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FIRST edition, published in three volumes, 17681771. 

SECOND ten 17771784. 

THIRD eighteen 17881797. 

FOURTH twenty 1801 1810. 

FIFTH twenty* 18151817. 

SIXTH twenty 18231824. 

SEVENTH twenty-one 18301842. 

EIGHTH twenty-two 18531860. 

NINTH twenty-five , 18751889. 

TENTH ninth edition and eleven 

supplementary volumes, 1902 193- 

ELEVENTH published in twenty-nine volumes, IpJO 1911. 


in all countries subscribing to the 
Bern Convention 


of the 

All rights reserved 










Cambridge, England: 

at the University Press 

New York, 35 West 32nd Street 


Copyright, in the United States of America, 1911, 

The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. 





Keeper of Zoological Department, British Museum, 1875-1895. Gold Medallist, J M ac i, ere i t; n j, ar ,) 

Royal Society, 1878. Author of Catalogues of Colubrine Snakes, Batrachia salientia, 

and Fishes in the British Museum; &c. 
A. C. S. ALGERNON CHARLES SWINBURNE. I" Marlowe, Christopher; 

See the biographical article: SWINBURNE, ALGERNON CHARLES. I. Mary, Queen of Scots. 


Fellow, Tutor and Mathematical Lecturer, Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Senior -i. Maxima; Minima. 
Mathematical Scholar, 1892. [ 


Professor of English History in University of London. Fellow of All Souls' College, < Macalpine, John. 
Oxford. Author of England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII. ; &c. . (. 


Dominion Archivist of Canada. Member of the Geographical Board of Canada. ) (;. f * 
Author of The Cradle of New France ; &c. Joint-editor of Documents relating to | 
the Constitutional History of Canada. 

A. Ha. ADOLF HARNACK. f Manichaeism (in part); 

See the biographical article: HARNACK, ADOLF. \ Marc ion. 


Principal of Church Missionary College. Islington, 1870-1874. \ m 


See the biographical article: SAYCE, ARCHIBALD HENRY. 

A. H.-S. SIR A. HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, C.I.E. / Mazandaran. 

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak. I 

A. J. G.* ARTHUR TAMES GRANT, M.A. f Louis XIII., XIV. and XV. of 

King s College, Cambridge. Professor of History in the University of Leeds. \ France. 

A. J. H. ALFRED J. HIPKINS, F.S.A. (1826-1903). 

Formerly Member of Council and Hon. Curator of the Royal College of Music, ^ute (in part)' 
London. Member of Committee of the Inventions and Music Exhibition, 1885 ;< 
of the Vienna Exhibition, 1892; and of the Paris Exhibition, 1900. Author of ^J <-*** P an >- 
Musical Instruments; &c. 

A. M. C. AGNES MARY CLERKE. f Maskelyne; 

See the biographical article: CLERKE, A. M. \ Mayer, Johann Tobias. 

A. M. Cl. AGNES MURIEL CLAY (Mrs Edward Wilde). f 

Formerly Resident Tutor of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. Joint-editor of Sources < Magistrate. 
of Roman History, 133-79 B.C. I 

A. M. F. REV. ANDREW MARTIN FAIRBAIRN, M.A., D.D., LL.D. f M art j npall j ames 

See the biographical article: FAIRBAIRN, A. M. \ m au> J 

(Lory; Love-Bird; 

A. N. ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S. J Lyre-Bird; Macaw; Magpie; 

See the biographical article: NEWTON, ALFRED. i Mallemuck; Manakin; 

; Man u code; Martin. 


Fellow and Senior Lecturer in Mathematics, Trinity College, Cambridge. Author \ Mathematics, 
of A Treatise on Universal Algebra. 


Colonel R.E. Royal Medal of Royal Society, 1887. In charge of Trigonometrical Map: Projections (in part). 
Operations of the Ordnance Survey, 1854-1881. 
1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, with the articles so signed, appears in the final volume. 



A. R. L.* 

A. SI. 

A. Sy. 
A. Wa. 

A. W. H.* 

A. W. Hu. 
A. W. M. 
A. W. R. 
C. A. M. P. 

C. B. P. 
C. Ch. 

C. F. CL 

C. G. Cr. 
C. H. Ha. 

C. L. K. 
C. M. 

C. R. B. 

D. B. Ma. 



Editor of the Journal of the Institute of Brewing. Lecturer on Brewing and Malting J i 
at the Sir John Cass Institute, London. Vice-President of the Society of Chemical ] 
Industry. L 

ARTHUR SHADWELL, M.A., M.D., LL.D. r Ma j aria / 

Member of Council of Epidemiological Society. Author of The London Water- \ M 
Supply; Industrial Efficiency; Drink, Temperance and Legislation. L -Massage. 


See the biographical article: SYMONS, ARTHUR. 


Managing Director of Chapman & Hall, Ltd., Publishers. Formerly Literary 
Adviser to Kegan Paul & Co. Author of Alfred Lord Tennyson; Legends of the* 
Wheel; Robert Browning in " Westminster Biographies." Editor of Johnson's 
Lives of the Poets. 


Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. 

Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900. 

Mallarme, Stephane. 

Lytton, 1st Baron. 

Louis L, II., III. and IV.: 

Roman Emperors; 
Louis the German; 
Louis II. and III. of France; 
Louis the Child; 
Magna Carta; 
Maximilian L: 
. _Roman Emperor. 

