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Full text of "The Encyclopaedia Britannica : a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information"

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THE 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



FIRST edition, published in three volumes, 17681771. 

SECOND ten 17771784. 

THIRD eighteen 17881797. 

FOURTH twenty 18011810. 

FIFTH twenty 18151817. 

SIXTH twenty 18*31824. 

SEVENTH twenty-one 18301847. 

EIGHTH twenty-two 18531860. 

NINTH twenty-five 18751889. 

TENTH ninth edition and eleven 

supplementary volumes, 1902 1903. 

ELEVENTH published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910 1911. 



COPYRIGHT 

in all countries subscribing to the 
Bern Convention 

by 
THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS 

of the 
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE 



All rights reserved 



THE 

ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



DICTIONARY 

OF 

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL 

INFORMATION 

ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME II 

ANDROS to AUSTRIA 



IBM! 

A . , . P* 



Cambridge, England: 

at the University Press 

New York, 35 West 32nd Street 
1910 



t . . 
. . . 




Copyright, in the United States of America, 1910, 

by 
The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. 



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME II. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL 

CONTRIBUTORS, 1 WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE 

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED. 

V A. B. ANDREW ALEXANDER BLAIR. 

Chief Chemist. U.S. Geological Survey and Tenth U.S. Census, 1879-1881. { Assaying. 
Member American Philosophical Society. Author of Chemical Analysis of Iron; &c. I 

A. B. R. ALFRED BARTON RENDLE, F.R.S., F.L.S., D.Sc. f AneiosDerms (in tartY A Dole 

Keeper of the Department of Botany, British Museum. \ 

A. C. R. C. ALBERT CHARLES ROBINSON CARTER. / ,* c^i.ti-. 

Editor of The Year's Art. \ * '"* 

A. C. Sp. ARTHUR COE SPENCER, PH.D. f Annalachian MounUin* 

Geologist to the Geological Survey of the United States. 

A. F. L. ARTHUR FRANCIS LEACH, M.A. [ 

Charity Commissioner since 1906. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, 1874-1881. I Ascham 
Formerly Assistant Secretary, Board of Education. Author of English Schools at ] 
the Reformation; History of Winchester College; Bradfield College; &c. I 

A. F. P. ALBERT FREDERICK POLLARD, M.A., F.R.HiST.Soc. 

Professor of English History in University of London. Fellow of All Souls' College, \ Askew. 
Oxford. I 

A. G. MAJOR ARTHUR GEORGE FREDERICK GRIFFITHS (d. 1008). 

H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878-1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgale;-] Anthropometry. 
Secrets of the Prison House; &c. 

A. H. S. REV ARCHIBALD HENRY SAYCE D.Lm., LL.D., D.D. f A,,,,,. Cii Assur-Bani-Pal. 

Sec the biographical article: SAYCE, A. H. I 

A. H.-S. SIR A. HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, C.I.E. f .^ ... 

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak. 

A. J. L. ANDREW JACKSON LAMOUREUX. f Argentina: Geography. 

Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. Editor of the Rio News 1 Asuncidn; 

(Rio de Janeiro), 1879-1901. I Atacama, Desert ol, 

A. L. ANDREW LANG. J* . 

See the biographical article : LANG, ANDREW. m ' 

A. M. C. AGNES MARY CLERKE /Astronomy: History. 

See the biographical article: CLERKE, A. M. I 

A. S. M. ALEXANDER STCART MCRRAY, LL.D. f ou*duct (i t^rfi 

See the biographical article: MURRAY, ALEXANDER STUART. \ 

A. T. ANTOINE THOMAS, D.-is-L. f 

Professor in the University of Paris. Member of the Institute of France. Director I Aubusson: Town 
of Studies at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes. Author of Les Etats pro- | 
vinciaux de la France centrale sous Charles VII; &c. 

A. W. R. ALEXANDER WOOD RENTON, M.A., LL.B. f Apportionment- 

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Ifl-ws J. iTu?,.-..-.. 
of England. [ M 

B. LORD BALCARRES, M.P., F.S.A. 

Eldest son of the 6th Earl of Crawford. Trustee of National Portrait Galler> f . ^ Art Galleries. 
Hon. Secretary, Society for Protection of Ancient Buildings. Author of Donatella ; &c. L 

B. R. SIR BOVERTON REDWOOD, D.Sc., F.R.S. (Edin.), Assoc.lNST.C.E., M.lNST.M.E. [ 

Adviser on Petroleum to the Admiralty, the Home Office and the Indian Office. ) Asphalt. 
President, Society Chemical Ind., 1907-1908. I 

C. AT. CRANNTNG ARNOLD. /Australia: Aborigines. 

University College, Oxford. Barrister-at-law. Author of The American Egypt. (. 

C. B.* CHARLES BMONT, D.-s-L., D.Lrrr. (Oxon.). J Annals; Anselme; 

See the biographical article: BEMONT, CHARLES. \ Arbois de Jubalnville; AulanL 

C. Ch. CHARLES CHREE, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S. f Atmospheric Electricity; 

Superintendent, Observatory Department, National Physical Laboratory. Formerly-, uror , p n lrR 
Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. President, Physical Society of London. (. m 



'A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume. 

v 



1971 



vi INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

C. EL SIR CHARLES NORTON EDGECUMBE ELIOT, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L. r 

Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Scholar of Balliol, Oxford, 1881-1885. 
Hertford, Boden, Ireland, Craven and Derby Scholar. Fellow of Trinity. Third] 
Secretary Embassy at St Petersburg, 1888-1892; Constantinople, 1893-1898. 1 Asia: History. 
Commissioner for British East Africa, 1900-1904. Author of Turkey in Europe; 
Letters from the Far East. 

C. F. A. CHARLES FRANCIS ATKINSON. f Arms an j Armour: Firearms- 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxfard. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal ~] .- 
Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour. ( ** a l* Artillery. 

C. H. Rd. CHARLES HERCULES READ, LL.D. (St Andrews). 

Keeper of British and Medieval Antiquities and Ethnography, British Museum. J Archaeology 
President of the Society of Antiquaries of London. Past President of the Anthro- I 
pological Institute. Author of Antiquities from Benin; &c. 

C. Pf. CHRISTIAN PFISTER, D.-is-L. [ Antrustion- 

Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author -{ . 
of Etudes sur le regne de Robert le Pieux. ( AUStrasia. 

C. PL REV. CHARLES PLUMMER, M.A. f 

Fellow of Corpus Christi^Colle|e, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1901. Author of Life { Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 



and Times of Alfred the Great; < 

C. W.* CHARLES WALDSTEIN, M.A., D.LITT., PH.D. f 

Sladc Professor of Fine Art, Cambridge. Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. I Aronc* Tl,, He,n 
Director of the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cambridge, 1883-1889. Director of the 1 
American Archaeological School at Athens, 1889-1893. I 

C. W. W. SIR CHARLES WILLIAM WILSON, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836-1897). f 

Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary Ararat; 

Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Com-J Armenia' 

mission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894. Director-] . . 

General of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From Korti to Khartum; Asia Minor. 
Life of Lord Clive; &c. 

D. C. B. DEMETRIUS CHARLES BOULGER. f 

Author of England and Russia in Central Asia; History of China; Life of Gordon;^ Antwerp. 
India in the igth Century; History of Belgium; &c. I 

D. F. T. DONALD FRANCIS TOVEY. f 

Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Essays in Musical Analysis, comprising The -j Aria. 
Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works. [ 

D. G. H. DAVID GEORGE HOGARTH, M.A. r 

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Antioch; Apamea; Arabgir; 
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naukratis, 1899-! Asia Minor* Aspendus' 
and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at . 
Athens, 1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. 

D. H. DAVID HANNAY. f Anson, Baron; 

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal J. Antonio Prior of CratO' 
Navy, 2217-1688; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c. { ^^ Count of Arfflada 

E. Br. ERNEST BARKER, M.A. r 

Fellow and Lecturer of St John's College, Oxford. Formerly Fellow and Tutor of -j Aulic Council. 
Meiton College. 

E. B. T. EDWARD BURNETT TYLOR, F.R.S., D.C.L. (Oxon.). f Anthronoloirv 

See the biographical article : TYLOR, E. B. \ 

E. C.B. RIGHT REV. EDWARD CUTHBERT BUTLER, O.S.B., D.LITT. (Dubl.). r Anthony, Saint; Augustinian 

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. -\ Canons; Augustinian 

I Hermits; Augustinians. 

Ed. M. EDUARD MEYER D.LITT (Oxon.). r Arbaces; Ardashir; Arsaces; 

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des A-,. BC . Artahanne- 
Alterthums; Forschungen zur alien Geschichte; Geschichte des alien Aegyptens; DieJ. ArM 
Jsraeliten und ihre Nachbarstamme; &c. Artaphernes; Artaxerxes; 

I Astyages. 

E. G. EDMUND GOSSE, LL.D.. , . 

See the biographical article: GOSSE, E. W. J Asb]ornsen and Moe; 

E. 0.* EDMUND OWEN, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. \ Assonance - 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, Aneurvsnv 

Great Ormond Street. Late Examiner in Surgery at the Universities of Cam- < 

bridge, Durham and London. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. I Appendicitis. 

E. P. H.* ERNEST PRESCOT HILL, M.lNST.C.E. 

Member of the firm of G. A. Hill & Sons, Civil Engineers, London. | Aqueduct : Modern. 

E. R. L. SIR EDWIN RAY LANKESTER, K.C.B., F.R.S., D.Sc. (Oxon.) LL.D. 

Hon. Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. President of the British Association, 1906. 



Professor of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy in University College, London, 
1874-1890. Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Oxford, 1891-1898. 
Director of the Natural History Departments of the British Museum, 1898-1907. 
Vice-President of the Royal Society, 1896. Romanes Lecturer at Oxford, 1905. 
Author of Degeneration ; The Advancement of Science; The Kingdom of Man; &c. 



Arachnida; 
Arthropoda. 



E. Tn. REV. ETHELRED LEONARD TAUNTON (d. 1907). 

Author of The English Black Marks of St Benedict; History of the Jesuits i-j Aquaviva, Claudio. 
England; &c. 

E. V. L. EDWARD VERRALL LUCAS. f Austen, Jane. 

Editor of Letters of Charles and Mary Lamb. Author of Life of Charles Lamb. \ 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES xii 



r. C. C. FREDERICK CORNWALLIS CONYBEARE, M.A. D.Th. (GicMen). [ AoolnUnc; Armenian Chnrek; 

Formerly Frllow of (Jnivcnii <! I .!!. of the Brituh Academy. < Armenian Language and 

Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Arutotlt; Myth, Magic and Uorali; ftc. | Literature; Asceticism. 

F. 0. P. FREDERICK GYMZR PARSONS, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F R.ANTHROP INST. 

Vice- President Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on I 
Anatomy at St Thomat'i Hospital and the London School of Medicine for -j Artortot. 
U'omi-n. Formerly Kxaminrr in the Universities of Cambridge, Aberdeen, London 
and Birmingham; and Huntcrian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. I 

F. H. Ne. FRANCIS HENRY NEVILLE, M.A., F.R.S. 

Fellow of Sidney Sunex College, Cambridge, and Lecturer on Physics and \ Atom. 
Chemistry. [ 

F. LJ. 0. FRANCIS LLEWELYN GRIFFITH, M.A., PH.D. (Leipzig), F.S.A. 

Reader in Egyptology, Oxford. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaco- I Anubis; Apis; 
logical Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of the Imperial German 1 Assiut; Assuan. 
Archaeological Institute. I 

F. R. C. FRANK R. CANA. } ...... 

Author of South Africa from Ike Great Trek to the Union. 

f. T. M. SIR FRANK T. MARZIALS, C.B. 

Formerly Accountant-General of the Army. Author of Lives of Victor Huto-A Angler, G. V. E. 
Moliere; Dickens; &c. (. 

F. W. Mo. FREDERICK WALKER MOTT, F.R.S., M.D. 

Physician to Charing Cross Hospital. Pathologist to the London County Asylums. Apoplexy. 
Fullcrian Professor of Physiology at the Royal Institution. 

F. W. R.* FREDERICK WILLIAM RUDLER, I.S.O., F.G.S. f Asbestos; 

Atacamlte. 



DERICK WILLIAM RUDLER, I.S.O., F.G.S. 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. \ 
President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889. 



G. C. B. GILBERT CHARLES BOURNE, M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., D.Sc. (Oxon.). 

Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Oxford. Fellow of Morton < Anthozoa. 
College, Oxford. 

G. E. REV. GEORGE EDMUNDSON, M.A., F.R.HiST.S. 5 ._ n - . 

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brascnose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909. i " 

G. H. C. GEORGE HERBERT CARPENTER, B.Sc. ' Ant; 

Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. President of the "j A..*!.. 
Association of Economic Biologists. Author of Insects: their Structure and Life. [ Apwra. 

G. H. Fo. GEORGE HERBERT FOWLER, F.Z.S., F.L.S., PH.D. 

Formerly Berkeley Fellow of Owens College, Manchester, and Assistant Professor -\ Aquarium, 
of Zoology at University College, London. l_ 

G. K. GUSTAV KRUGER, Ph.D. j Arlns; Athanasins; 

Professor of Church History, University of Giessen. Author of Das Papsttum; &c. ( Augustine, Saint (of Hippo I. 

G. Sn. GRANT SHOWERMAN ; PH.D. ( 

Professor of Latin in the University of Wisconsin. Author of The Great Mother of\ Attis. 
the Gods. [_ 

G. W. B. GEORGE WILLIS BOTSFORD, A.M. 

Professor in Columbia University, New York. Author of The Roman Assemblies \ Areopagus. 
(1909) ;&c. 



G. W. T. REV. GRIFFITHES WHEELER THATCHER, M.A., B.D. 

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and 
Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. 



'Antara ibn Shad dad; 

Arabia: Antiquities, History, 
Literature ; Arabian Philo- 
sophy (in part) ; A'Sha; 



. Ash' An; Asma'I; Assassin. 

H. B. HILARY BAUERMANN, F.G.S. (d. 1009). 

Formerly Lecturer on Metallurgy at the Ordnance College, Woolwich. Author of -I Anthracite. 
A Treatise on the Metallurgy of Iron. 

H. Ch. HUGH CHISHOLM, M.A. r .__, -..,,. _., n , llr<u 

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christ! College, Oxford. Editor of the nth edition of J Ar 'U' Els 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica; co-editor of the loth edition. [ (in part): Asquith, H. H. 

H. F. G. HANS FRIEDRICH GADOW, F.R.S., PH.D. 

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. J Archaeopteryx. 
Author of Amphibia and Reptiles. 

H. F. P. HENRY FRANCIS PELHAM, LL.D. ( ._. 

See the biographical article: PELHAM, H. F. 

H. F. T. REV. HENRY FANSHAWE TOZER, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

Hon. Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Corre- J 
spending Member of Historical Society of Greece. Author of Lectures on the Geo- | 
graphy of Greece ; History of A ncient Geography. Editor of Finiay's History of Greece. |_ 

H. Ha. HEB HART AuctioM 



H. H. S. HENRY HEATHCOTE STATHAM, F.R.I.B.A. 

Editor of The Builder. Author of Architecture (Modem) fot General Readers'.} Architecture: Modem. 
Modern Architecture; &c. 

H. M. C. HECTOR MUNRO CHADWICK, M.A. 

Fellow and Librarian of Clare College, Cambridge. Author of Studies on Anglo- J Angli; Anglo-Saxons. 
Saxon Institutions. 



viii INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

H. H. D. HENRY NEWTON DICKSON, M.A., D.Sc. (Oxon.), F.R.G.S., F.R.S. (Edin.). f , 

Professor of Geography, University College, Reading. Author of Elementary j Atlantic ucean. 
Meteorology; Papers on Oceanography; &c. 

H. Se. HENRI SEE. f . ni . B nf Rri t n nw 

Professor in the University of Rennes. j Ann 

H. Sm. HUGH SHERINGHAM. J 

Angling Editor of The Field (London). \ Angling. 

I. A. ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, M.A. 

Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature, University of Cambridge. President, j ... D T .. . 
Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Litera- 1 Asner Ben Jemei. 
ture ; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages. I 

I. B. B. ISAAC BAYLEY BALFOUR, F.R.S., M.D. f 

King's Botanist in Scotland. Regius Keeper of Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 

Professor of Botany in the University of Edinburgh. Regius Professor of S Angiosperms (in part). 
Botany in the University of Glasgow, 1879-1884. Sherardian Professor of Botany 
in the University of Oxford,, 1884-1888. 

J. A. H. JOHN ALLEN HOWE, B.Sc. f Archean System; 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. \ Arenig Group. 

J. A. R. VERY REV. JOSEPH ARMITAGE ROBINSON, M.A., D.D. 

Dean of Westminster. Fellow of the British Academy. Hon. Fellow of Christ's J ...-fi-i..- A__I , f 
College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge, and Norrisian 1 ATlSUQes, Apology 01. 
Professor of Divinity. Author of Some Thoughts on the Incarnation ; &c. I 

J. B. T. SIR JOHN BATTY TUKE, M.D., LL.D. (Edin.), D.Sc. (Dubl.) f 

President of the Neurological Society of the United Kingdom. Medical Director J Aphasia. 

of New Saughton Hall Asylum, Edinburgh. M.P. for the Universities of Edinburgh I 

and St Andrews, 1900-1910. 
J. Bn. JOHN BILSON. f Architecture: Romanesque and 

External Examiner in Architecture, University of Manchester. \ Gothic, in England. 

J. D. B. JAMES DAVID BOURCHIER, M.A., F.R.G.S. f 

Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. Commander of the Orders J Athens; 
of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of Greece, and Officer of the | Athos. 
Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria. I 

J. D. Pr. JOHN DYNELEY PRINCE, PH.D. f 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York. Took part in J Assur (Biblical), 
the Expedition to Southern Babylonia, 1888-89. Author of A Critical Commentary 1 
on the Book of Daniel; Assyrian Primer. I 

J. G. C. A. JOHN GEORGE CLARK ANDERSON, M.A. f 

Student, Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1896. -| Angora. 
Formerly Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Joint-author of Studica Pontica. 

J. G. F. SIR JOSHUA GIRLING FITCH. J" Arnold, Matthew (in part). 

See the biographical article: FITCH, SIR JOSHUA G. t 

J. G. H. JOSEPH G. HORNER, A.M.I.MECH.E. J" Annealing. 

Author of Plating and Boiler Making ; &c. \ 

J. G. Sc. SIR JAMES GEORGE SCOTT, K.C.I.E. f 

Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States. Author of Burma, al AraKan. 
Handbook ; The Upper Burma Gazetteer ; &c. 

J. H. A. H. JOHN HENRY ARTHUR HART, M.A. f Archelaus, King of Judaea; 

Fellow, Lecturer and Librarian of St John's College, Cambridge. \ Asmoneus; Assideans. 

J. H. F. JOHN HENRY FREESE, M.A. J Annalists; Aphrodite; Apollo; 

Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. \ Artemis; Athena. 

J. H. R. JOHN HORACE ROUND, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.). J Arllndp , Earldom O f 

Author of Feudal England; Peerage and Pedigree; &c. \ * lel> fiar 

J. HI. R. JOHN HOLLAND ROSE, M.A., Lrrr.D. r 

Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures! A _-., 
Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I; Napoleonic Studies; The Development of] AU & er( 
the European Nations; The Life of Pitt; Chapters in the Cambridge Modern History. [ 

J. I. JULES ISAAC. f . . of Prance 

Professor of History at the Lycde of Lyons. \ Ann 

J. L. W. Miss JESSIE L. WESTON. /Arthur (King); 

Author of Arthurian Romances. "^ Arthurian Legend. 

J. M. M. JOHN MALCOLM MITCHELL. f Aq " ed " Ct: , A e ? an * n 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London J Medieval ; Aquinas, T 
College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote's History of Greece. (tn P art >> Arcnon; Arms 

L and Armour: Ancient. 

J. Mac. JAMES MACQUEEN. ,- 

Member and Fellow of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. Professor of 
Surgery at the Royal Veterinary College, London. Examiner for the Fellowship J _,,.,_ 
Diploma of the R.C.V.S. Editor of Fleming's Operative Veterinary Surgery (2nd 1 
edition); Dun's Veterinary Medicines (loth edition); and Neumann's Parasites and | 
Parasitic Diseases of the Domesticated Animals (2nd edition). L 

J. P. E. JEAN PAUL HIPPOLYTE EMMANUEL ADHEMAR ESMEIN. C 

Professor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour. 
Member, of the Institute of France. Author of Cours elemenlaire d'histoire du 
droit frans ais ; &c. 






INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES ix 

J. S. B. JACOH S \MII i. RALI.IN. / AnornUehln 

I'.iiui.li-i .ni'l lion. Sec. of the National Institution of Apprenticeship, London. |^ "' 

J. S. P. JOHN Surni FLETT, D.Sc., F.G.S. 

to the Geological Survey. Formerly !.< tun-r on IVtroloty in Edin- J 



IVtmxr.ipirr to te eoogca urvey. ormery .< tun-r on Vtrooty n n- 
hurah University. Neill M-dallist of th<- Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigtby ) 
Medallist of the Geological Society of London. 

J. SI.* REV. JAMES SIBREE. / Antananario 

Author of Madagascar and its People; &c. L 

J. V. B. JAMES VF.RNON BARTLET, M.A.. D.D. (St Andrews). f Annul..- 

Professor of Church History. Mansfield College. Oxford. Author of The Apostolic \ * ^ Plther> 

. I ./' . i\ i . 



J. W. G. JOHN WALTER GREGORY, F.R.S., D.Sc. 

Professor of Geology. University of Glasgow. Professor of Geology and J Australia: Physical 
Mineralogy, University of Melbourne, 1900-1904. Author of The Dead Heart oj 1 Geography. 

Australia; Australasia. 

J. W. He. JAMES WYCLIFFE HEAOLAM, M.A. 

Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education. Formerly ] 

Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Professor of Greek and Ancient History at Arnim, Count. 

Queen's College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the German I 

Empire; &c. 

K. S. KATHLEEN SCHLESINGER. / Arghoul; Asor; Aulos. 

Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra. 

L. H.* LOOTS HALPHEN, D.-is-L. 

Lecturer on Medieval History at the University of Bordeaux. Formerly Secretary , Anjou. 
of the Ecole dcs Chartcs, Paris. 

f Anhydrite; Ankerite; 

L. J. S. LEONARD JAMES SPENCER, M.A., F.G.S. Annabergite; Anorthite; 

Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex -J Apatite; Apophyllite; 
College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine. Aragonite; Argent ite: 

[ Argyrodite; Augite. 

L. M. Br. Louis MAURICE BRANDIN, M.A. / * na i.. v .... _ , , 

Fielden Professor of French and of Romance Philology in the University of London. \ An & lo- 

L. W. LUCIEN WOLF. 

Vice- President of the Jewish Historical Society of England. Formerly President of ~j Anti-Semitism. 
the Society. Joint editor of the BMiotheca Anglo-Judaica. I 

M. G. MOSES CASTER. 

Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic communities of England. Vice-President, Zionist 
Congress, 1898, 1899,; 1900. Ilchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and 



Byzantine Literature, 1886 and 1891. President, Folklore Society of England." 
Vice-President, Anglo-Jewish Association. Author of History of Rumanian 
Popular Literature; A New Hebrew Fragment of Ben-Sira; The Hebrew Version of 
Secretum Secrelorum of Aristotle. 



Anthim the Iberian. 



M. H. C. MONTAGUE HUGHES CRACKANTHORPE, K.C., D.C.L. f 

President of the Eugenics Education Society. Formerly Member of the General J Arhitntinn 
Council of the Bar and Council of Legal Education. Late Chairman, Incorporated 1 
Council of Law Reporting. Honorary Fellow St John's College, Oxford. L 

M. J. De G. MICHAEL JAN DE GOEJE. / Arabia- Literature (in t>arf\ 

See the biographical article : GOEJE, MICHAEL JAN DE. I * 

M. Ja. MORRIS JASTROW, PH.D. (Leipzig). f Ann- Assur (Gf>- 

Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania. Author of Rtliiion-\ V '. 
of the Babylonians and Assyrians; &c. I AS"010gy. 

M. L. H. LADY HUGGINS. / ATOIIU- A<<rniRn 

See the biographical article: HUGGINS, SIR WILLIAM. 

M. N. T. MARCUS NIEBUHR TOD, M.A. f A.II- r^v,-H-,n 

Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. \ ** 
Joint author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum. ( Anstodemus; Aristomene*. 

M. 0. B. C. MAXIMILIAN OTTO BISMARCK CASPARI, M.A. f Aratu f of Sicyon; Arcadia; 

Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Binning- J Argos: History; 
ham University, 1005-1908. Author of chapters on Greek History in The Year's j Aristides the Just; 
Work in Classical Studies. ^ Athens (in fart). 



M. P.* LON JACQUES MAXIME PRINET. f 

Formerly Archivist to the French National Archives. Auxiliary to the Institute-; Aumale, Due d". 
of France (Academy of Moral and Political Sciences). 

N. M. NORMAN MCLEAN, M.A. r 

Fellow, Lecturer and Librarian of Christ 'sCollegc, Cambridge. University Lecturer J nhraales 
in Aramaic. Examiner for the Oriental Languages Tripos and the Theological "] "P 1 
Tripos at Cambridge. 

N. W. T. NORTHCOTE WHITBRIDGE THOMAS, M.A. f Animal-Worship; 

Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the I . . 
Societd d'Anthropologic de Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and] Animism. 
Marriage in A ustralia ; &c. 



X 

0. Ba. 

0. Br. 
P. A. 

P. A. K. 
P. C. M. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



OSWALD BARRON, F.S.A. 

Editor of The Ancestor, 1902-1905. 
Honourable Society of Baronetage. 

OSCAR BRILIANT. 



Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of 



{Arms and Armour: 
English. 

Austria: Statistics. 



PAUL DANIEL ALPHANDERY. f 

Professor of the History of Dogma, Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Sorbonne, I ApOStOIlCi; 

Paris. Author of Les Idees morales chez les heterodoxes latines au debut du XIII* \ Arnold of Brescia. 

siecle. I 



P.C.Y 

P.O. 
P. Gi. 

P. La. 
P.VL 

R. 

R. A. S. M. 
R. A. W. 

R. C. J. 
R. G. 
R. H. C. 

R. I. P. 
R. J. M. 
R.L.* 

R. Ma. 
R. N. B. 

R. N. W. 
R. P. S. 



PRINCE PETER ALEXEIVTTCH KROPOTKIN. 

See the biographical article: KROPOTKIN, PRINCE PETER A. 

PETER CHALMERS MITCHELL, F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc., LL.D. 

Secretary to the Zoological Society of London from 1903. University Demon- 
strator in Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 
1888-1891. Lecturer on Biology at Charing Cross Hospital, 1892-1894.; at London 
Hospital, 1894. Examiner in Biology to the Royal College of Physicians, 1892- 
1896, 1901-1903. Examiner in Zoology to the University of London, 1903. 



PHILIP CHESNEY YORKE, M.A. 
Magdalen College, Oxford. 



{ Aral; 



Astrakhan. 



PERCY GARDNER, Lirr.D., LL.D. 

See the biographical article: GARDNER, PERCY. 

PETER GILES, M.A., Lrrr.D., LL.D. 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University 
Reader in Comparative Philology. Author of Manual of Comparative Philology. 

PHILIP LAKE, M.A., F.G.S. 

Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge University. Formerly 
of the Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian 
Trilobites. Translator and editor of Kayser's Comparative Geology. 

PAUL VINOGRADOFF, D.C.L. (Oxford), LL.D. (Cambridge and Harvard). 

Corpus Professor of Jurisprudence in the University of Oxford. Fellow of the 
British Academy. Honorary Professor of History in the University of Moscow. 
Author of Villainage in England; English Society in the nth Century; &c. 

THE RIGHT HON. LORD RAYLEIGH. 

See the biographical article: RAYLEIGH, 3RD BARON. 

ROBERT ALEXANDER STEWART MACALISTER, M.A., F.S.A. 
Director of Excavations for the Palestine Exploration Fund. 

COLONEL ROBERT ALEXANDER WAHAB, C.M.G., C. I. E. 

Served in the Afghan War, 1878-1880; with the Hazara Expeditions, 1888 and 
1891; with the Tirah Expeditionary Force, 1897-1898, &c. Commissioner for 
the Aden Boundary Delimitation. 

SIR RICHARD CLAVERHOUSE JEBB, LL.D., D.C.L. 
See the biographical article: JEBB, SIR RICHARD C. 

RICHARD GARNETT, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: GARNETT, RICHARD. 

REV. ROBERT HENRY CHARLES, M.A., D.D., Lrrr.D. (Oxon.). 

Grinfield Lecturer and Lecturer in Biblical Studies, Oxford. Fellow of the British 
Academy. Professor of Biblical Greek at Trinity College, Dublin, 1898-1906. 
Author of Critical History of a Future Life ; &c. 

REGINALD INNES POCOCK, F.Z.S., F.L.S. J 

Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London. 

RONALD JOHN MCNEILL, M.A. 

Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Editor of the St James's Gazette (London). 

RICHARD LYDEKKER, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. 

Author of Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in British Museum ; J 
The Deer of all Lands; &c. 



I Animal; 
1 Annelida. 



Anglesey, 1st Earl of; 
Anne, Queen; 
Anne of Cleves; 
Anne of Denmark; 
Antrim, 1st Marquess of; 
Argyll, Earls and Dukes of; 
Arlington, Earl of. 

Apelles. 
Aryan. 

{Apennines; 
Asia: Geology; 
Austria: Geology. 

J Anglo-Saxon Law. 



Argon. 
' Ascalon. 

Arabia: Modern History; 
Asir. 



: Aristophanes. 

J Anthology; Apotheosis. 



REV. ROBERT MACKINTOSH, M.A., D.D. 

Professor at Lancashire Independent College, Manchester. 



ROBERT NISBET BAIN (d. 1909). f 

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 18831909. Author of Scandinavia: the 
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, IJIJ-IQOO; The First Romanovs, -j 
1613 to 1725; Slavonic Europe: the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 

f~ rrvn/\. S,~ 



RALPH NICHOLSON WORNUM (1812-1877). 
Keeper of the National Gallery, 1854-1877. 






Author of The Epochs of Painting; &c. 



R. PHENE SPIERS, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. 

Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past 
President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King's College, 
London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson's 
History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c. 



Apocalyptic Literature; 
Apocryphal Literature. 

Ant-lion; Aphides. 
Australia: Recent Legislation. 

Antelope; Arsinoitherium; 
Artiodactyla; Aurochs. 
Anthropomorphism; Apolo- 
getics; Apotheosis(j/w7). 
Anne, Empress of Russia; 
Apraksin, T. M.; 
Arakcheev, A. A., Count; 
Arany, Janos; 
Armfelt, G. M., Count. 

Arabesque. 

Apse; 
Arcade; 



I Architecture. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



R. Po. 

R. S. 
R. S. C. 

R. TT. 

S. A. C. 



RENE POOTARDIN, D.-is-L. 

Secretary of the Ecole de Charter Honorary Librarian at ihr BibluxhAquc ] Ark*. Kingdom ol. 
National. Paris. 

LBUT.-GEN. SIR RICHARD STRACHXY, R.E., G.C.S.I., LL.D., F.R.S. 
See the biographical ankle: STRACIIEY, SIR R. 



Climate, Flora atU 



ROBERT SEYMOUR CONWAY, M.A., D.Lm. (Cantab.). 

ProfcMor of Latin in the University of Manchester. Formerly Professor of Latin J Apulia: Arckaeology; 
in University College, Cardiff. Fellow of Gonvillc and Caius College. Cambridge. 1 ArlcinJ; Auruncl. 
Author of The Italic Dialects. I 



ROLAND TRUSLOVE, M.A. 

I. How and l.iMurrr in Classics, Worcester College. Oxford. 
of Chrut Church, Oxford. 



Formerly Scholar 



Aries. 



S. C. 
S. H. 
STC. 

Sw. 

T. A. C. 
T. A.L 



Ark; 
Asa; 
Asher; 
Astarte. 

Art. 



T. As. 



T. Ba. 

T.Ca. 

T. H. 
T. H. H. 

T. L.H. 

T. M. L. 

T. W.-D. 
T. W. R. D. 



STANLEY ARTHUR COOK, M.A. 

Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Formerly Fellow and Lecturer in Hebrew 
and Syriac, Cxmville and I'.iiii- College, Cambridge. Examiner in Hebrew and 
Aramaic, London University, 1904-1908; Council of Royal Asiatic Society, 1 
1004-1905. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and 
Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient 
Palestine; &c. 

SIDNEY COLVIN, M.A., D.Lrrr. 

See the biographical article: COLVIN, SIDNEY. 
SIMON NEWCOMB, LL.D., D.Sc., D.C.L. (Oxon.). f Astronomy: Descriptive 

See the biographical article : NEWCOMB, SIMON. \ Astrophysics. 

VISCOUNT ST CYRES. / Arnauld Family 

See the biographical article: IDDESLEIGH, IST EARL OF. 

THE RIGHT HON. LORD SWAYTHLINO (Sra SAMUEL MONTAGU). 

M.P. for Whitechapel, 1885-1900. Founder of the firm of Samuel Montagu & Co., -j ATDltrage. 
Bankers, London. 

TIMOTHY AUGUSTINE COGHLAN, I.S.O. 

Agent-General for New South Wales. President of Australasian Association for the . Australia. 
Advancement of Science (Economics and Statistics), 1902. Author of The Seren 
Colonies of Australia; Statistical Account of Australia and New Zealand. 

THOMAS ALLAN INGRAM, M.A., LL.D. Assienats. 

Trinity College, Dublin. \ 

Antium; Appia Via; 
Apulia: History; 
Aqueduct: Roman; 
Aquileia; Aquino; 
Ardea; Arezzo; 
Ariano di Puglia; Aricia; 
Ariminum; Arpi; Arpino; 
Arretium; Ascoli Piceno; 
Asisium; Assisi; Astura; 
Ateste; Aufldena; 
Augusta (Sicily); 
Augusta Bagiennorum; 
Augusta Praetoria Salassonim; 
Aurelia, Via. 



THOMAS ASHBY, M.A., D.Lrrr. (Oxon.). 

Director of the British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of 
Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Author of numerous articles in the 
Papers of the British School at Rome; The Classical Topography of the Roman 
Campagna; &c. 



SIR THOMAS BARCLAY, M.P. 

Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of 
the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of 
International Practice and Diplomacy; &c- M.P. for Blackburn, 1910. 

THOMAS CASE, M.A. 

President of Corpus Christ! College, Oxford. Formerly \Vaynflete Professor of Moral 
and Metaphysical Philosophy at Oxford. Author of Physical Realism ; &c. 

THOMAS HODGKTN, LL.D., D.Lrrr. 

See the biographical article: HODGKIN, T. 

COL. SIR THOMAS HUNGERFORD HOLDICH, K.C.M.G., K.C.I.E., D.Sc., F.R.G.S. 
Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1892-1898. Author of The Indian 
Borderland; The Countries of the King's Award; &c. 

SIR THOMAS LITTLE HEATH, K.C.B., D.Sc. (Cantab.). 

Assistant Secretary to the Treasury. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

REV. THOMAS MARTIN LINDSAY, LL.D., D.D. 

Principal of the United Free Church College, Glasgow. Formerly Assistant to the 
Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Author of 
History of the Reformation ; Life of Luther ; &c. 

WALTER THEODORE WATTS-DUNTON. 

See the biographical article : WATTS-DUNTON, W. T. 

T. W. RHYS DAVIDS, M.A., PH.D., LL.D. 

Professor of Comparative Religion in the University of Manchester. President of J Asoka. 
the Pali Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian | 
of Royal Asiatic Society, 1885-1902. Author of Buddhism; &c. L 



Angary; 
Annexation. 
Asylum, Right ol. 

Aristotle. 

Attila. 



j Asia: Orography and 
Ethnology. 

f Anthemius; 

Apollonius of Perga; 
[ Archimedes. 

- Aquinas, Thomas. 
Arnold, Matthew. 






XI 1 

W. A. B. C. 

W. A. P 

W. Bo 

W. Cr. 
W. E. Co. 

W. E. E. 
W. F. C. 

W. F. Sh. 
W. H. Be. 

W. H. Di. 
W. J. F. 

W. Ma. 
W. M. R. 
W. P. R. 

W. R. L. 

W. W. 
W. W. F.* 

W. W. R.* 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

REV. WILLIAM AUGUSTUS B RE vooRTCooLiDGE, M.A.,F.R.G.S., HON. PH.D. (Bern). C Annecy; 
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's Antibes* 
College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide du haul dauphine; The Range of-{ A nnon ' 
the Todi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in pp 
History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1889; &c. I Arnaud, Henri. 

WALTER ALISON PHILLIPS, M.A. f 

Principal Assistant Editor of the nth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. I Archbishop; 
Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College, Oxford, and Senior Scholar of St John's 1 Archdeacon. 
College. Author of Modern Europe ; &c. I 

WlLHELM BOUSSET, D.THEOL. 

Professor of New Testament Exegesis in the University of Gottingen. Author of 
Das Wesen der Religion; The Antichrist Legend; &c. 



WALTER CRANE. 

See the biographical article: CRANE, WALTER. 

RIGHT REV. WILLIAM EDWARD COLLINS, D.D., BISHOP OF GIBRALTAR 
Formerly Professor of Ecclesiastical History, King's College, London. 
St John s and Selwyn Colleges, Cambridge. Author of The Beginnings of 
Christianity. 

MAJOR WILLIAM EGERTON EDWARDS. 

Captain and Brevet Major, Royal Field Artillery. Inspector, Inspection Staff, Wool- 
wich Arsenal. Lecturer on Armour and Explosives at the Royal Naval War 
College, Greenwich, 1904-1909. 

WILLIAM FEILDEN CRATES, M.A. 

Barrister-at-law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, King's College, London. 
Editor of Archbold's Criminal Pleading (23rd edition). Author of Crates on Statute 
Law. 

WILLIAM FLEETWOOD SHEPPARD, M.A., D.Sc. 

Senior Examiner under the Board of Education. Senior Wrangler, 1884. 
Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

WILLIAM HENRY BENNETT, M.A., D.D., D.LITT. (Cantab.). f 

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis in New and Hackney Colleges, London. I 
Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Lecturer in Hebrew at Firth 1 
College, Sheffield. Author of Religion of the Post-Exilic Prophets; &c. 

WILLIAM HENRY DINES, F.R.S. 

WILLIAM JUSTICE FORD, M.A. (d. 1904). 

Formerly,, Scholar of St John's College, Cambridge. .Head Master of Leamington J 
College. 

SIR WILLIAM MARKBY, K.C.I.E., D.C.L. 

See the biographical article: MARKBY, SIR W. \ 

WILLIAM MICHAEL ROSSETTI. f 

See the biographical article: ROSSETTI, DANTE GABRIEL. 1 



Antichrist. 

f Arts and Crafts; 
\ Art Teaching. 

-\ Apostolical Constitutions. 



Armour Plates. 



Appeal. 



Formerly j Arithmetic. 



HON. WILLIAM PEMBER REEVES. 

Director, London School of Economics. Agent-General and High Commissioner 
for New Zealand, 1896-1909. Author of A History of New Zealand. 

W. R. LETHABY, F.S.A. 

Principal of the Central School of Arts and Crafts under the London County 
Council. Author of A rchitecture. Mysticism and Myth ; &c. 

WILLIAM WALLACE, M.A. 

See the biographical article: WALLACE, WILLIAM (d. 1897). 

WILLIAM WARDE FOWLER, M.A. 

Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Sub-Rector, 1881-1904. Gifford Lecturer, 
Edinburgh University, 1908. Author of The City-State of the Greeks and Romans; 
The Roman Festivals of the Republican Period ; &c. 

WILLIAM WALKER ROCKWELL, Lie. THEOL. 

Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. 



Angel; Atonement. 

Anemometer. 

Archery. 

Austin, John. 

Angelico, Fra. 

Atkinson, Sir Henry Albert. 

Architecture: Romanesque 
and Gothic in France. 

Arabian Philosophy (in part). 

Anna Perenna; 
Argei. 

Antioch, Synods of; 
Aries, Synod of; 
Augsburg, Confession of. 



PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES 



Anglican Communion. 
Angola. 
Annuity. 
Anselm. 
Antimony. 
Apothecary. 
Arabs. 

Arbitration and Concilia- 
tion in Labour Disputes. 



Argenson: Family. 

Ariosto. 

Arizona. 

Arkansas. 

Arsenic. 

Arthur, Chester Alan. 

Art Sales. 

Arundel, Earls of. 



Arya Samaj. 

Asparagus. 

Aspern-Essling. 

Assam. 

Assembly. 

Assets. 

Assize. 

Association of Ideas. 



Asthma. 

Athletic Sports. 

Atholl, Earls and Dukes 

of. 

Atlas Mountains. 
Attainder. 
Atterbury, Francis. 
Audit and Auditor. 



Augurs. 

Augustan History. 
Aungervyle, R. 
Aurangzeb. 
Aurelian. 
Auricula. 
Auscultation. 
Austerlitz. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME II 



ANDROS, SIR EDMUND (1637-1714), English colonial 
governor in America, was born in London on the 6th of December 
1637, son of Amice Andros, an adherent of Charles I., and the 
royal bailiff of the island of Guernsey. He served for a short 
time in the army of Prince Henry of Nassau, and in 1660-1662 
was gentleman in ordinary to the queen of Bohemia (Elizabeth 
Stuart, daughter of James I. of England). He then served 
against the Dutch, and in 1672 was commissioned major in what 
is said to have been the first English regiment armed with the 
bayonet. In 1674 he became, by the appointment of the duke 
of York (later James II.), governor of New York and the Jerseys, 
though his jurisdiction over the Jerseys was disputed, and until 
his recall in 1681 to meet an unfounded charge of dishonesty 
and favouritism in the collection of the revenues, he proved 
himself to be a capable administrator, whose imperious disposi- 
tion, however, rendered him somewhat unpopular among the 
colonists. During a visit to England in 1678 he was knighted. 
In 1686 he became governor, with Boston as his capital, of the 
" Dominion of New England," into which Massachusetts (in- 
cluding Maine), Plymouth, Rhode Island, Connecticut and New 
Hampshire were consolidated, and in 1688 his jurisdiction was 
extended over New York and the Jerseys. But his vexatious 
interference with colonial rights and customs aroused the keenest 
resentment, and on the i8th of April 1689, soon after news of 
the arrival of William, prince of Orange, in England reached 
Boston, the colonists deposed and arrested him. In New York 
his deputy, Francis Nicholson, was soon afterwards deposed by 
Jacob Leisler (?..); and the inter-colonial union was dissolved. 
Andros was sent to England for trial in 1690, but was immediately 
released without trial, and from 1692 until 1698 he was governor 
of Virginia, but was recalled through the agency of Commissary 
James Blair (q.v.), with whom he quarrelled. In 1693-1694 
he was also governor of Maryland. From 1704 to 1706 he was 
governor of Guernsey. He died in London in February 1714 
and was buried at St Anne's, Soho. 

See The Andros Tracts (3 vols., Boston. 1869-1872). 

ANDROS, or ANDRO, an island of the Greek archipelago, the 
most northerly of the Cyclades, 6 m. S.E. of Euboea, and about 
2 m. N. of Tenos; it forms an eparchy in the modern kingdom 
of Greece. It is nearly 25 m. long, and its greatest breadth is 
10 ra. Its surface is for the most part mountainous, with many 
fruitful and well-watered valleys. Andros, the capital, on the 
east coast, contains about 2000 inhabitants. The ruins of 
Palaeopolis, the ancient capital, are on the west coast ; the town 
11. i 



possessed a famous temple, dedicated to Bacchus. The island 
has about 18,000 inhabitants. 

The island in ancient times contained an Ionian population, 
perhaps with an admixture of Thracian blood. Though originally 
dependent on Eretria, by the 7th century B.C. it had become 
sufficiently prosperous to send out several colonies to Chalcidice 
(Acanthus, Stageirus, Argilus, Sane). In 480 it supplied ships 
to Xerxes and was subsequently harried by the Greek fleet. 
Though enrolled in the Delian League it remained disaffected 
towards Athens, and in 447 had to be coerced by the settlement of 
a deruchy. In 411 Andros proclaimed its freedom and in 408 
withstood an Athenian attack. As a member of the second 
Delian League it was again controlled by a garrison and an 
archon. In the Hellenistic period Andros was contended for 
as a frontier-post by the two naval powers of the Aegean Se, 
Macedonia and Egypt. In 333 it received a Macedonian garrison 
from Antipater; in 308 it was freed by Ptolemy I. In the 
Chremonidean War (266-263) it passed again to Macedonia after 
a battle fought off its shores. In 200 it was captured by a com- 
bined Roman, Pergamene and Rhodian fleet, and remained a 
possession of Pergamum until the dissolution of that kingdom 
in 133 B.C. Before falling under Turkish rule, Andros was from 
A.D. 1207 till 1566 governed by the families Zeno and Sommariva 
under Venetian protection. 

ANDROTION (c. 350 B.C.), Greek orator, and one of the leading 
politicians of his time, was a pupil of Isocrates and a con- 
temporary of Demosthenes. He is known to us chiefly from the 
speech of Demosthenes, in which he was accused of illegality 
in proposing the usual honour of a crown to the Council of Five 
Hundred at the expiration of its term of office. Androtion filled 
several important posts, and during the Social War was appointed 
extraordinary commissioner to recover certain arrears of taxes. 
Both Demosthenes and Aristotle ( Rhrt. iii. 4) speak favourably 
of his powers as an orator. He is said to have gone into exile 
at Megara, and to have composed an AUhis, or annalist ic account 
of Attica from the earliest times to his own days (Pausanias 
vi. 7 ; x. 8). It is disputed whether the annalist and orator are 
identical, but an Androtion who wrote on agriculture is certainly 
a different person. Professor Gaetano de Sanctis (in L'AUide 
di Andrmione e un papiro di Oxyrhynchos, Turin, 1008) attributes 
to Androtion, the atthidographer, a 4th-century historical frag- 
ment, discovered by B. P. Grenfell and A. S. Hunt (Oxyrkyncktu 
Papyri, vol. v.). Strong arguments against this view are set 
forth by E. M. Walker in the Classical Review, May 1908. 



ANDUJAR ANEMOMETER 



ANDtJJAR (the anc. Sliturgi), a town of southern Spain, 
in the province of Ja6n; on the right bank of the river Guadal- 
quivir and the Madrid-Cordova railway. Pop. (1000) 16,302. 
Andujar is widely known for its porous earthenware jars, called 
alcarrazas, which keep water cool in the hottest weather, and are 
manufactured from a whitish clay found in the neighbourhood. 

ANECDOTE (from av-, privative, and <K5i5o>/u, to give out 
or publish), a word originally meaning something not published. 
It has now two distinct significations. The primary one is 
something not published, in which sense it has been used to denote 
either secret histories Procopius, e.g., gives this as one of the 
titles of his secret history of Justinian's court or portions of 
ancient writers which have remained long in manuscript and 
are edited for the first time. Of such anecdota there are many 
collections; the earliest was probably L. A. Muratori's, in 1709. 
In the more general and popular acceptation of the word, 
however, anecdotes are short accounts of detached interesting 
particulars. Of such anecdotes the collections are almost infinite; 
the best in many respects is that compiled by T. Byerley (d. 1826) 
and J. Clinton Robertson (d. 1852), known as the Percy Anecdotes 
(1820-1823). 

ANEL, DOMINIQUE (1670-1730), French surgeon, was born at 
Toulouse about 1679. After studying at Montpellier and Paris, 
he served as surgeon-major in the French army in Alsace; then 
after two years at Vienna he went to Italy and served in the 
Austrian army. In 1710 he was teaching surgery in Rouen, 
whence he went to Genoa, and in 1716 he was practising in 
Paris. He died about 1 730. He was celebrated for his successful 
surgical treatment of fistula lacrymalis, and while at Genoa 
invented for use in connexion with the operation the fine-pointed 
syringe still known by his name. 

ANEMOMETER (from Gr. &PCJKK, wind, and nerpov, a 
measure), an instrument for measuring either the velocity or the 
pressure of the wind. Anemometers may be divided into two 
classes, (i) those that measure the velocity, (2) those that 
measure the pressure of the wind, but inasmuch as there is a close 
connexion between the pressure and the velocity, a suitable 
anemometer of either class will give information about both these 
quantities. 

Velocity anemometers may again be subdivided into two 
classes, (i) those which do not require a wind vane or weather- 
cock, (2) those which do. The Robinson anemometer, invented 
(1846) by Dr Thomas Romney Robinson, of Armagh Observatory, 
is the best-known and most generally used instrument, and belongs 
to the first of these. It consists of four hemispherical cups, 
mounted one on each end of a pair of horizontal arms, which lie 
at right angles to each other and form a cross. A vertical axis 
round which the cups turn passes through the centre of the cross; 
a train of wheel-work counts up the number of turns which this 
axis makes, and from the number of turns made in any given time 
the velocity of the wind during that time is calculated. The cups 
are placed symmetrically on the end of the arms, and it is easy to 
see that the wind always has the hollow of one cup presented to 
it; the back of the cup on the opposite end of the cross also faces 
the wind, but the pressure on it is naturally less, and hence a 
continual rotation is produced; each cup in turn as it comes 
round providing the necessary force. The two great merits of 
this anemometer are its simplicity and the absence of a wind vane ; 
on the other hand it is not well adapted to leaving a record on 
paper of the actual velocity at any definite instant, and hence it 
leaves a short but violent gust unrecorded. Unfortunately, when 
Dr Robinson first designed his anemometer, he stated that no 
matter what the size of the cups or the length of the arms, the cups 
always moved with one-third of the velocity of the wind. This 
result was apparently confirmed by some independent experi- 
ments, but it is very far from the truth, for it is now known that 
the actual ratio, or factor as it is commonly called, of the velocity 
of the wind to that of the cups depends very largely on the 
dimensions of the cups and arms, and may have almost any value 
between two and a little over three. The result has been that 
wind velocities published in many official publications have often 
been in error by nearly 50%. 



The other forms of velocity anemometer may be described as 
belonging to the windmill type. In the Robinson anemometer 
the axis of rotation is vertical, but with this subdivision the axis 
of rotation must be parallel to the direction of the wind and 
therefore horizontal. Furthermore, since the wind varies in 
direction and the axis has to follow its changes, a wind vane or 
some other contrivance to fulfil the same purpose must be em- 
ployed. This type of instrument is very little used in England, 
but seems to be more in favour in France. In cases where the 
direction of the air motion is always the same, as in the ventilating 
shafts of mines and buildings for instance, these anemometers, 
known, however, as air meters, are employed, and give most 
satisfactory results. 

Anemometers which measure the pressure may be divided into 
the plate and tube classes, but the former term must be taken as 
including a good many miscellaneous forms. The simplest type 
of this form consists of a flat plate, which is usually square or 
circular, while a wind vane keeps this exposed normally to the 
wind, and the pressure of the wind on its face is balanced by a 
spring. The distortion of the spring determines the actual force 
which the wind is exerting on the plate, and this is either read off 
on a suitable gauge, or leaves a record in the ordinary way by 
means of a pen writing on a sheet of paper moved by clockwork. 
Instruments of this kind have been in use for a long series of years, 
and have recorded pressures up to and even exceeding 60 Ib 
per sq. ft., but it is now fairly certain that these high values arc 
erroneous, and due, not to the wind, but to faulty design of 
the anemometer. 

The fact is that the wind is continually varying in force, and 
while the ordinary pressure plate is admirably adapted for 
measuring the force of a steady and uniform wind, it is entirely 
unsuitable for following the rapid fluctuations of the natural wind. 
To make matters worse, the pen which records the motion of the 
plate is often connected with it by an extensive system of chains 
and levers. A violent gust strikes the plate, which is driven back 
and carried by its own momentum far past the position in which 
a steady wind of the same force would place it ; by the time the 
motion has reached the pen it has been greatly exaggerated by 
the springiness of the connexion, and not only is the plate itself 
driven too far back, but also its position is wrongly recorded by 
the pen; the combined errors act the same way, and more than 
double the real maximum pressure may be indicated on the chart. 

A modification of the ordinary pressure-plate has recently been 
designed. In this arrangement a catch is provided so that the 
plate being once driven back by the wind cannot return until 
released by hand; but the catch does not prevent the plate being 
driven back farther by a gust stronger than the last one that 
moved it. Examples of these plates are erected on the west coast 
of England, where in the winter fierce gales often occur; a pres- 
sure of 30 Ib per sq. ft. has not been shown by them, and instances 
exceeding 20 Ib are extremely rare. 

Many other modifications have been used and suggested. 
Probably a sphere would prove most useful for a pressure 
anemometer, since owing to its symmetrical shape it would not 
require a weathercock. A small light sphere hanging from the end 
of 30 or 40 ft. of fine sewing cotton has been employed to measure 
the wind velocity passing over a kite, the tension of the cotton 
being recorded, and this plan has given satisfactory results. 

Lind's anemometer, which consists simply of a (J tube contain- 
ing liquid with one end bent into a horizontal direction to face the 
wind, is perhaps the original form from which the tube class of 
instrument has sprung. If the wind blows into the mouth of a 
tube it causes an increase of pressure inside and also of course an 
equal increase in all closed vessels with which the mouth is in air- 
tight communication. If it blows horizontally over the open end 
of a vertical tube it causes a decrease of pressure, but this fact is 
not of any practical use in anemometry, because the magnitude 
of the decrease depends on the wind striking the tube exactly 
at right angles to its axis, the most trifling departure from the true 
direction causing great variations in the magnitude. The pressure 
tube anemometer (fig. i) utilizes the increased pressure in the 
open mouth of a straight tube facing the wind, and the decrease 



ANEMONE ANERIO 



of pressure caused inside when the wind blow* over a ring of small 
holes drilled through the metal of a vertical tube which is closed 
at the upper end. The pressure differences on which the action 
depends are very small, and special means are required to register 
thrm, but in the ordinary form of recording anemometer (fig. 3), 
any wind capable of turning the vane which keeps the mouth of 
the tube facing the wind is capable of registration. 

The great advantage of the tube anemometer lies in the fact 
that the exposed part can be mounted on a high pole, and requires 
no oiling or attention for years; and the registering part can be 
placed in any convenient position, no matter how far from the 
external part. Two connecting tubes are required. It might 
appear at first sight as though one connexion would serve, but the 
differences in pressure on which these instruments depend are so 
minute, that the pressure of the air in the room where the record- 
ing part is placed has to be considered. Thus if the instrument 
depends on the pressure or suction effect alone, and this pressure 
or suction is measured against the air pressure in an ordinary 
room, in which the doors and windows are carefully dosed and a 
newspaper is then burnt up the chimney, an effect may be pro- 
duced equal to a wind of 10 m. an hour; and the opening of a 




Fie 



FIG. 3. 



window in rough weather, or the opening of a door, may entirely 
alter the registration. 

The connexion between the velocity and the pressure of the 
wind is one that is not yet known with absolute certainty. Many 
text-books on engineering give the relation P = -005 if when P is 
the pressure in Ib per sq. ft. and v the velocity in miles per hour. 
The history of this untrue relation is curious. It was given about 
the end of the i8th century as based on some experiments, but 
with a footnote stating that Little reliance could be placed on it. 
The statement without the qualifying note was copied from book 
to book, and at last received general acceptance. There is no 
doubt that under average conditions of atmospheric density, the 
.005 should be replaced by -003, for many independent authorities 
using different methods have found values very dose to this 
last figure. It is probable that the wind pressure is not strictly 
proportional to the extent of the surface exposed. Pressure plates 
are generally of moderate size, from a half or quarter of a sq. ft. 
up to two or three sq. ft., are round or square, and for these sizes, 
and shapes, and of course for a flat surface, the relation P = .003 1 1 
is fairly correct. 

In the tube anemometer also it is really the pressure that is 
measured, although the scale is usually graduated as a velocity 
scale. In cases where the density of the air is not of average value, 
as on a high mountain, or with an exceptionally low barometer 
for example, an allowance must be made. Approximately i$% 
should be added to the velocity recorded by a tube anemometer 
for each 1000 ft. that it stands above sea-level. (W. H. Di.) 



ANEMONE, or \VixD-Fi.owT.t (from the Gr. AMJM, wind), a 
genus of the buttercup order (Kanunculaceme), containing bout 
ninety species in the north and south temperate lones. Anemont 
ntmorosa, wood anemone, and A. PuttaiMa, Pasque-flower, 
occur in Britain ; the latter is found on chalk downs and Imnrton* 
pastures in some of the more southern and eastern counties. 
The plants are perennial herbs with an underground rootslock, 
and radical, more or less deeply cut, leaves. The elongated 
flower stem bears one or several, white, red, blue or rarely yellow, 
flowers; there is an involucre of three leaflets below each flower. 
The fruits often bear long hairy styles which aid their distribution 
by the wind. Many of the spedes are favourite garden plants; 
among the best known is Anemone coronaria, often called the 
poppy anemone, a tuberous-rooted plant, with parsley-like 
divided leaves, and large showy poppy-like blossoms on stalks 
of from 6 to 9 in. high; the flowers are of various colours, but the 
principal are scarlet, crimson, blue, purple and white. There are 
also double-flowered varieties, in which the stamens in the centre 
arc replaced by a tuft of narrow petals. It is an old garden 
favourite, and of the double forms there are named varieties. 
They grow best in a loamy soil, enriched with well-rotted manure, 
which should be dug in below the tubers. These may be planted 
in October, and for succession in January, the autumn-planted 
ones being protected by a covering of leaves or short stable 
litter. They will flower in May and June, and when the leaves 
have ripened should be taken up into a dry room till planting 
time. They are easily raised from the seed, and a bed of the 
single varieties is a valuable addition to a flower-garden, as it 
affords, in a warm situation, an abundance of handsome and 
often brilliant spring flowers, almost as early as the snowdrop or 
crocus. The genus contains many other lively spring-blooming 
plants, of which A. hortensis and A. fulgent have less divided 
leaves and splendid rosy-purple or scarlet flowers; they require 
similar treatment. Another set is represented by A. PtdsaliUa, 
the Pasque-flower, whose violet blossoms have the outer surface 
hairy; these prefer a calcareous soil. The splendid A. japonica, 
and its white variety called Honorine Joubert, the latter especially, 
are amongst the finest of autumn-blooming hardy perennials; 
they grow well in light soil, and reach 2} to 3 ft. in height, 
blooming continually for several weeks. A group of dwarf 
species, represented by the native British A. ntmorosa and 
A. apennina, are amongst the most beautiful of spring flowers 
for planting in woods and shady places. 

The genus llcpatica is now generally included in anemone as a 
subgenus. The plants are known in gardens as bepatiras, and 
are varieties of the common South European A. Hepattca; 
they are charming spring-flowering plants with usually blue 
flowers. 

ANENCLETUS, or ANACLETUS, second bishop of Rome. About 
the 4th century he is treated in the catalogues as two persons 
Anacletus and Cletus. According to the catalogues he occupied 
the papal chair for twelve years (c. 77-88). 

ANERIO, the name of two brothers, musical composers, very 
great Roman masters of 16th-century polyphony. Felice, the 
elder, was born about 1560, studied under G. M. Nanino and 
succeeded Palestrina in 1504 as composer to the papal chapel 
Several masses and motets of his are printed in Proske's Uusua 
Divina and other modern anthologies, and it is hardly too much 
to say that they are for the most part worthy of Palestrina 
himself. The date of his death is conjecturally given as 1630. 
His brother, Giovanni Francesco, was born about 1567, and 
seems to have died about 1620. The occasional attribution of 
some of his numerous compositions to his elder brother is a 
pardonable mistake, if we may judge by the works that have been 
reprinted. But the statement, which continues to be repeated 
in standard works of reference, that " he was one of the first of 
Italians to use the quaver and its subdivisions " is incompre- 
hensible. Quavers were common property in all musical countries 
quite early in the i6th century, and semiquavers appear in a 
madrigal of Palestrina published in 1 574. The two brothers are 
probably the latest composers who handled 16th-century musk 
as their mother-language; suffering neither from the temptation 



ANET ANGEL 



to indulge even in such mild neologisms as they might have 
learnt from the elder brother's master, Nanino, nor from the 
necessity of preserving their purity of style by a mortified 
negative asceticism. They wrote pure polyphony because they 
understood it and loved it, and hence their work lives, as neither 
the progressive work of their own day nor the reactionary work 
of their imitators could live. The i2-part Stabal Mater in the 
seventh volume of Palestrina's complete works has been by some 
authorities ascribed to Felice Anerio. 

ANET, a town of northern France, in the department of 
Eure-et-Loir, situated between the rivers Eure and Vegre, 
10 m. N.E. of Dreux by rail. Pop. (1906) 1324. It possesses 
the remains of a magnificent castle, built in the middle of the 
i6th century by Henry II. for Diana of Poitiers. Near it is the 
plain of Ivry, where Henry IV. defeated the armies of the League 
in 1590. 

ANEURIN, or ANEIRIN, the name of an early 7th-century 
British (Welsh) bard, who has been taken by Thomas Stephens 
(1821-1875), the editor and translator of Aneurin's principal epic 
poem Gododin, for a son of Gildas, the historian. Gododin is an 
account of the British defeat (603) by the Saxons at Cattraeth 
(identified by Stephens with Dawstane hi Liddesdale), where 
Aneurin is said to have been taken prisoner; but the poem is 
very obscure and is differently interpreted. It was translated 
and edited by W. F. Skene hi his Four Ancient Books of Wales 
(1866), and Stephens' version was published by the Cymmro- 
dorion Society hi 1888. See CELT: Literature (Welsh). 

ANEURYSM, or ANEURISM (from Gr. avtvpiopa.. a dilata- 
tion), a cavity or sac which communicates with the ulterior of 
an artery and contains blood. The walls of the cavity are formed 
either of the dilated artery or of the tissues around that vessel. 
The dilatation of the artery is due to a local weakness, the result 
of disease or injury. The commonest cause is chronic inflamma- 
tion of the inner coats of the artery. The breaking of a bottle 
or glass hi the hand is apt to cut through the outermost coat of 
the artery at the wrist (radial) and thus to cause a local weakening 
of the tube which is gradually followed by dilatation. Also when 
an artery is wounded and the wound in the skin and superficial 
structures heals, the blood may escape into the tissues, displacing 
them, and by its pressure causing them to condense and form the 
sac- wall. The coats of an artery, when diseased, may be torn 
by a severe strain, the blood escaping into the condensed tissues 
which thus form the aneurysmal sac. 

The division of aneurysms into two classes, true and false, is 
unsatisfactory. On the face of it, an aneurysm which is false 
is not an aneurysm, any more than a false bank-note is legal 
tender. A better classification is into spontaneous and traumatic. 
The man who has chronic inflammation of a large artery, the 
result, for instance, of gout, arduous, straining work, or kidney- 
disease, and whose artery yields under cardiac pressure, has a 
spontaneous aneurysm; the barman or window-cleaner who has 
cut his radial artery, the soldier whose brachial or femoral artery 
has been bruised by a rifle bullet or grazed by a bayonet, and the 
boy whose naked foot is pierced by a sharp nail, are apt to be 
the subjects of traumatic aneurysm. In those aneurysms which 
are a saccular bulging on one side of the artery the blood may be 
induced to coagulate, or may of itself deposit layer upon layer 
of pale clot, until the sac is obliterated. This laminar coagulation 
by constant additions gradually fills the aneurysmal cavity and 
the pulsation hi the sac then ceases; contraction of the sac and 
its contents gradually takes place and the aneurysm is cured. 
But in those aneurysms which are fusiform dilatations of the 
vessel there is but slight chance of such cure, for the blood 
sweeps evenly through it without staying to deposit clot or 
laminated fibrine. 

In the treatment of aneurysm the aim is generally to lower the 
blood pressure by absolute rest and moderated diet, but a cure is 
rarely effected except by operation, which, fortunately, is now 
resorted to more promptly and securely than was previously the 
case. Without trying the speculative and dangerous method of 
treatment by compression, or the application of an indiarubber 
bandage, the surgeon now without loss of time cuts down upon the 



artery, and applies an aseptic ligature close above the dilatation. 
Experience has shown that this method possesses great advantages, 
and that it has none of the disadvantages which were formerly 
supposed to attend it. Saccular dilatations of arteries which are 
the result of cuts or other injuries are treated by tying the vessel 
above and below, and by dissecting out the aneurysm. Pop- 
liteal, carotid and other aneurysms, which are not of traumatic 
origin, are sometimes dealt with on this plan, which is the old 
" Method of Antyllus " with modern aseptic conditions. Speak- 
ing generally, if an aneurysm can be dealt with surgically the 
sooner that the artery is tied the better. Less heroic measures 
are too apt to prove painful, dangerous, ineffectual and dis- 
appointing. For anturysm in the chest or abdomen (which 
cannot be dealt with by operation) the treatment may be tried 
of injecting a pure solution of gelatine into the loose tissues of 
the armpit, so that the gelatine may find its way into the blood 
stream and increase the chance of curative coagulation in the 
distant aneurysmal sac. (E. O.*) 

ANFRACTUOSITY (from Lat. anfractuosus, winding), twisting 
and turning, circuitousness; a word usually employed in the 
plural to denote winding channels such as occur in the depths 
of the sea, mountains, or the fissures (sulci) separating the 
convolutions of the brain, or, by analogy, hi the mind. 

ANGARIA (from &yyapos, the Greek form of a Babylonian 
word adopted in Persian for " mounted courier "), a sort of 
postal system adopted by the Roman imperial government 
from the ancient Persians, among whom, according to Xenophon 
(Cyrop. viii. 6; cf. Herodotus viii. 98) it was established by 
Cyrus the Great. Couriers on horseback were posted at certain 
stages along the chief roads of the empire, for the transmission 
of royal despatches by night and day in all weathers. In the 
Roman system the supply of horses and their maintenance was 
a compulsory duty from which the emperor alone could grant 
exemption. The word, which in the 4th century was used for 
the heavy transport vehicles of the cursus publicus, and also for 
the animals by which they were drawn, came to mean generally 
"compulsory service." So angaria, angariare, hi medieval 
Latin, and the rare English derivatives " angariate," " angaria- 
tion," came to mean any service which was forcibly or unjustly 
demanded, and oppression in general. 

ANGARY (Lat. jus angariae; FT. droit d'angarie; Ger. 
Angarie; from the Gr. iyyapeia, the office of an &yyapos, courier 
or messenger), the name given to the right of a belligerent to 
seize and apply for the purposes of war (or to prevent the enemy 
from doing so) any kind of property on, belligerent territory, 
including that which may belong to subjects or citizens of a 
neutral state. Art. 53 of the Regulations respecting the Laws 
and Customs of War on Land, annexed to the Hague Convention 
of 1899 on the same subject, provides that railway plant, land 
telegraphs, telephones, steamers and other ships (other than 
such as are governed by maritime law), though belonging to 
companies or private persons, may be used for military opera- 
tions, but " must be restored at the conclusion of peace and 
indemnities paid for them." And Art. 54 adds that " the 
plant of railways coming from neutral states, whether the 
property of those states or of companies or private persons, 
shall be sent back to them as soon as possible." These articles 
seem to sanction the right of angary against neutral property, 
while limiting it as against both belligerent and neutral property. 
It may be considered, however, that the right to use implies as 
wide a range of contingencies as the " necessity of war " can be 
made to cover. (T. BA.) 

ANGEL, a general term denoting a subordinate superhuman 
being in monotheistic religions, e.g. Islam, Judaism, Christianity, 
and in allied religions, such as Zoroastrianism. In polytheism 
the grades of superhuman beings are continuous; but in mono- 
theism there is a sharp distinction of kind, as well as degree, 
between God on the one hand, and all other superhuman beings 
on the other; the latter are the " angels." 

" Angel " is a transcription of the Gr. ayyt^os, messenger. 
ayyeXos in the New Testament, and the corresponding mal'akh 
in the Old Testament, sometimes mean " messenger," and 



ANGEL 



sometimes " angel," and this double sense is duly represented 
in the English Versions. " Angel " is also used in the Knglish 
Version for vs 'Abbir, Ps. Uxviii. 75. (lit. " mighty "), for 
own 'Elokim, Ps. viii. 5, and for the obscure \*# thin' an, in 
IV Ixviii. 17. 

In the later development of the religion of Israel, 'Elohim 
is almost entirely reserved for the one true God; but in 
earlier times 'Elohim (gods), bnl 'Elokim, btil Elim (sons of 
gods, i.e. members of the class of divine beings) were general 
terms for superhuman beings. Hence they came to be used 
collectively of superhuman beings, distinct from Yahwch, and 
therefore inferior, and ultimately subordinate. 1 So, too, the 
angels arc styled " holy ones," 1 and " watchers,"' and are 
spoken of as the " host of heaven " 4 or of " Yahweh." * The 
" hosts," n*9? SebaOth in the title Yakwek Sebaoth, Lord of 
Hosts, were probably at one time identified with the angels. 4 The 
New Testament often speaks of "spirits," rvtb no.ro.. 1 In the 
earlier periods of the religion of Israel, the doctrine of monotheism 
had not been formally stated, so that the idea of " angel " in 
the modern sense docs not occur, but we find the Mal'akh 
Yakwek, Angel of the Lord, or Mai'akh Elokim, Angel of God. 
The Mal'akh Yakwek is an appearance or manifestation of 
Yakwek in the form of a man, and the term MaTakh Yahweh is 
used interchangeably with Yahweh (cf. Exod. iii. 2, with 
iii. 4; xiii. 21 with xiv. 19). Those who see the Mai'akh 
Yakwek say they have seen God." The Mai'akh Yahweh (or 
Elohim) appears to Abraham, Hagar, Moses, Gideon, &c., and 
leads the Israelites in the Pillar of Cloud.* The phrase Mai'akh 
Yakwek may have been originally a courtly circumlocution for 
the Divine King; but it readily became a means of avoiding 
crude anthropomorphism, and later on, when the angels were 
classified, the Mai'akh Yahweh came to mean an angel of 
distinguished rank. 10 The identificaton of the Mai'akh Yahweh 
with the LO&OS, or Second Person of the Trinity, is not indicated 
by the references in the Old Testament ; but the idea of a Being 
partly identified with God, and yet in some sense distinct from 
Him, illustrates the tendency of religious thought to distinguish 
persons within the unity of the Godhead, and foreshadows the 
doctrine of the Trinity, at any rate in some slight degree. 

In the earlier literature the Mai'akh Yahweh or Elohim is 
almost the only mal'akh (" angel ") mentioned. There are, 
however, a few passages which speak of subordinate superhuman 
beings other than the Mai'akh Yahweh or Elohim. There are 
the cherubim who guard Eden. In Gen. rviii., xix. (J) the 
appearance of Yahweh to Abraham and Lot is connected with 
three, afterwards two, men or messengers; but possibly in the 
original form of the story Yahweh appeared alone." At Bethel, 
Jacob sees the angels of God on the ladder," and later on they 
appear to him at Mahanaim. 13 In all these cases the angels, like 
the Mai'akh Yahweh, are connected with or represent a theo- 
phany. Similarly the " man " who wrestles with Jacob at Peniel 
is identified with God. 14 In Isaiah vi. the seraphim, superhuman 
beings with six wings, appear as the attendants of Yahweh. 
Thus the pre-exilic literature, as we now have it, has little to say 
about angels or about superhuman beings other than Yahweh 
and manifestations of Yahweh; the pre-exilic prophets hardly 
mention angels. 1 * Nevertheless we may well suppose that the 
popular religion of ancient Israel had much to say of super- 
human beings other than Yahweh, but that the inspired writers 
have mostly suppressed references to them as unedifying. 
Moreover such beings were not strictly angels. 

1 E.g. Gen. vi. 2; Job i. 6; Ps. viii. 5, xxix. I. * Zech. xiv. 5. 

I Dan. iv. 13. 4 Deut. xvii. 3 (?). Josh. v. 14 (?). 

The identification of the " hosts ' with the stars comes to the 
same thing; the stars were thought of as closely connected with 
angels. It is probable that the hosts " were also identified with 
the armies of Israel. 

' Rev. i. 4. Gen. xxxii. 30; Judges xiii. 22. 

Exod. in. 2, xiv. 19. lo Zcch. i. n f. 

II Cf. xviii. i with xviii. 2, and note change of number in xix. 17 
u Gen. xx viii. 12, E. " Gen. xxxii. i, E. "Gen. 



umber in xix. 17. 
i. xxxii. 24, 30, I. 
Mai'akh Yalvxh, 



* " An angel " of i Kings xiii. 18 might be the Mai'akh 
as in xix. 5, cf. 7, or the passage, at any rate in its present form, may 
be exilic or post-exilic. 



The doctrine of monotheism was formally expressed in the 
period immediately before and during the Exile, in Deuteronomy 1 * 
and Isaiah"; and at the same time we find angel* prominent in 
Ezckicl who, as a prophet of the Exile, may have been influenced 
by the hierarchy of supernatural beings in the Babylonian 
religion, and perhaps even by the angelology of ZoroMtrianism. 1 * 
Ezekicl gives elaborate descriptions of cherubim 1 *; and in one 
of his visions he tees seven angels execute the judgment of God 
upon Jerusalem." As in Genesis they are styled " men," maTakh 
for " angel " does not occur in Ezekicl. Somewhat later, in the 
visions of Zechariah, angels play a great pan; they are some- 
times spoken of as " men," sometimes as mal'akh, and the 
Mai'akh Yahweh seems to hold a certain primacy among them." 
Satan also appears to prosecute (so to speak) the High Priest 
before the divine tribunal." Similarly in Job the bni Elokim. 
sons of God, appear as attendants of God, and amongst them 
Satan, still in his role of public prosecutor, the defendant being 
Job." Occasional references to " angels " occur in the Psalter* 4 ; 
they appear as ministers of God. 

In Ps. Ixxviii. 49 the " evil angels " of A. V. conveys a false 
impression; it should be "angels of evil," as R.V., i.e. angels 
who inflict chastisement as ministers of God. 

The seven angels of Ezckicl may be compared with the seven 
eyes of Yahweh in Zech. iii. 9, iv. 10. The latter have been 
connected by Ewald and others with the later doctrine of seven 
chief angels**, parallel to and influenced by the Ameshaspentas 
( Amesha Spenta) , or seven great spirits of the Persian mythology , 
but the connexion is doubtful. 

In the Priestly Code, c. 400 B.C., there is no reference to angels 
apart from the possible suggestion in the ambiguous plural 
in Genesis i. 26. 

During the Persian and Greek periods the doctrine of angels 
underwent a great development, partly, at any rate, under 
foreign influences. In Daniel, c. 160 B.C., angels, usually 
spoken of as " men " or " princes," appear as guardians or 
champions of the nations; grades are implied, there are " princes " 
and " chief " or " great princes " ; and the names of some angels 
are known, Gabriel, Michael; the latter is pre-eminent**, he is 
the guardian of Judah. Again in Tobit a leading part is played 
by Raphael, " one of the seven holy angels."* 7 

In Tobit, too, we find the idea of the demon or evil angel. 
In the canonical Old Testament angels may inflict suffering 
as ministers of God, and Satan may act as accuser or tempter; 
but they appear as subordinate to God, fulfilling His will; and 
not as morally evil. The statement** that God "chargeth His 
angels with folly " applies to all angels. In Daniel the princes 
or guardian angels of the heathen nations oppose Michael the 
guardian angel of Judah. But in Tobit we find Asmodacus 
the evil demon, TO icovripbv oainoviov, who strangles Sarah's 
husbands, and also a general reference to " a devil or evil 
spirit," TvtDAio.** The Fall of the Angels is not properly a 
scriptural doctrine, though it is based on Gen. vi. 2, as inter- 
preted by the Book of Enoch. It is true that the bni Elohim 
of that chapter arc subordinate superhuman beings (cf. above), 
but they belong to a different order of thought from the angels 
of Judaism and of Christian doctrine; and the passage in no 
way suggests that the bne Elohim suffered any loss of status 
through their act. 

The guardian angels of the nations in Daniel probably represent 
the gods of the heathen, and we have there the first step of the 
process by which these gods became evil angels, an idea expanded 
by Milton in Paradise Lost. The development of ihe doctrine 
of an organized hierarchy of angels belongs to the Jewish litera- 
ture of the period 200 B.C. to A.D. 100. In Jewish apocalypses 
especially, the imagination ran riot on the rank, classes and names 
of angels; and such works as the various books of Enoch and 

14 Deut. vi. 4, 5. " Isaiah xliii. 10 Ac. 

n It is not however certain that these doctrines of Zoroast nanism 
were developed at so early a date. 

Ek. i. x. Ezek. ix. Zech. i. 1 1 f. Zech. iii. i. 

* Job i., ii. Cf. i Chron. xri. l. * 4 Pss. xci. n. ciii. 20 Ac. 

' Tobit xii. 15; Rev. viii. 2. Dan. viii. 16, x. 13. 2O.2I. 

Tob. xii. 15. Job iv. 18. " Tobit iii. 8. 17. vi. 7. 



ANGEL ANGELICO 



the Ascension of Isaiah supply much information on this 
subject. 

In the New Testament angels appear frequently as the 
ministers of God and the agents of revelation 1 ; and Our Lord 
speaks of angels as fulfilling such functions 2 , implying in one saying 
that they neither marry nor are given in marriage.* Naturally 
angels are most prominent in the Apocalypse. The New Testa- 
ment takes little interest in the idea of the angelic hierarchy, 
but there are traces of the doctrine. The distinction of good 
and bad angels is recognized; we have names, Gabriel 4 , and 
the evil angels Abaddon or Apollyon 6 , Beelzebub 6 , and Satan'; 
ranks are implied, archangels', principalities and powers 9 , 
thrones and dominions 10 . Angels occur in groups of four or 
seven 11 . In Rev. i.-iii. we meet with the "Angels " of the Seven 
Churches of Asia Minor. These are probably guardian angels, 
standing to the churches in the same relation that the " princes " 
in Daniel stand to the nations; practically the " angels " are 
personifications of the churches. A less likely view is that the 
" angels " are the human representatives of the churches, the 
bishops or chief presbyters. There seems, however, no parallel 
to such a use of " angel," and it is doubtful whether the mon- 
archical government of churches was fully developed when 
the Apocalypse was written. 

Later Jewish and Christian speculation followed on the lines 
of the angelology of the earlier apocalypses; and angels play 
an important part in Gnostic systems and in the Jewish Mid- 
rashim and the Kabbala. Religious thought about the angels 
during the middle ages was much influenced by the theory of the 
angelic hierarchy set forth in the De Hierarchic Celesti, written 
in the 5th century in the name of Dionysius the Areopagite and 
passing for his. The creeds and confessions do not formulate 
any authoritative doctrine of angels; and modern rationalism 
has tended to deny the existence of such beings, or to regard 
the subject as one on which we can have no certain knowledge. 
The principle of continuity, however, seems to require the 
existence of beings intermediate between man and God. 

The Old Testament says nothing about the origin of angels; 
but the Book of Jubilees and the Slavonic Enoch describe their 
creation; and, according to Col. i. 16, the angels were created 
in, unto and through Christ. 

Nor does the Bible give any formal account of the nature 
of angels. It' is doubtful how far Ezekiel's account of the 
cherubim and Isaiah's account of the seraphim are to be taken 
as descriptions of actual beings; they are probably figurative, 
or else subjective visions. Angels are constantly spoken of as 
" men," and, including even the Angel of Yahweh, are spoken 
of as discharging the various functions of human life; they eat 
and drink", walk u and speak 14 . Putting aside the cherubim 
and seraphim, they are not spoken of as having wings. On the 
other hand they appear and vanish 15 , exercise miraculous powers 16 , 
and fly 17 . Seeing that the anthropomorphic language used of 
the angels is similar to that used of God, the Scriptures would 
hardly seem to require a literal interpretation in either case. 
A special association is found, both in the Bible and elsewhere, 
between the angels and the heavenly bodies 18 , and the elements 
or elemental forces, fire, water, &c 19 . The angels are infinitely 
numerous 10 . 

The function of the angels is that of the supernatural servants 
of God, His agents and representatives; the Angel of Yahweh, 
as we have seen, is a manifestation of God. In old times, the 
bne Elohim and the seraphim are His court, and the angels are 
alike the court and the army of God; the cherubim are his 
throne-bearers. In his dealings with men, the angels, as their 

1 E.g. Matt. i. 20 (to Joseph), iv. n (to Jesus), Luke i. 26 (to Mary), 
Acts xii. 7 (to Peter). 

I E.g. Mark viii. 38, xiii. 27. l Mark xii. 25. 4 Luke i. 19. 
Rev. ix. II. Mark iii. 22. ' Mark i. 13. 

8 Michael, Jude 9. Rom. viii. 38 ; Col. ii. 10. 

Col. i. 1 6. " Rev. vii. I. " Gen. xviii. 8. 

II Gen. xix. 16. " Zech. iv. I. " Judgss vi. 12, 21. 
" Rev. vii. I. viii. " Rev. viii. 13, xiv. 6. 

M Job xxxviii. 7; Asc. of Isaiah, iv. 18; Slav. Enoch, iv. I. 
M Rev. xiv. 18, xvi. 5; rossibly Gal. iv. 3; Col. ii. 8, 20. 
10 Ps. Ixviii. 17; Dan. vii. 10. 



name implies, are specially His messengers, declaring His will 
and executing His commissions. Through them he controls 
nature and man. They are the guardian angels of the nations; 
and we also find the idea that individuals have guardian angels 21 . 
Later Jewish tradition held that the Law was given by angels 22 . 
According to the Gnostic Basilides, the world was created by 
angels. Mahommedanism has taken over and further elaborated 
the Jewish and Christian ideas as to angels. 

While the scriptural statements imply a belief in the existence 
of spiritual beings intermediate between God and men, it is 
probable that many of the details may be regarded merely as 
symbolic imagery. In Scripture the function of the angel 
overshadows his personality; the stress is on their ministry; 
they appear in order to perform specific acts. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. See the sections on " Angels " in the handbooks 
of O. T. Theology by Ewald, Schultz, Smend, Kayser-Marti, &c. ; 
and of N. T. Theology by Weiss, and in van Oosterzee's Dogmatics. 
Also commentaries on special passages, especially Driver and Bevan 
on Daniel, and G. A. Smith, Minor Prophets, ii. 310 ff. ; and articles 
s.v. " Angel " in Hastings' Bible Dictionary, and the Encyclopaedia 
Biblica. (W. H. BE.) 

ANGEL, a gold coin, first used in France (angelot, ange) in 1340, 
and introduced into England by Edward IV. in 1465 as a new 
issue of the " noble," and so at first called the " angel-noble." 
It varied in value between that period and the time of Charles I. 
(when it was last coined) from 6s. 8d. to los. The name was 
derived from the representation it bore of St Michael and the 
dragon. The angel was the coin given to those who came to be 
touched for the disease known as king's evil; after it was no 
longer coined, medals, called touch-pieces, with the same device, 
were given instead. 

ANGELICA, a genus of plants of the natural order Umbelliferae, 
represented in Britain by one species, A . syhestris, a tall perennial 
herb with large bipinnate leaves and large compound umbels of 
white or purple flowers. The name Angelica is popularly given 
to a plant of an allied genus, Archangelica officinalis, the tender 
shoots of which are used in making certain kinds of aromatic 
sweetmeats. A ngelica balsam is obtained by extracting the roots 
with alcohol, evaporating and extracting the residue with ether. 
It is of a dark brown colour and contains angelica oil, angelica 
wax and angelicin, CigHaoO. The essential oil of the roots of 
Angelica archangelica contains /3-terebangelene, CioHu, and other 
terpenes; the oil of the seeds also contains /3-terebangelene, 
together with methylethylacetic acid and hydroxymyristic acid. 

The angelica tree is a member of the order Avaliaceae, a species 
of Aralia (A. spinosa), a native of North America; it grows 
8 to 12 ft. high, has a simple prickle-bearing stem forming an 
umbrella-like head, and much divided leaves. 

ANGELICO, FRA (1387-1455), Italian painter. II Beato Fra 
Giovanni Angelico da Fiesole is the name given to a far-famed 
painter-friar of the Florentine state in the isth century, the 
representative, beyond all other men, of pietistic painting. He 
is often, but not accurately, termed simply " Fiesole," which is 
merely the name of the town where he first took the vows; more 
often Fra Angelico. If we turn his compound designation into 
English, it runs thus" the Beatified Friar John the Angelic 
of Fiesole." In his lifetime he was known no doubt simply as 
Fra Giovanni or Friar John; " The Angelic " is a laudatory 
term which was assigned to him at an early date, we find it in 
use within thirty years after his death; and, at some period 
which is not defined in our authorities, he was beatified by due 
ecclesiastical process. His baptismal name was Guido, Giovanni 
being only his name in religion. He was born at Vicchio, in the 
Tuscan province of Mugello, of unknown but seemingly well-to-do 
parentage, in 1387 (not 1390 as sometimes stated); in 1407 he 
became a novice in the convent of S. Domenico at Fiesole, and 
in 1408 he took the vows and entered the Dominican order. 
Whether he had previously been a painter by profession is not 
certain, but may be pronounced probable. The painter named 
Lorenzo Monaco may have contributed to his art-training, and 
the influence of the Sienese school is discernible in his work. 

81 Matt, xviii. 10; Acts xii. 15. 
B Gal. iii. 19 ; Heb. ii. 2 ; LXX. of Deut. xxxiii. 2. 



ANGELICO 



According to Vasari, the first paintings of this artist were in the 
Ortosa of Florence; none such exist there now. His earliest 
extant performances, in considerable number, are at Cortona, 
whither he was sent during his novitiate, and here apparently he 
spent all the opening years of his monastic life. His first works 
executed in fresco were probably those, now destroyed, which he 
painted in the convent of S. Domenico in this city; as a fresco- 
painter, he may have worked under, or as a follower of, Gherardo 
Stamina. From 1418 to 1436 he was back at Ficsole; in 1436 
he was transferred to the Dominican convent of S. Marco in 
Florence, and in 1438 undertook to paint the altarpiece for the 
choir, followed by many other works; he may have studied 
about this time the renowned frescoes in the Brancacci chapel in 
the Florentine church of the Carmine and also the paintings of 
Orcagna. In or about 1445 he was invited by the pope to Rome. 
The pope who reigned from 1431 to 1447 was Eugenius IV., and 
he it was who in 1445 appointed another Dominican friar, a 
colleague of Angclico. to be archbishop of Florence. If the story 
(first told by Vasari) is true that this appointment was made at 
the suggestion of Angelico only after the archbishopric had been 
offered to himself, and by him declined on the ground of his 
inaptitude for so elevated and responsible a station Eugenius, 
and not (as stated by Vasari) his successor Nicholas V., must 
have been the pope who sent the invitation and made the offer to 
Fra Giovanni, for Nicholas only succeeded in 1447. The whole 
statement lacks authentication, though in itself credible enough. 
Certain it is that Angelico was staying in Rome in the first half 
of 1447; and he painted in the Vatican the Cappella del Sacra- 
mento, which was afterwards demolished by Paul HI. In June 
1447 he proceeded to Orvieto, to paint in the Cappella Nuova 
of the cathedral, with the co-operation of his pupil Benozzo 
Gozzoli. He afterwards returned to Rome to paint the chapel 
of Nicholas V. In this capital he died in 1455, and he lies 
buried in the church of the Minerva. 

According to all the accounts which have reached us, few men 
on whom the distinction of beatification has been conferred could 
have deserved it more nobly than Fra Giovanni. He led a holy 
and self-denying life, shunning all advancement, and was a 
brother to the poor; no man ever saw him angered. He painted 
with unceasing diligence, treating none but sacred subjects; he 
never retouched or altered his work, probably with a religious 
feeling that such as divine providence allowed the thing to 
come, such it should remain He was wont to say that he who 
illustrates the acts of Christ should be with Christ. It is averred 
that he never handled a brush without fervent prayer and he 
wept when he painted a Crucifixion. The Last Judgment and 
the Annunciation were two of the subjects he most frequently 
treated. 

Bearing in mind the details already given as to the dates of Fra 
Giovanni's sojournings in various localities, the reader will be able 
to trace approximately the sequence of the works which we now 
proceed to name as among his most important productions. In 
Florence, in the convent of S. Marco (now converted into a national 
museum), a series of frescoes, beginning towards 1443; in the 
first cloister is the Crucifixion with St Dominic kneeling; and 
the same treatment recurs on a wall near the dormitory; in the 
chapterhouse is a third Crucifixion, with the Virgin swooning, a 
composition of twenty life-sized figures the red background, 
which has a strange and harsh effect, is the misdoing of some 
restorer; an " Annunciation," the figures of about three-fourths 
of life-size, in a dormitory; in the adjoining passage, the " Virgin 
enthroned," with four saints; on the wall of a cell, the " Corona- 
tion of the Virgin," with Saints Paul, Thomas Aquinas, Benedict, 
Dominic, Francis and Peter Martyr; two Dominicans welcom- 
ing Jesus, habited as a pilgrim; an " Adoration of the Magi "; 
the " Marys at the Sepulchre." All these works are later than the 
altarpiece which Angclico painted (as before mentioned) for the 
choir connected with this convent, and which is now in the 
academy of Florence; it represents the Virgin with Saints Cosmas 
and Damian (the patrons of the Medici family), Dominic, Peter, 
Francis, Mark, John Evangelist and Stephen; the pediment 
illustrated the lives of Cosmas and Damian, but it has long been 



evered from the main subject. I n the Uffizi gallery, an altarpiecr 
the Virgin (life-sued) enthroned, with the Infant and twelve 
angels. In S. Domenico, Fie*ole, * few frescoe*. ICM fine than 
those in S. Marco; alto an altarpiece in tempera of the Virgin and 
Child between Saints Peter, Thomas Aquinas, Dominic and 
Peter Martyr, now much destroyed. The subject which originally 
formed the predella of this picture has, since 1860, been in the 
National Gallery, London, and worthily represents there the hand 
of the saintly painter. The subject is a Glory, Christ with the 
banner of the Resurrection, and a multitude of saints, including, 
at the extremities, the saints or bcati of the Dominican order; 
here are no fewer than 366 figures or portions of figures, many of 
them having names inscribed. This predella was highly lauded 
by Vasari; still more highly another picture which used to form 
an altarpiece in Ficsole, and which now obtains world-wide 
celebrity in the Louvre the " Coronation of the Virgin," with 
eight predella subjects of the miracles of St. Dominic. For the 
church of Santa Trinita, Florence, Angelico executed a " Depo- 
sition from the Cross," and for the church of the Angeli, a " Last 
Judgment," both now in the Florentine academy; for S. Maria 
Novella, a " Coronation of the Virgin," with a predella in three 
sections, now in the Uffizi, this again is one of his masterpieces. 
In Orvieto cathedral he painted three triangular divisions of the 
ceiling, portraying respectively Christ in a glory of angels, sixteen 
saints and prophets, and the virgin and apostles: all these are 
now much repainted and damaged. In Rome, in the Chapel of 
Nicholas V., the acts of Saints Stephen and Lawrence; also 
various figures of saints, and on the ceiling the four evangelists. 
These works of the painter's advanced age, which have suffered 
somewhat from restorations, show vigour superior to that of his 
youth, along with a more adequate treatment of the architectural 
perspectives. Naturally, there are a number of works currently 
attributed to Angelico, but not really his; for instance, a " St 
Thomas with the Madonna's girdle," in the Lateran museum, and 
a " Virgin enthroned," in the church of S. Girolamo, Fiesole. It 
has often been said that he commenced and frequently practised 
as an illuminator; this is dubious and a presumption arises that 
illuminations executed by Giovanni's brother, Benedetto, also a 
Dominican, who died in 1448, have been ascribed to the more 
famous artist. Benedetto may perhaps have assisted Giovanni in 
the frescoes at S. Marco, but nothing of the kind is distinctly 
traceable. A folio series of engravings from these paintings was 
published in Florence, in 1852. Along with Gozzoli already 
mentioned, Zanobi Strozzi and Gentile da Fabriano are named 
as pupils of the Beato. 

We have spoken of Angelico's ait as " pictistic "; this is in 
fact its predominant character. His visages have an air of rapt 
suavity, devotional fervency and beaming esoteric consciousness, 
which is intensely attractive to some minds and realizes beyond 
rivalry a particular ideal that of ecclesiastical saintliness and 
detachment from secular fret and turmoil. It should not be 
denied that he did not always escape the pitfalls of such a method 
of treatment, the faces becoming sleek and prim, with a smirk of 
sexless religiosity which hardly eludes the artificial or even the 
hypocritical; on other minds, therefore, and these some of the 
most masculine and resolute, he produces little genuine impres- 
sion. After allowing for this, Angelico should nevertheless be 
accepted beyond cavil as an exalted typical painter according to 
his own range of conceptions, consonant with his monastic railing, 
unsullied purity of life and exceeding devoutness. Exquisite as 
he is in his special mode of execution, he undoubtedly falls far 
short, not only of his great naturalist contemporaries such as 
Masaccio and Lippo Lippi, but even of so distant a precursor as 
Giotto, in all that pertains to bold or life-like invention of a subject 
or the realization of ordinary appearances, expressions and 
actions the facts of nature, as distinguished from the aspirations 
or contemplations of the spirit. Technically speaking, he had 
much finish and harmony of composition and colour, without 
corresponding mastery of light and shade, and his knowledge of 
the human frame was restricted. The brilliancy and fair light 
scale of his tints is constantly remarkable, combined with a free 
use of gilding; this conduces materially to that celestial character 



8 



ANGELL ANGERS 



which so pre-eminently distinguishes his pictured visions of the 
divine persons, the hierarchy of heaven and the glory of the 
redeemed. 

Books regarding Fra Angelico are numerous. We may mention 
those by S. Beissel, 1895; V. M. Crawford, 1900; R. L. Douglas, 
1900; I. B. Supino, 1901; D. Tumiati, 1897; G. Williamson, 1901. 

(W. M. K.) 

ANGELL, GEORGE THORNDIKE (1823-1909), American 
philanthropist, was born at Southbridge, Massachusetts, on the 
5th of June 1823. He graduated at Dartmouth in 1846, studied 
law at the Harvard Law School, and in 1851 was admitted to the 
bar in Boston, where he practised for many years. In 1868 
he founded and became president of the Massachusetts Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, in the same year 
establishing and becoming editor of Our Dumb Animals, a 
journal for the promotion of organized effort in securing the 
humane treatment of animals. For many years he was active 
in the organization of humane societies in England and America. 
In 1882 he initiated the movement for the establishment of 
Bands of Mercy (for the promotion of humane treatment of 
animals), of which in 1008 there were more than 72,000 in active 
existence. In 1889 he founded and became president of the 
American Humane Education Society. He became well known 
as a criminologist and also as an advocate of laws for the safe- 
guarding of the public health and against adulteration of food. 
He died at Boston on the i6th of March 1909. 

ANGEL-LIGHTS, in architecture, the outer upper lights in 
a perpendicular window, next to the springing; probably a 
corruption of the word angle-lights, as they are nearly 
triangular. 

ANGELUS, a Roman Catholic devotion in memory of the 
Annunciation. It has its name from the opening words, Angelas 
Domini nuntiamt Mariae. It consists of three texts describing 
the mystery, recited as versicle and response alternately with 
the salutation " Hail, Mary!" This devotion is recited in the 
Catholic Church three times daily, about 6 A.M., noon and 6 P.M. 
At these hours a bell known as the Angelus bell is rung. This 
is still rung in some English country churches, and has often 
been mistaken for and alleged to be a survival of the curfew-bell. 
The institution of the Angelus is by some ascribed to Pope 
Urban II., by some to John XXII. The triple recitation is 
ascribed to Louis XI. of France, who in 1472 ordered it to be 
thrice said daily. 

ANGELUS SILESIUS (1624-1677), German religious poet, 
was born in 1624 at Breslau. His family name was Johann 
Scheffler, but he is generally known by the pseudonym Angelus 
Silesius, under which he published his poems and which marks 
the country of his birth. Brought up a Lutheran, and at first 
physician to the duke of Wurttemberg-Oels, he joined in 1652 
the Roman Catholic Church, in 1661 took orders as a priest, 
and became coadjutor to the prince bishop of Breslau. He died 
at Breslau on the 9th of July 1677. In 1657 Silesius published 
under the title Heilige Seelenlust, oder geisttiche Hirtenlieder der 
JrttAren/wumtwtetoenPjycAe (1657), a collection of 205 hymns, 
the most beautiful of which, such as, Liebe, die du mich zum 
Bilde deiner Gottheit hast gemacht and Mir nach, spricht Christus 
unser Held, have been adopted in the German Protestant hymnal 
More remarkable, however, is his Geistreiche Sinn-und SMuss 
reime (1657), afterwards called Ckerubinischer Wandersmam 
(1674). This is a collection of " Reimspriiche " or rhymec 
distichs embodying a strange mystical pantheism drawn mainly 
from the writings of Jakob Bohme and his followers. Silesius 
delighted specially in the subtle paradoxes of mysticism. Thr 
essence of God, for instance, he held to be love; God, he said 
can love nothing inferior to himself; but he cannot be an objec 
of love to himself without going out, so to speak, of himself 
without manifesting his infinity in a finite form; in other words 
by becoming man. God and man are therefore essentially one 
A complete edition of Scheffler's works (Sdmtliche poetische Werke 
was published by D. A. Rosenthal, 2 vols. (Regensburg, 1862) 
Both the Cherubtnischer Wandersmann and Heilige Seelenlust hav 
been republished by G. Ellinger (1895 and 1901); a selection from 
the former work by O. E. Hartleben (1896). For further notice 



f Silesius' life and work, see Hoffmann von Fallersleben in Wei- 
mar'sches Jahrbuch I. (Hanover, 1854) ; A. Kahlert, Angelus Silesius 
1853); C. Seltmann, Angelus Silesius und seine Mystik (1896), and 
biog. by H. Mahn (Dresden, 1896). 

ANGERMUNDE, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province 
I Brandenburg, on Lake Miinde, 43 m. from Berlin by the Berlin- 
Stettin railway, and at the junction of lines to Prenzlau, Freien- 
walde and Schwedt. Pop. (1900) 7465. It has three Protestant 
:hurches, a grammar school and court of law. Its industries 
:mbrace iron founding and enamel working. In 1420 the elector 
"rederick I. of Brandenburg gained here a signal victory over the 
'omeranians. 

ANGERONA, or ANGERONIA, an old Roman goddess, whose 
name and functions are variously explained. According to 
ancient authorities, she was a goddess who relieved men from 
>ain and sorrow, or delivered the Romans and their flocks from 
mgina (quinsy) ; or she was the protecting goddess of Rome 
and the keeper of the sacred name of the city, which might not 
>e pronounced lest it should be revealed to her enemies; it was 
even thought that Angerona itself was this name. Modern 
scholars regard her as a goddess akin to Ops, Acca Larentia and 
3ea Dia; or as the goddess of the new year and the returning 
sun (according to Mommsen, ab angerendo = 6.ir6 TOV &.va<t>tprOai 
r6i> %\u>v). Her festival, called Divalia or Angeronalia, 
was celebrated on the 2ist of December. The priests offered 
sacrifice in the temple of Volupia, the goddess of pleasure, in 
which stood a statue of Angerona, with a finger on her mouth, 
which was bound and closed (Macrobius i. 10; Pliny, Nat. Hist. 
lii. 9; Varro, L. L. vi. 23). She was worshipped as Ancharia 
at Faesulae, where an altar belonging to her has been recently 
discovered. (See FAESULAE.) 

ANGERS, a city of western France, capital of the department 
of Maine-et-Loire, 191 m. S.W. of Paris by the Western railway 
to Nantes. Pop. (1906) 73,585. It occupies rising ground on 
30th banks of the Maine, which are united by three bridges. The 
surrounding district is famous for its flourishing nurseries and 
market gardens. Pierced with wide, straight streets, well 
provided with public gardens, and surrounded by ample, tree- 
lined boulevards, beyond which lie new suburbs, Angers is one 
of the pleasantest towns in France. Of its numerous medieval 
buildings the most important is the cathedral of St Maurice, 
dating in the main from the I2th and I3th centuries. Between 
the two flanking towers of the west facade, the spires of which 
are of the i6th century, rises a central tower of the same period. 
The most prominent feature of the facade is the series of eight 
warriors carved on the base of this tower. The vaulting of the 
nave takes the form of a series of cupolas, and that of the choir 
and transept is similar. The chief treasures of the church are 
its rich stained glass (izth, i3th and 1 5 th centuries) and valuable 
tapestry (uth to i8th centuries). The bishop's palace which 
adjoins the cathedral contains a fine synodal hall of the i2th 
century. Of the other churches of Angers, the principal are 
St Serge, an abbey-church of the I2th and isth centuries, and 
La Trinite ( 1 2 th century) . The prefecture occupies the buildings 
of the famous abbey of St Aubin ; in its courtyard are elaborately 
sculptured arcades of the nth and i2th centuries, from which 
period dates the tower, the only survival of the splendid abbey- 
church. Ruins of the old churches of Toussaint (i3th century) 
and Notre-Dame du Ronceray (nth century) are also to be seen. 
The castle of Angers, an imposing building girt with towers and 
a moat, dates from the I3th century and is now used as an 
armoury. The ancient hospital of St Jean (i2th century) is 
occupied by an archaeological museum; and the Logis Barrault, 
a mansion built about 1500, contains the public library, the 
municipal museum, which has a large collection of pictures and 
sculptures, and the Mus6e David, containing works by the famous 
sculptor David d' Angers, who was a native of the town. One of 
his masterpieces, a bronze statue of Rene of Anjou, stands close 
by the castle. The H6tel de Pincfi or d'Anjou (1523-153) 
is the finest of the stone mansions of Angers; there are also 
many curious wooden houses of the isth and i6th centuries. 
The palais de justice, the Catholic institute, a fine theatre, and 



ANGERSTEIN ANGIOSPERMS 



hospital with 1500 beds are the more remarkable of the modern 
buildings of the town. Angers is the seat of a bishopric, dating 
from the 3rd century, a prefecture, a court of appeal and a court 
of assizes. It has a tribunal of first instance, a tribunal of com- 
merce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a chamber of commerce, 
a branch of the Bank of France and several learned societies. 
Its educational institutions include ecclesiastical seminaries, ft 
lycee, a preparatory school of medidne and pharmacy, a uni- 
versity with free faculties (Jacidtts libra) of theology, law, letters 
and science, a higher school of agriculture, training colleges, a 
school of arts and handicrafts and a school of fine art. The 
prosperity of the town is largely due to the great slate-quarries 
of the vicinity, but the distillation of liqueurs from fruit, cable, 
rope and thread-making, and the manufacture of boots and shoes, 
umbrellas and parasols are leading industries. The weaving of 
sail-cloth and wooHen and other fabrics, machine construction, 
wire-drawing, and manufacture of sparkling wines and preserved 
fruits are also carried on. The chief articles of commerce, 
besides slate and manufactured goods, are hemp, early vegetables, 
fruit, flowers and live-stock. 

Angers, capital of the Gallic tribe of the Andecavi, was under 
the Romans called Juliomagus. During the gth century it 
became the seat of the counts of An jou (q.v.) . It suffered severely 
from the invasions of the Northmen in 845 and the succeeding 
years, and of the English in the nth and isth centuries; the 
Huguenots took it in 1585, and the Vendean royalists were 
repulsed near it in 1793. Till the Revolution, Angers was the 
seat of a celebrated university founded in the I4th century. 

See L. M. Thorode, Notice de la mile d' Angers (Angers, 1897). 

ANGERSTEIN, JOHN JULIUS (1735-1822), London merchant, 
and patron of the fine arts, was born at St Petersburg and settled 
in London about 1749. His collection of paintings, consisting 
of about forty of the most exquisite specimens of the art, 
purchased by the British government, on his death, formed the 
nucleus of the National Gallery. 

ANGILBERT (d. 814), Prankish Latin poet, and minister 
of Charlemagne, was of noble Prankish parentage, and educated 
at the palace school under Alcuin. As the friend and adviser 
of the emperor's son, Pippin, he assisted for a while in the govern- 
ment of Italy, and was later sent on three important embassies 
to the pope, in 792, 794 and 796. Although he was the father 
of two children by Charlemagne's daughter, Bertha, one of them 
named Nithard, we have no authentic account of his marriage, 
and from 790 he was abbot of St Riquier, where his brilliant 
rule gained for him later the renown of a saint. Angilbert, 
however, was little like the true medieval saint; his poems reveal 
rather the culture and tastes of a man of the world, enjoying 
the closest intimacy with the imperial family. He accompanied 
Charlemagne to Rome in 800 and was one of the witnesses to 
his will in 814. Angilbert was the Homer of the emperor's 
literary circle, and was the probable author of an epic, of which 
the fragment which has been preserved describes the life at the 
palace and the meeting between Charlemagne and Leo III. It 
is a mosaic from Virgil, Ovid, Lucan and Fortunatus, composed 
in the manner of Einhard's use of Suetonius, and exhibits a true 
poetic gift. Of the shorter poems, besides the greeting to Pippin 
on his return from the campaign against the Avars (796), an 
epistle to David (Charlemagne) incidentally reveals a delightful 
picture of the poet living with his children in a house surrounded 
by pleasant gardens near the emperor's palace. The reference 
to Bertha, however, is distant and respectful, her name occurring 
merely on the list of princesses to whom he sends his salutation. 

Angilbert's poems nave been published by E. Dummler in the 
Monuments Germanise Historiea. For criticisms of this edition see 
Traube in Roederer's Schrifitn fur germaniscJu Philologie (1888). 
See also A. Molinier. Les Sources de I hiitoire de France. 

ANGINA PECTORIS (Latin for " pain of the chest "), a term 
applied to a violent paroxysm of pain, arising almost invariably 
in connexion with disease of the coronary arteries, a lesion 
causing progressive degeneration of the heart muscle (see HEART: 
Disease). An attack of angina pectoris usually comes on with 
a sudden seizure of pain, felt at first over the region of the heart, 
but radiating through the chest in various directions, and 



frequently extending down the left arm. A feeling of constriction 
and of suffocation accompanies the pain, although there k 
seldom actual difficulty in breathing. When the attack comes 
on, as it often does, in the course of some bodily exertion, the 
sufferer is at once brought to rest, and during the continuance 
of the paroxysm experiences the most intense agony. The 
countenance becomes pale, the surface of the body cold, the 
pulse feeble, and death appears to be imminent, when suddenly 
the attack subsides and complete relief is obtained. The dura- 
tion of a paroxysm rarely exceeds two or three minutes, but ii 
may last for a longer period. The attacks are apt to recur on 
slight exertion, and even in aggravated cases without any such 
exciting cause. Occasionally the first seizure proves fatal; but 
more commonly death takes place as the result of repeated 
attacks. Angina pectoris is extremely rare under middle life, 
and is much more common in males than in females. It must 
always be regarded as a disorder of a very serious nature. In the 
treatment of the paroxysm, nitrite of amyl has now replaced all 
other remedies. It can be carried by the patient in the form of 
nitrite of amyl pearls, each pearl containing the dose prescribed 
by the physician. Kept in this way the drug does not lose 
strength. As soon as the pain begins the patient crushes a 
pearl in his handkerchief and holds it to his mouth and nose. 
The relief given in this way is marvellous and usually takes place 
within a very few seconds. In the rare cases where this drug 
does not relieve, hypodermic injections of morphia are used. 
But on account of the well-known dangers of this drug, it should 
only be administered by a medical man. To prevent recurrence 
of the attacks something may be done by scrupulous attention 
to the general health, and by the avoidance of mental and 
physical strain. But the most important preventive of all is 
" bed," of which fourteen days must be enforced on the least 
premonition of anginal pain. 

Pseudo-angina. In connexion with angina pectoris, a far 
more common condition must be mentioned that has now 
universally received the name of pseudo-angina, This includes 
the praecordial pains which very closely resemble those of true 
angina. The essential difference lies in the fact that pseudo- 
angina is independent of structural Hi<a-ga of the heart and 
coronary arteries. In true angina there is some condition within 
the heart which starts the stimulus sent to the nerve centres. In 
pseudo-angina the starting-point is not the heart but some 
peripheral or visceral nerve. The impulse passes thence to the 
medulla, and so reaching the sensory centres starts a feeling of 
pain that radiates into the chest or down the arm. There are 
three main varieties: (i) the reflex, (2) the vaso-motor, (3) the 
toxic. The reflex is by far the most common, and is generally due 
to irritation from one of the abdominal organs. An attack of 
pseudo-angina may be agonizing, the pain radiating through the 
chest and into the left arm, but the patient does not usually 
assume the motionless attitude of true angina, and the duration 
of the seizure is usually much longer. The treatment is that of 
the underlying neurosis and the prognosis is a good one, sudden 
death not occurring. 

ANGIOSPERMS. The botanical term " Angiospcrm " (4<rrZor, 
receptacle, and airippa, seed) was coined in the form Angio- 
spcrmae by Paul Hermann in 1690, as the name of that one of 
his primary divisions of the plant kingdom, which included 
flowering plants possessing seeds enclosed in capsules, in contra- 
distinction to his Gymnospermae, or flowering plants with 
achenial or scWzo-carpic fruits the whole fruit or each of its 
pieces being here regarded as a seed and naked. The term and 
its antonym were maintained by Linnaeus with the same sense, 
but with restricted application, in the names of the orders of his 
class Didynamia. Its use with any approach to its modern scope 
only became possible after Robert Brown had established in 
1827 the existence of truly naked seeds in the Cycadeae and 
Coniferae, entitling them to be correctly called Gymnosperms. 
From that time onwards, so long as these Gymnosperms were, 
as was usual, reckoned as dicotyledonous flowering plants, the 
term Angiosperm was used antithetically by botanical writers, 
but with varying limitation, as a group-name for other 



10 



ANGIOSPERMS 



dicotyledonous plants. The advent in 1851 of Hofmeister's 
brilliant discovery of the changes proceeding in the embryo-sac 
of flowering plants, and his determination of the correct relation- 
ships of these with the Cryptogamia, fixed the true position of 
Gymnosperms as a class distinct from Dicotyledons, and the 
term Angiospenn then gradually came to be accepted as the suit- 
able designation for the whole of the flowering plants other than 
Gymnosperms, and as including therefore the classes of Dicoty- 
ledons and Monocotyledons. This is the sense in which the term 
is nowadays received and in which it is used here. 

The trend of the evolution of the plant kingdom has been in 
the direction of the establishment of a vegetation of fixed habit 
and adapted to the vicissitudes of a life on land, and the Angio- 
sperms are the highest expression of this evolution and constitute 
the dominant vegetation of the earth's surface at the present 
epoch. There is no land-area from the poles to the equator, 
where plant-life is possible, upon which Angiosperms are not 
found. They occur also abundantly in the shallows of rivers and 
fresh-water lakes, and in less number in salt lakes and in the sea ; 
such aquatic Angiosperms are not, however, primitive forms, but 
are derived from immediate land-ancestors. Associated with 
this diversity of habitat is great variety hi general form and 
manner of growth. The familiar duckweed which covers the 
surface of a pond consists of a tiny green " thalloid " shoot, one, 
that is, which shows no distinction of parts stem and leaf, and 
a simple root growing vertically downwards into the water. The 
great forest-tree has a shoot, which in the course perhaps of 
hundreds of years, has developed a wide-spreading system of 
trunk and branches, bearing on the ultimate twigs or branchlets 
innumerable leaves, while beneath the soil a widely-branching 
root-system covers an area of corresponding extent. Between 
these two extremes is every conceivable gradation, embracing 
aquatic and terrestrial herbs, creeping, erect or climbing hi 
habit, shrubs and trees, and representing a much greater variety 
than is to be found in the other subdivision of seed-plants, the 
Gymnosperms. 

In internal structure also the variety of tissue-formation far 
exceeds that found in Gymnosperms (see PLANTS: Anatomy). 
The vascular bundles of the stem belong to the col- 
lateral type, that is to say, the elements of the wood or 
xylem and the bast or phloem stand side by side on the 
same radius. In the larger of the two great groups into which 
the Angiosperms are divided, the Dicotyledons, the bundles in 
the very young stem are arranged in an open ring, separating 
a central pith from an outer cortex. In each bundle, separating 
the xylem and phloem, is a layer of meristem or active formative 
tissue, known as cambium; by the formation of a layer of 
cambium between the bundles (interfascicular cambium) a 
complete ring is formed, and a regular periodical increase in 
thickness results from it by the development of xylem on the 
inside and phloem on the outside. The soft phloem soon becomes 
crushed, but the hard wood persists, and forms the great bulk of 
the stem and branches of the woody perennial. Owing to 
differences in the character of the elements produced at the 
beginning and end of the season, the wood is marked out in 
transverse section into concentric rings, one for each season of 
growth the so-called annual rings. In the smaller group, the 
Monocotyledons, the bundles are more numerous in the young 
stem and scattered through the ground tissue. Moreover they 
contain no cambium and the stem once formed increases in 
diameter only in exceptional cases. 

As in Gymnosperms, branching is monopodial; dichotomy or 
the forking of the growing point into two equivalent branches 
which replace the main stem, is absent both in the case 
of the stem and the root. The leaves show a remark- 
able variety in form (see LEAF), but are generally small 
in comparison with the size of the plant; exceptions occur in 
some Monocotyledons, e.g. in the Aroid family, where in some 
genera the plant produces one huge, much-branched leaf each 
season. 

In rare cases the main axis is unbranched and ends in a flower, 
as, for instance, in the tulip, where scale-leaves, forming the 



Internal 



Vegetative 
organ*. 



underground bulb, green foliage-leaves and coloured floral 
leaves are borne on one and the same axis. Generally, flowers 
are formed only on shoots of a higher order, often only on the 
ultimate branches of a much branched system. A potential 
branch or bud, either foliage or flower, is formed in the axil of 
each leaf; sometimes more than one bud arises, as for instance 
in the walnut, where two or three stand in vertical series above 
each leaf. Many of the buds remain dormant, or are called to 
development under exceptional circumstances, such as the 
destruction of existing branches. For instance, the clipping of 
a hedge or the lopping of a tree will cause to develop numerous 
buds which may have been dormant for years. Leaf-buds 
occasionally arise from the roots, when they are called adven- 
titious; this occurs in many fruit trees, poplars, elms and others. 
For instance, the young shoots seen springing from the ground 
around an elm are not seedlings but root-shoots. Frequently, 
as in many Dicotyledons, the primary root, the original root of 
the seedling, persists throughout the life of the plant, forming, 
as often in biennials, a thickened tap-root, as in carrot, or in 
perennials, a much-branched root system. In many Dicotyledons 
and most Monocotyledons, the primary root soon perishes, and 
its place is taken by adventitious roots developed from the 
stem. 

The most characteristic feature of the Angiosperm is the 
flower, which shows remarkable variety in form and elaboration, 
and supplies the most trustworthy characters for the Fi ower . 
distinction of the series and families or natural orders, 
into which the group is divided. The flower is a shoot (stem 
bearing leaves) which has a special form associated with the 
special function of ensuring the fertilization of the egg and the 
development of fruit containing seed. Except where it is 
terminal it arises, like the leaf-shoot, in the axil of a leaf, which 
is then known as a bract. Occasionally, as in violet, a flower 
arises singly in the axil of an ordinary foliage-leaf; it is then 
termed axillary. Generally, however, the flower-bearing portion 
of the plant is sharply distinguished from the foliage leaf- 
bearing or vegetative portion, and forms a more or less elaborate 
branch-system in which the bracts are small and scale-like. 
Such a branch-system is called an inflorescence. The primary 
function of the flower is to bear the spores. These, as in Gymno- 
sperms, are of two kinds, microspores or pollen-grains, borne 
in the stamens (or microsporophylls) and megaspores, in which 
the egg-cell is developed, contained in the ovule, which is borne 
enclosed in the carpel (or megasporophyll). The flower may 
consist only of spore-bearing leaves, as in willow, where each 
flower comprises only a few stamens or two carpels. Usually, 
however, other leaves are present which are only indirectly 
concerned with the reproductive process, acting as protective 
organs for the sporophylls or forming an attractive envelope. 
These form the perianth and are in one series, when the flower 
is termed monochlamydeous, or in two series (dichlamydeous). 
In the second case the outer series (calyx of sepals) is generally 
green and leaf-like, its function being to protect the rest of the 
flower, especially in the bud; while the inner series (corolla of 
petals) is generally white or brightly coloured, and more delicate 
in structure, its function being to attract the particular insect or 
bird by agency of which pollination is effected. The insect, &c., 
is attracted by the colour and scent of the flower, and frequently 
also by honey which is secreted in some part of the flower. 
(For further details on the form and arrangement of the flower 
and its parts, see FLOWER.) 

