.) The proposed rules and 
' regulations under the Judicature Act, 1873, retain the 
process for attachment of debts a* eatablisbed by the Pro- 
cedure Act of 1S54. 

ATTAINDER, in the Lou af Etwkmd, was the imme- 
diate and inseparable consequence tram the common law 
npon the sentence of death. When it was clear beyond all 
dispute that the criminal was no longer fit to live, he was 
called alUtint, aainelut, xtalned or blackened, and could 
not, before the 6 and 7 Vict. c. 85, { li be a witness in 
any coorL This attainder took place ^r jod^cnt of 
death, or upon such circumstances as were equivalent to 
jnd^ent of death, such as judgment of ouuawi^ on a 
capital crime, pnKiaiuKed for absconding from justice. 

Conviction without judgment was not followed hj attainder. 
The oonsequencee of attainder were — Irt, Forfdture; 2d, 
Cormption of blood. On attainder for treasoo, the criminal 
forfeited to the Crown his lands, rights of entry on lands, 
and any interest he might have in lands for his own life 
or a term of years. For murder, the oKnder forf^tcd ta 
the Crown the profit of his freeholds during life, and in the 
case of lands held in fee-simple, Che lands theniaelvea te 
a year and a day ; sul^ect to this the lands csdiealed bi 
the lord of tbe fee. These forfeitures related back to the 
time of the ofTence committed. Forfeitures ot ^oods and 
chattels ensued not only on attainder, but on connetioD fbi 
a felony of any kind, or on flight from juatice, and had no 
relation backwards to the lime of the oBence committed. 
By eomipiion ^ Wood, " both upwards and downwards," 
the attainted person could neither inherit nor transmit 
lands. The luids escheated to the lord of the fee, sutject 
to the Crown's right of forfeiture. The doctrine of 
attainder has, however, ceased to be of much Importaocei 
By the 33 and S4 Vict c 23, it is enacted that bencefbith 
no confession, verdict, inquest, conviction, or judgment of 
or for any treason or felony, or ftto de te, ehsJl cause any 
attainder or corruption of blood, or any forfeiture or escheat. 
Sentence of death, penal servitude, or imprisonment with 
hard labor for more than twelve months, after conviction for 
treason or felony, disqualifies Irom holding or retaining a 
neat in Parliament, public offices under the Crown or other- 
wise, ri^ht to vote at elections, Ac, and such disability is 
'to renxain. until the punishment has been suffered or a par- 
don obtained. Provision is made for the due administra- 
tion of convicts^ estates, in the interests of themselves and 
their families. Forfeiture consequent on outlawry is ^- 
empted irom the provisions of the Act. 

BiUi^ AUainder in Parliament ordinarily commeiice 
in the House of Lords ; the proceedinga are the same •■ 
on other bills, but the puiiea affected by them may i^pew 
by counsel aod witnessen in both Housea. In the case <tf 
an impeachment, the House of Commons is prosecnlor and 
the Hou»e of Lords judge ; but proceedings by Bill of 
Attainder are UgMalm in form, and the consent of Crown, 
Lords, and Commons is therefore necessary. 

ATTALIA, an ancient city of Pampbytia, which de- 
rived its name &om Attains II., king of Pergamus. It 
seems to have been a place of considerable important^ 
and is most probably to be identified with the modera 
Adalia, Antalia, or Bataliah, aa it is variously called. 6m 


ATTAR, or Otto, of Bobeb, a well-known peifiime of 
great strength, is an essential oil of rosea, pretMred chieAy 
tn Hindustan and Persia. See Oils and Fbrfdh ert. 

ATTENTION, in PtyAoUtgy, may be defined aa the 
concentration of consdousnese, or the direction of mental 
ener^ upon a definite object or objects. By mesne of it 
we either bring within the circle of our conscious life per^ 
ceplions and ideas which would not otherwise have risen 
from their obscurity, or render clearer and more distinct 
some of those already under notice. Its mode of operation 
and the effects produced by it may be compared with the 
concentration of visual activity on some definite part of 
the field of vision, and the clearer perception of the 
limited portion which is thereby attained. In both 
cases the result is brought about, not by efecting any 
change in the perceptions themselves, but simply by iso- 
lating them, and considering tliem to the exclusion of all 
■' ' '" ' "' " ' " less involves di " ' 

from others, it 

other objects. Since all c 
' , isolation of one c 
, which might ther 

general, and throws n 

be defined as the noces- 
Such a definition is, how- 
light upon the nature of 
uiH process whereby our mental energy is strengthened in 
particular cases. This increase of forM, when conscioos- 
ness in directed lo anyone object to the exclusion of others, 
is partly to be explained by reference to tbe general law 
that, as the amount of intellectual energy at our disposal 
is limited, the greater tbe number of objects over which it 
is spread, the lees will each receive, jUttribva iiUeatiu, vunor 
eat ad »>-ngida tensua ; and convetsety, tbe greater the con- 
centration, the fewer must be the objects attended to. 
In addition to this general law of limitation, there are 
special circumstances which determine the amount of 
consciousness we shall bestow on any otgecL In the first 
place, there are certain mechanical influences only psrtiy 
aulyect to the will, such are tbe force or vividness of tbV 



ki p iM P Pn, Om interest atUching to ui ottject, the tnuiu 
tf laocimted ideas excited, or tlie ematioDB rolued by its 
goolttupUtioi). There is, tecondly, an ezerciae of toU- 
tion employed in fixing the mind upon some definite 
«tjeet; this is a pnre^ Tolnnt^rj Mt, which can be 
•trengthened by habit, ia variable in difierenl individaala, 
ind to which, ai being its higbeet stage, the name Atten- 
tion is •omeomes restricted. The general law of the 
limitation of conacioiu actirit7, pointed oat abore, thrown 
otHsidenble light en the nature of abatraction and its 
relation to Attention. It is clear that ccmcentration of 
aMucioamen npon any one attribute or attribute* of an 
object inToWes withdrawal of oonsdonsneaa from all other 
attributea. This withdrawal is, Ic^call; and etymolog- 
tcallj. Abstraction, which is thus the negative side of At- 
tention, or, as Hamilton ezpreeses it, uie two processes 
farm the n^;ative and positive poles of the same mental 

ATTEBBOU, Per Daniel Ahasbtts, a Swedish poet, 
was bom in Ostei^thland in 1790, Btadied in the TJniver- 
at7 of Upnala from 1806 to 1S16, became Profe«or of 
Philoraphv there in 1828, and died in 1S55. He was the 
leader in the great romantic movement which revolutionized 
Bwedish literatnre. In 1807, when in his 17th year, he 
Ibimded at Upsala an artistic societv, (»lled the Aurora 
Leafae,lhe membeia of which included Pat mblad , E I ntiom, 
HeoDocn, uid other vonths, whose names were d^tined to 
take a foremost rank In the belles-Iettcee of their generation, 
Thur fint newapaper, Polyxtm, was a crude effort, soon 
ahaadotied, bat in 1810 there be^;an tif'aDpear a journal, 
Affonu, edited bj Atterbom, which lasted for a consider- 
able time, and finds a place in claaaic Swedish literature. 
' :d entirely of poetry and eathetico-polemical 
introdu(»l the study of the newly-arisen 
ic school of Qennany, and formed a vehicle for the 
tarly works, not of Atterbom only, but of Hammarsltotd, 
Dahlgren, Falmblad, and other eminent poets. Among 
AUeribom'a independent works the most cel4)raled is Xyot- 
M^AoffM S {TKe FortunaU l^nd), & romaotic drama 
of extraordinary beauty, published in 1823. Before this 
he bad published a cycle oF lyrics. The Floaert, of a 

Btical character, somewbat in the manner of Novalis. 
f a great dnuna, JW bid {Tht Btve Bird), only a 
usgment is preoerved, bat what exists is among the most 
exquisite of his writings. As a purely lyrical poet he has 
not been exoelled in Swed^ but his populsrity has been 
OMkngered, partly by his weakness for allegorr and sym- 
bolism, PBit^ by his consistent adaption of the manner- 
isms of TiecK and Novalis. His renown during his life- 
time was unbounded. 

ATTEBBURY, Fsuicis, a man who holds a con- 
spicuous place in the polidcal, ecclesiastical, and literary 
history of England, wss bom in the year 1662, at Middle- 
ton io Baddnghamshire, a parish of which his fkther was 
rector. Francis was educated at Wealroinater School, 
and carried thence to Christ Church a stock of learning 
which, though really scanty, he through life exhibited with 
■uch judicious ostentation that superficial observers believed 
his attainments to be immenee. At Oxford, his ports, his 
taatc^ and his bold, contemptaous, and imperious spirit 
soon made him coaspicuooB. Here he published, at twenty, 
his first woric, b tiaaslation of the noble poem of AbaaJom 
and AJiMophtt into Latin veise. Neither the style nor the 
versificktion of the yoang scholar was that of the Augustan 
age. In English composition he succeeded much better. 
In 1687 he distinguished himself among many able men 
who wrote in defence of the Church of England, then 
cuted by James II., and calumniated by apostates who 

1 for lucre quitted her communion. Among these 

states none was more active or malignant than Obadiah 
Walker, who was master of University College, and -who 
had set up there, under ^e royai patronage, a press for 
printing tracts against the establi^ed religion. In one of 
these Incls, written apparently by Walker himself, many 
tsperaione were thrown on Martin Luther. Atterbury 
nndertook to defend the great Saxon Beformer, and per- 
Ibrmed tfaM task in a manner singularly characteristic. 
Whoever examines his reply to Walker will bo struck bv 
the contrast between the feebleness of those parts which 
ate argumentative and defensive, and the vigor of those 
parts which are rhetorical and a^reesive. The Papists 
were so much gaUed by the sarcasms and invectives of the 
jvmg polemic^ that they raised a cry of 



accused him of haviDg, by Implication, called King James 

After the Bevolution, Atterbury, though bred In th« 
doctrines of non-resistanoe and passive obedience, readily 
swore fealty to the new Government. In no long time he 
took holy orders. He occasionally preached in Loudon 
with an eloquence which raised bis reputation, and soon 
had the honor of being appointed one of the royal 
chaplains. But be ordinarily resided at Oxford, where ha 
took an active part in academical businew, directed the 
classical studies of the undergraduates of his college, and 
was tl^e chief adviser and assistant of Dean Aldrich, a 
divine now chiefly remembered by hb catijies, but renowned 
among his oontemporaries as a Bcholar, a Tory, and a High- 
Chnrdiman. It was the practice, not a very judicious 
practice, of Aldrich, to employ the moat promising youths 
of his college in editing Qreet and Latin books. Among 
the studious and well-disposed lads who were, unfortunately 
for themselves, induced to become teachers of philology 
when they should have been content to be learners, was 
Charles Boyle, son of the eawl of Orrery, and nepbew of 
Robert Boyle, the great experimental philosopher. The 
task assigned to Charles Boyle was to prepare a new edition 
of one of the most worthies books in existence. It was a 
fashion among those Greeks and Bomans who cultivated 
rhetoric as an art, to compose epistles and harangues in the 
names of eminent men. Some of theae counterfeits are 
fabricated with sach exquisite taste and skill, that it is 
the highest achievement of criticism to distinguish them 
from originals. Others are so feebly and rudely executed, 
that they can hardly impose on an in^ligent schoolboy. 
The best specimen which has oome down to us is perhaps 
the Oralioa /or Mareeliia, such an imitation of TuUrs 
eloquence as Tully would himself have read with wonder 
and delight The worst specimen is perhaps a collection of 
letters purponing to have been written by that Phalaris who 
governed Agrigentum more than 500 years before the 
Christian era. The evidence, both internal and external, 
uminst the genuineness of tbeee letters is overwhelming. 
When, in the 15th century, they emeiwed, in company with 
much that was far more valuable, from their obscurity. 

our side of the Alps. In truth, it would be as easy to 
persuade an educated Englishman, that one of Johnson's 
BamblerM was the work of William Wallace, as to peniuade 
a man like Erasmus, that a pedantic exercise^ composed 
in the trim and artificial Attic of the time of Julian, was 
a despatch written by a crafty and ferocious Dorian, who 
roasted people alive many years before there existed a 
volume of prose in the Qreek language. But though 
Christ Church could boast of many good Latinists, of 
many good English writers, and of a plater number of 
clever and bahionable men of the world than belonged to 
any other academic body, there was not then in the college 
a single man capable of distinguishing between the infimcy 
sqd tbe dotage of Qreek literature. So superficial, Indeei^ 
was the learuing of the ruleis of this celebrated society 
that they were charmed by an essay which Sir William 
Temple published in praise of the aucient writers. It now 
seems strange, that even the eminent public services, the 
deserved popularity, and the graceful style of Temple, 
should have saved so silly a performance from univweal 
contempt. Of the books wnich he most vehemently 
eulogized, his eulogies proved that he knew nothing. In 
fact, he could not read a line of the language in which 
thsy were written. Among many oUier foolish things, he 
said that the letters of Phalaris were the oldest letters and 
also the best in the world. Whatever Temple wrote 
attracted notice. People who bad never heard of the 
Epietia t^ PhalarU b^in to inquire about them, Aldrich, 
who knew very little Greek, took the word of Temple who 
knew none, and desired Boyle to prepare a new edition of 
these admirable compositions which, having long slept in 
obscurity, had become on a sudden objects of general 

The editicn was prepared with the help of Atteibury, 
who was Boyle's tutor, and of some other members of the 
college. It was an edition such as might be expected 
from people who would sloop to edit sudi a book. The 
notes were worthjr of the text; the Latin versim worthy 
of the Greek original. The volume would have been 
ibi^tteu in a month, had not a misunderstanding about a 


DAOvci trv vA 



MMMUgcript arisen brtween llie jtmag editor uid tha 
greoUct Bcholsr thst had appeared in Europe Hince the 
isTiva] of letten, Richud Bentley. Ths manuscript vaa 
in BentleT'a keeping. Bojle wished it to be collated. A 
mischief-making bookseller informed him that Bentley had 
refused to lead it, which was tals^, and also that Beatley 
had spoken contsmptuouslj of the leltera attributed to 
Phalaria, and of the critics who were taken in b; such 
oounterfeila, which was perfectlj true. Boyle, much 
pro7oked, paid, in hb preJace, a bitterlj ironical compli- 
ment to Bentlej's courtesy. Bentley revenged himself bj 
a' abort dissertatioD, in which he proved that the epistles 
were spurious, and tbe new edition of them worthless; 
bat he treated Boyle peisonally with civility as a young 
tentleman of great hopes,wbowloveof learning was highly 
commendable, and vno deserved to have had better in- 

Few things in literary biatorr are more ezbaordinarv 
than the storm which this little dieeertalion raisea. 
Bentley had treated Boyle with forhearance; but he had 
treated Christ Church with contempt; and the Christ 
Churchmen, wherever dispersed, were as much attached to 
their colle^ as a Scotchman to ilia country, or a Jesuit to 
hia order. Their influence woa greaL They were dominant 
at Oxford, powerful in the Inns of Court and in the Coll^^ 
of Phyaiciana, conepicuouB in Parliameut and in the 
literary and faahionable circles of London. Their unani- 
mous cry waa that the honor of the college must be 
vindicated, that the insolent Cambridge pedant must be 

Cdown. Poor Boyle was unequal to the task, and dis- 
ined to it. It was, therefore, assigned to hia tutor 

Tbe answer to Bentley, which hears tbe name of Boyle, 
but which was, in troth, no more the work of Boyle tnaa 
the letters to which the controversy related were tbe work 
of Phalaris, is now read only by tbe curious, and will in all 
probability never be reprinted again. But it bad its day 
of noiaf populantr. It was to Se found not only in ilie 
studies of men of letter^ but on the tables of uis most 
brilliant drawing-rooms at 8oho Square and Covent Gar- 
den. Even the beaux and coquettes of that age, the Wildoiis 
and tbe I^y Lurewella, tbe Mimbetls, and the MiUamanta, 
ooDgratulated each other on the way in which the gay 
young gentleman, whose erudition sate so easily upon him, 
and who wrote with ao much pleasantry and good breed- 
ing about the Attic dialect and the anapnstic measure, 
Kcilian talents and Thericleaa cups, had bantered tbe 
queer prig of a doctor. Nor was tiie applause of tbe 
multitude undeserved. The book is, indeed, Atlerbury's 
masterpiece, and gives a hisber notion of hia powers than 
any of Ibooa works to which be put hia name. That he 
was altogether in tbe wrong on tbe main question, and 
all the collateral questions springing out of It, that bis 
knowledge of tbe language, tbe literature, and the history 
of Qreeoe, waa not equal to what many freshmen 
bring up every year to Cambridge and Oxford, and 
aome of bis blandeis seem rather to deserve a flog„ ^ 
than a refutation, ia truej and therefore it is ibat his 
performance is, in the highest d^ree, interesting and 
valnable to a judicious reader. It is good hj reason of its 
exceeding bednew. It ia the most extraordinary instance 
that exists of the art of making much show with little 
aabstance. There is no difficulty, saya the ateward of 
Uoliftre'a miser, in giving a Qua dinner with plenty of 
money; the really great cook is be who can set out a 
banquet with no money at all. That Bentley should have 
written excelleutly on ancient chronology and geography, 
cm the develo[vnent of the Greek language, and the origin 
of the Greek drama, is not strange. But that Atterbiiry 
shool^ during some years, have been thought to have 
treated thess subjects mnch better than Bentley, ia strange 
litdeed. It is true that the champion of Christ Church 
had all tbe help which ^e most celebrated niembeia of 
that Bodely could give bim, Smalridge contributed 
some very good wit; Friend and olbera some very bad 
wcbcology and philology. But the greater part of Ihi 
volume was entirely Alterbuiy's: what waa not hia ow> 
waa reviaed and retouched by bim ; and the whole bean 
the mark of hia mind — a mind inexhaustibly rich in all the 
teoourcee of controversy, and familiar with all tbe artifices 
which make falsehood look like truth, and ignorance like 
knowledge. He had little gold; but he beat that little 
oat to tbe very thinneat lent, and spread it over so v ' 

aiirfiwe, that to those who judged by a Klancc^ and who 
did not resort to balance* and tests, the glittering heap of 
■'-'--- — which he produced aeemed to be an 

v of maaay bullion. Such aivnmenla m 
he bad he placed'in the dearest li^bL Where oe had do 
arguments, ae reaorled to perHonalities, sometimes serioo, 
generally ludicrous, always clever and cutting. Bat, 
whether be was grave or merry, whether he reasoned or 
sneered, his style was always pure, polished, and easy. 

Party spirit then ran high ; yet, though Bentley ranked 
among Whigs, and Christ Church was a stronghold of 
Toryism, Wb^ joined with Tories in applauding Atter- 
bury's volume. Qarth insulted Bentley, and extolled 
Boyle in lines which are now never quoted except to be 
laughed at Swift, in hia BaliU of Iht Boola, introduced 
with mnch pleasantry, Boyle clad in armor, tbe gift of all 
tbe goda, and directed by Apollo in the form of u human 
friend, for whose name a blank ia left which ma^ easily In 
filled up. Tbe youth, so accoutred and so assisted, gains 
an easy victory over bis uncourteous and boastful antago* 
nisL Bentley, meanwhile, was supported by tbe consdoos- 
ncBS of an immeasurable superiority, and encouraged by 
the voices of the few who were really competent to jtidgi 
tbe combaL " No man," he said, justly and nobly, " was 
ever written down hut by himself. He spent two years 
in preparing a reply, which will never cease to be reaa and 
prized while the literature of andent Greece ia studied ia 
any part of the world. This reply proved not only (bat 
ttie letleiB ascribed to Pbalarii were spurious, but that 
Alterbarv, with all his wil, bis eloquence, hia skill in coo- 
troveiaial fence, was the most audacious pretender that 
ever wrote abciut what he did not understand. But to 
Atterbury this exposure was matter of indlflecence. He 
was now enngcd in a dispute about matters far more 
important and excilingthan the laws of Zaleucus and ths 
laws of Charondas. The raae of religious factions wn 
extreme. High Church and Low Church divided lh« 
nation. The ^eat minority of tbe deny were on the 
High Church side; them^orityof King William's bishop* 
were inclined to latitudinarianism. A dispute arose be- 
tween the two parties touching the extent of the poweti 
of the Lower House of Convocation. Atterbury ihrast 
himself eagerly into the front rank of tbeHighChurchDi^ 
Thcee who take a comprehensive and impartial view of his 
whole career will not be dispceed to give bim credit for 
religious zeal. But it waa his nature to be vehement and 
pugnw'ouB in the causa of every fraternity of which he 
was a member. He bad defended tbe genuineness of a 
apuriouB book almply because Christ Church had put forth 
an edition of that l>Dok ; be now stood up for tbe cleigy 
against the civil power, simply because be was a deigy- 
man, and for the priests against the episcopal order, simply 
beauiae he was aa yet only a priest. He aeeeiied the 
m to which be belonged in several 
ith much wit, ingenuity, audadty, and 
acrimony. In this^ as in his firat oontroveny, M ws* 
opposed to antagonists whose knowledge of tbe sntMCtia 
dispute was far superior to his ; but in diia, as in hu fin> 
controversy, he imposed on the multitude by bold aassttion, 
by sarcasm, b^ declamation, and, above all, by his peculiar 
nack of exhibiting a little erudition in such a manner s* 
to make it took like a great de«l. Having passed himself 
off on the world as a greater master of ctaaucal learning 
than Bentley, he now passed himself ofi' as a greater 
master of ecclesiastical learning than Wake or Gibson. 
By the great body of the clergy he was regarded as the 
ablest and most intrepid tribune that had ever defended 
their rights against the oligarchy of prelates. Tbe Lower 
House of Convocation voted him thanks for his services; 
the Univeiiity of Oxford created him a doctor of dirinil;^, 
and #oon after the accession of Anne, while the Tories still 
had tbe chief weight in tbe Qovemment, he was promoted 
to the deanery of Carlisle. 

Soon after he bad obtaiaed this preferment tbe Whig 

ry rose to ascendency in the state. From that party 
could expect no favor. Six years elapsed before a 
cbsnge of fortune took place. At length, in the year 1710, 
tbe proseculioa of Sacheverdl produced a KirmidsblB 
exploeion of High Church fanaticism. At such a moment 
Atterbury could not fail to be conspicuous. His inordiosts 
seal for the body to which he belonged, his turbulent ami 
aspiring temper, his rare talents for agitation and foi 
oontroveny, were again signally displayed. He bote • 



it ChrUt 

«Uef put Id bamtng that ttrifal and eloqnent npeecli 
vhidi the (couBed diTuie proaoonoed *i the bar of the 
Jjxda, umI which presents » nngolar contrait to the kbenrd 
and sronilaqs sermon which had rerr nnwiselj been 
honored with impeAchment. During tlie troubled and 
■nxiooa monlhs which fallowed the trial, Alterbn^ was 
among the most active of those pamphleteecs ^Up inflamed 
the nadoa agaiml the Whig minletr/ and the Whig Parlia- 
ment. When tbe miniBtrr bad been cbimged and the 
Partitment diesolFed, rewards were showered upon him. 
The Lower House ot Convocation elected him prolocutor. 
The Queen appointed him dean of Christ Church on tbe 
death of his old Mend and patron Aldrich. The collse 
would have preierrad a gentler luler. Nevertheless, the 
new head was leoeived with ever? mark of honor. A 
oongratulatoiy oration in Latin was addrened lo him in 
[he masTiificent vestibule of the ball' and be in reply 
profeasM the warmest attachment to the venerable house 
■n which he had been educated, and paid man; gracious 
CMnplimenla to th08e over whom he was to preside. But 
it was not in hie nature to be a mild or an equitable gov- 
emor. He had left, the chapter of Carlisle distractea bj 
qoarrels. He found Christ Church at peace; but ii ' 
months hia despotia and contentious temper ''•■* -• 
Cbnrch what it had done at Carlisle. He 
in both his deaneries bj the humane and accompliBhed 
BmalTidge, who genliy complained of tbc state in which 
both bad been left. "Atterbury goes before, and sets 
vrerythinK on Ore. I come after bim with a bucket of 
water." It was said hj Atterburys enemies that he was 
jnade a bishop because he was bo bad a dean. Under his 
administration Christ Cbnrch was in confnsion, scandalous 
altercations took place, opprobrious words were exchanged ; 
and there was reason to Rar that the greet Tory college 
woald be mined by the tyranny of the great T017 doctor. 
He was soon removed to the bishopric of Socbester, which 
was then always united with the deanery of Westminster. 
^U higher dignities seemed to be liefore him. For, 
tboogh there were many able men on the Episcopal bench, 
therewere none who equalled or appnwched him inparlia- 
nMDtaiy talents. Had his parly continued in power it ii 
not imptobahle that he would have been r^s^i to tbc 
archbishopric of Canterbury. The more splendid bis 
pTOipects the more reason he had to dread the accession of 
» family which was well known to be partial to the Whigs. 
There is every resson to believe that lie was one of ibcee 

Ebticiana who hoped that they might be abl^ during the 
) of Anne, to prepare matters in such a way that at her 
decease there might be little difficulty in setting aside the 
Act of Bettlement and placing the Pretender on the throne. 
Her sudden death conibanded the projects of these 
oonnnraton. Atterbury, who wanted no kind of courage, 
ini|)lot«d his confederates lo proclaim James III., and 
offered to accompany the heralds in lawn sleeves. But he 
fcond even the bravest soldieis of bis party irresolute, 
and exclaimed, not, it is said, without interiections whicli 
ill became the mouth of a father of the church, that the 
best of all csusee and the moet precions of all moments I 
pnsillanimoosly thrown away. He acquiesced 
ne coold not pre^ 


show of seal, and did liis best to ingratiate himself with 
the royal familv. Bnt his servility was requited with 
cold contempt. No creature is so revengeful as a proud 
man who hsj humbled himself in vain. Atterbary became 
th« most factious and pertinacious of ail the opponents of 
the Qovemment. In the Honse of Lords lue oratory, 
Incid, pointed, lively, and set off with every grace of pro- 
nnnciation and of gestnre, extorted the attention ' 
admiration even of a hostile majority. Some of the 
remarkable protests which appear in the journals of the 
peers were drawn ap by him ; and, in some of the bitterest 
nf those pamphlets which called on tbe English to stand 
np for their coantcy against tbe aliens who had come from 
beyond the seas to oppress and plunder her, critics easily 
delected his style. When the reVltion of 1715 broke out, 
b* renised to sign the paper in which tbe bishops of tbi 
proviiiGe of C^terbury declared their attachment to Ihi 
FroleMant sncceasion. He busied himself in electioneering, 
•Bpeoally at Westmiiuier, where as dean he possessed 
Kieal inBuetice; and was, indeed, strongly sospected of 
having t»ice set on a riotous mob to prevent hig Whig 
fellow-dtizens from piilliog, 
Vin. 111.^100 

, , ... 1*717, began to qorrespond 

directly with the f^tender. The first letter of the ooi^ 
respondence is extant. In that letter Atterbury boasts of 
having, during many yean past, n^leded ao opportunity 
of serving the Jacobite cause. " My daily prayer," ha 
says, "is that you may have Bucceaa. May I live to see 
that day, and live no longer than I do what is in my 
power to forward it" It is to be remembered that he 
who wrote thus was a man bound to set to the church of 
which he was overseer an example of strict probity ; that 
had repeatedly sworn allegiance to the Hpuse of Brnns- 
;k ; that he had assisted m placing the crown on the 
bend of Geoige I, and that he had abjured James III., 
" without equivocation or mental reservation, on the true 
faith of a Christian." 

It is agreeable to turn from his public to his privale 
life. His turbulent spirit, i ■ s -.. . .■ 

iried with faction and 

and then required repose, and found it ii 

1 the s 

LrvHHUii, now viu uieu rvqu 
domestic endearments, and 
iliuBtriouB of the living and 1 
is known ; but between bim and his daughter there w 
an affection singularly close and tender. The gentleness 
of his manners when he was in the company of a few 
friends was such as seemed hardly credible to those who 
knew trim only by hia writings ana speeches. The charm 
of his "soAer hour" has been commemorated by one of 
those friends in imperishable verse. Though Atterboi^s 
classical attainments were not great, bis taste in English 
literature wa« ejccellent ; and his admiration of genius was 
so strong that it ovenxiwered even his political and 
religious antipatbied. Hia fbndnett for Miltoi), the mortal 
enemy of the Stuarts and of the church, was such as to 
man^ Tories seemed a crime. On the sad night on which 
Addison was taid in the chapel of Henry VII., the West- 
minster boys remarked that Atterbury read the funeral 
service with a peculiar tenderness and solemnity. Tha 
favorite companions, however, of the great Tory prelat« 
were, as might have been expected, men whose politics 
had at least a tinge of Toryism. He lived on friendly 
terms with Swift, Arbuthnot, and G&y. With Prior he 
had a close intimacy, which some misunderstanding ^>out 
public affairs at last disaolred. Pope found in Atterbury 
nut only a warm admirer, but a most faithful, fearless, and 
judicious adviser. The poet was a frequent guest at the 
episcopal palace among the elms of Bromley, and enter- 
tained not the slightest suspicion that his host, now declin- 
ing in yeara, conUned to an easy chair by gout, and appar- 
ently devoted to literature, was deeply concerned in criminal 
and perilous designs against the Gfovemm^t. 

Tha spirit of the Jacobites had been cowed by the events 
of 171S. It revived in 1721. The failutfl ot the South 
Sea project, the panic In the money market, the down&ll 
of great commercial houses, the distress from which no 

Cof the kingdom was exempt, had produced general 
mtent. It seemed not improbable that at such a 
moment an insurrection might be BoccenfuL An insur- 
rection was planned. The streets of London were to be 
barricaded ; the Tower and the Bank were to be surprised ; 
King Qeorge, his family, and his chief captains and coun- 
dllora were to be arrested, and King James was to be 

Sroctaimed. The design became known to the duke of 
irleans, r^ent of France, who was on terms of friendship 
with the House of Hanover. He put the English Govern- 
ment on its guard. Some of the chief malcontents were 
committed to prison; and among them was Atterlniry. 
No bishop of the Church of England had been taken into 
custody since that memorable day when the applanses and 
prayeis of all London bad followed tbe seven bishops to 
tha gate of tbe Tower. The Opposition entertuned Bome 
hope that it might be possible to excite among the people 
an enthusiasm resembling that of their fathera, who rushed 
into the waters of the Tliames to implore the blessing of 
Bancroft. Pictures of the heroic confessor in bis cell were 
exhibited at the shop windows. Verses in his praise were 
sung about the streets. The restraints by which he was 
prevented from communicating with his accomplices were 
represented as cruelties worthy of the dungeons of the 
Inquisition. Strong appeals were made to the priesthood. 
Would they tamely permit so gross an insult to be offered 
to their cloth? Would they suffer the ablest, the most 
eloquent member of their profession, tha man who bad so 
often Blood up lor their rights against the civil power, to 



CM treated like the vilest of ii)uikiad7 There vu con- 
uderable ezdlement; but it m» allayed b/ a temperate 
and artfol letter to the clergy, the work, in ul probability, 
of Bishop GibwN). who stood higb in the ItiTor of W^pole, 
and Bbortl7 after became minister for ecclesiastical a&ire. 

Atterburr remained in cloee coaQnement during some 
moDths. He had carried on his correspoodence with the 
exited familj so caudously that the circumstantial pi-oo& 
of hia guilt, though sufficient to produce eulire moral oon- 
Tiction, were not sufficieut to justify legal conviction. He 
could be reached only by a bill of {rains and penaltiea. 
Buch a bill the Whig party, then decidedly predominant 
in both houses, was quite prepared to support Many hot- 
headed memben of that party were eager to fgilow the 
necedeut which had been set iu the case of Sir John 
Fenwick, and to pam an act for cutting oS the bishop's 
head. Cadogan, who commanded the armj, a brave sol- 
dier, but a headstrong politician, is said to have eiclaimed 
with great vehemence, " Fling him to the tions in the 
Tower." But the wiser and more humane Walpole was 
always unwilling to shed blood, and his influence prevailed. 
When Parliament met, the evidence against the bishop was 
laid before cotomittees of both Houses. Those committees 
reported that his guilt was proved. In the Commous a 
resolution pronoancing him a traitor was carried by nearly 
two to one. A bill was then introduced wbicb provided 

should hold any interoouise with him except by the royal 
permiasion. This bill passed the Commons wiui tittle dif. 
licultyi for the bishop, though invited to defend himself, 
chose to reserve his defence for the assembly of whicb he 
was a member. In the Loids the contest was sharp. The 
voting duke of Wharton, distinguished by his parts, his 

"■■Boful ' •' ■'- .'.-.. 

Sect ; and Atterbuj 

listened to him witli mingled aveniion and delight, 
produced few witnesses, nor did those witnesses say much 
that could be of service to him. Among them was Pope. 
He was called to prove that, while he was an inmate of the 
palace at Bromley, the bishoys time was completely occu- 
pied by literary and domestic matters, and that no leisure 
was left for plotting. But Pop& who was quite unaccus- 

rt his head, and, as he afler- 

wanis owneu, uiuugn nf ■**" ""'' 

two or three blunders. 

The bill finally pasaed 
Ibrty-three. The bishopa, with a single exception, 
the muority. Their conduct drew on them a sharp taunt 
from Lord Batburst, a warm friend of Atterbui? and a 
■ealous Tory. "The wild Indian?" he said, "give no 
quarter, because they believe that they shall inherit the 

their brother may be explained 

Allerburj took leave of thoae whom he loved with a 
dignity and tenderness worthy of a better man. Three 
fine lines of his fovorile poet were often in his mouth — 

diasohiteness, and his veisatility, spoke for Atterbury with 

C«t effect ; and Atterburv's own voice was beard fo ' 
I time by that unfrienifly audience which had 

natural tean be dropped, bi 

talm, vtaeie to chiua 
His plu« of rot, iDd Froildeun hU guide." 

At parting he presented Pope with a Bible, and said, 
with a disingeoLiousness of which no man who had studied 
the Bible to much purpose would have been guilty, "If 
ever you learn that I have any dealings with the Pretender, 
I .give yon leave to say that my puniehmeut is just." 
Pope at Ibb time really believed the bishop to be an 
injured man. Arbulhnol seems to have been of the same 
Opinion. Swift a few montlis later, ridiculed with great 
bittemesa, in the Foyooe to LapuU, the evidence which 
had satisfied the two Bouses or Parliament. Boon, how- 
ever, the moat pardal friends of the banished prelate ceased 
to assert his innocence, and contented themselves widi 
lamenting and excusing what they could not defend. After 
a short Slav at Bnissels he had taken up his abode at Paris, 
and had become the leading man among the Jacobite 
refugees who were assembled there. Ho was invited \a 
Borne by the Pretender, who then held his mock court 
under the immediate protection of the Pope. But Atter- 
bury felt that a bishop of the Church of England would 
k^ aif^ugoij Qut Qf place at the Vatican, and declined 

the invitation. I>uring some months, however, he might 
flatter himself that he stood high in the good graces 
of James. The ootrespondence between tho master 
and tho servant was constant. Atterimry's merits were 
warmly acknowledged, his advice was respectfully re- 
ceived, and he was, aa Bolingbroke had been before 
him, die prime minuter of a king without a kingdom. 
But the new &vorite found, as ^lingbroke had fouad 
before him, that it was quite as hard to keep the shadow 
of power under a vagrant and mendicant prince as to 
keep the reality of power at Westminster. Though James 
had neither territories nor revenues, neither army nor navj, 
there was more faction and more intrigue among hn 
courtiers than among those of his successful rival. Atte^ 
bury soon perceived that his counsels were diarf^farded. if 
not distrusted. f1i<< proud spirit was deeply wountled. 
He quitted Paris, fixeo his residence at Montpellier, gave 
up politics, and devoted himself entirely to letters. In the 
sixth year of bis exile he had so severe an illness that hit 
daughter, hetself in very delicate health, determined to run 
all risks that she might see him onoe more. Havmg 
obtained a license from the English Qovemment, she went 
by aea to Bordeaux, but land^ there in anch a state tbat 
s^e ooutd travel only by boat or in a litter. Her &ther, 
in spite of his iuBrmities, set out from Montpellier to meet 
her ; and she, with the impatience whicb is often the sica 
of approaching death, hastened towards him. ThoH who 
were about her in vain implored her to travel alowly. 
She said that every hour was precious, that she ordv wished 
to see her papa and to die. She met him at Toulouse, 
embraoed him, recdved from his hand the sacred breaii 
and wine, and thanked Ood that they had passed one day 
in each other's society before they parted for ever. Bha 
died that night. 

It was some time before even the strong mind of Atter- 
bury recovered from this cruel blow. Aa soon as he was 
himself again he became eager for action and conOict ; for 
grief, which disposes gentle natures to retirement, to inao- 
tion, and to meditation, only makes restless spirits more 
restless. The Pretender, dull and bitted as he was, had 
found out that he hod not acted wisely in parting with 
one who, though a heretif^ was, in abilities and accom- 

Etiahmenta, the foremost man of the •Jacobite party. The 
ishop was courted back, and was without much difficulty 
induced to return to Paris, and to become once more the 
phantom minister of a phantom monarchy. But his long 
and troubled life was drawing to a close. To the last, 
however, his intellect retained all its keenness and vigor. 
He learned, in the ninth year of his banishment, that ha 
had been accused by Oldmixon, as dishonest and malignant 
a scribbler as any tbat baa been saved from oblivion by 
the Dunciad, of having, in concert with other Christ 
Churchmen, garbled Chirendon'a Hilton of lAe EtbtUiat. 
The charge, as respected Atterbury, had not the slightest 
fonndation ; for he was not one of the editors of the 
Hatory, and never saw it till it was printed. He pub- 
lished a short vindication of himself, which is a model i? 

singularty eloquent and graoefiil. It was impoesibla, the 
ola man said, that he should write anything on auch ■ 
subject without Lieing reminded of the resemblance between 
his own fate and that of Clarendon. Tbej were the only 
two English subjects that had ever been banished from 
their country and debarred from all communication with 
their friends by Act of Parliament. But here the reaeoh 
blance ended. One of the exilea had beea so happy a« to 
bear a chief part in the restoration of the royal hotne. All 
Uiat the other could now do was to die asserting the rights 
of that house to the last. A few weeks after this letter 
was written Atterbury died. He had just complied his 
seventieth year. 

His body was brought to Ensland, and laid, with neat 
privacy, under the nave of Westminster Abbey. Only 
three mottniera followed the coffin. No inscription marln 
the grave. That the epitaph with which Pope honored 
the memory of his friend does not appear on the walls of 
the ^reat national cemetery is no subject of r^ret, for 
nothing worse was ever written by Coltey Cibbef. 

Tboae who viih for more sopplite information abont Atter- 
bni; may easily oalleol it from hit lannon) and hii sontro- 
vertlal wvitlog*, trom ths report at tha pariiamaDtary pr*M*d- 
Inp agaUin him, which wlU be foond u the Stau iMb i ban 

<y Sra (DtaioM of hii ooTTMpandaiKM, ediMd by Hr. Nloholi, 
ud from ths flnl vttliime of Cfaa Btnart p^icra, odiWd b; Mr. 
filoTBr. A TB17 indalgent bat k tsit Intenitiag uoonat of 
ItH biihop'a igalilioftl oaroer will b< toimd In Lonl Stknbope'a 
nlmbla Hitorj of Snylmut (h.) 

ATTICA, the most famous distrii^ of ancient Greece, U 
• lri»QguI»r piece of ground projecting in a eouth-easlerly 
direction into Che ^gean Sea, the base line being formed 
br Iha ooDtiiiQoas chain of Mounts Cithcron and Fames, 
toe apei by the promoutorj of Bimium. It in washed oa 

Skstoh-Hap of AtCiu 

two sides bj the sea, and this feature seems to hare given 
rise to the name ; for, notwithsCanditig the unusual letter- 
change, 'Arru^ probably stands for 'Auruf, since Strabo 
and other andent writers inform us that the country origi- 
uJIj bore both this aame and that of 'Airr^. The latter 
designatioD was frequently used by the Greeks to describe 
an exiensive tract reaching into the sea, especiallj wheu, 
*> in the case of Attica and the Argolic Acte, it was joined 
to the continent by a broad base. The coast is broken up 
into numerous small bights and harbois, which, however, 
are with few ezoeptions exposed to the south wind ; the 
irregularity of the outliiui accounts fbr its great length in 
comparison of the superficial area of the country. The 
ntlsce of Attica, as of the rest of Greeoe, is very moun- 
tainous, and between the mountain chains lie several plains 
of no great site, open on one side to the sea. On the west 
its natural bonndarr is the Corinthian Gul^ so that it 
vonid include the dutrict of Megarie ; and, as a matter of 
&ct, belbre the Dorian invasion, which resulted in the 
foundation of Megara, the whole of this couatiy was po- 
litically one, being in the hands of the Ionian race. This 
is proved by the colaljln which, as we learn from Btrabo, 
once stood on the Isthmus of Corinth, bearing on one side 
the inscription, "This land is Peloponnesus, not Ionia" — 

and on the other, "This land is 
tU 0^1 Titiaiiiiinint, i 

\- ■!-»(«. 

-^^ The central position of Attica in Greece WM 

paiti^ one main cause of its historical importance. 
When K. O. Muller compares Greece to a ix>dy, 
whose members are diflereot in form, while a mutual con- 
nection and dependence naturally exist between them, he 
rka of Attics as one of the extremities which served as 
ictive instramenia of the body of Greece, and by 
which it was kept in constant connection with other coun- 
ttiM. Hoice in part aroM the maritime character of its 


^ „ .... *eI^ 

some of which lav within sight of their coasts, and from 
one to another of which it was possible to sail without 
losing sight of land, served to tempt them on to further 
enterprises. Similarly on land, the post it occupied be- 
tween Northern Greece and the Peloponnese materially 
iuduenced its relation to other states, both in respect of its 
alliances, such as that with Thessaly, towards which coun- 
was drawn by mutual hostilily to Bceotia, which lay 
between them, — a friendship of great service to Athens, 
1>ecauBe it brought to her aid the TbecBalian cavalry, 
an arm with which she herself was feebly provided ; 
and also in respect of oBensive combinations of other 
powers, as that between Thebes and Sparta, which 
throughout an important part of Greek history were 
closely associated in their politics, through mutual 
dread of their poweriij! neighbor. 

The mountains of Altica, which form its uounlaliu 
most characteristic feature, are to be re- 
garded as a contiuuatioa of that chain which, starting 
from Mount Tymphrestus at the sonthem extremity 
of fundus, passes through Phocis and Boeotia under 
the well-known names of Parnassus and Helicon; 
from this proceeds the range which, as Ctthieron ia 
its western and Fames in its eastern portion, separates 
Attica from Bceotia, throwing off spun aouthwaid to- 
wards the Baronic Gulf in £galeos and Hymetlus, 
which bound the plain of Athens. Again, Uie east- 
em extremity of Pames is joined by another line of 
bills, which, separating from Mount (Eta, skirts the 
Euboic Gulr, and, after entering Attica, throws up the 
lofly pyramid of Pentelicus, overlooking the plam of 
Marathon, and then sinks towards the sea at Sunium 
to rise once more in the outlying islands. Finally, at 
the extreme west of the whole district, Citheeron is 
bent round at right angles in the direction of the 
istlimus, at the northern approach to which it abuts 
against the mighty mass of Mount Qeraneia, which 
is interposed between the Corinthian and the Saronic 
GulC The elevation reached by some of these is cod< 
siderable, both CithKron and Pames being about 4600 
feet, Hymettus 3360, and Fentclicus 2560, while S4gt.- 
Iecsdoesnatri8ehigherthan1536feet AtthepreseDt 
dav thej are extremely bare, and to one who is accustomed 
to Italian scenery, their severity is apt at Gist to be almost 
repellent; but after a time the eyeia delighted with the del- 
icacy of the outlines, the minute articulation of the minor 
ridges and valleys, aod the symmetrical way in which na- 
ture has grouped the several mountains so as to fbrtn a 
balance between them, 'i'he appearance thus produced can, 
be best described as classical. 

The soli of Attica is light and thin, and ro- gg^_ 
quires very careful agriculture to develop its 
produce. This feature belongs not only to the rocky 
mountain sides, but to some extent also to the maritime 
plains, and had considerable influence ou the development 
of the inhabitants, both by enforcing industrious faahits, 
and in leading them at an early periwl to take to the sea. 
Still, the level ground was sufGciently fertile to form a 
marked contrast to the net of the district, and this fact is 
represented in the mythical genealogy of the early kings, 
which embodies several geographical features. Thus, while 
first we find (he name of Actieus or Actvon, who represenla 
theoKT^ or sea-coast, later on occurs Cranaus, a personification 
of the rocky ground, whence both Pindar and Aristophanes 

— I., .u. — .1... J i„ ••i-ens; and further we meet 

s intended to express the 

, . _, tS "hjjrr/iytuv), which presented no altrao- 
Lvaders, the permanence of the same inhabitants 
in the country, whence arose the claim to indigenonsnen 
on which the Athenians so greatly prided themselves; 
while at the same time the richer ground fostered that 
fondness for countir life, which is proved by the enthusias- 
tic terms in which it is always spoken of by Aristophanes, 
and by the discontent of the people of Attica at being 
forced to betake themselves to the dty at the commence- 
ment of the Peloponnesian War. That we are not jus- 
tified in judging of the ancient condition of the soil by 
the aridity which prevails at the present day, is shown 
b^ the &ct that cot of the 174 demes into which Attica wm 
divided, at least one-tenth were named from trees or jplanttip 

eiperienoed in lopect of the 
thro oompensftted b; the finenesB of the climale. In thU 
point thej^ enjojad & great advantage over their neighbors 
the BteoCiaiU!; and while at the present dsv travellers 
speak of Ihe eicessive heat in aummer and colli 
which the; have experienced in Bceotia, Attica has always 
been famous for its mildness. In approaching this district 
[rom the north, a change of temperatore is felt as bood as a 

Kison deacenda from Cithsron or Fames, and the sea 
icie, which in modem times is called i c/iffdrrK, or thai 
which Hta towards shore, moderates the heat in summeri 
Both the Attic comedians and Plato speak with enthu- 
(iaam of their natiTe climate, and the Snencsa of the Athe- 
nian Intellect was attributed to the clearness of the Attic 
atmosphere. It was in the neighborhood of Athens itself 
that the air was thotieht to be purest This is what Eu- 
ripides refers to in the well-known psnage where he de- 
scribes theinhahitanis as " ever walking gracefullTthroagl 
he most Ituainous eether" {Med., B29) ; and Mitlon, wRi 
u always an admirable exponent of Greek literature, ii 
like manner bb/b — 

"Whsre, on the Agua ehare, a aity itanda, 
Boilt noblj, pan Iha air, and light the loii,— 
Athani, the ejt of Qreeoa." 

1 Xenophon 

"e of Oreece — na/, of the civilized world, — because, the 
farther removed persons are from it, the severer is the cold 
or heat Ihej meet with " I VeeUgal., i. 6). To the desmesa 
of Ihe atmosphere must oe reierred the distinctness with 
which distant objecta can be discerned, for fmm the Acrop- 
olis the lines of white marble that streak the sides of 
Pentelicus are visible^ and also the brilliant coloring 
which is BO conspicuous in aD Athenian sunset. Thus 
Dean Stanley speaks of "the flood of fire with which the 
marble ootumoa, the mountains, end the sea are all bathed 
and penetrated/' "the violet hue which Hymettos aasumea 
In Ihe Bveoing sky, in contrast to the glowing furnace of 
therockof Lycabeltua,and the rosy pyramio ofPentelicus." 
And M. Bursian says — "Amoogst the moat beautiful oat- 
oral scenes ihall have beheld I reckon the sight oi'Hymet- 
Ins from Athens at sunset, whilst the entire range, as soon 
H the sun begins to sink, quivers with the loveliest rosy 
red, which gradually passes through the most varied gra- 
dations into the deepest violet. No one who has Dot en- 
joyed this spectacle can understand the purjnirNt edlti 
forentit HymeUi of Ovid." This otherwise perfect climate 
IS slightl; marred by the prevalence of the north wind. 
Tliis IB ezpreoed on the Horolwium of Aotonius Cyr- 
rhestes, called the Temple or Tower of the Winds, at 
Atbensi where Boreas is represented as a bearded man of 
alem aspect, thickly clad, and wearing strong buskina; he 
blows into a conch shell, which he holds in his hand as a 
ngn of bis tempeetnous character. This also explains the 
close connection between him and this country in mytb- 
alogj, especially in the legend of Oritiiyia. who is the 
daughter of the Cephisua, thus reprewnting the misla that 
rise from the streams, aiid whom he carries off with him 
and makes his wife. One of their oSspring is c^led Chione, 
or Ihe Bnow Hsiden. 

„ . When we tum to the vegetation of Attica, the 

yjjf"' olive first calls for our attention. This tree, we 
leam from Herodotus (v. 82), was thought at 
one lime to have been found in that countrr only ; and die 
enthuuastio praises of Sophocles ( (Ed. Ool., 700) leach db 
that it was the land in wnich it flourished best. Bo great 
was Ihe esteem in which it was held, that in the earlv 
legend of the slru^le between the gods of sea and land, 
Poseidon and Athena, for the patmnage of the country, 
the sea-god is represented as having to retire vanc(uiBhed 
before the giver of the olive ; and at a later period the 
evidences of this contention were found in an ancient olive 
tree in the Acropolia, together with three holes in the rock, 
said to have been made by the trident of Poseidon, and to 
be connected with a salt well hard by. The fig also found 
its bvorite horns in this country, for Demeter was said to 

the picturesque silvan scenes in the Baedta of Euripides, 
and It was from the latter that the wood came which eaosed 

neighboring deme of 

s fw III 

Ifae neight 

charcoal — the ^vBpaiat Ilapv^uM of the Aelum^tian «. 
Aristophanes f S48). It was the thynsy slopes of Hymelti^ 
too, from which came Ihe famous Hymetlian iii,„,j^ 
honey. Among the other products we must 
notice Ihe marble — both that of Pentelicus, which aflbnkd 
a material of unrivalled purity and whitcneas for building 
the Athenian temples, and the bine marble of Hymettcs — 
the traba SymtUio! of Horace — which used to be trant- 
ported to Bome for the conatmction of palaces. But the 
richest of all the sources of wealth in Attica was the lilvtr 
mines of Laureium, the yield of which was so coneidra^le 
as to render silver the principal medium of exchange in 
Greece so that " a silver piece" [tpybpiov) was Ihe&eek 
equivalent term for money. Hence .flschylus speaks of 
the Athenians sa possessing a " fountain of silver (Pen, 
235), and Aristophanes mskea hie chorus of birds promiia 
the audience that, if they show him favor, owls from lau- 
reium, is., silver pieces with the emblem of Athen% fhall 
never &dl them {Av., IIOS). In Strabo's IJm^ thongfa ths 
mines had almost ceased to yield, silver was obtained in 
considerable quantities from the scorin ; and at the present 
day a large amount of lead is obtained in the same way, 
the value of what was exported in 1869 having be^ 
£177,000 sterling. _ 

Having thus noticed the general features of 
the country. let us proceed to exaraine it some- 9*°*'*' 
what more m detail. It has been already men- ^^^ 
tioned that the base line is formed by the chain 
of Cithseroa and fames, running from west to east; and 
that from this transverse chains run southward, dividing 
Attica into a succession of plains. The weslemmost o? 
these, which is separated from the innermost 
bay of the Corinthian Gulf, called the Mare g^ 
Alcyoninm, by an offihoot of Cithieron, and ia 
bounded on Uie east by a ridge which ends towatds ttie 
Saronic Qulf in a strihing two-homed peak called Kerabi, 
is the plain of Megara. It is only for geographical piir- 
posee Uiat we include this district under Attio^ for both 
the Dorian race of the inhabitants, and its dangerous prox- 
imity to Athens, eaosed it to tie at perpetual feud with thai 
city ; but its position as an outpost for the Peloponnesian^ 
together with the fact of its having once been Ionian soil, 
sufficiently explains the bitter hostility of the Athenians 
towards the M^ariana. The great importance of H^ara 
arose from its commanding all the passes into the Pelopon- 
nese. These were three in number ; one altmg the ^orca 
of the Corinthian Gulf, which, owing to the nature of the 
ground, makes a long detour; the other two starting from 
Hegaia, and paseiog, the aas by a lofty though gradual 
route over the ridge of Qeraneia, the other along the 
Saronic Qulf, under the dangerous precipices of the dciro- 
nian roclu. The town of M^ra, whidt was built on and 
between two low bills rising out of the plua rather mors 
than a mile from the sea, Iwd the command of both gnlb 
by means of its two porta— that of P«gn on the Corinthian, 
and that of Nicsa on the Saronic The necesBitiee of the 
case occasionallv brought the Megarians and their powetfid 
neighboiB together ; tor the former greatly depended ott 
Athens for their supplies, as we see from their Ajnished 
slate, as described bv AristophaQes in the Adutmian* (729 
teq.), when excluded from the ports and markets of that 

To iJie east of the plain of Hegara Ilea that 
of El eusis, bounded on the one side by Ihe ^^^ 
chain of Kerala, and on the other bjr that of 
.£galecs, through a depression in* which was tlie line of 
the sacred way, where the torchlight processions from 
Athens used to descend to the coast, the "lurightty-gteaming 
shores" (Ao^Tddc; /virai) of Sophocles {(Bd. OoLj 1049). 
Here a deep bajr mns into the land, opposite to which, and 
separated from it by a strait, which forms a succession of 
graceful curves, was the rocky island of Balamis, at all - 
times an important possession to the Athenians on account 
of ila proximity to their city. The scene of the battle of 
Salamis was the narrowest part of this channel, where the 
island approaches the extremity of .£galeaa ; and it was ob 
the last declivities of that mountain that — 
■'A kiDg uta pa (be rooky braw 
Wbioh look! o'er sea-born Salamis.". 

n portion of this plain was called the Thriasiaa 

plain, and the city of Eleusis was situated in the recesaea 

oT the bay. The cout-line of Ibu part, between the 
rnnOatrj of PoiudoD at the isthmTu, which wu originallj 
looiu^ and Atfa^u, b the priadpd acene of tlie acbt«ve- 
tusM of Tiieeeoa, a heio who holds the same relation to 
the loniana of Greece proper as Herculea does to the 
Oneki at luge^ tu., that of beiug the great author of 
improTemenls in the countiT. la ibis iuatonce bis feats 
acta 10 describe the ettaMuhment of a safe mesne of 
oommunicatioD. On the isthmus itself he destrojs the 
nomter Sinis, the " mva^r," otherwise called PiCyocamptes, 
cr Ihe " pine-bender," which names imply that he is the 
embodiment of a violent wind, thoogb the l^end grew up 
that be fiutened hii victims to the bent branches of two 
pipn, by the rebound of which they were torn in sunder. 
His next exploit is near Crommyon, where he destroys a 
wild sow, called I^uea, or " the dusk^," which probably 
Bans that he checked a torrent, since violent water- 
courses are often represented by that animal in Greek 
m^lhologr. Then follows the struf^te with the brigand 
Boron, who siexiGes the dangerous wind, which blows with 
•Dch Tiolenoe in this district that at Athens the north-west 
wind received the name of Sciron from the neighboring 
Scironian rocks ; the pass, which skirts the sea at the base 
of the clifik is now known by the Ll-omened title of Eske 
Scali, and is still r^arded as a perilous transit. Finally, 
between Eleusis and Athens, Theseus overcomes Procnist^ 
or " the racker," who apparently represents the dangers of 
the ps» between Eleuais and Athens, now called Daphne ; 
lor the ri^ of Meant .^kaleos hard by was in ancient 
times oilleaCorydaUuB, and this, we are told by Diodorua 
(It. &9), was the scene ot the contesL 

Next in order to the plain of Eleusis came 
^^^^^ that of Athens, which is the most extennive of 
all, reaching from the foot of Pamea to the sea, 
and bounded on the west by iCgaleoH, and on the east by 
Hytaettuj. Its most ccnspicuous feature is the broad tine 
of dark greem along its weetem side, formed by the olive- 
groTCs of Colonus and the gsfdens of the Academns, 
which owe their fertility to llie waters of the Cephisus, 
hj which they are irrigated. This river is fed by copious 
aources on the side of Mount Pamen, and thns, unlike the 
other rivers of Attica, has a constant supply of water ; 
but it does not reach l^e sea, nor did it apparently in clas- 
sical times, having been diverted, then as now, into the 
neighboring plantations; for this is wtiat Sophocles means 
when he speaks of "the sleepless fountains of Cephisus, 
which stray forth from their channels" ((Ed. QJ., 685 «eg.). 
The position of Colonus itself is marked by two 1:are 
knoilt of light-colored earth, which caused the poet in 
the same chorus to apply the epithet "while" [apyiTa) to 
(hat place. On the opposite side of the plain runs Ihe 
other river, the Iliseus, which rises from a beautiful fouD- 
IsJQ in Mount Hymettus, and skirls the eastern extremity 
of the dty of Athens ; but this, notwithstanding its celeb- 
rity, is a mere brook, which stands in pooU a Ki^ot P*^ 
of the year, and in summer is completely dry. The situa- 
tion of Athens relatively to the sarrounding objects is 
angularly harmonious ; for, while it {brms a central point, 
•D as to be the eye of the plain, and while the allar-rock 
of the Acropolis and the hills by which it is surrounded 
are conspicuous from every point of view, there is no such 
exadnn in its position as to give formality, since it is 
nearer to the sea than to Pames, and nearer lo Hymettus 
than to .AVaieoB. The most slnkins summit in the neigh- 
liMhDodof the city is that of Lycaoettua, now Mount St. 
Oeorg^ on the north-eastern side ; and tbe variety is still 
farther increasecl b^ the continuation of the ridge which 
it ibniis for some distance northwards through the plain. 
Three roads lead to Athens from Ihe Bi£otiaii frontier over 
the intervening mountain barrier — thu eastemmoat over 
Ptnws, from Delium and Oropus by Deceleia, which was 
the usnal route of the invading X.acediemonians during 
the Peloponnesian War ; the westernmost over Cithnroo, 
by the pass of Drycecephahe, or the "Oakbeads," leading 
from Thebes by Plalna to Eleusis, and so lo Athens, 
which we hear of in connection with tbe battle of Platrai, 
and with the escape of the Platsana at the time of the 
mse of that dty in tbe Peloponnesian War; the third, 
Bidiiray between the two, by the pass of Phyle, near the 
*u>unil of which, on a rugged height overlooking the 
Alheoian plain, is the fort occupied by Thraaybulus in the 
days of the Thirty Tyrants. On the sea-coast lo the south- 
West of Athttis rises the hill of Munyohiii, a mass of rocky 

gronnd, fbrming the acropolis of the town of Pineeiw, 
which was once separated from the mainland ; for Strt^ 
[i. 3, j 18] spetiki of it as having been formerly an island. 
On one side of this, towards HymeUos, lay the open road- 
stead of Phalenim, on the other the harbor of Pineeus, • 
completely land-locked inlet, safe, deep, and spadons, the 
approach to which was still further narrowed hv molest 
The eastern side of the hill was farther indented by two 
smalL but commodious havens, which were respectivdy 
called Zea and Munychia. 

The north-eastern boundary of the plain of 
Athens is formed by the graceful pyramid of JJSS?" 
Pentelicus, which recdved its name from the 
deme uf Pentele at its fool, but was far more commonly 
known as Brilessus, in andent times. This toountaia did 
not form a continuous chain with Hymettus, for between 
them intervenes a level space of ground two miles in width, 
which formed tlie entrance to the Mesogtea, an elevated 
nndulating pltun ih the midst of the uountains, reaching 
nearly to Sunium. At the extremity of Hymettus, wbera 
it projects into tbe Saronic Oulf, was the promoalory of 
Zoster, or "the Girdle," which was so called because it 
girdles and prolecte the neighiraring harbor; bat in con- 
sequence of the name, a legend was attached to it, to the 
effect that Lalona had loosel her girdle there. From this 
promontory to Sunium there runs a lower line of moun- 
tains, and between these and the sea a fertile strip of land 
intervenes, which was called the Paralia. Beyond So- 
nium,' on the eastern coast, were two safe porl^ that of 
Thoricus, which is defended by the island of Helena 
forming a natural breakwaler in ftvnt of it, and that 01 
Prasi^ now called Porto Baphti, or "the Tailor," from ■ 
Blaine at the entrance to which the natives liave given that 
name. But it still remains to mention tbe most famous 
spot of ground in Attica, the little plain of Marathon, 
which lay in the north-east corner, encircled on three sides 
by Pames and Pentdicus, while the fourth faces the sea 
and the opposite coast of Eubiea. It was on the mounlaia 
slopes that Ihe Greeks were stationed, while the Persians 
wiUi their ships occupied the coast; aod on tbe two sides 
the marshes may still be traced by which tlie movements 
of the invader's host were impeded. The mound, which 
at once attracts the eye in the centre of the level plain, is 

Erobably the burial-place of the Athenians who fell in lbs 
ittle. The bay in front is sheltered by ICubcea, and is 
still more protected from the north by a projecting tongas 
of lantL called Cynosura. The mountaias in the ndgh- 
borhood were the seat of one of the political parties in 
Attica, the Diacrii or Hyperacrii, who, being poor monn- 
taineers, and having nothing to lose, were the prindpal 
advocates of change ; while, on tbe other hand, the Pediei^ 
or inhabitants of the plains, being wealthy landholders, 
formed the strong conservative etemeni, and the Farali, or 
occupants of Ihe sea-coast, representing the mercantile in- 
terest, held an intermediate position between the two. 
Finally, there was one district of Attica, that iajr without 
its natural boundaries, the territory of Oropos, which prop- 
erly belonged to Bceoda, as it was dtualed to the north 
of Parnea ; but on this the Athenians always endeavored 
to retain a Grm bold, because it &dlila(ed thdr communi 
cations with Euboso. The command of that island was ot 
the utmuet importance to tbem; for, if .£ginacould ri^tly 
be called " the eyesore of the Piraeus," Eubtsa was quite as 
truly a [horn in tbe side of Allica; for we learn from Ds- 
moathenes {Be Cor., p. 307) that at one period the pirates 
that made it their headijuartets so infeBteo. the neighooring 
sea as lo prevent all navigation. 

Of the condition of Allies in mediaeval and 
modem times little need be said, for it has fol; „^uoa 
lowed for the moat part the fortunes of Athens. 
The population, however, has undergone a great cliangck 
Independently of tbe larse admixture of Slavonic blood 
that has aSecIed the Greeks of the mainland generally, by 
the immigration of Albanian colonists, who now occupy k 
great part of llie country. The moat important of the 
classical ruins tliat remain ouldde Athens are Ihoee of the 
t«mpte of Athena at Sunium, which form a conspicaoos 
object as tliey surmount the headland, and gave rise to th« 
name which it bor& until laldy, of Cape ColonaK;'it is 
in the Doric style, of white marble, aod 13 columns of the 
temple and a pilaster are now standing. At Eleusis the 
foundations of Che propyUxa of the great temple of Demeter 
and other buildings have been laid bare by excavation ; at 



ThoriciM there ara Temains of an ancient theatre ; and at 
BhunnoB, northward from Marathon, at a little diatance 
from the sea, are the basements and some of the columns 
of two templea in the Bome encloiore, vhich were dedicated 
to Nemesis and Themis. {b. p. t.) 

ATTICD8, TiTDB PoHFOnirs, the friend of Cicero, w«s 
one of the most distinguished men during the period of the 
decline and fail of the Roman repnblic Hia life givee an 
admirable picture of the clasital man of culture, who, 
withdrawing from the stir of political affairs, devoted 
himself to llterar; and artistic puisuita. He was bom at 
Borne 109 b.o., and wis thus three years older than Cicero, 
aloDg with whora he and the younger MariuB were educated. 
His fiiinilj is said to have been of noble and ancient 
descent ; ms lather belonged to the equestrian order, sad 
was Tery wealthy. When Fomponius (who afterwards 
received the sumame Atticus, on account of his long Ksi- 
dence at Athens, and his intimate acquainbuice witti Greek 
literature) was still a young man, his, father died, and he 
at once look the prudent resolution of tranEferring hioiseir 
and his fortune to Athens, in order to escape the dangers 
of the dvil war, in which he might have been involved 
tbroogh hit coanection with the murdered tribune Sulpicius 
Bofbs. Here, in recrement, he cootrived to keep himself 
free from the entanglements of &ctiun, while preserving 
MeDdly relations wiUi all parties. Sulla, who urged him 
to come to Borne and join his party, took no oflence at his 
refosal, but treated him with marked kindness. He 
aisisted the younger Marius and Brutus with money when 
they were fleeing from their eoemies, and remained on the 
moat cordial terms with Cosar and Pompey, Antony and 
Octaidanus. His most intimate friend, however, was Cicero, 
whose corrcapoodenoe with him eiteuded over many Team, 
and who seems to have foimd his prudent counsel and 
sympathy a remedy for all his man^ troubles. His private 
life wss tranquil and happy. He did not marry till ne was 
53 yean of a^ and bis only child became tbe wife of 
Vipsanins Agnppa, the distinguished minister of Augustus. 
His large fortune was increased on the death of his uncle, 
L. CsciljUB^ho bequeiathed to him the greater part of his 
proper^. He formed a large Hbiaiy at Athens, and kept 
BSlaff of slaves engaged in making copies of valuable works. 
He probably derived considerable profits from the sale of 
these books. In 32 B.C. he was seized with an illness 
believed to be incurable. He resolved not to protract a 
painful and hopeless stru^le, and died after five days of 
TOluntory starvation. As might have been expelled from 
his easy temper and equable disposidou, AtUcus professed 
a mild Epicureanism, but phrlosophical problems, as such, 
do not seem to have had much interest for him ; he was 
emphatically a man of literature. Of his writings none are 
extant, but we hare notices of twix one a Greek history of 
CSceros consulship, the other, in Latin, on Roman annals, 
a sul^ect to wbidi he had given much attention. This 
work was highly commended for its minute exactnes, 
dirooolitfical sccnracy, and simple style. 

ATTICUS HEEODES, Tibebtob GiAUDrog, a very 
wealthy dticcn of Athens, wus bom about 104 a.o. His 
nandnther's estates had been oonfiscated for treachet^, but 
3ie fortnnes c^ the family had been restored by the 
discovery in his father's house of an enormous sum of 
money, which the Emperor Nerva permitted them to retain. 
This great wealth Herodes afterwords increased by his 
marriage. He received a careful education under (he most 
distinguished masters of the ^me, and specially devoted 
hims^f to the Mndy of oratory, to excel in which seems to 
have been the mlii^; motive of his life. While very young 
he delivered a speech before one of the emperors ; but it 
was so ill received that he was with difficulty restrained 
from throwing himself into the Danube. He ultimately 
attained to great celebrity as a speaker and as a teacher 
of rhetoric. Among his pupils were Marcus Aureliua and 
Lucius Verus. He was highly esteemed by the Antonines, 
urticularly by Aurelios, and received many marks of 
favor, Bmons others the archonship at Athens and the 
conrolatc at Borne. Atticus is prindpally celebrated, how- 
eve^ for the vast sums he expended on public purposes. 
He bnilt at Athens a neat race-eourse of marble from Pen- 
telicQi, and a splendQ mnsical theatre, called the Odeum. 
At Corinth he built a theatre, at Delphi a stadium, at 
Thermopyln hot baths, at Canusium in Italy an aqueduct. 
He even contemplated cutting a canal through the Isthmus 
ot Cotinlh, but It is said did not da/e to carry ont his plan 

because the same thing had been unraccessAilly attoupled 
before hj the Emperor Nero. Haoy of the partially 
rained dties of Greece were restored bv Attictu, and 
numerous inscriptions testify tfadr gratitude to their bene> 
fiidor. Hia wealth, and, it is reported, some dissgreeraeol 
with tegard to one of the provisions of his Mher's wil^ 
roused up the enmity of the Athenians against him. Ht 
withdrew from Athens, and resided at his villa near 
Marathon, where he died about ISO A.D. None of hit 
wrtUngs are eitaoL 

ATTILA, or Etzel, the famous leader of the Hnns, soi^ 
named the " Fe»r of the World," or the " Scourge of God," 
was bom probably about 406 A.n. His father Mundiuk 
king of the Hun^ was succeeded by bis brothers Octar and 
Rhu&s ; aod on the death of Rhnas, in 434, Attila and hit 
brother Bleda together ascended the throne. They mied 
not only over the Huns, but over nearly all the trib4 north 
of the Danube and the Black Bea; under their banoert 
fought Ostrogoths, Gepids, Alani, Hemli, and many other 
Teutonic peoples. Their dominions are said to have 
extended from (ho Rhine to the frootiera of China. 
Attila was superstitiously reverenced by his countiymtnj 
he was said to jtoeseas the Iron sword of the war-god, Han, 
and he proclaimed himself to be the man-chUd bom it 
Engaddi, who was destined to mle over the whole «orl4 
In 441 and 442 the brothers ravaged Thrace and Illyiii, 
defeated the troops of the Eastern Empire in three great 
battles, and penetrated as Ikr as Thermopyls. Peace «m 
made on the Romans agreeing to pay a heavy tribute; 
About this time Attila contrived (o make away wilh his 
brother Bleda, and thus secured undivided snpremsCT. 
In 445 and the following years, he again dii«ct^ lus 
attacks against the Eastern Empire, and laid waste (he 
whole country roimd Constantinople. Nowhere did h« 
meet with resistance save from the brave little (own of 
AdmuB. The empire seemed about to succumb, when 
Theodosiua entered into negoUations and made (enui with 
his conqueror. While matters were bdng arranged, a plot 
was laid to assassinate AtUla, in which the emperor wis 
implicated. The conspiracy was discovered, and the 
barbarian upbraided the Christian monarch with his want 
of honor and manly courage. Theodosius died soon »&a, 
and hia successor, Harcian, returned a firm refusal to 
Attila's demands for tribute. War seemed inevitable; but 
at this time the attention of the Hun was drawn to &» 
Western Empire. It is said that the Princes Honoria, 
sister of VaJentinian, tired of her life of enforced celibuy. 

probable, however, that he merely used this as a pretex^ 
and lliaC his real designs were more comprehensive. He 
evidently thought it a &vorable opportunity for (airing 
advantage of the enmity between the Romans and the 
Visigotlis; and to this plan he was also induced by the 
proposals of Genseric, king of the Vandals, who offered to 
anite wiih bim against hts rival, Tbeodoric, king of the 
Visigoths. In 451 Attila aBsembled his forces, it is 
said 700,000 strong, led them through the centre of Ge> 

Bun;undianB, and pushed on through the heart of OsoL 
until his centre was checked by the valiant resistance offered 
by Orleans. Meanwhile, Thmdoric and AStius, the Roman 
general, had collected and united their Jbrces, and marching 
with all speed, arrived in time to raise the siege of Orleans. 
Attila retreated to a position in the plun of Chalons, and 
there concentrated his forces for a great engagemsnt. A 
tremendous battle ensned — one of the moat gigantic as 
welt as most Important contests recorded in history. Tbe 
Romans, who formed one wing, were driven back, and 
although they kept tf^ether, and at nightfall retired to 
the camp of the yisigoths, Aetius had given up the day as 
Icet. The Visigoths, who were on the other wing, bad 
also been repul^, and were disconntged by the aill of 
their leader Tbeodoric But the fortune of the div wai 
changed by the impetuous bravery of Thoriamand, l1i«o4> 
one's son, who, burning to avenge his father's fall, led on 
the infuriated Viaigoihs, and drove Attila back to his csmjk 
He even penetrated into the tbrtificalloiM, bat was wwinded 
and thrown from his horse, and his followers with difficulty 
carried him off. Next day, Attila remuned In his tamp in 
expectatiiHi of an attack, and haviiw thrown ail his baggage 
into a gigantic ^e in tue centre of the camp lobe banM» 



ATTocK— ArmAcnoN. 

m CHii of defeat, RMlved to sell his life dearlv. But no 
■Hack WM made ■ for ThoriEmund vas penuKilea bj ASlius 
lo niuDh to Tonloose in order to obtain his hlhers kiDg- 
dooi. Attila wu thus enabled to retire in perfect securitj. 
Nat jear he poared hig forces through the defiles of the 
Alps, ud l»id waste the whole noHfa of Italy, Rome 
itself Bcemed likely Co fail before the invader, when his 
<Mine ms srroled bj an embassy headed by Pope Leo. 
Atdia at ODoe viUidrew from Italy, bat the modve which 
led him to act Ihna h not ktkovn. At the time his retreat 
was ascribed to a miraculous into^Knitlon of Providence, 
Peter and E^l having appeared in the camp of the Huns 
along witl) the embawy. The whole matter is isther 
obscore: and scarcely more credible is the story told by 
Jmumiea that Attila invaded Osul a aecoad time HJid was 
oompletely defeated by Tborismand. No other historian 
neotions this circumstance. In the year 453, Attila died 
ftam the btmting of a blood-vessel on the nielit of his mar- 
riage with a beautiful Oothic maiden, called Ildiko, or 

Wdt. He was 

tad lamoitation. 

ruled broke np immediately after hia death, 

bdng powerful enough to seiie the Eupremacy. In person 

Al^ ts deeciibed as haviug_ been of true Unniush tyro, 

jhort, but strongly made, with a large head^ flat, wide- 

m mibtanr exercises. 

ATTOCK, a town and fort of Britisb India, ii 
PaiuAb, gitnaled on the eastern bank of the Indus, in S3° 
U' N. lat, and 72° W E. long. The place is both of 
political and commercial importance, as the Indus is here 
cnaaed by the military and trade route through the 
Khaibar Pass into Afghinist^ Alexander the Great, 
Tamerlane, and Nidir Shth, are believed to have suc- 
cessively craned the Indus at or about this spot in their 
rcspectire invasions of India. The river runs past Atlock 
in a deep rapid channel about 200 yaids broad, but is 
eaaily eroased in boats or on inflated skins of oXen. A 
bridge of boats is maintained for a cooBiderabte part of 
the year, bnt withdrawn in the summer as soon as the 
melting of the anows in the northern moui 
it. The fort of Attock was built by the emperai 
in 1661, on a low hillock beside the river. The w 
of polished alone, and the whole 
but 6'om a tnililary point of view it is of tittle importance, 

r Akbar 

being commanded by a hill, from which it is divided only 
by a ravine. The town was formerly a place of importance, 
Imt haa now Mien into decay. On the oppoute side of 
tlie river is the village of KhairibAd, with a fort, also 
erected by Akbar according to some, or by Nidir Shih 
acooidins to others. 

AIT^NEY, in Eagluh Lok, si^ifiee, in 
sense, any substitute or agent appointed to a 
tarn, stead, or place of another. The term ii . . . _ 
mmly confined to a clsss of qualified agents who undertake 
the conduct of legal proceedings for their clients. By the 
common law the actual presence of the parties to a suit 
WMCOoaideied indispensable, bnt the privilege of appearing 

by attorney was conceded in certain cases by special dis- 
peoMtion, until the etalate of Herton and sufaaai^uent 
enactments made it competent for Iwth parties in all judi- 
dal proceedings to appear by attorney. Solicitors appear 
to have been at first distinguished from attorneys, as not 
having the attorney's power to bind their principals, but 
latterly the distinction has been between attorneys as the 

rts formally appointed in actions at law, and solicitors 
take care of proceedings in Parliament, Chancery, Privy 
Coancil, Ac In practice, however, and in ordinary lan- 
roage, the terms are synonymous. Regulations r^arding 
Uie qnalification of atiomeys are found as far back as the 
20 Edward I, which required the judges to select in each 
county the most learned and able attorneys and apprentices 
to do service in the courts. By the 6 and 7 VicL c 73, 
and other statates, the qualificalions neceesary for admis- 
sira on the rolls of attorneys and soliciton aro :— ^Ist, The 
due execution of a proper contract in writing with some 
practising attorney or solicitor for the term of five years, 
or of thrM years if the derk be a gnuiuate of the unive: 
ties of Oxibrd. Cambrid^ Dublin, London, or Durham, 
of the QuBKi s tJniveraity, Ireland, or if he have been a 
mentber of the iMjr, a writar to the signet, a solicitor before 
lo conrts in Scotland, or lor ten vears bona 

managing clerk to an 
stamp duty on snch o . .^ 

r^istry or enrolment of the contract within six calendar 
months; 4tfa, Actual service for the prescribed period in 
the proper business of an attoraer and solidCor; but one 
year may be served with the London agent, and, where the 
service is for five years, another year with a barrister or 
certificated special pleader ; 6th, Dne notices of the applica- 
tion to be admitted ; 6th, Fitness and capacity ascertained 
upon ezsminstion, and certified bv the examiners; 7th, 
Talcing the prescriljed oaths, and being admitted ana 
enrolled ; 9th, The certificate of the r^istrar of attorneys 
that he is duly enrolled, and the stamped certificate of ibe 
annual payment of th 
any of the superior o( 
to practise in any of the courts ii 
right may be enforced by mandamus. They may act as 
advocates in certain of the inferior courts, donveyancing, 
formerly considered the exclusive business of the bar, is 
now often performed by atiomeys. Barristers are nnder- 
Btood to require the intervention of an attorney in all cases 
that come before them professionally, although in criminal 
cases the prisoner not unfreqnently engages a counsel 
direcUy by giving him a fee in open oonrt. The relation 
of sttomey and client disqualifies the former from dealing 
with his client on his own oehalf, while it gives him a lien, 
on professional services, over the deeds, Ac, of the client 
in his possession. An attorney may be struck off the rolls 
for professional or other misconduct, on application by 
counsel at the instance of an injured ^>rty, or, as the case 
^nerally is, of the Incorporated Law Society as represent- 
ing the profeaion. 