Manning, Cardinal. 

[ Man, Isle of. 
Maxims, Legal. 


Rector of Bow Church, London. Formerly Librarian of the National Liberal Club. 
Author of Life of Cardinal Manning ; &c. 

ARTHUR WILLIAM MOORE, C.V.O., M.A. (1853-1909). 

Trinity College, Cambridge. Formerly Speaker of the House of Keys, and J.P. for 
the Isle of Man. Author of A History of the Isle of Man; &c. 


Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws 
of England. 


Professor of Natural Philosophy, and Vice-Provost of Trinity College, Dublin. 

Author of Differential Calculus; &c. 


Formerly Fellow of Jesus College, Cambridge. Editor of Pindar's Odes and Frag- 
ments, and of the Stanford Dictionary of Anglicized Words and Phrases. 

Associate of Bedford College, London. 


Superintendent, Kew Observatory. Formerly Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. 
President of Physical Society of London. Watt Medallist, Institute of Civil En- 
gineers, 1905. 


Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal 
Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbour. 


Lieutenant-Colonel, R.E. Head of the Geographical Section, British General Staff. 
Formerly British Representative on the Nyasa-Tanganyika Boundary Commission. 
Author of Text-Book of Topographical Surveying ; &c. L 


Balliol College, Oxford. Clerk in H.M. Public Record Office, London. Editor of < Manor: in England. 
Landor's Works; &c. 

i Maclaurin, Colin. 

Magic Square (in part). 

| Louis XVIII. of France; 
\ Marie Antoinette. 

J. Magnetism, Terrestrial. 
J Machine-Gun. 
Map: Projections (in part). 


Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. Member 
of the American Historical Association. 


Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor 
of Chronicles of London and Stow's Survey of London. 

I Matilda, Countess of Tuscany; 
[ Lucius. 

Lovell, Viscount; 
Margaret of Anjou. 

CARL THEODOR MIRBT, D.Tn. r , _ .. ,. 

Professor of Church History in the University of Marburg. Author of Publizistik J ^y " 5 ' ^ ou 
im Zeitalter Gregor VII.; Quellen zur Geschichte des Papstthums; &c. [ Marburg, Colloquy of. 


Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of J Mayor of the Palace. 

Etudes sur le regne de Robert le Pieux. 


Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow I Magellan; __ 

of Merton College, Oxford. University Lecturer in the History of Geography. 1 Marignolli (in part). 

Author of Henry the Navigator ; The Dawn of Modern Geography ; &c. L 

DUNCAN BLACK MACDONALD, M.A., D.D. f iwahommedan Institutions- 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, U.S.A. Author of I 
Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory; Religious } Manommeaan 
Attitude and Life in Islam; &c. I Malik Ibn Anas. 



D. F. T. 
D. G. H. 

D. H. 

D. Mn. 

D. ML W. 

D. S. M.* 

E. A. J. 

E. Bn. 
E. C. B. 

E. G. 

E. Gr. 
E. G. R. 

E. H. M. 
E. L. W. 

E. M. T. 

E. 0.* 
E. Pr. 

E. R. B. 

E. Tn. 


Author of Essays in Musical Analysis, comprising The Classical Concerto, 
Goldberg Variations and analyses of many other classical works. 


\ Madrigal (in music); 
[ Mass (in music). 

Keeper of Magnesia; Malatia; 
i888;Naucratis, 1899 1 Mamsa; Marash; 

' ' 

Marryat, Frederick; 
Mast; Mathews, Thomas. 


Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. 

the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Nat 

and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907; Director, British School at | Maronites. 

Athens, 1897-1900; Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. 


Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal 
Navy ; Life of Emilia Castelar ; &c. 


Minister of South Grove Congregational Church, Highgate. Author of Constructive -j Mackennal, Alexander. 
Congregational Ideals', &c. \_ 


Extra Groom of the Bedchamber to H.M. King George V. Director of the Foreign 

Department of The Times, 1891-1899. Member of Institut de Droit International I Lorls-Melikov. 

and Officier de 1'Instruction Publique of France. Joint-editor of New Volumes | 

(loth ed.) of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Author of Russia; Egypt and the 

Egyptian Question ; The Web of Empire ; &c. 


Laudian Professor of Arabic, Oxford. Fellow of New College. Author of Arabic I . 
Papyri of the Bodleian Library; Mohammed and the Rise of Islam; Cairo, Jerusalem | 
and Damascus. 



Author of Old English Gold Plate; Old Church Plate of the Isle of Man; Old Silver 
Sacramental Vessels of Foreign Protestant Churches in England ; Illustrated Catalogue !, Mace. 
of Leopold de Rothschild's Collection of Old Plate ; A Private Catalogue of the Royal 
Plate at Windsor Castle; &c. 

Author of Zur Theorie und Geschichte -j Marx. 


Member of the German Reichstag, 1902-1906. 
des Socialismus; &c. 

RT. REV. EDWARD CUTHBERT BUTLER, O.S.B., D.LITT. (Dubl.). f Mabillon; Maurists; 

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of the Lausiac History of Palladius, { Mechitharists. 
in " Cambridge TCXLS and Studies." 


See the biographical article : GOSSE, EDMUND. 

f Loti, Pierre; Lyrical Poetry; 
I Macaronics; 
1 Madrigal (in verse); 
( Maeterlinck. 

f Mantineia (in part) ; 
1 Marathon (in part). 