Each stamen generally bears four pollen-sacs (microsporangia) 
which are associated to form the anther, and carried up on a 
stalk or filament. The development of the micro- stfmea 
sporangia and the contained spores (pollen-grains) aadpo uea. 
is closely comparable with that of the microsporangia 
in Gymnosperms or heterosporous ferns. The pollen is set free 
by the opening (dehiscence) of the anther, generally by means 
of longitudinal slits, but sometimes by pores, as in the heath 
family (Ericaceae), or by valves, as in the barberry. It is then 
dropped or carried by some external agent, wind, water or some 
member of the animal kingdom, on to the receptive surface of 



ANGIOSPERMS 



i i 



the carpel of the same or another flower. The carpel, or aggregate 
of carpels forming the pistil or gynaeceum, comprises an ovary 
containing one or more ovules and a receptive surface or stigma; 
the stigma is sometimes carried up on a style. The mature pollen- 
grain is, like other spores, a single ceil; except in the case of 
some submerged aquatic plants, it has a double wall, a thin 
delicate wall of unaltered cellulose, the endospore or inline, 
and a tough outer cuticularizcd exospore or extine. The cxo- 
spore often bears spines or warts, or is variously sculptured, 
and the character of the markings is often of value for the 
distinction of genera or higher groups. Germination of the 
microspore begins before it leaves the pollen-sac. In very few 
cases has anything representing prothallial development been 
observed; generally a small cell (the antheridial or generative 
cell) is cut off, leaving a larger tube-cell. When placed on 
the stigma, under favourable circumstances, the pollen-grain 
puts forth a pollen- tube which grows down the tissue of the style 
to the ovary, and makes its way along the placenta, guided by 
projections or hairs, to the mouth of an ovule. The nucleus of 
the tube-cell has meanwhile passed into the tube, as does also the 
generative nucleus which divides to form two male- or sperm- 
cells. The male-cells arc carried to their destination in the tip 
of the pollen-tube. 

The ovary contains one or more ovules borne on a pla- 
centa, which is generally some part of the ovary-wall. The 
development of the ovule, which represents the 
*"'"' macrosporangium, is very similar to the process in 
Gymnosperms; when mature it consists of one or two 
coats surrounding the central nucellus, except at the 
apex where an opening, the micropyle, is left. The nucellus is a 
cellular tissue enveloping one large cell, the embryo-sac or 
macrospore. The germination of the macrospore consists in 
the repeated division of its nucleus to form two groups of four, 
one group at each end of the embryo-sac. One nucleus from each 
group, the polar nucleus, passes to the centre of the sac, where 
the two fuse to form the so-called definitive nucleus. Of the 
three cells at the micropylar end of the sac, all naked cells 
(the so-called egg-apparatus), one is the egg-cell or oosphere, 
the other two, which may be regarded as representing abortive 
egg -cells (in rare cases capable of fertilization), are known as 
syncrgidae. The three cells at the opposite end are known 
as antipodal cells and become invested with a cell-wall. The 
gamctophyte or prothallial generation is thus extremely reduced, 
consisting of but little more than the male and female sexual 
cells the two sperm-cells in the pollen-tube and the egg-cell 
(with the synergidae) in the embryo-sac. At the period of 
fertilization the embryo-sac lies in close proximity 
to the opening of the micropyle, into which the pollen- 
tube has penetrated, the separating cell-wall becomes 
absorbed, and the male or sperm-cells areejected into theembryo- 
sac. Guided by the syncrgidae one male-cell passes into the 
oosphcre with which it fuses, the two nuclei uniting, while the 
other fuses with the definitive nucleus, or, as it is also called, the 
endosperm nucleus. This remarkable double fertilization as it 
has been called, although only recently discovered, has been 
proved to take place in widely-separated families, and both in 
Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons, and there is every probability 
that, perhaps with variations, it is the normal process in Angio- 
sperms. After impregnation the fertilized oosphere immediately 
surrounds itself with a cell-wall and becomes the oospore which 
by a process of growth forms the embryo of the new plant. 
The endosperm-nucleus divides rapidly to produce a cellular 
tissue which fills up the interior of the rapidly-growing embryo- 
sac, and forms a tissue, known as endosperm, in which is stored 
a supply of nourishment for the use later on of the embryo. It 
has long been known that after fertilization of the egg has taken 
place, the formation of endosperm begins from the endosperm 
nucleus, and this had come to be regarded as the recommence- 
ment of the development of a prothallium after a pause following 
the rcinvigorating union of the polar nuclei. This view is still 
maintained by those who differentiate two acts of fertilization 
within the embryo-sac, and regard that of the egg by the first 



l-ertllUm- 
tloa. 



male-cell, as the true or generative fertilisation, and that of the 
polar nuclei by the second male gamete as a vegetative fertiliza- 
tion which gives a stimulus to development in correlation with the 
other. If, on the other hand, the endosperm b the product 
of an act of fertilization as definite as that giving rite to the 
embryo itself, we have to recognize that twin-plants are produced 
within the embryo-sac one, the embryo, which becomes the 
angiospermous plant, the other, the endosperm, a short-lived, 
undifferentiated nurse to assist in the nutrition of the former, 
even as the subsidiary embryos in a pluri-embryonic Gymno- 
spcrm may facilitate the nutrition of the dominant one. If this is 
so, and the endosperm like the embryo is normally the product 
of a sexual act, hybridization will give a hybrid endosperm as 
it does a hybrid embryo, and herein (it is suggested) we may have 
the explanation of the phenomenon of xenia observed in the 
mixed endosperms of hybrid races of maize and other plants, 
regarding which it has only been possible hitherto to assert 
that they were indications of the extension of the influence of 
the pollen beyond the egg and its product. This would not. 
however, explain the formation of fruits intermediate in size and 
colour between those of crossed parents. The signification of 
the coalescence of the polar nuclei is not explained by these new 
facts, but it is noteworthy that the second male-cell is said to 
unite sometimes with the apical polar nucleus, the sister of the 
egg, before the union of this with the basal polar one. The idea 
of the endosperm as a second subsidiary plant is no new one; 
it was suggested long ago in explanation of the coalescence of 
the polar nuclei, but it was then based on the assumption that 
these represented male and female cells, an assumption for which 
there was no evidence and which was inherently improbable. 
The proof of a coalescence of the second male nucleus with the 
definitive nucleus gives the conception a more stable basis. 
The antipodal cells aid more or less in the process of nutrition 
of the developing embryo, and may undergo multiplication, 
though they ultimately disintegrate, as do also the synergidae. 
As in Gymnosperms and other groups an interesting qualitative 
change is associated with the process of fertilization. The 
number of chromosomes (see PLANTS: Cytology) in the nucleus 
of the two spores, pollen-grain and embryo-sac, is only half the 
number found in an ordinary vegetative nucleus; and this 
reduced number persists in the cells derived from them. The 
full number is restored in the fusion of the male and female nuclei 
in the process of fertilization, and remains until the formation of 
the cells from which the spores are derived in the new generation. 

In several natural orders and genera departures from the course 
of development just described have been noted. In the natural 
order Rosaceae, the series Querciflorae, and the very anomalous 
genus Casuarina and others, instead of a single macrospore a 
more or less extensive sporogenous tissue is formed, but only one 
cell proceeds to the formation of a functional female cell. In 
Casuarina, Juglans and the order Corylaceae, the pollen-tube 
does not enter by means of the micropyle, but passing down the 
ovary wall and through the placenta, enters at the chalazal end 
of the ovule. Such a method of entrance is styled chalazogamic, 
in contrast to the porogamic or ordinary method of approach by 
means of the micropyle. 

The result of fertilization is the development of the ovule into 
the seed. By the segmentation of the fertilized egg, now invested 
by cell-membrane, the embryo-plant arises. A varying 
number of transverse segment-walls transform it into 
a pro-embryo a cellular row of which the cell nearest 
the micropyle becomes attached to the apex of the embryo-sac, 
and thus fixes the position of the developing embryo, while the 
terminal cell is projected into its cavity. In Dicotyledons the 
shoot of the embryo is wholly derived from the terminal cell of the 
pro-embryo, from the next cell the root arises, and the remaining 
ones form the suspensor. In many Monocotyledons the terminal 
cell forms the cotyledonary portion alone of the shoot of the 
embryo, its axial part and the root being derived from the 
adjacent cell; the cotyledon is thus a terminal structure and the 
apex of the primary stem a lateral one a condition in marked 
contrast with that of the Dicotyledons. In some Monocotyledons, 



12 



ANGIOSPERMS 



however, the cotyledon is not really terminal. The primary root 
of the embryo in all Angiosperms points towards the micropyle. 
The developing embryo at the end of the suspensor grows out to 
a varying extent into the forming endosperm, from which by 
surface absorption it derives good material for growth; at the 
same time the suspensor plays a direct part as a carrier of nutrition, 
and may even develop, where perhaps no endosperm is formed, 
special absorptive " suspensor roots " which invest the developing 
embryo, or pass out into the body and coats of the ovule, or even 
into the placenta. In some cases the embryo or the embryo-sac 
sends out suckers into the nucellus and ovular integument. As 
the embryo develops it may absorb all the food material available, 
and store, either in its cotyledons or in its hypocotyl, what is not 
immediately required for growth, as reserve-food for use in 
germination, and by so doing it increases in size until it may fill 
entirely the embryo-sac; or its absorptive power at this stage may 
be limited to what is necessary for growth and it remains of 
relatively small size, occupying but a small area of the embryo-sac, 
which is otherwise filled with endosperm in which the reserve-food 
is stored. There are also intermediate states. The position of the 
embryo in relation to the endosperm varies, sometimes it is 
internal, sometimes external, but the significance of this has not 
yet been established. 

The formation of endosperm starts, as has been stated, from 
the endosperm nucleus. Its segmentation always begins before 
that of the egg, and thus there is timely preparation for the 
nursing of the young embryo. If in its extension to contain the 
new formations within it the embryo-sac remains narrow, endo- 
sperm formation proceeds upon the lines of a cell-division, but in 
wide embryo-sacs the endosperm is first of all formed as a layer 
of naked cells around the wall of the sac, and only gradually 
acquires a pluricellular character, forming a tissue filling the sac. 
The function of the endosperm is primarily that of nourishing the 
embryo, and its basal position in the embryo-sac places it 
favourably for the absorption of food material entering the ovule. 
Its duration varies with the precocity of the embryo. It may be 
wholly absorbed by the progressive growth of the embryo within 
the embryo-sac, or it may persist as a definite and more or less 
conspicuous constituent of the seed. When it persists as a massive 
element of the seed its nutritive function is usually apparent, for 
there is accumulated within its cells reserve-food, and according 
to the dominant substance it is starchy, oily, or rich in cellulose, 
mucilage or proteid. In cases where the embryo has stored 
reserve food within itself and thus provided for self-nutrition, 
such endosperm as remains in the seed may take on other 
functions, for instance, that of water-absorption. 

Some deviations from the usual course of development may be 
noted. Parthenogenesis, or the development of an embryo from an 
egg-cell without the latter having been fertilized has been de- 
scribed in speciesof Thalictrum, Anlennariaa.nd Alchemilla. Poly- 
embryony is generally associated with the development of cells 
other than the egg-cell. Thus in Erythrmium and Limnocharis the 
fertilized egg may form a mass of tissue on which several embryos 
are produced. Isolated cases show that any of the cells within the 
embryo-sac may exceptionally form an embryo, e.g. the synergidae 
in species of Mimosa, Iris and AUium, and in the last-mentioned 
the antipodal cells also. In Coelebogyne (Euphorbiaceae) and in 
Funkia (Liliaceae) polyembryony results from an adventitious 
oroduction of embryos from the cells of the nucellus around the 
top of the embryo-sac. In a species of AUium, embryos have 
been found developing in the same individual from the egg-cell, 
synergids, antipodal cells and cells of the nucellus. In two 
Malayan species of Balanophora, the embryo is developed from 
a cell of the endosperm, which is formed from the upper polar 
nucleus only, the egg apparatus becoming disorganized. The 
last-mentioned case has been regarded as representing an 
apogamous development of the sporophy te from the gametophyte 
comparable to the cases of apogamy described in Ferns. But 
the great diversity of these abnormal cases as shown in the 
examples cited above suggests the use of great caution in for- 
mulating definite morphological theories upon them. 

As the development of embryo and endosperm proceeds within 



"" 



the embryo-sac, its wall enlarges and commonly absorbs the 
substance of the nucellus (which is likewise enlarging) to near its 
outer limit, and combines with it and the integument 
to form the seed-coat; or the whole nucellus and even 
the integument may be absorbed. In some plants the 
nucellus is not thus absorbed, but itself becomes a seat of de- 
posit of reserve-food constituting the perisperm which may coexist 
with endosperm, as hi the water-lily order, or may alone form a 
food-reserve for the embryo, as in Canna. Endospermic food- 
reserve has evident advantages over perispermic, and the latter 
is comparatively rarely found and only in non-progressive series. 
Seeds in which endosperm or perisperm or both exist are com- 
monly called albuminous or endospermic, those in which neither is 
found are termed exalbuminous or exendospermic. These terms, 
extensively used by systematists, only refer, however, to the 
grosser features of the seed, and indicate the more or less evident 
occurrence of a food-reserve; many so-called exalbuminous seeds 
show to microscopic examination a distinct endosperm which may 
have other than a nutritive function. The presence or absence 
of endosperm, its relative amount when present, and the position 
of the embryo within it, are valuable characters for the distinction 
of orders and groups of orders. Meanwhile the ovary wall has 
developed to form the fruit or pericarp, the structure of which is 
closely associated with the manner of distribution of the seed. 
Frequently the influence of fertilization is felt beyond the ovary, 
and other parts of the flower take part in the formation of the 
fruit, as the floral receptacle in the apple, strawberry and others. 
The character of the seed-coat bears a definite relation to that of 
the fruit. Their function is the twofold one of protecting the 
embryo and of aiding in dissemination; they may also directly 
promote germination. If the fruit is a dehiscent one and the seed 
is therefore soon exposed, the seed-coat has to provide for the 
protection of the embryo and may also have to secure dissemina- 
tion. On the other hand, indehiscent fruits discharge these 
functions for the embryo, and the seed-coat is only slightly 
developed. Dissemination is effected by the agency of 
water, of air, of animals and fruits and seeds are 
therefore grouped in respect of this as hydrophilous, 
anemophilous and zooidiophilous. The needs for these are 
obvious buoyancy in water and resistance to wetting for the 
first, some form of parachute for the second, and some attaching 
mechanism or attractive structure for the third. The methods hi 
which these are provided are of infinite variety, and any and 
every part of the flower and of the inflorescence may be called into 
requisition to supply the adaptation (see FRUIT). Special 
outgrowths, arils, of the seed-coat are of frequent occurrence. In 
the feature of fruit and seed, by which the distribution of Angio- 
sperms is effected, we have a distinctive character of the class. In 
Gy mnosperms we have seeds, and the carpels may become modified 
and close around these, as in Pinus, during the process of ripening 
to form an imitation of a box-like fruit which subsequently open- 
ing allows the seeds to escape; but there is never in them the 
closed ovary investing from the outset the ovules, and ultimately 
forming the ground-work of the fruit. 

Their fortuitous dissemination does not always bring seeds 
upon a suitable nidus for germination, the primary essential of 
which is a sufficiency of moisture, and the duration of 
vitality of the embryo is a point of interest. Some y*'"*" 
seeds retain vitality for a period of many years, though geed- 
there is no warrant for the popular notion that genuine 
" mummy wheat " will germinate; on the other hand some seeds 
lose vitality in little more than a year. Further, the older the 
seed the more slow as a general rule will germination be in 
starting, but there are notable exceptions. This pause, often of 
so long duration, in the growth of the embryo between the time 
of its perfect development within the seed and the moment of 
germination, is one of the remarkable and distinctive features of 
the life of Spermatophytes. The aim of germination is the fixing 
of the embryo in the soil, effected usually by means of the root, 
which is the first part of the embryo to appear, in preparation 
for the elongation of the epicotyledonary portion of the shoot, 
and there is infinite variety in the details of the process. In 



ANGIOSPERMS 



albuminous Dicotyledons the cotyledons act as the absorbents of 
the reserve-food of the seed and are commonly brought above 
ground (e^iftaJ). either withdrawn from the seed-coat or carrying 
it u|x>n th. m. and then they serve as the first green organs of the 
plant. The part of the stem below the cotyledons (hypocotyf) 
commonly plays the greater part in bringing this about. Ex- 
albuminous Dicotyledons usually store reserve-food in their 
cotyledons, which may in germination remain below ground 
(kypoteaf). In albuminous Monocotyledons the cotyledon itself, 
probably in consequence of its terminal position, is commonly 
the agent by which the embryo is thrust out of the seed, and it 
may function solely as a feeder, its extremity developing as a 
sucker through which the endosperm is absorbed, or it may 
become the first green organ, the terminal sucker dropping 
off with the seed-coat when the endosperm is exhausted. 
Exalbuminous Monocotyledons are either hydrophytes or 
strongly hydrophilous plants and have often peculiar features 
in germination. 

Distribution by seed appears to satisfy so well the requirements 
of Angiosperms that distribution by vegetative buds is only an 
occasional process. At the same time every bud on a 
s 000 ' h" the capacity to form a new plant if placed 
' n suitable conditions, as the horticultural practice 
of propagation by cuttings shows; in nature we see 
plants spreading by the rooting of their shoots, and buds we 
know may be freely formed not only on stems but on leaves and 
on roots. Where detachable buds are produced, which can be 
transported through the air to a distance, each of them is an 
incipient shoot which may have a root, and there is always 
reserve-food stored in some part of it. In essentials such a bud 
resembles a seed. A relation between such vegetative distribu- 
tion buds and production of flower is usually marked. Where 
there is free formation of buds there is little flower and commonly 
no seed, and the converse is also the case. Viviparous plants are 
.in illustration of substitution of vegetative buds for flower. 

The position of Angiosperms as the highest plant-group is 
unassailable, but of the point or points of their origin from the 
general stem of the plant kingdom, and of the path 
or paths of their evolution, we can as yet say little. 
y. Until well on in the Mesozoic period geological history 
tells us nothing about Angiosperms, and then only by 
their vegetative organs. We readily recognize in them now-a- 
days the natural classes of Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons 
distinguished alike in vegetative and in reproductive construction, 
yet showing remarkable parallel sequences in development; 
and we see that the Dicotyledons are the more advanced and 
show the greater capacity for further progressive evolution. 
But there is no sound basis for the assumption that the Dicoty- 
ledons are derived from Monocotyledons; indeed, the palaeonto- 
logical evidence seems to point to the Dicotyledons being the 
older. This, however, does not entitle us to assume the origin 
of Monocotyledons from Dicotyledons, although there is mani- 
festly a temptation to connect helobic forms of the former with 
ranal ones of the latter. There is no doubt that the phylum of 
Angiosperms has not sprung from that of Gymnosperms. 

Within each class the flower-characters as the essential feature of 
Angiosperms supply the clue to phytogeny, but the uncertainty 
regarding the construction of the primitive angiospermous flower 
give* a fundamental point of divergence in attempts to construct 
progressive sequences of the families. Simplicity of flower-structure 
has appeared to some to be always primitive, whilst by others it has 
been taken to be always derived. There is, however, abundant 
evidence that it may have the one or the other character in different 
caws. Apart from this, botanists are generally agreed that the 
concrescence of parts of the flower-whorls in the gynaeceum as 
the seed-covering, and in the corolla as the seat of attraction, more 
than in the androecium and the calyx is an indication of advance, 
as is also the concrescence that gives the condition of epigyny. 
Dorsiventrality is also clearly derived from radial construction, and 
anatropy of the ovule has followed atropy. We should expect the 
albuminous state of the seed to be an antecedent one to the ex- 
albuminous condition, and the recent discoveries in fertilization 
tend to confirm this view. Amongst Dicotyledons the gamopetalous 
forms are admitted to be the highest development and a dominant 
one of our epoch. Advance has been along two lines, markedly in 
relation to insect-pollination, one of which has culminated in the 






hypogynou* epipetatous bkarprilate forms with doniveatral often 
Urge iind loowly arranged flowers Mich u occur la 



which the Compo*itM represent the most elaborate type. In the 
polypetalou* form* progression from hypogyny to epigyny i* gener- 
ally recognized, and where dorsiventrality with insect-pollination 
ha* been established, a dominant group ha* beta developed a* in the 
Lcguminosae. The starting-point of the das*, however, and the 
position within it of apetalous families with frequently unisexual 
flower*, have provoked much discussion. In Monocotyledon* a 
similar advance from hypogyny to epigyny i* observed, and from the 
dorsiventral to the radial type of flower. In this connexion it 
noteworthy that so many of the higher form* are adapted a* bulbous 
geophytes, or as aerophyte* to special xerophilou* condition*. The 
Gram meat offer a prominent example of a dominant lelf-pollinated 
or wind-pollinated family, and this may find explanation in a 
multiplicity of factors. 

Though Dot known for hi* artificial (or sexual) system, Linnaeus 
was impressed with the importance of elaborating a natural system 
of arrangement in which plants should be arranged according to 
their true affinities. In his Philosophia Bolanua (1751) Linnaeus 
grouped the genera then known into sixty-seven orders (fragmenlo). 
all except five of which are Angiosperms. He gave name* to these 
but did not characterize them or attempt to arrange them in larger 
groups. Some represent natural group* and had in several TTT 
been already recognized by Ray and others, but the majority are. 
in the light of modern knowledge, very mixed. Well-defined poly- 
petalous and gamopetalous genera sometimes occur in the same order, 
and even Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons are >-l H together 
where they have some striking physiological character in common. 
Work on the line* suggested by the Linnaean fragments was 
continued in France by Bernard de Jussieu and his nephew, Antoine 
Laurent, and the arrangement suggested by the latter in bis Genera 
Ptanlarum secundum Ordinei NaturaUs duposita (1789) is the first 
which can claim to be a natural system. The order* are carefully 
characterized, and thoae of Angiosperms are grouped in fourteen 
classes under the two main divisions Monocotyledons and Dicoty- 
ledons. The former comprise three classes, which are distinguished 
by the relative position of the stamens and ovary; the eleven 
classes of the latter are based on the same set of character* and fall 
into the larger subdivisions Apetalae, Monopetalae and Polypetalae, 
characterized respectively by absence, union or freedom of the 
petals, and a subdivision, Dictinei Irrtfulares, a very unnatural group, 
including one class only. A. P. de Candolle introduced several 
improvements into the system. In his arrangement the last sub- 
division disappears, and the Dicotyledons fall into two group*, a 
larger containing those in which both calyx and corolla are present 
in the flower, and a smaller, Monochlamydeae, representing the 
Apetalae and Diflines Irregulares of Jussieu. The dirhlamydeous 
group is subdivided into three, Thalamiflorae, C'alyciflorae and 
Corolliflorae, depending on the position and union of the petals. 
This, which we may distinguish as the French system, finds its most 
perfect expression in the classic Genera Plantarum (1862-1883) at 
Bentham and Hooker, a work containing a description, based on 
careful examination of specimens, of all known genera of flowering 
plants. The subdivision is as follows: 
Dicotyledons. 

I Thalamiflorae. 

Polypetalae 1 Disciflorae. 
ICalyciflorae. 
[Inferae. 

Gamopetalae -j Heteromerae. 
[ Bicarpellatae. 

Monochlamydeae in eight series. 

Monocotyledons in seven series. 

Of the Polypetalae, series i, Thalamiflorae, i* characterised by 
hypogynous petals and stamens, and contains 34 orders distributed 
in 6 larger groups or cohorts. Series 3, Disciflorae. take* it name 
from a development of the floral axis which form* a ring or cushion 
at the base of the ovary or is broken up into glands; the ovary i* 
superior. It contains 23 orders in 4 cohorts. Series 3, C'alyciflorae. 
has petals and stamens perigynous, or sometime* superior. It 
contains 27 orders in 5 cohorts. 

Of the Gamopetalae, series i, Inferae, has an inferior ovary and 
stamens usually as many as the corolla-lobes. It contains 9 orders 
in 3 cohorts. Series 2, Heteromerae, has generally a superior ovary, 
stamens as many as the corolla-lobe* or more, and more than two 
carpels. It contains 12 orders in 3 cohorts. Series 3, Bicarpellatae. 
has generally a superior ovary and usually two carpels. It contains 
24 orders in 4 cohorts. 

The eight series of Monochlamydeae, containing 36 orders, form 
groups characterized mainly by differences in the ovary and ovule*. 
and are now recognized a* of uneaual value. 

The seven series of Monocotyledons represent a sequence beginning 
with the most complicated epigynous orders, such as Orchideae and 
Scitamineae, and passing through the pctaloid hypogynous orders 
(series Coronarieae) of which Liliaceae is the representative to 
juncaceae and the palms (series Calycinae) where the perianth loses 
its petaloid character and thence to the Aroids, crew-pine* and 



ANGKOR ANGLE 



others where it is more or less aborted (series Nudiflorae). Series 6, 
Apocarpeae, is characterized by 5 carpels, and in the last series 
Glumaceae, great simplification in the flower is associated with a 
grass-like habit. 

The sequence of orders in the polypetalous subdivision of Dicoty- 
ledons undoubtedly represents a progression from simpler to more 
elaborate forms, but a great drawback to the value of the system is 
the inclusion among the Monochlamydeae of a number of orders 
which are closely allied with orders of Polypetalae though differing 
in absence of a corolla. The German systematist, A. W. Eichler, 
attempted to remove this disadvantage which since the time of 
Jussieu had characterized the French system, and in 1883 grouped 
the Dicotyledons in two subclasses. The earlier Chonpetalae 
embraces the Polypetalae and Mpnochlamydae of the French 
systems. It includes 21 series, and is an attempt to arrange as far 
as possible in a linear series those orders which are characterized by 
absence or freedom of petals. The second subclass, Gamopetalae, 
includes 9 series and culminates in those which show the most 
elaborate type of flower, the series Aggregatae, the chief representa- 
tive of which is the great and wide-spread order Compositae. A 
modification of Eichler's system, embracing the most recent views 
of the affinities of the orders of Angiosperms, has been put forward 
by Dr Adolf Engler of Berlin, who adopts the suggestive names 
Archichlamydeae and Metachlamydeae for the two subdivisions of 
Dicotyledons. Dr Engler is the principal editor of a large series of 
volumes which, under the title Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien, is 
a systematic account of all the known genera of plants and represents 
the work of many botanists. More recently in Das Pflanzenreich 
the same author organized a series of complete monographs of the 
families of seed-plants. 

As an attempt at a phylogenetic arrangement, Engler's system is 
now preferred by many botanists. More recently a startling novelty 
in the way of system has been produced by van Tieghem, as follows : 
Monocotyledons. 
Liorhizal Dicotyledons. 
Dicotyledons. 

INSEMINEAE. 
SEMINEAE. 

Unitegmineae. 
Bitegmineae. 

The most remarkable feature here is the class of Liorhizal Dicoty- 
ledons, which includes only the families of Nymphaeaceae and 
Gramineae. It is based upon the fact that the histological differentia- 
tion of the epidermis of their root is that generally characteristic of 
Monocotyledons, whilst they have two cotyledons the old view of 
the epiblast as a second cotyledon in Gramineae being adopted. 
But the presence of a second cotyledon in grasses is extremely 
doubtful, and though there may be ground for reconsidering the 
position of Nymphaeaceae, their association with the grasses as a 
distinct class is not warranted by a comparative examination of the 
members of the two orders. Oyular characters determine the group- 
ing in the Dicotyledons, van Tieghem supporting the view that the 
integument, the outer if there be two, is the lamina of a leaf of which 
the funiclc is the petiole, whilst the nucellus is an outgrowth of this 
leaf, and the inner integument, if present, an indusium. The 
Insemineae include forms in which the nucellus is not developed, 
and therefore there can be no seed. The plants included are, however, 
mainly well-established parasites, and the absence of nucellus is only 
one of those characters of reduction to which parasites are liable. 
Even if we admit van Tieghem's interpretation of the integuments 
to be correct, the diagnostic mark of his unitegminous and biteg- 
minous groups is simply that of the absence or presence of an in- 
dusium, not a character of great value elsewhere, and, as we know, 
the number of the ovular coats is inconstant within the same family. 
At the same time the groups based upon the integuments are 
of much the same extent as the Polypetalae and Gamopetalae of 
other systems. We do not yet know the significance of this correla- 
tion, which, however, is not an invariable one, between number of 
integuments and union of petals. 

Within the last few years Prof. John Coulter and Dr C. J. 
Chamberlain of Chicago University have given a valuable general 
account of the morphology of Angiosperms as far as concerns the 
flower, and the series of events which ends in the formation of the 
seed (Morphology of Angiosperms, Chicago, 1903). 

AUTHORITIES. The reader will find in the following works details 
of the subject and references to the literature: Bentham and 
Hooker, Genera Plantarum (London, 1862-1883); Eichler, Bluthen- 
diagramme (Leipzig, 1875-1878) ; Engler and Prantl, Die naturlichen 
Pflanzenfamilien (Leipzig, 1887-1899); Engler, Syllabus der 
Pflanzenfamilien, 3rd ed. (Berlin, 1903); Knuth, Handbuch der 
B/utenbiologie (Leipzig, 1898, 1899); Sachs, History of Botany, 
English ed. (Oxford, 1890); Solereder, Systematische Anatomic der 
Dicotyledonen (Stuttgart, 1899) ; van Tieghem, Elements de botan- 
ique; Coulter and Chamberlain, Morphology of Angiosperms (New 
York, 1903). (I. B. B.; A. B. R.) 

ANGKOR, an assemblage of ruins in Cambodia, the relic of 
the ancient Khmer civilization. They are situated in forests 
to the north of the Great Lake (Tonle-Sap), the most conspicuous 



of the remains being the town of Angkor-Thorn and the temple 
of Angkor-Vat, both of which lie on the right bank of the river 
Siem-Reap, a tributary of Tonle-Sap. Other remains of the 
same form and character lie scattered about the vicinity on 
both banks of the river, which is crossed by an ancient stone 
bridge. 

Angkor-Thorn lies about a quarter of a mile from the river. 
According to Aymonier it was begun about A. D. 860, in the 
reign of the Khmer sovereign Jayavarman III., and finished 
towards A.D. 900. It consists of a rectangular enclosure, nearly 
2 m. in each direction, surrounded by a wall from 20 to 30 ft. 
in height. Within the enclosure, which is entered by five monu- 
mental gates, are the remains of palaces and temples, overgrown 
by the forest. The chief of these are: 

(1) The vestiges of the royal palace, which stood within an 
enclosure containing also the pyramidal religious structure 
known as the Phimeanakas. To the east of this enclosure there 
extends a terrace decorated with magnificent reliefs. 

(2) The temple of Bayon, a square enclosure formed by 
galleries with colonnades, within which is another and more 
elaborate system of galleries, rectangular in arrangement and 
enclosing a cruciform structure, at the centre of which rises a 
huge tower with a circular base. Fifty towers, decorated 
with quadruple faces of Brahma, are built at intervals upon 
the galleries, the whole temple ranking as perhaps the most 
remarkable of the Khmer remains. 

Angkor-Vat, the best preserved example of Khmer architec- 
ture, lies less than a mile to the south of the royal city, within 
a rectangular park surrounded by a moat, the outer perimeter 
of which measures 6060 yds. On the west side of the park a 
paved causeway, leading over the moat and under a magnificent 
portico, extends for a distance of a quarter of a mile to the chief 
entrance of the main building. The temple was originally 
devoted to the worship of Brahma, but afterwards to that of 
Buddha; its construction is assigned by Aymonier to the first 
half of the 1 2th century A.D. It consists of three stages, connected 
by numerous exterior staircases and decreasing in dimensions 
as they rise, culminating in the sanctuary, a great central tower 
pyramidal in form. Towers also surmount the angles of the 
terraces of the two upper stages. Three galleries with vault- 
ing supported on columns lead from the three western portals 
to the second stage. They are connected by a transverse 
gallery, thus forming four square basins. Khmer decoration, 
profuse but harmonious, consists chiefly in the representa- 
tion of gods, men and animals, which are displayed on 
every flat surface. Combats and legendary episodes are often 
depicted; floral decoration is reserved chiefly for borders, 
mouldings and capitals. Sandstone of various colours was the 
chief material employed by the Khmers; limonite was also used. 
The stone was cut into huge blocks which are fitted together 
with great accuracy without the use of cement. 

See E. Aymonier, Le Cambodge (3 vols., 1900-1904); Doudart de 
Lagree, Voyage d' exploration en Indo-Chine (1872-1873); A. H. 
Mouhot, Travels in Indo-China, Cambodia and Laos (2 vols., 1864); 
Fournereau and Porcher, Les Ruines d' Angkor (1890) ; L. Delaporte, 
Voyage au Cambodge: I' architecture Khmer (1880) ; J. Moura, Le 
Royaume de Cambodge (2 vols., 18*83). 

ANGLE (from the Lat. angulus, a corner, a diminutive, of 
which the primitive form, angus, does not occur in Latin; 
cognate are the Lat. angere, to compress into a bend or to 
strangle, and the Gr. 07x0$, a bend; both connected with 
the Aryan root ank-, to bend: see ANGLING), in geometry, the 
inclination of one line or plane to another. Euclid (Elements, 
book i) defines a plane angle as the inclination to each other, in 
a plane, of two lines which meet each other, and do not lie 
straight with respect to each other (see GEOMETRY, EUCLIDEAN). 
According to Proclus an angle must be either a quality or a 
quantity, or a relationship. The first concept was utilized by 
Eudemus, who regarded an angle as a deviation from a straight 
line; the second by Carpus of Antioch, who regarded it as the 
interval or space between the intersecting lines; Euclid adopted 
the third concept, although his definitions of right, acute, and 
obtuse angles are certainly quantitative. A discussion of 



ANGLER ANGLESEY 



these concept* and the various definition* of angles in Euclidean 
geometry is to be found in \V. B. Frankland, The Pint Book 
of Euclid's Elements (1905). Following Euclid, a right angle 
is formed by a straight line standing upon another straight line 
so as to make the adjacent angles equal; any angle less than a 
right angle is termed an acute angle, and any angle greater than 
a right angle an obtuse angle. The difference between an acute 
angle and a right angle is termed the complement of the angle, 
and between an angle and two right angles the supplement of the 
angle. The generalized view of angles and their measurement 
is treated in the article TRIGONOMETRY. A solid angle is definable 
as the space contained by three or more planes intersecting in 
a common point; it is familiarly represented by a corner. The 
angle between two planes is termed dihedral, between three 
trihedral, between any number more than three polyhedral. A 
spherical angle is a particular dihedral angle; it is the angle 
between two intersecting arcs on a sphere, and is measured 
by the angle between the planes containing the arcs and the 
centre of the sphere. 

The angle between a line and a curve ( mixed angle) or between 
two curves (curvilinear angle) is measured by the angle between 
the line and the tangent at the point of intersection, or between the 
tangents to both curves at their common point. Various names 
(now rarely, if ever, used) have been given to particular cases: 
amphicyrtic (Gr. A/i^i, on both sides, Kvpria, convex) or 
cissoidal (Gr. nioobs, ivy), biconvex; xystroidal or sistroidal 
(Gr. (wrrpts, a tool for scraping), concavo-convex; amphicoelic 
(Gr. Koi\7j, a hollow) or angulus lunularis, biconcave. 

ANGLER, also sometimes called fishing-frog, frog-fish, sea- 
devil (Lophius piscatorius), a fish well known off the coasts of 
Great Britain and Europe generally, the grotesque shape of its 
body and its singular habits having attracted the attention of 
naturalists of all ages. To the North Sea fishermen this fish is 
known as the " monk," a name which more properly belongs to 
Khina squat ina, a fish allied to the skates. Its head is of enormous 
size, broad, flat and depressed, the remainder of the body 
appearing merely like an appendage. The wide mouth extends 




The Angler (Lophius piscatorius). 

all round the anterior circumference of the head; and both 
jaws are armed with bands of long pointed teeth, which are 
inclined inwards, and can be depressed so as to offer no impedi- 
ment to an object gliding towards the stomach, but to prevent 
its escape from the mouth. The pectoral and ventral fins are so 
articulated as to perform the functions of feet, the fish being 
enabled to move, or rather to walk, on the bottom of the sea, 
where it generally hides itself in the sand or amongst sea-weed. 
All round its head and also along the body the skin bears 
fringed appendages resembling short fronds of sea-weed, a 
structure which, combined with the extraordinary faculty of 
assimilating the colour of the body to its surroundings, assists 
this fish greatly in concealing itself in places which it selects 
on account of the abundance of prey. To render the organization 
of this creature perfect in relation to its wants, it is provided with 
three long filaments inserted along the middle of the head, 
which are, in fact, the detached and modified three first spines 
of the anterior dorsal fin. The filament most important in the 
economy of the angler is the first, which is the longest, terminates 
in a lappet, and is movable in every direction. The angler is 



believed to attract other fishes by means of its lure, and then to 
seize them with its enormous jaws. It is probable enough that 
smaller fishes are attracted in this way, but experiments have 
shown that the action of the jaws is automatic and depend* 
on contact of the prey with the tentacle. Its stomach is disten- 
sible in an extraordinary degree, and not rarely fishes have 
been taken out quite as large and heavy as their destroyer. It 
grows to a length of more than 5 ft.; specimens of 3 ft. are 
common. The spawn of the angler is very remarkable. It 
consists of a thin sheet of transparent gelatinous material i or 3 ft. 
broad and 25 to 30 ft. in length. The eggs in this sheet are in a 
single layer, each in its own little cavity. The spawn is free in 
the sea. The larvae are free-swimming and have the pelvic fins 
elongated into filaments. The British species is found all round 
the coasts of Europe and western North America, but becomes 
scarce beyond 60 N. lat.; it occurs also on the coasts of the 
Cape of Good Hope. A second species (Lophius budtga.ua) 
inhabits the Mediterranean, and a third (L. setigerus) the coasts of 
China and Japan. 

ANGLESEY. ARTHUR ANNESLEY. ist EARL or (1614-1686), 
British statesman, son of the ist Viscount Valentia (ex. 1621) 
and Baron Mountnorris (cr. 1628), and of Dorothy, daughter 
of Sir John Philipps of Picton Castle, Pembrokeshire, was born 
at Dublin on the loth of July 1614, was educated at Magdalen 
College, Oxford, and was admitted to Lincoln's Inn in 1634. 
Having made the grand tour he returned to Ireland; and being 
employed by the parliament in a mission to the duke of Ormonde, 
now reduced to the last extremities, he succeeded in conclud- 
ing a treaty with him on the igth of June 1647, thus securing 
the country from complete subjection to the rebels. In April 
1647 he was returned for Radnorshire to the House of Commons. 
He supported the parliamentary as against the republican or 
army party, and appears to have been one of the members 
excluded in 1648. He sat in Richard Cromwell's parliament 
for Dublin city, and endeavoured to take his seat in the restored 
Rump Parliament of 1659. He was made president of the council 
in February 1660, and in the Convention Parliament sat for 
Carmarthen borough. The anarchy of the last months of the 
commonwealth converted him to royalism, and he showed great 
activity in bringing about the Restoration. He used his influence 
in moderating measures of revenge and violence, and while 
sitting in judgment on the regicides was ou the side of leniency. 
In November 1660 by his father's death he had become Viscount 
Valentia and Baron Mountnorris in the Irish peerage, and on 
the zoth April 1661 he was created Baron Annesley of Newport 
Pagnell in Buckinghamshire and earl of Anglesey in the peerage 
of Great Britain. He supported the king's administration in 
parliament, but opposed strongly the unjust measure which, on 
the abolition of the court of wards, placed the extra burden of 
taxation thus rendered necessary on the excise. His services 
in the administration of Ireland were especially valuable. He 
filled the office of vice-treasurer from 1660 till 1667, served on 
the committee for carrying out the declaration for the settlement 
of Ireland and on the committee for Irish affairs, while later, in 
1671 and 1672, he was a leading member of various commissions 
appointed to investigate the working of the Acts of Settlement. 
In February 1661 he had obtained a captaincy of horse, and 
in 1667 he exchanged his vice-treasuryship of Ireland for the 
treasuryship of the navy. His public career was marked by 
great independence and fidelity to principle. On the 24th of July 
1663 he alone signed a protest against the bill " for the encourage- 
ment of trade," on the plea that owing to the free export of coin 
and bullion allowed by the act, and to the importation of foreign 
commodities being greater than the export of home goods, 
" it must necessarily follow . . . that our silver will also be 
carried away into foreign parts and all trade fail for want of 
money." 1 He especially disapproved of another clause in the 
same bill forbidding the importation of Irish cattle into England, 
a mischievous measure promoted by the duke of Buckingham, and 
he opposed again the bill brought in with that object in January 

1 Protests of the Lords, by J. E. Thorold Rogers (1875), L 27: 
Carti's Life of Ormonde (1851), iv. 234; Part. Hist. iv. 384. 



i6 



ANGLESEY 



1667. This same year his naval accounts were subjected to an 
examination in consequence of his indignant refusal to take part 
in the attack upon Ormonde; 1 and he was suspended from his 
office in 1668, no charge,however, against him being substantiated. 
He took a prominent part in the dispute in 1671 between the two 
Houses concerning the right of the Lords to amend money 
bills, and wrote a learned pamphlet on the question entitled 
The Privileges of the House of Lords and Commons (1702), in 
which the right of the Lords was asserted. In April 1673 he was 
appointed lord privy seal, and was disappointed at not obtaining 
the great seal the same year on the removal of Shaftesbury. In 
1679 he was included in Sir W. Temple's new-modelled council. 

In the bitter religious controversies of the time Anglesey 
showed great moderation and toleration. In 1674 he is men- 
tioned as endeavouring to prevent the justices putting into force 
the laws against the Roman Catholics and Nonconformists. 1 
In the panic of the " Popish Plot " in 1678 he exhibited a saner 
judgment than most of his contemporaries and a conspicuous 
courage. On the 6th of December he protested with three 
other peers against the measure sent up from the Commons 
enforcing the disarming of all convicted recusants and taking 
bail from them to keep the peace; he was the only peer to dissent 
from the motion declaring the existence of an Irish plot; and 
though believing in the guilt and voting for the death of Lord 
Stafford, he interceded, according to his own account, 3 with 
the king for him as well as for Langhorne and Plunket. His 
independent attitude drew upon him an attack by Dangerfield, 
and in the Commons by the attorney-general, Sir W. Jones, 
who accused him of endeavouring to stifle the evidence against 
the Romanists. In March 1679 he protested against the second 
reading of the bill for disabling Danby. In 1681 Anglesey 
wrote A Letter from a Person of Honour in the Country, as a 
rejoinder to the earl of Castlehaven, who had published memoirs 
on the Irish rebellion defending the action of the Irish and the 
Roman Catholics. In so doing Anglesey was held by Ormonde 
to have censured his conduct and that of Charles I. in concluding 
the " Cessation," and the duke brought the matter before the 
council. In 1682 he wrote The Account of Arthur, Earl cj 
Anglesey . . . of the true state of Your Majesty's Government and 
Kingdom, which was addressed to the king in a tone of censure 
and remonstrance, but appears not to have been printed till 
1694.* In consequence he was dismissed on the 9th of August 
1682 from the office of lord privy seal. In 1683 he appeared 
at the Old Bailey as a witness in defence of Lord Russell, and 
in June 1685 he protested alone against the revision of Stafford's 
attainder. He died at his home at Blechingdon in Oxfordshire 
on the 26th of April 1686, closing a career marked by great 
ability, statesmanship and business capacity, and by con- 
spicuous courage and independence of judgment. He amassed 
a large fortune in Ireland, in which country he had been allotted 
lands by Cromwell. 

The unfavourable character drawn of him by Burnet is 
certainly unjust and not supported by any evidence. Pepys, 
a far more trustworthy judge, speaks of him invariably in terms 
of respect and approval as a " grave, serious man," and com- 
mends his appointment as treasurer of the navy as that of 
"a very notable man and understanding and will do things 
regular and understand them himself." 5 He was a learned 
and cultivated man and collected a celebrated library, which 
was dispersed at his death. Besides the pamphlets already 
mentioned, he wrote: A True Account of the Whole Proceedings 
betwixt . . .the Duke of Ormond and . . . the Earl of Anglesey 
(1682); A Letter of Remarks upon Jovian (1683); other works 
ascribed to him being The King's Right of Indulgence in Matters 
Spiritual . . .asserted (1688); Truth Unveiled, to which is 
added a short Treatise on . . . Transubstantiation (1676); The 
Obligation resulting from the Oath of Supremacy (1688); and 

1 Card's Ormonde, iv. 330, 340. 

* Col. of State Pap. Dom. (1673-1675), p. 152. ' Memoirs^S.y. 

4 By Sir J. Thompson, his son-m-law. Reprin 1 



printed in Somers Tracts 
r . ap 
' Diary (ed. Wheatfey, 1904), iv. 298, vii. 14. 



(Scott, 1812), yiii. 344, and in Parl. Hist. iv". app. xvi. 
leatley, 



England's Confusion (1659). Memoirs of Lord Anglesey were 
published by Sir P. Pett in 1693, but contain little biographical 
information and were repudiated as a mere imposture by Sir 
John Thompson (Lord Haversham), his son-in-law, in his preface 
to Lord Anglesey's State of the Government in 1694. The author 
however of the preface to The Rights of the Lords asserted (1702), 
while blaming their publication as "scattered and unfinished 
papers," admits their genuineness. 

Lord Anglesey married Elizabeth, daughter and co-heiress 
of Sir James Altham of Oxey, Hertfordshire, by whom, besides 
other children, he had James, who succeeded him, Altham, 
created Baron Altham, and Richard, afterwards 3rd Baron 
Altham. His descendant Richard, the 6th earl (d. 1761), left 
a son Arthur, whose legitimacy was doubted, and the peerage 
became extinct. He was summoned to the Irish House of Peers 
as Viscount Valentia, but was denied his writ to the parliament 
of Great Britain by a majority of one vote. He was created 
in 1793 earl of Mountnorris in the peerage of Ireland. All the 
male descendants of the ist earl of Anglesey became extinct 
in the person of George, 2nd earl of Mountnorris, in 1844, when 
the titles of Viscount Valentia and Baron Mountnorris passed 
to his cousin Arthur Annesley (1785-1863), who thus became 
loth Viscount Valentia, being descended from the ist Viscount 
Valentia. the father of the ist earl of Anglesey in the Annesley 
family. The ist viscount was also the ancestor of the Earls 
Annesley in the Irish peerage. 

AUTHORITIES. Diet, of Nat. Biography, with authorities there 
collected; lives in Wood's Athenae Oxonienses (Bliss), iv. 181, 
Biographia Brilannica, and H. Walpole's Royal and Noble Authors 
(1806), iii. 288 (the latter a very inadequate review of Anglesey's 
character and career); also Bibliotheca Anglesiana . . . perThomam 
Philippum (1686) ; The Happy Future State of England, by Sir Peter 
Pett (1688); Great News from Poland (1683), where his religious 
tolerance is ridiculed; Somers Tracts (Scott, 1812), viii. 344; Notes 
of the Privy Council (Roxburghe Club, 1896); Col. of State Papers, 
Dom.;State Trials, viii. and ix. 619. (P. C. Y.) 

ANGLESEY, HENRY WILLIAM PAGET, ist MARQUESS or 
(1768-1854), British field-marshal, was born on the I7th of May 
1 768. He was the eldest son of Henry Paget, ist earl of Uxbridge 
(d. 1812), and was educated at Westminster School and Christ 
Church, Oxford, afterwards entering parliament in 1790 as 
member for Carnarvon, for which he sat for six years. At the 
outbreak of the French Revolutionary wars Lord Paget (as he 
was then styled), who had already served in the militia, raised 
on his father's estate the regiment of Staffordshire volunteers, in 
which he was given the temporary rank of lieutenant-colonel 
(1793). The corps soon became part of the regular army as the 
8oth Foot, and it took part, under Lord Paget 's command, in 
the Flanders campaign of 1794. In spite of his youth beheld a 
brigade command fora time, and gained also, during the campaign, 
his first experience of the cavalry arm, with which he was thence- 
forward associated. His substantive commission as lieutenant- 
colonel of the 1 6th Light Dragoons bore the date of the 
iSth of June 1795, and in 1796 he was made a colonel 
in the army. In 1795 he married Lady Caroline Elizabeth 
Villiers, daughter of the earl of Jersey. In April 1797 Lord 
Paget was transferred to a lieut.-colonelcy in the 7th Light 
Dragoons, of which regiment he became colonel in 1801. From 
the first he applied himself strenously to the improvement of 
discipline, and to the perfection of a new system of cavalry 
evolutions. In the short campaign of 1799 in Holland, Paget 
commanded the cavalry brigade, and in spite of the unsuitable 
character of the ground, he made, on several occasions, brilliant 
and successful charges. After the return of the expedition, he 
devoted himself zealously to his regiment, which under his 
command became one of the best corps in the service. In 1802 
he was promoted major-general, and six years later lieutenant- 
general. In command of the cavalry of Sir John Moore's army 
during the Corunna campaign, Lord Paget won the greatest 
distinction. At Sahagun, Mayorga and Benavente, the British 
cavalry behaved so well under his leadership that Moore wrote: 
" It is impossible for me to say too much in its praise. . . . Our 
cavalry is very superior in quality to any the French have, and 



ANGLESEY 



7 



thr right spirit has been infused into them by the example and 
instruction of their . . . leaders . . . ." At Benavente one of 
Napoleon's best cavalry leaden. General Lefebvrc Desnoettes, 
was taken prisoner. Corunna was Paget's last service in the 
Peninsula. His liaison with the wife of Henry Wellesley. after- 
wards Lord Cowley. made it impossible at that time for him to 
serve with Wellington, whose cavalry, on many occasions during 
the succeeding campaigns, felt the want of the true cavalry 
leader to direct them. His only war service from 1809 to 1815 
was in the disastrous Walchercn expedition (i8og) in which he 
commanded a division. During these years he occupied himself 
with his parliamentary duties as member for Milborne Port, 
which he represented almost continuously up to his father's 
death in 1811, when he took his seat in the House of Lords as 
earl of Uxbridge. In 1810 he was divorced and married Mrs 
Wellesley, who had about the same time been divorced from her 
husband. Lady Paget was soon afterwards married to the duke 
of Argyll. In 1815 Lord Uxbridge received command of the 
British cavalry in Flanders. At a moment of danger such as 
that of Napoleon's return from Elba, the services of the best 
cavalry general in the British army could not be neglected. 
Wellington placed the greatest confidence in him, and on the eve 
of Waterloo extended his command so as to include the whole of 
the allied cavalry and horse artillery. He covered the retirement 
of the allies from Qua t re Bras to Waterloo on the iyth of June, 
and on the iSth gained the crowning distinction of his military 
career in leading the great cavalry charge of the British centre, 
which checked and in part routed D'Erlon's corps d'armte (see 
WATERLOO CAMPAIGN). Freely exposing his own life throughout, 
the earl received, by one of the last cannon shots fired, a severe 
wound in the leg, necessitating amputation. Five days later 
the prince regent created him marquess of Anglesey in recognition 
of his brilliant services, which were regarded universally as 
second only to those of the duke himself. He was made a G.C.B. 
and he was also decorated by many of the allied sovereigns. 

In 1818 the marquess was made a knight of the Garter, in 1819 
he became full general, and at the coronation of George IV. he 
acted as lord high steward of England. His support of the 
proceedings against Queen Caroline made him for a time un- 
popular, and when he was on one occasion beset by a crowd, who 
compelled him to shout " The Queen," he added the wish, " May 
all your wives be like her." At the close of April 1827 he became 
a member of the Canning administration, taking the post of 
master-general of the ordnance, previously held by Wellington. 
He was at the same time sworn a member of the privy council. 
Under the Wellington administration he accepted the appoint- 
ment of lord-lieutenant of Ireland (March 1828), and in the 
discharge of his important duties he greatly endeared himself 
to the Irish people. The spirit in which he acted and the aims 
which he steadily set before himself contributed to the allaying 
of party animosities, to the promotion of a willing submission 
to the laws, to the prosperity of trade and to the extension and 
improvement of education. On the great question of the time 
his views were opposed to those of the government. He saw 
dearly that the time was come when the relief of the Catholics 
from the penal legislation of the past was an indispensable 
measure, and in December 1828 he addressed a letter to the 
Roman Catholic primate of Ireland distinctly announcing his 
view. This led to his recall by the government, a step sincerely 
lamented by the Irish. He pleaded for Catholic emancipation 
in parliament, and on the formation of Earl Grey's administration 
in November 1830, he again became lord-lieutenant of Ireland. 
The times were changed; the act of emancipation had been 
passed, and the task of viceroy in his second tenure of office was 
to resist the agitation for repeal of the union carried on by 
O'Connell. He felt it his duty now to demand Coercion Acts for 
the security of the public peace; his popularity was diminished, 
differences appeared in the cabinet on the difficult subject, and 
in July 1 833 the ministry resigned. To the marquess of Anglesey 
Ireland is indebted for the board of education, the origination of 
which may perhaps be reckoned as the most memorable act of 
his viceroyalty. For thirteen years after his retirement he 



remained out of office, and took little part in the affain of govern- 
ment He joined the Russell administration in July 1846 a 
muter-general of the ordnance, finally retiring with Us chi 
March 1852. His promotion in the army wa completed by hi 
advancement to the rank of field-marshal in 1846. Four yean 
before, he exchanged his colonelcy of the ;th Light Dragoon* 
which he had held over forty yean, for that of the Royal Honr 
Guards. He died on the 2gth of April 1854. 

The marquess had a large family by each of his two wives, two 
ions and six daughten by the first and six tons and four daughter* 
by the second. His eldest son, Henry, succeeded him in the 
marquessate; but the title passed rapidly in succession to the 3rd. 
4th and 5th marquesses. The latter, whose extravagances were 
notorious, died in 1005, when the title passed to his cousin. 

Other members of the Paget family distinguished themselves 
in the army and the navy. Of the first marquess's brothers one. 
SIR CHARLES PAGET (1778-1830), rose to the rank of vice-admiral 
in the Royal Navy; another, General SIR EDWARD FACET 
(1775-1840), won great distinction by his skilful and resolute 
handling of a division at Corunna, and from 1822 to 1825 was 
commander-in-chief in India. One of the marquess's sons by his 
second marriage, LORD CLARENCE EDWARD PAGET (1811-1895), 
became an admiral; another, LORD GEORGE AUGUSTUS 
FREDERICK PAGET (1818-1880), led the 4th Light Dragoons in the 
charge of the Light Brigade at Balaklava, and subsequently 
commanded the brigade, and, for a short time, the cavalry 
division in the Crimea. In 1865 he was made inspector-general 
of cavalry, in 1871 lieutenant-general and K.C.B., and in 1877 
full general. His Crimean journals were published in 1881. 

ANGLESEY, or ANGLESKA, an insular northern county of Wales. 
Its area is 176,630 acres or about 276 sq. m. Anglesey, in the see 
of Bangor, is separated from the mainland by the Mcnai Straits 
(Afon Menai), over which were thrown Telford's suspension 
bridge, in 1826, and the Stephenson tubular railway bridge in 
1850. The county is flat, with slight risings such as Parys, Cadaii 
Mynachdy (or Monachdy, i.e. "chair of the monastery"; there 
is a Nanner, " convent," not far away) and Holyhead Mountain. 
There are a few lakes, such as Cors cerrig y daran, but rising water 
is generally scarce. The climate is humid, the land poor for the 
most part compared with its old state of fertility, and there are 
few industries. 

As regards geology, the younger strata in Anglesey rest upon a 
foundation of very old pre-Cambrian rocks which appear at the 
surface in three areas : (i) a western region including Holyhead 
and Llanfaethlu, (2) a central area about Aberffraw and Tref- 
draeth, and (3) an eastern region which includes Newborough. 
Caerwen and Pentraeth. These pre-Cambrian rocks are schists 
and slates, often much contorted and disturbed. The general line 
of strike of the formations in the island is from N.E. toS.W. A 
belt of granitic rocks lies immediately north-west of the central 
pre-Cambrian mass, reaching from Llanfaelog near the coast to 
the vicinity of Llanerchymedd. Between this granite and the 
pre-Cambrian of Holyhead is a narrow tract of Ordovician slates 
and grits with Llandovery beds in places; this tract spreads out 
in the N. of the island between Dulas Bay and Carmel Point. A 
small patch of Ordovician strata lies on the northern side of 
Beaumaris. In parts, these Ordovician rocks are much folded, 
crushed and metamorphosed, and they are associated with schists 
and altered volcanic rocks which are probably pre-Cambrian. 
Between the eastern and central pre-Cambrian masses carboni- 
ferous rocks are found. The carboniferous limestone occupies a 
broad area S. of Ligwy Bay and Pentraeth, and sends a narrow 
spur in a south-westerly direction by Llangcfni to Malldraeth 
sands. The limestone is underlain on the N.W. by a red basement 
conglomerate and yellow sandstone (sometimes considered to be 
of Old Red Sandstone age). Limestone occurs again on the N. 
coast about Llanfihangel and Llangoed; and in the S.W. round 
Llanidan on the border of the Menai Strait. Puffin Island is 
made of carboniferous limestone. Malldraeth Marsh is occupied 
by coal measures, and a small patch of the same formation appears 
near Tall-y-foel Ferry on the Menai Straits. A patch of granitic 
and felsitic rocks form Parys Mountain, where copper and iron 



i8 



ANGLESITE ANGLI 



ochre have been worked. Serpentine (Mona Marble) is found 
near Llanfaerynneubwll and upon the opposite shore in Holyhead. 
There are abundant evidences of glaciation, and much boulder 
clay and drift sand covers the older rocks. Patches of blown sand 
occur on the S.W. coast. 

The London & North-Western railway (Chester and Holy- 
head branch) crosses Anglesey from Llanfairpwllgwyngyll to 
Gaerwen and Holyhead (Caer Gybi), also from Gaerwen to 
Amlwch. The staple of the island is farming, the chief crops 
being turnips, oats, potatoes, with flax in the centre. Copper 
(near Amlwch), lead, silver, marble, asbestos, lime and sandstone, 
marl, zinc and coal have all been worked in Anglesey, coal 
especially at Malldraeth and Trefdraeth. The population of the 
county in 1901 was 50,606. There is no parliamentary borough, 
but one member is returned for the county. It is in the north- 
western circuit, and assizes are held at Beaumaris, the only 
municipal borough (pop. 2326). Amlwch (2994), Holyhead 
(10,079), Llangefni (1751) and Menai Bridge (Pont y Borth, 
1700) are urban districts. There are six hundreds and seventy- 
eight parishes. 

M6n (a cow) is the Welsh name of Anglesey, itself a corrupted 
form of O.E., meaning the Isle of the Angles. Old Welsh names 
are Ynys Dywyll (" Dark Isle ") and Ynys y cedairn (cedyrn or 
kedyrn; " Isle of brave folk "). It is the Mona of Tacitus (Ann. 
riv. 29, Agr. xiv. 18), Pliny the Elder (iv. 16) and Dio Cassius 
(62). It is called Mam Cymru by Giraldus Cambrensis. Clas 
Merddin, Y vel Ynys (honey isle), Ynys Prydein, Ynys Brut are 
other names. According to the Triads (67), Anglesey was once 
part of the mainland, as geology proves. The island was the seat 
of the Druids, of whom 28 cromlechs remain, on uplands over- 
looking the sea, e.g. at Plas Newydd. The Druids were attacked 
in A.D. 6 1 by Suetonius Paulinus, and by Agricola in A.D. 78. In 
the sth century Caswallon lived here, and here, at Aberffraw, the 
princesof Gwynedd lived till 1277. Thepresentroadfrom Holyhead 
to Llanfairpwllgwyngyll is originally Roman. British and Roman 
camps, coins and ornaments have been dug up and discussed, 
especially by the Hon. Mr Stanley of Penrhos. Pen Caer Gybi is 
Roman. The island was devastated by the Danes (Dub Gint or 
black nations, genies), especially in A.D. 853. 

See Edw. Breese, Kalendar of Gwynedd (Venedocia), on Anglesey, 
Carnarvon and Merioneth (London, 1873); and The History of 
Powys Fadog. 

ANGLESITE, a mineral consisting of lead sulphate, PbSO 4 , 
crystallizing in the orthorhombic system, and isomorphous with 
barytes and celestite. It was first recognized as a mineral species 
by Dr Withering in 1783, who discovered it in the Parys copper- 
mine in Anglesey; the name anglesite, from this locality, was 
given by F. S. Beudant in 1832. The crystals from Anglesey, 
which were formerly found abundantly on a matrix of dull 
limonite, are small in size and simple in form, being usually 
bounded by four faces of a prism and four faces of a dome; they 
are brownish-yellow in colour owing to a stain of limonite. 
Crystals from some other localities, notably from Monteponi in 
Sardinia, are transparent and colourless, possessed of a brilliant 
adamantine lustre, and usually modified by numerous bright 
faces. The variety of combinations and 
habits presented by the crystals is very 
extensive, nearly two hundred distinct 
forms being figured by V. von Lang in 
his monograph of the species; without 
measurement of the angles the crystals 
are frequently difficult to decipher. The 
hardness is 3 and the specific gravity 6-3. There are distinct 
cleavages parallel to the faces of the prism jno( and the 
basal plane |ooi(, but these are not so well developed as in 
the isomorphous minerals barytes and celestite. 

Anglesite is a mineral of secondary origin, having been formed 
by the oxidation of galena in the upper parts of mineral lodes 
where these have been affected by weathering processes. At 
Monteponi the crystals encrust cavities in glistening granular 
galena; and from Leadhills, in Scotland, pseudomorphs of 
anglesite after galena are known. At most localities it is found 




as isolated crystals in the lead-bearing lodes, but at some places, 
in Australia and Mexico, it occurs as large masses, and is then 
mined as an ore of lead, of which -the pure mineral contains 68 %. 

ANGLI, ANGLH or ANGLES, a Teutonic people mentioned 
by Tacitus in his Germania (cap. 40) at the end of the ist century. 
He gives no precise indication of their geographical position, 
but states that, together with six other tribes, including the 
Varini (the Warni of later times), they worshipped a goddess 
named Nerthus, whose sanctuary was situated on " an island 
in the Ocean." Ptolemy in his Geography (ii. n. 15), half a 
century later, locates them with more precision between the 
Rhine, or rather perhaps the Ems, and the Elbe, and speaks of 
them as one of the chief tribes of the interior. Unfortunately, 
however, it is clear from a comparison of his map with the evidence 
furnished by Tacitus and other Roman writers that the indica- 
tions which he gives cannot be correct. Owing to the uncertainty 
of these passages there has been much speculation regarding 
the original home of the Angli. One theory, which however has 
little to recommend it, is that they dwelt in the basin of the 
Saale (in the neighbourhood of the canton Engilin), from which 
region the Lex Angliorum et Werinorum hoc est Thuringorum 
is believed by many to have come. At the present time the 
majority of scholars believe that the Angli had lived from the 
beginning on the coasts of the Baltic, probably in the southern 
part of the Jutish peninsula. The evidence for this view is 
derived partly from English and Danish traditions dealing 
with persons and events of the 4th century (see below), and 
partly from the fact that striking affinities to the cult of Nerthus 
as described by Tacitus are to be found in Scandinavian, especially 
Swedish and Danish, religion. Investigations in this subject 
have rendered it very probable that the island of Nerthus was 
Sjaelland (Zealand), and it is further to be observed that the 
kings of Wessex traced their ancestry ultimately to a certain 
Scyld, who is clearly to be identified with Skioldr, the mythical 
founder of the Danish royal family (Skioldungar). In English 
tradition this person is connected with " Scedeland " (pi.), 
a name which may have been applied to Sjaelland as well as 
Skane, while in Scandinavian tradition he is specially associated 
with the ancient royal residence at Leire in Sjaelland. 

Bede states that the Angli before they came to Britain dwelt 
in a land called Angulus, and similar evidence is given by the 
Historia Brittonum. King Alfred and the chronicler ^Ethelweard 
identified this place with the district which is now called Angel 
in the province of Schleswig (Slesvig), though it may then have 
been of greater extent, and this identification agrees very well 
with the indications given by Bede. Full confirmation is afforded 
by English and Danish traditions relating to two kings named 
Wermund (q.v.) and Offa (q.v.), from whom the Mercian royal 
family were descended, and whose exploits are connected with 
Angel, Schleswig and Rendsburg. Danish tradition has pre- 
served record of two governors of Schleswig, father and son, 
in their service, Frowinus (Freawine) and Wigo (Wig), from 
whom the royal family of Wessex claimed descent. During the 
5th century the Angli invaded this country (see BRITAIN, Anglo- 
Saxon), after which time their name does not recur on the con- 
tinent except in the title of the code mentioned above. 

The province of Schleswig has proved exceptionally rich in 
prehistoric antiquities which date apparently from the 4th and 
5th centuries. Among the places where these have been found, 
special mention should be made of the large cremation cemetery 
at Borgstedterfeld, between Rendsburg and Eckernforde, 
which has yielded many urns and brooches closely resembling 
those found in heathen graves in England. Of still greater 
importance are the great deposits at Thorsbjaerg (in Angel) 
and Nydam, which contained large quantities of arms, ornaments, 
articles of clothing, agricultural implements, &c., and in the 
latter case even ships. By the help of these discoveries we are 
able to reconstruct a fairly detailed picture of English civilization 
in the age preceding the invasion of Britain. 

AUTHORITIES. Bede, Hist. Ecc. i. 15; King Alfred's version of 
Orosius, i. I. 12, 19; Athelweard's Chronicle, lib. i. For traditions 
concerning the kings of Angel, see under OFFA (i). L. Weiland, 



ANGLICAN COMMUNION 



Dit An t fln (i9): A. Erdmann. Cbtr die Ihimal und den Namen 
4trA*t<'* (I'pnU. 1890 cf. II. Moller in the Antfttrrfur deutukti 
AUtrltim **d dmtsdu LiUfralur. xxii. 129 ff.); A. Kock in the 
.TM* TuUkriJt (Stockholm). 1895. xv. p. lt>\ ff. : G. SchUttr, 
Vor Antlemt Tyikert t (Klcnubore, 1900); H. Munro Cha<lwii k, 
Tin Oririn of Ou English Nation (Cambridge. 1907); C. Engelhardt. 
nnmark in tilt Early Iron Ate (London, 1866); I. Mentorf, Urnrn- 
frudhdfe in ScUenng-HolsUin (Hamburg. 1886) ; S. Mailer. Norducke 
AUfrlHinsknndf (Ger. trans.. Slras-sbuiv. 1898), ii. p. 122 ff. ; tee 
further ANGLO-SAXONS and BRITAIN, Anglo-Saxon. (H. M. C.) 

ANGLICAN COMMUNION, the name used to denote that 
great branch of the Christian Church consisting of the various 
churches in communion with the Church of England. The 
necessity for such a phrase as " Anglican Communion," first used 
in the igth century, marked at once the immense development 
of the Anglican Church in modern times and the change which 
has taken place in the traditional conceptions of its character 
and sphere. The Church of England itself is the subject of a 
separate article (see ENGLAND, CHURCH or); and it is not 
without significance that for more than two centuries after the 
Reformation the history of Anglicanism is practically confined 
to its developments within the limits of the British Isles. Even 
in Ireland, where it was for over three centuries the established 
religion, and in Scotland, where it early gave way to the dominant 
Fresbyterianism, its religious was long overshadowed by its 
political significance. The Church, in fact, while still claiming to 
be Catholic in its creeds and in its religious practice, had ceased 
to be Catholic in its institutional conception, which was now 
bound up with a particular state and also with a particular 
conception of that state. To the native Irishman and the Scots- 
man, as indeed to most Englishmen, the Anglican Church was one 
of the main buttresses of the supremacy of the English crown 
and nation. This conception of the relations of church and state 
was hardly favourable to missionary zeal; and in the age succeed- 
ing the Reformation there was no disposition on the part of the 
English Church to emulate the wonderful activity of the Jesuits, 
which, in the i6th and i;th centuries, brought to the Church 
of Rome in countries beyond the ocean compensation for what 
she had lost in Europe through the Protestant reformation. 
Even when English churchmen passed beyond the seas, they 
carried with them their creed, but not their ecclesiastical organiza- 
tion. Prejudice and real or imaginary legal obstacles stood 
in the way of the erection of episcopal sees in the colonies; and 
though in the I7th century Archbishop Laud had attempted 
to obtain a bishop for Virginia, up to the time of the American 
revolution the churchmen of the colonies had to make the best 
of the legal fiction that their spiritual needs were looked after 
by the bishop of London, who occasionally sent commissaries 
to visit them and ordained candidates for the ministry sent to 
England for the purpose. 

The change which has made it possible for Anglican churchmen 
to claim that their communion ranks with those of Rome and 
the Orthodox East as one of the three great historical divisions 
of the Catholic Church, was due, in the first instance, to the 
American revolution. The severance of the colonies from their 
allegiance to the crown brought the English bishops for the first 
time face to face with the idea of an Anglican Church which 
should have nothing to do either with the royal supremacy 
or with British nationality. When, on the conclusion of peace, 
the church-people of Connecticut sent Dr Samuel Seabury to 
England, with a request to the archbishop of Canterbury to 
consecrate him, it is not surprising that Archbishop Moore 
refused. In the opinion of prelates and lawyers alike, an act of 
parliament was necessary before a bishop could be consecrated 
for a see abroad; to consecrate one for a foreign country seemed 
impossible, since, though the bestowal of the poteslas ordinis 
would be valid, the crown, which, according to the law, was the 
source of the episcopal jurisdiction, could hardly issue the 
necessary mandate for the consecration of a bishop to a sec 
outside the realm (see BISHOP). The Scottish bishops, however, 
being hampered by no such legal restrictions, were more amen- 
able; and on the nth of November 1784 Seabury was con- 
secrated by them to the see of Connecticut. In 1786, on the 



Initiative of the archbishop, the legal difficulties IB 
were removed by the act for the consecration of bishop* abroad, 
and, on being satisfied a* to the orthodoxy of the church in 
America and the nature of certain liturgical change* in con- 
templation, the two English archbishop* proceeded, on the 
I4th of February 1787, to consecrate William White and Samuel 
Prevoost to the see* of Pennsylvania and New York (*ee 
PmorcsTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH). 

This act had a significance beyond the fact that it established 
in the United States of America a flourishing church, which, 
while completely loyal to its own country, is bound by special 
ties to the religious life of England. It marked the emergence 
of the Church of England from that insularity to which what may 
be called the territorial principles of the Reformation had 
condemned her. The change was slow, and it is not yet by any 
means complete. 

Since the Church of England, whatever her attitude toward* 
the traditional Catholic doctrines, never disputed the validity 
of Catholic orders whether Roman or Orthodox, nor the juris- 
diction of Catholic bishops in foreign countries, the expansion 
of the Anglican Church has been in no sense conceived a* a 
Protestant aggressive movement against Rome. Occasional 
exceptions, such as the consecration by Archbishop Plunket 
of Dublin of a bishop for the reformed church in Spain, raised 
so strong a protest as to prove the rule. In the main, then, 
the expansion of the Anglican Church has followed that of the 
British empire, or, as in America, of its daughter states; its 
claim, so far as rights of jurisdiction are concerned, is to be the 
Church of England and the English race, while recognizing its 
special duties towards the non-Christian populations subject 
to the empire or brought within the reach of its influence. As 
against the Church of Rome, with its system of rigid centraliza- 
tion, the Anglican Church represents the principle of local 
autonomy, which it holds to be once more primitive and more 
catholic. In this respect the Anglican communion has developed 
on the lines defined in her articles at the Reformation; but, 
though in principle there is no great difference between a 
church defined by national, and a church denned by racial 
boundaries, there is an immense difference in effect, especially 
when the race as in the case of the English is itself 
ecumenical. 

The realization of what may be called this catholic mission 
of the English church, in the extension of its organization to 
the colonies, was but a slow process. 

On the 1 2th of August 1787 Dr Charles Inglis was consecrated 
bishop of Nova Scotia, with jurisdiction over all the British 
possessions in North America. In 1793 the see of 7-^, 
Quebec was founded ; Jamaica and Barbados followed C*rc* 
in 1824, and Toronto and Newfoundland in 1839. to '* 
Meanwhile the needs of India has been tardily met, on 
the urgent representations in parliament of William Wilberforce 
and others, by the consecration of Dr T. F. Middleton as bishop 
of Calcutta, with three archdeacons to assist him. In 181 7 Ceylon 
was added to his charge; in 1823 all British subjects in the East 
Indies and the islands of the Indian Ocean; and in 1824 "New 
South Wales and its dependencies''! Some five years later, on 
the nomination of the duke of Wellington, William Broughton 
was sent out to work in this enormous jurisdiction as archdeacon 
of Australia. Soon afterwards, in 1835 and 1837, the sees of 
Madras and Bombay were founded; whilst in 1836 Broughton 
himself was consecrated as first bishop of Australia. Thus down 
to 1840 there were but ten colonial bishops; and of these several 
were so hampered by civil regulations that they were little more 
than government chaplains in episcopal orders. In April of 
that year, however, Bishop Blomfield of London published his 
famous letter to the archbishop of Canterbury, declaring that 
" an episcopal church without a bishop is a contradiction in 
terms," and strenuously advocating a great efiort for the extension 
of the episcopate. It was not in vain. The plan was taken up 
with enthusiasm, and on Whitsun Tuesday of 1841 the bishops 
of the United Kingdom met and issued a declaration 
which inaugurated the Colonial Bishoprics Council. Subsequent 



20 



ANGLICAN COMMUNION 



declarations in 187 2 and 1 891 have served both to record progress 
and to stimulate to new effort. The diocese of New Zealand 
was founded in 1841, being endowed by the Church Missionary 
Society through the council, and George Augustus Selwyn was 
chosen as the first bishop. Since then the increase has gone on, 
as the result both of home effort and of the action of the colonial 
churches. Moreover, in many cases bishops have been sent to 
inaugurate new missions, as in the cases of the Universities' 
Mission to Central Africa, Lebombo, Corea and New Guinea; 
and the missionary jurisdictions so founded develop in time 
into dioceses. Thus, instead of the ten colonial jurisdictions of 
1841, there are now about a hundred foreign and colonial 
jurisdictions, in addition to those of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church of the United States. 

It was only very gradually that these dioceses acquired 
legislative independence and a determinate organization. At 
first, sees were created and bishops were nominated by the 
crown by means of letters patent; and in some cases an income 
was assigned out of public funds. Moreover, for many years 
all bishops alike were consecrated in England, took the customary 
" oath of due obedience " to the archbishop of Canterbury, and 
were regarded as his extra-territorial suffragans. But by degrees 
changes have been made on all these points. 

(1) Local conditions soon made a provincial organization 
necessary, and it was gradually introduced. The bishop of Cal- 

cutta received letters patent as metropolitan of India 
when the sees of Madras and Bombay were founded; 
on an d fresh patents were issued to Bishop Broughton in 

1847 and Bishop Gray in 1833, as metropolitans of 
Australia and South Africa respectively. Similar action was 
taken in 1858, when Bishop Selwyn became metropolitan of 
New Zealand; and again in 1860, when, on the petition of the 
Canadian bishops to the crown and the colonial legislature for 
permission to elect a metropolitan, letters patent were issued 
appointing Bishop Fulford of Montreal to that office. Since 
then metropolitans have been chosen and provinces formed by 
regular synodical action, a process greatly encouraged by the 
resolutions of the Lambeth conferences on the subject. The 
constitution of these provinces is not uniform. In some cases, as 
South Africa,New South Wales, and Queensland.the metropolitan 
see is fixed. Elsewhere, as in New Zealand, where no single city 
can claim pre-eminence, the metropolitan is either elected or else 
is the senior bishop by consecration. Two further developments 
must be mentioned : (a) The creation of diocesan and provincial 
synods, the first diocesan synod to meet being that of New 
Zealand in 1844, whilst the formation of a provincial synod was 
foreshadowed by a conference of Australasian bishops at Sydney 
in 1850; (b) towards the close of the igth century the title of 
archbishop began to be assumed by the metropolitans of several 
provinces. It was first assumed by the metropolitans of Canada 
and Rupert's Land, at the desire of the Canadian general synod 
in 1893; and subsequently, in accordance with a resolution of 
the Lambeth conference of 1897, it was given by their synods to 
the bishop of Sydney as metropolitan of New South Wales and 
to the bishop of Cape Town as metropolitan of South Africa. 
Civil obstacles have hitherto delayed its adoption by the metro- 
politan of India. 

(2) By degrees, also, the colonial churches have been freed 
from their rather burdensome relations with the state. The 

church of the West Indies was disestablished and 
disendowed in 1868. In 1857 it was decided, in 
Regina v. Eton College, that the crown could not claim 
the presentation to a living when it had appointed the 
former incumbent to a colonial bishopric, as it does in the case 
of an English bishopric. In 1861, after some protest from the 
crown lawyers, two missionary bishops were consecrated without 
letters patent for regions outside British territory: C. F. 
Mackenzie for the Zambezi region and J. C. Patteson for 
Melanesia, by the metropolitans of Cape Town and New Zealand 
respectively. In 1863 the privy council declared, in Long v. 
The Bishop of Cape Town, that " the Church of England, in places 
where there is no church established by law, is in the same 



control. 



situation with any other religious body." In 1865 it adjudged 
Bishop Gray's letters patent, as metropolitan of Cape Town, to 
be powerless to enable him " to exercise any coercive juris- 
diction, or hold any court or tribunal for that purpose," since 
the Cape colony already possessed legislative institutions when 
they were issued; and his deposition of Bishop Colenso was 
declared to be " null and void in law " (re The Bishop of 
NaloJ). With the exception of Colenso the South African 
bishops forthwith surrendered their patents,and formally accepted 
Bishop Gray as their metropolitan, an example followed in 1865 
in the province of New Zealand. In 1862, when the diocese of 
Ontario was formed, the bishop was elected in Canada, and con- 
secrated under a royal mandate, letters patent being by this time 
entirely discredited. And when, in 1867, a coadjutor was chosen 
for the bishop of Toronto, an application for a royal mandate 
produced the reply from the colonial secretary that " it was not 
the part of the crown to interfere in the creation of a new 
bishop or bishopric, and not consistent with the dignity of the 
crown that he should advise Her Majesty to issue a mandate 
which would not be worth the paper on which it was written, and 
which, having been sent out to Canada, might be disregarded 
in the most complete manner." And at the present day the 
colonial churches are entirely free in this matter. This, however, 
is not the case with the church in India. Here the bishops of 
sees founded down to 1879 receive a stipend from the revenue 
(with the exception of the bishop of Ceylon, who no longer does 
so). They are not only nominated by the crown and consecrated 
under letters patent, but the appointment is expressly subjected 
" to such power of revocation and recall as is by law vested " 
in the crown; and where additional oversight was necessary 
for the church in Tinnevelly, it could only be secured by the 
consecration of two assistant bishops, who worked under a com- 
mission for the archbishop of Canterbury which was to expire 
on the death of the bishop of Madras. Since then, however, 
new sees have been founded which are under no such restrictions: 
by the creation of dioceses either in native states (Travancore 
and Cochin), or out of the existing dioceses (Chota Nagpur, 
Lucknow, &c.). In the latter case there is no legal subdivision of 
the older diocese, the new bishop administering such districts as 
belonged to it under commission from its bishop, provision being 
made, however, that in all matters ecclesiastical there shall be 
no appeal but to the metropolitan of India. 

(3) By degrees, also, the relations of colonial churches to the 
archbishop of Canterbury have changed. Until 1855 no colonial 
bishop was consecrated outside the British Isles, the 
first instance being Dr MacDougall of Labuan, con- 
secrated in India under a commission from the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury; and until 1874 it was held to be unlawful 
for a bishop to be consecrated in England without taking the 
suffragan's oath of due obedience. This necessity was removed 
by the Colonial Clergy Act of 1874, which permits the archbishop 
at his discretion to dispense with the oath. This, however, has 
not been done in all cases; and as late as 1890 it was taken by 
the metropolitan of Sydney at his consecration. Thus the 
constituent parts of the Anglican communion gradually acquire 
autonomy: missionary jurisdictions develop into organized 
dioceses, and dioceses are grouped into provinces with canons of 
their own. But the most complete autonomy does not involve 
isolation. The churches are in full communion with one another, 
and act together in many ways; missionary jurisdictions and 
dioceses are mapped out by common arrangement, and even 
transferred if it seems advisable; e.g. the diocese Honolulu 
(Hawaii), previously under the jurisdiction of the archbishop 
of Canterbury, was transferred in 1900 to the Episcopal Church 
in the United States on account of political changes. Though 
the see of Canterbury claims no primacy over the Anglican 
communion analogous to that exercised over the Roman Church 
by the popes, it is regarded with a strong affection and deference, 
which shows itself by frequent consultation and interchange of 
greetings. There is also a strong common life emphasized by 
common action. 

The conference of Anglican bishops from all parts of the world, 



ANGLING 



21 



instituted by Archbishop Longlcy in 1867, and known as the 
Lambeth Conferences (?..), though even for the 
Anglican communion they have not the authority of an 
ecumenical synod, and their decisions are rather of the 
nature of counsels than commands, have done much 
to promote the harmony and co-operation of the various branches 
of the Church. An even more imposing manifestation of this 

1 ommon life was given by the great pan-Anglican congress held 
in London between the i.-ih and 24th of June 1008, which 
preceded the Lambeth conference opened on the 5th of July. 
The idea of this originated with Bishop Montgomery, secretary 
to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and was endorsed 
by a resolution of the United Boards of Mission in 1003. As the 
result of negotiations and preparations extending over five years, 
250 bishops, together with delegates, clerical and lay, from every 
diocese in the Anglican communion, met in London, the opening 
service of intercession being held in Westminster Abbey. In its 
general character, the meeting was but a Church congress on an 
enlarged scale, and the subjects discussed, e.g. the attitude of 
churchmen towards the question of the marriage laws or that 
of socialism, followed much the same lines. The congress, of 
course, had no power to decide or to legislate for the Church, its 
main value being in drawing its scattered members closer together, 
in bringing the newer and more isolated branches into con- 
sciousness of their contact with the parent stem, and in opening 
the eyes of the Church of England to the point of view and the 
peculiar problems of the daughter-churches. 

The Anglican communion consists of the following: (i) The 
Church of England, 2 provinces, Canterbury and York, with 
24 and ii dioceses respectively. (2) The Church of Ireland, 

2 provinces, Armagh and Dublin, with 7 and 6 dioceses respec- 
tively. (3) The Scottish Episcopal Church, with ^ dioceses. 
(4) The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States, with 
So, dioceses and missionary jurisdictions, including North Tokyo, 
Kyoto, Shanghai, Cape Palmas, and the independent dioceses of 
(lay ti and Brazil. (5) The Canadian Church, consisting of (a) the 
province of Canada, with 10 dioceses; (b) the province of Rupert's 
Land, with 8 dioceses. (6) The Church in India and Ceylon, i 
province of n dioceses. (7) The Church of the West Indies, i 
province of 8 dioceses, of which Barbados and the Windward 
Islands are at present united. (8) The Australian Church, 
consisting of (a) the province of New South Wales, with 10 
dioceses; (b) the province of Queensland, with 5 dioceses; (c) the 
province of Victoria, with 5 dioceses. (9) The Church of New 
Zealand, i province of 7 dioceses, together with the missionary 
jurisdiction of Melanesia. (10) The South African Church, i 
province of 10 dioceses, with the 2 missionary jurisdictions of 
Mashonaland and Lebombo. (n) Nearly 30 isolated dioceses 
and missionary jurisdictions holding mission from the see of 
Canterbury. 

AUTHORITIES. -Official Year-book of the Church of England: 
I'hillimorc, Ecclesiastical Law, vol. ii. (London, 1895); Direst of 
S.P.G. Record! (London, 1893); E. Stock. History of the Church 
Missionary Society. 3 vols. (London, 1899); H. W. Tucker, The 
English Church in Other Lands (London, 1886); A. T. Wirgman, The 
Church and the Civil Power (London, 1893). 

ANGLING, the art or practice of the sport of catching fish by 
means of a baited hook or " angle " (from the Indo-European 
root ank-, meaning " bend ").' It is among the most ancient 
of human activities, and may be said to date from the time when 
man was in the infancy of the Stone Age, eking out a precarious 
existence by the slaughter of any living thing which he could 
reach with the rude weapons at his command. It is probable 
that attack on fishes was at first much the same as attack on 

1 As to whether " angling " necessarily implies a rod as well as a 
line and hook, see the discussion in the law case of Barnard v. Roberts 
(Times L.R., April 13, 1907), when the Question arose as to the use 
of night-lines being angling; but the decision against night-lines 
went on the ground of the absence of the personal element rather 
than on the absence of a rod. The various dictionaries are blind 
guides on this point, and the authorities cited are inconclusive; 
but, broadly speaking, angling now implies three necessary factors 
a personal angler, the sporting element, and the use of recognized 
fishing-tackle. 



animals, a matter of force rather than of guile, and conducted by 
means of a rude pear with a flint head. It is probable, too, that 
the primitive harpoonera were not signally successful in their 
efforts, and so set their wits to work to devise other mean* of 
getting at the abundant food which waited for them in every 
piece of water near their caves. Observation would icon show 
them that fuh fed greedily on each other and on other inhabitant* 
of the water or living things that fell into it, and to, no doubt, 
arose the idea of entangling the prey by means of its appetite 
Hence came the notion of the first hook, which, it teem* certain, 
was not a hook at all but a " gorge," a piece of flint or (tone 
which the fish could swallow with the bait but which it could not 
eject afterwards. From remains found in cave-dwellings and 
their neighbourhood in different parts of the world it is obvious 
that these gorges varied in shape, but in general the idea was the 
same, a narrow strip of stone or flake of flint, either straight or 
slightly curved at the ends, with a groove in the middle round 
which the line could be fastened. Buried in the bait it would be 
swallowed end first; then the tightening of the line would fix 
it cross-wise in the quarry's stomach or gullet and so the capture 
would be assured. The device still lingers in France and in a 
few remote parts of England in the method of catching eels which 
is known as " sniggling." In this a needle buried in a worm plays 
the part of the prehistoric gorge. 

The evolution of the fish-hook from the slightly curved gorge 
is easily intelligible. The ends became more and more curved. 
until eventually an object not unlike a double hook was attained. 
This development would be materially assisted by man's dis- 
covery of the uses of bronze and its adaptability to his require- 
ments. The single hook, of the pattern more or less familiar to 
us, was possibly a concession of the lake-dweller to what may even 
then have been a problem the " education " of fish, and to a 
recognition of the fact that sport with the crude old methods 
was falling off. But it is also not improbable that in some parts 
of the world the single hook developed part passu with the 
double, and that, on the sea-shore for instance, where man was 
able to employ so adaptable a substance as shell, the first hook 
was a curved fragment of shell lashed with fibre to a piece of 
wood or bone, in such a way that the shell formed the bend of 
the hook while the wood or bone formed the shank. Both early 
remains and recent hooks from the Fiji Islands bear out this 
supposition. It is also likely that flint, horn and bone were 
pressed into service in a similar manner. The nature of the line 
or the rod that may have been used with these early hooks is 
largely a matter of conjecture. The first line was perhaps the 
tendril of a plant, the first rod possibly a sapling tree. But it is 
fairly obvious that the rod must have been suggested by the 
necessity of getting the bait out over obstacles which lay between 
the fisherman and the water, and that it was a device for increas- 
ing both the reach of the arm and the length of the line. It 
seems not improbable that the rod very early formed a part of the 
fisherman's equipment. 

Literary History. From prehistoric times down to compara- 
tively late in the days of chronicles, angling appears to have 
remained a practice; its development into an art or sport is a 
modern idea. In the earliest literature references to angling are 
not very numerous, but there are passages in the Old Testament 
which show that fish-taking with hook as well as net was one of 
the common industries in the East, and that fish, where it was 
obtainable, formed an important article of diet. In Numbers 
(xi. 5) the children of Israel mourn for the fish which they " did 
eat in Egypt freely." So much too is proved by the monuments 
of Egypt; indeed more, for the figures found in some of the 
Egyptian fishing pictures using short rods and stout lines are 
sometimes attired after the manner of those who were great in 
the land. This indicates that angling had already, in a highly 
civilized country, taken its place among the methods of diversion 
at the disposal of the wealthy, though from the uncompromising 
nature of the tackle depicted and the apparent simplicity of the 
fish it would scarcely be safe to assume that in Egypt angling 
arrived at the dignity of becoming an " art." In Europe it took 
very much longer for the taking of fish to be regarded even as an 



.22 



ANGLING 



amusement, and the earliest references to it in the Greek and 
Latin classics are not very satisfying to the sportsman. There is, 
however, a passage in the Odyssey (xii. 247) which is of consider- 
able importance, as it shows that fishing with rod and line was 
well enough understood in early Greece to be used as a popular 
illustration. It occurs in the well-known scene where Scylla 
seizes the companions of Odysseus out of the ship and bears them 
upwards, just as " some fisher on a headland with a long rod " 
brings small fishes gasping to the shore. Another important, 
though comparatively late, passage in Greek poetry is the 
twenty-first idyll of Theocritus. In this the fisherman Asphalion 
relates how in a dream he hooked a large golden fish and describes 
graphically, albeit with some obscurity of language, how he 
" played " it. Asphalion used a rod and fished from a rock, much 
after the manner of the Homeric angler. Among other Greek 
writers, Herodotus has a good many references to fish and fishing; 
the capture of fish is once or twice mentioned or implied by Plato, 
notably in the Laws (vii. 823); Aristotle deals with fishes in his 
Natural History; and there are one or two fishing passages in the 
anthology. But in Greek literature as a whole the subject of 
angling is not at all prominent. In writers of late Greek, however, 
there is more material. Plutarch, for instance, gives us the 
famous story of the fishing match between Antony and Cleopatra, 
which has been utilized by Shakespeare. Moreover, it is in Greek 
that the first complete treatise on fishing which has come down 
to us is written, the Halieutica of Oppian (c. A.D. 169). It is a 
hexameter poem in five books with perhaps more technical than 
sporting interest, and not so much even of that as the length of 
tie work would suggest. Still it contains some information about 
tackle and methods, and some passages describing battles with 
big fish, in the right spirit of enthusiasm. Also in Greek is what is 
famous as the first reference in literature to fly-fishing, in the 
fifteenth book of Aelian's Natural History (3rd century A.D.). It 
is there described how the Macedonians captured a certain 
spotted fish in the river Astraeus by means of a lure composed of 
coloured wool and feathers, which was presumably used in the 
manner now known as " dapping." That there were other 
Greek writers who dealt with fish and fishing and composed 
" halieutics " we know from Athenaeus. In the first book of his 
Deipnosophistae he gives a list of them. But he compares their 
work unfavourably with the passage of Homer already cited, in a 
way which suggests that their knowledge of angling was not a 
great advance upon the knowledge of their remote literary 
ancestors. In Latin literature allusions to angling are rather 
more numerous than in Greek, but on the whole they are un- 
important. Part of a poem by Ovid, the Halieuticon, composed 
during the poet's exile at Tomi after A.D. 9, still survives. In 
other Roman writers the subject is only treated by way of allusion 
or illustration. Martial, however, provides, among other 
passages, what may perhaps be entitled to rank as the earliest 
notice of private fishery rights the epigram Ad Piscalorem, 
which warns would-be poachers from casting a line in the Baian 
lake. Pliny the elder devoted the ninth book of his Natural 
History to fishes and water-life, and Plautus, Cicero, Catullus, 
Horace, Juvenal, Pliny the younger and Suetonius all allude to 
angling here and there. Agricultural writers, too, such as Varro 
and Columella, deal with the subject of fish ponds and stews 
rather fully. Later than any of these, but still just included in 
Latin literature, we have Ausonius (c. A.D. 320) and his well- 
known idyll the Mosella, which contains a good deal about the 
fish of the Moselle and the methods of catching them. In this 
poem is to be found the first recognizable description of members 
of the salmon family, and, though the manner of their application 
is rather doubtful, the names salmo, solar and fario strike a 
responsive note in the breast of the modern angler. 

Post-classical Literature. As to what happened in the world of 
angling in the first few centuries of the Christian era we know 
little. It may be inferred, however, that both fish and fishermen 
occupied a more honourable position in Christendom than they 
ever did before. The prominence of fishermen in the gospel 
narratives would in itself have been enough to bring this about, 
but it also happened that the Greek word for fish, IX9TS, had an 



anagrammatic significance which the devout were not slow to 
perceive. The initials of the word resolve into what is practically 
a confession of faith, 'I7)<ro0s Xptoros 6eoC Ttos SCOTIA (Jesus 
Christ, Son of God, Saviour). It is therefore not surprising that 
we find the fish very prominent as a sacred emblem in the painting 
and sculpture of the primitive church, or that Clement of Alex- 
andria should have recommended it, among other things, as a 
device for signet rings or seals. The fisherman too is frequently 
represented in early Christian art, and it is worthy of remark 
that he more often uses a line and hook than a net. The refer- 
ences to fish and fishing scattered about in the writings of the 
early fathers for the most part reflect the two ideas of the 
sacredness of the fish and divine authorization of the fisherman; 
the second idea certainly prevailed until the time of Izaak 
Walton, for he uses it to justify his pastime. It is also not 
unlikely that the practice of fasting (in many cases fish was 
allowed when meat was forbidden) gave the art of catching fish 
additional importance. It seems at any rate to have been a 
consideration of weight when sites were chosen for monasteries 
in Europe, and in many cases when no fish-producing river was 
at hand the lack was supplied by the construction of fish-ponds. 
Despite all this, however, save for an occasional allusion in the 
early fathers, there is hardly a connecting link between the 
literature of Pagan Rome and the literature that sprang up on 
the invention of printing. One volume, the Geoponica, a Greek 
compilation concerning whose authorship and date there has 
been much dispute, is attributed in Bibliotheca Piscatoria to the 
beginning of the loth century. It contains one book on fish, 
fish-ponds and fishing, with prescriptions for baits, &c., extracted 
for the most part from other writers. But it seems doubtful 
whether its date should not be placed very much earlier. Tradi- 
tion makes it a Carthaginian treatise translated into Greek. A 
more satisfactory fragment of fishing literature is to be found in 
the Colloquy of ^Elfric, written (ad pueros linguae latinae locu- 
tionis exercendos) towards the end of the same century. ./Elfric 
became archbishop of Canterbury in A.D. 995, and the passage 
in the Anglo-Saxon text-book takes honourable rank as the 
earliest reference to fishing in English writings, though it is not 
of any great length. It is to be noted that the fisher who takes a 
share hi the colloquy states that he prefers fishing in the river to 
fishing in the sea. Ascribed to the I3th or i4th century is a 
Latin poem De Velula, whose author was apparently Richard de 
Fournival. It contains a passage on angling, and was placed to 
the credit of Ovid when first printed (c. 1470). A manuscript in 
the British museum, Comptes des pecheries de I'eglise de Troyes 
(A.D. 1349-1413), gives a minute account of the fisheries with 
the weights of fish captured and the expenses of working. 
There is, however, practically nothing else of importance till we 
come to the first printed book on angling (a translation of Oppian, 
1478, excepted), and so to the beginning of the literature proper. 
This first book was a little volume printed in Antwerp probably 
in 1492 at the press of Matthias van der Goes. In size it is little 
more than a pamphlet, and it treats of birds as well as fish: 
Dit Boecxken leert hoe men mach Voghelen . . . ende . . . 
tnsschen vangen metten kanden. Ende oeck andersins. . . . 
(" This book teaches how one may catch birds . . . and . . . 
fish with the hands, and also otherwise "). Only one copy 
apparently survives, in the Denison library, and a translation 
privately printed for Mr Alfred Denison in 1872 was limited to 
twenty-five copies. At least two other editions of the book 
appeared in Flemish, and it also made its way, hi 1502, to 
Germany, where, translated and with certain alterations and 
additions, it seems to have been re-issued frequently. Next in 
date comes the famous Treaty se of Fysshynge wyth an Angle, 
printed at Westminster by Wynkyn de Worde in 1496 as a part 
of the second edition of The Book of Si Albans. The treatise 
is for this reason associated with the name of Dame Juliana 
Berners, but that somewhat dubious compiler can have had 
nothing whatever to do with it. The treatise is almost certainly 
a compilation from some earlier work on angling (" bokes of 
credence " are mentioned in its text), possibly from a manuscript 
of the earlier part of the isth century, of which a portion is 



ANGLING 



preserved in the Denison collection. This was published in 
1883 by Mr Thomas Satchel) under the title Ait Older Form of the 
Trealyse of Fysshynge vyth an Anile. But it is also possible 
that a still older work was the parent of both books, for it has 
been held that the manuscript is an independent version. How- 
ever this may be, it b certain that the treatise itself has been the 
parent of many other works. Many of the instructions contained 
in it are handed down from generation to generation with little 
change except in diction. Especially is this the case with the list 
of trout-flies, a meagre twelve, which survives in many fishing 
books until well into the iSth century. 

From the beginning of the i6th century the fisherman's library 
begins to grow apace, as, though books solely devoted to fishing 
are not yet frequent, works on husbandry and country pursuits 
almost all contain something on the subject. In Italy the 
fisherman and his occupation apparently were considered poetic- 
ally; the word pescatore or its cognates are common on Italian 
i6th and I7th century title-pages, though in many instances 
the fulfilment of the implied promise is not adequate, from an 
angler's point of view. From the pages of Bibliolheca Piscatoria 
a fairly long list of Italian writers could be gleaned. Among 
them may be mentioned Sannazaro (Piscatoria, &c., Rome, 1526) 
and Andrea Calmo (Rimt pescalorie, Venice, 1557). A century 
later was Parthenius, who published a volume of Halieutica at 
Naples. This writer has an amusing reference to the art of 
" tickling " trout as practised in Britain. In Germany, as has 
been shown, the original little Flemish treatise had a wide vogue 
in the i6th century, and fishing played a part in a good many 
books on husbandry such as that of Conrad Heresbach (1570). 
Fish and fish-ponds formed the main topic of a Latin work by 
Dubravius (1552), while Gesner in the middle of the i6th and 
Aldrovandi at the beginning of the i;th centuries wrote at length 
on the natural history of fishes. In France the subject is less 
well represented, but Let Pescheries of Chris, de Gamon (Lyons, 
1509} and Le Plaisir des champs of Cl. Gauchet (Paris, 1604) 
deserve to be noted. Les Ruses innocenies by Francois Fortin, 
first published at Paris in 1600, and several times in later editions, 
is characterized by Messrs Westwood and Satchell as " on the 
whole the most interesting contribution made by France to 
the literature of angling." England during the most part of the 
i6th century was evidently well enough served by the original 
treatise out of The Book of St Albans. It was republished twice 
by Wynkyn de Worde, six or seven times by Copland, and some 
five times by other printers. It was also practically republished 
in A Booke of Fishing by L. M. (1500). L. M. (Leonard Mascall) 
ranks as an angling author, but he did little more than borrow and 
edit the treatise. The same may be said of another version of The 
Book of St Albans " now newly collected by W. G. Faulkener " 
and issued in 1506. 

Modern Literature. In 1600 appeared John Taverner's Certaine 
Experiments concerning Fish and Fruite, and after this the period 
of angling literature proper begins. The Secrets of Angling (1613), 
by J(ohn) D(ennys), Esq., is one of the most important 
volumes in the angler's library, both on account of the excellence 
of the verse in which it is written and also on account of its 
practical value. Gervase Markham, " the first journalist," as 
he has been called, published his first book of husbandry at 
the same date, and, as in most of his many books on the same 
subject, devoted a certain amount of space to fishing. But 
Markham gathered his materials in a rather shameless manner 
and his angling passages have little originality. Thomas Barker's 
The Art of Angling (ist ed., 1651) takes a more honourable 
position, and received warm commendation from Izaak Walton 
himself, who followed it in 1633 with The Compleat Angler. 
So much has been written about this treasured classic that it is 
only necessary to indicate its popularity here by saying that 
its editions occupy some twenty pages in Bibliotheca Piscatoria 
(1883), and that since that work was published at least forty 
new editions have to be added to the list. During Walton's 
life-time the book ran through five editions, and with the fifth 
(1676) was incorporated Charles Cotton's second part, the 
" instructions how to angle for a trout or grayling, in a clear 



stream." In some cue* too there was added third book, 
the fourth edition of The Experienced Angler, by Robert Venable* 
(ist ed., 1662). The three books together bore the title of 
The Universal Antler. Venables's portion was dropped later, 
but it is worth reading, and contained sound instruction though 
it has not the literary merit of Walton and Cotton. 

A few other notable books of the century call for enumeration, 
The Gentleman's Recreation by Nicholas Cox (1674), Gilbert's 
The Angler's Delight (1676), Chetham's Vade-Metum (1681), 
The Complete Trailer by Robert Nobbes (1682), R. Kranck'i 
Northern Memoirs (1604), and The True Art of Angling by J. S. 
(1606). Of these Chetham, Nobbes, Franck and J. S. have the 
merit of considerable originality. Franck has gained some 
notoriety by his round abuse of Walton. In the i8lh century 
among others we find The Secrets of Angling by C. G. (1705), 
Robert Hewlett's The Angler's Sure Guide (1706), The Whole 
Artof Fishing (1714), The Compleat Fisherman by James Saunders 
(1724), The Art of Angling by R. Brookes (1740), another book 
with the same title by R. and C. Bowlker (Worcester, c. 1750), 
The Complete Sportsman by Thomas Fairfax (c. 1760), The 
Angler's Museum by T. Shirley (1784), and A Concise Treatise 
on the Art of Angling by Thomas Best (1787). Of these only 
Saunders's, Bowlker's and Best's books are of much importance, 
the rest being for the most part " borrowed." One volume of 
verse in the i8th century calls for notice, Moses Browne's 
Piscatory Eclogues ( 1 7 29) . Among greater names we get angling 
passages in Pope, Gay and Thomson; the two .last were evidently 
brothers of the angle. 

With the igth century angling literature becomes too big a 
subject to be treated in detail, and it is only possible to glance 
at a few of the more important books and writers. Daniel's 
Rural Sports appeared in 1801; it is a treasure-house of odd 
facts. In 1828 Sir Humphry Davy published his famous 
Salmonia, which was reviewed in the Quarterly by Sir Walter 
Scott. At about this time too were appearing the N octet Ambro- 
sianae in Blackwood's Magazine. Christopher North (Professor 
Wilson) often touched upon angling in them, besides contributing 
a good many angling articles to the magazine. In 1835 that 
excellent angling writer Thomas Tod Stoddart began his valuable 
series of books with The Art of Angling as Practised in Scotland. 
In 1839 he published Songs and Poems, among which are pieces 
of great merit. During this period, too, first appeared, year 
by year, the Newcastle Fishers' Garlands, collected by Joseph 
C' raw hall afterwards and republished in 1864. These border 
verses, like Stoddart's, have often a genuine ring about them 
which is missing from the more polished effusions of Gay and 
Thomson. Alfred Ronalds's The Fly-Fisher's Entomology 
(ist ed., 1836) was a publication of great importance, for it 
marked the beginning of the scientific spirit among trout-fishers. 
It ran through many editions and is still a valuable book of 
reference. A step in angling history is also marked by George 
Pulman's Vade-Mecum of Fly-fishing for Trout (1841), for it 
contains the first definite instructions on fishing with a " dry 
fly." Another is marked by Hewett Wheatley's The Rod and 
the Line (1849), where is to be found the earliest reference to the 
" eyed " hook. Yet another is marked by W. C. Stewart's 
The Practical Angler (1857), in which is taught the new doctrine 
of " up-stream " fishing for trout. This is a book of permanent 
value. Among the many books of this period Charles Kingsley 's 
Miscellanies (1859) stands out, for it contains the immortal 
" Chalk-Stream Studies." The work of Francis Francis begins 
at about the same time, though his A Book on A ngling, which 
is still one of the most valuable text-books, was not first published 
till 1867. Another well-known and excellent writer, Mr H. 
Cholmondeley Pennell, began in the early 'sixties; it is to him 
that we owe the admirable volumes on fresh-water fishing in 
Ihe " Badminton Library." Among other English writers 
mention must be made of Messrs William Senior, John Bicker- 
dyke and F. M. Halford, who have all performed signal services 
for angling and its literature. (See further bibliography ad fin.) 
In America the latter half of the iqth century produced a good 
deal of fishing literature, much of it of a high standard. / go 



ANGLING 



a-Fishing by Dr W. C. Prime (1873), Fishing with the Fly by 
C. F. Orvis, A. Nelson Cheney and others (1883), The American 
Salmon Fisherman and Fly Rods and Fly Tackle by H. P. Wells 
(1886 and 1885), Little Rivers and other books by the Rev. H. 
Van Dyke these are only a few specially distinguished in style 
and matter. Germany and France have not contributed so 
largely to the modern library, but in the first country we find 
several useful works by Max von dem Borne, beginning with 
the Handbuch der Angelfischerei of 1875, and there are a good 
many other writers who have contributed to the subject, while 
in France there are a few volumes on fishing by different hands. 
The most noticeable is M. G. Albert Petit's La Truile de riviere 
(1897), an admirable book on fly-fishing. As yet, however, though 
there are many enthusiastic anglers in France, the sport has not 
established itself so firmly as to have inspired much literature 
of its own ; the same may be said of Germany. 

Modern Conditions. In the modern history of angling there 
are one or two features that should be touched upon. The great 
increase in the number of fishermen has had several results. 
One is a corresponding increase in the difficulty of obtaining 
fishing, and a notable rise in the value of rivers, especially those 
which are famed for salmon and trout Salmon-fishing now may 
be said to have become a pastime of the rich, and there are signs 
that trout-fishing will before long have to be placed in the same 
exclusive category, while even the right to angle for less-esteemed 
fish will eventually be a thing of price. The development is 
natural, and it has naturally led to efforts on the part of the 
angling majority to counteract, if possible, the growing difficulty. 
These efforts have been directed chiefly in two ways, one the 
establishment of fishing clubs, the other the adoption of angling 
in salt water. The fishing club of the big towns was originally 
a social institution, and its members met together to sup, con- 
verse on angling topics and perhaps to display notable fish that 
they had caught Later, however, arose the idea that it would be 
a convenience if a club could give its members privileges of fishing 
as well as privileges of reunion. So it comes about that all over 
the United Kingdom, in British colonies and dependencies, in 
the United States, and also in Germany and France, fishing clubs 
rent waters, undertake preservation and restocking and generally 
lead an active and useful existence. It is a good sign for the 
future of angling and anglers that they are rapidly increasing in 
number. One of the oldest fishing clubs, if not the oldest, was 
the Schuylkill club, founded in Pennsylvania in 1732. An 
account of its history was published in Philadelphia in 1830. 
Among the earliest clubs in London are to be numbered such 
societies as The True Waltonians, The Piscatorial, The Friendly 
Anglers and The Gresham, which are still flourishing. A certain 
amount of literary activity has been observable in the world of 
angling clubs, and several volumes of " papers " are on the 
records. Most noticeable perhaps are the three volumes of 
Anglers' Evenings published in 1880-1894, a collection of essays 
by members of the Manchester Anglers' Association. The other 
method of securing a continuance of sport, the adoption of sea- 
angling as a substitute for fresh-water fishing, is quite a modern 
thing. Within the memory of men still young the old tactics of 
hand-line and forte were considered good enough for sea fish. 
Now the fresh-water angler has lent his centuries of experience 
in deluding his quarry; the sea -angler has adopted many of the 
ideas presented to him, has modified or improved others, and has 
developed the capture of sea-fish into a science almost as subtle 
as the capture of their fresh-water cousins. One more modem 
feature, which is also a result of the increase of anglers, is the great 
advance made in fish-culture, fish-stocking and fish-acclimatiza- 
tion during the last half-century. Fish-culture is now a 
recognized industry; every trout-stream of note and value is 
restocked from time to time as a matter of course; salmon- 
hatcheries are numerous, though their practical utility is still a 
debated matter, in Great Britain at any rate; coarse fish are 
also bred for purposes of restocking; and, lastly, it is now 
considered a fairly simple matter to introduce fish from one 
country to another, and even from continent to continent In 
England the movement owes a great deal to Francis Francis, 



who, though he was not the earliest worker in the field, was 
among the first to formulate the science of fish-breeding; his 
book Fish-Culture, first published in 1863, still remains one of 
the best treatises on the subject. In the United States, where 
fishery science has had the benefit of generous governmental and 
official support and countenance and so has reached a high level 
of achievement, Dr. T. Garlick (The Artificial Reproduction oj 
Fishes, Cleveland, 1857) is honoured as a pioneer. On the 
continent of Europe the latter half of the igth century saw a very 
considerable and rapid development in fish-culture, but until 
comparatively recently the propagation and care of fish in most 
European waters have been considered almost entirely from the 
point of view of the fish-stew and the market. As to what has 
been done in the way of acclimatization it is not necessary to say 
much. Trout (Salmo fario) were introduced to New Zealand in 
the late 'sixties from England; in the 'eighties rainbow trout 
(Salmo irideus) were also introduced from California; now New 
Zealand provides the finest trout-fishing of its kind in the world. 
American trout of different kinds have been introduced into 
England, and brown trout have been introduced to America; 
but neither innovation can be said to have been an unqualified 
success, though the rainbow has established itself firmly in some 
waters of the United Kingdom. It is still regarded with some 
suspicion, as it has a tendency to wander from waters which do 
not altogether suit it. For the rest, trout have been established 
in Ceylon, in Kashmir and in South Africa, and early in 1906 an 
attempt was made to carry them to British Central Africa. In 
fact the possibilities of acclimatization are so great that, it seems 
probable, in time no river of the civilized world capable of holding 
trout will be without them. 

METHODS AND PRACTICE 

Angling now divides itself into two main divisions, fishing in 
fresh water and fishing in the sea. The two branches of the 
sport have much in common, and sea-angling is really little more 
than an adaptation of fresh-water methods to salt-water con- 
ditions. Therefore it will not be necessary to deal with it at 
great length and it naturally comes in the second place. Angling 
in fresh water is again divisible into three principal parts, fishing 
on the surface, i.e. with the fly; in mid- water, i.e. with a bait 
simulating the movements of a small fish or with the small fish 
itself; and on the bottom with worms, paste or one of the many 
other baits which experience has shown that fish will take. With 
the premise that it is not intended here to go into the minutiae 
of instruction which may more profitably be discovered in the 
many works of reference cited at the end of this article, some 
account of the subdivisions into which these three styles of fishing 
fall may be given. 

Fresh-Water Fishing. 

Fly-fishing. Fly-fishing is the most modern of them, but it 
is the most highly esteemed, principally because it is the method 
par excellence of taking members of the most valuable sporting 
family of fish, the Salmonidae. It may roughly be considered 
under three heads, the use of the " wet " or sunk fly, of the " dry " 
or floating fly, and of the natural insect. Of these the first 
is the most important, for it covers the widest field and is 
the most universally practised. There are few varieties of fish 
which may not either consistently or occasionally be taken with 
the sunk fly in one of its two forms. The large and gaudy bunch 
of feathers, silk and tinsel with which salmon, very large trout, 
black bass and occasionally other predaceous fish are taken is not, 
strictly speaking, a fly at all. It rather represents, if anything, 
some small fish or subaqueous creature on which the big fish is 
accustomed to feed and it may conveniently receive the generic 
name of salmon-fly. The smaller lures, however, which are used 
to catch smaller trout and other fish that habitually feed on 
insect food are in most cases intended to represent that food in 
one of its forms and are entitled to the name of "artificial flies." 
The dry or floating fly is simply a development of the imitation 
theory, and has been evolved from the wet fly in course of closer 
observation of the habits of flies and fish in certain waters. Both 
wet and dry fly methods are really a substitute for the third and 



ANGLING 



oldest kind of surface-fishing, the use of a natural insect u bait. 
Each method is referred to incidentally below. 

Spinning, (re. Mid-water fishing, as has been said, broadly 
consists in the use of a small fish, or something that simulates it, 
and its devices are aimed almost entirely at those fish which prey 
on their fellows. Spinning, live-baiting and trolling 1 are these 
It- vices. In the first a small dead fish or an imitation of it made 
in metal, india-rubber, or other substance, is caused to revolve 
rapidly as it is pulled through the water, so that it gives the idea 
of something in difficulties and trying to escape. In the second 
a small fish is put on the angler's hook alive and conveys the 
same idea by its own efforts. In the third a small dead fish is 
caused to dart up and down in the water without revolving; it 
conveys the same idea as the spinning fish, though the manipula- 
tion is different. 

Bottom-Fishing. Bottom-fishing is the branch of angling 
which is the most general. There is practically no fresh-water 
fish that will not take some one or more of the baits on the angler's 
list if they are properly presented to it when it is hungry. Usually 
the baited hook is on or near the bottom of the water, but the rule 
suggested by the name " bottom-fishing " is not invariable and 
often the bait is best used in mid-water; similarly, in " mid-water 
fishing " the bait must sometimes be used as close to the bottom 
as possible. Bottom-fishing is roughly divisible into two kinds, 
float-fishing, in which a bite is detected by the aid of a float 
fastened to the line above the hook and so balanced that its tip 
is visible above the water, and hand-fishing, in which no float is 
used and the angler trusts to his hand to feel the bite of a fish. In 
most cases either method can be adopted and it is a matter of 
taste, but broadly speaking the float-tackle is more suited to water 
which is not very deep and is either still or not rapid. In great 
depths or strong streams a float is difficult to manage. 

The Fish. 

It is practically impossible to classify the fish an angler 
catches according to the methods which he employs, as most 
fish can be taken by at least two of these methods, while many 
of those most highly esteemed can be caught by all three. 
Sporting fresh-water fish are therefore treated according to their 
families and merits from the angler's point of view, and it is briefly 
indicated which method or methods best succeed in pursuit of 
them. 