A lelUr or fxneer ef AUontg is an authority under hand 
and seal, empowering the person named therein to do some 
ad on behalf of the principal, which otherwise could only 
be done by the principal himselfi It expires with death of 
the principal, and is revocable at his wil^ unless it has been 
^ven for a valuable consideration. A warrant of AUomejf 
13 an authority to one or more attomi^B to appear for the 
party executJog it, in a court of record, at the suit of the 
person for whose benefit it is given, and to suffer judg- 
ment summarily to paaa in his favor. It is usually given 
as a security to creditors for the summary recovery of 
money lent, or sums certain, but may be used in other 

ATTORNEY-GENERAL, Uie chief Uw 'officer ap- 
pointed to mans^ all the legal affairs and suits in which 
the Crown is interested. He is appointed by patent, 
authorizing him to hold office during the Queen'g pleasure- 
He is ex officio the leader of the bar, and only counsel of 
the highest eminence are appointed to the office, Tlie 
royal mandate of 14lh December, 1814, gives him prece- 
dence in all the courts, and it is now'settled thst in the 
Hoose of Lords he haa precedence of the Lord Advocate, 
even in Scotch appeals. He is a necessary parly to all 
piTKieediiigs afiecting the Crown, and has extensive powers 
of controfin matters relatingto charities, lunatics' estates. 
criminal prosecutions, Ac His assistant, also appointed 
by patent, is the Solicitor-Ueneral, who has fntl power to 
act in the absence of his principal, and by almost inva- 
riable usage succeeds to his office when it becomes vacant. 
The income attached to these offices has hitherto been de- 
rived in great part from foes on patents for inventions, but 
by a recent arrangement the Attorney-General and Solici- 
tor-General receive a salary of £7000 and £6000 respect- 
ively, exclusive of such fees as they may receive for any 
litigious business they may conduct on behalf of the 

ATTRACTION. That the different parts of a material 
system influence each other's motions is a matter of duly 
observation. In some cases we cannot discover any ma- 
terial connection extending from the one body to the 
other. We call these cases of action at a distance, to dis- 
tinguish them from thoae in which we can trace a con- 
tinnoua material bond of union between the bodies. The 
mutual action between two bodies is called stress. When 
the mutual action tends lo bring the bodies nearer, or lo 
prevent them from separating, it is called tension or attrac- 
tion. When it tends to separate the bodies, or to prevent 
them from spproachinc, it is called pressure or repulsion. 
The names tension anapressnre are used when the action 
is seen to take place through a medium. Attraction and 
repulsion are rcscr 


The configuration of & material ejateta e»a »iwajs be 
defined in terms of the muliMl distances of the partt of 
the HjBlem. Any change of configuration muat alter one 
or more of thcw distances. Hence the force which pro- 
duoes or reaista such a change maj be resolved into attrac- 
tions or repulsions between those potts of Che BjBtem whose 
distance is altered. 

There has been a great deal of speculad< . . _ 

caoee of such forces, one of them, namely, the pressure 
iu>i_^n k~iii_ :» "onlaot, being supposed to be more 
* iod of stress. Man; 

between bodiea in < 

r other kind 

apparent attraction and repulsion at a diata 

of pressure. At one ^me the poaaibility of 

distance was supposed to be refuted hy asserting that a 
bodj cannot act wbere it is nol, and that therefore all 
acdon between different portions of mailer must be bjr 
direct contact To this it was replied that wo have no evi- 
. dence that real contact ever takes place between two bodies, 
and that, in fact, when bodiea are pressed aguinst each other 
and in apparent contact, we ma; sometimes actually mea- 
sure the distance between them, as when one piece of glass 
is laid on another, in which case a considerable pressure 
most be applied to bring the surfaces near enough to show 
the black spot of Newton's rings, which indicates a distance 
of about a ten thousandth of a mitUmetre. If, in order to 
get rid of the idea of action at a distance, we imagine a 
material medium through which the action is transmitted, 
all that we have done is to substitute for a single action at 
A great distance a seKes of actions at smaller distances be- 
tween the parts of the medium, so that we caanot evea thus 
get rid of action at a distance. 

The Btudjr of the mutual action between the parts of a 
material system has, in modem times, been greatly simpli- 
fied by the introduction of the idea of the energy of the 

It depends on the present configuiatioa aad 
motion of the system, and not on tlie manner in which the 
system has acquired that configuration and motion. A com- 
plete knowledge of the manner in which the energy of the 
system depends on its configuration and motion, is safficienl 
to determine all the forces acting between the parla of the 
ayslem. For instance, if the system cousisls of two bodies, 
and if the energy depends on the distance l>etveen them, 
then if the energy increases when the distance iucreases, 
tliere must be attraction between the bodies, and if the 
energy diminishes when the distance incresses, there must 
be repulsion between them. In the case of two gravitating 
masses m and m' at a distance r, the part of the energy 
which depends on r is ■ We may therefbra express 

the fact that there is attraction between the two bodies 
fay saying that the energy of the system consisting of the 
two bodies increases when their distance increases. The 
question, therefore. Why do the two bodies attract each 
other? may be expressed in a difierent form. Why 
does (he energy of the system increase when the distance 

.. e must bear in mind that the scdentific or science- 
producing Talue of the efibrts made to answer these old 
standing questions is not to be measnred by the prospect 
they afiord us of Dldmstety obtaining a solution, but by 
tbeir efiect in stimulating men to a thorough investigation 
of nature. To propose a scientific question presupposes 
BCaeniifio knowledge, and the qutstiona wliich exercise 
men's minds in the present state of science may very likely 
be Buclk that a little more knowledge woilld show us that 
no answer is pc»aible. The scientific value of the (juestion, 
How do bodies aa on one another at a distance? is to be 
found in the stimulus it has given to investigations into the 
propenies of the intervening medium. 

Newlon, in hia FriTtcipia, deduces from the observed 
notions of the hesveDly hodies the fact that they attract 
one another according to a definite law. This he gives as 
a result of strict dynamical reasonine, and by it be shows 
how not only the more conspicuous phenomena, but ail the 

Siarent irr«sularides of the celestial motions are the cal- 
able results of a single principle. In his Principia he 

confines himself to the demonstration and development of 
thit great step in Ihe science of the mutual action of bodies. 
He says nothing there about tlie means bj which bodies 
gravitate toward ^uih other. But his mind did not rest 

"It El inoaiUKirabte that inasiniBtB bmta matt*r ifaoBld, 
without Ihe mediation of somatbing siM which is not malarial, 
operate npon and aS*ot olber matter without matnal oootaet, 
as it moit do l( gravitaUon in the Mn» of Bpieoma b« mmo- 
tial and inharant in It. . . . That gravit; should be iooata^ 
inherent, and auaatlal to mattai, to that ona bod; oan aat 
npon anotbar at a dlataniM, through a Taonum, without the 
mediation of anytbing e1s«, by and tbrongb whiidi tbsir aation 
and forge may be eoDvayed fVom one to anothar, ■■ to ne so 
great an alxurdity, that I believe no man, wbo has in philo- 
■aphiflal matlerB * oompetant tkonlty of tbiahlng, oan ever fall 
into it."—Ltlur ta £etiU^. 

And we also know that he sought for the mechanism of 

Svilation in the properties ofan nthareal medium dii- 
9d over the universe. 

" It appean, from big let) 

of ai 

o Boyle, that th 

liaf phan. 

In bis Opliad Queriei, indeed, he shows that if the tvsB- 
sure of this medium is les in the neighborhood of dcnae 
hodies than at great distances from them, dense bodies will 
be drawn towards each other, and that if the diminution 
of pressure is inversely as the distance from the dense body 
the law will be that of gravitation. The next step, as he 
points out, is to account for this inequality of pressure in 
the medium ; and aa he waa not able to do this, he left the 
explanation of the cause of gravity ns a problem to Btio 
ceeding ages. As r^ards gravitation the progress made 
towanS tlie solution of the problem since the time of New- 
ton has been almost imperceptible. Faraday showed that 
of electric and magnetic forces is accom- 

medium ; and he ascribed to them a tendency to aborten 
themseivee and to separate from tlieir nei^hbora, thus intro- 
ducing the idea of stren in the medium in a difierent form 
from that suggested by Newton - for, whereaa Newton's 

itmal directions. By showing that the 
plane of polariaation of a ray of light paiung Ihroogh A 
traosparent medium in the direction of the magnetic foroe 
is made to rotate, Faraday not only demonstraled the action 
'■ htjbutbyus' '■ ■ 
magoetixation of the mediun , 
his own phrase, " the lines of magnetic force." 

From this phenomenon Thomson afterwards proved, by 
strict dynamical reasoning, that the transmission of mag- 
netic force is sssodated with a rotatory motion of the smi^l 
parts or the medium. He showed, at the same time, how 
the centrifugal force due to this motion would account for 
magnetic attraction. 

A theory of this kind is worked out in greater detail in 
Clerk Maiwell's TVealiu on EledrkUy and Mofgndiaii. It 
is there shown that, if we asaume that the medium is in 
a state of stress, consisting of tension along (he lines of 
force and pressure in all directions at right angles to the 
lines of force, the tension and the pressure being equal in 
numerical value and proportional to the square of the in- 
tensity of the Geld at the ^iven point, the observed eleo- 
trostatic and electromagnetic forces will bo completely ao- 
counted for. 

The next step is lo account for this state of stress in lite 
medium. In the case of electromagnetic force we avail 
ouiselves of Thomson's deduction from Faraday's discov- 
ery stated above. We assume that the small parts of the 
medium are rotating about axes parallel to the lines of 
force. The centrifu^ force due to this rotation produces 
the excess of pressure perpendicular lo the lines of foroe, 
'The explanation of electrostatic stress is less satis&ctory, 
but tliere can be no doubt that a path is now open by 
which we may trace to the action of a medium all forcee 
which, tike the electric and magnetic forces, vary inversely 
sa the square of the distance, and are attractive between 
bodies of different names, and lepulsive iMtween bodiea of 

.'( aceouot of Sir Is 

,d byTjOOgll 



nM fcrae of KnnUtion ia abo iDTenelf m tbe i^aaie 
of tlia diitBiiD^ Dut it differt from Ihe electric aoA miff- 
neiic forcci in this rapect, that the bodi«8 between which 
it acti canaot be divided into two opposite kinds, one poa- 
itiTe and the other negatiTe, but are ia retpect of gravi- 
tatktt all of tbe same kind, and that the force between 
Ihcan i* in gtct/ cue attractive. To account for euch a 
force by means of atren in an interrening medium, on the 
plan adopted for electric and magnedc forces, we must 
isnme a etresH of an opposite kipd {mra that already 
mentioned. We raxM suppose that there ia a pressure in 
the direction of the linea of fotce, combined witn a teoBJon 
in alt directions at right angles to the lines of force. Such 
ft state of stress would, no ooubl, account for the observed 
eKds of graviiation. We have not, however, been able 
kitherto to imagine any Dh<nical cause for Buch a state of 
ill iwi It is easy to calculate the amount of this slresB 
which would be required to account for the actual eUecls 
of gravit/ at the surface of the earth. It would reqaire a 
pressure of 37,000 tons weight on the square inch in a ver- 
tical direction, combined with a tension of the same nu- 
merical value in all horiionlal directions. Tbe state of 
•Ircgg, therefore, which we must suppose to exist in the 
invisible medium, is 8000 times gre«^ than that which 
Ibe strongest steel conld support. 

Another theory of the mechanism of gravitation, that 
of Le 8»g% who attributes it to the impact of "ultramun- 
diane OMpDKales," has been already diecuoed in Ihe arti- 
cle Atok, impntjp. 41. 

Sir William Thomson^ has shown that if we BuppoM all 
space filled with a uniform incompresaible fluid, and if we 
fluther suppose either that material bodies are always 
~ -. . B,the 

generating and emitting 

fluid flowing off to infinity, or that material l>odiea are 
alwaya absortun^ and annihilating the fluid, the deficiency 
flowing in from ufinile space, then, in either of these cases, 
there woold be an attraction between anr two bodies 
▼enely aa the aqnare of the dbtance. I^ however, one 
tbe bodies were a generator of the fluid and the other an 
■laorber of it, the oodles would repel each other. 

Here, then, we have a hydrodynamical illustration of 
Action at a distaoce, which is so far promising that it shows 
bow bodies of the same kind may attract ea^ other. Bat 
the conception of a fluid oonstantiy flowing out of a body 
without any supply from without, or flowing into it with- 
out any way of escape, is so coulradiclory to all our ex- 
perience, that an hypotheBi& of which it is an essential 
part, cannot be called an erplaitaUim of the phenomenon of 

Dr. Robert Hooke, a man of singular inventive ^wer, 
in 1671 endeavored to trace the cause of gravitation to 
waves propagated in a medium. He foand that bodies 
floaUng on water agitated by waves were drawn towards 
tbe centre of agitation.' He does not appear, however, to 
have followed up thia obeervstion in such a way as lo 
determine completely the action of waves on an ifflmersed 

I^t>feasor Challis has investigated the mathematical 
theorv of the effect of waves of condensation and rarefac- 
Uon in an elastic fluid on bodies immersed in the fluid. 
He fonad the difficulties of the investigation lo be so great 
that he has not been able to arrive at numerical reaults. 
He concludes, however, that the effect of such waves would 
be to attract the body towards the centre of agitation, or 
repel it from that centre, according as the wave's length 
wery large or very small compared with the dimensia:_ 
of the body. Practical illuBtrations of the effect of such 
waves have been given by Guyot, Schellbach, Guthrie, 
aiKi Thomson.' 

A Inning-fork is set in vibration, and brought 

delicately sospeoded light body. The body is immediately 
attracted towaids the tuning-fork. If the tuning-fork is it- 
•elf snapeDded, it ia seen to be attracted towards any body 
placed near it. 

Sir W. ThomsDn has shown that this action can in all 
eases be explained hy the general principle that in fluid 
modon the average prennre ia least where the average 
inarwv of motion is greatest Now, the wave motion is 

Iha tnoing-forfc, the pressure is therefore 

there; and the snepended body being prased un- 

a/ Ui AhoI AsMa 0/ AMntwoA, Ttb Fab., 1870. 
Wetkt, a£lta br B. Wallar, n>. Ut. sfid lit. 

equally on opposite sides, moves fr<»n the ude of greater 
pressure to the side of less presure, that is lowarda the 
tuning-fork. He has also succeeded in producing repnlsion 
in the case of a sraall body lighter than the surrounding 

It is remarkable that of the three hypotheses, which go 
some way towards a physical explanation of gravitalion, 
every one involves a constant expenditure of work. Le 

absorption of fluid requires, not only constant e . 
peuditore of work in emitting fluid under pressure, but 
actual creation and destruction of matter. That of waves 
requires some agentin a remote part of the nniveise capable 
of generating the waves. 

According to such hypotheses we must regard the pro- 

saes of nature not as illualraliona of the great principle of 

the conservslioo of energy, but as inslanoes in which, by a 

nice adjustment of powerful agencies not subject lo this 

principle, an apparent conservation of energy Is maintained. 

~e are forced to conclude that the explanation of 

of gravitation is not to be foimd in any of these 

For the mathemsdcal theory of attraction and attraction 
of ellipsoids, see PoTENTUii ; for attraction of gravitation, 
capillary attraction, and atlractioa of coliesion, see respect- 
ively QiiATiTATTOir, CAPIU.ABT Attractiob. and Cox- 
enrunoK of Bodiks. (j. c. k.) 

ATTWOOD, Tboka^ mnsical composer, was honi in 
London in 17fl7. As one of the boy choristers in the 
chapel royal he received his early instruction in music 
from Nares and Ayrton. In 17S3 he was sent to study 
abroad at the exp<9ise of the Prince of Wales, who had 
been favorably impressed by hie skill aa a performer on 
the harpeichord. After spending two years at Naples, 
Attwood proceeded to Vienna, where he became a favorita 
pnpil of Mozart. On bis return to London he held for a 
short time an amraintmeut as one of the chamber muaiciaaa 
to the prince of^Wales. In 1785 he was chosen orranist 
of SL Paul's, and ia the following year he succeeded Dr. 
Xhipuis as composer to the chapm royal. His court con- 
nection was further confirmed by hiN appointment as mn- 
sical instructor lo the duchess of York and afierwards to 
the princes of Wales. For the coronation of Geotge IV. 
he composed the anthem. The Kinff thall Jtgoiet, a work 
of high merit The king, who had neglected him for some 
yeara on account of bia connection with the princess of 
Wales, now restored him to fovor, and in 1S2I appointed 
him organist to his private chapel at Brighton. Soon 
after the institution of the Boyal Academy of Music, Att- 
wood was chosen one of the professors. He wrote the 
anihem, Lord, grant tiie King a Long Lift, which was 
perfonned at the corooatioa of Wiiliam IV., and he was 

least ther 

posing a similar work for the coronation of Qneen 
Victoria when he died (March 24, 1S3S). Altwood's com- 
,poBitions sre favorable specimens of the English school. 
His services and anthems were published in a collected 
form after his death by his pupil Walmesley, and are fre- 
(^uently used in cathedral worehip. Of his secular com po«- 
tions several songs and glees are well-known and popular. 
Tbe operas which ha composed in early life are now almod 
forgotten, belonging, as they do, to a period when Eoglisli 
music WHS at its lowest ebb. 

ATWOOD, Oeoroe, an author celebrated lor the acco- 
ratrr of his mathematical and meclianical inresligatioru^ 
and considered particularly happr in the cleameffi of his 
exphmations, and the elegance of bis experimental illus- 
trations, was bom in the early part of the year 174f Ho 
was educated at Westminster school, to which he was ad- 
mitted in 1769. Six years afterwards he was elected off to 
Trinity Coltc^ Csmbridge. He took bis degree of Bach- 
elor of Arts in 17S9, with the rank of third wrangler and 
fiist Smith's priieman. These distinctions were amply suf- 
ficient to give him a claim to further advancement in his 
own college. In due time he obtained a fellowship, and 
was afterwards one of Ihe tutors of the collie. He became 
Master of Arts in 1772, and in 1776 was elected a fellow 
of the Royal Society of London. Iti the year 1784 ha 
ceaned to reside at Cambridge, and soon afterwards re- 
ceived from Mr. Pitt a patent oMoe, which required bnt 
little of his atlendaoce, and enabled him still to devote a 
considerable portion of his time to his special studies. Ha 
died in 1807. Atwood's published works, eiclu^ve of 



pap«n contribated to tbe FhHoii^kUol TnauaOiim*, for' 
one of which he obt^ned the Coplej medal, are ba fol- 
lows: — (1.) Ana^m nf a Oaurtt rf Ltetara on tht Priati- 
fit» ^ Sataral PkOotaphg, Cambridge, 17S4. (2.) Tnatiac 
en (Ac Btetitimtar Motion and Botalion of Bodia, Cambridge, 
1784, which eonUinB • good accoant of the elemental^ 
principlei of mechamcs, uionsh it is deficient in the appli- 
cation of higher mathematical anal jais. It also gires some 
inleregtiDg ezperitneDts, b^ means of which mechanical 
buthg can b« ocularly exhibited and demoostrated, and 
describes the machine, since called hj Atwood's name, 
for verifying experimentally the laws of simple accelera- 
tion of motion. (3.) SevieiB o^ iKe Slatviti avid OnHnanetl 
tf j1m(K vhidi havt been talablMtd in Englandfram IheAlA 
war qC Kiw JoAn, 1202, lo the 3TlA of Kit prttail Mojttti/, 
London, ISOl, a work of some historical research. (4.) 
DuKTlalum on tkr. OOnanMiim and Properlie» of j4rti«, 
London, 1801, with supplement, pt. i. 1601, pL ii. 1SQ4, an 
elaborate and, in ita time, rduable work, though it is now 
oomplelely superseded. 

ATYS, Attk, or Attis, in the Pkrugian and Lgdiaa 
MyAolom, a yonth beloved for his beauty by the goddess 
Rhe*, there called Agdistie. Like Adonis, tie was a per- 
sonification of the changes in natnre, from the beauty of 
epring and summer to the Beverit; and darkness of winter. 
The story, as told at Pessinus, the centre of the woiship 
of the goddess, was that she had bom to Zeus a being both 
male and female; thnt the gods, displeased, had transiormed 
this being into a tree, from the fruit of which the daughter 
of the river-god Sangarius hore a boy, who grew up among 
herdsmen marvellous in his beauty, so as to win the love 
of Agdistis. Tiiis was Atyg, and be was about to be tnar- 
ried to the king's daughter of Pessinus, when the goddess 
appeared among the guesl& lerriSed them, and caused 
Atys to mn lo the woods, where he maimed himself and 
was tranafbrlDed into a pine tree; from his blood sprang 
vicdeU. Agdistia begged Zeus to restore him, but he could 
only iMUrB ner that the youth would never decay, and that 
liis hair would always grow. She convejEd the pine to ber 
cave at Pcsinus, and gave heiself up to grief. 

AUBAGNE, a (own of France, m the departoieiit of 
Bouches-du-BhOne, with a population of T40B, who carry 
00 the manufacture of wine, pottery, leather, coaise cloth, 
Ac The only remarkable monument is a fountain to the 
memory of the Abb4 Barlh^lemy, whose bmily was long 
connected with the town, 

AUBE, a department of France, bounded on the N. by 
the department of Hame, N.W. by 8eine.«l-Hame, W. 
by Yonne, 8. by Cote-d'Or, and E. by Haule-Mame. It con- 
sists of a portion of Champagne and Vallage, with a small 
part of Bur^ndy, and has an area of 2317 square miles. 
Its ^neral inclination from S.E. lo N.W. presents little 
varietj of surface, tlie only elevalioas being a double line 
of hilb along the courae of the Seine, never exceeding 1150 
feet in height. The department belongs to the Seine 
Irasin, and is watered by that river and its tributaries, the 
Ource, the Saroe, the Helda, and the Anbe, Ac. """ ~ 

B bcgii 

sterile; but the E 

surface consists of arable land, and the agricultural con- 
dition of the country is improving. The principal produo- 
tions are wheat, rye, oats, potatoes, and wine, of which last 
about one-half ia exported. In minerals Aube is one of 
the poorest departments In France ; a few iroa mines have 
been worked, but with insignificant results. Chalk and 
clay are abundant; and iJiere are also quarries of marble, 
lithographic stone, and building stone. The principal 
manu^ure is hosiery; but the department also produces 
glass, earthenware, paper, sugar, and ropes, and has a large 
numb^ of distilleries, tile~works, and dye-works, and an 
oil factOTT. Among the celebrated men connected with 
Aube are Villehardouin, Pope Urban IV., Mignard, Danton, 
Beugnot, and Ulbach. The cajtital is Troyea, and the 
arrondiasementa are Troves, Arcis-sur-Aube, Nogent-snr- 
Seine, Bar-aur-Aube, and Bareur-Seine. Fopulatioa in 
1S72, 25S,eS7. 

AUBENA8, a town of France, department of ArdSche, 
near the river of that name, 14 miles B.W. of Prlvas. It 
i* besutifblly situated on the slope of a hill, but its streets 
fcnendly are crooked and narrow. It is sorrounded by a 

ruinous wall flanked with towen, and has an old Gothle 
castle, now occupied by the municipal authorities. As th« 
caitre of the sill trade of the smrroundin^ district, it it a 
place of considerable traffic, and there is besides a large local 
manuhctare of silk and woollen goods. Population, TSM. 
AUBER, Dawiel FsANgote ^pkit, musical conpoMr, 
the chief representative of the French school, was the son 
of ■ Paris printsetler. He was bom Bt&ten,in Normandy, 
on the 29th January, 1782, while his mother was on a visit 
to that town. Destined by his blher to the putsuits (rf 
trade, he was allowed, nevertheless, to indulge his fondoCH 
for music, and learned (o play at an early age on several 
instruments, his fiist teacher being the Tyrolean composer, 
Ladumer. Sent at the age of twenty to London to com- 
plete his busineta training, he returned alter the rupture 
of the peace of Amiens. He had already attempted 
musical composition, and at this period produced several 
eoneeriot pour bant, in the manner of the violonoellift, 
Lamare, in whose name thev were published. The praise 

S'ven lo his concerto for the violin which was played M 
e Conserratoire by Maus, encouraged him to undertake 
the resetting of the old comic opera, Julie. Conscious by 
this time of the need of regular stndy of his chosen art, be 
placed himself under the severe training of Cherubini, by 
which the special qualities of the young composer were 
admirably developed. In 1S13 he made his dibul ia an 
opera in one act, the S^our Militairt, the unfavorable 
reception of which put an end for some yeais lo hi* 
attempts as composer. But the failure in buainos snd 
death of his father, in 1819, compelled him once mon 
to turn lo music, and to mike that which had been his 
pastime the serious employment of his life. He produced 
another opera, the TutamaU et let BiiUU-dovx, which wn 
□o better received than the former. But he persevered, 
and the next year was rewarded by the complete succen 
of his Bergire CMcdaiiu, an opera in three ads. This 
was the first in a long series of brilliant successes, termi- 
nating only in the eighly-eixth year of his age. In 1S2S 
began his lon^ sseodation with A. Scribe, who shared with 
him, as librettist, the success and growing popularity of his 
compositions. The opera of Laeetter. in which they fint 
worked logdher (1823), is remarkable also as Rowing 
the first evidraces of the influence of Rossini on Auber^ 
e. Tbb style was, 

easily recognizable. , . ._, 

Th&>dore^ Qaiitier, is not the phrase of any one else. His 
characteristics are lightness and facility, sparkling vivacity, 
nace and elegance, clear and piquant mclodiousnea^— 
these marking him out as a true son of France, and making 
him her darling singer. Depth of thought, elevation of 
sentiment, intensity of paseion, inspiration which grasp* 
the sublime and the infinite— these are not In Auber. 

Devoted 1^ preference to the comic opera, as the meat 
fitting field for his talents, he ventured on more than one 
occasion to pass into the field of gi 
La MutUe de I^/riid, familiarly ki 
achieved his greatest musical triumph. Produced at Paris 
in 182S, it rapidly became a European favorite, and it* 
overture, songs, and choruses were eveiywhere heard. The 
duet, ^moar soerj de la patrit. was welcomed like a new 
Marteiilaue; sung by Nournt at Brussels in 1&30, it 
became the signal for the revolution which broke out there. 
Among his otiier works, about fifty in all, the more 
important are— fVa Dianolo (1830), Leitom (1834), L'Aa^- 
baaadriee {1836), Le Domino ffoir \lB37],Le Lot da Pfa 
(1839), La Diamantt de la fimronne (1841 ), Haifdie (1847), 
Jifarco Spada (1853), and La PiancU du roi de Oarbi 
(18S4). Official and other dignities testified the public 
appreciation of Auber'a works. In 1329 he was dected 
member of the Institute, in 1830 hewasbamed director of 
the court concerts, and in 1842 he succeeded Cherubini as 
director of the Conservatoire. He was also a member of 
the L^ion of Honor from 1825, and attained the rank of 
commander in 1847. One of Auber'a latest compcsitiona 
was a march, written for the opening of the International 
Exhibition in London in LS62. His fasdnatiog manners, 
hia witty sayings, and hia ever ready kindness and benefi- 
cenoe won for him a secure place in the respect and love 
of hia fellow-citiiens. He remained in his old home 
during the Gterman siege of Paris, 1370-71, buttiie miseries 
of the Communist war which followed sickened hia hear^ 
and he at last refused lo touiA his beloved instrument, w 
to lake food. He died May 13. 1871. (w I. R. cl 


AUBIN, a tovn or Fnoee, in the depaitmenl of ATeTnm 

ud uroadinemeDt of Ville&uiche, nnncipallv remarkable 
fbr it* eitenuTe mines of coal, Bulpnur, and alan. It also 
i]anici on an active trade in sheep, iron goods, Ac A 
dnrch of the 12th centarj, with gome remarkable gcQlp' 
lure, md the ruins of the castle of the coants of Rouergue, 
lie stilt in eziilenoe. Population, 8863. 

The name Anbin, or St. Anbin, is one of the most fre- 
quent in France, beinx borne by Dpirards of &!tj villages 
&un the Pyrenees to Jersej. 

AUBURN, the capital of Cayuga count;, in the stale 
of New York, on the railway between Albany and Bu&lo, 
174 miles W. of the former. The irregularity of the 
fur&ce on which the city is built has prevented the com- 
plete earring out of the rectangular arrangement of 
Mreela, which is so moch in favor in the United Stales, 
but the thoronghfares are wide and lined with trees, and 
the hooMS (or the meet part well builL The principaJ 
public Imildinp are in Oeneaee BtreeL The moat remark- 
tble of the institutions is the state prison, founded in 1S16, 
«hich ii conducted on the " silent system, aad usually oon- 
tainB upwanls of 1000 prisoners, who are employed each in 
the work lo which he has been trained. Auburn also pos- 
HsMS a Presbyterian Ebeological seminary, founded in 1821, 
to academy, five public free schools, sixteen churches, an 
onhui asylum, two opera houses, and several newspaper 
offices. The watei^powertupplied by the outlet of [he neigh- 
boring Inke of Owasco is utitiied in a number of msnuiac- 
lories. Cotton and woollen goods, carpels, agricultural im- 
plements and other tools, paper, flour, and beer are the prin- 
dpal products. 

AUBUSSON, a town of France, situated in a luctu- 
Ksque valley on the banks of the Creuse, in the department 
to which that river gives its name. It is said to hati owed 
its orif^n to a number of Saracens, who, having escaped 
(roiD the battle in which their nation was defeated by Charles 
HiTtel, were enticed by the beauty and couvetiience of the 
ipot lo establish themselvee permanently there. It has long 
been famous for its carpets and tapestry, the art of weaving 
«blch was probably derived from those Eastern aetllera, and 
it also manufactures common cotton and woollen goods, 
leather, tobacco, &c. Population, 6625. 

AUCH, the ancient (Xmbemita or jlujrusfa Auteorum, one 
of the most andent cities of France, capital of the depart- 
ment of Gets. In Cosar's time this was the chief town of 
the AuacL In the 8th centniy it became the capital of 
Qascony; and when that district was divided into count- 
ships, was the capital of Armagnac The site of the mod- 
em town does not exactly coincide with that of the ancient, 
being on the opposite (the left) bank of the river Geis. 
Auch was probably destroyed by the Saracens about 724 A.n., 
and was afterwards rebuilt in its present picturesque situa- 
tioD on the slope of a hill. On the opposite side of the 
river, and occupying the die of the ancient city, is a con- 
siderable Enborb, which is connected with the town by a 
bridge; and commimication between the lower and the up- 
per town is afforded by long Bights of steps. The streets, 
though narrow, are generally well built, and a fine prome- 
nade in the upper part of Ihe town gives a magnificent view 
of Iha snrrounaing country. Auch is the neat of an arch- 
bishopric, which was founded in the 4th century, and gave, 
till the involution, the title of Primate of Aquitania lo the 
holder of the see. It has tribunals of commerce and pri- 
mary jurisdiction, a royal college, an agricaltural society, a 
theological seminary, with a museum and an extensive 
Lbtaiy, a theatre, Ac. The cathedral of SL Mary one of 
the most magnificent in France, was commenced In the reign 
'«f Charles VIII. (148S) and finished in that of Louis XV. 
It exhibits several styles of architectute, contains many 
el^Dt monuments, and is adorned with fine slained-gtsss 
windows, and carved woodwork. The pr^edtire, formerly 
Ihe archiepiacopal palace, is a vast and noble edifice. The 
principal mannfactures are hats, various kinds of lineD and 
cotton stu^ leather, &c, and there is a considerable trade, 
Mpecially in the bruidies of Armagnac Population in 
1872, 13,087. 

AUCHTEBABDEB, a town and oariBh of Scotland, 
ooonly of Perth, 15 miles W.S.W- of Perth. The town 
connsts of a single street about a mile in length. It wal 
fcnnerly a royal burgh, but is now disfranchised. Near it 
is an anment castle, said to have been a hunting-seat of Mal- 

«i» n. T. _.. In -Tnnection with this parish that 

te which led to the Disruption 

in the Church of Scotland in 1S43. Population ot town 
in 1871. 2599. 

AUCHTEBMUCHTY. a royal burgh and parish of 
Scotland, county of Fife, S miles W.S.W. of Cupar. The 
town is irrt^arly built on an elevated site, and is divided 
by the Levenipool, a rapid streamlet which runs down its 
centre. The manufacture of linen is carried on. Popula- 
tion of burgh in 1871, 1082. 

AUCKLAND, a provinoe of New Zealand, consisting of 
the northern portion of North Island, and bounded for the 
meet part on the 8. by the 39th parallel of latitude. In 
the S.Vf. it runs out into a peninsula between 200 and 300 
milts in length, with a very irregular coast-lino, espe(ually 
on the eastern side. The total area of the province is about 
17,000,000 acres, of which nearly 11,275,000 are still in 
possession of the Maoris, who are, however, continually 
disposing of their claims to the Qoyemment. The sur- 
face of the province is of a very varied character, present- 
ing wide and fertile plains, stretches of fern-heath and 
swamp, mountain ranges and isolated neaks, tracts of richly- 
wooded jungle, rocky plateaus, and districts of strange vol- 
canic activity. All round the coast there are a large num- 
ber of natural harbors, and the most of the interior is trav- 
eraed by naviCTble streams. The principal river-system 
is that of the Waikato (or Bushing Water), which rises in 
the Taupo Lake, in the south of the province, forces its 
way through an extensive rocky lable-land, flows onwards 
for about 35 miles through a nch hut morahy basin, joins 
its waters with the Waipa (or Peaceful Water), its lai^est 
tributary, culs a passage through the Taupiri range, and 
after traveling the fertile expanse of its lower basin, turns 
abniptly to the W. and falls inio the sea about 35 miles 8. 
of the city of Audiland. The value of the Waikato as a 
commercial highway is greatlv lessened by its mouth be- 
ing encumbered with sandbanks, that prevent the entrance 
of ships. To the E. of this river lies the valley of the 
Thames, fertile and well watered by several streams, and 
still further eastward eitends the veisant of the Bay of 
Plenty. The course of settlement has hitherto advanced 
for the most part along Ihe valleys of the Waikato and the 
Thames,— Cambridge, about 104 miles S, of the city of 
Auckland, being the frontier station in the former, and 
Tapapa, a little further lo the S., in the latter. Nearly the 
whole of the N.W. peninsula is occupied by a scattered 
population, and various flourishing tewnahips are situated 
along the coast on all sides. In 1873 there were 3842 hold- 
ings in the province, and about 225,000 acres had been 
broken up. Hitherto the cultivation of the cereals has not 
proved sufficiently remunerative, though climate and soil 
are equally favorable, and the attention of the farmer has 
principally been tunied to the rearing of the various de- 
scriptions of live Block, more especially sheep. The natu- 
ral wealth of the province consists principally in its gold 
and timber. Coal has been (bund in several districts, and 
a fefv mines have been auccesafully worked, as Kawakawa 
(at the Bay of Islands), Drury, and Whangarei; but the 
moat important deposits are comparatively undisturbed. It 
is believed that Iron may eventually be found in ooDMder- 
able quantities, and various minerals have been pointedoni 
in the interior by scientific travellers. Thcehief seats of the 
gold-di^nga are the Coromandel peninsula and the Thames 
valley. The quantity exported in 1871 was valued at 
£1,888,708. The most important limber tree is the kauri> 
pine, which is peculiar to Auckland, and does not grow fur- 
ther south than 37° 30'. It is of magnificent dimensions, 
and valuable, not only as the mnet extensively used build- 
ing material, but on account of the fossil gum which is found 
wheraver the kauri forest baa been. This gum forms one 
of the chief articles of export, about 14,277 tons being the 
amount in the three years 1870, 1871, and 1872. There are 
various other trees of considerable value, such as the rimu, 
the kahikatca, and the totara. Tlie timber trade, both 
domestic and foreign, is increasing in importance, and 
shipbuilding is extensively carried on. There are large 
districts oveigrown with the p/uyrmnim or New Zealand 
flax, and the right to cut it on the waste lands is granted 
by the Government at a low price. In 1873, 149T tons 
of the prepared fibi^ valued at £27,783, were exported, 
besides a considerable quantity of manufactured rope. 
Thcee great necessities of commerce, roads and railways, 
are being constructed in various directions. A line is in 
course o? formation from Auckland up the valley of the 
Waikato, as far as Newcastle, at the confluence of the 


Wslp^ and a BTirrey liu been made for about 20 milca 
Airther. A road nirtf! from Bowen, on the Ba; of Plentj, 
acrOH tbe coontry, Ihroogh the wonderful lake district, 
vith ila boiling fuuntains, Bleftin geTiera, and mnd-bathg, 
nnind b/ the east coast of Taupo Lake, and over the high- 
lands lo Napier, in Hawke'a Bar Province. The hiatorr 
of Aackland was for long the history of New Zealand, 
and will E>e fully trealed under that beodiog. (See Nev 

For adescriptiTe acoounl of a large part of the prOTinos, 
the reader is referred to Dr. Hochetetter's Taluable worki, 
eepedally to ^is Sae Zealand, 1863. A Tery eraphic 
sketch d some of the natural curiosities is furnished fa^ 
Anthony Trollope in his Ataimiia and Nae Zeaiand, vol. ii. 

AncziiAin), tlie capital of the above province, is finely 
aitusted on an isthmus in the N.W. peninsula, on the o. 
shore of the Waitemata harbor, which ia formed by an 
inlet of the Hanraki Gulf. Lat. 36° 61' 8., long. 174=^ 50'. 
On the other side of the iBthmus lies the harbor and town 
of Mannkau, which serres as a supplementary port to the 
city. Auckland was founded in IS40 hr Oovemor Hobsou, 
and became a burgh in 1851. It was till 1S65 the seat of 
the Qovemment, which is now situated at Wellington. The 
city has a fine appearance, especially from the harbor, and 
is sarrounded bj a number of dourishiug suburban villagee, 
with several of which it is eonneoted by railway. Among 
the public buildings in the city and neighborhood may be 
mentioned the governor^ hoiuc^ the caUiedntl, Bt. John's 
E[Jacopal oolUge, about 4 miles distant, the Auckland col- 
lie and grammar school, the Episcopal grain mar school^ iu 
tfaesoburbof Pamell, the provincial hoapital, the provincial 
lunatic asylum, and the orphanwe at Pamell. A wharf, 
1690 feet in length, has been built opposite the centre of 
the city, and affords excellent accommodBtion for the grad- 
ually increasing traffic of the harbor. In 1872, 170 non- 
colonial vessels, with a tonoage of 54,257 tons, entered the 
port, besides a large number of coasting ships, There are 
noistered at Auckland 167 sailiug veseU and 20 Hteam- 
ahin most of them of provincial build. The population, 
whicb was 7980 in 1862, bad increased hj 1S71 lo 12,037 
(with the suburbs to 16,0<M)), and is now estimated at about 

AUCKLAND ISLANDS, a ^ronp discovered ia 1806 
by Captain Briscoe, of the l^glish whaler "Ocean," about 
180 milsi S. of New Zealand, in lat, 60° 24', long. 166° 
7' K The islsnda, of volcanic origin, are very fertile, and 
are covered with forest. They were granted lo the Messrs. 
Enderby by the British Oovemiuent aa a whaling atatiou, 
but die establishment was abandoned in 1862. (Bee Bay- 
nal's AwJdand Idandt, 1874.) 

AUCKLAND, Willuk Edkm, Babox, an eminent 
diplomatist and politician, third son of Sir Robert Eden, 
But., of West Auckland was bom in 1744. He was edu- 
oaUd at Eton and Oxford, and adopted the profession of the 
law. At the age of tdrcntj-aeven he resigned his practice at 
the bar, and engaged in political life as under-Becretary to 
Lord Suffolk. By the favor of the duke of Marlborough, 
he obtained a seat for Woodstock, and soon gave proof of his 
ability in the House. He attached bimBelt^to Lord North's 
party, and after serving under Lord Carlisle on the unsuc- 
oenml commission to the colonists in America, acted as 
•ecrelaiy lo that nobleman, when he held the post of 
Viceroy in Ireland. During this time he had obtained the 
offices of director and auditor of Greenwich Hospital, which 
probably yielded him an income sufficient for carrying on 
his political career. In 1783 he took a leading part in 
negotiating the remarkable coalition between North and 
Fox, and was rewarded by beiog made vioe-treasurer of 
Ireland. In 1784 he opposed Pitt's proposal for commer- 
cial reciprocity with Ireland, but in so doing oontrived to 
separate himself to some extent from his own party, and 
■aortly after accepted from Pitt the office of plenipotentiary 
at I^ris. Here he succeafully neeolialed the important 
commerdal treaty with France; and after his appointment 
■■ ambaeeador to Spain, he rendered valuable service in 
settling the dispute between the British and French Gov- 
ernments with r^ard lo the afTaira of Holland. In 1789 
he was made an Irish peer, with the title of Baron Auck- 
hmd, and in 1793 he was raised to the British peerage as 
Baron Auckland, of West Auckland, Durham. For three 

5 ears, 1708-1801, he held office as poetmaster^eneral. He 
led suddenly in 1814. In 1776 he married the sister of 
the first earl of Minto, by whom ho had a large family. 

Besides numerous pamphlets aa poli^csl i 
day. Lord Auckland wrote a treatise on tht 
Oit Penal Lam, 1771. His political conduct has heat &» 
quently censured; he was a skilful diplomadst, and u i 
statesman was specially remarkable for his clear grasp of 
economic principles. His Joarual and (hmtpandaKt, 4 
vols., 1860-1862, publislied by hU son, the bishop of Balk 
and WeIh^ throws considerable light on the politiod lusloi; 

AUCKLAND, Geobok Edkr, Eabl or. Governor- 
General of India, bom 20th Au^ist, 1784, was the seoiod 
son of the snhject of the preceding notice. He compbdad 
his education at Oxford, and was admitted lo the bar in 
1809. His eider brother was drowned in the Tliames m 
the following year; and in 1S14, on the death of hit 
bther, he took his seat in th^ house of Lonli as BiroD 

of the Mint In 1834 he held office 1 )r a few 
months ae firat lord of the Admiralty, and in 1S35 he wu 
appointed Governor-General of India. He proved himself 
to DC a painstaking and lalrarious legislalor, and devoted 
himself specially to the improvement of native schools, and 
the * • 

These useful 1 
rupted in 1838 by the hostile movements of the Penisos, 
which excited the fears not only of the Aaglo-Indian Gov- 
ernment but of the home sulhorities. Lord Aucklaod 
resolved to enter upon a war in Afghanistan, and on the 
1st October, 1838, published at Simlahis Gunoua manifesto. 
The early operations were crowned with success, and Ihs 
Govemoi^Qeneral received the title of Earl of Anddud. 
But reverses followed quickly, and in the ensuing cun- 
paigns the British troops suff^ed the most severe disastem 
LoM Auckland had the double mortification of seeing his 
policy a complete future, and of being superseded befors 
his errors coutd be rectified. In the autumn of 1841 b» 
was suoceedei in office by Lord Ellenborough, and teCuraed 
to England in the following year. In 18& he was mide 
first lord of the Admiralty, which office he held until his 
death, let January, 1S49, He died unmarried, and the 
earldom became extinct. 

AUCTION, a mode of selling property by offering il 
to the highest bidder in a public competition. By 8 Vid. 
c 15, tbe onifonn duty of £10 per annum ia impcsed on 
every license to carry on tlie business of auctioneer, but 
duties on sales by auction are abolished. It is the duty 
of an auctioneer to sell for the best price be can obtain, 
nod his authority cannot be delegated to another unlen by 
special permission of his employer. The auctioneer's name 
must be exhibited on some conspicuous place during the 
sale, under a penalty of £20. Sales b^ auction uaially 
take place under certain conditions, which it is the dan 
of Uie auctioneer to read lo the bidders before the ssM 
begins. To complete a sale by aut^on there must be a 
hiadiitg by, or on behalf of, a person capable of making a 
contract, and an aeaplanee thereof by the auctioneer, and 
until the bidding is accepted both vendor and bidder aiv 
free, and may retract if they choose. If due notice is 
given, an agent may he employed to bid on behalf of the 
seller, but the employment of several bidders is improper, 
and if the sale is declared to be oitAoul mert>«, any bidding 
on the behalf of the seller will vitiate the sale, Pufiig, 
it has been said, is illegal, even if there be only one pufler. 
On the other hand, any hindrance lo b free saie^ either by 
bidder deterring competitors from offering against him, 
T by an engagement among the competitors to refrain 
from bidding, in order to keep down the price of the goods 
and then diara the profit, is a fraud upon the vendor. Two 
persbos, however, may agree not to bid against each other. 
Auctioneers are endtled by their license to act as appiaisen 

AUD£US, or Attdiub, a reformer of the 4th centitry, 
by birth a Mesopotamian. He suffered much persecutioit 
trom the Syrian clergy for his fearless censure of their 
irregular lives, and was expelled from tlie church. He 
was afterwards banished into Scvthia, where he guned 
many followers and established the monaatic aystem. He 
died there at an advanced age, about 370 AJK The 
AndRans celebrated tbe feast of Easter on the same day 
as the Jewish Psssover, and they were also charged witb 
attributing to the Deit^ a human shs^. Tli^ 4>'P'*i' >*> 
have founded this opiiuon on Geoesia i. 26, 



rf tbc old piorioce of I^guedoc, Lounded o 

, W. by Arit„ . 
es between Int. 42° 40' and 
ngth from E. to W., and 60 
Area, 2341 square miles. 
IraTersed on its western 
range of medium 

Ibtt of Eutem Pyrenees. It L 
S4° SO* N., and is 80 miles in U 
isit« in breadth from N. to 8. 
Tit (iepartmeDL of Aude is 

boundary from B. l« N. by .. . ^. _ _ . 

bdghi, whicli unites the Pyrenees with the Southern 
(kvmiea ; and its northern froatier is occupied by the 
Black Hoantiintt, the most wtsCem part of the Cevennes 
diain. The Corbifires, a bronch of the Pyrenees, runa In 
■ S.W, and N.E. direction along the southern diatncL 
The Aude, its principal river, has almost its entire oouise 
u the department. Its principal affluents on the left are 
the Freaquel, Orbiel, Argent-Double, and Cesse; on the 
right, the Ouett^ 8aUe, and Orbieu. The canal of Lan- 
gnedoc, which unites the Atlantic with the Hedilerranean, 
tnieiMB the depsrtment from E. to W. The lownea of 
the coast causes a series of large laguuea, the chief of which 
ire those of Bage^ Sigean, Narbonne, Palme, and Leucate. 
The climate is variable, and often sudden in its alterations. 
The wind from the N.W., known as the Ore, blows with 

Eat violence, and Uie sea breeie is often laden with pes^- 
lial effluvia from the laguaes. Various kinds of wild 
ioimala, as the chamois, bear, wild boar, wolf, fox, and 
tadieTj inhabit the mountains and forests; game of all 
kiD& IS plentiful ; and the coast and lagunes abound in 
fish, nines of iron, copper, lead, mausanese, cobalt, and 
latimony exist iu the department ; and, besides the beauti- 
ful marbles of Cascastel and Caunes, Cliere are quarries of 
lithographic stone, gypsum, limestone, and slate. The 
coat mines are for the most part abandoned. The moun- 
tains contain many mineral springs, both cold and thermal. 
The agricoltare of the department is in a very flourishing 
coDdiuon. The meadows are extensive sad well watered, 
and are pastured by numerous fioclcs and herds. The grain 
produce, oonsisting mainly of wheat, oats, rye, and Indian 
com, consideiably exceeds the consumption, and the vine- 
jirds yield an abundant supply of both white and red 
vines. Olives and almonds are also extensively cultivated, 
and the honey of Aude is much esteemed. Besides import- 
ant maaufiKtures of woollen and cotton cloths, combs, jet 
onumenls, and casks, there are paner-mills, distilJeries, 
tutneries, and extensive iron and salt works. The chief 
town ia CarcMSonne, and the department is divided into 
&« four BTTondiBsements of Carcassonne, limoui, Nar- 
bonoe^and Caslelnaudary. Population in 1ST2, 285,927. 

AUDEBEET, Je&h BAFTwrB, a distinguished French 
naturalist and artist, was bom at Rochefort in 175S. He 
studied painting and drawing at Paris, and gaii 
sidenble reputation as a miniature painter. In 1787 he 
VIS employed to make drawings of some objects in 
lUtuial history collection, and was also a contributor 
the preparation of the plates for Olivier's Swtoirt de» 
bi»tde». He thus acquired a taste for the study of natural 
history, and devoted himself with ^at eagemefB to the 
new punHiit. In 1800 appeared his first original work, 
L'Bubnre NafartlU da Singa, da MalcU, el de* OaUo- 
BiUijtto, illustrated by 62 folio plates, drawn and engraved 
bj himself. The coloring in these plates was unusually 
beautiful, and was laid on bj a method devised by the 
uthor himself. Audebert died ia 1800, but be had left 

aplete materials for another great work, HUtoire det 
ii, da OweavX'Mouicha, da Jaeamara, et da Pro- 
KTspL which was published in 1802. 200 copies wei 
printed in folio, 100 in large quarto, and IS were printed 
with the whole text in letters of gold. Another work, left 
imGnished, was aim) published after the author's death, 
L'BidMre da Qrvneertaia, ei da Oieeata de Paradit. 
l^e last two works also appeared together in two volumes 
with the title Oiaeaux daria cm d. rt&tit metaiiiqaa, 160: 

AUDITOR, a person appointed lo examine the ace. .. . ._ 
kept by the financial officers of the Crown, public corpora- 
tiona, or private persons, and to certify as lo their accuracy. 
The mullifarious statutes regulating the audit of public 
accounts have been superseded by the 2il and 30 Vict, c 
IB, which ffives ^wer to the Qaeen to appoint a "comp- 
troller aad anditor-genersi," with the requisite staff to 
examine and verify Uie accounts pc^iared by the diSerent 
d^rtmenls of the public service. In eiamming accounts 
of the appropriatfoD of the several supply grants, the comp- 

Oiiri^ d 

troller and auditor-general "shall ascertain first whether 
the payments which the account department has charged 
to the giant are supported by vouchers oi proofs of pay- 
ments ; and second, whether the mone^ expended has been 
applied to the purpose or purposes mr which such g 

general. All public moneys pm-able to the Eichequer are 
to be paid to the "account of Her Majesty's Exchequer" 
at the Bank of England, and daily returns of such payments 
must be forwarded lo the complroller. Quarterly accounts 
of the income and charge of the consolidated fund are lo 
be prepared and transmitted to the comptroller, who, in 
case of^any deficiency in the consolidated fund, may certify 
to the bank to make advances. The' accounts of lo^ 
boards, poor-law unions, &c, must be passed in n similar 
manner by an official auditor. It is the duty of the auditor 
to disallow all illegal payments, and surcharge them npon 
the peraon making or authorixing them ; but such disallow- 
ances m^ be removed by eertiorari into the Court of 
Queen's Beuch, or an appeal may be made lo the local 
Ooverament Board. In municipal corporations two bur- 
gesses must be chosen annually as auditors of the accounts. 
AUDOUIN, Jeam Victob, a distinguished French en- 
tomolo^t, was bom at Paris, April 27, 1797. He began 
the study of law, but was diverted from it by his strong 

Eredilection for natural history, which subsequently led 
im to enter the medical nrofession. In 1S24 ne was ap- 
pointed assistant to Lstreilte in the eatomotogical chair at 
the Paris museum of natural history, and succeeded him 
in 1833. He established in 1824, in conjuaclioa with 
Dumas and Adolphe Brongniart, the Amiaia da Saimietl 
Natarelia, to which he made numerous valuable contribu- 
tions, generally in co-operation with M. Milne-Edwards. 
The greater part of his other papers are contained in the 
TramaeiuMi of the EnlotTtriloffieai Soeiely, of which he was 
one of the founders, and for many years presidenL In 
1838 he became a member of the Academy of Sciences. 
He died in 1841, more front the effects of mental than of 
bodily exhaustion. His principal work, Siatoire da 7a- 
leeta nuitibUi A la Vigne, was continued after his deaUi by 
Hilne-Edwards and Blanchard, and published in 1842. 

AUDRAN, the name of a family of French artists and 
engraveis, who for several generations were distinguished 
in the same line. The first who devoted himself 'to the art 
of engraving was Claude Audran, bom in 1592, and the 
last was BenoiL Claude's great-grandson, who died in 1712. 
The two most distinguished members of the family are the 
following: — 

AuDBAN, GfsARD, oT QjKABD, the miMt Celebrated 
French engraver, was the third son of Claude Andran, and 
was bom at Lyons in 1640. He was taught the first prin-' 
ciples of design and engraving by his father ; and, follow- 
ing the example of bis brother, went lo Paris to perfect 
himself in his art He there, in 1666, engraved for Le 
Bmn GnMaritin^i BaiiU viilA Maxmtait, his IVivmph, and 
the Sojiing of Stephen, which gave great satisfaction to the 
painter, and placed Audran in the very first rank of en- 
gravers at Paris. Next year he set out tor Rome, where 
he resided three years, and engraved several fine plates. 
That great patron of the arts, M. Colbert, was so struck 
with the beauty of Audran's works, that he persuaded 
LoiiU XIV. to recall him to Paris. On his letura he ap. 
plied himself assiduously to engraving, and was appointed 
eugraver to the king, from whom he received great en- 
couragement. In the year 1681 he whs admitted to the 
council of the Royal Academy. He died at Paris in 1703. 
His engravings of Le Bmn's BaUUi of Alexander are re- 
garded OS the best of his numerous works. "He was," 
says the Abb6 Fontenai, "the most celebrated engraver 
that ever existed in the historical line. We have several 
subjects, which he engraved from his own designs, thai 
manifested as much tasto as character and facility. But in 
the BaUtet ofAUxainder he surpassed even the expeclatiaos 
of Le Bmn himself^" Gerard published in 1683 a work 
entitled Lei proporiimtM du eorpi humain monirlet lur la 
plua bdla figura dc FaniiquiU, which has been translated 
into English. 

AtiDBAV, Jeak, nephew of O^rard, was bom at Lyons in 
1667. After having received instructions from his father, 
he went to Paris to perfect himself in the art of engraving 
under his uncle, next to whom he wis the most distin- 
guished member of his bmily. At the age of twenty his 



canioB began to iiaplAj Itself in a anrpriBing rnanner ; and 
hk Bubseqnent bucccss was such, that in ITOT he obtained 
the title of eugntver to the king, Louis XI V^ who allowed 
him a pension, with aptLrtmenls in the Gobelins' and 
the following year he was made a member of the Kojal 
Academy. He was eighty yeara of age before he quitted 
Ibe graver, and nearly ninety when he died. The beat 
prints of this artist are those which appear not so pleasing 
to the eye at first sight. In these the etching constitutes 
a great part; and he hag finished (hem in a Dold, rough 
style. The Rape of tht Sabina, ailer Pouasin, is considered 
bis masterpiece. 

AUDUBON^ John James, a weil-ltnown naturalist, was 
bora in 1781 in Loaisiana, where hb parents, who were 
French Protestants, had taken up their residence while it 
was still « Spanish colony. Tney afterwards settled \a 
Pennsylvania. From his early years he had a passion for 
oteervitig the habits and appearences of birds, and attempt- 
ing delineations of them litim nature. At the age of fifteen 
he was sent to Paris, and remained there about two yean, 
when among other studies he took some lessons in the 
drawing-achool of David. On retumiog to America his 
filther established him in a plantation in Pennsylvania, and 
he soon after married. But nothing could damp bis ardor 
for natural history. For fifteen years he annually explored 
the depths of the primeval forests of America in long and 
bazarclous CKpeditions, far from his family and his home 
In these excursions he aojuired the facility of making (hose 
spirited drawings of biros that give such value to his 
magnificent work, 3^ Birdi of Ameriea. At that period 
he bad not drr«m«d of any publication of his labors ; as 
he informs us, " it was not the desire of fame that prompted 
to those long exiles; it was simply the enjovment of na- 
ture." He afterwards removed with bis family to the 
village of Henderson on the banks of the Ohio, where he 
continued his researches in natural liistory for several 

E«ni, and at length set out for Philadelphia with a jrart- 
lio containing 200 sheets filled with colored delineations 
of about lOQO birds. Business obliged him to quit Phila- 
delphia uneipecledly for some weeks, and he deposited his 
Snfolio in the warehouse of a friend ; but to his intense 
imay and mortification he found, on his return, that 
these precious fruits of his wanderings and his labors had 
been totally destroyed by rats. The shock tlirew him into 
k fever of several weeks' duration, that well-nigh proved 
fatal. But his native energy returned with returning 
health; and he resumed bis gun and his game-bag, his 
pencils Mid his drawing-book, and plunged again into the 
II I mils of the backwoods. In about three years be had 
again filled his portfolio, and then he rejoined his fiunily, 
who had in the mean time gone to Louisiana. After a 
short sojourn there he set out for the Old World, to exhibit 
to the ornithologists of Europe the riches of America in 
that department of natural history. 

In 1826 Andabon arrived at Liverpool, where the merits 
of his spirited delinealioiM of American birds were imme- 
diately recoiled. An exhibition of them to the public 
in the galleries of the Royal Institu^on of that town was so 
BocccBsful that it was repeated at Manchester and at Edin- 
burgh, where they were no lessadmired. When he proposed 
to publish a work on the birds of America, several natural- 
ists advised him to issue the work in large quarto, as the 
most useful size for the lovers of natural historj', and the 
moat likely to afford him a suSicient number of subscribera to 
remunerate his labors. At first he yielded to this advice, 
and acknowledged its soundness; butfinally he decided that 
his work should eclipee every other ornithological publica- 
tion. Every bird was to be delineated of the siie of life^ 
and to each species a whole page was to be devoted ; con- 
■equently, the largest tUphant folio paper was to receive 
the impressions. This necessarily increased the expense 
of the work so much as to put it beyond the reach of 
most sdeniific naturalists — which accounts for tlie small 
number of persons who, for a considerable time, could be 
reckoned among his supporters in the gigantic under- 
taking. The exceptionally high character of the work, 
however, gradually became known; and a sulHcIent 
number of subscribers was at length obtained in Qreat 
Britain and America, during the ten or twelve years that 
the work was going through the press, to indemnify him 
for the greatcoat of the publication— leaving him, however, 
a very inadequate compensation for his extraordinary in- 
dtistiy and skill. The first volume was published at New 

York in the end of Uie year 1830, the second in 1834, Um 
third in 1S37 and the fourth and last in 1839. The whol* 
condsts of 435 colored plates, containing 1055 figures of 
birds the siie of life. It is certainly the most magnificent 
work of the kind ever given to the world, and isweH'char- 
arterized by Cuvier, " Ceat le plus magnifique monument 
que I'Art alt encore flev^ i. la Nature." 

During the preparation and publication of his great work 
Audubon made severs! excursions from Great Britain. 
In the summer of 1828, he visited Paris, where he made 
the acquaintance of Cuvier, Humboldt, and other celebrated 
naturalists, and received from them every mark of honor 
and esteem. The following winter he passed in London. 
In April of 1830 he revisited the United Stat^ of America, 
and again explored the forests of the central and southem 
federal territories. In the following year he returned to 
London and Edinburgh, but the August of 1331 found him 
again in New York. The succeeding winter and spring 
he spent in Florida and South Carolina ; and in the sum- 
mer of 1832 he set out for the Northern States, with an in- 
tention of studying the annual migrations of birds, particu- 
larly of the passenger pigeon, of which he has given a 
striking description ; but his career was arrested at Boston 
bv a severe attack of cholera, which detained him there 
till the middle of August. Afler that he explored Uie 
coasts, lakes, rivers, and mountains of North America, 
from Labrador and Canada to Florida, during a seriea of 
laborious Journeys, that occupied him for three yeais. 
From Charleston, accompanied by his wife and fiunily, he 
took his third departure for Britain. During his earlier 
residence In Edinburgh he bad begun to publi^ his Ameri- 
can Omiili^ogicBl Biography, which at length filled five 
tai^ octavo volumes. The first was issued £ere by Adam 
Black in 1831 ; the last appeared in 1839. This book is 
admirable for the vivid pictures it presents of the habits 
of the birds, and the adventures of the naturalist. The 
descriptions are characteristically accurate and interesting. 

In 1839 Andubon bade a final adieu to ^Europe; and 
returning to his native country, he published, in a more 
popular form, his Birdt of Amtriea, in seven octavo vol- 
un^es, the last of which appeared in 1844. Hb ardent 
love of nature still prompted him to new enterprises, and 
he set out on fresh excursions; but in these he woa always 
accompanied by his two sons, and one or two other natuial- 
lita. The result of these excursions was the projection of 
a new work. The Qwidniptda of Ameriea, in atlas fbllo, 
and also a Biography of American Quadrupedt, both of 
which were commenced at Philadelphia in 1840. The 
latter was completed in 1S50, and is, p^hapa, even superior 
to his OntilhologKai Biography. 

To great intelligence in obeerving, and accuracy b 
delineating nature, to a vigorous, handsome fnaae, and 
pleasing eipreseive features, Audubon united very estim- 
able mental qualities, and a deep sense of religion with- 
out a trace of bi^tiy. His conversation was animated 
and instructive, his manner nnaasuming, and he always 
spoke with gratitude to heaven Ibr the very happy life he 
had been permitted to enjoy. He died, after a short Ulnei^ 
in his own residence on the banks of the Hudson, at New 
York, on the 27th of January, 1861. See Life and Advav- 
iuret of J. J, Audubon the Naturalitl, edited, from materials 
supplied by his widow, by Robert Buchanan, London, 1888. 

AUGEIAS {Avytia^, Avytof, ff. fJSiov ^^\ in GrtA 
Legend, a son of Helios, the sun. He was a prince of 
El IS, and, consistently with his lieing a descendant of the 
sun-god, had an immense wealth of herds, including twelve 
bulls sacred to Helios, and while as swans. He lived 
iieside the stream Menios (M^ — moon); and liis daughter 
Agamede was, like Medeln and Circe, sUlled in witchcrafl, 
and connected with the moon goddess. The task of 
Hercules was to clear out all his stalls in one day, and 
without help. This he did by making an opening in the 
wall and turning the stream through them. Augeias bad 
promised him a tenth of the herd, but refused this, 
alleging that Hercules had acted only in the service of 

AUQEREAU, Pikbrk FsANfoii) Chables, Duke of 
Castiglione, was the Bon of obscure parents, and bom in 
1757. After serving for a short penod in the armies of 
France, he entered the Neapolitan service, and for aonw 
time supported himself by teaching fencing at Naples. 
In 1792 he joined the Bepublicon army that watched the 
its of Spain. He rose rapidly to the rank of 



la of HiUemmo, De^, and Castiglione, and 
tke decuBTs chuves at the bloody comtwU of Lodi and 
ArcoU. Id 17^ be U>ok part with Bairas and tbe Birac- 
' 1 active agent in the revolution of the 

o the noted Tevolution 

... ST. 9), 179B. He received, 
however, the command of the army of Holland and the 
Lower Bbine, but ww aupereeded in 1801, From that 
lime he lived in retirement, till 1804, when he was made a 
mirahal of the French empire, and in the following jenr he 
wu appointed to the command of the eipedition against 
the Vorarlbei^, which he i^uickl; Hubduea. He also iia- 
tingniahed himi>elf greatly in the battles of Jena and 
Ejlia. In 1S09-10 he commanded the French in 
Catalonia, and tamialied hia laurels by hia great cru- 
chr to the Spaniards; bnt he was asain more honor- 
ablr conapicnoua in the campaign of 1813, especially 
in the terrible baUle of Leipeic In 1814 be had the 
command of a reserve army at Lyonx, and might have 
niade a diversion in favor of Napoleon, but he pre- 
ferred to Bubmlt, and retained a command under 4he 
Boarbooa. In the following year he at first refused to 
join Napoleon on his escape from Elba, and when he 
woald afterwards have accepted a command his aer- 
vicea were declined. He abo &iled to obtain miU- 

B office under the new dynasty, and alter having 
the painful taak of being one of the comminion 
on the trial of Nev, he returned to hia eatalea, where 
bt died of dropey in 18IB. 

AUGSBURU, a celebrated city of Germany, capi- 
lal of the circle of Swabia and Neuburx in Bavana, 
the principal seat of the commerce of South Ger- 
mairr and of commercial transactions with the south 
of £arope. It derives its name from the Boman 
Emperor Augustus, who, on the conqneat of Rhnlia 
by DruBus, established a Boman colony uaraed Avr 
^t^a VtmUlieomm (about 14 B.C.)- In the 5th cen- 
luiT it was sacked by the Hunii, and afterwards came 
under the power of the Frankish kings. It was al- 
most entirely destroyed in the war of Charlemagne 
against Thaaailon, duke of Bavaria; and after the 
dmolntion and division of that empire, it fell into 
the hands of the dukes of Swabia. After this it rose 
rapidly into importance aaamanulacturing and com- 
mercial town, and its merchant princes, the Fuggeis 
and Welsers, rivalled the Medici of Florence rtmt 
lh« slleiations produced in the currents of trade by 
the discoveries of the 16th and 18th centuries occa- 
sioned a great decline. In 1276 it was raised to the 
link of a free imperial city, which it retained, with J^ gj st«nli»n'i Pl«i 
many changes in its internal constitution, till 1806, B,' CkVollDen Flati. 
when it was annexed to the kingdom of Bavaria. 0. Fmit Uiikeu 
Ueanwhile, it was the scene of numerous events of g- ".rfSISthu™ 
historical importance. It was bteieged and taken by p| Lndwlz'i Fists. 
GoMavus Adolphux in 1632, and in 1635 it surren- &L'"'^'^!V 
<iered to the imperial forces; in 1703 it was bom- j'a.™mi^W. 
batded by the electoral prince of Bavaria, and forced 
to pay a contribution of 400,000 dollars; and in the war 
of 1803 it suffered severely. Of its conventiona the most 
neniorable are those which birth to the Aagabunr con- 
'—in (1630) and to the Augsburg alliance (1686). 

° "■'•' 's pleasantly situated in an eKtensive and fer- 

from the lOth centuir. There an also variout ehnrcbef 
and chapels, a school of arts, a polytechnic inatitntion, 
a picture gallery iu the former monastery of SL Catherine, 

a museum, observatory, botanical gardens, an eTchaoge, 

Kmnasiam, deaf-mule institution, orpha* asylum, pub- 
library, several remarkable fountains, dating Iron 
the 16th century, Ac The "Fu^erci," built in 1519 by 
the brothers Fugger, consists of 106 small houses, let to 
indigent Boman Catholic citizens at a merely nominal 
rent. The manufactures of Augsburg are various and ini< 
portent, consisting of woollen, linen, cotton, and silk goods, 
watches, jewelry, and goldsmith- work, mathematical instru- 
t^ machinery, leather, paper, cihemi(»l stuffi, types. 
Copper-engraving, for which it was formerly noted, 

longer carried on; but printing, lithtwraphy, and 
publishing have acquired a considerable development, ona 
of the beat known Continental newspapers being the AUgtf 

t Ztitimg or AugAvirg OaxdU. Augsburg is an ii 

Military SI 

_ The city is 



jf Munich, laL 48° 21' 44" N,, long. J0° 64' 42' 
£. Its fortifications were diamantled in 1703, and have 
WMe been converted into public promenades. Maximilian 
Btreet is remarkable for its breadth and architectural mag- 
aiScence. One of its meet interesting edifices is tbe Fug- 
ger House, of which the entire front is painted in fresco. 
Among the public buildings of Augsburg most worthy of 
notice is the town-hall, said to be one of the finest in Oer- 
Buy built by EUaa HoU in 1616-20. One of its rooms, 
called the " dolden HalL" from the profusion of its gild- 
ing, is 113 feet long, 59 broad, nod 63 high. The palace 
of the bishops where the memorable Confession of Faith 
*»8 presented to Charles V,. is now used for Govem- 
UKQi offices. The cathedral dates in its oldest portions 

portant rulway junction. On the opposite side of tha 
river, which is here crossed by a bridge, lies the little vil- 
lage of Lechbausen. Population in 1871, 51,270. 


AUGUBS, in Boman Antiqailia, a college or board ap- 
pointed to interpret, according to tbe books Uibri augvr^Ut) 
in which the science of divination was laid down,, the 
auspteia or signs of approval or disapprovat sent by Jupi- 
ter on the occasion of any public transaction. At finrt, it 
is said, there were only two augurs, one from each of the 
tribes Raranes and Titles. Two mora were added by Numa, 
and again other two for the third tribe of Luceres, that is 
six altogether. But in the year 300 b.c. it is cerlain that 
there were only four, to which number five plebeian places 
were added by the lei Osalnia. Sulla increased the num- 
ber to fifteen, at which it continued, with the exception 
that Ciesar appointed a sixteenth, and the emperors fre- 
quently added as supra manenan persons of distinction, or 
of their own ^uuily. An augur retained his office and. 
sacred character for life. The college had the right |>f_^ 



election of new manbei«. The inaignift of their offioe wen 
the littm*, or crook, and the dresa called trabea. The Dat~ 
Dial ngion lo look to for sisns of the will of Jupiter was 
tha sk^, where lightning t,aA the flight of birds seamed di- 
tected by him an counsel to men. The latter, however, was 
die more difficult of interpret ation^ and upon it, therefore, 
mainly hinged the system of divmalion with which the 
augurs were occopied, and which is expressed in the terms 
au^tnum and aiupiaum {ava gertre, tnei ipieere). The 
presence of augurs was required only in obaerTine signs 
in ^le sky, where their Gret dutj was to mark out with the 
litaai a apace or iemplum in the skj iTithin which the omoi 
must occur. Soch ohaervations being properly made only 
in the city of Bome, ausun are not loood elsewhere. 
Signs of the will of the gods were of two kinds, either in 
answer to a request [antpida imptlrativa), or incidental 
(aiupieia obiaSina). Of sucn signs there were fiTeclaffles:^ 
(1.) Sigru in the sky [tieUitia aaspida), consisting chiefly of 
thunder and lightning, but not excluding failing 

direct and impresaive token of the will of Jupiter, the ob- 
servation of it was held to apply to all public transactions 
fixed for the day on which it occurred. Whether favoi^ 
able or the reverse in its direction, the appearance of light' 
ning was held as a voice of the god against businees being 
done in the public assemblies. But since the person 
charged to take the auspices (dt axio lertnsK) for a certain 
day was constitutionally subject in no other authority who 
oould test the truth or ialeenood of his statement that he 
had observed lightning, it happened that this became a fo- 
Torite means of potting off meetings of the public asem- 
bly. Restrictions were, however, imposed on it in the 
Idler times of the re^ubuc When a new consul, prMor, or 

Suestor entered on his firstday of office and prayed the gods 
r good omens, it was a matter of custom to report to him 
that lightning from the left had been seen. (2.) Si^ 
from birdt (ligna ex aalmi), with reference to the direction 
of their fiight, and also to their singing, or ulteriug other 
sounds. In mattets of ordinary life on which divine 
counsel was prated for, it was usual to have recoutse to 
this form of divination. For public afiairs it was, by the 
time of Cicero, superseded by the fictitious observation of 
lightulng. (8.) Feeding i^ birdt {aiapiaa fx tripudiit), 
which consisted in observing whether a. bird, — usnally a 
fowl, — on grain being thrown before it, let fall'a particle 
from its mouth {tripudiam (ofuttntiun). If it did so, the 
will of the ^pds was in favor of the enterprise in qiieBtion. 
The lumplicity of this ceremony reoommended it for very 
general use, particularly in (he army when on service. 
The fowls were kept in cages by a servant, styled paUaHm. 
In imperial times are mentioned the daatnaiee 'paUarii. 
(1.) Sigya from animaU (pctJcUnd auapieto, or a qaadrtt- 
pedibus), (.«., observation of the course o^ or sounds 
nttered by, quadrupeds and serpents within a fixed space, 
corresponding to the observations of the flight of birds, but 
much leee frequently employed. It had gone out of use by 
tlie time of Cicero. (5.) Wammgt {ligna ex dirii), con- 
nstins of all unusual ohenomena. but chiefly such as 
baded iU. Being accidental in their occurrence, they 
belonged to tbe atuntria Mativa, and their interpretation 
was not a matter for the augurs, unless occurring in the 
course of some public transaction, in which case they 
ibrmed a divine veto a^nst it. Otherwise, refersnce was 
made for an interpretation to the Pontifices in olden times, 
afterwards frequently to the Sibylline books, or (he Etruscan 
banispices, when the inddeot was not already provided for 
by a rule, as, for example, that it was unlucky for a pelBoa 
lettving bis house to meet a raven, that the sudden death 
of a person from epilepsy at a public meeting was a sign to 
break up the assembly, not to mention other instances of 
adverse omens. A Boman, however^ did not necessarily 
regard a warning as binding unless it was clearly appre- 
h^ded. Not only could an accidental oversight render it 
useless, but lo some ezteot measures could be taken to 
prevent any warning being noticed. At sacrifices, for 
instance, the flute was played ne mad aiivd exaudiatttr 
(Pliny, Nal. Bat, xxviii! 2, 11). 

Among the other means of discovering the will of the 
Koda were casting lots, oracles of Apollo (in the hands of 
(he collie aacru faeaindia), but chiefly the exanunalion of 
the entrails of animals slain for saciifice. Anything 
■bDotmal baud tbere was bmi^ ilnder the notice of 

mployed fbr this. The peisons entitled Ii 
an expreauon of the divine will on a public sfiair weretba 
magistrates. To the highest ofGoea, including all persons 
of consular and pnetonan rank, belonged the ri^t of 
taking awpinanuizBna; lo (he inferior offices of ndile and 
quKslor, the avtpieia minora/ the diflerences betwem 
thes& however, must have been small. The sutgects Sol 
which aWTneia pabtiea were always taken were the tleo 
tion of magistrates, their entering on oflSce, the holdiwof 
a pi<blio assembly to pass decrees, the setting out ti an 
army for war. They could only be taken in Bome itadf 
and in case of a commander having to renew his mairieia, 
he must either return lo Bome or select a spot in the fordgn 
country lo represent the hearth of (hat city. The time te 
observing auspicee was, as a nile, between midnight and 
dawn of the day for which the transaction was fixed aboal 
which ch^ were desired. But whether it was so oidend 
in the ritual, or whether this was (o leave the whole day 
free, is not known. In military a&irs this comae was hdI 
always pcesible, as in the case of taking aoqdcet befine 
crossing a river. The founding of colonies, tbe beginning 
of a battle, before calling together sn army, before sitllii^ 
of the senate, at decisions of peace or war, were occatiooi, 
not always but frequently, for taking auspices, llitt pltcs 
where (he ceremony was performed was not fixed bol 
varied, so as to have a close relation to the ohjtA to lAilt 
It referred. A spot bdng selected, the official diarged tn 
make the observation [ipeetio) pitched his tent there soBf 
days before. A matter postponed through advene sbm 
from the gods could on the fol lowing or some fttnn 0^ 
be again brought forward for the auspice* ( n pHtrt 
mupieia). If an error (vtfiiun) occurred in the Mi^<m 
the augurs could, of their own accord or at the reqmt of 
the senate, inform themselves of the drcumstanoe^ and 
decree upon it. A consul could refuse (o accept iMl 
decree while he remained in office, but on retiring he 
could be prosecuted. Avtpida obUUiva referred mosUy to 
the comitia. A magistrate was not bound to lake iiotic* 
of signs reported merely by a private peraon, bat he ooald 
not overlooli such n report from a brother magistrate. For 
example if a quiestor on his entry lo office owerved light- 
ning and announced it to the consul, the latter must d^y 
the public assembly for the day. (a. b. k.) 

AUGUST, originally Sezlila, as beine the sixth mootb 
in the pre-Julian Boman year, received i(s present Dams 
from the Emperor Augustus. The jireceding month, 
Qumtiiit, had been called July after the great Julius 
Qkmi, and the senate thought to propitiate the emperor trf 
conferring a similar honor upon him. August wss 
selected, not as being the nalat month of Augustus, but 
because in it his greatest good fortune had happened to 
him. In that month he had been admitted to the cod- 
suJate, had thnce celebrated a triumph, had received the 
allegiance of the soldiers stationed on the Janiculum, had 
concluded the civil wars, and had subdued Egypt As 
July contained thirty-one days, and August only thirty, it 
was thought necessary to add another day to (he latter 
month, in order that Augustus might not be in any respect 
inferior to Julius. 

AUOnSTA, the capital of the Slate of Maine, and teat 
of justice, is situated on the Kennebec River (in Eennebeo 
county), 43 miles from ils mouth, in iat. 44° IB' K., long. 
69° 6iy W. The citf lies mainly on tbe right bank of the 
Kennebec River, which b here crossed by a bridge I>20 feet 
long. The businees portion of the city was destroyed by 
fire in 1866, but has since been rebuilt. Its pnncipal 
public buildings are the State house. State insane asylnoi, 
and United States' arsenal. It has several banks, daily and 
weekly newspapers, and numerous churobee. The popula- 
Uon of Augusta, by the census of 1870, was 7808. 