Map (in part). 


See the biographical article: GARDNER, PERCY. 


Professor of Geography at Bedford College, London, 1882-1883. Formerly in 
Topographical (now Intelligence) Department of the War Office. Author of The ' 
Russians on the Amur; A Systematic Atlas; &c. (^ 


University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian -j Massagetae. 
at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College. 


Formerly Vice-President, Institute of Civil Engineers. Consulting Engineer, _. . _. . _ 

Manchester Ship Canal. Chief Engineer of the Manchester Ship Canal during its ~] Manchester Ship Canal. 
construction. Author of papers printed in Proceedings of Institute of Civil Engineers. [ 


Director and Principal Librarian, British Museum, 18981909. Sandars Reader in 
Bibliography, Cambridge, 1895-1896. Hbn. Fellow of University College, Oxford. 
Correspondent of the Institute of France and of the Royal Prussian Academy of 
Sciences. Author of Handbook of Greek and Latin Palaeography. Editor of 
Chronicon Angliae. 

EDMUND OWEN, M.B., F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, 
Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Late . 
Examiner in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, London and Durham. 
Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. 


Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Ex- 
aminer in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. Commendador, J Macido; 
Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal Academy ] Manuel de Mello 
of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society, &c. Editor of Letters of Portuguese 
Nun; Azurara's Chronicle of Guinea; &c. 

EDWYN ROBERT BEVAN, M.A. f Macedonian Empire; 

Formerly Scholar of New College, Oxford. Author of House of Seleucus; Jerusalem ! Lvsimachus 
under the High Priests. {_ 


Author of The English Black Monks of St Benedict; History of the Jesuits in\ Loyola. 


Lung; Lupus; 

Mammary Gland: Diseases. 



Librarian of the Bodleian Library, Oxford. Principal Librarian and Superintendent -j Mandeville, Sir John, 
of the London Institution, 1873-1882. Author of Keltic Researches. 


See the biographical article: PALEY, F. A. 


Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford, i Manichaelsm (in part). 
Author of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle; Myth, Magic and Morals; &c. I 


Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge. L 


Vice- President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on J Lymphatic System (in part) ; 
Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women. Mammary Gland: Anatomy. 
Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. 


Camden Professor of Ancient History at Oxford University. Fellow of Brasenose T . 
College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Member of the German Imperial J Lugudunum; 
Archaeological Institute. Formerly Senior Censor, Student, Tutor and Librarian 1 Mancunium. 
of Christ Church, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1906. Author of Monographs on 
Roman History, &c. I 

F. J. S. FREDERICK JOHN SNELL, M.A. / T v j_ at(1 

Balliol College, Oxford. Author of The Age of Chaucer; &c. \**^ 

F. K. FERNAND KHNOPFF. J" M at i ou 

See the biographical article: KHNOPFF, FERNAND E. J. M. 


Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey J Luxor; 
and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial 1 Manetho. 
German Archaeological Institute. 


See the article: POLLOCK (family). \ Mame > Sir 

F. R. C. FRANK R. CANA. f .._.,._ 

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union. \ ra 

F. W. R.* FREDERICK WILLIAM RUDLER, I.S.O., F.G.S. f Magnetite* 

Curator and Librarian at the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. -s M 
President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889. 

G. A. Gr. GEORGE ABRAHAM GRIERSON, C.I.E., PH.D., D.Lirr. (Dublin). 

Indian Civil Service, 1873-1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey of India, yo 
1902. Gold Medallist, Royal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President of the Royal { Marathi. 
Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of The Lan- 
guages of India ; &c. 

G. Br. REV. GEORGE BRYCE, M.A., D.D., LL.D., F.R.S. (Canada). 

President of the Royal Society of Canada. Head of Faculty of Science and Lecturer | Manitnhi (in 
in Biology and Geology in Manitoba Univers^ rSm-inr.^ A,,thr ^f Mniinhn ~\ " 
A Short History of the Canadian People ; &c. 


in Biology and Geology in Manitoba University, 1891-1904. Author of Manitoba; 1 

Author of William I. and the German Empire; Life of Queen Victoria ; &c. { Maemahon. 


Member of Board of Advice to Agent-General of Victoria. Formerly Editor and I M/.rnllonli Ci 
Proprietor of the Melbourne Herald. Secretary to Commissioners for Victoria at 1 C ' a 

the Exhibitions in London, Paris, Vienna, Philadelphia and Melbourne. 


Associate Editor of Current Literature, 1904-1905. Editor of Biography, New J Martha's Vineyard. 

International Encyclopaedia, 1901-1904, 1906-1907, and New International Year 1 

Book, 1907-1908; &c. L 


Professor of English Literature, Queen's University of Belfast. Author of The \ Lyndsay, Sir David. 
Days of James IV. ; The Transition Period; Specimens of Middle Scots; &c. 


Professor of Zoology in the Royal College of Science, Dublin. Author of Insects: J May-Fly (in part), 
their Structure and Life. 

G. R. P. GEORGE ROBERT PARKIN, LL.D., D.C.L. f Macdonald, Sir John 

See the biographical article: PARKIN, GEORGE ROBERT. "^ Alexander. 

f Mais t re, Joseph de; 

G. Sa. GEORGE SAINTSBURY, LL.D, D.C.L. Malherbe,.FranQOis de; 

See the biographical article: SAINTSBURY, GEORGE E. B. \ Marguerite de Valois; 

Marivaux, Pierre; 
[ Marot, Clement. 