Salmon. First in importance come the migratory Salmonidac, 
and at the head of them the salmon (Sal mo solar), which has a 
two-fold reputation as a sporting and as a commercial asset. The 
salmon fisheries of a country are a very valuable possession, but 
it is only comparatively recently that this has been realized and 
that salmon rivers have received the legal protection which is 
necessary to their well-being. Even now it cannot be asserted 
that in England the salmon question, as it is called, is settled. 
Partly owing to our ignorance of the life-history of the fish, partly 
owing to the difficulty of reconciling the opposed interests of 
commerce and sport, the problem as to how a river should be 
treated remains only partially solved, though it cannot be denied 
that there has been a great advance in the right direction. The 
life-history of the salmon, so far as it concerns the matter in hand, 
may be very briefly summed up. It is bred in the rivers and fed 
in the sea. The parent fish ascend in late autumn as high as they 
can get, the ova are deposited on gravel shallows, hatching out in 
the course of a few weeks into parr. The infant salmon remains 
in fresh water at least one year, generally two years, without 
growing more than a few inches, and then about May assumes what 
is called the smolt-dress, that is to say, it loses the dark parr-bands 
and red spots of infancy and becomes silvery all over. After this 
it descends without delay to the sea, where it feeds to such good 
purpose that in a year it has reached a weight of 2 ib to 4 Ib or 
more, and it may then reascend as a grilse. Small grilse indeed 
may only have been in the sea a few months, ascending in the 
autumn of the year of their first descent. If the fish survives the 

1 Trolling is very commonly confused in angling writing and talk 
with trailing, which simply means drawing a spinning-bait along 
behind a boat in motion. 



perils of its first ascent and spawning season and a* a kdt or 
spawned fish gets down to the sea again, it comes up a second tine 
as a salmon of weight varying from 8 Ib upwards. Whether 
salmon come up rivers, and, if so, spawn, every year, why tome 
fish are much heavier than others of the same age, what their mode 
of life is in the sea, why some run up in spring and summer when 
the breeding season is not till about November or December, 
whether they were originally sea-fish or river-fish these and 
other similar questions await a conclusive answer. One principal 
fact, however, stands out amid the uncertainty, and that is that 
without a free passage up and down unpolluted rivers and without 
protection on the spawning beds salmon have a very poor chance 
of perpetuating their species. Economic prudence dictates 
therefore that every year a considerable proportion of running 
salmon should be allowed to escape the dangers that confront 
them in the shape of nets, obstructions, pollutions, rods and 
poachers. And it is in the adjustment of the interests which are 
bound up in these dangers (the last ezcepted; officially poachers 
have no interests, though in practice their plea of " custom and 
right " has too often to be taken into consideration) that the 
salmon question consists. To secure a fair proportion of fish for 
the market, a fair proportion for the rods and a fair proportion 
for the redds, without unduly damaging manufacturing interests, 
this is the object of those who have the question at heart, and 
with many organizations and scientific observers at work it should 
not be long before the object is attained. Already the system of 
" marking " kelts with a small silver label has resulted in a con- 
siderable array of valuable statistics which have made it possible 
to estimate the salmon's ordinary rate of growth from year to 
year. It is very largely due to the efforts of anglers that the 
matter has gone so far. Whether salmon feed in fresh water is 
another question of peculiar interest to anglers, for it would seem 
that if they do not then the whole practice of taking them must 
be an anomaly. Champions have arisen on both sides of the argu- 
ment, some, scientists, asserting that salmon (parr and kelts 
excluded, for both feed greedily as opportunity occurs) do not 
feed, others, mostly anglers, maintaining strongly that they do, 
and bringing as evidence their undoubted and customary capture 
by rod and line, not only with the fly, but also with such obvious 
food-stuffs as dead baits, worms and prawns. On the other side 
it is argued that food is never found inside a salmon after it has 
been long enough in a river to have digested its last meal taken in 
salt water. The very few instances of food found in salmon which 
have been brought forward to support the contrary opinion are 
in the scientific view to be regarded with great caution; certainly 
in one case of recent years, which at first appeared to be well 
authenticated, it was afterwards found that a small trout had been 
pushed down a salmon's throat after capture by way of a joke. 
A consideration of the question, however, which may perhaps 
make some appeal to both sides, is put forward by Dr J. Kingston 
Barton in the first of the two volumes on Fishing (Country Lift 
Series). He maintains that salmon do not habitually feed in 
fresh water, but he does not reject the possibility of their occasion- 
ally taking food. His view is that after exertion, such as that 
entailed by running from pool to pool during a spate, the fish may 
feel a very transient hunger and be impelled thereby to snap at 
anything in its vicinity which looks edible. The fact that the 
angler's best opportunity is undoubtedly when salmon have newly 
arrived into a pool, supports this contention. The longer they 
are compelled to remain in the same spot by lack of water the 
worse becomes the prospect of catching them, and " unfishable " 
is one of the expressive words which fishermen use to indicate the 
condition of a river during the long periods of drought which too 
often distinguish the sport. 

Salmon Tackle and Methods. It is when the drought breaks up 
and the long-awaited rain has come that the angler has his chance 
and makes ready his tackle, against the period of a few days (on 
some short streams only a few hours) during which the water 
will be right; right is a very exact term on some rivers, meaning 
not only that the colour of the water is suitable to the fly, but 
that its height shall be within an inch or two of a given mark, 
prescribed by experience. As to the tackle which is made ready, 



26 



ANGLING 



there is, as in most angling matters, divergence of opinion. 
Salmon fly-rods are now made principally of two materials, 
greenheart and split-cane; the former is less expensive, the 
latter is more durable; it is entirely a matter of taste which a 
man uses, but the split-cane rod is now rather more in favour, 
and for salmon-fishing it is in England usually built with a 
core of steel running from butt to tip and known as a " steel 
centre." How long the rod shall be is also a matter on which 
anglers differ, but from 16 ft. to 17 ft 6 in. represents the limits 
within which most rods are preferred. The tendency is to 
reduce rather than to increase the length of the rod, which may 
be accounted for by the adoption of a heavy line. Early in the 
ipth century anglers used light-topped rods of 20 ft. and even 
more, and with them a light line composed partly of horse-hair; 
they thought 60 ft. with such material a good cast. Modern 
experience, however, has shown that a shorter rod with a heavier 
top will throw a heavy dressed silk line much farther with less 
exertion. Ninety feet is now considered a good fishing cast, 
while many men can throw a great deal more. In the United 
States, where rods have long been used much lighter than in 
England, the limits suggested would be considered too high. 
From 12 ft. 6 in. to 15 ft, 6 in. is about the range of the American 
angler's choice, though long rods are not unknown with him. 
The infinite variety of reels, lines, gut collars 1 and other forms of 
tackle which is now presented to the angler's consideration and 
for his bewilderment is too wide a subject to be touched upon 
here. Something, however, falls to be said about flies. One of 
the perennially fruitful topics of inquiry is what the fish takes a 
salmon-fly to be. Beyond a fairly general admission that it is 
regarded as something endowed with life, perhaps resembling 
a remembered article of marine diet, perhaps inviting gastro- 
nomic experiment, perhaps irritating merely and rousing an 
impulse to destroy, the discussion has not reached any definite 
conclusion. But more or less connected with it is the controversy 
as to variety of colour and pattern. Some authorities hold that 
a great variety of patterns with very minute differences in colour 
and shades of colour is essential to complete success; others 
contend that salmon do not differentiate between nice shades of 
colour, that they only draw distinctions between flies broadly 
as being light, medium or dark in general appearance, and that 
the size of a fly rather than its colour is the important point for 
the angler's consideration. Others again go some way with the 
supporters of the colour-scheme and admit the efficacy of flies 
whose general character is red, or yellow, or black, and so on. 
The opinion of the majority, however, is probably based on past 
experience, and a man's favourite flies for different rivers and 
condition of water are those with which he or someone else has 
previously succeeded. It remains a fact that in most fly-books 
great variety of patterns will be discoverable, while certain old 
standard favourites such as the Jock Scott, Durham Ranger, 
Silver Doctor, and Thunder and Lightning will be prominent. 
Coming out of the region of controversy it is a safe generalization 
to say that the general rule is: big flies for spring fishing when 
rivers are probably high, small flies for summer and low water, 
and flies medium or small in autumn according to the conditions. 
Spring fishing is considered the cream of the sport. Though 
salmon are not as a rule so numerous or so heavy as during the 

1 The precise date when silkworm gut (now so important a feature 
of the angler's equipment) was introduced is obscure. Pepys, in his 
Diary (1667), mentions " a gut string varnished over " which " is 
beyond any hair for strength and smallness " as a new angling secret 
which he likes " mightily. In the third edition (1700) of Chetham's 
Vade-tfecum, already cited, appears an advertisement of the " East 
India weed, which is the only thing for trout, carp and bottom- 
fishing." Again, in the third edition of Nobbes's Art of Trolling 
(1805), in the supplementary matter, appears a letter signed by 
J. Eaton and G. Gimber, tackle-makers of Crooked Lane (July 
20, 1801), in which it is stated that gut " is produced from the 
silkworm and not an Indian weed, as has hitherto been conjec- 
tured. . . ." The word " gut " is employed before this date, but it 
seems obvious that silkworm gut was for a long time used under the 
impression that it was a weed, and that its introduction was a thing 
of the I7th century. It is probable, however, that vegetable fibre 
was used too; we believe that in some parts of India it is used by 
natives to this day. Pepys' " minikin ' was probably cat-gut. 



autumn run, and though kelts are often a nuisance in the early 
months, yet the clean-run fish of February, March or April 
amply repays patience and disappointment by its fighting powers 
and its beauty. Summer fishing on most rivers in the British 
Islands is uncertain, but in Norway summer is the season, 
which possibly explains to some extent the popularity of that 
country with British anglers, for the pleasure of a sport is largely 
increased by good weather. 

Two methods of using the fly are in vogue, casting and harling. 
The first is by far the more artistic, and it may be practised 
either from a boat, from the bank or from the bed of the river 
itself; in the last case the angler wades, wearing waterproof 
trousers or wading-stockings and stout nail-studded brogues. 
In either case the fishing is similar. The fly is cast across and 
down stream, and has to be brought over the " lie " of the fish, 
swimming naturally with its head to the stream, its feathers 
working with tempting movement and its whole appearance 
suggesting some live thing dropping gradually down and across 
stream. Most anglers add to the motion of the fly by "working " 
it with short pulls from the rod-top. When a fish takes, the rise 
is sometimes seen, sometimes not; in any case the angler should 
not respond with the rod until he feels the pull. Then he should 
tighten, not strike. The fatal word " strike," with its too literal 
interpretation, has caused many a breakage. Having hooked 
his fish, the angler must be guided by circumstances as to what 
he does; the salmon will usually decide that for him. But it is 
a sound rule to give a well-hooked fish no unnecessary advantage 
and to hold on as hard as the tackle will allow. Good tackle will 
stand an immense strain, and with this " a minute a pound " is a 
fair estimate of the time in which a fish should be landed. A 
foul-hooked salmon (no uncommon thing, for a fish not infre- 
quently misses the fly and gets hooked somewhere in the body) 
takes much longer to land. The other method of using the fly, 
harling, which is practised on a few big rivers, consists in trailing 
the fly behind a boat rowed backward and forwards across the 
stream and dropping gradually downwards. Fly-fishing for 
salmon is also practised on some lakes, into which the fish run. 
On lakes the boat drifts slowly along a " beat," while the angler 
casts diagonally over the spots where salmon are wont to lie. 
Salmon may also be caught by " mid-water fishing," with a 
natural bait either spun or trolled and with artificial spinning- 
baits of different kinds, and by " bottom-fishing " with prawns, 
shrimps and worms. Spinning is usually practised when the 
water is too high or too coloured for the fly; trolling is seldom 
employed, but is useful for exploring pools which cannot be 
fished by spinning or with the fly; the prawn is a valuable lure 
in low water and when fish are unwilling to rise; while the worm 
is killing at all states of the river, but except as a last resource 
is not much in favour. There are a few waters where salmon 
have the reputation of not taking a fly at all; in them spinning 
or prawning are the usual modes of fishing. But most anglers, 
wherever possible, prefer to use the fly. The rod for the alter- 
native methods is generally shorter and stiff er than the fly-rod, 
though made of like material. Twelve to fourteen feet represents 
about the range of choice. Outside the British Islands the 
salmon-fisher finds the headquarters of his sport in Europe in 
Scandinavia and Iceland, and in the New World in some of the 
waters of Canada and Newfoundland. 

Land-locked Salmon. The land-locked salmon (Salmo salar 
sebago) of Canada and the lakes of Maine is, as its name implies, 
now regarded by scientists as merely a land-locked form of the 
salmon. It does not often attain a greater size than 20 Ib, 
but it is a fine fighter and is highly esteemed by American 
anglers. In most waters it does not take a fly so well as a spinning- 
bait, live-bait or worm. The methods of angling for it do not 
differ materially from those employed for other Salmonidae. 

Pacific Salmon. Closely allied to Salmo salar both in appear- 
ance and habits is the genus Oncorhynchus, commonly known 
as Pacific salmon. It contains six species, is peculiar to the North 
Pacific Ocean, and is of some importance to the angler, though 
of not nearly so much as the Atlantic salmon. The quinnat is 
the largest member of the genus, closely resembles salar in 



ANGLING 



appearance and surpasses him in size. The others, sockeye, 
humpback, cohoc, doc-salmon and masu, are smaller and of leu 
Mill-rest to the angler, though some of them have great commercial 
value. The last-named is only found in the waters of Japan, but 
(In- rest occur in greater or less quantities in the rivers of Kam- 
chatka, Alaska, British Columbia and Oregon. The problems 
presented to science by solar are offered by Oncorhynchus also, 
but there are variations in his life-history, such as the fact that 
few if any fish of the genus are supposed to survive their first 
spawning season. When once in the rivers none of these salmon 
is of very much use to the angler; as, though it is stated that 
they will occasionally take a fly or spoon in fresh water, they are 
not nearly so responsive as their Atlantic cousin and in many 
streams are undoubtedly not worth trying for. At the mouths of 
some rivers, however, where the water is distinctly tidal, and 
in certain bays of the sea itself they give very fine sport, the 
method of fishing for them being usually to trail a heavy spoon- 
bait behind a boat. By this means remarkable bags of fish have 
been made by anglers. The sport is of quite recent development. 
Sea-Trout. Next to the salmon comes the sea-trout, the other 
migratory salmonid of Europe. This is a fish with many local 
names and a good deal of local variation. Modern science, how- 
ever, recognises two " races " only, Salmo trutta, the sea-trout 
proper, and Salmo cambricus or eriox, the bull-trout, or sewin 
of Wales, which is most prominent in such rivers as the Coquet 
and Tweed. The life-history of sea-trout is much the same as 
that of salmon, and the fish on their first return from the sea in 
the grilse-stage are called by many names, linnock, herling and 
whitling being perhaps the best known. Of the two races 
Salmo truliii alone is of much use to the fly-fisher. The bull-trout, 
for some obscure reason, is not at all responsive to his efforts, 
except in its kelt stage. Then it will take greedily enough, but 
that is small consolation. The bull-trout is a strong fish and 
grows to a great size and it is a pity that it is not of greater 
sporting value, if only to make up for its bad reputation as an 
article of food. Some amends, however, are made by its cousin 
the sea-trout, which is one of the gamest and daintiest fish on 
the angler's list. It is found in most salmon rivers and also 
in not a few streams which are too small to harbour the bigger 
fish, while there are many lakes in Scotland and Ireland (where 
the fish is usually known as white trout) where the fishing is 
superb when the trout have run up into them. Fly-fishing for 
sea-trout is not a thing apart. A three-pounder that will impale 
itself on a big salmon-fly, might equally well have taken a tiny 
trout-fly. Many anglers, when fishing a sea-trout river where 
they run large, 5 Ib or more, and where there is also a chance of a 
salmon, effect a compromise by using a light 13 ft. or 14 ft. 
double-handed rod, and tackle not so slender as to make hooking 
a salmon a certain disaster. But undoubtedly to get the full 
pleasure out of sea-trout-fishing a single-handed rod of 10 ft. to 
12 ft. with reasonably fine gut and small flies should be used, and 
the way of using it is much the same as in wet-fly fishing for 
brown trout, which will be treated later. When the double- 
handed rod and small salmon-flies arc used, the fishing is practically 
the same as salmon-fishing except that it is on a somewhat 
smaller scale. Flies for sea-trout are numberless and local 
patterns abound, as may be expected with a fish which has so 
catholic a taste. But, as with salmon-fishers so with sca-trout- 
fishers, experience forms belief and success governs selection. 
Among the small salmon-flies and loch-flies which will fill his 
book, the angler will do well to have a store of very small trout- 
flies at hand, while experience has shown that even the dry fly 
will kill sea-trout on occasion, a thing that is worth remembering 
where rivers are low and fish shy. July, August and September 
are in general the best months for sea-trout, and as they are dry 
months the angler often has to put up with indifferent sport. The 
fish will, however, rise in tidal water and in a few localities even 
in the sea itself, or in salt-water lochs into which streams run. 
Sea-trout have an irritating knack of " coming short," that is to 
say, they will pluck at the fly without really taking it. There are 
occasions, on the other hand, in loch-fishing where plenty of 
time must be given to the fish without tightening on it, especially 



if it happens to be a big one. Like salmon, tea-trout arc to be 
caught with spinning-baits and also with the worm. The main 
controversy that is concerned with tea-trout is whether or no 
the fish captured in early spring are clean fish or well-mended 
kelts. On the whole, as tea-trout seldom run before May, the 
majority of opinion inclines to their being kelt*. 

ff on-migratory Salmonidat. Of the non-migratory members 
of the Salmonidae the most impotant in Great Britain is the 
brown trout (Salmo fario). Its American cousin the rainbow 
trout (5. irideut) is now fairly well established in the country 
too, while other transatlantic specie* both of trout and char 
(which are some of them partially migratory, that is to say, 
migratory when occasion offers), such as the steelhead (5. rfr- 
laris), fontinalis (S. fontinalis) and the cut-throat trout (5. 
clarkii), are at least not unknown. All these fish, together with 
their allied forms in America, can be captured with the fly, and, 
speaking broadly, the wet-fly method will do well for them all. 
Therefore it is only necessary to deal with the methods applicable 
to one species, the brown trout. 

Trout. Of the game-fishes the brown trout is the most popular, 
for it is spread over the whole of Great Britain and most of 
Europe, wherever there are waters suited to it. It is a fine 
sporting fish and is excellent for the table, while in some streams 
and lakes it grows to a very considerable size, examples of 16 Ib 
from southern rivers and 20 Ib from Irish and Scottish lakes 
being not unknown. One of the signs of its popularity is that its 
habits and history have produced some very animated con- 
troversies. Some of the earliest discussions were provoked 
by the liability of the fish to change its appearance in different 
surroundings and conditions, and so at one time many a district 
claimed its local trout as a separate species. Now, however, 
science admits but one species, though, to such well-defined 
varieties as the Loch Leven trout, the estuarine trout and the 
gillaroo, it concedes the right to separate names and " races." 
In effect all, from the great ferox of the big lakes of Scotland 
and Ireland to the little fingerling of the Devonshire brook, are 
one and the same Salmo fario. 

Wet-Fly Fishing for Trout. Fly-fishing for trout is divided into 
three kinds: fishing with the artificial fly sunk or " wet," fishing 
with it floating or " dry " and fishing with the natural insect. 
Of the two first methods the wet fly is the older and may be taken 
first. Time was when all good anglers cast their flies down- 
stream and thought no harm. But in 1857 W. C. Stewart pub- 
lished his Practical Angler, in which he taught that it paid better 
to fish up-stream, for by so doing the angler was not only less 
likely to be seen by the trout but was more likely to hook his fish. 
The doctrine was much discussed and criticized, but it gradually 
won adherents, until now up-stream fishing is the orthodox 
method where it is possible. Stewart was also one of the first to 
advocate a lighter rod in place of the heavy 12 ft. and 13 ft. 
weapons that were used in the North in his time. There are 
still many men who use the long rod for wet-fly fishing in streams, 
but there are now more who find 10 ft. quite enough for their 
purpose. For lake-fishing from a boat, however, the longer rod 
is still in many cases preferred. In fishing rivers the main art 
is to place the right flies in the right places and to let them come 
naturally down with the stream. The right flies may be ascer- 
tained to some extent from books and from local wisdom, but 
the right places can only be learnt by experience. It does not, 
however, take long to acquire " an eye for water " and that is 
half the battle, for the haunts of trout in rapid rivers are very 
much alike. In lake-fishing chance has a greater share in bring- 
ing about success, but here too the right fly and the right place 
are important; the actual management of rod, line and flies, of 
course, is easier, for there is no stream to be reckoned with. 
Though there is little left to be said about wet-fly fishing where 
the fly is an imitation more or less exact of a natural insect, 
there is another branch of the art which has been stimulated by 
modern developments. This is the use of salmon-flies for big 
trout much in the same way as for salmon. In such rivers as the 
Thames, where the trout are cannibals and run very large, 
ordinary trout-flies are of little use, and the fly-fisher's only 



ANGLING 



chance is to use a big fly and " work " it, casting across and 
down stream. The big fly has also been found serviceable with 
the great fish of New Zealand and with the inhabitants of such 
a piece of water as Blagdon Lake near Bristol, where the trout 
run very large. For this kind of fishing much stronger tackle 
and a heavier rod are required than for catching fish that seldom 
exceed the pound. 

Dry Fly. Fishing with the floating fly is a device of southern 
origin, and the idea no doubt arose from the facts that on the 
placid south-country streams the natural fly floats on the surface 
and that the trout are accustomed to feed on it there. The 
controversy " dry versus wet " was long and spirited, but the 
new idea won the day and now not only on the chalk-streams, 
but on such stretches of even Highland rivers as are suitable, the 
dry-fly man may be seen testing his theories. These theories 
>are simple and consist in placing before the fish an exact imitation 
of the insect on which it is feeding, in such a way that it shall 
float down exactly as if it were an insect of the same kind. To 
this end special tackle and special methods have been found 
necessary. Not only the fly but also the line has to float on the 
water; the line is very heavy and therefore the rod (split-cane 
or greenheart) must be stiff and powerful; special precautions 
have to be taken that the fly shall float unhindered and shall not 
" drag "; special casts have to be made to counteract awkward 
winds; and, lastly, the matching of the fly with the insect on the 
water is a matter of much nicety, for the water-flies are of many 
shades and colours. Many brains have busied themselves with 
the solution of these problems with such success that dry-fly 
fishing is now a finished art. The entomology of the dry-fly 
stream has been studied very deeply by Mr F. M. Halford, the 
late G. S. Marryat and others, and improvements both in flies 
and tackle have been very great. Quite lately, however, there 
has been a movement in favour of light rods for dry-fly fishing 
as well as wet-fly fishing. The English split-cane rod for dry-fly 
work weighs about an ounce to the foot, rather more or rather 
less. The American rod of similar action and material weighs 
much less approximately 6 oz. to 10 ft. The light rod, it is 
urged, is much less tiring and is quite powerful enough for ordinary 
purposes. Against it is claimed that dry-fly fishing is not 
"ordinary purposes," that chalk-stream weeds are too strong 
and chalk-stream winds too wild for the light rod to be efficient 
against them. However, the light rod is growing in popular 
favour; British manufacturers are building rods after the 
American style; and anglers are taking to them more and more. 
The dry-fly method is now practised by many fishermen both in 
Germany and France, but it has scarcely found a footing as yet 
in the United States or Canada. 

Fishing with the Natural Fly. The natural fly is a very killing 
bait for trout, but its use is not wide-spread except in Ireland. 
In Ireland " dapping " with the green drake or the daddy- 
longlegs is practised from boats on most of the big loughs. A 
light whole-cane rod of stiff build, about 16 ft. in length, is 
required with a floss-silk line light enough to be carried out on 
the breeze; the " dap " (generally two mayflies or daddy-long- 
legs on a small stout-wired hook) is carried out by the breeze and 
just allowed to touch the water. When a trout rises it is well to 
count " ten " before striking. Very heavy trout are caught in 
this manner during the mayfly season. In the North " creeper- 
fishing " is akin to this method, but the creeper is the larva of 
the stone-fly, not a fly itself, and it is cast more like an ordinary 
fly and allowed to sink. Sometimes, however, the mature insect 
is used with equally good results. A few anglers still practise 
the old style of dapping or " dibbling " after the manner advised 
by Izaak Walton. It is a deadly way of fishing small overgrown 
brooks. A stiff rod and strong gut are necessary, and a grass- 
hopper or almost any large fly will serve for bait. 

Other Methods. The other methods of taking trout principally 
employed are spinning, live-baiting and worming. For big river 
trout such as those of the Thames a gudgeon or bleak makes the 
best spinning or live bait, for great lake trout (ferox) a small fish 
of their own species and for smaller trout a minnow. There are 
numberless artificial spinning-baits which kill well at times, the 



Devon being perhaps the favourite. The use of the drop-minnow, 
which is trolling on a lesser scale, is a killing method employed 
more in the north of England than elsewhere. The worm is 
mostly deadly in thick water, so deadly that it is looked on 
askance. But there is a highly artistic mode of fishing known as 
" clear-water worming." This is most successful when rivers are 
low and weather hot, and it needs an expert angler to succeed in 
it. The worm has to be cast up-stream rather like a fly, and the 
method is little inferior to fly-fishing in delicacy and difficulty. 
The other baits for trout, or rather the other baits which they 
will take sometimes, are legion. Wasp-grubs, maggots, cater- 
pillars, small frogs, bread there is very little the fish will not 
take. But except in rural districts little effort is made to catch 
trout by means less orthodox than the fly, minnow and worm, 
and the tendency nowadays both in England and America is to 
restrict anglers where possible to the use of the artificial fly only. 

Grayling. The only other member of the salmon family in 
England which gives much sport to the fly-fisher is the grayling, 
a fish which possesses the recommendation of rising well in winter. 
It can be caught with either wet or dry fly, and with the same 
tackle as trout, which generally inhabit the same stream. Gray- 
ling will take most small trout-flies, but there are many patterns 
of fly tied specially for them, most of them founded on the red 
tag or the green insect. Worms and maggots are also largely 
used in some waters for grayling, and there is a curious con- 
trivance known as the " grasshopper," which is a sort of com- 
promise between the fly and bait. It consists of a leaded hook 
round the shank of which is twisted bright-coloured wool. The 
point is tipped with maggots, and the lure, half artificial, half 
natural, is dropped into deep holes and worked up and down in 
the water. In some places the method is very killing. The 
grayling has been very prominent of late years owing to the 
controversy " grayling versus trout." Many people hold that 
grayling injure a trout stream by devouring trout-ova and trout- 
food, by increasing too rapidly and in other ways. Beyond, 
however, proving the self-evident fact that a stream can only 
support a given amount of fish-life, the grayling's opponents do 
not seem to have made out a very good case, for no real evidence 
of its injuring trout has been adduced. 

Char. The chars (Salvelinus) are a numerous family widely 
distributed over the world, but in Great Britain are not very 
important to the angler. One well-defined species (Salvelinus 
alpinus) is found in some lakes of Wales and Scotland, but 
principally in Westmorland and Cumberland. It sometimes 
takes a small fly but is more often caught with small artificial 
spinning-baits. The fish seldom exceeds iflb in Great Britain, 
though in Scandinavia it is caught up to 5 ft or more. There are 
some important chars in America, fontinalis being one of the most 
esteemed. Some members of the genus occasionally attain a size 
scarcely excelled by the salmon. Among them are the Great Lake 
trout of America, Cristivomer namaycush, and the Danubian 
" salmon " or huchen, Salmo hucho. Both of these fish are caught 
principally with spinning-baits, but both will on occasion take a 
salmon-fly, though not with any freedom after they have reached 
a certain size. An attempt has been made to introduce huchen 
into the Thames but at the time of writing the result cannot yet 
be estimated. 

Pike. The pike (Esox Indus), which after the Salmonidae is 
the most valued sporting fish in Great Britain, is a fish of prey 
pure and simple. Though it will occasionally take a large fly, a 
worm or other ground-bait, its systematic capture is only essayed 
with small fish or artificial spinning-baits. A live bait is supposed 
to be the most deadly lure for big pike, probably because it is the 
method employed by most anglers. But spinning is more artistic 
and has been found quite successful enough by those who give it a 
fair and full trial. Trolling, the method of " sink and draw " with 
a dead bait, referred to previously in this article, is not much 
practised nowadays, though at one time it was very popular. It 
was given up because the traditional form of trolling-tackle was 
such that the bait had to be swallowed by the pike before the hook 
would take hold, and that necessitated killing all fish caught, 
whether large or small. The same objection formerly applied to 



ANGLING 



29 



live-baiting with what was known as a gorge-hook. Now, how - 
rvt-r, what is called snap-tackle is almost invariably used in 
live hailing, and the system is by some few anglers extended to 
the other method too. Pike are autumn and winter fish and are 
at their best in December. They grow to a very considerable size, 
fish of 30 th being regarded as " specimens " and an occasional 
thirty-pounder rewarding the zealous and fortunate. The 
heaviest pike caught with a rod in recent years which is sufficiently 
authenticated, weighed 37 tt>, but heavier specimens are said to 
have been taken in Irish lakes. River pike up to about loth in 
weight are excellent eating. 

America has several species of pike, of which the muskelunge 
of the great lake region (Ksox masquinongy) is the most important. 
It is a very fine fish, excelling Esox lucius both in size and looks. 
From the angler's point of view it may be considered simply as a 
large pike and may be caught by similar methods. It occasion- 
ally reaches the weight of 80 Ib or perhaps more. The pickerel 
(Esox reticulattu) is the only other of the American pikes which 
gives any sport. It reaches a respectable size, but is as inferior to 
the pike as the pike is to the muskelunge. 

Perch. Next to the pikes come the perches, also predatory 
fishes. The European perch (Perca flwiattiis) has a place by 
itself in the affections of anglers. When young it is easy to catch 
by almost any method of fishing, and a large number of Walton's 
disciples have been initiated into the art with its help. Worms 
and small live-baits are the principal lures, but at times the fish 
will take small bright artificial spinning-baits well, and odd attrac- 
tions such as boiled shrimps, caddis-grubs, small frogs, maggots, 
wasp-grubs, &c. are sometimes successful. The drop-minnow is 
one of the best methods of taking perch. Very occasionally, and 
principally in shallow pools, the fish will take an artificial fly 
greedily, a small salmon-fly being the best thing to use in such a 
case. A perch of 2 Ib is a good fish, and a specimen of 4} Ib 
about the limit of angling expectation. There have been rare 
instances of perch over 5 Ib, and there are legends of eight- 
pounders, which, however, need authentication. 

Black Bass. The yellow perch of America (Perca flavescens) is 
very much like its European cousin in appearance and habits, but 
it is not so highly esteemed by American anglers, because they 
are fortunate in being possessed of a better fish in the black bass, 
another member of the perch family. There are two kinds of black 
bass (Micropterus salmoides and Micropterus dolomieu), the large- 
mouthed and the small-mouthed. The first is more a lake and 
pond fish than the second, and they are seldom found in the same 
waters. As the black bass is a fly-taking fish and a strong fighter, 
it is as valuable to the angler as a trout and is highly esteemed. 
Bass-flies are sui generis, but incline more to the nature of salmon- 
flies than trout-flies. An artificial frog cast with a fly-rod or very 
light spinning-rod is also a favourite lure. For the rest the fish 
will take almost anything in the nature of worms or small fish, 
like its cousin the perch. A 4 Ib bass is a good fish, but five- 
pounders are not uncommon. Black bass have to some extent 
been acclimatized in France. 

The ru/e or pope (Acerina vulgaris) is a little fish common in the 
Thames and many other slow-flowing English rivers. It is very 
like the perch in shape but lacks the dusky bars which distinguish 
the other, and is spotted with dark brown spots on a golden olive 
background. It is not of much use to the angler as it seldom 
exceeds 3 oz. in weight. It takes small worms, maggots and 
similar baits greedily, and is often a nuisance when the angler is 
expecting better fish. Allied to the perches is the pike-perch, of 
which two species are of some importance to the angler, one the 
wall-eye of eastern America (Stizostedion vitreunt) and the other 
the zander of Central Europe (Sandrus lucioperca). The last 
especially is a fine fighter, occasionally reaching a weight of 20 Ib. 
It is usually caught by spinning, but will take live-baits, worms 
and other things of that nature. The Danube may be described 
as its headquarters. It is a fish whose sporting importance will be 
more realized as anglers on the continent become more numerous. 

Cyprinidae. The carp family (Cyprinidae) is a large one and 
its members constitute the majority of English sporting fishes. 
In America the various kinds of chub, sucker, dace, shiner, &c. 



are little esteemed and are regarded as spoils for the youthful 
angler only, or as bait* for the better fish in which the coo tinea t it 
so rkh. In England, however, the Cyprinidae have an honoured 
place in the affection* of all who angle "-at the bottom," while in 
Europe some of them have a commercial value a* food-fishe*. In 
India at least one member of the family, the mahsecr, take* rank 
with the salmon as a " big game " fi*h. 

Carp, Tench, Barbel, Bream. The family as represented in 
England may be roughly divided into two groups, those which 
feed on the bottom purely and those which occasionally take flic*. 
The first consists of carp, tench, barbel and bream. Of these 
carp, tench and bream are either river or pool fi*b, while the 
barbel is found only in rivers, principally in the Thames and 
Trent. The carp grows to a great size, 20 Ib being not unknown; 
tench are big at 5 Ib; barbel have been caught up to 14 Ib or 
rather more; and bream occasionally reach 8 Ib, while fish of 
over ii lh is on record. All these fish are capricious feeders, 
carp and barbel being particularly undependable. In some 
waters it seems to be impossible to catch the large specimens, and 
the angler who seeks to gain trophies in either branch of the sport 
needs both patience and perseverance. Tench and bream are not 
quite so difficult. The one fish can sometimes be caught in great 
quantities, and the other is generally to be enticed by the man 
who knows how to set about it. Two main principles have to be 
observed in attacking all these fish, ground-baiting and early 
rising. Ground-baiting consists in casting food into the water so 
as to attract the fish to a certain spot and to induce them to feed. 
Without it very little can be done with shy and large fish of these 
species. Early rising is necessary because they only feed freely. 
as a rule, from daybreak till about three hours after sun-rise. The 
heat of a summer or early autumn day makes them sluggish, but 
an hour or two in the evening is sometimes remunerative. The 
bait for them all should usually lie on the bottom, and it consists 
mainly of worms, wasp and other grubs, pastes of various kinds; 
and for carp, and sometimes bream, of vegetable baits such as 
small boiled potatoes, beans, peas, stewed wheat, pieces of 
banana, &c. None of these fish feed well in winter. 

Roach, Rudd, Dace, Chub. The next group of Cyfrmidae 
consists of fish which will take a bait similar to those already 
mentioned and also a fly. The sizes which limit the ordinary 
angler's aspirations are roach about 2 Ib, rudd about 2} Ib, 
dace about i Ib and chub about 5 Ib. There are instances 
of individuals heavier than this, one or two roach and many 
rudd of over 3 Ib being on record, while dace have been 
caught up to i R> 6 oz., and chub of over 7 Ib are not 
unknown. Roach only take a fly as a rule in very hot weather 
when they are near the surface, or early in the season when they 
are on the shallows; the others will take it freely all through the 
summer. Ordinary trout flies do well enough for all four specks. 
but chub often prefer something larger, and big bushy lures called 
" palmers," which represent caterpillars, are generally used for 
them. The fly may be used either wet or dry for all these fish, am! 
there is little to choose between the methods as regards effective- 
ness. Fly-fishing for these fish is a branch of angling which migh t 
be more practised than it is, as the sport is a very fair substitute 
for trout fishing. Roach, chub and dace feed on bottom food and 
give good sport all the winter. 

Gudgeon, Bleak, Minnow, ffc The small fry of European 
waters, gudgeon, bleak, minnow, loach, stickleback and bullhead, 
are principally of value as bait for other fish, though the first- 
named species gives pretty sport on fine tackle and makes a 
succulent dish. Small red worms are the best bait for gudgeon 
and minnows, a maggot or small fly for bleak, and the rest are 
most easily caught in a small-meshed net. The loach is used 
principally in Ireland as a trout bait, and the other two are of 
small account as hook-baits, though sticklebacks are a valuable 
form of food for trout in lakes and pools. 

M ikseer. Among the carps of India, several of which give 
good sport, special mention must be made of the mahseer 
(Bar bus moid}, a fish which rivals the salmon both in size and 
strength. It reaches a weight of 60 Ib and sometimes more 
and is fished for in much the same manner as salmon, with the 



ANGLING 



difference that after about 10 Ib it takes a spinning-bait, usually 
a heavy spoon-bait, better than a fly. 

Cat-fish. None of the fresh-water cat-fishes (of which no 
example is found in England) are what may be called sporting 
fish, but several may be caught with rod and line. There are 
several kinds in North America, and some of them are as heavy 
as 150 Ib, but the most important is the wels (Silurus glanis) 
of the Danube and neighbouring waters. This is the largest 
European fresh-water fish, and it is credited with a weight of 
300 Ib or more. It is a bottom feeder and will take a fish-bait 
either alive or dead; it is said occasionally to run at a spinning 
bait when used very deep. 

Burbot. The burbot (Lota vulgaris) is the only fresh-water 
member of the cod family in Great Britain, and it is found only 
in a few slow-flowing rivers such as the Trent, and there not often, 
probably because it is a fish of sluggish habits which feeds only 
at night. It reaches a weight of 3 Ib or more, and will take most 
flesh or fish baits on the bottom. The burbot of America has 
similar characteristics. 

Sturgeon. The" sturgeons, of which there are a good many 
species in Europe and America, are of no use to the angler. They 
are anadromous fishes of which little more can be said than that 
a specimen might take a bottom bait once in a way. In Russia 
they are sometimes caught on long lines armed with baited hooks, 
and occasionally an angler hooks one. Such a case was reported 
from California in The Field of the igth of August 1905. 

Shad. Two other anadromous fish deserve notice. The first 
is the shad, a herring-like fish of which two species, allicc and 
twaite (Clupea alosa and C. finta), ascend one or two British 
and several continental rivers in the spring. The twaite is the 
more common, and in the Severn, Wye and Teme it sometimes 
gives very fair sport to anglers, taking worm and occasionally 
fly or small spinning bait. It is a good fighter, and reaches a 
weight of about 3 Ib. Its sheen when first caught is particularly 
beautiful. America also has its shads. 

Flounder. The other is the flounder (Pleurontctcs flesus), the 
only flat-fish which ascends British rivers. It is common a long 
way up such rivers as the Severn, far above tidal influence, and 
it will take almost any flesh-bait used on the bottom. A flounder 
of i Ib is, in a river, a large one, but heavier examples are some- 
times caught. 

Eel. The eel (Anguilla vulgaris) is regarded by the angler 
more as a nuisance than a sporting fish, but when of considerable 
size (and it often reaches a weight of 8 Ibor more) it is a splendid 
fighter and stronger than almost any fish that swims. Its life 
history has long been disputed, but it is now accepted that it 
breeds in the sea and ascends rivers in its youth. It is found 
practically everywhere, and its occurrence in isolated ponds to 
which it has never been introduced by human agency has given 
rise to a theory that it travels overland as well as by water. The 
best baits for eels are worms and small fish, and the best time 
to use them is at night or in thundery or very wet weather. 

Sea Angling. 

Sea angling is attended by almost as many refinements of 
tackle and method as fresh-water angling. The chief differences 
are differences of locality and the habits of the fish. To a certain 
extent sea angling may also be divided into three classes fishing 
on the surface with the fly, at mid-water with spinning or other 
bait, and on the bottom; but the first method is only practicable 
at certain times and in certain places, and the others, from the 
great depths that often have to be sounded and the heavy 
weights that have to be used in searching them, necessitate 
shorter and stouter rods, larger reels and stronger tackle than 
fresh-water anglers employ. Also, of course, the sea-fisherman 
is liable to come into conflict with very large fish occasionally. 
In British waters the monster usually takes the form of a skate 
or halibut. A specimen of the former weighing 194 Ib has been 
landed off the Irish coast with rod and line in recent years. In 
American waters there is a much greater opportunity of catching 
fish of this calibre. 

Great Came Fishes. There are several giants of the sea which 



are regularly pursued by American anglers, chief among them 
being the tarpon (Tarpon allanticus) and the tuna or tunny 
(Thunnus thynnus), which have been taken on rod and line 
up to 223 ft and 251 Ib respectively. Jew-fish and black 
sea-bass of over 400 Ib have been taken on rod and line, and 
there are many other fine sporting fish of large size which give 
the angler exciting hours on the reefs of Florida, or the coasts 
of California, Texas or Mexico. Practically all of them are taken 
with a fish-bait either live or dead, and used stationary on the 
bottom or in mid-water trailed behind a boat. 

British Game Fishes. On a much smaller scale are the fishes 
most esteemed in British waters. The bass (Labrax lupus) 
heads the list as a plucky and rather difficult opponent. A 
fish of 10 Ib is a large one, but fifteen-pounders have been taken. 
Small or " school " bass up to 3 Ib or 4 Ib may sometimes 
be caught with the fly (generally a roughly constructed thing 
with big wings), and when they are really taking the sport is 
magnificent. In some few localities it is possible to cast for 
them from rocks with a salmon rod, but usually a boat is required. 
In other places bass may be caught from the shore with fish bait 
used on the bottom in quite shallow water. They may again 
sometimes be caught in mid- water, and in fact there are few 
methods and few lures employed in sea angling which will not 
account for them at times. The pollack (Gadus pollachius) 
and coal-fish (Gadus wrens) come next in esteem. Both in some 
places reach a weight of 20 Ib or more, and both when young 
will take a fly. Usually, however, the best sport is obtained 
by trailing some spinning-bait, such as an artificial or natural 
sand-eel, behind a boat. Sometimes, and especially for pollack, 
the bait must be kept near the bottom and heavy weights on the 
line are necessary; the coal-fish are more prone to come to the 
surface for feeding. The larger grey mullet (Mugil capita) is 
a great favourite with many anglers, as it is extremely difficult 
to hook, and when hooked fights strongly. Fishing for mullet is 
more akin to fresh-water fishing than any branch of sea-angling, 
and indeed can be carried on in almost fresh water, for the fish 
frequent harbours, estuaries and tidal pools. They can be 
caught close to the surface, at mid-water and at the bottom, 
and as a rule vegetable baits, such as boiled macaroni, or rag- 
worms are found to answer best. Usually ground-baiting is 
necessary, and the finer the tackle used the greater is the chance 
of sport. Not a few anglers fish with a float as if for river fish. 
The fish runs up to about 8 Ib in weight. The cod (Gadus 
morhua) grows larger and fights less gamely than any of the fish 
already mentioned. It is generally caught with bait used on 
the bottom from a boat, but in places codling, or young cod, 
give some sport to anglers fishing from the shore. The mackerel 
(Scomber scomber) gives the best sport to a bait, usually a strip 
of fish skin, trailed behind a boat fairly close to the surface, but 
it will sometimes feed on the bottom. Mackerel on light tackle 
are game fighters, though they do not usually much exceed 2 Ib. 
Whiting and whiting-pout (Gadus merlangus and Gadus luscus) 
both feed on or near the bottom, do not grow to any great size, and 
are best sought with fine tackle, usually an arrangement of three 
or four hooks at intervals above a lead which is called a " pater- 
noster." If one or more of the hooks are on the bottom the tackle 
will do for different kinds of flat fish as well, flounders and dabs 
being the two species most often caught by anglers. The bream 
(Pagellus centrodontus) is another bottom-feeder which resembles 
the fresh-water bream both in appearance and habits. It is 
an early morning or rather a nocturnal fish, and grows to a weight 
of 3 Ib or 4 Ib. Occasionally it will feed in mid-water or even 
close to the surface. The conger eel (Conger vulgaris) is another 
night-feeder, which gives fine sport, as it grows to a great size, 
and is very powerful. Strong tackle is essential for conger 
fishing, as so powerful an opponent in the darkness cannot be 
given any law. The bait must be on or near the bottom. There 
are, of course, many other fish which come to the angler's rod 
at times, but the list given is fairly complete as representing the 
species which are especially sought. Beside them are occasional 
(in some waters too frequent) captures such as dog-fish and sharks, 
skates and rays. Many of them run to a great size and give 



ANGLING ANGLO-NORMAN 



pU nty of sport on a rod, though they are not as a rule welcomed. 
Lastly, it must be mentioned that certain of the Salmonidae, 
smelts (Osmerus efierlanus), sea-trout, occasionally brown trout, 
and still more occasionally salmon can be caught in salt water 
rithcr in sea-lochs or at the mouths of rivers. Smelts are best 
fished for with tiny hooks tied on fine gut and baited with frag- 
ments of shrimp, ragworm, and other delicacies. 

MODERN AUTHORITIES AND REFERENCE Boons. History and 
Literature: Prof. A. N. Mayer, Sport with Gun and Rod (New York 
and Edinburgh), with a chapter on " The Primitive FUh-Hoolc," by 
Barnct Phillips; Dr R. Munro, Lake Dwellings of Europe (London, 
1890). with many illustrations and descriptions of early fish-hooks, 
Ac.; H. C'holmondclcy Penncll and others. Fishing Gossip (Edin- 
burgh, 1866), contains a paper on " Fishing and Fish-Hooks of the 
Earliest Date," by Jonathan Couch; C. D. Badham, Prose 



, 

(London. 1854), full of curious lore, relating, however, 
more to ichthyophagy than angling; The Angler's Note-Book and 
Naturalist's Record (London, 1st series 1881, 2nd series 1888), 
edited by T. Satchell, the two volumes containing much valuable 
matter on angling history, literature, and other topics; R. Blakey, 
Angling Literature (London, 1856), inaccurate and badly arranged, 
but containing a good deal of curious matter not to be found else- 
where; O. Lambert, Angling Literature in England (London, 1881), 
a good little general survey; J. J. Manlcy, Fish and Fishing 
(London, 1881), with chapters on fishing literature, &c. ; R. B. 
Marston, Walton and Some Earlier Writers on Fish and Fishing 
(London and New York, 1894); Piscatorial Society's Pagers (vol. i. 
London, 1890), contains a paper on " The Useful and Fine Arts in 
their Relation to Fish and Fishing," by S. C. Harding; Super 
Flumina (Anon.; London, 1904), gives passim useful information on 
fishing literature; T. Westwood and T. Satchell, Bibliotheca 
Piscatoria (London, 1883) an admirable bibliography of the sport: 
together with the supplement prepared by R. B. Marston, 1901, it 
may be considered wonderfully complete. 

Methods and Practice. General Fresh-water Fishing : F. Francis, 
A Booh on Angling (London, 1885), though old, a thoroughly sound 
text-book, particularly good on salmon fishing; H. C. Pennell and 
others. Fishing Salmon and Trout and Pike and Coarse Fish (Bad- 
minton Library, 3 vols.. London, 1904); John Bickerdyke, The 
Booh of the All-Round Angler (London, 1900) ; Horace G. Hutchinson 
and others, Fishing (Country Life Series, 2 vols., London, 1904), 
contains useful ichthyological notes by G. A. Boulcnger, a chapter 
on " The Feeding of Salmon in Fresh-Water," by Dr J. Kingston 
Barton, and a detailed account of the principal salmon rivers of 
Norway, by C. E. Raddyffe. 

Salmon and Trout. Major J. P. Traherne, The Habits of the 
Salmon (London, 1889); G. M. Kelson. The Salmon Fly (London. 
1895), contains instructions on dressing salmon-flies; A. E. 
Gathorne Hardy, The Salmon (" Fur, Feather and Fin Series," 
London, 1898) ; Sir H. Maxwell, Bt., Salmon and Sea Trout (Angler's 
Library, London, 1898); Sir E. Grey, Bt., Fly Fishing (Haddon 
Hall Library, London and New York, 1899); W. Earl Hodgson, 
Salmon Fishing (London, 1906), contains a series of coloured plates 
of salmon flies; Marquis of Granby, The Trout (" Fur, Feather and 
Fin Series," London, 1898). Wet Fly Fishing: W. C. Stewart, 
The Practical Angler (London, 1905), a new edition of an old but 
still valuable work; E. M. Tod, Wet Fly Fishing (London, 1905); 
W. Earl Hodgson, Trout Fishing (London, 1905), contains a sines 
of admirable coloured plates pi artificial flies. Dry Fly Fishing: 
F. M. Halford, Dry-Fly Fishing in Theory and Practice (London, 
1902), the standard work on the subject; G. A. B. Dewar, The 
Book of the Dry Fly (London. 1897). Grayling: T. E. Pritt, The 
Booh of the Grayling (Leeds, 1888) ; H. A. Roll, Grayling Fishing in 
South Country Streams (London, 1905). 

Coarse Fish. C. H. Wheeley, Coarse Fish (Angler's Library, 
London, 1897); J- W- Martin, Practical Fishing (London); Float- 
fishing and Spinning (London, 1885); W. Senior and others, Pike 
and Perch (" Fur, Feather and Fin Series," London, 1900) ; A. J. 
Jardine, Pike and Perch (Angler's Library, London, 1808); H. C. 
Penncll, The Book of the Pike (London, 1884); Grevilfe Fennell, 
The Booh of the Roach (London, 1884). 

Sea Fishing. J. C. Wilcocks, The Sea Fisherman (London, 
1884); John Bickerdyke (and others), Sea Fishing (Badminton 
Library, London, 1895); Practical Letters to Sea Fishers (London. 
1902); F. G. Aflalo, Sea Fish (Angler's Library, London, 1897) 
P. L. Haslope, Practical Sea Fishing (London. 1905). 

Tackle, Flies. &C.H. C. Pennell, Modem Improvements in 
Fishing Tackle (London, 1887); H. P. Wells, Fly Rods and Fly 
Tackle (New York and London, 1901); A. Ronalds, The Fly-Fisher s 
Entomology (London, 1883); F. M. Halford, Dry Fly Entomology 
(London, 1902); Floating Flies and How to Dress them (London 
1886); T. E. Pritt, North Country Flies (London, 1886); H. G 
M'Clclland, How to tie Flies for Trout and Grayling (London. 1905) 
Capt. J. H. Hale, How to tie Salmon Flies (London, 1892); F. G 
Aflalo, John Bickerdyke and C. H. Wheeley, How to buy Fishing 
Tackle (London). 

Ichthyology. Fisheries, Fish-Culture, fire. Dr Francis Day, Fishe: 
of Great Britain and Ireland (2 vols., London, 1889) ; British and 



Irish Salmonidae (London. 1887) ; Dr A. C. L. C. Comber. Inlrodue- 
ton to the Study ot rithti (London. 1880); Or 1) S Jordan. A G*t4 
to Ike Study of Fishes (2 vol.., New York and London. 1905 
'rancis. Practical Management of Fishtr&i (London, iMt); fi>h 
Culture (London. 1865); F. M. Halford. Making a Fuhfrj (London. 
1902); J. J. ArmUtcad, An Angler's Paradise (Duralne*. 1902); 
-. Mather. Modern Fish-Culture (New York. 1899); LiviagMonr 
Stone, Domesticated Trout (Charlestown and London, 1806). 

Angling Guide Books, Geographical Information, (ft. Great 
Britain: The Angler's Diary (London), gives information about 
most important waters in the British files, and about some foreign 
waters, published annually ; The Sportsman' l and Tourist i Guide 
to Scotland (London), a good guide to angling in Scotland, puMirtfd 
twice a year; Augustus Grimble, The Salmon Ktters of Scotland 
London. 1900, 4 vols.); The Salmon Rivers of Ireland (London, 
1903); The Salmon and Sea Trout Rivers of England and Wales 
London, 1904, 2 vols.), this fine series give* minute information M 
to salmon pools, flies, seasons, history, catches, Ac. ; W. M. Gallichan. 
Fishing in Wales (London, 1903) ; Fishing in Derbyshire (London. 
1905); J. Watson, English Lake District Fisheries (London, 1899); 
C. Wade. Exmoor Streams (London, 1903); G. A. B. Dewar, South 
Country Trout Streams (London, 1899); " Hi Regan," How 
Where to Fish in Ireland (London, 1900) ; E. S. Shrubtole, The ' 



of Lakes (London, 1906), a guide to fishing in County Donegal). 
Europe: " Palmer Hackle, Hints on Angling (London, 1846), 



contains " suggestions for angling excursions in France and 
Hum," but they are too old to DC of much service; W. M. Gallichan. 
Fishing and Travel in Spain (London. 1905); G. W. Hartley. Wild 
Sport with Gun, Rifle and Salmon Rod (Edinburgh, 1903). contains 
a chapter on huchen fishing; Max von dem Borne, Wegweiser fur 
Angler durch Deutschland, Oesterreich und die Schveiz (Berlin, 1877), 
a book of good conception and arrangement, and still useful, though 
out of date in many particulars; Illustrierte Angler-Schult (let 
deutschen Fischerei Zeitung), Stettin, contains good chapters on the 
wels and huchen; H. Storck, Der An gels port (Munich, 1898). 
contains a certain amount of geographical information; E. B. 
Kennedy, Thirty Seasons in Scandinavia (London, 1904), contains 
useful information about fishing; General E. F. Burton, Trouting 
in Norway (London, 1897); Abel Chapman. Wild Norway (London, 
1897); F. Sandeman, Angling Travels in Norway (London, 1895). 
America: C. F. Holder. Bit Game Fishes of the United States (New 
York, 1903) ; I. A. HenshalT, Bass, Pike, Perch and Pickerel (New 
York, 1903) ; Dean Sage and others, Salmon and Trout (New York, 
1902) ; E. T. D. Chambers, Angler's Guide to Eastern Canada (Quebec, 
1899); Rowland Ward, The English Angler in Florida (London. 
1898); J. Turner Turner. The Giant Fish of Florida (London, 1903). 
India: H. S. Thomas, The Rod in India (London, 1897); "Skene 
Dhu," The Mighty Mahseer (Madras, 1906), contains a chapter on 
the acclimatization of trout in India and Ceylon. New Zealand: 
W. H. Spackman, Trout in New Zealand (London, 1894); Capt. 
Hamilton, Trout Fishing and Sport in Maoriland (Wellington, 1905), 
contains a valuable section on fishing waters. 

Fishery Law.G. C. Oke. A Handy Book of the Fishery Laws 
(edited by J. W. Willis Band and A. C. M' Bar net, London, 
1903)- 

ANGLO-ISRAELITE THEORY, the contention that the 
British people in the United Kingdom, its colonies, and the 
United States, are the racial descendants of the " ten tribes " 
forming the kingdom of Israel, large numbers of whom were 
deported by Sargon king of Assyria on the fall of Samaria in 
721 B.C. The theory (which is fully set forth in a book called 
Philo-Israel) rests on premises which are deemed by scholars 
both theological and anthropological to be utterly unsound. 

ANGLO-NORMAN LITERATURE. The French language (?..) 
came over to England with William the Conqueror. During the 
whole of the 1 2th century it shared with Latin the distinction of 
being the literary language of England, and it was in use at the 
court until the i4th century. It was not until the reign of Henry 
IV. that English became the native tongue of the kings of 
England. After the loss of the French provinces, schools for the 
teaching of French were established in England, among the most 
celebrated of which we may quote that of Marlborough. 
The language then underwent certain changes which gradually 
distinguished it from the French spoken in France; but, except 
for some graphical characteristics, from which certain rules of 
pronunciation are to be inferred, the changes to which the 
language was subjected were the individual modifications of 
the various authors, so that, while we may still speak of Anglo- 
Norman writers, an Anglo-Norman language, properly so 
called, gradually ceased to exist. The prestige enjoyed by the 
French language, which, in the ifth century, the author of the 
Manitrc de language calls " Ic plus bel et le plus gracious language 



ANGLO-NORMAN LITERATURE 



et plus noble parler, apres latin d'escole, qui soil au monde et 
de touz genz mieulx prise et amee que nul autre (quar Dieux 
le fist si douce et amiable principalement a 1'oneur et loenge de 
luy mestnes. Et pour ce il peut comparer au parler des angels 
du del, pour la grand doulceur et biaultee d'icel)," was such 
that it was not till 1363 that the chancellor opened the parlia- 
mentary session with an English speech. And although the 
Hundred Years' War led to a decline in the study of French 
and the disappearance of Anglo-Norman literature, the French 
language continued, through some vicissitudes, to be the classical 
language of the courts of justice until the tyth century. It is 
still the language of the Channel Islands, though there too it 
tends more and more to give way before the advance of 
English. 

It will be seen from the above that the most flourishing period 
of Anglo-Norman literature was from the beginning of the i2th 
century to the end of the first quarter of the i3th. The end of 
this period is generally said to coincide with the loss of the 
French provinces to Philip Augustus, but literary and political 
history do not correspond quite so precisely, and the end of the 
first period would be more accurately denoted by the appearance 
of the history of William the Marshal in 1225 (published for the 
Sociiii de I'histoire de France, by Paul Meyer, 3 vols., 1891-1901). 
It owes its brilliancy largely to the protection accorded by Henry 
II. of England to the men of letters of his day. " He could speak 
French and Latin well, and is said to have known something of 
every tongue between 'the Bay of Biscay and the Jordan.' He 
was probably the most highly educated sovereign of his day, and 
amid all his busy active life he never lost his interest in literature 
and intellectual discussion; his hands were never empty, they 
always had either a bow or a book " (Diet, of Nat. Biog.). Wace 
and Benolt de Sainte-More compiled their histories at his bidding, 
and it was in his reign that Marie de France composed her poems. 
An event with which he was closely connected, viz. the murder of 
Thomas Becket, gave rise to a whole series of writings, some of 
which are purely Anglo-Norman. In his time appeared the 
works of B6roul and Thomas respectively, as well as some of the 
most celebrated of the Anglo-Norman romans d'avenlure. It is 
important to keep this fact in mind when studying the different 
works which Anglo-Norman literature has left us. We will 
examine these works briefly, grouping them into narrative, 
didactic, hagiographic, lyric, satiric and dramatic literature. 

Narrative Literature: (a) Epic and Romance. The French 
epic came over to England at an early date. We know that the 
Chanson de Roland was sung at the battle of Hastings, and we 
possess Anglo-Norman MSS. of a few chansons de geste. The 
Pelerinage de Charlemagne (Koschwitz, Altfranzosische Bibliothek, 
1883) was, for instance, only preserved in an Anglo-Norman 
manuscript of the British Museum (now lost), although the 
author was certainly a Parisian. The oldest manuscript of the 
Chanson de Roland that we possess is also a manuscript written 
in England, and amongst the others of less importance we may 
mention La Chanc.un de Wtilame, the MS. of which has (June 
1903) been published in facsimile at Chiswick (cf. Paul Meyer, 
Romania, xxxii. 597-618). Although the diffusion of epic poetry 
in England did not actually inspire any new chansons de geste, it 
developed the taste for this class of literature, and the epic style 
in which the tales of Horn, of Baton de Hampton, of Guy of 
Warwick (still unpublished), of Waldef (still unpublished), and of 
Fulk Fits Warine are treated, is certainly partly due to this 
circumstance. Although the last of these works has come down 
to us only in a prose version, it contains unmistakable signs of a 
previous poetic form, and what we possess is really only a render- 
ing into prose similar to the transformations undergone by many 
of the chansons de geste (cf. L. Brandin, Introduction to Fulk Fitz 
Warine, London, 1904). 

The interinfluence of French and English literature can be 
studied in the Breton romances and the romans d'aventure even 
better than in the epic poetry of the period. The Lay of Orpheus 
is known to us only through an English imitation; the Lai du 
cor was composed by Robert Biket, an Anglo-Norman poet of 
the izth century (Wulfi, Lund, 1888). The lais of Marie de 



France were written in England, and the greater number of the 
romances composing the matiere de Bretagne seem to have passed 
from England to France through the medium of Anglo-Norman. 
The legends of Merlin and Arthur, collected in the Historia Regum 
Britanniae by Geoffrey of Monmouth (f 1154), passed into French 
literature, bearing the character which the bishop of St Asaph 
had stamped upon them. Chretien de Troye's Perceval (c. 1175) 
is doubtless based on an Anglo-Norman poem. Robert de Boron 
(c. 1215) took the subject of his Merlin (published by G. Paris 
and J. Ulrich, 1886, 2 vols., Societi des Anciens Textes) from 
Geoffrey of Monmouth. Finally, the most celebrated love-legend 
of the middle ages, and one of the most beautiful inventions of 
world-literature, the story of Tristan and Iseult, tempted two 
authors, Beroul and Thomas, the first of whom is probably, and 
the second certainly, Anglo-Norman (see ARTHURIAN LEGEND; 
GRAIL, THE HOLY; TRISTAN). One Folie Tristan was composed 
in England in the last years of the i2th century. (For all these 
questions see Soc. des Anc. Textes, Muret's ed. 1903; Bedier's 
ed. 1902-1005). Less fascinating than the story of Tristan 
and Iseult, but nevertheless of considerable interest, are the two 
romans d'aventure of Hugh of Rutland, Ipomedon (published by 
Kolbing and Koschwitz, Breslau, 1889) and Protesilaus (still 
unpublished) written about 1185. The first relates the adven- 
tures of a knight who married the young duchess of Calabria, 
niece of King Meleager of Sicily, but was loved by Medea, the 
king's wife. The second poem is the sequel to Ipomedon, and 
deals with the wars and subsequent reconciliation between 
Ipomedon's sons, Daunus, the elder, lord of Apulia, and Prote- 
silaus. the younger, lord of Calabria. Protesilaus defeats Daunus, 
who had expelled him from Calabria. He saves his brother's 
life, is reinvested with the dukedom of Calabria, and, after the 
death of Daunus, succeeds to Apulia. He subsequently marries 
Medea, King Meleager's widow, who had helped him to seize 
Apulia, having transferred her affection for Ipomedon to his 
younger son (cf. Ward, Cat. of Rom., i. 728). To these two 
romances by an Anglo-Norman author, Amadas et Idoine, of 
which we only possess a continental version, is to be added. 
Gaston Paris has proved indeed that the original was composed 
in England in the I2th century (An English Miscellany presented 
to Dr Furnivall in Honour of his Seventy-fifth Birthday, Oxford, 
1901, 386-394). The Anglo-Norman poem on the Life of Richard 
Cceur de Lion is lost, and an English version only has been pre- 
served. About 1250 Eustace of Kent introduced into England 
the roman d'Alexandre in his Roman de toule chevalerie, many 
passages of which have been imitated in one of the oldest English 
poems on Alexander, namely, King Alisaunder (P. Meyer, 
Alexandre le grand, Paris, 1886, ii. 273, and Weber, Metrical 
Romances, Edinburgh). 

(ft) Fableaux, Fables and Religious Tales. In spite of the 
incontestable popularity enjoyed by this class of literature, we 
have only some half-dozen fableaux written in England, viz. Le 
chevalier a la corbeille, Le chevalier qui faisait parler les muets, Le 
chevalier, sa dame et un clerc, Les trois dames, La gageure, Le 
pretre d' Alison, La bourgeoise d'Orleans (Bedier, Les Fabliaux, 
1895). As to fables, one of the most popular collections in the 
middle ages was that written by Marie de France, which she 
claimed to have translated from King Alfred. In the C antes 
moralists, written by Nicole Bozon shortly before 1320 (Soc. Anc. 
Textes, 1889), a few fables bear a strong resemblance to those of 
Marie de France. 

The religious tales deal mostly with the Mary Legends, and 
have been handed down to us in three collections: 

(i.) The Adgar's collection. Most of these were translated 
from William of Malmesbury (fii43?) by Adgar in the i2th 
century (" Adgar's Marien-Legenden," Altfr. Biblioth. ix.; J. A. 
Herbert, Rom. xxxii. 394). 

(ii.) The collection of Everard of Gateley, a monk of St Edmund 
at Bury, who wrote c. 1250 three Mary Legends (Rom. xxix. 27). 

(iii.) An anonymous collection of sixty Mary Legends composed 
c. 1250 (Brit. Museum Old Roy. 20 B, xiv.), some of which have 
been published in Suchier's Bibliotheca Normannica; in the 
Altf. Bibl. See also Mussafia, " Studien zu den mittelalterlichen 



ANGLO-NORMAN LITERATURE 



33 



Mtricn Icgciulrn " in Silsungsb. der \\irn Akademie (t. cxiii ., 
ixv., cxix., cxxiii.. cxxix.). 

Another set of religious and moralizing talcs is to be found in 
Chardri's Set dormant and Josaphal. c. 1216 (Koch, Alifr. Bibl., 
1880; G. Paris, Potmes el Ufendes du moyen Age). 

(<) History. Of far greater importance, however, are the 
works which constitute Anglo-Norman historiography. The 
first Anglo-Norman historiographer is Geoffrey Gaimar, who 
unite his Eslarie des Angles (between 1147 and 1151) for Dame 
Constance, wife of Robert FiU-Gislebert (The Anglo-Norman 
Metrical Chronicle, Hardy and Martin, i. ii., London,i888). This 
history comprised a first part (now lost), which was merely a 
translation of Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historic regumBritanniae, 
preceded by a history of the Trojan War, and a second part 
huh carries us as far as the death of William Rufus. For this 
second part he has consulted historical documents, but he stops 
at the year 1087, just when he has reached the period about 
which he might have been able to give us some first-hand infor- 
mation. Similarly, Wace in his Roman de Ron el des dues de 
Normandie (ed. Andresen, Heilbronn, 1877-1879, 2 vols.), written 
1 160-1174, stops at the battle of Tinchcbray in 1107 just before 
the period for which he would have been so useful. His Brut 
or Cestf des Bretons (Le Roux de Lincy, 1836-1838, 2 vols.), 
written in 1 1 55, is merely a translation of Geoffrey of Monmouth. 
" Wace," says Gaston Paris, speaking of the Roman de Rou, 
" traduit en les abrdgeant des historiens latins que nous posse - 
<!on; mais ca et 14 il ajoute soil des contes populaires, par 
exemplc sur Richard I", sur Robert I", soil des particularites 
qu'il savait par tradition (sur ce me'me Robert le magnifique, 
sur 1'expedition de Guillaume, &c.) et qui donnent a son oeuvre 
un reel interet historique. Sa langue est excellente; son style 
<. lair, serre, simple, d'ordinaire asscz monotone, vous plait par sa 
saveur archaique et quclquefois par une ccrtaine grace et une 
certaine malice." 

The History of the Dukes of Normandy by Benolt de Sainte- 
More is based on the work of Wace. It was composed at the 
request of Henry II. about 1170, and takes us as far as the year 
1135 (ed. by Francisque Michel, 1836-1844, Collection de docu- 
ments intdits, 3 vols.). The 43,000 lines which it contains are of 
but little interest to the historian; they are too evidently the 
work of a romancier courtois, who takes pleasure in recounting 
love-adventures such as those he has described in his romance 
of Troy. Other works, however, give us more trustworthy 
information, for example, the anonymous poem on Henry II. 's 
Conquest of Ireland in 1172 (ed. Francisque Michel, London, 1837), 
which, together with the Expugnalio hibernica of Giraud de 
Barri, constitutes our chief authority on this subject. The 
Conquest of Ireland was republished in 1892 by Goddard Henry 
Orpen, under the title of The Song of Dermot and the Earl (Oxford, 
Clarendon Press). Similarly, Jourdain Fantosme, who was in 
the north of England in 1174, wrote an account of the wars 
between Henry II., his sons, William the Lion of Scotland and 
Louis VII., in 1173 and 1174 (Chronicle of the reigns of Stephen 
. . . III., ed. by Joseph Stevenson and Fr. Michel, London, 1886, 
pp. 202-307). Not one of these histories, however, is to be com- 
pared in value with The History of William the Marshal, Count of 
Striguil and Pembroke, regent of England from 1216-1219, which 
was found and subsequently edited by Paul Meyer (Socittt de 
I'histoire de France, 3 vols., 1891-1901). This masterpiece of 
historiography was composed in 1225 or 1226 by a professional 
poet of talent at the request of William, son of the marshal. It 
was compiled from the notes of the marshal's squire, John d'Early 
(t 1230 or 1231), who shared all the vicissitudes of his master's 
life and was one of the executors of his will. This work is of great 
v.ilue for the history of the period 1186-1219, *s the informa- 
tion furnished by John d'Early is either personal or obtained at 
first hand. In the part which deals with the period before 1 186, 
it is true, there are various mistakes, due to the author's 
ignorance of contemporary history, but these slight blemishes 
are amply atoned for by the literary value of the work. The 
style is concise, the anecdotes are well told, the descriptions 
short and picturesque; the whole constitutes one of the most 
11. 2 



living picture* of medieval society. Very pale by toe ride of 
this work appear the Chronique of Peter of Langtoft, written 
between 1311 and 1320, and mainly of interest (or the period 
1204-1307 (cd. by T. Wright, London, 1866-1868); the Chron 
ique of Nicholas Trevct (12587-1328?), dedicated to Prince** 
Mary, daughter of Edward I. (Duff us Hardy, Deter. Catal. Ill 
340-350); the Scala Chronic a compiled by Thomas Gray of 
Heaton (f c. 1369), which carries us to the year 1362-1363 (ed. 
by J. Stevenson, Maitland Club, Edinburgh, 1836); the Black 
Prince, a poem by the poet Chandos, composed about 1386, and 
relating the life of the Black Prince from 1346-1376 (re-edited by 
Francisque Michel, London and Paris, 1883); and, lastly, the 
different versions of the Brutes, the form and historical import- 
ance of which have been indicated by Paul Meyer (Bulletin de la 
Socittt des Ancient Textes, 1878, pp. 104-145), and by F. W. D. 
Brie (Geschichte und Quellen der mittelenglischen Prosachronik, 
The Brute of England or The Chronicles of England, Marburg. 
1005). 

Finally we may mention, as ancient history, the translation of 
Eutropius and Dares, by Geoffrey of Waterford (ijth century), 
who gave also the Secret da Secrets, a translation from a work 
wrongly attributed to Aristotle, which belongs to the next 
division (Rom. xxiii. 314). 

Didactic Literature. This is the most considerable, if not the 
most interesting, branch of Anglo-Norman literature: it com- 
prises a large number of works written chiefly with the object 
of giving both religious and profane instruction to Anglo- Norman 
lords and ladies. The following list gives the most important 
productions arranged in chronological order: 

Philippe de Thaun, Comput, c. 1119 (edited by E. Mall, 
Strassburg, 1873), poem on the calendar; Bestioire, c. 1130 
(ed. by E. Walberg, Paris, 1900; cf. G. Paris, Rom. xxxi. 175); 
Lois de Guillaume le Conqutrant (redaction between 1150 and 
1170, ed. by J. E. Matzke, Paris, 1809); Oxford Psalter, c. 1150 
(Fr. Michel, Libri Psalmorum tersio antique gallica, Oxford, 
1860); Cambridge Psalter, c. 1160 (Fr. Michel, Le Litre des 
Psaumes, Paris, 1877); London Psalter, same as Oxford Psalter 
(cf. Beyer, Zt. f. rom. Phil. xi. 513-534; xii. 1-56); Disticha 
Catonis, translated by Everard de Kirkham and Elie de Winchester 
(Stengel, A usg. u. A bhandlungen) ; Le Roman de fortune, summary 
of Boet ius' DC consolatione philosophiae, by Simon de Fresne (Hist. 
lit. xxviii. 408) ; Quatre litres des rots, translated into French in 
the 1 2th century, and imitated in England soon after (P. 
Schlosser, Die Lautterh&ltnisse der quatre lives des rots, Bonn, 
1886; Romania, xvii. 124); Donnei des Amanz, the conversation 
of two lovers, overheard and carefully noted by the poet, of a 
purely didactic character, in which are included three interesting 
pieces, the first being an episode of the story of Tristram, the 
second a fable, L'homme et le serpent, the third a tale, L'homme 
et I'oiseau, which is the basis of the celebrated Lai de I'oiselet 
(Rom. xxv. 497); Litre des Sibiles (1160); Enseignements 
Trebor, by Robert de Ho ( = Hoo, Kent, on the left bank of the 
Medway) [edited by Mary Vance Young, Paris; Picard, 101; 
cf. G. Paris, Rom. xxxii. 141); Lapidaire de Cambridge (Pannier, 
Les Lapidaires franfois) ; Fre're Angier de Ste. Frideswide, Dia- 
logues, 29th of November 1212 (Rom. xii. 145-208, and xxix.; 
M. K. Pope, Etude sur la langue de Frere Angier, Paris, 1903); 
Li dialoge Grtgoire le pape, ed. by Foerster, 1876; Petit Plet, by 
Chardri, c. 1 216 (Koch, Altfr Bibliothek, i., and Mussafia, Z.j. r.P. 
iii. 591); Petite philosophic, c. 1225 (Rom. xv. 356; xxix. 72); 
Histoire de Marie et de Jesus (Rom. xvi. 248-262); Poeme sur 
I'Ancien Testament (Not. et Extr. xxxiv. i, 210; Soc. Anc. 
Textes, 1889, 73-74); Le Corset and Le Miroir, by Robert de 
G ret ham (Rom. vii. 345; xv. 296); Lumiere as Lais, by Pierre 
de Peckham, c. 1250 (Rom. xv. 287); an Anglo-Norman redaction 
of Image du monde, c. 1250 (Rom. xxi. 481); two Anglo-Norman 
versions of Quatre soeurs (Justice, Truth, Peace, Mercy), I3th 
century (ed. by Fr. Michel, Psautierd'Oxford, pp. 364-368, Bulletin 
Soc. Anc. Textes, 1886, 57; Romania, xv. 352); another Comput 
by Raiif de Lenham, 1256 (P. Meyer, Archives des missions, 
2nd series iv. 154 and 160-164; Rom. xv. 285); Le chastel 
d'amors, by Robert Grossctestc or Greathead. bishop of 



ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE 



Lincoln (^253) [ed. by Cooke, Carmina Anglo-Normannica, 
1852, Caxton Society]; Poeme sur I' amour de Dieu et sur la haine 
du pechf, i3th century, second part (Rom. xxix. 5); Le mariage 
des neuf fUles du diable (Rom. xxix. 54); Diiie d'Urbain, attri- 
buted without any foundation to Henry I. (P. Meyer, Bulletin 
Soc. 'Anc. Textes, 1880, p. 73 and Romania xxxii, 68); Dialogue 
de I'tveque Saint Julien et son disciple (Rom. xxix. 21); Poeme sur 
I'antichrist et lejugement dernier, by Henri d'Arci (Rom. xxix. 78; 
Not. et. Extr. 35, \. 137). Wilham de Waddington produced at 
the end of the i3th century his Manuel des ptches, which was 
adapted in England by Robert of Brunne in his Handlying Sinne 
(1303) [Hist. lit. xxviii. 179-207; Rom. xxix. 5, 47-33]; see 
Furni vail, Robert of Brunne's Handlying Synne (Roxb.Club, 1862) ; 
in the I4th century we find Nicole Bozon's Contes moralists (see 
above); Traiti de naturesse (Rom. xiii. 508); Sermons in verse 
(P. Meyer, op. cit. xlv.) ; Proverbes de ban enseignement (op. cit. 
xlvi.). We have also a few handbooks on the teaching of 
French. Gautier de Biblesworth wrote such a treatise 
d Madame Dyonise de Mountechensi pur aprise de langage 
(Wright, A Volume of Vocabularies; P. Meyer, Rec. d'anc. textes, 
p. 360 and Romania xxxii, 22); Orthographia gallica (Stiirzinger, 
Altfr. Bibl. 1884); La maniere de language, written in 1396 
(P. Meyer, Rev. crit. d'hist. et de lilt. nos. compl. de 1870); Un 
petit livre pour enseigner / enfants de leur entreparler comun 
franc.ois, c. 1399 (Stengel, Z. fur n. f. Spr. u. Lift. i. 1 1). The im- 
portant Mirour del'omme, by John Gower, contains about 30,000 
lines written in very good French at the end of the i4th century 
(Macaulay, The Complete Works of John Gower, i., Oxford, 1899). 

Hagiogtaphy. Among the numerous lives of saints written 
in Anglo-Norman the most important ones are the following, 
the list of which is given in chronological order: Voyage de Saint 
Brandon (or Brandain), written in 1121, by an ecclesiastic for 
Queen Aelis of Louvain (Rom. St. i. 553-588; Z. f. r. P. ii. 438- 
459; Rom. xviii. 203. C. Wahlund, Die altfr. Prosaiibersetz. 
von Brendan's Meerfahrt, Upsala, 1901); life of St Catherine by 
Clemence of Barking (Rom. xiii. 400, Jarnik, 1894); life of St 
Giles, c. 1170, by Guillaume de Berneville (Soc. Anc. Textes fr., 
1881 ; Rom. xi. and xxiii. 94) ; life of St Nicholas, life of Our Lady, 
by Wace (Delius, 1850; Stengel, Cod. Digby, 66); Uhlemann, 
Gram. Krit. Studien zu W ace's Conception und Nicolas, 1878; 
life of St George by Simon de Fresne (Rom. x. 319; J. E. Matzke, 
Public, of the Mod. Lang. Ass. of Amer. xvii. 1902; Rom. xxxiv. 
148) ; Expurgatoire de Ste. Patrice, by Marie de France (Jenkins, 
1894; Eckleben, Aelteste Schilderung vom Fegefeuer d. H. 
Patricius, 1851; Ph. de Felice, 1906); La vie de St Edmund 
le Rei, by Denis Pyramus, end of I2th century (Memorials of 
St Edmund's Abbey, edited by T. Arnold, ii. 1892; Rom. xxii. 
170); Henri d'Arci's life of St Thais, poem on the Antichrist, 
Visio S. Pauli (P. Meyer, Not. et Extr. xxxv. 137-158); life of 
St Gregory the Great by Frere Angier, 3Oth of April 1214 (Rom. 
viii. 509-544; ix. 176; xviii. 201); life of St Modwenna, between 
1225 and 1250 (Suchier, Die dem Matlhaus Paris zugeschriebene 
Vie de St Auban, 1873, pp. 54-58); Fragments of a life of St 
Thomas Becket, c. 1230 (P. Meyer, Soc. Anc. Text.fr., 1885); 
and another life of the same by Benoit of St Alban, i3th century 
(Michel, Chron. des dues de Normandie; Hist. Lit. xxiii. 383); 
a life of Edward the Confessor, written before 1245 (Luard, 
Lives of Edward the Confessor, 1858; Hist. Lit. xxvii. i), by an 
anonymous monk of Westminster; life of St Auban, c. 1250 
(Suchier, op. cit.; Uhlemann, " Uber die vie de St Auban in Bezug 
auf Quelle," &c. Rom. St. iv. 543-626; ed. by Atkinson, 1876). 
The Vision of Tnudgal, an Anglo-Norman fragment, is preserved 
in MS. 312, Trinity College, Dublin; the MS. is of the i4th 
century; the author seems to belong to the I3th (La vision 
de Tondale, ed. by Friedel and Kuno Meyer, 1906). In this 
category we may add the life of Hugh of Lincoln, I3th century 
(Hist. Lit. xxiii. 436; Child, The English and Scottish Popular 
Ballads, 1888, p. v; Wolter, Bibl. Anglo-Norm, ii. 115). Other 
lives of saints were, recognized to be Anglo-Norman by Paul Meyer 
when examining the MSS. of the Welbeck library (Rom. xxxii. 
637 and Hist. Lit. xxxiii. 338-378). 

Lyric Poetry. The only extant songs of any importance are 



the seventy-one Ballads of Gower (Stengel, Gower's Minnesang, 
1886). The remaining songs are mostly of a religious character. 
Most of them have been discovered and published by Paul Meyer 
(Bulletin de la Soc. Anc. Textes, 1889; Not. et Extr. xxxiv; 
Rom. xiii. 518, t. xiv. 370; xv. p. 254, &c.). Although so few 
have come down to us such songs must have been numerous 
at one time, owing to the constant intercourse between English, 
French and Provencals of all classes. An interesting passage in 
Piers Plowman furnishes us with a proof of the extent to which 
these songs penetrated into England. We read of : 
"... dykers and deluers that doth here dedes ille, 
And dryuen forth the longe day with ' Deu, vous saue, 
Dame Emme! ' ' (Prologue, 223 f.) 

One of the finest productions of Anglo-Norman lyric poetry 
written in the end of the i3th century, is the Plainte d'amour 
(Vising, Goteborg, 1905; Romania xiii. 507, xv. 292 and xxix. 4), 
and we may mention, merely as literary curiosities, various 
works of a lyrical character written in two languages, Latin and 
French, or English and French, or even in three languages, 
Latin, English and French. In Early English Lyrics (Oxford, 
1907) we have a poem in which a lover sends to his mistress a 
love-greeting composed in three languages, and his learned 
friend replies in the same style (De amico ad amicam, Responcio, 
viii and ix). 

Satire. The popularity enjoyed by the Roman de Renart 
and the Anglo-Norman version of the Riote du Monde (Z. f. rom. 
Phil. viii. 275-289) in England is proof enough that the French 
spirit of satire was keenly appreciated. The clergy and the fair 
sex presented the most attractive target for the shots of the 
satirists. However, an Englishman raised his voice in favour 
of the ladies in a poem entitled La Bonte des dames (Meyer, Rom. 
xv. 315-339), and Nicole Bozon, after having represented 
" Pride " as a feminine being whom he supposes to be the 
daughter of Lucifer, and after having fiercely attacked the 
women of his day in the Char d'Orgueil (Rom. xiii. 516), also 
composed a Bounte des femmes (P. Meyer, op. cit. 33) in which 
he covers them with praise, commending their courtesy, their 
humility, their openness and the care with which they bring up 
their children. A few pieces of political satire show us French and 
English exchanging amenities on their mutual shortcomings. The 
Roman des Franfais, by Andre de Coutances.was written on the 
continent, and cannot be quoted as Anglo-Norman although 
it was composed before 1204 (cf. Gaston Paris: Trois versions 
rimees de I'evangile de Nicodeme, Soc. Anc. Textes, 1885), it is a 
veryspirited reply to Frenchauthorswhohadattacked the English. 

Dramatic Literature. This must have had a considerable 
influence on the development of the sacred drama in England, 
but none of the French plays acted in England in the i2th and 
I3th centuries has been preserved. Adam, which is generally 
considered to be an Anglo-Norman mystery of the i2th century, 
was probably written in France at the beginning of the i3th 
century (Romania xxxii. 637), and the so-called Anglo-Norman 
Resurrection belongs also to continental French. It is necessary 
to state that the earliest English moralities seem to have been 
imitations of the French ones. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Apart from the works already mentioned see 
generally: Scheibner, " Cber die Herrschaft der frz. Sprache in 
England " (Annaberg, Progr. der Koniglichen Realschule, 1880, 38 f.) ; 
Groeber, Crundr. der romanischen Philologie, ii. iii. (Strassburg, 
1902) ; G. Paris, La Litt. fr. au moyen age (1905) ; Esquisse historique 
de la lilt. fr. au moyen age (1907); La Litt. norm, avant Vannexion 
(1121204 (Paris, 1899) ; " L'Esprit normand en Angleterre," La Poesie 
au moyen Age (2nd series 45-74, Paris, 1906) ; Thomas Wright, 
Biographic britannica literaria (Anglo-Norman period, London, 
1846); Ten Brink, Geschichte der englischen Litteratur (Berlin, 1877, 
i. 2); J. T. Jusserand, Hist. lilt, du peuple anglais (2nd ed. 1895, 
vol. i.) ; W. H. Schofield, English Literature from the Norman Con- 
quest to Chaucer (London, 1906) ; Johan Vising, Franska Spr&ket i 
England (Goteborg, 1900, 1901, 1902). (L. BR.) 

ANGLO-SAXON CHRONICLE. It is usual to speak of " the 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle "; it would be more correct to say that 
there are four Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. It is true that these all 
grow out of a common stock, that in some even of their later 
entries two or more of them use common materials; but the same 



AN(;iX)-SAX()N LAW 



35 



may be uid of several group* of medieval chronicles, which no one 
dreams of treating s tingle chronicles. Of this fourfold Chronicle 
there are seven MSS. in existence; C.C.C. Cant. 173 (A); CoU. 
Tib. A vi. (B); CoU. Tib. B L (C); CoU. Tib. B iv. (D); Bodl. 
Land. Misc. 636 (E); CoU. Domitian A viii. (F); CoU. Otko B zi. 
(G). Of these G is now a mere fragment, and it is known to have 
been a transcript of A. F is bilingual, the entries being given both 
in Saxon and Latin. It is interesting as a stage in the transition 
from the vernacular to the Latin chronicle; but it has little 
independent value, being a mere epitome, made at Canterbury in 
the 1 1 th or i 2th century, of a chronicle akin to E. B, as far as it 
foes (to 077), is identical with C, both having been copied from a 
common original, but A, C, D, E have every right to be treated as 
independent chronicles. The relations between the four vary very 
greatly in different parts, and the neglect of this consideration has 
lr I to much error and confusion. The common stock, out of 
which all grow, extends to 892. The present writer sees no reason 
to doubt that the idea of a national, as opposed to earlier local 
chronicles, was inspired by Alfred, who may even have dictated, 
or at least revised, the entries relating to his own campaigns; 
while for the earlier parts pre-existing materials, both oral and 
written, were utilized. Among the latter the chronological 
epitome appended to Bede's Ecclesiastical History may be 
specially mentioned. But even this common stock exists in two 
different recensions, in A, B, C, on the one hand, and D, E on the 
other. The main points of difference are that in D, E (i) a series 
of northern annals have been incorporated; (2) the Bede entries 
are taken, not from the brief epitome, but from the main body of 
the Eccl. Hist. The inference is that, shortly after the compiling 
of this Alfredian chronicle, a copy of it was sent to some northern 
monastery, probably Ripon, where it was expanded in the way 
indicated. Copies of this northernized Chronicle afterwards found 
their way to the south. The impulse given by Alfred was con- 
tinued under Edward, and we have what may be called an official 
continuation of the history of the Danish wars, which, in B, C, D 
extends to 915, and in A to 924. After 915 B, C insert as a 
separate document a short register of Mercian affairs during the 
same period (902-924), which might be called the acts of /Kt hcl- 
flacd, the famous " Lady of the Mercians," while D has incorpor- 
ated it, not very skilfully, with the official continuation. Neither 
of these documents exists in E. Fromgzs to 97 5 all the chronicles 
are very fragmentary; a few obits, three or four poems, among 
them the famous ballad on the battle of Brunanburh, make up 
the meagre tale of their common materials, which each has tried 
to supplement in its own way. A has inserted a number of 
Winchester entries, which prove that A is a Winchester book. 
And this local and scrappy character it retains to 1001, where it 
practically ends. At some subsequent time it was transferred 
bodily to Canterbury, where it received numerous interpolations 
in the earlier part, and a few later local entries which finally tail 
off into the Latin acts of Lanfranc. A may therefore be dismissed. 
C has added to the common stock one or two Abingdon entries, 
with which place the history of C is closely connected ; while D and 
E have a second group of northern annals 901-966, E being how- 
ever much more fragmentary than D, omitting, or not having 
access to, much both of the common and of the northern material 
which is found in D. From 983 to 101 8 C, D and E are practically 
identical, and give a connected history of the Danish struggles 
under .Kthelred II. This section was probably composed at 
Canterbury. From 1018 the relations of C, D, E become too 
complicated to be expressed by any formula; sometimes all three 
agree together, sometimes all three are independent; in other 
places each pair in turn agree against the third. It may be noted 
that Cisstrongly anti-God win ist, while E is equallypro- God win ist, 
D occupying an intermediate position. C extends to 1066, where 
it ends abruptly, and probably mutilated. D ends at 1079 and is 
certainly mutilated. In its later history D is associated with some 
place in the diocese of Worcester, probably Evesham. In its 
present form D is a comparatively late MS., none of it probably 
much earlier, and some of it later, than noo. In the case of 
entries in the earlier part of the chronicles, which are peculiar to 
D, we cannot exclude the possibility that they may be late 



interpolations. E is continued to 1 1 54. In it* present form it b 
unquestionably a Peterborough book. The earlier part u full of 
Peterborough interpolations, to which place many of the later 
entries also refer. But (apart from the interpolation*) it u only 
the entries after 1121, where the first hand in the MS. ends, which 
were actually composed at Peterborough. Thescction 1023-1067 
certainly, and possibly also the section 1068-1121, wu composed 
at St Augustine's, Canterbury; and the former U of extreme 
interest and value, the writer being in close contact with the 
events which he describes. The later parts of E show a great 
degeneration in language, and a querulous tone due to the 
sufferings of the native population under the harsh Norman rule; 
" but our debt to it is inestimable; and we can hardly measure 
what the loss to English history would have been, if it had not 
been written; or if, having been written, it had, like so many 
another English chronicle, been lost." 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The above account i* bated on the introduction 
in vol. ii. of the Rev. C. Plumrner's edition of Two of Ike Saxon 
Chronicles Parallel (Clarendon PreM, 1892, 1890); to which the 
student may be referred for detailed arguments. The tdilio princepi 




leaves, in the Cottonian fire of 1723. Edmund Gibson of Queen'* 
College, Oxford, afterwards bishop of London, published an edition 
in 1692. He used Wheloc's edition, and E, with collations or tran- 
scripts of B and F. Both Whcloc and Gibson give Latin translations. 
In 1823 appeared an edition by Dr Ingram, of Trinity College, 
Oxford, with an English translation. Beside* A, B, E, F, Ingram 
used C and D for the first time. But, both he and Gibson made the 
fatal error of trying to combine the disparate material* contained 
in the various chronicles in a single text. An improvement in this 
respect is seen in the edition made by Richard Price (d. 1833) for the 
first (and only) volume of Monumenta lliitorica Britannua (folio 
1848). There is still, however, too much conflation, and owing to the 
plan of the volume, the edition only extends to 1066. A translation 
is appended. In 1861 appeared Benjamin Thorpe'* six-text edition 
in the Rolls Series. Though not free from defects, this edition i* 
absolutely indispensable for the study of the chronicles and the 
mutual relations of the different MSS. A second volume contains 
the translation. In 1865 the Clarendon Press published Two Saxon 
Chronicles (A and E) Parallel, with supplementary extracts from the 
others, by the Rev. John Earle. This edition has no translation, 
but in the notes and introduction a very considerable advance was 
made. On this edition is partly based the later edition by the 
Rev. C. Plummer, already cited above. In addition to the trans- 
lations contained in the editions already mentioned, the following 
have been issued separately. The first translation into modern 
English was by Miss Anna C.urney, privately printed in 1819. This 
was largely based on Gibson's edition, and was in turn the basis of 
Dr Giles' translation, published in 1847, and often reprinted. The 
best translation is that by the Rev. Joseph Stevenson, in his series 
of Church Historians of England (1853). Up to the Conquest it U a 
revision of the translation contained in Man. Hist. Brit. From that 
point it is an independent translation. (C. PL.) 

ANGLO-SAXON LAW. i. The body of legal rules and 
customs which obtained in England before the Norman conquest 
constitutes, with the Scandinavian laws, the most genuine 
expression of Teutonic legal thought. While the so-called 
"barbaric laws" (leges barbarorum) of the continent, not except- 
ing those compiled in the territory now called Germany, were 
largely the product of Roman influence, the continuity of Roman 
life was almost completely broken in the island, and even the 
Church, the direct heir of Roman tradition, did not carry on a 
continuous existence: Canterbury was not a see formed in a 
Roman province in the same sense as Tours or Reims. One of 
the striking expressions of this Teutonism is presented by the 
language in which the Anglo-Saxon laws were written. They are 
uniformly worded in English, while continental laws, apart from 
the Scandinavian, are all in Latin. The English dialect in which 
the Anglo-Saxon laws have been handed down to us is in most cases 
a common speech derived from West Saxon naturally enough 
as Wessex became the predominant English state, and the court 
of its kings the principal literary centre from which most of the 
compilers and scribes derived their dialect and spelling. Traces 
of Kentish speech may be detected, however, in the Textta 
Ro/ensis, the MS. of the Kentish laws, and Northumbrian 
dialectical peculiarities are also noticeable on some occasions. 



ANGLO-SAXON LAW 



while Danish words occur only as technical terms. At the 
conquest, Latin takes the place of English in the compilations 
made to meet the demand for Anglo-Saxon law texts as still 
applied in practice. 

2. It is easy to group the Anglo-Saxon laws according to the 
manner of their publication. They would fall into three divisions : 

(1) laws and collections of laws promulgated by public authority; 

(2) statements of custom; (3) private compilations of legal rules 
and enactments. To the first division belong the laws of the 
Kentish kings, jEthelberht, Hlothhere and Eadric, Withraed; 
those of Ine of Wessex, of Alfred, Edward the Elder, jEthelstan, 1 
Edmund, Edgar, ithelred and Canute; the treaty between 
Alfred and Guthnim and the so-called treaty between Edward 
and Guthrum. The second division is formed by the convention 
between the English and the Welsh Dunsaetas, the law of the 
Northumbrian priests, the customs of the North people, the 
fragments of local custumals entered in Domesday Book. The 
third division would consist of the collections of the so-called 
Pseudo-leges Canuti, the laws of Edward the Confessor, of Henry I. , 
and the great compilation of the Quadripartitus, then of a number 
of short notices and extracts like the fragments on the " wedding 
of a wife," on oaths, on ordeals, on the king's peace, on rural 
customs (Rcctitudincs singularum personarwm), the treatises 
on the reeve (gerefa) and on the judge (dema), formulae of oaths, 
notions as to wergeld, &c. A fourth group might be made of the 
charters,Jas they are based on Old English private and public 
law and supply us with most important materials in regard to it. 
Looking somewhat deeper at the sources from which Old English 
law was derived, we shall have to modify our classification to 
some extent, as the external forms of publication, although 
important from the point of view of historical criticism, are not 
sufficient standards as to the juridical character of the various 
kinds of material. Direct statements of law would fall under the 
following heads, from the point of view of their legal origins: 
i. customary rules followed by divers communities capable 
of formulating law; ii. enactments of authorities, especially 
of kings; iii. private arrangements made under recognized 
legal rules. The first would comprise, besides most of the state- 
ments of custom included in the second division according to 
the first classification, a great many of the rules entered in 
collections promulgated by kings; most of the paragraphs of 
/Ethelberht's, tflothhere's, and Eadric's and Ine's laws, are 
popular legal customs that have received the stamp of royal 
authority by their insertion in official codes. On the other hand, 
from Withraed's and Alfred's laws downwards, the element of 
enactment by central authority becomes more and more 
prominent. The kings endeavour, with the help of secular and 
clerical witan, to introduce new rules and to break the power 
of long-standing customs (e.g. the precepts about the keeping 
of holidays, the enactments of Edmund restricting private 
vengeance, and the solidarity of kindreds as to feuds, and the 
like). There are, however, no outward signs enabling us to 
distinguish conclusively between both categories of laws in the 
codes, nor is it possible to draw a line between permanent laws 
and personal ordinances of single sovereigns, as has been 
attempted in the case of Prankish legislation. 

3. Even in the course of a general survey of the legal lore at 
our disposal, one cannot help being struck by peculiarities in 
the distribution of legal subjects. Matters which seem to us 
of primary importance and occupy a wide place in our law-books 
are almost entirely absent in Anglo-Saxon laws or relegated 
to the background. While it is impossible to give here anything 
like a complete or exact survey of the field a task rendered 
almost impossible by the arbitrary manner in which paragraphs 
are divided, by the difficulty of making Old English enactments 
fit into modern rubrics, and by the necessity of counting several 
times certain paragraphs bearing on different subjects a brief 
statistical analysis of the contents of royal codes and laws may 
be found instructive. 

We find roughly 419 paragraphs devoted to criminal law and 

1 The Judicia civitatis Lundoniae are a gild statute confirmed by 
King .tthelstan. 



procedure as against 91 concerned with questions of private 
law and civil procedure. Of the criminal law clauses, as many 
as 238 are taken up with tariffs of fines, while 80 treat of capital 
and corporal punishment, outlawry and confiscation, and 101 
include rules of procedure. On the private law side 18 clauses 
apply to rights of property and possession, 13 to succession and 
family law, 37 to contracts, including marriage when treated 
as an act of sale; 18 touch on civil procedure. A subject which 
attracted special attention was the law of status, and no less 
than 107 paragraphs contain disposition dictated by the wish 
to discriminate between the classes of society. Questions of 
public law and administration are discussed in 217 clauses, 
while 197 concern the Church in one way or another, apart from 
purely ecclesiastical collections. In the public law division it 
is chiefly the power, interests and privileges of the king that 
are dealt with, in roughly 93 paragraphs, while local administra- 
tion comes in for 39 and purely economic and fiscal matter for 
13 clauses. Police regulations are very much to the fore and 
occupy no less than 72 clauses of the royal legislation. As to 
church matters, the most prolific group is formed by general 
precepts based on religious and moral considerations, roughly 
115, while secular privileges conferred on the Church hold about 
62, and questions of organization some 20 clauses. 

The statistical contrasts are especially sharp and characteristic 
when we take into account the chronological sequence in the 
elaboration of laws. Practically the entire code of ./Ethelberht, 
for instance, is a tariff of fines for crimes, and the same subject 
continues to occupy a great place in the laws of Hlothhere and 
Eadric, Ine and Alfred, whereas it appears only occasionally 
in the treaties with the Danes, the laws of Withraed, Edward 
the Elder, yEthelstan, Edgar, Edmund and jEthelred. It re- 
appears in some strength in the code of Canute, but the latter 
is chiefly a recapitulation of former enactments. The system 
of " compositions " or fines, paid in many cases with the help 
of kinsmen, finds its natural place in the ancient, tribal period 
of English history and loses its vitality later on in consequence 
of the growth of central'power and of the scattering of maegths. 
Royalty and the Church, when they acquire the lead in social 
life, work out a new penal system based on outlawry, death 
penalties and corporal punishments, which make their first 
appearance in the legislation of Withraed and culminate in that 
of ./Ethelred and Canute. 

As regards status, the most elaborate enactments fall into 
the period preceding the Danish settlements. After the treaties 
with the Danes, the tendency is to simplify distinctions on the 
lines of an opposition between twelvehynd-men and twyhynd- 
men, paving the way towards the feudal distinction between the 
free and the unfree. In the arrangements of the commonwealth 
the clauses treating of royal privileges are more or less evenly 
distributed over all reigns, but the systematic development of 
police functions, especially in regard to responsibility for crimes, 
the catching of thieves, the suppression of lawlessness, is mainly 
the object of xoth and nth century legislation. The reign of 
^Ethelred, which witnessed the greatest national humiliation 
and the greatest crime in English history, is also marked by the 
most lavish expressions of religious feeling and the most frequent 
appeals to morality. This sketch would, of course, have to be 
modified in many ways if we attempted to treat the unofficial 
fragments of customary law in the same way as the paragraphs 
of royal codes, and even more so if we were able to tabulate 
the indirect evidence as to legal rules. But, imperfect as such 
statistics may be, they give us at any rate some insight into the 
direction of governmental legislation. 

4. The next question to be approached concerns the pedigree 
of Anglo-Saxon law and the latter's natural affinities. What is 
its position in the legal history of Germanic nations? How 
far has it been influenced by non-Germanic elements, especially 
by Roman and Canon law? The oldest Anglo-Saxon codes, 
especially the Kentish and the West Saxon ones, disclose a close 
relationship to the barbaric laws of Lower Germany those of 
Saxons, Frisians, Thuringians. We find a division of social ranks 
which reminds us of the threefold gradation of Lower Germany 



ANGLO-SAXON LAW 



37 



(edelings, frilings, lazien corls, ceorls, laets), and not of the 
twofold Prankish one (inteimi Franci, Romanf) , nor of the minute 
differentiation of the Upper German* and Lombard*. In sub- 
sequent history there is a good deal of resemblance between the 
capitularies' legislation of Charlemagne and his successor* on 
one hand, the acts of Alfred, Edward the Elder, /Kthelstan and 
Edgar on the other, a resemblance called forth less by direct 
borrowing of Prankish institutions than by the similarity of 
political problems and condition. Prankish law becomes a 
powerful modifying clement in English legal history after the 
Conquest, when it was introduced wholesale in royal and in feudal 
courts. The Scandinavian invasions brought in many northern 
legal customs, especially in the districts thickly populated with 
Danes. The Domesday survey of Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, 
Yorkshire. Norfolk, &c., shows remarkable deviations in local 
organization and justice (lagmen, sokes), and great peculiarities 
as to status (socmen, freemen), while from laws and a few 
charters we can perceive some influence on criminal law (nidings- 
taerk), special usages as to fines (lahslil). the keeping of peace, 
attestation and sureties of acts (Jaesirrmen), &c. But, on the 
whole, the introduction of Danish and Norse elements,apart from 
local cases, was more important owing to the conflicts and 
compromises it called forth and its social results, than on account 
of any distinct trail of Scandinavian views in English law. The 
Scandinavian newcomers coalesced easily and quickly with the 
native population. 

The direct influence of Roman law was not great during the 
Saxon period: we notice neither the transmission of important 
legal doctrines, chiefly through the medium of Visigothic codes, 
nor the continuous stream of Roman tradition in local usage. 
But indirectly Roman law did exert a by no means insignificant 
influence through the medium of the Church, which, for all its 
insular character, was still permeated with Roman ideas and 
forms of culture. The Old English " books " are derived in a 
roundabout way from Roman models, and the tribal law of real 
property was deeply modified by the introduction of individual- 
istic notions as to ownership, donations, wills, rights of women, 
&c. Yet in this respect also the Norman Conquest increased 
the store of Roman conceptions by breaking the national isolation 
of the English Church and opening the way for closer intercourse 
with France and Italy. 

5. It would be useless to attempt to trace in a brief sketch 
the history of the legal principles embodied in the documents of 
Anglo-Saxon law. But it may be of some value to give an 
outline of a few particularly characteristic subjects. 

(a) The Anglo-Saxon legal system cannot be understood unless 
one realizes the fundamental opposition between folk-right and 
privilege. Folk-right is the aggregate of rules, formulated or 
latent but susceptible of formulation, which can be appealed to 
as the expression of the juridical consciousness of the people at 
large or of the communities of which it is composed. It is tribal 
in its origin, and differentiated, not according to boundaries 
between states, but on national and provincial lines. There may 
be the folk-right of West and East Saxons, of East Angles, of 
Kentish men, Mercians, Northumbrians, Danes, Welshmen, and 
these main folk-right divisions remain even when tribal kingdoms 
disappear and the people is concentrated in one or two realms. 
The chief centres for the formulation and application of folk- 
right were in the toth and nth centuries the shire-moots, while 
the witan of the realm generally placed themselves on the higher 
ground of State expediency, although occasionally using folk- 
right ideas. The older law of real property, of succession, of 
contracts, the customary tariffs of fines, were mainly regulated 
by folk-right; the reeves employed by the king and great men 
were supposed to take care of local and rural affairs according to 
folk-right. The law had to be declared and applied by the people 
itself in its communities, while the spokesmen of the people were 
neither democratic majorities nor individual experts, but a few 
leading men the twelve eldest thanes or some similar quorum. 
Folk-right could, however, be broken or modified by special law 
or special grant, and the fountain of such privileges was the 
royal power. Alterations and exceptions were, as a matter of 



fact, suggested by the interested panic* thrnurlves, and chiefly 
by the Church. Thus a privileged land-tenure wa created 
bookland ; the rule* u to the succession of kinsmen were tct at 
nought by concession of testamentary power and coonnnatiaw 
of grant* and wills; special exemptions from the jurisdiction of 
the hundreds and special privileges a* to levying fines were 
conferred. In process of time the rights originating in royal 
grants of privilege overbalanced, as it were, folk-right in many 
respects, and became themselves the starting-point of a new 
legal system the feudal one. 

(b) Another feature of vital importance in the history of 
Anglo-Saxon law is it* tendency towards the preservation of 
peace. Society is constantly struggling to ensure the main 
condition of its existence peace. Already in /Ethdberht't 
legislation we find characteristic fines inflicted for breach of the 
peace of householders of different ranks the ceorl, the eorl, 
and the king himself appearing as the most exalted among them. 
Peace is considered not so much a state of equilibrium and 
friendly relations between parties, but rather as the rule of a 
third within a certain region a house, an estate, a kingdom. 
This leads on one side to the recognition of private authorities 
the father's in his family, the master's as to servants, the 
lord's as to his personal or territorial dependents. On the other 
hand, the tendency to maintain peace naturally takes its 
course towards the strongest ruler, the king, and we witness 
in Anglo-Saxon law the gradual evolution of more and more 
stringent and complete rules in respect of the king's peace and 
its infringements. 

(c) The more ancient documents of Anglo-Saxon law show us 
the individual not merely as the subject and citizen of a certain 
commonwealth, but also as a member of some group, all the 
fellows of which are closely allied in claims and responsibilities. 
The most elementary of these groups is the maegtk, the pori*- 
tion of agnatic and cognatic relations. Personal protection and 
revenge, oaths, marriage, wardship, succession, supervision over 
settlement, and good behaviour, are regulated by the law of 
kinship. A man's actions are considered not as exertions of his 
individual will, but as acts of the kindred, and all the fellows of 
the maegth are held responsible for them. What began as a 
natural alliance was used later as a means of enforcing responsi- 
bility and keeping lawless individuals in order. When the 
association of kinsmen failed, the voluntary associations gilds 
appeared as substitutes. The gild brothers associated in 
mutual defence and support, and they had to share in the 
payment of fines. The township and the hundred came also in 
for certain forms of collective responsibility, because they pre- 
sented groups of people associated in their economic and legal 
interests. 

(d) In course of time the natural associations get loosened and 
intermixed, and this calls forth the elaborate police legislation 
of the later Anglo-Saxon kings. Regulations are issued about 
the sale of cattle in the presence of witnesses. Enactments about 
the pursuit of thieves, and the calling in of warrantors to justify 
sales of chattels, are other expressions of the difficulties attending 
peaceful intercourse. Personal surety appears as a complement 
of and substitute for collective responsibility. The Uojord and 
his hircdmtn are an institution not only of private patronage, 
but also of police supervision for the sake of laying hands on 
malefactors and suspected persons. The landrica assumes the 
same part in a territorial district. Ultimately the laws of the 
loth and nth centuries show the beginnings of the frankpledge 
associations, which came to act so important a part in the local 
police and administration of the feudal age. 

The points mentioned are not many, but, apart from their 
intrinsic importance in any system of law, they are, as it were, 
made prominent by the documents themselves, as they are 
constantly referred to in the latter. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Editions: Liebermann, Dit Geseite der Angd- 
sachsen (1903, 1906) is indispensable, and leaves nothing to be 
desired as to the constitution of the texts. The translations and 
notes are, of course, to be considered in the light of an instructive, 
but not final, commentary. R. Schmid, Grsetze der Antelttuhun 
(2nd ed., Leipzig, 1858) is still valuable on account of its handincss 



ANGLO-SAXONS ANGOLA 



and the fulness of its glossary. B. Thorpe, Ancient Laws and 
Institutes of England (1840) is not very trustworthy. Domesday 
Book, i. ii. (Rec. Comm.) ; Codex Diplomatics Aevi Saxonici, i.-vi. 
ed. I. M. Kemble (1830-1848); Cartularium Saxonicum (up to 940), 
ed. W. de Gray Birch (1885^1893) ; J. Earle, Land Charters (Oxford, 
1888); Thorpe, Diplomatarium Anglicanum; Facsimiles of Ancient 
Charters, edited by the Ordnance Survey and by the British Museum ; 
Haddan and Stubbs, Councils of Great Britain, i.-iii. (Oxford, 1869- 
1878). 

Modern works. Konrad Maurer, Uber Angelsachsische Rechts- 
verhdltnisse, Kritische Ueberschau (Munich, 1853 ff.), still the best 
account of the history of Anglo-Saxon law; Essays on Anglo-Saxon 
Law, by H. Adams, H. C. Lodge, I. L. Laughlin and E. Young 
(1876) ; J. M. Kemble, Saxons in England; F. Palgrave, History of the 
English Commonwealth; Stubbs, Constitutional History of England, 
i. ; Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law, i. ; H. Brunner, 
Zur Rechtsgeschichte der romisch-germanischen Urkunde (1880); 
Sir F. Pollock, The King's Peace (Oxford Lectures) ; F. Seebohm ; 
The English Village Community; Ibid. Tribal Custom in Anglo- 
Saxon Law, Marquardsen, Haft und Burgschaft im Angelsdchsischen 
Recht; Jastrow, Cber die Strafrechtliche Stellung der Sklaven," 
Gierke's Untersuchungen, i. ; Steenstrup, Normannerne, iv. ; F. W. 
Maitland, Domesday and Beyond (Cambridge, 1897) ; H.M. Chadwick, 
Studies on Anglo-Saxon Institutions (1905); P. Vinogradoff, " Folc- 
land " in the English Historical Review, 1893; " Romanistische Ein- 
fliisse im Angelsachsischen Recht : Das Buchland " in the Melanges 
Fitting, 1907; "The Transfer of Land in Old English Law" in 
the Harvard Law Review, 1907. (P. Vi.) 

ANGLO-SAXONS. The term " Anglo-Saxon " is commonly 
applied to that period of English history, language and literature 
which preceded the Norman Conquest. It goes back to the time 
of King Alfred, who seems to have frequently used the title rex 
Anglorum Saxonum or rex Angul-Saxonum. The origin of this 
title is not quite clear. It is generally believed to have arisen 
from the final union of the various kingdoms under Alfred in 
886. Bede (Hist. Eccl. i. 15) states that the people of the more 
northern kingdoms (East Anglia, Mercia, Northumbria, &c.) 
belonged to the Angli, while those of Essex, Sussex and Wessex 
were sprung from the Saxons (q.v.), and those of Kent and 
southern Hampshire from the Jutes (q.v.). Other early writers, 
however, do not observe these distinctions, and neither in 
language nor in custom do we find evidence of any appreciable 
differences between the two former groups, though in custom 
Kent presents most remarkable contrasts with the other king- 
doms. Still more curious is the fact that West Saxon writers 
regularly speak of their own nation as a part of the Angelcyn 
and of their language as Englisc, while the West Saxon royal 
family claimed to be of the same stock as that of Bernicia. On 
the other hand, it is by no means impossible that the distinction 
drawn by Bede was based solely on the names Essex (East 
Seaxan), East Anglia, &c. We need not doubt that the Angli 
and the Saxons were different nations originally; but from the 
evidence at our disposal it seems likely that they had practically 
coalesced in very early times, perhaps even before the invasion. 
At all events the term Angli Saxones seems to have first come 
into use on the continent, where we find it, nearly a century 
before Alfred's time, in the writings of Paulus Diaconus (Paul 
the Deacon). There can be little doubt, however, that there it 
was used to distinguish the Teutonic inhabitants of Britain from 
the Old Saxons of the continent. 

See W. H. Stevenson, Asser's Life of King Alfred (Oxford, 1904, 
pp. 148 ff.); H. Munro Chadwick, The Origin of the English Nation 
(Cambridge, 1907); also BRITAIN, Anglo-Saxon. (H. M. CO 

ANGOLA, the general name of the Portuguese possessions on 
the west coast of Africa south of the equator. With the exception 
of the enclave of Kabinda (q.v.) the province lies wholly south of 
the river Congo. Bounded on the W. by the Atlantic Ocean, it 
extends along the coast from the southern bank of the Congo 
(6 S., 12 E.) to the mouth of the Kunene river (17 18' S., 
11 50' E.). The coast-line is some ooo m. long. On the north 
the Congo forms for 80 m. the boundary separating Angola from 
the Congo Free State. The frontier thence (in 5 52' S.) goes due 
east to the Kwango river. The eastern boundary dividing the 
Portuguese possessions from the Congo State and Barotseland 
(N.W. Rhodesia) is a highly irregular line. On the south 
Angola borders German South-West Africa, the frontier being 
drawn somewhat S. of the I7th degree of S. latitude. The area 



of the province is about 480,000 sq. m. The population is 
estimated (1906) at 4,119,000. 

The name Angola (a Portuguese corruption of the Bantu word 
Ngold) is sometimes confined to the 105 m. of coast, with its 
hinterland, between the mouths of the rivers Dande and Kwanza, 
forming the central portion of the Portuguese dominions in West 
Africa; in a looser manner Angola is used to designate all the 
western coast of Africa south of the Congo in the possession of 
Portugal; but the name is now officially applied to the whole of 
the province. Angola is divided into five districts: four on the 
coast, the fifth, Lunda, wholly inland, being the N.E. part of the 
province. Lunda is part of the old Bantu kingdom of Muata 
Yanvo, divided by international agreement between Portugal 
and the Congo Free State. 

The coast divisions of Angola are Congo on the N. (from the 
river Congo to the river Loje), corresponding roughly with the 
limits of the " kingdom of Congo " (see History below) ; Loanda, 
which includes Angola in the most restricted sense mentioned 
above; Benguella and Mossamedes to the south. Mossamedes 
is again divided into two portions the coast region and the 
hinterland, known as Huilla. 

Physical Features. The coast is for the most part flat, with 
occasional low cliffs and bluffs of red sandstone. There is but 
one deep inlet of the sea Great Fish Bay (or Bahia dos Tigres), 
a little north of the Portuguese-German frontier. Farther north 
are Port Alexander, Little Fish Bay and Lobito Bay, while 
shallower bays are numerous. Lobito Bay has water sufficient 
to allow large ships to unload close inshore. The coast plain 
extends inland for a distance varying from 30 to too m. This 
region is in general sparsely watered and somewhat sterile. The 
approach to the great central plateau of Africa is marked by a 
series of irregular terraces. This intermediate mountain belt is 
covered with luxuriant vegetation. Water is fairly abundant, 
though in the dry season obtainable only by digging in the sandy 
beds of the rivers. The plateau has an altitude ranging from 
4000 to 6000 ft. It consists of well-watered, wide, rolling plains, 
and low hills with scanty vegetation. In the east the tableland 
falls away to the basins of the Congo and Zambezi, to the south 
it merges into a barren sandy desert. A large number of rivers 
make their way westward to the sea; they rise, mostly, in the 
mountain belt, and are unimportant, the only two of any size 
being the Kwanza and the Kunene, separately noticed. The 
mountain chain^ which form the edge of the plateau, or diversify 
its surface, run generally parallel to the coast, as Tala Mugongo 
(4400 ft.), Chella and Vissecua (5250 ft. to 6500 ft.). In the 
district of Benguella are the highest points of the province, viz. 
Loviti(778oft.),in 12 s'S.,andMt. Elonga (7550 ft.). South of 
the Kwanza is the volcanic mountain Caculo-Cabaza (3300 ft.). 
From the tableland the Kwango and many other streams flow 
north to join the Kasai (one of the largest affluents of the Congo), 
which in its upper course forms for fully 300 m. the boundary 
between Angola and the Congo State. In the south-east part of 
the province the rivers belong either to the Zambezi system, or, 
like the Okavango, drain to Lake Ngami. 

Geology. The rock formations of Angola are met with in three 
distinct regions: (i) the littoral zone, (2) the median zone formed 
by a series of hills more or less parallel with the coast, (3) the 
central plateau. The central plateau consists of ancient crystal- 
line rocks with granites overlain by unfossiliferous sandstones 
and conglomerates considered to be of Palaeozoic age. The 
outcrops are largely hidden under laterite. The median zone is 
composed largely of crystalline rocks with granites and some 
Palaeozoic unfossiliferous rocks. The littoral zone contains the 
only fossiliferous strata. These are of Tertiary and Cretaceous 
ages, the latter rocks resting on a reddish sandstone of older date. 
The Cretaceous rocks of the Dombe Grande region (near Ben- 
guella) are of Albian age and belong to the A canthoceras mamillari 
zone. The beds containing Schloenbachia inflata are referable to 
the Gault. Rocks of Tertiary age are met with at Dombe Grande, 
Mossamedes and near Loanda. The sandstones with gypsum, 
copper and sulphur of Dombe are doubtfully considered to be of 
Triassic age. Recent eruptive rocks, mainly basalts, form a line 



ANGOLA 



39 



of hilts almost bare of vegetation between Benguella and Mi 
medcs. Nephelinc basalts and tiparite* occur at Dombe Grande. 
The presence of gum copal in considerable quantities in the 
superficial rocks is characteristic of certain regions. 

Climate. With the exception of the district of Mossamedes, 
the coast plains arc unsuited to Europeans. In the interior, 
above 3300 ft., the temperature and rainfall, together with 
malaria, decrease. The plateau climate is healthy and invigor- 
ating. The mean annual temperature at Sao Salvador do Congo 
.-5 F.; at Loanda, 74-3; and at Caconda, 67-3". The 
climate is greatly influenced by the prevailing winds, which arc 
\\ . S.W. and S.S.W. Two seasons are distinguished the cool, 
from June to September; and the rainy, from October to May. 
The heaviest rainfall occurs in April, and is accompanied by 
violent storms. 

Flora and Fauna. Both flora and fauna are those character- 
istic of the greater part of tropical Africa. As far south as 
Benguella the coast region is rich in oil-palms and mangroves. 
In the northern part of the province are dense forests. In the 
south towards the Kunenc are regions of dense thorn scrub. 
Rubber vines and trees are abundant, but in some districts 
their number has been considerably reduced by the ruthless 
methods adopted by native collectors of rubber. The species 
most common are various root rubbers, notably the Carpodinus 
ckylorrkita. This species and other varieties of carpodinus are 
very widely distributed. Landolphias are also found. The 
coffee, cotton and Guinea pepper plants are indigenous, and the 
tobacco plant flourishes in several districts. Among the trees 
are several which yield excellent timber, such as the tacula 
(Pterocarpus tinctorius), which grows to an immense size, its 
wood being blood-red in colour, and the Angola mahogany. 
The bark of the musuemba (Albizzia coriaria) is largely used in 
the tanning of leather. The mulundo bears a fruit about the 
size of a cricket ball covered with a hard green shell and con- 
taining scarlet pips like a pomegranate. The fauna includes 
the lion, leopard, cheetah, elephant, giraffe, rhinoceros, hippo- 
potamus, buffalo, zebra, kudu and many other kinds of antelope, 
wild pig, ostrich and crocodile. Among fish are the barbel, 
bream and African yellow fish. 