AUGUSTA, > citv of Georgia, in Ihe United States of 
America, the capital of the county of Richmond. It is 
situated in a beautiful plain, on the Savannah River, 231 
miles from ils mouth, and has extensive rwlway oommoni- 
cation. Like other American cities it is spacious and 
regular in its plan, Greene Street, fbr example^ being 168 
feet in width, with a row of trees extending aliwg each 
side. The piincipal buildings are the city hall, a masmis 
hall, an oddfellows' hall, the Richmond academy, the 
Georgia medical college, the opera-'honse, and an oridiM 
asylnm. Besides these, the city posseasee an arsenal, 
water works, a Bomber of baub^ newi|>aiwr offices, exlco- 


^T« ootton (actaricH and flour huUb, sereral ftxmdriee, tvq 
lofauGO bdoriot, Ac. Water-power is abundaatl; enpplied 
bem ibe liTer by the Aagusta canal, which ■was con- 
Krocted in 1846. Augusta wia an important nlace dnring 
the rerolntionarj war, and continued to Soariih amaiinglj 
till iha openioK of tiie G«or^a railwaj. A temponii7 
decline then took place, owing to the change in the 
iDMhodi of traffic; bat a new current of proeperitj 
oteedU; set in, which slill conUnues. Population in 1S70, 

AUGUSTAN HISTORY is the title bestowed upon a 
cdtlection of the biographies of the Roman emperot«, from 
Uadriui to Carinni, written under Diocletian and Constan- 
tine, and usually regarded as the oompoeition of six 
aathoTK — £liiui Spaitiaous, Jul ins Capitolinus, £IiuB 
LuDpndius, Vulcatiua Uallicanus, Trebellius Pollio, and 


, however, ther 

The distribution of the respective biographiea among them, 
accordiog to the arrangement of the MSS., is supported by 
DO extraneous authority, and depends upon no intelligible 
principle. Without entering into detail, for which space 
bill us, it must suffice lo state that up to aud including 
(be biognphy of Alexander Severus, Ibe authorship of the 
vxrioin oiemoin is inteicbaaged among Bpartianus, Lum- 
pridiuE, and Capiloiinus, in a manner only explicable upon 
the hypolhesb of n division of labor among these writers, 
or DC that of their having selected their subjects entirely at 
random. The Utter ie cooCradicled by their own affirma- 
tions, and no trace of any mutual concert ie discoverable, 
ndilier is there any perceptible difference of style. When, 
therefore, we find the excerpts in the Pulnline MS. asaigniiig 
■11 the biographies preceding that of Maximin to SpaxUanus 
alone, and remark that his pnenomen and that of Lam- 
pridins are alike given as £lius, we cannot avoid suspecting 
with Casaubon and Salmaaiua that the full name was .£liu8 
LunpHdius Spartianus. and that two authon have been 
minuiaclured out of one. We further find Spartianus ob- 
Krting, at the commencement of his life of ^lius Verus, 
that having written the lives of all the eroperors who bad 
borne the title of Augustus from Julins Ctesar down lo 
Hadrian, he purposes from that point to comprise the 
. Cmn also. This excludes the idea of his having written 
without a plan, or in concert with any colleague. His 
Uographies are icffularly dedicated to Diocletian down to 
lliat of Fescennius nigei, afW which, witii one exception, 
probsbly dne to the corruption of the MSS., they are 
imcrihed to Conslantine, as would naturally be the case 
with a work continued uiider this prince's reigu after having 
been commenced under his predecessor's. We may also 
with probability ascribe to Spartianus the life of Avidius 
CbbIue, tUribuled in the HSS. to Vulcatiue Gallicanus, 
but whose author describee his undertaking in terms 
almost idenlJcal with those employed by Spartianus. No 
tuo^phv subsequent to that of Alexander Beverua is 
itlnbuled lo Spartianus Ijy any MS., and the next series, 
cunprising the Maximina, the Qoidians, and Maximus and 
BalbiouB, is undoubtedly the production of Julius Capi- 
tolinuB, who addresses his work to Constantine, and pro- 
ftncdly proceeds, in some respects, upon a different plan 
from his predecessor. The work of Spartianus must have 
ranained incomplete, and Capiloiinus must hare proposed 
to fill op the interval between him and Trebellius Pollio, 
who dedicates his life of Claudius Qolhicus to Constantius 
-Chlons, and whom we know, from the testimony of Vo- 
piKDi, to have written the lives of the Philippi and their 
SDcceggois up lo Claudius, some years before 303 A.D. In 
that year (and not 291 A.s.j as supposed by Salmasius and 
Oinloo) Vopiscua w«a solicited hytJie urban prefect, Junius 
Tiberianns, lo ondertake the life of Aurelian ; this biography 
appetn from internal evidence to have been publishea by 
30/ AJ>., and the lives of Aurelian's successors down to 
<!arinus wars added before the dealb of Diocletian in 313. 
We may therefore reduce the Augustan historians from 
Bi lo WDi', and assign their respective shares aa follows ; 
To ^artianna, the bi<^ra^hieB from Julius Cesst to 
Alexander Hevenu, all anterior to Hadrian being lost ; to 
Capitolinns, tbase from Maiimin to the Toanger Gordun ; 
toTrdielliaa Pollio, the lives of Valerian, Qallienus^ the 
^Thir^ TyranlB," and Claudios Qolhicus, those of the 
Philipra, (be Detai, Oallns, .fmilianus, and part of Vale- 
liao's Ming loat ; lo Voniscna, the remainder, from Anrelian 
*a CthniK. Some difficulty is cruud by the motion of 
Vn. lU^IOl 

Capiloiinus, the latest biographer in order of comporitioi^ 
by bis predecessor Vopiscus, but the passage may be an in- 
terpolation, or may r^er to some other work. 

The importance of the Augustan historv aa a repertory of 
information is very considerable, but its Iiteraiy pretensions 
are of the humblest order. The writers' staniurd was con- 
fessedly low; " M^ purpose," says Vopiscus, " has been 
to provide materials for more eloquent persons than 
myself," Considering the perverted taste of the i^e, it is 
perhaps fortunate that the task fell into the hands of no 
showy declaimer, who measured his success by his skill in 
making surface do duty for substance, hut of homely, 
matter-of-tact scribes, whose sole concern was to reooril 
what they knew. Their narrative is most unmethodioU 
and inartificial; their style is tame and plebeian; their 
conception of biography is that of a collection of anecdotes; 
they have no nation of arrangement, no measure of pro- 
portion, and no criterion of discrimination between the im- 
portant and the trivia! ; they are equally destitute of critical 
and of historical insight, unable to sift the authorities 
on which they rely, and unsuspicious of the stupendoue 
social revolution comprised within the period which they 
undertake to describe. Their value, consequently, depends 
very much on that of the sources lo which they happen lo 
have recourse for any given period of history, and on the 
fidelity of their adherence to these when valuable. Marina 
Maximus and Junius Cordus, to whose qualifications they 
themselves bear no favorable teslimonyj were their chirf 
authorities for the earlier lives of the seneg. For the later 
they have been obliged to resort more largely lo public 
records, and have thus preserved matter of the highest 
importance, rescuing from oblivion many imperial rescripts 
and senatorian decrees, reports of official proceedings and 
speeches on public occasions, and a number of interesting 
and characteristic lettera from various emperors. Their in- 
cidental allusions sometimes cast vivid though undesigned 
light on the drcnmstances of the age, and they have made 
large contributions lo our knowledge of imperial jurispru- 
dence in particular. Even their trivialities nave their use : 
their endless anecdotes respecting the personal habits of 
the subjects of their biographies, if valueI«B to the historian, 
are most acceptable to the archieologisl, and Dot unimport- 
ant Co (he economist and moralisL Their errors and de- 
ficiencies may in part be ascribed to the contemporaiy 
neglect of history as a branch of instruction. Education 
was in the hands of rhetoricians and grammarians; 
historians were read for their style, not for their matter, 
and since the days of Tacitus, none had arisen worth a 
schoolraaater'a notice. We thus find Vopiscus acknowledi^ 
ing that when he began to write the life of Aurelian, ne 
was entirely misinformed respecting the latter's competitor 
FirmuB, and implying that he would not have ventured on 
Aurelian himself if he had not had access to the MS. of the 
emperor's own diary in the Ulpian library. The writers' 
historical estimates are superficial and conventional, but 
report the verdict of poUic opinion with substantial 
accuracy. The only imputation on the integrity of any of 
them lies against Trebellius Pollio, who, adiiressing bis 
work lo a descendant of Claudius, the successor and prob- 
ably Ihe assassin of QHllienus, has dwelt upon the latter 
versatile sovereign's carelessness and extravagance withont 
acknowledgment of the elastic though fitful energy he so 
frequently displayed in defence of the empire. The csutiMi 
of Vopiscus's references to Diocletian cannot be made a 
reproach to him. 

No biographical partictilam are recorded respecting any 
of these writers. From their acquaintance witli Latin and 
Greek literature they must have been men of lettem by 
profession, and very probably secretaries or librarians lo 

Crsons of distinction. They appear particularly versed in 
¥. Spartianus's reference lo himself as " Diocletian's 
own " seems to Indicate that be was a domestic in the 
imperial household. They address their patrons with 
deference, acknowledging their own deficiencies, and seem 
painfully conscious of the profenion of litetature baring 
fallen u|X>n evil days. 

The Bntftditlanarths AvguMaa Sliiiary watpriolvdatHUao 
Id U76, bj BoDiia AnoiiTiiiu, along Willi Suetoiiin*. Being 
bated npOD tbs b«at HSS. it is inperTor to any of its sueoswan 
nntil CuMiboD'a (lfl03). CsMuboa manifutad great oritioal 
ability in hii note*, but for want of ■ good HS. left tba rMtora- 
Uon of the text to Salnuuiaa (1020), whou notu ar« a most 
t of arBdition oambioed with ■entaneM im 



■Dd giDCnl Tlgor ot iat-}]ML Littla hu ■! 

It sf tl 

Bit, irhioh i( ■ 

VBT7 Diufttbfwtorr itaU, Tha most Monnte sdltiaii is thai b; 
Jordu ftnd Eyiisab&nlt (Birlin, 1B8:>}, gronnded od b aalla- 
tion of tba Bunbarg HS. with the Palatioa (now tha V»tii»D) 
' lu&d bj Salmuloi. The mcit importuit upmnt* dia 
OS ths Aagiut*o hlitoTiuia »ra tb^l on tha liith ti 
H«in«'< Opimnria Pkitologiea,- Brooka'i eiuj on tha 
of tham (KSnigibarg, 18G8); Dirkian'i clQoid^ion of . . 
•raaeci to Boman joriaprudcaoa (Leipiit, 1S4!) ; Pater's oritia*J 
•neDdMiana (PosaD, iSaS); Brnnoer'i monograph on VoplMui 
Id the Mcond Talome of BUdingar'i UiUertiuA<tHgeii mr SS- 
miteliim SaiHrgticlichu, ud J. MUllar'i diiqnuition in the 
third (Lslprie, ISSS-SVl. Then is no BnglUti tnnilKlJon. 

AUQUBTT, John Cbswiias yfnAJAX, a diidnguishecl 
Gennan iheologuii, was bom u £^chenbeii^ near Gotha, 
in 1772. He was of Jeiruh descent, his gnodfather 
luving been a nbbi who had been coDverted to the 
CbriaUan faith. His earlj educalion he received partly 
from Holler, pastor of Oieret^t, who introduced him to 
the atudr of Hebrew, and partlj at the gymnasium at 
Qotha. He then proceeded (o the university of Jena, and 
completed bis stadies there ia 1793. In 179S he obtained 
a povtaaprivat-docenEiOriiniTeiBity lecturer on phi Iceophy, 

opby, and three yean after was appointed to the chur 
M Oriental langoagcB. In 1S08 he received the d^iee of 
doctor of theology, and in 1S12 accepted a call to the chair 
of theologr at the recently renovated Qnivemt; of Breslau. 
During Uie troubled years 1B13 and 1814 he acted as 
rector, and received great praise for his firm and jadicioua 
conduct. In 1819 lieiras tramferred to the university of 
' Bonn, and in 1828 he united with hie profeaBoiahip the 
office of director of the consistory. He died at Coblenta 
in 1841. Augosti had little sympathy with the modem 
philosophical interpretaiious of dogma, and although he 
look up a position of free critieiflm with r^ard to the 
BiblicsJ narratives, he yet held ftst to the traditional faith. 
His works (m lheol<«y (ffi»tory of Dogma, 1806, and 
SyiUM 1^ VogniaiKt, ISOQ) are simple statements of fact, 
and do not attempt a speculative treatment of their Biibjecls. 
In addition to several ezegetical works, his most import- 
ant writings are the Bmtwurdigkatat aua dtr CSirutiichen 
AniSologie, 12 vols., 1817-31, a partially digested mass of 
materials, and the Handbill da- Chritl, ArcnS«loffie, 3 vols., 
1836-7, wbich pfte the Butpttauce of the larger work in a 
more compact and systematic form. 

AUOnSTINE (AuBKLina ATracBmnis), one of the 
fonr great fathers of the Latin Church, and admittedly the 
greatest of the four, more profound than Ambrose, his 
spiritoal &lher, more original and systematic than Jerome, 
Us ooolemporaj? and oorrespondeDI, and intellectually far 
more distinguished than Gregory the Qreal, the last of the 
aeries. The theott^cal position and influence of Augustine 
may be said to be nnrivalied. No single name has ever 
exercised such power over the Christian church, and no 
one mind ever made ancb an impresuon npon Ohristian 

Anrelius Augustinns was bom at Tagaste (Tqett), a town 
of Nnmidia, on the 13th of NothdW, 364 a.s. His 
father, Patricius, was a bargees of this town, and was still a 
pagan at the time of his son's birth. His mother, Monica, 
wasnot only a Christian, but a woman of themostelevated, 

tn both ciMs), and whose aflbctionate and beaatiful entho- 
MBin. have passed into a touching type of womanly saintli- 
iMSt for idl ages. She early instmcted her son in ^e laith 
and love of Jeaus Christ, and for a time her instruction 
seems to have impressed his yonthfiil mind, Palling iU he 
wished to be baptized : but when the danger was past, the 
rite was deferred, and, notwithstanding! all his mother's 
admonitions and pni^en, he grew up withont any profe»- 
Am of Christian fietj, or any devotion to Christian 
principles. Inheriting from bis father a vehemei 
■ensuu disposition, he early_ gave way to the un) 
impaltes or panlon, and wbile still a mere youth, formed 

with the principleB of Christiao morality. As the result of 
the comwotion be became the father of a son, whom he 
oamed Adeodatoa i& a fit of pious emotion, and to whom 
he was pasuonately attached. 

In the midst of all his yonlhftil pteasnrea Augnatinc 
Vas an earnest student His &ther, observing the early 
development of h is talents, formed the ambition of tnining 
him to the brilliant and lucrative career of a rbetoridia, 
and hd seems to have spared no expense to equip him for 
this career. The youth etudied not only at hie native town, 
but at Madaura and Carthage, and especially devoted 
himself to the Latin poets — man^ traces of his love for 
wbich are to be (bund in his writings. His acquaintance 
with Greek literature was much more limited, and, indeed, 
it has been doubled whether he could use, in Uie original, 
either the Hebrew or Greek Scriptures.' Apparently, bs 
Was in the habit of uaing translations of Plato {Omfiu^ 
viii. 2), but, on the other hand, Greek word* frequently 
occur in bis writings correctly rendered and discriminaUd; 
and he speaks in one of his epistles to Harcellinue (LIX 
torn. ii. 294) of referring to the Greek Psalter and finding 
in reference to certain difficnlties, that it agreed with tht 
Vnlgate. Clausen, who has particularly investigated the 
point, sums np the evidence to the efied that Angngtine 
was "fairly instmcted in Greek grammar, and a lubtl* 
distinguisber of words," but that beyond thie his knowiedn 
was insuSdent for a thorough commehensiou of Gre« 
books, and espedally for those in the Hellenistic dialecL 

While a siadoit at CarthsKe he wis patticalarly attraoted 
by the theatre, the spectacles at which were of unnsnal 
magniScence. To hie enlhiuiaetic and sensuoos spirit they 
were irresistible, and the extent to which he seems to have 
yielded to the bscination ie sufficient proof of his active 
alienation from Christianitv at this period. The Qtristisn 
church, as it has been said, "abhorred the pagan theatn. 
The idolatrous rites, the lasdviona attitudes, tha gladiatorial 
shows, which were its inseparable accompaniment^ woe 
equally opposed to the dogmatic monolheiBm, to thepieh, 
and to the mert^ of the gospel." One of the most signifi- 
cant aifrns of a man having become a Christian wae bis 
habitual absence from the theatre. No one was more 
emphatic on this point afterwards than Augustine himsdf 
and as the result of his own experienca he seems to have 
doubted, apart from the gross immoralitiee of Ihepagu 
stage, wnelher the indnlgence in fictilious joys and woes 
is a warrantable excitement (Cbi^tm^ iii. 2). 

Cicero's Horiauiai, which he read in his nineteenth year, 
first awakened in AagQ8tine*s mind the spirit ot specola- ' 
tion. He engaged TMtlesaly in philceophical stndiee, and 
from one phase of thought to another, nnatue to 
an^. MonichKism firstenthcaUedhlni. 
pnndples, one of good and one of evi^ 
seemeo to anawer io the wild confusion of hia own heaiL 
and the conflict of higher and lower impulses which raged 
within bim. It seemed to solve the mysleriea which per- 
plexed him in hia own experience and in the world. He 
became a member of the sect, and entered into the diss ot 
audilon. His ambition was to be received among the 
number of the EUd, and so get to the heart of what he 
believed to be their higher knowledge. But falling in with 
Fauetus, a distinguishai Manichwui bishop and ^pnlant, 
and entering into discussion with him, he was greatly dis- 
appointed. The svslem lost its attraction for ' '"" " """ 

students, and had betaken himself for a 
the pursuit of his profeaaion. There he also soon became 
dissatisfied, and accepted an invitation to proceed to Milan, 
where the people were in search of a teacher of rhetoric. 
He travelled thither at the public expense, and was wd- 
oomad by friends who already seem to have reoogniied his 
distinction {Qx^ttt-A. 16). 

At Milan the conflict of bis mind in search of tmth still 
continoed. He was now in his thirtieth year, and for 
eleven yean he had been seeking for mental rest, unable to 
find it. " To-morrow," he said to bimsdf, " I ahall find it; 
it will appear manifestly, and I shall grasp It" (Cbif/aa, 
vi. 18). But it still eluded hie grasp, and he sunk (Mick 
again into despondency. The way, however, was baina 
prepared for his Diversion. Ambrose was bishop of 
Milan, and, although be had a weak voice, was noted for 
his eloquence. Augustine was attracted by his rtmitatioii, 
and went to hear the famons Christian preachw in ntiM, 

1 " AunuClniu eitltlt, at allL Ebma ac Onsnt llanB tgaanii.* 
(Wakh.aiu. MKit., p . IHO^ - Impertlns noa taauitn Bebraios Kd 

find satis&ctioi 
Its doctrine of 

I. iWKM., p. HU.) -LupetUni 
K llDgna, 1p*M bntes adln 

m he himKir rdatee [Oa^ai., v. 23), " to Bee whether hia 
doqaeDce answered what wan reported of it. IhungoahU 
worts aUoitiTely," he adds, " but of the maUec I was but 
Ml DDcoiioenied and oontcmptuouB hearer," He oonfceses 
UtdelighlBQ &t: " The buhop's eloquence was more full 
of knonedge, yet in manner leas pleaaurable and Boothing, 
thin that of PbueIdb." He wished an opportuoit/ of coo' 
Tenition with him, but this was not easily found. ' Am- 
btoae bad no leisure for philosophic discuaaioD. He was 
accKsibla to all who sought him, but never for & moment 
fi« from study or the caree of duty. "Augustine used 
locmler, sa all persons might, without being annooDced; 
Uit aAer sUij^ng for « while, afraid of inierrupting him, 
be departed anin." He contiDued, however, to hear 
Ambrose preadb, and gradually the gospel of divine 
Inlli snd gnee was received into his heart. Fint Plato 
and then St. Paul opened his mind to higher thoughts, 
sad it lei^;tli ceMun words of the latter were driven 
hooK with ineaistible force to his conscience. lie was 
Iny with his &iend AJypiua in studying ths Pauline 
«)ittles. His straggle of mind became intolernble; the 
tsoaght of divine purity fighting in his heart with the 
love of the world sjid of the flesh. He burst into an in- 
CDDlrollable fiood of tears and rushed out into his gBrden, 
flinging himself under a fig tree that he might allow his 
lean to have fiill vent, and poor out his heart to God. 
Bnddanly he teemed to hear a voice calling upon him to 
MMitlt Uie divine (n>cle, "Take up and read, take op and 
read." He left oS weeping, rose up, and sought the volume 
where AJypiue was utling, and opening it read in silaica 
tbe fid lowing pasage; "Not in rioting ai>d dmnkenness, 
DDl in chambering and wanlomwas, not in strife and 
(Dvying. Bnt put ye on the Lord Jesna Christ, and make 
aoi piDvision for the flesh to fulfil the lusts thereof" (Bom. 
xUl IS, 14). He adds, "I had neither deNre nor need to 
nad either. As I flnithed the senteoee, as though the 
light of peace had been poured into my heai^ all the 
ibadows of donbt dispersed, Thng hitt Thou converted 
me to Thee, so as do longer to seek either for wife or otho' 
hope of the world, standing bat in that mle of faith in 
irtik^Thou so many years before hadst revealed me to my 
Bother" iOmftu^ viu. 30). 

After Us ooavernon, which is supposed to have oocnrred 
in Ibe niBmer of 3S6, Angostiae gave up his profession as 
ateacber of rhetoric, and retired to a friend's house in the 
roontry, in order lo prepare himself for baptism. His 
religious opinions were still to some eitoit tmfonned, and 
even his htibils bv no means altogether such as his great 
change demandecL He mentions, lor example, that during 
this tmie he broke himself of a habit of profane swearing, 
and in other ways sought to discipline his character and 
eondoct for the recepiioo of the sacred rite. He received 
baptism in Easter following, in bis thirty-third year ; and 
along with him his son Adeodatus and his friend Alypius 
were admitted to the Christian church. Monica, his mother, 
bad i^ined hini, and at length rejoiced in the fulfilment 
of her prayers. Dying before his return lo his native 
coanlry, her last houis were gladdened by his Christian 
■ympMhy. She implored him to lav her body anywhere, 
twt wherever he might be to remember her at tne altar 
of the Lord," a devout dnty which ha invites others to 
ihtre with bim, so that her laat request may, "through the 
payers of many," receive a more abundant fulfilment. 

Angnstine went back to Borne far a short period and 
dien retuitied to his native city, where he took up his abode 
in retirement, forming, with some friends who joined him 
In devotion, a small religious commnnity, which looked to 
him ai its head. The^ had all things in caramon, bs in the 
Mrly church, and fasting and prayer, Scripture reading and 
•Imsgiring, formed their r^;niar occupations. Their mode 
of iile w*t not formally monastic according to an^ special 
rule, bat the experience of this time of seclusion was, 
in doubt, the basis of that monastic system which Augus- 
tine afterwards sketched, and which derived from him its 
Min& SolitarjmonasticismhadspruDgupin thef^ptian 
dcKKa before this. The life of St. Anthony by Athanasius 
kid widely diflhsed the fervor for religions solitariness, 
*>>d greatly tonch^ Augtistine at this period of his pro- 
fanoD. It did not remain for him, therefore, to originate 
the nonsttic idea; hot the aaaoiaation of monks in com- 
mnnitiM imder a definite order and head received a special 
knpulse both from Ambrose and his illustriona convert 
it may be imagined, the &me of such a eonvert in such a 

JTISE. 67 

position soon apntd, and invitatioDs to a more active 
ecclesiastical life came to him fhim many (juarteis. H* 
shrank Avm the Nsponsibility, but his destiny was not to 
be avoided. After three years spent in retirement he took 
a journey to Hippo, to see a Christian friend^ who desired 
to converse with nim as to his design of quitting the world 
and devoUng himself to a religious lifn. He was the less 
reluctant to make this journey, because there bein^ already 
a bishop at Hippo he hoped to escape all solicitation. But 
altliough the Christian community^ there had a bishop, they 
wanted a presbyter; and Augustine being present at the 
meeting called to choose a presbyter, the people unani- 
mously chose him. He burst into tsars, and would bin 
have escaped : but the church could not spare his services. 
He was ordained to the prcsbyterate, and in a few years 
afterwards he was made coadjutor to the bishop, and finally 
became sole bishop of the see. 

Henceforth Augustine's life is filled np with his ecclesias- 
tical labors, and is more narked by the series of his 
Dumerotis writings and the great oonlroveisies in whirh 
they engaged him than by anything else. Already he had 
dLoinguiahed himself as an author. He bad written severat. 
piiiloeophical treatises ; he had combated the skeptiosm of 
the New Academy {OorUra AeadenKot libri Irei, 386 A.D.); - 
he had treated of the " Blessed Ufe " iDe vita &■ 
and of the "Immortality of the Soul" {De Ina 
Anima, 337); he had defended the church against the 
Hanichmns, whose doctrines he had formerly professed. 
" When I was at Rome," he says (Bonxet., i. 7 ), " after my 
baptism, and could not hear in silence the vannting of the 
Hauicbienns over true Christians, to whom they are not to 
be compared, I wrote two books, one on 7^ Iforaig <4 At 
Oahoiui Oiweh, and the otiier on 3^ Morali o/ the ifim- 
ielueant." These tracts or pamphlets, for they are liltls 
more, were written in the year 388, about two years afler 
his conversion. Later, in 395, and again in 400, he pur- 
sued the controversy with the Hanicheans, making an 
elaborate reply, in the latter year, to his old assodate and 
friend Fanslus. The reply was provoked by an attack 
made by Faostus on the Catholic faith, which the " breth- 
ren" invited Augustine to answer. TIus he did charactar 
istically and energetically by nving in succession the 
opinions of FausCus, as if staled by himself," and his own 
in response. It was natural that the Hanidusan heresy, 
which had so long enslaved his own mind, shoold have 
first exercised Augustine's great powers as a theological 
thinker and disputant. He was able from his cnro ex- 
perience to give force to his arguments for the nnity of 
creation and of spiritual lite, and to strengthen the mind 
, of the Christian church in its last stm^le with that dnal- 
istic spirit which had animated and moulded in snooesaion 
so many forms of thought at variance witli dlristianity. 

Bat the time was one of almost universal ecclesiastical 
and intellectual excitement ; and so powerful a mental 
acUvity^ a* his was natiintlly drawn forth in all directions. 
Following his writinga s^nat the Manichieans come Ihoss 
against ths Donatisls. This controversy was one which 
strongly interested him, involving as it did the whole 
question of ths constitution of the church and the Idea of 
xatholic order, to which the circnmstances of the age gave 
special prominence. The DonUist schism sprang out of . 
the Diocletian peisecutions in the beginning of the oen- 
tniT. A party in the Church of Cartiuge, Bred with ftnat- 
ical leal on behalf of thoM who bad dutingnilhed them- 
selves by resistance to the ImMrial mandalca and couted 
martyrdom, resented deeply the appointment of a biBh<^ 
of moderate opinions, whoss oonsecration had been per- 
formed, the^ alleged, b^r a bvdilor. They set np, in conse- 
quence, a bishop of their own, of ths name of Mqorinns^ 
succeeded in 316 by Donatiu. The party_ made great pre- 
tensions to purity of discipline and rapidly rose in pop- 
ular favor, notwithstanding a decision given agaioal wem 
both by the bishop of Bome and bj the Empttor Con- 
Blantine, to whom they personally appealed. Aognotine 
was strongly moved by Uie lawlessness of tbe party, and 
launched forth a series of writings against tbem, ^m 
most important of which survive, thou^ some are IcsL. 
Amongst these are Seven Boakt on Saptum, and a lengths 
ened answer, in three books, to Petilian, bisbop of Cirta, 
who was the most eminent theologian amongst the Donatist 
divines. At a somewhat later period, about 417, he wroU 
a treatise concerning ths correction of the Donatists (Af 
^t ..-___ n — , "fbr the aakeof Ihos^" he MWt 

Ing the' 

-_ g the Tftliditj of the Catholic Church aa it then stiKjd 
the Boman world, and the neoewitr for moderation in the 
exercise of cliurch discipline, Angiusline jet ^ve currency, 
in his leal against the Donatists, to certain maiims as lo 
the doty- of the civil power to control schism, which were 
of evil omen, and hnve been productive of much disaster 
In the history of Christisiiity. 

llie third controversy in which Augintine engaged wm 
(he most important, and the most intimately usociated 
with his distinctive greatncw as a theol<^an. As may be 
supposed, from the conSicts throogh which he had psffied, 
the bishop of Hippo was intensely interested in wh&t may 
bo called the anthropological aspecu of Che Kreat Christian 
idea of redemption. He had inmself tioen brought out of 
datkncas into marvellous tight," only by entering into the 
depths of his own sout, and finding, after many strt^lea, 
that there was no power hat divine grace, as revealed in the 
life and death of the Son ofOod, whidi could bring rest 
to human wearineoa, or pardon and peace for human guilt. 
He had found human nature in hiB own case too weak 
and rinful to find any good for itself. In Gh>d alone he 
had found good. This deep sense of human Binfulnees 
colored all his theoli^y, ana ^ve to it at once its depth 

-its profound and sympathetic adaptation to all who feel 

[he i^ity of sin — and that tinge of darkness and exi 

tion which as surely have repelled others. When the i 

— -H Augustinianism is aseid, it points especially to those 

?Hmoas of the great teacher wnich were evoked in 
elagian ooatroveiay, to which he devoted Ihe most mature 
and powerfiU period of his life. His opponents in 

i a British monk. Angustine oalU him Brilo; 
and Jerome points to his Scottish descent, in 'uch terms, 
however, ss to leave it uncertain whether he was a native 
of Scotland or Ireland (Aniet progeniem Seotia gentit dt 
BriiaiaaTum memia). He was a man of blameless cha- 
racter, devoted to the reformation of society, full of enthu- 
siasm, and that confidence in the nBtnral impulses of 
humanity which often accompanies philanthropic enthu- 
riasm. Travelling to Bome about the beginning of the Bth 
centurr, he took up his abode for a time there, and soon 
made himself conspicuous by his activity and opinions. 
His pupil Qelestius carried out the views of his master with 
a more outspoken logic, and was at length arraigned before 
the bishop of Carthage for the following, amongst othei, 
heretical opinions;— <!.} That Adam's sin was purely 
peiBonal, and affected none but h.mself; (2.J That each 
man, consequently, is bom with powers as incorrapt ss 
those of Adam, and only falls into sin nnder the force of 
temptation and evil example; (3.) That children who die 
in inbncy, being untainted I^ sin, are Ba\ed without 
baptism. Views such as these were obviously in confii 
with the whole course of Augustine's experience, as well 
as with his interpretation of the catholic doctrine of the 
church. And when his attention was dimwn to them by 
the trial and ezoommuoication of CtelaitinB, he undertook 
dieir rriutation, first of all, in three books on Forgivmat 
«f Sia» and Baplitin, addressed to his friend Marcel linuSj 
in wbidi he vutdicated the necessity of the baptism of 
loiMitB because of ori^ial sin and the grace of God by 
whichweanjnstified(it<frael.,ii.c.23). This was in 412. 
Id the same year he addr c aa c d a further treatise t 
tame penon, My beloved son Marcellinua," on The Spirit 
and the LeOer. Three years later he composed two funher 
UeaUses on ifaiure and Grace, and the relation of the 

ray years 
Upon DO subject did Angostii 

«f his intellectual strengtl . 

his vivwa so deeply ana ptrmanentlv al 

Eveo those who moat usually agree 

no fewer than fifteen 

rel&oD to no other have 
afi[ected the course of 

with hie thecdogical stand-point will hardly deny that, while 
he did much Id these writings to vindicate divine truth and 
lo expound the true relations of the divine and human, 
he also, here as elsewhere, was hurried into extreme ex- 
pii ill Mill SS to the alMatuteneas of divine grace and the 
ozlcnt of htiman corruption. Like his great disciple in a 
later age — Lather — Augostine was prone lo emphasise 
the dde of truth which he lud moat realiaed in ms own 

experience, and ju contradistinction to the PeUgiu 
exaltation of human nature, to depredate ila eapabihtles 
beyond measure. There are feif thoughtfiil minds who 
would not concede the deeper truthfulness of AugosliiK^i 
liritual and theological analysis, in comparison with 
lat of his opponent, as well as its greater connstcncr 
with Scripture; but there are also few who would now 
be disposed to identify themselves with the dogmatism of 
the orthodox bishop any more than with the dogmalism of 
the heretical monk. And on one particalar point, which 
more or lees runs through all the controversy — the salvation 
of infants — the Christian consciousnees, in its later and 
higher growth, may be said to have pronounced itself de- 
cisively on the side of the monk rather than of the lusboa. 
In addition to these controveisial writings, which mirt 
the great epochs of Augustine's life and ecclesiastical 
activity after his settlement as a bishop at Hippo, he wh 
the author of other works, some of them belter known and 
more important His great work, the most elaborate, 
n some respects the most significant, that came fmm 
his pen, is The CUy of Oad, It is designed as a ereal 
apologetic treatise in vindication of Christianity and the 
Christian church, — tlie latter conceived as rising in Ihe form 
of a new civic order on the crumbling ruins of the Bomas 
empire,^but it is also, perhape, the earliest contribntioo In 
the philosophy of hlslorr, as it is a repertory throughout of 
bis cherished theological opinions. This work and his Can- 
feeti/nu are, probablv, those by which he is best knovn, 
the one as the highest expression of his thought, and 
the other as Ihe best monument of hb living pi^ ud 
Christian experience. The City i4 God was b^^u in 41S, 
and continued to l>e issued in its seveml portiom for a 
period of thirteen years, or till 426. The Cbn/ettimi were 
written sjiortly after he became a bishop, aliout SETT, and 
give a vivid sketch of his early career. To the devout 
utterances and aspirations of a great aoul they add the 
charm of peisonaf disclosure, and have never ceased to 
exdie admiration in all spirits of kindred piety. Hii 
systematic treatise on The Trinity, which extends In Sfteei 
books, and occupied iiim for nearly thirty years, must not 
be passed over. " I bc^an," he says (Selracl., il. 161, 
" as a very young man, and have published in my old ige 
some books concerning the Trinitv." This importaol 
dogmatic work, unlike most of his dogmatic writings, wa 
not provoked by any special controversial emergency, but 
grew up silently during this long period in the aathoi'i 
mind. This has given it something more of complctoien 
and organic arrangement than is usual with him, if it htt 
also led him into the prolonged discussion of variom 
analo^ee, more curious tban apt in their bearing on the 
doctrine which he expounds. The ex^etical writings of 
Augustine, — his lensthened Oonunenlaru «n Si, John and 
on the Sermon on the Mount, &c,, — and then his Lrlltn, 
remain to be mentioned. The former have a value from 
his insight into the deeper spiritual meanings of Bcrip- 
ture, but hardly for thdr exegetical charactenstics. Ths 
latter are fnll of inlerest in reference lo many points ia 
Ihe ecclesiastical history of the time, and his relatioi 
lo contemporary theologians like Jerome. They have 
neither the liveliness nor variety of interest, however, 
which belong to the letters of Jerome himselC The 
closing years of the great bishop were full of aorrow. The 
Vandals, who had been gradually enclosing the Boman 
empire, appeared before the gates of Hippo, and laid uen 
to It. Augustine was ill with his last illness, and could 
only pray for his fellow-citizens. He passed away during 
the progress of the siege, on Ihe 28th of Au^uri; 430, al 
the age of seventy-five, and was spared the indigni^ of 
seeing the city in the hands of the enemy. 

The character of Aunistinej txith as a man and a 
theol<^an, has been brieBy indicated in the course of oar 
sketch. Litlle remains to be added without oitaing into 
discnsdooB too extended for our space. None can deny 
the greatness of Augustine's soul— his enthusiasm, his un- 
ceasing search after truth, his allectionalenesB, bis ardor, 
his self-devotion. And even those who may donbt thi 
soundness or value of some of his doginatia ooodn^oo^ 
cannot hesitate to acknowledge the depth of his aptritoal 
convictions, and the strengtb, solidil^, and peoetratian 
with which he bandied the moat dimenlt qtMatiooa, and 
wrought all the elemmts of his experience and of hit 

Srofound Bcriptnral knowledge into a great syiCem of 
hristiaa thought, 


The bMt sompMa •diUon of AQgnitlne's writioga <« tb*t of 

tat r^rintad in I836-3B in 22 hilf-ToloinM. TillauDDt, in bii 
SttUnattitat Biflfry, hu dsTotcd t, qturtOTOlama to hii lire 

JdS). T«. 

titsniiTe moDOEnphi hftva kppeued on 
e by Klotb, * Romu Ca^oiio (Auhen, IMO}, »Dd 
ttootlurbjBiQdemuia, ■PratHUDl(BBrIin, 18U, 18»). B«« 
■In RitUr") Hit. of Ckri^iian Philoicphy, vol. i. ; BBhrinmr'i 
aui. af Ikt Chnrch ; Dr. P. Sohkff'i Si. Angiatini (Berlin, New 
Tock, ud London, 18&4); Naorrinon, La Piilotopliie dt S. 
AtgOiiu {Puii, ISSS) ; A. Dorner, Au^uiiniu [Birlin, 18T3) ; 

AUGnSTINE, or Attstin, St., ths flnt srchbisliop of 
Cknurbory, wu oHgiiiallv' k monk in the Becedictine 
comoit of St. Andrew at Home, and was educated ander 
ibe bmom Gr^orj, afterwank Pope Qreftor)' I., by wliom 
be ma sent to ^ilain with forty monlu of the same 
order, to cairj out the fiivorit« project of converting the 
English to CfhristianitT. The minioniuiea set oat with 
nnch reluctance^ for the joumeT was long and perilous, 
and on the way they endeavorea to perBuade the Pope to 
allow them to return. His orders, however, were peremp- 
loij; ihey proceeded, therefore, on their journey, and at 
bst landed, some lime in the year 696, on the isle of 
ThaneL Having sent interpreters to explain their miauon 
lo King Ethel^rt, whose queen, Bertha, was a Chris- 
tian, IM7 received from him permisBioa to preach and to 
nake cooTerls. He treated them with great fiivor, held 
a public conference with them, sad assigned them a res- 
idence at Durovemum, now Canterbury. Hia own conver- 
■ion 10 the Christian faith, which took place shortly after- 
wards, had a powerful inBuence with bis subiecls, who 
joined Ibe new church in great numbers. Augustine, seeing 
the BuccesB of his labors, crceaud lo France, and reoeiTed 
eottsecntion at Aries. He then despatched meesengera lo 
(he Pope lo inform him of what bad been done, and to pro- 

Ctbr his consideration certain practical difficultiea that 
arisen. Tbey brought back the mititim, with which 
' Augustine was consecrated as first archbishop of Canterbury, 
■od certain vestments and oleosiU for the new churches. 
Oiegory also gave most prudent counsel far dealing with 
(he new convertt, strongly advising the arehblshop to nalce 
(he change of hith, so tar as ceremonial vent, as gradual 
ti poBible, and not on any account lo wound the feelings 
of the people by destroying iheir lemples, but rather tooon- 
Ncrate them afresh, and use (hem for Christian worsidp. 
Aogostine passed the remainder of his life principally at 
Canterbury, where he died, probably in 607, on the 26th 
Hay. See Live* of the Engla\ SatTiU, No. III. 1847, and 
HiB. Jameson's LtgeruU 0/ Ihe Moiuuiie Orden. 

AUOnSTINIASS, a monastic order of the Roman 
Catholic Church, claiming to have received its rule from 
BL Augustine. S% Abbey and Mon&siicism. 

AUQU8TOVO, a city in Russian Poland, in the govem- 
■mtof Suvalki, situated on the river Netta, near a loke^ 
which abounds in fish. It was founded in 1&57 by Sigia- 
naad II. (Augnslui), and is laid out in a very regfitar 
manner, with a large market-place. It carriea on a Wge 
tnde in cattle and horses, and mannfaclures linen and 
tackaback. Popntatlon, &383. 

Augustus was the title of honor given by the Romans 
to iIm emperor Caius Julius Cesar Octavianos, or, as he 
■as originally designated, Caiua Octaviua. This title was 
iDlended to be hereditary in his family, but all the suc- 
ecediug Ccesais or emperors of Rome continued to adopt 
it, long after they had ceased to be connected with the 
inn Augustas by blood. The era of Augostus formed an 
illDsIriooB epoch in Roman history, and was distinguished 
far its splendid attaiomenta iu arts and arms, and more 
apedaily in literature. The Romans in later times looked 
rack lo the age of AugUBliis with great compiacency, as 
the meet jprosperouB and the most distinguished in their 
annals. The name of the "Augustan Age" baa been 
ipedally applied lo it in modem times, and the same title 
has been given, with more or l<« juatice, to certain epochs 
in modem hislory as the highiHt compliment to their glory. 
Hu rugn of Lwiis XIV. is called the AugostaQ age of 
Fiance; the reign of Ann^ the Augustan age of England, 

Caloa Octavius was the son of a noble Roman of the 
■me name, of the plebeian order. The fother had mar- 
nad Atia, the danghter of Julia, sister to the great C. 

great fc 

Julius Qesar, who was accordingly great-uncle 
to the young Octavius. CEEsar, the dictator, K|^"i, 
having no son of his own, toolc an interest in ^uimstw. 
this;routh, caused him to be enrolled among the 
Patricians, and bred him with a view lo the higbe3l bonon 
of the Republic Already, in his eighteenth jear, he had 
chosen him for his " master of the borse," but this was a 
merely nominal diatinctiou. The young man was sent to 
carry on his education at tlie camp at Apollonia in Illvr- 
icum. and there, at the a^ of nineteen, he heard of nis 
^'□sman'a aasaasination (41 B.C;.). He had already 
« favorite with the soldiers, who offered to escort 
him to Rome, and follow his fortunes. But this he de- 
clined, and crossed over alone to Italy. On landing be 
leamt that Cnsar bad made him hia heir and adopted 
him into the Julian gens, whereby he acquired the des- 
ignation of C. Julius CiEsar Ootavianus. The inherit- 
ance was a perilous one ; his mother and others w)ul<l 
have dissuaded him from accepting it, but he, confident 
in hia abilities, declared at once that he would under- 
take its obljgntioDS, and discharge the sums bequeathed by 
the dictator lo the Roman people. M. Anloniua had pos- 
sessed himself of Ci^sar's papeis and efiects, and made 
light of hia young nephews prelensiona. The liberatois , 
paid him little regard, and dispersed to their respectivo 
provinces. Cicero, much charmed at the attitude of Anto- 
nlus, hoped to make use of him, and flattered him to the 
utmcEt, with the expectation, however, of getting rid of 
him as soon as he lad served his paroose. Octavianua 
conducted himself with consummate adroitness, making 
use of all competitors for power, but assisting none. Gun- 
aiderable forces attached themselves to him. The senate, 
when it armi^d the consuls against Antonius, called upon 
him for assistance ; and he took part in the campaign in 
which Antonius was defeated at Mutina, but both the con- 
suls, HirliuB and Pansa. slain. The soldieis of Octavianoa 
demanded the consulship for him, and the senate, though 
now much alarmed, could not prevent hia election. He 
now eOected a junction with Antonius, who quickly over- 
threw the power of the republican party in tlieir slrotighotd, 
the Cisalpine previnces. wi^ the death of Decimiis Brulu^ 
the ablest of the libcrauA Thereupon Octavianua and 
Antoniua, taking Lepidoa into union with them, met on 
the river Rhenus near Bononla, and proclaimed themselves 
a triumvirate for the reconstitulion of the commonwealth. 
They divided the western provinces among them, the east 
being held for the republic by M. Brutus and Cassius. 
They drew up a list of proscribed citizens, entered Rome 
together, ana caused the assassination of three hundred 
and two thousand knights. They further c 


»of n 

divided them among their Boldiers. Cicero was murdered 
at the demand of Antonius. The remnant of (he repub> 
lican parly took refuge either with Brutus and t^ossius in 
the East, or with Seitus Pompeius, who had made himself 
master of the seas. 

Octavianus and Antonius crossed the Adriatic in 42 
B.C. to reduce the last defenders of the republic. Brutus 
and (Cassius were defeated, aud fell at the battle of Philippi. 
War soon broke out between the victors, the chief incident 
of which was the sieve and capture by famine of Feruaiu, 
and the alleged sacrifice of three hundred of its defender* 
by the young Cffisar at the altar of his uncle. But peacn 
was again made between them. Antonius married Oclavia, 
hia rival'a sister, and took for himself the eaalem half of 
the empire, leaving the west to Cnsar. Lepidus waa re- 
duced to the single province of Africa. Meanwhile Seztua 
Pompeius made himself formidable by cutting off the 
supplies of grain from Rome. The triumvirs were obliged 
to concede to him the islands in the western Mediterranean. 
But Octavianus could not allow the capital to be kept in 
alarm for its daily sustenance. He picted a quarrel with 
Seitns, and when his collea^es failed to support him, 
undertook to attack him alone. Antonius, indeed, came 
at last lo his aid, in return for military aasislanoe in the 
compaign be meditated in the East. But Octavianus was 
well served by (be commander of his fleet, M. VipsaniuB 
Agrippa. Sextus was completely routed, aod driven into 
Asia, where he perished soon afterwards. Lepidus was ao 
object of contempt to all parties, and Ocbavianus and 
Antonius remuned lo fight for siipreme power. 

The alliance of Antonius with CleopWca, queen of £^ypt, 
alienated the BamaDa from him. They now gladly ac- 

70 A 

cep(«d the heii of Caaa as the tme gnccessor of the 
moit illustrious of their heroes. It was felt slmoat Dni- 
veisallj ihftl the empire required a single head, and that 
repoee could only be issured by the soTerdHnty of the chief 
of its amiies. The battle of Acttum, toHoned by the 
death of Antonioa, 31 B.C., raised the victor to uuiveraal 
empire. Nevertheleas, Octarianus did not hasten to assume 
his position. He first regulated the afTaira of Egypt, which 
be aauezed to the Koman dominions, then lingered for a 
lime in Greece, and entered upon a fifth consulship at 
6amo^ 29 B.C. On hia return to Rome he distributed the 
vast sums he had accumulaled among the people and tlie 
aoldien, while he aootbed the pride of the nobles by 
maiatainiog UDchanaed the outwurd ahow of republican 
goremmenL Of hia personal hiaUtry from this period 
there remeiDg little to be said. He continued to reside 
almost constantly at Bume and at the neighborhood, 
making one eip^dilion into Spain, 27 b.C, and a Journey 
through Greece in 21, on which occasion he advanced into 
Syria, and received back the standards taken by the 
Ivthiana from Craasus. In 16 B.C. he went to Qaul to 
i^pilate the afliurs of that province, an expedition which 
he repested, 9 b.c. But from thenceforth he entrusted the 
defence of the position to his lieutenants, and more 
especially to the young princ«s of his own family. The 
empire continued to enjoy profound internal tranquillity. 
More thtui one plot was formed against the head of the 
■IVe by some of the discontented nobility, but these were 
discovered and disconcerted ; and when it was evident that 
they met with no fiivor from the people generally, he 
could afford to treat them with a signal clemcDcy, which 
' seems to have secured him from any further attempts. 
The serenity and placability which he displayed in his 
latter years forms a marked contrast to hia j^ouay and 
ferocity at an earlier period, and the character of the 
Emperor Augustus Cmar has been a problem to hiatorians 
in consequence. Tlie life of the emperor whs prolonged to 
the year 14 *. i>. He died at Nola in his seventy-fifth 
rear, after holding supreme power in the state for nearly 
naif a century. 

„. ,j^ During the years which had intervened be- 
■ndKor^ tween hia aoxptin^lhe inheritance of Cssar, 
ernmeet. > and hia attaining to Cieaar'a undivided sover. 
eignly, the young aspirant had been meditating 
now to secure the retention of his power. At first, excited 
by feais for his own peisonal safety, and urged by the ei- 
amplea of party leaders around him, and of others who 
had gone before bim, he plunged into a career of wholeHale 
bloo&hed, and cut oS without scruple every public man 
from whose principles or whoso paasiona he might have 
cause of apprehension. A large proportion, pciliapa, of 
the senators and nobles had perished in llio proacriptions 
and bloodv wars of the triumvirate. Still it could not l>e 
expected that tlie germs of republican sentiment would ever 
be wholly eradicated. The sense of patriotism and the 
sense of interest would not fail to raise up enemies to the 
BOvereign ruier of the Roman commonwealth. The con- 
queror'a first object was to protect himself by force of arras, 
fiis next to soothe the passions of tlie class from whose re- 
sentment be had most cause of fear, and after that to raise 
np another class in direct sympathy with himself to balance 
the power which the first must neceaaarily retain in a well- 
ordered Eovemment. It was to the allainment of these three 
objects that Octavianua directed his oi^atusation of the 
oom mon wealth . 

. The powers of the imperator or commander 

*"*""°'" of the Soman army ceased on his return to the 
litj. He then became once more a plain citizeu. If war 
si^pun arose he must seek his reappointment to command 
irith the usual forms. Cteaar had not trusted his country- 
men so far. He had daimed from them the title of im- 
Gmtor in perpetuity. With this title prefixed to his name, 
continued to be still the commander of the legiona, 
whether in the city or in the provinces. With this power 
lis successor dared not dispense. On hia arrival at Home 
from the Eaat he at once required the senate to accord it 
to him, as to hie nncle before him;'buthe pretended only 
to ask It for a limited period of five yean. At the expira- 
tion of that term, however, be asaumed it again and again, 
though each time for ten veara only, but never aciiislly 
relinquished it to the end of his career. He thua received 
Authority to command the whole force of the state in cbie^ 
•ud the officets who acted under him became simply his 

triumph were reserred for Ihe impeiator " 

auspioes" they were reputed to have served. It followed 
that all the provinces oo the frontiers, or in whidi armia 
were maintained, were placed under the emperoi'i direct 
authority, while it was only the central and poaoefal pro- 
lions of the empire that were handed over to the gaven- 
ment of the senate. The imperial provincen were sdniiiui- 
tered by the legati CiEsaria, the senatorial by procoosuls. 

The person of the emperor was thus seeing u hr m 
the power of the sword could secure it. But he wn anriaas 
that the source of this power should not be too spparenL 
The second C^Ksar wished to maintain the appearance at 

rolled by liie 

power, sa for as it was not actually i 
maslers of the t^ions. He would not oegraoe it m in 
own estimation, or in the estimation of the people, any , 
further, at least, than might be necessary Ibr his main object 
He caused himself to be appointed censor, not for one bnt 
for five years, in order to give him full time to revise the 
list of aenatorv, to supply the fcarfol gaps in the ranks of 
the old nobility, and to expel such members, and nuny 
they were, who seemed unworthy, from their forei^ ei- 
traction, their low birlh, their scanty means, or their W 
character, to have a place in that august assembly. Ths 
irreguLaniica of the epoch which he hoped now lo close 
had filled its benches with peiw)nages who degraded the 
order in the eyes of genuine cilizena. The nobles and good 
citizens generally hailed this revision with deep aatislu^oD' 
It accorded with the national taste as well as with hislorlcsl 
traditions. From the individual ru^ientments it provoked, 
it was an act of some personal danger to the censor; bat 
the d.anger was more than repaid by the popularity attoid- 
ing upon it, which was enhanced to the nlmcat by the 
liheralily with which provision was made for raising some 
of the poor but honorable members of the order to ths 
standard of property now to be required of them. 

The emperor placed himself at the head of 
this reconstiliited body, by assuming the office ^^^ 
and title of Prirtixpi iSenolui. The office wn 
indeed little more than nominal ; il gave the righi of pre- 

Cing meoaurcs and of speaking first in the highest legis- 
ve assembly of the state, and having be^i borne ia 
earlier times by some of the most distinguished of Romu 
patriots, it carried with it the respect and afiet^on of the 
people. The titular precedence it gave was all the more 
valuable, inasmuch as it might be conceded witliout a 
blush by the sturdiest republicBn in the senate. Bui it 
was the consul who possessed practically the chief an^orily 
in the assembly. Oclavianus had been already five limta 
consul, and he shrank froni r-'-' — ' *—■ 

royalty, except tl 

' ~ the tenure of a single yea 

yield it to the citizen whom the people might at ai.,. 

elect to thwart or to rival him. What should he do? He 
took what was certainly a bold step. It was a raanifeBt 
upon the forma of the free state when he re- 
quired from thecitizens the perpetual "potestas," 
or power of the consulship, at the same moment Auonp- 
thnt he resigned the office itself, and suflered Mortal 
consuls to be annually elected to sit, one on ench 
side of him, in the senate. The potestas which was thoc 
1 rendered him the head of the stale, bolll 
l^slative and executive deportments. When he 
the city he carried with him into the provincea a 
proconsular authority, and became to all intenta and pur- 
king for life of the Romans and of their subjects. 
iit the senatorial provinces he was now recognixed as 
supreme ; and thus it was that in him were centr^ all the 
great political functions which had been hitherto dividod 
by the great assembly of the Roman magnates. 

But the emperor did not limit his views to becomu^ tlio 
chief of the nobles. It was the part of a wary stnteBnuD 
to associate himself not leaa intimately with the oi^K«ile 
faction, which, under the name of the plebeians, had 
umed at securing co-ordinate power with the patricians. 
The original meaning of these designadona had indeed 
long be^ loet. The plebeians could boast many fkmiUea 
as eminent both for honors and poasessions as their 
haughty rivals. Step by step they had won an eqaal 
share with them in political priri]^;«s. But the cla« 

he shrank froni seizing in perpetuity an office 
rdinK to Roman ideas, difierad ini noUiing ^m 
cpt that it was elective, and that it was limited 
'le could hardly aSbrd 

lAieh lUII bore tlie title of plebdiA ms macb more 
widd7 eslended, and embraced the gi^ti maea of the 
kiights and men of bauDesB in the citj, and also of the 
dtiieiia Mttled thronghoat the provuicea. This large claaa 
liad for more than a century coateoded with the noLleg for 
tke perquiutee of office, and their mutual rivalry had 
■nned Snlla ogaiittt Mariiu and Cesar agaimt Pompeius. 
The heir of C&sar inherited the favor of the plebeians, 
■nd was bound to requite il b^ dietinguUhed patronage. 
"Hie plebeians were still the electors to the tribunate, and 
tdU renrtted the tribunee ae (beir protectors ag^ost the 
encroadmentB of Ibe patricians represented hy the senate. 
tbe tribnnes had proved themselves mc«t useful allies to 
Cesar, and might ;et again arraj themselves in support of 
(he Uthfol inheritor of his principles. The empeivjr pro- 
pned (o balance the consular potestas by aaauming at the 
Mme time n tribonitian ^testas also. He thus endowed 
himself with the authority of the tribune for life, and 
■Mured the commons of the city and empire that be could 
al any time exenuse the formidable veUi upon the proceed- 
ings of (he consuls which had served them bo well, even 
dawn to recent times. Thus did he become emperor 
indeed,— the sovereign botii of tiie nobles and the people 
In (he citT, as well as the commander of the army in the 
field and in the provinces. 

There remained yet another sovereign authority in the 
•late, namely, that which the chief pontiff exercised over 
(he affaire of religion. However much the religious sen- 
timent had been weakened throughout the Boman world, 
there was yet enough superstition left amon^ the citizens to 
«mfer great and sometimes overwhelming influence upon 
the l^itimate interpreter of divine things to the nation. 
Tbe senate had exercised this power with great effect, oa 
(img as the appointment (o the (±ief pontificate rested with 
the patrician curim. Of late years, however, this import- 
ant dignity had been thrown open to the commons also. 
Odaviaooa was well pleased to accept it on the nomlnBiion 
of the whole people combined. He allowed, 
f^OK indee«J, his former colleague Lepidus to retain 
it unmolested during his lifetime, hut upon his 
death he Manmed himself the exalted position which ho 
mi^ht hesitate to entrust to any other. With this Inst ad- 
dition to his preri^tivffi the emperor might well be 
content. The name of king he had from the first utterly 
npudiated. The office of dictator approached too near to 
that of a king to be acceptable to a ruler, who studied to 
confine himself within the limits of the republican consti- 
tution. Yet there still lacked some general appellative 
which might reflect in a single word the full dignity and 
power resulting from the combination of so many honors 
and pitiogatives. The emperor proposed at first, it is said, 
to usnme the name of BomaJix^; but Romulus had been a 
kins ; and further, Romulus had been destroyed, according 
1o the tradition, h^ the senate, just as Cesar had been in 
_. later times. Such associations were ominous. 

2||^i^ At last he fixed upon the epithet Auipulia, a 
name which no man had. borne before, and 
which, on the contrary, bad been applied to things the 
neat noble, most venerable, and most sacred. The rites 
of the gods were called awiul,- their temples were augasl. 
Tbe word itself was derived from the holy aitgurira; it was 
connected in meaning with the abstract term oMhonty, and 
with all that increases and flourishes upon earth. The use 
of this glorious title could not fail to smooth the way to 
the general acceptance of the divine character of the mor- 
tal who was deemed worthv to bear it. The senate had 
^decreed the divinity of 'the defunct Cesar ; (he courts 
MIS were beginning now to insinuate that his successor, 
while yet alive, enjoyed an effluence from deity ; the poets 
were even suggesting that altars should be raised to him; 
and in the provinces, among (he subjects of the state at 
lent, temples to his divinii^ were actually rising, and the 
oJl of AugnBtoB was b^iuning to assume a name, a ritual, 
and a pnothood. 

pjij„ Augustus, as we may now call bim, viewed all 

£SI^, titis %i<h secret satisfaction. It was one of his 
•f Uwifi. firstobjects, indeed, to restore-the outward show 
at least of reverence for divine things, and re- 
friabliih the old Roman religion on its firm political basis. 

I. -y ^ rebuild, or cause to be rebuild the &llen or 

ktnples of the national gods. The nobles paid 

it wns easy tc 
dUanidaled tcd 

The PanlheoD, the temple "of all the gods, if 

sach was its original destination, remains still as a mona- 
of his minister Agrippa's munificemyir but Viml 
would assure OS (hat not leas than three huniired "grand" 
pies were erected throughout the city. Perhaps, indeed, 
>e were mostly the saceila or chapels of the Larm, which 
placed at the comers of the streets. Augustus took llie 
timent of tbe people at a favorable moment. They were 
thoroughly sickened by the miseries of the civil wars; tlie<r 
were ashamed of tbe crimes for which (he whole nation 
were more or lees responsible ; they were eager to rush into 
any scheme of expiation and reparation that should bo 
ofiered to them, and lend their hands to the mBterial work 
of restoring at least the outward semblance of penitence for 
sin, and thankfulness for the mercy vouchsafed them- Thei« 
can be no doubt that the conscience of the nation was 
awakened to a sense of the divine retribution under which 
they had suffered, but which had been at last averted 
under the blessed influence of the riiler whom they had at 
last cluwen. The Bonuns hod not lost their belief in a 
divine Providence, which oppressed them with anxiety and 
(error, however tittle they connected it with a sense of 
moral duty. 

The spirit of materialistic philosophy had, however, beeo 
rife among them, and during the past century the anti- 
religious dogmas of Epicurus had sapped the belief of the 
educated and literary classes. The patrician youth of 
Rome had been trained in the schools of Greece, and 
especially at A(hena, or had been placed under the teach- 
ing of Greek instructors at homTi; and of the three con- 
tending schools, the Stoics, the Epicureans, and the Aca- 
demics, the second was that which had carried off* far ths 
greater number of disciples. The men of books or of 
sp^ulattve character might be generally Academics, sod 
claim Cicero as their noblest leader; the men of iina(;in>> 
tion and deep religious fervor might follow, with Caio and 
Brutus, the teaching of (he Stoics ; but the practical men, 
the men of arts and arms and b'jsiness, if they adhered (o 
any school of ihouglit at all, were almost all, like Cebsbt 
himself and hU associates generally, addicted to the east 
precepts and still laier morality of Epicorus. This phil- 
osophy was noted for i(s utter denial of Providence and, 

- rof 

for all practical o 
thes. ' ' 

nity altogether. None o 


real beUef in 

worship, which was assailed anH deri'^e 
Neverthelem, such was the pertinacious adherence of ths 
Boman people to their ancieut forms, especially where they 
had any connection with their national polity, that tbe out- 
ward ritual of their religion was still maintained, though a 
mere shadow of its former substance. Statesmen, indeed, 
had invented a formula for reconciliog their actual unbelief 
with their outward profession. Varro had said, and the 
dictum was favorably accepted, that. the ancient belieb 
were to be upheld ss a matter of public policy. Such, no 
doubt, was the principle on which Augustus, who was him- 
self ueitber a believer nor a philosopher, but a politician 
only, proceeded, when he assumed (he part of a restorer of 
the national religion. He touched, with great sagacity, k 
chord which vibrated to the heart of the people, who firmlv 
believed that the destinies of the city were hound up witn 
(he due obtervance of the ancient rites, and statesmen 
looked on with decorous acquiescence at shows and cere- 
monies to which they attached no significance whatever. 

The world "composes ild countenance to the expression 
assumed by the king." Such was the aphorism of (he man 
of tbe world, and in this particular Augustus was a king 
indeed. liie Romans rushed forward in the course he 
marked ont for them. His word dictated the fashions of 
the day, not in sentiment only, hut in many particulars of 
external conduct He was anxious to restore the dignttT 
of (he Roman citizen, as one of tlie conquering race which 
ruled its subjects as much by the prestige of its character 
as by its arms, and he resented all relaxation from the 
strait-laced discipline of the ancients, even to the petty 
matters of their dress and deportment. He marked hia 
sovereign displeasure at the degenerate Romans who in- 
dulged in the loose habiliments of Greece. "Are these," 
he exclaimed, in the language of Viigil. "the rulere of the 
worldi the nation of the gown ?" And in order to keep up 
tbe high distinction of Boman cititenship at a period when 
crowding into it, lie re vereed, 
and was vary 

provincials from all sides were crowding into it, ni 
m this single instance, the policy of Cssar, and 



D Krantii^ kdmissioii to Ibe Btnntui fnachlae. 
. B WIS, indeed, extremely careful in gtriking a. boluice 
between the tendency of the a^ to a ^nem fiidoa of 
castes and privileges and the ancient spirit of ezcluaiDii, in 
which he thought the strength of the republic still really 
reposed. The policy of Augustus was one, on the whole, 
of cautious and moaerate reaction. He made an effort to 
slay the process of disintegration, which he found so rife 
throughout the vital forces of the empire. The lawlessness 
of his own usurpation did indeed combine with the gross 
selfishness of hu personal character to aap the moral 
priDciples of Bocietj, and render its ultimate dissolution 
inevitable! but he made a vigorous effort to stem the 
tide, and succeeded in giving the Roman world a period 
of rest in the downirard path which it was generally 

The character of the period, however, as au 
ot tbe un! epoch of rest for reflection and self-control, was 
chiefly marked in the literature, which, more 
(liaii anything else, has contributed to give it the name of 
the Augustan Age. The religious sentiment which baa 
been described, resting as it did upon a deep sympathy 
with liistoricBl antiquity, colored by a bold and vigorous 
iraaginalion, is reflected in the [)oetry of Virgil, 
•'I8i>- gQ(j more particularly in the spirit of his great 

epicj the .Mneid. No douU, both depth and tenderness 
of feeling may be traced even in the eclogues of the 
same master, however slight for the moat part their sub- 
jects, and however imitative their treatmenC The Oeormo 
present us with more serioos and dignified characteristics, 
and though these pieces are directed mainly to the prac- 
tical treatment of practical operations, they admit of nigh 
moral as well as religious coloring. They recall the Bo- 
man reader to the moral foundalious of the national cha- 
racter, its honest aimplicity, its love of nature, its devo- 
tion to labor, its conviction that industry is the appointed 
path to virtue and to honor. But this moral feeling is 
elevated by a sense of the divine within man and around 
him. The Soman husbandman, the breed of heroes, is 
never suffered to forget that there is a God and a Provi- 
dence, or that the favor of the divine power has always 
bllen upon the industrious and the virtuous. "Thus it 
is that iftruria of old, and Borne in later times, waxed 
illuBlriouE and miglily; thus that the city on the seven 
hills became the fairest object of creation." The Qeori/ic$ 
'e undoubtedly animated throughout with a religious 

introduced (o Augustus himself. However agreeable migfal 
be his temper and mannera, it is not likely that Ibe po- 
litic usurper would distinguish a mere upstart with ad- 

mtssion to his society without »X least tacitly exidmg 
some return. The character of this poet's compositiom, 
both in his lyrics and his satires and epistles, seems prei^ 
clearly to betray the inspiration of the emperor and his 
astute associates. The most ammated and imaginadve of 
his pieces are almost invariably employed in sonndii^ Iba 
of the CiEsar and his family. When he deKrandi 


The great epic of Virgil, ^e natioaaf epic of the Bomon 
people, glorifies the divine Providence which founded Rome 
ID the beginning, and carried her through all her triumphs 
to the conaumniation of her greatness in the era of Augustus. 
It begins with the divine JEneas, and it leads us on to the 
flivine Ceesar. The greatnegs and the weakness of the 
hero of the poem equEdlj tend to this one end, (he illustra- 
^on of tlie Providence which has educed strength out of 
weakness, and overruled everything to the glory of the 
Roman people. The moral to be deduced from ttie story 
of .£ueBS IS too plain for any Roman to mistake. The 
divinity which protects Borne is the Lord of heaven and 
earth and all that is therein. There is no Ood or Lord 
like unto Him. Blessed are the Romans who have this 
Lord for their God. The miyesty of the Roman empire, 
now at the crowning summit of its progress, is the im- 
mediate efflux of this sovereign power, and tlie one ia for 
ever bound up with the other. If such was the doctrine 
•nng by Virgil, surely none conid be more grateful lo 
Augustus, the sovereign ruler of an empire so guided and 

The names of Virgil and Horace are famil- 
Horua. :„,i„ — .-,™i j„ g^ggy review of llie age of 

Augustus; vet 

with the other in their personal character, in the scope 

their writings, and in Ihc influences they respectively 
ezerdsed upon their contemporaries. Horace, as is well 
known, haa been a republican in his youth; he had 
(spouaed the cause of Brutus and Casaius, and, while yet 
a student in the schools at Athens, had obtained a com- 
iniaaion in their army. He fought in person in the battle 
of Philippi, and, as he tells us himself, threw away his 
shield in his rapid flight from the swords of the Qesar- 
ians. From that time he abjured the losing cause, and 

iCes of the court But it will be observed that he 
addresses the haughty nobles of Rome 
eiiKui la a simui of prudential advice, soothing their pride 
but lowering their ambition, and directing them (a kA 
contcntmeot and happiness not in objects of public interest, 
but in the tranquil enjoyment of ease, which he digniSti 
with the name of philosophy. The poetry of Horace is 
full of pleasing sentiments, but it contains perhaps no 
single strain of generous and enoofating enthusiasm. Such 
feelingB it was the policy of Augustus to disoouragt^ ind 
the policy of Augustus is faithfully represented in the 
utterances of his courtly flatterer. But there was another 
task imposed upon him, and it is to this that his satires 
and epistles are more commonly directed, namely, lo piil 
out of countenance the offensive self-assertion of the "new 
men" of the empire, the men whom the fortunes of therivil 
war hod suddenly raised from their native obscurity, and 
enriched or ennobled, notwithstanding the barrenaaa of 
tlieir origin and the vulgarity of their breeding. Auguatna 
wanted, no doubt, to tame the aspiring spirits of hit 

Senuine nobles, but he shrank from driving (hem (o 
esperation by swampina them with an inuadation of Uwe- 
' ' ' ' B their own former clients and freed- 

Horace's office, as a gentleman usher 
lance all such undue pretensions, md 
shut the door with consummate urbanity upon the most 
disagreeable or the most importunate of (he courtieis. He 
possessed in perfecdon botti the delicate irony and Ok 
graceful amenity which are essential to the perfonnance of 
a task BO critical. Doubtless Horace, in his own peculiar 
line, exercised as great an influence in Roman society ii 
Virgil. The laugTiing philosopher was no less a power 
among his contemporaries than thereligiousdevotee. Each 
of them, in his several way, performed an imm^ue service 
to the government under which he enjoyed favor and re- 
ward; nor can we deny that, considering how necessary 
the government of Augustus was lo the bleeding common- 
weahh, each io his several way did an invaluable service 
to his country. 

Nor\ though we may admit that irony and peisiflige 
were Horace's forle, should we do hiin justice if we sup- 
posed (hat he had no feelings of genuine tenderness and 
earnestness. Even Horace had liis instinctive sense of re- 
ligions duty, which peeps out occasiormlly from under the 
robe of ills preterided piiilosopliy, and shows that he recog- 
nised a principle of duty, and felt ill at esse in the con- 
sciousness of his own deficiencies. We may recogniie in 
many of his later composi^ona his growing dissatis^lioii 
with (he worldly views of life which he had been woni to 
recommend, and some efforts at (he a[(ainment of higher 
sources of satisfaction. Both Vii^il and Horace were tat 
off in middle life, but both, we imagine, had already en- 
tered into the cloud, and were painfully oonscious that the 
commonwealth they loved had fallen into its decline, and 
that their own a(tempts to invigorate or to soothe it were 
little likely to prove availing. If Virgil deserves our ad- 
miration, Horace too is not unworthy of our sympathy; 
and it is well that we can part in such good temper from 
the two most perfect artists of the Roman, or perhaps of 
the ancient, world altogether. 

Of Ovid, the third great poet of the Aagmtan q^^ 
Age, we can hardly think or speak so iavorably. 
Ovid, loo, was a genuine representative of his epoch, which 
occupied, however, the latter part of the career of Augus- 
tus, when the character of the age had begun lo show nisn- 
ifest signs of deterioration. In the character of this poet, 
which may be aliundantly gathered from his nnmeronl 
works, there appears no religious feeling and no moral 
purpose. Nevertheless, his writings reflect, in tome im- 

fOMDi iiuticulaiB, the aociol teodeaciea of tiie epoob, tnd 
libid Ttiluable illnMratuMu of the eenim of theAupislan 
Age. To the hlKtorioa aod uohsoIogUt the F(uU pr«MiiU 
tiait of interegtiDg informaCion; but in thii poetical ao- 
cooDl of the Boman caleadar (he writer undoubtedly pro- 
aaid to meet a social vaot of the time. The work in iu 
bit t rationaie of the diriiie ofBceB, and expounds to the 
■BliDit the " •eaaona and the reasons [lemporaeumemiMiM)" 
b( the religiooi serricee which the emperor recommeDded 
(0 iheir pious attention. Hinule and manifold as were the 
muDoriiUs of their paBt history, or of their accredited 
mjlbology, which the ai/t of the Boman temples en- 
•biined, we can imagine how much the? must have faded 
xnj from the recollecuoo of the people generallj durioff 
the centDrj of confusion from which they iW just emeived, 
sod bow eren the priests and flamens of the nstioaaTdi. 
rioilies moat have stood in ne«d of a learned interpreter 
of ibe rilee which ihej mechanioJlj performed. The Fatli 
m remarkable as a speaking witness to the fiwU of the 
MMmonial rerival of the Auj^tstan Age. 

The ^nerallr immoral tendency of a irreat part of Ovid's 
{Metry IS well known ; and it spraiks aU the worse for the 
diaracter of (be age that the writer could declare, and prob- 
ably not without justice, that his personal conduct was 
parer than the sentiments with which he sought to please 
the public. The deterioration of senliiuent between Vii^il 
and Ovid is marked in the tone with which they speak 
va the hieher flighls of their respective poetry. The writer 
of the j^ieid fully maintains the pure standard of thought 
and expression which he received as a iradition from 
Homer, and which bad been respected by the epic poets 
fmerally ; but Ovid, in his MetoBuyrphotei, an heroic, if 
Dot an epic, composition, allows himself to descend &r 
beknr this ualled level, and is not only licentious in his 
langaage, bat seems to choose, and of set purpose, the most 
licentioDs of the stories which his varied subject oSen. 
Again, though Horace adopts the lighter lone and looser 
phra.<«o1ogy of the lyric poets of Oreece, there ie at least 
Dolhlng meretricious in his style ; he wss not a cgrrupter 
of youth himself, nor were the models such which he pro- 
poMd lor adaptation. But Ovid descends to the imitation 
of a more wanton kind of poetry. He, too, seeks his modek 
for the mott part from among ^e Greeks, but they are the 
Greeks of a more degenerate age — the Oreeks of the court 
of Alenmdria, who pandered to the vicious lasles of a cor- 
nipl and d^iaded society. But, imitator as he doubtless 
waii Ovid had a strong personal individuality, and all his 
poetry is mailed with the genuine sentiment of his age and 
eountry, Perhape we trace more of the real man in his 
3Hi(u and Ex Panio, in which be is thrown entirely on hia 
mo resources, though in the depth of his affliction and the 
decline of his powera, than in the abler and more interesting 
wo^ in which be owed we know not how much lo the 
Greeks before him. 

We have, besides these, the remains of other poets, such 
as Tibullus and Propertiu^ who also hold up the mirror to 
thdr times, and assist us in scanning its character on all 
sides. But it will be well to pass them over in this brief 
•ketch, and bring our review of the literature of the Augus- 
U„ tan Age to a close with a notice of the greut his- 

torian Livy. The consummate excellence in 
fann aod stvle of the work to which we refer bears witness 
to the intellectual accomplish men Is of the epoch. No 
doabt the Bomons did much at a later period to improve 
their method of leaching, and to extend their acquaiutance 
with the highest models of literary eiceilence. An age 
swxeeded in which Kome was formed into an academy, 
like that of Athens or Alexandria, when all [he arts aud 
•dmces of the time were taught or practised under the di- 
net instruction of approved profeesora. Great were the 
ncrilsor the historical literature of Bonie at a later age, 
and illustrious are some of the men who distingnislied 
tbemselvee in its exerdse. But, on the whole, a reasonable 
ctiticism will award to Livy the palm of merit at least in 
the two particaiais jnst speciSed, — a palm which he may 
well contest even with the masters of the art in Greece. 
The rormof Livy's history partakes In exquisite proportion 
<f the descriptive, the narrative, and the dramatic; it is re- 
bels with personal cbaracteristits, which bring us into 
wet icquaintance with the individuals of whom it treats ; 
it abnuodt, moreover, in matter of antiquarian interest, 
which we who read it at a dintance of nineteen centuries 
M to be spedaUy valuable^ and which did not Ml to at- 

STUB. 73 

tract the sympathy even of the writer's own contemporaries. 
The Romans in the time of Augustus were just be^nning 
to be keenly self-conscious. They felt that they had at- 
tained to such a position in the world's history as no people 
before them had acquired. They were led by all the tra- 
ditions of their youth to attribute their splendid success to 
the examples of national virtue paraded before them. They 
were sensible of the deep debt they owed (o their ancestors, 
and they wanted to know who their ancestors were; they 
wanted to trace the features of their own character in the 
lineaments of the great men who had gone before them. 
Of tliese ancient heroes of the commonweaJIb they had 

hitherto imbibed a faint and vague conception from 
and poems and &mily or national traditions, 
legends connected with their ritual and their laws and 


led the existence of those heroes, and the 
reality of the deeds imputed to them ; but the men and 
their deeds were for the most part wrapped in obscurity, 
or presented under dubious colore. The voice of Livy's 
contemporaries muttered around him that of all their com. 
patriots he should be held moet in honor among them, wbe 
should bring tliese traditions of the past into the light of 
day, and make them peas among a generation, willmg so 
to accept them, as genuine and accredited history. The 
history of Livy was the true product of the age, inasmuch 
as it answered to the call of the age. It presented Boman 
historv to the Romans much as SnHkespeiire'B dramas pre- 
sented English history to the English; the history in both 
cases was just what the people wished to believe, end from 
thenceforth they so accepted and believed it. 

As r^ards the style of Livy's composition, it ia enough 
to say that it is generally regarded as the most perfect spe- 
cimen of the lAlin prose writing that we pnastss, and we 
may be pretty confident that if anything better had beeu 
written, posterity would not have sufibred it to pEiicb. It 
holds the middle place between the oratorical exuberanoa 
of Cicero and the philosophic sentenliouaneas of Tacitua. 
While sentence follows sentence throughout in logical se- 
quence, BO that the thread of meaning and argument is 
never lost under a mass of verbiage, yet we are b^uiled in 
our lengthened study by ihe repeated recurrence of ^assa^ 
of bighly-imaginativecoloring; we feel that if the historian 
Bometimes deviates into poetry, he never misleads ns with a 
show of empty rhetoric The Roman people, as repre- 

had had as yet little effect in seduciug them into 
the conceits and aBl^ctations of the more frivolous people 
they had conquered. The history of Livy remains the 
noblest monument of the Romatiui honot, the national dig- 
nity, which his countrymen so proudly contrasted with th( 
Oraia tuerUili, which was gradually enervating and de- 
grading tbcm. The spirit of the Aufrastan Age is set fbnh 
perhaps at its best and brightest, in the illustrious history 

It is probable that Livy, who had been a r^ublican in 
his heart, lived for the most part the i^etired life of a stu- 
dent, though he is said to have been employed in the edu- 
cation of some of tlie princes of the imperial family. Uu 
refleclsthecharacter of the earlier generation, among whom 
he was bom, rather than of the later, in which he died, al 
an advanced age, in the fourth year of Tiberius. Ul the 
great poets above mentioned met an early death about the 
middle of the principate of Augustus, except Ovid, who 
survived to flie eighth year of his successor. Accordinsly, 
it is in Ovid, as might be expected, that we trace the hnt 
marks of degeneracy from the high standard of the Augus- 
tan literature— the Golden Age of Latin composition. Ths 
decline of Rome, both in intellect and morals, war becom- 
ing rapidly apparent The splendid promise of theAuKus- 
lan Age was quickly exhausted. The spirit of freedom 
evaporated ander tlie inSuences of the time, and the spu- 
rious appearances which the emperor kept up had no power 
to impart real vigor to ilie national constitution. Jnst lo 
the same manner it is abundantly clear that the fame of 
the age of Louis XIV. in France is founded on Ihe excel- 
lence of the men who were actually bom and bred in an 
earlier epoch and under a iiealthier rtgine. Neither th* 
age of Augustus nor that of Louis produced the men who 
have rendered it illustrious. But the decline of Rome was 
becoming marked before the death of Augnstus in other 
respects also. Although internal dissensions had been ap> 
pMsed, and private UDbitioa qnelledLlbe external relatuw 



of tlw wni^re were inwcare, ind caused vivid ipprehea- 
dons. The &ontieis of tbe Bhine and Danube were con- 
•Umtlj harasied bj the indomitsble apirit of tbe barbiriana 
be^ ood them. On tlie Danube the Boman unu seem to 
bare beea crowned with a Buffident roesMiTe of iuccchb, but 
OD the Bhine the great disaster of Vanu^ and the loss of 

D tbe premature death of his nearest kin- 
iiBtiest odvisere. Though he 
maintained lo tlie taat an outward Bereoit^ almost touting, 
he Bppean to iiave been painfully conacioun of the subatan- 
tial failure of the great paciGotlioD he had accomplished, 
■ad to have augur«d nothing but evil from the character 
of the stepson, to whom, at the last moraent, he was content 
to leave 1^ inheritance. A general foreboding of evil wad 
creeping over the minds of his people. The age of Augus- 
tus, which lasted nearly fifty years, was indeed a long day 
even in the life of a nation, but its gun was inuilfestlv has- 
tening to its setting, and tbe night was coming, slowly, 
gradually, but surely. {c, k.) 