I" Luqman; 

Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.W. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and J Mo-Hooonc a*, t>nri\- 
Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford. Mandaeans (in part), 

[ MaqrizT; Mas'udi. 



Formerly Assistant Director, Geological Survey of England and Wales. Wollaston J Lyell Sir Charles. 
Medallist, Geological Society. Author of The History of the Geological Society of 
London; &c. 


Colonial Secretary, Ceylon. Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute. Formerly J Malay Peninsula; 

Resident, Pahang. Colonial Secretary, Trinidad and Tobago, 1903-1907. Authors Malavs' 

of Studies in Brown Humanity; Further India; &c. Joint-author of A Dictionary 

of the Malay Language. ( Mala y states: Federated. 


Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Geological I Luray Cavern; 
Society of America, National Geographic Society and Societe de Speleologie (France), -j Mammoth Cave 
Author of Celebrated American Caverns; Handbook of Mammoth Cave of Kentucky; 
&c. (. 


Bollandist. Joint-editor of the Ada Sanctorum. 

I Margaret, St; Martyrology. 

H. E. S.* HORACE ELISHA SCUDDER (d. 1902). f 

Formerly Editor of the Atlantic Monthly. Author of Life of James Russell Lowell; -\ Lowell, James Russell. 
History of the United States ; &c. 


Art Critic, Gazette des Beaux-Arts (Paris). \ lel ' 


Bueen's College, Cambridge. Curator of Oriental Literature, University Library, J Maimonides. 
ambridge. Formerly Chief English Master at the Schools of the Alliance at Cairo J 
and Abyassiyyeh, Egypt. Author of Kitab el Ansab of Samani; &c. 

H. Lb. HORACE LAMB, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc., F.R.S. 

Professor of Mathematics, University of Manchester. Formerly Fellow and 

Assistant Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. Member of Council of Royal i Mechanics: Theoretical. 

Society, 1894-1896. Royal Medallist, 1902. President of London Mathematical 

Society, 1902-1904. Author of Hydrodynamics; &c. 

H. L. H. HARRIET L. HENNESSEY, M.D. (Brux.), L.R.C.S.I., L.R.C.P.I. j Malaria (in part). 

H. M. S. HENRY MORSE STEPHENS, M.A., Lrrr.D. f Maintpnnn Mid-imp HP- 

T- II- I y- II *-. f I T-. r f **. . . . f r* . r . \ 1>11I1 ICI1U11, ITlaUdillC UC, 

Balhol College, Oxford. Professor of History in the University of California. { 
Author of History of the French Revolution ; &c. m - 


Trinity College, Cambridge. Barrister-at-Law. Clerk of Assize for the Northern -I Lytton, 1st Earl of. 


Author of Jdola Theatri; The Idea of a Free Church; Personal Idealism; &c. 1 Lotze t* M P art >- 

H. W. C. D. HENRY WILLIAM CARLESS DAVIS, M.A. ^^ Ge flrey de; 

Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, J * * n ' Adal 
1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angerins; Charlemagne. Matilda, Queen; 

[ Matthew of Paris. 


Professor of Church History in Rawdon College, Leeds. Senior Kennicott Scholar, J Malachi (in tart) 
Oxford, 1901. Author of Hebrew Psychology in Relation to Pauline Anthropology \ 
(in Mansfield College Essays) ; &c. L 

H. Y. SIR HENRY YULE, K.C.S.I., C.B. J Mandeville, Sir John (in part); 

See the biographical article : YULE, SIR HENRY. \Marignolli (in part). 


Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge, J Luzzatto, Moses Hayim; 
Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short 1 Tii7zattn Samiipl David- 
History of Jewish Literature ; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages ; Judaism ; &c. Ma Marano 


See the biographical article: CROWE, SIR J. A. lse - 

J. A. S. JOHN ADDINGTON SYMONDS. r Machiavelli; 

See the biographical article : SYMONDS, J. A. > Manutius 


Consulting Chemist to the Royal Agricultural Society of England, &c. Author of J Manures 
The Woburn Experiments ; &c. 


Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c., at King's J M 
College, London. Member of Society of Architects. Member of Institute of Junior ] masonr y- 


See the biographical article : COLOMB, P. H. ~i Marines. 


King's College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. 
Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of 
Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria. 



Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. J Lull, Raimon; 
Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy, "j Mamjassant 
Member of the Council of the Hispanic Society of America. Knight Commander 
of the Order of Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature. I 

J. Ga. JAMES GAIRDNER, C.B., LL.D. J" Mary I., Queen. 

See the biographical article: GAIRDNER, JAMES. 


Superintendent and Political Officer, Southern Shan States Author of Burma-A Mandalay. 
The Upper Burma Gazetteer. I 


Privatdozent in Medieval and Modern History, University of Bonn. Author of ~\ Louis I. and II. Of Bavaria. 

Das Rheinland unter die franzosische Herrschaft. L 


Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. \ 

J. H. R. JOHN HORACE ROUND, M.A., LL.D. (Edin.). f Lord Great Chamberlain; 

Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and\ Mar, Earldom of; 
Pedigree. I Marquess. 