Inhabitants. The great majority of the inhabitants are of 
Bantu-Negro stock with some admixture in the Congo district 
with the pure- negro type. In the south-east are various tribes 
of Bushmen. The best-known of the Bantu-Negro tribes are 
the Ba-Kongo (Ba-Fiot), who dwell chiefly in the north, and 
the Abunda (Mbunda, Ba-Bundo), who occupy the central part 
of the province, which takes its name from the Ngola tribe of 
Abunda. Another of these tribes, the Bangala, living on the 
west bank of the upper Kwango, must not be confounded with 
the Bangala of the middle Congo. In the Abunda is a consider- 
able strain of Portuguese blood. The Ba-Lunda inhabit the 
Lunda district. Along the upper Kunene and in other districts 
of the plateau arc settlements of Boers, the Boer population 
being about 2000. In the coast- towns the majority of the white 
inhabitants are Portuguese. The Mushi-Kongo and other divi- 
sions of the Ba-Kongo retain curious traces of the Christianity 
professed by them in the i6th and iyth centuries and possibly 
later. Crucifixes are used as potent fetish charms or as symbols 
of power passing down from chief to chief; whilst every native 
has a " Santu " or Christian name and is dubbed dom or dona. 
Fetishism is the prevailing religion throughout the province. 
The dwelling-places of the natives arc usually small huts of the 
simplest constuction, used chiefly as sleeping apartments; 
the day is spent in an open space in front of the hut protected 
from the sun by a roof of palm or other leaves. 

Chief Towns. The chief towns are Sao Paulo de Loanda, 
the capital, Kabinda, Benguella and Mossamedes (q.v.). Lobito, 
a little north of Benguella, is a town which dates fro/n 1905 and 
owes its existence to the bay of the same name having been 
chosen as the sea terminus of a railway to the far interior. Noki 
is on the southern bank of the Congo at the head of navigation 
from the sea, and close to the Congo Free State frontier. It 
is available for ships of large tonnage, and through it passes 



the Portuguese portion of the trade of the lower Congo. Ambriz 
the only seaport of consequence in the Congo district of the 
province is at the mouth of the Loje river, about 70 m. N. of 
Ix>anla. Novo Redondo and Egito are small ports between 
Loanda and Benguella. Port Alexander is in the district of 
Moesamedes and S. of the town of that name. 

In the interior Humpata, about 95 m. from MoMamede*, 
is the chief centre of the Boer settlers; otherwise there are none 
but native towns containing from 1000 to 3000 inhabitants 
and often enclosed by a ring of sycamore trees. Ambaca and 
Malanjc are the chief places in the fertile agricultural district 
of the middle Kwanza, S.E. of Loanda, with which they are in 
railway communication. Sao Salvador (pop. 1500) is the name 
given by the Portuguese to Bonza Congo, the chief town of the 
" kingdom of Congo." It stands 1840 ft. above sea-level and 
is about 160 m. inland and 100 S.E. of the river port of Noki, 
in 6 1 5' S. Of the cathedral and other stone buildings erected 
in the i6th century, there exist but scanty ruins. The city walls 
were destroyed in the closing yean of the igth century and the 
stone used to build government offices. There is a fort, built 
about 1850, and a small military force is at the disposal of the 
Portuguese resident. Bembe and Encoje are smaller towns in 
the Congo district south of Sao Salvador. Bihe, the capital of 
the plateau district of the same name forming the hinterland of 
Benguella, is a large caravan centre. Kangomba, the residence 
of the king of Bihe, is a large town. Caconda is in the hill 
country S.E. of Benguella. 

Agriculture and Trade. Angola is rich in both agricultural 
and mineral resources. Amongst the cultivated products are 
mealies and manioc, the sugar-cane and cotton, coffee and tobacco 
plants. The chief exports are coffee, rubber, wax, palm kernels 
and palm-oil, cattle and hides and dried or salt fish. Gold dust, 
cotton, ivory and gum are also exported. The chief imports are 
food-stuffs, cotton and woollen goods and hardware. Consider- 
able quantities of coal come from South Wales. Oxen, intro- 
duced from Europe and from South Africa, flourish. There are 
sugar factories, where rum is also distilled and a few other 
manufactures, but the prosperity of the province depends on 
the " jungle " products obtained through the natives and from 
the plantations owned by Portuguese and worked by indentured 
labour, the labourers being generally " recruited " from the far 
interior. The trade of the province, which had grown from 
about 800,000 in 1870 to about 3,000,000 in 1005, is largely 
with Portugal and in Portuguese bottoms. Between 1893 and 
1904 the percentage of Portuguese as compared with foreign 
goods entering the province increased from 43 to 201 %, a result 
due to the preferential duties in force. 

The minerals found include thick beds of copper at Bembe, 
and deposits on the M'Brije and the Cuvo and in various places 
in the southern part of the province; iron at Ociras (on the 
Lucalla affluent of the Kwanza) and in Bailundo; petroleum 
and asphalt in Dande and Quinzao; gold in Lombije and 
Cassinga; and mineral salt in Quissama. The native black- 
smiths are held in great repute. 

Communications. There is a regular steamship communication 
between Portugal, England and Germany, and Loanda, which 
port is within sixteen days' steam of Lisbon. There is also a 
regular service between Cape Town, Lobito and Lisbon and 
Southampton. The Portuguese line is subsidized by the govern- 
ment. The railway from Loanda to Ambaca and Malanje is 
known as the Royal Trans-African railway. It is of metre 
gauge, was begun in 1887 and is some 300 m. long. It was in- 
tended to carry the line across the continent to Mozambique, 
but when the line reached Ambaca (225 m.) in 1894 that scheme 
was abandoned. The railway had created a record in being the 
most expensive built in tropical Africa 8942 per mile. A 
railway from Lobito Bay, 25 m. N. of Benguella, begun in 1904, 
runs towards the Congo-Rhodesia frontier. It is of standard 
African gauge (3 ft. 6 in.) and is worked by an English company. 
It is intended to serve the Katanga copper mines. Besides 
these two main railways, there are other short lines linking 
the seaports to their hinterland. Apart from the railways. 



ANGORA 



communication is by ancient caravan routes and by ox-wagon 
tracks in the southern district. Riding-oxen are also used. The 
province is well supplied with telegraphic communication and is 
connected with Europe by submarine cables. 

Government and Revenue. The administration of the province 
is carried on under a governor-general, resident at Loanda, who 
acts under the direction of the ministry of the colonies at Lisbon. 
At the head of each district is a local governor. Legislative 
powers, save those delegated to the governor-general, are 
exercised by the home government. Revenue is raised chiefly 
from customs, excise duties and direct taxation. The revenue 
(in 1904-1005 about 350,000) is generally insufficient to meet 
expenditure (in 1004-1905 over 490,000) the balance being 
met by a grant from the mother country. Part of the extra 
expenditure is, however, on railways and other reproductive 
works. 

History. The Portuguese established themselves on the west 
coast of Africa towards the close of the i sth century. The river 
Congo was discovered by Diogo Cam or Cio in 1482. He erected 
a stone pillar at the mouth of the river, which accordingly took 
the title of Rio de Padrao, and established friendly relations 
with the natives, who reported that the country was subject to 
a great monarch, Mwani Congo or lord of Congo, resident at 
Bonza Congo. The Portuguese were not long in making them- 
selves influential in the country. Goncalo de Sousa was 
despatched on a formal embassy in 1490; and the first mis- 
sionaries entered the country in his train. The king was soon 
afterwards baptized and Christianity was nominally established 
as the national religion. In 1534 a cathedral was founded at 
Bonza Congo (renamed S5o Salvador), and in 1560 the Jesuits 
arrived with Paulo Diaz de Novaes. Of the prosperity of the 
country the Portuguese have left the most glowing and indeed 
incredible accounts. It was, however, about this time ravaged 
by cannibal invaders (Bangala) from the interior, and Portuguese 
influence gradually declined. The attention of the Portuguese 
was, moreover, now turned more particularly to the southern 
districts of Angola. In 1627 the bishop's seat was removed to 
Sao Paulo de Loanda and Sio Salvador declined in importance. 
In the i8th century, in spite of hindrances from Holland and 
France, steps were taken towards re-establishing Portuguese 
authority in the northern regions; in 1758 a settlement was 
formed at Encoje; from 1784 to 1789 the Portuguese carried 
on a war against the natives of Mussolo (the district immediately 
south of Ambriz); in 1791 they built a fort at Quincollo on the 
Loje, and for a time they worked the mines of Bembe. Until, 
however, the " scramble for Africa" began in 1884, they possessed 
no fort or settlement on the coast to the north of Ambriz, which 
was first occupied in 1855. At S3.O Salvador, however, the 
Portuguese continued to exercise influence. The last of the 
native princes who had real authority was a potentate known 
as Dom Pedro V. He was placed on the throne in 1855 with the 
help of a Portuguese force, and reigned over thirty years. In 
1888 a Portuguese resident was stationed at Salvador, and the 
kings of Congo became pensioners of the government. 

Angola proper, and the whole coast-line of what now con- 
stitutes the province of that name, was discovered by Diogo Cam 
during 1482 and the three following years. The first governor 
sent to Angola was Paulo Diaz, a grandson of Bartholomew Diaz, 
who reduced to submission the region south of the Kwanza nearly 
as far as Benguella. The city of Loanda was founded in 1576, 
Benguella in 1617. From that date the sovereignty of Portugal 
over the coast-line, from its present southern limit as far north 
as Ambriz (7 50' S.) has been undisputed save between 1640 
and 1648, during which time the Dutch attempted to expel the 
Portuguese and held possession of the ports. Whilst the economic 
development of the country was not entirely neglected and many 
useful food products were introduced, the prosperity of the 
province was very largely dependent on the slave trade with 
Brazil, which was not legally abolished until 1830 and in fact 
continued for many years subsequently. 

In 1884 Great Britain, which up to that time had steadily 
refused to acknowledge that Portugal possessed territorial rights 



north of Ambriz, concluded a treaty recognizing Portuguese 
sovereignty over both banks of the lower Congo; but the treaty, 
meeting with opposition in England and Germany, was not 
ratified. Agreements concluded with the Congo Free State, 
Germany and France in 1885-1886 (modified in details by 
subsequent arrangements) fixed the limits of the province, except 
in the S.E., where the frontier between Barotseland (N.W. 
Rhodesia) and Angola was determined by an Anglo-Portuguess 
agreement of 1891 and the arbitration award of the king of Italy 
in 1905 (see AFRICA: History). Up to the end of the igth century 
the hold of Portugal over the interior of the province was slight, 
though its influence extended to the Congo and Zambezi basins. 
The abolition of the external slave trade proved very injurious 
to the trade of the seaports, but from 1860 onward the agricultural 
resources of the country were developed with increasing energy, 
a work in which Brazilian merchants took the lead. After the 
definite partition of Africa among the European powers, Portugal 
applied herself with some seriousness to exploit Angola and her 
other African possessions. Nevertheless, in comparison with its 
natural wealth the development of the country has been slow. 
Slavery and the slave trade continued to flourish in the interior 
in the early years of the 2oth century, despite the prohibitions of 
the Portuguese government. The extension of authority over 
the inland tribes proceeded very slowly and was not accomplished 
without occasional reverses. Thus in September 1904 a Portu- 
guese column lost over 300 men killed, including 1 14 Europeans, 
in an encounter with the Kunahamas on the Kunene, not far from 
the German frontier. The Kunahamas are a wild, raiding tribe 
and were probably largely influenced by the revolt of their 
southern neighbours, the Hereros, against the Germans. In 1905 
and again in 1907 there was renewed fighting in the same region. 
AUTHORITIES. E. de Vasconcellos, As Colonias Portuguesas 
(Lisbon, 1896-1897); J. J. Monteiro, Angola and the River Congo 
(2 vols. London, 1875) ; Viscount de Paiva Manso, Historia do Congo 
. . . . (Documentos) (Lisbon, 1877); A Report of the Kingdom of 
Congo (London, 1881), an English translation, with notes by Mar- 

Erite Hutchinson, of Filippo Pigafetta's Relatione del Rearne di 
>ngo (Rome, 1591), a book founded on the statements and writings 
of Duarte Lopez; Rev. Thos. Lewis, " The Ancient Kingdom of 
Kongo " in Geographical Journal, vol. xix. and vol. xxxi. (London, 
1 002 and 1908); The Strange Adventures of Andrew Battell of Leigh 
in Angola and the Adjoining Regions (London, 1901), a volume of 
the Hakluyt Society, edited by E. G. Ravenstein, who gives in 
appendices the history of the country from its discovery to the end 
of the 1 7th century; J. C. Feo Cardozo, Memorias contendo .... a 
historia dos governadores e capitaens generaes de Angola, desde 1575 
ate 1825 (Paris, 1825) ; H. W. Nevinson, A Modern Slavery (London, 
1906), an examination of the system of indentured labour and its 
recruitment; Ornithologie d' Angola, by J. V. Barboza du Bocage 
(Lisbon, 1881); " Geologic des Colonies portugaises en Afrique," 
by P. Choffat, in Com. d. service geol. du Portugal. See also the annual 
reports on the Trade of Angola, issued by the British Foreign Office. 

ANGORA, or ENGURI. (i) A city of Turkey (anc. Ancyra) in 
Asia, capital of the vilayet of the same name, situated upon a steep, 
rocky hill, which rises 500 ft. above the plain, on the left bank of 
the Enguri Su, a tributary of the Sakaria(Sangarius), about 22om. 
E.S.E. of Constantinople. The hill is crowned by the ruins of 
the old citadel, which add to the picturesqueness of the view; but 
the town is not well built, its streets being narrow and many of its 
houses constructed of sun-dried mud bricks; there are, however, 
many fine remains of Graeco-Roman and Byzantine architecture, 
the most remarkable being the temple of Rome and Augustus, on 
the walls of which is the famous Monumenlum A ncyranum (see 
ANCYRA). Ancyra was the centre of the Tectosages, one of the 
three Gaulish tribes which settled in Galatia in the 3rd century 
B.C., and became the capital of the Roman province of Galatia 
when it was formally constituted in 25 B.C. During the Byzan- 
tine period, throughout which it occupied a position of great 
importance, it was captured by Persians and Arabs; then it fell 
into the hands of the Seljuk Turks, was held for eighteen years by 
the Latin Crusaders, and finally passed to the Ottoman Turks in 
1360. In 1402 a great battle was fought in the vicinity of Angora, 
in which the Turkish sultan Bayezid was defeated and made 
prisoner by the Tatar conqueror Timur. In 1415 it was recovered 
by the Turks under Mahommed I., and since that period has 



ANGOULEMfi 



belonged to the Ottoman empire. In 1832 it WM taken by the 
Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha. Angora is connected with 
Constantinople by railway, and exports wool, mohair, grain and 
yellow berries. Mohair doth is manufactured, and the town is 
noted for its honey and fruit. From 1639 to 1768 there was an 
agency of the Levant Company here; there is now a British 
consul. Pop. estimated at 28,000 (Moslems, 18,000; Christians, 
largely Roman Catholic Armenians, about 0400; Jews, 400). 

(3) A Turkish vilayet in north-central Asia Minor, which 
includes most of the ancient Galatia. It is an agricultural 
country, depending for its prosperity on its grain, wool (average 
annual export, 4,400,000 tb), and the mohair obtained from the 
beautiful Angora goats (average annual clip, 3,300,000 Ib). The 
fineness of the hair may perhaps be ascribed to some peculiarity 
in the atmosphere, for it is remarkable that the cats, dogs and 
other animals of the country are to a certain extent affected in 
the same way, and that they all lose much of their distinctive 
beauty when taken from their native districts. The only im- 
portant industry is carpet-weaving at Kir-sheher and Kaisarieh. 
There are mines of silver, copper, lignite and salt, and many hot 
springs, including some of great repute medicinally. Average 
annual exports 1806-1808, 920,762; imports, 411,836. Pop. 
about 000,000 (Moslems, 765,000 to 800,000, the rest being 
Christians, with a few hundred Jews). (J. G. C. A.) 

See C. Ritter, Erdkunde ton Alien (vol. xviii., 1837-1839); V. 
Cuinet, La Turquie d'Asit, t. i. (1891); Murray's Handbook to Asia 
Minor (1895); and other works mentioned under ANCYRA. 

ANGOULBMB, CHARLES DE VALOIS, DUKE OF (1573-1650), 
the natural son of Charles IX. of France and Marie Touchet, was 
born on the 28th of April 1573,31 the castle of Fayet in Dauphine. 
His father, dying in the following year, commended him to the 
care and favour of his brother and successor, Henry III., who 
faithfully fulfilled the charge. His mother married Francois de 
Balzac, marquis d'Entragues, and one of her daughters, Henriette, 
marchioness of Verneuil, afterwards became the mistress of 
Henry IV. Charles of Valois, was carefully educated, and was 
destined for the order of Malta. At the early age of sixteen he 
attained one of the highest dignities of the order, being made 
grand prior of France. Shortly after he came into possession of 
large estates left by Catherine de' Medici, from one of which he 
took his title of count of Auverg^ne. In 1591 he obtained a 
dispensation from the vows of the order of Malta, and married 
Charlotte, daughter of Henry, Marshal d'Amville, afterwards 
duke of Montmorency. In 1 589 Henry III. was assassinated, but 
on his deathbed he commended Charles to the good-will of his 
successor Henry IV. By that monarch he was made colonel of 
horse, and in that capacity served in the campaigns during the 
early part of the reign. But the connexion between the king and 
the marchioness of Verneuil appears to have been very displeasing 
to Auvergne, and in 1601 he engaged in the conspiracy formed by 
the dukes of Savoy, Biron and Bouillon, one of the objects of 
which was to force Henry to repudiate his wife and marry 
the marchioness. The conspiracy was discovered; Biron and 
Auvergne were arrested and Biron was executed. Auvergne 
after a few months' imprisonment was released, chiefly through 
the influence of his half-sister, his aunt, the duchess of Angoule 1 me 
and his father-in-law. He then entered into fresh intrigues with 
the court of Spain, acting in concert with the marchioness of 
Verneuil and her father d'Entragues. In 1604 d'Entragues and 
he were arrested and condemned to death; at the same time the 
marchioness was condemned to perpetual imprisonment in a 
convent. She easily obtained pardon, and the sentence of death 
against the other two was commuted into perpetual imprisonment. 
Auvergne remained in the Bastille for eleven years, from 1605 to 
1616. A decree of the parlement (1606), obtained by Marguerite 
de Valois, deprived him of nearly all his possessions, including 
Auvergne, though he still retained the title. In 1616 he was 
released, was restored to his rank of colonel-general of horse, and 
despatched against one of the disaffected nobles, the duke of 
Longuc ville, who had taken Pe>onne. Next year he commanded 
the forces collected in the lie de France, and obtained some 
successes. In 1619 he received by bequest, ratified in 1620 by 



royal grant, the duchy of Angoule'me. Soon after he was engaged 
on an important embassy to Germany, the result of which was the 
treaty of Ulm, signed July 1620. In 1627 he com minded the large 
forces assembled at the siege of La Rochelle; and some yean after 
in 1635, during the Thirty Years' War, be was general of the 
French army in Lorraine. In 1636 he was made lieutenant- 
general of the army. He appears to have retired from public life 
shortly after the death of Richelieu in 1643. His first wife died 
in 1636, and in 1644 he married Francoisc de Narbonne, daughter 
of Charles, baron of Mareuil. She bad no children and survived 
her husband until 1713. Angoule'me himself died on the 24th of 
September 1650. By his first wife he had three children: Henri, 
who became insane; Louis Emmanuel, who succeeded his father 
as duke of Angoule'me and was colonel-general of light cavalry 
and governor of Provence; and Francois, who died in 1622. 

The duke was the author of the following works: (i)Mhtunrei. 
from the assassination of Henri III. to the battle of Arque* (15*97 
1 J>93). published at Paris by Boneau, and reprinted by Buchon in his 
Choix de chroniques (1836) and by Petitot in his Uemoirei (1st series, 
vol. xliv.) ; (2) Lei Harangues, prononcfs en aisemblee de ttU. lei 
princes protestants d'AUemagne, par Monseigneur le due d' Angoulttne 
(1620); (3) a translation of a Spanish work by Diego de Torre*. 
To him has also been ascribed the work, La tentroJe etfidete RUation 
de lout ce gut s'eil passi en I'isle de Ri, envoyfe par U roi a la royne 
sa mire (Paris, 1627). 

ANGOULEME. a city of south-western France, capital of 
the department of Charente, 83 m. N.N.E. of Bordeaux on the 
railway between Bordeaux and Poitiers. Pop. (1006) 30,040. 
The town proper occupies an elevated promontory, washed on 
the north by the Charente and on the south and west by the 
Anguienne, a small tributary of that river. The more important 
of the suburbs lie towards the east, where the promontory joins 
the main plateau, of which it forms the north-western extremity. 
The main line of the Orleans railway passes through a tunnel 
beneath the town. In place of its ancient fortifications Angou- 
le'me is encircled by boulevards known as the Reimports, from 
which fine views may be obtained in all directions. Within the 
town the streets are often dark and narrow, and, apart from the 
cathedral and the hotol de ville, the architecture is of little 
interest. The cathedral of St Pierre (see CATHEDRAL), a church 
in the Byzantine- Romanesque style, dates from the nth and 
1 2th centuries, but has undergone frequent restoration, and was 
partly rebuilt in the latter half of the iqth century by the 
architect Paul Abadie. The facade, flanked by two towers with 
cupolas, is decorated with arcades filled in with statuary and 
sculpture, the whole representing the Lost Judgment. The 
crossing is surmounted by a dome, and the extremity of the 
north transept by a fine square tower over 160 ft. high. The 
hotel de ville, also by Abadie, is a handsome modern structure, 
but preserves two towers of the chateau of the counts of Angou- 
le'me, on the site of which it is built. It contains museums of 
paintings and archaeology. Angoule'me is the seat of a bishop, 
a prefect, and a court of assizes. Its public institutions include 
tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a council of trade- 
arbitrators, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank 
of France. It also has a Iyc6e, training-colleges, a school of 
artillery, a library and several learned societies. It is a centre 
of the paper-making industry, with which the town has been 
connected since the i-jth century. Most of the mills are situated 
on the banks of the watercourses in the neighbourhood of the 
town. The subsidiary industries, such as the manufacture of 
machinery and wire fabric, are of considerable importance. 
Iron and copper founding, brewing, tanning, and the manufacture 
of gunpowder, confectionery, heavy iron goods, gloves, boots 
and shoes and cotton goods are also carried on. Commerce is 
carried on in wine, brandy and building-stone. 

Angoule'me (Iciilisma) was taken by Clovis from the Visigoths 
in 507, and plundered by the Normans in the 9th century. In 
1360 it was surrendered by the peace of Bretigny to the English; 
they were, however, expelled in 1373 by the troops of Charles V., 
who granted the town numerous privileges. It suffered much 
during the Wars of Religion, especially in 1568 after its capture 
by the Protestants under Coligny. 



ANGOUMOIS ANGUILLA 



The countship of Angouleme dated from the gth century, the 
most important of the early counts being William Taillefer, 
whose descendants held the title till the end of the 1 2th century. 
Withdrawn from them on more than one occasion by Richard 
Coeur-de-Lion, it passed to King John of England on his marriage 
with Isabel, daughter of Count Adhemar, and by her subsequent 
marriage in 1220 to Hugh X. passed to the Lusignan family, 
counts of Marche. On the death of Hugh XIII. in 1302 without 
issue, his possessions passed to the crown. In 1394 the countship 
came to the house of Orleans, a member of which, Francis I., 
became king of France in 1315 and raised it to the rank of duchy 
in favour of his mother Louise of Savoy. The duchy afterwards 
changed hands several times, one of its holders being Charles of 
Valois, natural son of Charles IX. The last duke was Louis- 
Antoine, eldest son of Charles X., who died in 1844. 

See A. F. Li^vre, Angoulime: histoire, institutions et monuments 
(Angoule'me, 1885). 

ANGOUMOIS, an old province of France, nearly corre- 
sponding to-day to the department of Charente. Its capital 
was Angouleme. 

See Essai d'une bibliothtque historique de fAngoumois, by E. 
Castaigne (1845). 

ANGRA, or ANGRA DO HEROISMO (" Bay of Heroism," a 
name given it in 1829, to commemorate its successful defence 
against the Miguelist party), the former capital of the Portuguese 
archipelago of the Azores, and chief town of an administrative 
district, comprising the islands of Terceira, St George and 
Graciosa. Pop. (1000) 10,788. Angra is built on the south 
coast of Terceira in 38 38' N. and in 27 13' W. It is the 
headquarters of a military command, and the residence of a 
Roman Catholic bishop; its principal buildings are the cathedral, 
military college, arsenal and observatory. The harbour, now of 
little commercial or strategic importance, but formerly a cele- 
brated naval station, is sheltered on the west and south-west by 
the promontory of Mt. Brazil; but it is inferior to the neighbour- 
ing ports of Ponta Delgada and Horta. The foreign trade is not 
large, and consists chiefly in the exportation of pineapples and 
other fruit. Angra served as a refuge for Queen Maria II. of 
Portugal from 1830 to 1833. 

ANGRA PEQUENA, a bay in German South-West Africa, in 
26 38' S., 15 E., discovered by Bartholomew Diaz in 1487. 
F. A. E. Liideritz, of Bremen, established a trading station here 
in 1883, and his agent concluded treaties with the neighbouring 
chiefs, who ceded large tracts of country to the newcomers. 
On the 24th of April 1884 Liideritz transferred his rights to the 
German imperial government, and on the following 7th of 
August a German protectorate over the district was proclaimed. 
(See AFRICA, 5, and GERMAN SOUTH-WEST APRICA.) Angra 
Pequena has been renamed by the Germans Liideritz Bay, and 
the adjacent country is sometimes called Liideritzland. The 
harbour is poor. At the head of the bay is a small town, whence 
a railway, begun in 1006, runs east in the direction of Bechuana- 
land. The surrounding country for many miles is absolute 
desert, except after rare but terrible thunderstorms, when the 
dry bed of the Little Fish river is suddenly filled with a turbulent 
stream, the water finding its way into the bay. 

The islands off the coast of Angra Pequena, together with 
others north and south, were annexed to Great Britain in 1867 
and added to Cape Colony in 1874. Seal Island and Penguin 
Island are in the bay, Ichaboe, Mercury, and Hollam's Bird 
islands are to the north; Halifax, Long, Possession, Albatross, 
Pomona, Plumpudding, and Roastbeef islands are to the south. 
On these islands are guano deposits; the most valuable is on 
Ichaboe Island. 

ANGSTROM, ANDERS JONAS (1814-1874), Swedish physicist, 
was born on the i3th of August 1814 at Logdo, Medelpad, 
Sweden. He was educated at Upsala University, where in 
1839 he became privat docent in physics. In 1842 he went to 
Stockholm Observatory in order to gain experience in practical 
astronomical work, and in the following year he became observer 
at Upsala Observatory. Becoming interested in terrestrial 
magnetism he made many observations of magnetic intensity 



and declination in various parts of Sweden, and was charged by 
the Stockholm Academy of Sciences with the task, not completed 
till shortly before his death, of working out the magnetic data 
obtained by the Swedish frigate " Eugenie " on her voyage 
round the world in 1851-1853. In 1858 he succeeded Adolph 
Ferdinand Svanberg (1806-1857) in the chair of physics at 
Upsala, and there he died on the 2ist of June 1874. His most 
important work was concerned with the conduction of heat and 
with spectroscopy. In his optical researches, Optiska Undersok- 
ningar, presented to the Stockholm Academy in 1853, he not 
only pointed out that the electric spark yields two superposed 
spectra, one from the metal of the electrode and the other from 
the gas in which it passes, but deduced from Euler's theory of 
resonance that an incandescent gas emits luminous rays of the 
same refrangibility as those which it can absorb. This statement, 
as Sir E. Sabine remarked when awarding him the Rumford 
medal of the Royal Society in 1872, contains a fundamental 
principle of spectrum analysis, and though for a number of years 
it was overlooked it entitles him to rank as one of the founders 
of spectroscopy. From 1861 onwards he paid special attention 
to the solar spectrum. He announced the existence of hydrogen, 
among other elements, in the sun's atmosphere in 1862, and in 
1868 published his great map of the normal solar spectrum 
which long remained authoritative in questions of wave-length, 
although his measurements were inexact to the extent of one 
part in 7000 or 8000 owing to the metre which he used as his 
standard having been slightly too short. He was the first, in 
1867, to examine the spectrum of the aurora borealis, and 
detected and measured the characteristic bright line in its yellow 
green region; but he was mistaken in supposing that this same 
line, which is often called by his name, is also to be seen in the 
zodiacal light. 

His son, KNUT JOHAN ANGSTROM, was born at Upsala on the 
i2th of January 1857, and studied at the university of that town 
from 1877 to 1884. After spending a short time in Strassburg he 
was appointed lecturer in physics at Stockholm University in 
1885, but in 1891 returned to Upsala, where in 1896 he became 
professor of physics. He especially devoted himself to investiga- 
tions of the radiation of heat from the sun and its absorption by 
the earth's atmosphere, and to that end devised various delicate 
methods and instruments, including his electric compensation 
pyrheliometer, invented in 1893, and apparatus for obtaining a 
photographic representation of the infra-red spectrum (1895). 

ANGUIER, FRANCOIS (c. 1604-1669), and MICHEL (1612- 
1686), French sculptors, were two brothers, natives of Eu in 
Normandy. Their apprenticeship was served in the studio of 
Simon Guillain. The chief works of Francois are the monument 
to Cardinal de Berulle, founder of the Carmelite order, in the 
chapel of the oratory at Paris, of which all but the bust has been 
destroyed, and the mausoleum of Henri II., last due de Mont- 
morency, at Moulins. To Michel are due the sculptures of the 
triumphal arch at the Porte St Denis, begun in 1674, to serve 
as a memorial for the conquests of Louis XIV. A marble group 
of the Nativity in the church of Val de Grace was reckoned 
his masterpiece. From 1662 to 1667 he directed the progress of 
the sculpture and decoration in this church, and it was he who 
superintended the decoration of the apartments of Anne of 
Austria in the old Louvre. F. Fouquet also employed him for his 
chateau in Vaux. 

See Henri Stein, LesfrZres Anguier (1889), with catalogue of works, 
and many references to original sources; Armand Sanson, Deux 
sculpteurs Normands: les freres Anguier (1889). 

ANGUILLA, or SNAKE, a small island in the British Indies, 
part of the presidency of St Kitts-Nevis, in the colony of the 
Leeward Islands. Pop. (1901) 3890, mostly negroes. It is 
situated in 18 12' N. and 63 5' W., about 60 m. N.W. of St 
Kitts, is 1 6 m. long and has an area of 35 sq. m. The destruction 
of trees by charcoal-burners has resulted in the almost complete 
deforestation of the island. Nearly all the land is in the hands of 
peasant proprietors, who cultivate sweet potatoes, peas, beans, 
corn, &c., and rear sheep and goats. Cattle, phosphate of lime and 
salt, manufactured from a lake in the interior, are the principal 



ANGULATE ANGUS 



43 



exports, the market for these bring the neighbouring island of 
St Thomas. 

ANGULATE (Lat. antulus, an angle), shaped with comers or 
angles; an adjective used in botany and zoology for the shape 
of stems, leaves and wings. 

ANGUS, EARLS OP. Angus was one of the seven original 
earldoms of the Pictish kingdom of Scotland, said to have been 
occupied by seven brothers of whom Angus was the eldest. The 
Critic line ended with Matilda (fl. 1240), countess of Angus in 
her own right, who married in 1243 Gilbert de Umfravill and 
founded the Norman line of three earls, which ended in 1381, the 
then holder of the title being summoned to the English parlia- 
ment. Meanwhile John Stewart of Bonkyl, co. Berwick, had been 
created earl of Angus in a new line. This third creation ended 
with Margaret Stewart, countess of Angus in her own right, and 
widow of Thomas, i.uh earl of Mar. By an irregular connexion 
with William, ist earl of Douglas, who had married Mar's sister, 
she became the mother of George Douglas, ist earl of Angus 
(c. 1380-1403), and secured a charter of her estates for her son, 
to whom in 1389 the title was granted by King Robert II. He 
was taken prisoner at Homildon Hill and died in England. The 
5th earl was his great-grandson. 

ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS, 5th earl of Angus (c. MSO-C. 1514), 
the famous " Bell the Cat," was born about 1450 and succeeded 
his father, George the 4th earl, in 1462 or 1463. In 1481 he was 
made warden of the east marches, but the next year he joined the 
league against James III. and his favourite Robert Cochranc 
at Lauder, where he earned his nickname by offering to bell the 
cat, i.e. to deal with the latter, beginning the attack upon him 
by pulling his gold chain off his neck and causing him with others 
of the king's favourites to be hanged. Subsequently he joined 
Alexander Stewart, duke of Albany, in league with Edward IV. 
of England, on the i ith of February 1483, signing the convention 
at Westminster which acknowledged the overlordship of the 
English king. In March however they returned, outwardly at 
least, to their allegiance, and received pardons for their treason. 
Later Angus was one of the leaders in the rebellion against 
James in 1487 and 1488, which ended in the latter's death. He 
was made one of the guardians of the young king James IV. but 
soon lost influence, being superseded by the Homes and Hepburns, 
and the wardenship of the marches was given to Alexander Home. 
Though outwardly on good terms with James, he treacherously 
made a treaty with Henry VII. about 1489 or 1491, by which he 
undertook to govern his relations with James according to 
instructions from England, and to hand over Hermitage Castle, 
commanding the pass through Liddesdale into Scotland, on the 
condition of receiving English estates in compensation. In 
October 1491 he fortified his castle of Tantallon against James, 
but was obliged to submit and exchange his Liddesdale estate 
and Hermitage Castle for the lordship of Bothwell. In 1493 
he was again in favour, received various grants of lands, and 
was made chancellor, which office he retained till 1498. In 1501 
he was once more in disgrace and confined to Dumbarton 
Castle. After the disaster at Flodden in 1513, at which he was 
not present, but at which he lost his two eldest sons, Angus was 
appointed one of the counsellors of the queen regent. He died 
at the close of this year, or in 1514. He was married three times, 
and by bis first wife had four sons and several daughters. His 
third son, Gavin Douglas, bishop of Dunkeld, is separately 
noticed. 

ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS, the 6th earl (c. 1480-1557), son of 
George, master of Douglas, who was killed at Flodden, succeeded 
on his grandfather's death. In 1509 he had married Margaret 
(d. 1513), daughter of Patrick Hepburn, ist earl of Bothwell; 
and in 1514 he married the queen dowager Margaret of Scotland, 
widow of James IV., and eldest sister of Henry VIII. By this 
latter act he stirred up the jealousy of the nobles and the opposi- 
tion of the French party, and civil war broke out. He was 
superseded in the government on the arrival of John Stewart, 
duke of Albany, who was made regent. Angus withdrew to his 
estates in Forfarshire, while Albany besieged the queen at 
Stirling and got possession of the royal children; then he joined 



Margaret after her flight at Morpcth, and on her departure for 
London returned and made his peace with Albany in 1516. 
He met her once more at Berwick in June 1517, when Margaret 
returned to Scotland on Albany's departure in vain hopes of 
regaining the regency. Meanwhile, during Margaret's absence, 
Angus had formed a connexion with a daughter of the laird of 
Traquair. Margaret avenged his neglect of her by refuting to 
support his claims for power and by secretly trying through 
Albany to get a divorce. In Edinburgh Angus held his own 
against the attempts of James Hamilton, ist earl of Arran, to 
dislodge him. But the return of Albany in 1521, with whom 
Margaret now sided against her husband, deprived him of power. 
The regent took the government into his own hands; Angus was 
charged with high treason in December, and in March 1522 was 
sent practically a prisoner to France, whence be succeeded in 
escaping to London in 1524. He returned to Scotland in 
November with promises of support from Henry VIII., with 
whom he made a close alliance. Margaret, however, refused to 
have anything to do with her husband. On the 23rd, therefore, 
Angus forced his way into Edinburgh, but was fired upon by 
Margaret and retreated to Tantallon. He now organized a large 
party of nobles against Margaret with the support of Henry VIII., 
and in February 1525 they entered Edinburgh and called a 
parliament. Angus was made a lord of the articles, was included 
in the council of regency, bore the king's crown on the opening 
of the session, and with Archbishop Beaton held the chief power. 
In March he was appointed lieutenant of the marches, and 
suppressed the disorder and anarchy on the border. In July 
the guardianship of the king was entrusted to him for a fixed 
period till the ist of November, but he refused at its close to 
retire, and advancing to Linlithgow put to flight Margaret and 
his opponents. He now with his followers engrossed all the 
power, succeeded in gaining over some of his antagonists, includ- 
ing Arran and the Hamiltons, and filled the public offices with 
Douglases, he himself becoming chancellor. " None that time 
durst strive against a Douglas nor Douglas's man." 1 The young 
king James, now fourteen, was far from content under the 
tutelage of Angus, but he was closely guarded, and several 
attempts to effect his liberation were prevented, Angus com- 
pletely defeating Lennox, who had advanced towards Edinburgh 
with 10,000 men in August, and subsequently taking Stirling. 
His successes were consummated by a pacification with Beaton, 
and in 1527 and 1528 he was busy in restoring order through the 
country. In the latter year, on the nth of March, Margaret 
succeeded in obtaining her divorce from Angus, and about the 
end of the month she and her lover, Henry Stewart, were 
besieged at Stirling. A few weeks later, however, James suc- 
ceeded in escaping from Angus's custody, took refuge with 
Margaret and Arran at Stirling, and immediately proscribed 
Angus and all the Douglases, forbidding them to come within 
seven miles of his person. Angus, having fortified himself in 
Tantallon, was attainted and his lands confiscated. Repeated 
attempts of James to subdue the fortress failed, and on one 
occasion Angus captured the royal artillery, but at length it 
was given up as a condition of the truce between England 
and Scotland, and in May 1529 Angus took refuge with Henry, 
obtained a pension and took an oath of allegiance, Henry 
engaging to make his restoration a condition of peace. Angus 
had been chiefly guided in his intrigues with England by his 
brother, Sir George Douglas of Pittcndriech (d. 1552), master of 
Angus, a far cleverer diplomatist than himself. His life and 
lands were also declared forfeit, as were those of his uncle, 
Archibald Douglas of Kilspindie (d. 1535), who had been a friend 
of James and was known by the nickname of "GrcysteeJ." 
These took refuge in exile. James avenged himself on such 
Douglases as lay within his power. Angus's third sister Janet, 
Lady Glamis, was summoned to answer the charge of com- 
municating with her brothers, and on her failure to appear her 
estates were forfeited. In 1537 she was tried for conspiring 
against the king's life. She was found guilty and burnt on the 
Castle Hill, Edinburgh, on the 1 7th of July 1537. Her innocence 
1 Lindsay of Pitscottie (1814), ii. 314. 



44 



ANGUSSOLA ANHALT 



has been generally assumed, but Tytler (Hist, of Scotland, iv. 
PP- 433 , 434) considered her guilty. Angus remained in England 
till 1542, joining in the attacks upon his countrymen on the 
border, while James refused all demands from Henry VIII. for 
his restoration, and kept firm to his policy of suppressing and 
extirpating the Douglas faction. On James V.'s death in 1542 
Angus returned to Scotland, with instructions from Henry to 
accomplish the marriage between Mary and Edward. His 
forfeiture was rescinded, his estates restored, and he was made 
a privy councillor and lieutenant-general. In 1543 he negotiated 
the treaty of peace and marriage, and the same year he himself 
married Margaret, daughter of Robert, Lord Maxwell. Shortly 
afterwards strife between Angus and the regent Arran broke out, 
and in April 1544 Angus was taken prisoner. The same year 
Lord Hertford's marauding expedition, which did not spare the 
lands of Angus, made him join the anti-English party. He 
entered into a bond with Arran and others to maintain their 
allegiance to Mary, and gave his support to the mission sent to 
France to offer the latter's hand. In July 1344 he was appointed 
lieutenant of the south of Scotland, and distinguished himself 
on the 27th of February 1545 in the victory over the English at 
Ancrum Moor. He still corresponded with Henry VIII., but 
nevertheless signed in 1546 the act cancelling the marriage and 
peace treaty, and on the loth of September commanded the van 
in the great defeat of Pinkie, when he again won fame. In 1548 
the attempt by Lennox and Wharton to capture him and punish 
him for his duplicity failed, Angus escaping after his defeat to 
Edinburgh by sea, and Wharton being driven back to Carlisle. 
Under the regency of Mary of Lorraine his restless and ambitious 
character and the number of his retainers gave cause for frequent 
alarms to the government. On the 3ist of August 1547 he 
resigned his earldom, obtaining a regrant sibi et suis haeredibus 
masculis et suis assignatis quibuscumque. His career was a long 
struggle for power and for the interests of his family, to which 
national considerations were completely subordinate. He died 
in January 1557. By Margaret Tudor he had Margaret, his only 
surviving legitimate child, who married Matthew, 4th earl of 
Lennox, and was mother of Lord Darnley. He was succeeded 
by his nephew David, son of Sir George Douglas of Pittendriech. 
ARCHIBALD DOUGLAS, 8th earl, and earl of Morton (1555- 
1588), was the son of David, 7th earl. He succeeded to the title 
and estates in 1558, being brought up by his uncle, the 4th earl 
of Morton, a Presbyterian. In 1573 he was made a privy 
councillor and sheriff of Berwick, in 1574 lieutenant-general 
of Scotland, in 1577 warden of the west marches and steward 
of Fife, and in 1578 lieutenant-general of the realm. He gave 
a strong support to Morton during the attack upon the latter, 
made a vain attempt to rescue him, and was declared guilty of 
high treason on the 2nd of June 1581. He now entered into 
correspondence with the English government for an invasion of 
Scotland to rescue Morton, and on the latter's execution in June 
went to London, where he was welcomed by Elizabeth. After 
the raid of Ruthven in 1582 Angus returned to Scotland and was 
reconciled to James, but soon afterwards the king shook off the 
control of the earls of Mar and Cowrie, and Angus was again 
banished from the court. In 1584 he joined the rebellion of 
Mar and Glamis, but the movement failed, and the insur- 
gents fled to Berwick. Later they took up their residence at 
Newcastle, which became a centre of Presbyterianism and of 
projects against the Scottish government, encouraged by 
Elizabeth, who regarded the banished lords as friends of the 
English and antagonists of the French interest. In February 
1585 they came to London, and cleared themselves of the accusa- 
tion of plotting against James's life; a plan was prepared for 
their restoration and for the overthrow of James Stewart, earl 
of Arran. In October they invaded Scotland and gained an 
easy victory over Arran, captured Stirling Castle with the king 
in November, and secured from James the restoration of their 
estates and the control of the government. In 1 586 Angus was 
appointed warden of the marches and lieutenant-general on the 
border, and performed good services in restoring order; but he 
was unable to overcome the king's hostility to the establishment 



of Presbyterian government. In January 1586 he was granted 
the earldom of Morton with the lands entailed upon him by his 
uncle. He died on the 4th of August 1 588 . He was succeeded in 
the earldom by his cousin William, a descendant of the sth earl. 
(For the Morton title, see MORTON, JAMES DOUGLAS, 4thEARL OF.) 
WILLIAM DOUGLAS, ioth earl (c. 1554-1611), was the son of 
William, the gth earl (1533-1591). He studied at St Andrews 
University and joined the household of the earl of Morton. 
Subsequently, while visiting the French court, he became a 
Roman Catholic, and was in consequence, on his return, dis- 
inherited and placed under restraint. Nevertheless he succeeded 
to his father's titles and estates in 1591, and though in 1592 
he was ^disgraced for his complicity in Lord Bothwell's plot, 
he was soon liberated and performed useful services as the king's 
lieutenant in the north of Scotland. In July 1592, however, 
he was asking for help from Elizabeth in a plot with Erroll and 
other lords against Sir John Maitland, the chancellor, and 
protesting his absolute rejection of Spanish offers, while in 
October he signed the Spanish Blanks (see ERROLL, FRANCIS 
HAY, 9th EARL OF) and was imprisoned (on the discovery of the 
treason) in Edinburgh Castle on his return in January 1593. 
He succeeded on the I3th in escaping by the help of his countess, 
joining the earls of Huntly and Erroll in the north. They were 
offered an act of " oblivion " or " abolition " provided they 
renounced their religion or quitted Scotland. Declining these 
conditions they were declared traitors and " forfeited." They 
remained in rebellion, and in July 1594 an attack made by them 
on Aberdeen roused James's anger. Huntly and Erroll were 
subdued by James himself in the north, and Angus failed in an 
attempt upon Edinburgh in concert with the earl of Bothwell. 
Subsequently in 1597 they all renounced their religion, declared 
themselves Presbyterians, and were restored to their estates 
and honours. Angus was again included in the privy council, 
and in June 1598 was appointed the king's lieutenant in southern 
Scotland, in which capacity he showed great zeal and conducted 
the " Raid of Dumfries," as the campaign against the Johnstones 
was called. Not long afterwards, Angus, offended at the advance- 
ment of Huntly to a marquisate, recanted, resisted all the argu- 
ments of the ministers to bring him to a " better mind," and 
was again excommunicated in 1608. In 1609 he withdrew to 
France, and died in Paris on the 3rd of March 1611. He was 
succeeded by his son William, as nth earl of Angus, afterwards 
ist marquisof Douglas (1580-1660). The title is now held by the 
dukes of Hamilton. 

AUTHORITIES. The Douglas Book, by Sir W. Fraser (1885); 
History of the House of Douglas and Angus, by D. Hume of Godscroft 
(1748, legendary in some respects) ; History of the House of Douglas, 
by Sir H. Maxwell (1902). 

ANGUSSOLA or ANGUSSCIOLA, SOPHONISBA, Italian portrait 
painter of the latter half of the i6th century, was born at Cremona 
about 1535, and died at Palermo in 1626. In 1560, at the 
invitation of Philip II., she visited the court of Madrid, where 
her portraits elicited great commendation. Vandyck is said 
to have declared that he had derived more knowledge of the true 
principles of his art from her conversation than from any other 
source. She painted several fine portraits of herself, one of which 
is at Althorp. A few specimens of her painting are to be seen 
at Florence and Madrid. She had three sisters, who were also 
celebrated artists. 

ANHALT, a duchy of Germany, and a constituent state of 
the German empire, formed, in 1863, by the amalgamation of 
the two duchies Anhalt-Dessau-Cothen and Anhalt-Bernburg, 
and comprising all the various Anhalt territories which were 
sundered apart in 1603. The country now known as Anhalt 
consists of two larger portions Eastern and Western Anhalt, 
separated by the interposition of a part of Prussian Saxony 
and of five enclaves surrounded by Prussian territory, viz. 
Alsleben, Miihlingen,Dornburg,G6dnitz and Tilkerode-Abberode. 
The eastern and larger portion of the duchy is enclosed by the 
Prussian government district of Potsdam (in the Prussian 
jrovince of Brandenburg), and Magdeburg and Merseburg 
^belonging to the Prussian province of Saxony). The western 



ANHALT 



45 



or smaller portion (the to-called Upper Duchy or Ballcnstedl) 
U alto enclosed by the two Utter districts and, (or a distance 
o( s on the wett, by the duchy of Brunswick. The western 
portion of the territory U undulating and in the extreme south- 
west, where it forms part of the Kara range, mountainous, the 
Ramberg peak attaining a height of 1000 ft. From the Hare 
the country gently shelves down to the Saale; and between this 
river and the Elbe there lies a fine tract of fertile country. The 
|x>rtion of the duchy lying east of the Elbe is mostly a flat 
sandy plain, with extensive pine forests, though interspersed, at 
intervals, by bog-land and'rich pastures. The Elbe is the chief 
rivrr, and intersecting the eastern portion of the duchy, from 
east to west, receives at Rosslau the waters of the Mulde. The 
navigable Saalc takes a northerly direction through the western 
|x>rtion of the eastern part of the territory and receives, on 
the right, the Fuhne and, on the left, the Wipper and the Bode. 
The climate is on the whole mild, though somewhat inclement 
in the higher regions to the south-west. The area of the duchy is 
006 sq. m., and the population in 1005 amounted to 328,007, 
a ratio of about 351 to the square mile. The country is 
divided into the districts of Dessau, Cdthen, Zerbst, Bernburg 
and Ballenstedt, of which that of Bernburg is the most, and 
that of Ballenstedt the least, populated. Of the towns, four, 
vu. Dessau, Bernburg, Cdthen and Zerbst, have populations 
exceeding 20,000. The inhabitants of the duchy, who mainly 
In-long to the upper Saxon race, are, with the exception of about 
i .',000 Roman Catholics and 1700 Jews, members of the Evan- 
gelical (Union) Church. The supreme ecclesiastical authority 
is the consistory in Dessau; while a synod of 39 members, 
elected for six years, assembles at periods to deliberate on 
internal matters touching the organization of the church. The 
Roman Catholics are under the bishop of Paderbom. There 
are within the duchy four grammar schools (gymnasia), five 
semi-classical and modern schools, a teachers' seminary and 
four high-grade girls' schools. Of the whole surface, land under 
tillage amounts to about 60, meadowland to 7 and forest 
to 25 %. The chief crops are corn (especially wheat), fruit, 
vegetables, potatoes, beet, tobacco, flax, linseed and hops. 
The land is well cultivated, and the husbandry on the royal 
domains and the large estates especially so. The pastures on 
the banks of the Elbe yield cattle of excellent quality. The 
forests are well stocked with game, such as deer and wild boar, 
and the open country is well supplied with partridges. The rivers 
yield abundant fish, salmon (in the Elbe), sturgeon and lampreys. 
The country is rich in lignite, and salt works are abundant. 
Of the manufactures of Anholt, the chief ore its sugar factories, 
distilleries, breweries and chemical works. Commerce is brisk, 
especially in raw products corn, cattle, timber or wool. Coal 
(lignite), guano, oil and bricks are also articles of export. The 
trade of the country is furthered by its excellent roads, its navig- 
able rivers and its railways (165 m.), which are worked in con- 
nexion with the Prussian system. There is a chamber of 
commerce in Dessau. 

Constitution. The duchy, by virtue of a fundamental law, 
proclaimed on the i7th of September 1859 and subsequently 
modified by various decrees, is a constitutional monarchy. The 
duke, who bears the title of " Highness," wields the executive 
power while sharing the legislation with the estates. The diet 
(Landtag) is composed of thirty-six members, of whom two are 
appointed by the duke, eight are representatives of landowners 
paying the highest taxes, two of the highest assessed members 
of the commercial and manufacturing classes, fourteen of the 
other electors of the towns and ten of the rural districts. The 
representatives are chosen for six years by indirect vote and 
must have completed their twenty-fifth year. The duke governs 
through a minister of state, who is the proeses of all the depart- 
ments finance, home affairs, education, public worship and 
statistics. The budget estimates for the financial year 1905- 
1906 placed the expenditure of the estate at 1,323,437. The 
public debt amounted on the 30th of June 1904 to 226,300. 
By convention with Prussia of 1867 the Anhalt troops form a 
contingent of the Prussian army. Appeal from the lower 



courts of the duchy lie* to the appeal court at Naumburg in 
ian Saxony. 

History. During the 1 1 th century the greater part of Anhalt 
was included in the duchy of Saxony, and in the 1 2th century 
it came under the rule of Albert the Bear, margrave of Branden- 
burg. Albert was descended from Albert, count of BaUenstedt, 
whose son Esico (d. 1059 or 1060) appear* to have been the first 
to bear the title of count of Anhalt. Esico ' grandson, Otto the 
Rich, count of Ballenstedt, was the father of Albert the Bear, 
by whom Anhalt was united with the mark of Brandenburg. 
When Albert died in 1170, his son Bernard, who received the 
title of duke of Saxony in 1 180, became count of Anhalt. Bernard 
died in 1212, and Anhalt, separated from Saxony, passed to his 
son Henry, who in 1218 took the title of prince and was the real 
founder of the house of Anhalt. On Henry's death in 1252 his 
three sons partitioned the principality and founded respectively 
the lines of Ascherslebcn, Bernburg and Zerbst. The family 
ruling in Aschersleben became extinct in 1315, and this district 
was subsequently incorporated with the neighbouring bishopric of 
Halberstadt. The last prince of the line of Anhalt- Bernburg died 
in 1468 and his lands were inherited by the princes of the sole 
remaining line, that of Anhalt-Zerbst. The territory belonging 
to this branch of the family had been divided in 1396, and after 
the acquisition of Bernburg Prince George I. made a further 
partition of Zerbst. Early in the i6th century, however, owing 
to the death or abdication of several princes, 'the family had 
become narrowed down to the two branches of Anhalt-Cothen 
and Anhalt-Dessau. Wolfgang, who became prince of Anhalt- 
Cothen in 1508, was a stalwart adherent of the Reformation, 
and after the battle of MUhlbcrg in 1547 was placed under the 
ban and deprived of his lands by the emperor Charles V. After 
the peace of Passau in 1552 he bought back his principality, 
but as he was childless he surrendered it in 1562 to his kinsmen 
the princes of Anhalt-Dessau. Ernest I. of Anhalt-Dessau 
(d. 1516) left three sons, John II., George III., and Joachim, 
who ruled their lands together for many yean, and who, like 
Prince Wolfgang, favoured the reformed doctrines, which thus 
became dominant in Anhalt. About 1546 the three brothers 
divided their principality and founded the lines of Zerbst, 
Plotzkau and Dessau. This division, however, was only 
temporary, as the acquisition of Cdthen, and a series of death* 
among the'ruling princes, enabled Joachim Ernest, a son of John 
II., to unite the whole of Anhalt under his rule in 1 570. 

Joachim Ernest died in 1 586 and his five sons ruled the land 
in common until 1603, when Anhalt was again divided, and the 
lines of Dessau, Bernburg, Plotzkau, Zerbst and Cdthen were 
refounded. The principality was ravaged during the Thirty 
Years' War, and in the earlier part of this struggle Christian I. 
of An halt- Bernburg took an important part. In 1635 an 
arrangement was made by the various princes of Anhalt, which 
gave a certain authority to the eldest member of the family, 
who was thus able to represent the principality as a whole. This 
proceeding was probably due to the necessity of maintaining 
an appearance of unity in view of the disturbed state of European 
politics. In 1665 the branch of Anhalt-Cdthen became extinct, 
and according to a family compact this district was inherited by 
Lebrecht of Anhalt-Pl6tzkau, who surrendered Plotzkau to Bern- 
burg.and took the titleof prince of Anhalt-Cothen. In the same year 
the princes of Anhalt decided that if any branch of the family 
became extinct its lands should be equally divided between the 
remaining branches. This arrangement was carried out after the 
death of Frederick Augustus of Anhalt-Zerbst in 1 793, and Zerbst 
was divided between the three remaining princes. During these 
years the policy of the different princes was marked, perhaps 
intentionally, by considerable uniformity. Once or twice 
Calvinism was favoured by a prince, but in general the bouse was 
loyal to the doctrines of Luther. The growth of Prussia provided 
Anhalt with a formidable neighbour, and the establishment 
and practice of primogeniture by all branches of the family 
prevented further divisions of the principality. In 1806 Alexius 
of Anhalt-Bernburg was created a duke by the emperor Francis II., 
and after the dissolution of the Empire each of the three princes 



4 6 



ANHALT-DESSAU 



took this title. Joining the Confederation of the Rhine in 1807, 
they supported Napoleon until 1813, when they transferred their 
allegiance to the allies; in 1815 they became members of the 
Germanic Confederation, and in 1828 joined, somewhat reluct- 
antly, the Prussian Zollverein. 

Anhalt-Cothen was ruled without division by a succession of 
princes, prominent among whom was Louis (d. 1650), who was 
both a soldier and a scholar; and after the death of Prince 
Charles at the battle of Semlin in 1789 it passed to his son 
Augustus II. This prince sought to emulate the changes which 
had recently been made in France by dividing Cothen into two 
departments and introducing the Code Napoleon. Owing to his 
extravagance he left a large amount of debt to his nephew and 
successor, Louis II., and on this account the control of the 
finances was transferred from the prince to the estates. Under 
Louis's successor Ferdinand, who was a Roman Catholic and 
brought the Jesuits into Anhalt, the state of the finances grew 
worse and led to the interference of the king of Prussia and to 
the appointment of a Prussian official. When the succeeding 
prince, Henry, died in 1847, this family became extinct, and 
according to an arrangement between the lines of Anhalt-Dessau 
and Anhalt-Bernburg, Cothen was added to Dessau. 

Anhalt-Bernburg had been weakened by partitions, but its 
princes had added several districts to their lands; and in 1812, 
on the extinction of a cadet branch, it was again united under a 
single ruler. The feeble rule of Alexander Charles, who became 
duke in 1834, and the disturbed state of Europe in the following 
decade, led to considerable unrest, and in 1849 Bernburg was 
occupied by Prussian troops. A number of abortive attempts 
were made to change the government, and as Alexander Charles 
was unlikely to leave any children, Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau 
took some part in the affairs of Bernburg. Eventually in 1839 
a new constitution was established for Bernburg and Dessau 
jointly, and when Alexander Charles died in 1863 both were 
united under the rule of Leopold. 

Anhalt-Dessau had been divided in 1632, but was quickly 
reunited; and in 1693 it came under the rule of Leopold I. 
(see ANHALT-DESSAU, LEOPOLD I., PRINCE OF), the famous soldier 
who was generally known as the " Old Dessauer." The sons of 
Leopold's eldest son were excluded from the succession on account 
of the marriage of their father being morganatic, and the princi- 
pality passed in 1747 to his second son, Leopold II. The unrest 
of 1848 spread to Dessau, and led to the interference of the 
Prussians and to the establishment of the new constitution in 
1859. Leopold IV., who reigned from 1817 to 1871, had the 
satisfaction in 1863 of reuniting the whole of Anhalt under his 
rule. He took the title of duke of Anhalt, summoned one 
Landtag for the whole of the duchy, and in 1866 fought for 
Prussia against Austria. Subsequently a quarrel over the posses- 
sion of the ducal estates between the duke and the Landtag 
broke the peace of the duchy, but this was settled in 1872. In 
1871 Anhalt became a state of the German Empire. Leopold IV. 
was followed by his son Frederick I., and on the death of this 
prince in 1904 his son Frederick II. became duke of Anhalt. 

AUTHORITIES. F. Knoke, Anhaltische Gcschichte (Dessau, 1893); 
G. Krause, Urkunden, Aktenstucke und Briefe zur Geschichte 
der anhaltischen Lande und ihrer Fursten unter dent Drucke des 
30 jahrigen Krieges (Leipzig, 1861-1866); O. von Heinemann, Codex 
diplomatic** Anhaltinus (Dessau, 1867-1883); Siebigk, Das Her- 
zogthum Anhalt historisch, geographisch und statistisch dargestellt 
(Dessau, 1867). 

ANHALT-DESSAU, LEOPOLD I., PRINCE OF (1676-1747), 
called the "Old Dessauer" (Alter Dessauer), general field marshal 
in the Prussian army, was the only surviving son of John George 
II. , prince of Anhalt-Dessau, and was born on the 3rd of July 1676 
at Dessau. From his earliest youth he was devoted to the pro- 
fession of arms, for which he educated himself physically and 
mentally. He became colonel of a Prussian regiment in 1693, and 
in the same year his father's death placed him at the head of his 
own principality; thereafter, during the whole of his long life, he 
performed the duties of a sovereign prince and a Prussian officer. 
His first campaign was that of 1695 in the Netherlands, in which 
he was present at the siege of Namur. He remained in the field 



to the end of the war of 1697, the affairs of the principality being 
managed chiefly by his mother, Princess Henriette Catherine of 
Orange. In 1698 he married Anna Luise Fose, an apothecary's 
daughter of Dessau, in spite of his mother's long and earnest 
opposition, and subsequently he procured for her the rank of a 
princess from the emperor (1701). Their married life was long 
and happy, and the princess acquired an influence over the stern 
nature of her husband which she never ceased to exert on behalf 
of his subjects, and after the death of Leopold's mother she 
performed the duties of regent when he was absent on campaign. 
Often, too, she accompanied him into the field. Leopold's career 
as a soldier in important commands begins with the outbreak of 
the War of the Spanish Succession. He had made many improve- 
ments in the Prussian army, notably the introduction of the iron 
ramrod about 1 700, and he now took the field at the head of a 
Prussian corps on the Rhine, serving at the sieges of Kaiserswerth 
and Venlo. In the following year (i 703), having obtained the rank 
of lieu tenant-general, Leopold took part in the siege of Bonn and dis- 
tinguished himself very greatly in the battle of Hochstadt, in which 
the Austrians and their allies were defeated by the French under 
Marshal Villars (September 20,1703). In the campaign of 1 704 the 
Prussian contingent served under Prince Louis of Baden and sub- 
sequently under Eugene, and Leopold himself won great glory by 
his conduct at Blenheim. In 1705 he was sent with a Prussian 
corps to join Prince Eugene in Italy, and on the i6th of August 
he displayed his bravery at the hard-fought battle of Cassano. 
In the following year he added to his reputation in the battle of 
Turin, where he was the first to enter the hostile entrenchments 
(September 7, 1706). He served in one more campaign in Italy, 
and then went withEugene to join Marlborough in the Netherlands, 
being present in 1709 at the siege of Tournay and the battle of 
Malplaquet. In 1710 he succeeded to the command of the whole 
Prussian contingent at the front, and in 1712, at the particular 
desire of the crown prince, Frederick William, who had served 
with him as a volunteer, he was made a general field marshal. 
Shortly before this he had executed a coup de main on the castle 
of Mors, which was held by the Dutch in defiance of the claims of 
the king of Prussia to the possession. The operation was effected 
with absolute precision and the castle was seized without a shot 
being fired. In the earlier part of the reign of Frederick William 
I., the prince of Dessau was one of the most influential members 
of the Prussian governing circle. In the war with Sweden (1715) 
he accompanied the king to the front, commanded an army of. 
40,000 men, and met and defeated Charles XII. in a severe battle 
on the island of Riigen (November 16) . His conduct of the siege of 
Stralsund which followed was equally skilful,and the great results 
of the war to Prussia were largely to be attributed to his leader- 
ship in the campaign. In the years of peace,and especially after 
a court quarrel (1725) and duel with General von Grumbkow, he 
devoted himself to the training of the Prussian army. The reputa- 
tion it had gained in the wars of 1675 to 1713, though good, gave 
no hint of its coming glory, and it was even in 1 740 accounted one 
of the minor armies of Europe. That it proved, when put to the 
test, to be by far the best military force existing, may be taken 
as the summary result of Leopold's work. The " Old Dessauer " 
was one of the sternest disciplinarians in an age of stern discipline, 
and the technical training of the infantry, under his hand, made 
them superior to all others in the proportion of five to three (see 
AUSTRIAN SUCCESSION, WAR OF THE). He was essentially an 
infantry soldier; in his time artillery did not decide battles, but 
he suffered the cavalry service, in which he felt little interest, to 
be comparatively neglected, with results which appeared at 
Mollwitz. Frederick the Great formed the cavalry of Hohenfried- 
berg and Leuthen himself, but had it not been for the incompar- 
able infantry trained by the "Old Dessauer" he would never have 
had the opportunity of doing so. Thus Leopold, heartily sup- 
ported by Frederick William, who was himself called the great 
drill-master of Europe, turned to good account the twenty years 
following the peace with Sweden. During this time two irftidents 
in his career call for special mention: first, his intervention in the 
case of the crown prince Frederick, who was condemned to death 
for desertion, and his continued and finally successful efforts to 



ANHYDRITE ANILINE 



secure Frederick's reinstatement in the Prussian army; anc 
secondly, his part in the War of the IN.Iish Succession on the Rhine 
where he served under his old chief Eugene and held the office o 
field marshal of the Km, 

With the death of Frederick William in 1740, Frederick 
succeeded to the Prussian throne, and a few months later tool 
place the invasion and conquest of Silesia, the first act in the lon| 
Silesian wars and the test of the work of the "Old DessauerV 
lifetime. The prince himself was not often employed in the 
king's own army, though his sons held high commands under 
Frederick. The king, indeed, found Leopold, who was reputed 
since the death of Eugene, the greatest of living soldiers, somewhat 
ilulu ult to manage, and the prince spent most of the campaigning 
yean up to 1745 in command of an army of observation on the 
Saxon frontier. Early in that year his wife died. He was now 
over seventy, but his last campaign was destined to be the most 
brilliant of his long career. A combined effort of the Austrian* 
and Saxons to retrieve the disasters of the summer by a winter 
campaign towards Berlin itself led to a hurried concentration ol 
the Prussians. Frederick from Silesia checked the Austrian main 
army and hastened towards Dresden. But before he had 
arrived, Leopold, no longer in observation, had decided the war by 
his overwhelming victory of Kesselsdorf (December 14, 1745). It 
was his habit to pray before battle, for he was a devout Lutheran. 
On this last field his words were, " O Lord God, let me not be 
disgraced in my old days. Or if Thou wilt not help me, do not help 
these scoundrels, but leave us to try it ourselves." With this 
great victory Leopold's career ended. He retired from active 
service, and the short remainder of his life was spent at Dessau, 
where he died on the 7th of April 1747. 

He was succeeded by his son, LEOPOLD II., MAXIMILIAN, PRINCE 
or ANHALT-DESSAU (1700-1751), who was one of the best of 
Frederick's subordinate generals, and especially distinguished 
himself by the capture of Glogau in 1741, and his generalship at 
Mollwitz, Chotusitz (where he was made general field marshal on 
the field of battle), Hohenfriedberg and Soor. 

Another son, PRINCE DIETRICH OF ANHALT-DESSAU (d. 1769), 
was also a distinguished Prussian general. 

But the most famous of the sons was PRINCE MORITZ OF 
ANHALT-DESSAU (1712-1760), who entered the Prussian army in 
1725, saw his first service as a volunteer in the War of the Polish 
Succession (1734-35), and in the latter years of the reign of 
Frederick William held important commands. In the Silesian 
wars of Frederick II., Moritz, the ablest of the old Leopold's sons, 
greatly distinguished himself, especially at the battle of Hohen- 
friedberg (Striegau), 1745. At Kesselsdorf it was the wing led by 
the young Prince Moritz that carried the Austrian lines and won 
the "Old Dessauer's" last fight. In the years of peace preceding the 
Seven Years' War, Moritz was employed by Frederick the Great 
in the colonizing of the waste lands of Pomerania and the Oder 
Valley. When the king took the field again in 1756, Moritz was 
in command of one of the columns which hemmed in the Saxon 
army in the lines of Pirna, and he received the surrender of 
Rutowski's force after the failure of the Austrian attempts at 
relief. Next year Moritz underwent changes of fortune. At the 
battle of Kolin he led the left wing, which, through a misunder- 
standing with the king, was prematurely drawn into action and 
failed hopelessly. In the disastrous days which followed, Moritz 
was under the cloud of Frederick's displeasure. But the glorious 
victory of Leuthen (December 5, 1757) put an end to this. At the 
close of that day, Frederick rode down the lines and called out to 
General Prince Moritz, "I congratulate you, HerrFeldmarschall!" 
At Zorndorf he again distinguished himself, but at the surprise of 
Hochkirch fell wounded into the hands of the Austrians. Two 
years later, soon after his release, his wound proved mortal. 

AUTHORITIES. Varnhagen von Ense. Preuss. biographiscke Denk- 
maJe. vol. ii. (3rd ed., 1872); Mtiitar Konversations-Lexiton, 
vol. ii. (Leipzig, 1833); Anon.. Furst Leopold I. ton Anlialt und seine 
Sohne (Dessau, 1852); G. Pauli, Leben grosser Helden, vol. vi.; 
von Orlich. Pnns iforit* von A nhalt-Dessau (Berlin, 1842) ; Crousatz 
Mtlttdnsche Denkwurdigkeiten des Fursten Leopold von Ankait-Dessau 
(1875); supplements to Militdr WotkenblcU (1878 and 1889); 
Siebigk, Selitstbtograpkie da Fursten Leopold von Anhalt- Dessau 



47 



. Zwr 

(De.u. 1876) 



da 
Dt, Alt** 



- 

Wdkrlmi 1. an den Purtltn L. (Berlin. 1905). 

ANHYDRITE, a mineral, differing chemically from the more 
commonly occurring gypsum in containing no water of cryital- 
lization, being anhydrous calcium sulphate, CaSO,. It crystal- 
lizes in the orthorhombic system, and has three directions of 
perfect cleavage parallel to the three planes of symmetry. It is 
not isomorphous with the orthorhombic barium and strontium 
sulphates, as might be expected from the chemical formulae. 
Distinctly developed crystals are somewhat rare, the mineral 
usually presenting the form of cleavage masses. The hardness 
is 3 J and the specific gravity 2-9. The colour is white, sometimes 
greyish, bluish or reddish. On the best developed of the three 
cleavages the lustre is pearly, on other surfaces it is of the 
ordinary vitreous type. 

Anhydrite is most frequently found in salt deposits with 
gypsum; it was, for instance, first discovered, in 1704, in a salt 
mine near Hall in Tirol. Other localities which produce typical 
specimens of the mineral, and where the mode of occurrence is 
the same, are Stassfurt in Germany, Aussee in Styria and Bex 
in Switzerland. At all these places it is only met with at some 
depth; nearer the surface of the ground it has been altered to 
gypsum owing to absorption of water. 

From an aqueous solution calcium sulphate is deposited as 
crystals of gypsum, but when the solution contains an excess of 
sodium or potassium chloride anhydrite is deposited. This is 
one of the several methods by which the mineral has been 
prepared artificially, and is identical with its mode of 
origin in nature, the mineral having crystallized out in salt 
basins. 

The name anhydrite was given by A. G. Werner in 1804, 
because of the absence of water, as contrasted with the presence 
of water in gypsum. Other names for the species are muriacite 
and karstenite; the former, an earlier name, being given under 
the impression that the substance was a chloride (muriate). 
A peculiar variety occurring as contorted concretionary masses 
is known as tripe-stone, and a scaly granular variety, from 
Vulpino, near Bergamo, in Lombardy, as vulpinite; the latter is 
cut and polished for ornamental -purposes. (L. J. S.) 

ANI (anc. Abnicum), an ancient and ruined Armenian city, in 
Russian Transcaucasia, government Erivan, situated at an 
altitude of 4390 ft., between the Arpa-chai (Horfxuiu) and a deep 
ravine. In 961 it became the capital of the Bagratid kings of 
Armenia, and when yielded to the Byzantine emperor (1046) it 
was a populous city, known traditionally as the " city with the 
loot churches." It was taken eighteen years later by the Seljuk 
Turks, five times by the Georgians between 1125 and 1209, in 
1239 by the Mongols, and its ruin was completed by an earth- 
quake in 1319. It is still surrounded by a double wall partly in 
uins, and amongst the remains are a " patriarchal " church 
inished in 1010, two other churches, both of the nth century, 
a fourth built in 1215, and a palace of large size. 
See Brosset, Let Ruines d'Ani (1860-1861). 

ANICETUS, pope c. 154-167. It was during his pontificate 

that St Polycarp visited the Roman Church. 
ANICHINI, LUIGI, Italian engraver of seals and medals, a 

native of Ferrara, lived at Venice about 1550. Michelangelo 
>ronounced his " Interview of Alexander the Great with the 
ligh-priest at Jerusalem," "the perfection of the art." His 

medals of Henry II. of France and Pope Paul III. are greatly 

valued. 
ANILINE, PHENYLAMNE, or AIIINOBENZENE, (CHNHi), an 

organic base first obtained from the destructive distillation of 
ndigo in 1826 by O. Unverdorben (Pogg. Ann., 1826, 8, p. 397), 

who named it crystalline. In 1834, F. Runge (Pogg. Ann., 1834, 

31, p. 65; 32, p. 331) isolated from coal-tar a substance which 
>roduced a beautiful blue colour on treatment with chloride of 
ime; this he named kyanol or cyanol. In 1841, C. J. Fritzsche 

showed that by treating indigo with caustic potash it yielded an 
il, which he named aniline, from the specific name of one of the 



4 8 



ANIMAL ANIMAL HEAT 



indigo-yielding plants, Indigofera anil, anil being derived from 
the Sanskrit nila, dark-blue, and nlld, the indigo plant. About 
the same time N. N. Zinin found that on reducing nitrobenzene, 
a base was formed which he named bcnzidam. A. W. von 
Hofmann investigated these variously prepared substances, and 
proved them to be identical, and thenceforth they took their 
place as one body, under the name aniline or phenylamine. 
Pure aniline is a basic substance of an oily consistence, colourless, 
melting at 8 and boiling at 184 C. On exposure to air it 
absorbs oxygen and resinifies, becoming deep brown in colour; 
it ignites readily, burning with a large smoky flame. It possesses 
a f somewhat pleasant vinous odour and a burning aromatic 
taste; it is a highly acrid poison. 

Aniline is a weak base and forms salts with the mineral acids. 
Aniline hydrochloride forms large colourless tables, which 
become greenish on exposure; it is the " aniline salt " of com- 
merce. The sulphate forms beautiful white plates. Although 
aniline is but feebly basic, it precipitates zinc, aluminium and 
ferric salts, and on wanning expels ammonia from its salts. 
Aniline combines directly with alkyl iodides to form secondary 
and tertiary amines; boiled with carbon disulphide it gives 
sulphocarbanilide (diphenyl thio-urea), CS(NHC8Hj)i, which 
may be decomposed into phenyl mustard-oil, CHsCNS, and 
triphenyl guanidine, QH 4 N: C(NHCHj)j- Sulphuric acid at 
180 gives sulphanilic acid, NHj-CsH^SOjH. Anilides, com- 
pounds in which the amino group is substituted by an acid 
radical, are prepared by heating aniline with certain acids; 
antifebrin or acetanilide is thus obtained from acetic acid and 
aniline. The oxidation of aniline has been carefully investigated. 
In alkaline solution azobenzene results, while arsenic acid pro- 
duces the violet-colouring matter violaniline. Chromic acid 
converts it into quinone, while chlorates, in the presence of 
certain metallic salts (especially of vanadium), give aniline black. 
Hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate give chloranil. Potas- 
sium permanganate in neutral solution oxidizes it to nitro- 
benzene, in alkaline solution to azobenzene, ammonia and oxalic 
acid, in acid solution to aniline black. Hypochlorous acid gives 
para-amino phenol and para-amino diphenylamine (. Bam- 
berger, Ber., 1808, 31, p. 15*2). 

The great commercial value of aniline is due to the readiness 
with which it yields, directly or indirectly, valuable dyestuffs. 
The discovery of mauve in 1858 by Sir W. H. Perkin was the 
first of a series of dyestuffs which are now to be numbered by 
hundreds. Reference should be made to the articles DYEING, 
FUCHSINE, SAFRANINE, INDUUNES, for more details on this 
subject. In addition to dyestuffs, it is a starting-product for 
the manufacture of many drugs, such as antipyrine, antifebrin, 
&c. Aniline is manufactured by reducing nitrobenzene with 
iron and hydrochloric acid and steam-distilling the product. 
The purity of the product depends upon the quality of the 
benzene from which the nitrobenzene was prepared. In com- 
merce three brands of aniline are distinguished aniline oil for 
blue, which is pure aniline; aniline oil for red, a mixture of 
equimolecular quantities of aniline and ortho- and para-tolui- 
dines; and aniline oil for safranine, which contains aniline and 
ortho-toluidine, and is obtained from the distillate (tchappts) of 
the fuchsine fusion. Monomethyl and dimethyl aniline are 
colourless liquids prepared by heating aniline, aniline hydro- 
chloride and methyl alcohol in an autoclave at 220. They are 
of great importance in the colour industry. Monomethyl aniline 
boils at 193-195; dimethyl aniline at 192. 

ANIMAL (Lat. animalis, from anima, breath, soul), a term first 
used as a noun or adjective to denote a living thing, but now used 
to designate one branch of living things as opposed to the other 
branch known as plants. Until the discovery of protoplasm, 
and the series of investigations by which it was established that 
the cell was a fundamental structure essentially alike in both 
animals and plants (see CYTOLOGY), there was a vague belief 
that plants, if they could really be regarded as animated crea- 
tures, exhibited at the most a lower grade of life. We know now 
that in so far as life and living matter can be investigated by 
science, animals and plants cannot be described as being alive 



in different degrees. Animals and plants are extremely closely 
related organisms, alike in their fundamental characters, and each 
grading into organisms which possess some of the characters of 
both classes or kingdoms (see PROTISTA). The actual boundaries 
between animals and plants are artificial; they are rather due to 
the ingenious analysis of the systematist than actually resident in 
objective nature. The most obvious distinction is that the animal 
cell-wall is either absent or composed of a nitrogenous material, 
whereas the plant cell-wall is composed of a carbohydrate 
material cellulose. The animal and the plant alike require food 
to repair waste, to build up new tissue and to provide material 
which, by chemical change, may liberate the energy which 
appears in the processes of life. The food is alike in both cases; 
it consists of water, certain inorganic salts, carbohydrate 
material and proteid material. Both animals and plants take 
their water and inorganic salts directly as such. The animal 
cell can absorb its carbohydrate and proteid food only in the 
form of carbohydrate and proteid; it is dependent, in fact, on 
the pre-existence of these organic substances, themselves the 
products of living matter, and in this respect the animal is 
essentially a parasite on existing animal and plant life. The 
plant, on the other hand, if it be a green plant, containing chloro- 
phyll, is capable, in the presence of light, of building up both 
carbohydrate material and proteid material from inorganic 
salts; if it be a fungus, devoid of chlorophyll, whilst it is de- 
pendent on pre-existing carbohydrate material and is capable 
of absorbing, like an animal, proteid material as such, it is able 
to build up its proteid food from material chemically simpler 
than proteid. On these basal differences are founded most of 
the characters which make the higher forms of animal and plant 
life so different. The animal body, if it be composed of many 
cells, follows a different architectural plan; the compact nature 
of its food, and the yielding nature of its cell-walls, result in a 
form of structure consisting essentially of tubular or spherical 
masses of cells arranged concentrically round the food-cavity. 
The relatively rigid nature of the plant cell-wall, and the attenu- 
ated inorganic food-supply of plants, make possible and neces- 
sary a form of growth in which the greatest surface is exposed 
to the exterior, and thus the plant body is composed of flattened 
laminae and elongated branching growths. The distinctions 
between animals and plants are in fact obviously secondary 
and adaptive, and point clearly towards the conception of a 
common origin for the two forms of life, a conception which 
is made still more probable by the existence of many low forms 
in which the primary differences between animals and plants 
fade out. 

An animal may be defined as a living organism, the protoplasm 
of which does not secrete a cellulose cell- wall, and which requires 
for its existence proteid material obtained from the living or 
dead bodies of existing plants or animals. The common use of 
the word animal as the equivalent of mammal, as opposed to 
bird or reptile or fish, is erroneous. 

The classification of the animal kingdom is dealt with in the 
article ZOOLOGY. (P. C. M.) 

ANIMAL HEAT. Under this heading is discussed the 
physiology of the temperature of the animal body. 

The higher animals have within their bodies certain sources 
of heat, and also some mechanism by means of which both the 
production and loss of heat can be regulated. This is conclusively 
shown by the fact that both in summer and winter their mean 
temperature remains the same. But it was not until the intro- 
duction of thermometers that any exact data on the temperature 
of animals could be obtained. It was then found that local 
differences were present, since heat production and heat loss 
vary considerably in different parts of the body, although the 
circulation of the blood tends to bring about a mean temperature 
of the internal parts. [Hence it is important to determine the 
temperature of those parts which most nearly approaches to 
that of the internal organs. Also for such results to be compar- 
able they must be made in the same situation. The rectum 
gives most accurately the temperature of internal parts, or in 
women and some animals the vagina, uterus or bladder. 



ANIMAL HEAT 



F. 



988 



'' 



e o 



n t 



Occasionally that of the urine a* it leave* the urethra may be 
of \ur. More usually the temperature is taken in the mouth, 
axilla or groin. 

Worm and Cold Blooded Animals. by numerous observations 
upon men and animals, John Hunter showed that the essential 
difference between the so-called warm-blooded and cold-blooded 
animals lies in the constancy of the temperature of the former, 
and the variability of the temperature of the latter. Those 
animals high in the scale of evolution, as birds and mammals, 
have a high temperature almost constant and independent of 
that of the surrounding air, whereas among the lower animals 
there is much variation of body temperature, dependent entirely 
on their surroundings. There are, however, certain mammals 
which are exceptions, being warm-blooded during the summer, 
but cold-blooded during the winter when they hibernate; such 
are the hedgehog, bat and dormouse. John Hunter suggested 
that two groups should be known as " animals of permanent 
heat at all atmospheres " and " animals of a heat variable with 
every atmosphere," but later Bcrgmann suggested that they 
should be known as " homoiothermic " and " poikilothermic " 
animals. But it must be re- 
membered there is no hard and 
fast line between the two 
groups. Also, from work re- 
cently done by J. O. Wakelin 
Barnttt, it has been shown that 
under certain pathological con- 
ditions a warm-blooded (homoi- 
othermic) animal may become 99 ' 2 
for a time cold-blooded (poiki- 990 
lothermic). He has shown 
conclusively that this condition 
exists in rabbits suffering from 98* 
rabies during the last period of 
their life, the rectal temperature 
being then within a few degrees 98 ' 2 
of the room temperature and 
varying with it. He explains 
this condition by the assump- 
tion that the nervous median- 97 e 
ism of heat regulation has 
become paralysed. The re- 
spiration and heart-rate being 7-2 
also retarded during this period, 
the resemblance to the condition 

of hibernation is considerable. Again, Sutherland Simpson has 
shown that during deep anaesthesia a warm-blooded animal tends 
to take the same temperature as that of its environment. He 
demonstrated that when a monkey is kept deeply anaesthetized 
with ether and is placed in a cold chamber, its temperature gradu- 
ally falls, and that when it has reached a sufficiently low point 
(about 25 C. in the monkey) , the employment of an anaesthetic is 
no longer necessary, the animal then being insensible to pain and 
incapable of being roused by any form of stimulus; it is, in fact, 
narcotized by cold, and is in a state of what may be called 
" artificial hibernation." Once again this is explained by the 
fact that the heat-regulating mechanism has been interfered 
with. Similar results have been obtained from experiments on 
cats. These facts with many others tend to show that the 
power of maintaining a constant temperature has been a gradual 
development, as Darwin's theory of evolution suggests, and that 
anything that interferes with the due working of the higher 
nerve-centres puts the animal back again, for the time being, on 
to a lower plane of evolution. 

Variations in the Temperature of Man and some other Animals. 
As stated above, the temperature of warm-blooded animals is 
maintained with but slight variation. In health under normal 
conditions the temperature of man varies between 36 C. and 
38 C., or if the thermometer be placed in the axilla, between 
36-23 C. and 37-5 C. In the mouth the reading would be from 
25 C. to 1-5 C. higher than this; and in the rectum some -9 C. 
higher still. The temperature of infants and young children 



49 

of wide 



has a much greater range than this, and Is 
divergencies from comparatively slight cause*. 

Of the lower warm-blooded animals, there are some that 
appear to be cold-blooded at birth. Kittens, rabbits mad puppks, 
if removed from their surroundings shortly after birth, lose their 
body heat until their temperature has fallen to within a few 
degrees of that of the surrounding air. But such "i"vilt are at 
birth blind, helpless and in some cases naked. Animals who are 
born when in a condition of greater development can maintain 
their temperature fairly constant. In strong, healthy infants 
a day or two old the temperature rises slightly, but in that of 
weakly, ill-developed children it either remains stationary or 
falls. The cause of the variable temperature in infants and 
young immature animals is the imperfect development of the 
nervous regulating mechanism. 

The average temperature falls slightly from infancy to puberty 
and again from puberty to middle age, but after that stage is 
passed the temperature begins to rise again, and by about the 
eightieth year is as high as in infancy. A diurnal variation has 
been observed dependent on the periods of rest and activity, 



Hours of activity and work. 



Hour* of mt and tletp. 



5 a T B 9 10 



M 1 7 3 



\ 




l-t 

C. 



37' 



37 -W 



3733 



37 n 



37H 



3700 



J878 



ie-33 



162? 



the maximum ranging from 10 A.II. to 6 P.M., the minimum from 
1 1 P.M. to 3 A.M. Sutherland Simpson and J. J. Galbraith have 
recently done much work on this subject. In their first experi- 
ments they showed that in a monkey there is a well-marked and 
regular diurnal variation of the body temperature, and that by 
reversing the daily routine this diurnal variation is also reversed. 
The diurnal temperature curve follows the periods of rest and 
activity, and is not dependent on the incidence of day and night; 
in monkeys which are active during the night and resting during 
the day, the body temperature is highest at night and lowest 
through the day. They then made observations on the tempera- 
ture of animals and birds of nocturnal habit, where the periods 
of rest and activity are naturally the reverse of the ordinary 
through habit and not from outside interference. They found 
that in nocturnal birds the temperature is highest during the 
natural period of activity (night) and lowest during the period 
of rest (day), but that the mean temperature is lower and the 
range less than in diurnal birds of the same size. That the 
temperature curve of diurnal birds is essentially similar to that 
of man and other homoiothermal animal^ except that the 
maximum occurs earlier in the afternoon and the minimum 
earlier in the morning. Also that the curves obtained from 
rabbit, guinea-pig and dog were quite similar to those from man. 
The mean temperature of the female was higher than that of the 
male in all the species examined whose sex had been determined. 
Meals sometimes cause a slight elevation, sometimes a slight 
depression alcohol seems always to produce a fall. Exercise 



ANIMAL WORSHIP 



and variations of external temperature within ordinary limits 
cause very slight change, as there are many compensating 
influences at work, which are discussed later. Even from very 
active exercise the temperature does not rise more than one 
degree, and if carried to exhaustion a fall is observed. In 
travelling from very cold to very hot regions a variation of less 
than one degree occurs, and the temperature of those living in 
the tropics is practically identical with those dwelling in the 
Arctic regions. 

Limits compatible with Life. There are limits both of heat and 
cold that a warm-blooded animal can bear, and other far wider 
limits that a cold-blooded animal may endure and yet live. 
The effect of too extreme a cold is to lessen metabolism, and 
hence to lessen the production of heat. Both katabolic and 
anabolic changes share in the depression, and though less energy 
is used up, still less energy is generated. This diminished 
metabolism tells first on the central nervous system, especially 
the brain and those parts concerned in consciousness. Both 
heart-beat and respiration-number become diminished,drowsiness 
supervenes, becoming steadily deeper until it passes into the 
sleep of death. Occasionally, however, convulsions may set 
in towards the end, and a death somewhat similar to that of 
asphyxia takes place. In some recent experiments on cats 
performed by Sutherland Simpson and Percy T. Herring, they 
found them unable to survive when the rectal temperature 
was reduced below 16 C. At this low temperature respiration 
became increasingly feeble, the heart-impulse usually continued 
after respiration had ceased, the beats becoming very irregular, 
apparently ceasing, then beginning again. Death appeared 
to be mainly due to asphyxia, and the only certain sign that 
it had taken place was the loss of knee jerks. On the other 
hand, too high a temperature hurries on the metabolism of the 
various tissues at such a rate that their capital is soon exhausted. 
Blood that is too warm produces dyspnoea and soon exhausts 
the metabolic capital of the respiratory centre. The rate of 
the heart is quickened, the beats then become irregular and finally 
cease. The central nervous system is also profoundly affected, 
consciousness may be lost, and the patient falls into a comatose 
condition, or delirium and convulsions may set in. All these 
changes can be watched in any patient suffering from an acute 
fever. The lower limit of temperature that man can endure 
depends on many things, but no one can survive a temperature 
of 45 C. (113 F.) or above for very long. Mammalian muscle 
becomes rigid with heat rigor at about 50 C., and obviously should 
this temperature be reached the sudden rigidity of the whole 
body would render life impossible. H. M. Vernon has recently 
done work on the death temperature and paralysis temperature 
(temperature of heat rigor) of various animals. He found that 
animals of the same class of the animal kingdom showed very 
similar temperature values, those from the Amphibia examined 
being 38-5 C., Fishes 39, Reptilia 45, and various Molluscs 46. 
Also in the case of Pelagic animals he showed a relation between 
death temperature and the quantity of solid constituents of 
the body, Ceslus having lowest death temperature and least 
amount of solids in its body. But in the higher animals his 
experiments tend to show that there is greater variation in both 
the chemical and physical characters of the protoplasm, and hence 
greater variation in the extreme temperature compatible with life. 

Regulation of Temperature. The heat of the body is generated 
by the chemical changes those of oxidation undergone not 
by any particular substance or in any one place, but by the tissues 
at large. Wherever destructive metabolism (katabolism) is 
going on, heat is being set free. When a muscle does work it 
also gives rise to heat, and if this is estimated it can be shown 
that the muscles alone during their contractions provide far 
more heat than the whole amount given out by the body. Also 
it must be remembered that the heart also a muscle, never 
resting, does in the 24 hours no inconsiderable amount of work, 
and hence must give rise to no inconsiderable amount of heat. 
From this it is clear that the larger proportion of total heat of 
the body is supplied by the muscles. These are essentially the 
" thermogenic tissues." Next to the muscles as heat generators 



come the various secretory glands, especially the liver, which 
appears never to rest in this respect. The brain also must be 
a source of heat, since its temperature is higher than that of the 
arterial blood with which it is supplied. Also a certain amount 
of heat is produced by the changes which the food undergoes 
in the alimentary canal before it really enters the body. But 
heat while continually being produced is also continually being 
lost by the skin, lungs, urine and faeces. And it is by the constant 
modification of these two factors, (i) heat production and (2) 
heat loss, that the constant temperature of a warm-blooded 
animal is maintained. Heat is lost to the body through the 
faeces and urine, respiration, conduction and radiation from 
the skin, and by evaporation of perspiration. The following 
are approximately the relative amounts of heat lost through these 
various channels (different authorities give somewhat different 
figures): faeces and urine about 3, respiration about 20, skin 
(conduction, radiation and evaporation) about 77. Hence it 
is clear the chief means of loss are the skin and the lungs. The 
more air that passes in and out of the lungs in a given time, 
the greater the loss of heat. And in such animals as the dog, 
who do not perspire easily by the skin, respiration becomes 
far more important. 

But for man the great heat regulator is undoubtedly the skin, 
which regulates heat loss by its vasomotor mechanism, and 
also by the nervous mechanism of perspiration. Dilatation of 
the cutaneous vascular areas leads to a larger flow of blood 
through the skin, and so tends to cool the body, and vice versa. 
Also the special nerves of perspiration can increase or lessen 
heat loss by promoting or diminishing the secretions of the 
skin. There are greater difficulties in the exact determination 
in the amount of heat produced, but there are certain well- 
known facts in connexion with it. A larger living body naturally 
produces more heat than a smaller one of the same nature, but 
the surface of the smaller, being greater in proportion to its 
bulk than that of the larger, loses heat at a more rapid rate. 
Hence to maintain the same constant bodily temperature, the 
smaller animal must produce a relatively larger amount of heat. 
And in the struggle for existence this has become so. 

Food temporarily increases the production of heat, the rate 
of production steadily rising after a meal until a maximum is 
reached from about the 6th to the gth hour. If sugar be included 
in the meal the maximum is reached earlier; if mainly fat, later. 
Muscular work very largely increases the production of heat, 
and hence the more active the body the greater the production 
of heat. 

But all the arrangements in the animal economy for the pro- 
duction and loss of heat are themselves probably regulated 
by the central nervous system, there being a thermogenic centre 
situated above the spinal cord, and according to some observers 
in the optic thalamus. 

AUTHORITIES. M.S. Pembrey, "Animal Heat," in Schafer's Text- 
book of Physiology (1898); C. R. Richet, " Chaleur," in Dictionnaire 
de physiologic (Paris, 1898) ; Hale White, Croonian Lectures, Lancet, 
London, 1897; Pembrey and Nicol, Journal of Physiology, vol. 
xxiii., 1898-1899; H. M. Vernon, "Heat Rigor," Journal of Physio- 
logy, xxiy., 1899; H. M. Vernon, "Death Temperatures,' Journal 
of Physiology, xxv., 1899; F. C. Eve, " Temperature on Nerve 
Cells," Journal of Physiology, xxvi., 1900; G. Weiss, Comptes Rendus, 
Sac. de Biol., Hi., 1900; Swale Vincent and Thomas Lewis, " Heat 
Rigor of Muscle," Journal of Physiology, 1901 ; Sutherland Simpson 
and Percy Herring, " Cold and Reflex Action," Journal of Physiology, 
1905; Sutherland Simpson, Proceedings of Physiological Soc., July 
19, 1902; Sutherland Simpson and J. J. Galbraith, " Diurnal 
Variation of Body Temperature," Journal of Physiology, 1905; 
Transactions Royal Society Edinburgh, 1905; Proc. Physiological 
Society, p. xx., 1903; A. E. Boycott and J. S. Haldane, Effects of 
High Temperatures on Man. 

ANIMAL WORSHIP, an ill-defined term, covering facts 
ranging from the worship of the real divine animal, commonly 
conceived as a " god-body," at one end of the scale, to respect 
for the bones of a slain animal or even the use of a respectful 
name for the living animal at the other end. Added to this, 
in many works on the subject we find reliance placed, especially 
for the African facts, on reports of travellers who were merely 
visitors to the regions on which they wrote. 



ANIMAL WORSHIP 






CYuji>f<i/ioi. Animal cults may be classified in two ways: 
(A) according to their outward form; (B) according to their 
inward meaning, which may of course undergo transformations. 

(A) There are two broad divisions: (i) all animals of a given 
species are sacred, perhaps owing to the impossibility of dis- 
tinguishing the sacred few from the profane crowd; (2) one or 
a fixed number of a species arc sacred. It is probable that the 
first of these forms is the primary one and the second in most 
cases a development from it due to (i.) the influence of other 
individual cults, (ii.) anthropomorphic tendencies, (iii.) the 
influence of chieftainship, hereditary and otherwise, (iv.) annual 
sacrifice of the sacred animal and mystical ideas connected 
therewith, (v.) syncretism, due either to unity of function or to 
a philosophic unification, (vi.) the desire to do honour to the 
species in the person of one of its members, and possibly other 
less easily traceable causes. 

(B) Treating cults according to their meaning, which is not 
necessarily identical with the cause which first led to the deifica- 
tion of the animal in question, we can classify them under ten 
specific heads: (i.) pastoral cults; (ii.) hunting cults; (iii.) cults 
of dangerous or noxious animals; (iv.) cults of animals regarded 
as human souls or their embodiment; (v.) totemistic cults; 
(vi.) cults of secret societies, and individual cults of tutelary 
animals; (vii.) cults of tree and vegetation spirits; (viii.) cults of 
ominous animals; (ix.) cults, probably derivative, of animals 
associated with certain deities; (x.) cults of animals used in 
magic. 

(i.) The pastoral type falls into two sub-types, in which the species 
(a) is spared and (b) sometimes receives special honour at intervals 
in the person of an individual. (See Cattle, Buffalo, below.) 

(ii.) In hunting cults the species is habitually killed, but (a) 
occasionally honoured in the person of a single individual, or (b) 
each slaughtered animal receives divine honours. (See Bear, below.) 

(iii.) The cult of dangerous animals is due (a) to the fear that the 
soul of the slain beast may take vengeance on the hunter, (b) to a 
desire to placate the rest of the species. (See Leopard, below.) 

(iv.) Animals are frequently regarded as the abode, temporary or 
permanent, of the souls of the dead, sometimes as the actual souls of 
the dead. Respect for them is due to two main reasons: (a) the 
kinsmen of the dead desire to preserve the goodwill of their dead 
relatives; (6) they wish at the same time to secure that their kinsmen 
are not molested and caused to undergo unnecessary suffering. (Sec 
Serpent, below.) 

(v.) One of the most widely found modes of showing respect to 
animals is known as totemism (see TOTEM AND TOTEMISM), but 
except in decadent forms there is but little positive worship; in 
Central Australia, however, the rites of the Wollunqua totem group 
are directed towards placating this mythical animal, and cannot be 
termed anything but religious ceremonies. 

(vi.) In secret societies we find bodies of men grouped together 
with a single tutelary animal ; the individual, in the same way, 
acquires the nagual or individual totem, sometimes by ceremonies 
of the nature of the bloodbond. 

(vii.) Spirits of vegetation in ancient and modern Europe and in 
China are conceived in animal form. (See Goat, below.) 

(viii.) The ominous animal or bird may develop into a deity. (See 
Hawk, below.) 

(ix.) It is commonly assumed that the animals associated with 
certain deities are sacred because the god was originally therio- 
morphic; this is doubtless the case in certain instances; but Apollo 
Smintheus, Dionysus Bassareus and other examples seem to show 
that the god may have been appealed to for help and thus become 
associated with the animals from whom he protected the crops, &c. 

(x.) The use of animals in magic may sometimes give rise to a kind 
of respect for them, but this is of a negative nature. See, however, 
articles by Preuss in Globus, vol.lxvii., in which he maintains that 
animals of magical influence are elevated into divinities. 

Bear. The bear enjoys a large measure of respect from all 
savage races that come in contact with it, which shows itself in 
apologies and in festivals in its honour. The most 
important developments of the cult are in East Asia 
among the Siberian tribes; among the Ainu of Sak- 
halin a young bear is caught at the end of winter and fed for 
some nine months; then after receiving honours it is killed, and 
the people, who previously show marks of grief at its approaching 
fate, dance merrily and feast on its body. Among the Gilyaks a 
similar festival is found, but here it takes the form of a celebration 
in honour of a recently dead kinsman, to whom the spirit of the 
bear is sent. Whether this feature or a cult of the hunting type 



was the primary form, is to far an open question. There to a 
good deal of evidence to connect the Greek goddess Artesato 
with a cult of the bear; girls danced aa " bean" in her honour, 
and might not marry before undergoing this ceremony. The 
bear is traditionally associated with Bern in Switzerland, and in 
1831 a statue of Artio, a bear goddess, was dug up there. 

Bu/alo.The Todas of S. India abstain from the flesh of their 
domestic animal, the buffalo; but once a year they sacrifice a 
bull calf, which is eaten in the forest by the adult males. 

Cattle. Cattle are respected by many pastoral peoples; they 
live on milk or game, and the killing of an ox is a sacrificial 
function. Conspicuous among Egyptian animal cults was that 
of the bull, Apis. It was distinguished by certain marks, and 
when the old Apis died a new one was sought; the finder was 
rewarded, and the bull underwent four months' education at 
Nilopolis. Its birthday was celebrated once a year; oxen, 
which had to be pure white, were sacrificed to it; women were 
forbidden to approach it when once its education was finished. 
Oracles were obtained from it in various ways. After death it 
was mummified and buried in a rock-tomb. Less widespread 
was the cult of the Mnevis, also consecrated to Osiris. Similar 
observances are found in our own day on the Upper Nile; the 
Nuba and Nuer worship the bull; the Angoni of Central Africa 
and the Sakalava of Madagascar keep sacred bulls. In India 
respect for the cow is widespread, but is of post-Vedic origin; 
there is little actual worship, but the products of the cow are 
important in magic. 

Crow. The crow is the chief deity of the Thlinkit Indians of 
N. W. America; and all over that region it is the chief figure in a 
group of myths, fulfilling the office of a culture hero who brings 
the light, gives fire to mankind, &c. Together with the eagle- 
hawk the crow plays a great part in the mythology of S.E. 
Australia. 

Dog. Actual dog- worship is uncommon; the Nosarii of 
western Asia are said to worship a dog; the Kalangs of Java 
had a cult of the red dog, each family keeping one in the house; 
according to one authority the dogs are images of wood which 
are worshipped after the death of a member of the family and 
burnt after a thousand days. In Nepal it is said that dogs are 
worshipped at the festival called Khicha Puja. Among the 
Harranians dogs were sacred, but this was rather as brothers of 
the mystae. 

Elephant. In Siam it is believed that a white elephant may 
contain the soul of a dead person, perhaps a Buddha; when one 
is taken the capturer is rewarded and the animal brought to the 
king to be kept ever afterwards; it cannot be bought or sold. 
It is baptized and feted and mourned for like a human being at 
its death. In some parts of Indo-China the belief is that the soul 
of the elephant may injure people after death; it is therefore 
feted by a whole village. In Cambodia it is held to bring luck 
to the kingdom. In Sumatra the elephant is regarded as a 
tutelary spirit. The cult of the white elephant is also found at 
Ennarea, southern Abyssinia. 

Fish. Dagon seems to have been a fish-god with human head 
and hands; his worshippers wore fish-skins. In the temples of 
Apollo and Aphrodite were sacred fish, which may point to a 
fish cult. Atargatis is said to have had sacred fish at Askdon, 
and from Xenophon we read that the fish of the Chalus were 
regarded as gods. 

Goat. Dionysus was believed to take the form of a goat, 
probably as a divinity of vegetation. Pan, Silenus, the Satyrs 
and the Fauns were either capriform or had some part of their 
bodies shaped like that of a goat In northern Europe the wood 
spirit, Ljesche, is believed to have a goat's horns, ears and legs. 
In Africa the Bijagos are said to have a goat as their principal 
divinity. 

Hare. In North America the Algonquin tribes had as their 
chief deity a " mighty great hare " to whom they went at death. 
According to one account he lived in the east, according to 
another in the north. In his anthropomorphized form he was 
known as Menabosho or Michabo. 

Hawk. In North Borneo we seem to see the evolution of a 



ANIME 



god in the three stages of the cult of the hawk among the Ken- 
yahs, the Kayans and the sea Dyaks. The Kenyans will not 
kill it, address to it thanks for assistance, and formally consult 
it before leaving home on an expedition; it seems, however, 
to be regarded as the messenger of the supreme god Balli Penya- 
long. The Kayans have a hawk-god, Laki Neho, but seem to 
regard the hawk as the servant of the chief god, Laki Tenangan. 
Singalang Burong, the hawk-god of the Dyaks, is completely 
anthropomorphized. He is god of omens and ruler of the omen 
birds; but the hawk is not bis messenger, for he never leaves 
his house; stories are, however, told of his attending feasts in 
human form and flying away in hawk form when all was over. 

Horse. There is some reason to believe that Poseidon, like 
other water gods, was originally conceived under the form of a 
horse. In the cave of Phigalia Demeter was, according to 
popular tradition, represented with the head and mane of a 
horse, possibly a relic of the time when a non-specialized corn- 
spirit bore this form. Her priests were called Poloi (colts) in 
Laconia. In Gaul we find a horse-goddess, Epona; there are 
also traces of a horse-god, Rudiobus. The Gonds in India 
worship a horse-god, Koda Pen, in the form of a shapeless stone; 
but it is not clear that the horse is regarded as divine. The 
horse or mare is a common form of the corn-spirit in Europe. 

Leopard. The cult of the leopard is widely found in West 
Africa. Among the Ewe a man who kills one is liable to be put 
to death; no leopard skin may be exposed to view, but a stuffed 
leopard is worshipped. On the Gold Coast a leopard hunter 
who has killed his victim is carried round the town behind the 
body of the leopard; he may not speak, must besmear himself 
so as to look like a leopard and imitate its movements. In 
Loango a prince's cap is put upon the head of a dead leopard, 
and dances are held in its honour. 

Lion. The lion was associated with the Egyptian gods Re 
and Horus; there was a lion-god at Baalbek and a lion -headed 
goddess Sekhet. The Arabs had a lion-god, Yaghuth. In 
modern Africa we find a lion-idol among the Balonda. 

Lizard. The cult of the lizard is most prominent in the 
Pacific, where it appears as an incarnation of Tangaloa. In 
Easter Island a form of the house-god is the lizard; it is also a 
tutelary deity in Madagascar. 

Mantis. Cagn is a prominent figure in Bushman mythology; 
the mantis and the caterpillar, Ngo, are his incarnations. It was 
railed the " Hottentots' god " by early settlers. 

Monkey. In India the monkey-god, Hanuman, is a prominent 
figure; in orthodox villages monkeys are safe from harm. 
Monkeys are said to be worshipped in Togo. At Porto Novo, in 
French West Africa, twins have tutelary spirits in the shape of 
small monkeys. 

Serpent. The cult of the serpent is found in many parts of 
the Old World; it is also not unknown in America; in Australia, 
on the other hand, though many species of serpent are found, 
there does not appear to be any species of cult unless we include 
the Warramunga cult of the mythical Wollunqua totem animal, 
whom they seek to placate by rites. In Africa the chief centre 
of serpent worship was Dahomey; but the cult of the python 
seems to have been of exotic origin, dating back to the first 
quarter of the i7th century. By the conquest of Whydah the 
Dahomeyans were brought in contact with a people of serpent 
worshippers, and ended by adopting from them the cult which 
they at first despised. At Whydah, the chief centre, there is a 
serpent temple, tenanted by some fifty snakes; every python 
of the danh-gbi kind must be treated with respect, and death is 
the penalty for killing one, even by accident. Danh-gbi has 
numerous wives, who until 1857 took part in a public procession 
from which the profane crowd was excluded; a python was 
carried round the town in a hammock, perhaps as a ceremony 
for the expulsion of evils. The rainbow-god of the Ewe was also 
conceived to have the form of a snake; his messenger was said 
to be a small variety of boa; but only certain individuals, not 
the whole species, were sacred. In many parts of Africa the 
serpent is looked upon as the incarnation of deceased relatives; 
among the Amazulu, as among the Betsileo of Madagascar, 



certain species are assigned as the abode of certain classes; the 
Masai, on the other hand, regard each species as the habitat of a 
particular family of the tribe. 

In America some of the Amerindian tribes reverence the 
rattlesnake as grandfather and king of snakes who is able to 
give fair winds or cause tempest. Among the Hopi (Moqui) of 
Arizona the serpent figures largely in one of the dances. The 
rattlesnake was worshipped in the Natchez temple of the sun; 
and the Aztec deity Quetzalcoatl was a serpent-god. The tribes 
of Peru are said to have adored great snakes in the pre-Inca 
days; and in Chile the Araucanians made a serpent figure in 
their deluge myth. 

Over a large part of India there are carved representations of 
cobras (Nagas) or stones as substitutes; to these human food 
and flowers are offered and lights are burned before the shrines. 
Among the Dravidians a cobra which is accidentally killed is 
burned like a human being; no one would kill one intentionally; 
the serpent-god's image is carried in an annual procession by a 
celibate priestess. 

Serpent cults were well known in ancient Europe; there does 
not, it is true, appear to be much ground for supposing that 
Aesculapius was a serpent-god in spite of his connexion with 
serpents. On the other hand, we learn from Herodotus of the 
great serpent which defended the citadel of Athens; the Roman 
genius loci took the form of a serpent; a snake was kept and 
fed with milk in the temple of Potrimpos, an old Slavonic god. 
To this day there are numerous traces in popular belief, especially 
in Germany, of respect for the snake, which seems to be a survival 
of ancestor worship, such as still exists among the Zulus and 
other savage tribes; the " house-snake," as it is called, cares 
for the cows and the children, and its appearance is an omen of 
death, and the life of a pair of house-snakes is often held to be 
bound up with that of the master and mistress themselves. 
Tradition says that one of the Gnostic sects known as the 
Ophites caused a tame serpent to coil round the sacramental 
bread and worshipped it as the representative of the Saviour. 
See also SERPENT-WORSHIP. 

Sheep. Only in Africa do we find a sheep-god proper; Ammon 
was the god of Thebes; he was represented as ram-headed; 
his worshippers held the ram to be sacred; it was, however, 
sacrificed once a year, and its fleece formed the clothing of the 
idol. 

Tiger. The tiger is associated with Siva and Durga, but its 
cult is confined to the wilder tribes; in Nepal the tiger festival 
is known as Bagh Jatra, and the worshippers dance disguised as 
tigers. The Waralis worship Waghia the lord of tigers in the 
form of a shapeless stone. In Hanoi and Manchuria tiger-gods 
are also found. 

Wolf. Both Zeus and Apollo were associated with the wolf 
by the Greeks; but it is not clear that this implies a previous 
cult of the wolf. It is frequently found among the tutelary 
deities of North American dancing or secret societies. The 
Thlinkits had a god, Khanukh, whose name means " wolf," and 
worshipped a wolf-headed image. 

AUTHORITIES. For a fuller discussion and full references to these 
and other cults, that of the serpent excepted, see N. W. Thomas in 
Hastings' Dictionary of Religions; Frazer, Golden Bough; Camp- 
bell's Spirit Basis of Belief and Custom; Maclennan's Studies (series 
2) ; V. Gennep, Tabou et totemisme d Madagascar. For the serpent, 
see Ellis, Ewe-speaking Peoples, p. 54; Internal. Archiv, xvii. 113; 
Tylor, Primitive Culture, li. 239; Fergusson, Tree and Serpent 
Worship; Mahly, Die Schlange im Mythus; Staniland Wake, 
Serpent Worship, &c.; i6th Annual Report of the American Bureau 
of Ethnology, p. 273, and bibliography, p. 312. For the bull, &c., in 
Egypt, see EGYPT: Religion. (N. W. T.) 

ANIM&, an oleo-resin (said to be so called because in its 
natural state it is infested with insects) which is exuded from the 
locust tree, Hymenaea coumaril, and other species of Hymenaea 
growing in tropical South America. It is of a pale brown colour, 
transparent, brittle, and in consequence of its agreeable odour 
is used for fumigation and in perfumery. Its specific gravity 
varies from 1-054 to 1-057. It melts readily over the fire, and 
softens even with the heat of the mouth; it is insoluble in 
water, and nearly so in cold alcohol. It is allied to copal in its 



ANIMISM 



53 



future and appearance, and ' much uted by varnish-makerv 
name it also given to Zanzibar copal (?..). 

ANIMISM (from animus, ur anima, mind or toul), acn.r.ln^ 
to thetleiuiiiiimni 1'r K.H.Tylor, the <1<H I rine of spiritual beings, 
including human souls; in practice, however, the term is often 
extended to include panlhclism or animalism, the doctrine that 
a great part, if not the whole, of the inanimate kingdom, as well 
at all animated beings, are endowed with reason, intelligence 
and volition, identical with that of man. This latter theory, 
which in many cases is equivalent to personification, though it 
may be, like animism, a feature of the philosophy of peoples of 
low culture, should nut be confused with it. But it is difficult 
in practice to distinguish the two phases of thought and no clear 
account of animalism can yet be given, largely on the ground 
that no people has yet been discovered which has not already 
developed to a greater or less extent an animistic philosophy. 
On theoretical grounds it is probable that animalism preceded 
animism; but savage thought is no more consistent than thai 
of civilized man; and il may well be thai animistic and pant he - 
listic doctrines are held simultaneously by Ihe same person. In 
like manner one portion of Ihe savage explanation of aalure may 
have been originally animistic, another part animalistic. 

Origin. Animism may have arisen out of or simultaneously 
with animalism as a primitive explanation of many different 
phenomena; if animalism was originally applied to non-human 
or inanimate objects, animism may from the outset have been in 
vogue as a theory of Ihe nature of man. Lists of phenomena 
from Ihe contemplation of which the savage was led to believe 
in animism have been given by Dr Tylor, Herbert Spencer, 
Mr Andrew Lang and others; an animated controversy arose 
belween Ihe former as lo Ihe priorily of Iheir respeclive lists. 
Among these phenomena arc: trance (q.v.) and unconsciousness, 
sickness, death, clairvoyance (q.v.), dreams (q.v.), apparitions 
(q.v.) of the dead, wraiths, hallucinations (q.v.), echoes, shadows 
and reflections. 

Primitive ideas on Ihe subject of Ihe soul, and at Ihe same lime 
the origin of Ihem, are best illustrated by an analysis of the terms 
applied to it. Readers of Dante know the idea that the dead 
have no shadows; this was no invenlion of Ihe poet's bul a 
piece of traditionary lore; at the present day among the Bosutos 
it is held thai a man walking by Ihe brink of a river may lose 
his life if his shadow falls on Ihe waler, for a crocodile may seize 
it and draw him in; in Tasmania, North and South America 
and classical Europe is found Ihe concept ion that Ihe soul triad, 
umbra is somehow identical with ihe shadow of a man. More 
familiar lo Ihe Anglo-Saxon race is Ihe connexion belween Ihe 
soul and Ihe breath; this identification is found both in Aryan and 
Semitic languages; in Latin we have spiritus, in Greek pncuma, 
in Hebrew ranch; and Ihe idea is found exlending downwards 
to the lowest planes of culture in Australia. America and Asia. 
For some of Ihe Red Indians Ihe Roman custom of receiving Ihe 
brealh of a dying man was no mere pious duly bul a means of 
ensuring lhal his soul was iransferred lo a new body. Olher 
familiar conceptions idenlify ihe soul wilh Ihe liver (see OMEN) 
or Ihe heart, wilh Ihe reflecled figure seen in ihe pupil of Ihe eye, 
and wilh Ihe blood. Although Ihe soul is often distinguished from 
the vital principle, there are many cases in which a state of 
unconsciousness is explained as due lo ihe absence of Ihe soul; 
in South Australia vnlyamarraba (withoul soul) is ihe word used 
for insensible. So loo the autohypnolic trance of the magician 
or shaman is regarded as due to his visit to distant regions or the 
nether world, of which he brings back an account. Telepathy or 
clairvoyance (q.v.). with or withoul trance, must have operated 
powerfully to produce a conviction of the dual nature of man, 
for it seems probable that facts unknown to the automatist are 
sometimes discovered by means of cryslal-gazing (q.v.), which 
is widely found among savages, as among civilized peoples. 
Sickness is oflen explained as due lo ihe absence of Ihe soul; 
and means are sometimes taken lo lure back ihe wandering soul; 
when a Chinese is at ihe point of death and his soul is supposed 
to have already left his body, the patienl's coat is held up on a 
long bamboo while a priest endeavours to bringthe departedspiril 



back into the coat by means of incantation*. If the bamboo 
begins to turn round in the hands of the relative who is deputed 
to hold it, it is regarded as a sign that the soul of the moribund 
has returned (see AUTOMATISM). More important perhaps than 
all these phenomena, because more regular and normal, was the 
daily period of sleep with its frequent concomitant of fitful and 
incoherent ideas and images. The mere immobility of the body 
was sufficient to show that its state was not identical with that 
of waking; when, in addition, the sleeper awoke to give an 
account of visits to distant lands, from which, as modern 
psychical investigations suggest, he may even have brought back 
veridical details, the conclusion must have been irresistible 
lhal in sleep something journeyed forth, which was not the body. 
In a minor degree revival of memory during sleep and similar 
phenomena of the sub-conscious life may have contributed to 
the same result. Dreams are sometimes explained by savages 
as journeys performed by the sleeper, sometimes as visits paid 
by other persons, by animals or objects to him ; hallucinations, 
possibly more frequent in the lower stages of culture, must have 
contributed to fortify this interpretation, and the animistic 
theory in general. Seeing the phanlasmic figures of friends at 
the moment when they were, whether at the point of death or 
in good health, many miles distant, must have led the savage 
irresistibly to the dualislic theory. Bul hallucinatory figures, 
both in dreams and waking life, are nol necessarily those of the 
living; from the reappearance of dead friends or enemies 
primitive man was inevitably led lo ihe belief that there existed 
an incorporeal part of man which survived the dissolution of the 
body. The soul was conceived to be a facsimile of the body, 
sometimes no less material, sometimes more subtle but yet 
material, sometimes altogether impalpable and intangible. 