AUGUSTUS II. (also, and mure accurately, designated 
Fretebick AuauSTUS I.), Elector of Saxony and King 
of Poland, second son of John George III. of Saiuny, wsa 
bom at Dresden, 12th May, 16T0. Uia personal beauty 
was remarkable, and from his great physical stren^ii he 
received the surname of The Strong, by which he is com- 
monly distinguished. He was verv carefully educated, and 
■pent several yeai« travelling in f^urope, visiting moat of 
the courts, and taking part in some campaigns against the 
French. In 1694 he succeeded his elder brother as elector 
of Saxony, and shortly aAer, having entered into alliance 
with Austria, was appointed lo the chief command of the 
imperial forces agamst the Turks. In 1697, after having 
■uOered a defeat at Olasch, he resigned this office, and pro- 
ceeding to Vienna, entered into m^tiationa with ruani to 
the throne uf Poland, left vacant by the death of Jolia 8o- 
bieski in 1696. As a preliminary step in his candidatur^ 
Augustus renounced the Protestant with, and proclaimed 
himself a Catholic Among his rivals the most formidable 
was llie French prinoe of Conti. Both expended enormous 
sums in buying over tlie Polish nobles, and both claimed to be 
elected at the general diet. Conti, liowever, was not on tbe 
spot, and Augustus, marching into Poland with his Saxon 
forces, gained possession of the kingdom. Scarcely was he 
settled on the throne, when he entered into alliance with 
Bussiai and Denmark against the young king of Sweden, 
and with his Saxon troops (for the Poles would not unite 
with him] invaded Livonia. In the campaigns which fol- 
lowed (1700-1704), he was completely worsted by the extra- 
ordinary military genius of his ODponent, the celebrated 
Charles ZII. of Sweden; he was driven from Poland, and 
Stanislaus LesEdinakiwascrowned in his place. TheSwedes, 
foUowing np their viotoriea, invaded Saxony, and in 1706, 
M Attransladt, Augustus was comnelled to moke peace, to 
repar the expenses of tbe Swedish army, lo acknowledge 
Stantslaus as king of Poland, and to congratulate him on 
his accession. Alter (hese reverses he spent some lime as a 
vDlunieerintbeNetherlands,butthedefeatof Charles at Pul- 
Iowa (1700) again nised his hop€«. He at once declared 
the AllransUtot treaty null and void, and having received 
promises of anistance from Bussia, entered Poland, drove 
out Stanislaus, and was a seoond time proclaimed king. 
DurinK the foUowia^ years he continued to carry on, the 
war with Sweden, while at the same time his kingilum was 
distracted by the jealousy with which the Poles r^arded 
the Saxon troops, who were compelled to leave Poland in 
1717. In 1718 Charles XII. was killed at Fredericshall, 
and from that time the reign of Augustus was marked by 
DO important event His court bei^e celebrated as the 
moat extravagant and luxurious in Europe, and he himself 
■■the most dissolute and magnificent of princes. Ilistaviah 
expenditure, though it enrJched his capital with treasures 
of art, impoverished both Poland and &iony, and laid the 
foundations for the future misfortunes of those countries. 
He died, 1st February, 1T33, from mortification of an old 
wound. Of bis numerous nataral children, the most 
hmoae was the distinguished general, Maurice of Saxony. 

AUGUSTUS IIL, or Fredbkick Auoubtub II., Elec- 
tor of Saxony and King of Poland, only legitimate son of 
AugnUiu tbe Strong, was bom at Dresden, 7th October, 
16(M. He was brought up in the Proteelant ^th, but in 
171^ whila OD his travels, he entered the Church of Borne, 

though his change of opinion was not pnblicly known till 
1717. In 1733 he succeeded his bther as dedot of 
Saxony, and put forward claims to the kingdom of Poland 
The Polish nobles, however, had become diaeadsfted viA 
foreign nile, and endeavored to reinatate SUnislans La>- 
ainski, whose daughter was married to Louis XV. cf 

Augustus, who was elected, though in an informal dud- 
ner, and by their aid e8tablii>hed himself in the kingdooL 
On the death of Charles of Austria in 1740, Saiinj at 

Augustus to unite with the empress when war broke out a 
second time in 1744. His forces were completely defeated 
by Frederick, and Saxony was overrun and pllUged bv 
tbe Prussian troopa. Eleven years later Augustus Joined 
the alliance against Frederick, which gave rise to lbs 
Seven Years' War. He was again unfortunate ; the wbole 
Saxon army was surrounded and compelled to surrendtr 
at Pima in 1756, and during the remainder of the wu 
Saxony and Poland were the seats of operatioos, sod 
suffered severely. Augustus died 6th October, 1763, rai- 
viving only by a few months tbe peace of Hubeitsbnrg. 
During his reign considerable additions were made to the 
collections of art treasures formed by his lather, and Dres- 
den began to be celebrated throughout Europe for its chuii 
and pictures. 

AUK, a name common to several species of sea-ibwt 
belonging, with one exception, to the family Aleiiia. Of 
these, special interest attaches to the Great Ank, or Gaie- 
fowl ( Aica vapmaia), from tlie circnmstance that there is 
no authentic record of its having been taken, or even w«i> 
alive, for more than a quarter of B century. In the antnnm 
of 1»21 Dr. Fleming, while on a cruise through the Otb- 
rides, observed and described one which had been taken 
alive in the sea off St. Kilda and put on board the yscbt. 
With a rope attached Ut one of its legs, this specimen w» 
occasionally allowed to disport itself in its native elenMot, 
wliere it astonished every one by the rapidity with whidi it 
swam under water. On one of these occasions it got loon 
from its bonds, and was sood beyond the reach of puisuiL 
Another xpecimen had been observed a few years befora 
off Papa Westra, one of the Orkney Islands, but in spita 
of the eiertions of the crew of a six-oared boat, continued 
for several hours, the auk could not be overtaken. This 
specimen, however, was aflerwards secured, and Ia now in 
the British Museum. The Great Auk measureti about three 
feet in length, has ■ large bill, but wings so small as to ha 
totally nselees for flying, serving, however, as powerful 
swimming organs. It is said to have laid a single egg on 
the bare rock, — usually, from the inability of the bird to 
rise on wing to the higher cli^ close to the water edge. 
Its food, aceoniing to Fabricius, conaisted of the lump- 
sucker and other GEibes of a similar size. From the earliest 
existing accounts, the Great Auk does not appear lo have 
ever been more than an occasional visitant to the British 
Isles, and then chiefly to the sea around Ut. Kilda and the 
Orkneys, while Iceland, the Faroes, and the islets about 
Newfoundland, appear to have been its proper home. The 
probability that this bird is now totally extina givfs 
special value lo the remains of it now exuting. These, 
according to Professor Newton, are ss follows: — 71 or 72 
skina, 9 skeletons, 33 or 41 detached bones of diSerenI 
birds, and 65 eggs. The other auks ai« the Puffin^ the 
Razorbill, and the Little Auk, all widely distributed along 
the northern-tern pemle and Arctic coasts. 

AULIC COUNCIL (from the LaUn aula, a hall, in 
Qerman, lUUhtlu^raiA), one of the two supreme courts of 
the old Germanic empire, the other being the imperial 
chamber (Reiehtkammergtriekl). It was called into exiitt- 
ence in 1501 by tbe Emperor Maximilian, and was by 
bim intended to counterlnlance tbe influence of the im- 
perial chamber, which he bad been compelled to form by 
the states nix years before. The AuUc Council had in 
many respects equal power with the chamber; from it* 
decisions there was no appeal, and under its special juris- 
diction were included the consideration of the imperial 
reserved rights, fees, and priviiegea, the settlement of dis- 
putes as to precedence among the several ststet, and the 
arrangement of matters relating to the Italian posHcssiotia 
of the empire. All questions of law could be submitled 
either to this council or to the chamber. The membos 



wcK U fint appointed bj the emperor, >I Thoae death the 
court dlHolTed, and new appointmenta were made b; hU 
incPMBor. The power or the council increased nnder 
tereral of the emperon ; it wm formal); recognized as 
eocqiuJ with the imperial chamber ; and after Uie peace 
of Westphalia its organization was altered m as to meet 
the leqaiiemente of the time. It then and aflerwardg 
tXHimted of a preaident, vice-president, and eighteen 
eounctllon, alt selected and paid bj the emperor, and of 
a vioe-duutcetlor, whose appointment raited with the elec- 
torate of Haini. Kx members were Protestants, and the 
TOtee of tbcee six, when unanimous, could not be over- 
tarned b^ an^ mqoritj of the others. The councillors 
were divided into two parses — the first consisting of the 
counta and barons, the Becond of the men of learning, who 
poeseased equal rights with the nobles, but were more 
tughl; paid. At the dissolutiou of the old Germanic im- 
periaf sjttem in 1806, the Aullc Council in its former sig- 
nification came to an end, though an Austrian court bear- 
ing the tame title still continued to sit in Vienna- 

AULIS, a town in Bceotia, supposed to have been situ- 
ated on a rockj peninsula between two bays, about three 
milee 8. of Chalcis. Daring the Trojau war it was the 
rendeivons of the Greek fleet, and han obtained celebrity 
•a the scene of the aocriflce of Jphigenia. Pauaaniaa 
■tates that io hiH day there was still to be seen here the 
temple of Artemis ascribed to Agamemnon. 

AUMALE, formerly AT.BEMARLE,&om the Latin Al6a 
Maria, a town of France, in the department of Seine 
Jnl^rieure, on the bonks of the Bresle, 35 miles N.E. of 
Rouen. Grain and hemp are cultivated in the neighbor- 
hood ; cloth in manufactured j and the town has a trade in 
wool and cattle. Population^ 2229. Aumale was erected 

a William the Cknifjueror into a countship, which was 
erwards held in nuccession by the houses of Gastiie, 
Dammartin, Hnrcourl, and Lorraine; and in 1547 it was 
rused to the rank of a dukedom in favor of Francis of 
Lorraine. It afterwards passed to the house of Savoy, 
&OID whom it was putchamd in 1675 by Louis XIV., who 
conferred it as an appanage on one of his natural sons. In 
1 769 it came into poaseseion of the house of Orleans. The 
earl of Albemarle, in the British peerage, derives his title 
from Aumale, 

ACNGEKVYLE, Ricbabd, commonly known by the 
name of Bidani dt Bury, was bom in 12S1, at Bury St 
Edmund's in SoSblk, and educated at the univeraity of 
Oxford. He entered the order of Benedictine monks, but 
was shortly aflerwards appointed tutor to the prince of 
Wales. On the accession of his pupil to the throne as 
iidward III., he was promoted lo various offices of dignity. 
and was finally made bishop of Durham, ss well as lord 
high-chtuieellor and treasurer of England. He was several 
times engs^ied in embassies on the Continent, and became 
aoquaintJed with many of the most eminent men of the 
time, particularly with the poet Petrarch. A portion of 
bis correspondence with ihe latter has been preserved. 
At Oxford he founded a library for the use of the students, 
which he furnished with the Mst collecUon of books then 
in Enstand, and appointed five keejiers, to whom he 
granlea yearly salaries. lie died at his manor of Auck- 
land, 24th April 1345, and was boried in the cathedral 
ehuich of Durham. His works are~(l.) I^uiobiblim, con- 
taining directions for the management of his library at 
Oxford, and an elaborate eulogy of learning, written in 
Tery bad lAtin, — tnt printed at Cologne 1473, then at 
Spirn, 1483, and finally at Oxford 1599: (2.) Epitloia 
^amiliarum, some of which are addr««ed to Petrarch; 
(3.) Oralionet ad Frineyptt, mentioned by Bale and Pits. 

AURAY, a small town of France, situated on the slope 
of a hill near the mouth of the river of the same name, in 
the department of Morbihan, 10 miles W. of Vannes. Its 
port is greatly frequented hv coasting veesels; and it 
carries on a oonslderable industry in stocking- weaving, 
silk-spinning, tanning, shipbuilding, Ac The principal 
bnildinga are (he church of Si. Esprit (13th century), 
which is now transformed into a coli^, the church of St. 
Gildaa, the town-house (17th century), and the Chartreuse, 
which marks the site at Ihe battle of 1304, in which 
Oiarles of Blois was defeated by John de Montfort In 
the neighborhood is the church of Bainte Anne d'Auray, 
one of the principal places of pilgrimage in Briitooy. 
Popolation, 4H2. (See Pallisei's BnUans <md tfs Bstipa-y, 

AUBELIANUS, Cauub, a celebrated Latin physidati, 
born probably at Sicca in Numidia. but regarding whosa 
life scarcely an^ythin^ is known. The very date at which 
he flourished is quite uncertain. In his books he refers 
frequently to Soranus, and does not mention Galen, from 
which it has been inferred that he lived at a period inter- 
mediate between these two writers, is., during the 2d 
century A.D. But if the writings under his name are, m 
seems at least probable, translations or paraphrases bom 
Soranus, the absence of any reference lo Oaleo can eaulj 
be understood. Again, Galen does not mention AurelU' 
nus, though he notices many minor physicians ; from which 
tact, toother with the corrupt Latin style of bis extuit 
works. It has been supposed by several authorities that the 
more correct date is the 5th century A.D. The writings of 
Aurelianus, which are composed from the point of view of ' 
the methodical school, and show considerable practica) 
skill in the dingnous of ordinary and even of exceptional' 
diseases, consist of the tallowing: — (1.) A treatise, in three 
books, on acute disesses ( Jcutorum or Gsferum ^asaionum), 
Paris, 1533 and 1826. (2.) A treatise, in five books, on 
chronic dieeases (Thrrforum or Olmmiearvm Risiioaum), 
Basle, 1529. Both these treatises were published together 
in 1586, and frequently since. (3.) Fragments of a com- 

Srehensive treatise on medical science in the form of s 
ialogue {Sfalianale» Ba^ionmonet), referred to in the pre- 
face to the work on acute diseases, have been discovered 
and published by Vol. Base in his Amcdtita Oraea et Oraco- 
Latina, vol. ii. 1871. 

AUBELIUS ANTONINUS, Makcus, the noblest of 
pagans, the crown and flower of Stoicism, was bom at Borne 
121 A.O., the date of his birth being variously stated as the 
21eI and the 26th April. His original name was Marcus 
Anuius VertiB. HU father. Annius Veros, died while he 
was pralor; his motlier, who survived her husbaod, was 
Domitia Calvilla or LucUla. By both his parents he was 
of noble blood, his mother being a lady of consular rank, 
and his &ther claiming descent from Nums Pompilius. 
Marcus was an inliuit when his father died, and was there- 
upon adopted by his grandfather. The latter spared no 
pains upon bis education, and the moral tnuning which ha 
receiveo, both from his grandfather and from his mother, 
and to which he alludes in the most grateful and graceful 
terms in his MedilaiUmt, must have been all but perfecL 
The noble qualities of the child attracted the attention of 
the Emperor Hadrian, who, playing upon the name Verus, 
said tliat it should be changed lo VerisBimus. When 
Marcus reached the age of seventeen, Hadrian adopted, as 
his successor, Titus Antoninus Pius (who had married 
Annia Goleria Faustina, the sister of Annius Verus, and 
was consequently the uncle of Marcus), on condition that 
he Id turn adopted both his nephew and Lucius Ceionius 
Commodus, the son of .£lius Cesar, whom Hadrian, being 
childless, had originally intended as his successor, but who 
had died before him. It is generally believed that, had 
Marcus been old enough, Hadrian would have adopted 
him directly. 

After the death of Hadrian, and the accession of Anto- 
inuB Pius to tlie throne, it became at once apparent that 

distinguished future was in store for Marcus. He had 
been, al the age of Sfleen, betrothed to the sister of Com- 
modus; the engagement was broken off by the new em- 
Seror, and he was instead betrothed to Faustina, the 
aughter of the latter. In 139 A.», the title of Oeear 
was conferred upon him, and he dropped the name of 
Verus. The full name he then bore was Marcos .£liuB 
Aurelius Anloninua, .£lius coming from Hadrian's family, 
and Aurelius being the original name of Antoninus Pius. 
He is generally known as Marcus Aurelius or Marcns 
Aurelius Antoninus. In 140 a.i>. he was mode consul, 
and entered fully upon public life. 

The edacation of Aurelius in his youth was so minnte, 
and has been so detailed by himself that it ought not lo 
be passed over without notice. Professor Long says, with 
perfect truth, apparently, of the trainers and the truned, 
""Such a body of leacheis, distinguished by their acqnire- 
ments and their character, will nardty be collected again, 
and as to the pupil we have not had one like him since.*' 
We have already alluded to the care bestowed upon him 
in youth by his mother and grandfather; a better guardian 
than that thoroughly good man and prudent ruler, Anto- 
ninus Pius, could not be conceived. Marcus himself 
says, "To the gods I am indebted for having good grand 



btlicre, good parents, a good siBt«r, good teachers, good 
Meociat«9, good kiosmen and friendi, nearlj everTtbing 
good." He never attended any of tbe Iu>mui public 
Khools, and Ihia he makes a matter for aelf-congratulatioo. 
He was tiaiued by tutora, in whom, particular^ in Ruati- 
cuE, he appeaiB to have been very fortuaate, and to whom 
he showed gratitude when he reached the throne hj raising 
tbem lo the highest dignities of tbe slate. Like most of 
the young Bontana of the day, he b^on his aludies with 
rhetoric and poetry, his teachers being Herodes Atticus 
and M. Cornelius pVonCo. But, at the earlj age of eleven, 
he entered upon another course of study, in which he maj 
be eaXA to have continued more or less till the end of his 
life. He became acquainted with Dic^netuB tbe Sloic, 
was faaciuated by the philosophy he taugbt, assumed the 
dresa of his. sect, and ultimately abandoned rhetoric and 
poetry for pbiloeophy and law, having among his teachers 
of the one Sextus of Cberonea, and of the other L. 
Volusianua Marcianus, a distinguished jurist. He went 
^oroughly and heartily into the practice as welt as the 
theory of Stoicism, and lived so abstemious and laborious 
ft life, that he injured his health. It was from his Stoical 
teachers that he learned so many admirable lessons,— to 
work hard, lo deny himself, to avoid listening to slander, 
lo eodore misfortunes, never to deviate from his purpose, 
lo he grave witbout affectation, delicate in correcting 
others, " not frequently to say to any one, nor to write in a 
•letter, (hat I have no leisure," nor continually to excuse 
the neglect of ordinary duties by alleging urgent occupa- 
tions. Through all his Stoical training, Aurelios pre- 
served the natural sweetness of his natnre, so that he 
emerged from it the most lovable as well as the saintliest 
of F^ns. 

Antoninus Pins reigned from 13S to 161 a.d., and the 
concord between him and liis destined heir was so ' 
plete, that it is recorded that during these tweoty-l 
years HsrcuB never slept oftener than twice away from 
the house of Pius. It is generally believed that Aurelius 
married Faustina in 146, at all events a daughier was bom 
to bim in 147. The two noblest of imperial Romans were 
aasocialed both in the administration of the state and in 
the dmnle country occupations and amusements of the sea- 
side vUla of Lonum, the birthplace of Pins, to which he 
laved to retire from the pomp and the wretched intrigues 
•f Borne. 

Antoninus Pius died of fever, 161 a.d., at his villa of 
Lorium at the a|^ of seventy-five. As his end approached, 
he summoned his frieuds and the leading men of Borne 
to his bedside, and recommended to them Marcus, who 
was tlien forty yeam of age, as his successor, without men 
lioning the name of Commodus, his other adopted son 
commonly called Lucius Venis. It is believed that ihi 
BOtate agreed with what appeared to be the wislies of the 
dying emperor, and ureed Aureliiis to take the sole ad- 
ministration of the empire into his hands. But at the very 
commenoement of his reign, Marcus showed the magna- 
nimity of hix nature by admitting Verus as his partner 
in tlie empire, giving him the tribunitian and proconsul" 
powers, and the tiLlat Caesar and Augustus. This w 
the first time that Rome had two emperors as coUcagui 
Verus proved (o be a weak, self-indulgent man ; but he 
had a high respect for his ndoplive brother, and deferred 
uniformly to his judgment. Although appareutly ill-as- 
eott«d, they lived in peacei and Verus married Liicilla, llie 
daughter of Aurelius. In the first year of his reign Faust- 
ina ^ve birth to twins, one of whom survived to become 
the infamous Emperor Commodus. 

The early part of the reign of Aurelius was clouded by 
Tsrious national misfortunes: an inundation of the Tiber 
swept away a large part of Rome, destroying fields, drown 
ing cattle, and ultimately causing a famine; then cam 
«arthqnakea, fires, and plagnes of insects- and finally, tlia 
niuvly and warlike Parthians resumed hostilities, and 
ander their king, Vologeeee, defeated a Roman army and 
devastated Syria. Venis, originally a man of considerable 
phyncal courage and even mental ability, went to oppose 
(he Parthians, out, having escaped from the control of his 
colleigue in the purple, he gsve himself up entirely to 
sensual excesses, and the Roman cause in Armenia would 
have been tost, and the empire itself, perhaps, imperilled, 
fiad Verus not had under bim able generals, the chief of 
whom was Avidius Cassius. B^v tbem the Roman prestige 
#■■ vindicated, and the Partluan war brought to a con- 

clusion in 165, the two emperors havii^ a triumph for 
their victory in the year following. Verns and his anay 
brought with them from the East a terrible pestileoce, 
spread through the whole empire, and added gieally 
lo the horrors of the time. The people of Rome k 

have been completely unnerved by the universal distrasL 
- --' '- have thought that the last days of the emplTC hM 
Nor were (heir feats without cause. The nudiisii* 

had at the best been beaten, not subdued, the L .... 
threatened rerolt, while signs appeared that various tribes 
beyond the Alps intended to break into Italy. lodued, 
the hulk of the reign of Aurelius was spent in efibrtg to 
ward ofi" from (he empire; the attacks of the barbarians. 
To ailay the terror^ of tlie Romans, he went himself lo 
' ! wats with Verus, his headquarters being Camuutuin 

the Danube. Ultimately, the Marcomanni, the fiercest 
of the tribes that inhabited the country between Illyria in'l 
the sources of the Danube, sued for pence in I&S. The 
following vear Verus died, haying been, it is sud, cat uir 
by the pestilence which he had brought from Syria, altbouirli 
in that wicked age there were not wanting gossips malii- 
nant enough to say even of Marcus that he hastened hn 
brother's death by poison. 

Aurelius was thenceforth undisputed master of the 
Roman empire, during one of the most troubled prriinli 
of its history. Mr, Farrar, in his Sukrg afl^ Qod, ihiu 
admirably describes the manner in which he dischar^ lib 
multifarious duties; — "He needed himself as being, in 
fact, the servant of all. It was his duty, like that of the 
hull in the herd, or the ram among the flocks, to confront 
every peril in his own person, lo be foremant in all the 
hardshipa of war, and most deeply immersed in all ifae 
toils of peace. The r^isiry of the citizens, the sappre»ioa 
of litigation, the elevation of public morals, the care of 
minors, the retrenchment of public expenses, the limitatior 
of gladiatorial games and shows, the care of roads, the its- 
(oration of senatorial privileges, the appointment of nane 
but worthy magistrates, even the regulation of street traffic 
these and numSerleas other duties so completely abaoibeH 
his attention, that, in spite of indifiereot health, they ofter 
kept him at severe labor from early morning till long aftti 
midnight His position, indeed, oflen necessitated hi> 
presence at games and shows, but on these occasions he 
occupied himself either in reading, in tieing read te, or Id 
writing notes. He was nne of those who held that notiiiog 
should be done hastily, and that few crimes were worse 
than the waste of time." 

Peace was not long allowed the emperor. The ^ear 
after the death of bis partner, two of the German tnbrn, 
the Quad! and the Marcomanni, renewed hosUliliea witll 
Rome, and, for three years, Aurelius resided almost cod- 
stanlly at Camuntiim, that he might effectually watch 
them. In the end, the Marcomanni were driven out of 
Pannonia, and were almost destroyed in their retreat 
across tbe Danube. In 174 Aurelios gained a decian 
victory over (he Quadi, to which a superstitious interest is 
attached, and which is commemorated by one of the sculp- 
tures on the Column of Antonine. The story is that tbe 
Roman army had been entangled in a defile, from which 
tbey were unable >o extricate Ibemselves, while at the saoia 
time they Buffered intensely from thirst. In this extremity 
a sudden storm gave them abundance of lain, while the 
hail and thunder which accompanied the rain contiiuaded 
their enemies, and enabled the Romans to gain an easy 
and complete victory. This triumph was nniversally con- 
sidered at the time, and for long afterwards, (o have been 
a miracle, and bore, the title of " The Miracle of the 
Thundering Legion," The Gentile wriiets of the period 
ascribed the victory to their giKis. while the Chnstiaoi 
attributed it te the prayers of llieir brethren in a legion lo 
which, they affirmed, the emperor then gave the name of 
Thundering. Dacier, however, and otliera who adhere lo 
tiie Christian view of the miracle, admit that the appel- 
lation of Thundering or Lightning [Kcpaavo^iiiet, or 
Ktpavvo^poi) was not given to the l^on because the 
Quadi were struck with lightning, but because there ou 
a figure of lightning on their shields. It has also been 
virtually proved tliat it had the title even in the reign of 


n after this Aurelius was not allowed te rest Frxii 



ATidiuB Caauu!!, the bnve and experienced commandeT 
or Itie Boman troops id Aaim, hod revolted tuid proclaimed 
himBfilf emperor. But the rebellion did not list long. 
C«BaiaB had odI; enjoyed his gelf-con&rred honor for 
OiToe months, when he was assaaBinuted, and his head whs 
brought to Marcus. With charaderiBtic mngnanimitj, 
Marcus did not thank the asBaasins for what thej had 
done; on the contrary, he b^god the Heaate to pardon 
all the fomllT of Casaiua, and to allow his life to be the 
wl; uite forfeited on accoaot of the dHl war. This waa 
uri.>ed to, and it must be conaidered aa a proof of the 
wwlom of Aurelius's clemency, that he had little or no 
trouble in pacifying the provinces which had been the scene 
of rebellion. Hs treated them all with forbearance, and it 
ia said that when he aiTi?ed in Byria. and the correspoad- 
ence of Caaaius was brought him, he burnt it' without 
reading iL Duiing this joume; of pacification his wife 
Faustina, who had bofne him eleven children, died. The 
gcasiping historiaiu of the time, particularly Dion Caaaius 
aod t^pitolinus, chaise Faustina with the most shameleas 
infidelitT to her husband, who is even blamed for not 
pajing need to her Crimea. But none of these stories rest 
on evidence which can fairly be considered trualworthy ; 
vhile, on the other hand, there can be no doubt whatever 
that Aurelius loved his wife tenderly, and trusted her im- 
plicitly while she lived, and monmed deeply for her loss. 
It would seem that Aurelius, after the death of Faustina 
aod the pacification of Syria, proceeded, on his retuiti to 
Italy, through Athena, and was initialed in the Eleuainian 
myateriea, the reason assigned for bis doln^ BO bein^, tliat 
it was bia custom to conform to the eatablished ntes of 
any connlry in which he happened to find himself. Alone 
with his son Commodus he entered Borne in 176, and 
obtained a triumph for victoriee in Germany. In 177 
occurred that persecution of Christians, the share of 
Aurelius in which has caused great diSerence of opinion, 
and during which Attains ana others were put to death. 
Ueanwbile the war on the German frontier continued, and 
the hostile tribes were defeated as on former occasions. In 
this campaign Aurelius led his own forces; and, probably 
on thai account, he was attacked by some infectious disease, 
which nltimately cat him o^ iifter a short illness, accord- 
ing to one account, in his camp at Sirmium (Mitrovil*) on 
the Save, in Lower Pannonia, and, according to another, 
at Vindoboua (Vienna), on the 17th March, 180 A.11., in 
the fifty-ninth year of his age. His ashes (according to 
BCMne authorities, bis body) were taken lo Bome, and he 
was deified. Those who could afford the cost obtained his 
■talue or bust, and, for a long tLoie, statues of him held a 
place among the Penates of the Bomans. Commodus, who 
was with his father when he died, erected to his memory 
the Antonine Column (now in the Fiama Colonna at Borne), 
lonnd the shaft of which are scutptores in relief com- 
■temorating the miracle of the Thundering L»ion and 
.1. 1 — _:...- :^ pf Aureiiug over the Quadi and the 

The one blemish in the life of Aurelius is his hostility 
lo C^riatianitj, which is the more remarkable that bis 
morality comes nearer than any other heathen system to 
that of the New TestamenL Attempts have been made to 
show that ha was not reaponsible for the atrocities with 
which his reign is credited, but the evidence of Justin, of 
Athenagoms, of ApoUinaris, and above all, of Helito, bishop 
of Saidia, <uid of the Church of Smyrna, is overwhelmingly 
to the eflect that not only were there severe peFsecutious 
vl Christians, in which men like Polycarp and Justin 
perished, but that the fonndation of these peisecutions 
was certain rescripts or cooslitations issued by Aurelius as 
•applemeotary to the milder decrees of his predecessors 
Badrian and Antoninus Pios. In explanation, however, if 
not in extennation, of the attitude of Aurelius towards 
Oiristianity, several circumstaoceB should be taken into 
etmtideration. In the fiiat place, it ia evident that he knew 
little of the Christians, and absolutely nothing of Christian 
ethics. In his Jfaftfufunu he makes only one reference 
(xL 3] to the adherents of the new creed, and that of the 
moai contemptuons character, showing that he confounded 
them all with certain ftnatics of their number, whom even 
Clemens of Alexandria compares, on account of their thirst 
for martyrdom, to the Indian gymnosophists. How tar 
this ignorrmce was culpable it is impossible at so remote 
a date to say. Further, it should be noted, in r^ard to the 
naeripti npoo which the purjecutioos were founded, that. 

although they were in the name of the emperor, they may 
not have proceeded directly from him. There is no evidence 
that he was an active persecutor, except a passufe in Oroaiui 

to the effect that there were persecutions of the Christiana 
in Asia and Ghdiia "aoder the oidera of Marcus;" and it 
should not be kept out of consideration that he was ta 
some cxlwit a constitational monarch, and had to pay 
deference both to the conndla of the senate and the pre- 
cedents of previous emperors. At the time there was a great 
popular outcry against the Christiana on social and politic^ 
even more than on religious, grounds; and AureUua may 
have been as much at the mercy of intri^ers or fanatica 
when he gave his sanction lo the butcheries of Christiam 
in Asia Minor, as William IIL was at the mercy of Stair 
and Breadalbane, the real authors of the massacre of Glen- 
coe. Finally, it should be bome in mind that, in the re^ 
of Aurelius, the CJirialiaDs had assumed a much bolder 
atUtude thaii they had hitherto done. Not only had they 
caused first interest and then alarm by the rapid increase 
of their numbers, but, not content with a bare toleniion in 
the empire, they declared war against all heathen rites, 
and, at least indirectly, against the Ghivemment which per- 
mitted them to exist. In the eyes of Aurelius they were 
atheists aud foes of that social order which he considered 
it the first of a citizen's dniies to maintain, and it is quite 
possible that, although the most amiable of men and of 
rulers, he may have conceived it to be his duty to sanction 
measures for the extermination of such wretches. BtiU hia 
action at the time must be considered, as John Stuart Mill 
puis it, as " one of the most tragiosl facts in all history." 

The book which contains the philosophy of Aurelius ia 
known by the title of hia B^eetiimt, or hia MtdilaiioM, 
although that is not the name which he gave to it him- 
self, and of the genuineness of the aulhoiehip no doubts 
are now entertained. Jt is believed that the emperor also 
wrote an autobiography, which has perished with other 
treasures of antiquity. The Mtditationa were written, 
it is evidenl, as occasion offered, — in the midst of public 
business, and even on the eve of battles on whioh the EUa 
of the empire depended, — hence thdr fragmentary appear- 
ance, but hence b!Iso much of their practioil value and even 
of their charm. It is believed by many critics that they 
were intended for the guidance in life of Anrelius's son, 
Commodus. tf so, history records how lamentably ithey 
failed in accomplishing their immediate effect, for Com- 
modus proved one of the greatest sensualists, iNlfibons, 
and tyrants that di^raced even the Boman purple. But 
they have been considered as one of the most precious of 
the legacies of antiquily,-^«s, in fi»ct, the bMt of non- 
inspired reflections on practical morality.. They have been 
recc»nited as among the meet effectual stimuli to stru^leia 
in life, of whatever class aud in whatever position, m th« 
field of specdlation as in that of action. The M'tdilatioiu 
of Marcus Aurelius were, with Machiavelli's Art i^ War, 
the daily study of Captain John Smith, the real founder 
of the United States. They are placed by Mr. Hill 
in his posthumous eswy on the ViUitu b/ . Beliyiim as 
almost equal in ethical elevation to the Mrmon on th« 


making it subordinate to a love of mankind, allie.. ._ 
religion." In the MtdilatumM it ia difficult to discover 
anything like a rrstematic philosophy, which, indeed, 
means, as he used the word, tranquillity, or a serene habit 
of mind. From the manner, however, in which he seeks 
to distinguish between matter (U7} and cause or reason 
(airia, xSyos }j and from the Carlylean eamestneM with 
which he advises men to examine all the imprenions on 
their minds {^ovtikuu), it may be inferred uiat he held 
the view of Anaxagoraa — that God and matter exist 
indep^idently, but that God jrovems matter. There can 
be no doubt that Aurelius believed in a deity, althongb 
Schulti is probably right in maintaining that all liis 
theology amounts to tbi^ — the soul of man Is most 
intimately united to his body, and together tbev nudce on* 
animal which we call man; and so the deitr is meat 
intimately united to theworid or the material nmvene, and 
together they form one whole. We find in the JTedito- 
litmi no speculations on the absolute natnre of the Atitf 


and no clear exprewions of opinion u to a fatare state. 
W« may abo obaetve here that, like Epictetus, he ia 
br no meaos m decided on the Bubject of Eoicide as the 
older Stoics. Auretius is, nbove alt things, a practical 
monJiat The goal in life to be aimed at, acoordiag to him, 
ia not bappinesB, but tranquillity, or equanimity. This 
condition of mind can be altaJned only by "living con- 
fcrmablj to nature," thai is to eay, one^s whole natnre, and 
as a means to that, man must cultivate the four chief 
virtuea, each of which bu its distinct sphere— wisdom, or 
the knowledijie of good and evil ; justice, or the giving to 
every man bis due; fortitnde, or the enduring of labor 
and pain' and temperance, or moderation in all thin^ 
It is no fugitive and cloistered virtue" that Aurelius 
seeks to encourage; on the contrary, man most lead the 
" life of the social animal," must " live as on a mount^n ;" 
and " he is an abscess on the universe who withdraws and 
separates himself from the reason of our common natnre 
throagh bein^ displeased with the things which happen." 
While the prime principle in man is the social, " the ntxt 
in order is not to yield to the peisuasiona of the bodv, 
when they are not conformable to the rational principle 
which must govern." This " divinity within a man," this 
"legislating Aunlty" (ri ^eimvixdv) which, looked at from 
one point of view, is conscienoe, and from another is reason, 
must be implicitly obeved. Ue who thus obeys it will 
attain tronqnillity of mind ; nothing can irritate him, for 
everything is aocording to nature, and death itself " is such 
«s generation is, a mystery of natur^ a composition ont of 
the same elements, and a decomposition into the same, and 
sltngBthernota thing of which any man should be ashamed, 
for It is not contrary to the natnre of a reasonable animal, 
and not coi^rary to the reason of our constitution." 

The morality of Marcus Aureliua cannot be sud to have 
been new when it was given to the world, far leas can 
it be said to be systematic Compared, indeed, with 
elaborate treatises on ethia, the MediUUiont of Marcus 
Aurelius are as tonic medicine to saccuteut (bod. The 
charm of his morality lies in its exquisite accent and its 
infinite tenderness. Where can the connoinear in morals 
Bnd anything finer than such sentences as this? — "The 

Eride which is proud of Its want of pride is the most 
■tolerable of all.-" or where can amotedelicate rebuke to 
the Pharisaism which lurks in the breast of every man be 
obtained than this? — "One man, when ha has done 
a service to another, is ready to set it down to his account 
H a tavor conferred. Another is not ready to do this, 
Int still, In his own mind, he thinks of the man as his 
debtor, and he knows what he has done. A third in a 
manner does not even know what he has done, but he is 
like a vine which has produced grapes, and seeks for 
nodiing more after it has once prodnced its proper fruit. 
go a man when he has done a good act, does not call out 
(or olhen to come and see, but he goes on to another act 
as a vine goes on to produce again the grapes in season." 
Bat above all, what gives the sentences of Marcus Auretius 
(hrif enduring value and lasctnatlon, what renders them 
■nperior to the utterances of other moralists of the same 
school, such as Bpictetus and Seneca, Is tliat tliey are the 
Kospel of hie life. His practice was in accoiidance with 
his precepts, or rather his precepts are simply the records 
of his practice. To the saintlineas of the cloister he added 
the wisdom of the man of the world ; constant in misfortune, 
not elated by prosperity, never " carrying things to the 
sweating point f ' preserving, in a time of nniversal corrup- 
tioa, tmroility, and ■elf-indulgence, a nature sweet, pure, 
selMenjing, anafiteted, Marcus Aurelius has given to the 
world one of the finest eiamplea of the posibilides of 

The Meditation* of Marcus Aureliua have been translated 
into Kiglish, Oerman, French, Spanish, and Italian. The 
two duef English translations are those of Jeremy Collier 
(1702) and of Qeorge Long; the last may be considered 
final. The text most oommonly osed is the Greek one 
edited by J. U. Schulti (republished by Tauchniti in 1821). 
Many Imotce have been written on the life and times of 
Aureliua, and the enays on his Mediiatwmt are innumei^ 
able. One of tbebest eetimatesof him is contained in Mr, 
F. W. Farrv's Stdcen qfUr Qod, 1868. A scholarly work 
lOTMd Id 1874 by U. (3aston Boissin, entitled La Bdigian 
Rcmamt dAitmit ma Antonmet, gives, perhaps, the most 
intersstrnfT existing aoconnt of the stats of society nnder 

ADBEOLA, Aureole, the radiance or luminous clood 
which, in paintings of sacred personages, is represented as 
surrounding the whole figure^ In the earliest periods of 
Christian art this splendor was confined to the figons of 

; persons of the Godhead, but it was afterrards extended 
to the Virpin Mary and to several of the saints. Tbt 
anreola, when enveloping the whole Imdy, is generally 
oval or elliptical in form, bat is occasionally circular ct 
quMrefoil. When it is merely a lumiuouB duik round the 
head, itiscalledspedficallyanimitui, while the combination 
of nimbus and anreole is called a ^ory. The strict dis- 
tinction between nimbus and aureole is not commonly 
maintained, and the latter term is most frequently osed to 
denote the radiance round the heads of saints, angels, w 
persons of the Oodhead. 

AURICH, a town of Prussia, in the province of Hanover, 
situated on the Trecktief canal. It is re^larly built; 
a castle, which was formerly the residence of the 
prince of E^t Friesland, a lyceum,and fourlibrariss; and 
carries on the manu&ctiire of leather, paper, potteiT,and 
tobacco. The famous meeting-place of the East Pries- 
landers, Uptinabbootn, is in the neighborhood. Populatia^ 

AUBIFABBR (the Latinized form of the name Gouh 
bchkidt), Joixsts, a Lutheran divine, celebrated as tba 
friend of Luther and as one of the editors of bis worb, 
was bom in 1519 in the county of Mansfeldt, or, more 
prolubly, in the town of W^mar. After completing bis 
education at the univeisity of Wittenberg, where he beard 
the lectnres of Lutiier, he became tutor to Count Mans- 
feldt, and in the war of 15 14 -5 accompanied the army as 
field-preacher. For some months afterwards he resided 
with Luther as his /amtiltti or private secretary, and was 
present at his death in 1546. In the following year he 
spent six months in prison along with John Frederidt, 
elector of Saxony, who had been captured by the emperor, 
Ctuirles V. He held for some years the office of court- 
preacher at Weimar, but, owing to theolo^cal disputes, was 
com[>el1ed to re^n this office in 1561. In 1G66 he wis 
appointed to the Lutheran church at Brfnrt, which post he 
held, though not without serious di&renoes with his fbtlosr- 
clergymen, till his death in 157S. Besides taking a shan 
in the first oollectsd or Jena edition of Luthere wch^ 
Aurifaber sought ont and puUished at li^elwa in 1564-6 
several writings not included In that edition. He also pub- 
lished Luthe^s iMert (1656, 1565), and Tabk TM (1566). 

AURIFABEB, Joamhes, a Lutheran divine, bom ti 
Breslau in 1517. He was educated at Wittenberg, and 
was there specially attracted to Melanchthon, widi whom 
he ever afterwards remained on terms of close friendship. 
After graduating in 1538 he soent twelve veara aa doead 

' the university, and baying IJ 

f^hed himself by his prudence and conciliatory disposi- 
tion, took a leading part in the composition of the r^ula* 
tions for the Mecklenbuiv Church, and was suoWful in 
allying some religious disputes in the town of LObeck. 
The Grand-duke Albert of Pnisda, who was very dairoui 
of healing the diflerences in tlie Prussian Church caosed 
by the discussion of Osiander's doctrines^ waa attnoud 
by Auriral>er, invited him to Konigsberg in 1563, and in 
the following year appointed him to the profcaaornhip (/ 
" '^* ■ *■ ' of tha 

divinity ii 

rsity, and to the ^^doic; ol 

where, for the three remaining ^ears of his lif^ be dls- 
chaived the joint offices of pastor in the church of 8L Elii- 
al>eth and director of the Lutheran Church and schools. 
He died 19th October, 1668. 

AURILLAC, the capital of the department of Oaotal, 
France^ situated on the right bank of the Jourdann^ 
which IS here crossed by a handsome liridge. It contaias 
tribunals of primary Instance and commerce, a oommnnal 
college, societies of agriculture, aria and commero^ a 
public libraty, and a museum. Most of the town it of 
comparatively modem construction, its more ancient boild- 
ings having suflered severely in the religious wais of the 
16th century. Of highest claims to antiquity an portiooi 
of the castle of 8L EUenne. the chnrch of St. G^iKid, and 
a Benedictine abbey, which is regarded by manyas tht 
origin^ nucleus round which Aorillac gathered, lliere is 
a statue of Sylvester II., wlio was a native uf the town. 



im riwMfd in the abbey, which soon ■fterwarda 
m cme oT the most famoua schools of France. The 
mtigt of UpcBtry, lace, cutlery, p«ip«r, 
Huner, ac^ naa a ooniidersble number of hone* are bred. 
PoMlatkiD iu 1872, 11,098. 

AUBOEA, the Roman penouificstiMi of the dawn of 
dij, comfpondiiie to the Greek godden Bob (q.v.). 

ADBORA POi^ARIS, AnnoR^ Boreaus aad Aus- 
niua, FouA Liqht, Nobthebh Lightb, or Strbam- 
na, tn electricftl met«or, mptaiiug moat (reqaentl; in 
Ugh laiitudea, in the form of^ fuminouB clouda, arches, and 
nj% of which the latter lometimea meet at a point near 
the Mnilh, and form whU is called a boreal trovm. The 
■nJM tn Bometimet siogla; somelimeB seTenil concentric 
COM are seco, and ther ara tnually nearly stationary, or 
more ikiwly MHithward. They eras the magnetic merid- 
bn at light aiwles, and therefore, in England, have their 
eoitrM nearly N.N. W. The rays rise perpendicutarly from 
tba ardin, Init are sometimes seen detached, or when the 
irch is below the horizon. They are parallel to the dip- 
ping needle, or, in other words, to the cnrres of magnetic 
Ibne ; and the boreal crown, at whidi they appear to meet, 
is merely an effect of penpecUre. This point is In Eng- 
knd aboDt 70° in alLlude, and nearly S.S.K of the 
Moith. Tlie rays are seldom stationary, but appear and 
dnapptar suddenly, ehooting with great velocitv up to the 
Koidi, and moving slowly eastwanfor westward, but most 
nNDmonly the latter. They Bometimes cover the whole 
■ky, and fre^ently have a strong tremulous motion from 
tod lo end. This tremnlous motion is sometimes seen also 
inlhearches when near the ^enith; and Benjamin V. Marsh 
mentions a case in which the matter of the arch had the 
appearance of a rapid torrent flowisK from east to west. 
A nre form of aurora is that in which the rays appear to 
bang from the sky like fiingee or the folds of a mantle. 
^le ordinary color of the aurora is a pale greenish-yellow, 
bat crimson, riolet, and steel-color are not nnoommon. 
(Mnuon auroras have often been imagined by the super- 
Mitioua to be omens of war, ^tilence, and lamine ; and 
litely imagjnalicma have seen in their motions — 
" FiarN llcry warrion light npon th> elondi. 
In ranks, and sqaadnisi, and right form of ww." 

In Shetland, 

where they m« very frequent, and in the north of Scotland, 
thiyare known aa the " neny daneen" (perhaps the ancient 
ttpne aatenlea); while, from a carioos ptssage in Sirr's 
Cbybi* and <Ac (Xngalae, vol. ii. p. 117, it seems that the 
nrora, or something like it, is oocasiwiBltT visible in Cey- 
loo, and that the nativu call it the BvdtOa ligUt. Hr. 
Jansen says, however, that the great aurora of 4th Febra- 
ary. 1S7!^ which was seen at Bombay, was not visible in 
Cqiloa. In many parts of Ireland a scarlet aurora is sup- 
posed to be a shower of blood, and under this name is not 
•nfrequeutly mentioned in the old annals, always in oon- 
Mction with some battle or the murder of a great chief. 
The earliest mentdoned was in 688, in (he Ann^i <f Qotm- 
maa^nout, after a battle between Ijl»vTt«- and Hunster, in 
which Foylcher CMoyloyer was slun. It was observed at 
Edcna in CO^and in Syria iu 1097. 1008, and 1117. 
B^^_ The only thing reaembling a distinct history 

of this phenomenon is that which has been 
dren by Dr. Halley, in the PkiUnophiaU Trmtaetioru, No. 
M7. The fint aooonnt he gives, taken from a book enti- 
tled A Daemlim </ Metmn, by W. F., D.D., reprinted at 
LoodoD in 1654, describes the appearance of what is called 
In him bmrmng mtan, which were aem at London on the 
86th January, 1660. The next q>pearMioeL aocording to 
Ihe leatimony of Stow, was on the 7lh October, 1664. In 
1574, aba aocnrding to Camden and Stow, an Mirom bot«- 
alii was oaserred two nights successively, vis., on the 14th 
and 16th irf Norcmbsr, Baring much the same appearance 
M that deacribed by Dr. Halley in 1716. Again, on aurora 
WM twke teen in SrabMil, in the year 167&, vis., on the 
13th of Febroftrr and 2Sth of September. Both appear- 
. snew were dMctibsd by ComelinsQemoi, professor of med- 
Idne b( Lonvain, iriw comn«i«s them to speaia, fortified 
citiM, ud simiM fighting in the Mr. Hiebttel Mtratlin 
Intor to Kepler, stales that at B-'-lfMiig iu WQrtemberg 
Ihese phaMOMna, whi^ be stylta thatmiua, were seen by 
UaMdf DO le« than seven tima in 1680. In 1681 they 
■gain apfMucd in grsnt splaodor in April simI Beptambei', 

and in a leas degree in some other months of 'the mm* 
year. In September, 1621, a similar phenomenon was 
obserred all over France, and described by Oanendi, wha 
gave it the name of aurora bareaiit; yet neither this, nor 
any similar appearance posterior to 1574, is described by 
English vritds till the year 1707. From 1621 to 1707 
indeed, there is no mention made of an anrora borealis 
having been seen at all ; and, considering the number of as- 
tronomers who during that period irere continually scanning 
the heavens, it might almost be supposed that nothing of the 
kind really made its appearance until after an interval of 
eighly-six years. A small one was seen in November, 
1707 ; and daring that and the following year the same 
appenrancee were repeated five times. The next on record 
is that mentioned by Dr. Halley in March, 1716, which 
from its brilliancy attracted univEssal attention, and was 
considered by the oommon people as marking the introduo. 
tion of a foreien race of princea. Since that time theas 
nieieors have been much more frequent, and most of our 
readers must hare seen the brilliant displays within the 
last few yeani which have been visible over the whole of 

One singular phenomenon which seems to be ooaiwcted 
with the Aurora is that of a dark bank of cloud betpw the 
arches, and usually Just above the northern boriion. 
Although this appeara decidedly darker than the uncov- 
ered portion of tbc sky, it is of so thin a character that 
stars can he seen through it, as well ss through the auroral 
arches and rays, with but little diminution of brightness. 
It is, however, quite passible that this cloud is only the 
somewhat misty open sky near the horizon, which nppean 
darker by ooutrast with the bright arch above it. 

It has been repeatedly affirmed that cracking, 1^°^ 
hissing, or whizzing sounds have been heard Aurora. 
proceeding from the polar lights, and the na- 
tives of lugh latitudes are almost unanimous in allwing 
that (his is sometimes the case. Scoresby, Richanbon, 
Franklin, Parry, Hood, and 'later observers seem to hav* 
listened in vain for such noises, and it seems that in the 
intense cold of the Arctic night the oontraidion of the ioe, 
or its cleavage under the pressure of approaching tempests, 
produces sounds exactly such as aredeecribed. Still, r — 
negative evidence must be received with a 


heard, since the electric discharge s 
originate near the poles. The aurora, too, seems to vair 
greatly in height, and in lower latitudes is usually at sucll 
an altitudethat audible sounds from it are quite iinpoesibte. 
MuBscbenbroeck says that the Oreenland fisbers in (lis time 
assured him that thev had bequently heard noises proceed- 
ing from the aurora borealis, lati his lesUmonv is oonGrmed 
by that of many others. There is no a priori improbdiility 
of such sounds being occasionally heard, since a somewhs 
simitar phenomenon accompanies the brush discharge <tf 
the electric machine, to which the aoroia bears oonsidoxUe 

Numerooa observers {Nntarey iv. 27, 47) have _, „ . 
attested the occasional visibility of aurora by ^uoif 
daylight. In the Tnmaaetioiu of tJ^ Rofd 
InA Atadtmi, 1788. Dr. H. Useher notices that aurora 
makes the slan "flutter" veij much In the telescope, aod 
states that, having noticed this eSect strongly one day at 
11 A.H., he examined the sky, and saw an auroral corona 
with rays to the horiaon. J. Glsisher, Franklin, and 
others have also observed the phenom^on. It is scarcely 
pomible that a light so &int as not even to ohecuiv the itan 
should be visible in sunlight, and such fads would seem 
to suggest that the auroral lignt is developed in 
cloudor mist of some sort, *(hioh may become Connsotlon 
visible by reflected light, as well as by its own. ^tV™* 
Franklin says, "Upon one occasion the aurora cloudi. 
was seen immediately after sunset, while bright 
dayligbt was still renuuning. A oirctimstance to wbidi I 
Btuch some importance must not be omitted. Olonds h«*« 
sometimes been obeeired daring the day to assnme the forms 
of aurora, and I am inclined to connect with these clouds the 
deviation of the needle, which was oocssionallv remarked si 
sochtiines." The writer hsa seen auron which oootd not be 
distinguished from eloods, till the (brtiier development of the 
display nude thrir real nature erideoL Dr. Richardson 
thinks he has ofaeerred a polarity in the masses of dood 
belonging to a certain kind of ciiro-atratos approadiing to 
dmis, by whidh th«r long diamelen, having all the Sam* 


direction, were made to croas the magnetic ineriduui nearlr 
at right angles. Bat the apparent coa7ergence of sucn 
manes of cloud towards the oppceite points of the horiion, 
which have been so Irequeotly noliced by meteorologists, is 
an optical deception, produced when tliey are eiluated in a 
plane parallel to ihat on which the observer stands. These 
ciKumBtanceB,sajsDr. Richardson, are here outiced, because 
if it shall hereafter Ik proved that the aurora depends upon 
the existence of cert^n clouds, its apparent polarity may, 
perhaps, with more propriety, be ascribed to tlie clouds 
themselves which emit the light; or, in other words, the 
clouds may assume their peculiar arrangemeat through the 
operation of one cause (magnetism, for example), while the 
emisuon of light may be produced by another, namely, a 
change in their iuternal coostitntion, perhape connected 
with a motion of the electrical fluid. D. Low (.Vol., iv. 
121) states that he has witnessed as complete a display 
of auroral motions in the cimia cloud as he ever beheld 
in a midnight sky. He thinks that all clouds are sub- 
ject to magnetic or diamagnetic polarisation, and states 
that when the lines converge towards the magnetic pole, 
fine weather follows; when they are at right angles 
to this positiOD, wet and stormy. The aurora appears 
in these latitudes usually to occur at a height much 
greater than that of ordinary clouds. Dr. Richardson's 
obeervalions (Franklin and Richardson's Journey to the 
Sunta of the Polar Sea) seem to show, however, that, in 
the Arctic regions, the aurora is occasionally seated in a 
T«ion of the atmosphere below a kind of cloud which 
is KDOwn to poaseaa no great altitude, namely, that modi- 
fication of cirro-stratus which, descending low in the atmo- 
■phei^ produces a haiy sheet of cloud over head, or a fog- 
bank in the horizon. Indeed, Dr. Richardson is inclined 
to infer that the aurora borealis is constantly accompanied 
by, or immediatdy precedes, the formation of one or other 
of the forms of cirro-stratus. On the 13th of November 
and ISth December, 1826, at Fort Enterprise, its connec- 
tion with a cloud intermediate between cirrus and cirro- 
stratus is mentioned ; but the moat vivid coruscations of 
the aurora were observed when there were only a few thin 
attenuated shoots of cirro-stratus floating in the ur, or 
when that cloud was so rare that its existence was only 
known by the production of a halo round the moon. The 
natives of the Arctic ruions of North America pretend to 
jbrelell wind by the ra]iidity of the motions of the aurora ; 
aod thoT say that when it spreads over the sky in a uniform 
dieet oi light, it is followed by fine weather, and that the 
changes thus indicated are more or less speedy, according 
as the appearance of the meteor is early or late in the 
evening, — an opinion not improbable, when it is recollected 
that certain kinds of cirro-stratus are also regarded by 
meteorologists as sure indications of rain and wind. Dr. 
Richardson &equentl<ir observed the lower surface of 
nebulous masses illuminated by polar lights — a fact illus- 
trative of the comparatively low situation of these anron& 
Biot, also, in the island of Unst, observed many aurora 
that could not be higher than the rwion of clouds. Sir 
John Franklin in like manner obeervea low aurone. " The 
important fact," says he, "of the existence <^ the aurora 
at a leea elevation than that of dense clouds was evinced 
on two or three occasions this nisht (13th Fehruair, 1321, 
(t Fort Enterprise), and particnlarly at 11 hours 60 min., 
when a brilliant mass of light, vari^ted with the prismatic 
colon, passed between a uniform steady dense cloud and 
the earth, and in its progress completely concealed that 
portion of the cloud which the stream of light covered, 
until the comscation had passed over it, when the cloud 
appeared as before." Captain Parry, as stated in his third 
voyage, observed aurom near to the earth's surface. It is 
said that while Lieutenants Scherer and Boas and Captain 
Parry were admiring the extreme beauty of a polar ught, 
they all simnltaneously uttered an exclamation of surprise 
at senng a bright ray of the aui;pra shoot suddenly down- 
ward from the general mass of light, and between them 
__j .1. ,._j ^ . , .^ ^ 3(^ y^^ distant The 
light uius passed within a distance 
n 2 miles, of them. Further, Ifr. 
a Aberdeenshire an aurora bore- 
a 4000 feet above the level of the sea. 
FiCzroy believed that«urot« in northern latitudes indicates 
and accompanies stormy weather at a distance, and that 
straining and cracking of the ice may cause tne hissing 
Vid whizaing sounds. 

and the land, wiiich « 
ray or beam of the polar 
of 3000 yards, or les tha 
Farquharson observed ti 

H. Silbermaan (Chmpta Btndta, IzviiL p. 1051] notes 
factt which strongly confirm the connection of aurora 
with some form of cirrus oload. He says (of the suroia 
of 15th April, 1S69): "At 11 hours 16 mia tbe phe- 
nomenon disappeared in a singular fashion. It app^red 
as if the columns of the aurora were still visible, but the 
stara were hidden, and it soon became obvious that fan-like 
cirrus clouds, with their point of divei^nce in the north, 
had taken the place of the aurora. Between 1 and 2 in 
the morning these clouds had passed the zenith, and let 
fall a very fine rain. On stretching out the back of the 
hand one felt a pricking of cold, and now and then there 
were minute scintillations in the nearest strata of air, like 
a halt of tiny crystals of ice, which afterwards turned to a 
rain of larger and larger drops. At 4 o'clock in the morn- 
ing the cirrus of the ^Ise auron was still visible, bat 
deKirmed towards the top, and presenting a flaky aspect, 
One interesting point is, lAat the cirrus never appeared to 
replace the aurora either from the right or the left, bat 
to snbstitute itself for it, like the slow changes of a 
dioramic view." " I had previously observed a fall of 
small ice crystals on the 30th April, 18S5. At 6 r.x. 
Paris seemed enveloped in a cirrus of vertical fibres, recall- 
ing those of amianthus, and more or lew wavy. It wis 
a rain of littie sparkling prisms. At the same time I heaid 
a rustling or crepitation, and on extending mv hand 1 lelt 
a pricking sensation of cold, and distinguished the crystals 
which fell and melted immediately." 

In a later memoir (Ibid., p. 1120) he remaifa that minr 
storm-clouds throw out tufU of cirri from tbdr tops, whictt 
extend over a great portion of the sky, and reeoLve [hem- 
selves into a very fine and cold drixxle, which frequently 
d^enerales into a wanner and more abundant rain. 
Usually the fibres are more or len unuous, bat in mudk 
rarer cases they become perfectiy rectilinear, and surround 
the cloud lilie a glory, and occasionally shine witli a sort 
of phosphorescence. As an illustration he quotes his ob- 
servations on the night of the 6tb September, 1865:— "A 
Mormjf cloud was oh^rved about 11 p.k. in the N.N.W, 
and lightning was distincUy visible in the dark cumnlon* - 
mass. Around this mass extended glcriet of a phcs- 
pborescent whiteness, which melted away into the darKoen 
of the starry sky. Round the clond was a single and un- 
interrupted corona, and outside this, two fainter coraD» 
broken by rifls which correaponded with each other. 

any foreign cause. The rays showed great 
mobility, and a sort of vibration intermediate between 
that of the aurora and tbe 'brush discharge' of the electric- 
machine." He goes on to say that — 

"Luminous Dlonda havs l>Mn frsqasoUy abiarred. Then u» 
maoy szuoplsa in Gilbert's AntiaU, and we may reoall also tlw 
obiarratioDi of Bnarls, Delno. tbe Abbi Roiisr, Niohalson, ud 

tfaat obHrTud by Dr. Vscdnl at Lauiuna In 'iTfi's, and by Di. 
Hobinaon in Inland." 

A still more curious fact is mentioned by Sabine, wbo, 
during his magnetic survey, anchored some days at Locb. 
8cnvaig in Skye. This loch is surrounded by hi^ and 
bare mountains, one of which was nearly alwavs enveloped 
in a cloud, resulting from the vapors which almost 
constant west winds brought from the AUantic This 
cload at nights was permanently self-luminous, and Sabine 
frequently saw rays similar lo those of the aurora. -He 
entirely repudiates the idea that the rays could be da» 
to aurone oeyond tiie mountain, and is sure that thnt 
phenomena, whatever thor natmt^ were ptoduced in the 
cloud itself. 

Bilbermann aserts that aurone are preceded by the 
same general phenomena as thunderstorms, and concludes 
that everything had happened as if the aurora of 1859' 
and 1869 had neen storm-clouds, which, instead of burst- 
ing in thunder, had been drawn into the upper parts of 
the atmosphere, and their vapor being OTStalliied in 
tiny prisms by the intuise cold, tin elecDitaty had becoma 
luminous in flowing over these icy nrticlea. This vie* is 
very strongly supported by the oSwrvation <k Preffessor 
Piuai Smyth that the monthly fraqnency of aorora varies, 
inversely with that of thunderstomis. The following arr 
his numbers of relative frequency, the means of all ouerva- 
tioDB of the Scottish MeteocologuHl Societjr prior to 1871 ; 




AafUt - 

Hf>u> at whole 7«u 

Ii must, however, be remembered thst the observed fre- 
tfieaej of uininB is miich affected in Scotland hv the con- 
linuoua twilight during the summer months, if there he 
iliii oonnection belweeo thunder-cloods and aiirone, it is 
DCi Improbable that the "dark s^ment" is sometimes a 
nil cloDd or mist, dtaated at a height where llie density 
of the air is too great f(v laminous discharge; and in 
■ereral caicB Silbermann hu seen auroral rajs rise from 
■mall doods, vhich ^pivdaally melted entirely a^ay, or 
kft a Bnall noa-limuaous nucleus when their electricitj 
«w diaehaiged. 

It, IB would certunlj be the case in a mist, 
^11^''*^ an; portion of the auroral light is reflected, whe- 
ther it be its own or derived from some other 
bod;, it ihoald I>e polarized ; but so &r polariscope obeer- 
Tallons are deCdent, arid give no cerlaia iaformalion. It 
b difficult to separate Ihe proper polarization of the aurora 
from the mere atmoephenc polariiation of the sky. Mr. 

to have made some ohBervations on that of Nov. tl, 1871, 
<Ud tMt detect potu-iiation. On the other hand. Prof. 8te- 
pfam Alexander, in his report mi his expedition to Labra- 
dor (App. 21, U. 8. Ooat Sumq/ Rep,, 1S60J, found Strang 
polarintion with a Savart, and, singularly enough, thought 
It stnmgeat in the dark parts of the aurora, The ohaerva- 
lioas wei« made in laL about 60°, in the bepnuing of July, 
ind near midnight, hot be does not state whether there was 
twilight or any trace of air polarisation at the time, nor does 
he give the plane of polarization. 

With regard to the height of anrone, Sir W. 
Hrifhi. ^ Q^,g lHatun, vol. iii. p. 28J aUtes that he 
mm an aurOT« some ye«n ago at Cheater in which the rays 
came between him and the houses ; and Mr. Lsdd observed 
a similar case in which the lighthouse at Margate was visi- 
ble throii){h a ray. The evidence, however, appears strong 
that aurora is osually at a very great height. Dalton caT 
■nUted the heij^ht of an auroral arch, which was seen as 
br north sa Edinburgh, and as far south ss Doncsstar, and 
■tmoat intenoediale placea, from Ila apparent altitude, as 
'tapoaitioa in relation to the itareasseen from 

Kendal and Wanington, 83 milea apart. The reiultin| 

haigfat was aboat 100 miles, and the poaitioa slightly sonti 

KendaL An ofaeervation at Jedburgh oonfimed this. 

B taken at Edinburg 
~ 150 miles. Bal 
Ming the more tmstworthy. Backhouse has 
Bade many calculations, and conaiders that the average 
hei^t of anrone ranges frdm 50 to 100 mile^ and numer- 
oo other obaervers have calculated similar beighls. All 
these obanrstione, however, are liable to the objection, that 
difierent obaervets may really have seen different arches, 
of which, aa haa been remarked, there are often several 
eoDcentrio ooes. It is not likely that this iras really the 
CHe in moat instancea, but it haa, no doubt, aometimee oo- 
cnned, and may account for the heighia of MO to 1000 
miles calculated by earlv observers. Tiiis difficulty Is met 
hr a method proposed by Prof. H. A. Newton {StIL Jour. 


vol. xxxix. y. 28fl) for calculating the height 
of altitnde and amplitude of an arch. 
u KoiB almost certain that the auroral arches are arcs of 
(iiiiles, of which the centre is the magnetic axis of the 
taith; or, at least, that they are nearly parallel to the 
•aith'a snrfiMe, and probably also to the narrow belt or ring 
Kmondiitf tbe Dtagnetio aitd astronomical polea, and psss- 
bg throDgn Faroe, Ihe North Gape, and the north of Nova 
Kmbla, whic^ Loomis and Fritz have fcmnd to be the re- 
^00 of most frequent aurora. This being sssnnied, Prof. 
Bewton finds thai, d being the distance Irom the observer 

to the owitre of curvature of the nearest part of this bell 
(which for England is situated about 75'^ N. laL, 60° W. 
long.), h Ihe apparent altitnde of the arch, 2a its amplitude 
on the horizon, z ila height, R (be earth's radius, and c the 
distance of the observer from the ends of the arch, — 
sin.f-9in.d.coa.ocoeec.{d + A) . . (1), 
tan. c-2 8in. Asm. f sec V .... (2), 

and i-B(Bece-l) (3). 

He ^ves the heights of twenty-eight aurora calculated by 
this method, ranging from 33 to ^1 miles, with a mean of 
130 miles. The method, of cooise, rests on the assnmptioa 
that auroral srclies are arcs of circles, hut it ig decidedly 
confirmalo^ both of this assumpdon and of the heights 
calculated by other methods. It cannot well be objected 
that such altilodeB are beyond the limits of our atmoephere, 
since Prof. A. B. Herschel [Nalurt, vol. iv. 604} gives the 
height of twenty meteors varying &om 40 to IIB miles, 
wiui an average of about 70 miles, and it is almost certain 
that these bodies are rendered incandescent by atmoepherio 
friction. Aasuming 0° C. as the temperature at the earth's 
surface, and the aieolule lero, —273° C, as a minimum 
for the auroral region, the pressure would be about 0*2 
millimetre (O'0O73 inch) at a height of 100 kilometres (62 
miles) above the earth's surface. This result, of course^ 
assumes a good deal; but if correct, it implies a vacuuni 
attainable with difficulty even with the Sprengel pump. 
The preeaiire mav, however, be much greater in the path 
of the auroral beams, since, as Prof A. B. Herschel eng- 
gesle, electrical repulsion may carry air or other matter up 
to a great height. A similar effect is observed in the so- 
call^ vacuum tubes, in which the prewure becomes mndi 
greater in the narrow central part, while (he discbarge il 
passing. It is found that the apparent altitude of the an* 
roral corona is always a little less than that iodicBtod by 
the dipping needle, owiog to the curvature of the lines <rf 
magnetic force, or, in other words, because its altitude cor- 
responds with the incliaalion of the mrallel of latitude 
over which it is actually situated : and Galle haa suggested 
(Pbgg. Ann., cilvi. 133) thu from this divergence the 
height may be calcalated^ and, indeed, gives a series ot 
heights so determined, which do not difier materially from 
Prof. Newton's. It is, however, doubtful if the position i^ 
these coronae, and consequently the value of the small 
angle (not more than 4° or 6°), admit of snffidently aoeu> 
rate determination for such a use. 

Early observera, and especially Mr. Canton, 
conjectured that the aurora was an electric dis- ^f'l'f'^. 
charge in the nu^fied upper atmoephere, and I^J^i^ 
the resemblance between it and the phenomena 
exhibited by discharges in an aii^puurp vacuum confirmed 
the idea. Recent spectroscopic observations have thrown 
some little doubt on this conclusion, or at least have shown 
thai there Is still a mystery left unexplained. When the 
light of any glowing gas is analyzed by the prism, it fa 
found to consist of a series of colored lines and hands, of 
which tbf number and position is dependent on the nature 
of the gas, and which is called its spectrum. The light of 
the aurora gives a spectrum usually consisting of a single 
line in the greenish yellow, which does not coincide with a 
principal line of any known substance — a spectrum totally 

different &om those of tJie gases of the atmoaphere. fo- 
■■■■■''■' ■ 1. . -yg ^ sharp line in 

refnngibfe bands. 

this line there is occasionally visible a 
the red, and several fainter and mote refni _ 
The tableon next page includes most of the principal deter- 
minadons of the auroral lines, which have hitherto been 

Vogel remarks diat the line at C66B, which is often Ihe 
onl^one virible, as well as the faint lumd at 4067^ becomes 
noticeably liuater when the red line Is visible, while under 
(be same circumstances that near 5189, as well as the red 
line, is very brillianL This foct, which has also been 
noted by other observers, makes it almost cedain that the 
auroral spectnim is not a simple one, but is derived either 
from two or more sources, or from the same source tinder very 
varying conditions. Angstrom gays {Ifatiire, x. 211) — 

" Tt may ba aiiumsd that tbs Bpaotram of tha auTDra Is oom. 
po*ad of iiM diSsrent ipntra, whiob, iren althangh appaaring 
sometimet simaltanMinily. bare io al[ prolnbiUty diSsrent t>rC 
gini. Tha oDs ipsotnim oooaiati of tha homageiiMiu yalbw 
light wbiohli io BharaolsTiBtia of the aurora, and wbleb is baad 
eTBD in its wsaksst manifsitation. Ths othar ■peotmm floniiala 
of axtramely fobla bandi of light, whiah anlj in ths itranfter 
aororB attain snob Intanalty u enablas on* to Bx Chslr posltlsa 


SB «iproiIin*t«l7. A 
•-oolotftd mmtnim, w< 

It ObUTTM M polDt I 

Ai to tb* <r*IIai> Itm In th« aonn, or th* 
, we an m lltU* abto doit u whao it wu 
point out k oomnondlDg Una la &□? known 
^Bomuo., Piuai SmTtb (Compitt Bmdut, Ixiir. fiST) 
lui ■nertsd tbftt it eotnaponds to one or tbe bsndi in the ipao- 
tnm orbjdroeaiboas; bnt a moreciMt obucvHUon iboita that 
ttaa line talli IdCo ft gronp of tfauJed baodi, wbioh belong to the 
^tegtrnm, but almoiC midwiij between tbe Beoond uid third. 
Herr Vogei hu obgerved tbaC Cbi> line oorreapondi to s band is 
the tpeotruDi of nreSed air (Pogj/. Aniu, ciIti. S8S). Thie ii 
^nite tme, hot io AagitrOm'i oplmaa ii foaoded on *, pan mle- 
OODBeptioB. The BpectrDOi of nrelled &ir hu io the jellow- 
gnea pftrt KTeo bnads of nearlj eqaal itrength, kad lh>t the 
«uionI line oorrnspoadi with tbe margin of one of theee bandi, 
whioh ii not aisn tbe atrongaat, oannot be anything alH thui 
maral; aooidant&l." 








iI4. Bright red 


lin. ODl" ooaa. 




■ionally ri.ible. 










Veg.1. { 








N.aaimui Polar 







C. I^uii'Smrth. 






AItu avk. 





0. Piaiil Bmf tb. 
























601 S 
4960 L' 
4900 J 

















Brow] bMd K>ne- 



what falnlarln the 



middle. ^ 


0. Fiaui Bmjth. 























0. Piaiil Smyth. 




_„ _ . n view is that thia line Ii dtie to fluoreS' 

» or phoapboreeMOce, and be remarks that "unoe 

flaoresoenoe ie produced bv the nltra-Tiolet raji, an electric 
disdiane may eaailT be imagined, which though in itself 
of feeble UghU may be rich in nltra-violet rays, and there- 
fi)M in » conditioQ (o cause a aafficienlly strong fluoreseuoe. 
It is also kooira that oxygen i* phoaphorcMMit, as alto ser' 
«t«l of its aompoanda." We are, bowerer. jual aa ignorant 
tt any body which woald giye inch a light by phoaphor- 

probable that the li^t may be dne to t^emical medoa. It 
u BBumed by Angstrom that water vapor is actcaaaiily 
absent to the higher atmoephere on aoooant of the eoli^ 
but when we remember that ib molecular wdght is lighter 
than that of oxygen io the proportion of 9 to 16, it is not 
unlikely that it' may attain great eleTations under the Tery 
low teasioiis that prevail at such heights, and it is ponbM 
also liiat both it and other bodies may, by electric r^lsion 
io the auroral betuns, be otrried up much above the levd 
which thev would attain by gravity. If, thea, electric dia- 
<^arges take place between tne small sensible paitideB of 
water or ice in the form of miat or drnu, as StlbennauB 
htiB shown to be likely, surface decomposition would ensnt^ 
and it is highly probable that the nascent gases would oom- 
bioe with emission of light It has been almost proved in 
the case of hydn^en phosphide thai the very characteristie 
Bpeclnim produced by its combustion is due neither to the 
elements nor to the products of combustion, but to some peco- 
linr action at the instant of combination, aud it ia quite pos- 
sible that, under such circumstancee as above described, 
water might also ^ve an entirely fresh spectrum. 

It is, perhaps, proper to motion that H. B. Pro<^er fouod 
an appajrent coincidence by oft^i repealed direct compari- 
aon with a Wd frequenily seen both in air and ozysen 
tubes, which he eventually succeeded in tracing with loler- 
able certainty to some form of hydrocarbon. The com- 
parison spectroscopes were only of low disperaion, bat on 
more accurate measureoiMit of the carbon band it was found 
that, thon§^ more refrangible than the fiiat band of dtroa 
acMylene (candle-flame), it whs atill leas so than careful 
measurement aaugns lo the aurora. In addition, Che band 
was shaded towaras the Tiolet, which is not the case with 
that of ^e aurora, though with feeble light it seemed like 

I^ leavine the citron line, we pass on to the feeble ^peo> 
tmm towartw the violet, we shall obtain more hopeful coin- 
cidences. AngstiCm thinks that three of the bands cor- 
respond with the three brighUet bands of the violet auror« 
of the negative pole in rarefied air, and has tried to repro- 
dnce the conditions of the anrora on a small scale. H« 

" Into a flaak, the battem of whiah is eavered with a layer of 
phoaphorio anhydride, the platinum wires are IntrodDoad, and 
the air it Damped ont to a taniion of only a tew mUHmetrea. 
If tba Indnetira aumnt of a Rabmkorff ooil be than sent 
tbrongh the fluk, the whole llaak will be fliled, u it were, witb 
the violet light, shioh othsrwiia ptooeads only from tbe nega- 
tive pole, sjid from both eleotrodea a gpeetram Is obtained oon- 
■litlng ohiaflj of ibaded Tiolat band*. If tbii ipeatrnm be 
eompftred with that of the aoiora, Anntrflm thinks the agrea- 
mant between the former and aome of the best established bands 
of the latter i> aaliifkotory. 

LinsL Wave lengths. 

{aooording to Barker, 431 470-5 ». 
" Vogel, -. 409-4 5X3-3 

" AngatrSm, ._ 473 531 

" LomitrBm, 4»-3 M9A 5335 

Mean, 4381! 4703 S33-a 
Of the ipeotram oi the violet light, 437-3 4707 633-r 
In tha ndghborbood of the line 4Sg'4 Harr Vogd hai, moi*. 
over, obiarrad two weak light-bands, 408-3 and 483-V (7). Th* 
■peotrum of the rlolat has alto two oorreipondisg shaded baod^ 
Uii and 480-1. 

" Should tha aarora be flamy, and ihoat ont like rays, thei* i« 
good reason for aaaamlDg a disroptire dUshaige of aleotrioi^, 
and then thara ought toappear the itroagest line In the spectra^ 
of tba air, tha graen, who» wave-length Is fiOD-3. Pradsely lliia 
has aotually bean observed by Voge], and baa, TDoreorer, beea seea 
by AogitrHm and others. Finally, ihonld tba aorotm be ob- 
served ai it Mpeart at a leaf height In tbe aUnoipharat then 
are reoogniiad both the hydrogen lines and abo tba stroDgeat 
of tha baodi of the dark 'banded air-apeetnun, Tberaare (bond 
also again nearly all the lines and light-bands of the weak 
anrora ipeetmm whose position has with any oartaUitf bean ob- 

With rnard to tbe red line, which la sometimea perfectly 
sharp and well defined, and oocsMonally, thoi^ verjr 
rarefy, even as bright aa the dtnm line, scMroely arcn m 
□laosible theory his been haiaided. That it ia not the C 
line of hydrogen is oeriatn, as they have been diracllw 
compared, and are widely separated; and none of tbe aU 
lines near its position are at all comparable to it in bri^^ 
una, Vogel Qdnka it may "correspc-od with the first aj^ 


(M ol luMi ID the ipednim of nitrogen (6620 to 6218), and 
thit prob^j 011I7 the bright part of thu group of lines ie 
fUble oa aeroaat of tiie extreoM fidataen of the suron." 
Thu, faowcTer, cuuMt be the om, duoe the preaent writer 
1m mta it both bright and ahup. Vogel poioia out that 
Ike liM Mar 6189 doaelj onrM^da to an oxygen line 
■if that *aT»-length whidi la bnght and cXHUtaat ander 
nrj diBerant ocmditiom or prenure and temperatDre. 
He ilata that the biot Hae near 5300 oorreaponds in like 
maBDer to a nitrogen line. He pobti out that, though the 
onttpoadeacea with the iron lines are tsit atrikiug, but 
little wdcht can be laid 00 the bet since many of the 
bricblegtliDea of the iron epectroin do not >PP«>tr- The 
foltowing table gives the principal iron lines (Thal^) aod 
Iha auroral ones; and it will be Been that the former are 
•a atnindant that coincidences conld scarcelj fail : — 



fiSM ID 
5208 10 




jeuK since that be had detected 
[mnapal line of the anrora in the epectram of the 

43Z5 10 


lodiacal light, bnt he appears to have been misled by a 
(lint aurora, for more recent observers, and notably ^ot 
C Hani Smji^, Hr. BackhouM, and A. W. Wright (SilL 
Jtv. of Se^ Tlii. 39), have found that the spectrum of the 
Btdiaol light is continuous and quite aualc^us to that of 
twilight or Hunt stanhine, and polariscope observations 
pnre that it is moallj refiect«di The very &iat line 
MntioDcd by Alran Clark at 5320 has been said bv 
winlock to ccundde with the principal coronal line 6322. 
ne paaitioB of the auroral line is nnoerlain ; and even 
If it were accurate, a dngle doubtfid coincidence with a 
feint line la not the least proof of identity. 