Christ's College, Cambridge. Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge - . , 

University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I.; Napoleonic -j kowe, air Hudson; 
Studies; The Development of the European Nations; The Life of Pitt; chapters in Maret. 
the Cambridge Modern History. 


Louis XII. of France. 


Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics and Fellow of Trinity College, Cam- ivrairnotn Dntiie- 
bridge. President of the British Association, 1909-1910. Author of A Treatise \ d S" el - u P l 
on the Motion of Vortex Rings; Application of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry; Matter. 
Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism ; &c. 

J. L. W. JESSIE LAIDLAY WESTON. J" Malory, Sir Thomas; 

Author of Arthurian Romances unrepresented in Malory. \ Map, Walter. 


Major-General, R.A. Commanding 1st Division Aldershot Command. Director J -. HIT* 

of Military Operations at Headquarters, 1904-1906. Served through South African 1 Manoeuvres, Military. 
War, 1900-1901. Author of Staff Duties in the Field; &c. 


Sometime Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London J Mandeville, B 

College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grate's History of Greece. [ Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. 


Professor of Latin in the University of Liverpool. Fellow of Trinity College, J T /. , 

Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Editor of the Classical Quarterly. 1 Luc & n (in part). 
Editor-in-chief of the Corpus Poetarum Latinorum ; &c. 

Jno. S. SIR JOHN SCOTT, K.C.M.G., D.C.L. (1841-1904). 

Deputy Judge Advocate-General to the Forces, 1898-1904. Judicial Adviser to -! Martial Law. 
the Khedive of Egypt, 1890-1898. Hon. Fellow of Pembroke College, Oxford. 


Principal Emeritus, United College (L.M.S. and F.F.M.A.), Antananarivo, Mada- J Madagascar; 
gascar. Membre de l'Acad6mie Malgache. Author of Madagascar and its People; | Mauritius. 
Madagascar before the Conquest; A Madagascar Bibliography; &c. 

J. S. Bl. JOHN SUTHERLAND BLACK, M.A., LL.D. f Mary: Mother of Jesus 

Assistant-editor of the <jth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Joint-editor of \ (in part). 
the Encyclopaedia Biblica. Mazzini. 


Editor of the Imperial Gazetteer of India. Hon. Secretary of the Egyptian Ex- 
ploration Fund. Formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Queen's College, Oxford. 1 Mahrattas (in part). 
Author of India; &c. 


Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in J Marble; 
Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby 1 Marl. 
Medallist of the Geological Society of London. 


Joint-author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical \ mam 
Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c. [ (** part). 


Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly . , /. A 

Fellow of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in ] Mackerel (in part). 
the University of Edinburgh and Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association. (_ 


Chairman of the Newcastle-upon-Tyne Electric Supply Co., Ltd. Author of H L tze (in part). 
History of European Thought in the XlXth Century; &c. ' L 



Professor of History in Columbia University, New York City. \ and XI. of France. 

J. V.* JULES VIARD. f Lore, Ambroise de; 

Archivist at the National Archives, Paris. Officer of Public Instruction, France. -I Louvet, Jean; 
Author of La France sous Philippe VI de Valois ; &c. [ Marcel, 6tienne. 

J. V. B. JAMES VERNON BARTLET, M.A., D.D. (St Andrews). r Mark <;t (,;, *nri\- 

Professor of Church History, Mansfield College, Oxford. Author of The Apostolic \ 
Age~ &c. ^ Jnaiinew, at; LuKe, oi. 


Sometime Scholar of Wadham College, Oxford. Matthew Arnold Prizeman, 1903. \ Malay Archipelago. 
Author of Vasco da Gama and his Successors. 

K. K. KONRAD KESSLER, PH.D. f Mandaeans (in part). 

Formerly Professor of Semitic Languages at the University of Greifswald. I 


Lincoln College, Oxford. Professor of Early Christian Literature and New Testa- J Mary. Mother 01 Jesus 
ment Exegesis in the University of Leiden. Author of The Text of the New Testa- I (in part). 
ment; The Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus Christ; &c. 

K. S. KATHLEEN SCHLESINGER. [Lute (in part); 

Editor of Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. Author of The Instruments of the-( Lyre (in part); 
Orchestra. [ Mandoline. 


Assistant, Department of Mineralogy, Natural History Museum, South Kensington. J Manganite; 
Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. | Marcasite. 
Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine. 

L. V.* LuiGl VILLARI. 

Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Dept.). Formerly Newspaper Correspondent in -j Mazzini: Bibliography. 
East of Europe. Author of Italian Life in Town and Country ; &c. (. 

L. W. V-Hc L. W. VERNON-HARCOURT (d. 1909). / Lord Hien steward 

Barrister-at-Law. Author of His Grace the Steward and the Trial of Peers. { 

M. A. W. MARY A. WARD (Mrs Humphry Ward). f Lvlv 

See the biographical article: WARD, MARY ARNOLD. \ ' 

f Louis Vffl. and XVII. 

M. Br. MARGARET BRYANT. -j o{ France 


Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania. Author of Religion -j MardUK. 
of the Babylonians and Assyrians; &c. 

M. N. T. MARCUS NIEBUHR TOD, M.A. f T vcureus . cy,,,,/,,,. Lawgiver- 

Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. \ ^ 
Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum. I ^ysanoer. 