Animism and Eschatology. The psychological side of animism 
has already been dealt with; almosl equally important in 
primitive creeds is the eschalological aspect. In many parts of 
the world il is held lhal Ihe human body is the seat of more than 
one soul; in the island of Nias four are distinguished, ihe shadow 
and ihe intelligence, which die wilh the body, a tutelary spirit, 
lermed begot, and a second which is carried on ihe head. Similar 
ideas are found among the Euahlayi of S.E. Auslralia, the 
Dakotas and many olher Iribes. Just as in Europe the ghost 
of a dead person is held to haunt the churchyard or the place of 
death, although more orthodox ideas may be held and enunciated 
by the same person as to the nature of a future life, so the savage, 
more consistently, assigns different abodes to the multiple souls 
with which he credits man. Of ihe four souls of a Dakota, one 
is held to stay with the corpse, another in the village, a third goes 
into the air, while the fourth goes to the land of souls, where its 
lol may depend on its rank in this life, its sex, mode of death 
or sepulture, on ihe due observance of funeral ritual, or many other 
points (see ESCHATOLOGY). From the belief in the survival of the 
dead arose the practice of offering food, lighting fires, &c., al ihe 
grave, al firsl, maybe, as an act of friendship or filial piety, 
later as an acl of worship (see ANCESTOR WORSHIP). The simple 
offering of food or shedding of blood at the grave develops into 
an elaborate system of sacrifice; even where ancestor- worship 
is not found, the desire lo provide ihe dead wilh comforts in the 
future life may lead to the sacrifice of wives, slaves, animals, &c., 
to Ihe breaking or burning of objecls al ihe grave or to the 
provision of the ferryman's toll, a coin put in the mouth of the 
corpse to pay the travelling expenses of the soul. But all b not 
finished with ihe passage of ihe soul lo ihe land of the dead ; 
ihe soul may return to avenge its death by helping to discover 
the murderer, or to wreak vengeance for itself; there is a wide- 
spread belief thai ihose who die a violenl dealh become malignant 
spirits and endanger the lives of those who come near the haunted 
spot; the woman who dies in child-birth becomes a ponlianak, 
and threalens Ihe life of human beings; and man resorts to 
magical or religious means of repelling his spiritual dangers. 

Development of A nimism. If the phenomena of dreams were, 
as suggested above, of great importance .for the development of 
animism, the belief, which must originally have been a doctrine 
of human psychology, cannot have failed to expand speedily into 



54 



ANIMISM 



a general philosophy of nature. Not only human beings but 
animals and objects are seen in dreams; and the conclusion 
would be that they too have souls; the same conclusion may have 
been reached by another line of argument; primitive psychology 
posited a spirit in a man to account, amongst other things, for his 
actions; a natural explanation of the changes in the external 
world would be that they are due to the operations and volitions 
of spirits. 

Animal Souls. But apart from considerations of this sort, it is 
probable that animals must, early in the history of animistic 
beliefs, have been regarded as possessing souls. Education has 
brought with it a sense of the great gulf between man and animals ; 
but in the lower stages of culture this distinction is not adequately 
recognized, if indeed it is recognized at all. The savage attributes 
to animals the same ideas, the same mental processes as himself, 
and at the same time vastly greater power and cunning. The dead 
animal is credited with a knowledge of how its remains are treated 
and sometimes with a power of taking vengeance on the fortunate 
hunter. Powers of reasoning are not denied to animals nor even 
speech; the silence of the brute creation may be put down to 
their superior cunning. We may assume that man attributed a 
soul to the beasts of the field almost as soon as he claimed one for 
himself. It is therefore not surprising to find that many peoples 
on the lower planes of culture respect and even worship animals 
(see TOTEM; ANIMAL WORSHIP); though we need not attribute 
an animistic origin to all the developments, it is clear that the 
widespread respect paid to animals as the abode of dead ancestors, 
and much of the cult of dangerous animals, is traceable to this 
principle. With the rise of species, deities and the cult of in- 
dividual animals, the path towards anthropomorphization and 
polytheism is opened and the respect paid to animals tends to lose 
its strict animistic character. 

Plant Souls. Just as human souls are assigned to animals, so 
primitive man often credits trees and plants with souls in both 
human or animal form. All over the world agricultural peoples 
practise elaborate ceremonies explicable, as Mannhardt has 
shown, on animistic principles. In Europe the corn spirit some- 
times immanent in the crop, sometimes a presiding deity whose 
life does not depend on that of the growing corn, is conceived in 
some districts in the form of an ox, hare or cock, in others as an 
old man or woman ; in the East Indies and America the rice or 
maize mother is a corresponding figure; in classical Europe and 
the East we have in Ceres and Demeter, Adonis and Dionysus, 
and other deities, vegetation gods whose origin we can readily 
trace back to the rustic corn spirit. Forest trees, no less than 
cereals, have their indwelling spirits; the fauns and satyrs of 
classical literature were goat-footed and the tree spirit of the 
Russian peasantry takes the form of a goat; in Bengal and the 
East Indies wood-cutters endeavour to propitiate the spirit of the 
tree which they cut down; and in many parts of the world trees 
are regarded as the abode of the spirits of the dead. Just as a 
process of syncretism has given rise to cults of animal gods, tree 
spirits tend to become detached from the trees, which are thence- 
forward only their abodes; and here again animism has begun to 
pass into polytheism. 

Object Souls. We distinguish between animate and inanimate 
nature, but this classification has no meaning for the savage. The 
river speeding on its course to the sea, the sun and moon, if not 
the stars also, on their never-ceasing daily round, the lightning, 
fire, the wind, the sea, all are in motion and therefore animate; 
but the savage does not stop short here; mountains and lakes, 
stones and manufactured articles, are for him alike endowed with 
souls like his own; he deposits in the tomb weapons and food, 
clothes and implements, broken, it may be, in order to set free 
their souls; or he attains the same result by burning them, and 
thus sending them to the Other World for the use of the dead man. 
Here again, though to a less extent than in tree cults, the 
theriomorphic aspect recurs; in the north of Europe, in ancient 
Greece, in China, the water or river spirit is horse or bull-shaped; 
the water monster in serpent shape is even more widely found, 
but it is less strictly the spirit of the water. The spirit of syn- 
cretism manifests itself in this department of animism too; the 



immanent spirit of the earlier period becomes the presiding genius 
or local god of later times, and with the rise of the doctrine of 
separable souls we again reach the confines of animism pure and 
simple. 

Spirits in General. Side by side with the doctrine of separable 
souls with which we have so far been concerned, exists the belief 
in a great host of unattached spirits; these are not immanent souls 
which have become detached from their abodes, but have every 
appearance of independent spirits. Thus, animism is in some 
directions little developed, so far as we can see, among the 
Australian aborigines; but from those who know them best we 
learn that they believe in innumerable spirits and bush bogies, 
which wander, especially at night, and can be held at bay by 
means of fire; with this belief may be compared the ascription 
in European folk belief of prophylactic properties to iron. These 
spirits are at first mainly malevolent; and side by side with them 
we find the spirits of the dead as hostile beings. At a higher stage 
the spirits of dead kinsmen are no longer unfriendly, nor yet all 
non-human spirits; as fetishes (see FETISHISM), naguals (see 
TOTEM), familiars, gods or demi-gods (for which and the general 
question see DEMONOLOGY), they enter into relations with man. 
On the other hand there still subsists a belief in innumerable evil 
spirits, which manifest themselves in the phenomena of possession 
(q.v.), lycanthropy (q.v.), disease, &c. The fear of evil spirits has 
given rise to ceremonies of expulsion of evils (see EXORCISM), 
designed to banish them from the community. 

Animism and Religion. Animism is commonly described as 
the most primitive form of religion; but properly speaking it is 
not a religion at all, for religion implies, at any rate, some form of 
emotion (see RELIGION), and animism is in the first instance an 
explanation of phenomena rather than an attitude of mind toward 
the cause of them, a philosophy rather than a religion. The term 
may, however, be conveniently used to describe the early stage 
of religion in which man endeavours to set up relations between 
himself and the unseen powers, conceived as spirits, but differing 
in many particulars from the gods of polytheism. As an example 
of this stage in one of its aspects may be taken the European belief 
in the corn spirit, which is, however, the object of magical rather 
than religious rites; Dr Frazer has thus defined the character of 
the animistic pantheon, " they are restricted in their operations 
to definite departments of nature; their names are general, not 
proper; their attributes are generic rather than individual; in 
other words, there is an indefinite number of spirits of each class, 
and the individuals of a class are much alike; they have no 
definitely marked individuality; no accepted traditions are 
current as to their origin, life and character." This stage of 
religion is well illustrated by the Red Indian custom of offering 
sacrifice to certain rocks, or whirlpools, or to the indwelling spirits 
connected with them; the rite is only performed in the neighbour- 
hood of the object, it is an incident of a canoe or other voyage, and 
is not intended to secure any benefits beyond a safe passage past 
the object in question; the spirit to be propitiated has a purely 
local sphere of influence, and powers of a very limited nature. 
Animistic in many of their features too are the temporary gods of 
fetishism (q.v.), naguals or familiars, genii and even the dead who 
receive a cult. With the rise of a belief in departmental gods 
conies the age of polytheism ; the belief in elemental spirits may 
still persist, but they fall into the background and receive no cult. 

Animism and theOrigin of Religion. Two animistic theories of 
the origin of religion have been put forward, the one, often termed 
the " ghost theory," mainly associated with the name of Herbert 
Spencer, but also maintained by Grant Allen, refers the beginning 
of religion to the cult of dead human beings; the other, put 
forward by Dr E. B. Tylor, makes the foundation of all religion 
animistic, but recognizes the non-human character of polytheistic 
gods. Although ancestor-worship, or, more broadly, the cult of 
the dead, has in many cases overshadowed other cults or even 
extinguished them, we have no warrant, even in these cases, for 
asserting its priority, but rather the reverse; not only so, but 
in the majority of cases the pantheon is made up by a multitude 
of spirits in human, sometimes in animal form, which bear no signs 
of ever having been incarnate; sun gods and moon goddesses, 



ANIMUCCIA ANJOU 



gods of fire, wind and water, gods of the sea, and above all gods of 
the sky, show no signs of having been ghost gods at any period 
in their history. They may.it is true, be associated with ghost 
gods, but in Australia it cannot even be asserted that the gods 
are spirits at all, much less that they are the spirits of dead men ; 
they are simply magnified magicians, super-men who have never 
died; we have no ground, therefore, for regarding the cult of the 
dead as the origin of religion in this area; this conclusion is the 
more probable, as ancestor-worship and the cult of the dead 
generally cannot be said to exist in Australia. 

The more general view that polytheistic and other gods are the 
elemental and other spirits of the later stages of animistic creeds, 
is equally inapplicable to Australia, where the belief seems to be 
neither animistic nor even animalistic in character. But we are 
hardly justified in arguing from the case of Australia to a general 
conclusion as to the origin of religious ideas in all other parts of 
the world. It is perhaps safest to say that the science of religions 
has no data on which to go, in formulating conclusions as to the 
original form of the objects of religious emotion; in this connexion 
it must be remembered that not only is it very difficult to get 
precise information of the subject of the religious ideas of people 
of low culture, perhaps for the simple reason that the ideas 
themselves are far from precise, but also that, as has been pointed 
out above, the conception of spiritual often approximates very 
closely to that of material. Where the soul is regarded as no 
more than a finer sort of matter, it will obviously be far from easy 
to decide whether the gods are spiritual or material. Even, 
therefore, if we can say that at the present day the gods are 
entirely spiritual, it is clearly possible to maintain that they 
have been spiritualized pari passu with the increasing importance 
of the animistic view of nature and of the greater prominence of 
eschatological beliefs. The animistic origin of religion is therefore 
not proven. 

Animism and Mythology. But little need be said on the 
relation of animism and mythology (q.v.). While a large part 
of mythology has an animistic basis, it is possible to believe, 
e.g. in a sky world, peopled by corporeal beings, as well as by 
spirits of the dead; the latter may even be entirely absent; 
the mythology of the Australians relates largely to corporeal, 
non-spiritual beings; stories of transformation, deluge and 
doom myths, or myths of the origin of death, have not necessarily 
any animistic basis. At the same time, with the rise of ideas as 
to a future life and spiritual beings, this field of mythology is 
immensely widened, though it cannot be said that a rich mytho- 
logy is necessarily genetically associated with or combined with 
belief in many spiritual beings. 

Animism in Philosophy. The term " animism " has been 
applied to many different philosophical systems. It is used to 
describe Aristotle's view of the relation of soul and body held 
also by the Stoics and Scholastics. On the other hand 
monadology (Leibnitz) has also been termed animistic. The 
name is most commonly applied to vitalism, a view mainly 
associated with G. E. Stahl and revived by F. Bouillier (1813- 
1899), which makes life, or life and mind, the directive principle 
in evolution and growth, holding that all cannot be traced back 
to chemical and mechanical processes, but that there is a directive 
force which guides energy without altering its amount. An 
entirely different class of ideas, also termed animistic, is the 
belief in the world soul, held by Plato, Schelling and others. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Tylor, Primitive Culture; Frazer, Golden Bough; 
Id. on Burial Customs in J. A. I. xv. ; Mannharclt, BaumkuJlus; 
G. A. Willcen, Hel Animismr; Koch on the animism of S. America 
in Internationales Archiv. xiii., Suppl.; Andrew Lang, Making of 
Religion; Slceat, Malay Magic; Sir G. Campbell, "Spirit Basis of 
Belief and Custom," in Indian Antiquary, xxiii. and succeeding 
volumes: Folklore, iii. 289. xi. l6a; Spencer. Principles of Socio- 
logy; Mind (1877), 141. 4j5 et sen. For animism in philosophy, 
Stahl, Theoria ; Bouillier, Du Principe vital. (N. W. T.) 

ANIMUCCIA. GIOVANNI. Italian musical composer, was born 
at Florence in the last years of the 1 5th century. At the request 
of St Filippo Neri he composed a number of Laudi, or hymns 
of praise, to be sung after sermon time, which have given him 
an accidental prominence in musical history, since their per- 



55 

formance in St Filippo's Oratory eventually gave rite (on the 
disruption of i6th century tcbooU of competition) to tboM early 
forms of " oratorio " that are not traceable to the Gregorian- 
polyphonic " Passions." St Filippo admired Animuccia to 
warmly that he declared be had teen the Mill of hi* friend fly 
upwards towards heaven. In 1555 Animuccia was appointed 
maestro di capella at St Peter's, an office which he held until hi* 
death in 1571. He was succeeded by Palestrina, who had been 
his friend and probably his pupil. The manuscript of many of 
Animuccia's compositions is still preserved in the Vatican 
Library. His chief published works were Madrigali e Uotetti a 
quatlro e cinque toci (Ven. 1548) and // primo Libra di Uitte 
(Rom. 1567). From the latter Padre Martini has taken two 
specimens for his Saggio di Contrapunto. A mas* from the 
Primo Libra di Messe on the canto fermo of the hymn Conditor 
alme sidrrum is published in modern notation in the Antkologie 
des mattres religieux primilifs of the Chanteuri de Saint Gertait. 
It is solemn and noble in conception, and would be a great work 
but for a roughness which is more careless than archaic. 

PAOLO ANIMUCCM, a brother of Giovanni, was also celebrated 
as a composer; he is said by Fctis to have been maestro di 
capella at S. Giovanni in Laterano from the middle of January 
155 until 1552, and to have died in 1363. 

ANISE (Pimpinella Anisum), an umbelliferous plant found in 
Egypt and the Levant, and cultivated on the continent of Europe 
for medicinal purposes. The officinal part of the plant is the 
fruit, which consists of two united carpels, called a cremocarp. 
It is known by the -name of aniseed, and has a strong aromatic 
taste and a powerful odour. By distillation the fruit yields the 
volatile oil of anise, which is useful in the treatment of flatulence 
and colic in children. It may be given as A qua A nisi, in doses of 
one or more ounces, or as the Spiritus A nisi, in doses of 5-20 
minims. The main constituent of the oil (up to 90 %) is ancthol, 
CwH.jO or C.H4[i-4)(OCH,)(CH:CH-CH,.) It also contains 
methyl chavicol, anisic aldehyde, anisic acid, and a terpene. 
Most of the oil of commerce, however, of which anethol is also 
the chief constituent , comes from Illidum verum (order Uagno- 
liaceae, sub-order W inter eae), indigenous in N.E. China, the 
star-anise of liqueur makers. It receives its name from its 
flavour, and from its fruit spreading out like a star. The anise of 
the Bible (Matt, rxiii. 23) is A nethum or Peucedanum frovcotens, 
i.e. dill (?..). 

ANJAR. a fortified town of India, and the capital of a district 
of the same name in the native state of Cutch, in the presidency 
of Bombay. The country is dry and sandy, and entirely depends 
on well irrigation for its water supply. The town is situated 
nearly 10 miles from the Gulf of Cutch. It suffered severely 
from an earthquake in 1819, which destroyed a large number of 
houses, and occasioned the loss of several lives. In 1901 the 
population was 18,014. The town and district of Anjar were 
both ceded to the British in 1816, but in 1822 they were again 
transferred to the Cutch government in consideration of an 
annual money payment. Subsequently it was discovered that 
this obligation pressed heavily upon the resources of the native 
state, and in 1832 the pecuniary equivalent for Anjar, both 
prospectivcly and inclusive of the arrears which had accrued to 
that date, was wholly remitted by the British government 

ANJOU, the old name of a French territory, the political 
origin of which is traced to the ancient Gallic state of the Andes, 
on the lines of which was organized, after the conquest by 
Julius Caesar, the Roman civitas of the Andetati. This was 
afterwards preserved as an administrative district under the 
Franks with the name first of pagus, then of comitatus, or count- 
ship of Anjou. This countship, the extent of which seems to 
have been practically identical with that of the ecclesiastical 
diocese of Angers, occupied the greater part of what is now the 
department of Maine-et-Loire, further embracing, to the north, 
Craon, Bazouges (Chateau-Gontier), Le Lude, and to the east, 
Chateau-la- Yalliere and Bourgucil, while to the south, on the 
other hand, it included neither the present town of Montreuil- 
Bcllay, nor Vihiers, Cholet, Beaupreau, nor the whole district 
lying to the west of the Ironne and Thouct, on the left bank of 



ANJOU 



the Loire, which formed the territory of the Mauges. It was 
bounded on the north by the countship of Maine, on the east 
by that of Touraine, on the south by that of Poitiers and by 
the Mauges, on the west by the countship of Nantes. 

From the outset of the reign of Charles the Bald, the integrity 
of Anjou was seriously menaced by a two- fold danger: from 
Brittany and from Normandy. Lambert, a former count of 
Nantes, after devastating Anjou in concert with NominoS, duke 
of Brittany, had by the end of the year 851 succeeded in occupy- 
ing all the western part as far as the Mayenne. The principality, 
which he thus carved out for himself, was occupied, on his death, 
by Erispo, duke of Brittany; by him it was handed down to 
his successors, in whose hands it remained till the beginning 
of the loth century. All this time the Normans had not ceased 
ravaging the country; a brave man was needed to defend it, 
and finally towards 861, Charles the Bald entrusted it to Robert 
the Strong (?..), but he unfortunately met with his death in 
866 in a battle against the Normans at Brissarthe. Hugh 
the Abbot succeeded him in the countship of Anjou as in most 
of his other duties, and on his death (886) it passed to Odo (?..), 
the eldest son of Robert the Strong, who, on his accession to 
the throne of France (888), probably handed it over to his brother 
Robert. In any case, during the last years of the pth century, 
in Anjou as elsewhere the power was delegated to a viscount, 
Fulk the Red (mentioned under this title after 898), son of a 
certain Ingelgerius. 

In the second quarter of the loth century Fulk the Red 
had already usurped the title of count, which his descendants 
kept for three centuries. He was succeeded first by his son 
Fulk II. the Good (941 or 942-^. 960), and then by the son of 
the latter, Geoffrey I. Grisegoncttt (Greytunic) (c. 960-2131 of 
July 987), who inaugurated a policy of expansion, having as 
its objects the extension of the boundaries of the ancient count- 
ship and the reconquest of those parts of it which had been 
annexed by the neighbouring states; for, though western Anjou 
had been recovered from the dukes of Brittany since the begin- 
ning of the loth century, in the east all the district of Saumur 
had already by that time fallen into the hands of the counts 
of Blois and Tours. Geoffrey Greytunic succeeded in making 
the count of Nantes his vassal, and in obtaining from the duke 
of Aquitaine the concession in fief of the district of Loudun. 
Moreover, in the wars of king Lothaire against the Normans 
and against the emperor Otto II. he distinguished himself by 
feats of arms which the epic poets were quick to celebrate. His 
son Fulk III. Nerra (?..) (zist of July 987-2151 of June 1040) 
found himself confronted on his accession with a coalition of 
Odo I., count of Blois, and Conan I., count of Rennes. The latter 
having seized upon Nantes, of which the counts of Anjou held 
themselves to be suzerains, Fulk Nerra came and laid siege to it, 
routing Conan's army at Conquereuil (27th of June 992) and 
re-establishing Nantes under his own suzerainty. Then turning 
his attention to the count of Blois, he proceeded to establish 
a fortress at Langeais, a few miles from Tours, from which, 
thanks to the intervention of the king Hugh Capet, Odo failed 
to oust him. On the death of Odo I., Fulk seized Tours (996); 
but King Robert the Pious turned against him and took the town 
again (997). In 1016 a fresh struggle arose between Fulk and 
Odo n., the new count of Blois. Odo II. was utterly defeated 
at Pontlevoy (6th of July 1016), and a few years later, while 
Odo was besieging Montboyau, Fulk surprised and took Saumur 
(1026). Finally, the victory gained by Geoffrey Martel (q.v.) 
(2istof June io4o-i4th of November 1060), the son and successor 
of Fulk, over Theobald III., count of Blois, at Nouy (2ist of 
August 1044), assured to the Angevins the possession of the 
countship of Touraine. At the same time, continuing in this 
quarter also the work of his father (who in 1025 took prisoner 
Herbert Wake-Dog and only set him free on condition of his 
doing him homage) , Geoffrey succeeded in reducing the countship 
of Maine to complete dependence on himself. During his father's 
life-time he had been beaten by Gervais, bishop of Le Mans 
(1038), but now (1047 or 1048) succeeded in taking the latter 
prisoner, for which he was excommunicated by Pope Leo IX. 



at the council of Reims (October 1049). In spite, however, 
of the concerted attacks of William the Bastard (the Conqueror), 
duke of Normandy, and Henry I., king of France, he was able 
in 1051 to force Maine to recognize his authority, though failing 
to revenge himself on William. 

On the death of Geoffrey Martel (i4th of November 1060) there 
was a dispute as to the succession. Geoffrey Martel, having no 
children, had bequeathed the countship to his eldest nephew, 
Geoffrey III. the Bearded, son of Geoffrey, count of Gatinais, 
and of Ermengarde, daughter of Fulk Nerra. But Fulk le 
Rechin (the Cross-looking), brother of Geoffrey the Bearded, 
who had at first been contented with an appanage consisting of 
Saintonge and the Mtellenie of Vihiers, having allowed Saintonge 
to be taken in 1062 by the duke of Aquitaine, took advantage 
of the general discontent aroused in the countship by the unskilful 
policy of Geoffrey to make himself master of Saumur (25th of 
February 1067) and Angers (4th of April), and cast Geoffrey 
into prison at Sable. Compelled by the papal authority to release 
him after a short interval and to restore the countship to him, 
he soon renewed the struggle, beat Geoffrey near Brissac and 
shut him up in the castle of Chinon (1068). In order, however, 
to obtain his recognition as count, Fulk IV. Rechin (io68-i4th 
of April 1 109) had to carry on a long struggle with his barons, 
to cede Gatinais to King Philip I., and to do homage to the count 
of Blois for Touraine. On the other hand, he was successful 
on the whole in pursuing the policy of Geoffrey Martel in Maine: 
after destroying La Fleche, by the peace of Blanchelande (1081), 
he received the homage of Robert " Courteheuse " (" Curthose "), 
son of William the Conqueror, for Maine. Later, he upheld Elias, 
lord of La Fleche, against William Rufus, king of England, 
and on the recognition of Elias as count of Maine in noo, 
obtained for Fulk the Young, his son by Bertrade de Montfort, 
the hand of Eremburge, Elias's daughter and sole heiress. 

Fulk V. the Young (i4th of April 1109-1129) succeeded to the 
countship of Maine on the death of Elias (nth of July mo); 
but this increase of Angevin territory came into such direct 
collision with the interests of Henry I., king of England, who was 
also duke of Normandy, that a struggle between the two powers 
became inevitable. In 1 1 1 2 it broke out, and Fulk, being unable 
to prevent Henry I. from taking Alenjon and making Robert, 
lord of Belle'me, prisoner, was forced, at the treaty of Pierre 
Pecoul6e, near Alencon (23rd of February 1113), to do homage 
to Henry for Maine. In revenge for this, while Louis VI. was 
overrunning the Vexin in 1118, he routed Henry's army at 
Alencon (November) , and in May 1119 Henry demanded a peace, 
which was sealed in June by the marriage of hjs eldest son, 
William the Aetheling, with Matilda, Fulk's daughter. William 
the Aetheling having perished in the wreck of the " White 
Ship " (25th of November 1120), Fulk, on his return from a 
pilgrimage to the Holy Land (1120-1121), married his second 
daughter Sibyl, at the instigation of Louis VI., to William Clito, 
son of Robert Courteheuse, and a claimant to the duchy of 
Normandy, giving her Maine for a dowry (1122 or 1123). Henry 
I. managed to have the marriage annulled, on the plea of kinship 
between the parties (1123 or 1124). But in 1127 a new alliance 
was made, and on the 22nd of May at Rouen, Henry I. betrothed 
his daughter Matilda, widow of the emperor Henry V., to 
Geoffrey the Handsome, son of Fulk, the marriage being cele- 
brated at Le Mans on the 2nd of June 1 1 29. Shortly after, on 
the invitation of Baldwin II., king of Jerusalem, Fulk departed 
to the Holy Land for good, married Melisinda, Baldwin's daughter 
and heiress, and succeeded to the throne of Jerusalem (i4th of 
September 1131). His eldest son, Geoffrey IV. the Handsome 
or " Plantagenet," succeeded him as count of Anjou (1129- 
7th of September 1151). From the first he tried to profit by his 
marriage, and after the death of Henry I. (ist of December 1 135), 
laid the foundation of the conquest of Normandy by a series of 
campaigns: about the end of 1135 or the beginning of 1136 he 
entered that country and rejoined his wife, the countess Matilda, 
who had received the submission of Argentan, Domfront and 
Exmes. Having been abruptly recalled into Anjou by a revolt 
of his barons, he returned to the charge in September 1136 witha 



strong army, including in its ranks William.'duke of Aquitaine, 
Geoffrey, count of Vcndomc, and William Talvas, count of 
hieu, but after a few successes was wounded in the foot at 
th< siege of Le Sap (October i) and had to fall back. In May 
1 1.17 began a fresh campaign in which he devastated the district 
demois (round Exmes) and burnt Bazoches. In June 1138, 
with the aid of Robert of Gloucester, Geoffrey obtained the 
submission of Bayeux and Caen; in October he devastated the 
neighbourhood of Falaise; finally, in March 1141, on hearing of 
his wife's success in England, he again entered Normandy, when 
he made a triumphal procession through the country. Town 
after town surrendered: in 1141, Verneuil, Nonancourt, Lisieux, 
Falaise; in 1142, Mortain, Saint-Hilaire, Pontorson; in 1143, 
Avranches, Saint-Lo, Clrences, Coutances, Cherbourg; in the 
beginning of 1 144 he entered Rouen, and on the ioth of January 
received the ducal crown in its cathedral. Finally, in 1 149, after 
crushing a last attempt at revolt, he handed over the duchy to 
his son Henry " Curtmantel," who received the investiture at the 
hands of the king of France. 

All the while that Fulk the Young and Geoffrey the Handsome 
were carrying on the work of extending the countship of Anjou, 
they did not neglect to strengthen their authority at home, to 
which the unruliness of the barons was a menace. As regards 
Fulk the Young we know only a few isolated facts and dates: 
about 1109 Doue and L'lle Bouchard were taken; in 1112 
Brissac was besieged, and about the same time Eschivard of 
Preuilly subdued; in 1114 there was a general war against the 
barons who were in revolt, and in 1 1 18 a fresh rising, which was 
put down after the siege of Montbazon ; in 1123 the lord of Douc 
revolted, and in 1124 Montreuil-Bellay was taken after a siege 
of nine weeks. Geoffrey the Handsome, with his indefatigable 
energy, was eminently fitted to suppress the coalitions of his 
vassals, the most formidable of which was formed in 1129. 
Among those who revolted were Guy of Laval, Giraud of Mon- 
treuil-Bellay, the viscount of Thouars, the lords of Mirebeau, 
Amboise, Parthenay and Sabl6. Geoffrey succeeded in beating 
them one after another, razed the keep of Thouars and occupied 
Mirebeau. Another rising was crushed in 1 134 by the destruction 
of Candl and the taking of L'tle Bouchard. In 1136, while the 
count was in Normandy, Robert of Sable put himself at the head 
of the movement, to which Geoffrey responded by destroying 
Briollay and occupying La Suze, and Robert of Sable himself 
was forced to beg numbly for pardon through the intercession of 
the bishop of Angers. In 1 139 Geoffrey took Mirebeau, and in 
1142 Champtoceaux, but in 1145 a new revolt broke out, this 
time under the leadership of Elias, the count's own brother, 
who, again with the assistance of Robert of Sable, laid claim to 
the countship of Maine. Geoffrey took Elias prisoner, forced 
Robert of Sable to beat a retreat, and reduced the other barons 
to reason. In 1147 he destroyed Dou6 and Blaison. Finally 
in 1150 he was checked by the revolt of Giraud, lord of 
Montreuil-Bellay: for a year he besieged the place till it had to 
surrender; he then took Giraud prisoner and only released him 
on the mediation of the king of France. 

Thus, on the death of Geoffrey the Handsome (7th of Sep- 
tember 1151), his son Henry found himself heir to a great 
empire, strong and consolidated, to which his marriage with 
Eleanor of Aquitaine (May 1152) further added Aquitaine. 

At length on the death of King Stephen, Henry was recognised 
as king of England (igth of December 1154). But then his 
brother Geoffrey, who had received as appanage the three 
fortresses of Chinon. Loudun and Mirebeau, tried to seize upon 
Anjou, on the pretext that, by the will of their father, Geoffrey 
the Handsome, all the paternal inheritance ought to descend to 
him, if Henry succeeded in obtaining possession of the maternal 
inheritance. On hearing of this, Henry, although he had sworn 
to observe this will, had himself released from his oath by the 
pope, and hurriedly marched against his brother, from whom in 
the beginning of 1 1 56 he succeeded in taking Chinon and Mire- 
beau; and in July he forced Geoffrey to give up even his three 
fortresses in return for an annual pension. Henceforward Henry 
succeeded in keeping the countship of Anjou all his life; for 



ANJOU 57 

though he granted it in 1168 to his ion Henry " ot the Short 
Mantle," when the latter became old enough to govern it. he 
absolutely refused to allow him to enjoy hi* power. Alter 
Henry II. ' death in 1189 the countthip, together with the KM 
of his dominions, passed to his son Richard I. of P"ghn4, but 
on the death of the latter in 1199, Arthur of Brittany (born in 
1187) laid claim to the inheritance, which ought, according to 
him, to have fallen to his father Geoffrey, fourth son of Henry 1 1 . 
in accordance with the custom by which " the son of the eldest 
brother should succeed to his father's patrimony." He therefore 
set himself up in rivalry with John Lackland, youngest ton of 
Henry II., and supported by Philip Augustus of France, and 
aided by William des Roches, seneschal of Anjou, be "rtfgH 
to enter Angers (iSth of April 1199) and there have himself 
recognized as count of the three countships of Anjou, Maine and 
Touraine, for which he did homage to the king of France. King 
John soon regained the upper hand, for Philip Augustus having 
deserted Arthur by the treaty of Le Goulet (2 2nd of May taoo), 
John made his way into Anjou; and on the iSth of June 1200 
was recognized as count at Angers. In 1202 he refused to do 
homage to Philip Augustus, who, in consequence, confiscated 
all his continental possessions, including Anjou, which was 
allotted by the king of France to Arthur. The defeat of the 
latter, who was taken prisoner at Mirebeau on the ist of August 
1 202, seemed to ensure John's success, but he was abandoned 
by William des Roches, who in 1 203 assisted Philip Augustus in 
subduing the whole of Anjou. A last effort on the part of John 
to possess himself of it, in 1214, led to the taking of Angers (lyth 
of June), but broke down lamentably at the battle of La Roche- 
aux-Moines (2nd of July), and the countship was attached to the 
crown of France. 

Shortly afterwards it was separated from it again, when in 
August 1 246 King Louis IX. gave it as an appanage to his son 
Charles, count of Provence, soon to become king of Naples and 
Sicily (see NAPLES) . Charles I. of Anjou, engrossed with his other 
dominions, gave little thought to Anjou, nor did his son Charles II. 
the Lame, who succeeded him on the 7th of January 1 285. On 
the 1 6th of August 1 290, the latter married his daughter Margaret 
to Charles of Yalois, son of Philip HI. the Bold, giving her Anjou 
and Maine for dowry, in exchange for the kingdoms of Aragon 
and Valentia and the countship of Barcelona given up by Charles. 
Charles of Valois at once entered into possession of the countship 
of Anjou, to which Philip IV. the Fair, in September 1297, 
attached a peerage of France. On the i6th of December 1325, 
Charles died, leaving Anjou to his eldest son Philip of Valois, 
on whose recognition as king of France (Philip VI.) on the ist of 
April 1328, the countship of Anjou was again united to the crown. 
On the I7th of February 1332, Philip VI. bestowed it on his son 
John the Good, who, when he became king in turn (22nd of 
August 1350), gave the countship to his second son Louis I., 
raising it to a duchy in the peerage of France by letters patent 
of the 25th of October 1360. Louis I., who became in time 
count of Provence and king of Naples (see Louis I., king of Naples,) 
died in 1384, and was succeeded by his son Louis II., who devoted 
most of his energies to his kingdom of Naples, and left the ad- 
ministration of Anjou almost entirely in the hands of his wife, 
Yolande of Aragon. On his death (29th of April 1417) she took 
upon herself the guardianship of their young son Louis III 
and in her capacity of regent defended the duchy against the 
English. Louis III., who also succeeded his father as king of 
Naples, died on the 1510 of November 1434, leaving no children. 
The duchy of Anjou then passed to his cousin Rene, second son 
of Louis II. and Yolande of Aragon, and king of Naples and 
Sicily (see NAPLES). 

Unlike his predecessors, who had rarely stayed long in Anjou. 
Rene from 1443 onwards paid long visits to it, and his court at 
Angers became one of the most brilliant in the kingdom of 
France. But after the sudden death of his son John in December 
1470, Ren6, for reasons which are not altogether clear, decided 
to move his residence to Provence and leave Anjou for good. 
After mfc'"g an inventory of all his possessions, he left the duchy 
in October 1471, taking with him the most valuable of his 



ANKERITE ANKYLOSTOMIASIS 



treasures. On the 22nd of July 1474 he drew up a will by which 
he divided the succession between his grandson Rene II. of 
Lorraine and his nephew Charles II., count of Maine. On hearing 
this, King Louis XL, who was the son of one of King Ren6's 
sisters, seeing that his expectations were thus completely 
frustrated, seized the duchy of Anjou. He did not keep it very 
long, but became reconciled to Ren6 in 1476 and restored it to 
him, on condition, probably, that Ren6 should bequeath it to 
him. However that may be, on the death of the latter (loth 
of July 1480) he again added Anjou to the royal domain. 

Later, King Francis I. again gave the duchy as an appanage 
to his mother, Louise of Savoy, by letters patent of the 4th of 
February 1515. On her death, in September 1531, the duchy 
returned into the king's possession. In 1552 it was given as 
an appanage by Henry II. to his son Henry of Valois, who, on 
becoming king in 1574, with the title of Henry III., conceded it 
to his brother Francis, duke of Alencon, at the treaty of Beaulieu 
near Loches (6th of May 1376). Francis died on the loth of June 
1584, and the vacant appanage definitively became part of the 
royal domain. 

At first Anjou was included in the gowcrnement (or military 
command) of Orldanais, but in the I7th century was made into 
a separate one. Saumur, however, and the Saumurois, for which 
King Henry IV. had in 1589 created an independent military 
governor-generalship in favour of Duplessis-Mornay, continued 
till the Revolution to form a separate gouvernement, which in- 
cluded, besides Anjou, portions of Poitou and Mirebalais. 
Attached to the gtntralUt (administrative circumscription) of 
Tours, Anjou on the eve of the Revolution comprised five 
flections (judicial districts) : Angers, Beaug6, Saumur, Chateau- 
Gontier, Montreuil-Bellay and part of the (lections of La Fleche 
and Richelieu. Financially it formed part of the so-called pays 
de grande gabelle (see GABELLE), and comprised sixteen special 
tribunals, or greniers d sal (salt warehouses) : Angers, Beaugfi, 
Beaufort, Bourgueil, Cand6, Chateau-Gontier, Cholet, Craon, 
La Fleche, Saint-Florent-le-Vieil, Ingrandes, Le Lude, Pouanc6, 
Saint-Remy-la-Varenne, Richelieu, Saumur. From the point 
of view of purely judicial administration, Anjou was subject 
to the pariement of Paris; Angers was the seat of a presidial 
court, of which the jurisdiction comprised the stnichaussies 
of Angers, Saumur, Beaug6, Beaufort and the duchy of Richelieu; 
there were besides presidial courts at Chateau-Gontier and La 
Fleche. When the Constituent Assembly, on the 26th of 
February 1790, decreed the division of France into departments, 
Anjou and the Saumurois,with the exception of certain territories, 
formed the department of Maine-et-Loire, as at present con- 
stituted. 

AUTHORITIES. (i) Principal Sources: The history of Anjou may 
be told partly with the aid of the chroniclers 'of the neighbouring 
provinces, especially those of Normandy (William of Poitiers, 
William of Jumteges, Ordericus Vitalis) and of Maine (especially 
Actus pontificum Cenomannis in urbe degentium). For the loth, 
nth and I2th centuries especially, there are some important texts 
dealing entirely with Anjou. The most important is the chronicle 
called Gcsta consulum Andegavorum, of which only a poor edition 
exists (Chroniques des comtes d' Anjou, published by Marchegay and 
Salmon, with an introduction by E. Mabille, Paris, 1856-1871, 
collection of the Societe de I'histoire de France). See also with refer- 
ence to this text Louis Halphen, tude sur les chroniques des comtes 
d' Anjou el des seigneurs d'Amboise (Paris, 1906). The above may be 
supplemented by some valuable annals published by Louis Halphen, 
Recueil d'annales angevines et vendomoises (Paris, 1903), (in the 
scries Collection de textes pour servir a I' etude et a I' enseignement de 
I'histoire). For further details see Auguste Molinier, Les Sources de 
I'hiitoire de France (Paris, 1902), ii. 1276-1310, and the book of 
Louis Halphen mentioned below. 

(2) Works: The Art de verifier les dates contains a history of 
Anjou which is very much out of date, but has not been treated 
elsewhere as a whole. The nth century only has been treated in 
detail by Louis Halphen, in Le Cornte d Anjou au XI' siicle (Paris, 
1906), which has a preface with bibliography and an introduction 
dealing with the history of Anjou in the loth century. For the loth, 
nth and I2th centuries, a good summary will be found in Kate 
Norgate, England under the Angevin Kings (2 vols., London, 1887). 
On Rene of Anjou, there is a book by A. Lecoy de la Marche, Le Roi 
Rmi (2 vols., Paris, 1875). Lastly, the work of Celestin Port, 
Dictionnaire historique, geographique et biographique de Maine-et- 
Loire (3 vols., Paris and Angers, 1874-1878), and its small volume of 



Prfliminaires (including a summary of the history of Anjou), contain, 
in addition to the biographies of the chief counts of Anjou, a mass 
of information concerning everything connected with Angevin 
history. (L. H.*) 

ANKERITE, a member of the mineral group of rhombohedral 
carbonates. In composition it is closely related to dolomite, 
but differs from this in having magnesia replaced by varying 
amounts of ferrous and manganous oxides, the general formula 
being Ca(Mg,Fe,Mn) (CO 8 ) 2 . Normal ankerite is Ca 2 MgFe(C0 3 ) 4 . 
The crystallographic and physical characters resemble those 
of dolomite and chalybite. The angle between the perfect 
rhombohedral cleavages is 73 48', the hardness 3! to 4, and the 
specific gravity 2-9 to 3-1; but these will vary slightly with the 
chemical composition. The colour is white, grey or reddish. 

Ankerite occurs with chalybite in deposits of iron-ore. It 
is one of the minerals of the dolomite-chalybite series, to which 
the terms brown-spar, pearl-spar and bitter-spar are loosely 
applied. It was first recognized as a distinct species by W. von 
Haidinger in 1825, and named by him after M. J. Anker of 
Styria. (L. J. S.) 

ANKLAM, or ANCLAM, a town of Germany in the Prussian 
province of Pomerania, on the Peene, 5 m. from its mouth in the 
Kleines HafT, and 53 m. N.W. of Stettin, by the railway to 
Stralsund. Pop. (1900) 14,602. The fortifications of Anklam 
were dismantled in 1762 and have not since been restored, al- 
though the old walls are still standing; formerly, however, it was 
a town of considerable military importance, which suffered 
severely during the Thirty Years' and the Seven Years' Wars; 
and this fact, together with the repeated ravages of fire and of the 
plague, has made its history more eventful than is usually the case 
with towns of the same size. It does not possess any remarkable 
buildings, although it contains several, private as well as public, 
that are of a quaint and picturesque style of architecture. The 
church of St Mary (i2th century) has a modern tower, 335 ft. 
high. The industries consist of iron-foundries and factories for 
sugar and soap; and there is a military school. The Peene is 
navigable up to the town, which has a considerable trade in its 
own manufactures, as well as in the produce of the surrounding 
country, while some shipbuilding is carried on in wharves on the 
river. 

Anklam, formerly Tanglim, was originally a Slav fortress; it 
obtained civic rights in 1 244 and joined the Hanseatic league. In 
1648 it passed to Sweden, but in 1676 was retaken by Frederick 
William I. of Brandenburg, and after being plundered by the 
Russians in 1713 was ceded to Prussia by the peace of Stockholm 
in 1720. 

ANKLE, or ANCLE (a word common, in various forms, to 
Teutonic languages, probably connected in origin with the Lat. 
angulus, or Gr. &.yicv\os, bent), the joint which connects the 
foot with the leg (see JOINTS). 

ANKOBER, a town in, and at one time capital of, the kingdom 
of Shoa, Abyssinia, 90 m. N.E. of Adis Ababa, in 9 34' N., 39 54' 
E., on a mountain about 8500 ft. above the sea. Ankober was 
made (c. 1800) by Menelek II. the place of detention of political 
prisoners. Pop. about 2000. 

ANKYLOSIS, or ANCHYLOSIS (from Gr. &yKv\os, bent, 
crooked), a stiffness of a joint, the result of injury or disease. The 
rigidity may be complete or partial and may be due to inflamma- 
tion of the tendinous or muscular structures outside the joint or 
of the tissues of the joint itself. When the structures outside the 
joint are affected, the term " false " ankylosis has been used in 
contradistinction to " true " ankylosis, in which the disease is 
within the joint. When inflammation has caused the joint-ends of 
the bones to be fused together the ankylosis is termed osseous or 
complete. Excision of a completely ankylosed shoulder or elbow 
may restore free mobility and usefulness to the limb. " Anky- 
losis " is also used as an anatomical term, bones being said to 
ankylose (or anchylose) when, from being originally distinct, they 
coalesce, or become so joined together that no motion can take 
place between them. 

ANKYLOSTOMIASIS, or ANCHYLOSTOMIASIS (also called 
helminthiasis, "miners' anaemia," and in Germany Wurmkrank- 



ANNA ANNA COMNENA 



59 



An'/), a disease to which in recent years much attention has been 
paid, from its prevalence in the mining industry in England, 
France, Germany, Belgium, North Queensland and elsewhere. 
This disease (apparently known in Egypt even in very ancient 
times) caused a great mortality among the negroes in the West 
Indies towards the end of the iSth century; and through 
descriptions sent from Brazil and various other tropical and 
sub-tropical regions, it was subsequently identified, chiefly 
through the labours of Bilharz and Griesinger in Egypt (1854), as 
being due to the presence in the intestine of ncmatoid worms 
(AnkyliatoniadiuMttnalis) fromonc-third to half an inch long. The 
symptoms, as first observed among the negroes, were pain in the 
stomach, capricious appetite, pica (or dirt-eating), obstinate 
constipation followed by diarrhoea, palpitations, small and 
unsteady pulse, coldness of the skin, pallor of the skin and mucous 
membranes, diminution of the secretions, loss of strength and, 
in cases running a fatal course, dysentery, haemorrhages and 
dropsies. The parasites, which cling to the intestinal mucous 
membrane, draw their nourishment from the blood-vessels of 
their host, and as they are found in hundreds in the body after 
death, the disorders of digestion, the increasing anaemia and the 
consequent dropsies and other cachectic symptoms are easily 
explained. The disease was first known in Europe among the 
Italian workmen employed on the St Gotthard tunnel. In 1896, 
though previously unreported in Germany, 107 cases were 
registered there, and the number rose to 295 in 1900, and 1030 in 
1901. In England an outbreak at the Dolcoath mine, Cornwall, 
in 1002, led to an investigation for the home office by Dr Haldane 
F.R.S. (see especially the Parliamentary Paper, numbered Cd. 
1843), and since then discussions and inquiries have been frequent. 
A committee of the British Association in 1004 issued a valuable 
report on the subject. After the Spanish- American War American 
physicians had also given it their attention, with valuable results; 
see Stiles (Hygienk Laboratory Bulletin, No. 10, Washington, 
1903). The American parasite described by Stiles, and called 
Uncinaria americana (whence the name Uncinariasis for this 
disease) differs slightly from the Ankylostoma. The parasites 
thrive in an environment of dirt, and the main lines of precaution 
are those dictated by sanitary science. Malefern, santonine, 
thymol and other anthelmintic remedies are prescribed. 

ANNA, BALDASARRE, a painter who flourished during part 
of the i6th and 1 7th centuries. He was born at Venice, probably 
about 1 560, and is said to have been of Flemish descent. The date 
of his death is uncertain, but he seems to have been alive in 1639. 
For a number of years he studied under Leonardo Corona, and on 
the death of that painter completed several works left unfinished 
by him. His own activity seems to have been confined to the 
production of pieces for several of the churches and a few private 
houses in Venice, and the old .guide-books and descriptions of the 
city notice a considerable number of paintings by him. Scarcely 
any of these, however, have survived. 

ANNA (Hindustani ana), an Indian penny, the sixteenth part 
of a rupee. The term belongs to the Mahommedan mone- 
tary system (see RUPEE). There is no coin of one anna, but 
there are half-annas of copper and two-anna pieces of silver. 
The term anna is frequently used to express a fraction. Thus an 
Anglo-Indian speaks of two annas of dark blood (an octoroon), 
a four-anna (quarter) crop, an eight-anna (half) gallop. 

ANNA AMALIA (1739-1807), duchess of Saxe-Wcimar, 
daughter of Charles I., duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, was 
born at Wolfenbuttel on the 24th of October 1739, and married 
Ernest, duke of Saxe-Weimar, 1736. Her husband died in 1758, 
leaving her regent for their infant son, Charles Augustus. During 
the protracted minority she administered the affairs of the 
duchy with the greatest prudence, strengthening its resources 
and improving its position in spite of the troubles of the Seven 
Years' War. She was a patroness of art and literature, and 
attracted to Weimar many of the most eminent men in Germany. 
Wieland was appointed tutor to her son; and the names of 
Herder, Goethe and Schiller shed an undying lustre on her court. 
In 1775 she retired into private life, her son having attained his 
majority. In 1788 she set out on a lengthened tour through 



Italy, accompanied by Goethe. She died on the loth of April 
1807. A memorial of the duchess is included in Goethe's works 
under the title Zum Andtnkrn drr Funlin Anno- Amelia. 

See F. Bornhalc, A nna A malut 1 1 mo tin ton Saxe- Wttmar-Eunatk 

(Berlin. 1892). 

ANNABERO. a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, 
in the Erzgebirge, 1894 ft. above the sea, 6 m. from the Bohemian 
frontier, i8j m. S. by E. from Chemnitz by rail. Pop. (1005) 
16,81 1. It has three Evangelical churches, among them that of 
St Anne, built 1409-1525, a Roman Catholic church, several 
public monuments, among them those of Luther, of the famous 
arithmetician Adam Riese, and of Barbara Uttmann. Anna- 
berg, together with the neighbouring suburb, Buchholz, is the 
chief seat of the braid and lace-making industry in Germany, 
introduced here by Barbara Uttmann in 1561, and further 
developed by Belgian refugees, who, driven from their country 
by the duke of Alva, settled here in 1590. The mining industry, 
for which the town was formerly also famous and which embraced 
tin, silver and cobalt, has now ceased. Annaberg has technical 
schools for lace-making, commerce and agriculture, in addition 
to high grade public schools for boys and girls. 

ANNABERGITE. a mineral consisting of a hydrous nickel 
arsenate, N(j(AsO < ) J -|-8HtO, crystallizing in the monodinic 
system and isomorphous with vivianite and erythrite. Crystals 
are minute and capillary and rarely met with, the mineral 
occurring usually as soft earthy masses and encrustations. A 
fine apple-green colour is its characteristic feature. It was long 
known (since 1758) under the name nickel-ochre; the name 
annabergite was proposed by H. J. Brooke and W. H. Miller in 
1852, from Annaberg in Saxony, one of the localities of the 
mineral. It occurs with ores of nickel, of which it is a product 
of alteration. A variety, from Creetown in Kirkcudbrightshire, 
in which a portion of the nickel is replaced by calcium, has been 
called dudgeonite, after P. Dudgeon, who found it. (L. J. S.) 

ANNA COMNENA. daughter of the emperor Alexius I. 
Comnenus, the first woman historian, was born on the ist of 
December 1083. She was her father's favourite and was care- 
fully trained in the study of poetry, science and Greek philosophy. 
But, though learned and studious, she was intriguing and 
ambitious, and ready to go to any lengths to gratify her longing 
for power. Having married an accomplished young nobleman, 
Nicephorus Bryennius, she united with the empress Irene in 
a vain attempt to prevail upon her father during his last illness 
to disinherit his son and give the crown to her husband. Still 
undeterred, she entered into a conspiracy to depose her brother 
after his accession; and when her husband refused to join in the 
enterprise, she exclaimed that " nature had mistaken their 
sexes, for he ought to have been the woman." The plot being 
discovered, Anna forfeited her property and fortune, though, by 
the clemency of her brother, she escaped with her life. Shortly 
afterwards, she retired into a convent and employed her leisure 
n writing the Alexiad a history, in Greek, of her father's life 
and reign (1081-1118), supplementing the historical work of her 
lusband. It is rather a family panegyric than a scientific history, 
n which the affection of the daughter and the vanity of the 
author stand out prominently. Trifling acts of her father are 
described at length in exaggerated terms, while little notice is 
Laken of important constitutional matters. A determined 
opponent of the Latin church and an enthusiastic admirer of the 
Byzantine empire, Anna Comnena regards the Crusades as a 
danger both political and religious. Her models are Thucydides, 
Polybius and Xenophon, and her style exhibits the striving after 
Atticism characteristic of the period, with the result that the 
anguage is highly artificial. Her chronology especially isdef ecti ve. 
Editions in Bonn Corpus Scriptorum Hist. By*., by J. Schopen 
and A. ReifTcrschcid (1839-1878). with Du Cange's valuable com- 
nentary ; and Teubncr aeries, by A. Rciffcrschcid (1884). See also 
'-.. Krumbachcr. Gesckickte der byiantiniscken Literalur (2nd ed. 
1897) ; C. Neumann, Griechische Geschicktsckreiber im 12 Jakrkunderte 
1888); E. Oster, Anna Komnena (Rastatt, 1868-1871); Gibbon, 
decline and Fail, ch. 48; Finlay, Hist, of Greece, iii. pp. 53. 128 
1877); P. Adam, Princesses bytantines (1893); Sir Walttr Scott. 
Count Robert of Paris; L. du Sommerard, Anne Comment . . . Agnes 
de France (1907); C. Dichl, Figures bytantines (1906). 



6o 



ANNA LEOPOLDOVNA ANNALISTS 



ANNA LEOPOLDOVNA, sometimes called ANNA CARLOVNA 
(1718-1746), regent of Russia for a few months during the 
minority of her son Ivan, was the daughter of Catherine, sister 
of the empress Anne, and Charles Leopold, duke of Mecklenburg- 
Schwerin. In 1739 she married Anton Ulrich (d. 1775), son of 
Ferdinand Albert, duke of Brunswick, and their son Ivan was 
adopted in 1740 by the empress and proclaimed heir to the 
Russian throne. A few days after this proclamation the empress 
died, leaving directions regarding the succession, and appointing 
her favourite Ernest Biren, duke of Courland, as regent. Biren, 
however, had made himself an object of detestation to the 
Russian people, and Anna had little difficulty in overthrowing 
his power. She then assumed the regency, and took the title of 
grand-duchess, but she knew little of the character of the people 
with whom she had to deal, was utterly ignorant of the approved 
Russian mode of government, and speedily quarrelled with her 
principal supporters. In December 1741, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Peter the Great, who, from her habits, was a favourite with 
the soldiers, excited the guards to revolt, overcame the slight 
opposition that was offered, and was proclaimed empress. Ivan 
was thrown into prison, where he soon afterwards perished. 
Anna and her husband were banished to a small island in the 
river Dvina, where on the i8th of March 1746 she died in 
childbed. 

ANNALISTS (from Lat. annus, year; hence annales, sc. 
libri, annual records), the name given to a class of writers on 
Roman history, the period of whose literary activity lasted from 
the time of the Second Punic War to that of Sulla. They wrote 
the history of Rome from the earliest times (in most cases) down 
to their own days, the events of which were treated in much 
greater detail. For the earlier period their authorities were 
state and family records above all, the annales maximi (or 
annales pontificum), the official chronicle of Rome, in which the 
notable occurrences of each year from the foundation of the city 
were set down by the pontifcx maximus. Although these annals 
were no doubt destroyed at the time of the burning of Rome by 
the Gauls, they were restored as far as possible and continued 
until the pontificate of P. Mucius Scaevola, by whom they were 
finally published in eighty books. Two generations of these 
annalists have been distinguished an older and a younger. 
The older, which extends to 150 B.C., set forth, in bald, un- 
attractive language, without any pretensions to style, but with 
a certain amount of trustworthiness, the most important events 
of each successive year. Cicero (DeOratore,ii. 12. 53), comparing 
these writers with the old Ionic logographers, says that they 
paid no attention to ornament, and considered the only merits 
of a writer to be intelligibility and conciseness. Their annals 
were a mere compilation of facts. The younger generation, in 
view of the requirements and criticism of a reading public, 
cultivated the art of composition and rhetorical embellishment. 
As a general rule the annalists wrote in a spirit of uncritical 
patriotism, which led them to minimize or gloss over such 
disasters as the conquest of Rome by Porsena and the compulsory 
payment of ransom to the Gauls, and to flatter the people by 
exaggerated accounts of Roman prowess, dressed up in fanciful 
language. At first they wrote in Greek, partly because a national 
style was not yet formed, and partly because Greek was the 
fashionable language amongst the educated, although Latin 
versions were probably published as well. The first of the 
annalists, the father of Roman history, as he has been called, 
was Q. FABIUS PICTOR (see FABIUS PICTOR); contemporary 
with him was L. CINCIUS ALIMENTUS, who flourished during 
the Hannibalic war. 1 Like Fabius Pictor, he wrote in Greek. 
He was taken prisoner by Hannibal (Livy xxi. 38), who is said 
to have given him details of the crossing of the Alps. His work 
embraced the history of Rome from its foundation down to his 
own days. With M. PORCIUS CATO (q.v.) historical composition 

1 He is not to be confused wjth L. Cincius, the author of various 
political and antiquarian treatises (de Fastis, de Comitiis, de Priscis 
Verbis), who lived in the Augustan age, to which period Mommscn, 
considering them a later fabrication, refers the Greek annals of 
L. Cincius Alimentus. 



in Latin began, and a livelier interest was awakened in the 
history of Rome. Among the principal writers of this class who 
succeeded Cato, the following may be mentioned. L. CASSIUS 
HEMINA (about 146), in the fourth book of his Annals, wrote on 
the Second Punic War. His researches went back to very early 
times; Pliny (Nat. Hist. xiii. 13 [27]) calls him vetustissimus 
auctor annalium. L. CALPURNIUS Piso, surnamed Frugi (see 
under Piso), wrote seven books of annals, relating the history 
of the city from its foundation down to his own times. Livy 
regards him as a less trustworthy authority than Fabius Pictor, 
and Niebuhr considers him the first to introduce systematic 
forgeries into Roman history. Q. CLAUDIUS QUADRIGARIUS 
(about 80 B.C.) wrote a history, in at least twenty-three books, 
which began with the conquest of Rome by the Gauls and went 
down to the death of Sulla or perhaps later. He was freely used 
by Livy in part of his work (from the sixth book onwards). A 
long fragment is preserved in Aulus Gellius (ix. 13), giving an 
account of the single combat between Manlius Torquatus and 
the Gaul. His language was antiquated and his style dry, but 
his work was considered important. VALERIUS ANTIAS, a 
younger contemporary of Quadrigarius, wrote the history of 
Rome from the earliest times, in a voluminous work consisting 
of seventy-five books. He is notorious for his wilful exaggera- 
tion, both in narrative and numerical statements. For instance, 
he asserts the number of the Sabine virgins to have been exactly 
527; again, in a certain year when no Greek or Latin writers 
mention any important campaign, Antias speaks of a big battle 
with enormous casualties. Nevertheless, Livy at first made use 
of him as one of his chief authorities, until he became convinced 
of his untrustworthiness. C. LICINIUS MACER (died 66), who 
has been called the last of the annalists, wrote a voluminous 
work, which, although he paid great attention to the study of 
his authorities, was too rhetorical, and exaggerated the achieve- 
ments of his own family. Having been convicted of extortion, 
he committed suicide (Cicero, De Legibus, i. 2, Brutus, 67; 
Plutarch, Cicero, 9). 

The writers mentioned dealt with Roman history as a whole; 
some of the annalists, however, confined themselves to shorter 
periods. Thus, L. CAELIUS ANTIPATER (about 120) limited 
himself to the Second Punic War. His work was overloaded with 
rhetorical embellishment, which he was the first to introduce 
into Roman history. He was regarded as the most careful 
writer on the war with Hannibal, and one who did not allow 
himself to be blinded by partiality in considering the evidence 
of other writers (Cicero, De Oratore, ii. 12). Livy made great 
use of him in his third decade. SEMPRONIUS ASELLIO (about 
100 B.C.), military tribune of Scipio Africanus at the siege of 
Numantia, composed Rerum Gestarum Libri in at least fourteen 
books. As he himself took part in the events he describes, his 
work was a kind of memoirs. He was the first of his class who 
endeavoured to trace the causes of events, instead of contenting 
himself with a bare statement of facts. L. CORNELIUS SISENNA 
(119-67), legate of Pompey in the war against the pirates, lost 
his life in an expedition against Crete. He wrote twenty-three 
books on the period between the Social War and the dictatorship 
of Sulla. His work was commended by Sallust (Jugurtha, 95), 
who, however, blames him for not speaking out sufficiently. 
Cicero remarks upon his fondness for archaisms (Brutus, 74. 
259). Sisenna also translated the tales of Aristides of Miletus, 
and is supposed by some to have written a ccmmentary on 
Plautus. The autobiography of Sulla may also be mentioned. 

See C. W. Nitzsch, Die romische Annalistik (1873) ; H. Peter, Zur 
Kritik der Quellen der alter en romischen Geschichte (1879); L. O. 
Brocker, Moderne Quellenforscher und antike Geschichtschreiber 
(1882); fragments in H. Peter, Historicorum Romanorum Reliquiae 
(1870, 1906), and Historicorum Romanorum Fragmenta (1883); also 
articles ROME, History (ancient) ad fin., section " Authorities," and 
LIVY, where the use made of the annalists by the ^historian ^is 
discussed; Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopadie, art. "Annales"; 
the histories of Roman Literature by M. Schanz and Teuffel- 
Schwabe; Mommsen, Hist, of Rome (Eng. tr.), bk. ii. ch. 9, bk. iii. 
ch. 14, bk. iv. ch. 13, bk. v. ch. 12; C. Wachsmuth, Einleitung in 
das Studium der alien Geschichte (1895); H. Peter, bibliography of 
the subject in Bursian's Jahresbericht, cxxvi. (1906). (J. H. F.) 



ANNALS ANNAM 



61 



ANNALS (Annalti, from OMNMJ, a year), a concise historic*! 
record in which events are arranged chronologically, year by 
year. The chief source* of information in regard to the annals 
of ancient Rome are two passages in Cicero (De OroJore, ii. 12. 
52) and in Servius (ad Aen. i. 373) which have been the subject 
of much discussion. Cicero states that from the earliest period 
down to the pontificate of Publius Mucius Scaevola (c. 131 B.C.), 
it was usual for the pontifex maximus to record on a white tablet 
(album), which was exhibited in an open place at his house, so 
that the people might read it, first, the name of the consuls and 
other magistrates, and then the noteworthy events that had 
occurred during the year (per singttlos dies, as Servius says). 
These records were called in Cicero's time the Annales Uaximi. 
After the pontificate of Publius, the practice of compiling annals 
was carried on by various unofficial writers, of whom Cicero 
names Cato, Pictor and Piso. The Annales have been generally 
regarded as the same wjth the Commenlarii Pontificum cited by 
Livy, but there seems reason to believe that the two were dis- 
tinct, the Commfnitirii being fuller and more circumstantial. 
The nature of the distinction between annals and history is a 
subject that has received more attention from critics than its 
intrinsic importance deserves. The basis of discussion is fur- 
nished chiefly by the above-quoted passage from Cicero, and by 
the common division of the work of Tacitus into AnnaJes and 
Historiae. Aulus Gellius, in the Nodes Atiicae (v. 18), quotes the 
grammarian Vcrrius Flaccus, to the effect that history, according 
to its etymology (iaroptiv, inspicere, to inquire in person), is a 
record of events that have come under the author's own observa- 
tion, while annals are a record of the events of earlier times 
arranged according to years. This view of the distinction seems 
to be borne out by the division of the work of Tacitus into the 
Historiae, relating the events of his own time, and the Annales, 
containing the history of earlier periods. It is more than 
questionable, however, whether Tacitus himself divided his 
work under these titles. The probability is, either that he called 
the whole Annales, or that he used neither designation. (See 
TACITUS, CORNELIUS.) 

In the middle ages, when the order of the liturgical feasts was 
partly determined by the date of Easter, the custom was early 
established in the Western Church of drawing up tables to 
indicate that date for a certain number of years or even 
centuries. These Paschal tables were thin books in which each 
annual date was separated from the next by a more or less con- 
siderable blank space. In these spaces certain monks briefly 
noted the important events of the year. It was at the end 
of the 7th century and among the Anglo-Saxons that the 
compiling of these Annals was first begun. Introduced by 
missionaries on the continent, they were re-copied, augmented 
and continued, especially in the kingdom of Austrasia. In the 
9th century, during the great movement termed the Carolingian 
Renaissance, these Annals became the usual form of contem- 
porary history; it suffices to mention the Annales Einhardi, the 
Annales Laureshamenses (or " of Lorsch "), and the Annales S. 
Bertini, officially compiled in order to preserve the memory of 
the more interesting acts of Charlemagne, his ancestors and 
his successors. Arrived at this stage of development, the 
Annals now began to lose their primitive character, and 
henceforward became more and more indistinguishable from the 
Chronicles. 

In modern literature the title annals has been given to a 
large number of standard works which adhere more or less strictly 
to the order of years. The best known are the Annales Eccle- 
siastui, written by Cardinal Baronius as a rejoinder to and 
refutation of the Historia ecdesiastica or " Centuries " of the 
Protestant theologians of Magdeburg (12 vols., published at 
Rome from 1788 to 1793; Baronius's work stops at the year 
1197). In the iqth century the annalist ic form was once more 
employed, either to preserve year by year the memory of passing 
events (Annual Register, Annuairede la Revue des deux mondes, 
&c.) or in writing the history of obscure medieval periods 
(Jakrbucher der dentschen Gesckickie, Jahrbticher des deutscken 
Reickes, Rkhter's Reichsannalen, &c.). (C. B.*) 



ANNAM, or ANAM, a country of south-eastern Asia, now 
forming a French protectorate, part of the peninsula of Indo- 
China. (See INDO-CRINA, FBENCH). It is bounded N. by Tonf- 
king, . and S.E. by the China Sea, S.W. by Cochin-China. and 
W. by Cambodia and Lao*. It comprises a finuous strip of 
territory measuring between 750 and 800 m. in length, with an 
approximate area of 52,000 sq. m. The population b minuted 
at about 6,124,000 

The country consists chiefly of a range of plateaus and wooded 
mountains, running north and south and declining on the coast 
to a narrow band of plain varying between 12 and 50 m. fat 
breadth. The mountains are cut transversely by short narrow 
valleys, through which run rivers, most of whkh are dry in 
summer and torrential in winter. The Song-Ma and the Song- 
Ca in the north, and the Song-Ba, Don-Nai and Se-Bang-Khan in 
the south, are alone of any size. The chief harbour is that afforded 
by the bay of Tourane at the centre of the coast-line. South of 
this point the coast curves outwards and is broken by peninsulas 
and indentations; to the north it is concave and bordered in 
many places by dunes and lagoons. 

Climate. In Annam the rainy season begins during September 
and lasts for three or four months, corresponding with the north- 
east monsoon and also with a period of typhoons. During the 
rains the temperature varies from 59 or even lower to 75* F. 
June, July and August are the hottest months, the thermometer 
often reaching 85 or 00, though the heat of the day is to some 
degree compensated by the freshness of the nights. The south- 
west monsoon which brings rain in Cochin-China coincides with 
the dry season in Annam, the reason probably being that the 
mountains and lofty plateaus separating the two countries 
retain the precipitation. 

Ethnography. The Annamese, or, to use the native term, the 
Giao-chi, are the predominant people not only in Annam but in 
the lowland and cultivated parts of Tongking and in Cochin- 
China and southern Cambodia. According to their own annals 
and traditions they once inhabited southern China, a theory 
which is confirmed by many of their habits and physical character- 
istics; the race has, however, been modified by crossings with 
the Chans and other of the previous inhabitants of Indo-China. 

The Annamese is the worst-built and ugliest of all the Indo- 
Chinese who belong to the Mongolian race. He is scarcely of 
middle height and is shorter and less vigorous than his neighbours. 
His complexion is tawny, darker than that of the Chinese, but 
clearer than that of the Cambodian; his hair is black, coarse 
and long; his skin is thick; his forehead low; his skull slightly 
depressed at the top, but well developed at the sides. His face is 
flat, with highly protruding cheek-bones, and is lozenge-shaped 
or eurygnat hous to a degree that is nowhere exceeded. His nose 
is not only the flattest, but also the smallest among the Indo- 
Chinese; his eyes are rarely oblique; his mouth is large and 
his lips thick; his teeth are blackened and his gums destroyed 
by the constant use of the betel-nut, the areca-nut and lime. 
His neck is short, his shoulders slope greatly, his body is thick-set 
and wanting in suppleness. Another peculiarity is a separation 
of the big toe from the rest, greater than is found in any other 
people, and sufficiently general and well marked to serve as an 
ethnographic test. The Annamese of Cochin-China are weaker 
and smaller than those of Tongking, probably as a result of 
living amid marshy rice-fields. The Annamese of both sexes 
wear wide trousers, a long, usually black tunic with narrow 
sleeves and a dark-coloured turban, or in the case of the lower 
classes, a wide straw hat; they either go bare-foot or wear sandals 
or Chinese boots. The typical Annamese dwelling is open to the 
gaze of the passer-by during the day; at night a sort of partition 
of bamboo is let down. The roof is supported on wooden pillars 
and walls are provided only at the sides. The house consists 
principally of one large room opening on the front verandah 
and containing the altar of the family's ancestors, a table in the 
centre and couches placed against the wall. The chief elements 
of the native dkt are rice, fish and poultry; vegetables and pork 
are also eaten. The family is the base of the social system 
in Annam and is ruled by its head, who is also priest and judge. 



62 



ANNAM 



Polygamy is permitted but rarely practised, and the wife enjoys 
a position of some freedom. 

Though fond of ease the Annamese are more industrious than 
the neighbouring peoples. Theatrical and musical entertainments 
are popular among them. They show much outward respect 
for superiors and parents, but they are insincere and incapable 
of deep emotion. They cherish great love of their native soil 
and native village and cannot remain long from home. A 
proneness to gambling and opium-smoking, and a tinge of vanity 
and deceitfulness, are their less estimable traits. On the whole 
they are mild and easy-going and even apathetic, but the 
facility with which they learn is remarkable. Like their neighbours 
the Cambodians and the Chinese, the Annamese have a great 
respect for the dead, and ancestor worship constitutes the national 
religion. The learned hold the doctrine of Confucius, and 
Buddhism, alloyed with much popular superstition, has some 
influence. Like the Chinese the Annamese bury their dead. 

Among the savage tribes of the interior there is scarcely any 
idea of God and their superstitious practices can scarcely be 
considered as the expression of a definite religious idea. Roman 
Catholics number about 420,000. In the midst of the Annamese 
live Cambodians and immigrant Chinese, the latter associated 
together according to the districts from which they come and 
carrying on nearly all the commerce of the country. In the 
forests and mountains dwell tribes of savages, chiefly of 
Indonesian origin, classed by the Annamese under the name 
Mots or " savages." Some of these tribes show traces of' 
Malay ancestry. Of greater historical interest are the Chams, 
who are to be found for the most part in southern Annam and in 
Cambodia, and who, judging from the numerous remains found 
there, appear to have been the masters of the coast region of 
Cochin-China and Annam till they succumbed before the pressure 
of the Khmers of Cambodia and the Annamese. They are taller, 
more muscular, and more supple than the Annamese. Their 
language is derived from Malay, and while some of the Chams 
are Mussulmans, the dominant religion is Brahmanism, and more 
especially the worship of Siva. Their women have a high 
reputation for virtue, which, combined with the general bright 
and honest character of the whole people, differentiates them from 
the surrounding nations. 

Evidently derived from the Chinese, of which it appears to be 
a very ancient dialect, the Annamese language is composed of 
monosyllables, of slightly varied articulation, expressing different 
ideas according to the tone in which they are pronounced. It is 
quite impossible to connect with our musical system the utterance 
of the sounds of which the Chinese and Annamese languages are 
composed. What is understood by a" tone " in this language 
is distinguished in reality, not by the number of sonorous 
vibrations which belong to it, but rather by a use of the vocal 
apparatus special to each. Thus, the sense will to a native be 
completely changed according as the sound is the result of an 
aspiration or of a simple utterance of the voice. Thence the 
difficulty of substituting our phonetic alphabet for the ideo- 
graphic characters of the Chinese, as well as for the ideophonetic 
writing partly borrowed by the Annamese from the letters of the 
celestial empire. To the Jesuit missionaries is due the intro- 
duction of an ingenious though very complicated system, which 
has caused remarkable progress to be made in the employment of 
phonetic characters. By means of six accents, one bar and a 
crotchet it is possible to note with sufficient precision the indica- 
tions of tone without which the Annamese words have no sense 
for the natives. 

Agriculture and other Industries. The cultivation of rice, 
which is grown mainly in the small deltas along the coast and 
in some districts gives two crops annually, and fishing, together 
with fish-salting and the preparation of nuoc-mam, a sauce 
made from decaying fish, constitute the chief industries of 
Annam. 

Silk spinning and weaving are carried on on antiquated lines, 
and silkworms are reared in a desultory fashion. Besides rice, 
theproductsof the countryinclude tea, tobacco, cotton, cinnamon, 
precious woods and rubber; coffee, pepper, sugar-canes and 



jute are cultivated to a minor extent. The exports (total value 
in 1905 237,010) comprise tea, raw silk and small quantities of 
cotton, rice and sugar-cane. The imports (284,824 in 1905) 
include rice, iron goods, flour, wine, opium and cotton goods. 
There are coal-mines at Nong-Son, near Tourane, and gold, 
silver, lead, iron and other metals occur in the mountains. 
Trade, which is in the hands of the Chinese, is for the most part 
carried on by sea, the chief ports being Tourane and Qui-Nhon, 
which are open to European commerce. 

Administration. Annam is ruled in theory by its emperor, 
assisted by the " comat " or secret council, composed of .the heads 
of the six ministerial departments of the interior, finance, war, 
ritual, justice and public works, who are nominated by himself. 
The resident superior, stationed at Hue, is the representative of 
France and the virtual ruler of the country. He presides over 
a council (Conseil de Protectorat) composed of the chiefs of the 
French services in Annam, together with two members of the 
" comat "; this body deliberates on questions of taxation affecting 
the budget of Annam and on local public works. A native 
governor (tong-doc or tuan-phu), assisted by a native staff, 
administers each of the provinces into which the country is 
divided, and native officials of lower rank govern the areas 
into which these provinces are subdivided. The governors 
take their orders from the imperial government, but they are 
under the eye of French residents. Native officials are-appointed 
by the court, but the resident superior has power to annul an 
appointment. The mandarinate or official class is recruited 
from all ranks of the people by competitive examination. In 
the province of Tourane, a French tribunal alone exercises 
jurisdiction, but it administers native law where natives are 
concerned. Outside this territory the native tribunals 
survive. The Annamese village is self-governing. It has its 
council of notables, forming a sort of oligarchy which, 
through the medium of a mayor and two subordinates, directs 
the interior affairs of the community policing, recruiting, the 
assignment and collection of taxes, &c. and has judicial power 
in less important suits and crimes. More serious cases come 
within the purview of the an-sat, a judicial auxiliary of the 
governor. An assembly of notables from villages grouped 
together in a canton chooses a cantonal representative, who is 
the mouthpiece of the people and the intermediary between the 
government and its subjects. The direct taxes, which go to the 
local budget of Annam, consist primarily of a poll-tax levied 
on all males over eighteen and below sixty years of age, and of 
a land-tax levied according to the quality and the produce of the 
holding. 

The following table summarizes the local budget of Annam 
for the years 1899 and 1904: 






Receipts. 


Expenditure. 


1899 
1904 


203,082 (direct taxes, 
247-435 ( .. - 


171,160) 
219,841) 


i75."7 
232,480 



In 1904 the sum allocated to the expenses of the court, the 
royal family and the native administration, the members of 
which are paid by the crown, was 85,000, the chief remaining 
heads of expenditure being the government house and residencies 
(39i79), the native guard (32,609) and public works (24,898). 

Education is available to every person in the community. 
The primary school, in which the pupils learn only Chinese 
writing and the precepts of Confucius, stands at the base of this 
system. Next above this is the school of the district capital, 
where a half-yearly examination takes place, by means of which 
are selected those eligible for the course of higher education 
given at the capital of the province in a school under the direction 
of a doc-hoc, or inspector of studies. Finally a great triennial 
competition decides the elections. The candidate whose work 
is notified as tres bien is admitted to the examinations at Hue, 
which qualify for the title of doctor and the holding of administra- 
tive offices. The education of a mandarin includes local history, 
cognizance of the administrative rites, customs, laws and 
prescriptions of the country, the ethics of Confucius, the rules 



ANNAN ANNAPOLIS 



of food breeding, the ceremonial of official and social life, 
and the practical acquirements necessary to the conduct of public 
or private business. Annamese learning goes no farther. It 
iiu luilcs no scientific idea, no knowledge of the natural sciences, 
and neglects even the most rudimentary instruction conveyed 
in a European education. The complications of Chinese writing 
greatly hamper education. The Annamese mandarin must be 
acquainted with Chinese, since he writes in Chinese characters. 
But the character being ideographic, the words which express 
them are dissimilar in the two languages, and official text is 
read in Chinese by a Chinese, in Annamese by an Annamese. 

The chief towns of Annam are Hut (pop. about 42,000), seat 
both of the French and native governments, Tourane (pop. about 
4000), Phan-Thiet (pop. about 20,000) in the extreme south, 
Qui-Nhon, and Fai-Fo, a commercial centre to the south of 
Tourane. A road following the coast from Cochin-China to 
Tongking, and known as the " Mandarin road," passes through or 
near the chief towns of the provinces and forms the chief artery 
of communication in the country apart from the railways 
(see INDO-CHINA, FRENCH). 

History. The ancient tribe of the Giao-chi, who dwelt on 
the confines of S. China, and in what is now Tongking and 
northern Annam, are regarded by the Annamese as their 
ancestors, and tradition ascribes to their first rulers descent 
from the Chinese imperial family. These sovereigns were suc- 
ceeded by another dynasty, under which, at the end of the 
3rd century B.C., the Chinese invaded the country, and eventually 
established there a supremacy destined to last, with little 
intermission, till the loth century A.o. In 068 Dinh-Bo-Lanh 
succeeded in ousting the Chinese and founded an independent 
dynasty of Dinh. Till this period the greater part of Annam 
had been occupied by the ('hams, a nation of Hindu civilization, 
which has left many monuments to testify to its greatness, but 
the encroachment of the Annamese during the next six centuries 
at hist left to it only a small territory in the south of the country. 
Three lines of sovereigns followed that of Dinh, under the last 
of which, about 1407, Annam again fell under the Chinese yoke. 
In 1428 an Annamese general LS-Loi succeeded in freeing the 
country once more, and founded a dynasty which lasted till 
the end of the iSth century. During the greater part of this 
period, however, the titular sovereigns were mere puppets, 
the reality of power being in the hands of the family of Trinh 
in Tongking and that of Nguyen in southern Annam, which 
in 1568 became a separate principality under the name of Cochin- 
China. Towards the end of the iSth century a rebellion over- 
threw the Nguyen, but one of its members, Gia-long, by the aid 
of a French force, in 1801 acquired sway over the whole of Annam, 
Tongking and Cochin-China. This force was procured for him 
by Pigneau de Behaine, bishop of Aclran, who saw in the political 
condition of Annam a means of establishing French influence 
in Indo-China and counterbalancing the English power in India. 
Before this, in 1787, Gia-long had concluded a treaty with 
Louis XVI., whereby in return for a promise of aid he ceded 
Tourane and Pulo-Condore to the French. That treaty marks 
the beginning of French influence in Indo-China. 

See also Legrand de la Liraye, Notes kisloriques sur la nation 
annamite (Pans, 1866?); C. Gosselin, L Empire d' Annam (Paris, 
1904); E. Sombsthay, Cours de legislation tt d' administration 
annamites (Paris, 1898). 

ANNAN, a royal, municipal and police burgh of Dumfriesshire, 
Scotland, on the Annan, nearly 2 m. from its mouth, 15 m. from 
Dumfries by the Glasgow & South-Western railway. It has a 
station also on the Caledonian railway company's branch line 
from Kirtlebridge to Brayton (Cumberland), which crosses the 
Sol way Firth at Seafield by a viaduct, i J m. long, constructed of 
iron pillars girded together by poles, driven through the sand and 
gravel into the underlying bed of sandstone. Annan is a well- 
built town, red sandstone being the material mainly used. Among 
its public buildings is the excellent academy of which Thomas 
Carlyle was a pupil. The river Annan is crossed by a stone bridge 
of three arches dating from 1824, and by a railway bridge. The 
Harbour Trust, constituted in 1897, improved the shipping 



accommodation, and vessels of 300 tons approach clow to the 
town. The principal industries include cotton and rope manu- 
factures, bacon-curing, distilling, tanning, shipbuilding, sand- 
stone quarrying, nursery-gardening and salmon-fishing. Large 
marine engineering works are in the vicinity. Annan is a burgh 
of considerable antiquity. Roman remains exist in the neighbour- 
hood, and the Braces, lords of Annandale, the Baliols, tad the 
Douglases were more or less closely associated with it. During 
the period of the Border lawlessness the inhabitants suffered 
repeatedly at the hands of moss-troopers and through the feuds of 
rival families, in addition to the losses caused by the English and 
Scots wars. Edward Irving was a native of the town. With 
Dumfries, Kirkcudbright, Lochmaben and Sanquhar, Annan 
unites in sending one member to parliament. Annan Hill com- 
mands a beautiful prospect. Population (IQOI) 5805. 

ANNA PERENNA. an old Roman deity of the circle or " ring " 
of the year, as the name (per annum) clearly indicates. Her 
festival fell on the full moon of the first month (March 15), and 
was held at the grove of the goddess at the first milestone on the 
Via Flaminia. It was much frequented by the city plekt, and 
Ovid describes vividly the revelry and licentiousness of the 
occasion (Fasti,m. 523 foil.). From Macrobius we learn (Sat.'i. 12. 
6) that sacrifice was made to her " ut annare perannareque com- 
mode liceat," i.e. that the circle of the year may be completed 
happily. This is all we know for certain about the goddess and 
her cult; but the name naturally suggested myth-making, and 
Anna became a figure in stories which may be read in Ovid (I.e.) 
and in Silius Italicus (8.50 foil.). The coarse myth told by Ovid, 
in which Anna plays a trick on Mars when in love with Minerva, 
is probably an old Italian folk-tale, poetically applied to the 
persons of these deities when they became partially anthropo- 
morphized under Greek influence. (W. W. F.*) 

ANNAPOLIS, a city and seaport of Maryland, U.S.A., the 
capital of the state, the county seat of Anne Arundel county, and 
the seat of the United States Naval Academy; situated on the 
Severn river about 2 m. from its entrance into Chesapeake Bay, 
26 m. S. by E. from Baltimore and about the same distance E. by 
N. from Washington. Pop. (1800) 7604; (1000) 8525, of whom 
3002 were negroes; (1910 census) 8609. Annapolis is served 
by the Washington, Baltimore & Annapolis (electric) and the 
Maryland Electric railways, and by the Baltimore & Annapolis 
steamship line. On an elevation near the centre of the city stands 
the state house (the corner stone of which was laid in 1772), with 
its lofty white dome (200 ft.) and pillared portico. Close by are 
the state treasury building, erected late in the i;th century for 
the House of Delegates; Saint Anne's Protestant Episcopal 
church, in later colonial days a state church, a statue of Roger B. 
Taney (by W. H. Rinehart) , and a statue of Baron Johann de Kalb. 
There are a number of residences of 1 8th century architecture, and 
the names of several of the streets such as King George's, Prince 
George's, Hanover, and Duke of Gloucester recall the colonial 
days. The United States Naval Academy was founded here in 
1845. Annapolis is the seat of Saint John's College, a non- 
sectarian institution supported in part by the state; it was opened 
in 1789 as the successor of King William's School, which was 
founded by an act of the Maryland legislature in 1606 and was 
opened in 1701. Its principal building, McDowell Hall, was 
originally intended for a governor's mansion; although 4000 
current money was appropriated for its erection in 1742, it was 
not completed until after the War of Independence. In 1907 the 
college became the school of arts and sciences of the university 
of Maryland. 

Annapolis, at first called Providence, was settled in 1649 by 
Puritan exiles from Virginia. Later it bore in succession the 
names of Town at Proctor's, Town at the Severn, Anne Arundel 
Town, and finally in 1694, Annapolis, in honour of Princess Anne, 
who at the time was heir to the throne of Great Britain. In 1604 
also, soon after the overthrow of the Catholic government of the 
lord proprietor, it was made the seat of the new government as 
well as a port of entry, and it has since remained the capital of 
Maryland; but it was not until 1708 that it was incorporated as 
a city. From the middle of the iSth century until the War of 



6 4 



ANNAPOLIS ANNATES 



Independence, Annapolis was noted for its wealthy and cultivated 
society. The Maryland Gazette, which became an important 
weekly journal, was founded by Jonas Green in 1745; in 1769 a 
theatre was opened; during this period also the commerce was 
considerable, but declined rapidly after Baltimore, in 1780, was 
made a port of entry, and now oyster-packing is the city's only im- 
portant industry. Congress was in session in the state house here 
from the 26th of November 1783 to the 3rd of June 1784, and it 
was here on the 23rd of December 1 783 that General Washington 
resigned his commission as commander-in-chief of the Continental 
Army. In 1786 a convention, to which delegates from all the 
states of the Union were invited, was called to meet in Annapolis 
to consider measures for the better regulation of commerce (see 
ALEXANDRIA, Va.); but delegates came from only five states 
(New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, New Jersey, and Delaware), 
and the convention known afterward as the " Annapolis Con- 
vention," without proceeding to the business for which it had 
met, passed a resolution calling for another convention to meet 
at Philadelphia in the following year to amend the articles of 
confederation; by this Philadelphia convention the present 
Constitution of the United States was framed. 

Sec D. Ridgely, Annals of Annapolis from 1640 until the War of 
1812 (Baltimore, 1841); S. A. Shafer, "Annapolis, Ye Ancient 
City," in L. P. Powell's Historic Towns of the Southern States (New 
York, 1900); and W. Eddis, Letters from America (London, 1792). 

ANNAPOLIS, a town of Nova Scotia, capital of Annapolis 
county and up to 1750 of the entire peninsula of Nova Scotia; 
situated on an arm of the Bay of Fundy, at the mouth of the 
Annapolis river, 95 m. W. of Halifax; and the terminus of the 
Windsor & Annapolis railway. Pop. (1901) 1019. It is one of 
the oldest settlements in North America, having been founded in 
1604 by the French, who called it Port Royal. It was captured 
by the British in 1 7 10, and ceded to them by the treaty of Utrecht 
in 1713, when the name was changed in honour of Queen Anne. 
It possesses a good harbour, and the beauty of the surrounding 
country makes it a favourite summer resort. The town is 
surrounded by apple orchards and in May miles of blossoming 
trees make a beautiful sight. The fruit, which is excellent in 
quality, is the principal export of the region. 

ANN ARBOR, a city and the county-seat of Washtenaw 
county, Michigan, U.S.A., on the Huron river, about 38 m. 
W. of Detroit. Pop. (1800) 9431; (1900) 14,509, f whom 
2329 were foreign-bom; (1910) 14,817. It is served by the 
Michigan Central and the Ann Arbor railways, and by an 
electric line running from Detroit to Jackson and connecting 
with various other lines. Ann Arbor is best known as the seat of 
the university of Michigan, opened in 1837. The city has many 
attractive residences, and the residential districts, especially in 
the east and south-east parts of the city, command picturesque 
views of the Huron valley. Ann Arbor is situated in a productive 
agricultural and fruit-growing region. The river provides good 
water-power, and among the manufactures are agricultural 
implements, carriages, furniture (including sectional book-cases), 
pianos and organs, pottery and flour. In 1824 Ann Arbor was 
settled, laid out as a town, chosen for the county-seat, and 
named in honour of Mrs Ann Allen and Mrs Ann Rumsey, the 
wives of two of the founders. It was incorporated as a village in 
1833, and was first chartered as a city in 1851. 

ANNATES (Lat. annatae, from annus, " year "), also known 
as " first-fruits " (Lat. primiliae), in the strictest sense of the 
word, the whole of the first year's profits of a spiritual benefice 
which, in all countries of the Roman obedience, were formerly 
paid into the papal treasury. This custom was only of gradual 
growth. The jus deportuum, annalia or annatae, was originally 
the right of the bishop to claim the first year's profits of the 
living from a newly inducted incumbent, of which the first 
mention is found under Pope Honorius (d. 1227), but which had 
its origin in a custom, dating from the 6th century, by which 
those ordained to ecclesiastical offices paid a fee or tax to the 
ordaining bishop. The earliest records show the annata to have 
been, sometimes a privilege conceded to the bishop for a term of 
years, sometimes a right based on immemorial precedent. In 



course of time the popes, under stress of financial crises, claimed 
the privilege for themselves, though at first only temporarily. 
Thus, in 1305, Clement V. claimed the first-fruits of all vacant 
benefices in England, and in 1319 John XXII. those of all 
Christendom vacated within the next two years. In those cases 
the rights of the bishops were frankly usurped by the Holy See, 
now regarded as the ultimate source of the episcopal jurisdic- 
tion; the more usual custom was for the pope to claim the 
first-fruits only of those benefices of which he had reserved the 
patronage to himself. It was from these claims that the papal 
annates, in the strict sense, in course of time developed. 

These annates may be divided broadly into three classes, 
though the chief features are common to all: (i) the servitia 
communia or servitia Camerae Papae, i.e. the payment into the 
papal treasury by every abbot and bishop, on his induction, 01 
one year's revenue of his new benefice. The servitia communia 
are traceable to the oblatio paid to the pope when consecrating 
bishops as metropolitan or patriarch. When, in the middle of 
the 1 3th century, the consecration of bishops became established 
as the sole right of the pope, the oblations of all bishops of the 
West were received by him and, by the close of the i4th century, 
these became fixed at one year's revenue. 1 A small additional 
payment, as a kind of notarial fee, was added (servitia minuta). 
(2) The jus deportuum, fructus medii temporis, or annalia, i.e. 
the annates due to the bishop, but in the case of " reserved " 
benefices paid by him to the Holy See. (3) The quindennia, i.e. 
annates payable, under a bull of Paul II. (1469), by benefices 
attached to a corporation, every fifteen years and not at every 
presentation. 

The system of annates was at no time worked with absolute 
uniformity and completeness throughout the various parts of 
the church owning obedience to the Holy See, and it was never 
willingly submitted to by the clergy. Disagreements and dis- 
putes were continual, and the easy expedient of rewarding the 
officials of the Curia and increasing the papal revenue by " re- 
serving " more and more benefices was met by repeated protests, 
such as that of the bishops and barons of England (the chief 
sufferers) , headed by Robert Grosseteste of Lincoln, at the council 
of Lyons in 1245.* The subject, indeed, frequently became one 
of national interest, on account of the alarming amount of specie 
which was thus drained away, and hence numerous enactments 
exist in regard to it by the various national governments. In 
England the collection and payment of annates to the pope was 
prohibited in 1531 by statute. At that time the sum amounted 
to about 3000 a year. In 1 534 the annates were, along with the 
supremacy over the church in England, bestowed on the crown; 
but in February 1 704 they were appropriated by Queen Anne to 
the assistance of the poorer clergy, and thus form what has since 
been known as " Queen Anne's Bounty " (q.v.). The amount to 
be paid was originally regulated by a valuation made under the 
direction of Pope Innocent IV. by Walter, bishop of Norwich, in 
1254, later by one instituted under commission from Nicholas 
III. in 1292, which in turn was superseded in 1535 by the valua- 
tion, made by commissioners appointed by Henry VIII., known 
as the King's Books, which was confirmed on the accession of 
Elizabeth and is still that by which the clergy are rated. In 
France, in spite of royal edicts like those of Charles VI., Charles 
VII., Louis XI., and Henry II. and even denunciations of the 
Sorbonne, at least the custom of paying the servitia communia 
held its ground till the famous decree of the 4th of August during 
the Revolution of 1789. In Germany it was decided by the 
concordat of Constance, in 1418, that bishoprics and abbacies 
should pay the servitia according to the valuation-of the Roman 
chancery in two half-yearly instalments. Those reserved bene- 
fices only were to pay the annalia which were rated above twenty- 
four gold florins; and as none were so rated, whatever their 
annual value may have been, the annalia fell into disuse. A 

1 For cases see du Cange, Glossarium, s. Seryitium Camerae Papae; 
J. C. L. Gieseler, Eccles. Hist., vol. iii. div. iii., notes to p. 181, &c. 
(Eng. trans., Edinburgh, 1853). 

1 Durandus (Guillaume Durand), in his de mode generalis concilii 
celebrandi, represents contemporary clerical hostile opinion and 
attacks the corruptions of the officials of the Curia. 



ANNE, QUEEN 



similar convenient fiction also led to their practical abrogation in 
France, Spain and Belgium. The council of Basel (1431-1443) 
wished to abolish the serviiia, but the concordat of Vienna (1448) 
. ,.niiriiiril the Constance decision, which, in spite of the efforts 
oi the congress of Ems (1786) to alter it, still remains nominally 
in lorcc. As a matter of fact, however, the revolution caused by 
(he secularization of the ecclesiastical states in 1803 practically 
put an end to the system, and the trrritia have either been 
commuted riu gratiae to a moderate fixed sum under particular 
ordats, or are the subject of separate negotiation with each 
bishop on his appointment. In Prussia, where the bishops 
ve salaries as state officials, the payment is made by the 
government. 

In Scotland annal or ann is half a year's stipend allowed by 

the Act 1672, f. 13, to the executors of a minister of the Church of 

land above what was due to him at the time of his death. 

Thi* is neither assignable by the clergyman during his life, nor 

can it be seized by his creditors. 

ANNE (1665-1714), queen of Great Britain and Ireland, second 
daughter of James, duke of York, afterwards James II., and of 
Anne Hyde, daughter of the ist earl of Clarendon, was born 
on the 6th of February 1665. She suffered as a child from an 
affection of the eyes, and was sent to France for medical treat- 
ment, residing with her grandmother, Henrietta Maria, and on 
the latter's death with her aunt, the duchess of Orleans, and 
returning to England in 1670. She was brought up, together 
with her sister Mary, by the direction of Charles II., as a strict 
1'rotostant, and as a child she made the friendship of Sarah 
Jennings (afterwards duchess of Marlborough), thus beginning 
life under the two influences which were to prove the most 
powerful in her future career. In 1678 she accompanied Mary of 
Modena to Holland, and in 1679 joined her parents abroad and 
afterwards in Scotland. On the 28th of July 1683 she married 
Prince George of Denmark, brother of King Christian V., an 
unpopular union because of the French proclivities of the 
bridegroom's country, but one of great domestic happiness, 
the prince and princess being conformable in temper and both 
preferring retirement and quiet to life in the great world. Sarah 
Churchill became Anne's lady of the bedchamber, and, by the 
latter's desire to mark their mutual intimacy and affection, all 
deference due to her rank was abandoned and the two ladies 
called each other Mrs Morley and Mrs Freeman. 

On the 6th of February 1685 James became king of England. 
In 1687 a project of settling the crown on the princess, to the 
exclusion of Mary, on the condition of Anne's embracing Roman 
Catholicism, was rendered futile by her pronounced attachment 
to the Church of England, and beyond sending her books and 
papers James appears to have made no attempt to coerce his 
daughter into a change of faith, 1 and to have treated her with 
kindness, while the birth of his son on the loth of June 1688 
made the religion of his daughters a matter of less political 
importance. Anne was not present on the occasion, having gone 
to Bath, and this gave rise to a belief that the child was spurious; 
but it is most probable that James's desire to exclude all 
Protestants from affairs of state was the real cause. " I shall never 
now be satisfied," Anne wrote to Mary, " whether the child be true 
or false. It may be it is our brother, but God only knows . . . 
one cannot help having a thousand fears and melancholy thoughts, 
but whatever changes may happen you shall ever find me firm 
to my religion and faithfully yours." 1 In later years, however, 
she had no doubt that the Old Pretender was her brother. 
During the events immediately preceding the Revolution Anne 
kept in seclusion. Her ultimate conduct was probably influenced 
by the Churchills; and though forbidden by James to pay Mary 
a projected visit in the spring of 1688, she corresponded with her, 
and was no doubt aware of William's plans. Her position was 
now a very critical and painful one. She refused to show any 
sympathy with the king after William had landed in November, 
and wrote, with the advice of the Churchills, to the prince, 

1 See also Hilt. if 55. Comm.. SfSS. of Duke of Rutland at Betvoir. 
ii. 109. 

1 Dairy mple's Memoirs, ii. 175. 

3 



declaring her approval of hi* action. 1 Churchill abandoned the 
king on the 24th, Prince George on the 25th, and when James 
returned to London on the i6th he found that Anne and her 
lady-in-waiting had during the previous night followed their 
husbands' example*. Escaping from Whitehall by a back 
staircase they put themselves under the care of the bishop of 
London, spent one night in his house, and subsequently arrived 
on the ist of December at Nottingham, where the princes* first 
made herself known and appointed a council. Thence the 
passed through Leicester, Coventry and Warwick, finally entering 
Oxford, where she met Prince George, in triumph, escorted by 
a large company. Like Mary, she was reproached for showing 
no concern at the news of the king's flight, but her justification 
was that " she never loved to do anything that looked like an 
affected constraint." She returned to London on the iQth of 
December, when she was at once visited by William. Subse- 
quently the Declaration of Rights settled the succession of the 
crown upon her after William and Mary and their children. 

Meanwhile Anne had suffered a series of maternal disappoint- 
ments. Between 1684 and 1688 she had miscarried four times 
and given birth to two children who died infants. On the 24th 
of July 1689, however, the birth of a son, William, created duke 
of Gloucester, who survived his infancy, gave hopes that heirs 
to the throne under the Bill of Rights might be forthcoming. 
But Anne's happiness was soon troubled by quarrels with the 
king and queen. According to the duchess of Marlborough the 
two sisters, who had lived hitherto while apart on extremely 
affectionate terms, found no enjoyment in each other's society. 
Mary talked too much for Anne's comfort, and Anne too little 
for Mary's satisfaction. But money appears to have been the 
first and real cause of ill-feeling. The granting away by William 
of the private estate of James, amounting to 22,000 a year, to 
which Anne had some claim, was made a grievance, and a 
factious motion brought forward in the House to increase her 
civil list pension of 30,000, which she enjoyed in addition to 
20,000 under her marriage settlement, greatly displeased 
William and Mary, who regarded it as a plot to make Anne 
independent and the chief of a separate interest in the state, 
while their resentment was increased by the refusal of Anne to 
restrain the action of her friends, and by its success. The 
Marlboroughs had been active in the affair and had benefited by 
it, the countess (as she then was) receiving a pension of 1000, 
and their conduct was noticed at court. The promised Garter 
was withheld from Marlborough, and the incensed "Mrs Morley " 
in her letters to " Mrs Freeman " styled the king " Caliban " 
or the " Dutch Monster." At the close of 1691 Anne had 
declared her approval of the naval expedition in favour of her 
father, and expressed grief at its failure. 4 According to the 
doubtful Life of James, she wrote to him on the ist of December 
a " most penitential and dutiful " letter, and henceforward kept 
up with him a "fair correspondence."* The same year the 
breach between the royal sisters was made final by the dismissal 
of Marlborough, justly suspected of Jacobite intrigues, from all 
his appointments. Anne took the part of her favourites with 
great zeal against the court, though in all probability unaware 
of Marlborough 's treason; and on the dismissal of the countess 
from her household by the king and queen she refused to part 
with her, and retired with Lady Marlborough to the duke of 
Somerset's residence at Sion House. Anne was now in disgrace. 
She was deprived of her guard of honour, and Prince George, on 
entering Kensington Palace, received no salute, though the 
drums beat loudly on his departure.' Instructions were given 
that the court expected no one to pay his respects, and no 
attention in the provinces was to be shown to their rank. In 
May, Marlborough was arrested on a charge of high treason which 
subsequently broke down, and Anne persisted in regarding his 
disgrace as a personal injury to herself. InAugust 1693. however, 

1 Dalrymple's Memoirs, it. 249. 

4 Lord Ailesbury's Memoirs, 293. 

Macpherson i. 241 ; Clarke's Life of James If., ii. 476. The 
letter, which is only printed in fragments, is not in Anne's style, 
and if genuine was probably dictated by the Churchills. 

Luttrell ii. 366, 376. 



66 



ANNE, QUEEN 



the two sisters were temporarily reconciled, and on the occasion 
of Mary's last illness and death Anne showed an affectionate 
consideration. 

The death of Mary weakened William's position and made 
it necessary to cultivate good relations with the princess. She 
Was now treated with every honour and civility, and finally 
established with her own court at St James's Palace. At the 
same time William kept her in the background and refrained 
from appointing her regent during his absence. In March 1605 
Marlborough was allowed to kiss the king's hands, and subse- 
quently was made the duke of Gloucester's governor and restored 
to his employments.' In return Anne gave her support to 
William's government, though about this time, in 1696 according 
to James, in consequence of the near prospect of the throne 
she wrote to her father asking for his leave to wear the crown 
at William's death, and promising its restoration at a convenient 
opportunity. 1 The unfounded rumour that William contem- 
plated settling the succession after his death on James's son, 
provided he were educated a Protestant in England, may possibly 
have alarmed her. 1 Meanwhile, since the birth of the duke of 
Gloucester, the princess had experienced six more miscarriages, 
and had given birth to two children who only survived a few 
hours, and the last maternal hope flickered out on the death of 
the young prince on the zpth of July 1700. Henceforth Anne 
signs herself in her letters to Lady Marlborough as " your poor 
unfortunate " as well as " faithful Morley." In default of her 
own issue, Anne's personal choice would probably have inclined 
at this time to her own family at St Germains, but the necessity 
of maintaining the Protestant succession caused the enactment 
of the Act of Settlement in 1701, and the substitution of the 
Hanoverian branch. She wore mourning for her father in 1701, 
and before his death James is said to have written to his daughter 
asking for her protection for his family; but the recognition of his 
son by Louis XIV. as king of England effectually prevented any 
good offices to which her feelings might have inclined her. 

On the 8th of March 1702 Anne became, by King William's 
death, queen of Great Britain, being crowned on the 23rd of 
April. Her reign was destined to be one of the most brilliant 
in the annals of England. Splendid military triumphs crushed 
the hereditary national foe. The Act of Union with Scotland 
constituted one of the strongest foundations of the future 
empire. Art and literature found a fresh renascence. 

In her first speech to parliament, like George III. afterwards, 
Anne declared her " heart to be entirely English," words which 
were resented by some as a reflection on the late king. A 
ministry.mostly Tory, with Godolphin at its head,was established. 
She obtained a grant of 700,000 a year, and hastened to bestow 
a pension of 100,000 on her husband, whom she created general- 
issimo of her forces and lord high admiral, while Marlborough 
obtained the Garter, with the captain-generalship and other 
prizes, including a dukedom, and the duchess was made mistress 
of the robes with the control of the privy purse. The queen 
showed from the first a strong interest in church matters, and 
declared her intention to keep church appointments in her own 
hands. She detested equally Roman Catholics and dissenters, 
showed a strong leaning towards the high-church party, and gave 
zealous support to the bill forbidding occasional conformity. 
In 1704 she announced to the Commons her intention of granting 
to the church the crown revenues, amounting to about 16,000 or 
17,000 a year, from tenths and first-fruits (paid originally by 
the clergy to the pope, but appropriated by the crown in 1534), 
for the increase of poor livings; her gift, under the name of 
" Queen Anne's Bounty," still remaining as a testimony of her 
piety. This devotion to the church, the strongest of all motives 
in Anne's conduct, dictated her hesitating attitude towards 
the two great parties in the state. The Tories had for this reason 
her personal preference, while the Whigs, who included her power- 
ful favourites the Marlboroughs, identified their interests with 

1 Macpherson i. 257; Clarke's James II., ii. 559. See also 
Shrewsbury's anonymous correspondent in Hist. MSS. Comm. Ser.; 
MSS. Duke of Buccleugh at Montagu House, ii. 169. 

1 Macaulay iv. 799 note. 



the war and its glorious successes, the queen slowly and un- 
willingly, but inevitably, gravitating towards the latter. 

In December, the archduke Charles visited Anne at Windsor 
and was welcomed as the king of Spain. In 1 704 Anne acquiesced 
in the resignation of Lord Nottingham, the leader of the high 
Tory party. In the same year the great victory of Blenheim 
further consolidated the power of the Whigs and increased the 
influence of Marlborough, upon whom Anne now conferred the 
manor of Woodstock. Nevertheless, she declared in November 
to the duchess that whenever things leaned towards the Whigs, 
" I shall think the church is beginning to be in danger." Next 
year she supported the election of the Whig speaker, John Smith, 
but long resisted the influence and claims of the Junto, as the 
Whig leaders, Somers, Halifax, Orford, Wharton and Sunderland, 
were named. In October she was obliged to appoint Cowper, 
a Whig, lord chancellor, with all the ecclesiastical patronage 
belonging to the office. Marlborough's successive victories, 
and especially the factious conduct of the Tories, who in 
November 1705 moved in parliament that the electress Sophia 
should be invited to England, drove Anne farther to the side 
of the Whigs. But she opposed for some time the inclusion in 
the government of Sunderland, whom she especially disliked, only 
consenting at Marlborough's intercession in December 1706, 
when various other offices and rewards were bestowed upon 
Whigs, and Nottingham with other Tories was removed from the 
council. She yielded, after a struggle, also to the appointment 
of Whigs to bishoprics, the most mortifying submission of all. 
In 1708 she was forced to dismiss Harley, who, with the aid of 
Mrs Masham, had been intriguing against the government and 
projecting the creation of a third party. Abigail Hill, Mrs 
Masham, a cousin of the duchess of Marlborough, had been 
introduced by the latter as a poor relation into Anne's service, 
while still princess of Denmark. The queen found relief in the 
quiet and respectful demeanour of her attendant, and gradually 
came to prefer her society to that of the termagant and tem- 
pestuous duchess. Abigail, however, soon ventured to talk 
" business," and in the summer of 1707 the duchess discovered 
to her indignation that her protegee had already undermined 
her influence with the queen and had become the medium of 
Harley's intrigue. The strength of the Whigs at this time and 
the necessities of the war caused the retirement of Harley, 
but he remained Anne's secret adviser and supporter against 
the faction, urging upon her " the dangers to the crown as well 
as to the church and monarchy itself from their counsels and 
actions," 1 while the duchess never regained her former influence. 
The inclusion in the cabinet of Somers, whom she especially 
disliked as the hostile critic of Prince George's admiralty 
administration, was the subject of another prolonged struggle, 
ending again in the queen's submission after a futile appeal 
to Marlborough in October 1708, to which she brought herself 
only to avoid a motion from the Whigs for the removal of the 
prince, then actually on his deathbed. His death on the 28th of 
October was felt deeply by the queen, and opened the way for 
the inclusion of more Whigs. But no reconciliation with the 
duchess took place, and in 1 709 a further dispute led to an angry 
correspondence, the queen finally informing the duchess of the 
termination of their friendship, and the latter drawing up a 
long narrative of her services, which she forwarded to Anne 
together with suitable passages on the subject of friendship 
and charity transcribed from the Prayer Book, the Whole Duty 
of Man and from Jeremy Taylor. 4 Next year Anne's desire 
to give a regiment to Hill, Mrs Masham's brother, led to another 
ineffectual attempt in retaliation to displace the new favourite, 
and the queen showed her antagonism to the Whig administra- 
tion on the occasion of the prosecution of Sacheverell. She was 
present at his trial and was publicly acclaimed by the mob as 
his supporter, while the Tory divine was consoled immediately 
on the expiration of his sentence with the living of St Andrew's, 
Holborn. Subsequently the duchess, in a final interview which 
she had forced upon the queen, found her tears and reproaches 

* Swift's Mem. on the Change of the Ministry. 

4 Conduct of the Duchess of Marlborough, p. 225. 



ANNE, QUEEN 



unavailing. In her anger she had told the queen the wished for 
no answer, and she was now met by a stony and exasperating 
silence, broken only by the words constantly repeated, " You 
desired no answer and you shall have none." 

The fall of the Whigs, now no longer necessary on account of 
thr successful issue of the war, to accomplish which Hurley had 
long been preparing and intriguing, followed; and their attempt 
to prolong hostilities from party motives failed. A friend of 
ley, the duke of Shrewsbury, was first appointed to office, 
and subsequently the great body of the Whigs were displaced 
!. Tories, Harlcy being made chancellor of the exchequer and 
Henry St John secretary of state. The queen was rejoiced 
at being freed from what she called a long captivity, and the 
new parliament was returned with a Tory majority. On the 
1 7th of January 1711, in spite of Marlborough's efforts to ward 
off the blow, the duchess was compelled to give up her key of 
office. The queen was now able once more to indulge in her 
favourite patronage of the church, and by her influence an act 
was passed in 1712 for building fifty new churches in London. 
Later, in 1714, she approved of the Schism Bill. She gave strong 
support to Harlcy, now carl of Oxford and lord treasurer, in 
thr intrigues and negotiations for peace. Owing to the alliance 
between the Tory Lord Nottingham and the Whigs, on the 
condition of the support by the latter of the bill against occasional 
conformity passed in December 1711, the defeated Whigs 
maintained a majority in the Lords, who declared against any 
peace which left Spain to the Bourbons. To break down this 
opposition Marlborough was dismissed on the jist from all his 
employments, while the House of Lords was " swamped " by 
Anne's creation- of twelve peers, 1 including Mrs Masham's 
husband. The queen's conduct was generally approved, for the 
nation was now violently adverse to the Whigs and war party; 
and the peace of Utrecht was finally signed on the 3ist of March 
171.?, and proclaimed on the sth of May in London. 

As the queen's reign drew to its close, rumours were rife on the 
great subject of the succession to the throne. Various Jacobite 
appointments excited suspicion. Both Oxford and Bolingbroke 
were in communication with the Pretender's party, and on the 
27th of July Oxford, who had gradually lost influence and 
quarrelled with Bolingbroke, resigned, leaving the supreme 
power in the hands of the latter. Anne herself had a natural 
feeling for her brother, and had shown great solicitude concerning 
his treatment when a price had been set on his head at the 
time of the Scottish expedition in 1708. On the 3rd of March 
1714 James wrote to Anne, Oxford and Bolingbroke, urging the 
necessity of taking steps to secure his succession, and promising, 
on the condition of his recognition, to make no further attempts 
against the queen's government; and in April a report was 
circulated in Holland that Anne had secretly determined to 
associate James with her in the government. The wish expressed 
by the Whigs, that a member of the electoral family should be 
invited to England, had already aroused the queen's indignation 
in 1708; and now, in 1714, a writ of summons for the electoral 
prince as duke of Cambridge having been obtained, Anne forbade 
the Hanoverian envoy, Baron Schiitz, her presence, and declared 
all who supported the project her enemies; while to a memorial 
on the same subject from the clcctrcss Sophia and her grandson 
in May, Anne replied in an angry letter, which is said to have 
caused the death of the electress on the Sth of June, requesting 
them not to trouble the peace of her realm or diminish her 
authority. 

These demonstrations, however, were the outcome not of any 
returning partiality for her own family, but of her intense dislike, 
in which she resembled Queen Elizabeth, of any " successor," 

it being a thing I cannot bear to have any successor here 
though but for a week "; and in spite of some appearances to 
the contrary, it is certain that religion and political wisdom 
kept Anne firm to the Protestant succession. 1 She had main- 
tained a friendly correspondence with the court of Hanover since 

1 For their names see Hume and Smollett's Hist. (Hughes, 1854) 
viii. uc. 
1 See also Hist. USS. Comm. Ser. Rep. vii. App. J46b. 



1705, and in 1706 had bestowed the Garter on the electoral 
prince and created him duke of Cambridge; while the Regency 
Act provided for the declaration of the legal heir to the crown 
by the council immediately on the queen's death, and a further 
enactment naturalized the electros and her istue. In 1 708, on 
the occasion of the Scottish expedition, notwithstanding her 
solicitude for his safety, she had styled James in her speech 
closing the session of parliament as " a popish pretender bred 
up in the principles of the most arbitrary government." The 
duchess of Marlborough stated in 1713 that all the time she had 
known " that thing " (as she now called the queen), "she had never 
heard her speak a favourable word of him."' No answer appear* 
to have been sent to James's letter in 1714; on the contrary, a 
proclamation was issued (June 23) for his apprehension in case 
of his arrival in England. On the 27th of April Anne gave a 
solemn assurance of her fidelity to the Hanoverian succession 
to Sir William Dawes, archbishop of York; in June she sent 
Lord Clarendon to Hanover to satisfy the elector. 

The sudden illness and death of the queen now frustrated any 
schemes which Bolingbroke or others might have been contem- 
plating. On the 27th, the day of Oxford's resignation, the 
discussions concerning his successor detained the council sitting 
in the queen's presence till two o'clock in the morning, and on 
retiring Anne was instantly seized with fatal illness. Her ad- 
herence to William in 1688 had been a principal cause of the 
success of the Revolution, and now the final act of her life was 
to secure the Revolution settlement and tfie Protestant succes- 
sion. During a last moment of returning consciousness, and by 
the advice of the whole council, who had been joined on their 
own initiative by the Whig dukes Argyll and Somerset, she placed 
the lord treasurer's staff in the hands of the Whig duke of 
Shrewsbury, and measures were immediately taken for assuring 
the succession of the elector. Her death took place on the ist 
of August, and the security felt by the public, and perhaps the 
sense of perils escaped by the termination of the queen's life, 
were shown by a considerable rise in the national stocks. She 
was buried on the south side of Henry Vll.'s chapel in West- 
minster Abbey, in the same tomb as her husband and children. 
The elector of Hanover, George Louis, son ( of the electress 
Sophia (daughter of Elizabeth, daughter of James I.), peacefully 
succeeded to the throne as George I. (?..). 

According to her physician Arbuthnot, Anne's life was 
shortened by the " scene of contention among her servants. I 
believe sleep was never more welcome to a weary traveller than 
death was to her." By character and temperament unfitted to 
stand alone, her life had been unhappy and tragical from its 
isolation. Separated in early years from her parents and sister, 
her one great friendship had proved only baneful and ensnaring. 
Marriage had only brought a mournful series of infant funerals. 
Constant ill-health and suffering had darkened her career. The 
claims of family attachment, of religion, of duty, of patriotism 
and of interest, had dragged her in opposite directions, and her 
whole life had been a prey to jealousies and factions which dosed 
around her at her accession to the throne, and surged to their 
height when she lay on her deathbed. The modern theory of the 
relations between the sovereign and the parties, by which the 
former identifies himself with the faction for the time in power 
while maintaining his detachment from all, had not then been 
invented; and Anne, like her Hanoverian successors, maintained 
the struggle, though without success, to rule independently, 
finding support in Harley. During the first year of her reign 
she made known that she was " resolved not to follow the 
example of her predecessor in making use of a few of her subjects 
to oppress the rest. She will be queen of all her subjects, and 
would have all the parties and distinctions of former reigns ended 
and buried in hers." 4 Her motive for getting rid of the Whigs 
was not any real dislike of their administration, but the wish to 
escape from the domination of the party, 1 and on the advent 

Ibid. Portland USS. v. 338. 

Sir J. Leveson-Gower to Lord Rutland. Hist. IfSS. 
Duke of Rutland's USS. ii. 173. 

See Bolingbrokc's Letter to Sir W. Wyndkam. 



68 



ANNE, EMPRESS 



to power of the Tories she carefully left some Whigs in their 
employments, with the aim of breaking up the party system and 
acting upon what was called " a moderate scheme." She 
attended debates in the Lords and endeavoured to influence 
votes. Her struggles to free herself from the influence of factions 
only involved her deeper; she was always under the domination 
of some person or some party, and she could not rise above them 
and show herself the leader of the nation like Elizabeth. 

Anne was a women of small ability, of dull mind, and of that 
kind of obstinacy which accompanies weakness of character. 
According to the duchess she had " a certain knack of sticking 
to what had been dictated to her to a degree often very dis- 
agreeable, and without the least sign of understanding or judg- 
ment." ' " I desire you would not have so ill an opinion of me," 
Anne writes to Oxford, " as to think when I have determined 
anything in my mind I will alter it." J Burnet considered that 
" she laid down the splendour of a court too much," which was 
" as it were abandoned." She dined alone after her husband's 
death, but it was reported by no means abstemiously, the royal 
family being characterized in the lines: 
" King William thinks all, 

Queen Mary talks all, 

Prince George drinks all, 

And Princess Anne eats all." * 

She took no interest in the art, the drama or the literature of 
her day. But she possessed the homely virtues; she was deeply 
religious, attached to the Church of England and concerned for 
the efficiency of the ministry. One of the first acts of her reign 
was a proclamation against vice, and Lord Chesterfield regretted 
the strict morality of her court. Instances abound of her kind- 
ness and consideration for others. Her moderation towards 
the Jacobites in Scotland, after the Pretender's expedition in 
1708, was much praised by Saint Simon. She showed great 
forbearance and generosity towards the duchess of Marlborough 
in the face of unexampled provocation, and her character was 
unduly disparaged by the latter, who with her violent and coarse 
nature could not understand the queen's self-restraint in sorrow, 
and describes her as " very hard " and as " not apt to cry." 
According to her small ability she served the state well, and was 
zealous and conscientious in the fulfilment of public duties, in 
which may be included touching for the king's evil, which she 
revived. Marlborough testifies to her energy in finding money 
for the war. She surrendered 10,000 a year for public purposes, 
and in 1706 she presented 30,000 to the officers and soldiers 
who had lost their horses. Her contemporaries almost unani- 
mously record her excellence and womanly virtues; and by 
Dean Swift, no mild critic, she is invariably spoken of with 
respect, and named in his will as of "ever glorious, immortal 
and truly pious memory, the real nursing-mother of her king- 
doms." She deserves her appellation of " Good Queen Anne," 
and notwithstanding her failings must be included among the 
chief authors and upholders of the great Revolution settlement. 
Her person was described by Spanheim, the Prussian ambassador, 
as handsome though inclining to stoutness, with black hair, blue 
eyes and good features, and of grave aspect. 