We have alreadv remarked the manifest rela- 
JIJ*^™ tion between the forma and position of aurone 
and the CMtfa's lina of magnetic force, and in 
addition to this have noted the disturbed of the magnetic 
needle during auroral displays. It is not, however, at such 
tiniea tnly that the mavnetic elements are subject to v aria' 
ttoo; the total (broe, oeclination, and inclination, all are 
eooatantlj rarying both regalarl; with the boun of the day 
tad the aeasoiiB M the year, and irregulariv at uncertain 
tineL ^le inegnlar oadltatioDS when violent are called 
nagnelio storma, and it must be noted that auroral display 
nerer takes [dace ezoent dnring soch disturbances, althoogo 
a hige proportion of tna moat remarkable magn^ storms 
an anaecoaipanied by visible aarors. 

Fnnkliu, who was one of the first oliserverB of this rela- 
HoD (at Fort Bilerprise, 64'" 30' N., 113° 10' W.), »»ys of 
Oe magit^c needk, — "The motion communicated to it 
na mither sudden nor vibratory. Sometimes it was 
rinnltaneooa with the formation of arches, prolongation of 
beans, or certain other dumps of form or acUon of the 
antoia. Bat generally the tmet of these phenomena upon 
(he needle waa not viuble immediately, Init in about half 
ja hour or an hour the naodle bad attained its maximum 
of deriatioD. TVom this its retnm to its former position 
ns very gradnal, seldom regaining it liefore the following 
BMtning, and frequently not until the afternoon, nnless it 
was expected by another arch of the aurora operating ' 
a direcoon different from the former one." 

"tb* arehsa of the sBmn," h« adds, " matt oommonlj tn 
ma tks sky aeaily at right aoglM to the magnetia marid]| 
Ul ittUthOM ftOB this dirMUon, as has alnadj baeo itu. , 
nn Bat rani and I am InallBsd to siuuldaT that thaia dilTarvot 
liilliMI ef the aoTora bavs eoQildsnble InSiuBaB ao tha diraa- 
WB <f tk* as till. WbsD an arah was oearl; at rifht anglaa 
la tk* Miffiatlfi maridiaD, tha notiDD at tha needla waa towards 
" ■ ~" ' — ■' illg>aatarwhs*oDaas- 

Iki WMt TUa wastwant BottOB w 

tnuni^ of the arah bora 301°, or abont SP° to Ua wast of the 
magnalio north, that la, vhea tha aitremitT of tha anh ap- 
proaetaad fism tha waat towardi the msgnatia north. A vaat- 
~'- -Botion alio took plaoa vhen the aitremitj of an anh was la 
raa north, or abont SB" to tha ««t of tha mignetto aorth, 
ot In ao rraat a. degrea u wben ili bearing wu aliout 801°. 
A ooDtrary elhat was prodaoed wben tba aaoie aod o( an anh 
ariginaUd to tha touthward of tba magnetio waaC, vis., whan It 
bora th>m 2*^" to 334°, aad of oouras whan ita oppoiits aitiem- 
Ity approaohad nearar to the magnetia oorth. Id Ibua aaiei 
"-- -lotion of the oaedia wu towards tha eaat. In ona aasaoaly 
iplaCa aroh vaa formad in tba magnalia maridian, Id another 
the Ixnai ibot up from tha magnalia nortb to iba lenith; and la 
both ttaaMoaMB the naadi* morad towarda the weat. 

" Tha naadla wu moit diitnrbad on Fabruary I3tb, p.if., at a 
tlniB wbaa the anrora wu moit diatinotly aeea paaiiog batwean 
a itratum of olondi and the aarth, or at leut illumlnatiag tha 
faoe of tba olonda oppoaad to tba obasrTBr. Thla and aavatal 
other appearanoaa induaad ma to infar that the diataooa of the 
aurora from tba aartb varied on diifaraiit nigbta, and prodased 
a proportionate eSaat on tba needla. Wben the llgbt ihona 
throngb a dansa baij atmnaphere, when tbsta waa a faalo round 
tba moon, or when a imall anew waa Calling, the dliturbanoa 
wai ganerally aonsidarable ; aod on eartaia baij, aloudy nights 
tha nsadlafreqaaDtly dariatad in a ooaalderabla degrea, altbongh 
tha aurora waa not riaible al tba tims. Our obMrratlani do not 
ansbla oa to daolda whatber tbia ought to be attributed to an 
aurora eonoaalad by a eioud or baie, or antiml; to tha state of 
tha atmosphere. Blmilar deviationa ha>e beau abaarv ed in tha 
daj-tima, both <d a elaar and oloudy atate of the Ay, but more 
heqnaatl; in the latter eaaa. Ad aurora aomatimea apprDaebed 
tha sanith witbont producing any ohange in the poaition of the 
■aedle, ai waa mora generaU; the aaie ; whilat at other timaa a 
ooniiderable alteration took plaoa although the beama or anhaa 
did not oome near the Hnitb. Tba aurora waa tiequentlj aeau 
without producing any peraaptible effect on tba ueadla. At aaoh 

or deoH jen^ib Kgbl, with little or do Internal motion. Tha 
diatarbanoa in tha needle was not always proportionate to tha 
agitation of theaurora, but it waa alwaji gisatar when the qolok 
motion and vlrld light were obierred to take plaoa In ahaay 
atmaaphare. In ■ few iDitaDoea the motion of the needle waa 
obtarred to oommenoa at tha inatant a beam darted upwards 
tnm the horiion j and Ita former position was more qalokly or 
■lowly cegahiad aecordlug to eireuinatanaaa. If an arah was 
formad immediately aflarwarda, having Ita extremities plaaed 
on oppoaite eidst of the magnetia north and sooth to the nmat 
one, the return of the needle waa more speedy, and It generally 
waut beyond tha point fh>m whence it ftrat ataitcd." 

Speaking of the aurora of May 13, 1809, H. Lament of 
Munich says {Ompia BtmdvM, IzviiL 1201)— 

" I. Dnring 40 yeaia I hava only lean aoTen or ^ht anrone 
at Hnniah, and thli amall nnmber is IniulBoient for a study of 
tha sharaotars of the phanDmenon. 

"2. Aurora, whether rlrible at Hunleh or not, an alvan 
aooompanied by magnetic perturbationa. 

" 3. In tba partnrbatlana of declination whloh I hava obsarvsd 
for SS years, I have been unable to reoognlie any general law. 

"4. The perturbationa ot horiionlal intenaity oommaDee In 
general by an Inoreasa of that foroe, and Bniih always bj a . 
dimluntlon, whiob lasts (or two or three daya. 

" t. tn all pertnrbatloDi than ia a coatbiiU raJalKnt balweni 
ehaugaa of inalinalion and tha limnltaneooi ohann* of hori- 
sontal Intenaity, anob that an angmentalion of uitaDilty of 
jjin eairaspoDds to a dlmlnntion of Inolination of S°-38 (Ibl 

" t. In telagr^iUo wiraa wa aannot obatrve the ailatasoa of 
a constant tarrastrlal anrrenl, atnoa the oondnatlvlty of tha soil 
ia iutlnltaly greater than that of tha lalegnpbio wire, and it ia 
only miifaa ekaiiftt that maniftat thamsalvaa. In oonseqnanaa, 
during magnetia psrtnrbatlons In tha galiranometer of a tala- 
grapbia wire, we only sea Irregular deleotlona to right or ief^ 
aDoaaeding each other at intarvals of a few minutes. 

" In IBfiO aod 18S1 wa made aleetrla^ obtarvaUons ftem hoar 
to bonr, fMm T a.h. to t r.w., irithont being able to it» any 
aonneotion between the atmospharie aleetrialty aod the magnetia 
perturbationa. Later T abandoned tbcea obaervaUoBa, bnaosa 
[he indioationi of the eleotromatars dspeodsd too mnoh on laeal 

the intensity of the total force, aitd the ratio noted abon 
is almost exactly that which would be prodaoed by a 
ciiange in the inclination alone ; and it would appear as if 
the actual horisontal foroe, independent of the inclination, 
was subject to comparatively little vatiatiou. This fat nol 
improbable, since varistions in the horisontal force conld 
correspond only to eleebo-magnetio easterly or wsaterly 


most freqaent in auroral displays. 

To give Boiue idea of the extent of magnetic pertorba- 
tioon, we may mention that during; Che aurora of 13th Mar, 
]Sfl9, the declination at Greeawidi varied 1° 25', while the 
vertical force eiperieDced four succeaaive maxima, and the 
greatest oscillation amolmted to 004 of ila total mean 
value. The horizontal force at the same time only varied 
0*014 of its mean value. During the aurora of the 15th 
April of the same jear the declination at 8tan/hnrst varied 
2° 23' 14" in nine minutes. 

The electric cnrrents produced at such lim«a in telfgraph 
wires, though transient, are often very powerfiil. Ixiomig 
tSiU. Jonr^ vol. xxxii.) mentions casea where wirea had been 
^nited^ brilliant flashes produced, and oombuitible mate- 
rials kindled bv their discharge. It often hntpens that the 
OTdinary signAi are completolj interruptea during their 

In addition to the n 

^^^^^^ auroral phenotnena and those of electric dis- 
oT aurora, charges in rarefied gases which we have already 
mentioned, we have seen that auroral displays 
are accompanied by marked disturbances both in the direo- 
lion and force of terreetrial ma^etism. This fact is in 
itself almost proof of their electrical character, and, taken 
in coi^unctiun with the strong " earth-correnta which are 
at such limes produced in lines of tel^raph, and with the 
maaifeet polanution of the arches and rays with r^;ard to 
the magnetic meridian, may be considered as conclusive 
that the aurora is some sort of electric discharge. There 
are still some points with n^jard to the origin of this elec- 
tricity which are nnexplMnM, and it is uncertain whether 
tiie magnetic disturbance causes the electrical phenomena, 
or vict vend. It has been shown by Prof. Plucker that 
when an electric discharge takes place through rarefied gaa 
in the field of a magnet, it is concenlrsled ia ihe magnetic 
curves, which are the only paths in which it can move 
without being distorbed bv the magnet. This is well 
shown in De la Rivers well-known experiment, in which 
an electro-magnet is enclosed in an electric ^. As soon 
as the magnet is set in action, the dischane, which had 
before filled the sgg, is concentrated into a <^ned band of 
light, which rotates steadily round the magnet,^the direc- 
tion of its rotation being changed by revetsal either of the 
current or of the polarity of the magnet. If we suppose 
that the aurora is an electric discharge passing from one 
magnedc pole to the other, and following the terrestrial 
magnetic curves, we shall find that the theoiv agrees with 
observed &cts even in its lesser details. In Ibese latitudes 
the magnetic curves are sensibly straight and parallel, and 
are incTined 8.E. at an angle of about 70° from the perpen- 
dicular, and, by the well-known laws of perspective, will 
appear to convei^ towards this point, as, in fact, the 
auroral streameia do. The streamers shonld move trom 
east to west, or from west to east, according as the discharge 
k from north to south, or vice vertd, and, in fact, they are 
b constant motion. Professor Loomis {SUL Jour, of Se., 
xxxiv. 46) gives a catalc^e of forty-six cases of such 
movemeat, of wliich thirty-one were from E. to W. and 
only fifteen in the opposite direction : and as part of these 
apparent motions are due to a real motion from N. to S., he 
concludes that the actual motion of the streamers is from 
aboat N.N.E. to B.S.W. This would make the north polt 
the nwitive electrode, which ia most likely usually the 
case. Prof Loomis has shown that during auroral displays 
electrical currents traverse the earth's surface in the same 

eneral direction, though subject to great variation in 
lensity and even to reversal. Waves of magnetic dis- 
turbance are also propagated in the same direction (ibid., 
xxxii. 318). 

With r^ard to the atches it is evident that they are 
geneiaUy circles concentric to the magnetic pole, and it is 
very probable that they are atult^us to the striK oilen 
teen in discharges in rarefied gases. Gaasiot, quoted by B. 
V. Marsh [SiU. Jour., jaxi. 316, and Raj/. Soe. Fnx., vol, x. 
Nos. 33 and 39), describee an experiment with his great 
Groves battery of 400 cells, in which the exhausted 
receiver was placed between the poles of the large electro- 
magnet of the Royal Institution: — "On now exciting the 
magnet with a battery of ten cells, effulgent strata were 
drawn oat from the positive pole, and passed along the 
vadat or npper sorbbe of the reoeiTer acoording to the 

direction of the current. On making the circuit of lb* 
lagnet and breaking it immediately, the Inminons strata 
labed from the poaitive, and then retreated, cloud fbllowiiw 
cloud with a deliberate, motion, and appearing as if swal- 
lowed up by the positive electrode." This, as Mr. Haish 
remarks, bears a very considersble resemblance to the 
conduct of the auroral arches, which almost invariaUr 
drill slowly southward ; and we cannot do bMter (ban aam 
up his theory in his own words:— "The forgoing con- 
aerations seem to render it probable that the aurora i» 
essentially an electrio discharge between the magnetic pole* 
of the eulh leaving the immediate vicinity of the nortii 
magnetic pole in the form of clouds of electrified matter, 
which fiost southward tbroogh the atmosphere at a beigfat 
of 40 miles or more from the earth, sometimes to a diataiMM' 
of more than 30° from the pole; that whilst thej are 
thns moving forward, with a oomparatively slow and ftesdy 
remaining almost staticmiuy tar 
from time to 

direction, that is to say, in the magnetic carves c<. 
ing to the points from which they originate; that tbcM- 
curves, ascending to a great height beyond (he atmosf^en, 
then bending more and more southward and downmtd 
until they finally reach corresponding points in the southera 
magnetic hemisphere, are the pathways by which the- 
electric currents pass to their destination ; and that far 
several hundred miles from the earth these curves are thns- 
' traced through space and illuminated with bright electric 
light;' and further, that the magnetism of the earth alao 
causes these luminous currents and the electrified matter 
Gompoeing the arch to revolve round the magnetic f€A« of 
the earth, giving them the motion from east to west, or 
from west to east, which the components of the arch ai* 
observed to have. 

The [>riucipal difficulties and deficiencies of this hypoth- 
esis, which was Gisl suggested by De la Rive, are Chat it 
makes no attempt to account for the origin of such an 
electrical discharge, and that it is difficult to nnderatand 
how an electric current can traverse vast spaces of the- 
almost perfect vacuum which must exist at the distance 
from the earth (many hundreds of mites) which is attained 
by the magnetic curves, sinci^ in the b^ vacuums o[ oar 
Sprengel pumps, discharge will not take place even across 
the interval of a few centimetres. It is no^ however, 
certain that stellar space is an insulator, and it is uosiUe, 
moreover, that the auroral cumails do not follow the 
magnetic curves through their whole course, since electric 
dischaive is always in the path of least resistance, and this 
is modified not only by the magnetic forces, but by 
atmospheric density, and it is paesible that on alJaining a 
height the current may proceed horizontally on k 
It need create no surprise that 

by the large surface over which it is spread at great heights, 
but because this part of its course is at right angles to the 
line of sight, while in higher latitudes we look at the 
streamers almost " end-oct'^and thus have beibre our eyea 
a very great depth of luminous gases. It is common 
enough, loo, in discharges in rarefied gases to see the two 
poles surrounded by luminous aarn, while Uic intermediate 
space is almost or quite dark, or consists of luminoua di^ca 
or slriK separated by dark spaces. It seems pralMble that 
this "glow" dischuge in rarefied gaJes is really a sort 
of electrical convection, which is propagated oompaiuively 
slowly, and from paitide to particle ; and that the strut are 
surfaces at which the difierence of potential of the moving 
molecules is so great as to cause discharge between tiiem, 
while in the intermediate dark spaces the electric force is 
carried mechanically and silently by the narticles moving 
in r^ular currents under the repuMve and attractive forces 
of electrification. On this hypothesis the auroral discharge 
becomes comprehensible, since we have only to auppose that 
the electricity is carried mechanically, as it were, through 
the vacuous spaces, wluch, if they contain no matter 
to conduct electricity, can contain none to impode the 
motion of the molecules. It is, moreover, by no means 
that the bright rays indicate acbial currents. The/ 


ncanm tube i* brought within the fidd of a powerfal 
oagneL the ma^elic corves are illaminated bajond the 
wedrodei between which the discharge U taking place as 
nrO u within the path of the current ;' and also that thia 
illnmiiiatioti ia cauwd by moving particles of matter, sioce 
b deflected » balanced plate of laic on which it was caused 
to impnge. It hai also been shown that in electrical 
diadiargts in air at ordinary pressures, while the Bpark 
itself was nnafiected by the magnet, it was Barmunded by 
a ImniooiN cloud or aura, wnich was drawn into the 
magnslic currea, and which might also be separated from 
the ipatk by blowing upon it It la evident, therefore,. 
that any mechanical brce may separate the luminous 
partidea from the electric discharge which produces them. 
With remrd to the geographical distribuliou 
£f^2j: of auror*, Trof. Loomis (ffla. Jour.. 

laid d 

1 of D 

freqaencT, and in Petermann's Mia}ieU\aigea for 
October, 1874, Prot Frlti has giTcn a chart embodying 
the rcsuls of his extensive researches on the same sub- 
jeet. H>: finds, like Prof. Loomis, that the frequency of 
mnroral itisplBj does not continue to increase to the pole, 
bat RadieE a maximum in a lone which, for the northern 
bemispbere. passes through the Faroe Islands, reaches 
its nnwl southern point, tSoat 57°, nearly south of Green- 
land, passes over Naiu on the Labrador coast, then 
tends northwards, across Hudson's Bay (80° N. lat.), and 
Ihnragh Great Bear Lake, and leaves the American con- 
ttwnt slightly south of Point Barrow. It then skirts the 
Drathem coast of Asia, reaching its most northerly point, 
about 76° N., near Cape Tiumyr, passint; through the 
north of Nova Zembla, and skirting the N.W. cosat of 
Borwav. Not only are aurorsl displays less frequent in 
Iceland and Greenland than further south, but it is found 
that while south of this loue aurone appear usuallj to the 
■oith of the observer, north of it they are generally to the 
south, and within it, north or south IndifTerently. South of 
this lie other zones approximately parallel to it, and of 
■constantly diminishing frequency. That in which the 
aTenge yearly number of aurone is 100 passes through the 
Drontheim, the Orkneys, and the Hebrides, and reaches 
(he American coast just north of Newfoundland. South 

£; while at Gibraltar the average is about 1 in ten years. 

Theae cnrvea, which Prof. Frita calls aoduumm, are 
•Marly ootmal to the magnetic meridians, and bear a close 
telatioa to the carves of equal magnetic indination, esped- 

allj[ with those laid down by Hansteen in 1730, while thi^ 
noticeably diverge in some places from those of Sabioe of 
1840. They also approximate to the isobaric curves of 
Schonw, and Prof. Fnts remarks that the curres of greater 
frequency tend towards the region of lowest atmospherie 
pressure. It is not unlibelv that |hece may be such a con- 
nection, since Prof. Airy has shown a relation between 
barometric and magnetic disturbances. 

It wilt be noticed that, eastward from England, the 

Fritz points out that they b^r some relation to the limit 
of perpetual ice, tending most southward where, as in 
North America, the ice limit comes furthest south. He 
also endeavors to establish some connection between the 
periods of maximum of aurone and those of the formation 
of ice, and considers ice as one of the most important local 
causes which influence their distribution. He quotes a 
curious fact mentioned by several Arctic voyagers, that 

sight, and usually rather in the direction of the water than 
of the magnetic north. In this connection it may be well 
to remind our readers that the water of the Arctic regions 
is always warmer than the ice fields, and must cause up- 
ward currents of danip ur. For tlie southern hemisphere 
there are not yet sumcient observations to make any de- . 
termination of^ geographical distribution. 

With r«srd to distribution in lime Loomis „, .. 
and Fritz and Wolf have shown that there are JJIfn In 
periodical maxima about every ten or eleven Uiae. 
years, and that tliese maxima coindde both 
with those of sun spots, and of magnetic diiturbance. The 
■ nd r ■" ' ■ 

following are Fritz and Wolf's 
Ban Spols. Aurant. 



Son Spots. 


The annexed chart from Prof Loomis's paper {SiiL 
Jmr., April, 1S73) shows, in a very striking manner, the 
correspondence of anrorn, magnetic variation, and sun- 
spot area since 1776. It is not improbable that there may 
also be changes of longer period which our observations 
are y« insnfficient to determine. 

Diagram ■howlog CorrMpoadeoce of Aororis, Uagaetio Variation, and Sao Spots. 

It has &eqnently been slated that the aurora I ruary brilliant aurorte oocurred in 1750 and 1869, and on 

^S^^ Tetnmed periodically on certain days in the the 4th in 1869, 1870. 1871, 1872, 1873, and 1874; on tha 

nme manner as meteors. On the 3d of Feb- I 13th Fehruarj in 1575, 1821, 1822, 18S5, and 1867 ; on tha 

, Google 



eth Mwoh In 1718, 1777, 1S43, 1867, md 1888; on the 
«th September iu 1776, 1827, 1S8S, 1866, 1868, 1872, uid 
OD Ihe 29th in 1828, 18K), 1861, 1862, 1870, and 1872. 
This concludoo, however, is not ■apporied bf sjiieOMtie 
invettigUion. A aHuidemble oUalogne of uirona waa 
divided into deoenni&l periodi, mud it was found that the 
■n.-rim. of ooa psiiod ludr oouKuded with those of others, 
■nd tbtU the Isi^r the number of yean taken into aocouut 
the less prominent the raaziout appeared, — evident proof 
that they were only accidental. It may be, however, that 
if onlj prominent aurone had been considered, more peri- 
odicily might have been found, or that the periodicity is 
oonstant for very short periods only. 

Altboogh DO daily periodicity can lie affirmed, there are 
two well-marked annoal maxima in March and October, 
of which the latter i* the grater, and two minima— the 
greater in June and Ihe lees in January. In this respect 
Uie aurora dlBers from the sporadic meteon, which have a 
maiimum in autumn and a mlnimam in spring. It also 
difien from meleora in the houni of its appearsace, the 
former being meet Arequent before and the latter after 

^^ Although the electric hypothesis is the one 

BTpotb^ generally accepted by scientific men, it is only 

nb: uir to ulude to one that has been recently pro- 

. posed independMitly by Dr. Zehfua ( Plaitikdiaehe 

IKeorif, Adelman, Frankibrt) and by H. J. H. Oraneman 

by clouds of ferruginous meteoric dust, which is ignited b; 
friction with the atni08pher& Groneman has shown that 
these might be arranged along the maguetic curves by 
Bdinn of the earth's mimetic force daring their descent, 
and that their induence might produce the otiserved mag- 
netic distorbaoceB. The arches may be accounted for by 
the effects of pccepective on columns suddenly termiooted 
at a uniform height by increase of atmospheric density, 
while the correspondences with iron liuee m its spectrum 
are sufficiently close to favor the idea. Ferruginous parti- 
dee have been fonnd in the dost of the Polar r^ons (E. 
A. Nordenskiold, Att. NaiA., 1874, 5 1&4), but whether 
they are derived from stellar space or from volonic erup- 
tion is uncertain. The yearly and elevHi-j^early periodicity 
of aurorn tends to support Ihe theory, but it is a formidable 
difficulty that, while shooting stars are more frequent in 
the luomingj or on the face of the earth which is directed 
forwarda in Its orbit, the reverse is the case with aurora. 
Oroneman meets this difficulty by supposing that in the 
fini case the velocity may be too great to allow of arrange- 
ment by the earth's magnetic force, and that, consequently, 
only diffiued light can be produced. He accounts for tts 
nntrequency in equatorial regions by the weakness of the 
earth's magnetic force, and the fact that, when it does occur, 
the columns must be parallel to the earth's surface. With- 
out pronouncing in favor of this hypothesis, it must be 
admitted that it fumisbee a plausible explanation of the 

Shenomenon, although we have no evidence that meteoric 
ust, even if it exists, would produce the observed spectrum, 
and, as has been already remarked, the iron coincidences 
are of little weight. 

Although we must confess that the causes of the aurora 
are very imperfectly explained, we may hope that the rapid 
progren which the last few yean have witnessed in bring- 
ing terrestrial magnetism under the domain of cosmic«l 
laws may soon tie extended to the aurora, and that we 
■hall see in it fresh evidence that the same forces which 
cause hurricanes in the solar atmosphere thrill sympa* 
thelicalty to the furthest jdanels of our system in waves, 
not only of light and hfat, but of magnetism and elec- 

nhiin^ "^^ fallowing li a Hat of the moit important pa- 

nabT P*"! Irsatiws, and worki on this tubjoot :— ficrjin 

' iitn. 1710, i. 131; Hallsy, Phil. Tram. ITIS, ITltl, 

ixix. 4Dt, III. 6Si; Hums, Phil. Tram. iii. tlOT; Lanj- 
worth, Haxham, Hallet, ind Calleodrinl, Phil. Tram, xiilv. 
ISZ, ISO; H^rau, TraiU d* CAarori: Bortale, 1733, I7M ; 
Weidlsr, Di Aurora Boreali, ito ; W^rgtotio. Pliil. Tram. ITS], 
p. lis, 1TG2, p. 160, ins, p. S6 i Bargmann, Sehu. Abk., 100, 
»1 i Wiedebnrg, Uebtr dU IfonUickttr, Stu, Jana, 1771 ; 
Enssoh, UiUtriuekuHg dtt JfordlickU, Sro, t^lDgoc, 1773 ; Van 
SwbidBD, SetiHil da JftnovH, Hans, 17B4; Cavalla, Pkil. 
IVaiu. 1781, p. 339; Wilka. " Ton dan If snsitan BTmmngan 
4m ITordlieht*," Sekietdiitha Mm., Sro, Wismar, 1733; Bay, 
Wellaaton, Hntabiuion, Fnwklin, PigotI, and Cavondiil^ mi. 

Tram. 1700, pp. M, 47. lOt ; Daltan'i MtlMivtagieal Cimnm, 
liom, 1703, pp. M, 1S3; Chiminollo, "On » Lsninou Anb," 
Soc. Hal., vii. 133 j t^cnmu, - BLeotrloal and tUfoelM Rda. 
tioDS," Sill. Janr. Zd aar., xxxii 324, xxiiv. 34, 8«t., 1871, 
on " Catalogue, Oeog. dial., Sun Bpots," Ae., ibid., U iar. t. 
Hi, to.; B. V. JiUnb,"B[eeCrioal Theory," ibid., U ht, 
xixt. 311; Oattingon and Vogel on " Spaotrom," Anrj. ^ivl, 
BiUL 3Si, it) ; Qalta and Sirka on "Crown," i&i<^, sxlii. lU, 
oilli. 113 ; SUbermaoD, C™pii, Rndm, lirlii. IIHO, 1121, 
1140. 1134; Pror. Frits, "Goog. Diatrib.," PocrwuVt Mia^ 
Dit.,lB74; Zehfuu, Pkyiitaiitht ncoria, Adelman, Fnikfort^ 
Balfonr Stewart, Phil. Mag. 4th ssr., iilji. SO; A. S. DiTii, 
ibid., xl. 33; C. Piaiii Smyth, Bd. Au. ObtnaluHH, liii. IL 
85, Pkil. Mag., 4lta »r., illl., Jan., 167S ; A. S. HarMhal. NaL, 
i<i. S; Sir V. R. QroTe and J. R. Capron, ibid., IS: Vebk, 
Qlaiabar, *«. ; " Daylight Anrone," ibid., 104, 128, 148, Sl«, ii. 
ZOO, Ae.;Haia, "Auraraiat Ma[bonma,"<ftiiI., iv. 213; Prof C. 
A. Yonng, ibid., ir. 343 ; Kirkwood, " Periodiaitj," ibuL, iT. 
SOS; H. B. Prootor, ibid., Ui. T, S4«, *s.; P. E. Chaaa, "Ob 
Auroras and Oravitating Carrenti," ibid., iv. 407 ; H. A. K«v- 
ton, "Haigbt," Sill. Jour. 2i ter. ixiix. ISA, 371; Auatrto, 
Pogg. A%n. (" Jubelbaod") aad JVnI., i. 211; J. E. Cifni^ 
" Spootram," Pkil. Mag., 4th ler., xDz., April, 1875. 



AUSUNGlBiD, or ADBANQisit), a city of India, in 
the native state of Haidaribtbl, or tlie Nisim's dominioiM, 
situated in 19° 61' N. lat., and 75° 21' E. long., 138 miles 

the name of Ourka, by Malik Ambar, an Abyssinu 
had risen from the condition of a slave to great inauen 
Subsequently it tiecame the capital of the Ho^hnl a 
quests in the sooth of India. Aurungielie made it '*"■ ■ 

of his government during his viceroyalty of the Deccan, 
and gave it the name of Aunitut&b&d. It thus grew into 
the principal city of an exietisive provinoe of the lai 

stretching westwaid to the sea, and compretiendiag 
nearly the whole of the territory now comprised within 
the northern division of the preeidency of Bombay. Auniug- 
ib&d long continued to be tlie capittd of the succeaion 5 
potenlntee bearing the modem title of Niidra, after those- 
chicfa became indepMdent of Dehli. They abandoned it 
subsequently, and transferred their capital to Haidarlbtd, 
when the town at once began to decline. It is now greallv 
fallen from lis ancient grandeur. The city is but hall- 
peopled, and is half in rains, presenting everywheie lb* 
melanclioly appearances of desertion and decay. The pap- 
ulation is, however, still considerable, and in the biiir, 
which is rery extensive, various rich commodities particu- 
larly silks and shawls, are exposed for sale. The walls of 
the town are similar in their construction to ihcaeor all 
the other cities in this quarter of India, being rather low, 
with round towers. 

AURUNOZEBE, one of the greatest of the HMhnl 
emperors of Hindustan, wsa the third son of Shah Jeltaiv 
and was bom in October, 1S18. His original naau^ 
Mahomet, was changed by his father, with whom he was 
a favorite, into Aurungiebe, meaning ornament of the 
throne, and at a later time he assumed the additional title* 
of Mohi-eddin, reviver of religion, and Alani-«ir, conqoerar 
of the world. At a very early age. and tntonghoDt hii 
whole life, he manifested profound religions feeling, pethapa 
instilled into him in the course of his edncation under socoe 
of the strictest Mahometan doctom. Ho wia employed, 
while very young, in some of his father's expeditions into 
the country beyond the Indus, ^ve promise of considerable 
military talents, and was appointed lo the command trf' ao 
army directed against the Usbeks. In this campaign ha 
was not completely successful, and soon after was tnUH- 
ferred to the anny engaged in the Deccan. Here he 
guned several victories, and in conjunction with the 
&moua general. Meer Jumla, who liad deserted froRi 
the king of Qolconda, he seized and plundered the town 
of HaidarAbfd, which belonged to tLat monarch. Bm 
fiilher's express orders prevented Aurungsebe from follow- 
ing up this success, and, not long after, the sudden and 
alarming illness of Shah Jehan tnmed his thoughts in 
another airection. Of Shah Jehan's four sons, the ddeat, 
Dara, a brave and honorable prince, but disliked by the 
Mussulmans on account of his liberality of thought, had 
a natural right to the throne. Aooordinglv, on the illnCH 
of his father, he at once seimd the reins of goverameni 
and established himself at Dehli. The second wcm, Soqah, 
governor of Bengal, a diseolate and sensual prince^ wm 
disaatiified, and raited an army to dispute the throae witk 



JJtt*. Ae kov eje of AuruDgiebe m» in thu ooiyiino- 
toceofefootia bvombl« opfrntnoitj formlizinghis own 
•mbidocw MJienieB. His reli^tHB esercisw and lemperale 
hlirih mve him, in popaUr eMimatioD, b, great sapenoritT 
OTcr hu brothen, bat be mta too policic to put forward hu 
cUims openly. He made OTertures to bis joauger brother 
liund, gOTeinor of Giutemt, representiag th«t neither of 
tbeir elder brotheni was worthy of the tingdoiu, that be 
himtelf had no temporal ambition, and desired onlj to 
place a fit monarch oa tbe throne, and then to devote 
biiuaelf to religiotu exercia«s and make the pilgrimage to 
Mecca. He therefore proposed to unite hia lorcea lo thoae 
of Murad, who would thus have no diSiculty in making 
Ijiintlf master of the empire while the two elder brotheni 
were dirided bv their own strife. Murod was completelj 
deceiTed bj these cnJty representatioiu, and at once 
■ccepled the ofier. Their united armies then moved north- 
ward. Meanwhile Shah Jehan had recovered, and though 
Dara resigned the crown he had Belied, the other brothers 
profened not lo believe in their ftthet's recovery, and still 
pnaaed on. Boojah was defeated b; Dam's son, but tbe 
imperial forces under Jesawunt Singh were completely 
nialed bj the united armieB of Aunugiebe and Murad. 
Dan in person took the field against his brothers, but waa 
defeated and compelled to &j. Auruogzebe tlien, b; a 
clever stroke of policy, seiwd the pereon of his lather, and 
threw him into confinement, in wlilcb he was kept for tlie 
mnainini; eixht years of his life. Uurad was soou removed 
by aasaeBittation, and the way being thus cleared, Auron^ 
Mbe, with affected reluctance, ascended the throne in 
August^ 1658. He <]uickl^ freed himself from al! other 
competitors for the imperial power. Dara, who again in- 
vaded Goienl, was defeated and closely pursued, and was 
given np by tbe native chief with whom lie had taken ref- 
uge. Ho waa brought lo Debli, eihibited (o the people, 
and Basasainsted. Soojah, who had been a second time de- 
feated near Allahabad, was attacked by the imperial forces 
under Meer Jumla and Mahomet, Auningiebe^ eldest son, 
•lio, however, deserted and joined his uncle. Soojah was 
defeated and fled to Atacan, where he perished ; Mahomet 
was captured, thrown into the (brtreas of GivaJior, and died 
after seven jtai^ confinement. No similar contest 
Inrbed Anmngaebe's long reign of forty-«i years, which 
has been celebrated, though with doubtliil justice, as the 
most brilliant period in the history of Hindustan. The 
empire certainly was wealthy and of enormous extent, for 
dicR were successively added to it tbe rich kingdoms of 
B^iapore and Oolconds, and the barren province of Assam, 
bat it was internally decaying, and ready to crumble away 
before the fint vigorous assaulL Two causes principally 
bad tended lo weaken the Mogbul power. The one waa the 
blrnse bigotry and intolerant policy of Aurungzebe, which 
had alienated the Hindus and roused the fierce animoeiI~ 
of the haughty RajpuU. The other was the rise and rani 
growth of the Bfahratta power. Under tbeir able leade , 
Sev^i, these daring freebooters plundered in every direc- 
licai, nor could alf AurangiebeB efforts avail to subdue 
Ihem. At the close of the long coalesls between them, the 
Hoghnl power was weaker, tbe Mahratta stronger iha 
fiisL Still the personal ability and influence of the . 
peror wera sufficient to keep bis realms intact during his 
own life. His last years were embittered by remorae, by 
gloomy fbreJmdiDgs, and hj conUant suspicion, for he bad 
alwaya beoi in the habit of employing a svsl«m of 
npionage, and only then ezperienoea its evil euecta. He 
died, on the Slst Febniaiy, 1707, at Ahmadnagar, while 
engaced on ao extensive but nnlbrtanate expedition against 
the HahTBttaa. 

AUSCHWITZ, or OnnBcm, a town in Gal icia^ Austria, 
«o the right bank of tbe Sola, a tributarr of (he Wechsel, 
33 miles WJB-W. of Cracow. It has a population of up- 
wards of S800, and carries on a trade In saU. Previous to 
the first partition of Poland in 1773, it was the seat of a 
dukedom, which had been united by Sigiamund Augustus 
with the duchy of Zator in 1664. 

AUSCULTATION {atueaUart, to listen), a term in 
medicine, anilied to the method employed by physicians 
br delerminloB, by the sense of hearing, the condition of 
esftajn inlsmaTor^ans. The ancient phyBidons appear to 
have practised a kmd of ouscnltation, oy which they were 
aUe lo dOtct the presence of air or flnidg in the cavities 
of the chest and abdomen. Still no general application 
tt ihb method of investigation wu rcaoited to, or wm 

indeed possible, till the advance of the study of anatomf 
led to correct ideas ivg^rding the locality, stnictur^ and 
of the various organs of tne body, and to the ailen- 
tions produced in them by disease. In 17S1 Aueubni^^er 
of Vienna introduced the art of percusdon in referenos 
are especially to diseases of the chest. This consisted 
tapping with the finders the sur&ce of the body, so a» 
etfcit sounds by which the comparative rtsononoe of the- 
biacent parts or organs might be estimated. Auenbru^ 
ser^s method attracted but little attention, till Corvisari- 
in 1308, demonstrated its great practical importance^ 
and (hen ils employment in the diagnosis of affectiona of 
the chest soon hecajne general. Percussion was originally 
practised In the manner atrave mentioned (tmnxdiiUs psr- 
euuton), but subsequently the method of mediait Mreua- 
non was introduced by Piorrr, and is that now laigely 
adopted. It is accomplished by placing upon the spot ta 
be examined some solid substance named a pJexuncMr 
(stroko-measurer), upon which the percussion strokes are 
made dther with the fingeraorwithasmall hammer tipped 
with india-rubber. The pleximeter consists of a thin oval 
piece of ivory ; hot one or more fingers of the left hand 
applied flat upon the part answer equally well, and this is 
the meihod wbich most physicians adopt. Percussion must 
be rc^rded as a necessary part of auscultation, particu- 
larly in relation lo the examination of the chest: for 
the physician who has made himself aoquainted with the 
normal condition of that pari of the body in reference to 
percussion is thus able to recognise by iho ear alterations 
of resonance produced by disMse. But percussion alone, 
however important in diagnosis, could manifestly convey 
only limited and imperfect informadon, for it could never 
indicate the nature or extent of functional disturbance, or 
distinguish between different forms of diseaae, even in 
those organs which it had proved to be in an abnormal 
condition, while in other cases, and notably in many affeo- 
tions of the heart, it could oflbid no assistance whatever. 

In 1819 the distinguished French physician, Laennei^ 
introduced the method of auscultation by means of the 
stethoscope [rn^Boi, the chest, and aamtu, to examine), 
with which his name stands permanently associated. For 
some time previously, physicians, more especially in (he 
hospitals of Paris, had tieen ii ' ■ '■ - 

sounds might be better conveyed through the medium of 
some solid body interposed b^ween his ear and tfaft ' 
patient's chesL He aocoidingly, by way of experiment. 
rolled up a quire of paper into the form of a cybnder and 
applied it in the manner just mentioned, when be found, 
as lie states, that he was able lo perceive the action of the- 
heart more distin::(ly than he had ever lieen able lo do by 
the immediate application of hb ear. He thence inferred 
that not merely the heart's sounds, but also those of otiier 
organs of (he chesty might be brought within reach of th« 
ear by some such instrument, and lie, therefor^ had con- 
structed the wooden cylinder, or stethoscope, which bears 
his name. This consisted of a cylindrical piece of wood, 
nbout 12 inches long, with a narrow perforation from end 
to end, the ex(remi[y for applying lo the chest having a 
movable piece of conical lorm fitting into the cylinder, 
which was withdrawn by the physician white list^ing lo 

large and heavy, and was subsequentiy modified by Piorry 
to the form now generally used of a thin narrow cylinder 
of about 7 inches long, with an expansion at one end fbr 
applying to the chest, and a more or less flattened sur&oe 
at the oHier fbr the ear of the listener. Having aaeert^ed 
by careful observation the sounds elidled on anscultation 
of the healthv chest, Laennee studied the modifications of 
these as proooced bv disease: and by comparing cases 
with one another, and. esperiallr br InveetlgaUiig Uie slat* 
of the affected parts after deaih, he waa able, in bis cele- 
brated TraiU dt t AiueaUatitm midiaU, to lay the haadir 
tion for a rational sys(em of diagnods of the great claasea 
of pulmonary and heart complaints. It does not, how- 
ever, appear to be the casc^ as Laennee supposed, that 
mtdiaie atitaiitalum by the stethoscope is superior in an 
acoustic point of view lo immediale awKtiltaiicn by Oim 


nmlded «ar. On the contrary, saunds are heard loader b^ 
the ItUter thau by the former rngthod. NevertheleiB, the 
BteUiMOope poe9«i»e8 special advaoIaKcs, amoog the chief 
«f wliii^ ITS that hj lU tue particoinr areas emu be ez- 
antiiied and compared with greater accurac<7; that it can 
be applied to all parts of the chest, and that It can be used 
in all caws where, from the sex or the bodily condition of 
the patient, the direct applicxlion of the ear ia inadmisBible. 
On the other hand, immediate auscultation ii to be pre- 
ferred in the eiaiuiaatioD of young children, who are 
readily frightened by the sight, and Mill more by the preB- 
*are upon them, of the atethoacope. 

The whole subject of auscultation has been greatly 
elaborated aince the time of Loennec, and while some of 
his opinions have been found to require modification, con- 
tinual inreetjgation onlyaerves more clearly to demonstrate 
tiie value of this method of diagnosis, and to elicit freah 
and more accurate reaolts from its employment. Although 
much remains to be done in the way of the correct inter- 
pretation of the phenomena obserred in auscultation, yet 
the beta already established are among the most important 
acqnisitiona in the vhole domain of practical medicine. 
The nnmerous diseases afiecting the lungs can now be 
recoiled and discriminated from each other with a 
precision which, but for auscultation and the alethoscope, 
would have been altogether unattainable, a point which 
bears most intimately upon the treatment of ihta great and 
common class of ailments. The same holds good in the 
case of the heart, whose varied and often complex forma 
of disease can, by auscultation, be identified with striking 
accuracy. Bnt m addition to these its main npes, auscul- 
tation la found to render great aaaistance in the investiga- 
tion of many obacure, internal Bflections, auch as aneurisms 
and certain diseaaes of the cesopbagus and stomach. To 
the accoucheur the stethoscope yields valuable aid in the 
detection of some forms of uteri ne.tnmoro, and especially 
in the diagnosis of pregnancy, — the auBcultatory evidence 
afforded at a particular stage by the sounds of the fa>tal 
heart being by far the most reliable of the many signs of 
that condition. (j. o. A.) 

AUS0NIU9, Di!x:iKC3 MAOtnra, a Roman poet of the 
4lh century, was the eon of an eminent physician, and bom 
at Burdigala [Sordeaia) about 310 a. d. His education 
was conducted with unusual care, either because his genins 
was very premising, or becanse the scheme of his nativity, 
which had been cast by his maternal grandfather, wns 
found to promise great fame and advancement. He mide 
extraordinary progress in classical learning; and, after 
completing his studies at Toulouse, he practis^ for a time 
at the bar in his native place. At the age of thirty he 
became a teacher of grammar, and soon afterwards was 
promoted to the professorship of rhetoric. In this office 
he acquired so great a reputation that he was appointed 
preceptor to Gratlan, the Smperor Valentinian's son. The 
rewanla and honors conferrftl on him for the faithful dis- 
charge of his duties, prove the truth of Juvenal's maxim 
— that when fortune pleasee she can raise a man ^m the 
humble rank of rhetorician to the dignity of consul. He 
was appointed consul by the Emperor Oratian in the year 
ST9, after having filled other important offit^ea; for besides 
the dignity of quieslor, to which he had been nominated 
by Valentmian, he was made pnefect of Latium, of Libya, 
and of Uaul, after that prince's death. His apeech, re- 
turning thanks to Qmtion on his promotion to the conaul- 
•hlp, ia a good specimen of high-flown rhetorical flattei?. 
The time of his death is uncertain, bat he was alive in 
3SS, and probably survived till about 394. From ref- 
erences in his works he appear* to have been a convert to 


wa of ths BbuuIm. Tha 

riDQipal piaow in Tar» 


ra aitramalTfelioilouii 



friandij the Spuiolm, an 

noeming his ralUions 



4, finally, the Hydia, a 
moat famaus of whlab 



of twantv imsU noams. Ih 

Iha CkUo Jfaplialii, a eVleoIioD o 

obaeana linai from Yi 



Jf«.ffa, a dasoriptiTa poe 

m oa tha riyar Moialla, 


»ina good pasugu. An 
hanapoat; hll wide raad 

lonlna wu rather a mat 



Dg aupplLad him with mate- 

rials To 

yana, but hli worka aihib 


erau his Taniaoation. Ihou 
a. Tha b«it edilioa. ^f h 

B worki are those of Tglliaa 

(AmiUrdam, 16S9), and Soiiohar (Paris, 1730), and tha Bli 
tina (1785). Tha Unella has basu edil«i sepantaly I 

B)iokiDg(182S, \Hi). * 

ADSPICIA. See Auoma. 

AUSSIO, AnssTEMiD. or Labem, a town of AoAiia, 
Bohemia, situated in a mountainous distrii^ at the i 
fluence of the Bila and the Elbe. It carries on a li 
manuhcture of woollen wares, linen, paper, &c Itsd 
ical works alone give employment to 500 operatives, 
about 600 boats are annuall^ built in its yards. B«d 
a considerable trade in grain, fruit, mineral -waters, ai 
wood, there is a large export of coal from the neighbsril 
mines. Aussig, once strongly fortified, was destmysd I 
the Hussites in H2B, burned down in 1583, and captm 
by the Swedes in 1639. Population, 10,933. 

AUSTEtf, Ju<E, one of the moat distinguUhed w 
em British novelists, was bom December 16, 1775, " 
parsonage of Steventon, in Hampshire, of which pli 
fiither was for many years rector. Her life was singula! 
tranquil and void of incident, so that bnt few (seta a 
known concerning her from which an idea of her chanul 
can be formed. She was tall and attractive in person, i 
of an extremely kind and gentle disposition. Under 
father's care she received a sound education, though 
had few of the modem aocomplishments. She had i fi 
acquaintance with English literature, her favorite au~' 
being Kichardson, Johnaon, Cowper, asct Crabbe; 
knew French well and Italian slightly, had some tas 
music, and was noted for her skill in needlework, 
was a particular bvorile with all her younger relativ 
especially on account of her wonderful 
porizing long and circumstantial narra 
early age she seema to have begun to exerciae her Iseui 
for composition, and wrote several short tales and fn 
ments of larger works, some of which have been Ibui 
among her papers. These first essays 
remarkably pure and vigorous style, and are not unvcrt] 
of her later reputation. In 1796 her first lar^ wol 
Fridt and Prauditx, Was begun and completed in abc 
ten months; Sense and SeTuibHiiy and Korikangtr Abi 
were written aoon afWr, during 1707 and 1793. Mu 
years etaps^ before these works were published, for tl 
first attempts to introduce them to the public were hadl 
received. iVufe and Fr^adiet was summarily rejected i 
Mr. Cadell ; Northanger Abbey was aold for £10 to a B«l 
publisher, but was never printed, and, many years 
was bought back bv the author. From 1801 to I(i05 d 
Austen bmily resided in Bath. They then removed i 
Southampton, and finally, in 1809, settled at Cbawta 
There Mina Austen, who for some years had written nod 
Ing, resumed her pen, and began to prepare for publicaiit 
her early novels. Seme and Semiiililii was published I 
lail. Pride and PrejmKce in 1313, Jfant/iriil Park in ISL 
Emma in ISlfi. These four were anonymous. NortJiaiia 
Abbey and Perituuion appeared together under tu 
Austen's name in 1318, af^r her death. Esrly in 

" " v; " - ,. " , 'sif ' 

Chester, whither she had removed for change of 
scenery. She was buried in the cathedral of that 

Miu Austen's works at the time of their appeaiana 
were on the whole well received, and brought her con«ideV 
able reputation, — more, indeed, than she had herself anti- 
cipated ; but their full merits were not then so general!] 
recognized as they have since been. The novels most jjop- 
ular at that time belonged to the class of which Mm. Bad* 
clitfe'a Udnlpho, Godwin's St. Lam or Caliii Wiiliamt, sod 
Lewis's AToii^ are the best known repreaentativas. Against 
thia style of fiction Miss Austen from the first set her face; 
she had a remarkably keen sense of humor, and the 
ludicrous aspect of these thrilling incidents, mysteriani 
sitDBlions, and unnatural characters, presented itself very 
strongly to her raind. Northanmr Abbes, one of her 
earliest productions, is a clever and well-austained parody 
on romances of this type. She did not, however, confine 
herself to mere nc^tive criticism, but resolved to show 
that the interest of readers could be roused and sustained 
by a story absolutely free &om the whole maeliinety of 
romance and exaggerated sentiment, but presenting an 
accurately-drawn picture of quiet, iiatoral life. This task 
she accomplished with complete ancceas ; ahe waa the %zA 
to introduce the novel of domestic life, and her writings an 
still the best specimens of that claaa 3f fiction. It could 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




hiidlr be expected that uch worki wonid ttecome imrue- 
diiulr popuMr; the chanMera, the motivei of ution, and 
the pni ilaelf were loo ordinary, one maj say loo common- 
place, to appeal Btronglj to the Bynipathies of the general 
na» of readeia. Her colon vere not sboirj eaough to 
urike the Tul|;ar eye. It ia probable, indeed, that her 
idmirera will iways be few in number; for not only does 
it require a Bomewhut cultivated taete to appreciate ihe 
nre uill with which the scanty materials of her tales are 
haodled, bnt the author's ezperieace of life was so limited 
that ber works are entirely wanting in certain elements — 
■uch as deptb of feeling and bre&dth of sympathy — which 
sie indiapensable before a work of fiction can exercise any 
ronsiderable influence on ihe public mind. 

The framework in nearly all Miss Austen's novels is the 
nme, taken as they are from ordinary English middle-class 
life; her diancteis are in no way disunguisbed by any 
itinarkable qualiliea, they are such persons as one would 
readily expect to meet in every-day bfe ; the plotisexceed- 
inglv simple, and the incidents, never rising above the level 
of the most common-place occurrences, Sow naturally from 
the characters of [he actors. In the lianils of most writers 
ipch materials would infallibly become monotonous and 
tiroome ; but from any danger of this Miss Austen is com- 
pletely freed by her wonderful power of exciting interest 
in the " involvements and feeliRgs of ordioaiy life," and 
the skill with which, by a series of imperceptible but 
efTective touches, she discriminales her characters, rounds 
them 0^ and makes them stand out from the canvas real 
and livinff peiwmages. Her gallery of portraits is certainly 
until, and the same character appears over and over again, 
bal each fi^re is so distinctly drawn, and has siuih marked 
bdividoabty, that one is never struck with a sense of 
repetition. A warm admirer of her works. Archbishop 
Whately, boa compared them to the carefully-executed 
picturea of the Dutch school ; perhaps the analogy of 
miniature painting, suggested by the author herself, ia more 
happy and expressive. 

UisB Austen's life has been written by her nephew, Bev. 
J. Austen-Leigh (1)J70, 2d ed., 1871], who has also pub- 
lished some extracts from ber paneis, including a short 
lal«^ LaAi Svtan, written in the fi)rm of letters: a frag- 
iDVDt of a larger work called 3^ Walao/is ; the first dn^ 
or a chapter in iVmuuum ; and the beginning of a novel, 
on which she was engaged at the time of her death. 

AUSTERLITZ, a smaU town of Hornvia, 12 milm 
K.S.E. of Brunn, conlaioing a magnificent palace belonging 
to ihe prince of Kaunitz-Bielberg, and a beautiful cburcb. 
It has been r^idered memorable by the great victory oi>- 
buoed in its vicinity, on the 2d December, 1S05, by the 
French nnder Napoleon, over the uoited forces of Austria 
and Buasia Doder their emperors. Population, 3450, 

AUSTIN, Jomr, one of the abltst EDglish writera on 
jurisprudence, was born on the 3d March, 1790. At an 
(arlj age he entered the army, and passed five yestfi in 
military service. He then retired, applied himself to the 
Mudy of law, and was called to the ber in 1814. His 
poweia, though admirably adapted for grasping the funda- 
mental principles of law, were not of a nature to render 
him succevful in legal practice. His health, too, was 
delicate, and in 1S25 he resigned active employment at the 
bar. In the following year, however, he was appointed to 
the chair of jurisprudence in the newly-founded London 
univeraity. He immediately crossed over to Germany to 
prepare Dimself for his new duties, and at Bonn became 
acquainted with some of the most eminent German Jurists. 
His lectures were at first attended by a number aud a class 
of students quite beyond his anticipations. Among his 
liearen were such men as LoRJ Bomilly, Sir G. C. Lewis, 
lod J. 8. Mill. From Hill's notes some of the lectures 
wen aflerwards published, and he has given an admirable 
account of Aostin in bis Diiuertatumt (vol. iii.). But it 
soon became apparent that there would be no steady demand 
for training in the science of law, which, though useful, 
was not of immediate utility in practice. Under these 
drcumatances Austin, who was almost too conscientious in 
regard to bis own work, thought it right to resign the choir 
hi 1S32. An attempt to institute [eciares at the Inner 
Temple also failed, and, as hia health wss delicate, he 
retired to Boulogne, where he remained for nearly two 
T«aia._ In 1837 he aded as royal commissioner in Malta, 
and discharged the du^es of that office most efficiently. 
The next ten years were spent in travelling on the Con- 

tM ft craon ■p|«lntmenl,~Aii. Ed-I 

tinent, as the state of hb health hardly permitted bim to 
re^e in England. The Revolution of 1S48 drove him 
fiom I^jns, and on his return to England he settled at 
Weybridge, in Surrey, where he remained till his death in 
December, 1859. Austin wrote one or two pamphlets, but 
the chief work he published was his Proemet of Jurupru- 
dmet Dtltrmined (1832), a treatise on the relation between 
ethics and law, which gives n clear analysis of the notion 
of obligation, luid an admirable statement of utililaHonism, 
the ethical theory adopted by the author. After his death, 
his widow, Mrs. Sarah Austin, published his LiUii.rt» on 
Jarir^rudeiux ; or. Vie PkUoiophy of Ponlive Law. Thes^ 
combined with the i>i>i>uiee, have been edited, under the 
same title, by Mr. B. Campbell, and reached in 1876 a fiflb 

AUSTIN, Sarah Tatlok, translator and miscellaneous 
writer, was born in 1793. She was one of the Taylor , 
Aimily of Norwich, several of whose members had distin- 

giished themselves in the fields of literature and science. 
he was the youngest child of her family, received a liberal 
and solid education at home, chiedy from her mother, and 
had the advantage, too, of enjoying in her father's house 
much intellectual society, ^e grew up a beautiful and 
cultivated woman, and in 1820 became the wife of John 
Austin, noticed above. They settled in London, and 
among the familiar viaitors of^ their house were Benlbam, 
the Mills (father and son], the Qrot«fl, Romilly, Buller, 
Sydney Smith, and other eminent men. She accompanied 
her husband in 1827 to Bonn, where they spent 9ome 
months, and made acquaintance with Niebiihr, Schl^el, 
Amdt, and other distinguished Oermans. She allerwarda 
lived some years in Germany and France, and was left a 
widow in December, 1359. Mrs. Austin is best known as 
a singularly skilful translator of German and French 
works. In 1832 appeared her version of the TraveU qf 
Prince Puclder M'OMaa. This was followed by Gharatter- 
ietice of Ooethe from the German of Falk, Hutoty ^ 
the Reformation in Oataany and Hittory of the Popta 
from the German of Banke, and Dr. Carove's Story vtth~ 
ttui an End. She contributed "Travelling Letter*" and 
critical and obituary notices to Ihe AOtenaam, edited the 
Memoir of Sydney Smith and her daughter Lady Duff 
Gordon's LtHen from Egypt, and for some years of her 
widowhood was occupied m arranging for publication h^ 
husband's Leelurei on Jnritprvdenee, She was also author 
of OermrtTiy from 1760 (o 1814, National Edncation, and 
Lelteri on OirU SehooU. Mrs. Austin died at Weybridge 
in Surrey, 8lh August, 1867. 

AUSTRALASIA, one of the six ^^eat geo^phical 
divisions of the globe, is situated, as its name indicatea. 
south of Asia, between the equator and 60° S. tat., and 110'^ 
__j lai^c E jong_ It comprises the island-contiaenia ' 

Islands, New Hebrides, Loyalty Islands, and New Cale- 
donia, which will be treated of under special headings. 

AUSTRALIA,'orNBwHoLi.Aj)B,thelwgeat piinn. 
island-cbntinentof Australasia, is situated within 
10° 47' and 39° 11' S. laL, and 113° and 153° 30' E. long. 
It measures 2500 miles in length from west to east, 1^ 
1950 miles in breadth from north to south, and contains an 
area of ahoat 3,000,000 square miles— nearly the same as 
that of the United States of America, exclusive of Alaska. 
It is sarrounded on the west by the Indian Ocean, and iin 
tlie east by the South Pacific In the north it is separated 
from New Guinea bv Torres Strait, which ia 80 milw 
broad, and from the Eastern Archipeiago by Arafura Sc i ; 
while on the south Bass Strait, 140 miles wide, separates it 
from Tasmania. The neighboring colony of New Zealand 
lies 1200 miles opposite ita south-east coast. 

Owing to its position at the antipodes of the civiliEed 
world, Australia has been longer a terra ineogTula than 
any other r^on of the same extenL Its first discoverr 
is involved in considerable doubt, from confusion of the 
names which were applied by the earlier navigatoia and 
gcMrraphers to the Australasian coasts. 

The ancients were somehow impressed with the idea of 
a Terra Auttraiii which was one day to bo revealed. 'The 
Phcenidan mariners had pushed through the outlet of the 
Red Sea to eastern Africa^the Persian Gulf, and the coasts 
of India and Sumatra. But the geographer Ptolemy, in 
the 2d century, still conceived the Indian Ocean to be an 
inland sea. tKHinded on the soutb bv an unknown land. 

which ccmneoed the Oienoneaa Avrta (Mala/ Peninsula)' 
with the promontory of iVofiun in eastern Africa. This 
«TTOiieoiii notion prevailed in medinvnl Europe, altfaongh 
«ome tmTeliera liKe Harco Polo heard nunoii in China of 
lann ln«nl».r cDnotries to the ■onth-easL 

The iovestigatioiu of Mr. B. H. Hi^or make it i^>pmr 

nrobable tliat the Aintralian m^nland waa known as 

Great Java" to the Portuguese early in the 16th centary; 

and the following passage in the Daeri^iBfdx PtoJnnaias 

AagtaenXMrn of Coroelius WTtfliec, printed at Louvun in 

5^ .ai*i „...' -. ">« '-\^^ 

"^"^S^^^^U ^^P^ -- 

: "-J^^^r : 



y^^^^ "^ 


Sketab.Hdp of Anctialia. 

1598, is perhaps the fiist distinct account that occui. ._ 
the country : — " liie jlustraiii ZWa b the most eott^em 

-of all laoda, and is separated from New Guinea bj a 
narrow strait, Its shone are hitherto but little known, 
-since, after one voyage and another, that roate has been 
-deserted, and seldom is the country visited, unless when 
sailors are driven there by storms. The Avtndit Terra 
begins at one or two d^rees from the equator, and is 
ascertained by sotna to be of so great an extent, that if it 
were thoroughly explored it would be regarded as a flllh 
part of the world." 

It wss in 1606 that Torreiu with a ship commissioned 
by the Spanish Government of Peru, parted from his com- 
panion Qiiiros (sfler tbeir disoovery of Espiritn Santo and 
the New Hubrides), and suled from east to west through 
the strait which bears his name; while in the same year 
the peuinEuIa of Cape York was touched at by a vessel 
called the "Duyfhen" or "Dove" from the Dutch colony 
of Bantam in Java, but this was understood at the time to 
form a part of the neighboring island of New Guinea. 
The Dutch continued their attempts to explore the un- 
known land, sending out in 1616 the ship "Endraght," 
-commanded by Dirk Hsrtog, which sailed along the west 
coast of Australia from lat. 26° 30' to 23° 8. This eipedi< 
Hon left on an islet near Shark's Bay a record of its visit 
engraved on a tin plate, which was found there in 1801. 
The "Pera" and " Amhem," Dutch vessels from Amboynn, 
in leiS explored the Gulf of Carpentaria, giving to its 
westward peninsula, on the side opposite to Cape York, 
the name of Amhem Land. The name of Carpentaria 
was also l>e8towed on this vast gulf in compliment to Peter 
Carpenter, then governor of the Dutch East India Com- 
pany. In 1627 the "Guldene Zeepard," carrying Peltr 
Nuyls to the embassy in Japan, sailed along the south 
coast from Cape Leeuwin, and sighted the whole shore of 
the Qreat Bight. But alike on the northern and sonthern 
•ea-bosrd, the aspect of New Holland, as it was then called, 
presented an uninviting appearwce. 

An important era of discovery began with Tasman's 
voyage of 1S42. He, too, sailed from Batavia; but, first 
otKEing the Indian Ocean to the Manritius, he descended 
to the llth pamllel of 8. Ul, recrossing that ocean to the 


east. By taking this latter course ho reached Am islud 
which now beam his name, but which he called Van 
IHemen's Land, after the Dutch governor of Batavia. In 
16M Tasman made another attempt, when be explored the 
north-west coast of Australia, from Amhem I^d to the 
22d d^ree of latitude, approaching the locality of Dirk 
Hartoffs discoveries of 1616. He seems to have landed at 
Oa[te Ford, near Victoria River, also in Boebiu^ Bay, and 
again near Dunpier's Archipelago. But the hiMile slll- 
tude of the ntttives, whom he denounced as a nialicioas and 
miserable raoe of savages, prevented fiia se«ng nimk 
of the new country ; and for half a century aner this 
no fresh discoveries were made. 

The English made their first appearance on (be Ah- 
tralian coast in 1688, when the north-weatero shwtt 
were visited by the famous bnccaneer Captain WilliiB 
Dampier, who spent Ave weeks aahora near Boebuck 
Bay. A few vears later (16S7) the Dutch oiganind 
another expedition under Vlamingh, who, Gist toodiing 
at Bwan River on the west coast, sailed northwaid to 
Shark's Bay, where Hart(« had been it) 1616. Dun- 
pier, two years later, visited the same plaoe, not now 
as a rovinff adventurer, but with a commissioa from 
the English Admiralty to pursue his Australian n- 
searches. This enterprising navigator, in the narra- 
tive of his vovages, gives an account of the trees, Wrdi, 
and reptiles he observed, and of his encounlen with 
the nativea. Bat he found nothing to invite a Imk 
stay. There was yet another Dutch exploring sqmid^ 
ron on that coast in 1705, but the results were of litth 

It was Captain Cook, in his voyages from 1769 Is 
1777, who communicated the most important dismr- 
eries, and first opened to European enterprise end set- 
tlement the AustnJasian coasts. In command of lh« 
bark "Endeavor," 370 Ions burden, and carrying 8<i 
petsons, amongst whom were Sir Joseph Banks sod 
Dr. Solander, returning from the Royal Society's ei- 

Edition to observe the tnuisit of Venus, Cook yialed 
th New Zealand and New South Wales. He came 
upon the Australian mainland in April, 1770, at a 
point named after Lieutenant Hicks, who first aifdited it, 
on the shore of Glpp^ Land, Victoria, 8. lat 38°, £. \oa%. 
148° 53'. From this point, in a coasting vovage not wilhoat 
peril when entangled in the barrier re^ of coral, the little 
Tessel made its way up the whole length of the eastern uds 
of Australia, rounding Cape York, andcroeeing Torres Slrdl 
to New Guinea. In his second expedition of Australsstai 
discovery, which was sent out in 1773, Cook's ship, th* 
"Resolute,"Btarted in company with the "Adventure, ttHih 
manded by Captain Fumeauz. The two vessels separated 
and Cook went to New Zealand, while Fumeaux examined 
some parts of Tasmania and Bass Strait. The third voyage 
of Cook brought him, in 1777, both to Tasmania and to 
New Zealand. 

Next to Cook, twenty or thirty years after hia Iidmi, Iht 
names of Basa and Flinders are justly honored for cop> 
tinuing the work of msridme discovery he had so wdl 
begun. To their courageous and persevering efforts, begad 
at their private risk, is due the correct determinatioo 
of the shape both of Tasmania and the neiriiboriog 
continent The French admiral Entrecasteaus, in 179% 
had made a careful examination of the inlets at the south 
of Tasmania, and in his opinion the opening between 
Tasmania and Australia was only a deep bay. It wsi 
Baas who discovered it to be a broad strait, with nomeroos 
small islands. Caplun Flinders survived his friend Bso^ 
having been associated with him in 1793 in this and olber 
useful adventures. Flinders afterwards made a complete 
survey in detail of alt the Australian oobsIb, except the 
west and north-west He was captured, however, by the 
French during the war, and detained a prisraier in Mauri- 
tius for seven years. 

The shores of what is now the provinoa of Victoria wen 
explored in ISOO by Captain Grant, and in 180! 1^ 
Lieutenant Murray, when the sjmcious land-locked bay (■ 
Port Phillip was discovered. New Sooth Wales had al- 
ready been colonized, and the town of Sydney fhunded it 
Port Jackson in 178S. West Auitralia had long remained 
neglected, but in 1837, after the settlement at 8waa 
Biver, a series of coast surveys was commenced in HJf j?> 
"Beagle." These were continued from 1839 to lS43by 
Mr. Stokes, and furnished an exatt kitowledg* of tha 


veMn, Doith-waten^ and iwrUieni ihom, Inctnding four 

ithad EtpbraUoit. — The geographical poaitioo of the 
AMtralian contincnl had noir be^ safficiently determmed, 
■Dd vbat remained far discovery vu bou^^ not aa hith- 
-crto br ooaadog along its ihores and bajs, but by striking 
bio ue Ta«t bad of lara tneoffitila that occupied the in- 
i^or. The colony of New South Walts had been founded 
in ITS8, but for twenty-fire yean its settlEia were ao- 
qoainled <»iJt with a strip of country 50 miles wide, be- 
Iween the Blue Honntaina and the sea-coast, for they 
-iorcely erer TCDtQied &r inland from the inlets of Port 
J^iaoa and Botany Bay. Hr. Bon, indeed, once while 
waiting for his yeeeel, made &□ attempt lo cress the Blue 
Hoontaina, and socceeded in discovering the river Grove, 
airibntary of the Hawkesbury, but did not proceed further. 
An expedition wis also oonducied by Governor Hunter 
■along the Nepean Biver west of the settlement, while 
Liealenant Barelller, In 1802, and Mr. Caley, a year or 
two later, failed in their endeavor to surmount the Blue 
Koontain nnge. This formidable ridge attains a height 
-of 3400 feet, and bong intersected with precipitous ravines 
1500 ftet deep, presented a bar to these eiplorers' passage 
inland. At last, in 1813, when a summer of severe drouglit 
had made it of vital importance to find new ^istures, three 
-of the colonisla, Messrs. Wentworth and Blaxland and 
linilenaat Lawsou, crcisBing the Ni-pean at Emu Plains 
gained sight of an entrance, and ascending tiie summit of 
a dividing ridge^ obtained a view of the grass; valley of 
the Fish River. This stream runs weetwam into the 
Hacquarie, which iras discovered a few months afterwards 
hr Itr. Evans, who followed its coaiM acrora the fertile 
(Mains of Bathurst. 

In 1S16 Ijeotenant Oxley, R.N., accompanied by Hr. 
Evans and Mr. Cunningham the botanist, conducted an 
expedition of great Interest down the Ladilan Biver, 300 
miles to the north-west, reaching a point 31° S. laL, and 
M4'' SC K long. On his reWm journey Oiley again 
struck the Macquarie River at a place he called WelUng- 
Ion, and from this place in the following year he organised 
a secMid expeditioa in hopes of discovering an inluid sea. 
He was, however, disappointed in this, as wler descending 
the oouisa of the Macquarie below Meant Harris, be found 
tliat the tiTer iwled in an immense swamp overgrown 
with reeds. Oxley now ttiraed aside — led by Mr. Evans's 
report of the country eastward — crossed the Arbuthnot 
isoge, Mid'travening the Liverpool plains, and sscendicg 
the Peel and Cockbum Rivers to the Blue Mountains, 

Eined sight of the open sea, which he reached at Port 
•cquarie. A valuable extension of geo^phical know- 
ledge had been gained by this circuitous journey of more 
than SOO miles. Yet its result was a disappointment lo 
those who had looked for means of inland navigation fay 
the Macquarie River, and by its supposed issue in a Medi- 

ir three years public 
, . - . King's' maritime ei ^ 

the Dorth-west coast in three successive voyages, and by 
ciptorations of West Australia in 1S21. These steps were 
followed by the fbundi'Joa of a settlement on Melville 
Island, in the extreme north, which, however, was soon 
abandoned. In 1S23 Lieutenant Oiley proceeded to 
Morelon Bay and Port Curtis, the firat place 7° north of 
Sydney, the other 10°, to .choose the site of a new p«nal 
establishment. From a shipwrecked English sailor he 
net with, who bad lived with the savages, he heard of 
the river Brisbane. About the same time, in the opposite 
direction, south-west of Sydney, a large extent of tlie in- 
terior was revealed. The river Hurrumbldgee — which 
■nius wiUi the Lachlan to join the great river Murraj-^ 
was traced by Mr. Hamilton Hume and Mr. Hovell into 
the conntry lyiiw north of the province of Victoria, through 
which they made their way to Port Phillip. In 1827 and 
the two following years, Mr. Cunninzham prosecuted his 
Instmctive explorations on both sides of the Liverpool 
nagt, between the upper waters of the Hunter and those 
«f (he Peel and other tributaries of the Brisbane north of 
New South Walea. Some of his discoveries, including 
dtoie of Pandora's Pass and the Darling Downs, were of 
great practical nlility. 

B; thb lime much had thus been done to obtain an 
sisqaaintanoe with the eastern parts of the Australian con- 
tinent, altboogh the problem of wliat could become of llie 

large ri 

■ (PblUp Parker I 

Dieil la arduBj.~- 


vers flowing north-west and south-west Into the 
was still unsolved. With a view to determine this 
I, Governor Sir Ralph Dariing, in the year 182B. 
senc QUI the expedition under Captain Charles Hturt, wht> 
proceeding dtst to the marshea at the end of the Mac- 
quarie River, found his process checked by the dense man 
of reeds in that gaarter. He therefore turned westward, 
and struck a large rive^with many affluents, to whldi he 
gave the name of the Darling. This river, flowing from 
north-east to south-west, drains the marshes in which ths 
Macquarie and other streams from the south appeared to 
be lost. The course of the Murrumbidgee, a deep and 
rapid river, was followed by the same eminent explorer la 
his second expedition in 1831 with a more satigliutory 
result. He travelled on this occasion nearly 2000 miles, 
and discovered that both the Murrumbidgee, carrying with 
it the waters of the I,achlan moraas, and likewise the 
Darling, from a more northerly region, finally joined an< 
other and larger river. This stream, the Murrsv, in the 
upper part of its ooone, runs in a north-wester]}^ direction, 
but afterwards turning southwards, almost at a right angles 
expands into Lake Alexandrina on the south coast, aboot 
60 miles S.E. of the town of Adelaide, and fiaaliy eaten 
the sea at Encounter Buy in E. long. 139°. 

After gaining a practical solution of the problem of the 
destination of the westward-Sowing rivers, Sir Thomas 
Mitchell, in 183S, led an expedition northward to the 
upper branches of the Darling ; bnt the party meeting 
with a sad disaster In the death of Mr. Cunningham, the 
eminent botanist, who was murdered by the natives on the 
Bogan River, further exploration of that re^on was left lo 
be undertaken by Dr. Leichardt, nine years later, and by 
the son of Sir Thomas Mitehell. Meantime, from the new 
colony of Ailelaide, South Australia, on the shores of Qiilf 
Sl Vincent, a series of adventurous journeys to the north 
and to the west was commenced by Mr. Eyre, who explored 
a couotry much more difficult of access, and more forbid- 
ding in aspect, than the " Riverina" of the eastern prov- 
inces. He performed in 1S40 a feat of extraordinary per- 
sonal daring, travelling all the way along the barren sea- 
ooast of the Qreat Australian Bight, from Spencer Gulf to 
King George's Sound. Mr. Eyre also explored tlie interior 
north of the hW of Spencer GKilf, where be was misled, 
however, by i^)pe»r»»oe8 to form an erronoons theory abont 
the water-snrtacea named Lake Torrens. It was left to 
the veteran explorer, Sturt, to achieve the arduous enter- 
prise of penetrating from the Darling northward lo ths 
very centre of the oonlinent This was in 1846, the route 
lying for the moat part over a stonjr desert, where the heal 
(reachiag 131° Fahr.), with soorcbing winds, caused much 
snficring lo the party. The moat northerly point reached 
by Sturt on this occasion was about B. lat 24° 25'. His 
unfortunate suooessors, Burke and Wills, travelled through 
the same district sixteen years later; and other expedi- 
tions were organized, both from the north and from the 
south, which aimed at learning the fate of these travellei& 
as well IS that of Dr. Leichardt. These efforts completed 
our knowledge of different routes across the entire breadth 
of Australia, in the longitude of thsQulf of Carpentaria; 
while the enterprising journeys of MacDouall Stuart, a 
companion of sturt, obtained in 1862 a direct passsge 
from South Australia norlliward to the shores of tb* 
Malayan Sea. This route has been ntilized b^ the coa> 
struclion of an overlaitd telegraph from Adelaide lo the 
northern coasL 

A military station haring been fixed by the British Gov- 
enunent at Port Victoria, ou the coast of Amhem Land, 
for the protection of shipwrecked mariners on the north 
coast, it was thought desirable to find an overland route 
between this Mtlement and Moreton Bar, in what then 
was the northern portion of New South Wales, now called 
Queensland. This was the object of Dr. I>ichardt's expe- 
dition in 1344, which proceeded Srst aloi^ the banks of 
the DawBon and the Mackenzie, tributaries of the Fitxroy 
Biver, in Queensland. It thence passed farther north to 
the Burdekin, ascending to the source of that river, and 
tnmed westward across a table-land, from wbidi there was 
an easy descent lo the Gulf of Carpentaria. Skirting the 
low shores of this gulf, all the way round its upper half to 
the Roper, Leichardt crossed Amhem Land to the Alli- 
gator River, which he descended to the western shore of 
the peninsula, and arrived at Port Victoria, otherwise Port 
Essington, after a joamey of 3000 miles, perlbrmed withiik 
k Island, anteied Itie aaTf, emplortd In giplontlsa of Auitiallau, Pati(cal>^ 

I. £d.] 

92 AU8T1 

a yesr and three montlis. In 1847 Ludiudt undertook a. 
much more fonnidnble lask, that of croning the entire 
coDtineot Tram east to west. HU atArting point wag on tha 
FitiroT DovQB, north of the Biver Con^unine, in QneeoB' 
laad, toween the 2Ath and ^th d^;reeB of S. latitude. 
But thia emineiit explorer had not proceeded far into the 
interior before he met his death, hu last despatch dating 
&om the Cogoon, April 3, 1348. In the Mune r«ion, from 
1846 to 1647, Sir Thomas Uitchell and Mr. E. B. Kennedj 
explored the northern tributaries of the Darling, and a 
river in 8. laL 24°, named the Barcoo or Victoria, which 
flows to the Boulh-wesL This river was more thoroughly 
examined hy Mr. A. C. Gregorr in 1658. Mr. Kennedj 
loat his life in 1848, being killed by the natives white 
attempting to explore the peninsula of Cape York, from 
Eockingham Bay to Weymouth Bay. 

Among the perfbrmancea of less renown, bat of mnch 
practical utility in surveying and opening new patiig 
through the country, we may mention that of Captain Ban- 
ister, showing the wajr across the soalliern part of West 
Aoslnilia, from Swan Bjver to KingGeorge's Snund, and 
that of Messrs. Bobinson and G. H. Haydon in 1844, mak- 
ing good the ronle from Port Piiillip to Gipps' Land with 
loaded draya, through a dense tangled scrub, which had 
been described by Sttielecki as his worat obsLacle. ARsin, 
in West Austrulia there were the explorations of the 
Arroweraith, the Murehison, the Gasooyne, and the Ash- 
burton Rivers, by Captain Grey, Mr. Boe, Governor Fitz- 
gemJd, Mr. B. Austin, and the brothers Gregory, whose 
discoveriea have great importance from a geographical 
point of view. 