M. 0. B. C. MAXIMILIAN OTTO BISMARCK CASPARI, M.A. (Oxon.). [ Mantineia (in part); 

Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham -j Manuel I., Comnenus; 
University, 1905-1908. I Marathon (in part). 

M P. MARK PATTISON, LL.D. /Macaulav 

See the biographical article : PATTISON, MARK. L 


Author of Maryland as a Proprietary Province. \ 


Member of Academic des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Paris. Honorary Archivist J Marsilius of Padua; 
at the Archives Nationales. Formerly President of the Socie'te' de I'Histoire de j Martin I.-V.: Popes. 
France, and of the Soci6t6 de 1'Ecole des Chartes. [ 


Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the J Lycantnropy; 
Soci&6 d'Anthropologie de Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and~\ Magic. 
Marriage in Australia; &c. L 


Formerly Professor of Engineering, Victoria University, Manchester Honorary J Lubrication. 
Fellow of Queens' College, Cambridge. 

P. A. A. PHILIP A. ASHWORTH, M.A., Doc. JURIS. / 1 nb fte k (in */ir/1 

New College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. \ M 


See the biographical article:. KROPOTKIN, PRINCE, P. A. \ Maritime Province (in part). 

P. G. PERCY GARDNER, M.A., Lirr.D., LL.D. f. 

See the biographical article: GARDNER, PERCY. \ ^ ysl 


Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University J j^ 
Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philo- J 
logical Society. 

P. G. T. 

P. VI. 
R. A.* 

R. B. McK. 
R. C. J. 

R. G. 
R. H. C. 


R. J. M. 
R. K. D. 

R. L.* 

R. M'L. 
R. M. D. 

R. N. B. 

R. P. 
R. P. S. 

R. Po. 
R. S. C. 



S. A. C. 


See the biographical article: TAIT, PETER GUTHRIE. 


See the biographical article: VINOGRADOFF, PAUL. 


Archivist to the Department de 1'Eure. 


Trinity College, Cambridge. Editor of The Works of Thomas Nashe ; &c. 


See the biographical article: JEBB, SIR RICHARD CLAVERHOUSE. 


See the biographical article: GARNETT, RICHARD. 


Grinfield Lecturer on the Septuagint at Oxford, 1905-1907. Fellow of the British 
Academy. Professor of Biblical Greek at Trinity College, Dublin, 1898-1906.' 
Hibbert Lecturer at Oxford, 1898; Jowett Lecturer, 1898-1899. Author of 
Critical History of a Future Life ; &c. 


-! Maxwell, James Clerk. 
j Manor (in part). 

Louis XVI.; Marat. 

Marprelate Controversy. 

Lysias (in part). 

/Lucan (in part); 
I Max Miiller. 

Manasses, Prayer of. 


Christ Church,! Oxford. Barrister-at-law. 
Gazette, London. 

Formerly Editor of the St James's 


Formerly Professor of Chinese, King's College, London. Keeper of Oriental Printed 
Books and MSS. at British Museum, 1892-1907. Member of the Chinese Consular 
Service, 1858-1865. Author of The Language and Literature of China; China; 
Europe and the Far East; &c. 


Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of 
Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum; The Deer 
of all Lands; The Game Animals of Africa; &c. 


Editor of the Entomologists' Monthly Magazine. \ 


Late Locomotive Superintendent, Midland Railway. Joint-author of Lubrication 
and Lubricants. 


Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia, the 
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 15131900; The First Romanovs, 
1613 to 172$ ; Slavonic Europe, the Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 
to 1796; &c. 

Lundy, Robert; 

Macdonnell, Sorley Boy; 

McNeile, Hugh; 

Manchester, Earls and Dukes of; 

March, Earls of; 

Margaret, Queen of Scotland; 

Masham, Abigail. 


Loris; Macaque; 
Mammalia (in part); 
Mammoth (in part); Manati; 
Mandrill; Marmot; 
Marsupialia; Mastodon. 

May-Fly (in part). 


See the biographical article: PAULI, REINHOLD. 


j Lubricants. 

Louis I. and II. of Hungary; 


Margaret, Queen; Martinuzzi; 

Matthias I., Hunyadi; 



Lubeck (in part). 



Louis IV. and V. of France. 


Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past 
President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King's College, 
London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson's 
History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c. 


Secretary of the Ecole des Chartes. Honorary Librarian at the Biblioth&que 
Nationale, Paris. Author of Le Royaume de Provence sous les Carolingiens ; Recueil 
des chartes de Saint-Germain ; &c. 

ROBERT SEYMOUR CONWAY, M.A., D.Lrrr. (Cantab.). 

Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. m 

Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff; and Fellow of Gonville ] marn 

and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects. \ Marsi. 


See the biographical article: TEMPLE, SIR RICHARD. 

RICHARD WEBSTER, A.M. (Princeton). f Mathpr increase- 

Formerly Fellow in Classics, Princeton University. Editor of The Elegies of\ ' ~ 

Maximianus; &c. [Mather, Richard. 


Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambridge. Editor for Palestine Exploration Fund. Examiner in Hebrew and I "* 
Aramaic, London University, 1904-1908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic In-} Manasseh. 
scriptions; The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old 
Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c. 


| Mahrattas (in part). 



and Member of Council of the Royal Society. 

S. Bl. SHEITORD BIDWELL, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. (1848-1009). f 

Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Formerly President of the Physical Society 1 Magnetism. 