Anne's husband, Prince George (1653-1708), was the second 
son of Frederick III., king of Denmark. Before marrying Anne 
he had been a candidate for the throne of Poland. He was 
created earl of Kendal and duke of Cumberland in 1689. 
Some censure, which was directed against the prince in his 
capacity as lord high admiral, was terminated by his death. 
In religion George remained a Lutheran, and in general his 
qualities tended to make him a good husband rather than a 
soldier or a statesman. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Diet, of Nat. Biography (Dr A. W. Ward); 
A. Strickland, Lives of the Queens of England (1852), somewhat 
uncritical ; an excellent account written by Spanheim for the king 
of Prussia, printed in the Eng. Hist. Rev. ii. 757 ; histories of Stan- 
hope, Lecky, Ranke, Macaulay, Boyes, Burnet, Wyon, and Somer- 
ville ; F. E. Morris, The Age of Anne (London, 1877) ; Correspondence 



1 Private Correspondence, ii. I2O. 

4 Hist. MSS. Comm., MSS. of Marq. of Bath at Longleat, i. 237. 

* Notes and Queries, xi. 254. 



and Diary of Lord Clarendon (1828) ; Hatton Correspondence (Camden 
Soc., 1878); Evelyn's Diary; Sir I. Dalrymple's Memoirs (1790); 
N. Luttrell's Brief Hist. Relation (1857); Wentworth Papers (1883); 
W. Coxe, Mem. of the Duke of Marlborough (1847) ; Conduct of the 
Dowager Duchess of Marlborough (1742) ; Ralph, The other Side of the 
Question (1742) ; Private Correspondence of Sarah Duchess of Marl- 
borough (1838) ; A. T. Thomson, Mem. of the Duchess and the Court of 
Queen Anne (1839); J. S. Clarke's Life of James II. (1816); J. 
Macpherson's Original Papers (1775); Swift's Some Considerations 
upon the Consequences from the Death of the Queen, An Inquiry into 
the Behaviour of the Queen's last Ministry, Hist, of the Four 
Last Years of Queen Anne, and Journals and Letters; The Lockhart 
Papers (1817), i.; F. Salomon, Geschichte des letzten Ministeriums 
Konigin Annas (1894); Marchmont Papers, iii. (1831); W. Sichel, 
Life of Bolingbroke (1901-1902); Mem. of Thomas Earl of Ailesbury 
(Roxburghe Club, 1890); Eng. Hist. Rev. i. 470, 756, viii. 740; 
Royal Hist. Soc. Trans. N.S. xiv. 69; Col. of State Papers; 
Treasury; Hist. MSS. Comm. Series, MSS. of Duke of Portland, 
including the Harley Papers, Duke of Buccleugh at Montagu House, 
Lord Kenyan, Marq. of Bath at Longleat; Various Collections, ii. 146, 
Duke of Rutland atBelvoir, fth Rep. app., and H. M. the King (Stuart 
Papers, i.); Stowe MSS. in Brit. Museum; Sir J. Mackintosh's 
Transcripts, Add. MSS. in Brit. Museum, 34, 487-526; Edinburgh 
Rev., October 1835, p. i; Notes and Queries, vii. ser. iii. 178, viii. 
ser. i. 72, xii. 368, ix, ser. iv. 282, xi, 254; C. Hodgson, An Account 
of the Augmentation of Small Livings by the Bounty of Queen Anne 
(1845) ; Observations of the Governors of Queen Anne s Bounty (1867) ; 
Somers Tracts, xii. xiii. (1814-1815); H. Paul, Queen Anne (London, 
1907). (P C. Y.) 

ANNE (1693-1740), empress of Russia, second daughter of Tsar 
Ivan V., Peter the Great's imbecile brother, and Praskovia 
Saltuikova. Her girlhood was passed at Ismailovo near Moscow, 
with her mother, an ignorant, bigoted tsaritsa of the old school, 
who neglected and even hated her daughters. Peter acted as a 
second father to the Ivanovs, as Praskovia and her family were 
called. In 1710 he married Anne to Frederick William, duke of 
Courland, who died of surfeit on his journey home from St 
Petersburg. The reluctant young widow was ordered to proceed 
on her way to Mittau to take over the government of Courland, 
with the Russian resident, Count Peter Bestuzhev, as her adviser. 
He was subsequently her lover, till supplanted by Biren (q.v.). 
Anne's residenceat Mittau was embittered by the utter inadequacy 
of her revenue, which she keenly felt. It was therefore with joy 
that she at once accepted the Russian crown, as the next heir, 
after the death of Peter II. (January 30, 1 730) , when it was offered 
to her by the members of the supreme privy council, even going 
so far as to subscribe previously nine articles which would have 
reduced her from an absolute to a very limited monarch. On 
the z6th of February she made her public entry into Moscow under 
strict surveillance. On the 8th of March a coup d'etat, engineered 
by a party of her personal friends, overthrew the supreme privy 
council and she was hailed as autocrat. Her government, on the 
whole, was prudent, beneficial and even glorious; but it was 
undoubtedly severe and became at last universally unpopular. 
This was due in the main to the outrageous insolence of her all- 
powerful favourite Biren, who hated the Russian nobility and 
trampled upon them mercilessly. Fortunately, Biren was 
sufficiently prudent not to meddle with foreign affairs or with the 
army, and these departments in the able hands of two other 
foreigners, who thoroughly identified themselves with Russia, 
Andrei Osterman (q.v.) and Burkhardt Munnich (q.i>.) did great 
things in the reign of Anne. The chief political events of the 
period were the War of the Polish Succession and the second * 
Crimean War. The former was caused by the reappearance of 
Stanislaus Leszczynski as a candidate for the Polish throne after 
the death of Augustus II. (February i, 1733). The interests of 
Russia would not permit her to recognize a candidate dependent 
directly on France and indirectly upon Sweden and Turkey, all 
three powers being at that time opposed to Russia's "system." 
She accordingly united with Austria to support the candidature of 
the late king's son, Augustus of Saxony. So far as Russia was con- 
cerned, the War of the Polish Succession was quickly over. Much 
more important was the Crimean War of 1 736-39. This war marks 
the beginning of that systematic struggle on the part of Russia to 
recover her natural and legitimate southern boundaries. It lasted 

* Vasily Golitsuin's expedition under the regency of Sophia was 
the first Crimean War (1687-89). 



ANNE OF BRITTANY ANNE OF DENMARK 



69 



four years and half, and cost her a hundred thousand men and 
millions of roubles, and though invariably successful, she had to 
be content with the acquisition of a tingle city (Azov) with a small 
district at the mouth of the Don. Vet more had been gained than 
was immediately apparent. In the first place, this was the only 
war hitherto waged by Russia against Turkey which had not ended 
in crushing disaster. Munnii h had at least dissipated the illusion 
of Ottoman invincibility, and taught the Russian soldier that 
100,000 janissaries and spahis were no match, in a fair field, for 
half that number of grenadiers and hussars. In the second place 
the Tatar hordes had been well nigh exterminated. In the thin) 
place Russia's signal and unexpected successes in the Steppe had 
immensely increased her prestige on the continent. " This court 
begins to have a great deal to say in the affairs of Europe," 
remarked the English minister. Sir Claudius Rondeau, a year later. 

The last days of Anne were absorbed by the endeavour to 
strengthen the position of the heir to the throne, the baby 
cesarevich Ivan, afterwards Ivan VI., the son of the empress's 
niece, Anna Lcopoldovna, against the superior claims of her 
cousin the cesarcvna Elizabeth. The empress herself died three 
months later (j8th of October 1740). Her last act was to 
appoint Biren regent during the infancy of her great-nephew. 

Anne was a grim, sullen woman, frankly sensual, but as well- 
meaning as ignorance and vindictiveness would allow her to be. 
But she had much natural good sense, was a true friend and, in 
her more cheerful moments, an amiable companion. Lady 
Rondeau's portrait of the empress shows her to the best advan- 
tage. She is described as a large woman, towering above all the 
cavaliers of her court, but very well shaped for her size, easy and 
graceful in her person, of a majestic bearing, but with an awful- 
ness in her countenance which revolted those who disliked her. 

See R. Nisbet Bain, The Pupils of Peter the Great (London. 1897) ; 
Letters from a tody who resided some years in Russia (i.e. Lady 
Rondeau) (London, 1775); Christoph Hermann Manstein, Mtmoires 
sur la Russie (Amsterdam, 1771; English edition, London, 1856); 
Gerhard Anton von \\a\cm.Lebensschreibungdes Feldm.B.C.Grafenvon 
.\funnifk (Oldenburg, 1 803) ; Claudius Rondeau, Diplomatic Despatches 
from Russia, 1728-1739 (St Petersburg, 1889-1892). (R. N. B-.) 

ANNE OF BRITTANY (1477-1314), daughter of Francis II., 
duke of Brittany, and Marguerite de Foix. She was scarcely 
twelve years old when she succeeded her father as duchess on 
the 9th of September 1488. Charles VIII. aimed at establishing 
his authority over her; Alain d'Albret wished to marry her; 
Jean de Rohan claimed the duchy ; and her guardian, the marshal 
de Rieux, was soon in open revolt against his sovereign. In 1489 
the French army invaded Brittany. In order to protect her 
independence, Anne concluded an alliance with Maximilian of 
Austria, and soon married him by proxy (December 1489). But 
Maximilian was incapable of defending her, and in 1491 the young 
duchess found herself compelled to treat with Charles VIII. and 
to marry him. The two sovereigns made a reciprocal arrangement 
as to their rights and pretensions to the crown of Brittany, but 
in the event of Charles predeceasing her, Anne undertook to many 
the heir to the throne. Nevertheless, in 1492, after the conspiracy 
of Jean de Rohan, who had endeavoured to hand over the duchy 
to the king of England, Charles VIII. confirmed the privileges of 
Brittany, and in particular guaranteed to the Bretons the right of 
pay ing only those taxes to which the assembly of estates consented. 
After the death of Charles VIII. in 1498, without any children, 
Anne exercised the sovereignty in Brittany, and in January 1499 
she married Louis XII., who had just repudiated Joan of France. 
The marriage contract was ostensibly directed in favour of the 
independence of Brittany, for it declared that Brittany should 
revert to the second son or to the eldest daughter of the two 
sovereigns, and, failing issue, to the natural heirs of the duchess. 
Until her death Anne occupied herself personally with the 
administration of the duchy. In 1504 she caused the treaty of 
Blois to be concluded, which assured the hand of her daughter, 
Claude of France, to Charles of Austria (the future emperor, 
CharlesV .), and promised hi m the possession of Bri ttany .Burgundy 
and the county of Blois. But this unpopular treaty was broken, 
and the queen had to consent to the betrothal of Claude to Francis 



of Angouleme, who in 1515 became king of France a* Francis I. 

Thus the definitive reunion of Brittany and France was prepared. 

See A. de la Borderie. Choi* dt documenti intdtti lur U repu it U 

duckeise Aunt en Bretagne (Kennr*. 1866 and I ooa) extracts from 

the Aitmotres de la SotteU Anheolopaut du departrmenl d lUe-tt- 
Vilaine. voU. jv. and vi. (1866 and 1868); Lrroux de Lincy. Vied* la 
trine Anne de Bretafnt (1860-1861); A. Dupuv, La Reunion de la 
Brelagne d la France (1880); A. de U Bordcne, La Bretatne an* 
derniers tiiclei du moytn dg (1893). and La Brelagne aux tempi 
modfrnes (1894). (H. S.) 

ANNE OP CLEVES dsi5-5S7). fourth wife of Henry MM 
king of England, daughter of John, duke of C'lcvcs, and Mary, 
only daughter of William, duke of Juliers, was born on the and 
of September 1515. Her father was the leader of the German 
Protestants, and the princess, after the death of Jane Seymour. 
was regarded by Cromwell as a suitable wife for Henry \ III 
She had been brought up in a narrow retirement, could speak no 
language but her own, had no looks, no accomplishments and no 
dowry, her only recommendations being her proficiency in 
needlework, and her meek and gentle temper. Nevertheless her 
picture, painted by Holbein by the king's command (now in the 
Louvre, a modern copy at Windsor), pleased Henry and the 
marriage was arranged, the treaty being signed on the 24th of 
September 1539. The princess landed at Deal on the 27th of 
December; Henry met her at Rochester on the ist of January 
1 540, and was so much abashed at her appearance as to forget 
to present the gift he had brought for her, but nevertheless 
controlled himself sufficiently to treat her with courtesy. The 
next day he expressed openly his dissatisfaction at her looks; 
" she was no better than a Flanders mare. " The attempt to 
prove a pre-contract with the son of the duke of Lorraine broke 
down, and Henry was forced to resign himself to the sacrifice. 
On the wedding morning, however, the 6th of January 1 540, he 
declared that no earthly thing would have induced him to marry 
her but the fear of driving the duke of Cleves into the arms of 
the emperor. Shortly afterwards Henry had reason to regret 
the policy which had identified him so closely with the German 
Protestantism, and denied reconciliation with the emperor. 
Cromwell's fall was the result, and the chief obstacle to the 
repudiation of his wife being thus removed, Henry declared the 
marriage had not been and could not be consummated; and did 
not scruple to cast doubts on his wife's honour. On the 9th of 
July the marriage was declared null and void by convocation, 
and an act of parliament to the same effect was passed immedi- 
ately. Henry soon afterwards married Catherine Howard. On 
first hearing of the king's intentions, Anne swooned away, but on 
recovering, while declaring her case a very hard and sorrowful 
one from the great love which she bore to the king, acquiesced 
quietly in the arrangements made for her by Henry, by which 
she received lands to the value of 4000 a year, renounced the 
title of queen for that of the king's sister, and undertook not to 
leave the kingdom. In a letter to her brother, drawn up by 
Gardiner by the king's direction, she acknowledged the unreality 
of the marriage and the king's kindness and generosity. Anne 
spent the rest of her life happily in England at Richmond or 
Bletchingley, occasionally visiting the court, and being described 
as joyous as ever, and wearing new dresses every day! An 
attempt to procure her reinstalment on the disgrace of Catherine 
Howard failed, and there was no foundation for the report that 
she had given birth to a child of which Henry was the reputed 
father. She waspresent at the marriage of Henry with Catherine 
Parr and at the coronation of Mary. She died on the 28th of 
July 1557 at Chelsea, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 

See Lives of the Queens of England, by A. Strickland. Hi. (1851): 
The Wives of Henry VIII., by M. Hume (1905); Henry VIII.. by 
A. F. Pollard (1905); Four Original Documents relating to Ike 
Marriage of Henry VIII. to A nne of Cletes, ed. by E. and G. Goldsmid 
(1886); for the pseudo Anne of Cleves see Allgrmeine deutscke 
Biopaphie, i. 467. (P. C. Y.) 

ANNE OP DENMARK (1574-1619), queen of James I. of 
England and VI. of Scotland, daughter of Ring Frederick II. of 
Denmark and Norway and of Sophia, daughter of Ulric HI., duke 
of Mecklenburg, was born on the 1 2th of December 1 574. On the 
2Oth of August 1589, in spite of Queen Elizabeth's opposition, 



7 



ANNE OF FRANCE ANNEALING 



she was married by proxy to King James, without dower, the 
alliance, however, settling definitely the Scottish claims to 
the Orkney and Shetland Islands. Her voyage to Scotland was 
interrupted by a violent storm for the raising of which several 
Danish and Sccttish witches were burned or executed which 
drove her on the coast of Norway, whither the impatient James 
came to meet her, the marriage taking place at Opslo (now 
Christiania) on the 23rd of November. The royal couple, after 
visiting Denmark, arrived in Scotland in May 1 590. The position 
of queen consort to a Scottish king was a difficult and perilous 
one, and Anne was attacked in connexion with various scandals 
and deeds of violence, her share in which, however, is supported 
by no evidence. The birth of an heir to the throne (Prince 
Henry) in 1594 strengthened her position and influence; but 
the young prince, much to her indignation, was immediately 
withdrawn from her care and entrusted to the keeping of the 
earl and countess of Mar at Stirling Castle; in 1595 James gave 
a written command, forbidding them in case of his death to give 
up the prince to the queen till he reached the age of eighteen. 
The king's intention was, no doubt, to secure himself and the 
prince against the unruly nobles, though the queen's Roman 
Catholic tendencies were probably another reason for his decision. 
Brought up a Lutheran, and fond of pleasure, she had shown 
no liking for Scottish Calvinism, and soon incurred rebukes on 
account of her religion, " vanity," absence from church, " night 
waking and balling." She had become secretly inclined to 
Roman Catholicism, and attended mass with the king's conniv- 
ance. On the death of Queen Elizabeth, on the 24th of March 
1603, James preceded her to London. Anne took advantage 
of his absence to demand possession of the prince, and, on the 
" flat refusal " of the countess of Mar, fell into a passion, the 
violence of which occasioned a miscarriage and endangered her 
life. In June she followed the king to England (after distributing 
all her effects in Edinburgh among her ladies) with the prince 
and the coffin containing the body of her dead infant, and 
reached Windsor on the 2nd of July, where amidst other forms 
of good fortune she entered into the possession of Queen 
Elizabeth's 6000 dresses. 

On the 24th of July Anne was crowned with the king, when her 
refusal to take the sacrament according to the Anglican use 
created some sensation. She communicated on one occasion 
subsequently and attended Anglican service occasionally; but 
she received consecrated objects from Pope Clement VIII., 
continued to hear mass, and, according to Galluzzi, supported 
the schemes for the conversion of the prince of Wales and of 
England, and for the prince's marriage with a Roman Catholic 
princess, which collapsed on his death in 1612. She was claimed 
as a convert by the Jesuits. 1 Nevertheless on her deathbed, 
when she was attended by the archbishop of Canterbury and the 
bishop of London, she used expressions which were construed 
as a declaration of Protestantism. Notwithstanding religious 
differences she lived in great harmony and affection with the 
king, latterly, however, residing mostly apart She helped to 
raise Buckingham to power in the place of Somerset, maintained 
friendly relations with him, and approved of his guidance and 
control of the king. In spite of her birth and family she was at 
first favourably inclined to Spain, disapproved of her daughter 
Elizabeth's marriage with the elector palatine, and supported 
the Spanish marriages for her sons, but subsequently veered 
round towards France. She used all her influence in favour of 
the unfortunate Raleigh, answering his petition to her for 
protection with a personal letter of appeal to Buckingham to save 
his life. " She carrieth no sway in state matters," however, it 
was said of her in 1605, " and, praeter rent uxoriam, hath no great 
reach in other affairs." " She does not mix herself up in affairs, 
though the king tells her anything she chooses to ask, and loves 
and esteems her." 1 Her interest in state matters was only 
occasional, and secondary to the pre-occupations of court 
festivities, masks, progresses, dresses, jewels, which she much 
enjoyed; the court being, says Wilson whose severity cannot 

1 Fasti S. J., by P. Joannis Drews (pub. 1723), p. 160. 
* Col. of St. Pap. Venetian, x. 513. 



entirely suppress his admiration " a continued maskarado, 
where she and her ladies, like so many nymphs or Nereides, 
appeared ... to the ravishment of the beholders," and " made 
the night more glorious than the day." Occasionally she even 
joined in the king's sports, though here her only recorded exploit 
was her accidental shooting of James's " most principal and 
special hound," Jewel. Her extravagant expenditure, returned 
by Salisbury in 1605 at more than 50,000 and by Chamberlain 
at her death at more than 84,000, was unfavourably contrasted 
with the economy of Queen Elizabeth; in spite of large allowances 
and grants of estates which included Oatlands, Greenwich House 
and Nonsuch, it greatly exceeded her income, her debts in 1616 
being reckoned at nearly 10,000, while her jewelry and her 
plate were valued at her death at nearly half a million. Anne 
died after a long illness on the 2nd of March 1619, and was buried 
in Westminster Abbey. She was generally regretted. The 
severe WMson, while rebuking her gaieties, allows that she was 
" a good woman," and that her character would stand the most 
prying investigation. She was intelligent and tactful, a faithful 
wife, a devoted mother and a staunch friend. Besides several 
children who died in infancy she had Henry, prince of Wales, 
who died in 1612, Charles, afterwards King Charles I., and 
Elizabeth, electress palatine and queen of Bohemia. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. See Dr A. W. Ward's article in the Diet, of Nat. 
Biography, with authorities; Lives of the Queens of England, by 
A. Strickland (1844), vii.; " Life and Reign of King James I.," by 
A. Wilson, in History of England (1706); Istoria del Granducato di 
Toscana, by R. Galluzzi (1781), lib. vi. cap. ii. ; Cal. of State Papers 
Domestic and Venetian; Hist. MSS. Comm. Series, MSS. of Marq. 
of Salisbury, iii. 420, 438, 454, ix. 54; Harleian MSS. 5176, art. 22, 
293, art. 106. Also see bibliography to the article on JAMES I. 

(P. C. Y.) 

ANNE OF FRANCE (1460-1522), dame de Beaujeu, was the 
eldest daughter of Louis XI. and Charlotte of Savoy. Louis XI. 
betrothed her at first to Nicholas of Anjou, and afterwards 
offered her hand successively to Charles the Bold, to the duke 
of Brittany, and even to his own brother, Charles of France. 
Finally she married Pierre de Beaujeu, a younger brother of 
the duke of Bourbon. Before his death Louis XI. entrusted 
to Pierre de Beaujeu and Anne the entire charge of his son, 
Charles VIII., a lad of thirteen; and from 1483 to 1492 the 
Beaujeus exercised a virtual regency. Anne was a true daughter 
of Louis XI. Energetic, obstinate, cunning and unscrupulous, 
she inherited, too, her father's avarice and rapacity. Although 
they made some concessions, the Beaujeus succeeded in main- 
taining the results of the previous reign, and in triumphing over 
the feudal intrigues and coalitions, as was seen from the meeting 
of the estates general in 1484, and the results of the " Mad 
War" (1485) and the war with Brittany (1488); and in spite 
of the efforts of Maximilian of Austria they concluded the marriage 
of Charles VIII. and Anne, duchess of Brittany (1491). But a 
short time afterwards the king disengaged -himself completely 
from their tutelage, to the great detriment of the kingdom. 
In 1488 Pierre de Beaujeu had succeeded to the Bourbonnais, 
the last great fief of France. He died in 1 503, but Anne survived 
him twenty years. From her establishments at Moulins and 
Chantelle in the Bourbonnais she continued henceforth vigorously 
to defend the Bourbon cause against the royal family. Anne's 
only daughter, Suzanne, had married in 1505 her cousin, Charles 
of Bourbon, count of Montpensier, the future constable; and 
the question of the succession of Suzanne, who died in 1521, 
was the determining factor of the treason of the constable 
de Bourbon (1523). Anne had died some months before, on 
the 1 4th of November 1522. 

See P. Pelicier, Essai sur le gouvernement de la Dame de Beaujeu 
(Chartres, 1882). (J- !) 

ANNEALING, HARDENING AND TEMPERING. Annealing 
(from the prefix an, and the old English attan, to burn or bake; 
the meaning has probably also been modified from the French 
nieler, to enamel black on gold or silver, from the med. Lat. 
nigellare, to make black; cf. niello) is a process of treating a 
metal or alloy by heat with the object of imparting to it a certain 
condition of ductility, extensibility, or a certain grade of softness 
or hardness, with all that is involved in and follows from those 



ANNEALING 



conditions. The effect may be mechanical only, or a chemical 
change may take place also. Sometimes the causes are obvious, 
in other cases they are more or less obscure. But of the actual 
(acts, and the immense importance of this operation as well as 
of the related ones of tempering and hardening in shop processes, 
thrtv is no question. 

When the treatment is of a mechanical character only, there 
can be no reasonable doubt that the common belief is correct, 
namely, that the metallic crystals or fibres undergo a molecular 
rearrangement of some kind. When it is of a chemical character, 
the process is one of cementation, due to the occlusion of gases 
in the molecules of the metals. 

Numerous examples of annealing due to molecular rearrange- 
ment might be selected from the extensive range of workshop 
operations. The following arc a few only: when a boiler- 
maker bends the edges of a plate of steel or iron by hammer 
blows (flanging), he does so in successive stages (heats), at each 
of which the plate has to be reheated, with inevitable cooling 
down during the time work is being done upon it. The result 
is that the plate becomes brittle over the parts which have 
been subjected to this treatment; and this brittleness is not 
uniformly distributed, but is localized, and is a source of weakness, 
inducing a liability to crack. If, however, the plate when 
finished is raised to a full red heat, and allowed to cool down 
away from access of cool air, as in a furnace, or underneath wood 
ashes, it resumes its old ductility. The plate has been annealed, 
and is as safe as it was before it was flanged. Again, when a 
sheet of thin metal is forced to assume a shape very widely 
different from its original plane aspect, as by hammering, or by 
drawing out in a press a cartridge case being a familiar ex- 
ample it is necessary to anneal it several times during the 
progress of the operation. Without such annealing it would 
never arrive at the final stage desired, but would become torn 
asunder by the extension of its metallic fibres. Cutting tools 
are made of steel having sufficient carbon to afford capacity 
for hardening. Before the process is performed, the condition 
in which the carbon is present renders the steel so hard and tough 
as to render the preliminary turning or shaping necessary in 
many cases (e.g. in milling cutters) a tedious operation. To lessen 
this labour, the steel is first annealed. In this case it is brought 
to a low red heat, and allowed to cool away from the air. It 
can then be machined with comparative ease and be subsequently 
hardened or tempered. When a metallic structure has endured 
long service a state of fatigue results. Annealing is, where 
practicable, resorted to in order to restore the original strength. 
A familiar illustration is that of chains which are specially liable 
to succumb to constant overstrain if continued for only a year 
or two. This is so well known that the practice is regularly 
adopted of annealing the chains at regular intervals. They 
are put into a clear hot furnace and raised to a low red heat, 
continued for a few hours, and then allowed to cool down in the 
furnace after the withdrawal of the source of heat. Before the 
annealing the fracture of a link would be more crystalline than 
afterwards. 

In these examples, and others of which these are typical, 
two conditions are essential, one being the grade of temperature, 
the other the cooling. The temperature must never be so high 
as to cause the metal to become overheated, with risk of burning, 
nor so low as to prevent the penetration of the substance with 
a good volume of heat. It must also be continued for sufficient 
time. More than this cannot be said. Each particular piece 
of work requires its own treatment and period, and nothing 
but experience of similar work will help the craftsman. The 
cooling must always be gradual, such as that which results 
from removing the source of heat, as by drawing a furnace fire, 
or covering with non-conducting substances. 

The chemical kind of annealing is specifically that employed 
in the manufacture of malleable cast iron. In this process, 
castings are made of white iron. a brittle quality which has 
its carbon wholly in the combined state. These castings, when 
subjected to heat for a period of ten days or a fortnight, in closed 
boxes, in the presence of substances containing oxygen, become 



highly ductile. This change ii due to the absorption of the carbon 
by the oxygen in the cementing material, a comparatively pure 
soft iron being left behind. The result is that the originally 
hard, brittle castings after this treatment may be cut with a 
knife, and be bent double and twisted into spirals without 
fracturing. 

The distinction between hardening and tempering it one of 
degree only, and both are of an opposite character to annealing. 
Hardening, in the shop sense, signifies the making of a piece 
of steel about as hard as it can be made " glass hard " while 
tempering indicates some stage in an infinite range between 
tlu- fully hardened and the annealed or softened condition. 
As a matter of convenience only, hardening is usually a stage 
in ihe work of tempering. It is easier to harden first, and " let 
down " to the temper required, than to secure the exact beat 
for tempering by raising the material to it. This is partly due 
to the long established practice of estimating temperature by 
colour tints; but this is being rapidly invaded by new methods 
in which the temper heat is obtained in furnaces provided with 
pyrometers, by means of which exact heat regulation is readily 
secured, and in which the heating up is done gradually. Such 
furnaces are used for hardening balls for bearings, cams, small 
toothed wheels and similar work, as well as for tempering 
springs, milling cutters and other kinds of cutting tools. But 
for the cutting tools having single edges, as used in engineers' 
shops, the colour test is still generally retained. 

In the practice of hardening and tempering tools by colour, 
experience is the only safe guide. Colour tints vary with degrees 
of light; steels of different brands require different treatment 
in regard to temperature and quenching; and steels even of 
identical chemical composition do not always behave alike when 
tempered. Every fresh brand of steel has, therefore, to be 
treated at first in a tentative and experimental fashion in order 
to secure the best possible results. The larger the masses of 
steel, and the greater the disparity in dimensions of adjacent 
parts, the greater is the risk of cracking and distortion. Ex- 
cessive length and the presence of keen angles increase the 
difficulties of hardening. The following points have to be 
observed in the work of hardening and tempering. 

A grade of steel must be selected of suitable quality for the 
purpose for which it has to be used. There are a number of such 
grades, ranging from about ij to } % content of carbon, and 
each having its special utility. Overheating must be avoided, 
as that burns the steel and injures or ruins it. A safe rule is never 
to heat any grade of steel to a temperature higher than that at 
which experience proves it will take the temper required. Heat- 
ing must be regular and thorough throughout, and must therefore 
be slowly done when dealing with thick masses. Contact with 
sulphurous fuel must be avoided. Baths of molten alloys of lead 
and tin are used when very exact temperatures are required, 
and when articles have thick and thin parts adjacent. But the 
gas furnaces have the same advantages in a more handy form. 
Quenching is done in water, oil, or in various hardening mixtures, 
and sometimes in solids. Rain water is the principal hardening 
agent, but various saline compounds are often added to intensify 
its action. Water that has been long in use is preferred to fresh. 
Water is generally used cold, but in many cases it is warmed to 
about 80 F., as for milling cutters and taps, warmed water 
being less liable to crack the cutters than cold. Oil is preferred 
to water for small springs, for guns and for many cutters. Mer- 
cury hardens most intensely, because it does not evaporate, and 
so does lead or wax for the same reason; water evaporates, 
and in the spheroidal state, as steam, leaves contact with the 
steel. This is the reason why long and large objects are moved 
vertically about in the water during quenching, to bring them 
into contact with fresh cold water. 

There is a good deal of mystery affected by many of the 
hardeners, who are very particular about the composition of 
their baths, various oils and salts being used in an infinity of 
combinations. Many of these are the result of long and successful 
experience, some are of the nature of " fads." A change of bath 
may involve injury to the steel. The most difficult articles to 



ANNECY ANNELIDA 



harden are springs, milling cutters, taps, reamers. It would be 
easy to give scores of hardening compositions. 

Hardening is performed the more efficiently the more rapidly 
the quenching is done. In the case of thick objects, however, 
especially milling cutters, there is risk of cracking, due to the 
difference of temperature on the outside and in the central body 
of metal. Rapid hardening is impracticable in such objects. 
This is the cause of the distortion of long taps and reamers, and 
of their cracking, and explains why their teeth are often protected 
with soft soap and other substances. 

The presence of the body of heat in a tool is taken advantage 
of in the work of tempering. The tool, say a chisel, is dipped, 
a length of 2 in. or more being thus hardened and blackened. 
It is then removed, and a small area rubbed rapidly with a bit of 
grindstone, observations being made of the changing tints which 
gradually appear as the heat is communicated from the hot 
shank to the cooled end. The heat becomes equalized, and at 
the same time the approximate temperature for quenching for 
temper is estimated by the appearance of a certain tint; at that 
instant the article is plunged and allowed to remain until quite 
cold. For every different class of tool a different tint is required. 

" Blazing off " is a particular method of hardening applied to 
small springs. The springs are heated and plunged in oils, fats, 
or tallow, which is burned off previous to cooling in air, or in the 
ashes of the forge, or in oil, or water usually. They are hardened, 
reheated and tempered, and the tempering by blazing off is 
repeated for heavy springs. The practice varies almost infinitely 
with dimensions, quality of steel, and purpose to which the 
springs have to be applied. 

The range of temper for most cutting tools lies between a pale 
straw or yellow, and a light purple or plum colour. The corres- 
ponding range of temperatures is about 430 F. to 530 F., 
respectively. " Spring temper " is higher, from dark purple to 
blue, or 550 F. to 630 F. In many fine tools the range of 
temperature possible between good and poor results lies within 
from 5 to 10 F. 

There is another kind of hardening which is of a superficial 
character only " case hardening." It is employed in cases 
where toughness has to be combined with durability of surface. 
It is a cementation process, practised on wrought iron and mild 
steel, and applied to the link motions of engines, to many pins 
and studs, eyes of levers, &c. The articles are hermetically luted 
in an iron box, packed with nitrogenous and saline substances 
such as potash, bone dust, leather cuttings, and salt. The box is 
placed in a furnace, and allowed to remain for periods of from 
twelve to thirty-six hours, during which period the surface of the 
metal, to a depth of fa to -fa in., is penetrated by the cement- 
ing materials, and converted into steel. The work is then thrown 
into water and quenched. 

A muffle furnace, empldyed for annealing, hardening and 
tempering is shown in fig. i ; the heat being obtained by means 




FIG. i. Automatic Oil Muffle Furnace. 

of petroleum, which is contained in the tank A, and is kept under 
pressure by pumping at intervals with the wooden handle, so 
that when the valve B is opened the oil is vaporized by passing 
through a heating coil at the furnace entrance, and when ignited 
burns fiercely as a gas flame. This passes into the furnace 
through the two holes, C, C, and plays under and up around the 



muffle D, standing on a fireclay slab. The doorway is closed by 
two fireclay blocks at E. A temperature of over 2000 F. can be 
obtained in furnaces of this class, and the heat is of course under 
perfect control. 

A reverberatory type of gas furnace, shown in fig. 2, differs 
from the oil furnace in having the flames brought down through 
the roof, by pipes A,A,A, playing on work laid on the fireclay 
slab B, thence passing under this and out through the elbow- 




I 

FIG. 2. Reverberatory Furnace. 

pipe C. The hinged doors, D, give a full opening to the interior 
of the furnace. It will be noticed in both these furnaces (by 
Messrs Fletcher, Russell & Co., Ltd.) that the iron casing is a 
mere shell, enclosing very thick firebrick linings, to retain the 
heat effectively. (J. G. H.) 

ANNECY, the chief town of the department of Haute Savoie 
in France. Pop. (1906) 10,763. It is situated at a height of 
1470 ft., at the northern end of the lake of Annecy, and is 25 m. 
by rail N.E. of Aix les Bains. The surrounding country presents 
many scenes of beauty. The town itself is a pleasant residence, 
and contains a i6th century cathedral church, an i8th century 
bishop's palace, a I4th-i6th century castle (formerly the resi- 
dence of the counts of the Genevois), and the reconstructed 
convent of the Visitation, wherein now reposes the body of St 
Francois de Sales (born at the castle of Sales, close by, in 1567; 
died at Lyons in 1622), who held the see from 1602 to 1622. 
There is also a public library, with 20,000 volumes, and various 
scientific collections, and a public garden, with a statue of the 
chemist Berthollet (1748-1822), who was born not far off. The 
bishop's see of Geneva was transferred hither in 1535, after the 
Reformation, but suppressed in 1801, though revived in 1822. 
There are factories of linen and cotton goods, and of felt hats, 
paper mills, and a celebrated bell foundry at Annecy le Vieux. 
This last-named place existed in Roman times. Annecy itself 
was in the loth century the capital of the counts of the Genevois, 
from whom it passed in 1401 to the counts of Savoy, and became 
French in 1860 on the annexation of Savoy. 

The LAKE or ANNECY is about 9 m. in length by 2 m. in 
breadth, its surface being 1465 ft. above the level of the sea. 
It discharges its waters, by means of the Thioux canal, into the 
Fier, a tributary of the Rhone. (W. A. B. C.) 

ANNELIDA, a name derived from J. B. P. Lamarck's term 
AnnMdes, now used to denote a major phylum or division of 
coelomate invertebrate animals. Annelids are segmented worms, 
and differ from the Arthropoda (q.v.), which they closely resemble 
in many respects, by the possession of a portion of the coelom 
traversed by the alimentary canal. In the latter respect, and in 
the fact that they frequently develop by a metamorphosis, they 
approach the Mollusca (q.v.), but they differ from that group 
notably in the occurrence of metameric segmentation affecting 
many of the systems of organs. The body-wall is highly muscular 
and, except in a few probably specialized cases, possesses 
chitinous spines, the setae, which are secreted by the ectoderm 
and are embedded in pits of the skin. They possess a modi- 
fied anterior end, frequently with special sense organs, forming 
a head, a segmented nervous system, consisting of a pair 
of anterior, dorsally-placed ganglia, a ring surrounding the 



ANNEX ANNEXATION 



73 



alimentary canal, and a double ventral ganglionated chain, a 
ile innto vascular *y*tem, an excretory yitem confuting of 
in l ihridia, and paired generative organ* formed from the coelomic 
epithelium. They are divided as follow*: (i) Haplodrili (?..) 
or Archiannelida; (i) Chaetopoda (q.v.); (3) Myzostomida (?..), 
probably degenerate Polychaeta; (4) Hirudinca (see CHAETOPODA 
and LEECH) ; (5) Echiuroidea (?.*.). (P. C. M.) 

ANNET. PETER (1603-1760), English deist, is said to have been 
born at Liverpool. A schoolmaster by profession, he became 
prominent owing to his attacks on orthodox theologians, and his 
membership of a semi-theological debating society, the Robin 
Hood Society, which met at the " Robin Hood and Little John " 
in Butcher Row. To him has been attributed a work called A 
History of tkt Man after God' sown Heart (1761), intended to show 
that George II. was insulted by a current comparison with David. 
The book is said to have inspired Voltaire's Saul. It is also 
attributed to one John Noorthouck (Noorthook). In 1 763 he was 
condemned for blasphemous libel in his paper called the Free 
Enquirer (nine numbers only). After his release he kept a small 
school in Lambeth, one of his pupils being James Stephen (1758- 
1832), who became master in Chancery. Annet died on the i8th 
of January 1769. He stands between the earlier philosophic 
deists and the later propagandists of Paine's school, and " seems 
to have been the first free thought lecturer " (J. M. Robertson) ; 
his essays (.-1 Collection of the Tracts of a certain Free Enquirer, 
1730-1745) are forcible but lack refinement. He invented a 
system of shorthand (and ed., with a copy of verses by Joseph 
Priestley). 

ANNEXATION (Lot. ad, to, and nexus, joining), in interna- 
tional law, the act by which a state adds territory to its dominions ; 
the term is also used generally as a synonym for acquisition. The 
assumption of a protectorate over another state, or of a sphere of 
influence, is not strictly annexation, the latter implying the 
complete displacement in the annexed territory of the government 
or state by which it was previously ruled. Annexation may be 
the consequence of a voluntary cession from one state to another, 
or of conversion from a protectorate or sphere of influence, or of 
mere occupation in uncivilized regions, or of conquest. The 
cession of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany by France, although 
brought about by the war of 1870, was for the purposes of interna- 
tional law a voluntary cession. Under the treaty of the 1 7th of 
December 1885, between the French republic and the queen of 
Madagascar, a French protectorate was established over this 
island. In 1896 this protectorate was converted by France into 
an annexation, and Madagascar then became " French territory." 
The formal annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina by Austria (Oct. 5, 
1008) was an unauthorized conversion of an " occupation " 
authorized by the Treaty of Berlin (1878), which had, however, 
for years operated as a de facto annexation. A recent case of 
conquest was that effected by the South African War of 1800- 
1902, in which the Transvaal republic and the Orange Free 
State were extinguished, first de facto by occupation of the whole 
of their territory, and then de jure by terms of surrender entered 
into by the Boer generals acting as a government. 

By annexation, as between civilized peoples, the annexing state 
takes over the whole succession with the rights and obligations 
attaching to the ceded territory, subject only to any modifying 
conditions contained in the treaty of cession. These, however, 
are binding only as between the parties to them. In the case of 
the annexation of the territories of the Transvaal republic and 
Orange Free State, a rather complicated situation arose out of 
the facts, on the one hand, that the ceding states closed their own 
existence and left no recourse to third parties against the previous 
ruling authority, and, on the other, that, having no means owing 
to the de facto British occupation, of raising money by taxation, 
the dispossessed governments raised money by selling certain 
securities, more especially a large holding of shares in the South 
African Railway Company, to neutral purchasers. The British 
government repudiated these sales as having been made by a 
government which the British government had already displaced. 
The question of at what point, in a war of conquest, the state 
succession becomes operative is one of great delicacy. As early 



as the 6th of January 1000, the high commitcioner at Cape To 
issued a proclamation giving notice that H. M. government would 
" not recognize as valid or effectual " any conveyance, trarufrr 
or transmission of any property made by the government of the 
Transvaal republic or Orange Free State subsequently to the loth 
of October 1809, the date of the commencement of the war. A 
proclamation forbidding transaction* with a tate which might 
still be capable of maintaining it* independence could obviously 
bind only those subject to the authority of the state iMtiing it. 
Like paper blockades (see BLOCKADE) and fictitious occupation* 
of territory, such premature proclamations are viewed by interna- 
tional jurist* as not being jure gentium. The proclamation was 
succeeded, on the 9th of March 1900, by another of the high 
commissioner at Cape Town, reiterating the notice, but confining 
it to " lands, railways, mines or mining rights." And on the ist 
of September 1000 Lord Robert* proclaimed at Pretoria the 
annexation of the territories of the Transvaal republic to the 
British dominions. That the war continued for nearly two yean 
after this proclamation shows how fictitious the claim of annexa- 
tion was. The difficulty which arose out of the transfer of the 
South African Railway shares held by the Transvaal government 
was satisfactorily terminated by the purchase by the British 
government of the total capital of the company from the different 
groups of shareholders (see on this case, Sir Thomas Barclay, Lav 
Quarterly Review, July 1005; and Professor Westlake, in the same 
Review, October 1005). 

In a judgment of the judicial committee of the privy council in 
1809 (Coote v. Sprigg, A.C. 572), Lord Chancellor Halsbury made 
an important distinction as regards the obligations of state 
succession. The case in question was a claim of title against the 
crown, represented by the government of Cape Colony. It was 
made by persons holding a concession of certain rights in eastern 
Pondoland from a native chief. Before the grantees had taken up 
their grant by acts of possession, Pondoland was annexed to Cape 
Colony. The colonial government refused to recognize the grant 
on different grounds, the chief of them being that the concession 
conferred no legal rights before the annexation and therefore 
could confer none afterwards, a sufficiently good ground in itself. 
The judicial committee, however, rested its decision chiefly on the 
allegation that the acquisition of the territory was an act of state 
and that " no municipal court had authority to enforce such an 
obligation " as the duty of the new government to respect existing 
tides. " It is no answer," said Lord Halsbury, " to say that by 
the ordinary principles of international law private property is 
respected by the sovereign which accepts the cession and assumes 
the duties and legal obligations of the former sovereign with 
respect to such private property within the ceded territory. All 
that can be meant by such a proposition is that according to the 
well-understood rules of international law a change of sovereignty 
by cession ought not to affect private property, but no municipal 
tribunal has authority to enforce such an obligation. And if 
there is either an express or a well-understood bargain between 
the ceding potentate and the government to which the cession is 
made that private property shall be respected, that is only a 
bargain which can be enforced by sovereign against sovereign in 
the ordinary course of diplomatic pressure." In an editorial note 
on this case the Law Quarterly Review of Jan. 1900 (p. i), 
dissenting from the view of the judicial committee that "no 
municipal tribunal has authority to enforce such an obligation," 
the writer observes that " we can read this only as meant to lay 
down that, on the annexation of territory even by peaceable 
cession, there is a total abeyance of justice until the will of the 
annexing power is expressly made known; and that, although 
the will of that power is commonly to respect existing private 
rights, there is no rule or presumption to that effect of which any 
court must or indeed can take notice." So construed the doctrine 
is not only contrary to international law, but according to so 
authoritative an exponent of the common law as Sir F. Pollock, 
there is no warrant for it in English common law. 

An interesting point of American constitutional law has arisen 
out of the cession of the Philippines to the United States, through 
the fact that the federal constitution does not lend itself to the 



74 



ANNICERIS ANNONA 



exercise by the federal congress of unlimited powers, such as are 
vested in the British parliament. The sole authority for the 
powers of the federal congress is a written constitution with 
defined powers. Anything done in excess of those powers is null 
and void. The Supreme Court of the United States, on the other 
hand, has declared that, by the constitution, a government is 
ordained and established " for the United States of America " 
and not for countries outside their limits (Ross's Case, 140 U.S. 
453, 464), and that no such power to legislate for annexed 
territories as that vested in the British crown in council is enjoyed 
by the president of the United States (Field v. Clark, 143 U.S. 649, 
692). Every detail connected with the administration of the 
territories acquired from Spain under the treaty of Paris 
(December 10, 1898) has given rise to minute discussion. 

See Carman F. Randolph, Law and Policy of Annexation (New York 
and London, 1901); Charles Henry Butler, Treaty-making Power of 
the United States (New York, 1902), vol. i. p. 79 et seq. (T. BA.) 

ANNICERIS, a Greek philosopher of the Cyrenaic school. 
There is no certain information as to his date, but from the 
statement that he was a disciple of Paraebates it seems likely 
that he was a contemporary of Alexander the Great. A follower of 
Aristippus, he denied that pleasure is the general end of human 
life. To each separate action there is a particular end, namely 
the pleasure which actually results from it Secondly, pleasure 
is not merely the negation of pain, inasmuch as death ends all 
pain and yet cannot be regarded as pleasure. There is, however, 
an absolute pleasure in certain virtues such as belong to the love 
of country, parents and friends. In these relations a man will 
have pleasure, even though it may result in painful and even 
fatal consequences. Friendship is not merely for the satisfaction 
of our needs, but is in itself a source of pleasure. He maintains 
further, in opposition to most of the Cyrenaic school, that 
wisdom or prudence alone is an insufficient guarantee against 
error. The wise man is he who has acquired a habit of wise 
action; human wisdom is liable to lapses at any moment. 
Diogenes Laertius says that Anniceris ransomed Plato from 
Dionysius, tyrant of Syracuse, for twenty minas. If we are 
right in placing Anniceris in the latter half of the 4th century, 
it is clear that the reference here is to an earlier Anniceris, who, 
according to Aelian, was a celebrated charioteer. 

ANNING, MARY (1790-1847), English fossil-collector, the 
daughter of Richard Arming, a cabinet-maker, was born at Lyme 
Regis in May 1799. Her father was one of the earliest collectors 
and dealers in fossils, obtained chiefly from the Lower Lias in that 
famous locality. When but a child in 1811 she discovered the 
first specimen of Ichthyosaurus which was brought into scientific 
notice; in 1821 she found remains of a new saurian, the 
Pleswsaurus,iLnd in 1 8 28 she procured,f or the first time in England, 
remains of a pterodactyl (Dimorphodon). She died on the gth 
of March 1847. 

ANNISTON, a city and the county seat of Calhoun county, 
Alabama, U.S.A., in the north-eastern part of the state, about 
63 m. E. by N. of Birmingham. Pop. (1800) 9998; (1900), 
9695, of whom 3669 were of negro descent; (1910 census) 
12,794. Anniston is served by the Southern, the Seaboard 
Air Line, and the Louisville & Nashville railways. The city is 
situated on the slope of Blue Mountain, a chain of the Blue 
Ridge, and is a health resort. It is the seat of the Noble Institute 
(for girls), established in 1886 by Samuel Noble (1834-1888), a 
wealthy iron-founder, and of the Alabama Presbyterian College 
for Men (1905). There are vast quantities of iron ore in the 
vicinity of the city, the Coosa coal-fields being only 25 m. distant. 
Anniston is an important manufacturing city, the principal 
industries being the manufacture of iron, steel and cotton. In 
1905 the city's factory products were valued at $2,525,455. 
An iron furnace was established on the site of Anniston during the 
Civil War, but it was destroyed by the federal troops in 1865; 
and in 1872 it was rebuilt on a much larger scale. The city was 
founded in 1872 as a private enterprise, by the Woodstock Iron 
Company, organized by Samuel Noble and Gen. Daniel Tyler 
(1799-1882); but it was not opened for general settlement until 
twelve years later. It was chartered as a city in 1879. 



ANNO, or HANNO, SAINT (c. 1010-107 s),archbishop of Cologne, 
belonged to a Swabian family, and was educated at Bamberg. 
He became confessor to the emperor Henry III., who appointed 
him archbishop of Cologne in 1056. He took a prominent part in 
thegovernmentof Germany during the minorityof King Henry IV., 
and was the leader of the party which in 1062 seized the person 
of Henry, and deprived his mother, the empress Agnes, of 
power. For a short time Anno exercised the chief authority in 
the kingdom, but he was soon obliged to share this with Adalbert, 
archbishop of Bremen, retaining for himself the supervision of 
Henry's education and the title of magister. The office of 
chancellor of the kingdom of Italy was at this period regarded as 
an appanage of the archbishopric of Cologne,and this was probably 
the reason why Anno had a considerable share in settling the 
papal dispute in 1064. He declared Alexander II. to be the 
rightful pope at a synod held at Mantua in May 1064, and took 
other steps to secure his recognition. Returning to Germany, 
he found the chief power in the hands of Adalbert, and as he was 
disliked by the young king, he left the court but returned and 
regained some of his former influence when Adalbert fell from 
power in 1066. He succeeded in putting down a rising against 
his authority in Cologne in 1074, and it was reported he had 
allied himself with William the Conqueror, king of England, 
against the emperor. Having cleared himself of this charge, 
Anno took no further part in public business, and died at Cologne 
on the 4th of December 1075. He was buried in the monastery of 
Siegburg and was canonized in 1183 by Pope Lucius III. He 
was a founder of monasteries and a builder of churches, advocated 
clerical celibacy and was a strict disciplinarian. He was a man 
of great energy and ability, whose action in recognizing Alexander 
II. was of the utmost consequence for Henry IV. and for 
Germany. 

There is a Vita Annonis, written about lioo, by a monk of Sieg- 
burg, but this is of slight value. It appears in the Monumenta 
Germaniae historical Scriptores, Bd. xi. (Hanover and Berlin, 
1826-1892). There is an "Epistola ad monachos Malmundarienses" 
by Anno in the Neues Archiv der Gesellschaft fur altere deutsche 
Geschichtskunde, Bd. xiv. (Hanover, 1876 seq.). See also the 
Annolied, or Incerti poetae Teutonics rhythmus de S. Annone, written 
about 1180, and edited by J. Kehrein (Frankfort, 1865); Th. 
Lindner, Anno II. der Heilige, Erzbischof von Koln (Leipzig, 1869). 

ANNOBON, or ANNO BOM, an island in the Gulf of Guinea, in 
i 24' S. and 5 35' E., belonging to Spain. It is no m. S.W. of 
St Thomas. Its length is about 4 m., its breadth 2, and its 
area 6J sq. m. Rising in some parts nearly 3000 ft. above 
the sea, it presents a succession of beautiful valleys and 
steep mountains, covered with rich woods and luxuriant 
vegetation. The inhabitants, some 3000 in number, are negroes 
and profess belief in the Roman Catholic faith. The 
chief town and residence of the governor is called St Antony 
(San Antonio de Praia). The roadstead is tolerably safe, and 
passing vessels take advantage of it in order to obtain water 
and fresh provisions, of which Annobon contains an abundant 
supply. The island was discovered by the Portuguese on the 
ist of January 1473, from which circumstance it received its 
name ( = New Year). Annobon, together with Fernando Po, was 
ceded to Spain by the Portuguese in 1 778. The islanders revolted 
against their new masters and a state of anarchy ensued, leading, 
it is averred, to an arrangement by which the island was adminis- 
tered by a body of five natives, each of whom held the office of 
governor during the period that elapsed till ten ships touched at 
the island. In the latter part of the igth century the authority 
of Spain was re-established. 

ANNONA (from Lat. annus, year), in Roman mythology, the 
personification of the produce of the year. She is represented 
in works of art, often together with Ceres, with a cornucopia 
(horn of plenty) in her arm, and a ship's prow in the back- 
ground, indicating the transport of grain over the sea. She 
frequently occurs on coins of the empire, standing between a 
modius (corn-measure) and the prow of a galley, with ears of corn 
in one hand and a cornucopia in the other; sometimes she holds 
a rudder or an anchor. The Latin word itself has various mean- 
ings: (i) the produce of the year's harvest; (2) all means of 






ANNONAY ANNUITY 



75 



subsistence, especially grain stored in the public granaries (or 
provisioning the city; (3) the market |>ri. r of commodities, 
especially corn; (4) a direct tax in kind, levied in republican 
times in several provinces, chiefly employed in imperial times 
for distribution amongst officials and the support of the soldiery. 

In order to ensure a supply of corn sufficient to enable it to In- 
sold at a very low price, it was procured in large quantities from 
Umbria, Ktruria and Sicily. Almost down to the times of the 
empire, the care of the corn-supply formed part of the aedile's 
duties, although in 440 B.C. (if the statement in Livy iv. it, 13 
is correct, which is doubtful) the senate appointed a special 
officer, called prarftitus annonae, with greatly extended powers. 
As a consequence of the second Punic War, Roman agriculture 
was at a standstill; accordingly, recourse was had to Sicily and 
Sardinia (the first two Roman provinces) in order to keep up the 
supply of corn; a tax of one- tenth was imposed on it, and its 
export to any country except Italy forbidden. The price at 
which the corn was sold was always moderate; the corn law of 
Gracchus (123 B.C.) made it absurdly low, and Clodius (58 B.C.) 
bestowed it gratuitously. The number of the recipients of this 
free gift grew so enormously, that both Caesar and Augustus were 
obliged to reduce it. From the time of Augustus to the end of 
the empire the number of those who were entitled to receive a 
monthly allowance of corn on presenting a ticket was 200,000. 
In the 3rd century, bread formed the dole. A praefectus annonac 
was appointed by Augustus to superintend the corn-supply; he 
was assisted by a large staff in Rome and the provinces, and had 
jurisdiction in all matters connected with the corn-market. The 
office lasted till the latest times of the empire. 

ANNONAY, a town of south-eastern France, in the north of the 
department of Ardeche, 50 m. S. of Lyons by the Paris-Lyons 
railway. Pop. (1006) 15,403. Annonay is built on the hill 
overlooking the meeting of the deep gorges of the Deomc and the 
Cance, the waters of which supply power to the factories of the 
town. By means of a dam across the Ternay, an affluent of the 
DWrae, to the north-west of the town, a reservoir is provided, 
in which an additional supply of water, for both industrial and 
domestic purposes, is stored. At Annonay there is an obelisk 
in honour of the brothers Montgolfier, inventors of the balloon, 
who were natives of the place. A tribunal of commerce, a board 
of trade-arbitrators, a branch of the Bank of France, and 
chambers of commerce and of arts and manufactures are among 
the public institutions. Annonay is the principal industrial 
centre of its department, the chief manufactures being those of 
leather, especially for gloves, paper, silk and silk goods, and 
flour. Chemical manures, glue, gelatine, brushes, chocolate and 
candles are also produced. 

ANNOY (like the French ennui, a word traced by etymologists 
to a Lat. phrase, in odio use, to be " in hatred " or hateful of 
someone), to vex or affect with irritation. In the sense of 
" nuisance," the noun " annoyance," apart from its obvious 
meaning, is found in the English " Jury of Annoyance " 
appointed by an act of 1754 to report upon obstructions in the 
highways. 

ANNUITY (from Lat. annus, a year), a periodical payment, 
made annually, or at more frequent intervals, either for a fixed 
term of years, or during the continuance of a given life, or a com- 
bination of lives. In technical language an annuity is said to be 
payable for an assigned status, this being a general word chosen 
in preference to such words as " time," " term " or " period," 
because it may include more readily either a term of years 
certain, or a life or combination of lives. The magnitude of the 
annuity is the sum to be paid (and received) in the course of each 
year. Thus, if 100 is to be received each year by a person, he is 
said to have " an annuity of 100." If the payments are made 
half-yearly, it is sometimes said that he has " a half-yearly 
annuity of 100 "; but to avoid ambiguity, it is more commonly 
said he has an annuity of 100, payable by half-yearly instal- 
ments. The former expression, if clearly understood, is prefer- 
able on account of its brevity. So we may have quarterly, 
monthly, weekly, daily annuities, when the annuity is payable 
by quarterly, monthly, weekly or daily instalments. An annuity 



is considered as accruing during each iruunt of the lUtut (or 
which it is enjoyed, although it u only payable at fixed interval*. 
If the enjoyment of an annuity is postponed until after the Up*e 
of a certain number of years, the annuity if said to be deferred. 
If an annuity, instead of being payable at the end of each year, 
half-year, &c., is payable in advance, it is called an annuity-due. 

If an annuity is payable for a term of yean independent of 
any contingency, it is called an annuity certain; if it is to con- 
tinue forever, it is called a perpetuity; and if in the latter case 
it is not to commence until after a term of years, it i* called a 
deferred perpetuity. An annuity depending on the continuance 
of an assigned life or lives, is sometimes called a life annuity; 
but more commonly the simple term " annuity " is understood 
to mean a life annuity, unless the contrary is stated. A life 
annuity, to cease in any event after a certain term of yean, is 
called a temporary annuity. The holder of an annuity is called 
an annuitant, and the person on whose life the annuity depends 
is called the nominee. 

If not otherwise stated, it is always understood that an annuity 
is payable yearly, and that the annual payment (or rent, as it is 
sometimes called) is i. It is, however, customary to consider 
the annual payment to be, not i, but simply i, the reader 
supplying whatever monetary unit he pleases, whether pound, 
dollar, franc, Thaler, &c. 

The annuity is the totality of the payments to be made (and 
received), and is so understood by all writers on the subject; 
but some have also used the word to denote an individual 
payment (or rent), speaking, for instance, of the first or second 
year's annuity, a practice which is calculated to introduce 
confusion and should therefore be carefully avoided. 

Instances of perpetuities are the dividends upon the public 
stocks in England, France and some other countries. Thus, 
although it is usual to speak of 100 consols, the reality is the 
yearly dividend which the government pays by quarterly instal- 
ments. The practice of the French in this, as in many other 
matters, is more logical. In speaking of their public funds (rentes) 
they do not mention the ideal capital sum, but speak of the 
annuity or annual payment that is received by the public 
creditor. Other instances of perpetuities are the incomes derived 
from the debenture stocks of railway companies, also the feu- 
duties commonly payable on house property in Scotland. The 
number of years' purchase which the perpetual annuities granted 
by a government or a railway company realize in the open 
market, forms a very simple test of the credit of the various 
governments or railways. 

Terminable Annuities are employed in the system of British 
public finance as a means of reducing the National Debt (?..). 
This result is attained by substituting for a perpetual annual 
charge (or one lasting until the capital which it represents can 
be paid off en bloc), an annual charge of a larger amount, but 
lasting for a short term. The latter is so calculated as to pay off, 
during its existence, the capital which it replaces, with interest 
at an assumed or agreed rate, and under specified conditions. 
The practical effect of the substitution of a terminable annuity 
for an obligation of longer currency is to bind the present genera- 
tion of citizens to increase its own obligations in the present and 
near future in order to diminish those of its successors. This 
end might be attained in other ways; for instance, by setting 
aside out of revenue a fixed annual sum for the purchase and 
cancellation of debt (Pitt's method, in intention), or by fixing 
the annual debt charge at a figure sufficient to provide a margin 
for reduction of the principal of the debt beyond the amount 
required for interest (Sir Stafford Northcote's method), or by 
providing an annual surplus of revenue over expenditure (the 
" Old Sinking Fund "), available for the same purpose. All 
these methods have been tried in the course of British financial 
history, and the second and third of them are still employed; 
but on the whole the method of terminable annuities has been 
the one preferred by chancellors of the exchequer and by parlia- 
ment. 

Terminable annuities, as employed by the British government, 
fall under two heads: (a) Those issued to, or held by private 



7 6 



ANNUITY 



persons; (b) those held by government departments or by funds 
under government control. The important difference between 
these two classes is that an annuity under (a), once created, 
cannot be modified except with the holder's consent, i.e. is 
practically unalterable without a breach of public faith; whereas 
an annuity under (b) can, if necessary, be altered by inter- 
departmental arrangement under the authority of parliament. 
Thus annuities of class (a) fulfil most perfectly the object of the 
system as explained above; while those of class (b) have the 
advantage that in times of emergency their operation can be 
suspended without any inconvenience or breach of faith, with 
the result that the resources of government can on such occasions 
be materially increased, apart from any additional taxation. 
For this purpose it is only necessary to retain as a charge on the 
income of the year a sum equal to the (smaller) perpetual charge 
which was originally replaced by the (larger) terminable charge, 
whereupon the difference between the two amounts is temporarily 
released, while ultimately the increased charge is extended for 
a period equal to that for which it is suspended. Annuities of 
class (a) were first instituted in 1808, but are at present mainly 
regulated by an act of 1829. They may be granted either for 
a specified life, or two lives, or for an arbitrary term of years; 
,and the consideration for them may take the form either of cash 
or of government stock, the latter being cancelled when the 
annuity is set up. Annuities (b) held by government departments 
date from 1863. They have been created in exchange for per- 
manent debt surrendered for cancellation, the principal opera- 
tions having been effected in 1863, 1867, 1870, 1874, 1883 and 
1899. Annuities of this class do not affect the public at all, 
except of course in their effect on the market for government 
securities. They are merely financial operations between the 
government, in its capacity as the banker of savings banks and 
other funds, and itself, in the capacity of custodian of the national 
finances. Savings bank depositors are not concerned with the 
manner in which government invests their money, their rights 
being confined to the receipt of interest and the repayment of 
deposits upon specified conditions. The case is, however, 
different as regards forty millions of consols (included in the 
above figures), belonging to suitors in chancery, which were 
cancelled and replaced by a terminable annuity in 1883. As the 
liability to the suitors in that case was for a specified amount of 
stock, special arrangements were made to ensure the ultimate 
replacement of the precise amount of stock cancelled. 

Annuity Calculations. The mathematical theory of life 
annuities is based upon a knowledge of the rate of mortality 
among mankind in general, or among the particular class of 
persons on whose lives the annuities depend. It involves a 
mathematical treatment too complicated to be dealt with fully 
in this place, and in practice it has been reduced to the form of 
tables, which vary in different places, but which are easily 
accessible. The history of the subject may, however, be sketched. 
Abraham Demoivre, in his Annuities on Lives, propounded a very 
simple law of mortality which is to the effect that, out of 86 
children born alive, i will die every year until the last dies 
between the ages of 85 and 86. This law agreed sufficiently well 
at the middle ages of life with the mortality deduced from the 
best observations of his time; but, as observations became more 
exact, the approximation was found to be not sufficiently close. 
This was particularly the case when it was desired to obtain the 
value of joint life, contingent or other complicated benefits. 
Therefore Demoivre's law is entirely devoid of practical utility. 
No simple formula has yet been discovered that will represent 
the rate of mortality with sufficient accuracy. 

The rate of mortality at each age is, therefore, in practice 
usually determined by a series of figures deduced from observa- 
tion; and the value of an annuity at any age is found from these 
numbers by means of a series of arithmetical calculations. The 
mortality table here given is an example of modern use. 

The first writer who is known to have attempted to obtain, on 
correct mathematical principles, the value of a life annuity, was 
Jan De Witt, grand pensionary of Holland and West Friesland. 
Our knowledge of his writings on the subject is derived from two 



papers contributed by Frederick Hendriks to the Assurance 
Magazine, vol. ii. p. 222, and vol. iii. p. 93. The former of these 
contains a translation of De Witt's report upon the value of life 
annuities, which was prepared in consequence of the resolution 
passed by the states-general, on the 2$th of April 1671, to nego- 
tiate funds by life annuities, and which was distributed to the 
members on the 3oth of July 1671. The latter contains the 
translation of a number of letters addressed by De Witt to 
Burgomaster Johan Hudde, bearing dates from September 1670 
to October 1671. The existence of De Witt's report was well 
known among his contemporaries, and Hendriks collected a 
number of extracts from various authors referring to it; but the 

TABLE OF MORTALITY HM, HEALTHY LIVES MALE. 

Number Living and Dying at each Age, out of 10,000 
entering at Age 10. 



Age. 


Living. 


Dying. 


Age. 


Living. 


Dying. 


10 


10,000 


79 


54 


6791 


129 


n 


9,921 





55 


6662 


'53 


12 


9,921 


40 


56 


6509 


150 


13 


9,881 


35 


57 


6359 


152 


H 


9,846 


40 


58 


6207 


156 


15 


9,806 


22 


59 


6051 


153 


16 


9.784 


O 


60 


5898 


184 


17 


9.784 


4' 


61 


57'4 


1 86 


18 


9.743 


59 


62 


5528 


191 


19 


9,684 


68 


63 


5337 


200 


20 


9,616 


56 


64 


5137 


206 


21 


9.560 


67 


65 


493' 


215 


22 


9.493 


59 


66 


4716 


220 


23 


9.434 


73 


67 


4496 


220 


24 


9.361 


64 


68 


4276 


237 


25 


9.297 


48 


69 


439 


246 


26 


9,249 


64 


7 


3793 


213 


27 


9,i85 


60 


7i 


358o 


222 


28 


9.125 


7 


72 


3358 


268 


29 


9,054 


67 


73 


3090 


243 


30 


8,987 


74 


74 


2847 


300 


31 


8,93 


65 


75 


2547 


241 


32 


8,848 


74 


76 


2306 


245 


33 


8.774 


73 


77 


2061 


224 


34 


8,701 


76 


78 


1837 


226 


35 


8,625 


71 


79 


1611 


219 


36 


8,554 


75 


80 


1392 


196 


37 


8,479 


l 


81 


1196 


191 


38 


8,398 


87 


82 


1005 


'73 


39 


8,3" 


88 


83 


832 


172 


40 


8,223 


81 


84 


660 


119 


4 


8,142 


85 


85 


54i 


"7 


42 


8,057 


87 


86 


424 


92 


43 


7,970 


84 


87 


332 


72 


44 


7,886 


93 


88 


260 


74 


45 


7,793 


97 


89 


1 86 


36 


46 


7,696 


96 


90 


'SO 


34 


47 


7,600 


107 


91 


116 


36 


48 


7,493 


106 


92 


80 


36 


49 


7,387 


"3 


93 


44 


29 


5 


7,274 


1 20 


94 


15 


o 


51 


7,154 


124 


95 


15 


5 


52 


7,030 


120 


96 


10 


10 


53 


6,910 


119 









report is not contained in any collection of his works extant, and 
had been entirely lost for 180 years, until Hendriks discovered it 
among the state archives of Holland in company with the letters 
to Hudde. It is a document of extreme interest, and (notwith- 
standing some inaccuracies in the reasoning) of very great merit, 
more especially considering that it was the very first document 
on the subject that was ever written. 

It appears that it had long been the practice in Holland for 
life annuities to be granted to nominees of any age, in the con- 
stant proportion of double the rate of interest allowed on stock; 
that is to say, if the towns were borrowing money at 6 %, they 
would be willing to grant a life annuity at 12%, and so on. 
De Witt states that " annuities have been sold, even in the 
present century, first at six years' purchase, then at seven and 
eight; and that the majority of all life annuities now current 
at the country's expense were obtained at nine years' purchase "; 
but that the price had been increased in the course of a few 
years from eleven years' purchase to twelve, and from twelve to 



ANNUITY 



77 



fourteen. He also states that the rate of interest had been 
successively reduced from 6} to 5 %, and then to 4 % The 
principal object of hi* report is to prove that, taking interest at 
a life annuity was worth at least sixteen years' purchase; 
and, in fact, that an annuitant purchasing an annuity for the 
lift- of a young and healthy nominee at sixteen years' purchase, 
made an excellent bargain. It may be mentioned that he argues 
that it is more to the advantage, both of the country and of the 
private investor, that the public loans should be raised by way of 
grant of life annuities rather than perpetual annuities. It appears 
conclusively from DC Witt's correspondence with Hudde, that 
the rate of mortality assumed as the basis of his calculations 
was deduced from careful examination of the mortality that had 
actually prevailed among the nominees on whose lives annuities 
had been granted in former years. De Witt appears to have 
come to the conclusion that the probability of death is the 
same in any half-year from the age of 3 to 53 inclusive; that 
in the next ten years, from S3 to 63, the probability is greater 
in the ratio of 3 to 2; that in the m-xt ten years, from 63 to 73, 
it is greater in the ratio of 2 to i ; and in the next seven years, 
from 73 to So, it is greater in the ratio of 3 to I ; and he places 
the limit of human life at So. If a mortality table of the usual 
form is deduced from these suppositions, out of 212 persons 
alive at the age of 3, 2 will die every year up to 53, 3 in each of 
the ten years from 53 to 63, 4 in each of the next ten years from 
63 to 73. and 6 in each of the next seven years from 73 to So, 
when all will be dead. 

De Witt calculates the value of an annuity in the following 
way. Assume that annuities on 10,000 lives each ten years of 
age, which satisfy the Hm mortality table, have been purchased. 
Of these nominees 79 will die before attaining the age of xi, 
and no annuity payment will be made in respect of them; none 
will die between the ages of n and 12, so that annuities will be 
paid for one year on 9921 lives; 40 attain the age of 12 and 
die before 13, so that two payments will be made with respect 
to these lives. Reasoning in this way we see that the annuities 
on 35 of the nominees will be payable for three years; on 40 
for four years, and so on. Proceeding thus to the end of the 
table, 15 nominees attain the age of 95, 5 of whom die before 
the age of 96, so that 85 payments will be paid in respect of 
these 5 lives. Of the survivors all die before attaining the age 
of 97, so that the annuities on these lives will be payable for 86 
years. Having previously calculated a table of the values of 
annuities certain for every number of years up to 86, the value 
of all the annuities on the 10,000 nominees will be found by 
taking 40 times the value of an annuity for 3 years, 35 times 
the value of an annuity for 3 years, and so on the last term 
being the value of :o annuities for 86 years and adding them 
together; and the value of an annuity on one of the nominees 
will then be found by dividing by 10,000. Before leaving the 
subject of De Witt, we may mention that we find in the corre- 
spondence a distinct suggestion of the law of mortality that 
bears the name of Demoivre. In De Witt's letter, dated the 
27th of October 1671 (Ass. Mag. vol. iii. p. 107), he speaks of a 
" provisional hypothesis " suggested by Hudde, that out of 
So young lives (who, from the context, may be taken as of the 
age 6) about i dies annually. In strictness, therefore, the law 
in question might be more correctly termed Hudde's than 
Demoivre's. 

De Witt's report being thus of the nature of an unpublished 
state paper, although it contributed to its author's reputation, 
did not contribute to advance the exact knowledge of the 
subject; and the author to whom the credit must be given of 
first showing how to calculate the value of an annuity on correct 
principles is Edmund Halley. He gave the first approximately 
correct mortality table (deduced from the records of the numbers 
of deaths and baptisms in the city of Breslau), and showed how 
it might be employed to calculate the value of an annuity on 
the life of a nominee of any age (see Phil. Trans. 1693; Ass. 
Mag. vol. xviii.). 

Previously to Halley's time, and apparently for many years 
subsequently, all dealings with life annuities were based upon 



mere conjectural estimates. The earliest known reference to 
any estimate of the value of life annuities rose out of the require- 
ments of the Falcidian law, which (40 B.C.) was adopted in the 
Roman empire, and which declared that a tesutor should not 
give more than three-fourths of his property in legacies, so that 
at least one-fourth must go to his legal representatives. It is 
easy to see how it would occasionally become necessary, while 
this law was in force, to value life annuities charged upon a 
testator's estate. Aemilius Maccr (A.D. 230) states that the 
method which had been in common use at that time was as 
follows: From the earliest age until 30 take 30 years' purchase, 
and for each age after 30 deduct i year. It is obvious that no 
consideration of compound interest can have entered into this 
estimate; and it is easy to see that it is equivalent to assuming 
that all persons who attain the age of 30 will certainly live to 
the age of 60, and then certainly die. Compared with this esti- 
mate, that which was propounded by the praetorian prefect 
Ulpian was a great improvement. His table is as follows: 



Age. 


Years' 

Purchase. 


Age. 


Years' 
Purchase. 


Birth to 20 


3 


45 1046 


>4 


30 35 


28 


46 .. 47 


13 


25 30 
30 35 


*5 

22 


47 - 48 
48-49 


12 

II 


35 4<> 


2O 


49 .. 50 


10 


40 41 
41 42 
4* 43 
43 44 


19 
if 

17 
16 


5 55 
55 "60 
to and . 
upwards* 


9 
7 

5 


44 45 


15 







Here also we have no reason to suppose that the element of 
interest was taken into consideration; and the assumption, 
that between the ages of 40 and 50 each addition of a year to the 
nominee's age diminishes the value of the annuity by one year's 
purchase, is equivalent to assuming that there is no probability 
of the nominee dying between the ages of 40 and 50. Con- 
sidered, however, simply as a table of the average duration of 
life, the values are fairly accurate. At all events, no more 
correct estimate appears to have been arrived at until the dose 
of the 1 7th century. 

The mathematics of annuities has been very fully treated in 
Demoivre's Treatise on Annuities (1725); Simpson's Doctrine of 
Annuities and Reversions (1742); P. Gray, Tahiti and Formulae; 
Bully's Doctrine of Life Annuities; there are also innumerable 
compilations of Valuation Tables and Interest Tables, by means of 
which the value of an annuity at any age and any rate of interest 
may be found. See also the article INTEREST, and especially that on 
INSURANCE. 

Commutation tables, aptly so named in 1840 by Augustus 
De Morgan (see his paper " On the Calculation of Single Life 
Contingencies," Assurance Magazine, xii. 328), show the propor- 
tion in which a benefit due at one age ought to be changed, 
so as to retain the same value and be due at another age. The 
earliest known specimen of a commutation table is contained 
in William Dale's Introduction to the Study of the Doctrine of 
Annuities, published in 1772. A full account of this work is 
given by F. Hendriks in the second number of the Assurance 
Magazine, pp. 15-17. William Morgan's Treatise on Assurances, 
1779, also contains a commutation table. Morgan gives the 
table as furnishing a convenient means of checking the correct- 
ness of the values of annuities found by the ordinary process. 
It may be assumed that he was aware that the table might be 
used for the direct calculation of annuities; but he appears to 
have been ignorant of its other uses. 

The first author who fully developed the powers of the table 
was John Nicholas Tetens, a native of Schleswig, who in 1785, 
while professor of philosophy and mathematics at Kiel, published 
in the German language an Introduction to Ike Calculation of 
Life Annuities and Assurances. This work appears to have been 
quite unknown in England until F. Hendriks gave, in the first 
number of the Assurance Magazine, pp. 1-20 (Sept. 1850), an 
account of it, with a translation of the passages describing the 
construction and use of the commutation table, and a sketch 



7 8 



ANNULAR ANNUNZIO 



of the author's life and writings, to which we refer the reader 
who desires fuller information. It may be mentioned here that 
Tetens also gave only a specimen table, apparently not imagining 
that persons using his work would find it extremely useful to 
have a series of commutation tables, calculated and printed 
ready for use. 

The use of the commutation table was independently developed 
in England apparently between the years 1788 and 1811 
by George Barrett, of Petworth, Sussex, who was the son of a 
yeoman farmer, and was himself a village schoolmaster, and 
afterwards farm steward or bailiff. It has been usual to consider 
Barrett as the originator in England of the method of calculating 
the values of annuities by means of a commutation table, and 
this method is accordingly sometimes called Barrett's method. 
(It is also called the commutation method and the columnar 
method.) Barrett's method of calculating annuities was ex- 
plained by him to Francis Baily in the year 1811, and was first 
made known to the world in a paper written by the latter and 
read before the Royal Society in 1812. 

By what has been universally considered an unfortunate 
error of judgment, this paper was not recommended by the 
council of the Royal Society to be printed, but it was given by 
Baily as an appendix to the second issue (in 1813) of his work 
on life annuities and assurances. Barrett had calculated exten- 
sive tables, and with Baily's aid attempted to get them published 
by subscription, but without success; and the only printed 
tables calculated according to his manner, besides the specimen 
tables given by Baily, are the tables contained in Babbage's 
Comparative View of the various Institutions for the Assurance of 
Lives, 1826. 

In the year 1825 Griffith Davies published his Tables of Life 
Contingencies, a work which contains, among others, two tables, 
which are confessedly derived from Baily's explanation of 
Barrett's tables. 

Those who desire to pursue the subject further can refer to the 
appendix to Baily's Life Annuities and Assurances, De Morgan's 
paper " On the Calculation of Single Life Contingencies," Assurance 
Magazine, xii. 348-349; Gray's Tables and Formulae, chap, yiii.; 
the preface to Davies's Treatise on Annuities; also Hendriks's 
papers in the Assurance Magazine, No. I, p. I, and No. 2, p. 12; 
and in particular De Morgan's " Account of a Correspondence 
between Mr George Barrett and Mr Francis Baily," in the Assurance 
Magazine, vol. iv. p. 185. 

The principal commutation tables published in England are 
contained in the following works: David Jones, Value of Annuities 
and Reversionary Payments, issued in parts by the Useful Knowledge 
Society, completed in 1843; Jenkin Jones, New Rate of Mortality, 
1843; G. Davies, Treatise on Annuities, 1825 (issued 1855); David 
Chisholm, Commutation Tables, 1858; Nelson's Contributions to 
Vital Statistics, 1857; Jardine Henry, Government Life Annuity 
Commutation Tables, 1866 and 1873; Institute of Actuaries Life 
Tables, 1872; R. P. Hardy, Valuation Tables, 1873; and Dr William 
Fair's contributions to the sixth (1844), twelfth (1849), and twentieth 
(1857) Reports of the Registrar General in England (English Tables, 
1,2), and to the English Life Table, 1864. 

The theory of annuities may be further studied in the discussions 
in the English Journal of the Institute of Actuaries. The institute 
was founded in the year 1848, the first sessional meeting being held 
in January 1849. Its establishment has contributed in various ways 
to promote the study of the theory of life contingencies. Among 
these may be specified the following: Before it was formed, students 
of the subject worked for the most part alone, and without any 
concert; and when any person had made an improvement in the 
theory, it had little chance of becoming publicly known unless he 
wrote a formal treatise on the whole subject. But the formation of 
the institute led to much greater interchange of opinion among 
actuaries, and afforded them a ready means of making known to 
their professional associates any improvements, real or supposed, 
that they thought they had made. Again, the discussions which 
follow the reading of papers before the institute have often served, 
first, to bring out into bold relief differences of opinion that were 
previously unsuspected, and afterwards to soften down those differ- 
ences, to correct extreme opinions in every direction, and to bring 
about a greater agreement of opinion on many important subjects. 
In no way, probably, have the objects of the institute been so 
effectually advanced as by the publication of its Journal. The first 
number of this work, which was originally called the Assurance 
Magazine, appeared in September 1850, and it has been continued 
quarterly down to the present time. It was originated by the public 
spirit of two well-known actuaries (Mr Charles Jellicoe and Mr 
Samuel Brown), and was adopted as the organ of the Institute of 



Actuaries in the year 1852, and called the Assurance Magazine and 
Journal of the Institute of Actuaries, Mr Jellicoe continuing to be the 
editor, a post he held until the year 1867, when he was succeeded 
by Mr T. B. Sprague (who contributed to the 9th edition of this 
Encyclopaedia an elaborate article on " Annuities," on which the 
above account is based). The name was again changed in 1866, the 
words " Assurance Magazine " being dropped; but in the following 
year it was considered desirable to resume these, for the purpose of 
showing the continuity of the publication, and it is now called the 
Journal of the Institute of Actuaries and Assurance Magazine. This 
work contains not only the papers read before the institute (to which 
have been appended of late years short abstracts of the discussions on 
them), and many original papers which were unsuitable for reading, 
together with correspondence, but also reprints of many papers 
published elsewhere, which from various causes had become difficult 
of access to the ordinary reader, among which may be specified 
various papers which originally appeared in the Philosophical 
Transactions, the Philosophical Magazine, the Mechanics' Magazine, 
and the Companion to the Almanac; also translations of various 
papers from the French, German, and Danish. Among the useful 
objects which the continuous publication of the Journal of the 
institute has served, we may specify in particular two: that any 
supposed improvement in the theory was effectually submitted to 
the criticisms of the whole actuarial profession, and its real value 
speedily discovered; and that any real improvement, whether 
great or small, being placed on record, successive writers have been 
able, one after the other, to take it up and develop it, each com- 
mencing where the previous one had left off. 

ANNULAR, ANNULATE, &c. (Lat. annulus, a ring), ringed. 
" Annulate " is used in botany and zoology in connexion with 
certain plants, worms, &c. (see ANNELIDA), either marked with 
rings or composed of ring-like segments. The word " annulated " 
is also used in heraldry and architecture. An annulated cross 
is one with the points ending in an "annulet " (an heraldic ring, 
supposed to be taken from a coat of mail), while the annulet in 
architecture is a small fillet round a column, which encircles the 
lower part of the Doric capital immediately above the neck or 
trachelium. The word "annulus" (for "ring") is itself used tech- 
nically in geometry, astronomy, &c., and the adjective " annular " 
corresponds. An annular space is that between an inner and ou ter 
ring. The annular finger is the ring finger. An annular eclipse is, 
an eclipse of the sun in which the visible part of the latter com- 
pletely encircles the dark body of the moon; for this to happen, 
the centres of the sun and moon, and the point on the earth 
where the observer is situated, must be collinear. Certain 
nebulae having the form of a ring are also called "annular." 

ANNUNCIATION, the announcement made by the angel 
Gabriel to the Virgin Mary of the incarnation of Christ (Luke i. 
26-38). The Feast of the Annunciation in the Christian Church 
is celebrated on the 2$th of March. The first authentic allusions 
to it are in a canon of the council of Toledo (656), and another 
of the council of Constantinople " in Trullo " (692), forbidding 
the celebration of all festivals in Lent, excepting the Lord's day 
and the Feast of the Annunciation. An earlier origin has been 
claimed for it on the ground that it is mentioned in sermons of 
Athanasius and of Gregory Thaumaturgus, but both of these 
documents are now admitted to be spurious. A synod held at 
Worcester, England (1240), forbade all servile work on this 
feast day. See further LADY DAY. 

ANNUNZIO, GABRIELE D' (1863 ), Italian novelist and 
poet, of Dalmatian extraction, was born at Pescara (Abruzzi) in 
1863. The first years of his youth were spent in the freedom of 
the open fields; at sixteen he was sent to school in Tuscany. 
While still at school he published a small volume of verses called 
Primo Vere (1879), in which, side by side with some almost 
brutal imitations of Lorenzo Stecchetti, the then fashionable 
poet of Postuma, were some translations from the Latin, dis- 
tinguished by such agile grace that Giuseppe Chiarini on reading 
them brought the unknown youth before the public in an enthusi- 
astic article. The young poet then went to Rome, where he 
was received as one of their own by the Cronaca Bizantina group 
(see CARDUCCI). Here he published Canto Nuovo (1882), Terra 
Vergine (1882), L' Intermezzo di Rime (1883), // Libra delle 
Vergini (1884), and the greater part of the short stories that were 
afterwards collected under the general title of San Pantaleone 
(1886). In Canto Nuovo we have admirable poems full of 
pulsating youth and the promise of power, some descriptive 



ANO A ANOINTING 



79 



of the ca and some of the Abruizi landscape, commented on 
and cumplriril in prose by Terra Vtrfine, the latter a collection 
of short atones dealing in radiant language with the peasant life 
of the author's native province. With the Intermato di Rime we 
have the beginning of cl'Annunzio's second and characteristic 
manner. His conception of style was new, and he chose to 
express all the most subtle vibrations of voluptuous life. Both 
style and contents began to startle his critics; some who had 
greeted him as an enfant firodige Chiarini amongst others 
rejected him as a perverter of public morals, whilst others 
hailed him as one bringing a current of fresh air and the impulse 
of a new vitality into the somewhat prim, lifeless work hitherto 
produced. 

Meanwhile the Review of Angelo Sommaruga perished in the 
midst of scandal, and his group of young authors found itself 
dispersed. Some entered the teaching career and were lost to 
literature, .others threw themselves into journalism. Gabriele 
d'Annunzio took this latter course, and joined the staff of the 
Tribuna. For this paper, under the pseudonym of " Duca 
Minimo," he did some of his most brilliant work, and the articles 
he wrote during that period of originality and exuberance would 
well repay being collected. To this period of greater maturity and 
deeper culture belongs // Libra d' Isolla (1886), a love poem, in 
which for the first time he drew inspiration adapted to modern 
sentiments and passions from the rich colours of the Renaissance. 
// Libra d' Isolia is interesting also, because in it we find most 
of the germs of his future work, just as in Intrrmaso meiico and 
in certain ballads and sonnets we find descriptions and emotions 
which later went to form the aesthetic contents of // Piacere, II 
Trionfo delia Morte, and Elegie Romane (1892). 

D' Annunzio's first novel // Piacere (1889) translated into 
English as The Child of Pleasure was followed in 1891 by 
L' Innocente (The Intruder), and in 1892 by Giovanni Episcopo. 
These three novels created a profound imp. ession. L' Innocente, 
admirably translated into French by Georges Herelle, brought 
its author the notice and applause of foreign critics. His next 
work, // Trionfo della Morte (The Triumph of Death) (1894), 
was followed at a short distance by Le Vergini delta Roccio 
(1896) and // Fuoco (1900), which in its descriptions of Venice 
is perhaps the most ardent glorification of a city existing in any 
language. 

D' Annunzio's poetic work of this period, in most respects 
his finest, is represented by // Poema Paradisiaco (1893), the 
Odi Navali (1893), a superb attempt at civic poetry, and Laudi 
(1000). 

A later phase of d' Annunzio's work is his dramatic production, 
represented by II Sogno di un mattino di primavera (1897), a 
lyrical fantasia in one act; his Cilia Morla (1898), written for 
Sarah Bernhardt, which is certainly among the most daring 
and original of modern tragedies, and the only one which by its 
unity, persistent purpose, and sense of fate seems to continue 
in a measure the traditions of the Greek theatre. In 1808 
he wrote his Sogno di un Pomeriggio d' A utunno and La 
Gioconda; in the succeeding year La Gloria, an attempt at 
contemporary political tragedy which met with no success, 
probably through the audacity of the personal and political 
allusions in some of its scenes; and then Francesca da Rimini 
(1901), a perfect reconstruction of medieval atmosphere 
and emotion, magnificent in style, and declared by one of the 
most authoritative Italian critics Edoardo Boutet to be the 
first real although not perfect tragedy which has ever been given 
to the Italian theatre. 

The work of d' Annunzio, although by many of the younger 
generation injudiciously and extravagantly admired, is almost 
the most important literary work given to Italy since the days 
when the great classics welded her varying dialects into a fixed 
language. The psychological inspiration of his novels has come 
to him from many sources French, Russian, Scandinavian, 
German and in much of his earlier work there is little 
fundamental originality. His creative power is intense and 
searching, but narrow and personal; his heroes and heroines are 
little more than one same type monotonously facing a different 



problem at a different phase of life. But the f lulUessness of his 
style and the wealth of hi* language have been approached by 
none of his conlemporarirs, whom hi* genius ha* toniewhat 
paralysed. In his later work, when he begin* drawing hi* inspira- 
tion from the tradition* of bygone Italy in her glorious centuries, 
a current of real life teem* to run through the vein* of hi* 
personages. And the lasting merit of d' Annunzio, hi* real value 
to the literature of hi* country, consist* precisely in that be opened 
up the closed mine of it* former life a* a source of inspiration 
for the present and of hope for the future, and created a language, 
neither pompous nor vulgar, drawn from every source and diilm t 
suited to the requirements of modern thought, yet absolutely 
classical, borrowed from none, and, independently of the thought 
it may be used to express, a thing of intrinsic beauty. As 
his sight became clearer and his purpose strengthened, as ex- 
aggerations, affectations, and moods dropped away from hi* con- 
ceptions, his work became more and more typical! Latin work, 
upheld by the ideal of an Italian Renaissance. 

ANOA, the native name of the small wild buffalo of Celebes, 
Bos (Bubalus) depressicornis, which stands but little over a 
yard at the shoulder, and is the most diminutive of all wild 
cattle. It is nearly allied to the larger Asiatic buffaloes, knowing 
the same reversal of the direction of the hair on the back. The 
horns are peculiar for their upright direction and comparative 
straightness, although they have the same triangular section as 
in other buffaloes. White spots are sometimes present below 
the eyes, and there may be white markings on the legs and 
back; and the absence or presence of these white markings 
may be indicative of distinct races. The horns of the cows are 
very small. The nearest allies of the anoa appear to be certain 
extinct buffaloes, of which the remains are found in the Siwalik 
Hills of northern India. In habits the animal appears to 
resemble the Indian buffalo. 

ANODYNE (from Gr. &-, privative, and bovrq, pain), a cause 
which relieves pain. The term is commonly applied to medicines 
which lessen the sensibility of the brain or nervous system, such 
as morphia, &c. 

ANOINTING, or greasing with oil, fat, or melted butter, a 
process employed ritually in all religions and among all races, 
civilized or savage, partly as a mode of ridding persons and 
things of dangerous influences and diseases, especially of the 
demons (Persian drug, Greek Krjpts. Armenian dev) which are or 
cause those diseases; and partly as a means of introducing into 
things and persons a sacramental or divine influence, a holy 
emanation, spirit or power. The riddance of an evil influence is 
often synonymous with the introduction of the good principle, 
and therefore it is best to consider first the use of anointing in 
consecrations. 

The Australian natives believed that the virtues of one killed 
could be transferred to survivors if the latter nibbed themselves 
with his caul-fat. So the Arabs of East Africa anoint themselves 
with lion's fat in order to gain courage and inspire the animals 
with awe of themselves. Such rites are often associated with the 
actual eating of the victim whose virtues are coveted. Human 
fat is a powerful charm all over the world; for, as R. Smith 
points out, after the blood the fat was peculiarly the vehicle 
and seat of life. This is why fat of a victim was smeared on a 
sacred stone, not only in acts of homage paid to it, but in the 
actual consecration thereof. In such cases the influence of the 
god, communicated to the victim, passed with the unguent into 
the stone. But the divinity could by anointing be transferred 
into men no less than into stones; and from immemorial an- 
tiquity, among the Jews as among other races, kings were 
anointed or greased, doubtless with the fat of the victims which, 
like the blood, was too holy to be eaten by the common votaries. 

Butter made from the milk of the cow, the most sacred of 
animals, is used for anointing in the Hindu religion. A newly- 
built house is smeared with it, so are demoniacs, care being taken 
to smear the latter downwards from head to foot. 

In the Christian religion, especially where animal sacrifices, 
together with the cult of totem or holy animals, have been given 
up, it is usual to hallow the oil used in ritual anointings with 



8o 



ANOMALY ANQUETIL DUPERRON 



special prayers and exorcisms; oil from the lamps lit before the 
altar has a peculiar virtue of its own, perhaps because it can be 
burned to give light, and disappears to heaven in doing so. In 
any case oil has ever been regarded as the aptest symbol and 
vehicle of the holy and illuminating spirit. For this reason the 
catechumens are anointed with holy oil both before and after 
baptism; the one act (of eastern origin) assists the expulsion 
of the evil spirits, the other (of western origin), taken in con- 
junction with imposition of hands, conveys the spirit and 
retains it in the person of the baptized. In the postbaptismal 
anointing the oil was applied to the organs of sense, to the head, 
heart, and midriff. Such ritual use of oil as a o~<t>payis or seal 
may have been suggested in old religions by the practice of 
keeping wine fresh in jars and amphorae by pouring on a top 
layer of oil; for the spoiling of wine was attributed to the action 
of demons of corruption, against whom, many ancient formulae 
of aversion or exorcism still exist. 

The holy oil, chrism, or nvpov, as the Easterns call it, was 
prepared and consecrated on Maundy Thursday, and in the 
Gelasian sacramentary the formula used runs thus: " Send 
forth, O Lord, we beseech thee, thy Holy Spirit the Paraclete 
from heaven into this fatness of oil, which thou hast deigned to 
bring forth out of the green wood for the refreshing of mind and 
body; and through thy holy benediction may it be for all who 
anoint with it, taste it, touch it, a safeguard of mind and body, 
of soul and spirit, for the expulsion of all pains, of every infirmity, 
of every sickness of mind and body. For with the same thou 
hast anointed priests, kings, and prophets and martyrs with this 
thy chrism, perfected by thee, O Lord, blessed, abiding within 
our bowels in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ." 

In various churches the dead are anointed with holy oil, to 
guard them against the vampires or ghouls which ever threaten 
to take possession of dead bodies and live in them. In the 
Armenian church, as formerly in many Greek churches, a cross 
is not holy until the Spirit has been formally led into it by means 
of prayer and anointing with holy oil. A new church is anointed 
at its four comers, and also the altar round which it is built; 
similarly tombs, church gongs, and all other instruments and 
utensils dedicated to cultual uses. In churches of the Greek 
rite a little of the old year's chrism is left in the jar to communicate 
its sanctity to that of the new. (F. C. C.) 

ANOMALY (from Gr. dvu/iaXta, unevenness, derived from 
A*-, privative, and 6/naXos. even), a deviation from the common 
rule. In astronomy the word denotes the angular distance of a 
body from the pericentre of the orbit in which it is moving. 
Let AB be the major axis of the orbit, B the pericentre, F the 
focus or centre of motion, P the position of the body. The 
anomaly is then the angle BFP which the radius vector makes 
with the major axis. This is the actual or true anomaly. Mean 
anomaly is the anomaly which the 
body would have if it moved from 
the pericentre around F with a 
uniform angular motion such that 
its revolution would be completed 
in its actual time (see ORBIT). 
Eccentric anomaly is defined thus: 
Draw the circumscribing circle of 
the elliptic orbit around the centre C 
of the orbit. Drop the perpendicular 
RPQ through P, the position of 
the planet, upon the major axis. 
Join CR; the angle CRQ is then the eccentric anomaly. 

In the ancient astronomy the anomaly was taken as the 
angular distance of the planet from the point of the farthest 
recession from the earth. 

Kepler's Problem, namely, that of finding the co-ordinates of a 
planet at a given time, which is equivalent given the mean 
anomaly to that of determining the true anomaly, was solved 
approximately by Kepler, and more completely by Wallis, 
Newton and others. 

The anomalistic revolution of a planet or other heavenly body 
is the revolution between two consecutive passages through the 





pericentre. Starting from the pericentre, it is completed on the 
return to the pericentre. If the pericentre is fixed, this is an 
actual revolution; but if it moves the anomalistic revolution 
is greater or less than a complete circumference. 

An Anomalistic year is the time (365 days, 6 hours, 13 minutes, 
48 seconds) in which the earth (and similarly for any other 
planet) passes from perihelion to perihelion, or from any given 
value of the anomaly to the same again. Owing to the precession 
of the equinoxes it is longer than a tropical or sidereal year by 
25 minutes and 2-3 seconds. An Anomalistic month is the time 
in which the moon passes from perigee to perigee, &c. 

For the mathematics of Kepler's problem see E. W. Brown, 
Lunar Theory (Cambridge 1896), or the work of Watson or of 
Bauschinger on Theoretical Astronomy. 

ANORTHITE, an important mineral of the felspar group, being 
one of the end members of the plagioclase (q.v.) series. It is a 
calcium and aluminium silicate, CaAljSizOg, and crystallizes 
in the anorthic system. Like all the felspars, it possesses two 
cleavages, one perfect and the other less so, here inclined to one 
another at an angle of 85 50'. The colour is white, greyish or 
reddish, and the crystals are trans- 
parent to translucent. The hard- 
ness is 6-6^, and the specific gravity 

-75- 

Anorthite is an essential con- 
stituent of many basic igneous 
rocks, such as gabbro and basalt, 
also of some meteoric stones. The 
best developed crystals are those 
which accompany mica, augite, 
sanidine, &c., in the ejected blocks 
of metamorphosed limestone from 
Monte Somma, the ancient portion 
of Mount Vesuvius; these are Anorthite. 

perfectly colourless and transparent, and are bounded by 
numerous brilliant faces. Distinctly developed crystals are 
also met with in the basalts of Japan, but are usually rare at 
other localities. 

The name anorthite was given to the Vesuvian mineral by 
G. Rose in 1823, on account of its anorthic crystallization. The 
species had, however, been earlier described by the comte de 
Bournon under the name indianite, this name being applied to a 
greyish or reddish granular mineral forming the matrix of corun- 
dum from the Carnatic in India. Several unimportant varieties 
have been distinguished. (L. J. S.) 

ANQUETIL, LOUIS PIERRE (1723-1808), French historian, 
was born in Paris, on the 2ist of February 1723. He entered the 
congregation of Sainte-Genevieve, where he took holy orders and 
became professor of theology and literature. Later, he became 
director of the seminary at Reims, where he wrote his Histoire 
civile et politique de Reims (3 vols., 1756-1757), perhaps his best 
work. He was then director of the college of Senlis, where he 
composed his Esprit de la Ligue ou histoire polilique des troubles 
de la Fronde pendant le XVI' et le XVII' siecles (1767). During 
the Reign of Terror he was imprisoned at St Lazare; there he 
began his Precis de I'histoire universelle, afterwards published in 
nine volumes. On the establishment of the national institute he 
was elected a member of the second group (moral and political 
sciences), and was soon afterwards employed in the office of the 
ministry of foreign affairs, profiting by his experience to write his 
Motifs des guerres et des traitts de paix sous Louis XI V. , Louis X V. 
et Louis XVI. He is said to have been asked by Napoleon to 
write his Histoire de France (14 vols., 1805), a mediocre compila- 
tion at second or third hand, with the assistance of de Mezeray 
and of Paul Francois Velly (1700-1759). This work, nevertheless, 
passed through numerous editions, and by it his name is remem- 
bered. He died on the 6th of September 1808. 

ANQUETIL DUPERRON, ABRAHAM HYACINTHE (1731- 
1805), French orientalist, brother of Louis Pierre Anquetil, the 
historian, was born in Paris on the 7th of December 1731. He 
was educated for the priesthood in Paris and Utrecht, but his taste 
for Hebrew, Arabic, Persian, and other languages of the East 



ANSA ANSELM 



developed into a passion, and he discontinued his theological 
course to devote himself entirely to them. His diligent attend 
nee at the Royal Library attracted the attention of the keeper 
of the manuscripts, the Abbe Saltier, whose influence procured 
for him a small salary a* student of the oriental languages. He 
had lighted on some fragments of the Vendidad Sade, and formed 
thr project of a voyage to India to discover the worksof Zoroaster. 
With this end in view he enlisted as a private soldier, on the 2nd 
of November 1754, in the Indian expedition which was about to 
Mart from the port of L'Orient. His friends procured his dis- 
charge, and he was granted a free passage, a seat at the captain's 
table, and a salary, the amount of which was to be fixed by the 
governor of the French settlement in India. After a passage of 
six months, Anquetil landed, on the loth of August 1755, at 
Pondichcrry. Here he remained a short time to master modern 
Persian, and then hastened to Chandernagorc to acquire Sanskrit. 
Just then war was declared between France and England; 
Chandernagore was taken, and Anquetil returned to Pondicherry 
by land. He found one of his brothers at Pondicherry, and 
embarked with him for Surat; but, with a view of exploring the 
country, he landed at Mahe and proceeded on foot. At Surat he 
succeeded, by perseverance and address in his intercourse with 
the native priests, in acquiring a sufficient knowledge of the Zend 
and Pahlavi languages to translate the liturgy called the Vendidad 
Sade and some other works. Thence he proposed going to 
Benares, to study the language, antiquities, and sacred laws of 
the Hindus; but the capture of Pondicheny obliged him to quit 
India. Returning to Europe in an English vessel, he spent some 
time in London and Oxford, and then set out for France. He 
arrived in Paris on the I4th of March 1762 in possession of one 
hundred and eighty oriental manuscripts, besides other curiosities. 
The Abbe Barthelemy procured for him a pension, with the 
appointment of interpreter of oriental languages at the Royal 
Library. In 1 763 he was elected an associate of the Academy of 
Inscriptions, and began to arrange for the publication of the 
materials he had collected during his eastern travels. In 1 77 1 he 
published his Zend-Avesta (3 vols.). containing collections from 
the sacred writings of the fire- worshippers, a life of Zoroaster, and 
fragments of works ascribed to him. In 1778 he published at 
Amsterdam his Legislation oriental*, in which he endeavoured to 
prove that the nature of oriental despotism had been greatly 
misrepresented. His Recherches historiquts el gtogrophiques sur 
I'Inde appeared in 1786, and formed part of Thieffenthalcr's 
Geography of India. The Revolution seems to have greatly 
affected him. During that period he abandoned society, and 
lived in voluntary poverty on a few pence a day. In 1798 he 
published L'Inde en rapport avec I'Europe (Hamburg, z vols.), 
which contained much invective against the English, and numerous 
misrepresentations. In 1802-1804 he published a Latin transla- 
tion (2 vols.) from the Persian of the Oupnek'hat or Upanishada. 
It is a curious mixture of Latin, Greek, Persian, Arabic, and 
Sanskrit. He died in Paris on the I7th of January 1803. 

See Biorraphie unwerseUe; Sir William Jones, Works (vol. x., 
1807); and the Miscellanies of the Philobiblon Society (vol. iii.. 
1856-1857). For a list of his scattered writings see Querard, La 
France liUeraire. 

ANSA (from Lat. ansa, a handle), in astronomy, one of the 
apparent ends of the rings of Saturn as seen in perspective from 
the earth: so-called because, in the earlier telescopes, they looked 
like handles projecting from the planet. In anatomy the word 
is applied to nervous structures which resemble loops. In 
archaeology it is used for the engraved and ornamented handle 
of a vase, which has often survived when the vase itself, being less 
durable, has disappeared. 

ANSBACH, or ANSPACH, originally Onoltbach, a town of 
Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, on the Rezat, 27 m. by rail 
S.W. of Nuremberg, and 90 m. N. of Munich. Pop. (1900) 
'7,555. It contains a palace, once the residence of the margraves 
of Anspach, with fine gardens; several churches, the finest of 
which are those dedicated to St John, containing the vault of 
the former margraves, and St Gumbert; a gymnasium; a 
picture gallery; a municipal museum and a special technical 



school. Ansbach possesses monuments to the poets August. 
Count von Platen-Hallermund, and Johann Peter U>, who were 
born here, and to Kupar Hauser, who died here. The chief 
manufactures are machinery, toys, woollen, cotton, and half -silk 
stuffs, embroideries, earthenware, tobacco, cutlery and playing 
cards. There is considerable trade in grain, wool and flax. In 
1791 the last margrave of Anspach sold his principality to 
Frederick William II., king of Prussia; it was transferred by 
Napoleon to Bavaria in 1806, an act which was confirmed by the 
congress of Vienna in 1815. 

ANSDELU RICHARD (1815-1885), English painter, was 
born in Liverpool, and first exhibited at the Royal Academy 
in 1840. He was a painter of genre, chiefly animal and sporting 
pictures, and he became very popular, being elected A.R.A. in 
1861 and R.A. in 1870. His "Stag at Bay" (1846), "The 
Combat " (1847), and " Battle of the Standard " (1848), repre- 
sent his best work, in which he showed himself a notable follower 
of Landseer. 

ANSELM (c. 1033-1109), archbishop of Canterbury, was born 
at Aosta in Piedmont. His family was accounted noble, and 
was possessed of considerable property. Gundulph, his father, 
was by birth a Lombard, and seems to have been a man of harsh 
and violent temper; his mother, Ermenberga, was a prudent and 
virtuous woman, from whose careful religious training the young 
Anselm derived much benefit. At the age of fifteen he desired 
to enter a convent, but he could not obtain his father's consent. 
Disappointment brought on an illness, on his recovery from 
which he seems for a time to have given up his studies, and to 
have plunged into the gay life of the world. During this time his 
mother died, and his father's harshness became unbearable. 
He left home, and with only one attendant crossed the Alps, 
and wandered through Burgundy and France. Attracted by 
the fame of his countryman, Lanfranc, then prior of Bee, be 
entered Normandy, and, after spending some time at Avranches, 
settled at the monastery of Bee. There, at the age of twenty- 
seven, he became a monk; three years later, when Lanfranc 
was promoted to the abbacy of Caen, he was elected prior. 
This office he held for fifteen years, and then, in 1078, on the 
death of Herlwin, the warrior monk who had founded the 
monastery, he was made abbot. Under his rule Bee became the 
first seat of learning in Europe, a result due not more to his 
intellectual powers than to the great moral influence of his 
noble character and kindly discipline. It was during these quiet 
years at Bee that Anselm wrote his first philosophical and re- 
ligious works, the dialogues on Truth and Freewill, and the two 
celebrated treatises, the Monologion and Proslogion. 

Meanwhile the convent had been growing in wealth, as well 
as in reputation, and had acquired considerable property in 
England, which it became the duty of Anselm occasionally to 
visit. By his mildness of temper and unswerving rectitude, 
he so endeared himself to the English that he was looked upon 
and desired as the natural successor to Lanfranc, then archbishop 
of Canterbury. But on the death of that great man, the ruling 
sovereign, William Rufus, seized the possessions and revenues 
of the see, and made no new appointment. About four yean 
after, in 1092, on the invitation of Hugh, earl of Chester, Anselm 
with some reluctance, for he feared to be made archbishop, 
crossed to England. He was detained by business for nearly 
four months, and when about to return, was refused permission 
by the king. In the following year William fell ill, and thought 
his death was at hand. Eager to make atonement for his sin 
with regard to the archbishopric, he nominated Anselm to the 
vacant see, and after a great struggle compelled him to accept 
the pastoral staff of office. After obtaining dispensation from 
his duties in Normandy, Anselm was consecrated in 1093. He 
demanded of the king, as the conditions of his retaining office, 
that he should give up all the possessions of the see, accept his 
spiritual counsel, and acknowledge Urban as pope in opposition 
to the anti-pope, Clement. He only obtained a partial consent 
to the first of these, and the last involved him in a serious difficulty 
with the king. It was a rule of the church that the consecration 
of metropolitans could not be completed without their receiving 



ANSELM 



the pallium from the hands of the pope. Anselm, accordingly, 
insisted that he must proceed to Rome to receive the pall. But 
William would not permit this; he had not acknowledged Urban, 
and he maintained his right to prevent any pope being acknow- 
ledged by an English subject without his permission. A great 
council of churchmen and nobles, held to settle the matter, 
advised Anselm to submit to the king, but failed to overcome 
his mild and patient firmness. The matter was postponed, 
and William meanwhile privately sent messengers to Rome, 
who acknowledged Urban and prevailed on him to send a legate 
to the king bearing the archiepiscopal pall. ' A partial recon- 
ciliation was then effected, and the matter of the pall was com- 
promised. It was not given by the king, but was laid on the 
altar at Canterbury, whence Anselm took it. 

Little more than a year after, fresh trouble arose with the king, 
and Anselm resolved to proceed to Rome and seek the counsel 
of his spiritual father. With great difficulty he obtained a 
reluctant permission to leave, and in October 1097 he set out 
for Rome. William immediately seized on the revenues of the 
see, and retained them to his death. Anselm was received with 
high honour by Urban, and at a great council held at Ban, he 
was put forward to defend the doctrine of the procession of the 
Holy Ghost against the representatives of the Greek Church. 
But Urban was too politic to embroil himself with the king of 
England, and Anselm found that he could obtain no substantial 
result. He withdrew from Rome, and spent some time at the 
little village of Schiavi, where he finished his treatise on the 
atonement, Cur Deus homo, and then retired to Lyons. 

In noo William was killed, and Henry, his successor, at once 
recalled Anselm. But Henry demanded that he should again 
receive from him in person investiture in his office of archbishop, 
thus making the dignity entirely dependent on the royal 
authority. Now, the papal rule in the matter was plain; all 
homage and lay investiture were strictly prohibited. Anselm 
represented this to the king; but Henry would not relinquish 
a privilege possessed by his predecessors, and proposed that the 
matter should be laid before the Holy See. The answer of the 
pope reaffirmed the law as to investiture. A second embassy 
was sent, with a similar result. Henry, however, remained 
firm, and at last, in 1103, Anselm and an envoy from the king 
set out for Rome. The pope, Paschal, reaffirmed strongly the 
rule of investiture, and passed sentence of excommunication 
against all who had infringed the law, except Henry. Practically 
this left matters as they were, and Anselm, who had received 
a message forbidding him to return to England unless on the 
king's terms, withdrew to Lyons, where he waited to see if 
Paschal would not take stronger measures. At last, in 1105, 
he resolved himself to excommunicate Henry. His intention 
was made known to the king tfirough his sister, and it seriously 
alarmed him, for it was a critical period in his affairs. A meeting 
was arranged, and a reconciliation between them effected. In 
1106 Anselm crossed to England, with power from the pope 
to remove the sentence of excommunication from the illegally 
invested churchmen. In 1 107 the long dispute as to investiture 
was finally ended by the king resigning his formal rights. The 
remaining two years of Anselm's life were spent in the duties 
of his archbishopric. He died on the 2ist of April 1109. He 
was canonized in 1494 by Alexander VI. 

Anselm may, with some justice, be considered the first scho- 
lastic philosopher and theologian. His only great predecessor, 
Scotus Erigena, had more of the speculative and mystical 
element than is consistent with a schoolman; but in Anselm 
are found that recognition of the relation of reason to revealed 
truth, and that attempt to elaborate a rational system of faith, 
which form the special characteristics of scholastic thought. 
His constant endeavour is to render the contents of the Christian 
consciousness clear to reason, and to develop the intelligible 
truths interwoven with the Christian belief. The necessary 
preliminary for this is the possession of the Christian conscious- 
ness. " He who does not believe will not experience; and he 
who has not experienced will not understand." That faith must 
precede knowledge is reiterated by him. " Neque enim quaero 



intelligere ut credam, sed credo ut intelligam. Nam et hoc credo, 
quia, nisi credidero, non intelligam." (" Nor do I seek to under- 
stand that I may believe, but I believe that I may understand. 
For this too I believe, that unless I first believe, I shall not under- 
stand.") But after the faith is held fast, the attempt must be 
made to demonstrate by reabon the truth of what we believe. 
It is wrong not to do so. "Negligentiae mihi esse videlur, si, 
postquam confirmati sumus in fide, non studemus quod credimus, 
intelligere." ("I hold it to be a failure in duty if after we have 
become steadfast in the faith we do not strive to understand 
what we believe.") To such an extent does he carry this demand 
for rational explanation that, at times, it seems as if he claimed 
for unassisted intelligence the power of penetrating even to the 
mysteries of the Christian faith. On the whole, however, the 
qualified statement is his real view; merely rational proofs are 
always, he affirms, to be tested by Scripture. (Cur Deus homo, 
i. 2 and 38; De Fide Trin. 2.) 

The groundwork of his theory of knowledge is contained in 
the tract De Veritale, in which, from the consideration of truth 
as in knowledge, in willing, and in things, he rises to the affirma- 
tion of an absolute truth, in which all other truth participates. 
This absolute truth is God himself, who is therefore the ultimate 
ground or principle both of things and of thought. The notion 
of God comes thus into the foreground of the system; before 
all things it is necessary that it should be made clear to reason, 
that it should be demonstrated to have real existence. This 
demonstration is the substance of the Monologion and Proslogion. 
In the first of these the proof rests on the ordinary grounds of 
realism, and coincides to some extent with the earlier theory of 
Augustine, though it is carried out with singular boldness and 
fulness. Things, he says, are called good in a variety of ways 
and degrees; this would be impossible if there were not some 
absolute standard, some good in itself, in which all relative 
goods participate. Similarly with such predicates as great, 
just; they involve a certain greatness and justice. The very 
existence of things is impossible without some one Being, by 
whom they are. This absolute Being, this goodness, justice, 
greatness, is God. Anselm was not thoroughly satisfied with 
this reasoning; it started from a posteriori grounds, and con- 
tained several converging lines of proof. He desired to have 
some one short demonstration. Such a demonstration he 
presented in the Proslogion; it is his celebrated ontological 
proof. God is that being than whom none greater can be 
conceived. Now, if that than which nothing greater can be 
conceived existed only in the intellect, it would not be the 
absolutely greatest, for we could add to it existence in reality. 
It follows, then, that the being than whom nothing greater can 
be conceived, i.e. God, necessarily has real existence. This 
reasoning, in which Anselm partially anticipated the Cartesian 
philosophers, has rarely seemed satisfactory. It was opposed 
at the time by the monk Gaunilo, in his Liber pro Insipiente, on 
the ground that we cannot pass from idea to reality. The same 
criticism is made by several of the later schoolmen, among others 
by Aquinas, and is in substance what Kant advances against all 
ontological proof. Anselm replied to the objections of Gaunilo in 
his Liber Apologeticus. The existence of God being thus held 
proved, he proceeds to state the rational grounds of the Christian 
doctrines of creation and of the Trinity. With reference to this 
last, he says we cannot know God from himself, but only after 
the analogy of his creatures; and the special analogy used is 
the self-consciousness of man, its peculiar double nature, with 
the necessary elements, memory and intelligence, representing 
the relation of the Father to the Son. The mutual love of these 
two, proceeding from the relation they hold to one another, 
symbolizes the Holy Spirit. The further theological doctrines of 
man, original sin, free will, are developed, partly in the Mono- 
logion, partly in ? other mixed treatises. Finally, in his greatest 
work, Cur Deus homo, he undertakes to make plain, even to 
infidels, the rational necessity of the Christian mystery of the 
atonement. The theory rests on three positions: that satisfac- 
tion is necessary on account of God's honour and justice; that 
such satisfaction can be given only by the peculiar personality 



ANSELM ANSON 



of the God-man; that such satisfaction is really given by the 
voluntary cirath of this infinitely valuable person. The demon- 
stration is, in brief, this. All the actions of men arc due to the 
furtherance of God's glory; if, then, there be sin, i.e. if God's 
honour be wounded, man of himself can give no satisfaction. 
But the justice of God demands satisfaction; and as an insult 
to infinite honour is in itself infinite, the satisfaction must be 
infinite, if it must outweigh all that is not God. Such a penalty 
can only be paid by God himself, and, as a penalty for man, 
must be paid under the form of man. Satisfaction is only possible 
through the God-man. Now this God-man, as sinless, is exempt 
from the punishment of sin; His passion is therefore voluntary, 
not given as due. The merit of it is therefore infinite; God's 
justice is thus appeased, and His mercy may extend to man. 
This theory has exercised immense influence on the form of 
church doctrine. It is certainly an advance on the older patristic 
theory, in so far as it substitutes for a contest between God and 
Satan, a contest between the goodness and justice of God; but 
it puts the whole relation on a merely legal footing, gives it no 
ethical bearing, and neglects altogether the consciousness of the 
individual to be redeemed. In this respect it contrasts un- 
favourably with the later theory of Abelard. 

Anselm's speculations did not receive, in the middle ages, 
the respect and attention justly their due. This was probably 
due to their unsystematic character, for they are generally tracts 
or dialogues on detached questions, not elaborate treatises like 
the great works of Albert, Aquinas, and Erigena. They have, 
however, a freshness and philosophical vigour, which more than 
makes up for their want of system, and which raises them far 
above the level of most scholastic writings. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The main sources for the history of St Anselm 
and his times are Eadmer's Vita Anselmi and his Historia Novorum, 
edited bv M. Rule in Rolls Strut (London, 1884); the best modern 
work is by Pere Ragey, Histoire de Saint Anselme (Paris, 1890), and 
Saint Anselme professeur (Paris, 1890). Other appreciations are 
by A. M6hler, Anselm Enbischofvon Canterbury (Regensburg, 1839; 
Eng. trans, by H. Rymer, London, 1843); F. R. Hasse, Anselm von 
Canterbury (3 vols., Leipzig, 1842-1853); C. de Rcmusat, 5. Anselme 
de Cantorbfry (Paris, 1853, new ed. 1868) ; R. W. Church, St Anselm, 
first published in Sunday Library (London, 1870; often reprinted); 
Martin Rule, Life and Times of St Anselm (London, 1883). 