These locsJ, researches, and the more comprehensive at- 
tempts of Leichardt and Mitcliel! to strive the ctiief prob- 
lems of Australian geographv, must yield in importance 
to the grand achievement of Mr. Stuart in 1862. The first 
of his tours independently perTormed, in 18^ and 18G9, 
were around the South Australian lak«s, namely Lake 
Torrens, Lake Eyre, and Lake Gairdner. These waters 
bad tieen erroaeousiy taken for parts of one vast horse- 
ihoe or eickte-ehaped take, only some twenty miles broad, 
believed to encircle a large portion of the inland countrv, 
wi(h drainage at one end by a marsh into Spencer Gulf. 
!rhe mistake, shown in all the old maps of Australia, had 
originated in a curious opdcol illusion. When Mr. Eyre 
viewed the Country from Mount Deception in 1840, look- 
ing between Lake Torrens and the lake which now bean 
bb own nain& the refraction of light from the glittering 
crust of salt that coveis a Urge space of stony or sandy 
Ronnd produced an appearance of water. The error wa: 
discoventl, after eighteen years, by the explorations of Mr. 
Babbage and Major Warburton in 1858, while Mr. Stuart, 
about the same time, gained a more complete knowledge 
of the same district. 

A reward of £10,000 havii^ been offered by the L^is- 
lalnie of South Australia to the fiist man who should 
traverse the whole continent from south to north, startii^ 
from the city of Adelaide, Mr. Stuart resolved to make 
llie attempt. He started in Mardi, 1860, passing Lake 
Torrens and Lake Eyre, beyond which he found a pleasant, 
fertile country till he crossed (he M'Doonell range of moun- 
tains, just under the line of the tropic of Capricorn. On the 
23d of April he reached a mountain in S. lat nearly 22°, 
and B. long, nearly 134°, which is the most central marked 
point of the Australian continent, and has been named Cen- 
tral Mount Stuart. Mr. Stuart did not finish liia task on 
this occasion, on account of indisposition and other causei 
But the 18tli degree of latitude had been reached, nhei 
the watershed divided the rivers of the Oulf of Carpentari 
from tbe Victoria Biver, flowing towards the north-west 
CoaaL He had also proved that the interior of Australia 
was not a stony desert, like the region visited bv Slurt in 
1845. On the first day of the next year, 1881, Mr, Stuart 
again started for a second attempt to cross the continent, 
which occupied him eight montiui. Ke failed, however, to 
advance further than one geographical degree north of the 
point reached In 1860, his progress being arrested by dense 
•crubs and the want of water. 

Meanwhile, in the province of Victoria, by means of a 
fund subscribed among the colonists and a grant by the 
Legislature^ tlie ill-fatM expedition of Mewira. Burke ' 
Wills was started. It made for the Barcoo, with a ' 
lo reach the Oulf of Carpentaria by a northerly course 
midwaf between Start's track to tbe west and LetchardtV 

JlLIA, [iHUtrD ECPLOKl.'inM. 

to the east The leading men of the parU were Mr. 
Bobert CHora Butke, an officer of police, and Mr. William 
John Wills, of the Melbourne observatory. Mesais. Burks 
and Wills, with two men named Gray and Kins, left tbe 
others behind at the Barcoo on the 16th December, 1660, 
and proceeded, with a horse and six camels, over the desert 
traversed by Sturt fifteen yeais before. They got on in 
spite of great difficulties, past the M'Kinlay range of 
mountains, 8. lat. 21° and 22°, and then reached the- 
Flinders Biver, which flows into the head of the Gulf of 
Carpentaria. Here, without actually standing on the aea- 
beach of the northern shore, they met the tidal waters <rf 
the sea. On February 23, 1861, they commenced Hie 
return journey, having in effect accomplished the feat of 
crcesing the Australian continenL Unhappily, three oT 
the party perished on the road home. Gray, who had 
Allien ill, died on the 16th of April. Five days later, 
Burke, Wills, and King had repassed the desert to the 
place on (hooper Creek (the Barcoo, S. lat. 27° 40', E. 
long. 140° 30'), where they had left the dSpflt, with the- 
reat of the expedition. Here they experienced a cruel dut- 
aupoinlment. The dipfit was abandoned; the men in 
charge had quitted tlie place the same day, believing that 
Burke and those with him were lost. The main body of 
the expedition, which should have been led up by a Mr. 
Wright, from Menindie, on (he Darling, was misconducted 
and fatally delayed. Burke, Wilis, and King, when 
they found themselves so fearfully left alone and unpro- 
vided in the wilderness, wandered about in that district 
till near the end of June. They subsisted miserably on 
the bounty of some natives, and paMlv by feeding on the 
seeds of a plant called nardoo. At last both Wills and 
Burke died of starvation. King, the sole survivor, was 
saved by meeting the friendly blacks, and was found alive 
in September by Mr. A. W. Howitt'a party, sent on put- 
pose to find and relieve that of Burke. 

Four otlier parlies, besides Hewitt's, were sent out 
that year from different Australian provinces. Three of 
them, respectively commanded by Mr. Walker, Mr. Lsnda- 
borough, and Mr. Norman, sail^ to the noKn, where the 
latter two landed on the shores of the Gulf of Carpentaria, 
while Mr. Walker marched inland from Bockliampton. 
The fourth party, under Mr. J. M'Kinlay, from Adelaide. 
made for the Barcoo by way of Lake Torrens. By these 
means, the unknown region of Mid Australia was aimutta- 
neously entered from the north, south, east, and west, and 
important additions were made to gei^raphical knowledge. 
Landsborough crossed the entire continent from north le 
south, between February and June, 1862 ; and M'Kinlay, 
froro south to north, before tlie end of August in that year. 
The interior of New South Wales and Queensland, all 
that lies east of the 140th degree of longitude, was ex- 
amined. The Barcoo and its tributary streams were traced 
from the Queensland mountains, holding a south-westerly 
course lo Lake Eyre in South Australia; the Flinders, 
the Gilbert, the Gregory, and other northern rivers waters 
ing the country towards the Oulf of Carpentaria were alE» 
explored. These valuable additions to Australian get^ra- 
■e gained through the humane efforts to relieve the 
ilorers. Tiie bodies of Burke and Wills were re- 
covered and brought lo Melbourne for a solemn public 
funeral, and a noble monument has been erected to their 

Mr. Stuart, in 1802, made his tliird and final attempt to 
traverse the continent from Adelaide along a central liner 
which, inclining a little westward, reaches the north coast 
of Amhem Land, opposite Melville Island. He started in 
January, and on April 7 reached the lartbeet oorthem' 
point, near 8 lat. 17°, where he had turned back in May 
of the preceding year. He then pushed oi^ through a 

> the western sliores of 
__ . , . , le month of July, passed 

down what is called the Adelaide Biver of North Australia. 
Tiius he came at length to stand on the verge of the Indian 
Ocean; "gating upon it," a writer has said, "with as 
much delight as Balboa, when he had croieeu (be Isthmua 
of Darien from tlie Atlantic to the Pacific." The line 
crossing Australia which was thus explored baa nnce beai 
occupied by the electric (el^iaph connecting Adelaide. 




i SfioKf, ind other AnsttaJiui dtiea with 

A iJiird part, at ImM, of the interior of the whole oon- 
tbenl, between the oeiitr»l line of Stuart and the known 
para of West AustraluL fiom about 120° to 131° E. ioag., 
ta uteot of bklf a million Bquare mikoi, alill remained a 
Uaok in the map. But the two expeditions of 1S73, 
tCDducted bf Hr. Oaase and Colonel £^rIOD Warburton, 
hiTC made a banning in the exploration of thio terra 
■MO^Mta west of the centnl tel^raph route. That line 
el mora than 1600 miles, having lU southern exlrenciit? at 
Ibe bead of Spencer Gulf, iti northern at Port I^win, in 
Anhem Land, panes Central Mount StuaVt, in the middle 
•f tbe continent S. Iai. 22°, £. long. 134°. Mr. Oosse, 
with men and horflea provided bj the South AuBtraliaa 
Goveinuent, Morted on April 21 from the tel^craph station 
£ftf miloi louth of Central Mount Stuart, to strike into 
Woi AuMralia. Ha paned the Be^nolda ran^e and Lake 
Amadeu* in that ditection, bnt was compelled to turn 
nath, where he Ibund a tract of well-watered gra/ny land. 
A singnUr rock of conglomerate, 2 miles long, 1 mile 
wide, and 1100 feet high, with a spring of water in its 
cmtra, stnck his attention. Tbe country was mostly poor 
and barren, sandj hillocks, with scanty growth of epinifex. 
Kr. Ooflse, having trsTelled above 600 miles, and getting 
to 26° 32' S. lai. and 127° K long., two d^rees witliin 
the West Australian boundary, was forced to return. 
Meantime a more successful attempt to reach (he western 
coast from the centre of AuBtmba has been made by 
Cblonel Warburton, with thirty camels, provided by Mr.T. 
Elder, M.L.C., of South Australia. Leaving the telt^raph 
Uue It Alice 8pnn|a (23° 40^ S. lai., 133^14' E. lonr,), 
119) miles north of Adelaide city, Warburton succeeded 
hi making his way to the De Grey River, West Anstralia. 
Overland routee have now been found possible, though 
scarcely convenient for traffic, between all the widely 
K]iarated Aostralian provinces. In Northern Queensland, 
alio, there have been several reoent explorations, with 
resnlts of some interest That performed by Mr. W. 
Hann, with Messrs. Warner, Tate, and Taylor, in 1873. 
related lo the ooootiy north of the Kirchner mage, watered 
by the Lynd, the MitchelL the Walsh, and the Palmer 
Bivets, on the east side of (he Oulf of Carpentaria. The 
CDM^ng expedition of Mr, Q. Elphinstone I^lrymple, with 
Uewig. Hill and Johnstone, finishing in December, 1873, 
efiecled a valuable survey of the inlets and navigable rivers 
b tbe Ope York peninsula. The Endeavor Biver in S. 
Ul IS°, which was visited b^ Captain Cook a hundred 
yean ago, seems capable of being used for communication 
with the country inland. A newly discovered river, the 
Johnstone or Gladys, is sud to flow through a very rich 
land, producing the finest cedars, with groves of bananas, 
nutm^ ginger, and other tropical plants. The colonial 
polMuls predict that the north-east corner of Australia 
will be fonnd to possess great mineral treasures. At the 
•ppoaite extremity of (he continent, its south-west corner, a 
loir lately made by Mr. A, Forrest, (jltivemment surveyor, 
from the Swan River eastward, and thence down to tbe 
mtb coast, has shown the poorness of that region. Tbe 
vast mperiority of eastern Australia to all tbe rest is the 
Most important practical lesson taught by the land-explor- 
ingbhon of the last half century. 

Pigtitel Z>etenplicn.-^ThD continoit of Anstralia, with 
a orcnrnfereDce of nearly 8000 miles, presents a contonr 
vooderfullv devoid of inlets from the sea, except upon its 
Mrtheni ahores, where the coast line is largely indented. 
Tbe Golf of Caipentaria, situated in the north, is enclosed 
n the east bv the projection of Ca[>e York, and on the west 
by Amhem lAnd, and forma the principal bay on tbe whole 
MsM, menaring about 6° of long, by 6° of lat. Further to 
Ibe west, Van Diemen's Gnlf, though much smaller, forms 
a better protected bar, haviiig Melville Island between it 
ud the ocean; while beyond this Queen's Channel and 
Ounbridge Gnlf form inlets about a laL 14° 60'. On tbe 
notth-w«t of the continent the coast line is much broken, 
Ibe chief indexUatione being Admiralty Gulf, Collier Bay, 
ad King Sound, cm the shores of Tasman Land. Wtet- 
an Antbvlia, •(piin, is not favored with many inlets — Ex- 

coast line is ungularly uniform. 

The conformation of the interior of Australia is verj 
peculiar, and may perhaps be explained by the theory ot 
the land having been, at a comjiantively recent period, the 
bed of an ocean. The mountain rangee parallel to the east 
and west coasts would then have existed as the cli&s and up- 
lands of many groups of islands, in widely scattered arcbi- 
pelages resembling those of the Pacific The singular 
pceitions and courses of some of the rivers lend force to 
this suppoaition. The Murray and its tribu(arie8, the Hur- 
rumbid^ee, the Lachlan, and the Darling, rising from the 
mountains on the east coast, flow inwards so far that they 
were at one time supposed (o issue in a central sea. They 
dOj in fact, spend llieir waters in a large shallow lake; but 
this is not (or from the south coast, and is provided with an 
outlet to the ocean. The Mauquane and the Lachlan merge 
in exteoaive swamps, and their beds in the dry season be- 
come a mere chain of ponds. This agrees with the idea 
that the whole country was a sea-bottom, which has scarcely 
yet assumed the character of permanent dry land, while 
another proof consists in tbe thinness and sterility of the 
soil in the lowlands. 

Along the entire line of tbe east coast there extends ■ 
succession of mountain ranges from Portland, in Victoria, 
lo Cape York in the extreme north, called in different ^rts 
the Australian QrampianiL the Australian Alps, the Blue 

Cordillera, stretching from north to south 1700 miles in 
length, with an average height of 1600 feet above the sea. 
The rivers flowing down the eastern slope, having but short 
courses before thev reach the sea, are of a more determined 
character than those which take a westerly and inland 
direction. They cut th^r way through the sandstone rocks 
in deep ravines ; bnt from their tortuous and violent couise, 
and from the insufficient volume of water, they are unfit 
for navigation. Verjr few of them traveise more than 200 
miles, inclusive of windings, or pass through any district 
extending more than 60 miln inland. It is different with 
the Murray, flowing westward, which has a course of 1 100 
miles, traversing a space fVom east to west measuring 8° of 
longitude. The Hurray is navigable during ei^t months 
of the j|esr along a ^reat part of its course. This great 
river, with its tributaries, drains a basin the area of i^ch 
is reckoned at half a million of square miles. Yet it has no 

Cipcr outlet to the sea, debauching into a lagoon called 
ke Alexandrina, on the sea-coast of Encounter Bay. On 
the opposite or north-western part of the continent there 
are several important water-courses. One river, the Vic- 
toria, which rises somewhere about 18° or 19° S. laL and 
131° R loi^., flows northward to 16° 30' S. lat., where it 
turns westward. Its bed forms a deep channel through the 
sandstone table-land, with clifib 300 feet high, while in 
width it sometimes extends to half a mile, its d^ptb vary- 
ing from 60 feet to as many fathoms. The Victoria de- 
bouches into Cambridge Gulf, 14° 14' B. lat. and 129° SO' 
R long., an estuary 20 miles broad, with a depth of 8 or 10 
&thoms. To the westward of this district run two other 
lai^ rivers, tbe Prince Regent and the Glenelg. the latter 
being navigable, with a fertile country on its banks, Tbo 
Roper, a navigahle stream la Ambem Land, has a widdi 
of £00 to 600 yards 40 or 60 miles from its mouth, which 
is at (he Limmen Bight in the Gulf of Caipentaria. In 
the more settled and inhabited provinces of Australia there 
are the Brisbane (he Fitiro^, and the Burdekin, riven of 
Queensland; the OlenelgBiver, of Victoria; and the Swan 
Biver, of West Australia. But this continent cannot boast 
of a Nile, an Indus, or a Mississippi, and the interior mif- 
(era from the want of water ci 

stone, with a sur&ce area of 1,900,000 square miles. The 
sediments^ rock, in some parts, has beeu washed away or 
•cooped out; but in the opinion of Mr. W. H. L. Ranken 
{Dominim of Autfrtdia, 1874). the edges of the plateau, 
where highest and least reduced by denudation, are actasllj 
formed of this sedimenL While the southern margin ol 
the plain consists of walla of sandstone cli£, extending 
along (he sea-coast, the plateau on the east, south-east, the 
west, and partly on the north, is bordered by terraced ram- 
parts of mountains. These elevations oonsi ' ' 




■ndBTeuiUon th« west side, riuDK from 1000 to 3000 feet 
ID height On the east ud^ in New South Wales and 
Gippe'- Land, the; rise to a much greater height, attaining 
7000 feet at the south-east comer in the Australian Alps. 
Here, too, die oandBtone ma»«s are often Tiolentl7 rent 
•sunder, and mingled with the overflom of igneous matter, 
forming liasalt and trap. On the north side of the continent, 
except around the Gulf of Carpentaria, the edge of the 
Mndatone table-land has a great elevatian ; it is cut bj the 
Alligator Biver into gorgee 3800 feet deep. , 

In examining more particularly the geolo^cal Btructurc 
of eastern Ausinlia, we must take into account the neigh- 
boring iaiand of Tasmania. The late Count Stnclecki, 
author of the first scentific essay upon the subject, in 
1845, after mioutel; describing all (he mountain ranges of 
New Boulh Wales, passes on to Wilson Promontorj, the 
most southerly point of Australia, whence he loolcs sea- 
ward at the Islands in Bass's Strait. As he there obeerres 
IlieTasmaniai) mountains, with which he Is equally Ckmiliar, 
it occurv to him that the whole is Che result of identical 
fbroes, operating in a diiection fromnortb-eaHti 

Such phenomena he ascribes to a series of "volcanoes of 
elevation," along a rast fissure of the earth, npon the line 

le and ha^lt. That eruplive 
and precipices of the Blue Mountains near Sydney ; in Uie 
Grose Valley, below Mount Ilay and its ndghbofs. Mount 
King Gteorge and Mount Tomah; but sdll more remark' 
ably in the moantains of Tasmania, viewed from Ben 
Lomond, within 30 miles of Launceston. The sedimentary 
deposits of the first epoch are characterized by the presence 
of mica slate, and of argillaceoDB and liliceous slate, as 
well as by the absence of gneiss. Those of the second 
epoch are found to be arenaceous, calcmreODH, or argillaceous 
stratified deposits. The third epoch ioclades the coal 
deposits, with their intervening shales and saadstoneB, 
including many foasils ; while the fourth and last epoch is 
marked bv the occurrence of elevat«d pea^ uid by tha 
remains o^ land animals found in tlie limestone ea*es or in 
alluvial deposits. 

The Bev. W. B. Clarke, of Sydney, a«ain, in a rerised 
trealise published in ISTl, expresses a doubt whether the 
southern range of mountains, extending to Wilson's Prom- 
ontory, be r^ly a continuation of the main Cordillera of 
Kew South Wales He rather considers this to be pro- 
lon(;«d in a westerly direction, taking a bend that way at 
the iVarragDng or Snowy Alps, and to be continned within 
60 miles of the border oV South Australia, which is on the 
14lBt meridian of E. long. The subject is further dis- 
cuned by Mr. B. Brongh Smith, of Melbourne, in his essay 
of 1872 on the mineralogy and rock formations of Victoria. 
This geolc^ist has also remarked that the Hurray, which 
most have repeatedly shifted its bed and changed its ontlet, 
may have onoe jeen a far more powerful stream, flooding 
a vast tract of the interior, apd thus becoming an effective 
agent in the geological formations of all south-east Aus- 
tralia. It has prodnoed, in Victoria more especially, the 
Tertiary straUfications which are equivalent to the Pliocene 
rocks of Europe. 

Throughout the whole of eastern Australia, including 
New Bouth Wales and Queensland, while no tertiary morins 
deposila have been found, there occur many remarkable 
beds of siliceous sand^one, bearing impresBions of ferns and 
leaves of trees, which are r«ferr«d to tbe'Tertiarv epoch. 

An interesbng theory is advanced by Mr. Clarke to 
kocount for the absence of Tertiary deposits on the eastern 
coast, when thOT u« fotmd (»i the western and southern 
eosste of Atistndia. In the islands of New Caledonia and 
other Anstraiasian groups, firom the Louisiade. near New 
Oninea, to New Zesland, there is a repetition of Australian 
geological formations, and there are abundant Tertiary 
deposits; sod this may confirm the ruppoeition that the 
Australian oontinent at some period extended further to the 
east, and that a vast pordon has disappeared under the 
ocean. To the same hypothetical cause Mr. Barwin 
•scribes the formation of the Great Barrier Beef^ stretch- 
ing al<M)g the east ooast from 8. lat 22° 23' to Toms 
Strait with an interval between it and the land varying 
from 12 to 140 miles. 

iALIA [( 

With regard to the more remote mological epcx^ Aus- 
tralia presents fewer materials for stndy than the other oonti- 
nents of our glotie. Mr. Clarke donbia the origin of some 
of the more ancient slates mealioaed in the " first qndi " 
of Count StTzelecki, and does not find, ^Iher in eastern ot 
in southern Australia, sufficient proof that these tegioaa 
contain azoic and metamorphic rocks. Large rososts ot 
xxiur along the coast, and more extensively in 
Australia. Of the lower Palnoioic there is a great 
deal of Uoper Silurian rock in New South Wales and 
Queensland, and some in Tasmania. It is in the Lower 
Silarian formation, as Sir Boderick HurchisCHi medicted, 
that gold deposits are chiefly found. Bocks of the Usvonian 
period are not yet proved to exist anywhere in AnsUalJa, 
and it is douhlJul if any true Permian or Trias, so cotnmoa 
elsewhere, have been met with in this contineoL ^le 
great Carboniferous series is very prominent in New Sooth 
Wales and in parts of Queoisland; it prevails less in 
Victoria. Coal-beds, of thickness varyii^ from 8 feet to 
30 feet, are foimd associated, both above and below, with 
fossils resembling those of the Carboniferous strata in 
Ireland. Their antiquity 'Is proved beyond qnestion, in 
some districts, as in the vall^ of the Hawkesbury, where 
they are overlaid with beds of sandstone, shale, and con- 
glomerate, 1000 feet thick. It has been shown by Mr. 
Dainlree that there is a very extoisive distribution of the 
Secondary or Heeozoie rocks in Queensland — the Crcta- 
itrata, both there and in Western Australia, covering 
- - ■ g abundant in Western 

erior, and the slopes of the 
it largely of deposits of the 

a large area. The Oolitic are 

The great ^ilaiiu of the int 
inner mountain ranges, consii 

Tertiary epoch. Theroocupvai . . 

and New South Wales, inijuding the Biverina district, 
which was probably, as Mr. Brough &nith conaidei^ 
levelled and planed down by the ancient vast expansicm of 
the Murray. " The wates of the sea," he remarks, " and 
the waters of this river, have eaten away monntains of 
graniCH'and great hills of schist in past times, and placed 
instead of ihem a smooth covering of sands and clays." 
The great basin east of Port Phillip, connected with 
another basin aboDi Weeteraport, is underlaid with Heso- 
zoic carbonaceous rocks, upper Mioccme, a nodnlar basal^ 
and decomposed aqiygdaloid of older volcanic orinn, the 
quartioK drift of the first Pliocene formations and sMne 
volcanic produdB of more recent date. Here the Miocene 
beds abound with fossil leaves of plants beltm^ing tn thai 
age. The sands, clays, and gravels of later penoda, in the 
ancient beds of the stremms within 'the Silurian areas, are 
more or tea auriferous. Some of the de^Mr " leads" of 
the gold-miner contain fossil fruits and the trunks and 
branchn of trees, which are described by Baron von 
MQIler in the Melbourne official reports of the mining 
surveyors. In the Ballarat gold-Gelds the auriferous quaitx- 
oee gravels are overlaid bj flows of lava and vesiculcr 
volcanic rocks, while in a neighboring district sontk o( 
Ballarat, pebbles and sand are cemented by femginanB 
matter into an extremely hard conglomerate. 

In eastern Australia, where no "Tertiary marine dqmsils 
are met with, there are deep aoeumulaUons of ititl, smdi as 
transmuted beds of the CarboniferooB formation, porp^n, 
and basalt, and other igneotu rocks, and fragmoala ^t&e 
older Palesozoic strata. Many of the drift streams are not 
ooly highly auriferous, but contain gems of all kinda. 
Diamonns, though of smalt sis^ have been taken from the 
Cudg^ong River, near Mudgee, in New South Wales, and 
likewise from the Hacqnarie Blver. 

In the eastern plains of the interior, mnbedded in blm^ 
muddy trappean soil, are found the hones cf enornoos 
auimids of the marsupial or kangaroo order, as well as 
birds, fishes, and reptiles. The accumulatiiHiB of bones in 
caverns at Wellington, New South Wales, and on the riven 
Colo, Macleay, and Coodradigbee, are of great interest, 
A femur hone of the dinomis, the ei^antic extinct bird of 
New Zealand, has been discovered m the drift on Peak 
Downs in eastern Anstralia, at the depth of IBS feet; and 
this would lead to the belief that Una onoe existed wha:« 
now the Padfic Ocean separatee by a thousand miles two 
countries ot Anstralasiaj whose presesit snimal and veg*- 


» have so litUe in common. 

I ATfflT] 

aaa, and ooal, H well ■■ rilTer, lead, and (in. The min- 
tnl lidica of Victoria, thtHixfa almost coofined to gold, 
Ihtb been the nwin cause of her rapid progreaa. Sonth 
Autnlia poMMMS the most valuable cop^per mines. Queens- 
laod ranks next to the laal-named pronace for cop^r, and 
eicda her neigfabon in the production of tin, vliile ^Id, 
inn, and coal are also fbund in coDsideiable quantities. 
In Western Auitralia mines of lead, silver, and copper 
bsTS betn opened ; and there is mach ironstooe. 

Tie diacoverr of gold in New South Wales and Victoria 
look place in 1S51, and during the next twentj years Vic- 
loria exported 40,760,000 ol of the precious metal, white 
Hew South Wales, from 1851 to 1S71, exported nearlj 
10,000,000 ODDcee. The Queensland gold miue^ since 
1S60, DBTG displayed iacreasing promise; up to the end 
rf 1872 they had jielded rather less than 1,000000 
ounces; but much was expected, at a more recent dale, 
from the Palmer River and other districts of the north. 
The yearly value of the aggr^ategold exports of Austrslia, 
en the avera^ of fifteen years, has been £10,000,000. Vic- 
toria alone has produced ^Id to the value of £170,000,000. 
Hie alinvial gold-fields, in which the early diggers, with 
the simplest tools, or 
of the coveted ore, 

is in the qnarU formations of the mountain rsnges, or in 
Ibow at a great depth andergronnd, reached by the sinking 
of (hafts and regular mining operations, that Australian 
lold is hcDcelbrth to be chiefiy procured. There are mines 
m Vietoria 1000 feet deep, as at Clunea, and many others 
from 300 to 600 feeL 

The copper mines of Bnrra Burra, in South Australia, 
pored very profitable some twenty-five yean ago, yielding 
ID a twelvemonth ore to the value of £350,000, and the 
Hsgota mines, in 1872; were scorcelr )en productive. 
The province of South Australia, in that year, exported 
B^iper to the amount of £800,000. Queenjand, in 1373, 
produced one-fourth that quantity. Tin, an article of 
gnat mercantile intefeat, is divided between Queensland 
and New South Wales in a frontier district, two-thirds of 
the extent of which belongs to the Darling Downs, within 
lbs lait-mentioned province. There is a little tin, also, in 
nme parts of Victoria. Lead, silver, and dimabar have 
beai obtained not only in New South Wales, but likewise 
in Western AustnJia. 

The abundance of good iron ore, in convenient vicinity 
to thick beda of cxcelkut ooal, ensures a future career of 
■lana&cturing prosperity to New Sonth Wales, and not 
Its to Queensland. The eotinti^ north and aooth of Sf d- 
Bsy, aiM west of that dtv 100 miles inland to [he dividmg 
taogB of mountaina, is all of Carlxmiferous formation. At 
the month of the Hunter Biver, from the port and town 
of Newcastle, coal was exported in 1S73 to the value of 
£1,000,000 sterling. The collieries there takm np have 
u extent of 36,000 acres, bnt the ares of the coal-field is 
oOciallv estimated at 10,000,000 acres, and the seams are 9 
bet to 11 feet thick. The quality of this coal is said to be 
equal to that of Orest Britain for most furru-ce purpose^ 
■nd it is generally u*ed by steamshifn in the PaciSu and 
Chinese navigation. Next in importance are the Wollon- 
nog collieries, soath of Sydney, and those of Hartley, 
Maitland, and Berrima, now connected l:^ railway wiui 
the ca)Mta1. 

In each of the places above named there is iron of a 
nperior quality, the workius of which to advantage cannot 
be long delayed. On the Illawarra coast it is found close 
Id the finest bitaminuuB coal, and to limestone. The iron 
ot Hew Soath Wales is mostly luemalite, and the ironstone 
eonlaitu from 00 to 70 per cenL of ore. 

Among other mineral products of the same r^on are 
eannel inal and shale yielding kerosene oil. This is a 
raeogniied article of export from New South Wales to the 
other colonics. It is hardly worth while to speak of dis- 
Dionds, opals, and precious stones, but they are oflen picked 
np, tlMu^ of small size, along the Hndgee and Aber- 
eroubie Bivers, and at Beechworth and Daylesford, in 

CUmalt. — The Aostndiaii ooatinent, extending over 28° 
of lattlnde, might be expected to show a considerable 
divewih; of climate. lo reality, however, it experiences 
fewer eumatic variations than the other great continents, 
owing to it* distance (28°) from the Antarctic circle and 
(ll't from the equator. There is, besides, a powerfnl de- 

a in the uniform diaracter and undivided 

extent of its diT interior plain. On this subject Mr. 
Banken, in his Dominion of j4u(lrciJta, remarks— ''A basin 
having its northern portion in the tropics, it acts like an 
oven under the daily sun. It becomes daily heated ; then 
its atmosphere expands ; but such is its immensity that no 
sufficient supply of moist sea air from the neiKhboriog 
oceans can reach it, to supply the vacancy caused by this 
expansion. Of an almost perfectly flat surface, there is no 
play for currents of air upon it; only the heat is daily 
absorbed and nightljr radiated. Such is the heat, that in 
the summer the soil is more like a fire than an oven; the 
air, if it moves, is like a fiimace-blast ; and each its extent 
and sameness, that as great heat may prevail hundreds of 
miles sonth as north of the tropics. This continual radi^ 
lion of heat is Bometimee relieved — though not with the 
regularity of u) annual season, indeed rather at uncertain 
intervals of several years — by the admission of manes of 
vapor, drawn in from the Pacific or the Indian Ocean 
Great masses of clouds, after laborijig many months to 
reach the interior from the ses, succeed in passing over the 
sea-bound mountains, and spread themselves in floods of 
rain upon the inland country. 'The north-west shore, and 
that of (Carpentaria, ore favored with an annual visitation 
of the monsoons, from December to March, penetrating ss 
far as 600 miles into the continent, where the sands of the. 
desert are driven in wavy heaps bv the force of this wind. 
But South Australia, though it feels a cool sea breeze from 
the south-west, gets little rain, for lack of any mountain 
rsn^ parallel vrith the coast to arrest and condense the 
passing vanoia. The yearly rainfall at Adelaide and 
Gawler is therefore not more than 16 or 20 inches, whils 
at the head of Spencer Gulf it is hut 6 or S. In Victoria 
and in New South Wales, on the contrary, where a wall 
of mountun ^xmta the ocean, most places on the sea-board 
eitjoy a fair allowance of rain. It is 32 inches at Portland, 
nearly 26 inches at Melbourne ; at Sydney and Newcastle 
on the east coast, ss much as 48 and 44 inches in the year. 
But at Brisbane, in Queensland, brther north, it amounts 
to 60 inches ; at Bockinsham Bav, in latitude 18° B., where 
the hills are covered with dense forests, the loiufall in I87I 
was no less than 90 inches. In every part, however, of 
this magnificent highland r^on, the sopply of moisture is: 
rapidly diminished by passing inland ; so that very little 
remains to fall on the interior or western slopes of the ooast. 

ward districts of New South Wales ^ 

to be like Southern Europe. The mean annual tempera- 
ture of Sydney is 62° 4' Fohr., almoat equal to that of 
Lisbon in Portugsl. The inland plainsof this colony, bow- 
ever, west of the Bine Motmtains, which snflhr mnch lh>m 
evaporation, experience in summer a beat wliicb rises 
to 100° Fahr. m the shade, and lometii&eB as high as 
140°. There are highland districts, on the oontraiy, such 
as Kiandra, 4640 feet above the seai-level, where frost, 
snow, and hail are endured through the winter. On the 
Australian Alps, cold being more intense in the dry ur 
the limit of perpetual snow comes down to 7146 feet Th 
days on which rain falls in the cosst regions of New South 
Walea average from 100 to 150 in the ^ear, and the amount 
from 20 inches to 50 inches, decressmg generally farther 

In winter, in New Sonth Wales, the prevalent winds 
blow from the west, with occasional storms of wind and 
rain from the eastward ; while the autumn months have 
much cloudy weather, not accompatiied by rain. January 
and February are the hottest months of summer, and July 
the coldest month of winter. 

With regard to theclimate of Victoria, Mr. Robert Ellei^ 
Government astronomer at Melbourne, in his repott of 
1372, furnishes exact information. The mean armnal 
temperature at Melbouroe during fourteen yean was 67"^ 
snd that of the whole province 66°'8, including statiooe 
2000 feet or 1400 feet above the sea-level at Daylesford 
and Bailarat This is equivalent to the mean aimual 
temperature of Marseilles and Florence, in the northern 
hemispheres l>tit the climate of Melbourne is much mora 
equable than that of the Meditemriean shores. Ths 
lowest temperature yet recorded has been 27°, or 5° belov 
the freeaing point ; the hi^ieet, 111° in the shade, ocottRioB.^ 

loaded with dual ocoMioDftUf blow for a tew 
■uminer. At Sandhiirat, 778 feel above the sea, the greftteat 
extremea of lemperalure yet observed were 117° and 27'''5; 
at Ballarat the extreme of winter cold was 10° below 

Tbe amount of hnmiditj in the air is liable to great 
and rapid variations in the aummer months. It is aome- 
timea reduced as much as 60 per cent, within a few 
hours, bj the effect of hot drj winds. But this is eom- 

Bamted br an access of moisture upon a change of wind. 
LB annual average rainfall at Melbourne, whicli for (hirt7 
years is staled al 2.5'66 inches, does not seem less thaa 
thai of places in similar latitudes in other parts of the 
world. Yet it proves inadequate, because of the great 
amoUDt of evaporation, estimated by Professor Neumayer 
si 42 inchea. 

The spring season in Victoria, consisting of the mODtha 
of September, October, and November, Is genial and pleas- 
anl, with some rain. The summer — December, January, 
and February — is generally hot and dry, though its first 
month is sometimes broken by storms of cold wind and 
heavy rain. In Febntary the north winds assume Che 
character of siroccos, and busli-flres often devastate the 
grassy plains and forests of the inland country. The 
autumn months — March, April, and May — are, in general, 
the most agreeable; and at this season vegetable life is 
refreshed, and puts forth a growth equal to that of the 
apring. The winter is June, July, and August, with strong, 
diy, cold winds from the north, altematiog with frequent 
rain from the opposite qaarier; there is little ice or snow, 
except in the mountain districts. 

Botany. — A probable compuwtJon of the whole number 
of distinct vegetable spedea indigenous to Australia and 
Tasmania has been made by Baron Ferdinand von Miitler, 
the Uovemment botanist at Melbourne. He believes tlial, 
omitting the minute fungi, there will not be found above 
10,00U species of Australian plauls. The standard authority 
apou this subject, so far as it could be known siity years 
ago, but now requiring to be completed and extended, was 
the iVfHJromua Flora Jfom HoUandia, published in 1310 by 
Hr.BobertBrown of the British Museum. Besides making 
peiBonal observations from 1S02 to 1S05, he had classified 
the collections procured by Sir Joseph Banks when Captain 
Cook's ship visited the eastern shore. Upon that occasion, 
in 1769, the name of Botany Bay was given to an inlet 
Deal' Port Jackson, from the variety of new specim^is 
found there. Baron vod MnlWs Beport of 1857 on the 
researches made by him aloue in the North Australian 
exploring expedition under Mr. Gregory, exhibits 2000 
new species, representing more than 800 genera, which 
belong to 160 dioerent orders. He could discover no new 
natural order, or fundamental form of the vegetable king- 
dom, in a minute examination of the flora of Amhem 
lAnd, the country around the Oulf of Carpentaria, and the 
Victoria ICiver, but 60 genera were found that had not been 
noticed by any earlier Australiau botanist. 

The eastern parts of this continent, New South Wales 
and Queensland, are very much richer, both in their botany 
and in their zoology, (ban any other parts of Australia. 
Much was done here for the former science, half a centniy 
ago, byMr. Allan Cunningham, whose monumental obelisE 
fitly stands in the Botanic Garden at Sydney. In general, 
the ^wth of trees on the north and north-west coasts is 
wanting in size and r^ularily, compared with their growth 
in eastern Australia. To the last-mentioned region, for 
instance, the pines are entirely confined ; here the Horeton 
Bay pine, and Bunya Bunya pine, of the genus Araacaria, 
growing to 160 feet in height, yield excellent timber. The 
red ce&r, the iron bark, the blue gum-tree, and otheia 
useful to the carpenter, belong likewise to the eastern 
highlands. The Chsuarriaj or she-oak, is found on the 
shores of Carpentaria and m the interior, but not on the 
^ka of the Victoria River to the north-west Of the 
ptiu, or gum-tree, Australia has 400 species ; but the 
oat nniformly distributed is the Eueal^itut roitrala 
ui u^oOMnata, callra the flooded gam-tree; its limber is 
durable^ and takes a fine polish. Rosewood, tulip-wood, 
sandal-wood, and •atin-wood, with other materials for the 
caUnetmaku'a omamenUl work, aboond in the forests of 
Queeoslutd. The forest acenery of the more nortlierly 
distrida, within the tropica, and onwarda to Rockingham 
Bay, is dcMnbed ai or great luxuriance. It consists of 


many kinds of laise nmbr^eons trees, some of an Indian 
type, intermixed with noble araucariaa, all matted logethei 
in an impervious thicket by Hones of tbe convolvnlua, the 
calamus, and other plants, climbing or pendent, hartioriiu 
in their shade many parasitical or^ds and ferns. Such 
forests overhang the seaward aides of the mountain ranges, 
where thej inhale abundant moisture from the winds of 
the Pacific Ocean, and feed upon a coDgeoial soil from the 
decomposition of schist oae rocks. 

A striking contiast is offered to the view beyond the coast 
ranses. Tbe interior of Queensland presents either high- 
land downs of basaltic origin, almost bare of trees, but 
with abundant herbaceous vegetation, good pastnre gra^ 
and an immense quantity of vervdn, or tbe Brigalow 
scrub, merely shrubs and small trees, oa a soil of argillaoe- 
OII8 sandstone. The sandstone table-lands, again, naked 
and dry, produce but a few diminutive eucalypti, aod 
sparse tufts of uneatable grasses, white the inland deserta 
have only the acacia to break the monoCoiiy of the scene. 
The character of the inland flora odds confirmation to tha 
belief that the interior was formerly a marine soil, which 
has not yet been deprived of its saline properties. In the 
districta tarthest removed from the action of fresh water, 
hundreds of miles are covered with such nlanta as will 
grow on the aea-shore, e.g., the meaembry anlhemum' called 
pig's face or Hottentot fig. Other spedes belonging to the 
coasCward uplands aeem to have been conveyed into llie 
interior by the action of water, as the belts of timber, and 
of pine or cypress scrub, are always found to extend along 
the line o^ aireclion laken by floods. They grow on sandy 
ridges, alongside of hollows, or depressed channels. (^ 
the north coast, so much of which is Sal, and often swampy 
or sandy, the mangrove flourishes as in other tropical 

From the extreme ariditjr of the climate in moat pauti of 
northern Auatralis, there is a singular absence Of mnmia 

North-west Australia possesses, io the AdoKr' 
eonia Oregorii, or Bouty*stem tree, a counteipart of the 
West African baobab, or monkey-bread tree. It is worthy 
of remark that, with a few exceptions, the Ansttaliao 
trees are evergreens. They also show a peculiar reverted 
position of their leaves, which hang vertically, tnimnff 
their edges instead of their sides towards the s-jn ; and 
the eucalypti have the peculiarity of shedding their bail 
annually instead of their leaves. In Australia the native 
species of lilv tulip, and honeysuckle appear as standard 
trees of coDBiderable size. The native grasses do not form 
a continuous and even greensward, as in Europe, but glow 
in detached clumps or tufts. None of the cereal plaata 
are indigenous, and very few of the fruits or roots that 
supply human food ; but many Australian plants are likely 
lo be valuable for medicinal or chemical manufactures. 

This continent, as might be expected, has some of the 
same botanical families that occupy South Africa, Poly- 
nesia, and South America. Its relations in that respect to 
Europe are shown by AlphoDse de Candolle's tabular 
statements in the GAi^ropAie Bolantque SauaiutH. Ha 
gives the exact number of species oonimon to Australia 
and to France in each of the principal (amiliea or natural 
orders. It appears that of 3614 species of phanetwamic 
plants in Franoe, only 45 belong to Australia. But it 
will be sufficient without citing tbe numerical detail*, 
to quote Baron von Miiller's list of the natural orders 
having the most numerous species of indigenous growth tn 
South Australia. They are here arranged in sncoearion, 
according to their comparative amounts of epeofic diven- 
ity, those which have the greateat number of spades being 
mentioned first. Of the phanerogamic series, the leKmnic- 
ous and the compoalte families united form nea^ one- 
fourth. Indeed, the half of the dicotyledonous plaDts, 
or exog^, that exist in the sub-tropical distrid* belong 
to these two orders. Next come the myrtaceaoa pUnh^ 
the fems, and the grasses; the Proieaoee. which fonn a 
conspicuous feature of Australian botany ; the Ordudacca^ 
the epacrid ftuntly, and the parsley family, or Umbellifens; 
the Diosmee, a sub-order of the Rutaoen or rue &milj; 
the liliacen, the Lahiain or mint family, the Ooodenuct 
the Bcrophulariacem or figworts, and the Dalaolaoeo. The 

and tbe epacrid group, ai 
the troplc&t line. 

AtimaU. — The loolc^ of Australia and Tasmania [«» 
sents a very ooospicuous point of difierence frotn that of 


^ , .. _, _ n-placBDtal 

_ The TBst muoritj of the mamm&lia are pro- 

tided Tith BO argaa in uie otenu, bj which, before the 
Uith of Iheii young, ■ vascDlur conaection is mainUitied 
betweeo the embryo and the parent Bnimal. There are 
two orders, the Marsupialia and the HoDoCremsta, which do 
not jimiiiii this organ. Both tfaese are found in Australia, 
to wWh region indeed they are Dot ainolutely confined ; 
bnl the manapials alone cooslitute two-lhirda of all the 
iialnUisn special of mammala. It is the well-known 
Meoliarity of this order that the female has a pouch or 
Ud of skin upon her abdomen, In which she can place the 
young (br Buckling within reach of her teats. The opoaaum 
ef America ia the only BpeciBS out of AuEtralosia which is 
Ifana provided. Australia is inhabited I>y at least 110 dif- 
fercnt species of maraupiala, which have been arranged ia 
ire tribes, according to the food they eat, via., the root- 
SBlen (wombatfl), the fruil-^atera (phatangers), the erose- 
aiett (Icangarooe}, the insect-eaters (bandicoots), and the 
inh-ealen (nalire cata and rats). Of theee tribes the 
vombats are closely allied to the phalangers, represented 
liy the opossums and flying-equirrels, with the native bear, 
vbile fossil remains of twantr extinct apecies have also been 
iHmd. Of wombats now existing there are four species, all 
of nearly the same site, seldom ezceedioK 100 lb in weight. 
They all burrow in the ground, and their habitat is in 
liev South Wales, Tasmania, and South Australia. There 
IB bnl me specieH of the Bingular animal miscalled the 
DBtiTe bear, which is more like a sloth in its habits. Three 
tarietics of brush-tailed opcsBum are found, but one of 
liwm exists only in Tasmania; and there are three ring- 
kiied varieties in almost every part of AustralU. The 
peat flying phalanger (Petauristaj is nearly allied to the 
MBl-Dientioned genus; it eliata only in East Austral ib; as 
does the small flying phalanger (Belideua), which is re- 
■trided to mountain diatricU. The interior of Australia 
and the west coast are wanting in these species, but two 
or three of them occur on (he north coaal. The smallest 
phalanger [Aerobaln pygmaa) is less than a mouse, and 
Lh a f^theiy tail. The tittle Tarsipa rogtraiia is almost 
hnthlesii but has a long hairy tongue, which It thrusts 
into SowerB to suck their sweetness. 

The kangaroo (Hacropus) and most of its congeners 
riww an extraordinary disproportion of the hind limbs to 
Ihe fore part of the body. The rock wallabies again have 
■hort tarsi tA the hind l^s, with a long pliable tail for 
dimbin^ tike that of the tree kangaroo of New Qninea, or 
Ifaat of &e jerboa. Of the lai^r kangaroos, whidi attain 
a weight of 200 lb and more, eight species are named, only 
one of which is found in West Australia. There are some 
twoity smaller species in Australia and Tasmania, besides 
■lie rock wallabies and the hair kangaroos; these last are 
w(inderfnllyswift,making clear jumps eight or ten feet high. 
To this agility they owe their preservation from the prairie 
Gres, which are so destructive in the interior during seasons 
of drought. In the rat kangaroo there is not the same 
disproportion of the limbs; it approaches mors nearly 
to the bandicoot, of which seven species exist, from the 
Bie of a rot to that of a rabbit. The camivorona tribe of 
Btanupials, the larger species at any rate, belong more to 
Tumania, which has its "tiger" and ila " deviL" But 
Ihe native cat, or dssyums. is common to every part of 
Australia. Several difierent species of pouched rats and 
nice, one or two living in trees, are reckoned among Ihe 
Stab-eaters. Fomil bones of extinct kangaroo species are 
met with, which must have been of enormous size, twice 
or thrice that of any species now living. 

We pan on to the other curious order of non-placenlal 
wammaU, that of the Monotremata, so called from the 
itructare of their organs of evacuation with a single orifice, 
■ in birds. Their abdominal bones are like those of the 
Bsnupials; and (bey are furnished with pouches for their 
young, but have no teats, the milk being diatilled into 
Ihur pooches from the mammary glands. Australia and 
Itemania ponev two animals of this arder,^Ihe echidna, 
sr spiny aat-eater (hairy in Tawnania), and the P!alifpaM 
~—' — I, the dnck-billed WBler-mole, otherwise named (he 

wiui ■ uiii or nsajc, vajuu u not, Line ujab oi h bird, affixed 
to th« skelefam, but is merely attached to the skin and 

AnstraliahM no apes, monkeys, or baboons, and no rumi- 
Mnl besats. The comparatively few indigenous placental 
Vdi_ m.— l(n 

mammals, besides the dingo, or wild dog — which, howerer, 
may have come from the islands north of this continent — 
areof the bat tribe and of the rodent or rat tribe. There are 
four species of large fruit-eating bals, called flying foze^ 
twenty of insect-eating bats, above twenty of t.ind-rats, and 
five of watec^rats. The sea produces three different seals, 
which often ascend rivers from the coast, and can live in 
lagoons of Ireeh water; many cetaceans, biesidee the "right 
whale" and sperm whale; and the dugong, found on the 
northern shores, which yields a valuable medicinal oil. 

The birds of Australia in their number and variety of 
species (reckoned at 690) may be deemed some compeosa- 
tion for its poverty of mammals ; yet it will not stand com- 
parison in this respect with regions of Africa and South 
America in the same latitudes. The black swan of West 
Australia was thought remarkable when discovered as be- 
lying an old Latin proverb. There ia also a white eagla 
The vulture is wanting. Sixty species of parrots, some of 
them very handsome, are found in Australia. The emu, a 
large bird of the order Cursores, or runners, correaponda 
with the African and Arabian ostrich, the rhea of South 
America, and the cassowary of the Moluccas and New 
Guinea. In New Zealand this order is represented by the 

same species as the birds of paradise is the graceful JIfieimra 
superba, or lyre bird, with its tail feathen spread in the 
shape of a lyre. The mound-iaising m^^podes, the bower- 
building satin-birds, and several others, display peculiar 
habils. The honey-eaters present a great diverut^ of 
plumage. There are also many kinds of game birds, 
pigeons, ducks, geese, plovers, and quails. 

The ornithology of New South Wales and Queensland 
is tnore varied and interesting than that of the other 

As for reptiles, Australia hBs a few tortoises, all of on* 
family, and not of great size. The "leathery turtle," 
which is herbivorous, and yields abundance of oil, has been 
caught at sea off the Ulawarra coast so large as 9 feet in 
length. The saurians or lizards are numerous, chiefly ou 
dry sandy or rocky ground in the tropical region. The 
great crocodile of Queensland is 30 feet long; there is a 
smaller one, 6 foet long, to be met with in the shallow 
lagoons of the interior. The monitor, or foit-tongiied 
iizard, which burrows in the earth, climbs, and Bwims, ia 
said to grow to a length of 8 or 9 feeL This species, and 
many others, do not extend to Tasmania. There are about 
twenty kinds of nighi-lizards, and many which hibernate. 
One apecies can utter a cry when pained or alarmed, and 
the tall-etanding frilled liurd can lift its forelegs, and 
squat or hop liKe a kangaroo. There is also the Moloch 
horridut of feouth and West Australia, covered with tuber- 
cles bearing large spines, which give it a very strange 
aspect. This and some other lizards have power to change 
their color, not only from light to dark, but in some parts 
from yellow to grey or red. Dr. Gray, of the Bntish 
Museum, has described fifty species of Australian lizard. 

The snakes are reckoned at sixty-three species, of which 
forty-two are venomous, but only five dangerous. North 
Queensland has many harmless pythons. There are forty 
or fifty difierent sorts of frogs; tiie commonest is distin- 

Eished by iis blue legs and bronze or gold back; the 
'gest is bright green ; while the tree-frog has a loud shrill 
voice, always heard during rain. 

The Australian seas and rivers are inhabited by many 
fishes of tbe same genera as exist in the soutliem parts 
of Asia and Africa. Of those peculiar to Australian waters 
may be mentioned the arripis, represented by what is called 
among the colonists a salmon trout. A very fine fresh- 
water fish is the Murray cud, which sometimes weighs 100 
lb ; and (he golden perch, found in the same river, has rare 
beauty of soior. Among the sea fish, the snapper is of 
greet value as on article of food, and its weight oomes up 
to 50 lb. This ia the PaoTi* unieolor, of the family of 
SparidecL which includes also the bream. Its oolors are 
beautiful, pink and red with a silvery gloss; but the male 
as it grows old takes on a singular deformity of the head, 
with a swelling in the shape of a monstrous human-like 
nose. These fish are caught in numbers outside Port 
Jackson for tbe Sydney market. Two species of mackerel, 
differing somewhat from the European species, ai« also 
caught on the coasts. The so-callea red garnet, a prMtv 

fish, with hues of a 

le atul blue stripes on its h 


■Mich erteoned for Hie table, ^be H^gla poiyomiaata, or 
S^iag garnet, k a greater beaut?, with iU bod^ of crimaon 
awl ulvar, and it* Was pectoral fins, spread like wion, of 
1^ boi4erec with purple, and relieved I7 a black 
■pot. Whitiiw, mullet, gar-Gsh, rock cod, and 
r otfaen koown b? tocal iiaiiin,^« in the liits of 

•ad vbtte spot. Whidiw, mullet, 

■un* otfaen known b? tool nam . 

«diU« bbcs beloDgiDg to New South Wales and Victoria. 

curator and aecretuy of ibe mnaeuin at Sfdoe^, aod in Hie 
Count de Cactelnao'H repot on the fiehee of Viotoria at the 
Imemationad EituUtioB of 1873. 

Atongma. — 1^ PajHiMi, Melaneiiaii, or Australaaian 
dborigines exhibit certain pecaliaritua which are not found 
in the AEricM) negr^ to wnich race tiief othenrise preeent 


U the AuBtraiaBian the £ii«bead i 

deprened than in the A&icau. His lips are tiiick, ^ut not 
jpTDtdberaul, and the e^ea n« sunken, la^^ and black. 
The color of his skin is lighter — of a du^; hue—^han 
Out at the Negro. Id stature be equals the average Euro- 

Kn, bat tall men. are ibtk except in North (^erauland; 
bod; and lia^ an well shaped, strongly loinud, and 
UgUj mnmlar. The hind park ai« not, as m the A&i- 
flM^ «sc«auTalj' fused ; and while the cdf of the leg is 
defioicn^ the heel is slr^i^t. The uatina of P^jua have 
woolly spiralfy-twiatad hair, ^lose of Tasmania, now ez- 
tanniWed. bad the same pecnliaH^. But the n^ves of 
tbe AaMmuan ooolinent utre strai^nt or curlj black hair, 
ne men wear ihcrt beards and whiskers. 

Their mental Acuities, though probably inferior to those 
of the Polynesian copper-colored race, are not contemptible. 
They have much aeut«neaB of perception for Iha relations 
of individual objects, but little power of genenliution. 
No word exists in tlieir language for the general terms 
lre(^ Urd, or flsh ; yet th^ have inventea a oaioe for 
•very apaei» of veBetable and animal (hev know. The 
nammtiiml MntOare of some North Anstralian languages 
iu a considerable d^ree of refinement. The verb presents 
• iiariety of comngatiOD^ e^reaing neartj all the moods 
tod loBses of Che Oreefe. There is a dual, as well as a 
irioisl ibrss in the declenaion of verb^ nouns, pronoun^ 
•ad ai^eativce. The distinction of genden is not marked, 
SKO^ in pn^iw names of men and women. All parts c^ 
ytnh, exrapt adverba, ate declined by tenninational inflec- 
tuos. Thera are words for the elementary numbem, one, 
twc^ tluee; bat "four" is usually expressed by "two- 
two j" Ih^ "five" by/' two4hree," and so on._ They 
have BO idea of decimals. The number and diver^ty 
•r wyarate languages, not roere dialects, ie trul<r bewilder- 
ing. Tribes of a few hundred people, living within a few 
mile* of each other, have often scarcely a phrBse in com- 
■SOB. This is more especially observed in New South 
'Wales, a country moch intersected by dividing mountaio 
iSQges. But one language is spoken all along the Bi vers 
Hurray and Darling, while the next neighbors of the 
Hurray tribes on both sides, are unable to conveise with 

It is, nevertheless tolerably certain that alt the natives 
of Australia belong to one stock. There appeara reason 
to believe that their progenitors originally landed on 
the north-west cosst, that of Cambridge Oulf or Amhem 
Land, in canoes dritUng from the island of Timor. They 
•eem then to have advanced over the continent in three 
aqiarste direclions. By one route they moved, in the 
«oarse of age^ directly across to the south coast, near the 
kead of the Great Bight, Speocer Oulf and the Gulf of 
SL Vinomt, Another division followed the west coast to 
Swan Biver, and round by King Geoifje's Sound. The 
third sod Biost important body, turning esstward, crossed 
Iha head of the Gulf of Carpentaria, then split and sub- 
divided itself amidst the rivers and highland ranges of 
Qnaenalssid, while some of its tribes crossing tlie Upper 
uiUng occupied New South Wales, oveiapread the 
Bsverina, and peopled (he south-eastern quarter of Ans- 
tealia. The jfoofi and areumentB upon which this hypo- 
Ikttiaal distributian is bsaed are set forth by Mr. Byre in 
his iwleniillim osay on the Australian aborigines [DU- 
BBBtritt^it CWral Auitralia, dte., by E. J. Eyre, Ksident 
aaagistiata, Uoiray Kiver, voL IL). It is chiefly the prev- 
■kMoe of aaiBe peculiar customs, snch aa circumcision, or 
the Mmoral of two upper-jaw tseth at a itsled age of 

adolescence that seems to mark the c 
tribes, now widely distant in location, which ^>pear to 
have belonged to one of the suppoacd main streams at 
population. The discontinuance of sudi customs among 
the tribes of the other main divlaiona b plaoaibly ascribed to 
local influences. From a comparison 4/ tbur languages, 
the diveniciee of which have been already rvterred to, it 
appears thai little aid is to be expected from them in eth- 
nological grouping. 

The naUves of the north-eistem quarter — a tropical 
r^on of diveisified snrfiue, with many riven and Uiidt 
forests, aa well as open highlands — are far superior in bodr, 
mind, and social habils to ikasB of the rest of Austndu. 
They bear, in flwt, most reaemblanoe to their neigfabora 
snd kindred in Ihe island of New Guinea, but ate slill 
below these in many important respecta. 

If a general view be taken of the tribes of Anstrslia,ntd 
the slate is whi<di they existed indqiendoi tly of recent Koro- 
pean intercourse, two or three estnottlinary defects ezhiUt 
thanselvea. Thev never, in any aitnation, oiltivated tfaa 
soil for any kinil of food-crop, llier never reared any 
kind of oattl^ or kept taj domeaticatea animd exc^ m 
dog, which probably came over with them in thwr caDo«BL 
They have nowhere built permanent dwdllngs, bat con- 
tented tbunaelvei with mare bonis ftii temporary sbelt^. 
They have neither mannbctnied nor posaeased any chattek 
beycod such articles of dothinb *<i^><»S) onamoit^ and 
utMuils aa they might carry on th«r peraoos, or in d)« 
family store-b^ for dally use. Thetr want of ingenuity 
and contrivaoce has, howevw, undoubtedly been promoted 
by the natural poverty of the tand in whidi the race settled. 

The sole dress of 00th sexes in their aboriginal Mate is 
a cloak of skin or matting, fastened with a skewer, but- 
right-hand side. No headgear is worn, except 
net to oonfiue the hair, a bunch of feathers, or 
the tails oF small animais. The bosom or back is usually 
laltoed, or rather scored with rows of hideons raised m»n, 
produtwd by deep gashes at the age when yooth oomea to 
manhood <x womanhood. Their dwetUn^ fiir die most 
par^ are either bowers, fwmed of the branches ot trvta, 
or hovels of piled logs, loosely covered with grass or barl^ 
which ther can erect in an hour, wherever Uiey ei 

were seen by Flindets on the senth-east ooast in 1799, 
and by Captain King and Sr J. btitchell on the north-east, 
where they no longer appear. Hie ingenuity of the laca 
is mostly to be recognised in the mauubciare of thur 
weapons of wanhre sad the chaser While the nse of the 
bow snd arrow does not seam to bKve occnnad to fhem, 
the spear and axe are in general us^ commonly made of 
hard- wood ; the hatchets of stone, and the uvetms pointed 
with stone or bone. Thepecniiarwe^Kinaftbe Australian 
is the bocoierang, a curved blade of wood^ of snch remark- 
able construction, that it swerves from its <firect oootst^ 
someUmes returning so as to hit an olued bdiind lh« 
ihrover. Their nets, made by women, either of the ten- 
dons of animals or the fibres of plants, will catch and bold 
the strong kangaroo or the emu, or the veir large fish of 
Australian rivers. Caooes of beat bark, Rir the inland 
waters, are bsatily prepared at need ; but the inlets and 
Btraila of the north-eastern sea-ooast are navigated by larger 
canoes and rafts of a bctler construction. 

Without claiming permanent ownership of the land, each 
native tribe was accustomed, till the English squatter came, 
(o enjoy the recogniied manorial dominion of its oira 
hundng-ground, perhaps ten or twelve milts square. This 
was subdivided between tbe chief heads of &mUies. The 
aAiiira of a tribe are ruled by a council' of the men past 
middle age who are still in full vwor of mind and body. 
One may be their president, but they have no hereditary 
prince. Their most solemn sasemblies take place when (he 
youth undergo one or other of the painful oenunonicB of ioi- 
tialion into manhood. In every case of death from disease 
or unknown causes the soroereis hold a puWe inqoes^ snd 
pretend to ask tbe corpse how it was killed. Saohdealltsaic 
invariably inscribed to vritehoaft practised by a hostile 
or envious neighboring tribe, ne faocBea of the slaio in 
bsttle are sometimes eatoi, or the &t ^jl the kidneys, at 
least, is extracted for s feast of viebnT, Itat cnDBibalkm 
in Australia is not oonflned to the fleaa ot iiiiili 1, nor is 
it generally associated with an insuRlng triumph. It is 
nucr, like that repotted of the ancient StaUiians, a rite 
of funeral ohserraDO^ in hoMic of d e ca aaad kindred and 

OOiOTnil. HmORT.j 


Un^ Tbticali^af tkkcHtomkproTCdbrtlMtwIl- 
aEiir of tmtwwtkV Aaglut) witaw m ^ who hkv* wmtahad 
IktraTDitiMKL AacttlTidwofsiodkaoinitatacotMh 

n the MnA. He It « 

rrkv and aocM inlcnat; and Itney mre not 

poal^ of iMviobtiimli^DR death. But chMtilyapoiiaii; 
otber MotMHt h ■ virtoa Dajwnd the native oonoeption, 
tltDogh aaertun delicacr of feelins ~ " ' ' 


I delicacT of 

la^ nf moral rMtraint has !□ 

tnair contact with the more racUen ukI 
Tiaou* npramtatina of fuaiga uuioDA. 

n* Domhcn «f the native AnMralian* an steadilj 
diminiihiiig. A ranout of the race aziMa in each of the 
pn)Tinc«i, while a lew ttibea Itill wander over the interior. 
Alloj^er it ia oompatMl that not more than about 80,000 
abonnnee iMnain on the eoatinsit. 

Iwiapa the nuM OMiplcte and trustamthj inftoua- 
tioa im the AnAmlian nee ia to be (buod in woriia pab- 
bifaed fome twcntjr or tluity jma ago, htfan the coontiT 
wM ooeopied aa it now ie t? the ^ropean Bettlor. 

Oolomal HaUry. — Of the five Anatralian proTiooes, th 
of New South Walea may be nckuud the oldeat. It w 

iir criminab trtum En^and ; and the eettlenient retained 
that obaiacter, more or leas, during the aubaeqnent fihr 

C\ Iranaportatioa being virluallv ancpended in ISSv. 
colony, howeTer, bmn 18:21 h«a made a lair atart in 
fiee indiBtriai profcic. 

B7 Ihia time, too, aereral of the other provinces had 
eon* into existeooe. Van Diemen'a I^and, nuw called 
Tumania, liad been occupied a« otrly as 1803. It was an 
aaiiliarj {Moal atatioa uialer New Sonth W^es, (ill in 
15 it became aaepante mrincc; Ftom this island, lea 
" • ooaMd Ban*! Stniu to Port Phillip, 
■watTB a new entkaMBt wai ahortlj catabliehed, forming 
till 1851 » pan of New Sooth Wales, but now the richer 
and more popnlona coloa/ of Yidoria. Jn 1827 and 1329, 
an Eaglbb CMnpanj entuarored to plant a seUlement at 
the Swan BlTer, and thia, added to a small convict atation 
Mahlished in 1835 at King Qeorge'a Sound, constituted 
Western AoUnlia. On the shores of the Quif St. Vincent, 
again, from 1833 to 1837, BiHith Auflnlia wag created hj 
another joint«todi: conpanj, as an experiment in tbeWak»- 
field Bcheme of oolooiiation. 

Such wen the poliucal compon^t parts of British Ans- 
tnlia np to 1838. Thn earlier historr, therefore, of Kew 
South Wala ■ peculiar to itself. Unlike tbe other maio- 
Uod ptOTiDoea, it was at firat held and used chieflj for 
the reoeptioa of British cooTicXa. When that mtem wa» 
abolashed, the social eonditions of New Sonth Wales, Vic- 
toria, and South AtMnlia became more eqoaL FT«vium 
to tbe gold disooTOieB of 1851 they may be incinded, from 

The first British governors at Sydney, from 1788, ruled 
with d^iolie powM. They weie naval or military officeis 
ia DomButnd Of the ganiaon, the convicts, and ttiQ few free 
settlcia. The duty was performed by such men as Captain 
Artbnr Phillip, Captajn Hunter, and olhera. In the 
twelve yeats* tnle of OenenI Hacquari^ cloaing with 1821, 
As coloay made a aubatantiai advance. By means of con- 
rid labor roads aad brldaea wen constructed, and a route 
apeoed into the interior D^ood the Blue Uountaina. A 

Epolsdon of 30.000^ three-foarths of them convicts, formed 
: in&nt oommoawealth, whose attention was soon directed 
rofitaUe trade of rearing fine wool sheep, first com- 
by Ur. John U' Arthur 

Daring tl 
bana and fi 

ixinit snoessaively govenom, the ool , 
evenMallv aiooeaded in obtaining the advantapee of a 
NBMscntative inalilutioa, by meane of a l^islative ooundl. 
Then came Oeneral flar Itscbard Bogrke, whose wise and 

miesa] administration prov«d Most bensiafaL NawSaath 
Wales became pnaperous and attnoliva to ani%n«li witk 
capital. lb enteiprisiiw ambition wm anooon^ad by 
taking frash country itorth and aonth. In the lattar dirco- 
tiou, explwed by MUobeU in 1884 and lS»,tmj Aaatnli* 

This dietriot, then called Port PhUUa ia tke tiaie ef 
Governor Sir George GipF"> ItlSS to 1846, was grawtng IM 
into a posititn clalmii^ utdepoidenea. UalbMrn% w^ikb 
begsn with a few huts on the bonks of Iba YaR*-Y«m 
in 1886, was in 1840 a bt^ toav of 0000 inhalnlaa^ 
the popalatlon of the whoto discrict, with tha towns af 
Qedong and Portland, reaching 12,850; while ita isaport 
trade amounted to £204^000, and its ex^toito to 4138,0001 
Such was the growth of infant Victoria m five jmn ; that 
of Adelaide or South Australia, in the same period, waa 
nearly equal to it At Melbourne then woe a depu^r 
eovemor, Hr. Latrobe, imdar Sir Geoive Qippe at Sydnev. 
.delaide bad iu own gDvemors, fiist Captain Hindm 

4000 inhabitants alt^tner, nnder Oovernors Stirling aad 

Tbe general advancement of Anatralia, to the era of tha 
gold-mining, hod been sattaftteton', in apite of a sevsM 
commercial crisis, from 1841 to 1848, caused by extnva- 
eant land speculations and inflated prices. Victaria pro- 
duced already more wool than New South Wales, tbe 
sfgre^te produce of Australia in 1862 being 45,000,000 
lb; and South Australia, between 1342 aiul thia dat^ Iwal 
opened most valuable niinee of copper. Tha ptuiuIaUon of 
New South Wales in 1351 wn Itn^MO; that ot Victoria, 
77,000; and that of South Australia about thaaama. 

At Sninmerbill Creek, 20 miles north trf Batfaont, ia 
the Macquarie plains, gold was diseoverad, in Fabroaay, 
1851, by Hr. E. HBrgraves,'a gold-miner fiiim GaUfcnia, 
The inlelligtace was made known in April or May; aad 
then began a ru»h of thousands, — men leaving their fimer 
employments in the bush or in the towns to saanA for tha 
ore so greatly coveted in all uea. In Augoat it wb fiMuid 
at Andereon's Creek, near Melbouma; a few weeks later 
the great Ballarat gold-field, 80 miles wast of that latr, 
was opened ; and aRer that, Bendieo, now called Sana- 
hurst, to the north. Not only in these lucky province^ 
New South Wales and Victoria, where the aariWous de- 
pusita were revealed, but in every British colony of Aus- 
tralasia, alt ordinary industry was left for the one exciting 
pursuit. Tbe copper mines of South Anstialia were fcr 
the lime deserted, while Tasmania and New Zealand lest 
many inhabitants, who emigrated to the non pnunisiltg 
country. The disturbance of social, in^iEtrial, and oom- 
mercial afiairs, during tha first two or thne yeaia of the 
gold era, was verv great. Immigranla from i 

persona in a week. The population of Victoria waadcmbled 
in the first twelvemonth of the gold &ver, and die value tX 
imports and exports was multiplied unfokl between 1851 

The colony of Victoria was constitnted a sepante pmv 
ince in July, 1851, Hr. Latrobe being appointed govener, 
followed by Sir Charles Hotham aud ^r Henry Bwklf 
in succession. The more rapid inerease of Victoria since 
that time, in wealth and number of inhabitants, bsa g^ned 
oe in the esteem of emigrants ; but tbe 
of New South Wales, and its greater ex- 
tent of territory, may in some d^ree tend to ivJiiai tha 
balance, if not to restore the character of superior import- 
ance to tlie older colony. 
The eepantion of the northern part of eastan AastnK^ 
of Queensland, from the orwiaal proviaoa 

~!_ioKo Atlhattimea* 

nts; and in tta 

firat six yeaie (as Sir George Bowen, the fiiat governor. 

' ipled wd ito 

It appears, from a general v; 
the Xani twenty years, that the p: 

a have been enabled to advance in 

of Australian p rogieaa is 
ovinces leaa rich m gold 

n BogUpd about lUft bi 

by Other means. Wool continues tbe great Mapte of Aus- 
tralia. But New South Wal^ posaeasing both oe^ nd 

iron, is becoming a seat of manufactures ; while Queem- 

m AustnUan (tack-ialiwt, rsnlTM tS0,00a bam New SaBth Wal« &r bta frit 

land U abo brond with modi mineral vealtb, inoloding 
tin. The lemi-lroi^ad cUmaM of the latter celonj ii ani^ 
able for the culture of particular crope, needing 0DI7 a 
■Dpplj of other than European labor. Meantime Boutk 
AoMnlia. Uaidea ila prodaction of copper and a fail share 
■ become the great wheat^powing prorince of 

The sepande caloniea of Australia are nlll in a some- 
what trangidanal slate, emigratioa being so continuoos, 
ukI the countr; to be jet occupied bo axIensiTe. For 
due and for other reason^ therefore, it maj be more fitting 
to describe the several colonies, with respect lo their indus- 
trial and social conditions, mider their respective names. 
To enable the reader, however, to judge of the general posi- 
tion of the provinces at a recent date, the following statis- 
ti<s ai« appended : — 

Plmtelll. AUSTRIA, or more strictly Austrla-Hob- 

0±Bn (Oct. Ckttartich and Oatareieh- Ungam), 
is an extensive country in the southern portion of Central 
Europe, Wing between long. 9° and 26'' K, and 1st. 42° 
and 61° N. It thus eztenib through IT degrees of tongi- 
lod^ and 9 degrees of latitude, aud has an area of about 
240,000 English square miles. With the exception of the 
islands in the Adriatic^ and the QBrrow projectine tract of 
Dalmatia, it forms a compact region of country, hot of sn 
irregular shape. It is surraunded on all sides by other 
coDnlries, except where it bonien upon the Adriatic, 
which is about (me-Bfth of the entire extent of its bound- 
aries. Of the rest, about one-third on the W. and N. is 
formed by the Qennao empire (Bavaria, Saxony, and 

Skatoh-II^ of AottriA 

Prosua), a third on the 8. and E. by the Turkish empire 
and the Danubian Principalities, and the remaioing third 
by Boaeia on the N.E. and Switi^-laad and Italy on the 
S.W. The bonndaries are formed in some parts by river 
oounei, in othera by mountain tanges, and sometimes they 
ezl«nd through an open country. As compared with 
France Austria has a form nearly as compact, hut its 
frtmtierB are by no means so well defined or so strongly 
protected by natural barriets. It ranks third in extent 
among the countries of Europe (after Bussia and Sweden), 
uid fourth inpoint of popolation (after Ruada, the German 
empire, and France). 

HoDDtslDi. Austria is, after Bwitxerland. the most monn- 

tainous countrr of Europe, and about fbui^fifths 

of its entire area is more than 000 feet above the level of the 

Mt. The mountains are frequently covered with vegetation 

toaneetelevadon. AtthebasearelbundvinesandmtdM; 
on the lower slopes are green pastnrss, or wheat, faarisv, 
and other kinds <rf com ; above are often forests of ca^ 
ash, elm, Ac. ; snd s^ higher the yew and the Gr may bs 
seen braving the fiiiT of U10 terapesL Com grows to be- 
tween 3400 and 4500 feet above the level of the sea, the 
forests extend lo 6600 or MOO feet, and the line of p» 
petoal snow is from 7800 to S200 feeL In some puti, 
however, particularly in Tyrol, Styria, Carinthii^ tn^Ckr- 
niola, the mountains appear in wild confiBian, with mgged 
peaks aitd bare precipitous sides, forcibly reminding th* 
traveller of Switierland. Tyrol in particular lias, lika Ihsl 
country, its cucades, its glaciers, its perpetual saows, sod 
its avalanches. 

The Alps occupv the south-west portion of tlie cooutiy, 
and form its highest Isnds. They are distinguished by 
various names, as the Bhntian, None, Oamic, Julian, and 
Dinaric Alps. The Rh«tian or Tyrolc«e Alps enter Tynd 
from the Swia canton of the Orisons, and are the loitiat 
range in the country, a number of the summits rising lo 
(he height of 12,000 feet, and the highest, the Oddtr 
Spitze, sttaining a height of 12,814 feet above the level of 
die sea. They divide into three principal chains, the moit 
southern of which occupies the soutliem portion of IVroL, 
and contains the Orleler Spilie, and othera of the loAkil 
points in the country. The middle or principal chain ex- 
tends in an easterly direction to the borders of Sellbaif 
and Carinthia, and has many of its peaks covered wilE 
perpetual snow. The northern chain is inferior In d«*a- 
tion to the othen, and few of its most elevated poiols reaizli 
the snow-line. The None Alps are a coiAiunation of the 
Bhstian eastward, passing through Salsburg, Styri^ Oa- 
rinthia north of the Drave, Lower and Upper Aostna, lo 
Hungary, where they gradually sink into the plaina. Tb<7 
comprise three chains, a main chain and two lesser disins 

Srtnieding northward — the one the Balzhnrg, the other lh« 
tyria-Austrian Alps. The main chain, the Noiic Alps in 
a stricter sens^ traverees SalEbocg, Carinthia, and B^iia, 
and has a length of about 170 miles, some of its peaks nui^ 
to the height of 12,000 feet. The Camic or Carinthiu 
Alps are also an o^oot of the Bhatian Alps eastwaid, 
occupyins the south-east of Tyrol, Carinthia, and the north 
of Carniala, They form several branches, and some of lb* 
- units are over 9000 feet high. The Juliso or Garniolaa 
Alps extend in a sooth-easterly direction through Ca^ 
niula and Croatia. They present little of an Alpine 
character, and with one or two exceptions nowhere rise 
to the height of 6000 feet They are for the most pari 
bare and nigged. The Dinaric Alps are a contiilils> 
tion of the preceding, extending through Croatia sod 
Dalmatia, snd resemble them in character. The higli- 
eet point. Mount Dinara, from which they take tM 
name, is 6S58 feet above the level of the sea. 

After the Alpa, the most important moanlainiTsleM 

of Austria is the Carpathians, which occupy its esstsm 

and Dorth-eaaiem portions, and stretch in the linm of 

an arch through Silesia, Horavia, Oali<^ HoDgaiy, 

and Ttan^lvania. Tiiey have an extent of about <M 

miles, and are divided into three principal groups — Ibt 

HnngarianCarpatbians, the Carpathian Wddgefairge or 

Forest Mountains, and the Truiaylvanian Highlwdi. 

The Hanrarian Carpathians stretch from weM l« essi, 

through Hungary, Moravia, Silena, and Qalida IM 

about 200 miles, and comprise various nnallcir groopi, 

amonr which are the Beskidea, the Little Carpathians, 

and the Central Carpathians or Uie Tatra HiMintune. 

This Isst group constitutes the highest portiim of ih^ 

Carpathians, having an average elevation of over 6000 feet. 

and its two principal summits, the Eistbsler Thurm and the 

Lomnitser Spitze, having a height of 8378 and 8222 feet n- 

spectively. In character it reeemhles the Alfa more tbaa 

the Carpathians, having rugged precipitous sides, Aeef 

chasms, snows, glaciers, cascaa«a, Ac. The WaldgeUrg^ nt 

Forest Mountains, are a series of moderate elsvatiime, fiir 

the most part wooded^ and stretching for about 160 naim 

through Hungary, Oalitna, and Bu(±owina, with an <^*^'W , 

breadth of about 46 miles. They are in general from 3009 

to 6000 feet in elevation, the highest point, Pietrana, ri*- 

ing to 7086 feet. The Transylvanian Highlands eitenJ 

over Transylvania, a part of Hungary, aiM the Hilitaiy 

Frontier, into Moldavia and Wallachia. They have ■ 

length of about 360 miles, and breadth of ftom 30 to Ml 

Several of the summits rise to the height of 8000 hst. The 

,J AU81 

Mm of the Chipalfaian tnoanttdiM an genenllr eorend 
■ritti fcmli lo a ocmaiderable height. 