S. C. SIDNEY COLVIN, LL.D. / Marcantonio 


See the biographical article : COLVIN, SIDNEY. 

See the biographical article : NEWCOMB, SIMON. 

S. N. SIMON NEWCOMB, LL.D., D.Sc. /Mar- 

\ m 


Director of the British School of Archaeology at Rome. Corresponding Member of 
the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, 
Oxford; Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1897. Author of The Classical Topography of the 

Lucania; Lucca; 
Lucena; Lucretilis, Mons; 
Lucus Feroniae; Luna; 
Magna Graecia; Manduria; 

Roman Campagna; &c. 

Marches, The; Marino; 



Member of the Institute of International Law. Member of the Supreme Council of I 
the Congo Free State. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of ] Mare Clausum. 
International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910. I 


Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., U.S.A. \ 


Professor of Physiology in the University of Toronto. Author of 'Essentials of -< Lymph and Lymph Formation. 
Experimental Physiology. [_ 


Superintendent, Frontier Surveys, India, 1892-1898. Gold Medallist, R.G.S., 
London, 1887. Author of The Indian Borderland; The Countries of the King's 
Award; India; Tibet. 


Principal of the United Free Church College, Glasgow. Formerly Assistant to J Luther, Martin; 
the Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Author of 1 Lutherans. 
History of the Reformation ; Life of Luther ; &c. 


Fellow of King's College, London. Hon. Fellow of Worcester College, Oxford, -j Malacostraca. 
Zoological Secretary of Linnaean Society, 1903-1907. Author of A History of 
Crustacea; The Naturalist of Cumbrae; &c. 


Balliol College, Oxford. Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges,) Marlowe, Christopher (in part) ; 
University of London. Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Assistant Editor of 1 Marston, Philip Bourke. 
Dictionary of National Biography, 1891-1901. Author of The Age of Johnson; &c. L 


Professor of Comparative Religion in the University of Manchester. Professor of Lumbini; 
Pali and Buddhist Literature, University College, London, 1882-1904. President^ Mahavamsa; 
of the Pali Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian Maitreva 
of Royal Asiatic Society, 1885-1902. Author of Buddhism; &c. 

V. H. S. REV. VINCENT HENRY STANTON, M.A., D.D. r rnena | c*. 

Ely Professor of Divinity in the University of Cambridge. Canon of Ely. Formerly warn, uosp i 01 ai, 
Fellow, Dean, Tutor and Lecturer of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of The -j Matthew, Gospel of St; 
Jewish and the Christian Messiahs; &c. [ Luke, Gospel of St. 


Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's I LUC OD ' l Wn ' 

College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature ~] 
and in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1889. Lugano, Lake of; 

[ Maggiore, Lago. 


His Siamese Majesty's Resident Commissioner for the Siamese Malay State of I mala y oiaies. 
Kelantan. Adviser to his Siamese Majesty's Minister for Lands and Agriculture. H Non-Federated. 
Author of Kelantan, a Handbook ; &c. [_ Malay States: Siamese. 

W. A. P. WALTER ALISON PHILLIPS, M.A. f Louis Philippe; 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, < Mahmud II. ; 

Oxford. Author of Modern Europe ; &c. I Mass: Church. 


Dean of the Law School, University of Pennsylvania. Lecturer on Economics, J Marshall John 

Haverford College, Pennsylvania, 1890-1896. Editor of Great American Lawyers ;&c. [ 


Formerly Deputy Chief Librarian of the Manchester Free Libraries. On Literary J Manchester 
Staff of Manchester Guardian, 1874-1905. Member of the Gorsedd, with the] 
bardic name of Manceinion. Author of Annals of Manchester; &c. L 


Professor of Civil and Mechanical Engineering at the City and Guilds of London Mechanics: Applied 
Institute Central Technical College, South Kensington. Formerly University J . .\ 

Demonstrator in the Engineering Department, Cambridge. Author of The Balanc- 
ing of Engines ; Valves and Valve-Gear Mechanism ; &c. 


Author of The Transvaal and the Boers. \ 

W. F.* 

W. Ho. 
W. H. F. 

W. J. M. R. 
W. L. C.* 
W. L. F. 

W. L. G. 

W. M. R 
W. M. Ra. 
W. P. C. 
W. R. S. 
W. Wn. 

W. W. F.* 
W. Y. S. 



Minister of Dunnikier United Free Church, Kirkcaldy, N.B. Author of Maccabees -{ 
(Cambridge Bible for Schools) ; The Background of the Gospels; &c. I 

Clare College, Cambridge. 

Financial Editor of The Times, London. 


See the biographical article : FLOWER, SIR W. H. 


See the biographical article: RANKINE, WILLIAM JOHN MACQUORN. 


Associate Professor of English, Wells College, Aurora, New York. 

Author of Documentary -j 


Professor of History in Louisiana State University. 
History of Reconstruction ; &c. 


Professor at Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. Formerly Beit Lecturer in 
Colonial History at Oxford University. Editor of Acts of the Privy Council, 
(" Colonial " series); Canadian Constitutional Development (in collaboration). 


See the biographical article: ROSSETTI, DANTE G. 


See the biographical article: RAMSAY, SIR WILLIAM MITCHELL. 


See the article: COURTNEY, L. H., BARON. 


See the biographical article: SMITH, WILLIAM P.OBERTSON. 