Works: The best edition of St Anselm's complete works is that of 
Dom Gerberon (Paris, 1675); reprinted with many notes in 1712; 
incorporated by I. Migne in his Palrotogia Latino, tomi clviii.-clix. 
(Paris, 1853-1854). Migne's reprint contains many errors. The Cur 
Deus homo may be best studied in the editions published by D. Nut t 
(London, 1885) and bv Griffith (1898). The Mariale, or poems in 
honour of the Blessed Virgin, has been carefully edited by P. Ragey 
(Tournai, 1885); the Atonologion and Proslogion, by C. E. Ubaghs 
(Louyain, 1854; Eng. trans, by S. N. Deane, Chicago, 1903); the 
tfeditationes. many of which are wrongly attributed to Anselm, have 
been frequently reprinted, and were included in Methuen's Library 
0} Devotion (London, 1903). 

The best criticism of Anselm's philosophical works is by J. M. 
Rigg (London, 1896), and Domet de Vorges (Grands Philosopher 
enes, Paris, 1901). For a complete bibliography, see A. Vacant 's 
Dictionnaire de tkrologie. 

ANSELM, of Laon (d. 1117), French theologian, was born of 
very humble parents at Laon before the middle of the nth 
century. He is said to have studied under St Anselm at Bee. 
About 1076 he taught with great success at Paris, where, as the 
associate of William of Champeaux, he upheld the realistic side 
of the scholastic controversy. Later he removed to his native 
place, where his school for theology and exegetics rapidly became 
the most famous in Europe. He died in 1117. His greatest 
work, an interlinear gloss on the Scriptures, was one of the 
great authorities of the middle ages. It has been frequently 
reprinted. Other commentaries apparently by him have been 
ascribed to various writers, principally to the great Anselm. A 
list of them, with notice of Anselm's life, is contained in the 
Histoire litttraire de la France, x. 170-180. 

The works are collected in Migne's Palrolotia Latino, tome 162; 
some unpublished Sfnirntiae were edited by G. Leftvre (Milan, 1894), 
on which see Haurcau in the Journal des savants for 1895. 

ANSELME (Father Anselme of the Virgin Mary) (1625-1694), 
French genealogist, was born in Paris in 1625. As a layman his 
name was Pierre Guibours. He entered the order of the bare- 
footed Augustinians on the jist of March 1644, and it was in 



their monastery (called the Couvent do Petiti Peres, 
church of Notre- Dame des Y'ictoire*) that he died, on the 1 7th 
of January 1604. He devoted his entire life to fenemJocicml 
studies. In 1663 he published Le Palaii de ikonneur, which 
besides giving the genealogy of the houses of Lorraine and Savoy, 
is a complete treatise on heraldry, and in 1664 Le Palais de la 
gloire, dealing with the genealogy of various illustrious French 
and European families. These books made friends for him, the 
most intimate among whom, Honor* Caille, seigneur du Fourny 
(1630-1713), persuaded him to publish his Histoire geneaiogiyuf 
de la maison royale de France, et del grand* ofuitri de 
la couronne (1674, 2 vols. 4); after Father Anselme's death, 
Honorl Caille collected his papcrs.and brought out a new edition 
of this highly important work in 1712. The task was taken up 
and continued by two other friars of the Couvent des Petits 
I't-n-s, Father Ange de Sainte- Rosalie (Francois Raffard, 1655- 
1726), and Father Simplicien (Paul Lucas, 1683-1759), who 
published the first and second volumes of the third edition in 
1726. This edition consists of nine volumes folio; it is a genea- 
logical and chronological history of the royal house of France, 
of the peers, of the great officers of the crown and of the king's 
household, and of the ancient barons of the kingdom. The notes 
were generally compiled from original documents, references 
to which are usually given, so that they remain useful to the 
present day. The work of Father Anselme, his collaborators 
and successors, is even more important for the history of 
France than is Dugdale's Baronage of England for the history* 
of England. (C. B.) 

ANSON, GEORGE ANSON, BARON (1697-1 762), British admiral, 
was born on the 23rd of April 1697. He was the son of 
William Anson of Shugborough in Staffordshire, and his wife 
Isabella Carrier, who was the sister-in-law of Lord Chancellor 
Macclesfield, a relationship which proved very useful to the 
future admiral. George Anson entered the navy in February 
1712, and by rapid steps became lieutenant in 1716, commander 
in 1722, and post-captain in 1724. In this rank he served twice 
on the North American station as captain of the " Scarborough " 
and the " Squirrel " from 1724 to 1730 and from 1733 to 1735. 
In 1737 he was appointed to the " Centurion," 60, on the eve of 
war with Spain, and when hostilities had begun he was chosen 
to command as commodore the squadron which was sent to attack 
her possessions in South America in 1 740. The original scheme 
was ambitious, and was not carried out. Anson's squadron, 
which sailed later than had been intended, and was very ill-fitted, 
consisted of six ships, which were reduced by successive disasters 
to his flagship the " Centurion." The lateness of the season 
forced him to round Cape Horn in very stormy weather, and the 
navigating instruments of the time did not allow of exact observa- 
tion. Two of his vessels failed to round the Horn, another, the 
" Wager," was wrecked in the Golfo de PaAas on the coast of 
Chile. By the time Anson reached the island of Juan Fernandez 
in June 1741, his six ships had been reduced to three, while the 
strength of his crews had fallen from 961 to 335. In the absence 
of any effective Spanish force on the coast he was able to harass 
the enemy, and to capture the town of Paita on the I3th-isth 
of November 1741. The steady diminution of his crew by sick- 
ness, and the worn-out state of his remaining consorts, compelled 
him at last to collect all the survivors in the " Centurion." He 
rested at the island of Tinian, and then made his way to Macao 
in November 1742. After considerable difficulties with the 
Chinese, he sailed again with his one remaining vessel to cruise 
for one of the richly laden galleons which conducted the trade 
between Mexico and the Philippines. The indomitable per- 
severance he had shown during one of the most arduous voyages 
in the history of sea adventure was rewarded by the capture of 
an immensely rich prize, the " Nuestra Sefiora de Covadonga," 
which was met off Cape Espiritu Santo on the 2oth of June 1743. 
Anson took his prize back to Macao, sold her cargo to the Chinese, 
keeping the specie, and sailed for England, which he reached by 
the Cape of Good Hope on the isth of June 1744. The prize- 
money earned by the capture of the galleon had made him a rich 
man for life, and under the influence of irritation caused by the 



8 4 



ANSON ANSTEY 



refusal of the admiralty to confirm a captain's commission he 
had given to one of his officers, Anson refused the rank of rear- 
admiral, and was prepared to leave the service. His fame would 
stand nearly as high as it does if he had done so, but he would be 
a far less important figure in the history of the navy. By the 
world at large he is known as the commander of the voyage of 
circumnavigation, in which success was won by indomitable 
perseverance, unshaken firmness, and infinite resource. But he 
was also the severe and capable administrator who during years 
of hard work at the admiralty did more than any other to raise 
the navy from the state of corruption and indiscipline into 
which it had fallen during the first half of the eighteenth century. 
Great anger had been caused in the country by the condition of 
the fleet as revealed in the first part of the war with France and 
Spain, between 1 739 and 1 747. The need for reform was strongly 
felt, and the politicians of the day were conscious that it would 
not be safe to neglect the popular demand for it. In 1745 the 
duke of Bedford, the new first lord, invited Anson to join the 
admiralty with the rank of rear-admiral of the white. As 
subordinate under the duke, or Lord Sandwich, and as first lord 
himself, Anson was at the admiralty with one short break from 
1745 till his death in 1762. His chiefs in the earlier years left 
him to take the initiative in all measures of reform, and supported 
him in their own interest. After 1751 he was himself first lord, 
except for a short time in 1756 and 1757. At his suggestion, or 
with his advice, the naval administration was thoroughly over- 
hauled. The dockyards were brought into far better order, and 
though corruption was not banished, it was much reduced. The 
navy board was compelled to render accounts, a duty it had long 
neglected. A system of regulating promotion to flag rank, which 
has been in the main followed ever since, was introduced. The 
Navy Discipline Act was revised in 1749, and remained unaltered 
till 1865. Courts martial were put on a sound footing. Inspec- 
tions of the fleet and the dockyards were established, and the 
corps of Marines was created in 1755. The progressive improve- 
ment which raised the navy to the high state of efficiency it 
attained in later years dates from Anson's presence at the 
admiralty. In 1747 he, without ceasing to be a member of the 
board, commanded the Channel fleet which on the 3rd of May 
scattered a large French convoy bound to the East, and West 
Indies, in an action off Cape Finisterre. Several men-of-war 
and armed French Indiamen were taken, but the overwhelming 
superiority of Anson's fleet (fourteen men-of-war, to six men-of- 
war and four Indiamen) in the number and weight of ships 
deprives the action of any strong claim to be considered remark- 
able. In society Anson seems to have been cold and taciturn. 
The sneers of Horace Walpole, and the savage attack of Smollett 
in The Adventures of an Atom, are animated by personal or 
political spite. Yet they would not have accused him of defects 
from which he was notoriously free. In political life he may 
sometimes have given too ready assent to the wishes of powerful 
politicians. He married the daughter of Lord Chancellor 
Hardwicke on the 27th of April 1 748. There were no children of 
the marriage. His title of Baron Anson of Soberton was given 
him in 1747, but became extinct on his death. The title of 
Viscount Anson was, however, created in 1806 in favour of his 
great-nephew, the grandson of his sister Janetta and Mr Sam- 
brook Adams, whose father had assumed the name and arms of 
Anson. The earldom of Lichfield was conferred on the family 
in the next generation. A fine portrait of the admiral by 
Reynolds is in the possession of the earl of Lichfield, and there 
are copies in the National Portrait Gallery and at Greenwich. 
Anson's promotions in flag rank were: rear-admiral in 1745, 
vice-admiral in 1746, and admiral in 1748. In 1749 he became 
vice-admiral of Great Britain, and in 1761 admiral of the fleet. 
He died on the 6th of June 1762. 

A life of Lord Anson, inaccurate in some details but valuable and 
interesting, was published by Sir John Barrow in 1839. The 
standard account of his voyage round the world is that by his 
chaplain Richard Walter, 1748, often reprinted. A share in the 
work has been claimed on dubious grounds for Benjamin Robins, 
the mathematician. Another and much inferior account was 
published in 1745 by Pascoe Thomas, the schoolmaster of the 
ll Centurion." (D. H.) 



ANSON, SIR WILLIAM REYNELL, BART. (1843- ), 
English jurist, was born on the I4th of November 1843, at 
Walberton, Sussex, son of the second baronet. Educated at 
Eton and Balliol College, Oxford, he took a first class in the final 
classical schools in 1866, and was elected to a fellowship of All 
Souls in the following year. In 1869 he was called to the bar, 
and went the home circuit until 1873, when he succeeded to the 
baronetcy. In 1874 he became Vinerian reader in English 
law at Oxford, a post which he held until he became, in 1881, 
warden of All Souls College. He identified himself both with 
local and university interests; he became an alderman of the 
city of Oxford in 1892, chairman of quarter sessionsfor the county 
in 1894, was vice-chancellor of the university in 1898-1899, 
and chancellor of the diocese of Oxford in 1899. In that year 
he was returned, without opposition, as M.P. for the university 
in the Liberal Unionist interest, and consequently resigned the 
vice-chancellorship. In parliament he preserved an active 
interest in education, being a member of the newly created 
consultative committee of the Board of Education in 1900, 
and in 1902 he became parliamentary secretary. He took an 
active part in the foundation of a school of law at Oxford, 
and his volumes on The Principles of the English Law of Contract 
(1884, nth ed. 1906), and on The Law and Custom of the Constitu- 
tion in two parts, " The Parliament " and " The Crown " (1886- 

1892, 3rd ed. 1907, pt. Lvol. ii.), are standard works. 
ANSONIA, a city of New Haven county, Connecticut, U.S.A., 

coextensive with the township of the same name, on the Nauga- 
tuck river, immediately N. of Derby and about 12 m. N.W. of 
New Haven. It is served by the New York, New Haven & 
Hartford railway, and by interurban electric lines running 
N., S. and E. Pop. (1900) 12,681, of whom 4296 were foreign 
born; (1910 census) 15,152. Land area about 5-4 sq. m. 
The city has extensive manufactures of heavy machinery, 
electric supplies, brass and copper products and silk goods. 
In 1905 the capital invested in manufacturing was $7,625,864, 
and the value of the products was $19,132,455. Ansonia, 
Derby and Shelton form one of the most important industrial 
communities in the state. The city, settled in 1840 and named 
in honour of the merchant and philanthropist, Anson Green 
Phelps (1781-1853), was originally a part of the township of 
Derby; it was chartered as a borough in 1864 and as a city in 

1 893, when the township of Ansonia, which had been incorporated 
in 1889, and the city were consolidated. 

ANSTED, DAVID THOMAS (1814-1880), English geologist, 
was born in London on the sth of February 1814. He was 
educated at Jesus College, Cambridge, and after taking his degree 
of M.A. in 1839 was elected to a fellowship of the college. In- 
spired by the teachings of Adam Sedgwick, his attention was 
given to geology, and in 1840 he was elected professor of geology 
in King's College, London, a post which he held until 1853. 
Meanwhile he became a fellow of the Royal Society in 1844, 
and from that date until 1847 he was vice-secretary of the 
Geological Society and edited its Quarterly Journal. The 
practical side of geology now came to occupy his chief attention, 
and he visited various parts of Europe and the British Islands 
as a consulting geologist and mining engineer. He was also 
in 1868 and for many years examiner in physical geography 
to the science and art department. He died at Melton near 
Woodbridge, on the I3th of May 1880. 

PUBLICATIONS. Geology, Introductory, Descriptive and Practical 
(2 vols., 1844); The Ionian Islands (1863); The Applications of 
Geology to the Arts and Manufactures (1865); Physical Geography 
(1867); Water and Water Supply (Surface Water) (1878); and The 
Channel Islands (with R. G. Latham) (1862). 

ANSTEY, CHRISTOPHER (1724-1805), English poet, was the 
son of the rector of Brinkley, Cambridgeshire, where he was born 
on the 3ist of October 1724. He was educated at Eton and 
King's College, Cambridge, where he distinguished himself for 
his Latin verses. He became a fellow of his college (1745). but 
the degree of M.A. was withheld from him, owing to the offence 
caused by a speech made by him beginning: " Doctores sine 
doctrina, magistri artium sine artibus, et baccalaurei baculo 
potius quam lauro digni." In 1754 he succeeded to the family 



ANSTRUTHER ANT 



5 



estate* and left Cambridge; and two yean later he married 
the daughter of Felix Calvert of Albury Hall, Herts. For tome 
time Anstcy published nothing of any note, though he cultivated 
letters as well as his estates. Some visits to Bath, however, 
where later, in 1770, he made his permanent home, resulted in 
1766 in his famous rhymed letters, Tke New Batk Guide or 
Memoirs of Ike B . . . r . . . d [Blunderhead] Family . . ., 
which had immediate success, and was enthusiastically praised 
for its original kind of humour by Walpole and Gray. The 
Klrdum Ball, in Poetical Letters from Mr Inkle at Batk to his 
Wife at Gloucester (1776) sustained the reputation won by the 
Guide. Anstey's other productions in verse and prose are now 
forgotten. He died on the 3rd of August 1805. His Poetical 
Works were collected in 1808 (2 vols.) by the author's son John 
(d. 1810), himself author of The Pleader's Guide (1706), in the 
same vein with the Sew Bath Guide. 

ANSTRUTHER (locally pronounced Anster), a seaport of Fife- 
shire, Scotland. It comprises the royal and police burghs of 
Anstruther Easter (pop. noo), Anstruther Wester (501) and 
Kilrcnny (2542). and lies g m. S.S.E. of St Andrews, having a 
station on the North British railway company's branch line from 
Thornton Junction to St Andrews. The chief industries include 
coast and deep-sea fisheries, shipbuilding, tanning, the making 
of cod-liver oil and fish-curing. The harbour was completed in 
1877 at a cost of 80,000. The two Anstruthers are divided 
only by a small stream called Dreel Burn. James Melville 
(1556-1614), nephew of the more celebrated reformer, Andrew 
Melville, who was minister of Kilrcnny, has given in his Diary 
a graphic account of the arrival at Anstruther of a weather- 
bound ship of the Armada, and the tradition of the intermixture 
of Spanish and Fifeshire blood still prevails in the district. 
Anstruther fair supplied William Tennant (1784-1848), who 
was born and buried in the town, with the subject of his poem 
of " Anster Fair." Sir James Lumsden, a soldier of fortune 
under Gustavus Adolphus, who distinguished himself in the 
Thirty Years' War, was born in the parish of Kilrcnny about 
1508. David Martin (1737-1798), the painter and engraver; 
Thomas Chalmers (1780-1847), the great divine; and John 
Goodsir (1814-1867), the anatomist, were natives of Anstruther. 
Little more than a mile to the west lies the royal and police 
burgh of Pittenweem (Gaelic, " the hollow of the cave "), a 
quaint old fishing town (pop. 1863), with the remains of a priory. 
About 2 m. still farther westwards is the fishing town of St 
Monans or Abercromby (pop. 1808), with a fine old Gothic church, 
picturesquely perched on the rocky shore. These fisher towns 
on the eastern and south-eastern coasts of Fifeshire furnish 
artists with endless subjects. Archibald Constable (1774-1827), 
Sir Walter Scott's publisher, was born in the parish of Carnbee, 
about 3 m. to the north of Pittenweem. The two Anstruthers, 
Kilrcnny and Pittenweem unite with St Andrews, Cupar and 
I 'rail, in sending one member to parliament. 

ANSWER (derived from and, against, and the same root as 
swear), originally a solemn assertion in opposition to some one or 
something, and thus generally any counter-statement or defence, 
a reply to a question or objection, or a correct solution of a problem. 
In English law, the " answer " in pleadings was, previous to the 
Judicature Acts 1873-1875, the statement of defence, especially 
as regards the facts and not the law. Its place is now taken by a 
" statement of defence." " Answer " is the term still applied in 
divorce proceedings to the reply of the respondent (see PLEADING). 
The famous Latin Rcsponsa Prudent urn (" answers of the learned") 
were the accumulated views of many successive generations of 
Roman lawyers, a body of legal opinion which gradually became 
authoritative. In music an " answer " is the technical name in 
counterpoint for the repetition by one part or instrument of a 
theme proposed by another. 

ANT (O. Eng. atmete, from Teutonic a, privative, and ma i fan. 
cut or bite off, i.e. " the biter off "; of mete in Middle English 
became differentiated in dialect use to amele. then amte. and so 
ant. and also to emete, whence the synonym " emmet," now only 
used provincial!)-. " ant " being the general literary form). The 
fact that the name of the ant has come down in English from a 



thousand years ago shows that this das* of insect* inprcMed the 
old inhabitants of England as they impressed the Hebrews and 
Greeks. The social instincts and industrious habits of ants have 
always made them favourite objects of study, and a vast amount 
of literature has accumulated on the subject of their structure and 
their modes of life. 

Characters. An ant is easily recognized both by the casual 
observer and by the student of insects. Ants form a distinct and 
natural family (Formicidae) of the great order Hymenoptera, to 
which bees, wasps and sawflies also belong. The insects of this 
order have mandibles adapted for biting, and two pairs of mem- 
branous wings are usually present; the first abdominal segment 
(propodeum) becomes closely associated with the fore-body 
(thorax) , of which it appears to form a part. In all ants the second 
(apparently the first) abdominal segment is very markedly 
constricted at its front and hind edges, so that it forms a " node " 
at the base of the hind-body (fig. i), and in many ants the third 
abdominal segment is similarly " nodular " in form (fig. 3, b,c,). 
It is this peculiar " waist " that catches the eye of the observer, 
and makes the insects so easy of recognition. Another con- 
spicuous and well-known feature of ants is the wingless condition 
of the " workers," as the specialized females, with undeveloped 
ovaries, which form the largest proportion of the population of 
ant-communities, are called. Such " workers " are essential to 
the formation of a social community of Hymenoptera, and their 
wingless condition among the ants shows that their specialization 
has been carried further in this family than among the wasps and 
bees. Further, while among wasps and bees we find some solhary 
and some social genera, the ants as a family are social, though some 




FIG. i. Wood Ant (Formica rufa). I, Queen; 2, mate; 3, 



aberrant species are dependent on the workers of other ants. It 
is interesting and suggestive that in a few families of digging 
Hymenoptera (such as the MutUlidae), allied to the ants, the 
females are wingless. The perfect female or " queen " ants (figs, 
i, /, 3, a) often cast their wings (fig. 3,6) after the nuptial flight; 
in a few species the females, and in still fewer the males, never 
develop wings. (For the so-called " white ants, "which belong to 
an order far removed from the Hymenoptera, see TERMITE.) 

Structure. The head of an ant carries a pair of elbowed feelers, 
each consisting of a minute basal and an elongate second segment, 
forming the stalk or " scape," while from eight to eleven short 
segments make up the terminal " flagcllum." These segments 
are abundantly supplied with elongate tooth-like projections 
connected with nerve-endings probably olfactory in function. 
The brain is well developed and its " mushroom-bodies " are 
exceptionally large. The mandibles, which are frequently used 
for carrying various objects, are situated well to the outside of 
the maxillae, so that they can be opened and shut without 
interfering with the latter. The peculiar form and arrangement 
of the anterior abdominal segments have already been described. 
The fourth abdominal segment is often very large, \nd forms 
the greater part of the hind-body; this segment is markedly 
constricted at its basal (forward) end, where it is embraced by the 
small third segment. In many of those ants whose third abdom- 
inal segment forms a second " node," the basal dorsal region of 
the fourth segment is traversed by a large number of very fine 
transverse st nations; over these the sharp hinder edge of the 
third segment can be scraped to and fro, and the result is a 
stridulating organ which gives rise to a note of very high pitch. 
For the appreciation of the sounds made by these stridulators, 
the ants are furnished with delicate organs of hearing (chordotonal 
organs) in the head, in the three thoracic and two of the abdominal 
segments and in the shins of the legs. 



86 



ANT 



The hinder abdominal segments and the stings of the queens 
and workers resembls those of other stinging Hymenoptera. But 
there are several subfamilies of ants whose females have the 
lancets of the sting useless for piercing, although the poison-glands 
are functional, their secretion being ejected by the insect, when 
occasion may arise, from the greatly enlarged reservoir, the 
reduced sting acting as a squirt. 

Nests . The nests of different kinds of ants are constructed in 
very different situations; many species (Lasius, for example) 
make underground nests; galleries and chambers being hollowed 
out in the soil, and opening by small holes on the surface, or 
protected above by a large stone. The wood ant (Formica rufa, 
fig. i) piles up a heap of leaves, twigs and other vegetable refuse, 
so arranged as to form an orderly series of galleries, though the 
structure appears at first sight a chaotic heap. Species of 
Camponotus and many other ants tunnel in wood. In tropical 
countries ants sometimes make their nests in the hollow thorns 
of trees or on leaves; species with this habit are believed to make 
a return to the tree for the shelter that it affords by protecting it 
from the ravages of other insects, including their own leaf -cutting 
relations. 

Early Stages. The larvae of ants (fig. 3, e) are legless and 
helpless maggots with very small heads (fig. 3, /), into whose 
mouths the requisite food has to be forced by the assiduous 
"nurse" workers. The maggots are tended by these nurses with the 
greatest care, and carried to those parts of the nest most favour- 
able for their health and growth. When fully grown, the maggot 
spins an oval silken cocoon within which it pupates (fig. 3, g). 
These cocoons, which may often be seen carried between the 
mandibles of the workers, are the "ants' eggs" prized as food for 
fish and pheasants. The workers of a Ceylonese ant (Oecophylla 
smaragdina) are stated by D. Sharp to hold the maggots between 
their mandibles and induce them to spin together the leaves of 
trees from which they form their shelters, as the adult ants have 
no silk-producing organs. 

Origin of Societies. Ant-colonies are founded either by a single 
female or by several in association. The foundress of the nest 
lays eggs and at first feeds and rears the larvae, the earliest of 
which develop into workers. C. Janet observed that in a nest of 
Lasius alienus, established by a single female, the first workers 
emerged from their cocoons on the loznd day. These workers 
then 'take on themselves the labour of the colony, some collecting 
food, which they transfer to their comrades within the nest whose 
duty is to tend and feed the larvae. The foundress-queen is now 
waited on by the workers, who supply her with food and spare her 
all cares of work, so that henceforth she may devote her whole 
energies to egg-laying. The population of the colony increases 
fast, and a well-grown nest contains several " queens " and males, 
besides a large number of workers. One of the most interesting 
features of ant-societies is the dimorphism or polymorphism that 
may often be seen among the workers, the same species being 
represented by two or more forms. Thus the British " wood ant " 
(Formica rufa) has a smaller and a larger race of workers 
(" minor " and " major " forms), while in Ponera we find a blind 
race of workers and another race provided with eyes, and in Atla, 
Eciion and other genera, four or five forms of workers are produced, 
the largest of which, with huge heads and elongate trenchant 
mandibles, are known as the " soldier " caste. The development 
of such diversely-formed insects as the offspring of the unmodified 
females which show none of their peculiarities raises many points 
of difficulty for students in heredity. It is thought that the 
differences are, in part at least, due to differences in the nature of 
the food supplied to larvae, which are apparently all alike. But 
the ovaries of worker ants are in some cases sufficiently developed 
for the production of eggs, which may give rise parthenogenetic- 
ally to male, queen or worker offspring. 

Food. Different kinds of ants vary greatly in the substances 
which they use for food. Honey forms the staple nourishment 
of many ants, some of the workers seeking nectar from flowers, 
working it up into honey within their stomachs and regurgitating 
it so as to feed their comrades within the nest, who, in their turn, 
pass it on to the grubs. A curious specialization of certain 



workers in connexion with the transference of honey has been 
demonstrated by H. C. McCook in the American genus Myrme- 
cocystus, and by later observers in Australian and African 
species of Plagiolepis and allied genera. The workers in question 
remain within the nest, suspended by their feet, and serve as 
living honey-pots for the colony, becoming so distended by the 
supplies of honey poured into their mouths by their foraging 
comrades that their abdomens become sub-globular, the pale 
intersegmental membrane being tightly stretched between the 
widely-separated dark sclerites. The " nurse " workers in the 
nest can then draw their supplies from these " honey-pots." 
Very many ants live by preying upon various insects, such as 
the British " red ants " with well-developed stings (Myrmica 
rubra), and the notorious " driver ants " of Africa and America, 
the old-world species of which belong to Dorylus and allied genera, 
and the new-world species to Eciton (fig. 2, 2, 3). In these ants 
the difference between the large, heavy, winged males and females, 
and the small, long-legged, active workers, is so great, that various 
forms of the same species have been often referred to distinct 
genera; in Eciton, for example, the female has a single petiolate 
abdominal segment, the worker two. The workers of these 
ants range over the country in large armies, killing and carrying 
off all the insects and spiders that they find and sometimes 
attacking vertebrates. They have been known to enter 
human dwellings, removing all the>verminous insects contained 
therein. These driver ants shelter in temporary nests made in 







FIG. 2. Leaf-cutting and Foraging Ants, i, Atla cephalus; 
2, Eciton drepanophora; 3, Eciton erratica. 

hollow trees or similar situations, where the insects may be seen, 
according to T. Belt, " clustered together in a dense mass like 
a great swarm of bees hanging from the roof." 

The harvesting habits of certain ants have long been known, the 
subterranean store-houses of Mediterranean species of Aphaeno- 
gasler having been described by J. T. Moggridge and A. Forel, 
and the complex industries of the Texan Pogonomyrmex barbatus 
by H. C. McCook and W. M. Wheeler. The colonies of Aphaeno- 
gaster occupy nests extending over an area of fifty to a hundred 
square yards several feet below the surface of the ground. Into 
these underground chambers the ants carry seeds of grasses and 
other plants of which they accumulate large stores. The species 
of Pogonomyrmex strip the husks from the seeds and carry them 
out of the nest, making a refuse heap near the entrance. The 
seeds are harvested from various grasses, especially from 
Aristida oligantha, a species known as " ant rice," which often 
grows in quantity close to the site selected for the nest, but the 
statement that the ants deliberately sow this grass is an error, 
due, according to Wheeler, to the sprouting of germinating seeds 
which the ants have turned out of their store-chambers. 
v Perhaps no ants have such remarkable habits as those of the 
genus Atta, the leaf-cutting ants of tropical America (fig. 2, 1). 
There are several forms of worker in these species, some with 
enormous heads, which remain in the underground nests, while 
their smaller comrades scour the country in search of suitable 
trees, which they ascend, biting off small circular pieces from the 
leaves, and carrying them off to the nests. Their labour often 
results in the complete defoliation of the tree. The tracks along 
which the ants carry the leaves to their nests are often in part 
subterranean. H. C. McCook describes an almost straight tunnel, 
nearly 450 ft. long, made by Altafervens. 

Within the nest, the leaves are cut into very minute fragments 
and gathered into small spherical heaps forming a spongy mass, 
which according to the researches of A. Moller serves as the 
substratum for a special fungus (Rozites gongylophora) , the staple 
food of the ants. The insects cultivate their fungus, weeding out 



ANT 






mould and bacterial growths, and causing the appearance, on the 
surface of their " mushroom garden," of numerous small white 
bodies formed by swollen ends of the fungus hyphae. When 
the fungus is grown elsewhere than in the ants' nest it produces 
gonidia instead of the white masses on which the ants feed, 
hence it seems that these msuri are indeed produced as the 
result of some unknown cultural process. Other genera of 
South American ants Apterosligma and Cypkomyrmex make 
similar fungal cultivations, but they use wood, grain or dung 
as the substratum instead of leaf fragments. Each kind of ant 
is so addicted to its own particular fungal food that it refuses 
disdainfully, even when hungry, the produce of an alien nest. 

Guests of Ants. Many ants feed largely and some almost 
entirely on ihe saccharine secretions of other insects, the best 
known of which are the Aphides (plant-lice or " green-fly "). 
This consideration leads us to one of the most remarkable and 
fascinating features of ant-communities the presence in the 
nests of insects and other small arthropods, which are tended 
and cared for by the ants as their " guests," rendering to the ants 
in return the sweet food which they desire. The relation between 
ants and aphids has often been compared to that between men 
and milch cattle. Sir J. Lubbock (Lord Avebury) states that 
the common British yellow ants (Lasius flavus) collect flocks of 
root-feeding aphids in their underground nests, protect them, 
build earthen shelters over them, and take the greatest 
care of their eggs. Other ants, such as the British black garden 
species (L. niger), go after the aphids that frequent the shoots of 
plants. Many species of aphid migrate from one plant to another 
at certain stages in their life-cycle when their numbers have 
very largely increased, and F. M. Webster has observed ants, 
foreseeing this emigration, to carry aphids from apple trees to 
grasses. It has been shown by M. Busgen that the sweet secretion 
(honey-dew) of the aphids is not derived, as generally believed, 
from the paired cornicles on the fifth abdominal segment, but 
from the intestine, whence it exudes in drops and is swallowed 
by the ants. 

Besides the aphids, other insects, such as scale insects (Coccidae) , 
caterpillars of blue butterflies (Lycaenidae) , and numerous 
beetles, furnish the ants with nutrient secretions. The number 
of species of beetles that inhabit ants' nests is almost incredibly 
large, and most of these are never found elsewhere, being blind, 
helpless and dependent on the ants' care for protection and 
food; these beetles belong for the most part to the families 
Pselaphidae, Paussidae and Slaphylinidat. Spring-tails and 
bristle-tails (order Aptera) of several species also frequent ants' 
nests. While some of these " guest " insects produce secretions 
that furnish the ants with food, some seem to be useless inmates 
of the nest, obtaining food from the ants and giving nothing 
in return. Others again play the part of thieves in the ant 
society; C. Janet observed a small bristle-tail (Lepismima) 
to lurk beneath the heads of two Lasius workers, while one passed 
food to the other, in order to steal the drop of nourishment and 
to make off with it. The same naturalist describes the associa- 
tion with Lasius of small mites (Antcnnophorus) which are carried 
about by the worker ants, one of which may have a mite beneath 
her mouth, and another on either side of her abdomen. On patting 
their carrier or some passing ant, the mites arc supplied with food, 
no service being rendered by them in return for the ants' care. 
Perhaps the ants derive from these seemingly useless guests the 
same satisfaction as we obtain by keeping pet animals. Recent 
advance in our knowledge of the guests and associates of ants is 
due principally to E. Wasmann, who has compiled a list of nearly 
1500 species of insects, arachnids and crustaceans, inhabiting 
ants' nests. The warmth, shelter and abundant food in the 
nests, due both to the fresh supplies brought in by the ants and 
to the large amount of waste matter that accumulates, must 
prove strongly attractive to the various " guests." Some of the 
inmates of ants' nests are here for the purpose of preying upon the 
ants or their larvae, so that we find all kinds of relations between 
the owners of the nests and their companions, from mutual benefit 
to active hostility. 

Among these associations or guests other species of ants are 



not wanting. For example, a minute specie* (Selenopri* /*) 
lives in a compound nest with various specie* of Formica, 
forming narrow galleries which open into the larger galleries 
of its host. The Soltnoptit can make it* way into the territory 
of the FormUa to steal the larvae which serve it a* food, but the 
Formica is too large to pursue the thief when it returns to Its own 
galleries. 

Slaves. Several species of ants are found in association with 
another species which stands to them in the relation of slave to 
master. Formica sanguinea is a well-known European slave- 
making ant that inhabits England; its workers raid the nests of 
F. fusca and other species, and carry off to their own nests pupae 
from which workers are developed that live contentedly as 
slaves of their captors. P. tanguinea can live either with or 
without slaves, but another European ant (Polyergus rufeueru) 
is so dependent on its slaves various species of Formica that 
its workers are themselves unable to feed the larvae. The 
remarkable genus Antr gates has no workers, and its wingless 
males and females are served by communities of Tetramorium 
cespitum (fig. 3). 




FIG. 3. Ant, Tetramorium cespitum (Linn.), a. Female; 
b, female after loss of wings; c, male; d, worker; e, larva; 
g, pupa (magnified four times); /, head of larva more highly 
magnified. After Marlatt, Bull. 4 (n.*.) Da. Ent. U. S. Dept. Agri- 
culture. 

Senses and Intelligence of Ants. That ants possess highly 
developed senses and the power of communicating with one 
another has long been known to students of their habits; the 
researches of P. Huber and Sir J. Lubbock (Lord Avebury) on 
these subjects are familiar to all naturalists. The insects are 
guided by light, being very sensitive to ultra-violet rays, and also 
by scent and hearing. Recent experiments by A. M. Ficlde 
show that an ant follows her own old track by a scent exercised 
by the tenth segment of the feeler, recognizes other inmates of 
her nest by a sense of smell resident in the eleventh segment, is 
guided to the eggs, maggots and pupae, which she has to tend, 
by sensation through the eighth and ninth segments, and 
appreciates the general smell of the nest itself by means of organs 
in the twelfth segment. Lubbock's experiments of inducing 
ants to seek objects that had been removed show that they are 
guided by scent rather than by sight, and that any disturbance 
of their surroundings often causes great uncertainty in their 
actions. Ants invite one another to work, or ask for food from 



ANTAE <ANTARA IBN SHADDAD 



one another, by means of pats with the feelers; and they respond 
to the solicitations of their guest-beetles or mites, who ask for 
food by patting the ants with their feet. In all probability the 
actions of ants are for the most part instinctive or reflex, and some 
observers, such as A. Bethe, deny them all claim to psychical 
qualities. But it seems impossible to doubt that in many cases 
ants behave in a manner that must be considered intelligent, 
that they can learn by experience and that they possess memory. 
Lubbock goes so far as to conclude the account of his experiments 
with the remark that " It is difficult altogether to deny them 
the gift of reason . . . their mental powers differ from those of 
men, not so much in kind as in degree." Wasmann considers 
that ants are neither miniature human beings nor mere reflex 
automata, and most students of their habits will probably accept 
this intermediate position as the most satisfactory. C. L. 
Morgan sums up a discussion on Lubbock's experiments in which 
the ants failed to utilize particles of earth for bridge-making, 
with the suggestive remark that " What these valuable experi- 
ments seem to show is that the ant, probably the most intelligent 
of all insects, has no claim to be regarded as a rational being." 
Nevertheless, ants can teach " rational beings " many valuable 
lessons. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The literature on ants is so vast that it is only 
possible to refer the reader to a few of the most important works on 
the family. Pierre Huber's Traite des mecurs des fourmis indigenes 
(Geneve, 1810) is the most famous of the older memoirs. H. W. 
Bates, A Naturalist on the Amazons; T. Belt, A Naturalist in 
Nicaragua; H. C. McCook, Agricultural Ant of Texas (Philadelphia, 
1880); and A. M oiler's paper in Botan. Afitt. aus den Tropen, 
(1893), contain classical observations on American species. Sir T. 
Lubbock's (Lord Avebury) Ants, Bees and Wasps (London, 1882), 
dealing with British and European species, has been followed by 
numerous important papers by A. Forel and C. Emery in various 
Swiss and German periodicals, and especially by C. Janet in his 
tudes sur Us fourmis, Us guipes et Us abeHUs (Paris, &c., 1893- 
1904). Forel (Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. xlvii., 1893, Journ. Bomnay N. H. 
Soc. 1900-1903, and Biologia Cent. Americana) and Emery (Zool. 
Jahrb. Syst. viii., 1896) have written on the classification of the 
Formicidae. Among recent American writers on habit may be 
mentioned W. M. Wheeler (American Naturalist, 1900-1902) and 
A. M. Fielde (Proc. Acad. Sci. Philadelphia, 1901); E. Wasmann 
(Kritisckes Veneichniss der myrmecophilen und termitophilen Arthro- 
poden, Berlin, 1894, and 3"" Congres Intern. Zool. 1895) is the great 
authority on ant-guests and associates. D. Sharp's general account 
of ants in the Cambridge Nat. Hist. (vol. vi., 1898) is excellent. For 
discussions on intelligence see A. Bethe, Journ. f. d. ges. Physiol. 
Ixx. (1898); Wasmann, Die psychischen Fdhigkeiten der Ameisen 
(Stuttgart, 1899) ; C. LI. Morgan, Animal Behaviour (London, 1900.) 

(G. H. C.) 

ANTAE (a Lat. plural word, possibly from anU, before), an 
architectural term given to slightly projecting pilaster strips 
which terminate the winged walls of the naos of a Greek temple. 
They owe their origin to the vertical posts of timber employed 
in the primitive palaces or temples of Greece, as at Tiryns and in 
the Heraeum at Olympia, to carry the roof timbers, as no reliance 
could be placed on the walls built with unburnt brick or in rubble 
masonry with clay mortar. When between these winged walls 
there are columns to carry the architrave, so as to form a porch, 
the latter is said to be in-antis. (See TEMPLE.) 

ANTAEUS, in Greek mythology, a giant of Libya, the son of 
Poseidon and Gaea. He compelled all strangers passing through 
the country to wrestle with him, and as, when thrown, he derived 
fresh strength from each successive contact with his mother 
earth, he proved invincible. With the skulls of those whom he 
had slain he built a temple to his father. Heracles, in combat 
with him, discovered the source of his strength, and lifting him 
up from the earth crushed him to death (Apollodorus ii. 5; 
Hyginus, Fab. 31). The struggle between Antaeus and Heracles 
is a favourite subject in ancient sculpture. 

ANTALCIDAS, Spartan soldier and diplomatist. In 393 (or 
392 B.C.) he was sent to Tiribazus, satrap of Sardis, to undermine 
the friendly relations then existing between Athens and Persia 
by offering to recognize Persian claims to the whole of Asia Minor. 
The Athenians sent an embassy under Conon to counteract his 
efforts. Tiribazus, who was favourable to Sparta, threw Conon 
into prison, but Artaxerxes II. (Mnemon) disapproved and 
recalled his satrap. In 388 Antalcidas, then commander of the 



Spartan fleet, accompanied Tiribazus to the Persian court, and 
secured the active assistance of Persia against Athens. The 
success of his naval operations in the neighbourhood of the 
Hellespont was such that Athens was glad to accept terms of 
peace (the " Peace of Antalcidas "), by which (i) the whole of 
Asia Minor, with the islands of Clazomenae and Cyprus, was 
recognized as subject to Persia, (2) all other Greek cities so far 
as they were not under Persian rule were to be independent, 
except Lemnos, Imbros and Scyros, which were to belong, as 
formerly, to the Athenians. The terms were announced to the 
Greek envoys at Sardis in the winter 387-386, and were finally 
accepted by Sparta in 386. Antalcidas continued in favour with 
Artaxerxes, until the annihilation of Spartan supremacy at 
Leuctra diminished his influence. A final mission to Persia, 
probably in 367, was a failure, and Antalcidas, deeply chagrined 
and fearful of the consequences, is said to have starved himself 
to death. (See^SpARTA.) 

ANTANANARIVO, i.e. "town of a thousand" (Fr. spelling 
Tananarive), the capital of Madagascar, situated centrally as 
regards the length of the island, but only about 90 m. distant 
from the eastern coast, in 18 55' S., 47 30' E. It is 135 m. 
W.S.W. of Tamatave, the principal seaport of the island, with 
which it is connected by railway, and for about 60 m. along the 
coast lagoons, a service of small steamers. The city occupies a 
commanding position, being chiefly built on the summit and slopes 
of a long and narrow rocky ridge, which extends north and south 
for about i\ m., dividing to the north in a Y-shape, and rising at 
its highest point to 690 ft. above the extensive rice plain to the 
west, which is itself 4060 ft. above sea-level. For long only the 
principal village of the Hova chiefs, Antananarivo advanced 
in importance as those chiefs made themselves sovereigns of 
the greater part of Madagascar, until it became a town of some 
80,000 inhabitants. Until 1869 all buildings within the city 
proper were of wood or rush, but even then it possessed several 
timber palaces of considerable size, the largest being 120 ft. 
high. These crown the summit of the central portion of the ridge ; 
and the largest palace, with its lofty roof and towers, is the most 
conspicuous object from every point of view. Since the intro- 
duction of stone and brick, the whole city has been rebuilt and 
now contains numerous structures of some architectural pre- 
tension, the royal palaces, the houses formerly belonging to the 
prime minister and nobles, the French residency, the Anglican 
and Roman Catholic cathedrals, several stone churches, as well 
as others of brick, colleges, schools, hospitals, courts of justice 
and other government buildings, and hundreds of good dwelling- 
houses. Since the French conquest in 1895 good roads have been 
constructed throughout the city, broad flights of steps connect 
places too steep for the formation of carriage roads, and the 
central space, called Andohalo, has become a handsome place, 
with walks and terraces, flower-beds and trees. A small park has 
been laid out near the residency, and the planting of trees and 
the formation of gardens in various parts of the city give it a 
bright and attractive appearance. Water is obtained from 
springs at the foot of the hill, but it is proposed to bring an 
abundant supply from the river Ikopa, which skirts the capital 
to the south and west. The population, including that of the 
suburbs, is 69,000 (1907). The city is guarded by two forts 
built on hills to the east and south-west respectively. Including 
an Anglican and a Roman Catholic cathedral, there are about 
fifty churches in the city and its suburbs, as well as a Mahom- 
medan mosque. (J. Si.*) 

'ANTARA IBN SHADDAD, Arabian poet and warrior of the 
6th century, was famous both for his poetry and his adventurous 
life. His chief poem is contained in the Mo'allakdt. The account 
of his life forms the basis of a long and extravagant romance. 
His father Shaddad was a soldier, his mother Zabuba a negro 
slave. Neglected at first, he soon claimed attention and respect 
for himself, and by his remarkable personal qualities and courage 
in battle he gained his freedom and the acknowledgment of his 
father. He took part in the great war between the related 
tribes of Abs and Dhubyan, which began over a contest of 
horses and was named after them the war of Dahis and GhabrS. 



ANTARCTIC ANTELOPE 



He died in a fight against the tribe of Tai. His poems, which 
are chiefly concerned with fighting or with his love for Abla, 
are published in \V. Ahlwardt's Tke Divans of Ike si* ancient 
ArMc Poets (London, 1870); they have also been published 
separately at Beirut (1888). As regards their genuineness, cf. 
W. Ahlwardt's Bemerknngen Uber die Atcktkeit dor alien orobi- 
scke*GrdukU(Gniis*M, iSyjJ.pp.soff. The Romance of Ant or 
(SIrat 'Antar ibn Shaddad) is a work which was long handed 
down by oral tradition only, has grown to immense proportions 
and has been published in 32 vols. at Cairo, 1307 (A.D. 1889), 
and in 10 vols. at Beirut, 1871. It was partly translated by 
Terrick Hamilton under the title 'Antar, a Bedoueen Romance 
(4 vols., London, 1820). 

For an account of the poet and his works see H. Thorbecket, 
Antarak, tin vorulamiuker Dichter (Leipzig. 1867), and cf. the Book 
of Sonts (tee AfltLKARAj J. vol. vii. pp. 148-153. (G. W. T.) 

ANTARCTIC (Gr. dirl, opposite, and &pxrot, the Bear, the 
northern constellation of Una Major), the epithet applied to 
the region (including both the ocean and the lands) round the 
South Pole. The Antarctic circle is drawn at 66 30' S., but 
polar conditions of climate, &c., extend considerably north of 
the area thus enclosed. (See POLAR REGIONS.) 

ANTEATER, a term applied to several mammals, but (zoo- 
logically at any rate) specially indicating the tropical American 
anteaters of the family Uyrmecopkagidae (see EDENTATA). 
The typical and largest representative of the group is the great 
anteater or ant-bear (Myrmecopkagajubata) , an animal measuring 
4 ft. in length without the tail, and 2 ft in height at the shoulder. 
Its prevailing colour is grey, with a broad black band, bordered 
with white, commencing on the chest, and passing obliquely 
over the shoulder, diminishing gradually in breadth as it ap- 
proaches the loins, where it ends in a point. It is extensively 
distributed in the tropical parts of South and Central America, 
frequenting low swampy savannas, along the banks of rivers, 
and the depths of the humid forests, but is nowhere abundant. 
Its food consists mainly of termites, to obtain which it opens 
their nests with its powerful sharp anterior claws, and as the 
insects swarm to the damaged part of their dwelling, it draws 
them into its mouth by means of its long, flexible, rapidly 
moving tongue covered with glutinous saliva. The great 
anteater is terrestrial in habits, not burrowing underground like 
armadillos. Though generally an inoffensive animal, when 
attacked it can defend itself vigorously and effectively with its 
sabre-like anterior claws. The female produces a single young 
at a birth. The tamandua anteaters, as typified by Tamandua 
(or UroUptes) tetradactyla, are much smaller than the great 
anteater, and differ essentially from it in their habits, being 
mainly arboreal. They inhabit the dense primeval forests 
of South and Central America. The usual colour is yellowish- 
white, with a broad black lateral band, covering nearly the whole 
of the side of the body. 

The little or two-toed anteater (Cyclopes or Cycloturus didac- 
lylus) is a native of the hottest parts of South and Central 
America, and about the size of a rat, of a general yellowish colour, 
and exclusively arboreal in its habits. The name scaly anteater 
is applied to the pangolin (q.v.) ; the banded anteater (Myrme- 
cobius fasciatus) is a marsupial, and the spiny anteater (Echidna) 
is one of the monotremes (see MARSUPIAUA and MONOTREIIATA). 

ANTE-CHAPEL, the term given to that portion of a chapel 
which lies on the western side of the choir screen. In some of 
the colleges at Oxford and Cambridge the ante-chapel is carried 
north and south across the west end of the chapel, constituting 
a western transept or narthex. This model, based on Merton 
College chapel (i3th century), of which only chancel and tran- 
sept were built though a nave was projected, was followed at 
Wadham, New and Magdalen Colleges, Oxford, in the new 
chapel of St John's College, Cambridge, and in Eton College. 
In Jesus College, Cambridge, the transept and a short nave 
constitute the ante-chapel; in Clare College an octagonal 
vestibule serves the same purpose; and in Christ's, Trinity and 
King's Colleges, Cambridge, the ante-chapel is a portion of the 
main chapel, divided off from the chancel by the choir screen. 



ANTE-CHOIR, the term given to the space enclosed in a 
church between the outer gate or railing of the rood screen tad 
the door of the screen; sometimes there is only one rail, gate or 
door, but in Westminster Abbey it is equal in depth to one bay 
of the nave. The ante-choir is also called the " fore choir." 

ANTE-PI XAB (from Lat. anltfaett, to fasten before), the 
vertical blocks which terminate the covering tiles of the roof of 
a Greek temple; as spaced they take the place of the cymatium 
and form a cresting along the sides of the temple. The face of 
the ante-fixac was richly carved with the anthemion (f.t.) 
ornament. 

ANTELOPE, a zoological name which, so far as can be deter- 
mined, appears to trace its origin, through the L.l\n,loPantkolop$, 
the old Coptic, and Antholops, the late Greek name of the fabled 
unicorn. Its adoption by the languages of Europe cannot 
apparently be traced farther back than the 4th century of our 
era, at which date it was employed to designate an imaginary 
animal living on the banks of the Euphrates. By the earlier 
English naturalists, and afterwards by Buff on, it was, however, 
applied to the Indian blackbuck, which is thus entitled to rank 
as the antelope. It follows that the subfamily typified by this 
species, in which are included the gazelles, is the one to which 
alone the term antelopes should be applied if it were employed 
in a restricted and definable sense. 

Although most people have a general vague idea of what 
constitutes an " antelope," yet the group of nimal thus 
designated is one that does not admit of accurate limitations or 
definition. Some, for instance, may consider that the chamois 
and the so-called white goat of the Rocky Mountains are entitled 
to be included in the group; but this is not the view held by the 
authors of the Book of Antelopes referred to below; and, as a 
matter of fact, the term is only a vague designation for a number 
of more or less distinct groups of hollow-homed ruminants 
which do not come under the designation of cattle, sheep or 
goats; and in reality there ought to be a distinct English group- 
name for each subfamily into which " antelopes " are sub- 
divided. 

The great majority of antelopes, exclusive of the doubtful 
chamois group (which, however, will be included in the present 
article), are African, although the gazelles are to a considerable 
extent an Asiatic group. They include ruminants varying in 
size from a hare to an ox; and comprise about 150 species, 
although this number is subject to considerable variation accord- 
ing to personal views as to the limitations of species and races. 
No true antelopes are American, the prongbuck (Antilocapra), 
which is commonly called " antelope " in the United States, 
representing a distinct group; while, as already mentioned, the 
Rocky Mountain or white goat stands on the borderland between 
antelopes and goats. 

The first group, or Tragdaphinae, is represented by the African 
elands ( Taurotragus) , bongo (Boocercus) , kudus (Strepsiceros) and 
bushbucks or harnessed antelopes (Tragelapkus), and the Indian 
nilgai (Boselaphus) . Except in the bongo and elands, horns are 
present only in the males, and these are angulated and generally 
spirally twisted, and without rings. The muzzle is naked, small 
glands are present on the face below the eyes, and the tail is 
comparatively long. The colours are often brilliant; white 
spots and stripes being prevalent The harnessed antelopes, or 
bushbucks, are closely allied to the kudus, from which they chiefly 
differ by the spiral formed by the horns generally having fewer 
turns. They include some of the most brilliantly coloured of all 
antelopes; the ornamentation taking the form of vertical white 
lines and rows of spots. Usually the sexes differ in colour. 
Whereas most of the species have hoofs of normal shape, in some, 
such as the nakong, or situtunga (Tragelapkus sptkei), these are 
greatly elongated, in order to be suited for walking in soft mud, 
and these have accordingly been separated as Limnotragus. The 
last-named species spends most of its time in water, where it may 
be observed not infrequently among the reeds with all but its 
head and horns submerged. The true or smaller bushbucks. 
represented by the widely spread Tragelapkus script**, with 
several local races (fig. i) are sometimes separated as SyMcapr*, 



9 o 



ANTELOPE 



leaving the genus Tragelaphus to be represented by the larger 
T. angasi and its relatives. The genus Strepsiceros is represented 
by the true or great kudu (S. capensis or S. Strepsiceros), fig. 2, 
ranging from the Cape to Somaliland, and the smaller S. imberbis 
of North-East Africa, which has no throat-fringe. The large and 
brightly coloured bongo (Boocercus euryceros) of the equatorial 
forest-districts serves in some respects to connect the bushbucks 
with the elands, having horns in both sexes, and a tufted tail, 

but a brilliant orange coat 
with vertical white stripes. Still 
larger are the elands, of which 
the typical Taurotragus oryx of 
the Cape is uniformly sandy- 
coloured, although stripes ap- 
pear in the more northern T. 
o. livingstonei; while the black- 
necked eland (T. derbianus) of 
Senegambia and the Bahr-el- 
Ghazal district is a larger and 
more brilliantly coloured ani- 
mal. The small horns and 
bluish-grey colour of the adult 
bulls serve to distinguish the 




FIG. i. Female Bushbuck 
(Tragelaphus scriptus). 



Indian nilgai (q.v.), Boselaphus tragocamelus, from the other 
members of the subfamily. 

The second group, which is mainly African, but also repre- 
sented in Syria, is that of the Hippotraginae, typified by the 
sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) and roan antelope(-ff . equinus) , 
but also including the oryxes (Oryx) and addax. These are for 
the most part large antelopes, with long cylindrical horns, which 
are present in both sexes, hairy muzzles, no face-glands, long 
tufted tails and tall thick molars of the ox-type. IA Hippo- 
tragus the stout and thickly ringed horns rise vertically from a 
ridge above the eyes at an obtuse angle to the plane of the lower 
part of the face, and then sweep backwards in a bold curve; 
while theie are tufts of long white hairs near the eyes. The sable 
antelope is a southern species in which both sexes are black or 




FIG. 2. Male Kudu (Strepsiceros capensis). 

blackish when adult; while the lighter-coloured and larger roan 
antelope has a much wider distribution. The South African 
blauwbok (H. leucophaeus) is extinct. In the addax (Addax 
nasomaculatus), which is a distinct species common to North 
Africa and Syria, the ringed horns form an open spiral 
ascending in the plane of the face, and there is long, shaggy, 
dark hair on the fore-quarters in winter. The various species 
of oryx differ from Hippotragus by the absence of the white 
eye-tufts, and by the horns sloping backwards in the plane of 
the face. In the South African gemsbuck (Oryx gazella), fig. 3, 
the East African beisa or true oryx (0. beisa), and the white 
Arabian (O. beatrix) the horns are straight, but in the North 
African white oryx or algazel (O. leucoryx or O. algazal) they are 



scimitar-shaped; the colour of this species being white and 
pale chestnut (see ADDAX, ORYX, and SABLE ANTELOPE). 

The third subfamily is the Antilopinae, the members of which 
have a much wider geographical range than either of the fore- 
going groups. The subfamily is characterized by the narrow 
crowns of the molars, which are similar to those of sheep, and 
the hairy muzzle. Generally there are face-glands below the 
eyes; and the tail is moderate or short. Pits are present in 
the forehead of the skull, and the horns are ringed for part of 
their length, with a compressed base ; their form being often lyrate, 
but sometimes spiral. Lateral hoofs are generally present. 

Gazelles (Gazella), which form by far the largest genus of the 
subfamily, are inhabitants of open and frequently more or less 
desert districts. They are mostly of a sandy colour, with dark 
and light markings on the face, and often a dark band on the 
flanks. The horns are more or less lyrate,and generally developed 
in both sexes; there are frequently brushes of hair on the knees. 
Gazelles may be divided in to groups. The one to which the North 
African G. dorcas belongs is characterized by the presence of 




FIG. 3. Gemsbuck, or Cape Oryx (Oryx gazella). 

lyrate or sub-lyrate horns in both sexes, and by the white of 
the buttocks not extending on to the haunches. Nearly allied 
is the group including the Indian G. bennetti and the Arabian 
G. arabica, in which the horns have a somewhat S-shaped 
curvature in profile. In the group represented by the African 
G. grand, G. Ihomsoni, G. mohr, &c., the white of the buttocks 
often sends a prolongation on to the flanks, the horns are long 
and the size is large. Lastly, the Central Asian G. gutttirosa, 
G. subgutturosa and G. picticaudata form a group in which the 
females are hornless and the face-markings inconspicuous or 
wanting. 

The South African springbuck (Anlidorcas euchore) is nearly 
related to the gazelles, from which it is distinguished by the 
presence on the middle line of the loins of an evertible pouch, 
lined with long white hairs capable of erection. It has also one 
premolar tooth less in the lower jaw. Formerly these beautiful 
antelopes existed in countless numbers on the plains of South 
Africa, and were in the habit of migrating in droves which com- 
pletely filled entire valleys. Now they are comparatively rare. 

The dibatag or Clarke's gazelle (Ammodorcas clarkei), of Somali- 
land, forms a kind of connecting link between the true gazelles 
and the gerenuk, this being especially shown in the skull. The 
face has the ordinary gazelle-markings; but the rather short 
horns which are wanting in the female have a peculiar upward 
and forward curvature, unlike that obtaining in the gazelles 



ANTELOPE 



and somewhat resembling that of the recdbuck. The neck it 
longer and more slender than in ordinary gazelles, and the tail 
i- likewise relatively long. Although local, these animals are 
fairly common in the interior of Somaliland, where they arc 
known by the name of dibatag. In running, the head and neck 
are thrown backwards, while the tail is turned forwards over 
the back. 

The East African gcrcnuk (q.v.), or Waller's gazelle (Litho- 
frdiiiiis walleri), of which two races have been named, is a very 
remarkable ruminant, distinguished not only by its exceedingly 
elongated neck and limbs, but also by the peculiar hooked form 
of the very massive horns of the bucks, the dense structure and 
straight profile of the skull, and the extreme slcndcrness of the 
lower jaw. 

Astillmoreaberrant gazelle is a small North-EastAfricanspecics 
known as the bcira (Dorcatragus melanotis), with very short horns, 
large hoofs and a general appearance recalling that of some of the 
members of the subfamily Neotraginae, although in other respects 
gazelle-like. The blackbuck ( A ntilope cervicapra or A . besoartica) 
of India, a species taking its name from the deep black coat 
assumed by the adult bucks, and easily recognized by the graceful, 
spirally twisted horns ornamenting the heads of that sex, is 
now the sole representative of the genus Anlilope, formerly 
taken to embrace the whole of the true antelopes. Large face- 
glands are characteristic of the species, which inhabits the open 
plains of India in large herds. They leap high in the air, like 
the springbuck, when on the move. 

With the palla (q.v.), or impa.\a.(Aepyceros melampus), we reach 
an exclusively African genus, characterized by the lyrate horns 
of the bucks, the absence of lateral hoofs, and the presence of 
a pair of glands with black tufts of hair on the hind-feet. 

The sheep-like saiga (q.v.) , Saiga tatarica, of the Kirghiz steppes 
stands apart from all other antelopes by its curiously puffed 
and trunk-like nose, which can be wrinkled up when the animal 
is feeding and has the nostrils opening downwards. More or 
less nearly related to the saiga is the chiru (q.v.), Panlholops 
kodgsoni, of Tibet, characterized by the long upright black horns 
of the bucks, and the less convex nose, in which the nostrils 
open anteriorly instead of downwards. 

The Neotraginae (or Nanotraginae) form an exclusively 
African group of small-sized antelopes divided into several, 
for the most part nearly related, genera. Almost the only 
characters they possess in common are the short and spike-like 
horns of the bucks, which are ringed at the base, with smooth 
tips, and the large size of the face-gland, which opens by a 
circular aperture. Neotragus is represented by the pigmy royal 
antelope (N. pygmaeus) of Guinea -Hylarnus includes one species 
from Cameroon and a second from the Semliki forest; while 
Nesolragus comprises the East African suni antelopes, ff. 
moschatus and N. livingstonianus. All three might, however, 
well be included in Neotragus. The royal antelope is the smallest 
of the Bovidae. 

The steinbok (Rhaphiceros campestris) and the grysbok (R. 
melanotis) are the best-known representatives of a group char- 
acterized by the vertical direction of the horns and the small 
gland-pit in the skull; lateral hoofs being absent in the first- 
named and present in the second. A bare gland-patch behind 
the ear serves to distinguish the oribis or ourebis, as typified by 
Oribia monlana of the Cape; lateral hoofs being present and 
the face-pit large. 

From all the preceding the tiny dik-diks (Madoqua) of North- 
East Africa differ by their hairy noses, expanded in some species 
into short trunks; while the widely spread klipspringer (q.v.), 
Oreotragus saiiator, with its several local races, is unfailingly 
distinguishable by its rounded blunt hoofs and thick, brittle, 
golden-flecked hair. 

In some respects connecting the last group with the Cerri- 
caprinoe is the rhebok, or vaal-rhebok (Pelta capreolus), a grey 
antelope of the size of a roebuck, with small upright horns in the 
bucks recalling those of the last group, and small lateral hoofs, 
but no face-glands. In size and several structural features it 
approximates to the more typical Certitaprinoe, as represented 



by the recdbuck (Cervicapra), and the watcrbucks and kob* 
(Cobus or Kobm), all of which are likewise African. These are 
medium-sized or large antelopes with naked muzzles, narrow 
sheep-like upper molars, fairly long tails, rudimentary or no 
face-glands, and pits in the frontal bones of the skull. Rcedbuck 
(q.v.), or rictbok (Cenicapra), arc foxy-red antelopes ranging 
in size from a fallow-deer to a roe, with thick bushy tails, for- 
wardly curving black horns, and a bare patch of glandular skin 
behind each ear. They keep to open country near water. The 
watcrbuck (q.v.), Cobus, on the other hand, actually seek refuge 
from pursuit in the water. They have heavily fringed necks, 
tufted tails, long lyrate horns in the bucks (fig. 4) but no glandular 
ear-patches. The true watcrbuck (C. eliipsiprymnut), and the 
defassa or sing-sing (C. defassa), are the two largest species, 
equal in size to red deer, and grey or reddish in colour. Of the 
smaller forms or kobs, C. maria and C. leucolis of the swamps of 
the White Nile arc characterized by the black coats of the adult 
bucks; the West African C. cob, and its East African repre- 
sentative C. thomasi, are wholly red antelopes of the size of 




FIG. 4. Waterbuck (Cobus cllipsiprymnus). 

roedeer; the lichi or lechwe (C. lichi) is characterized by its 
long horns, black fore-legs and superior size; while the puku 
(C. vardoni), which is also a swamp-loving species from South- 
Central Africa, differs from the three preceding species by the 
fore-legs being uniformly foxy. 

The duikers, or duikerboks (Cephalophus) , of Africa, which 
range in size from a large hare to a fallow-deer, typify the sub- 
family Cephalophinae, characterized by the spike-like horns of 
the bucks, the elongated aperture of the face-glands, the naked 
muzzle, the relatively short tail, and the square-crowned upper 
molars; lateral hoofs being present. In. the duikers themselves 
the single pair of horns is set in the midst of a tuft of long hairs, 
and the face-gland opens in a long naked line on the side of the 
face above the muzzle. The group is represented in India by the 
chousingha or four-horned antelope (Tetraceros quadrifornis) . 
generally distinguished by the feature from which it takes its 
name (see DUIKER). 

The last section of the true antelopes is the Bubalinae, repre- 
sented by the hartebeest (q.v.), Bubalis, blesbok and sassaby 
(Damaliscus), and the gnu (q.v.) or wildebeest (Connochaetes, also 
called Caloblepas), all being African with the exception of one or 
two hartebeests which range into Syria. All these are large and 
generally more or less uniformly coloured antelopes with horns 
in both sexes, long and more or less hairy tails, high withers, 
small face-glands, naked muzzles, tall, narrow upper molars, and 
the absence of pits in the frontal bones. The long face, high 
crest for the horns, which are ringed, lyrate and more or less 
strongly angulated, and the moderately long tail, are the 
distinctive features of the hartebeests. They are large red 



ANTEMNAE ANTENOR 



antelopes (fig. 5) , often with black markings on the face and limbs. 
In Damaliscus, which includes, among many other species, the 
blesbok and bontehpk (D. albifrons and D. pygargus) and the 
sassaby or bastard hartebeest (D. lunatus), the face is shorter, 
and the horns straighter and set on a less elevated crest. The 
colour, too, of these antelopes tends in many cases to purple, 
with white markings. From the hartebeest the gnus (fig. 6) 




FIG. 5. Cape Hartebeest (Bubalis coma). 

differ by their smooth and outwardly or downwardly directed 
horns, broad bristly muzzles, heavy manes and long horse-like 
tails. There are two chief types, the white-tailed gnu or black 
wildebeest (Connochaetes gnu) of South Africa, now nearly 
extinct (fig. 6), and the brindled gnu, or blue wildebeest (C. 
taurinus), which, with some local variation, has a large range in 
South and East Africa. 







FIG. 6. White-tailed Gnu, or Black Wildebeest (Connochaetes gnu) . 

In concluding this survey of living antelopes, reference may 
be made to the subfamily Rupicaprinae (typified by the European 
chamois), the members of which, as already stated, are in some 
respects intermediate between antelopes and goats. They are 
all small or medium-sized mountain ruminants, for the most part 
European and Asiatic, but with one North American repre- 
sentative. They are heavily built ruminants, with horns of 
nearly equal size in both sexes, short tapering tails, large hoofs, 
narrow goat-like upper molars, and usually small face-glands. 



The horns are generally rather small, upright, ringed at the base, 
and more or less curved backwards, but in the takin they are 
gnu-like. The group is represented by the European chamois 
or gemse (Rupicapra Iragus or R. rupicapra), broadly distin- 
guished by its well-known hook-like horns, and the Asia tic gorals 
(Urotragus) and serows (TV emorhaedus) , which are represented by 
numerous species ranging from Tibet, the Himalaya, and China, 
to the Malay Peninsula and islands, being in the two latter areas 
the sole representatives of both antelopes and goats. In the 
structure of its horns the North American white Rocky Mountain 
goat (Oreamnus) is very like a serow, from which it differs by 
its extremely short cannon-bones. In the latter respect this 
ruminant resembles the takin (Budorcas) of Tibet, which, as 
already mentioned, has horns recalling those of the white-tailed 
gnu. Possibly the Arctic musk-ox (Ovibos) may be connected 
with the takin by means of certain extinct ruminants, such as 
the North American Pleistocene Euceratherium and the European 
Pliocene Criot/terium (see CHAMOIS, GORAL, SEROW, ROCKY 
MOUNTAIN GOAT and TAKIN). 

Extinct Antelopes. Only a few lines can be devoted to extinct 
antelopes, the earliest of which apparently date from the Euro- 
pean Miocene. An antelope from the Lower Pliocene of Northern 
India known as Bubalis, or Damaliscus, palaeindicus indicates 
the occurrence of the hartebeest group in that country. Cobus 
also occurs in the same formation, as does likewise Hippotyagus. 
Palaeoryx from the corresponding horizon in Greece and Samos 
is to some extent intermediate between Hippotragus and Oryx. 
Gazelles are common in the Miocene and Pliocene of both Europe 
and Asia. Elands and kudus appear to have been represented 
in India during the Pliocene; the European Palaeoreas of the 
same age seems to be intermediate between the two, while 
Protragelaphus is evidently another European representative of 
the group. Helicophora is another spiral-horned European 
Pliocene antelope, but of somewhat doubtful affinity; the same 
being the case with the large Criotherwm of the Samos Pliocene, 
in which the short horns are curiously twisted. As already 
stated, there is a possibility of this latter ruminant being allied 
both to the takin and the musk-ox. Palaeotragus and Tragoceros, 
of the Lower Pliocene of Greece, at one time regarded as antelopes, 
are now known to be ancestors of the okapi. 

For antelopes in general, see P. L. Sclater and O. Thomas, The 
Book of Antelopes (4 vols., London, 1894-1900). (R. L.*) 

ANTEMNAE (Lat. ante amnem, sc. Anienem; Varro, Ling. 
Lot. v. 28), an ancient village of Latium, situated on the W. of 
the Via Salaria, 2 m. N. of Rome, where the Anio falls into the 
Tiber. It is said to have been conquered by Romulus after the 
rape of the Sabine women, and to have assisted the Tarquins. 
Certainly it soon lost its independence, and in Strabo's time was 
a mere village. The site is one of great strength, and is now 
occupied by a fort, in the construction of which traces of the outer 
walls and of huts, and several wells and a cistern, all belonging 
to the primitive village, were discovered, and also the remains 
of a villa of the end of the Republic. 

See T. Ashby in Papers of the British School at Rome, iii. 14. 

ANTENOR, an Athenian sculptor, of the latter part of the 
6th century B.C. He was the author of the group of the tyran- 
nicides Harmodius and Aristogeiton, set up by the Athenians on 
the expulsion of the Peisistratidae, and carried away to Persia 
by Xerxes. A basis with the signature of Antenor, son of 
Eumares, has been shown to belong to one of the dedicated 
female figures of archaic style which have been found on the 
Acropolis of Athens. 

See GREEK ART ; and E. A. Gardner's Handbook of Greek Sculpture, 
i. p. 182. 

ANTENOR, in Greek legend, one of the wisest of the Trojan 
elders and counsellors. He advised his fellow-townsmen to send 
Helen back to her husband, and showed himself not unfriendly 
to the Greeks and an advocate of peace. In the later story, 
according to Dares and Dictys, he was said to have treacherously 
opened the gates of Troy to the enemy; in return for which, at 
the general sack of the city, his house, distinguished by a panther's 
skin at the door, was spared by the victors. Afterwards, 



ANTEQUERA ANTHESTERIA 



93 



according to various versions of the legend, he cither rebuilt a 
city on the site of Troy, or settled at Cyrene, or became the 
founder of Patavium. 

Homer, Iliad, iii. 148. vii. 347: Horace. Epp. i. a. 9; Livy i. I ; 
Pindar, Pytkio, v. 83; Virgil. At*, i. 343. 

ANTEQUERA (the ancient Anlicaria), a town of southern 
Spain, in the province of Malaga; on the Bobadilla-Granada 
railway. Pop. (1000) 31,609. Antequera overlooks the fertile 
valley bounded on the S. by the Sierra de los Torcales, and on 
the N. by the river Guadalhorce. It occupies a commanding 
position, while the remains of its walls, and of a fine Moorish 
castle on a rock that overhangs the town, show how admirably 
its natural defences were supplemented by art. Besides several 
interesting churches and palaces, it contains a fine arch, erected 
in 1595 in honour of Philip II., and partly constructed of in- 
scribed Roman masonry. In the eastern suburbs there is one of 
the largest grave-mounds in Spain, said to be of prehistoric date, 
and with subterranean chambers excavated to a depth of 65 ft. 
The IV fu de los Enamorados, or " Lovers' Peak," is a conspicuous 
crag which owes its name to the romantic legend adapted by 
Robert Southey (1774-1843) in his Lailo and Manuel. Woollen 
fabrics are manufactured, and the sugar industry established in 
1800 employs several thousand hands; but the majority of the 
inhabitants are occupied by the trade in grain, fruit, wine and 
oil. Marble is quarried; and at El Torcal, 6 m. south, there is 
a very curious labyrinth of red marble rocks. Antequera was 
captured from the Moors in 1410, and became until 1492 one of 
the most important outposts of the Christian power in Spain. 

See C. Fernandez, Historic de Antequera. desde su fondacion 
(Malaga, 1842). 

ANTEROS, pope for some weeks at the end of the year 235. 
Me died on the 3rd of January 236. His original epitaph was 
discovered in the Catacombs. 

ANTHELION (late Gr. dvftjXios, opposite the sun), the 
luminous ring or halo sometimes seen in Alpine or polar regions 
surrounding the shadow of the head of an observer cast upon a 
bank of cloud or mist. The halo diminishes in brightness from 
the centre outwards, and is probably due to the diffraction of 
light. Under favourable conditions four concentric rings may 
be seen round the shadow of the observer's head, the outermost, 
which seldom appears, having an angular radius of 40. 

ANTHEM, derived from the Gr. (bri^wca, through the Saxon 
antefn, a word which originally had the same meaning as anti- 
phony (?..). It is now, however, generally restricted to a form 
of church music, particularly in the service of the Church of 
England, in which it is appointed by the rubrics to follow the 
third collect at both morning and evening prayer, " in choirs and 
places where they sing." It is just as usual in this place to have 
an ordinary hymn as an anthem, which is a more elaborate 
composition than the congregational hymns. Several anthems 
are included in the English coronation service. The words are 
selected from Holy Scripture or in some cases from the Liturgy, 
and the music is generally more elaborate and varied than that 
of psalm or hymn tunes. Anthems may be written for solo 
voices only, for the full choir, or for both, and according to this 
distinction are called respectively Verse, Full, and Full with Verse. 
Though the anthem of the Church of England is analogous to the 
motet of the Roman Catholic and Lutheran Churches, both being 
written for a trained choir and not for the congregation, it is as 
a musical form essentially English in its origin and development. 
The English school of musicians has from the first devoted its 
chief attention to this form, and scarcely a composer of any note 
can be named who has not written several good anthems. Tallis. 
Tye, Byrd, and Farrant in the i6th century; Orlando Gibbons, 
Blow, and Purcell in the I7th, and Croft, Boyce, James Kent, 
James Nares. Benjamin Cooke, and Samuel Arnold in the iSth 
were famous composers of anthems, and in more recent times 
the names are too numerous to mention. 

ANTHEMION (from the Gr. iavOiiuov. a flower), the conven- 
tional design of flower or leaf forms which was largely employed 
by the Greeks to decorate (i) the fronts of ante-fixae, (2) the 
upper portion of the stele or vertical tombstones, (3) the necking 



of the Ionic columns of the Krrrht hrum and its continuation as a 
decorative frieze on the walls of the tame, and (4) the cymatium 
of a cornice. Though generally known a* the honeysuckle 
ornament, from its resemblance to that flower, it* origin will be 
found in the flower of the acanthus plant. 

ANTHEM I US, Greek mathematician and architect, who pro- 
duced, under the patronage of Justinian (A.O. 532), the original 
and daring plans for the church of St Sophia in Constantinople, 
which strikingly displayed at once his knowledge and his ignor- 
ance. He was one of five brothers the sons of Stephanos, a 
physician of Tralles who were all more or less eminent in their 
respective departments. Dioscorus followed his father's pro- 
fession in his native place; Alexander became at Rome one of the 
most celebrated medical men of his time; Olympius was deeply 
versed in Roman jurisprudence; and Metrodorus was one of the 
distinguished grammarians of the great Eastern capital. It is 
related of Anthemius that, having a quarrel with his next-door 
neighbour Zeno, he annoyed him in two ways. First, he made a 
number of leathern tubes the ends of which he contrived to fix 
among the joists and flooring of a fine upper-room in which Zeno 
entertained his friends, and then subjected it to a miniature- 
earthquake by sending steam through the tubes. Secondly, he 
simulated thunder and lightning, the latter by flashing in Zeno's 
eyes an in tolerable light from a slightly hollowed mirror. Certain 
it is that he wrote a treatise on burning-glasses. A fragment of 
this was published under the title II*pi TapaOo^uv urixajftifiarwy 
by L. Dupuy in 1777, and also appeared in 1786 in the forty- 
second volume of the Hist, de FAcad. des Inicr. ; A. Westermann 
gave a revised edition of it in his Uapa&o^oypa<(>oi (Scriptora 
rerum mirabilium Graecf), 1839. In the course of constructions 
for surfaces to 'reflect to one and the same point (i) all rays in 
whatever direction passing through another point, (2) a set of 
parallel rays, Anthemius assumes a property of an ellipse not 
found in Apollonius (the equality of the angles subtended at a 
focus by two tangents drawn from a point), and (having given 
the focus and a double ordinate) he uses the focus and directrix to 
obtain any number of points on a parabola the first instance on 
record of the practical use of the directrix. 

On Anthemius generally, see Procopius, De Aedifit. i. i ; Agathias. 
Hist. v. 6-9; Gibbon's Decline and Fall, cap. xl. (T. L. H.) 

ANTHESTERIA, one of the four Athenian festivals in honour 
of Dionysus, held annually for three days ( 1 1 th-i 3th) in the month 
of Anthesterion (February-March). The object of the festival was 
to celebrate the maturing of the wine stored at the previous 
vintage, and the beginning of spring. On the first day, called 
Pithoigia (opening of the casks), libations were offered from the 
newly opened casks to the god of wine, all the household, includ- 
ing servants and slaves, joining in the festivities. The rooms and 
the drinking vessels in them were adorned with spring flowers, as 
were also the children over three years of age. The second day, 
named Choes (feast of beakers), was a time of merrymaking. The 
people dressed themselves gaily, some in the disguise of t hr 
mythical personages in the suite of Dionysus, and paid a round of 
visits to their acquaintances. Drinking clubs met to drink off 
matches, the winner being he who drained his cup most rapidly. 
Others poured libations on the tombs of deceased relatives. On 
the part of the state this day was the occasion of a peculiarly 
solemn and secret ceremony in one of the sanctuaries of Dionysus 
in the Lenaeum, which for the rest of the year was closed. The 
basilissa (or basilinna), wife of the archon basileus for the time, 
went through a ceremony of marriage to the wine god, in which 
she was assisted by fourteen Athenian matrons, called geraerae, 
chosen by the basileus and sworn to secrecy. The days on which 
the Pithoigia and Choes were celebrated were both regarded as 
6.iro4>pa.&tt (nefastt) and /uo/xu (" defiled "), necessitating ex- 
piatory libations; on them the souls of the dead came up from 
the underworld and walked abroad; people chewed leaves of 
whitethorn and besmeared their doors with tar to protect them- 
selves from evil. But at least in private circles the festive 
character of the ceremonies predominated. The third day was 
named Chylri (feast of pots, from xvrpa!, a pot), a festival of the 
dead. Cooked pulse was offered to Hermes, in his capacity of a 



94 



ANTRIM ANTHOLOGY 



god of the lower world, and to the souls of the dead. Although 
no performances were allowed at the theatre, a sort of rehearsal 
took place, at which the players for the ensuing dramatic festival 
were selected. 

The name Anthesteria, according to the account of it given 
above, is usually connected with av6os (" flower," or the 
" bloom " of the grape), but A. W. Verrall (Journal of Hellenic 
Studies, xx., 1900, p. 115) explains it as a feast of " revocation" 
(from avaSfaaaaBai, to " pray back " or " up "), at which the 
ghosts of the dead were recalled to the land of the living (cp. the 
Roman mundus patet). J. E. Harrison (ibid. 100,109, an< i Prolego- 
mena), regarding the Anthesteria as primarily a festival of all 
souls, the object of which was the expulsion of ancestral ghosts 
by means of placation, explains mdoiyla as the feast of the 
opening of the graves (iriflos meaning a large urn used for burial 
purposes), x as the day of libations, and xirrpot as the day of 
the grave-holes (not " pots," which is \vrpai), in point of 
time really anterior to the indotyia.. E. Rohde and M. P. Nilsson, 
however, take the \\npoi to mean " water vessels," and connect 
the ceremony with the Hydrophoria, a libation festival to pro- 
pitiate the dead who had perished in the flood of Deucalion. 

See F. Hiller von Gartringen in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencydopddie 

fs.v.) ; J. Girard in Daremberg and Saglio, Dictionnaire des antiquites 
s.v. "Dionysia"); and F. A. Voigt in Roscher's Lexikon der 
Mythologie (s.v. " Dionysos"); J. E. Harrison, Prolegomena to the 
Study of Greek Religion (1903); M. P. Nilsson, Stitdia de Dionysiis 
Atticis (1900) and Griechische Feste (1906); G. F. Schomann, 
Griechische Alterthumer, ii. (ed. I. H. Lipsius, 1902), p. 516; A. 
Momrasen, Feste der Stadt Athen (1898); E. Rohde, Psyche (4th ed., 
1907), p. 237. 

ANTRIM THE IBERIAN, a notable figure in the ecclesiastical 
history of Rumania. A Georgian by birth, he came to Rumania 
early in the second half of the iyth century, as a simple monk. 
He became bishop of Ramnicu in 1705, and in 1708 archbishop 
of Walachia. Taking a leading part in the political movements of 
the time, he came into conflict with the newly appointed Greek 
hospodars, and was exiled to Rumelia. But on his crossing the 
Danube in 1716 he was thrown into the water and drowned, 
as it is alleged, at the instigation of the prince of Walachia. 
He was a man of great talents and spoke and wrote many 
Oriental and European languages. Though a foreigner, he soon 
acquired a thorough knowledge of Rumanian, and was instru- 
mental in helping to introduce that language into the church 
as its official language. He was a master printer and an artist 
of the first order. He cut the wood blocks for the books which 
he printed in Tirgovishtea, Ramnicu, Snagov and Bucharest. 
He was also the first to introduce Oriental founts of type into 
Rumania, and he printed there the first Arabic missal for the 
Christians of the East (Ramnicu, 1702). He also trained 
Georgians in the art of printing, and cut the type with which 
under his pupil Mihail Ishtvanovitch they printed the first 
Georgian Gospels (Tiflis, 1709). A man of great oratorical 
power, Anthim delivered a series of sermons (Didahii), and some 
of his pastoral letters are models of style and of language as 
well as of exact and beautiful printing. He also completed a 
whole corpus of lectionaries, missals, gospels, &c. 

See M. Gaster, Chrestomathie roumaine (1881), and " Gesch. 
d. rumamschen Litteratur," in Grober, Grundriss d. rom. Philo- 
logie, vol. ii. (1899); and E. Picot, Notice sur Anthim d'lvir (Paris, 
1886). (M. G.) 

ANTHOLOGY. The term " anthology," literally denoting 
a garland or collection of flowers, is figuratively applied to any 
selection of literary beauties, and especially to that great body 
of fugitive poetry, comprehending about 4500 pieces, by upwards 
of 300 writers, which is commonly known as the Greek Anthology. 

Literary History of the Greek Anthology. The art of occasional 
poetry had been cultivated in Greece from an early period, 
less, however, as the vehicle of personal feeling, than as the 
recognized commemoration of remarkable individuals or events, 
on sepulchral monuments and votive offerings. Such com- 
positions were termed epigrams, i.e. inscriptions. The modern 
use of the word is a departure from the original sense, which 
simply indicated that the composition was intended to be en- 
graved or inscribed. Such a composition must necessarily be 



brief, and the restraints attendant upon its publication concurred 
with the simplicity of Greek taste in prescribing conciseness of 
expression, pregnancy of meaning, purity of diction and single- 
ness of thought, as the indispensable conditions of excellence 
in the epigrammatic style. The term was soon extended to 
any piece by which these conditions were fulfilled. The transition 
from the monumental to the purely literary character of the 
epigram was favoured by the exhaustion of more lofty forms of 
poetry, the general increase, from the general diffusion of culture, 
of accomplished writers and tasteful readers, but, above all, 
by the changed political circumstances of the times, which in- 
duced many who would otherwise have engaged in public affairs 
to addict themselves to literary pursuits. These causes came 
into full operation during the Alexandrian era, in which we 
find every description of epigrammatic composition perfectly 
developed. About 60 B.C., the sophist and poet, Meleager of 
Gadara, undertook to combine the choicest effusions of his 
predecessors into a single body of fugitive poetry. Collections 
of monumental inscriptions, or of poems on particular subjects, 
had previously been formed by Polemon Periegetes and others; 
but Meleager first gave the principle a comprehensive application. 
His selection, compiled from forty-six of his predecessors, and 
including numerous contributions of his own, was entitled 
The Garland (Srt(t>ai>os) ; and in an introductory poem each poet 
is compared to some flower, fancifully deemed appropriate to 
his genius. The arrangement of his collection was alphabetical, 
according to the initial letter of each epigram. 

In the age of the emperor Tiberius (or Trajan, according to 
others) the work of Meleager was continued by another epigram- 
matist, Philippus of Thessalonica, who first employed the term 
anthology. His collection, which included the compositions of 
thirteen writers subsequent to Meleager, was also arranged 
alphabetically, and contained an introductory poem. It was of 
inferior quality to Meleager's. Somewhat later, under Hadrian, 
another supplement was formed by the sophist Diogenianus 
of Heracleia (znd century A.D.), and Strato of Sardis compiled 
his elegant but tainted MoO<ra IIai5iKi7 (Musa Puerilis) from 
his productions and those of earlier writers. No further collection 
from various sources is recorded until the time of Justinian, 
when epigrammatic writing, especially of an amatory character, 
experienced a great revival at the hands of Agathias of Myrina, 
the historian, Paulus Silentiarius, and their circle. Their in- 
genious but mannered productions were collected by Agathias 
into a new anthology, entitled The Circle (KixcXos); it was the 
first to be divided into books, and arranged with reference to 
the subjects of the pieces. 

These and other collections made during the middle ages are 
now lost. The partial incorporation of them into a single body, 
classified according to the contents in 15 books, was the work 
of a certain Constantinus Cephalas, whose name alone is preserved 
in the single MS. of his compilation extant, but who probably 
lived during the temporary revival of letters under Constantine 
Porphyrogenitus, at the beginning of the loth century. He 
appears to have merely made excerpts from the existing antho- 
logies, with the addition of selections from Lucillius, Palladas, 
and other epigrammatists, whose compositions had been published 
separately. His arrangement, to which we shall have to recur, 
is founded on a principle of classification, and nearly corresponds 
to that adopted by Agathias. His principle of selection is un- 
known; it is only certain that while he omitted much that he 
should have retained, he has preserved much that would other- 
wise have perished. The extent of our obligations may be ascer- 
tained by a comparison between his anthology and that of the 
next editor, the monk Maximus Planudes (A.D. 1320), who has 
not merely grievously mutilated the anthology of Cephalas by 
omissions, but has disfigured it by interpolating verses of his 
own. We are, however, indebted to him for the preservation 
of the epigrams on works of art, which seem to have been 
accidentally omitted from our only transcript of Cephalas. 

The Planudean (in seven books) was the only recension of the 
anthology known at the revival of classical literature, and was first 
published at Florence, by Janus Lascaris, in 1494. It long continued 



ANTHOLOGY 



95 



to be the only acccMible collection, for although the Palatine M - . 
the ole extant copy of the anthology of Cephalss, wa discovered 
in the Palatine library at Heidelberg, and copied by Suumaiic 
iSalinasius) in 1606, it wan nut inililiahrd until 1776. when it waa 
iiifluiled in Brunck'n AnaUcIa Vrlerum Potlarum Oraecorum. The 
MS. itself had frequently changed it* quarter*. In 1623. having 
been taken in the ruck of llridrltierg in the Thirty Year*' War, it 
was lent with the rent of the Palatine Library to Rome as a present 
from M.ivimili.in I. f H.iv.m.i to ( irvgory XV., who had it diviilnl 
into two parts, the first of which was by far the larger; thence it 
was taken to Paris in 1797. In 1816 it went back to Heidelberg, but 
in an incomplete state, the second part remaining at Paris. It is 
now represented at Heidelberg by a photographic facsimile. Brunck's 
edition was superseded by the standard one of Friedrich Jacobs 
(1794-1814, 13 vols.), the text of which was reprinted in a more 
convenient form in 1813-1817, and occupies three pocket volumes in 
the Ttiuchnitz scries of the classics. The best edition for general 
purposes is perhaps that of Dttbncr in Didot's Bibliotkeca (1864- 
1872), which contains the Palatine Anthology, the epigrams of the 
Planudean Anthology not comprised in the former, an appendix of 
pieces derived from other sources, copious notes selected from all 
quarters, a literal Latin prose translation by Boissonade, Bothe, and 
Lapaume and the metrical Latin versions of Hugo Grotius. A third 
volume, edited by E. Coueny, was published in 1890. The best 
edition of the Planudean Anthology is the splendid one by van 
Bosch and van Lennep (1795-1822). There is also a complete 
edition of the text by Stadtmtillcr in the Teubner series. 

Arrangement. The Palatine MS., the archetype of the present 
text, was transcribed by different persons at different times, 
and the actual arrangement of the collection does not correspond 
with that signalized in the index. It is as follows: Book i. 
Christian epigrams; 2. Christodorus's description of certain 
statues; 3. Inscriptions in the temple at Cyzicus; 4. The pre- 
faces of Melcagcr, Philippus, and Agathias to their respective 
collections; 5- Amatory epigrams; 6. Votive inscriptions; 
7. Epitaphs; 8. The epigrams of Gregory of Nazianzus; 9. 
Rhetorical and illustrative epigrams; 10. Ethical pieces; n. 
Humorous and convivial; 12. Strato's Musa Puerilis; 13. 
Metrical curiosities; 14. Puzzles, enigmas, oracles; 15. Mis- 
cellanies. The epigrams on works of art, as already stated, are 
missing from the Codex Palatinus, and must be sought in an 
appendix of epigrams only occurring in the Planudean Anthology. 
The epigrams hitherto recovered from ancient monuments and 
similar sources form appendices in the second and third volumes 
of DUbner's edition. 

Style and Value. One of the principal claims of the Anthology 
to attention is derived from its continuity, its existence as a 
living and growing body of poetry throughout all the vicissitudes 
of Greek civilization. More ambitious descriptions of com- 
position speedily ran their course, and having attained their 
complete development became extinct or at best lingered only 
in feeble or conventional imitations. The humbler strains of the 
epigrammatic muse, on the other hand, remained ever fresh and 
animated, ever in intimate union with the spirit of the generation 
that gave them birth. To peruse the entire collection, accord- 
ingly, is as it were to assist at the disin torment of an ancient city, 
where generation has succeeded generation on the same site, and 
each stratum of soil enshrines the vestiges of a distinct epoch, but 
where all epochs, nevertheless, combine to constitute an organic 
whole, and the transition from one to the other is hardly percep- 
tible. Four stages may be indicated: i. The Hellenic proper, of 
which Simonidcs of Ceos (c. 556-469 B.C.), the author of most of 
the sepulchral inscriptions on those who fell in the Persian wars, 
is the characteristic representative. This is characterized by a 
simple dignity of phrase, which to a modern taste almost verges 
upon baldness, by a crystalline transparency of diction, and by 
an absolute fidelity to the original conception of the epigram. 
Nearly all the pieces of this era are actual bona fide inscriptions 
or addresses to real personages, whether living or deceased; 
narratives, literary exercises, and sports of fancy are exceedingly 
rare. 2. The epigram received a great development in its second 
or Alexandrian era, when its range was so extended as to include 
anecdote, satire, and amorous longing; when epitaphs and votive 
inscriptions were composed on imaginary persons and things, 
and men of taste successfully attempted the same subjects in 
mutual emulation, or sat down to compose verses as displays of 
their ingenuity. The result was a great gain in richness of style 



and general interest, counterbalanced by a falling off in purity of 
diction and sincerity of treatment. The modification a perfectly 
legitimate one, the resources of the old style being exhausted 
had its real source in the transformation of political life, but may 
be said to commence with and to find its best representative in 
the playful and elegant Leonidas of Tarentum, a contemporary 
of I'yrrhus. and to close with Antipatcr of Sidon, about 140 B.C. 
(or later). It should be noticed, however, that Callimachus, one 
of the most distinguished of the Alexandrian poets, affects the 
sternest simplicity in his epigrams, and copies the austerity of 
Simonides with as much success as an imitator can expect. 

3. By a slight additional modification in the same direction, the 
Alexandrian passes into what, for the sake of preserving the 
parallelism with eras of Greek prose literature, we may call 
the Roman style, although the peculiarities of its principal 
representative are decidedly Oriental. Meleager of Gadara was a 
Syrian; his taste was less severe, and his temperament more 
fervent than those of his Greek predecessors; his pieces are 
usually erotic, and their glowing imagery sometimes reminds us of 
the Song of Solomon. The luxuriance of his fancy occasionally 
betrays him into far-fetched conceits, and the lavishness of his 
epithets is only redeemed by their exquisite felicity. Yet his 
effusions arc manifestly the offspring of genuine feeling, and his 
epitaph on himself indicates a great advance on the exclusive- 
ness of antique Greek patriotism, and is perhaps the first clear 
enunciation of the spirit of universal humanity characteristic 
of the later Stoic philosophy. His gaiety and licentiousness 
are imitated and exaggerated by his somewhat later contem- 
porary, the Epicurean Philodemus, perhaps the liveliest of all 
the epigrammatists; his fancy reappears with diminished 
brilliancy in Philodemus's contemporary, Zonas, in Crinagoras, 
who wrote under Augustus, and in Marcus Argentarius, of un- 
certain date; his peculiar gorgeousness of colouring remains 
entirely his own. At a later period of the empire another 
genre, hitherto comparatively in abeyance, was developed, the 
satirical. Lucillius, who flourished under Nero, and Lucian, more 
renowned in other fields of literature, display a remarkable 
talent for shrewd, caustic epigram, frequently embodying moral 
reflexions of great cogency, often lashing vice and folly with 
signal effect, but not seldom indulging in mere trivialities, or 
deformed by scoffs at personal blemishes. This style of com- 
position is not properly Greek, but Roman; it answers to the 
modern definition of epigram, and has hence attained a celebrity 
in excess of its deserts. It is remarkable, however, as an almost 
solitary example of direct Latin influence on Greek literature. 
The same style obtains with Palladas, an Alexandrian gram- 
marian of the 4th century, the last of the strictly classical epi- 
grammatists, and the first to be guilty of downright bad taste. 
His better pieces, however, are characterized by an austere 
ethical impressiveness, and his literary position is very interesting 
as that of an indignant but despairing opponent of Christianity. 

4. The fourth or Byzantine style of epigrammatic composition 
was cultivated by the beaux-esprits of the court of Justinian. To 
a great extent this is merely imitative, but the circumstances 
of the period operated so as to produce a species of originality. 
The peculiarly ornate and recherche diction of Agathias and his 
compeers is not a merit in itself, but, applied for the first time, 
it has the effect of revivifying an old form, and many of their 
new locutions are actual enrichments of the language. The 
writers, moreover, were men of genuine poetical feeling, ingenious 
in invention, and capable of expressing emotion with energy 
and liveliness; the colouring of their pieces is sometimes highly 
dramatic. 

It would be hard to exaggerate the substantial value of the 
Anthology, whether as a storehouse of facts bearing on antique 
manners, customs and ideas, or as one among the influences 
which have contributed to mould the literature of the modern 
world. The multitudinous votive inscriptions, serious and 
sportive, connote the phases of Greek religious sentiment, from 
pious awe to irreverent familiarity and sarcastic scepticism; the 
moral tone of the nation at various periods is mirrored with cor- 
responding fidelity; the sepulchral inscriptions admit us into 



9 6 



ANTHON ANTHONY 



the inmost sanctuary of family affection, and reveal a depth and 
tenderness of feeling beyond the province of the historian to 
depict, which we should not have surmised even from the 
dramatists; the general tendency of the collection is to display 
antiquity on its most human side, and to mitigate those contrasts 
with the modern world which more ambitious modes of com- 
position force into relief. The constant reference to the details 
of private life renders the Anthology an inexhaustible treasury 
for the student of archaeology; art, industry and costume 
receive their fullest illustration from its pages. Its influence on 
European literatures will be appreciated in proportion to the 
inquirer's knowledge of each. The further his researches extend, 
the greater will be his astonishment at the extent to which the 
Anthology has been laid under contribution for thoughts which 
have become household words in all cultivated languages, and at 
the beneficial effect of the imitation of its brevity, simplicity, 
and absolute verbal accuracy upon the undisciplined luxuriance 
of modern genius. 

Translations, Imitations, &c. The best versions of the Anthology 
ever made are the Latin renderings of select epigrams by Hugo 
Grotius. They have not been printed separately, but will be found 
in Bosch and Lennep's edition of the Planudean Anthology, in the 
Didot edition, and in Dr Wellesley's Anthologia Polyglotta. The 
number of more or less professed imitations in modern languages 
is infinite, that of actual translations less considerable. French and 
Italian, indeed, are ill adapted to this purpose, from their incapacity 
of approximating to the form of the original, and their poets have 
usually contented themselves with paraphrases or imitations, often 
exceedingly felicitous. F. D. Deheque's French prose translation, 
however (1863), is most excellent and valuable. The German 
language alone admits of the preservation of the original metre a 
circumstance advantageous to the German translators, Herder and 
Jacobs, who have not, however, compensated the loss inevitably 
consequent upon a change of idiom by any added beauties of their 
own. Though unfitted to reproduce the precise form, the English 
language, from its superior terseness, is better adapted to preserve 
the spirit of the original than the German; and the comparative 
ill success of many English translators must be chiefly attributed to 
the extremely low standard of fidelity and brevity observed by 
them. Bland, Merivale, and their associates (1806-1813), are often 
intolerably diffuse and feeble, from want, not of ability, but of 
taking pains. Archdeacon Wrangham's too rare versions are much 
more spirited ; and John Sterling's translations of the inscriptions 
of Simonides deserve high praise. Professor Wilson (Blackwood's 
Magazine, 1833-1835) collected and commented upon the labours of 
these and other translators, with his accustomed critical insight and 
exuberant geniality, but damaged his essay by burdening it with 
the indifferent attempts of William Hay. In 1849 Dr Wellesley, 
principal of New Inn Hall, Oxford, published his Anthologia Poly- 
glotta, a most valuable collection of the best translations and imita- 
tions in all languages, with the original text. In this appeared some 
admirable versions by Goldwin Smith and Dean Merivale, which, 
with the other English renderings extant at the time, will be found 
accompanying the literal prose translation of the Public School 
Selections, executed by the Rev. George Burges for Bohn's Classical 
Library (1854). This is a useful volume, but the editor's notes are 
worthless. In 1864 Major R. G. Macgregor published an almost 
complete translation of the Anthology, a work whose stupendous 
industry and fidelity almost redeem the general mediocrity of the 
execution. Idylls and Epigrams, by R. Garnett (1869, reprinted 
1892 in the Cameo series), includes about 140 translations or imita- 
tions, with some original compositions in the same style. Recent 
translations (selections) are: J. W. Mackail, Select Epigrams from 
the Greek Anthology (with text, introduction, notes, and prose 
translation), 1890, revised 1906, a most charming volume; Graham 
R. Tomson (Mrs Marriott Watson), Selections from the Greek 
Anthology (1889); W. H. D. Rouse, Echo of Greek Song (1899); 
L. C. Perry, From the Garden of Hellas (New York, 1891); W. R. 
Paton, Love Epigrams (1898). An agreeable little volume on the 
Anthology, by Lord Neaves, is one of Collins's series of Ancient 
Classics for Modern Readers. The earl of Cromer, with all the cares 
of Egyptian administration upon him, found time to translate and 
publish an elegant volume of selections (1903). Two critical con- 
tributions to the subject should be noticed, the Rev. James Davies's 
essay on Epigrams in the Quarterly Review (vol. cxvii.), especially 
valuable for its lucid illustration of the distinction between Greek 
and Latin epigram; and the brilliant disquisition in J. A. Symonds's 
Studies of the Greek Poets (1873; 3rd ed., 1893). 

Latin Anthology. The Latin Anthology is the appellation 
bestowed upon a collection of fugitive Latin verse, from the age 
of Ennius to about A.D. 1000, formed by Peter Burmann the 
Younger. Nothing corresponding to the Greek anthology is 
known to have existed among the Romans, though professional 



epigrammatists like Martial published their volumes on their 
own account, and detached sayings were excerpted from authors 
like Ennius and Publius Syrus, while the Priapeta were probably 
but one among many collections on special subjects. The first 
general collection of scattered pieces made by a modern scholar 
was Scaliger's Calalecta veterum Poetarum (1573), succeeded by 
the more ample one of Pithoeus, Epigrammata et Poemata e 
Codicibus et Lapidibus collecta (1590). Numerous additions, 
principally from inscriptions, continued to be made, and in 
1759-1773 Burmann digested the whole into his Anthologia 
veterum Latinorum Epigrammalum et Poematum. This, occa- 
sionally reprinted, was the standard edition until 1869, when 
Alexander Riese commenced a new and more critical recension, 
from which many pieces improperly inserted by Burmann are 
rejected, and his classified arrangement is discarded for one 
according to the sources whence the poems have been derived. 
The first volume contains those found in MSS., in the order of 
the importance of these documents; those furnished by inscrip- 
tions following. The first volume (in two parts) appeared in 
1869-1870, a second edition of the first part in 1894, and the 
second volume, Carmina Epigraphica (in two parts), in 1895- 
1897, edited by F. Bucheler. An Anthologiae Latinae Supple- 
menta, in the same series, followed. Having been formed by 
scholars actuated by no aesthetic principles of selection, but 
solely intent on preserving everything they could find, the Latin 
anthology is much more heterogeneous than the Greek, and 
unspeakably inferior. The really beautiful poems of Petronius 
and Apuleius are more properly inserted in the collected editions 
of their writings, and more than half the remainder consists of 
the frigid conceits of pedantic professional exercises of gram- 
marians of a very late period of the empire, relieved by an 
occasional gem, such as the apostrophe of the dying Hadrian to 
his spirit, or the epithalamium of Gallienus. The collection is 
also, for the most part, too recent in date, and too exclusively 
literary in character, to add much to our knowledge of classical 
antiquity. The epitaphs are interesting, but the genuineness of 
many of them is very questionable. (R. G.) 

ANTHON, CHARLES (1797-1867), American classical scholar, 
was born in New York city on the igth of November 1797. 
After graduating with honours at Columbia College in 1813, he 
began the study of law, and in 1819 was admitted to the bar, 
but never practised. In 1820 he was appointed assistant pro- 
fessor of Greek and Latin in his old college, full professor ten 
years later, and at the same time headmaster of the grammar 
school attached to the college, which post he held until 1864. 
He died at New York on the 29th of July 1867. He produced 
for use in colleges and schools a large number of classical works, 
which enjoyed great popularity, although his editions of classical 
authors were by no means in favour with schoolmasters, owing to 
the large amount of assistance, especially translations, contained 
in the notes. 

ANTHONY, SAINT, the first Christian monk, was born in 
Egypt about 250. At the age of twenty he began to practise an 
ascetical life in the neighbourhood of his native place, and after 
fifteen years of this life he withdrew into solitude to a mountain 
by the Nile, called Pispir, now Der el Memun, opposite Arsinoe 
in the Fayum. Here he lived strictly enclosed in an old fort for 
twenty years. At last in the early years of the 4th century he 
emerged from his retreat and set himself to organize the monastic 
life of the crowds of monks who had followed him and taken up 
their abode in the caves around him. After a time, again in 
pursuit of more complete solitude, he w'ithdrew to the mountain 
by the Red Sea, where now stands the monastery that bears his 
name (Der Mar Antonios). Here he died about the middle of 
the 4th century. His Life states that on two occasions he went 
to Alexandria, to strengthen the Christians in the Diocletian 
persecution and to preach against Arianism. Anthony is 
recognized as the fi,rst Christian monk and the first organizer 
and father of Christian monachism (seeMoNASTicisn). Certain 
letters and sermons are attributed to him, but their authenticity 
is more than doubtful. The monastic rule which bears his name 
was not written by him, but was compiled out of these writings 



ANTHONY OF PADUA ANTHOZOA 



97 



and out of discourses and utterances put into his mouth in the 

.mil the Apophlhetmah Palrum. According to this rule 

live a number of Coptic Syrian and Armenian monks to this day. 

The chief source of information about St Anthony is the Life, 

attributed to St Athanasius. This attribution, as also the 

historical character of the book, and even the very existence of 

\ i huiiy . were questioned and denied by the sceptical criticism 

of thirty years ago; but such doubts are no longer entertained 

tical scholars. 

The Greek Vila is among the works of St Athanasius; the almost 
ointrmporary Latin translation is among Rosweyd't Vitae Palrum 
(Migne, Patrol. Lot. Ixxiii.) ; an English translation is in the Athan- 
asius volume of the " Nirene and Post-Nicene Library." Accounts 
of St Anthony are given by Card. Newman, Church of Ike fathers 
(Historical Sketches) and Alban Butler. Lives of Ike Saints (Jan. 17). 
Discussions of the historical and critical questions raised will be 
found in E. C. Butler's Lausiac History of PaUadius (1898, 1904), 
I'.irt 1. pp. 197, 215-228; Part II. pp. ix.-xii. (E. C. B.) 

ANTHONY OF PADUA, SAINT (1195-1231), the most cele- 
brated of the followers of Saint Francis of Assisi, was born at 
Lisbon on the i sth of August 1195. Inhisfifteenthyearheentered 
the Augustinian order, and subsequently joined the Franciscans 
in i 220. He wished to devote himself to missionary labours in 
North Africa, but the ship in which he sailed was cast by a storm 
on the coast of Sicily, whence he made his way to Italy. He 
taught theology at Bologna, Toulouse, Montpellier and Padua, 
and won a great reputation as a preacher throughout Italy. He 
was the leader of the rigorous party in the Franciscan order 
against the mitigations introduced by the general Elias. His 
death took place at the convent of Ara Coeli, near Padua, on the 
I3th of June 1231. He was canonized by Gregory IX. in the 
following year, and his festival is kept on the I3th of June. He 
is regarded as the patron saint of Padua and of Portugal, and 
is appealed to by devout clients for finding lost objects. The 
meagre accounts of his life which we possess have been supple- 
mented by numerous popular legends, which represent him 
as a continuous worker of miracles, and describe his marvellous 
eloquence by pictures of fishes leaping out of the water to 
hear him. There are many confraternities established in his 
honour throughout Christendom, and the number of "pious" 
biographies devoted to him would fill many volumes. 

The most trustworthy modern works are by A. Lepjtre, SlAntoine 
de Padoue (Paris, 1902, in Les Saints series: good bibliography; Eng. 
trans, by Edith Guest, London, 1902), and by Leopold de Cherance, 
St Antmnt de Padoue (Paris, 1895; Eng. trans., London, 1896). His 
works, consisting of sermons and a mystical commentary on the 
Bible, were published in an appendix to those of St Francis, in the 
Annalfs Minorum of Luke VV adding (Antwerp, 1623), and are also 
reproduced by Horoy, Medii aem bibliotheca patristica (1880, vi. 
pp. 555 et sqq.) ; see art. " Antonius von Padua " in Herzog-Hauck, 
Reafencyklopadie. 

ANTHONY. SUSAN BROWNELL (1820-1006), American 
reformer, was born at Adams, Massachusetts, on the i$th of 
February 1820, the daughter of Quakers. Soon after her birth, 
her family moved to the state of New York, and after 1845 she 
lived in Rochester. She received her early education in a school 
maintained by her father for his own and neighbours' children, 
and from the time she was seventeen until she was thirty-two 
she taught in various schools. In the decade preceding the 
outbreak of the Civil War she took a prominent part in the 
anti-slavery and temperance movements in New York, organizing 
in 1852 the first woman's state temperance society in America, and 
in 1856 becoming the agent for New York state of the American 
Anti-slavery Society. After 1854 she devoted herself almost 
exclusively to the agitation for woman's rights, and became 
recognized as one of the ablest and most zealous advocates, 
both as a public speaker and as a writer, of the complete legal 
equality of the two sexes. From 1868 to 1870 she was the 
proprietor of a weekly paper, The Revolution, published in New 
York, edited by Mrs Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and having for 
its motto, " The true republic men, their rights and nothing 
more; women, their rights and nothing less." She was vice- 
president-at-large of the National Woman's Suffrage Association 
from the date of its organization in 1869 until 1892, when she 
became president. For casting a vote in the presidential election 

11 4 



of 1872, as, she asserted, the Fourteenth Amendment to the 
Federal Constitution entitled her to do, she was arrested and 
fined $100, but she never paid the fine. In collaboration with 
Mrs Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Mrs Matilda Joslyn Gage, and Mm 
Ida Husted Harper, she published The History of Woman 
Sit/rage (4 vols., New York, 1884-1887). She died at Rochester, 
New York, on the i3th of March 1906. 

See Mrs Ida Husted Harper's Life and Work of Susan B. Anthony 
(3 vols., Indianapolis, 1898-1908). 

ANTHOZOA (i.e. "flower-animals"), the zoological name 
for a class of marine polyps forming " coral " (?..). Although 
corals have been familiar objects since the days of antiquity, 
and the variety known as the precious red coral has been for a 
long time an article of commerce in the Mediterranean, it wasonly 
in the iSth century that their true nature and structure came to 
be understood. By the ancients and the earlier naturalists 
of the Christian era they were regarded either as petrifactions or 
as plants, and many supposed that they occupied a position 
midway between minerals and plants. The discovery of the 
animal nature of red coral is due to J. A. de'Peyssonel, a native 
of Marseilles, who obtained living specimens from the coral 
fishers on the coast of Barbary and kept them alive in aquaria. 
He was thus able to see that the so-called " flowers of coral " 
were in fact nothing else than minute polyps resembling sea- 
anemones. His discovery, made in 1727, was rejected by the 
Academy of Sciences of France, but eventually found acceptance 
at the hands of the Royal Society of London, and was published 
by that body in 1 7 5 1 . The structure and classification of polyps, 
however, were at that time very imperfectly understood, and 
it was fully a century before the true anatomical characters 
and systematic position of corals were placed on a secure basts. 

The hard calcareous substance to which the name coral is 
applied is the supporting skeleton of certain members of the 
A nthozoa, one of the classes of the phylum Coelentera. The most 
familiar Anthozoan is the common sea-anemone, Actinia equina, 
L.. and it will serve, although it does not form a skeleton or 
corallum, as a good example of the structure of a typical Antho- 
zoan polyp or zooid. The individual animal or zooid of Actinia 
equina has the form of a column fixed by one extremity, called 
the base, to a rock or other object, and bearing at the opposite 
extremity a crown of tentacles. The tentacles surround an area 
known as the peristome, in the middle of which there is an 
elongated mouth-opening surrounded by tumid lips. The mouth 
does not open directly into the general cavity of the body, as 
is the case in a hydrozoan polyp, but into a short tube called 
the stomodaeum, which in its turn opens below into the general 
body-cavity or coelenteron. In Actinia and its allies, and most 
generally, though not invariably, in Anthozoa.the stomodaeum 
is not circular, but is compressed from side to side so as to be 
oval or slit-like in transverse section. At each end of the oval 
there is a groove lined by specially long vibratile cilia. These 
grooves are known as the sulcus and sulculus, and will be more 
particularly described hereafter. The elongation of the mouth 
and stomodaeum confer a bilateral symmetry on the body of the 
zooid, which is extended to other organs of the body. In Actinia, 
as in all Anthozoan zooids, the coelenteron is not a simple cavity, 
as in a Hydroid, but is divided by a number of radial folds or 
curtains of soft tissue into a corresponding number of radial 
chambers. These radial folds are known as mesenteries, and 
their position and relations may be understood by reference 
to figs, i and 2. Each mesentery is attached by its upper 
margin to the peristome, by its outer margin to the body-wall, 
and by its lower margin to the basal disk. A certain number of 
mesenteries, known as complete mesenteries, arc attached by 
the upper parts of their internal margins to the stomodaeum, 
but below this level their edges hang in the coelenteron. Other 
mesenteries, called incomplete, are not attached to the stomo- 
daeum, and their internal margins are free from the peristome 
to the basal disk. The lower part of the free edge of every 
mesentery, whether complete or incomplete, is thrown into 
numerous puckers or folds, and is furnished with a glandular 
thickening known as a mescnterial filament. The reproductive 



9 8 



ANTHOZOA 




FIG. i. Diagrammatic longitudinal 

section of an Anthozoan zooid. 
m. Mesentery. Im, Longitudinal 

t. Tentacles. muscle. 

st, Stomodaeum. d, Diagonal 

x, Sulcus. muscle. 

r, Rotteken's muscle, go, Gonads. 
s, Stoma. 



organs or gonads are borne on the mesenteries, the germinal 
cells being derived from the inner layer or endoderm. 

In common with all Coelenterate animals, the walls of the 
columnar body and also the tentacles and peristome of Actinia 
are composed of three layers of tissue. The external layer, 

or ectoderm, is made up 

4\ \V\x /I a l so m u'scular and ner- 
vous elements. The pre- 
ponderating elements of 
the ectodermic layer are 
elongated columnar 
cells, each containing a 
nucleus, and bearing 
cilia at their free ex- 
tremities. Packed in 
among these are gland 
cells, sense cells, and 
cnidoblasts. The last- 
named are specially 
numerous on the ten- 
tacles and on some other 
regions of the body, and 
produce the well-known 
"thread cells," or 
nematocysts, so char- 
acteristic of the Coe- 
lentera. The inner 
layer or endoderm is also a cellular layer, and is chiefly 
made up of columnar cells, each bearing a cilium at its free ex- 
tremity and terminating internally in a long muscular fibre. 
Such cells, made up of epithelial and muscular components, are 

known as epithelio-mus- 
cular or myo-epithelial 
cells. In Actinians the 
epithelio-muscular cells of 
the endoderm are crowded 
with yellow spherical 
bodies, which are unicellu- 
lar plants or Algae, living 
symbiotically in the 
tissues of the zooid. The 
endoderm contains in 
addition gland cells and 
nervous elements. The 
middle layer or mesogloea 
is not originally a cellular 
layer, but a gelatinoid 
structureless substance, 
secreted by the two cellular 
layers. In the course of 
development, however, 
cells from the ectoderm 
and endoderm may mi- 
grate into it. In Actinia 
equina the mesogloea con- 




5' 

FIG. 2. I, Portion of epithelium 
from the tentacle of an Actinian, sists of fine fibres imbedded 
showing three supporting cells and one in a homogeneous matrix, 
sense cell (sc); 2, a cnidoblast with 
enclosed nematocyst from the same 
specimen; 3 and 4, two forms of 
gland cell from the stomodaeum; 
5<i, 56, epithelio-muscular cells from 
the tentacle in different states of con- 
traction; sc, an epithelio-muscular 
cell from the endoderm, containing a 
symbiotic zooxanthella ; 6, a ganglion 
cell from the ectoderm of the peristome. 
(After O. and R. Hertwig.) 

ible into two sub-classes, sharply marked off from one another 
by definite anatomical characters. These are the ALCYONARIA 
and the ZOANTHARIA. To the first-named belong the precious 
red coral and its allies, the sea-fans or Gorgoniae; to the 
second belong the white or Madreporarian corals. 



and between the fibres 
are minute branched or 
spindle-shaped cells. For 
further details of the 
structure of Actinians, 
the reader should consult 
the work of O. and R. 
Hertwig. 

The Anthozoa are divis- 




Alcyonaria. In this sub-class the zooid (fig. 3) has very constant 
anatomical characters, differing in some important respects from the 
Actinian zooid, which has been taken as a type. There is only one 
ciliated groove, the sulcus, in the stomodaeum. There are always 
eight tentacles, which are hollow and fringed on their sides, with 
hollow projections or pinnae; and always eight mesenteries, all of 
which are complete, i.e. inserted on the stomodaeum. The mesen- 
teries are provided with well-developed longitudinal retractor 
muscles, supported on longitudinal folds or plaits of the mesogloea, 
so that in cross-section they have a branched appearance. These 
muscle-banners, as they 
are called, have a 
highly characteristic 
arrangement; they are 
all situated on those 
faces of the mesenteries 
which look towards the 
sulcus (fig. 4). Each 
mesentery has a fila- 
ment ; but two of them, 
namely, the pair 
farthest from the sul- 
cus, are longer than the 
rest, and have a differ- 
ent form of filament. 
It has been shown that 
these asulcar filaments 
are derived from the 
ectoderm, the re- 
mainder from the en- 
doderm. The only 
exceptions to this 
structure are found in 
the arrested or modified 
/i mills, which occur in FIG. 3. An expanded Alcyonarian zooid, 
many of the colonial showing the mouth surrounded by eight 
Alcyonaria. In these pinnate tentacles, si, Stomodaeum in the 
the tentacles are centre of the transparent body; m, mes- 
stunted or suppressed enterics; asm, asulcar mesenteries; B, 
and the mesenteries are spicules, enlarged, 
ill-developed, but the 

sulcus is unusually large and has long cilia. Such modified zooids are 
called siphonozooids, their function being to drive currents of fluid 
through the canal-systems of the colonies to which they belong. 
With very few exceptions a calcareous skeleton is present in all 
Alcyonaria ; it usually consists of spicules of carbonate of lime, each 
spicule being formed within an ectodermic cell (fig. 3, B). Most 
commonly the spicule-forming cells pass out of the ectoderm and are 
imbedded in the mesogloea, where they may remain separate from 
one another or may be fused together to form a strong mass. In 
addition to the spicular skeleton an organic horny skeleton is fre- 
quently present, either in 
the form of a horny ex- 
ternal investment (Cor- 
nularia), or an internal 
axis (Gorgonia), or it may 
form a matrix in which 
spicules are imbedded 
(Keroeides, Melitodes). 