The HercTnian moDDtain ifBteni Hnreads itselT otbt 
Bufieinia, Silena, Honvia, and the middle and nortbero 
partioDB of Upper and Lower Austria. It includes the 
Icner tjMems oi the Bohemian Forest, the Ertgebirge, the 
Hinengebii^ and the Budetca. The Bohemian Forest is 
1 Ktiea of wooded heights on the confinei of Bohemia and 
BsTuia, ai>d ezteDdiog south from the Eger to the Danube. 
In highest point is UIO feet above the sea. The Enge- 
birge, or Ore Hoontaim, commence on the left hank of 
the Etbe, ran eaMwaid betweea Bohemia and Saxony, and 
laminate near the sources of the White Elster. None of 
OcMimmitarise to the heightof4000feeL The Rieaenge- 
biige or Qiant Moimtaina are on tbe confines of Bobeuiia 
tonnls Pruaeian Silesia, and have their highest poiol, 
Scfaneekoppe or Riesenkoppe, 6330 feet above the sea. 
Thg SudetcB is a name aometimes given to alt the moun- 
tuns of Northern Bohemia, but it more properly belongs 
U that rauge which mna between Moravia and Prussian 
Sksia, from tbe March to the Oder. The highest sammit, 
the ^legUtier Schneebei^, is 4774 feet high. 
Oitk^. T''^ ^reat central chain of uie Alps consists 

of primilive rocks, principollj gneiss, micaslate, 
sod granite. Occasionally clay-date, greywacke, and lime- 
Meoe overlie these rocks. Iron ore is very abundant here, 
and gold and copper are found. The northern and soulh- 
cn ranges of the Alps are composed of limestone. In the 
•oatheni range the limestone rests upon gneiss, which crops 
out in BCHne parts. Iron, copper, lead, and dnc ores, and 

r'cksilver are found in some parts to a lai^ extent. In 
Dorthem range the limestone is in some places covered 
■ith cUy-alate, greywacke, and transition limestoDe. In 
the north the limestone is covered with sandstone, which 
enenda in an almost continuous line from the Lake of 
Ccoatance to the neighborhood of Vienna. la this dis- 
iriet a nnmher of beda of coal are found. The central 
range of the Carpathians is formed chiefly of gneiss, granite, 
day-slate, greyiracke^ and transition limestone, frequently 
emvtd with extensive patches of Tertiary formations. 
Hnth and sonth of this are rsnsee of sandatone tnountains, 
<e which dilavial and alluvi^ depouts are also found. 
Tbe northem sandstone range is rich in salt; the central 
dain aboands in iron and copper ore: and the gneiss and 
frwitie motmtaiiis of Hungarr and TransyWania are rich 
in ores of gold and silver. Nameroos beds of coal are 
also found in the later formationa. The Bc^iemian and 
Utxavian Moaotain Systran is composed chiefly of gneiss 
and granite. Bssalt, clinkstone, greenstone, and red sand- 
•Ime are abo common. Silver and lead mines are eiten- 
Rvely vork^ also minee of tine and iron. Cool is abun- 
daat here. The plain and hilly ports of (he countiy belong 
iMcdy to the middle or Miocene period of the Tertiary 
fonaatloo, and comprise sand, gravel, clay-marl, Ac 
tif^a. ^' '''^ highlands of Austria form part of the 

great watershed of Europe which divides the 
witen flowGig northward into the North Sea or tbe Baltic, 
fnmx those Sowing southward or eastward into tbe Mediter- 
noean w the Black Sea, ila riven flow in three different 
liedions — northward, southward, and eastward. With 
the exception of the small streams belonging to it 
whid bA into the Adriatic, all its rivers have their 
nonths in other countries, and its principal river, the 
Danube, has also its source in anotber country. This, 
which after the Volga is the largest river of Europe, rises 
b the grand duchy of Baden, oows through Wiirtemberg 
and Bavaria, and is al[«ady navigable when it enters 
Anstria, on the borden of which it receives the IniL a 
river which hw as large a bod^ of water as itself. It has 
* BDOne of about 820 miles withid the country, which is 
■Umi 48 per cent of its entjt« length. Where it eaten it 
■ 8S8 feet above the level of the sea, and where it leaves 
only 132 feM. It hw thus a Ml within the country of 766 
iti, and is at first a very rapid stream, but latterly a very 
■low one. lis affluents, after the Inn. are at firat generally 
■aall, the principal being the Traiin, the Enna, and the 
March. In Hungary it receive* from the C^pathians the 
Viag, Nentra, Qran, and Eipel : and from the Alps the 
Drave, the Mnr, and the Save. But the principal affluent 
itf tbe Dannbe i* (he Theiss, which rises in the Carpo- 
^Ibiii, aod drains nearly the whole of (he eastern half of 
Hungary. The country drained by the Danube Is formed 
bio Kveral basins by the mounlaitw approaching its hanka 

RIA. 101 

on dlher side, lie principal of these ore the Una and 
Erems basiiui the Vienna haaln, and the little and great 
Hungarian badns. Between this last and the plains of 
Waliachia, it passes through the narrow rocky channela of 
lalach, B^asan, and the Iron Door, where the fall is olioul 
41 tea. in lt» than half a mile. The Duieater, which, like 
the Danahe, flows into the Black Sea, baa its source in the 
Carpathians in Eastern Oalicia, and punines a very wind- 
ing course towards the south-east. It receives its principal 
amiients from the Carpathiaua, and drains in Austria a 
territory of upwards of 12,000 English square miles. It 
is navigable for about 300 milea. The Vistula and the Oder 
both fall into tbe Baltic Tbe former rises in Moravia, 
flows first north through Austrian Silesia, then takes an 
easterly direction ^long the bordcia of PrusaJan Silesia, 
and afterwards a north-easterly, separating Oalima from 
Buasian Poland, and leaving Austria not far from Sondo- 
mir. Its course in Austria is 240 miles, draining an area 
of 15,500 square miles. It is Davigable for nearly 200 
miles, and its principal affluents are (lie Save and the Bug. 
The Oder has also ila source in Moravia, flows first east, 
and then nortb-esst through Austrian Silesia into Pnwia. 
Its length within t!ie Austrian territory is onlv abont 65 
miles, no port of which is navigable. The only river of 
this couotry which flows into tbe North Sea is tbe Elbe. 
It has itB source in the Rieseueebirge, not for from the 
Scbneekoppe, flows first south, then east, and aflerworda 
north-east through Bohemia, and then enlere Saxonr. Its 
principal affluents an the Adter, Isor, and Eger, uid, moat 
important of all, the Moldau. The lost, from the lengdt 
of lis course, and tbe quantity of water which it bringi 
down, la entitled to be couaidered the main stream. It baa 
a coarse of 260 miles, and is navigable for 190. The Elbe 
Itself has a oouise within the Austrian dominions of 13& 
miles, for about 65 of whicb>it is navigable. It drains an 
area of upwards of 21,000 stiuare miles. The Rhine, 
though scarcely to be reckoned a river of tbe country, 
flows for about 25 mites of its course between it and 
Switzerland. The principal river of Austria which falls 
into the Adriatic is the Adige. It rises in tbe mountain* 
of Tyrol, flows south, then east, and afterwards south, into 
tbe plains of Lombardy. Its principal affluent is tbe 
Eisack. Of the streams which have llieir couise entirely 
within the country, and which (all into tbe Adriatic, (he 
principal ia the Isonio, 7d milea in length, bnt navigable 
only for a short diatanoe from i(B mouth. 

The l^ea and maiaheB of Austria are very 
numerous, and some of them are of great ex- ""•■ 
tent. Tbe lakea lie principally in the valleya among tbe 
Alps, and the maishee are frequent along (no ooaiaea of 
the rivers. The latest lake of Austria is the fialaUm, 
in Hungary, which is about 40 miles in length by 18 in 
breadth, and, including the swamps in connection with it, 
covers an area of 600 square miles. The Ncusiedier, also 
in Hungary, ia 18 miles in length, b^ ftvm 4 to 7 in br^tli, 
and coven an area of 106 square miles. Among the muij 
amaller ones the principal are tbe Traunsee, Attersec^ 
Worthersee, Mondsee, Ac No other Europe country 
equals Austria in the number and value of its mineral 
apriuga. No fewer than 1500 of theae are reckoned, and 
they occur principollr in Bohemia and Ilungarv. In the 
former are Karlsbad, Morienbad^ Fransensbad, Teplil^ 
PuUna, and Seidlili. 

The climate of Austria, in consequence of its Qiaute. 
great extent, and the great diflferencee in the 
elevation of its surface, is very varioos. It is nsual l» 
divide it into three distinct zones. Tbe most southern 
extends to 46" N. laL, and includes Dalmalia and the 
country along the coast, together with the southern poi^ 
tions of Tyrol and Carinthia, Croatia, Slavonia, and (h« 
most southern part of Hungary. Here the seasona are 
mild and equable, the winters are short (snow seldom 
falling), and the summers last for five montha. Tba vino 
and maiie are everywhere cnltivated, as well as olives and 
other southern products. In the sonth of Dalmatia tropi- 
cal plants Sourish in the open air. The central tone lies 
between 46° and 40° N. lat., and includea Lower and 
Upper Austria, Salihurg, Btyria, Carintbia, Camiola, Cen- 
tral and Northem l^rol. Southern Moravia, a part of 
Bohemia, tbe main portion of Hungary, and IVangylvania. 
Tbe seasons are more marked here than in the preceding. 
The winters are longer and more severe, and the summev 
are hotter. The vine uid maiie are cultivated in &vonU«^ 

102 AUffl 

litnatioiu, aud wbeat and other kinds of t;iuu an genei^ 
ally grown. The northMn lone onbraees Ihe leniUwy 

Sing north of 49° N. lat., rompn'sing Bolieiaia, Northatn 
oravia, Sileeia, and Gatfoia. The wiiUera are here loog 
and cold ; the vine and maUe arft no looger cullimtod, the 
principal crops being sheat, bailey, oals, rye, hemp, and 
Bai. The mean annual temperature ranges from about, 
69° rn the south to 48° in the north. In some paita of the 
couDtry, howerer, it ia aa low as 49° 40' and even 36°. In 
Vnnna Che average annual temperature ia 50°, the hizhesC 
tetBpcrslure being 94", the loweat i" Fahr, la generd the 
watern part of the oountiy receives leas rain than the 
western. In the south tlie rains prevail chiefly in spring 
and autunia, and in the north and central parts during 
Minmer. Btorma are frequent in the region of the South 
Alps and along the coast. In some parts in the vicinity 
•f tlie Alpa the rainfaJt is excessive, Bometiiues exceeding 
60 inches, it ia less among the Carpathians, where it 
umnilh varies from 30 to 40 Inches. In other parla the 
nuDfiill osuatly averaces from 20 to 24 inches, but in the 
platoa of Hui^ary it u as low as 16. 
■pfi^j^ Fram the varied character of ita climate and 

soil the vegetable prodiiclions of Austria are 
Tcry various. It has floras of the plains, the hilla, and 
the mountains; an alpine flora, and an arctic flora; a flora 
of marshal, snd a flora of steppes ' floras peculiar to the 
clay, the chalk, the sandstone, and the slate fonnatioae. 
The number of difi^rent species is cstiinnled at 12,000, of 
which one~third are phanen^moUB, or flowering plants, 
■nd two-thinls crypti^amoua, or flowerless. The crown- 
land of Lower Austria fiu' surpasges in this respect the other 
dtvisions of the country, having about four-niulhs of tike 
whole, and not less than 1700 species of flowering plants. 
Hungary, Bohemia, Moravia, and Gali ' ... - . 

pal coruHfTowi 
barg, and Upp 

^^^^^^^^ The animul kingdom embraces, besides tlie 

B.u,ntMin. Qgy^] ^omjgiic animals (as horses, cattle, sheep, 
•wine, goats, asses, Ac.), wild boars, deer, wild goats, hares, 
Ac ; also beuTB, wolves, lynxes, foics, wild cats, jackals, 
ottere, beavers, polecats, martens, weasels, and the like. 
Eagles and hawks are common, and many kinds of Bind- 
ing birds. The rivers and takes abound in dlSerent kinds 
ol fish, which are also itlentifnl on the sea-coasL Among 
insccte the bee and the silkwoTTn are the most usefnl. The 
leech fiirios an article of trade. In all there are UOdiflcr- 
ent species of mammals, 24S species of bitib, 377 of fishes, 
and mor« than 13,000 of insects. 

mvldom.- AuHlrin comprises five countries, each bearing 
the name of kingdom — viz., Hungary, Bohemia, 
OaKda, Illyria, and Daimatia; one archduchy, Austria; 
one principality, Transylvania; one duchy, Stvria; one 
nargraviale, Moravia ; and one conoty, Tyrol, *rhese are 
now divided Into provinces, which are callei] eroim-tandi, 
and of which at present there are lH, 14 being in Austria 
Proper, and 4 in Hungary. The following table gives the 
•i«B and civil populatinn of the diOorcnt crown-tands in 
1857 and at SlsC December, 1SS9. The flrBt_14 crown-lands 
eooetitula Austria Proper, and the remaining 4 form the 
kingdom of Hungary. Hartx, Istria, and Trieste are also 
known as the Maritime District. 














tea.] IT 













GArta, Istria, * 





1.0M,BK aM,MI 

Total ^ 


ai,9safiM it^7fiK 



Thi mast thickly popalal 

[poivLAiios, na 

rown-laod la Sikria; th« n 

oreMBd b> M,062,4e», in IStt to 3e,»^g67, in __. _ 
37,339,012, aad m 18W to 8S,eS4,S^ Ruween Oe tM 
last date* il had lost its ZjO«h«rifo-V«D«tUB I«rritori>, 
with MOM tlua ^000,000 InhaUtanb. b Austria Ptontr 
thenumbaroflnrthsiB 1869 waa 812,474, of which 419,374 
were males and 393,100 fenwiw; 609,047 were ErgitimaR, 
and 113,427 illegitiinate, and 17,114 were Blill-«oni. Tfm 
number of daatlu) among children np to 5 jaars uf ag« its 

261,643— 162,894 beJDK makB, and 129,349 fteialcs. TV 
]ber of marriages that look place 4uri. 
,767, of which IHOIS w«r« h«^*«« jii 

look place during that year «m 
' Ml jiM«e» neither of 
. 8S70 between paititi 
both of whom had been preriotisly aMtrtkid ; 2i,S3S b» 
twecn widower* and laimarTiad fsmaloi, and l^SM b*- 
twetn widows and oiunarried males. Th* total ninhar 

"""" 05. of which 302,104 were 

tbeee the ages of 28 Dita 
and 40 females are given as over lOe yean. Vroteotdtalhs 
earned oS" 5968 males and 1039 femsles, of wiiom 1)1* 
ma;«i and 26& femaleB had oommitted soicide, 244 make 
and 82 females were murdered, and 4 malts ezeenled, h 
Austria Proper there wera 738 cides and large towns, 127* 
market-towna, 52,919 viUagea, and 2,766,314 inhabited and 
121,045 uninhabited house*. In Htn^aiy there were 18) 
cities and Urge tons, 769 uarkeMowna, 16,373 villam 
and 2,150,213 honsea. The cities ooataining more ihaa 
100,000 iahabitanta in 1860 were Vienna (3^355), Polk 
(201,911), and Pragve (1,^7,276). S«v«n cities coPtain«l 
between 50,000 and 100,000 inhabitafHa; 42 between 20,00) 
and 50,000; and 90 between 1<\000 and 20.000. 

The populntioQ of Austria is suda up of a 
number of dlalinct races, diftring from each ^** 
other in nuiaDcie, custom*, languaee, and ivti^on, «d1 
united togeilt^ only by living waitt the same gonn- 
meot. The most nuraeroaa raoe ia the Qoma^ amonntiat 
to 9,000,000, and furmtnf 2S percent, of Ike (Mitepipe- 
lalion. They are Ibnad nwre or leas ik all the crown- 
Uuds, but are most minaeecHS in Lower aadUBparAaMriai, 
Salzburg, Stvria, Carimho, tod Nsrth«ni TjroL Ihe 
diflerenl Slavonic races Buiaber (ogelbcr 16,540,000, or 41 
per cenL The princijMl Slavonic racEB are — in tlae norlk, 
the Czechs aod Moravians (4,460,000), who, ttt^ether with 
the Slovacks in the Weatem CarpMtUaiM (1,94(^000), bna 
18 per cent, of the entire population, and the I^Im 
(2,370,000) and t)ie Eulhens (3,360^000) oocupying Ge- 
licia; andintliesouth, the Slovens (1,220,000), the Crotfs 
(1,520,000), and the Serbuuv (1,651,000). The northoe 
Slavonians are found chiefly in Boltemia, Movavin, Oilida, 
and the nortli of Hun^y ; the soiithen i» Camiol^ Dal- 
malia, Croatia, Slavonia, and the Milkary FnwtMC. Ike 
Magyars or Hung:u'i»nH oocnpy cluedr Hungiiy toi 
Trnwylnuiia, and number 5,590i00&, «:' 16 per cent of 
the whole population. Tbe Bumtini or WalinduMsnuw- 
ber 2,940,000, or over 3 per eent. ; the Jew^ 1,105,006, or 
3 per cenL'; tiie Italians, 515,000, or 1-4 per oent. ; aad tia 
gipsies, 140,000, The rest consist iJ AnBeniaas, Bulga- 
riuns, Albanians, Greeks, Ac 

Atistrla has always resaanedi stvonglv at- . 

tached_ to the Roman Catholic Chureb. Her ™'♦°•■ 
Boverdgna, however, have in general resisted the leniponl 
pretensions of the popes, and reserved to themselves ob- 
tain important rights, such as the imposing of taxes on 
church property, the noQuinatioo of bishops and uch- 
bistiore, and the option of restrictii^ or even prohibiting, 
the circulation of Papal bulls. About two-thirds of (be 
people, or nearly 24,000,000 ptofaiB the Roman Catlioiie 
religion. If, howevnr, we dwucl tlie kingdom of Hut*- 
gary and Galicia, where less than one-half of the people 
are Roman Catholics, the proportion in the rest' of the 
country is much increased. In some parts the ptopoftioa 
to the entire population b as high aa 90 to 98 per ewL 
Tlie Greek Catholics number in Austria Proper 3,342,168 
[almost aU in Galicia], and in Hungary 1,590,628. The 
Eastern Greek Church numbers 461,511 adherents in Au* 
[tia. and 2,589,319 in Hungary. Of the Protestant d»- 


rwi !»■'■'■". tlM Lathenm* ora more avntetm» in th« 
Mtas bu ot the «mBiM^ the (klvinuls in the eastero. 
Tba niimteia ue— in Auitria Proper, liUlhenma, 252,327, 
■d CilniiiBV, 111,635; ia Hnagary, LutheraDt. l,3a6,S8fi, 
dlriniaB, %lU,lTg. Tha piincip*! other religium ue 
the Jwri^ 1,876,861 (nnrlv half of Ihem in Qalicia) ; 
AioteUn, 10,133: Unitarian', 65,»79 [nearly all in Ttan- 
i^lTanii). The Catholic Church (indadiiig the Greek 
Md Ameoian Catholics) has II archbishope, 24 sufiVagan 
bi^im, 2 rtcariate biahops, and 1 mllilaiy bishop, ia 
Amlna Proper, aod 6 archbisbopa atid 23 bisliops in 
Eamrj- Altogether there kre about 34,000 eccleeiaatlcs, 
lad 550 coDTanta, with 8600 nionka and 6700 num. The 
Oiiutal Greek Churah ha^ in Autteia Proper, 8 hiahopa 
(1 ia Bockovina aod S in Dalmatia), and in Hungary, the 
ftuiuA of Kariovita, the archbishop of Herrmanoatadt, 
tai i biahopi, viih, in alt, 4000 pricata, aod 40 eonrenta, 
vilk 100 mMika. 

Pnrioiw to 1848 Aoatriawaa very hr behind 
^^*^*' in the matter of edncatioo ; but since that time 
inM improremanu have been effected, and an entire 
dui^ has taken phca. This subject now recelTca the 
maiest sttentioD; schools of all kinds have been estah- 
uifaftl ihiouBfaout the country, improved systems of teach- 
iai hne baen intraduced, and iostructioa is open to all 
vuboot re^ianl to clss or laeed at a very amall eoet, me 
•*« gmtDilouelj. It still eontinoa^ howerer, to be in 
gnat maasnne uadar the oonlnri of the pnsffs, and many 
rf the teachers are eed«aiastlea. The Eoman Catholic re- 
Sgioa forma an casential part of the instm^on in all 
KDoola; eioept these for spetdal lobje^ The Oriental 
Gi«ek and protcatant Churches have, as a rule, their own 
(Momon schools, and where this Is not the ca8«^ they have 
loKod their children to the Catholic schools. The Jaws 
also, in i^aces where they bave no special schools, are 
tUigsd to sand their obildran to Cbriatian schooU. 

Tba (aiiovs adanatlona] iuitltutious nay be anauged ondar 
bar clsMM — (1.) Ttu laUBT or oammon icbooli) (2.) Tbi 
U(bc or silddle scbDoli; (3.) Tba oDiTCrtitiai, Hikdeiiuia, 
■BJLnhaiea] schooli; (!.] Ths ipeaiiJ Hbooli (for PBrtisnUr 
hHclHt Df icieoBt or art). All ohUdno fiom fl to 12 ;wra 
•f aft are boeod to stt«ad tbe ooimsoD tcbooli. This law, 
kawtrer, would appaar to ba not rcr; (triell; carriad out, foi 
al iha nsmbar of t,21B,lllT obildrao who aught to have beau 
tf wi i li Bg tha aMDmon tnhDoU in AsBlri* Froper in 1808, tba 
■■ I | ] ' girMi u Botiully at uboo] ia ooly I,BS1,319, or about 
nfarsant. Thla porcanlijB, laoreoyar. Twin gPe»Ui io diT- 
Imil puta of the eoiuitn', beiog io poma, m Tyrol, Saliburg, 
Konru, snd Dppcr and Lawer Anatria, as bigb m 88 or 100, 
m4 in Styria aod Caiiatbik &did 93 to BC; io otban, u is 
Ctaiola, oDly b6, la tha Maritime Diatriot 47, Dslm&tia 28, 
Galida 27, BaakannuB 20. Tba pronortioo for tba wfaole of 
fln^ary is 88 per ocdL, nod It ia blgbcr Io tha wastarii thaa 
ktbe autam hnlf of the kioBdam. Tbe Dumber of oommon 
eliaolB io Aoatris in ISBS wu 15,DM, with 32,137 mala nad 
Bit tamsla teacben, 12,225 of tba fonnar being eocleaiiuitioi, 
tat leSB of the latter oana; In Huogary the Dumber of achoolo 
«u ner IS.ODD, ud of teaobera 21,001). In nonDeatiDo nitb 
Buy of tbasa scbools there an tniaiag loaiitutiooa for leacb- 
■n, indoitTial sohaoLa tor (Iris, and trada uid agricultural 
ulwalt tor boys. The middle Bcbuola uo the gymuaaiu, real- 
nnuais, and real^choola. A oomplete gyniDaimm provideg 
br s oouna of eight yeen' itud;, divided iota two parte of 
lODryeari aach. Tlia lower eourie not only preparei for the 
'■■-'- ■- -• =- -'— -omplata Id it«lf for tboae who do not wiah 
The bnootiei of itudy luolude Latio, 
I langnsgcs, Jteograph;, hUtory, religioD, 

, J hiitory, phjaioi, tiritiog, drawing, tiEg- 

<Hi ud gymnutioL Jo paasing from ono claaa to another the 
a^ulan nndergo a Tsry aaarobiag eiamiaalion. The rcal- 
kLooI*. or middle iDdustrial sohoaLi, have bacn eatabliihQd 
naee IS48, and are deiigDed to Impart taahnieal kuowledge,. 
lad afford a aaUahla training to those inteadiag to tolton' ia- 
iiatrial pnnnits. They are dirided iato tno ooiuses of three 
Jan each, a lower and bd upper — the fotmer lerslng not only 
■I a praparatioD for tba latter, hnl forming alio an Icdi^pendent 
amn:. Eilinf for the lower kiodi of ladnatrial oooupatioDa. 
Tit braocbas tangbt ineluda geography, biitory, arilhmatic, 
■itlmaaties, writiag, book-kaaplDg, eiohaDge, nataral history, 
^"^""bigy, drawing, Aa The nal-gymoaiia are a olaia of 
isMitatiaiu ictKinediato between tbaae two, partaking of the 
thuBMer of both. In Anatria Proper there ware, in 1871, B2 
Omaaia, wKb MIT tcaohen [Alfi baing eosleslaatiu) and 
MriUaeholBrBi 81 nal-gymnaaia, with 37S teaobera (SO aoole- 
AlfiaJ end 4S,C»0 aobolaia; aod 3S real-Khoole, with 7TT 
tBdiai (n aeeleriaatlos) and lS,8i2 aoholan. In HuDgsxy 
and 3fi Tsal-sohoola, 

a farther. 

havicg ia all 0,000 aeholan. Tbm an six nnlTenlUas la 
Auitria Fropar (Viaona, Qrati, InnahrUek, Pragaa, Crasew, 
Lemberg), and one Id Hnngary (Feathl, with, in all, T07 pra- 
faisora aod 10,000 itudaaU. Eaoh uaivaraity (eiaapt LMobarb 
whioh baa no madioal faaulty] haa (uultiea for Boawn Oatbalia 
tboology, law aod politioal aoooomj, medieioa aod aurgery, end 
pbilOBopby. Tbe theologioal aod law eoune* ooeupy four years 
each, the modteal fire, aod the philoaophioal three. Of tbe 
atudeati, 40 per oant. were at tha univariity of Vienna, 18 at 
Peitb, le at Prague, 10 at Lemberg, and H at Qrtti. Of tha 
8^32 atudenti atleuding the air Auitiiaa uDiiargitiea, 1S8I< were 
raeeiving free ioatniatioD aod B21 ware Btipeodiiii, aod io addi' 
tioD to thii, 682 were ^ajiog Daly half faaa. Th« teehuioal 
high sohools or aoademiea hale for their objent the imparting 
of a high aoieatifiD eduoattoD. The atudeals gaoarally aDtat 
tbam from the upper real-aoboolt. aod the oomplele tachnioal 
Eoura* eiteods over flra yaara. There are eight of these iofU- 
tutioQi la Anitila Proper, baviog io all 2B4 profeiaars aod 
teaafaan, and 3179 aoholirt, of whcm ISOI ware receiriog free 
iaitruotion, aod 231 wart itipaDdlaU. Tba prinoipal orthesa 
ii tbe Polylcohoin ioatitutioo io Vienne, which has 79 piafea- 
aors jaod teaoheia, and 782 aobalarf. Among the ipeolai edo- 
satiODBl Institutioaa may be meDtioned aboat acTcnty theologieal 
laminariaa poaoeoled with lbs Cathalio Chureh, oad a number 
of similar laetitutiooa ooDoeated with the £uterD Qreek and 
Frotestaot Cborshaaj a rabbioioal sabool (ia Freaburg); aoad- 

tho maoagement of foreila ; ooroisl aod military soboDls; sohools 
for lurgery aod midwifery; Toterinary school*, ia. There are 
aUo a Dumber of prliaie schools of raiious kiadi, schools fbi 
the deaf aod dumb aod bliod, orphan ioeUtutioae, to. la 
oonneotion with tbe uoiTariities and Duny of the higher ada- 
eatioDal loaUtotioas are (o be fonod libraries, museums of 
nataral history aod aotiqeities, botanio gardeoi, obiervaiariea, 
obemioal laborBtoriea, Jto, There also exist anaerous learned 
and ■eleodfla sOBieties. Tba intelleotoaJ progress of Austria 
ia, of lata yeara, psrtionlarly msoiiieit m tbe d^atttoents 
of law, wediolne, oatursJ scieooe, bJtory, and Oriental Jan- 

Tbe m^orlty of the people of Aostria are en- 
gaged in agrioaltural pursuits or in oooneotion Induetiha. 
with tbe forealB, the proportioo varying in different parts from 
of the ontire population. Tbe proportion of 

le 80 per oa 

io Lower Aoatria, 24 in Bohemia, 22 it _ ,__ 

Siltsla, 10 in Upper Austrii, 14 in Tyrol, 13 In Salahwrg, 11 la 
Carinlhia, in Cainiola, S is Buokowins, and 4 in Qalieia aad 
Dalmatia. In D^matia about S per eeoL of tiie peeple are 
eDiployed in oarigalioD and tba Ssberies. 

The productive laud of Austria Proper is esli- .^ , 
mated at 89'fl per oenL of ilg auperSoial area, and rE™" 
that of Buogary at S4'4~DiakiDg 80-0 per oeol. of 
the wbols oountry. Farther, Ih* arable land jo AuetrU Girms 
SI'S par Beat., tba riueyards 0-T, gardBng and meadows ll.T, 
paaturage 14-7, aod foreats SO-9. In like manner, in Hoagory 
tha arable land forms 30-6 per ceot., rineyarda 1'2, gardena and 
meadows 12-8, pasturaga 13.2, and foreaU SB'S. The priaolpal 
produflt of tha arable laod ia grain, of which the aonoal yield 
IS orsr 400,000,000 bughelg. Of this abont one-fifth ia wheat, 
ooe-fiiuxth rya, ooa-fourth oats, ooe-aarantb maian, OBe-aerautb 
barley, aod tba rast bnck-wheat and millet. The ftriscipal 
grain -producing dialrioli are Hungary, Bohemia, Oalieia, Mora- 
via, and Lower and Upper Aualria. In agriculture Auitria is 
atill behind many other oonnlriea, but grpat improvements have 
of late yenri taken place. Flai, hemp, and beet are ehlcBy 
found In Siiaaia, Moravia, Bohemia, and Hungary; bops in 
Bobamis, and lobacoo (which is a state monopolyl only in 
Hungary, Oalieia, and Tyrol. Among the other produoU may 
bemBntioned poaae, bean!", potatoea, turnips, rape aeed, cabbagei^ 
Ao. Though tha vincyarda are not very extensive, a consider- 
able quanlity of wino is produced, and some of tha Uungorian 
winea, aa Tokay, are justly celebrated. Tbe anoual yield of 
wino ia about 375,000,000 gaUoaa, of wiiioh 73 per ocnU ia from 
Hungary and the neigbboring diatriSts, 8) from Lower Austria, 
S from Southam Tyrol, 4^ from Styria, 4 from Dalmatia, 8J 
from Moravia, and 2 from the Maritime Diatriot. The prmei- 
pal garden producU are fruit and kiti:hoa Tegetablee, The bast 

Upper Auitria, and Etyria. Certain dietrlote are diitioguiabcd 
for partiBuIar kiuda of fruit, as Tyrol for applae, Hungary for 
melons, Dalmatia for figi, pomegnmate*, ohiet, Ac. Ia tha 
—'1th of Dalmatia tba palm growi in the open air, but beara 



olive cbieBy in Dalmatia, the Maritime Dia- 
tricl, ajjd Southern Tyrol, the mulberry tree ia Southern TyroJ, 
the aooth of Uuogary, SlavcDiii, aod Btyria. The fonats oc- 
oupy nearly one-third of tha produotiva area of the country, 
and cover 86,800 Engliah aquare milei. They are much more 
aitansivB In the eastern than in the weatem half of tha countn, 
tha relative proportiona being 82 per eeoLia tbe formBr,andSS 
in tba latter, fhay are faund partionlarly in the legion of Cb* 


ot'lha BndMa. As foniti mn nhieSr of oak, pine, 
tab, «lm, Hid ths like, uid ars sitlmalsd to Twld viotuJlj OTsr 
17,000,000 wrda of bailding wood and firewood. 
„ Amtria ii diilingnishad for ttaa Dombar and 

f*""™- lapniorit; of iu horjM, for tlia ImproTwneDt of 

whish unoiBroiii itadi «iiit orsr the ooaotrj. Th* braediaK of 
homi la mora or lui siteniiTel; oarrlnd OD in all tha srowo- 
laods, bat more eipMlally in Huogarj, TraaajlTanla, Buaka- 
wlna, Qalioia, Stjria, Bohemia, Moravia, and Uppar aod Lower 
Autria. Tbe total nambar at bonsa Id tha oountr? In ISTO 
wa« S,S3II,glS, of wbioh 2,158.819 wars Id Hangarr. All kinda 
of homa ars reprsHutad, from the hsaTieit to ths lighteat, 
(Mn ths largest to ^a smallsst. Ths most bsantifo) borsea 
•r< found in TraniylTania and Buokowina, tb« largNt and 
aUotigest in Salibarg. Tha horssa of Slyria, CariDthia, North- 
ern T710I, aad Upper Ad alria are alaa fkmooa. In Daloiatia, 
tbe Maritime Diatnot, and Soutbern Tjrol, boraea ars Isai dd- 
msroui, aad malea and aaaos ia a gnat meaanre take tbsir plaae. 
Of the 13,801 mulea in tbe eODDtr;, iS per sent, were in Dal- 
matia, aod 3D per cent, io tha Maritime Diatriet and BoDthero 
TttoI; and of the SI, 331 aaaea, 23 per seat, were ia tlie former 
and 21 in the latter. Ths Hungarian arown-Iaada Dontained 
23e« mnlsa and 30,483 auea. 

^,„ Anitria oannot bs laid to be remarkable aa a 

^'^^ oatlls-rearing oonntrj. Indeed, sieept in oert^n 

improving it 

'Cof which 

id i,eo2,ois 

eoBotrr numbered 12,70'{,10a head of eattie in 1 
S,ZT>,1S3 ware in Hnngarj, 2,DT0.ST1 In Oaliola, 
in Bobemia. Ths oattle of the eaitsra half of the oonntr; o 
Biderabl7 ontDiunbered Iboas of tbe weslam ; but in qualit; 
lattN war* far anpsrlor to ths formsr. In Hungarj and Ti 
ajlTanlk tbers are abont T2,000 bntFaloei. The rearing of ah 
rMsiTsa a large ahars of attention, and li oarrisd on to a e 
ildsrabl* extent in all the orawn-landi, and In aoms rerf sil 
livelf. Maoh ba> baeo dons of late jeara In the war of 

Kirlng ths brevda, man partionlarl; in Horari 
hemia. Upper and Lower Anatria, and Hnngi 



inlxoduoed. Borne atteni 
tsning propenlei. 7ar 
Lower CaHnChia, the H 
Mllltarr Frontier. The 

tart of tbe ooantr; to ani 
ilo other oountrlea, aa 1 


Anatria, and Hnngarj. 
oramant of the wool, ana wtm 
flne-woolled breeds hare been 
iwerer. li alio rlren to tbe fat. 
those of 

in, the best ebeep 
ms District, Dalmi . 
I are frequentlj driran from one 
for the aake of pasture, and even 
ardj, Turkey, and the Daaublaa 
if sheep in ths oonntrj In I8T0 
a 2d,000,000, of wbioh l£,00O,ODa woi« in the kingdom of 
nungarj. The goat, whioh baa been galled the poor man'l 
•ow, ii alio to be found In all parti of the sountr;, but more 
paitisDlarl; in tbe momitainoni diitrista and among the poorer 
peaiantrj. The total number in the oonntr; in 1870 waa 
l,&Sl,DOa, of wbioh 573.000 were in Hungary. Dalmatia, how- 
•rer, la the great aaantij of the goata, where the; nomber 
180,060, aftsr whiob follow Bohemia with tS4,2T3, and Tyrol 
with 137,008. Ths number of iwine wa* 0,BS1,TS2. of whisb 
4,4«,27» wore in Hungary. They are oatnrally moat nnmer- 

forsslB, or wbioh hare many diitillsriee. Hence tbey are mo(tly 
found In Hungary. Traoaylranla, the MUitary Frontier, Gali- 
oia, Styrla, and Bohemia. 

Bees are eitsnaiielj kept, partionlarly in tbe erown-lands of 
Lower Anatria, Hungary, Qaligia, aod Tranaylranla. Thsrs 
were in 1870 1S,300,000 bes-hlrei in the oounlrj, yielding 
7,760,000 lb of honey aod 340,000 lb of wai. The ailk.worm 
is cuItiTated in certain parla of the aouthern diilrioli, parlicu- 
laily In Bonthern Tyrol, whioh yielda 1,200,000 tb of cocoona, 
being nearly donble that of all tbe rest of the oountry pnt 
togeSier. The rivera aod lakes in general abound with fiab, 
whioh are alao plentiful along the onast. In Dalmatia, in pi 

tiealar, fishing oooalilnr 

affording employment to 



many of the popu 

pert. The average annoal valne of tbe prodnoe of tbe land 
and foreata, inoludiog the oattle, and hnnling and fiabing, is 
estimated at £212,000,000. Tbe value of the real property, 
iDolnding the oattle and agrionltural impiementa, la given at 

„, , In the eitant and rarlety of Iti mineral raionrosa 
Nineraii. ^0,(^1, ^^^.^ among tbe lint eountriea of Europe. 
Betides the noble meUla, gold and ulver, it abounds In orai of 
Bore or leas riohnsat of iron, oopper, lead, and tin ; while In 
leas abnndanoe are foond line, aotiniony, artenie, oobalt, nickel, 
■anganeas, hiamulh, obrominm, nranlnm, tellurinm, sulphur, 
papfaita, aipbalt. roek-aalt, ooal, and patrolsnm. There an 
-. 11 a 1-. poKslaln earth, potter's olay. 

arble, noBng-ilate, gypsom, potw 

ityria (Iron and ooal], CaiintUa 
and iron), Camlola (qniokailvsr), Unngaij (gold, tl 

Ad bi in 

and pradoaa atones. Ths erown-landi ii 
tiona are ehisfly aarriad on ars Styrla (Iron 1 
{lead and Iran), Camlola (qaiokailver), Uu: „ .. .„. _, ... __. 
oopper, iron, and ooat), Transylvaola (gold and nlTw), 8all- 
burg (iron), Bohemia [lilver, lead, iron, and aoal), HoraTia 
(iron and ooal], Qaliola (salt). The ohief plaoea whara yoUaai 
tiiHT ores are found are — (1.) at Zalathna in TranaylTania, oa 
the sontbero range of the Behar Honnt^iu, whara aJBoaaita of 
the ESrSa and HaroB take their rtia, in whiob, ■• wM ■• in tha 
Theiia and the Danoba, gold la alia Iband; (1.) The dirtrlet of 
Sohemnita and Kremnlti In Hnagar;; (3.) Pribram and Joa 
ohiraathalln Bohemia. Hearly 8,000,000 owt. of gold and i»- 
ver oraa la obtained annually, M>m whiob 04,298 oa. of gold aad 
1,470,000 01. of sllrer are extraoted. Of the gold, M par oenL 
la obtained in Traoiylrania and 44 tn Hungary; and of tks 
~'' — ore, 06 per oent. ia lalaed In Hungary, 27 in Bohemia 
' ' " ' Lula. Iron ia found more or lea in aU 

ipt Upper Aoatria, the Maritime Diatriet, 
and Dalmatia; bnt it ia moat plentiful and beat in qnality ia 
Styria and Carinthla. The amoant or raw and oait iron anna- 
ally obtained tnm the ore raiaed in tha oountry ii 7,000,000 ewt, 
of whioh 2S per oent. la from Btyria, 16 from Carinthla, 11^ 
from Bohemia, Hi from Moravia, IB from Upper Hongary, ti 
from other parla of the kingdom of Ilnngary, and the remaindar 
from the other orown-tande. Tbepriooipal ptaoe wiutn nopprr IM 
obtained is tbe neighborhood of SobmSlnlti In Ilnngary. Tba 

Saantityfor tbe whole country amounta to 1,600,000 owt.orar«, 
'om wbioh 05,000 cwt. of pure metal ia obtained. Of this 8* 
Sir oent. is from Upper Hungary, S from Tyrol, and 4 from 
uokowina. Carinthla is partionlarly rish in Uad, and from it 
mora tb^ one.balf (52 per oent.) of the entire qnantlly raised 
in the oountry ia obtaloed. Bohemia yieldslO per oenL, and 
Hnogary 15. Altogelber, 106,000 owt. of ore, and 114,000 swt. 
of pure meUl is obUined. Idria in Camiola has, after Alma- 
den in Spain, the riohsst qxiciiilnr mine in Bnrape,prodnciu| 
SBOO awu of purs metal. Of lbs rest, Hungary pi«<ruass IIM 
owt aod Transylvania 450. Ti» i/ found ooly In Bohemia, 
vblob BuppHea 66,000 owl. of ore, from which 4S0 owt. of tin ii 
obtained. Zinc ia found ohiefly io the neighborhood of Craeow, 
where 140,476 owt. of ore ia ruaed. Anatria iapartianlarljrii 
' In Galioi ■" •- -■' — 

sain I 

orked el 

ook..alt many 

Similar layera ooour in Hungary (Mermaroa) aad Traoiylvaala 
(at Thorda). There also eiiat salt apringa in Sallola, in Mar. 
maroB, and in Tranaylvania, from which salt ia largely eitraolad^ 
aa it ii alao to aoouaiderabte extent from sea water on tha neat. 
About 3,900,000 owt. of rook-salt ia annually obtained from Ika 
minaa (of whieh 22 per oent. ia from Oaliola, 24 from Harmara^ 
34 from Tranaylvaoia), from the Tarioni aalt springs aboat 
2,800,000 ewt., and tkim the aalt-worka on the aoaat 1,400,001 
ewt. Anatria is posaeaaed of almost ineihauatibleetoreaof <ua^ 
and tbeamonatannnelly raised exeeeda 6,000,000 torn, of whioh 
18 per eent. la in Bohemia, 12 in Hungary. 11 in Silesia, II ia 
Styria, Oi in Moravia. 2) in Qalieia, and I) in Camiola. Peat 
and slay are abtindaot in oert^a parts of ths oonotry ; paroa- 
lain earth Is found iu Bohemia and HoraTia; white, iwl, blad[, 
and Tariously-oolorad marbles eiiat in ths Alps, partianlarly ia 
Tyrol and Salibarg; quarta, felspar, heavy apar, KHk-eryital, 
aabeatos, An., are found in varioua parts; and among preeiom 
atones may be apeolally mentioned the Hungarian opals and 
the Bohemian garaeta. The naraber of persons employed U 
the various mines in Anslria Proper in 1870 waa 76,461, and U 
tbe smelting and aaating works, 13,857. In addition to theaa. 
9SIS parsons were employed in tbe salt-mines and other isll- 
works. In Hnngary 60,143 peraoua were employed in miniag 
aad amalting. Tha total annual value of the raw Dtaleriols ok>- 
tsiaed from the minaa is eatimaled at over £9,000.000. of whieh 
Dearly one-half ia of ooal, a Bfth of Iron, on eighth of gold aad 
silver, and a tenth of roek-aalt. 

Tha manuflwtnras of Austria have mada great 
progress during the Isat twenty years, and now ' 
aome of them are eitenairely sarriad on. Tbej In- ~' 
dude eollon, flax, hemp, woollrn and tilk atnffa; gold, illnr, 
iron, lead, copper, tin, and line articles; leather, paper, baer, 
brandy, and sugar ; poroelain and earthenware; ahemieal atalb ; 
soienliflo and mnslsal instruments, Ao. The maaufaatarea ar* 
principally oarriedoo io the weatem orowo-lands. and oiore par-- 
ticularly in Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, and Lower Anatria. Ia 
Oalicia and the Hungarian crown-lands tbe manufaetnret ara 
oomparativaly aegleoted. The principal seals of tbe oottoa, 
woollen, and linen maoatkotarea are in Moravia, Silesia, Bobs- 
mi*, aod Visnna ; of Iron and sloel wares in Styria and Carin. 
thia; iron in Upper Austria; oaat-iron goods in Horaria, Bty- 
ria, Carinthla, and Bohemia; silk in Vienna; glass and poroa. 
lain In Bohemia; best-root sugar in Bohemia and Moravia; 
leatbar in Bohemia, Moraria, Qalioia, and Hungary; beer la 
Bohemia and Lower Anatria; brandy in Qaliaia, Moravia, and 
Bohemia; cabinet wares and muaioal Inatmmeota in Vlanaa 
and Pragoe ; aod talantlfle and anrgical InatnunsnCs in VieoBa- 

Tha «XID» manafsolure baa made vary rafild prati uaa, aad ia 
a»w oaa of tb« most aztaDaive and flonrlihlng Io th* ooaotrr- 


Ii Itll Ikt import of soUoD WM 101,004 ewt, Mai Uw axpnrt 
I»| in lUe Of taaaxt hkd riwa to £13,000, ud U» lattar to 
ir>; Md In 18T0 ttaa foimw wu 1,100,000, and Uh IMtar 
N,M*wt. Tlun u* 17) ipinnlng rutoriN, with l.TSO.OOO 
KiidlM, in Uu «Muti7, almort all litnated in Lowor AnMria, 
llifciiala. mil Torarlbuf. Than an M faatoriM, with t&O.OBO 
■tedli^ im Lawar Anitria, batwaan tha Vianna Forat anil tha 
Utka, and baaida tium aia 1 djalng and printing worki. A 
friadpal laat of Iha aottoa nannbataia ia In Northara Boha- 
■ia, bum tba Sgtr to OeiohgnbarB, whara thara an no fewar 
Ifew N ^iwung futoriea asil 3& piintlag worki. Baridai 
Itwt Ihara >ia T balsriaa at Pngna and 1 in Bantluni Bohe- 
■ta. In Vsmrlbarg Uure an SI faetorlM, with 200,000 ipin- 

it la 


it importuit. In ooDBsqnanoa, 
unt of the sotton manafutan 

Thajlu and ktugi 
MaatiT, and wM loaj 
kawarv, of tha npld 

It if M longar of ths nma importanoa M lormsrly ; jat II Itill 
afardi agiploTiDant to a gnat anmbsr of penonn, and !■ Tsr; 
faaarallT oitandad ot«t ^o oaantrj. It ii prinoipaliT oairied 
aaaadoBaatio bransh of iadnitry, and in oonntiT- diitiiatj ia 
faf aanUj angagad in u a Hoondarj pnnait hj than cmplojod 
ta igTtsBltnral labon. Tbo Bai li moitty epnn by bajid, and 
Sm waaring oonflnad to tba eonmonor kiodi of linan, being 
MtMj iatandad tbr home naa. In Bohsoiia, Haravifi, Bilaaia, 
•ad Uppar AoKria, bow«*er, thia manofaotftr* la man aitea- 
riralf garriad on tban in otbar parta. Tbara an ben a nara- 
bw A taiilaiiaa for tha tplnnlng of flax, and tha Bnsr kiodi of 
Dmb an AanD&atared. 

Tba moetUit manabotan ii aUo an aid utabllBhad bnnsh of 
MMt;, and it boUtsI j eairlod on. It ii aatimated that abnot 
••M** awl. of wool U umaall? apnn ; and then an abont 230 
ipinnlng taotoriaa, with npwarda of T00,000 Bpindlsi. Tha 
gnat nati af the wooUao maoofaaton an in Bohsmia, Harm- 
tI^ Bllaala, and TTppcr Autria. In Bahamia Iti gnat leat it 
il and aioniHl RoiohaabarB, whore tha aannal Talas of the 
feedi pndnasd li aEoot £1,800,000. In UonTla the prinaipal 
Mali an BrUnn (for ooans, and alKi the Onert aorU of oloa), 
Hula^t, and Iglan. In them two onwn-landi la mada half 
af Iha entire qnantitj of woollen goodi pnduoed in the oonn- 
bj. Tba prineipal of tha other nati an the diltriota Bieliti In 
BDidB, Tlunft u Lower Anitrla, and Viktring in Carlnthla 
(far Ine Ksada). Vienna ia al» diitingniihed for iU manotats- 
tn at ihawla. Tha ooanor klnda of woollen goodi an gon> 
■bDj &ann&otared orer tbo oaaatrj, and prinoipallj In tha 


Tlanna, and to m email aitaoC In the north ef Boheioia and ii 
Ike Haritima Diitriot. The (pinnlag of illk baa ila prineipal 
Hat in Soathem TttoI, whan abont SSO.OBO t> an (pan anna- 
allj, baridea whioh mboat 1,700,000 lb an annoally bronght 

Tha iroaaad (luJ manuhotona form ena of tha moat Import- 
aal branohai of Indaitry, and afford amplofmeot to a grant 
■nibaT or penona. Tbej an mon or laai extanalrelj oinied 
w in bH tha oniwn-landi, eioept the Maritime DIatriot, Dalma- 
tia, OoaUa, nnd Slarooia; but tbair prineipal eeati are In 
Lawer and Upper Autria, Bohemia, Horaria, Stjria, and Ca- 
lintUa. One of the moiC Important of theae aaati li Blaiar 
tad ita ndghborbood, in Upper Auatria, where then an abont 
TM MtabllMiBiaiiu, prodaoiag gooda — obieflj ontlei7, aajthea, 
iAlm, tnarmi, Aa. — to tba ralna of £100,000 annnall;. In 
Btjrialhan are large Ironwarka at Harla-Zell and Hoaberg; 
■ad in Carinthia,at PreTall, Bnabaoheideo, and Ferlaoh. Then 
■- latria. Camiola, Tjnl, Bo- 

1 on in and about Vienna, 
' tbii pnrpoae. There an 
riailar eetabliahmenta In other parts of Lower Auatria, in 8ty- 
ria, Bohamia, Sileiia, and Bsakowina. Tha Llo^da' Company 
lui alio large workihepl at Trieile. About 1,100,000 owt. of 
ina an annnallj oaed in the making of maobinerj, and about 
(,tW,D«0 ewta. in the other iron and Ileel maunracturea, among 
whiah maj l>e mentioned ontlery, flreuma, fllea, wire, naili, tin- 
rlat^ Meal peni, needlea, A< 

The prinoipi ' 
b Tyrol, and i 
Uly of natal employed ie about 

baalB, and Monria. Tbi 

of tha gooda produced, £100,000. Tin ii manofaotured 
'->Bl]y in Bohemia) to tbe annual Talae of £iO,ODO, and 
that of £2600. Tba praoloaa metala, gold and i>7 
irtioalarly Vie 
aasllj prodnoed ii 


are prinaipally worked in the larger towna, parfioalarlj Viei 
•nd Fragttak and the value of the artlolei annasllj proi' 
about £1,700,000. In addition to thia a oouiidarabla 
f geM Bad ailvar la aanaally taken np by tba tointa. Tba 
Miied metala an alto made and manufaotured to a eoniiderabla 
extent, aa bnaa, ball metal, gun metal, pinobbaok. ic. 

Tbe sloai maoufaotan baa ita fraataal decelopment In Bobe- 
■dh where tban are not only tha gnalaat number of worha (SA 

la Mortbem and 85 In Sonthem Bohemia), but tha want are 
alao of Tory anparior quality. Their annual value ia about 
£1,000,000. Kxoept io Styria and Hornria then ii llttla glaN 

lain waraa. Tbe pnparatian of nhemical itufft baa been of lata 
yean greatly extended, and is now adtively oarried on. Sul- 
pbarla and muriatio aolda an large!; made io Bobemia, Lower 
Auatria, ^d Sileaia ; phannaoeutioal preparationa and perfumia 
an made ehleay in VienDB, and dyo-atuiri in Lower Auatria and 
Bohemia. Tha manufaeture of mooden anicUt ia wideepread 
o*er the sountry, and afforde employment to a great number Of 
" " ' ilea, partioulaily ohUdnn'l toya, an 

agtij n 

ilarly In Tyrol, Salibnrg, Upper Auitrla, and 
uonomia. iromitun, wagons, and oarrlagea an made In 
Vienna and other large towni. There an alao »Terat ertab- 
liabmenta fbr the mannfaatnn of r»lway oarriagea in Vienna 
and Fragoe- 

Tbe manufaatun of mathematloal, opUoal, and aargieal la- 
atrameuta, and of pbyi leal and obemieal apparatua, baa of lata 
yeara riMU rapidly Into itaportanoe, partiouiarly in Vienna and 
Pngae, and now tbeae an to be found among tbe exporta to 
other oonntriea. Auatria la alao dltUogaiahad for tbe manulha- 
tun of mueioal inatrumenta, partiouiarly planoa and organs 
but alio for other atringed and wind Initrnmenta. Clook or 
waloh making li not Tory aitaDilTety earrled on. 

The Uatktr mannlhatan forma an important braneb of indna- 
try, the mine of the goodl annually pndaoed being eitimatad 
at not leta than £10,000,000. It ia prlnelpally earried on In 
Lower Anetria, Bohemia, Hoikvia, Snlieia, Tranaylrania, and 
Hnngary. Vienna and Pragnaan the great eentre* of the boot 
and aboe trade, and the glorea made in theae town! an oonaid- 
ered little Inferior to thoae of Franoe. Baddlery II alaO largely 
carried on in tbeae towni, and in Peith. 

/"oper-makiag haa of late made ooudderable progreaa t> 
Anitria. Then ue TO paper maobioea and lOS paper millf t> 
operatioa, 20 oftbe former and 100 of the latter being in Boha- 
mia. The real are moetly in Lower Autria, Styria, and Flnma. 
Paindng, Uthognphing, angraTlng, Bid map making, ar* 
aetirely earried on in Vienna and lome of Ihrn other large towni. 
There are 41 printing and 73 Ulhographlo eatabUahmenti !■ 
Vienna alone. 

Autria ia noted for iti laar, partloulariy that of Vienna and 
Bohemia. There an abont S3do bnweriei in tbe oonntiy, of 
wbiob more than 1000 an in Bohemia. Tbe largait aatabliA- 
manta, bowoTer, are in Loww Auitria, In tbe nrigbbotbood of 
Vienna. The annual quantity of beer made ia ortimatad al 
about 180,000,000 galloni. Brandy ia made largely in Hun- 
gary, Qallaia, and Buakowioa, and to a leaa extant In Bohemia, 
Moravia, and Lower Anatria. Boaoglio, maraiabino, andotfaar 

Ing itata, and ia i^idjy aitandlng. In 18ST tban « 
Auitria Proper 91 augar-worka, oonnming 8,300,000 owL of 
beat, wbiob amounta wen in 18Tt nlaad to 1*0 and M,834,8U 
napeotlvaly. In Bohamia alone then wen ISO worki, oonanm- 
iog 111,270,000 awL of beeL Of tha other worki, Monvi* 
poueaaed It, Sileaia 10, Lower Auatria 0, Qalloia 5. TUa 
1,.__ 1. _i 1^1 — . ..j|( ju Haagj,j. ^qJ 

manufaatun ii alio aarriad on U 

The I 

la well ai 

le growth of tobaoco ia a goven). 

tan of tobaooo aud oigan, employing abont 20,000 workpeople, 
or the» then are fi in Lower Auatria, 3 in Oalieia, 2 in Ifo- 
rarla, 2 in Tyrol, and < in Hungary. The largeit an thoae Of 
H^nborg In Lower Autria (when about one-iiith of the whole 
il maaufaotnred), Filntenftld In Styria, and Sedler In Bohemia. 
About ^0,000,000 Si of tobaeoo an mannfaotnred annually. 

The annnal value of tbe indutrial praduota of Austria ia eiU- 
mated at not leu than £130,000,000, of wbiob 33 per oent. lalla 
to the eastern, and 07 per oenL to the weitarn half of the oouo- 

Buugary, f 

'.,11* - 

.0 Galioi 
owioa, 10 to Honvia, fi to Tyrol, 4 to' Btyria, and 

Austria Ii not favorably aitnated for oommeree on 
aooount of its inland position, ila smaU extant of 
a«a-ooait,'and tbe monntainoua oharaeter of mnoh of iti snrlboe. 
IM trade waa alio formerly very muoh hampered by high AutiM, 
and reatriction* of varioaa kinds. Tbete, however, have now 
bean very muoh modiflad or removed, and its trade haa In ooi»- 
aequenoe rapidly Improved. Hneb bai been done, too, in tha 
way of making and improving tba roada, opening mountain 

tuaea, ooaatraoling railwaya, aud establiahing lines of aleamen. 
n 1871 than were OG30 m ilea of nilwsy in operation, of whioh 
6706 wen in Anatria and 3775 in Hungary. Beiidea tb 
ware about 2000 milee in eonrse of ei ' 

Bin H.rTO nllu of highwkTi, of wU«h 10 p« omit. »n In Aui- 
Mft kod in la Hangsrj. BobeinlK, In putlonlu', )■ diitin- 
nKhsd far tha Bumbor ud exmllMM ot it* nwdi. Th* riTsr 
Duinbe i> usrlfsbla for aMuicn tor ita antln lingth in Ika 
ODitnlr? — troa Puaau to OnoTi. Hut "C «* lAueBta kn ■!■■ 
D»riK>b1s for ft oonaidarkble langtb, puttanlu-lr tha Theiu, 
Dnra^ uid S»va. Tha Duinbe Bta*in CompuiT pn mw i lU 
nwman, of 13,940 horas-powar, mi 4» towsd boUi. Tbor* 
■ra ftlao itaMDora on ft Dttmbar of the Iftr^r IfthH. Attogatfaor, 
Auatrift po«a«««a «*0 nilw of n»Tig»blo rinr ---" 

1, of whiah U>i graMor part (W per e«nl.) to ii 

Tha priBnlpBl Mnporta of Auatrlft *» Trlaite >nd Plnnwi at 
the heftd of (ha AdriatlF, the fornier la the Mfttitims orown. 
Iftnd, tha Ifttter In thftt of Croitift. The nambar ot Teaaela thftC 

M,ST3,1T0: iteftiiian, Iftdcn, II21;Td 
in,m ; rtiat of ImporU, £13,698,9^0. Tbe nnmbar of Te»eli 
that left wift— aftUing TSHell, Iftden, 4409) In baUut, 1TS4; 
total tonnage, 441,601 ; value of aiporti, £^,325,400 1 iteunen, 
laden, OZe; in ballaat, WD; total tonnage, »Tl,i;t; ralne of 
•KporU, £S,T1B,940. Triene ia the Hat of the Aunriaa Llordt' 
Cotnpanj, vhloh tiadei prineipalLj irith the eaatorn porta of 
tte Hedlterransan, Oalaei, Binopa, Smjma, Belront, Alaian- 
dria, *o. Thej own M ateam reHoli. The nimber of TeHsli 
tba4 entered the port of Flame in 1«T0 waa— aalllsg reaaali, 
Ud*n, 1530; Id bftllut, 370; total toonaca, 7T,t») Tilae of 
Imports, £MB,SSO: tteamen, laden, Itt; In bfttlaat, IT; total 
tonnage, ftl,aTl ; raloe of inporta, ;eiT4,TtD. The noaiber of 
T**Mli that led waa— aailing renali, laden, 1180) In b^Iaat, 
(t3; tstel tonnan, B8,T81| Tslae of axporti, £BH,7W>: tteam- 
«•, laden, 141) in ballaat, 1; total tonnage, £2, STl ) Talaa of 
aawrta, 194,>40. 

The ooamersial navj of Aaatrta In IBTO aoaipTlaad BS ataaa 
TsMBla, of 4T,I«Z tsM bnrdn, having 23&3 meni BM large 
■uling Teueli, trading with forslg* eonntriM, of lU,S3e torn 
harden, haring H3B uea ; and 2487 eoMtlng Tweela, of &S1,31S 
loBl bnMon, harlng 7&8fl men. Bealdea then, there wen 4717 
•mailer vanele, with 14,479 Iohb and ll^S men, amptored ai 
llgbtara, in flihing, *e. The nember of trading TeHali that 
aeUred and left the TftTioo* porta Id IBTO waa — anlemd, lalling 
nearia, Aaatriaa, laden, 17,SS4 (toanage, 48a,7«fi); ia ballaat, 
tTZT (tonnage, 2T0,g87)|(brrign,lftdea,iSai)(laDiiage,>e3,t4I); 
Id bftllut, 2793 (tonnage, 184,700): iteamara, Amtiian, ladca, 
49e4(tODDsga, l,STS,09i); In ballaat, 3697 (Maaage, 409,480) ; 
hreign, laden, 179 (toaaage, 118,013) | In ballast, 1! (tooaaga, 
TS47). Lert—eaillng raiaeli, Aaitriaa, ladea, lT,lt4 (toanage, 
4eg,09R); in ballaat, 10,808 (lonoan, 290,531}; farelgn, laden, 

t700(lonBftg% 384,019); In ballaat, 1978 (tonnage, It 

l,40S,ft6i) I In 

1, 41«e<tonnaga,l,40S,S( 

n ballaM, 

Id ballaat, t) (teDnega, Sl.TSO). Total entered — Anstrian 
Teaaela, 34,8S3 (tonnage, 3,843,307); foreign, T344 (toanage, 
. Sff4,tSI)i left— Aattriftn, 8»,0«9 (tannage, 3,841,001); foretgn, 
r271 (tonnage, tii.mi). The toul Tain* at tha Imporli waa 
:eie,S30,t90; of the exporta, £13,052,360— £7,098,180 of tha 
tbrmer, and £3,578,810 of the latter, being In foreign Toiaeli. 
Tbe prinelpal foreign trade ii sarrled on with ItalT, Qreeoe, 
Turkey, Bagland, BoUaad, Norway and Bnden, H^rth Gar- 
nany, Denmark, and North Ameriea. The nnmber of veaaeli 
belonging to the prineipal foreign itatea that entand and left 
the Tftcioui porta in ISTO, waa u fuUoxa:- 

»>««. j LA 














4 A HO 






Ml ,781 


K^!," " 



); ditta, 
nd," £457,520; wheat, £311,500 ; maiie. £331,060; 
flour, £431,840; olive oil, £778,890; iron, raw and wroaght, 
£1,210,670; raw ootton, £1,855,210; ootton jam, £303,130; 
oolton gooda. £1,375,390; linen gooda, £229,470; wool, 
£258,270; woollen gooda, £252,900; maohinea, £210,010. The 
piineipal axporta were — eeSiM, £330,010; augar, £381,090; 
maDiiftctnr«r tobfteco, £370,010; wheat, £244,410; malie, 
£434,980; flonr, £B33,T30; olive oil, £814,840; apirita of 
wine, £834,020; barrel atavea, £517,520; bnilding atoaea, 
£307,040; raw eotton, £293,760; eoltoD gooda, £3,030.000; 
wool, £109,490; woollen gooda, £349,788; artiolea of olothing, 
C3Ii;64a; paper, £3M,070. 

„ tl pesition, tbe evariui 

ign trade ot Anatria fa more Inpoitaot th*« ita aia IraHe. 

White the latter amminted to £29,083,409, tha tarmei waa as Iw 

than £66,039,034 (Impoit^ £17,891,181 ; mnrarta, £27,148,813). 

Of tha oveilaiid trade about 74peraar' '- -"■'■ " " 

with TnrkBj, H v<tb Italy, H vUh S 
than i Willi SwItiarlBBd. It ladadea _ . . 

taral and gai4«n prodnoe, animall aod animal produae, (bt pte- 
dace ot tbe niDM and naasfketDiaa, ebeKloal prediute, na- 
oblnee, aeieatite loatniMQla, wis^ bear, braady, Ae. Batidm 
Ibeaa, thara la aoonaiderable tiasait tnda throDJ^ tha aoantty. 


Blegraph i 
pwardi ol 

north and nortb-weau It la estimated at abeat £l^tOt,0«. 

The Internal trade eonsiala aUafl; of the exahaagn of the ••»■ 
daou of dithrent parts of tha oonntrj, mora parUoalariy er iba 
agrianltnrmlprodnota of tha aaat with the Indaatrial piedaau <l 
the west. Important market* *ia held at Szad Uaea in Iht 

trinolpal towns for tbe diffarent kinds of prodnea. Vleaaa, is 
alngtha eapilal and tha seat of ao many dilhnnt btaa^Mat 
Indnetry, and as having ready meaaa of BOBmanlaatibB w^h 
alt parta of the sonntry, to tha principal aaat bothof tha kea* 
and of tha forrtgn trade, and the great leaort of mmohaata and 

Aaatriaposaesaaa a anmber of baeha, tbe prineipal of w 
are— tha National Bank, (bonded In 1810, and havbig an ai 
eapltal of £9,09a,«0tf the Aaatriaa Land-Cradit ' ' 
founded 1804, aetlve oaplta), £980,000 1 the Aaatriaa >m>H 
Hannfaetnraa Credit Institnta, fnaded 19»5, aeUva osfila^ 
£4,000,000; tbe Anglo -An alrian Bank, ftnadad U61, aatit* 
oapital, £1,7)4,600; the Union Bank, buded 1879, aMlva 
eapltal, £I,200,OaO; the Praneo-ABatriaa Baak, fboadsd 18M^ 
aeUva oapital. £880,000; the Lower AasCiiaa DiaooaatCam' 

Stny, tbanded lSS3,.aetlva eapltal, £709,000. Tbe Hadeaal 
ask to the only oompany anlberiaed tO' iasae notea. Then in 
alM anamberot aavlnga banka and loan instltntlona afvariaa 
kinds, as well as BBDenHU aoeiatiea brmad with* view ef fur- 
theringlniarlOBS ways indnatry and eommtree. Ial8Illkin 
wete 8504 post-oOoeB la Anatria, and IWB In Hungary : (he aii» 
ber of private letters that paued thringh tbe former in that yMi 
waa 135,614,888, and thniBghthelattar,37,S«8,lS9; of nawtpa- 

Era tbiti^h the Ibmar. 51,780,999, aad tbroagh tke lutoi 
,3*3,771. There wei* also tbroagboot the eoaalry ItSl 
nd 13,680 miles of lines tawmlutof 
aioaeagaa during that year. 

The head of the AuBlro-Hungariiui ikoiiarchy ,!,___ 
lithe««iperoraiidhii]g,wboiialaothek«lof ^^ 
the armr and of the execnliTC The MMOMakm 
18 hereditary, fn the order of primc^^itnre, ia the nnla 
line of the honse ot HapahnnpLothringen, or Lomua*; 
and (ailing thi*, in the female lina. The morwrehj m* 
prises two distinct glatea — a German or Ctoleithsn, com- 
monlv called Austria, and a Magyar or Transld^isii, 
iMuallj termed Hungary. Each of thcEe has its own par- 
liament, miniateis, and goTemnient; while ihe armv and 
nary nod brei«n relstiom ar* oommon. Thcaa arencdcr 
the directioa of » opntrolliog body known ae the Del^is- 
tiona, mnsisdnr of Axtj Members for each state. two-iMnls 
being elected b7 the Lower House, and on«-Ifaird by the 
Upper House of each of the parliaraentary bodies. They 
usually sit and vote in two chamberi — one for AiBtria, lh« 
other for Hungary [ but in the event of disagreement oo 
any question, they meet together, and wilhoDt tiirthordelib- 
erstiongive thdr final votes, and the decision th lis arrrived 
at is binding on the whole empire. Their resolutions re- 
quire ireither the approval nor the ooafirmation of the rep- 
resentftlive Msemblies by which l]iey are chosen, but only 
imperial assent The executive is vested io three depart- 
ment* — (1), A ministry of fiweign a&irs; ia), a miniatij 
of war; and (3), a ministry of finance. Tbeae at* respoa- 
sible to the DelegatioHB. The Rei<^sntb, or Parlianwol 
of Austria, consists of an Upper and a liower Home. Th* 
former, tbe House of Lords, is compoeed — (1), of prioMi 
of the imperial house who are of Kga (14 in 1874); (2), 
of the heads of noble houses of hi|;h rank, in whom the 
dignity is hereditary (56) ; (3), of the archbishops ( 10) aad 
of bishops with Uie rank of princea (7) ; aod (4), of lill 
members nominated by die emperor on aeoaout of dia- 
tinguished servicee (102). The lliower House, or House rf 
Kepresentatives. is composed of 353 members, elected to 
represent .the diSermt crown-lands by all citJaena who are 
of age and possessed of a small property qoaliGatini. 
The emperor annually convokes the Seichsrath, and nomi- 
nates the presidents and vice-presidents of each diviaioo 
out of the members. Tbe business of the Beicbgralh 
embrace all matterB of legislation relating to lawt^ dutio^ 
and intenMa, except such as are specially oxcltided m 


irihnrn, telcgi^itii, obIobi, tbe miiit, nunug of nei 
liMB, nqMSBg *x sew tnxtfl, badget& nuriun relatinf Ir 
■UitarTMrrioc^Ae. ^lemcBiben ef ehhei Home kmv 
tfa« right lo prapoM neir Uwi < 
nnriace; bat Ifae onueat «f bet) 

I within th«!r 
!, BB (rell M dt« 
NBclioa tf Ae emperor, jg ra^Dind to icniW them Talid. 
ne eBeendre n Ttat rf in the pMriiknl and minlHtrks of 
Ibe hiterior, t^igioii umI edocKlim, Anaao^ coinmerae, 
•irintture, nHknal ^ofbtoe, asd jiutic«. The mlnbien 
brm iIbd th« Ulnbteri*! 0>anci1, which k praided ow 
b^ Ibe tu n pe i cr or a minirter-fireGideiit. 

Id additioB la the KeicharBth, there ai« BeveUeen pro- ! 
rincHl Jiett at^Iiah«d in dlflmM dbtrieta of die coontiy, ' 
liiT the directiMi ntd renlation rf local mmttere, taxadon, , 
(tendon, lelixiin, piiolie trrnks, diaritkUe iiwtilDtiotw, ' 
indatiy, bkde, Ac. Badi diet is corapooed <^ the arch- 
KAoi* and bithaps of tb« BotiMn Cethdie and Greek 
Oitlnlie Chnidbea, of die rectors of the oniverritiee, and 
rf TepttMnurtiveB of the gnat landed crtalee, of the totrm, 
rf chatriMM ol indiBttf tad commerce, and of rural com- 
HaiK«. Iln DDiiiber of tntn^n tariee MOOtdiDK to the 
ite Hid importaace of Ae diitricte— from 90 or 30 op to 
m Ibe Uoraria, \Sk for Oalieia, and 241 for BtAenla. 

Tha HnugariiB Parlimromt or Beidtstag contbte of va 
Upper and » Lamr Hodm,— the fonnec knanm aa fte 
Eeae of Hagiuttes, the latter as the Honae of Bepreseata- 
IhM. n* Upper Hmm, in 1B73, consitled of S princea 
«( the rdgnimf notue, hsTing eMates in ike. kingdom, SI 
■MilMiope ain bishops of the Soman Oithtdie and GtccIl 
CkudKB, and 881 high officials and peers of the king- 
dom. I%e Iiowai House b compoeed of teprceentatir^ 
deded fer Aree 7ean by eiliaens of Bge who paj a certain 
Miomt of direct taxes. The nunhet of represeatativcs, 
fa iS73, was 444, of whom SS4 represented the aoinidea. 
mnl diBtiictt, and towns of Hungary: 76 repreeeMea 
TrsntlvaniaiaitdSSOoadaandSlaTania. Theprerident 
■d nce-presldmt of the House of Magnates «!« Donrnaled 
bj the king from-amot^ the membera; and Che president 

'' ' -^pr^dentsof the Hoase of KepteKntstires are 
yr ■ — .... 

execndre ia vested In a preridoit md 
defence, the conrt, finance, interior, religion and educMioti, 
JDSticE, public works, agncultnre, industry and commerce 
nd lor Crostia snd fflavtmia. 

^*^^*- in three dislioct' budgets: — (I), Tbat of Ae 
Bdenlions for the vhole empire ; (f ), that of die Anftrian 
biebirath lai AuEtris; ana (3), dint of tkt Hmgiiriaa 
Brichstag fer Himgaij. By an arrangement of 1SS3 
Austria p^ys 70 per ceot, and Bvngsry 90 per oent, 
towarda the oommon ozpenditme of the empire. The 
local expenditsre tea the whole empii«, in 1S73, was esli- 
nUed as follows :— 

OidlBMy. BstraonUBUT. TaML 
t.iadM^^W*TwitmA5tinAi!ti,tm C11,1S1 £4U,aiS 

^ » i Axmj.-i^t,sb6 »&a.»a a,&9»,3ia 
" "" 1 Hms . fi.ii.4ar idiHsi 1,1>1*,0B1 


1Sary_ 831,4Sr 
LXiBiMiyaf 7ii>«H».«.-. 192,088 
4 Beard of CmWiL ..- li, — 

±ia,M7,9i» jei,iES,i)as £U,ui,sii 

•■ Allawi.— 

...„ S1«,1(I 


fhs baiCrt «r AlMcia Pr^w ftr 1 tn was aa fclov 

Dbwd Taxes..,. _._..- 

Dvties DD Aitietas of CoaanaipUea 

Cmi7 Vorward,,. 

.... 2,SI4,IH 
.... MTUSI 
... l,«Ti,WO 


tIA. 107 

Btei«ht FMrwarC tM,Wt»M» 

etatuBa 1,4*0««M 

jDJioUlFtM. S,tM.(lOO 

8CkM Lottery l,&M^W 

Oot»i..._ £T<*M 

But* Pnfwiy wd Him...- - in,tU 

BonaiBM and PomM.. „.._.....„. lOMjtm 

Mta«..„ 4nj0t* 

P*aU}flle* unl Tek>gn|ifaL I,«St.SOt 

MTwHaneeni „ *.Ml,a«l 


Imperial Homebald.. £SIfi,OM 

Csblurt Chauoery 7,111 

ItBtabsrMh - M,m 

OoQrt at the Emplr« 2,3M 

OoBOoil of Mloiitara &II,200 

Hialstry of thslDterlor 1,etS,nSl 

•• }Ta»onsl Deranee^ e9I,3M 

" SellgiBti nod Edncatieu I,S34,1T> 

' Plnaam B,e3S.3I3 

" CDnnnenie S.!62,£T4 

" AgrioultuTB l,08fl,8S3 

" Imtiet 1,529,288 

B*«rl at OtHtFD] 14,820 

PeaiiDDa, fiianU, and SiAiaUial 1,3SI,IM 

Bbart of IntuMt ■■ Pnbtti DoM »,SH),M8 

AduioiWatiaii af PnbUo DabI r4«,SI» 

Fraportion «( Fublia Sxpaaditiua „_. . 7,7»B,9*a 

. £ta,»92,«» 

ThebiHlKM tor UU Bives the rerenve ae £S8,3!I,8«T, aad 
he «tp«Dditiite M £S9,mie,53I ; and that f»r lii7G. ibe rerannt 
m £M,M2,9g«, aad (he sxpBadftara u £I6,I78,SM. 

Tbo bodget af the Uaedoa ef Hongaty (or ltT> was aa 


SUU SomaiuT'HVu 

PocUOfiso, ka 

HiBoetluieMU _. 

— - T,16fi,MS 



Royal HsneehDld.... 
Csbisot ChaDoerj.... 

Bhare of latenat oa Pnblie DAt... 
Ordinary Cipeaies — 

ai £12,102,790, aad 
tlie upeadltDT* u £e&.fl>8,382, being a delcit of £3.27«,5B2. 

TlioBgb ths Aaitriaji badfet far lBj3 prei«uta a luiyhii, thoM 
had for auiy years previooBlj Iwan a large aemul deftol^ 
amounting ia lomA years to £6,000,D06 or £T,0M,t)04; and the 
tvo anbswieiit years alio ihoiraaDnBldBrBbledeflolcasy. Con- 
miiiently (be pabKedeMhubwa rapidly hisnartag. la 18U 
tba aatlDBal JeM amnatai to £S1,M(I,S0«, la 1830 to £1H,. 
«M,eM, la IWe to £iai,<ltO,0M, fa 18IT Sa £2StU0Da,«M, ia 
U*6 to £iei,«M,Ma, and in 187* to £3S3,aM,0»«, of wUdk 
£JM,D8MaO was Aadad, £ai,30«,0aa radeeoabl^ and £37^ 
•Ot,Me flaatiag debt. By Clia eeasian of tba Lombardo-Vana. 
Uan proriaoea io 18M, Austria was reUwed of £S,&00,aDO of 
debt affeoliiig Ibose tarrUories. The kingdom of Hongary had 
also at tha and of 1ST3 a debt of £4B,STI,7B3. 

Anitriala ia5dtohave*'darlngtbeliMf8iryaafs »,__ 
mada greater saeriilces to iTopniTe tha eSglenay ef '' 

her amy and ohtajaed greatar reaalta ^an aay athar nalton te 
Barvpa. Her sailWary edaeatioaal aeraihlishienta aad lyet— eC 
itaalaaDf, hatti elehMntaiy and proftasisnal, ftr oOean aad ai& 
areaf Bfeiy high ordtr" (Oaptaia W. S. <Iaoke <M*tArmti 
Sttvmftk <^ Amtria, 1873). A saw Mheme ef amy orgaoiia- 
tioo «as broa^ht into afisatioo in 1809, bj wbiab the auUtary 
ftK-oes ef tbo whoU aaifiire are dirided uiCo the itandinc Ulaj 


LDg aim; 

II mall 

d the 

ib defenoa 

it the empire against a torelgn tbe, and for the prefei 
order and eeenrny at borne. The L^edwehr ia intandel to tt 
port the stsatUng amy la time of war aad Ut boaia dalaa 

li eanpoaad of k oarb^ oUn of ooiiMripti 
mn dHtiDfld to fill up tba nnki of the standing arm; in 
I of nr, but In pew» nmun on psmun«oC farloDgh. The 
ditorm [■ mwla np of ToInntHn who do not belong aither 
iding armj, the, or the Luidwahr. It ii oallad 
iiiod bt tha extant raqnired vhan tba oonntrj ig 

oat mnd ornaiied bt tha 

threBtanad bj > hoatile ia> 
(landing armj ud Landvahr. Ui 
un all oitiiaafl oapabia of bearing 
luU for tireWa jean— thne in tha 


11 led at iSi,ODU a 

I inpport tha 
rrioa ia oompulaorj 
Ihe larm of Hrrioa 
[ army, levan in tha 
raogth of tba army 

3tS,g8S. It li son 

. 11. aiid'flZi'ga'T 
BBS. It ll sompoiied of 80 regimanta of iofantry, *l regi- 
ti of oaTalrj, 13 regimenli of Brtillarj, 2 ragimaDli of en. 
MaTT Ki>"er>,lKginiantpionaBn, and other troops. (Sea 

""'■ Arkt, yol. ii. p. S!8.) The narj was in 1874 oom- 

posed of 47 Bteani-v<— '- -'"•""" ■ — ■- — '— -j ■- — .' 

bone-power, oarrjing 3 

s bnrden and lS,e35 
& gaaa; IT lailing Touali, of 11,800 
tons; and A steam tendan, of ISSO tons bn^en and Stfl horsa- 
powar. Tba number of Meman In peaoe, STBS ; in war, 11^33. 
Tha Daral itationi an Fala and Trieste. 

Triijji,. The prewot empire of Austria took its rise 

It WB8 called Oiirtuh or Oatardek, the eastern country, 
from its position rekliveco the rest of GermaDr- It con- 
tinued to be ru]«l bj margraves (Ger. Markgraf, lord of 
the marcha) for several centariee, down to the year 1156, 
when the terriloiy weat of the Enits was added to it, and it 
WW r«ised to a duchj. It BDbeequentI? received further 
acceaiona of Cerrilory, and in 1463 was made on arch- 

The cooDtrj of the present aididDchj of Auatria was in 
early times inb^iCed tnr the Taurisd, a Celtic race, who 
were afWwards better known is the Norici. They were 
conquered by the Romans in 14 b-c; and thereafler a 
portion of what is now Lower Austria and Styria, together 
with the municipal laty of Ftndoiona, now Vienna, and 
even then a place of considerable importanoe, was formed 
into the province of Fannoniaj and the rest of Lower 
Austria and Sljria, together with CaHnlhia and a pnrt of 
Camiola, into that of Noricum, Tyrol was included in 
Bhctia, while north of the Danube, and extending to the 
borders of Bohemia and Moravia, were the territories of 
the Marcomanni and the Quadi. These were not unfi^ 
quentlj troublesome to the Bomani ; and during the 
greater part of the rai^ of Harciu Aurelins, from 169 
to 180 AJ3., they maintained with varying success a harasS' 
ing war against them. In 174 the Boman army was so 
□early cut off by the Quadi that its safely was attributed 
to a miracle. The emperor died at Vindobooa when on 
an expedition against iboee tronblesome neighbors, and 
his successor, Commodua, was glad to make peace with 
them. On the decline of the imperial power these Roman 
provinces became a prey to the incursions of barbaric tribes. 
During the 3th and 6tb centuries the country was suc- 
ocssively occupied by the Boii, Vandals, Heruli, Bugii, 
Goths, Huns, Lombards, and Avari. About 568, after the 
Lombards had settled in Dpper Italy, the Biver Bnna 
became the boundary between the Bajurarii, a people of 
Oennan origin, and the Avari, who had come from the 
east. In 7^ the Avari crossed the Entis and attacked 
Bavaria, but w^ere subeequeutly driven back by Charie- 
uiagne, and forced to retreat as far as the Raab, their 
connlry from the £nna to that river being then made a part 
of Oeiiuatly. It was taken by the Hungarians in 900, but 
was again annexed to Oermany in 955 by Otho I. In 
963 the emperor appointed Iicopold I., of Babenberv or 
Bamberg, maivrave of Austria, and his dynasty ruled the 
oountiy tor 263 years. He died in 9B4, anil was succeeded 
by his son, Ueniy L, who governed till 1018. In 1156 
Austria received an accession of territory west of the Bans, 
and was raised to a duchy by the Gm'peror Frederick I. 
The fiist duke was Henry Josomirgott, who look part in 
tlie second crusade. He removed the ducal residence to 
Vienna, and began the buildinc of St. Stephen's calhedraL 
His succenur, Leopold V., in 1192, obtained Styria as an 
addition to his territory, and Frederick II. received posses- 
noQ of Camiola. Frederick, in the latter years of his life, 
omtemplated the erection of Austria into a kingdom, but 
bi* sudden death in a battle igainst the Magyars, in 1246, 

BIA. [1 

put an end to the pnjee^ and with him the line b 

The Emperor Frederick II. now declared Aintri 
Styria to have lapsed to the imperial crown, and a^_ 
a lieutenant to govern them on the part of the empit^ 
But claims to the succession were brought forwaid by 
descendants of the female branch of the Babenberg line; 
and after various contests Oltocar, son of the king of Bohe* 
mia, gained possession abont 1252 of the duchies of Aostiia 
and S^ria. In 1269 he succeeded to Carinthia, a paiC of 
Caraiola and Friuli i*but he lost all by reftising to acknow- 
ledge the Emperor Rudolph of Hapsburg, and eventually 
fell in battle in an attempt to recover them in 127S. 

The emperor now took possession of the conn- 
try, and appointed his eldest son governor; but S jS^™ * 
subsequently in 1282, having obtamed the sanc- 
tion of tha electots of the empire to the act, he oonlbmd 
the duchies of Austria and Styria, with the province <tf 
Carinthia, on his sons Albert and Rudolph, and thus inun- 
duced the Hapsburg dynasty. The brothen trsnateired 
Carinthia to Meinhard, count of 'I^ml ; and in 1283 Albert 
became aote possessor of Auslri^ Myria, and Camiola. He 
increased his possessions considerably by wan with hit ' 
neighbors, but was murdered at Rh^felden in 1308, whai 
on an expedition against the Swiss, by his nephew, Jtdm 
of Swabla, whom he had deprived of his hereditan pos- 
sessions. He was succeeded by bis five sous, Prederuk, 
Ijeopotd, Henry, Albert, and Otto. In 1314 Frederidt, tha 
'eldest, was set up by a party as emperor in oppomtion to 
Louis, duke of Bavaria, but was defeated and taken prisoiMr 
by his rival in 1322. In 1315 Duke Leopold was defeated 
in an attempt to recover the forest towns of Switieriaod 
which had revolted from his lather. Leopold died in 1^6, 
Henry in 1327, and Frederick in 1330. The two sarviving 
brothers then made peace with the Emperor Louis, and in 
1335 they acquired Carinthia by inherilance. On the death 
or Otto in 1339 Albert became sole ruler. He died in I3S8L 
His son and successor, Rudolph II., finished the church <^ 
SL Stephen's and founded the univeisity of Vienna, dying 
childless in 1365. He was succeeded by his two brothea, 
Albert III. and Leopold III., who in 1379 divided their 
possessions between them, the former taking the duchy of 
Austria, the tatter Styria and other parts. Leopold fell »k 
Bempach in 1386, but his deecendania continued to rnle t« 
Styrta. Albert acquired Tyrol and some other diMiida, 
and died in 1395. He was succeeded by his son, Albert 
IV., who was poisoned at Znaim in 1404, when on an "P!^ 
dition against Procopius, count of Moravia. Albert V. 
succeeded bis ftoher, and having married the daughter of 
the Emperor Sigismund, he obtained the thrones of Hun- 
gary and Bohemia, and became emperor (Albert IL) in 
1438. He died the following year, and was soceeeded I^ 
jiis posthumous son Ladtslaus, who died without issue is 
1457. The Austrian branch of the &mity thus becama 
extinct, and was succeeded by thai of Styria. The crown* 
of Hungary and Bohemia passed fur a time into othei 

The posesaion of Austria, which in 1463 had bean 
raised to an archduchy, was for soma yean a snl^fect 
of dispute between the Emperor Frederick IH. aod hi* 
brothers, but at length on the death of Albeit in I4II3; 
the emperor obtained sole possession. His son Haximiliao, 
by marrying the daughter of Charles the Bold, aoqoiiM 
the Netherlands in 1477, but on the death of his UEer In 
1193 he succeeded him as emperor, and transferred tlw 
government of the Netherlands to his son Philip. He 
added Tyrol and some parts of Bavaria to bis paternal poa- 
sessions, and made some advances towards the recovery oif 
Hungary and Bohemia. His son Philip, by his marriage 
with Johanna, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, aoouired 
a right to the crown of Spain, but died b 1506. Maxi- 
miJian died in 1519, and wss succeeded by his grand- 
son Charles (son of Philip), who two years I-*— '^--' 
obtained the Spanish crown, and was noi- - 
peror under the title of Charles V. By t 
1521 and 1524, Charlea resigned all his hereditary pi 
eions in Germany, except the Netherlands, to hia br_. 
Ferdinand, The latter, by his marriage with Anna, sislar 
of the king of Hungary^ acquired ri^ht to the kingdoma 
of Hiingarji and Bohemia, together with Moravia, (£l<sU^ 
and Lausatia. His right to Hungary, boweveo', was eon- 
tested by John Zapolya, waywode of Transylvania, who 
was elected by a party of the nt^les, and was crowned 

kiflff in 1687. Bmug tnuble to cope KnKle-haoded with 
Fminand, John toa^t the aid of Uis buIUq, Solinun JI., 
*bo in 152> BilTuiced with » Ul^ »nnr to the very gatee 
€f Vienna; bat after sevenl Ineficctual attempto to take 
the city he. raised the degt aod Tetnnied to Buda. At 
. fanth, in 1635 an i^iieement was come to, in t«ii>u of 
whidi John was allowed to retain the dtle of king, to- 
(tdier with half of Hnnga^, bat his deacendanta were 
to be <ntitled to TransylTaiua cmlr. John died in IMO, 
bat the people of Lower Huneary were oj>poeed to Ftxii- 
nand, and Kt up the bod of their late kii^ agwiwt him. 
In the BtTUgsle which ensued the aid of the Tiiriu was again 
biToked, and the rtaolt was that Fetdmand had (o agree 
to pay an annnU uini of 80,000 ducals to the saltan for 
this part of Hungary. Ferdinand waa also imder the ne- 
endty of luirendenng^ WQrtemberg to Duke Ulrich, on 
oondition of its remaJDing ■ fief of Austria and reverting 
to that country on the extinction of the male line. Not- 

Lt 114,000 

Sinare miles. Dn the abdication of Charles V. in 1556, 
etdinand succeeded to the imperial tbroue. He died in 
IKi, leaving directions for the division of bis posseeaionB 
among his three sons. The eldest, Haximilian II., received 
Ihe imperial crown, together with Austria, Hungary, and 
Bohemia; Ihesecond, Ferdinand, obtained Tyrol and Lower 
Austria ■ snd the tliird, Charles, was made muter of Stvria, 
Carinthia, GamiolL and Gfirti. lu 1560 the Bultim Soli- 
nan again tuarcbed at the head of a great army into Hun- 
gary, hit met with a very determined reeietance at Siigeth, 
Deloie which town he was suddenly cut off by apopleiy. 
Peace was oonclnded with fais BuccesBOr, and in 1572 Maxi- 
nilian caaeed hn eldest son Ihidolph to be crowned king 
of Hungary. He was afUrwards crowned king of Bohemia, 
snd was also' elected king of the Komans. Haziniilian 
died in 1676, and was succeeded by Rudolph on the impe- 
rial Ibrone. This monarch was little fitted to rule, and 
left the management of afikiiB very moch to others. He 
was entirely under the power of the Jesuits, set at naught 
the ancient laws of the counlij, and peraeculed the Pro- 
testanta. The latter, onder Bonkay, revolted in 1G04, and 
having secured the aid of the saltan, gained repeated victor- 
ies over the imperial troops, compelling Budolph to give 
tbem terms of peace in 1006. Daring Uils reign the poe- 
seMOOS of the Archduke Ferdinand of Tyrol reverteo to 
the two other lines ; while in 1608 Rudolph was compelled 
to cede Hnninry, and in ISll Bohemia and .^iiatria, to his 
krother Matthias, who on the death of Rudolph in 1612 
was CTowned emperor. His reign was full of promise, but 
■nfcrtnnately it was only of ehoK duratiou. Being an old 
nan and cbildlen, be chose as his successor his cousin 
Ferdinand, archduke of SCyria, whom be caused to be 
crowned km^ of Bohemia m 1616, and of Hungair in 
IS18. He died the fallowing year, whea Ferdinana be- 

Bdbre the death of HaUhlis, the memorable 
stn^le betwera Roman Catholicism and Pro- 
testantism, known as the Tkirtg Yearf War 
1648), had commeueed. It originated ' 



(1618 to JVTC/, UMl UfUIUIVL _ ^ 

bmrrectioo of the Protestants of Bohemia, «bo renounced 
Ikor alleoiance lo Ferdinand and chose for their king the 
declor palatine Frederid V. Frederick was sui^rted by 
all the Protestant prinoee except the elector of Saxony, 
while Ferdinand was assisted by the king of Spain and tbe 
other Catholic princes. At fint snccess attended the arms 
of tbe insurgents, who repeatedly routed tbe imperial 
boofa, and even laid siege to Vienna. But tbe Duke 
Uaximilian of Bavaria, coming to tbe assistance of the 
imperialists at the head of a well-appointed army, totally 
debated Frederick at the White Hill near Prague (Sth 
Kovember, 1620). The following daj; Praoue opened its 
gates to the conqueror, and in a ^lort time the whole coun- 
ts was reduced to sul^ectiou, and the territories of the 
euctor palatine divided among the allies. The war might 
have ended here bad Ferdinand adopted a conciliatory 
policy, but impelled by reveu^ and finatical xeal be 
adopted an opposite course, and inatituled agiunst the Pro- 
Isslsnls a severe persecution. They were thus again — 
—"-■■•*-' ' 'n 1626 Obristian I'^, kii 


ibeeqnently joined by Count 

and Christian of Brunswick, while opposed to 
Wallenstein and TULt at the bead of two powei^ 

EtIA. 109 

fbl amies. In April, 1626, Hansfeld was defeUed bj Wal- 
lenstein at Dessaa, and a few months later Tilly vanquished 
tbe Danbih king at Latter. The victorious armies after- 
wards marched into Denmark, and the king was compelled 
to conclude a humiliating mace at Liibeck in 1629. The 
Protestants were now awed into submieeion, and Ferdinand 
was emboldened lo canr out to still greater Imgths his 
polity of supptesMon. Aiming at the total extirpation of 
Frotortant doctrines throaghont his domini(»iB, he revoked 
all Iheprivileges that bad formerly been granted, even Budi 
as had previoiwly received his approval. By tbe so-ealled 
Bdiel ^ .fieXttultan, dated 6tb March, 1629, be enioined 
Ihe mtitution of all ecclesiastical property secularised since 
the peace of Passau, and oiderea tbe Proteetanls to relin- 
quish to the Catholics all benefices which they had appro- 
priated contrary lo the peace of Paaau and the Eocleaiasti- 
cal Reeervatiou. 

The Catholic princes themselves were now becoming 
alarmed at the enormous power which they had contributed 
to place in the hands of the emperor. They therefore 
demanded a reduction of the armr and tbe dismissal of 
Waltenelein, and with these demands the emperor felt him- 
self obliged to comply. But a new champion of the Pro- 
testant cause now appeared in tbe north, in tbe person of 
Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden. This valiant prince^ 
having received promises of ud from France as well as from 
England and the United Provinces, suddenly landed an 
army of 16,000 men at Usedom in Jun^ 1630. Pomerania 
and Mecklenburg were soon conquered by him, and a great 

besit^ by Irillj and taken by assault a>th May, 1631, 
wiien the most barbarous atrocities were perpetrated upon 
the unfortunate inhabitants. Tbe elector of Brandenbdrg 
and afterwards the elector of Saxony joined Oustavus, and 
tbe combined army met the imperialists under Tilly at 
Breitenft'ld, near Leipuc, and defeated them with great 
slaughter (7th September, 1631). The victor now rapidly 
regained all that had been lost. Again Till^ was beaten 
at tbe passage of the river Lech on 6ch April, 1632, and 
the fol lowing day he died of his wounds. Wallenstein was 
nowrec^led and placed at the head of the impeniU troops. 
His name inspired fresh ardor among the soldiery, men 
Bocked to his standard, and be BpeedUy fband hiinself at 
tbe head of a very large army. He drove the 8ax(»u out 
of Bohemia, and afterwards marched to Narembei^ where 
Gostavos was entrenched in a strong position. The two 
armies watched each other for eight weeks, when the king 
directed an attack against the imperialists, but after a fierce 
struggle was repulsed. A fortnight later Gustavus moved 
in die direction of Bavaria, but Wallenstein, instead ef 
following him, marched into Saxony, and thus obliged him 
to suspend his operations in Bavana and to set out in pur- 
Euit of his opponenL The two armies met at LuUeo, 
where a battle took place on 16tb November, 1632. The 
greatest skill and bravery were displayed on both sides, 
and the issue was long doutitful. nut at length victory 


Tbe death of Gustavus wis an irreparable loss to the 
Protestants in Qermanj. Wallenstem, however, made 
but little use o! Ihe advantages he now poaseesed, snd baa 
even been accm d of treacherous designs against the em- 
pire. Be this a& it may, his enemies at court and in the 
army were numerous and powerfiil, and he was at length 
assassinated by some of his own officers, 25tb February, 
1634. The I^testant cause met with another disaster 
in the defeat of Bernard of Weimar at Kordlingen on 6th 
September. On 30th May, 1635, Saxony concluded at 
Prague a treaty of peace with the emperor, in terms of 
which the Lutherans were freed from the operation of the 
Edict of Restitution. The other Lutheran princes sooei 
after accepted the like terms \ bat the Oalvinists, who 
were disliked by both parties, were left to their fate. 

Sweden, no longer able to carry on the war as she bad 
done, entered into a treaty with France, resigning the 
direction of operations to that power, a position of which 
Richelieu gladly availed himself, as accoraing with his am- 
bitious designs. The war now assumed a new phase, France 
and Sweden being allied against the empire and tbe Lutheran 
stateeof Germany, aided by Spun. Richelieu's eSbrts were 
in great mesMire diiedad to humUing the latter pomci 

a>d«aMeno« a 
Gblmiatt WBi« 

110 ATJET 

Bi mmt am imr inio Spain, tcad mlered into Ingnn 
wtA tka dakw of Savoy mmI Paima and tha Dnited f>OT- 
inoN iw ^-"^i^g the Spanish power in lulj and the 
HiilMrlandi. TboM prcyAcU did not tata wiui snoooa, 
aad lb* VST *■■ fbi' a time camad into the French torri- 
IMIM. In the DMBolime the Svedea, under Qeoeral 
Banar, aalnad a britliul viottny over the Saxons and im- 
periaM at WitMlcick (4th October, 1686). The emperor 
ilad «■ the 15lh Febniaiy, 1637, and ma nooeeded by 
Ui NQ Fetdnand III. The war was carried on for elevco 
jmu longw", and the noceas which at firM was with the 
laywiiliitt, after a time came roond to their adversaries, 
lUf at leutb the empamr, prened on all sidea and deserted 
^ his allM^ was riad (o agree to Mttns of peaoe. By the 
patM of Westphalia, signed !Hth October, IMS, Fianoe 
gq^ied Alsace ; Sweden got Upper Pomerania, the Isle 
and some other terrilory ; the soTeret^tr and 
> of the diderent states was. reoogniaed ; the 
« plaeed on (he sanw foMiiw as the Luther- 
ans; aiM uie indepeodence of the United FroTinoes and 
(ke Swiss OonfaderaXion was acknowledged. 

Ferdinand lU. died in 1667, and was snoceeded bj his 
■so I>i^mld L Thie princ^ by bis hanh trsatmsBt of 
Ike HuBgaiian^ drove that people into Terolt ; and tb^, 
Udc DuUe tocope with thejpbwccof the empire ainrie- 
fcanowLndled in tin aid of the Turica, who, under I&m 
HiM^ilM in 16SS, besieged Vienna, whldi was only aand 
Ij an am^ of Pole* and Oermans under John SobieakL 
ne faspanal amy than ifednced the whole of Hungary into 
■■iMealion, and nniled to it TraiiiylTani«, wUcfa bad been 
hitMfto go*«med by its own prioMa ; aiid the whole waa 
dadarad to be a hereditary kingdom. In 16W Turker, 
■Aer bung d «faat«d in aercnl ieaguiiiar; eflgagameaia by 
tka oaMmted genenl Prince Eugen^ was compelled 1^ 
the pmn* of Gatlowits lo cede to HungaTy the country 
tfnf between the Danube and the Theiss. Fierioui to 
Ui Iroobla with Huoguy and Turkey, Leopold had lent 
Ub aid in 1912 to the Dutch in their eln^gle against the 
•BbiUoga deng» of Franoe. Thie wta brought to a cloae 
hj tbe pease of NimeaueD in 167S; but the oooflict 
bi«ka oM afresh the ikulowiog year, when the Et^lidi 
aho eaua forward and oontribuled Urgely both in troops 
■ad nMNwf . The ohief Bceoee of wai&ra were the Netha- 
landa and the bank* of the Rhine, At but ia 1687 came 
tlM peMe of Ryawick, which iett the oonlending partita in 
Marly the same relative poaidona as at the b^ijiining of 
Ike ooDlEsL The allies bad, bowever, the aattsfacdon of 
Wvitig compelled the French kii^ lo stop short in hia 


_ . _ sath of Charles IL of Etoain in 1700. 

Waiof.uie ^tiwut leaving ina^ lad lo what is known 
' as tbc (Tar V As Siuaemmi. Lonta XIV. bad 
the eldset aisler of the late king, but she had by 

wenantretMNUiced her right to the Spanish crown. 

Th» seoaod liatar had married the Emperor Leopold, and 
ike 1^ aiade uo such renunciation, but her daugfatai had, 
IS BMrried to Ihe elaotor of Savaria. Leopold bad 
N by a seeood nuuriaget and now daimed the er 



.■b* tkoMvaral parties conoerned for some timeb^re 
Ike Lin^i death, and he had been induced to make a 
•aoret will, in which he named Philip, '.*dke of Ai^jou, 
g^andMn <■ Louis XIV., as his succtsor Leopold, how- 
aver, vai by no meane incUoed to depart what he oon- 
itdcnd his rights, and the other aisles of Europe looked 
witk jealotiey on the proapact of a tuucn of France and 
^Min onder a Bourbtni dynasty. An alliauoe was accord- 
in^j formed by Austria with England aud Holland 
againat France, with which power on the other hood Bavaria 
Mlied hersalf. The emperor deapatohed an armv into Italy 
■nder Prinoa Eugene, to Cake poaseeuoo of tne Spanish 
tarriloriea in that country; while the English and Dutch 
aaited Iheir forcca under Mailborowb. The former ez- 
perienoed a good deal of hard fighting, but eSecled little 
of ooDiaqMnoe, while tha latter busied himsdf in taking 
ana after another of Ike Fra>ch atrongfaolda in the Nether- 
lands. At Uagth the two generals combined their foroee 
and Bit the united army of their enemies at Blenheim. 
IRks bttei numbered about 56,000 men and occupied a 
strong poBiUon, while (he number of the former was about 
fi^OOa The flghl comraeoMd by Marlborough lending 
tka rin^t wing ^punst the Fr«Kh, while Eugeoe with the 

left wine advBiead against tka Banriana. Tht battle waa 
long and Serce, the sssailaela being repeatedly driva faa<l 

and Bavarians feU on the ieM, aad nesrty 13,000 w 
made prisonos, among whom wsa the commsmder of ine 
Fmoh srmy, Msnhal Tallard. The elactor of Bavaria 
WW oompellcd to cram the Rhine with tha French, and 
his territory was occupied by thaimperiaUsli. Thefollow- 
ingyeai the emperor died, and waasDOOeedcd by hiseMcM 
son, Joee^ The war was coatiamed with vifor, bnt for a 
time nothing of importsnoawasanywhareei t Sad. I^Vaaoa 
now directed her chief allsatidn lo the eonqnesl of 
the Nethcalands, and acM into that eonntn a maguificMit 
array under the OMnmand of Maijhil VilMni. Bnt this 
general waa no match for Maribcraagh ; and In Ihe batth 
of RaouUiea (23d May, 170S) he was tofaUy defcnted with 
a lom of about 13,000 men. Pii&oe &Mi(/a (dbra ia 
Italy were also this year crowned witt mndi anoccM. 
After a memor^e miuiJi of more than 200 miles, ba 
snddeolv appeared before Tliin, which ww then dostlT 
basiend by Uie enemy. Having ^Med a jonction witft 
Ihe duke of Savoy, be attacked the Fresich linea (7th 
Baptember), and tkoogh repeatedly driven back, at length 
snoceeded in totally routing Ihe eoemy. The FrefiA 
general. Count Manin, was wonnded, taken priscotr, and 
died the following da^. I^e Fraioh power in Nortbein 
Italy was thus ebalterad, and soon after both Fiendi and 
laniards were driven oat of tbe oonoliT- The like bdo- 
- ' ' - ~ - - — " I jp u,^ Nether- 

lands, where he took poaaesHon of eveir place of 
After Eugene had eettled afEtiia in Italy, be ^tain ft 
Netherlands, and o 

junction with Hariborough in the I 
11th Jane, I70S, they attacked and nioleil the French 
under Vendfime at Oudeoarde. FVance now made over- 
tures for p(»ce; but these being rejected, she sent a new 
army into the field, under the commend of Harabal VUUrs. 
He was attacked by the two vicloriona generals in his 
entrenchments at Malplaqoei (11th September, 1700) and 
totally flelealari. Fnnce again made propoaaU for peaee^ 
but theaa meeting with no b "■ — 

laid daim to the Spanioh orawn, this event ccnlribnted 
not a little to nstotc peaoe. The prospetA of the nnica 
on one head of the crowns of Aunttia and Spain did 
not accord with the views of thoae who had beeo 
hitherto sni^Mirtlng the claims of Auabia, and the transte 
of ^lain to a giandaoo of Louia XIV. appeared to than 
the ttes dangtroM altemaliTe of the twa This, joined 
to the dmnge of ministry in bglaod, and tbe removal of 
Hariboraiwi from the f«Tii»iiT«»l^ togelhar with tha im- 
patience oT the Dnioh under ao lo^ w>d so bnrdensoma a 
war, led to the peace of Utrecht, which wsa signed IIA 
Apnl, 1713. Auatria oontimied tke war for some tima 
longer, but the next year agreed to snbetantially the sama 
terms at Baden. By this treaty Franoa earned that tha 
erowna of Franoe and Spain skoold never he onited, and 
that no part of the Spauiah Netheriaoda should ever ba 
tranaforred toher; she also ceded to BsgUnd Nova Sootiiu 
Newfoondlsnd, Hndson's Bay, and St. Kin^ and agreed 
to destroy tiie forlifioatiaBB of DonkiA ; Spain gave (^ 
her pomearions in the Netharlaad* and in Italy to Austria 
(who, on bn part, f eno on eed her claim to tbe Spanisk 
eucceseioo), and ceded Qihmltar and Hinoiea to England ; 
tbe Dutch leoeived « small aoosarion of tenitor?; sod tha 
duke of Savoy obtained ffitaly, with the title of king— 
aAerwards IU20) exchanged for Ihe island of Sanlinia. 
The Austrian monarchy now embiaoed about 190,000 
square miles t^ terntory, with neariy 29,000,000 of inhab- 
itants. Its annual i«veane was between 18,000,000 and 
14,000,000 fiorins, and iu army coneitfed of 190,000 men. 

Austria itezt became involved In a war with (he Turka, 
and in 1716 Prinoe Eugene set oat at the head of an army 
against them. The result was a seriea irf aplendid sn» 
omses, which led to a peace signed at PamarDwita (1718), 
by which Austria received a cooaidetaUe ucoamion of toti- 
lorv. Disaffection still eontioued to snfarist between Sipaim 
sun Austria, which led to rq»eated oegotialiana on tbe part 
of the other poweiB to preewve peaoe. Charim being with- 
out beiis-male, was deatroiiB of seonring tl - '— *~ 

bis eldest dai^jUer, Maria IhereMS and wi 


fruMd the ealebnMd Pn^madc Sattctioii, uid it became 
tif gnat otgect toget AeMMDtof theotbcr powen to thia 
■mngvoanL ^fiaod aod almott all the othw potren, 
Kopt FnuwM^ SpHD, aad SMffinia, accoded to it lo 17S1. 
la ITS the •npam- b«MM inv^nd in ft WW with FiSDM 
DD behalf of Aagnstoa III. id Saxraj, who had batn dectad 
king of Poland. Pnooa MnHifled the olaiiM of 9biBialaa* 
LecuaAi, mA neeiTad ttaa aid of ftmiii aad Baidiattu 

mt ton paaea. Br thia treatj AngnBlBB wbi coaflrwed on 
yw thrme of Potaad ; bat AoBlria waa obliged to eedo lo 
BtanidaDa the doGUea of Lorraine and Bar, to b« after- 

nnb ■—- -f ' to FrMaca; Don Garioa 

Iho (. 

f Lonaine, tha am- 
powr TtcciTiiig aa oompcnntiaa Fannk and Placcntia; 
iod Franca, and afterwudi Spain and Saidini^ acceded to 
the Pragaaatio bnetian. War again broke out «itfa the 
Tnrb^ aod Prine* Bogcne heii% now no more, the Aus- 
' " ' ' "k and ezp^led lh>in 

.. _ ..) fc pwaa d lT b. 

Hiwhold aftv moathm, till, bj the peace of Belgrade 
(1730), lh« empow waa coMpaUed to yield np alaust all 
thai (ha anw «f BOMOe had foraMriT gained for him. 
TheMipv«rdied«Mlhe>0lhOeioher, 1744 and his eM- 
M datii^lar, UmIa TbNCM, who wm nwrried Id the doke 
of Lorraine or Iiathiiagea (aMerwkrda an^dabe of Tus- 
ew), ■rauwd the goremnwli Immediatclj oonntai^ 
duma wan adranead on all aidea. The alaotar of Bavaria 
daisMd to be rightfcl hnr to the kiiwdom of Bohemia; 
the elector of &>uoitv and king of Polaad, and also the 
kinff of apoha, claimed the entire HKCaarion ; (he king of 

« of Bavaria, while EngluDdalMMoameftirwwd to 

the awntanee of the qaac% and the HoDgsTiaaa, now 
■aited aai lantX, williawlr recmiled het armies. Aided 
kr fVaoce aad Sazanr, ue elector of Bavaria took Haste- 
■OD qS Bobaoiia, ana was ptodaiaMd king in 1741, and 
the ibllowiiMt Tear ha waa afaotad cuiurur ond^ the title 
of Chaiiea VII. The kioft of Prnana marched anddeol j 
into Sittua and took Boneaaia of that coantiy. The alao- 
tar of BavBiia, aided bj Fr^Mh tro^pa, iwtl invadad Ana- 
tria, tad ans tknotenad Vienna. !%• queen flad to Fmb- 
bu^ and coMTokad the HHigariaa diet. She appiared in 
tlie midst of the MeniMj with her inJhnt wm Jceepb 1> 
bar mne, and ag^paalad to tfaaaa far ptotaction and Mp. 
A bant of tnthmiasm foUowad, and a powerfbl Hmnriaa 
mar WB« spaadilf at her atrvioe. The Fmdi and Ba- 
ratians were aeon driven oat of the arobduohj. A battle 
«!■ ibaght batvean the Aoatriana OBder the prinea sf Lo(<- 
raiaa and the Pnuaiana nndtr Pndeiii^ at CMabui (t7th 
Hay, 1742), in whf<A tba imntr wcta defcalad, aod tliia 
wm Ibllowed hj the pwoe of Braalan (11th June), 1^ 
■hicfa Piuwia aoqnireJpQuuaMjiMi tJ Upper and Lower &- 
Vain, (ezceptug the town* of Tioppan ioA Jiewndorf^ and 
lhemouDtaiDaof8ilcaia>andlheoo<]nt)'ofOuiz. Amlria 
BOW tnnied farr anna againtt the Frcndi and Bavariana, 
the Ibrmer of whom ware dritu oot of the country. In 
1744 the king sf I^tnwa, jealoua of the (Docea* attending 
■he Anstriana, again look tba &elit against them la support 
ef the emperor. He marched into Bohemia aod took 
Pngne, but nibacgnendT 
, ^, 

IT under the title of Fran- 

deub of the 


« Bghting, a peaoe 
with Pnuaia at Pweden, bj which the king was confirmed 
in Ibe poaacmion of Bileaia. The war with rWnoe was prue- 
ecnteH for tome time longer in the NetherlandB and in 
Italv with TaTTing nncMS, but altimately peace waa oon- 
doded at Aii4a-ChapeUe, in October, 1748. Austria «ve 

Stteduchieaof Putaa, PlaoMtia, aod GuaaUUIa to Don 
ilip^ eon of the king of Spain, and aereral digtricia of 

o Sardinia; Ftiiniawaa ooiiflmed 
e( SUeaia and Olatz ; while Maria Thertsa waa recognized 
■a righlfnl monarch of AnMria. After having acquired 
poux, and been thoa oondrmcd in her poaseaioni, tier 
great desire waa M reoover Silcna tnta Frederick, wboae 
(■mdoM towwdi her had rank deep into her heart. She 
(Urerted her attenliaa to stteRgthening end improving her 
vnv, and to forming allianeea with the other atalea agaf nat 
Ihe 'Proasian king, particularly with Baasia and Saxony. 

ir men Hgainsi r^niBBia. id aii, ine uiia were e*u> 

to mnster about 600^000 isen, while Freduiek could 
y raise SD0,OD0 of hia own, huauxiiiariea (Ength^ 
'wiana, Ac.) probably amounting to abont M,OM 

In 1766 war broke oat in North America b^ween f^asM 
and England, and in view of ilB beeomir^ mora geneial 
England solicited the aid of Austria, hot without sucoew 
This naturally led lo a anion between Eo^and and Pm^ 
■ia, while Franoe allied herself with Anslna Kad BuMia. 

In July, 175S, Frederick despatched a mes* 
Sanger to Vienoa to ascertain the rneanioK of ^^^'w^ 
the targe forces aaaetnblcd in Bt^emia and Mo- 
ravia. Beceiring an evasive answer, he at once marched 
an army of 60,000 men into Saxony, took Drwdm, and 
made himself master of the couniry, the Saxon amy of 
only about 17,000 men being shnt up in a strong positiel^ 
but ill provisioned, between Pima and ESaigttem. An 
Aostrlan army, nnder Ihs command of Harehttl Browne^ 
advanced from Bohemia to the relief of Saxony, but wsa 
met by Frederick. A battle look place at Lowomts (Itt 
October), which, ihouHi not decisrve, ended in the retreat 
of the Aastriaos ; and the &mished Bason army, after an 
inefilsctusl attempt to eOect a retreat lo Bohemia, taU 
down their arms. This ended the first campaigQ, imd 
both aidea did their utmost to piepsje for re- 
newing hostilities the following year. The '""" 
empren strengthened her forces in Boltcmia, and the 
imperial diM coneeded aa army of 90,000 men to asriat 
her. France engaged to send an army of 80,000 er I0O,0M 
men into Germany, and Russia set in motion sc army of 
10(^000 men against Prussia. In all, the allies wet« esti> 

matedtoi ^- ' •■ - 


Hanovwians, Ac.) probably a „ ._ _.,___ 

more. Frederick renewed the war by marching an armj 
into Bohemia, where, on 6th Hav, be gained a Tietorr aver 
the Austriana, nnder Prince Ciiaiies of Lomine^ w the 
neighborhood of Pnigoe, and then I^ siege to that <dty. 
General Ltaim, at the head of an Austrraa army, advamwl 
to the relief of the dtv, and Ihe king sel oat to meet hiaa. 
The encounter took place at Kolin (ISth June), and the 
Prussiaiis, being much interior in numbera wece bfana 
with great simghter. Frederick was oompeUad at OBiee n 
raise Ihe siege and to evacuate Bohemia, "la hanot of 
Ihisviclory the empreM inglllatad the militai7 eider of 
Maria Thertaa. It bad alstttheedbetofiiHpititigtheBUies 
with freah cooraga Th* Btwdana invaded the kingdom 
of Pruaua; tiie Sweden entered Pomsrania; and two Pramh 
armiea crow e d fhe Bhine in order to attaok Hssse aad 
Hanover and than march intoPnissia. One of these ai'MJai^ 
nnder the ooannand of Prince Soubis^ advaaeed towanis 
ThtuinfiL in order to form a ImmiaB with the imperial 
forces onderthe priacs <rf Hildburgbanaen, while Wairiial 
d'Estrfea, who commanded the hu^r Frcttch army, en* 
tared HaiMwer, and through the ineBpecily of his opponent, 
gained an easy victory over the Aiiglo-Oermaciic army, 
under the dnke of Cumberland, near Hastenbeck, on tM 
Weaer (26tfa July). The duke aHerwarde oompleiad bli 
disgrace by agredng to disband his troops and rive np 
Hanover, Hesse, Bmaswi<^ and the whole country hetwea 
the Weeer and the Rhine to the French. The other Frenck 
arm^ effected a union with the imperial troops ef Thi»- 
ringUp and made preparations for driving the Priwaiana 
out of Saxony. Frederick, however, determined to meat 
them, and after a aeries of marches and oountermai^m 
the two armies came together near Boaabach. The Prw- 
army amonuted to about 22,900 men, while that <tt 

alliee. when they advanced lo the attack, were snddenly 
met by such a tremendous fire that they were thrown into 
confusion aud unable to recover themselves. In \tta than 
half an hour the day was decided (5th November, 1767). 
The allies had 1200 killed and more than 7000 taken 
prisonen, while the loei of the Priusians scarcely exceeded 
500 in killed and wounded. At this time the imperialiaa 
had entered Silesia and there gained seventl advantngsa 
over the Pmesiaiis, who were at leu«h driven lo the walli 
of Breitau. Here a battle wua fought |22d November) in 
which the Auacriaas were victorious, aad the city itself 
soon after sorrendered to the conquerors, Frederick now 
made what haste ha could to retrieve bis fortunes in thk 
quarter, and met the Augtrian army, nnder Prince Cfaarlaa 
of Lorraine, in a plain near the village of LetUheu. The 
Austriana numbered about S0,000 men, while the Pn» 
sians did not exceed 30,000, yet by >he skilfiil disposal of 
his troopa and the celerity of hia movementa Frederick 

again gained ft UHupleteTichuy (6th December). The field 
was ooTwed with bIud, mnd it la tatimiled ihat about 
20,000 sorrendered tbemselvee ptisonen. Bitelau vaa 
speedily retaken, and the Awtriaiui drivmi out of Silesia. 

The Eoglish were verr indignant at the treaty entered 
into by the duke of Cumberland, and another annj waa 
Bpeedily raised and placed under the conmiaad of Duke 
ITW. Ferdinand of Brunswick, who commenced the 

campai^ of 1768 by suddenly attacking the 
French in their winter quarters. In a few weeka he suc- 
ceeded in driving them out of the country, panned them 
, acroae the Bhine, and attacked them furiously at Crefeld, 
where they were completely routed. 

While Field-Marshal Daun, who had received the com- 
mand of the Austrian army, was wailing the attack of 
Frederick in Bohemia, the latter, by forced marches, 
entered Honvia and laid ai^e to Olmiita. The town, 
however, defended itself with the greatcat braverr, and 
the FniSHana were compelled to raise the si^e. By this 
,(ime, Ihuin having blocked up Frederick's retreat into 
Silena, the Pruman army was marched saddenly norih- 
irard into Bohemia, and attacked the Busuana who had 
invaded Brandenburg. AAer a deaperale battle the latter 
were defeated with great slaughter at Zomdorf (2flth 
AngUBt) and compelled lo r«reat into Poland. Frederick 
now entered 8azony, where his brother Prince Heor; was 
hard pressed by the Aiistriana. Thereupon Daun retired 
*- a strong pcaitioD in Lusatia, aod Frederick Uxik op ■ 

.,.,... - -J. i^n,^ little tiuQUiig that Daun woald attack 

kirohen, and in the confusion and darknees the slangier 
was terrible. Frederick loet several of his best generala, 
including Prince Francis of Brunswick, Prince Maurice of 
Deasan, and Field-HanhU Keith, with about IK)00 of his 
sotdicra. His camp, baggag&aud ammmution also fell into 
thebsudsof the Austrians. The victory, however, was pro- 
ductive of little material reeults; Frederick retrotted into 
ffilena, while die Austrians, after iiMfiectual attempts onLdp- 
■i<^ Torgat^ and Dresden, retired lo Bohemia for the winter. 
The Anrtnan army was again largely reinforced, and every 
,,„ preparation made for renewing hostilitiee with 

vigor. The following year[1769) Duke Ferdi- 
nand found hlmaelf hard pressed t? two French armies under 
the Duke da Bn^lie and the Uaishal de OmCades. He 
Bortsdned a defeat at Bergen (12lh April), but afterwards 
gained a sigDal victory at Minden (1st Angust), and com- 
pelled ^e Froich to retreat. Dauu, wailing ihe approach 
of the Bussians, did not take the field till the buinnliig 
of May, when, on their advance lowaids the Oder, he 
moved into LuaaUa. In June, Dohna, who was sent lo 
check the advance of the Buaslana, was forced to retreat, 
and, on the 23d July, Wedel, who succeeded him in the 
command, was totally routed near Znllicbau. The Bnssians 
then marched on lo Fraukfort-on-the-Oder, where they 
were joined by 18.000 Austrians under Marshal Loudon. 
Frederick haalened with what troops he could collect lo 
give battle lo the combined army. The latter took up a 
atrong pceilioD on the heights near Kuneiadorf, aud there 
they were sttucked early on the 12th of August by ihe 
king. The Prtissians numbered about 50,000, while the 
Buseiana and Austrians amounted to 90,000. The battle 
raged long and furiously, and the issue was long doubtful, 
bat at length the BuHBians were giving way on all udes, 
and victory was about lo declare for the Prussians, when 
nnezpectedly the Austrians made a furious attack upon 
them, threw them into confusion, and in a short time 
drove them from the field. Frederick lost in this action 
20,000 of his bravest troope, and [he low on the side of 
the alliM was not lees tlian 24,000 men killed and wounded. 
In the meantime the Austrians overran Saxony, took 
Torgau, Wittenberg, and l/eipsii^ and invested Dresden, 
which, after a spirited defence, surrendered when an army 
^ relief was close at hand. But Frederick was speedily in 
Ihe field again at the head of a new army, and by dint of 
■kilfiil maneenvring and cutting off supplies, he succeeded 
in haraseins Ihe two armies, and compelled the Bussians 
again to retire into Poland. An anny of 13,000 men, under 
Ooieral F^k, attacked the rear of the Austrian arm/ 
near Haxen, but after a brief but sanguinary conflict ihe^ 
wen defeated aud taken prisonets. Daun took up his 
winter quartets in Saxony, notwithstanding every effort of 
Frederiok to dispossess him. 

RIA. la 

The imperial troope had been very soccasftil dnrii^ 
last campaign, and were in good condition to renew 
S^i, while the Pnusiaus had sustainad great loaaei, i 
dispirited, and could only muster about 80,000 figli 
men, and these do longer veterans, but in great mci 
raw recruits. In the campaign of 1760 Fred- ' 

erick was himself to conduct the war in Saxony, 
Prince Henry was lo protect the matches aguint the '. 
sians, and General FouqueC was to defend Silesia tg 
Ihe Austrians under Loudon. On 23d June, 8000 I 
sians, under Fouquet, were surrounded and alladied o 
sides by 30,000 Austrians at Landshut, and, after defsl 
Ihemselves long with great bravery, were obliged lo J 
The king, after BO ineffectual attack upon Drreden, — 

Lacy, and London, numbering about 90,000 men, wUI 
own army amounted to only about 30,000. On Ihe -* 
preceding (he 16th of August, Frederick look np a po 
on the neighboring heighu of Pbfifandorf. Bcaroel] 
he done so whto the Austrian army, under Loudoo, i 
its appearance, it having alio inleiMed to occnpy the 
pohition, and then &1I npon the Pruasiana. TheAnl 
were greatly astonished to find the enemv before I 
neverthelen, they fought for three hours with great bn 
returning again and again to the attack, but were at 1 
compelled to retreat with a lees of 4000 killed and 
wounded. Daun afterward* came up and niade 
upon the Pnmians, buL^'eaniina what had happoi 
London, he withdrew. Frederiet now directed Us i 
on Brealan ; and meanwhile the Busnana effected 
tion with the Austrians, and marched on Berlin, i 
anrrendered to them (3d October). A we^ later, hi 
that the king was advandng against them, they 
dty and retired into Saxouy. I^nn had likewise 
in Saxony, and taken np a veir strong position 
Torgau. Here the Prunians attacked him with grea 
on 3d November. The battle lasted till night 

prepared to renew the attack 
the Austrians retreated during the nighL They lost 
12,000 men killed and wounded, and 8000 prisoners, 
this battle Frederick reconquered the greate 
Saxony, and acoordingly he fixed his winter quai 
establishing hia headquarters at Leipsic In 
1781 Frederick employed every stratagem to 
prevent the jnnction oE the Russian army under Bal 
with the Austrian under Loudon. The two armies, 
ever, at length came tcsether in the envirrms of Si 
(12th August), the combined tbrcee amounting lo U 
men, while the Prumians numbered only about C 
The leaders, however, could not agree to a common i 
of proceeding, and the two armies separated withouti 
ing anything of consequence. The Austrians surprlsa 
took Schweidnila (1st October), and the Prussians, i 
four months' si^e, look poeseasion of Ck>lberg (13d 
cember). In Saxony Prince Henry had to retreat I 
Daun; but the latter gained no great advantage^ 
Frederick settled in Breslan for the winter. It seen 
if Prussia must at last yield to her sssailant^ but thi 
as far as ever from the king's mind. To add to h' 
culliea, the subsidies ft«in England were stopped 
earl of Buto after the death of Oeortre II. But b 
death of the Ciarina Eliiaheth (5lh January, |,^ 
1762), he was freed from one of the most power- 
ful of his enemies ; and her successor, Peter HI.. 
recalled the army, but delivered up alt the Pnueion 
oners, and even entered into an alliance with the 
Sweden also retired from the contest, and entered 
terms of peace. Frederick was therefore in a hetl« 
dition to carry on the war vigorously against Auslri^ 
the seventh campaign was marked Dy a series of din 
to that power. He attacked and overthrew Dann's 
wing at Burkendorf (21st July), gained a victa 
Eeichenbach (16th August), and took Bchweidnili 
a very gallant defence (9th October). Prince Hmu} 
also victorious at Freiberg (Z9th October). In the r" 
time Duke Ferdinand had been during the last three 
succeesfully maintaining the war with the French. 1 
reinforcements and new generals were broi^lt a| 
him, but he could not be crushed; and, by the vid 
of Wilhelmsthal (24lh June) and Lultembui^ (23d Ji 
France was brought to agree to peace. Thns Austria 

but theii 
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PmDiwere left to EanTon the war alone; and ihe former, 
llwiig)) unply providea with Uoops, was without money 
lo luiiisli us neoamtrj luppliea, while Frederick was ever 
nedj to oome lo termi on Jiaving the poawauon of Sileaia 
Morad lo him. AuBtria found heiself obliged to jield 
Ihii point, and peace was at length agreed to. The treatr 
n« ligned at the castle of Hubeitsburg. in SazODV, 15lti 
m^ February, lT63,aDdthiuend«lthe8«veD Years' 

War, — a war diBBBtroui to all concerned, and 
vUcfa is ertimaled lo have cost in actual fighting men 
B&3,(XI0. It effected no lenltorial change in nnv of the 
eooDtriei, bat through it Prussia tcee to be one of the great 
fowtn of Eorope. Austria, on her part, bad carHra on 
ihe oonflict with remarkable vigor and determination ; lier 

it greatly inferior b 

cnk had shown a 
Ihat of Frederick hii 

Una Thereea now teslously devoted herself to improv- 
iiw the condition of her people and countrv. She estab- 
IjJied schoote. removed feudal hardship^ improved the 
anditjtni of the ser^ reformed eccl«eiaetical abuaee, and 
l»tei«d industry and commerce. The Emperor Francis 
£ed 18tb August, 1765, and was succeeded by his son, 
}tmak II, who the previous year hod been elected king 
of the Bomons. He also became joint-r^^nt with his 
nother of the hereditary stalee. Maria eecablishod two 
■oUateial biBoches of her house in the persona of her two 
jpQuer aon^ the Archduke Leopold .in Tuscany, and the 
Aiduoke Ferdinand, who married the heiress of Este, in 
Ucdena. By the first partidon of Poland (1TT2) Austria 
tcqoired Oalicia and Lodomeria, and in 1777 Buckowina 
WIS ceded by the Porte. On the deatli of the elector of 
Banria without issue, the Emperor Joseph laid claim to 
bu dominions. To this Frederick was opposed, and again 
look the field against Austria. The dispute, however, was 
Mttled without war (1779), Austria beii^ content with the 
osion by Bavaria of tlie frontier district called the quarter 
of the Inn, and one or two others. The empress died 29th 
Ncirembcr, 178& in the sii^-fburth year of her age and 
Ihe lor^-firsl of her reign. She was a woman of many 
sad great virttiee, with few weakneseea, and effected more 
kt Austria than any of her predecessore. Hr. C^lyle 
Mys that ahe was " meet brave, high and pious minded ; 
bautifal, too, and radiant with good nature, though of a 
tonper that will easily catch fire; there was, perhaps. 

woman then living." At her death the 
eamprised 234,600 square miles, with a population esti- 
■lated at 24,00(^000, and a public debt of 160,000,000 
lorim, or £10,000 000. 

The Elmperor Joseph II., whoee teal for reform bad in 
|tfU measnre been kept in check during the lifetime of his 
■nther, now felt himself at liberty to give it full scope. 
He Ulempled a number of changes, of which several were 
praiMwortfa^ in their oljjecls, but abrupt and premstare in 
tbeir operation, so that in the end they were productive of 
evil eooBeqaenccB. He sought to establish a system of 
Mnlial goTemment and uniformity of legislation through- 
cat his dDmiaiona ; enjoined the exclusive use of the (ler- 
nan laiwnage in all the schools, courts of justice, <£c.; 
^nmted free and unreserved toleration to all sects of Chris- 
HaiH; abolished numerous convents and monasteries; dis- 
Bonlled varioDS fortresses; and did away with primogen- 
itaire and feudal vanalage. Had his people been ripe for 
Ikoe chutes be would probnbly have been hailed as a re- 
fonner of abuses; but the Auslrians were attached to their 
old iBiges, aiK) were little inclined for (diange, while the 
ututniy manner in which the improvements were intro- 
dimd eonld not fail to provoke discontenL General uneasi- 
n^ therefore, began to prevail, which in the Netherlands 
broke ont into open revolt in 1789. This, together with 
an mNooceisful war in which he had engaged with Bussia 
■gaiut Turkey, is nndeistood lo have preyed upon his 
•vereemitive mind, and caused his death on 20lli Feb- 
nary, 1790- He was, says Mr. (^rtyle, "a man of very 
Ugh qoalitie^ and mach too oousdous of them ; a man 
of unbilion without bounds ; one of those tatal men — fatal 
to thenMelvea first of alt— who mistake half genius for 
■bole ; and rash on the second step without having made 

He WM mooeeded by his brother Leopold, grand duke 
ef ToKany, who by his moderation and firmness was sac- 
*■■ ' ' ' '" ■ ~ ■ - ■' "in quelling 

rauA. 113 

with Uie Porte. The misfbrtnnee of his uster Haria An> 
toinette and h^ husband, Louis XVI. of France, led him 
lo enter into an alliance with Frueeia against the B«vo1b- 
tionista, but he died before the war broke out ,7« 
(Ist March, 1792). He was succeeded by his 
son Francis II., who had hardly ascended the throne wbes 
he found himself involved in a wsr with France. 
Hostilities commenced on 28th April with an ?"];?''' 
attempted invasion of Fhmders by the French, 
but their undisciplined troops were speedily rooted and 
put to flight. A oombined armv of 50,000' FmseiaiM, 
under the command of the duke of Bmnswidt, and 15,000 
Austrians under General (SairJait, besides atxiut 20,000 
French, soon afUr crossed the French frontie^ took 
Loogwy and Verdun, and marched on Paris. In the 
meantime Dnmouriei was activeW engaged in collecting 
an army, and soon found himself'^in a condition to meet 
them. A series of engagements look place without any 
decided result, beyond checking the advance of the allied 
troops, who were now also suoeriiig very severely from 
sickness and famine. It was therefore deemed prudent to 
retire, and Vetdun and Longwy were soon afler retaken. 
Dumonries next invaded the Netherlands with an army 
of 100,000 men, to oppose which the Austrian army only 
amounted lo 40,000. A batUe took place at Jemappes on 
the 6th of November, in which the AngtHans fought with 
heroic bravery, and the contest was long doubtful, but the 
superior numhsrs of the French carried the day. The 
loss on both sides was very great ; and soon after the whole 
of the Austrian Netherlands, with the exception of Lux- 
emburg, was in the hands of the French. The jj^ 
coDunenoementof thecampaioTiof 1793was dis- 
Unguished by a series of ijrilliant victories gained by the 
alliee in the Netherlands. Dumouriei was defeated at Al< 
denhoven, and again in a great battle at Neerwinden (18tk 
March). Soon after, afraid.of falling into the hands of the 
Jacobins in Paris, he paseed over to the allies. His suo- 
cessor. General Daropierre, was defeated and elain on the 
plains of Famors, and the allies became masters of Valen- 
ciennes and Condd. Towards the end of the campaign, 
however, the republican troops were successful in a number 
of engagements. At the commencement of the ^jj^ 

Sar 1794, the Austrians, Dutch, Engli^ and 
anoverians united their forces in the Netherlands under 
the command of the prince of Coburg, and the Emperor 
Francis himself joined the camp, in or<urby his presenoeto 
encourage the troops. In April the allies were suoceesful a; 
Catean and at Landrecies, and took that town ; but their 
good fortune then forsook them. Clair&it was attacked sin- 
gly at Kortryk by Picb^ru, and forced to yield to superior 
numbers ; and tlie allies under the prinoe of Coburg were 
attacked by himatToumay^22d May), when an extremely 
long and bloody, but undedsiv^ battle was fought. The 
Austrian troopswerenowgreatJy dispirited; and onthe26tli 
June lliay were defeated by General Jourdan'at Fleuru*. 
This was followed by other disasters, so that all Flanders ww 
soon in the hands of the French. Pichegru, pnrsuing his vio- 
torious career, next invaded Holland, wbicli, before the end 
of the year, was ti'ansformed into a republic „„ 
In the Msinning of 1795 Prussia alrandgned 
the cause of the allies, and concluded a treaty of peace with 
the French republic at Basle (5th April), and was joined 
therein by Hanover and Hesse Cassel, — ■'•- ' * — ' — — ■■ 
England were left alone to proeecute me ' 
^«r.((.a . n™n..;,.T> of hoetilitios took pli 

that Austna and 

I>usseldorf, invested that town, and drove the Aus- 
trians before it over the Maine. Cl&irfait, however, reas- 
sembled his troops behind the latter river, and attacked 
the French at HScbst, near Frankfort, and completely de- 
feated them (llth October), so Ihat thev were obliged lo 
recross the Khine. In the meantime PicWru had crossed 
the river with another armv, near Mannheim, and took 
pcesession of that town. Wurmser, who was sent for its 
relief, arrived too late far that purpose, but attacked the 
French army near it, put them to flight, and compelled 
them lo recross Uie lUim^ leaving a garrison of 8000 men 
to defend the town, which, after a vigorous siege, surreo- 
dered to Ihe Austrians. , The French, undismayed by 
these lailnres, were only stimulated to greater efforts ; and 
the following year they sent out three armies {^h 
against Austria, one under Jourdon towards 
I (Jean BaptWe mtt-llBI), manlul of the cmplra. aouDt ander Lonli XVIII., wned under D'Estaing Id Atmrlw. eootau 
BSIliBB. eaptDring Charlend sod wlnDlDg St Flennu, dafuted by Arcliduka Charlea Id ITM, praaldeiil ol Council of SCO, sdi 
Jwrta Bou(an«ln Hpkln, Joined Hipolwn In tbi 100 dJ>T>' cunpalBa, governor of Ihe HAIel dca InTsUdea.— &■. Er '' 
Vol. ni^lIM 

114 AtJS 

Ac Lower Bbiae, ninthtv antler HoreiRi tomnda the 
Upper BIiiiM, and x thiid into Itftlj. In the end of Hay 
IM f^nch iwaj nodw Jourdu owed the LoirKt Khinc, 
and aained Bone BBCcunm, but lm aftorwards >tta<^ed bj 
[he Arclidiike Cliarla (I6*h Jane), and forced U> reerosB 
the river. Uoresn soon after ^seted hit passage over the 
Upper Rhine at Bcngburg, defeated the Aoatrung in »ev- 
enu. partial eagM«ilienla, and reduced the chde of Swabia 
to subjection. Jouidaii again pushed forward his troops, 
and ujok Frankfort by bombard meiit, bat was defeated 
with grcHl loBi bj the archduke at Amberg (24th Au- 

D), aad again at Wunburft (3d SeptembM-). Horeau 
in tiM meantime continneit hia advance into Bavaria, 
bat was altxmaMlj obliged to c0bct » retreat, which he 
carried oot with great skill, snKriug ranuparadvEly lillle 
losH, and recrosaing the Bbine on 30tE October. But a dif- 
ferent late WBB aueodiag tlM armv in Italy, under the 
oooiraaod of n yonng ofiioer, wno afterwards beoane 
world-tamoDB for his generalship, namelj, Bonaparte. 
By the praaaptitode of liia movements, and the soaden- 
n^ of his BtCrnAB, be completely overcame and separated 
die umv of the Bardiniaos from that of the Auatriana, and 
forced the Sardinian king to sign a treaty ef peaces He 
(ban ttrtsed kia anna agninat the AHatriaea, defeated 
1% and made himself master of 

il engageiBt 
the whole of Lombardr, except Hantna. 
Wmany' with an 
L, which raised the Anitrian force to about 60,000: 

with an amy of t 


nty ha soataiaed a double diiaat 
fSd August) ; and, being Main 
(6tk August), he waa forced la i 

while Djlpased to theni w«re about 56,000 FroDch. lo- 
Itaad, however, of advancing in one body, the Austrians 
were divided into two columna, which advanced by diSerent 
routes, a miaUke of which Bonaparte did not foil t» take 
•dvanOige. One division of 20,000 men was attacked and 
compelled to retreat towards Ike mMntaine, while Wurraeer 
with (he other division cnlcted MuiCua. Leaving that 
y ha soataiaed a double difaat at Lonato and Caatwiiooe 
'er«ly beaten at Medola 
k shelter in the mono. 

he again udvaoeed in divided columna, one of which was 
dalc^ad at Bovendo, ike other, aader hiouelf, near Ba»^ 
■ano. Ha took the road to MantDUi with the remaias of 
his armv, and readied thai (own after a brilliant victory 
over a body of Frotcfa troops that had been sent (o ia- 
tercapt him. llfeanwhile the AnBtriam collected aooCher 
mtaj of 40,000 man under Alvinii, who, after a series of 
tooceNea, gained a decided victory over Bonaparte at 
Caldiero (lltb Hoveuiber). Foor days 1m» the Austrians 
wn^ again attaohed by tha French near the village of 
Annia, and after thro* days' desperate fighting on both 
•ides the Austrian* al length retreated. Alvinzi received 
reinforeetnenlt. and again set out (i> aliod: the French, but 
yj^ suffered a severe defeat at Rivoli on t4lh Jar)- 

uary, 1797. A foftnight later Mantna capitu- 
lated, and tiie Frendi became undisputed masters of the 
oocnlry. Speaking of ttw pereeveraoce aod patriotic spiril 
of the Austrians in Ihb sLru^e in Italy, Sir A. Alison 
■ays, " It is impossible to contemplate without admiration 
the vast armies which they sncceaairely s«it into tlie fi^ld, 
and the unconquerable courage with wliich these returned to 
a conteeC where so many thousands of their oountrymen had 
perished before them. Had they been guided by greater 
or oppoaed by less ability they unqueetiunably would have 
been snccessful, and even against the soldiem of the armj 
of Italy and the genius of Napoleon, the scale! af fortut^e 
repeatedly hung equal."— (if isimi cf Earop*.) The Arch- 
duke Charles was now recalled fmin the Rhine to oppose 
Bonaparte. The latter set out on his journey northward on 
the 10th of March, with the view of cracsiag the Alps and 
to reaching Vienna. The Austrians attempted to oppose 
his progress at the river Tadlamoito, bnt without suocess ; 
and a desperate struggle took place for the posseasion of the 
Col de Tarvis, vhitw ended m fovor of Napoleon, so that 
in twenty days after the campaign opened the army of the 
archduke waa driven over the Julian Alpe, and the victori- 
ous FiODch army of 45,000 Blrong was on the northern 
declivity of the Alps, within 60 leagues of Vienna. Ka- 
poleon, stili prEasing on, loidc posession of Klagenfurt, 
and advanced as for as Jndeoburg on the river Mur; bat 
finding his position very inaocurcj and dangers thickening 
npon him, he deap^rod al carrying out his inlention of 
dictating peace under the wulls of Vienna. Me therefore 
nfleted terms of acoouuandatkM Itt the Aintrians, which 

raiA. jl 

thej deemed it prodeM to accept. Prriimlnaries wm 
agneil to at Leoben (ISth April), aqd a formal trea? oT 
peace was signed at Campo Foroiio, ITtlt Oetobn, 17W. 
Bj this treaty Austria ceded to France Flandera and her 
Italian possessions, and received in return Venice ami ilft 
dependent provinces. It, hovevrr, contaiaed certain secret 
Brticles, by one of which Austria consented to scuieiMler 
th« whole of the left bank of the Rhine to France ; aad a. 
convention waa appointed to meet at Bastadt to provide 
equivalents on the right bank for the princes dispoaseswd 
on the left, and otherwise to seltte the aflairs of the erapiro. 
The terms were not particularly hard as ri^rdi Austria, 
The ceded territoriot contained about 3,500,000 soub, and 
these acquired abonC 3,400,000. But the tnkiag awa^ of 
the independence of Venice, whidi had \3tea maintained 
for 1400 years, was an act of rapacity which excited tiM 
indignation of Europe, and Austria's share in it miM ercr 
ramain a stain on her armals. 

This peace was not of long duration. As the buslaev 
of a oonvention which met at RasMdt advattoed, and the 
bearing of the secret articles becama known, a great mwi 
linn was crested in Qermaoy. The h^h-Iuinded manner 

led to the rec^l of the Aoslrian » 
vention in the beginning of 1790, and on the ..g. 
13lh of March France again declared war 
against Anstria. In the meantiine the latter poww had 
eDt««d into an alliance with England and Bowia aRoiiM 
the former. In Oermany the Archduke Charles defeated 
Jonrdan at Stockach (26th March), and in several other 
enconnters, and drove him out of the country; and be 
afterwards reconquertid the whole of the vreetem portion of 
SwUserland to beyond Zurich from Mansena. In lial^ 
Scherer waa defeated by the Austrian general Kray al 
Verona aad at Magnano, and then rveigiwd the command 
into the hands of Moreau. The Russian army, undsr 
Snwaroff, now farmed a junction with the Austrian, aad 
the French were again l>ealeB near Gaesano (27lh April). 
Hiis was followed by other siiec m sea, so that in teas tbMS 
three moaths tb« French stMidards were drivea back to Ifak 
summit of the Alps, and the whole plain of Lombard;^ 
with the exertion of a few of its strongest fortresses, i*M 
recoverod. After this tha Rnssiaa general marched against 
Macdonald, who was advimciag with a French army f>«« 
Naples. A deeperalc eonfitct look place on the banks of 
(he- Trebbio, which wa* maintained with consnmmaty 
bravery and skill for three days (17-19 Jaae), nntil vie- 
tory declared for the Russians. Out of 3ft,000 men in Use 
field the French lost above 12,000 in killed sad wounded, 
and the allies nearly as many. One plaoe alter another 
now fell into the hsiids of the allies ; but mntual jealooMe 
and diviuons breaking out among them, tha Rrasian and 
Austrian foroes were eventually separated. This led to 
the most disastrous results. The Rossians were to ppas». 
cute the war in Soitierland, while the Auitrians remained 
to carry it on in Italy, In the meantime another French 
army had been collected under General Joobert ; anil oe 
the 15th of August be was attacked by the allies at Nori, 
The bsllle was long and obstinate, but at length the alliee 
were victorious. The Freni;h lost theirgeneral, who foil mor^ 
Ully """" " ■ " """" 

5200 wounded and 1200 prisoners. The Russian gunerai 
now directed his inarch towards the Alps, forced the SL 
Gotthard, and descended into the valley of the Ursereo, 
drivins the French before him with great slaughter. With 
great difficulty and loss be eBected a parage through the 
horrible defile of the Shiichenthal, between Alldorf aod 
Multen ; but, at the latter place, instead of meeting the 
allied troops, as he had expected, he found himself in the 
midel of the enemy. Before this time Massenn had so 
beset the Russian general Korsakoff at Zurich, that he was 
compelled to fight, and with di£cu% made his enable 
with the remains of his army, whiU tbe Austrian forov 
under Hotie had also been beaten by Soult. Nothing 
remained for Suwaroff but retreat, a course which tw 
■dopled with extreme reluctance, mahing bis way with 
incredible resolution and perseTcranoc over the r ug ged 
Alps into Glarus ami the Urisons, and at lenslh reM^ing 
the valley of the Rhine (10th October). DiaagmmeillB 
having taken place between the Austrian and Bniaiaa 
generals regarding their futora proeeadings, tha laMr 


wilklrav (o vinler qoArtera in Bavmiu; and mod after 
tlua ilw capiicioiu cmmt of Rnstia, Paul, withdrew -bom Uie 
■Iliuce ud recalled his troops. 

Bcoaparte, who had now returned braa his 
'"*' Egj'plUi) caiupkign, made propoeala fur peace, 

wkich were rejeded, and botb aides prepared to renew the 
Odtot in ISOa A numerous and weJl-aiipoiDted Freoch 
•laj «M collected at D\jt>n, at the head of which the first 
aaal suddenly put bimBelf, and set out for Iinlr >croa the 
finat Saint Bernard. The passage was ejected with great 
dJU and datenaiaatiao in qiite of every ohetacle, and he 
irriled in Lombardj before Metis, ttie Auslriau general 
thtr^bad been inibrmed of the eipc^tion. On the 14th of 
Jane a great baOle took place neex (he vi llige of Marengo, 
tbe nicM obMinale and sanguinary that hud up ta Ihia time 
leenbugbL The Aistrianann; numbered 21,000 foot and 
TOOO bona, while i^poaed to ihem was an arm^ of 22,000 
■ea. The battle was mainuined with great spirit and ob- 
tfnii7 on both side*; bnt at length, after repeated clivffes, 
tte French were compelled to give way, and the retreat De- 
fine seoeral. At thb moment, however, a fresh body of 
French tioopa nnder Deeaix arriving on the field the oon- 
lert WH renewed, and after a final aCruggle the Auauiana 
were OHnpelled to yield. They lost about 7000 men in 
lolled ana wounded, and 3000 prisoners ; while the Frencli 
loM about (he same number in killed and wounded, and 
1000 priHoeia, taken in the earl<r part of Che day. Their 
iMKal being oat o^ the Ausuians capitulatM to llie 
(cnqnoof, wbo thus again acquired possession of the 
whole of Italy. In Ibe meantime Horeau had invaded 
Germany and defeated Erav in seTeral engagements, nirtic- 
nlarly at Stockach sod Mfiskirch, and again at Biberach 
and Hochstadt; he also took Munich, and laid Bavaria 
and Bwahia under contribution. An annlsiice was now 
agreed to (Pamdorf^ 15th July), and overtures were made 
nr DGace, bat without auaxm. Hostitities were resunied 
in the end of November, and at first the Austrians gained 
MiDe advaolBgea, but on the Sd of December they eugCAiaed 
a ciuahing defeat at Hohenlinden. The fishl was long 
and olxtuiate ; the Prenoh lost on that and the preceding 
dan 9000 men, while the loss of the Austrians was nearly 
twice aa great. The moral effects of the defeat were most 
dnastioos. Moieau now advanced by hasty marchesj 
omed the Ido, took BsJthurg^ and ptened on towards 
Vienna, but an armistice was agreed to on 25th December. 
In Italy the Austrian forces sustained a severe defeat at the 
pasage of the Mindo (2Gth December). BuSiir- 
"■■ ing under these disasten Austria was glad to 

agree to terms, which were concluded at Ijinevill^ 9th 
FebniMT, I80I- 

By this trea^ the whole of the led bank of the Bbine 
was again oedea to Fisnc^ and the Adige was declared to 
k the boundary of Austria in Italy; tiie grand duke oi 
IWmot, on the promise of an indemnity in Germany, re- 
■DBDced his dukedom in favor of the in&nt dulfs of 
^nna, created kinf^ of Etrum; the duke of Modeoa re- 
onved the maignviale of Breiagau in exchange for his 
Iviittny ; and the independence of the Bstavian, Helvetic^ 
Csal|Hne, and Ligurian republics wae recognized and 
nanolaed. A convention was to be again summoaed Ibr 
Be Isolation and ~ adjuBtmeot of the lighla of ail oan- 
wnied. In order to provide indemnities lor the despoiled 
princea, > large proportion of the eoclemaaUcal aovereignliee 
«f the empire was teaiiarued, or, in other words, ouo- 
facaledj and all the free imperial cities were deprived of 
A^ prtvilegee with the exception of six. To the share of 
Praaeia fcll uie bishoprics of Hildesheim and Paderbom, 
tte oly of Munster, and other cities and abbacies, to the 
•moDnt of more than four times what she had lost on the 
left bank of the Shine. Thui was she rewarded for her 
discreditable neatmlity and impolitic desertioii of the 
Eoropean alliance, though she subsequently sufiered for this 
at Jena and by the treaty of Tilsii. The grand duke of 
^Wuant received the archbishopric of Salzburg, tbe bishop- 
nc of fiichstadt, and part of that of Fassau, in exchange lor 
hii hereditary poeseBsions. Austria received the 'fyrolese 
aidlbishopricsofTrentand Brixen. 6he had also received, 
h 1795, Western Galicia as ber abare in the third diviaiom 
«r Poland, BO thai now her territory oami^ised over 
351,000 square mites, her public debt amounting to 
1^,000.000 florins, or £122,000,000. 

Aunrin now ei^joyed a short period of peace, and 
^oyed it in silently repairing tha toeachee in ber army and 


finances which had been produced by the late wan. After 
Kapoleon had aaumed the title of emperor of the Fronch, 
the Emperor Francis took Ibr himself and hie ■nccesaais 
that of emperor of Austria (lllii Aumt, 1804). On 11th 
April, 1805, an alliance was formed between 
England aad Buseia for resisting the encroa^ ^^'''^ 
manls of France, and some months later Auatria and 
Sweden likewise joined it. Prussia held aloof, in the hope 
of reoeiving Hanover as a reward for her Deutrality ; while 
Baden, WurtMuberg, and Bavaria aided with France. De- 
ceived by the eflbrls that Napoleon was ostemibly making 
for the invasion of Eogluid, tbe Aoslrians (9ch September] 
crossed the Inn, invaded Bavaria, and look vp a poution 
in the Black Forest. Meanwhile the Frondi troops were 
in fijll march from the shores of the Channel to the banks 
of the Rhine ; and the force in Hanover, under Benadolt^ 
was ordered to crass the Prussian territory withoatasking 
permission, and form ajunctiiMi with the Bavariaiu in the 

of the Austrians, while other oorps were at the mme 

: directed by oircultoaa routes upon their flanks. The 
Anstriau general. Mack, on llie first intelligence of the 
approach of the French bod oonoentrated his IbrceB at 
iTlm, Memmiiuen,Bnd Stockach, oonleai plating an attack 
only in front. UrMt w«s his ccnatematian, tberefoie, wben 
he bund that tbere was also an army on his rear. AlW 
aeveraJ partial engaoemeots, in which the AaetriaM were 
defeated, the Archduke Ferdinand, at the head of a body of 
cavalry, succeeded in making his way thioogh the enemy, 
and in ranching Bohemia ; while Mac^ with the rest of 
the army, shut himself up in Ulto, which, with 30,000 
men, he was forced to surrender (20lh October). AAer 
this. Napoleon, with his ueu^ rapidity, marched with the 
main body of bis troops upon Vienna, and on the Slh ot 
November eslablishad his headquarUis at Lint, die capital 
of Upper Austria. The Rueeian and Ausbian troope 
made various attempts to ofaetmct his fiutber progress 
(particularly at Diirrenetein, where a desperate engagement 
took place), but without success; and on the 13th Novem- 
ber, Vienna was in the hands of the cooqaeror, who made 
his heodquarteis at Schonbmnn. In the meantime the 
Archduke Charles wm with the army in Itelv, wher^ <m 
29th October, he was attacked with great fury on the 
heighte of Caldiero, by tbe French i^er Massena. A 
terrible conflict ensued, and continued till night parted the 
combatants. It was renewed the following day, whea at 
length victory declared for the Austrians. The archduke^ 
however, was unable to avail himself of his suooess, Cor, - 
hearing of the unfortunate stale of matteia in Gennaoy, 
he set out wilb bis army for tiie defence of the capital, and 
conducted it with great skill over the mountains, so that it 
suffered no serious loes. Morsbal Ney, who had been sent 
with a body of troops into IVroI, succeeded in taking the 
mountain Wrier of Bc^iamiti by storm, and in m^ing 
himself master of Innsbruck. Two bodies of Austrian 
troops had been so hard pressed that they ware oblised to 
capitulate — one under Oenerd Jellachich at Feldkirah, 
and another under the Prince d« Bohan at Castel-Fraooo 
in Italy. 

After the Ion of Vienna the allied forces collected them- 
selves in Moravia, wbithec they were followed by Napoleon. 
At length the two armies came in sight of each other at 
AusterBti,. and both sides prepared for haUle^ which it was 
felt must be a most momentous one, and was to be wilnesBcd 

S' r thi^e emperors (those of France, Austria, and BussiaJ. 
he allied forces numbered fully SD,000 men, of whom 
15,000 were cavalry, while the French bad SQlDOO men in 
the field. The army of the allies was not well generaled, 
while on tbe side of the French were Soul^ Bemodotu, 
Davoust, Murat, Lannes, Ondinot, Beasiire^ &c. Tbe 
battle commenced oo the morning of the 2d Dooember, 

be victorious, at another the French ; at one time victory 
would incline to the French, and again to the aliiea. At 
length, however, towards evening, uie allies came to be 
beaten at all poinla, and the rout soon became generaL 
Numbers sougnt to save themselves by crowing the frozen 
lake of Satschna ; but dials from the French oatteries on 
the heights above broke the ice in all directions, and about 
2000 men perished. The allies lost about 30,000 men, 
killed, wounded, or made prisoners, while the Frenoh lost 
about 12,000 in killed and wounded. This was the moat 
glorious of all Napoleon's victories: but be wa^ still Ja ^ ^ 

lit* AUi 

rtzj daugerouB position. The Arcfadnke CharleB, with 
•nny of 80,000 men, ma doit approaching VieDoa; Hl_ 
gary ms riung m nuuM agniuat him ; Baaaian reserres 
were advutcing; and Pnuaiawsi at lenglb preparing to 
declare war, on aocoant of the uDaalhoriiea panuce of 
French troupa throngh her territoriei. From these difficul- 
tiee, hofrerei, he was freed bj the desire of the Emperoi 
Francii! for peace. An armistice was agreed to, and finalljr 
a tteatj of peace was drawn up and signed &[ Preeburg (25th 
December, 1806). By this treaty Austria ceded lo Bavaria, 
now erected into a kingdom, the whole of the Tyrol, Vurarl- 
bet^, Liodau, 6iit;gau,Pae8aii, Eichstadt, Trent, and Briien, 
besides several petty lordships; to Wiirtemberg, now atsc 
become a kingdom, the bordering Austrian dominions in 
Bwabia ; and to Baden the Breiggau, the Odenau, and the 
town of Constauoe. She also yielded up her Venetian 
possessions, and agreed to pay a war contribution of 
£1,600,000. In eichann for all these sacrifices she 
merely reoeived the small electorate of Salzbui^, and the 
possessions of the Teutonic Order. Tn all, Austria lost 
about 28,000 square milee of territory, with a populatii 
of 2,700,000, an\l a revenue of 14,178,000 florins. It w 
evidently not the intention of Napoleon to overthrow the 
Austrian monarchy, but rather (o throw ils strength U 
eastward, and lo impose a barrier of subordinate kingi 
between it and France, so as to prevent ils interference 
with his schemes of aggrandiiement in Germany and Italy. 
iRMt. ■^ blow was infiicted upon the conslitulion of 

^^^ the German emjiLre by Napoleon, in the forma- 

tion of Jhe Confederation of the Rhine. Bepreseulatives of 
era coDcemed assembled at Paris in the 
g of ^ulv, 1806; and, on the I2th of that month, 
an Act was signeo whereby the kings of Bavaria and Wur- 
temberg, the elector of Baden, and thirleen other princes of 
Western Germany, separated ihemselves from the German 
empire, and formed a confederation under the protection of 
Ihe emperor of the French. 16,000,000 men were thus, by 
• single stroke, transferred from the empire to a foreign 
alliance. Wisely yielding to what he could not prevent, 
the Emperor Frauds, by solemn deed, roiounced the title 
of emperor of the BomaDS, and declared lumself the flrat 
of the emperors of Austria. 

The peace of Presburg was quickly followed by the war 
between France and Prussia, in which the latter suflered 
terrible retribution for her selfish policy in leaviuE Austria 
to strunle tinaided against the common foe of Europe. 
Great ^orts were made to induce Austria lo take part in 
this war, but abe prudently remained neutral, contenting 
herself with making every eflbrt to strengtheD and improve 
her army, and increase her warlike raoorcea. During the 
whole of 1806 and 1807 the efibris of the war department, 
Dnder the guidance of the Archdnke Charles, were inces- 
sant to restore the losses that had been sustained in the 
late war. The army was also remodelled upon the system 
^^ adopted by Napoleon. The transfer of a laise 

^^ portion of the French army in Germany lo the 

Peninsula on the breaking out of war there, emboldened 
Uie Austrian Government to issue Bdecree(9th June, 1808), 
instituting a landwehr or militia to be raised by conscrip- 
don, which soon amounted Id 300,000 men, in addition to 
% regular standing army of 350,000. On hearing of this. 
Napoleon addressed strong remonstrances to 
Ihe court at Vienna, which made loud profos- 
■iona of pacific intentions, but did not cease its warlike 
prepantions. In the spring of 1809 the armies on both 
sides took the field, and, on Sth April, Austrian troops 
crossed the frontien at once in Bohemia, on the Inn, in 
the Tyrol, and in Italy. In the meantime France was 
bringing togeth^ her forces from all quarters towards 
the valley of the Danube, where at length she had an 
army, induding the troops of the German Confederation, 
of about 200,000 men, and Berthier was despatched to 
take the command till the arrival of the emperor. The 
Archduke Charles