Nearly all the Alcyonaria 
are colonial. Four solitary 
species have been de- 
scribed, viz. Haimea 
funebris and H. hyalina, 
Hartea elegans, and Man- 
oxenia Darwinii; but it is 
doubtful whether these are 
not the young forms of 
colonies. For the present 
the solitary forms may be 
placed in a grade, Protal- 
cyonacea; and the colonial 
forms may be grouped in 
another grade, Synalcyon- 

acea. Every Alcyonarian FlG- 4 ._Transverse section of an 
colony is developed by Alc vonar j an zooid. mm. Mesenteries; 
budding from a single mf> musc i e banners; sc, sulcus; st, 
parent zooid. The buds d 

are not direct outgrowths 

of the body-wall, but are formed on the courses of hollow out- 
growths of the base or body-wall, called solenia. These form a 
more or less complicated canal system, lined by endoderm, and 
communicating with the cavities of the zooids. The most simple 
form of budding is found in the genus Cornularia, in which the 
mother zooid gives off from its base one or more simple radiciform 
outgrowths. Each outgrowth contains a single tube or selenium, 
and at a longer or shorter distance from the mother zooid a 
daughter zooid is formed as a bud. This gives off new outgrowths, 
and these, branching and anastomosing with one another, may form 
a network, adhering to stones, corals, or other objects, from which 




ANTHOZOA 



aooids arise at intervals. In Clatularia and its allie* each outgrowth 
contains several solenia, and the outgrowth* may take the form of 
flat expansion*, composed of a number of solcnial tubes felted 
together to form a lamellar surface of attachment. Sue h outgrowth* 
are called iloiom, and a *tolon may be cimple, i.e. contain only one 
*>lonium, as in Cornulana, or may be complex and built up of many 
solenia, as in Clavularia. Further complication* arise when the 
lower walls of the mother zooid become thu-krnrd and interpene- 
trated with solenia, from which buds are developed, so that looose, 

tufted, or branched colonies 
are formed. The chief orders 
of the Synalcyonacea are 
founded upon the different 
architectural features of 
colonies produced by differ- 
ent mode* of budding. We 
recognize six orders the 
STOLONIFBRA, ALCYON- 
ACEA, PSEUDAXONIA, AXIF- 
ERA, STBLBCHOTOKEA, and 

COBNOTHECALIA. 

In the order STOLONIFERA 
the zooids spring at intervals 
from branching or lamellar 
stolons, and are usually free 
from one another, except at 
their bases, but in some cases 
horizontal solenia arising 
at various heights from 
the body- wall may place 
the more distal portions 
of the zooids in commu- 
nication with one another. 
In the genus Tubipora these 
PIG. 5. horizontal solenia unite to 




B. Diagrammatic longitudinal section 
of a corallite. showing two platforms. 
,nd S imn,e anclcup-fhaped^bulae, ,. 
(After S. J. H,ckson.) 



their 



consists of loose spicules. In the Tubiporidae the spicules of the 
proximal part of the body-wall are fused together to form a firm 
tube, the corallite, into which the distal part of the zooid can be 
retracted. The corallites are connected at intervals by horizontal 
platforms containing solenia, and at the level of each platform the 
cavity of the corallite is divided by a transverse calcareous partition, 
either flat or cup-shaped, called a tabula. Formerly all corals in 
which tabulae are present were classed together as Tabulata, but 
Tubipora is an undoubted Alcyonarian with a lamellar stolon, and 
the structure of the fossil genus Syringopora, which has vertical 
corallites united by horizontal solenia, clearly shows its affinity to 

Tubipora. The Favosi- 
tidae, a fossil, family from 
the Silurian and Devonian, 
have a massive corallum 
composed of numerous 
polygonal corallites closely 
packed together. The 
cavities of adjacent coral- 
lites communicate by 
means of numerous per- 
forations, which appear to 
represent solenia, and 
numerous transverse tab- 
ulae are also present. In 
Faros it fs hemiiphaerico. a 
number of radial spines, 
projecting into the cavity 
FIG. 6. Portion of a colony of Coral- of the corallite. give it the 
Hum rubrum. showing expanded and appearance of a madrepor- 
contracted zooids. In the lower part of anan coral. 
the figure the cortex has been cut away In the o cr ALCYON- 
to show the axis, ax, and the longi- * CE * tne colony consists 
tudinal canals, U, surrounding it. of bunches of elongate 

cylindrical zooids, whose 

proximal portions are united by solenia and compacted, by fusion 
of their own walls and those of the solenia. into a fleshy mass 
called the coenenchyma. Thus the coenenchyma forms a stem, 
sometimes branched, from the surface of which the free portions of 
the zooids project. The skeleton of the Alcyonacea consists of 
separate calcareous spicules, which are often, especially in the 
Nephthyidae, so abundant and so closely interlocked as to form a 
tolerably firm and hard armour. The order comprises the families 
Xeniidae, Alcyonidat and Ncphlhyidae. Alcyonium digitatum, a pink 
digitate form popularly known as " dead men's fingers," is common 
in 10-20 fathoms of water off the English coasts. 

In the order PSEUDAXOMA the colonies arc upright and branched, 





99 

of a number of short zooid* whose proximal end* are im- 
bedded in a coenenchyma containing numerou* ramifying tolrnia 
and iniculex. The coenenchyma i* further HirTrrrntiatra into a 
medullary ix>rt ion and a cortex. The latter contain* the proximal 
mi piftiii) of the zooid* and numerous but separate spicules. The 
meduMary portion is densely crowded with spiculea of different 
shape from those in the 
cortex, and in some forms 
the tpicule* are cemented 
together to form a hard 
supporting axis. There are 
four families of Pseud- 
axonia the Briareidae, 
Sclerogorgidae, Melitodidae, 
and CoraUidae. In the 
first-named the medulla is 
penetrated by solenia and 
forms an indistinct axis; 
in the remainder the me- 
dulla is devoid of solenia, 
and in the Melitodidae and 
CoraUidae it forms a dense 
axis, which in the Melito- 
didae consists of alternate 
ca lea reousandhorny joints. 
The precious red coral of 
commerce, Corallium rub- 
rum (fig. 6), a member of 
the family Corillidae, is 

found at depths varying FIG. 7. The sea-fan (Gorgonia 
from 15 to 1 20 fathoms in cavolinif). 

the Mediterranean Sea, chiefly on the African coast. It owes its 
commercial value to the beauty of its hard red calcareous axis which 
in life is covered by a cortex in which the proximal moieties of the 
zooids are imbedded. Corallium rubrum has been the subject of a 
beautifully-illustrated memoir by de Lacaze-Duthiers, which should 
be consulted for details of anatomy. 

The AXIFERA comprise those corals that have a horny or calcified 
axis, which in position corre- 
sponds to the axis of the 
Pseudaxonia, but, unlike it, 
is never formed of fused 
spicules; the most familiar 
example is the pink sea-fan, 
Gorgonia cavolinii, which is 
found in abundance in 10-25 
fathoms of water off the 
English coasts (fig. 7). In 
this order the axis is formed 
as an ingrowth of the ecto- 
derm of the base of the 
mother zooid of the colony, 
the cavity of the ingrowth 
being filled by a horny sub- 
stance secreted by the ecto- 
derm. In Gorgonia the axis 
remains horny throughout 
life, but in many forms it is 
further strengthened by a 
deposit of calcareous matter. 
In the family Isidinae the 
axis consists of alternate 
segments of horny and cal- 
careous substance, the latter 
being amorphous. The 
order contains six families 
the Dasygorgtdae, Isidae, 
Primnoidae, Muriceidae, 
Plexauridae, and Gorgonidae. 
In the order STELECHO- 
TOKEA the colony consists of 
a stem formed by a greatly- 
elongated mother zooid, and 
the daughter zooids are 
borne as lateral buds on the 
stem. In the section 
Aiiphonacea the colonies are 
upright and branched, 
springing from membranous 
or ramifying stolons. They 
resemble and are closely 
allied to certain families of 
the Cornulariidae, differing 
from them only in mode of 
budding and in the disposi- 
tion of the daughter zooids 




FIG. 8. 

A, Colony of Pennatula phospkorea 
from the metarachidia! aspect, p. The 
peduncle. 

B, Section of the rachis bearing a 
single pinna, a. Axis; b, metarachi- 
ilial; c, prorachidial; d, pararachidial 
stem canals. 



round a central, much-elongated mother zooid. The section contains 
two families, the Trlrstidae and the Coelogorgidoe. The second section 
comprises the Pennotulocea or sea-pens, which are remarkable from 
the fact that the colony is not fixed by the base to a rock or other 



100 



ANTHOZOA 



object, but is imbedded in sand or mud by the proximal portion of 
the stem known as the peduncle. In the typical genus, Pennatula 
(fig. 8), the colony looks like a feather having a stem divisible into 
an upper moiety or rachis, bearing lateral central leaflets (pinnae), 
and a lower peduncle, which is sterile and imbedded in sand or mud. 
The stem represents a greatly enlarged and elongated mother zooid. 
It is divided longitudinally by a partition separating a so-called 
" ventral " or prorachidial canal from a so-called dorsal " or 
metarachidial canal. A rod-like supporting axis of peculiar texture 
is developed in the longitudinal partition, and a longitudinal canal 
is hollowed out on either side of the axis in the substance of the 
longitudinal partition, so that there are four stem-canals in all. 
The prorachidial and metarachidial aspects of the rachis are sterile, 
but the sides or pararachides bear numerous daughter zooids of 
two kinds (i) fully-formed autozooids, (2) small stunted siphono- 
zooids. The pinnae are formed by the elongated autozooids, whose 
proximal portions are fused together to form a leaf-like expansion, 
from the upper edge of which the distal extremities of the zooids 
project. The siphonozooids are very numerous and lie between the 
bases of the pinnae on the pararachides; they extend also on the 
prorachidial and metarachidial surfaces. The calcareous skeleton 
of the Pennatulacea consists of scattered spicules, but in one species, 
Protocaulon molle, spicules are absent. Although of great interest 
the Pennatulacea do not form an enduring skeleton or " coral," 
and need not be considered in detail in this place. 

The order COENOTHEC ALIA is represented by a single living species, 
Heliopora coerulea, which differs from all recent Alcyonana in the 
fact that its skeleton is not composed of spicules, but is formed as 
a secretion from a layer of cells called calicoblasts, which originate 
from the ectoderm. The corallum of Heliopora is of a blue colour, 
and has the form of broad, upright, lobed, or digitate masses flattened 
from side to side. The surfaces are pitted all over with perforations 
of two kinds, viz. larger star-shaped cavities, called calices, in 
which the zooids are lodged, and very numerous smaller round or 
polygonal apertures, which in life contain as many short unbranched 




A FlG. 9. B 

A, Portion of the surface of a colony of Heliopora coerulea magni- 
fied, showing two calices and the surrounding coenenchymal tubes. 

B, Single zooid with the adjacent soft tissues as seen after removal 
of the skeleton by decalcification. Z l , the distal, and Z 2 , the proximal 
or intracalicular portion of the zooid; ec, ectoderm; ct, coenen- 
chymal tubes ; sp, superficial network of solenia. 

tubes, known as the coenenchymal tubes (fig. 9, A). The walls of the 
calices and coenenchymal tubes are formed of flat plates of calcite, 
which are so disposed that the walls of one tube enter into the com- 
position of the walls of adjacent tubes, and the walls of the calices 
are formed by the walls of adjacent coenenchymal tubes. Thus the 
architecture of the Helioporid colony differs entirely from such forms 
as Tubipora or Favosites, in which each corallite has its own distinct 
and proper wall. The cavities both of the calices and coenenchymal 
tubes of Heliopora are closed below by horizontal partitions or 
tabulae, hence the genus was formerly included in the group Tabulata, 
and was supposed to belong to the madreporarian corals, both 
because of its lamellar skeleton, which resembles that of a Madrepore, 
and because each calicle has from twelve to fifteen radial partitions 
or septa projecting into its cavity. The structure of the zooid of 
Heliopora, however, is that of a typical Alcyonarian, and the septa 
have only a resemblance to, but no real homology with, the similarly 
named structures in madreporarian corals. Heliopora coerulea is 
found between tide-marks on the shore platforms of coral islands. 
The order was more abundantly represented in Palaeozoic times by 
the Heliolitidae from the Upper and Lower Silurian and the Devonian, 
and by the Thecidae from the Wenlock limestone. In Heliolites 
porosus the colonies had the form of spheroidal masses; the calices 
were furnished with twelve pseudosepta, and the coenenchymal 
tubes were more or less regularly hexagonal. 

Zoantharia. In this sub-class the arrangement of the mesenteries 
is subject to a great deal of variation, but all the types hitherto 
observed may be referred to a common plan, illustrated by the 
living genus Edwardsia (fig. 10, A, B). This is a small solitary 
Zoantharian which lives embedded in sand. Its body is divisible 
into three portions, an upper capitulum bearing the mouth and 
tentacles, a median scapus covered by a friable cuticle, and a terminal 



physa which is rounded. Both capitulum and physa can be retracted 
within the scapus. There are from sixteen to thirty-two simple 
tentacles, but only eight mesenteries, all of which are complete. 
The stomodaeum is compressed laterally, and is furnished with two 
longitudinal grooves, a sulcus and a sulculus. The arrangement of 
the muscle-banners on the mesenteries is characteristic. On six of 
the mesenteries the muscle-banners have the same position as in 
the Alcyonaria, namely, on the sulcar faces; but in the two remain- 
ing mesenteries, namely, those which are attached on either side 
of the sulcus, the muscle-banners are on the opposite or sulcular 
faces. It is not known whether all the eight mesenteries of Ed- 
wardsia are developed simultaneously or not, but in the youngest 




B 



FIG. 10. 

A, Edwardsia claparedii (after A. Andres). Cap, capitulum; sc, 
scapus; ph, physa. 

B, Transverse section of the same, showing the arrangement of the 
mesenteries, s, Sulcus; si, sulculus. 

C, Transverse section of Halcampa. d, d, Directive mesenteries; 
st, stomodaeum. 

form which has been studied all the eight mesenteries were present, 
but only two of them, namely the sulco-laterals, bore mesenterial 
filaments, and so it is presumed that they are the first pair to be 
developed. In the common sea-anemone, Actinia equina (which 
has already been quoted as a type of Anthozoan structure), the 
mesenteries are numerous and are arranged in cycles. The mesen- 
teries of the first cycle are complete (i.e. are attached to the stomo- 
daeum), are twelve in number, and arranged in couples, distinguish- 
able by the position of the muscle-banners. In the four couples of 
mesenteries which are attached to the sides of the elongated stomo- 
daeum the muscle-banners of each couple are turned towards one 
another, but in the sulcar and sulcular couples, known as the directive 




111 HI 

FIG. ii. A, Diagram showing the sequence of mesenterial devel- 
opment in an Actinian. B, Diagrammatic transverse section of 
Gonactinia prolifera. 

mesenteries, the muscle-banners are on the outer faces of the mesen- 
teries, and so are turned away from one another (see fig. 10, C). 
The space enclosed between two mesenteries of the same couple is 
called an entocoele; the space enclosed between two mesenteries of 
adjacent couples is called an exocoele. The second cycle of mesen- 
teries consists of six couples, each formed in an exocoele of the 
primary cycle, and in each couple the muscle-banners are vis-a-vis. 
The third cycle comprises twelve couples, each formed in an exocoele 
between the primary and secondary couples, and so on, it being a 
general rule (subject, however, to exceptions) that new mesenterial 
couples are always formed in the exocoeies, and not in the entocoeles. 
While the mesenterial couples belonging to the second and each 
successive cycle are formed simultaneously, those of the first cycle 



ANTHOZOA 



i i 



are formed in successive pain, each member of a pair being placed 
on opposite tide* of the totnodaeum. ll<-n><- ih<- arrangement in 
*ix couple* U a iccondary and not primary feature-. In most 
Artinian* the mesenteries appear in the following order: At tin- 
nine when the utomodaeum i formed, a single pair of mesenteries, 
markrtl 1. 1 in the diagram (fig. 11, A), make* its appearance, dividing 
the coelenteric ravity into a smaller Mijcar and a large sulrular 
chamber. The muscle-banners of thu pair are placed on the Mile ar 
face* of the mesenteries. Next, a pair of mesenteries, marked 11,11 
in the diagram, U developed in the sukular chamber, it* muscle- 
banncra facing the same way as those of I, I. The third pair is 
formed in the sulrar chamber, in close connexion with the sulcus, 
and in this case the muscle-banners are on the tuJcular faces. The 
fourth pair, having its muscle-banners on the sulcar faces, is devel- 
oped at the oppoMte extremity of the stomodaeum in close connexion 
with the Mile, uliis. There are now eight mesenteries present, having 
exactly the same arrangement as in Edwardsia. A pause in the 
development follows, during which no new mesenteries are formed, 
and then the six-rayed symmetry characteristic of a normal Actinian 
zooid is completed by the formation of the mesenteries V, V in the 
lateral chambers, and VI, VI in the sulcolatcral chambers, their 
muscle-banners being so disposed that they form couples respectively 
with 1 1 , 1 1 and I.I. In Actinia equina the Edwardsia stage is arrived 
at somewhat differently. The mesenteries second in order of forma- 
tion form the sulcular directives, those fourth in order of formation 
form with the fifth the sulculo-lateral couples of the adult. 

As far as the anatomy of the zooid is concerned, the majority of 
the stony or madrcporarian corals agree exactly with the soft-bodied 
Actinians, such as Actinia equina, both in the number and arrange- 

* , 




A 



FIG. 12. 



A, Zoanthid colony, showing the expanded zooids. 

B, Diagram showing the arrangement of mesenteries in a young 
Zoanthid. 

C, Diagram showing the arrangement of mesenteries in an adult 
Zoanthid. i, 2, 3, 4, Edwardsian mesenteries. 

ment of the adult mesenteries and in the order of development of 
the first cycle. The few exceptions will be dealt with later, but it 
may be stated here that even in these the first cycle of six couples 
of mesenteries is always formed, and in all the cases which have 
been examined the course of development described above is followed . 
There are, however, several groups of Zoantharia in which the 
mesenterial arrangement of the adult differs widely from that just 
described. But it is possible to refer all these cases with more or 
lew certainty to the Edwardsian type. 

The order ZOANTHIDEA comprises a number of soft-bodied Zoan- 
thanans generally encrusted with sand. Externally they resemble 
ordinary sea-anemones, but there is only one ciliated groove, the 
sulcus, in the stomodaeum, and the mesenteries are arranged on a 
peculiar pattern. The first twelve mesenteries are disposed in 
couples, and do not differ from those of Actinia except in size. The 
mesenterial pairs I, II and III are attached to the stomodaeum, 
and are called macromescnteries (fig. 12, B), but IV, V and VI are 
much shorter, and are called micromesenteries. The subsequent 
development is peculiar to the group. New mesenteries are formed 
only in the sulcp-lateral exocoeles. They are formed in couples, 
each couple consisting; of a macromcscntcry and a micromesentcry, 
disposed so that the former is nearest to the sulcar directives. The 
derivation of the Zoanthidca from an Edwardsia form U sufficiently 
obvious. 

The order CeRiANTHlDEAcom prises a few soft-bod icdZoantharians 
with rounded aboral extremities pierced by pores. They have two 
circlets of tentacles, a labial and a marginal, and there is only one 
ciliated groove in the stomodaeum, which appears to be the sulculus. 
The mesenteries are numerous, and the longitudinal muscles, though 
distinguishable, are so feebly developed that there are no muscle- 
banners. The larval forms of the type genus Cerianthui float freely 
in the sea. and were once considered to belong to a separate genus, 
Aracknactis. In this larva four pairs of mesenteries having the 
typical Edwardsian arrangement are developed, but the fifth and 
sixth pairs, instead of forming couples with the first and second, 
arise in the sulcar chamber, the fifth pair inside the fourth, and the 



sixth pair inside the fifth. New mrnrnterie* are continually added 
in the sulcar chamber, the seventh pair within the nixth, the eighth 
pair within the seventh, and 10 on (fig. 13). In the Cerianthidea. 
as in the Zoanthidea, much as the adult arrangement of mesenterie* 
differs from that of Actinia, the derivation from an Edwardsia stock 
is obvious. 
The order ANTIFATHIDEA ii a well-defined group whose affinities 




FIG. 13. 



A, Cerianihus solitarius (after A. Andres). 

B, Transverse section of the stomodaeum, showing the sulculus, si, 
and the arrangement of the mesenteries. 

C, Oral aspect of Arachnactis brachiolata, the larva of Crrianthus. 
with seven tentacles. 

D, Transverse section of an older larva. The numerals indicate 
the order of development of the mesenteries. 

are more obscure. The type form, Anlipatkfs dichotoma (fig. 14), 
forms arborescent colonies consisting of numerous zooids arranged 
in a single series along one surface of a branched horny axis. Each 
zooid has six tentacles; the stomodaeum is elongate, but the sulcus 
and sulculus are very feebly represented. There are ten mesenteries 
in which the musculature is so little developed as to be almost 
indistinguishable. The sulcar and sulcular pairs of mesenteries are 




FIG. 14. 



A, Portion of a colony of Anlipathes dieholoma. 

B, Single zooid and axis of the same magnified, m, Mouth: mf, 
mescnterial filament ; ax. axis. 

C, Transverse section through the oral cone of A ntipatheUa minor, 
st, Stomodaeum ; or, ovary. 

short, the sulco-lateral and sulculo-lateral pairs are a little longer, 
but the two transverse are very large and are the only mesenteries 
which bear gonads. As the development of the Antipathidea is 
unknown, it is impossible to say what is the sequence of the mesen- 
terial development, but in Leiofxtlkes glaberrima. a genus with twelve 
mesenteries, there are distinct indications of an Edwardsia stage. 

There are. in addition to these groups, several genera of Actinians 
whose mesenterial arrangement differs from the normal type. Of 



102 



ANTHOZOA 



these perhaps the most interesting is Gonactinia prolifera (fig. II, B), 
with eight macrpmesenteries arranged on the Edwardsian plan. 
Two pairs of micromesenteries form couples with the first and 
second Edwardsian pairs, and in addition there is a couple of micro- 
mesenteries in each of the sulculo-lateral exocoeles. Only the first 
and second pairs of Edwardsian macromesenteries are fertile, i.e. 
bear gonads. 

The remaining forms, the ACTINIIDEA, are divisible into the 
Malacactiniae, or soft-bodied sea-anemones, which have .already 
been described sufficiently in the course of this article, and the 
Scleractiniae ( = Madreporaria) or true corals. 

All recent corals, as has already been said, conform so closely 
to the anatomy of normal Actinlans that they cannot be classified 
apart from them, except that they are distinguished by the 
possession of a calcareous skeleton. This skeleton is largely 
composed of a number of radiating plates or septa, and it differs 
both in origin and structure from the calcareous skeleton of all 
Alcyonaria except Heliopora. It is formed, not from fused 
spicules, but as a secretion of a special layer of cells derived from 
the basal ectoderm, and known as calicoblasts. The skeleton or 
corallum of a typical solitary coral the common Devonshire cup- 
coral Caryophyllia smilhii (fig. 15) is a good example exhibits 
the folio wings parts: (i) The basal plate, between the zooid and 
the surface of attachment. (2) The septa, radial plates of 




FIG. 15. Corallum of Caryophyllia ; semi-diagrammatic, th, Theca ; 
c, costae; sp, septa; p, palus; col, columella. 

calcite reaching from the periphery nearly or quite to the centre 
of the coral-cup or calicle. (3) The theca or wall, which in many 
corals is not an independent structure, but is formed by the con- 
joined thickened peripheral ends of the septa. (4) The columella, 
a structure which occupies the centre of the calicle, and may 
arise from the basal plate, when it is called essential, or may be 
formed by union of trabecular offsets of the septa, when it is called 
unessential. (5) The costae, longitudinal ribs or rows of spines 
on the outer surface of the theca. True costae always correspond 
to the septa, and are in fact the peripheral edges of the latter. 
(6) Epiiheca, an offset of the basal plate which surrounds the 
base of the theca in a ring-like manner, and in some corals may 
take the place of a true theca. (7) Pali, spinous or blade-like 
upgrowths from the bottom of the calicle, which project between 
the inner edges of certain septa and the columella. In addition 
to these parts the following structures may exist in corals: 
Dissepiments are oblique calcareous partitions, stretching from 
septum to septum, and closing the interseptal chambers below. 
The whole system of dissepiments in any given calicle is often 
called endotheca. Synapticulae are calcareous bars uniting adjacent 
septa. Tabulae are stout horizontal partitions traversing the 
centre of the calicle and dividing it into as many superimposed 
chambers. The septa in recent corals always bear a definite 
relation to the mesenteries, being found either in every entocoele 
or in every entocoele and exocoele. Hence in corals in which 
there is only a single cycle of mesenteries the septa are corre- 
spondingly few in number; where several cycles of mesenteries 



are present the septa are correspondingly numerous. In some 
cases e.g. in some species of Madrepora only two septa are 
fully developed, the remainder being very feebly represented. 

Though the corallum appears to live within the zooid, it is 
morphologically external to it, as is best shown by its develop- 
mental history. The larvae of corals are free swimming ciliated 
forms known as planulae, and they do not acquire a corallum 
until they fix themselves. A ring-shaped plate of calcite, 
secreted by the ectoderm, is then formed, lying between the 
embryo and the surface of attachment. As the mesenteries are 




FIG. 16. Tangential section of a larva of Astroides calicularis 
which has fixed itself on a piece of cork, ec. Ectoderm ; en, endo- 
derm; mg, mesogloea; m, m, mesenteries; s, septum; 6, basal plate 
formed of ellipsoids of carbonate of lime secreted by the basal 
ectoderm; ep, epitheca. (After von Koch.) 

formed, the endoderm of the basal disk lying above the basal 
plate is raised up in the form of radiating folds. There may be 
six of these folds, one in each entocoele of the primary cycle of 
mesenteries; or there may be twelve, one in each exocoele and 
entocoele. The ectoderm beneath each fold becomes detached 
from the surface of the basal plate, and both it and the mesogloea 
are folded conformably with the endoderm. The cells forming 
the limbs of the ectodermic folds secrete nodules of calcite, and 
these, fusing together, give rise to six (or twelve) vertical radial 
plates or septa. As growth proceeds new septa are formed 
simultaneously with the new couples of secondary mesenteries. 
In some corals, in which all the septa are entocoelic, each new 
system is embraced by a mesenteric couple; in others, in which the 
septa are both entocoelic and exocoelic, three septa are formed in 




07: 



TO- 



FIG. 17. Transverse section through a zooid of Cladocora. The 
corallum shaded with dots, the mesogloea represented by a thick line. 
Thirty-two septa are present, six in the entocoeles of the primary 
cycle of mesenteries, I ; six in the entocoeles of the secondary cycle 
of mesenteries, II; four in the entocoeles of the tertiary cycle of 
mesenteries, III, only four pairs of the latter being developed; and 
sixteen in the entocoeles between the mesenterial pairs. D, D, 
Directive mesenteries; st, stomodaeum. (After Duerden.) 

every chamber between two primarymesenterialcouples,onein the 
entocoele of the newly formed mesenterial couple of the secondary 
cycle, and one in each exocoele between a primary and a secondary 
couple. These latter are in turn embraced by the couples of the 
tertiary cycle of mesenteries, and new septa are formed in the 
exocoeles on either side of them, and so forth. 

It is evident from an inspection of figs. 16 and 17 that every 



ANTHOZOA 



103 



septum is covered by a fold of endoderm, mesogloea, and 
ectoderm, and is in fact pushed into the cavity of the zooid from 
without. The zooid then is, as it were, moulded upon the 
corallum. When fully extended, the upper part of the zooid 
projects for some distance out of the ctdicle, and its wall is 
reflected for some distance over the lip of the latter, forming a 
fold of soft tissue extending to a greater or less distance over the 
tbeca, and containing in most case* a cavity continuous over the lip 
of the calide with the coclcnteron. This fold of tissue is known as 
thcedge-ztntf. Insomccoralstheseptaaresolidimperforateplatcsof 
calcitc, and their peripheral ends are either firmly welded together, 
or are united by interstitial pieces so as to form imperforate 
tbeca. In others the peripheral ends of the septa arc united only 
by bars or trabeculae, so that the thcca is perforate, and in many 
such perforate corals the septa themselves arc pierced by 
numerous perforations. In the former, which have been called 




FIG. 18. 

A, Schematic longitudinal section through a zooid and bud of 
Styiophora digitata. In A, B, and C the thick black lines represent 
the soft tissues; the corallum is dotted, s, Stomodaeum; c, c, 
cocnosarc ; col, columella ; 7", tabulae. 

B, Similar section through a single zooid and bud of Astroides 
califularis. 

C, Similar section through three corallites of Lophohelia prolifera. 
a. Edge-zone. 

D, Diagram illustrating the process of budding by unequal division. 

E, Section through a dividing calicle of Mussa, showing the union 
of two septa in the plane of division, and the origin of new septa at 
right angles to them. 

(C original ; the rest after von Koch.) 

aporose corals, .the only communication between the cavity of 
the edge-zone and the general cavity of the zooid is by way of the 
lip of the calicle; in the latter, or perforate corals, the theca is 
permeated by numerous branching and anastomosing canals 
lined by endoderm, which place the cavity of the edge-zone in 
communication with the general cavity of the zooid. 

A large number of corals, both aporose and perforate, are 
colonial. The colonies are produced by either budding or divi- 
sion. In the former case the young daughter zooid, with its 
corallum, arises wholly outside the cavtty of the parent zooid, 
and the component parts of the young corallum, septa, theca, 
columella, &c., are formed anew in every individual produced. 
In division a vertical constriction divides a zooid into two equal 
or unequal parts, and the several parts of the two corals thus 
produced are severally derived from the corresponding parts of 
the dividing corallum. In colonial corals a bud is always formed 
from the edge-zone, and this bud develops into a new zooid 
with its corallum. The cavity of the bud in an aporose coral 
(fig. 18, A, C) does not communicate directly with that of the 
parent form, but through the medium of the edge-zone. As 
growth proceeds, and parent and bud become separated farther 
from one another, the edge-zone forms a sheet of soft tissue, 



bridging over the space between the two, and retting upon 
projecting spines of the corallum. This beet of tissue it callrd 
the cotnosurc. Its lower surface is clothed with a layer of 
calicoblasts which continue to secrete carbonate of lime, giving 
rise to a secondary deposit which more or less fills up the spaces 
between the individual coralla, and is distinguished as totnen- 
chyme. This coencnchyme may be scanty, or may be so abundant 
that the individual corallites produced by budding seem to be 
immersed in it. Budding takes place in an analogous manner 
in (K-rforate corals (fig. 18, B), but the presence of the canal 
system in the perforate theca leads to a modification of the pro- 
cess. Buds arise from the edge- zone which already communicate 
with the cavity of the zooid by the canals. As the buds develop 
the canal system becomes much extended, and calcaieous tissue 
is deposited between the network of canals, the confluent edge- 
zones of mother zooid and bud forming a coenosarc. As the 
process continues a number of calicles are formed, imbedded in 
a spongy tissue in which the canals ramify, and it is impossible 
to say where the theca of one coralh'te ends and that of another 
begins. In the formation of colonies by division a constriction 
at right angles to the long axis of the mouth involves first the 
mouth, then the peristome, and finally the calyx itself, so that 
the previously single coralh'te becomes divided into two (fig. 18, 
E). After division the corallites continue to grow upwards, and 
their zooids may remain united by a bridge of soft tissue or 
coenosarc. But in some cases, as they grow farther apart, this 
continuity is broken, each corallite has its own edge-zone, and 
internal continuity is also broken by the formation of dissepi- 
ments within each calicle, all organic connexion between the 
two zooids being eventually lost. Massive meandrine corals are 
produced by continual repetition of a process of incomplete 
division, involving the mouth and to some extent the peristome: 
the calyx, however, does not divide, but elongates to form a 
characteristic meandrine channel containing several zooid mouths. 
Corals have been divided into A porosa and Perjorata, according 
as the theca and septa are compact and solid, or are perforated 
by pores containing canals lined by endoderm. The division 
is in many respects convenient for descriptive purposes, but 
recent researches show that it does not accurately represent the 
relationships of the different families. Various attempts have 
been made to classify corals according to the arrangement of the 
septa, the characters of the theca, the microscopic structure of 
the corallum, and the anatomy of the soft parts. The last- 
named method has proved little more than that there is a remark- 
able similarity between the zooids of all recent corals, the 
differences which have been brought to light being for the most 
part secondary and valueless for classificatory purposes. On the 
other hand, the study of the anatomy and development of the 
zooids has thrown much light upon the manner in which the 
corallum is formed, and it is now possible to infer the structure 
of the soft parts from a microscopical examination of the septa, 
theca, &c., with the result that unexpected relationships have 
been shown to exist between corals previously supposed to 
stand far apart. This has been particularly the case with the 
group of Palaeozoic corals formerly classed together as Rugosa. 
In many of these so-called rugose forms the septa have a char- 
acteristic arrangement, differing from that of recent corals 
chiefly in the fact that they show a tctrameral instead of a 
hexameral symmetry. Thus in the family Stauridae there are 
four chief septa whose inner ends unite in the middle of the 
calicle to form a false columella, and in the Zapkrentidae there 
are many instances of an arrangement, such as that depicted 
in fig. 19, which represents the septal arrangement ofStreptelasmo 
corniculum from the lower Silurian. In this coral the caliclc is 
divided into quadrants by four principal septa, the main septum, 
counter septum, and two alar septa. The remaining septa are so 
disposed that in the quadrants abutting on the chief septum 
they converge towards that septum, whilst in the other quadrants 
they converge towards the alar septa. The secondary septa show 
a regular gradation in size, and, assuming that the smallest were 
the most recently formed, it will be noticed that in the chief 
quadrants the youngest septa lie nearest to the main septum; 



IO4 



ANTHOZOA 




FIG. IQ. Diagram of the arrange- 
ment of the septa in a Zaphrentid coral. 
m, Main septum; c, counter septum; 
t, t, alar septa. 



in the other quadrants the youngest septa lie nearest to the alar 
septa. This arrangement, however, is by no means characteristic 
even of the Zaphrentidae, and in the family Cyathophyllidae 
most of the genera exhibit a radial symmetry in which no trace 
of the bilateral arrangement described above is recognizable, 
and indeed in the genus Cyathophyllum itself a radial arrangement 
is the rule. The connexion .between the Cyathophyllidae and 
modern Astraeidae is shown by Mosdeya latistellata, a living 
reef-building coral from Torres Strait. The general structure 
of this coral leaves no doubt that it is closely allied to the 
Astraeidae, but in the young calicles a tetrameral symmetry 
is indicated by the presence of four large septa placed at right 
angles to one another. Again, in the family Amphiastraeidae 
there is commonly a single septum much larger than the rest, 
and it has been shown that in the young calicles, e.g. of Thecidio- 
smilia, two septa, corresponding to the main- and counter-septa 

of Streptelasma, are first 
formed, then two alar 
septa, and afterwards 
the remaining septa, 
the latter taking on a 
generally radial arrange- 
ment, though the original 
bilaterality is marked 
by the preponderance of 
the main septum. As 
the microscopic char- 
acter of the corallum of 
these extinct forms 
agrees with that of re- 
cent corals, it may be 
assumed that the anat- 
omy of the soft parts 
also was similar, and 
the tetrameral arrange- 
ment, when present, 

may obviously be referred to a stage when only the first two 
pairs of Edwardsian mesenteries were present and septa were 
formed in the intervals between them. 

Space forbids a discussion of the proposals to classify corals 
after the minute structure of their coralla, but it will suffice 
to say that it has been shown that the septa of all corals are built 
up of a number of curved bars called trabeculae, each of which 
is composed of a number of nodes. In many secondary corals 
(Cydolites, Thamnastraea) the trabeculae are so far separate 
that the individual bars are easily recognizable, and each looks 
something like a bamboo owing to the thickening of the two 
ends of each node. The trabeculae are united together by these 
thickened internodes, and the result is a fenestrated septum, 
which in older septa may become solid and aporose by continual 
deposit of calcite in the fenestrae. Each node of a trabecula 
may be simple, i.e. have only one centre of calcification, or may 
be compound. The septa of modern perforate corals are shown 
to have a structure nearly identical with that of the secondary 
forms, but the trabeculae and their nodes are only apparent on 
microscopical examination. The aporose corals, too, have a 
practically identical structure, their compactness being due to 
the union of the trabeculae throughout their entire lengths in- 
stead of at intervals, as in the Perforata. Further, the trabeculae 
may be evenly spaced throughout the septum, or may be grouped 
together, and this feature is probably of value in estimating the 
affinities of corals. (For an account of coral formations see 
CORAL-REEFS.) 

In the present state of our knowledge the Zoantharia in which 
a primary cycle of six couples of mesenteries is (or may be inferred 
to be) completed by the addition of two pairs to the eight 
Edwardsian mesenteries, and succeeding cycles are formed in 
the exocoeles of the pre-existing mesenterial cycles, may be classed 
in an order ACTINIIDEA, and this may be divided into the sub- 
orders Malacactiniae, comprising the soft-bodied Actinians, 
such as Actinia, Sagartia, Bunodes, &c., and the Scleractiniae, 
comprising the corals. The Scleractiniae may best be divided 



into groups of families which appear to be most closely related 
to one another, but it should not be forgotten that there is great 
reason to believe that many if not most of the extinct corals 
must have differed from modern Actiniidea in mesenterial 
characters, and may have only possessed Edwardsian mesenteries, 
or even have possessed only four mesenteries, in this respect 
showing close affinities to the Stauromedusae. Moreover, 
there are some modern corals in which the secondary cycle 
of mesenteries departs from the Actinian plan. For example, 
J. E. Duerden has shown that in Porites the ordinary zooids 
possess only six couples of mesenteries arranged on the Actinian 
plan. But some zooids grow to a larger size and develop a number 
of additional mesenteries, which arise either in the sulcar or 
the sulcular entocoele, much in the same manner as in Cerianthus. 
Bearing this in mind, the following arrangement may be taken, 
to represent the most recent knowledge of coral structure: 

Group A. 

Family I. ZAPHRENTIDAE. Solitary Palaeozoic corals with an 
epithecal wall. Septa numerous, arranged pinnately with regard to 
four principal septa. Tabulae present. One or more pits or fossulae 
present in the calicle. Typical genera Zaphrentis, Raf. Amplexus, 
M. Edw. and H. Streptelasma, Hall. Omphyma, Raf. 

Family 2. TURBINOLIDAE. Solitary, rarely colonial corals, with 
radially arranged septa and without tabulae. Typical genera - 
Flabellum, Lesson. Turbinolia, M. Edw. and H. Caryophyllia, 
Lamarck. Sphenotrochus, Moseley, &c. 

Family 3. AMPHIASTRAEIDAE. Mainly colonial, rarely solitary 
corals, with radial septa, but bilateral arrangement indicated by 
persistence of a mam septum. Typical genera Amphiastraea, 
Etallon. Thecidiosmilia. 

Family 4. STYLINIDAE. Colonial corals allied to the Amphi- 
astraeidae, but with radially symmetrical septa arranged in cycles. 
Typical genera Stylina, Lamarck (Jurassic). Convexastraea, D Orb. 
(Jurassic). Isastraea, M. Edw. and H. (Jurassic). Ogilvie refers the 
modern genus Galaxea to this family. 

Group B. 

Family 5. OCUI.INIDAE. Branching or massive aporose corals, 
the calices projecting above the level of a compact coenenchyme 
formed from the coenosarc which covers the exterior of the corallum. 
Typical genera Lophohelia, M. Edw. and H. Oculina, M. Edw. 
and H. 

Family 6. POCILLOPORIDAE. Colonial branching aporose corals, 
with small calices sunk in the coenenchyme. Tabulae present, and 
two larger septa, an axial and abaxial, are always present, with 
traces of ten smaller septa. Typical genera Pocillopora, Lamarck. 
Seriatopora, Lamarck. 

Family 7. MADREPORIDAE. Colonial branching or palmate 
perforate corals, with abundant trabecular coenenchyme. Theca 
porous; septa compact and reduced in number. Typical genera 
Madrepora, Linn. Turbinaria, Oken. Monti fora, Quoy and G. 

Family 8. PORITIDAE. Incrusting or massive colonial perforate 
corals; calices usually in contact by their edges, sometimes disjunct 
and immersed in coenenchyme. Theca and septa perforate. Typical 
genera Porites, M. Edw. and H. Goniopora, Quoy and G. Rhoda- 
raea, M. Edw. and H. 

Group C. 

Family 9. CYATHOPHYLLIDAE. Solitary and colonial aporose 
corals. Tabulae and vesicular endotheca present. Septa numerous, 
generally radial, seldom pinnate. Typical genera Cyathophyllum, 
Goldfuss (Devonian and Carboniferous). Mosdeya, Quelch (recent). 

Family 10. ASTRAEIDAE. Aporose, mainly colonial corals, 
massive, branching, or maeandroid. Septa radial; dissepiments 
present ; an epitheca surrounds the base of massive or maeandroid 
forms, but only surrounds individual corallites in simple or branching 
forms. Typical genera Goniastraea, M. Edw. and H. Heliastraea, 
M. Edw. and H. Maeandrina, Lam. Coeloria, M. Edw. and H. 
Favia, Oken. 

Family n. FUNGIDAE. Solitary and colonial corals, with 
numerous radial septa united by synapticulae. Typical genera 
Lophoseris, M. Edw. and H. Thamnastraea, Le Sauvage. Leplo- 
phyllia, Reuss (Jurassic and Cretaceous). Fungia, Dana. Sider- 
astraea, Blainv. 

Group D. 

Famjly 12. EUPSAMMIDAE. Solitary or colonial perforate corals, 
branching, massive, or encrusting. Septa radial ; the primary septa 
usually compact, the remainder perforate. Theca perforate. Synap- 
ticula present in some genera. Typical genera Stephanophyllta, 
Michehn. Eupsammia, M. Edw. and H. Astroides, Blainv. Rhodop- 
sammia, M. Edw. and H. Dendrophyllia, M. Edw. and H. 

Group E. 

Family 13. CYSTIPHYLLIDAE. Solitary corals with rudimentary 
septa, and the calicle filled with vesicular endotheca. Genera 



ANTHRACENE ANTHRACITE 



105 



Cyiliphyllum, Lonsdalc (Silurian and Devonian). GoniophyUum, 
M. Edw. ami M. (In this Silurian genus the calyx is provided with a 
movable operculum, consisting of lour paired triangular pieces, the 
bases of each being attached to the sides of the calyx, and their apices 
meeting in the middle wlu-n the operculum is closed). Calcecla, 
Lam. (In this Devonian genus there is a single semicircular oper- 
culum furnished with a stout median septum and numerous feebly 
developed secondary septa. The calyx is triangular in sccii"ii. 
pointed below, and the operculum is attached to it by hinge-like 
teeth.) 

AUTHORITIES. The following list contains only the names of the 
more important and more general works on the structure and 
classification of corals and on coral reefs. Foi a fuller bibliography 
the works marked with an asterisk should be consulted : * A. Andrei), 
fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel, ix. (188.1); H. M. Bernard, 
" Catalogue of Madreporarian Corals " in Brit. Museum, ii. (1896), 
iii. (1897); *G. C. Bourne, " Anthoioa." in E. Ray Lankecter s 
Treatise on Zoology, vol. ii. (London, 1900) ; G. Brook, " Chal- 
lenger Reports," Zoology, xxxii. (1899) (Antipatharia); "Cat. 
Madrep. Corals," Brit. Museum, i. (1893); D.C.Danielssen, "Report 
Norwegian North Atlantic Exploring Expedition," Zoology, xix. 
(1890); J. E. Ducrdcn, "Some Results on the Morphology and 
Development of Recent and Fossil Corals," Rep. Brit. Association, 
1903, pp. 684-685; " The Morphology of the Madreporaria," Biol. 
owlet, vii. pp. 79-104; P. M. Duncan, Journ. Linnean Soe. xviii. 
(1885); P. H. Gosse, Actinologia brilannica (London, 1860); O. and 
R. Hertwig, Die Actinien (Jena. 1879); R. Hen wig, " Challenger 
Reports," Zoology, vi. (1882) and xxvi. (1888); * C. B. Klunzinger, 
Die Korallthiere des Rothen Jfeeres (Berlin, 1877); * G. von Koch. 
Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel, xv. (1887); Mitth. Zool. 
Slot. Neapel, ii. (1882) and xii. (1897); Palaeontographica, xxix. 
(1883); (also many papers in the Morphol. Jahrbuch from 1878 to 
1898); F. Koby, " Polypiers jurassiques de la Suisse," Mem. Soc. 
Palaeont. Suisse, vii.-xvi. (1880-1889); A. von Kolliker, "Die 
Pennatuliden," A bh. d. Senck. Naturf. GeseU. vii.; " Challenger 
Reports," Zoology, i. Pennatulidae (1880); Keren and Danielssen, 
Norske Nordhaus Exped., Alcyonida (1887); H. de Lacaze-Duthiers, 
Hist. not. du corail (Paris, 1864); H. Milne-Edwards and J. Haime, 
Hist. not. des coraUiaires (Paris, 1857): H. N. Moseley, " Challenger 
Reports," Zoology, ii. (1881); H. A. Nicholson. Palaeozoic Tabulate 
Corals (Edinburgh, 1879) ; M.M. Ogilvie, Phil. Transactions, clxxxvii. 
(1896); E. Pratz, Palaeontographica, xxix. (1882); I. I. Quelch, 
" Challenger Reports," Zoology, xvi. (1886); * P. S. Wright and Th. 
Studer, " Challenger Reports, Zoology, xxxi. (1889). (G. C. B.) 

ANTHRACENE (from the Greek a0pa, coal), C, 4 H, , a 
hydrocarbon obtained from the fraction of the coal-tar distillate 
boiling between 270 and 400 C. This high boiling fraction is 
allowed to stand for some days, when it partially solidifies. It is 
then separated in a centrifugal machine, the low melting-point 
impurities are removed by means of hot water, and the residue 
is finally hot-pressed. The crude anthracene cake is purified 
by treatment with the higher pyridine bases, the operation being 
carried out in large steam-jacketed boilers. The whole mass 
dissolves on heating, and the anthracene crystallizes out on 
cooling. The crystallized anthracene is then removed by a 
centrifugal separator and the process of solution in the pyridine 
bases is repeated. Finally the anthracene is purified by sub- 
limation. 

Many synthetical processes for the preparation of anthracene 
and its derivatives are known. It is formed by the condensation 
of acetylene tetrabromide with benzene in the presence of 
aluminium chloride: 

Br-CH Br 

C.H.+ I +C4H.= 4 HBr+C4H 
Br-CH-Br 

and similarly from methylene dibromide and benzene, and also 
when benzyl chloride is heated with aluminium chloride to 
200 C. By condensing ortho-brombenzyl bromide with sodium, 
C. L. Jackson and J. F. White (Ber., 1879, 12, p. 1065) obtained 
dihydro- anthracene 

C,H,<^ H Br -f 4 Na+ Br( ,^>C.H.-4NaBr-|-C.H,<^|{|>C,H,. 

Anthracene has also been obtained by heating ortho-tolylphenyl 
ketone with zinc dust 



/CH, 
I< 

x:oc, 



(Ml, -H.O+C.H, 

:OC,H, 

Anthracene crystallizes in colourless monoclinic tables which 
show a fine blue fluorescence. It melts at 213 C. and boils 
at 351 C. It is insoluble in water, sparingly soluble in alcohol 
and ether, but readily soluble in hot benzene. It unites with 



picric acid to form a picrate, C, 4 H C,H, (NO,),-OH, which 
crystallizes in needles, melting at 138 C. On exposure to 
sunlight a solution of anthracene in benzene or xylrne 
deposits para-anthracene (CuHio)i, which melts at 244 C. 
and passes back into the ordinary form. Chlorine and 
bromine form both addition and substitution products with 
anthracene; the addition product, anthracene dichloride, 
CuHioClj, being formed when chlorine is passed into a cold 
solution of anthracene in carbon bisulphide. On treatment 
with potash, it forms the substitution product, monochlor- 
anthracene, C| 4 HC1. Nitro-anthracenes are not as yet 
known. The mono-oxy anthracenes (anthrols), C| 4 HOH or 

H,OH (a) and (0). resemble the phenols, whilst 



/C(OH) 



H4< I 






(?) (anthranol) is a reduction product of 



anthraquinone. /3-anthrol and anthranol give the corresponding 
amino compounds (anthramines) when heated with ammonia. 

Numerous sulphonic acids of anthracene are known, a mono- 
sulphonic acid being obtained with dilute sulphuric acid, whilst 
concentrated sulphuric acid produces mixtures of the anthracene 
disulphonic acids. By the action of sodium amalgam on an 
alcoholic solution of anthracene, an anthracene dihydride, 
CuHii, is obtained, whilst by the use of stronger reducing agents, 
such as hydriodic acid and amorphous phosphorus, hydrides 
of composition CuH, 8 and CuH M are produced. 

Methyl and phenyl anthracenes are known; phenyl anthranol 
(phthalidin) being somewhat closely related to the phenol- 
phthaleins (?..). Oxidizing agents convert anthracene into 
anthraquinone (<?.t>.) ; the production of this substance by oxidiz- 
ing anthracene in glacial acetic acid solution, with chromic acid, 
is the usual method employed for the estimation of anthracene. 

ANTHRACITE (Gr. avOpat, coal), a term applied to those 
varieties of coal which do not give off tarry or other hydrocarbon 
vapours when heated below their point of ignition; or, in other 
words, which bum with a smokeless and nearly non-luminous 
flame. Other terms having the same meaning are, " stone coal " 
(not to be confounded with the German Steinkohle) or " blind 
coal " in Scotland, and " Kilkenny coal " in Ireland. The im- 
perfect anthracite of north Devon, which however is only used 
as a pigment, is known as culm, the same term being used in 
geological classification to distinguish the strata in which it is 
found, and similar strata in the Rhenish hill countries which are 
known as the Culm Measures. In America, culm is used as an 
equivalent for waste or slack in anthracite mining. 

Physically, anthracite differs from ordinary bituminous coal by 
its greater hardness, higher density, i -3-1 -4, and lustre, the latter 
being often semi-metallic with a somewhat brownish reflection. 
It is also free from included soft or fibrous notches and does 
not soil the fingers when rubbed. Structurally it shows some 
alteration by the development of secondary divisional planes and 
fissures so that the original stratification lines are not always 
easily seen. The thermal conductivity is also higher, a lump of 
anthracite feeling perceptibly colder when held in the warm 
hand than a similar lump of bituminous coal at the same tempera- 
ture. The chemical composition of some typical anthracites is 
given in the article COAL. 

Anthracite may be considered to be a transition stage between 
ordinary bituminous coal and graphite, produced by the more or 
less complete elimination of the volatile constituents of the 
former; and it is found most abundantly in areas that have been 
subjected to considerable earth-movements, such as the flanks 
of great mountain ranges. The largest and most important 
anthracite region, that of the north-eastern portion of the Penn- 
sylvania coal-field, is a good example of this; the highly con 
torted strata of the Appalachian region produce anthracite 
exclusively, while in the western portion of the same basin on 
the Ohio and its tributaries, where the strata are undisturbed, 
free-burning and coking coals, rich in volatile matter, prevail. In 
the same way the anthracite region of South Wales is confined 
to the contorted portion west of Swansea and Llanelly. the 



io6 



ANTHRACOTHERIUM ANTHRAX 



central and eastern portions producing steam, coking and 
house coals. 

Anthracites of newer, tertiary or cretaceous age, are found in 
the Crow's Nest part of the Rocky Mountains in Canada, and 
at various points in the Andes in Peru. 

The principal use of anthracite is as a smokeless fuel. In the 
eastern United States, it is largely employed as domestic fuel, 
usually in close stoves or furnaces, as well as for steam purposes, 
since, unlike that from South Wales, it does not decrepitate when 
heated, or at least not to the same extent. For proper use, however, 
it is necessary that the fuel should be supplied in pieces as nearly 
uniform in size as possible, a condition that has led to the develop- 
ment of the breaker which is so characteristic a feature in American 
anthracite mining (see COAL). The large coal as raised from the 
mine is passed through breakers with toothed rolls to reduce the 
lumps to smaller pieces, which are separated into different sizes 
by a system of graduated sieves, placed in descending order. 
Each size can be perfectly well burnt alone on an appropriate 
grate, if kept free from larger or smaller admixtures. The 
common American classification is as follows: 

Lump, steamboat, egg and stove coals, the latter in two or three 
sizes, all three being above ij in. size on round-hole screens. 

Chestnut below ij inch above j inch. 
Pea I A 

Buckwheat A I > 

Rice | A .. 

Barley A -. ,. A .. 

From the pea size downwards the principal use is for steam 
purposes. In South Wales a less elaborate classification is 
adopted ; but great care is exercised in hand-picking and cleaning 
the coal from included particles of pyrites in the higher qualities 
known as best malting coals, which are used for kiln-drying 
malt and hops. 

Formerly, anthracite was largely used, both in America and 
South Wales, as blast-furnace fuel for iron smelting, but for this 
purpose it has been largely superseded by coke in the former 
country and entirely in the latter. An important application 
has, however, been developed in the extended use of internal 
combustion motors driven by the so-called "mixed," "poor," 
" semi-water " or " Dowson gas " produced by the gasification 
of anthracite with air and a small proportion of steam. This 
is probably the most economical method of obtaining power 
known; with an engine as small as 15 horse-power the expendi- 
ture of fuel is at the rate of only i Ib per horse-power hour, and 
with larger engines it is proportionately less. Large quantities of 
anthracite for power purposes are now exported from South 
Wales to France, Switzerland and parts of Germany. (H. B.) 

ANTHRACOTHERIUM (" coal-animal," so called from the 
fact of the remains first described having been obtained from 
the Tertiary lignite-beds of Europe), a genus of extinct artio- 
dactyle ungulate mammals, characterized by having 44 teeth, 
with five semi-crescentic cusps on the crowns of the upper 
molars. In many respects, especially the form of the lower jaw, 
Anthracotherium, which is of Oligocene and Miocene age in 
Europe, and typifies the family Anthracolheriidae, is allied to the 
hippopotamus, of which it is probably an ancestral form. The 
European A. magnum was as large as the last-mentioned animal, 
but there were several smaller species and the genus also occurs 
in Egypt, India and North America. (See ARTIODACTYLA.) 

ANTHRAQUINONE, CuHsOi, an important derivative of 
anthracene, first prepared in 1834 by A. Laurent. It is prepared 
commercially from anthracene by stirring a sludge of anthracene 
and water in horizontal cylinders with a mixture of sodium 
bichromate and caustic soda. This suspension is then run through 
a conical mill in order to remove all grit, the cones of the mill 
fitting so tightly that water cannot pass through unless the mill is 
running; the speed of the mill when working is about 3000 
revolutions per minute. After this treatment, the mixture is 
run into lead-lined vats and treated with sulphuric acid, steam 
is blown through the mixture in order to bring it to the boil, and 
the anthracene is rapidly oxidized to anthraquinone. When the 
oxidation is complete, the anthraquinone is separated in a filter 



press, washed and heated to 120 C. with commercial oil of 
vitriol, using about 2\ parts of vitriol to i of anthraquinone. 
It is then removed to lead-lined tanks and again washed with 
water and dried; the product obtained contains about 95 % of 
anthraquinone. It may be purified by sublimation. Various 
synthetic processes have been used for the preparation of anthra- 
quinone. A. Behr and W. A. v. Dorp (Ber., 1874, 7, p. 578) obtained 
orthobenzoyl benzoic acid by heating phthalic anhydride with 
benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride. This compound 
on heating with phosphoric anhydride loses water and yields 
anthraquinone, 

r H ^CO^. n C H6 r H ^CO-C,H 6 ^-CCK. r 

C H < CO >O -> ' UH< \COOH -> c ' H <<x)-> ' 4 ' 
It may be prepared in a similar manner by heating phthalyl 
chloride with benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride. 
Dioxy- and tetraoxy-anthraquinones areobtained when meta-oxy- 
and dimeta-dioxy-benzoic acids are heated with concentrated 
sulphuric acid. 

Anthraquinone crystallizes in yellow needles or prisms, which 
melt at 277 C. It is soluble in hot benzene, sublimes easily, and 
is very stable towards oxidizing agents. On the other hand, 
it is readily attacked by reducing agents. With zinc dust in 
presence of caustic soda it yields the secondary alcohol oxan- 
thranol, CeH,: CO-CHOH : C 6 H4, with tin and hydrochloric acid, 
the phenolic compound anthranol, CeFL.: CO-C(OH): CerL.; and 
with hydriodic acid at 1 50 C. or on distillation with zinc dust, 
the hydrocarbon anthracene, CuHio. When fused with caustic 
potash, it gives benzoic acid. It behaves more as a ketone than 
as a quinone, since with hydroxylamine it yields an oxime, and on 
reduction with zinc dust and caustic soda it yields a secondary 
alcohol, whilst it cannot be reduced by means of sulphurous 
acid. Various sulphonic acids of anthraquinone are known, as 
well as oxy-derivatives, for the preparation and properties of 
which see ALIZARIN. 

ANTHRAX (the Greek for " coal," or " carbuncle," so called 
by the ancients because they regarded it as burning like coal; 
cf. the French equivalent charbon; also known as fievre char- 
bonneuse, Milzbrand, splenic fever, and malignant pustule), an 
acute, specific, infectious, virulent disease, caused by the Bacillus 
anthracis, in animals, chiefly cattle, sheep and horses, and 
frequently occurring in workers in the wool or hair, as well as in 
those handling the hides or carcases, of beasts which have been 
affected. 

Animals. As affecting wild as well as domesticated animals 
and man, anthrax has been widely diffused in one or more of its 
forms, over the surface of the globe. It at times decimates the 
reindeer herds in Lapland and the Polar regions, and is only too 
well known in the tropics and in temperate latitudes. It has 
been observed and described in Russia, Siberia, Central Asia, 
China, Cochin-China, Egypt, West Indies, Peru, Paraguay, 
Brazil, Mexico, and other parts of North and South America, in 
Australia, and on different parts of the African continent, while 
for other European countries the writings which have been 
published with regard to its nature, its peculiar characteristics, 
and the injury it inflicts are innumerable. Countries in which 
are extensive marshes, or the subsoil of which is tenacious or 
impermeable, are usually those most frequently and seriously 
visited. Thus there have been regions notorious for its preval- 
ence, such as the marshes of Sologne, Dombes and Bresse in 
France; certain parts of Germany, Hungary and Poland; in 
Spain the half-submerged valleys and the maritime coasts of 
Catalonia, as well as the Romagna and other marshy districts of 
Italy; while it is epizootic, and even panzootic, in the swampy 
regions of Esthonia, Livonia, Courland, and especially of Siberia, 
where it is known as the Sibirskajajaswa (Siberian boil-plague). 
The records of anthrax go back to a very ancient date. It is 
supposed to be the murrain of Exodus. Classical writers allude 
to anthrax as if it were the only cattle disease worthy of 
mention (see Virgil, Georg. iii.). It figures largely in the history 
of the early and middle ages as a devastating pestilence attack- 
ing animals, and through them mankind; the oldest Anglo- 
Saxon manuscripts contain many fantastic recipes, leechdoms, 



ANTHRAX 



107 



charms and incantations (or the prevention or cure of the 
" Ma. an blezenc " (black blain) and the relief of the " clfshot " 
creatures. In tin- i.Sth and i<>th centuries it sometimes spread 
like an epizootic over the whole of Europe, from Siberia to 
France. It was in this malady that disease-producing germs 
(bacteria) were first discovered, in 1849, by Pollender of Wipper- 
furih, and, independently, by veterinary surgeon Braucll of 
Dorpat, and their real character afterwards verified by C. J. 
Davaine (1812-1882) of Alfort in 1863; and it was in their 
experiments with this disease that Toussaint, Pasteur and 
J. I! Chauveau first showed how to make the morbific poison its 
own antidote. (See VIVISECTION.) 

The symptoms vary with the species of animal, the mode of 
infection, and the seat of the primary lesion, internal or external. 
In all its forms anthrax is an inoculable disease, transmission 
being surely and promptly effected by this means, and it may be 
conveyed to nearly all animals by inoculation of a wound of the 
skin or through the digestive organs. Cattle, sheep and horses 
nearly always owe their infection to spores or bacilli ingested 
with their food or water, and pigs usually contract the disease by 
eating the flesh of animals dead of anthrax. 

Internal anthrax, of cattle and sheep, exhibits no premonitory 
symptoms that can be relied on. Generally the first indication 
of an outbreak is the sudden death of one or more of the herd or 
flock. Animals which do not die at once may be noticed to 
stagger and tremble; the breathing becomes hurried and the 
pulse very rapid, while the heart beats violently; the internal 
temperature of the body is high, 104 to 106 F.; blood oozes 
from the nose, mouth and anus, the visible mucous membranes 
are dusky or almost black. The animal becomes weak and list- 
less, the temperature falls and death supervenes in a few hours, 
being immediately preceded by delirium, convulsions or coma. 
While death is usually rapid or sudden when the malady is 
general, constituting what is designated splenic apoplexy, 
internal anthrax in cattle is not invariably fatal. In some cases 
the animal rallies from a first attack and gradually recovers. 

In the external or localized form, marked by the formation 
of carbuncles before general infection takes place, death may 
not occur for several days. The carbuncles may appear in any 
part of the body, being preceded or accompanied by fever. 
They are developed in the subcutaneous connective tissue 
where this is loose and plentiful, in the interstices of the muscles, 
lymphatic glands, in the mucous membranes of the mouth and 
tongue (glossanthrax of cattle), pharynx and larynx (anthrax 
angina of horses and pigs), and the rectum. They begin as 
small circumscribed swellings which arc warm, slightly painful 
and oedematous. In from two to eight hours they attain a con- 
siderable size, are cold, painless and gangrenous, and when 
they are incised a quantity of a blood-stained gelatinous exudate 
escapes. When the swellings have attained certain proportions 
symptoms of general infection appear, and, running their course 
with great rapidity, cause death in a few hours. Anthrax of the 
horse usually begins as an affection of the throat or bowel. In 
the former there is rapid obstructive oedema of the mucous 
membrane of the pharynx and larynx with swelling of the throat 
and neck, fever, salivation, difficulty in swallowing, noisy 
breathing, frothy discharge from the nose and threatening 
suffocation. General invasion soon ensues, and the horse may 
die in from four to sixteen hours. The intestinal form is marked 
by high temperature, great prostration, small thready pulse, 
tumultuous action of the heart, laboured breathing and symptoms 
of abdominal pain with straining and diarrhoea. When moved 
the horse staggers and trembles. Profuse sweating, a falling 
temperature and cyanotic mucous membranes indicate the 
approach of a fatal termination. 

In splenic fever or splenic apoplexy, the most marked altera- 
tions observed after death are the effects of rapid decomposi- 
tion, evidenced by the foul odour, disengagement of gas beneath 
the skin and in the tissues and cavities of the body, yellow or 
yellowish-red gelatinous exudation into and between the muscles, 
effusion of citron or rust-coloured fluid in various cavities, 
extravasations of blood and local congestions throughout the 



body, the blood in the vessel* generally being very dark and 
tar-like. The most notable feature, however, in the majority of 
cues is the enormous enlargement of the spleen, which is en- 
gorged with blood to such an extent that it often ruptures, while 
its tissue is changed into a violet or black fluid mass. 

The bacillus of anthrax, under certain conditions, retains its 
vitality for a long time, and rapidly grows when it finds a suitable 
field in which to develop, its mode of multiplication being by 
scission and the formation of spores, and depending, to a great 
extent at least, on the presence of oxygen. The morbid action 
of the bacillus is indeed said to be due to its affinity for oxygen; 
by depriving the red corpuscles of the blood of that most essential 
gas, it renders the vital fluid unfit to sustain life. Albert Hoffa 
and others assert that the fatal lesions are produced by the 
poisonous action of the toxins formed by the bacilli and not by 
the blocking up of the minute blood-vessels, or the abstraction 
of oxygen from the blood by the bacilli. 

It was by the cultivation of this micro-organism, or attenuation 
of the virus, that Pasteur was enabled to produce a prophylactic 
remedy for anthrax. His discovery was first made with regard 
to the cholera of fowls, a most destructive disorder which 
annually carries off great numbers of poultry. Pasteur produced 
his inoculation material by the cultivation of the bacilli at a 
temperature of 42 C. in oxygen. Two vaccines are required. 
The first or weak vaccine is obtained by incubating a bouillon 
culture for twenty-four days at 42 C., and the second or less 
attenuated vaccine by incubating a bouillon culture, at the same 
temperature, for twelve days. Pasteur's method of protective 
inoculation comprises two inoculations with an interval of twelve 
days between them. Immunity, established in about fifteen 
days after the injection of the second vaccine, lasts from nine 
months to a year. 

Toussaint had, previous to Pasteur, attenuated the virus of 
anthrax by the action of heat; and Chauveau subsequently 
corroborated by numerous experiments the value of Toussaint's 
method, demonstrating that, according to the degree of heat 
to which the virus is subjected, so is its inocuousness when 
transferred to a healthy creature. In outbreaks of anthrax on 
farms where many animals are exposed to infection immediate 
temporary protection can be conferred by the injection of 
anthrax serum. 

Human Beings. For many years cases of sudden death had 
been observed to occur from time to time among healthy men 
engaged in woollen manufactories, particularly in the work of 
sorting or combing wool. In some instances death appeared to 
be due to the direct inoculation of some poisonous material into 
the body, for a form of malignant pustule was observed upon 
the skin; but, on the other hand, in not a few cases without any 
external manifestation, symptoms of blood-poisoning, often 
proving rapidly fatal, suggested the probability of other channels 
for the introduction of the disease. In 1880 the occurrence of 
several such cases among woolsorters at Bradford, reported 
by Dr J. H. Bell of that town, led to an official inquiry in England 
by the Local Government Board, and an elaborate investigation 
into the pathology of what was then called " woolsorters' disease " 
was at the same time conducted at the Brown Institution, London, 
by Professor W. S. Greenfield. Among the results of this inquiry 
it was ascertained: (i) that the disease appeared to be identical 
with that occurring among sheep and cattle; (2) that in the blood 
and tissues of the body was found in abundance, as in the disease 
in animals, the Bacillus anthracis, and (3) that the skins, hair, 
wool, &c., of animals dying of anthrax* retain this infecting 
organism, which, under certain conditions, finds ready access 
to the bodies of the workers. 

Two well-marked forms of this disease in man are recognized, 
" external anthrax " and " internal anthrax." In external 
anthrax the infecting agent is accidentally inoculated into some 
portion of skin, the seat of a slight abrasion, often the hand, 
arm or face. A minute swelling soon appears at the part, and 
develops into a vesicle containing scrum or bloody matter, 
and varying in size, but seldom larger than a shilling. This 
vesicle speedily bursts and leaves an ulcerated or sloughing 



io8 



ANTHROPOID APES ANTHROPOLOGY 



surface, round about which are numerous smaller vesicles which 
undergo similar changes, and the whole affected part becomes 
hard and tender, while the surrounding surface participates 
in the inflammatory action, and the neighbouring lymphatic 
glands are also inflamed. This condition, termed " malignant 
pustule," is frequently accompanied with severe constitutional 
disturbance, in the form of fever, delirium, perspirations, together 
with great prostration and a tendency to death from septicaemia, 
although on the other hand recovery is not uncommon. It 
was repeatedly found that the matter taken from the vesicle 
during the progress of the disease, as well as the blood in the 
body after death, contained the Bacillus anthracis, and when 
inoculated into small animals produced rapid death, with all 
the symptoms and post-mortem appearances characteristic of 
the disease as known to affect them. 

In internal anthrax there is no visible local manifestation 
of the disease, and the spores or bacilli appear to gain access 
to the system from the air charged with them, as in rooms where 
the contaminated wool or hair is unpacked, or again during 
the process of sorting. The symptoms usually observed are those 
of rapid physical prostration, with a small pulse, somewhat 
lowered temperature (rarely fever), and quickened breathing. 
Examination of the chest reveals inflammation of the lungs and 
pleura. In some cases death takes place by collapse in less 
than one day, while in others the fatal issue is postponed for 
three or four days, and is preceded by symptoms of blood- 
poisoning, including rigors, perspirations, extreme exhaustion, 
&c. In some cases of internal anthrax the symptoms are more 
intestinal than pulmonary, and consist in severe exhausting 
diarrhoea, with vomiting and rapid sinking. Recovery from 
the internal variety, although not unknown, is more rare than 
from the external, and its most striking phenomena are its sudden 
onset in the midst of apparent health, the rapid development 
of physical prostration, and its tendency to a fatal termination 
despite treatment. The post-mortem appearances in internal 
anthrax are such as are usually observed in septicaemia, but in 
addition evidence of extensive inflammation of the lungs, pleura 
and bronchial glands has in most cases been met with. The 
blood and other fluids and the diseased tissues are found loaded 
with the Bacillus anthracis. 

Treatment in this disease appears to be of but little avail, 
except as regards the external form, where the malignant pustule 
may be excised or dealt with early by strong caustics to destroy 
the affected textures. For the relief of the general constitutional 
symptoms, quinine, stimulants and strong nourishment appear 
to be the only available means. An anti-anthrax serum has 
also been tried. As preventive measures in woollen manu- 
factories, the disinfection of suspicious material, or the wetting 
of it before handling, is recommended as lessening the risk to 
the workers. (J. MAC.) 

ANTHROPOID APES, or MANLIKE APES, the name given to 
the family of the Simiidae, because, of all the ape-world, they 
most closely resemble man. This family includes four kinds, 
the gibbons of S. E. Asia, the orangs of Borneo and Sumatra, 
the gorillas of W. Equatorial Africa, and the chimpanzees of 
W. and Central Equatorial Africa. Each of these apes resembles 
man most in some one physical characteristic: the gibbons 
in the formation of the teeth, the orangs in the brain-structure, 
the gorillas in size, and the chimpanzees in the sigmoid flexure of 
the spine. In general structure they all closely resemble human 
beings, as in the absence of tails; in their semi -erect position 
(resting on finger-tip^ or knuckles); in the shape of vertebral 
column, sternum and pelvis; in the adaptation of the arms 
for turning the palm uppermost at will; in the possession of a 
long vermiform appendix to the short caecum of the intestine; 
in the size of the cerebral hemispheres and the complexity of 
their convolutions. They differ in certain respects, as in the pro- 
portion of the limbs, in the bony development of the eyebrow 
ridges, and in the opposable great toe, which fits the foot to be 
a climbing and grasping organ. 

Man differs from them in the absence of a hairy coat; in the 
development of a large lobule to the external ear; in his fully 



erect attitude; in his flattened foot with the non-opposable 
great toe; in the straight limb-bones; in the wider pelvis; 
in the marked sigmoid flexure of his spine; in the perfection 
of the muscular movements of the arm; in the delicacy of hand; 
in the smallness of the canine teeth and other dental peculiarities; 
in the development of a chin; and in the small size of his jaws 
compared to the relatively great size of the cranium. Together 
with man and the baboons, the anthropoid apes form the group 
known to science as Catarhini, those, that is, possessing a 
narrow nasal septum, and are thus easily distinguishable from 
the flat-nosed monkeys or Platyrhini. The anthropoid apes are 
arboreal and confined to the Old World. They are of special 
interest from the important place assigned to them in the 
arguments of Darwin and the Evolutionists. It is generally 
admitted now that no fundamental anatomical difference can 
be proved to exist between these higher apes and man, but it 
is equally agreed that none probably of the Simiidae is in the 
direct line of human ancestry. There is a great gap to be bridged 
between the highest anthropoid and the lowest man. and much 
importance has been attached to the discovery of an extinct 
primate, Pithecanthropus (?..), which has been regarded as 
the " missing link." 

See Huxley's Man's Place in Nature (1863);" Robt. Hartmann's 
Anthropoid Apes (1883; London, 1885); A. H. Keane's Ethnology 
(1896); Darwin's Descent of Man (1871 ; pop. ed., 1901); HaeckeT's 
Anthropogeny (Leipzig, 1874, 1903; Paris, 1877; Eng. ed., 1883); 
W. H. Flower and Rich. Lydekker, Mammals Living and Extinct 
(London, 1891). 

ANTHROPOLOGY (Gr. avdpuiros man, and X67OJ, theory or 
science), the science which, in its strictest sense, has as its 
object the study of man as a unit in the animal kingdom. It is 
distinguished from ethnology, which is devoted to the study of 
man as a racial unit, and from ethnography, which deals with 
the distribution of the races formed by the aggregation of such 
units. To anthropology, however, in its more general sense as 
the natural history of man, ethnology and ethnography may 
both be considered to belong, being related as parts to a whole. 

Various other sciences, in conformity with the above definition, 
must be regarded as subsidiary to anthropology, which yet hold 
their own independent places in the field of knowledge. Thus 
anatomy and physiology display the structure and functions of 
the human body, while psychology investigates the operations 
of the human mind. Philology deals with the general principles 
of language, as well as with the relations between the languages 
of particular races and nations. Ethics or moral science treats 
of man's duty or rules of conduct toward his fellow-men. Soci- 
ology and the science of culture are concerned with the origin 
and development of arts and sciences, opinions, beliefs, customs, 
laws and institutions generally among mankind within historic 
time; while beyond the historical limit the study is continued 
by inferences from relics of early ages and remote districts, to 
interpret which is the task of pre-historic archaeology and 
geology. 

I. Man's Place in Nature. In 1843 Dr J. C. Prichard, who 
perhaps of all others merits the title of founder of modern 
anthropology, wrote in his Natural History of Man: 

" The organized world presents no contrasts and resemblances 
more remarkable than those which we discover on comparing man- 
kind with the inferior tribes. That creatures should exist so nearly 
approaching to each other in all the particulars of their physical 
structure, and yet differing so immeasurably in their endowments 
and capabilities, would be a fact hard to believe, if it were not 
manifest to our observation. The differences are everywhere 
striking: the resemblances are less obvious in the fulness of their 
extent, and they are never contemplated without wonder by those 
who, in the study of anatomy and physiology, are first made aware 
how near is man in his physical constitution to the brutes. In all 
the principles of his internal structure, in the composition and 
functions of his parts, man is but an animal. The lord of the earth, 
who contemplates the eternal order of the universe, and aspires to 
communion with its invisible Maker, is a being composed of the 
same materials, and framed on the same principles, as the creatures 
which he has tamed to be the servile instruments of his will, or slays 
for his daily food. The points of resemblance are innumerable; 
they extend to the most recondite arrangements of that mechanism 
which maintains instrumentally the physical life of the body, which 



ANTHROPOLOGY 



109 



bring* forward id early development and admit*, after a given peri< l, 
it* decay, and by mean* of which i* prepared a (uccemuon of limil.ir 
being* destined to perpetuate the rai \- ' 

The acknowledgment of man's structural similarity with the 
anthropomorphous species nearest approaching him, viz.: the 
higher or anthropoid apes, had long before Prichard's day 
been made by Linnaeus, who in his Sy sterna Naturae (1735) 
grouped them together as the highest order of Mammalia, to 
which he gave the name of Primates. The Amoenitales Aca- 
demicae (vol. vi., Leiden, 1764), published under the auspices of 
Linnaeus, contains a remarkable picture which illustrates a 
discourse by his disciple Hoppius, and is here reproduced (see 
Plate, fig. i). In this picture, which shows the crudcness of the 
zoological notions current in the iXth century as to both men 
and apes, there arc set in a row four figures: (a) a recognizable 
orang-utan, sitting and holding a staff; (b) a chimpanzee, 
absurdly humanized as to head, hands, and feet; (c) a hairy 
woman, with a tail a foot long; (d) another woman, more 
completely coated with hair. The great Swedish naturalist was 
possibly justified in treating the two latter creatures as quasi- 
human, for they seem to be grotesque exaggerations of such 
tailed and hairy human beings as really, though rarely, occur, 
and are apt to be exhibited as monstrosities (see Bastian and 
Hartmann, Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, Index, " Geschwinzte 
Menschen "; Gould and Pile, Anomalies and Curiosities of 
Medicine, 1 807) . To Linnaeus, however, they represented normal 
anthropomorphic or man-like creatures, vouched for by visitors 
to remote parts of the world. This opinion of the Swedish 
naturalist seems to have been little noticed in Great Britain till 
it was taken up by the learned but credulous Scottish judge, 
Lord Monboddo (see his Origin and Progress of Language, 1774, 
&c.; Antient Metaphysics, 1778). He had not heard of the 
tailed men till he met with them in the work of Linnaeus, with 
whom he entered into correspondence, with the result that he 
enlarged his range of mankind with races of sub-human type. 
One was founded on the description by the Swedish sailor 
Niklas Roping of the ferocious men with long tails inhabiting 
the Nicobar Islands. Another comprised the orang-utans of 
Sumatra, who were said to take men captive and set them to 
work as slaves. One of these apes, it was rekted, served as a 
sailor on board a Jamaica ship, and used to wait on the captain. 
These are stories which seem to carry their own explanation. 
When the Nicobar Islands were taken over by the British 
government two centuries later, the native warriors were still 
wearing their peculiar loin-doth hanging behind in a most tail- 
like manner (E. H. Man, Journal Anthropological Institute, vol. 
xv. p. 442). As for the story of the orang-utan cabin boy, this 
may even be verbally true, it being borne in mind that in the 
Malay languages the term orang-utan, " man of the forest," was 
originally used for inland forest natives and other rude men, 
rather than for the miyas apes to which it has come to be generally 
applied by Europeans. The speculations as to primitive man 
connected with these stories diverted the British public, headed 
by Dr Johnson, who said that Monboddo was " as jealous of his 
tail as a squirrel." Linnaeus's primarily zoological classification 
of man did not, however, suit the philosophical opinion of the 
time, which responded more readily to the systems represented 
by Buff on, and later by Cuvier, in which the human mind and 
soul formed an impassable wall of partition between him and 
other mammalia, so that the definition of man's position in the 
animal world was treated as not belonging to zoology, but to 
metaphysics and theology. It has to be borne in mind that 
Linnaeus, plainly as he recognized the likeness of the higher 
simian and the human types, does not seem to have entertained 
the thought of accounting for this similarity by common descent. 
It satisfied his mind to consider it as belonging to the system of 
nature, as indeed remained the case with a greater anatomist of 
the following century, Richard Owen. The present drawing, 
which under the authority of Linnaeus shows an anthropo- 
morphic series from which the normal type of man, the Homo 
sapiens, is conspicuously absent, brings zoological similarity into 
view without suggesting kinship to account for it. There are few 



ideas more ingrained in ancient and low civilization than that of 
relationship by descent between the lower animals mod man. 
Savage and barbaric religions recognize it, and the mythology 
of the world has hardly a more universal theme. But in educated 
Europe such ideas had long been superseded by the influence of 
theology and philosophy, with which they seemed too incom- 
patible. In the ipth century, however, Lamarck's theory of the 
development of new species by habit and circumstance led 
through Wallace and Darwin to the doctrines of the hereditary 
transmission of acquired characters, the survival of the fittest, 
and natural selection. Thenceforward it was impossible to 
exclude a theory of descent of man from ancestral beings whom 
zoological similarity connects also, though by lines of descent 
not at all clearly defined, with ancestors of the anthropomorphic 
apes. In one form or another such a theory of human descent 
has in our time become part of an accepted framework of zoology, 
if not as a demonstrable truth, at any rate as a working hypothesis 
which has no effective rival. 

The new development from Linnaeus's zoological scheme 
which has thus ensued appears in Huxley's diagram of simian 
and human skeletons (fig. 2, (a) gibbon; (b) orang; (c) chim- 
panzee; (d) gorilla; (e) man). Evidently suggested by the 
Linnean picture, this is brought up to the modern level of 
zoology, and continued on to man, forming an introduction to 
his zoological history hardly to be surpassed. Some of the main 
points it illustrates may be briefly stated here, the reader being 
referred for further information to Huxley's Essays. In tracing 
the osteological characters of apes and man through this series, 
the general system of the skeletons, and the close correspondence 
in number and arrangement of vertebrae and ribs, as well as in 
the teeth, go far towards justifying the opinion of hereditary 
connexion. At the same time, the comparison brings into view 
differences in human structure adapted to man's pre-eminent 
mode of life, though hardly to be accounted its chief causes. 
It may be seen how the arrangement of limbs suited for going 
on all-fours belongs rather to the apes than to man, and walking 
on the soles of the feet rather to man than the apes. The two 
modes of progression overlap in human life, but the child's 
tendency when learning is to rest on the soles of the feet and the 
palms of the hands, unlike the apes, which support themselves 
on the sides of the feet and the bent knuckles of the hands. With 
regard to climbing, the long stretch of arm and the grasp with 
both hands and feet contribute to the arboreal life of the apes, 
contrasting with what seem the mere remains of the climbing 
habit to be found even among forest savages. On the whole, 
man's locomotive limbs are not so much specialized to particular 
purposes, as generalized into adaptation to many ends. As to the 
mechanical conditions of the human body, the upright posture 
has always been recognized as the chief. To it contributes the 
balance of the skull on the cervical vertebrae, while the human 
form of the pelvis provides the necessary support to the intestines 
in the standing attitude. The marked curvature of the vertebral 
column, by breaking the shock to the neck and head in running 
and leaping, likewise favours the erect position. The lowest 
coccygeal vertebrae of man remain as a rudimentary tail. While 
it is evident that high importance must be attached to the 
adaptation of the human body to the life of diversified intelligence 
and occupation he has to lead, this must not be treated as though 
it were the principal element of the superiority of man, whose 
comparison with all lower genera of mammals must be mainly 
directed to the intellectual organ, the brain. Comparison of the 
brains of vertebrate animals (see BRAIN) brings into view the 
immense difference between the small, smooth brain of a fish or 
bird and the large and convoluted organ in man. In man, both 
size and complexity contribute to the increased area of the 
cortex or outer layer of the brain, which has been fully ascertained 
to be the seat of the mysterious processes by which sensation 
furnishes the groundwork of thought. Schafer (Textbook of 
Physiology, vol. ii. p. 697) thus defines it: " The cerebral cortex 
is the seat of the intellectual functions, of intelligent sensation 
or consciousness, of ideation, of volition, and of memory." 

The relations between man and ape are most readily stated in 



no 



ANTHROPOLOGY 



comparison with the gorilla, as on the whole the most anthropo- 
morphous ape. In the general proportions of the body and limbs 
there is a marked difference between the gorilla and man. The 
gorilla's brain-case is smaller, its trunk larger, its lower limbs 
shorter, its upper limbs longer in proportion than those of man. 
The differences between a gorilla's skull and a man's are truly 
immense. In the gorilla, the face, formed largely by the massive 
jaw-bones, predominates over the brain-case or cranium; in the 
man these proportions are reversed. In man the occipital 
foramen, through which passes the spinal cord, is placed just 
behind the centre of the base of the skull, which is thus evenly 
balanced in the erect posture, whereas the gorilla, which goes 
habitually on all fours, and whose skull is inclined forward, in 
accordance with this posture has the foramen farther back. In 
man the surface of the skull is comparatively smooth, and the 
brow-ridges project but little, while in the gorilla these ridges 
overhang the cavernous orbits like penthouse roofs. The absolute 
capacity of the cranium of the gorilla is far less than that of man; 
the smallest adult human cranium hardly measuring less than 63 
cub. in., while the largest gorilla cranium measured had a content 
of only 345 cub. in. The largest proportional size of the facial 
bones, and the great projection of the jaws, confer on the gorilla's 
skull its small facial angle and brutal character, while its teeth differ 
from man's in relative size and number of fangs. Comparing the 
lengths of the extremities, it is seen that the gorilla's arm is of 
enormous length, in fact about one-sixth longer than the spine, 
whereas a man's arm is one-fifth shorter than the spine; both 
hand and foot are proportionally much longer in the gorilla than 
in man; the leg does not so much differ. The vertebral column 
of the gorilla differs from that of man in its curvature and other 
characters, as also does the conformation of its narrow pelvis. 
The hand of the gorilla corresponds essentially as to bones and 
muscles with that of man, but is clumsier and heavier; its thumb 
is " opposable " like a human thumb, that is, it can easily meet 
with its extremity the extremities of the other fingers, thus 
possessing a character which does much to make the human hand 
so admirable an instrument; but the gorilla's thumb is pro- 
portionately shorter than man's. The foot of the higher apes, 
though often spoken of as a hand, is anatomically not such, but 
a prehensile foot. It has been argued by Sir Richard Owen and 
others that the position of the great toe converts the foot of the 
higher apes into a hand, an extremely important distinction from 
man; but against this Professor T. H. Huxley maintained that 
it has the characteristic structure of a foot with a very movable 
great toe. The external unlikeness of the apes to man depends 
much on their hairiness, but this and some other characteristics 
have no great zoological value. No doubt the difference between 
man and the apes depends, of all things, on the relative size and 
organization of the brain. While similar as to their general 
arrangement to the human brain, those of the higher apes, such 
as the chimpanzee, are much less complex in their convolutions, 
as well as much less in both absolute and relative weight the 
weight of a gorilla's brain hardly exceeding 20 oz., and a man's 
brain hardly weighing less than 32 oz., although the gorilla is 
considerably the larger animal of the two. 

These anatomical distinctions are undoubtedly of great moment, 
and it is an interesting question whether they suffice to place man 
in a zoological order by himself. It is plain that some eminent 
zoologists, regarding man as absolutely differing as to mind and 
spirit from any other animal, have had their discrimination of 
mere bodily differences unconsciously sharpened, and have been 
led to give differences, such as in the brain or even the foot of 
the apes and man, somewhat more importance than if they had 
merely distinguished two species of apes. Many naturalists hold 
the opinion that the anatomical differences which separate the 
gorilla or chimpanzee from man are in some respects less than 
those which separate these man-like apes from apes lower in the 
scale. Yet all authorities class both the higher and lower apes 
in the same order. This is Huxley's argument, some prominent 
points of which are the following: As regards the proportion of 
limbs, the hylobates or gibbon is as much longer in the arms than 
the gorilla as the gorilla is than the man, while on the other hand, 



it is as much longer in the legs than the man as the man is than 
the gorilla. As to the vertebral column and pelvis, the lower 
apes differ from the gorilla as much as, or more than, it differs 
from man. As to the capacity of the cranium, men differ from 
one another so extremely that the largest known human skull 
holds nearly twice the measure of the smallest, a larger proportion 
than that in which man surpasses the gorilla; while, with proper 
allowance for difference of size of the various species, it appears 
that some of the lower apes fall nearly as much below the higher 
apes. The projection of the muzzle, which gives the character 
of brutality to the gorilla as distinguished from the man, is yet 
further exaggerated in the lemurs, as is also the backward position 
of the occipi tal foramen. In characters of such importance as the 
structure of the hand and foot, the lower apes diverge extremely 
from the gorilla; thus the thumb ceases to be opposable in the 
American monkeys, and in the marmosets is directed forwards, 
and armed with a curved claw like the other digits, the great 
toe in these latter being insignificant in proportion. The same 
argument can be extended to other points of anatomical structure, 
and, what is of more consequence, it appears true of the brain. 
A series of the apes, arranged from lower to higher orders, shows 
gradations from a brain little higher that that of a rat, to a brain 
like a small and imperfect imitation of a man's; and the greatest 
structural break in the series lies not between man and the man- 
like apes, but between the apes and monkeys on one side, and the 
lemurs on the other. On these grounds Huxley, restoring in 
principle the Linnean classification, desired to include man in the 
order of Primates. This order he divided into seven families: 
first, the A nthropini, consisting of man only ; second, the Catarhini 
or Old World apes; third, the Platyrhini, all New World apes, 
except the marmosets; fourth, the Arclopithecini, or marmosets; 
fifth, the Lemurini, or lemurs; sixth and seventh, the Cheiromyini 
and Galeopithecini. 

It is in assigning to man his place in nature on psychological 
grounds that the greater difficulty arises. Huxley acknowledged 
an immeasurable and practically infinite divergence, ending in 
the present enormous psychological gulf between ape and man. 
It is difficult to account for this intellectual chasm as due to 
some minor structural difference. The opinion is deeply rooted 
in modern as in ancient thought, that only a distinctively human 
element of the highest import can account for the severance 
between man and the highest animal below him. Differences in 
the mechanical organs, such as the perfection of the human hand 
as an instrument, or the adaptability of the human voice to the 
expression of human thought, are indeed of great value. But 
they have not of themselves such value, that to endow an ape 
with the hand and vocal organs of a man would be likely to raise 
it through any large part of the interval that now separates it 
from humanity. Much more is to be said for the view that man's 
larger and more highly organized brain accounts for those mental 
powers in which he so absolutely surpasses the brutes. 

The distinction does not seem to lie principally in the range 
and delicacy of direct sensation, as may be judged from such 
well-known facts as man's inferiority to the eagle in sight, or 
to the dog in scent. At the same time, it seems that the human 
sensory organs may have in various respects acuteness beyond 
those of other creatures. But, beyond a doubt, man possesses, 
and in some way possesses by virtue of his superior brain, a 
power of co-ordinating the impressions of his senses, which 
enables him to understand the world he lives in, and by under- 
standing to use, resist, and even in a measure rule it. No 
human art shows the nature of this human attribute more clearly 
than does language. Man shares with the mammalia and birds 
the direct expression of the feelings by emotional tones and 
interjectional cries; the parrot's power of articulate utterance 
almost equals his own; and, by association of ideas in some 
measure, some of the lower animals have even learnt to recognize 
words he utters. But, to use words in themselves unmeaning, 
as symbols by which to conduct and convey the complex in- 
tellectual processes in which mental conceptions are suggested, 
compared, combined, and even analysed, and new ones created 
this is a faculty which is scarcely to be traced in any lower animal. 



ANTHROPOLOGY 



1 1 1 



The view that this, with other mental processes, U a function of 
the brain, is remarkably corroborated by modern investigation 
of the disease of aphasia, where the power of thinking remains, 
but the power is lost of recalling the word corresponding to the 
thought, and this mental defect is found to accompany a diseased 
state of a particular locality of the brain (see APHASIA). This 
may stand among the most perfect of the many evidences that, 
in Professor Bain's words, " the brain is the principal, though 
not the sole organ of mind." As the brains of the vertebrate 
animals form an ascending scale, more and more approaching 
man's in their arrangement, the fact here finds its explanation, 
that lower animals perform mental processes corresponding 
in their nature to our own, though of generally less power and 
complexity. The full evidence of this correspondence will be 
found in such works as Brehm's Thirrlrbm; and some of the 
salient points are set forth by Charles Darwin, in the chapter 
on " Mental Powers," in his Descent of Man. Such are the 
similar effects of terror on man and the lower animals, causing 
the muscles to tremble, the heart to palpitate, the sphincters 
to be relaxed, and the hair to stand on end. The phenomena 
of memory, as to both persons and places, is strong in animals, 
as is manifest by their recognition of their masters, and their re- 
turning at once to habits of which, though disused for many years, 
their brain has not lost the stored-up impressions. Such facts 
as that dogs " hunt in dreams," make it likely that their minds 
are not only sensible to actual events, present and past, but can, 
like our minds, combine revived sensations into ideal scenes 
in which they are actors, that is to say, they have the faculty 
of imagination. As for the reasoning powers in animals, the 
accounts of monkeys learning by experience to break eggs care- 
fully, and pick off bits of shell, so as not to lose the contents, 
or of the way in which rats or martens after a while can no longer 
be caught by the same kind of trap, with innumerable similar 
facts, show in the plainest way that the reason of animals goes 
so far as to form by new experience a new hypothesis of cause 
and effect which will henceforth guide their actions. The 
employment of mechanical instruments, of which instances of 
monkeys using sticks and stones furnish the only rudimentary 
traces among the lower animals, is one of the often-quoted 
distinctive powers of man. With this comes the whole vast 
and ever-widening range of inventive and adaptive art, where 
the uniform hereditary instinct of the cell-forming bee and the 
nest-building bird is supplanted by multiform processes and 
constructions, often at first rude and clumsy in comparison to 
those of the lower instinct, but carried on by the faculty of 
improvement and new invention into ever higher stages. " From 
the moment," writes A. R. Wallace (Natural Selection), " when 
the first skin was used as a covering, when the first rude spear 
was formed to assist in the chase, when fire was first used to 
cook his food, when the first seed was sown or shoot planted, 
a grand revolution was effected in nature, a revolution which 
in all the previous ages of the earth's history had had no parallel; 
for a being had arisen who was no longer necessarily subject 
to change with the changing universe, a being who was in some 
degree superior to nature, inasmuch as he knew how to control 
and regulate her action, and could keep himself in harmony 
with her, not by a change in body, but by an advance of mind." 
As to the lower instincts tending directly to self-preservation, 
it is acknowledged on all hands that man has them in a less 
developed state than other animals; in fact, the natural defence- 
lessness of the human being, and the long-continued care and 
teaching of the young by the ciders, are among the commonest 
themes of moral discourse. Parental tenderness and care for 
the young are strongly marked among the lower animals, though 
so inferior in scope and duration to the human qualities; and 
the same may be said of the mutual forbearance and defence 
which bind together in a rudimentary social bond the families 
and herds of animals. Philosophy seeking knowledge for its 
own sake; morality, manifested in the sense of truth, right, and 
virtue; and religion, the belief in and communion with super- 
human powers ruling and pervading the universe, are human 
characters, of which it is instructive to trace, if possible, the 



earliest symptoms in the lower animal*, but which can there 
show at most only faint and rudimentary signs of their wondrous 
development in mankind. That the tracing of physical and 
even intellectual continuity between the lower animals and our 
own race, does not necessarily lead the anthropologist to lower 
the rank of man in the scale of nature, may be shown by citing 
A. R. Wallace. Man, he considers, is to be placed " apart, as 
not only the head and culminating point of the grand series 
of organic nature, but as in some degree a new and distinct 
order of being." 

To regard the intellectual functions of the brain and nervous 
system as alone to be considered in the psychological comparison 
of man with the lower animals, is a view satisfactory to those 
thinkers who hold materialistic views. According to this school, 
man is a machine, no doubt the most complex and wonderfully 
adapted of all known machines, but still neither more nor less 
than an instrument whose energy is provided by force from 
without, and which, when set in action, performs the various 
operations for which its structure fits it, namely, to live, move, 
feel, and think. This view, however, always has been strongly 
opposed by those who accept on theological grounds a spiritual- 
istic doctrine, or what is, perhaps, more usual, a theory which 
combines spiritualism and materialism in the doctrine of a 
composite nature in man, animal as to the body and in some 
measure as to the mind, spiritual as to the soul. It may be useful, 
as an illustration of one opinion on this subject, to continue 
here the citation of Dr Prichard's comparison between man and 
the lower animals: 

" If it be inquired in what the still more remarkable difference 
consists, it is by no means easy to reply. By some it will be said 
that man, while similar in the organization of his body to the lower 
tribes, is distinguished from them by the possession of an immaterial 
soul, a principle capable of conscious feeling, of intellect and thought. 
To many persons it will appear paradoxicalto ascribe the endowment 
of a soul to the inferior tribes in the creation, yet it is difficult to 
discover a valid argument that limits the possession of an immaterial 
principle to man. The phenomena of feeling, of desire and aversion, 
of love and hatred, of fear and revenge, and the perception of external 
relations manifested in the life of brutes, imply, not only through 
the analogy which they display to the human faculties, but likewise 
from all that we can learn or conjecture of their particular nature, 
the superadded existence of a principle distinct from the mere 
mechanism of material bodies. That such a principle must exist in 
all beings capable of sensation, or of anything analogous to human 
passions and feelings, will hardly be denied by those who perceive 
the force of arguments which metaphysically demonstrate the im- 
material nature of the mind. There may be no rational grounds for 
the ancient dogma that the souls of the lower animals were im- 
perishable, like the soul of man : this is, however, a problem which 
we are not called upon to discuss; and we may venture to conjecture 
that there may be immaterial essences of divers kinds, and endowed 
with various attributes and capabilities. But the real nature of 
these unseen principles eludes our research: they are only known 
to us by their external manifestations. These manifestations are 
the various powers and capabilities, or rather the habitudes of 
action, which characterize the different orders of being, diversified 
according to their several destinations." 

Dr Prichard here puts forward distinctly the time-honoured 
doctrine which refers the mental faculties to the operation of 
the soul. The view maintained by a distinguished comparative 
anatomist, Professor St George Mivart, in his Genesis of Species, 
ch. xii. , may fairly follow. " Man, according to the old scholastic 
definition, is ' a rational animal ' (animal rationale), and his 
animality is distinct in nature from his rationality, though in- 
separably joined, during life, in one common personality. Man's 
animal body must have had a different source from that of the 
spiritual soul which informs it, owing to the distinctness of the 
two orders to which those two existences severally belong." 
The two extracts just given, however, significant in themselves, 
fail to render an account of the view of the human constitution 
which would probably,. among the theological and scholastic 
leaders of public opinion, count the largest weight of adherence. 
According to this view, not only life but thought are functions 
of the animal system, in which man excels all other animals 
as to height of organization: but beyond this, man embodies an 
immaterial and immortal spiritual principle which no lower 
creature possesses, and which makes the resemblance of the apes 



112 



ANTHROPOLOGY 



to him but a mocking simulance. To pronounce any absolute 
decision on these conflicting doctrines is foreign to our present 
purpose, which is to show that all of them count among their 
adherents men of high rank in science. 

II. Origin of Man. Opinion as to the genesis of man is 
divided between the theories of creation and evolution. In 
both schools, the ancient doctrine of the contemporaneous 
appearance on earth of all species of animals having been aban- 
doned under the positive evidence of geology, it is admitted that 
the animal kingdom, past and present, includes a vast series of 
successive forms, whose appearances and disappearances have 
taken place at intervals during an immense lapse of ages. The 
line of inquiry has thus been directed to ascertaining what 
formative relation subsists among these species and genera, 
the last link of the argument reaching to the relation between 
man and the lower creatures preceding him in time. On both 
the theories here concerned it would be admitted, in the words 
of Agassiz (Principles of Zoology, pp. 205-206), that " there is a 
manifest progress in the succession of beings on the surface of 
the earth. This progress consists in an increasing similarity of 
the living fauna, and, among the vertebrates especially, in their 
increasing resemblance to man." Agassiz continues, however, 
in terms characteristic of the creationist school: " But this 
connexion is not the consequence of a direct lineage between the 
faunas of different ages. There is nothing like parental descent 
connecting them. The fishes of the Palaeozoic age are in no 
respect the ancestors of the reptiles of the Secondary age, nor 
does man descend from the mammals which preceded him in the 
Tertiary age. The link by which they are connected is of a higher 
and immaterial nature; and their connexion is to be sought in 
the view of the Creator himself, whose aim in forming the earth, 
in allowing it to undergo the successive changes which geology 
has pointed out, and in creating successively all the different 
types of animals which have passed away, was to introduce man 
upon the surface of our globe. Man is the end towards which all 
the animal creation has tended from the first appearance of the 
first Palaeozoic fishes." The evolutionist, on the contrary (see 
EVOLUTION), maintains that different successive species of 
animals are in fact connected by parental descent, having 
become modified in the course of successive generations. The 
result of Charles Darwin's application of this theory to man 
may be given in his own words (Descent of Man, part i. ch. 6) : 

" The Catarhine and Platyrhine monkeys agree in a multitude of 
characters, as is shown by their unquestionably belonging to one 
and the same order. The many characters which they possess in 
common can hardly have been independently acquired by so many 
distinct species; so that these characters must have been inherited. 
But an ancient form which possessed many characters common to 
the Catarhine and Platyrhine monkeys, and others in an inter- 
mediate condition, and some few perhaps distinct from those now 
present in either group, would undoubtedly have been ranked, if 
seen by a naturalist, as an ape or a monkey. And as man under a 
genealogical point of view belongs to the Catarhine or Old World 
stock, we must conclude, however much the conclusion may revolt 
our pride, that our early progenitors would have been properly thus 
designated. But we must not fall into the error of supposing that 
the early progenitor of the whole Simian stock, including man, 
was identical with, or even closely resembled, any existing ape or 
monkey." 

The problem of the origin of man cannot be properly discussed 
apart from the full problem of the origin of species. The 
homologies between man and other animals which both schools 
try to account for; the explanation of the intervals, with 
apparent want of intermediate forms, which seem to the creation- 
ists so absolute a separation between species; the evidence of 
useless " rudimentary organs," such as in man the external shell 
of the ear, and the muscle which enables some individuals to 
twitch their ears, which rudimentary parts the evolutionists 
claim to be only explicable as relics of an earlier specific condi- 
tion, these, which are the main points of the argument on the 
origin of man, belong to general biology. The philosophical 
principles which underlie the two theories stand for the most 
part in strong contrast, the theory of evolution tending toward 
the supposition of ordinary causes, such as "natural selection," 
producing modifications in species, whether by gradual accumula- 



tion or more sudden leaps, while the theory of creation has 
recourse to acts of supernatural intervention (see the duke of 
Argyll, Reign of Law, ch. v.). St George Mivart (Genesis of 
Species) propounded a theory of a natural evolution of man as 
to his body, combined with a supernatural creation as to his 
soul; but this attempt to meet the difficulties on both sides 
seems to have satisfied neither. 

The wide acceptance of the Darwinian theory, as applied to 
the descent of man, has naturally roused anticipation that 
geological research, which provides evidence of the animal life 
of incalculably greater antiquity, would furnish fossil remains 
of some comparatively recent being intermediate between the 
anthropomorphic and the anthropic types. This expectation 
has hardly been fulfilled, but of late years the notion of a variety 
of the human race, geologically ancient, differing from any known 
in historic times, and with characters approaching the simian, 
has been supported by further discoveries. To bring this to the 
reader's notice, top and side views of three skulls, as placed 
together in the human development series in the Oxford Uni- 
versity Museum, are represented in the plate, for the purpose of 
showing the great size of the orbital ridges, which the reader 
may contrast with his own by a touch with his fingers on his 
forehead. The first (fig.s) is the famous Neanderthal skull from 
near Dusseldorf, described by Schaafhausen in Miiller's Archiv, 
1858; Huxley in Lyell, Antiquity of Man, p. 86, and in Man's 
Place in Nature. The second (fig. 4) is the skull from the cavern 
of Spy in Belgium (de Puydt and Lohest, Compte rendu du 
Congres de Namur, 1886). The foreheads of these two skulls 
have an ape-like form, obvious on comparison with the simian 
skulls of the gorilla and other apes, and visible even in the small- 
scale figures in the Plate, fig. 2. Among modern tribes of man- 
kind the forehead of the Australian aborigines makes the nearest 
approach to this type, as was pointed out by Huxley. This brief 
description will serve to show the importance of a later discovery. 
At Trinil, in Java, in an equatorial region where, if anywhere, a 
being intermediate between the higher apes and man would seem 
likely to be found, Dr Eugene Dubois in 1891-1892 excavated 
from a bed, considered by him to be of Sivalik formation (Plio- 
cene), a thighbone which competent anatomists decide to be 
human, and a remarkably depressed calvaria or skull-cap (fig. 5), 
bearing a certain resemblance in its proportions to the corre- 
sponding part of the simian skull. These remains werejreferred 
by their discoverer to an animal intermediate between man and 
ape, to which he gave the name of Pithecanthropus erectus (q.v.), 
but the interesting discussions on the subject have shown 
divergence of opinion among anatomists. At any rate, classing 
the Trinil skull as human, it may be described as tending towards 
the simian type more than any other known. 

III. Races of Mankind. The classification of mankind into a 
number of permanent varieties or races, rests on grounds which 
are within limits not only obvious but definite. Whether from a 
popular or a scientific point of view, it would be admitted that a 
Negro, a Chinese, and an Australian belong to three such 
permanent varieties of men, all plainly distinguishable from one 
another and from any European. Moreover, such a division 
takes for granted the idea which is involved in the word race, 
that each of these varieties is due to special ancestry, each race 
thus representing an ancient breed or stock, however these breeds 
or stocks may have had their origin. The anthropological 
classification of mankind is thus zoological in its nature, like 
that of the varieties or species of any other animal group, and 
the characters on which it is based are in great measure physical, 
though intellectual and traditional peculiarities, such as moral 
habit and language, furnish important aid. Among the best- 
marked race-characters are the colour of the skin, eyes and hair; 
and the structure and arrangement of the latter. Stature is by 
no means a general criterion of race, and it would not, for in- 
stance, be difficult to choose groups of Englishmen, Kaffirs, and 
North American Indians, whose mean height should hardly 
differ. Yet in many cases it is a valuable means of distinction, 
as between the tall Patagonians and the stunted Fuegians, and 
even as a help in minuter problems, such as separating the 



ANTHROPOLOGY 



Teutonic and Celtic ancestry in the population of England (tee 
Beddoe, " Stature and Bulk of Man in the British Islrs." in 
Uem. Antkrop. Sot. London, vol. iii.). Proportions of the limbs, 
compared in length with the trunk, have been claimed as con- 
stituting peculiarities of African and American races; and 
other anatomical points, such as the conformation of the pelvii, 
have speciality. But inferences of this class have hardly attained 
to sufficient certainty and generality to be set down in the form 
of rules. The conformation of the skull is second only to the 
colour of the skin as a criterion for the distinction of race; and the 
position of the jaws is recognized as important, races being 
described as prognathous when the jaws project far, as in the 
Australian or Negro, in contradistinction to the orthognathous 
type, which is that of the ordinary well-shaped European skull. 
On this distinction in great measure depends the celebrated 
" facial angle," measured by Camper as a test of low and high 
races; but this angle is objectionable as resulting partly from 
the development of the forehead and partly from the position of 
the jaws. The capacity of the cranium is estimated in cubic 
measure by filling it with sand, &c., with the general result that 
the civilized white man is found to have a larger brain than the 
barbarian or savage. Classification of races on cranial measure- 
ments has long been attempted by eminent anatomists, and in 
certain cases great reliance may be placed on such measurements. 
Thus the skulls of an Australian and a Negro would be generally 
distinguished by their narrowness and the projection of the jaw 
from that of any Englishman; but the Australian skull would 
usually differ perceptibly from the Negroid in its upright sides 
and strong orbital ridges. The relation of height to breadth 
may also furnish a valuable test; but it is acknowledged by all 
experienced craniologists, that the shape of the skull may vary 
so much within the same tribe, and even the same family, that 
it must be used with extreme caution, and if possible only in 
conjunction with other criteria of race. The general contour of 
the face, in part dependent on the form of the skull, varies much 
in different races, among whom it is loosely denned as oval, 
lozenge-shaped, pentagonal, &c. Of particular features, some 
of the most marked contrasts to European types are seen in the 
oblique Chinese eyes, the broad-set Kamchadale cheeks, the 
pointed Arab chin, the snub Kirghiz nose, the fleshy protuberant 
Negro lips, and the broad Kalmuck ear. Taken altogether, the 
features have a typical character which popular observation 
seizes with some degree of correctness, as in the recognition of 
the Jewish countenance in a European city. 

Were the race-characters constant in degree or even in kind, 
the classification of races would be easy; but this is not so. 
Every division of mankind presents in every character wide 
deviations from a standard. Thus the Negro race, well marked 
as it may seem at the first glance, proves on closer examination 
to include several shades of complexion and features, in some 
districts varying far from the accepted Negro type; while the 
examination of a series of native American tribes shows that, 
notwithstanding their asserted uniformity of type, they differ 
in stature, colour, features and proportions of skull. (See 
Prichard, Nat. Hist, of Man; Waitz, Anthropology, part i. sec. 5.) 
Detailed anthropological research, indeed, more and more justi- 
fies Blumenbach s words, that " innumerable varieties of man- 
kind run into one another by insensible degrees." This state of 
things, due partly to mixture and crossing of races, and partly 
to independent variation of types, makes the attempt to arrange 
the whole human species within exactly bounded divisions an 
apparently hopeless task. It does not follow, however, that the 
attempt to distinguish special races should be given up, for there 
at least exist several definable types, each of which so far prevails 
in a certain population as to be taken as its standard. L. A. J. 
Quetelet's plan of defining such types will probably meet with 
general acceptance as the scientific method proper to this branch 
of anthropology. It consists in the determination of the stan- 
dard or typical " mean man " (homme moyen) of a population, 
with reference to any particular quality, such as stature, weight, 
complexion, &c. In the case of stature, this would be done by 
measuring a sufficient number of men, and counting how many 



of them belong to each height on the scale. If it be thus ascer- 
tained, as it might be in an English district, that the $ ft. 7 in. 
men form the most numerous group, while the s ft. 6 in. and 5 ft. 
8 in. men are less in number, and the 5 ft. 5 in. and s ft- 9 in- 
still fewer, and so on until the extremely small number of 
extremely short or tall individuals of 5 ft. or 7 ft. is reached, it 
will thus be ascertained that the stature of the mean or typical 
man is to be taken as 5 ft. 7 in. The method is thus that of 
selecting as the standard the most numerous group, on both 
sides of which the groups decrease in number as they vary in 
type. Such classification may show the existence of two or 
more types, in a community, as, for instance, the population of a 
Californian settlement made up of Whites and Chinese might 
show two predominant groups (one of 5 ft. 8 in., the other of 
$ ft. 4 in.) corresponding to these two racial types. It need 
hardly be said that this method of determining the mean type 
of a race, as being that of its really existing and most numerous 
class, is altogether superior to the mere calculation of an average, 
which may actually be represented by comparatively few indi- 
viduals, and those the exceptional ones. For instance, the 
average stature of the mixed European and Chinese population 
just referred to might be s ft. 6 in. a worthless and indeed 
misleading result. (For particulars of Quetelet's method, see 
his Physique social* (1869), and Anthropomttrie (1871).) 

Classifications of man have been numerous, and though, 
regarded as systems, most of them are unsatisfactory, yet they 
have been of great value in systematizing knowledge, and are 
all more or less based on indisputable distinctions. J. F. Blumcn- 
bach's division, though published as long ago as 1781, has had 
the greatest influence. He reckons five races, viz. Caucasian, 
Mongolian, Ethiopian, American, Malay. The ill-chosen name 
of Caucasian, invented by Blumenbach in allusion to a South 
Caucasian skull of specially typical proportions, and applied 
by him to the so-called white races, is still current; it brings into 
one race peoples such as the Arabs and Swedes, although these 
are scarcely less different than the Americans and Malays, who 
are set down as two distinct races. Again, two of the best- 
marked varieties of mankind are the Australians and the Bush- 
men, neither of whom, however, seems to have a natural place in 
Blumenbach's series. The yet simpler classification by Cuvier 
into Caucasian, Mongol and Negro corresponds in some measure 
with a division by mere complexion into white, yellow and 
black races; but neither this threefold division, nor the ancient 
classification into Semitic, Hamitic and Japhetic nations can be 
regarded as separating the human types either justly or sufficiently 
(see Prichard, Natural History of Man, sec. 15; Waitz, Anthro- 
pology, vol. i. part i. sec. s)- Schemes which set up a larger 
number of distinct races, such as the eleven of Pickering, the 
fifteen of Bory de St Vincent and the sixteen of Desmoulins, 
have the advantage of finding niches for most well-defined human 
varieties; but no modern naturalist would be likely to adopt 
any one of these as it stands. In criticism of Pickering's system, 
it is sufficient to point out that he divides the white nations 
into two races, entitled the Arab and the Abyssinian (Pickering, 
Races of Man, ch. i.). Agassiz, Nott, Crawfurd and others who 
have assumed a much larger number of races or species of 
man, are not considered to have satisfactorily defined a corre- 
sponding number of distinguishable types. On the whole, 
Huxley's division probably approaches more nearly than any 
other to such a tentative classification as may be accepted in 
definition of the principal varieties of mankind, regarded from 
a zoological point of view, though anthropologists may be dis- 
posed to erect into separate races several of his widely-differing 
sub-races. He distinguishes four principal types of mankind, 
the Australioid, Negroid, Mongoloid and Xanthochroic (" fair 
whites "), adding a fifth variety, the Melanochroic (" dark 
whites "). 

In determining whether the races of mankind are to be classed 
as varieties of one species, it is important to decide whether 
every two races can unite to produce fertile offspring. It is 
settled by experience that the most numerous and well-known 
crossed races, such as the Mulattos, descended from Europeans 



ANTHROPOLOGY 



and Negroes the Mestizos, from Europeans and American 
indigenes the Zambos, from these American indigenes and 
Negroes, &c., are permanently fertile. They practically con- 
stitute sub-races, with a general blending of the characters of 
the two parents, and only differing from fully-established races 
in more or less tendency to revert to one or other of the original 
types. It has been argued, on the other hand, that not all such 
mixed breeds are permanent, and especially that the cross 
between Europeans and Australian indigenes is almost sterile; 
but this assertion, when examined with the care demanded by 
its bearing on the general question of hybridity, has distinctly 
broken down. On the whole, the general evidence favours 
the opinion that any two races may combine to produce a new 
sub-race, which again may combine with any other variety. 
Thus, if the existence of a small number of distinct races of 
mankind be taken as a starting-point, it is obvious that their 
crossing would produce an indefinite number of secondary 
varieties, such as the population of the world actually presents. 
The working out in detail of the problem, how far the differences 
among complex nations, such as those of Europe, may have been 
brought about by hybridity, is still, however, a task of almost 
hopeless intricacy. Among the boldest attempts to account 
for distinctly-marked populations as resulting from the inter- 
mixture of two races, are Huxley's view that the Hottentots 
are hybrid between the Bushmen and the Negroes, and his more 
important suggestion, that the Melanochroic peoples of southern 
Europe are of mixed Xanthochroic and Australioid stock. 

The problem of ascertaining how the small number of races, 
distinct enough to be called primary, can have assumed their 
different types, has been for years the most disputed field of 
anthropology, the battle-ground of the rival schools of mono- 
genists and polygenists. The one has claimed all mankind to 
be descended from one original stock, and generally from a single 
pair; the other has contended for the several primary races 
being separate species of independent origin. The great problem 
of the monogenist theory is to explain by what course of variation 
the so different races of man have arisen from a single stock. 
In ancient times little difficulty was felt in this, authorities 
such as Aristotle and Vitruvius seeing in climate and circumstance 
the natural cause of racial differences, the Ethiopian having been 
blackened by the tropical sun, &c. Later and closer observations, 
however, have shown such influences to be, at any rate, far 
slighter in amount and slower in operation than was once sup- 
posed. A. de Quatrefages brings forward (Unitt de Vespece 
humaine) his strongest arguments for the variability of races 
under change of climate, &c. (action du milieu), instancing the 
asserted alteration in complexion, constitution and character 
of Negroes in America, and Englishmen in America and Australia. 
But although the reality of some such modification is not disputed, 
especially as to stature and constitution, its amount is not enough 
to upset the counter-proposition of the remarkable permanence 
of type displayed by races ages after they have been transported 
to climates extremely different from that of their former home. 
Moreover, physically different peoples, such as the Bushmen and 
Negroes in Africa, show' no signs of approximation under the 
influence of the same climate; while, on the other hand, the 
coast tribes of Tierra del Fuego and forest tribes of tropical 
Brazil continue to resemble one another, in spite of extreme 
differences of climate and food. Darwin is moderate in his 
estimation of the changes produced on races of man by climate 
and mode of life within the range of history (Descent of Man, 
part i. ch. 4 and 7). The slightness and slowness of variation 
in human races having become known, a great difficulty of the 
monogenist theory was seen to lie in the apparent shortness 
of the Biblical chronology. Inasmuch as several well-marked 
ra