Assistant Professor of Physics, Royal College of Science, London. Vice-President 
of the Physical Society. 


Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Sub-Rector, 1881-1904. Gifford Lecturer, J 
Edinburgh University, 1908. Author of The City-State of the Greeks and Romans; 1 
The Roman Festivals of the Republican Period; &c. {_ 


See the biographical article: SELLAR, WILLIAM YOUNG. 

Maccabees, Books of. 


Mammalia (in part); 
Mammoth (in part); 
Mandrill (in part); 

Mechanics: Applied (in part). 
Mather, Cotton. 

Lynch Law; 
McGillivray, Alexander. 

Mackenzie, William Lyon: 
Manitoba (in part). 

Luini; Mantegna; 
Martini; Masaccio; 
Masolino da Panicale. 


Marlborough, 1st Duke of. 

Malachi (in part); 

Magnet ograph; 

Mars: Mythology; 

f Martial; 

{ Lucilius (in part); 
{ Lucretius. 


Lord Chamberlain. 

Madison, James. 










Marston Moor. 









Luchu Archipelago. 





Maine, U.S.A. 











McKinley, William. 









LORD CHAMBERLAIN, in England, an important officer of 
the king's household, to be distinguished from the lord 
great chamberlain (q.v.). He is the second dignitary of 
the court, and is always a member of the government of 
the day (before 1782 the office carried cabinet rank), a peer 
and a privy councillor. He carries a white staff, and wears a 
golden or jewelled key, typical of the key of the palace, which 
is supposed to be in his charge, as the ensigns of his office. He 
is responsible for the necessary arrangements connected with 
state ceremonies, such as coronations and royal marriages, 
christenings and funerals; he examines the claims of those who 
desire to be presented at court; all invitations are sent out in 
his name by command of the sovereign, and at drawing-rooms 
and levees he stands next to the sovereign and announces the 
persons who are approaching the throne. It is also part of his 
duty to conduct the sovereign to and from his carriage. 1 The 
bedchamber, privy chamber and presence chamber, the ward- 
robe, the housekeeper's room, the guardroom and the chapels 
royal are in the lord chamberlain's department. He is regarded 
as chief officer of the royal household, and he has charge of a large 
number of appointments, such as those of the royal physicians, 
tradesmen and private attendants of the sovereign. All theatres 
in the cities of London and Westminster (except patent theatres), 
in certain of the London boroughs and in the towns of Windsor 
and Brighton, are licensed by him and he is also licenser of plays 
salary is 2000 a year. 

The vice-chamberlain of the household is the lord chamberlain's 
assistant and deputy. He also is one of the ministry, a white-staff 
officer and the bearer of a key ; and he is generally a peer or the son 
of a peer as well as a privy councillor. He receives 700 a year. 
Next to the vice-chamberlain comes the groom of the stole, an office 
only in use during the reign of a king. He has the charge of the 
vestment called the stole worn by the sovereign on state occasions. 

'The lord chamberlain of the household at one time discharged 
some important political functions, which are described by Sir 
Harris Nicolas (Proceedings of the Privy Council, vol. vi., Preface, 
p. xxiii). 

'The office of master of the ceremonies was created by James I. 
The master of the ceremonies wears a medal attached to a gold chain 
round his neck, on one side being an emblem of peace with the motto 

Beati pacific!," and on the other an emblem of war with the motto 
" Dieu et mon droit " (see Finetti Philoxensis, by Sir John Finett, 
master of the ceremonies to James I. and Charles I., 1656; and 
D'Isracli's Curiosities of Literature, loth ed., p. 242 seq.). 

1 See May, Parliamentary Practice, pp. 236, 244. 

In the lord chamberlain's department also are the master, assistant 
master, marshal of the ceremonies and deputy-marshal of the 
ceremonies, officers whose special function it is to enforce the ob- 
servance of the etiquette of the court. The reception of foreign 
potentates and ambassadors is under their particular care, and they 
assist in the ordering of all entertainments and festivities at the 
palace. 2 The gentleman usher of the black rod the black rod which 
he carries being the ensign of his office is the principal usher of the 
court and kingdom. He is one of the original functionaries of the 
order of the Garter, and is in constant attendance on the House of 
Lords, from whom, either personally or by his deputy, the yeoman 
usher of the black rod, it is part of his duty to carry messages and 
summonses to the House of Commons. There are six lords and six 
grooms " in waiting " who attend on the sovereign throughout the 
year and whose terms of attendance are of a fortnight's or three 
weeks' duration at a time. Usually " extra " lords and grooms in 
waiting are nominated by the sovereign, who, however, are unpaid 
and have no regular duties. Among the serjeants-at-arms there are 
two to whom special duties are assigned: the one attending the 
speaker in the House of Commons, and the other attending the lord 
chancellor in the House of Lords, carrying their maces and execut- 
ing their orders.* The comptroller and examiner of accounts, the 
paymaster of the household, the licenser of plays, the dean and 
subdean of the chapels royal, the clerk and deputy clerks of the 
closet, the groom of the robes, the pages of the backstairs, of the 
chamber and of the presence, the poet laureate, the royal physi- 
cians and surgeons, chaplains, painters and sculptors, librarians and 
musicians, [&c., are all under the superintendence of the lord 
chamberlain of the household.* 

The queen consort's household is also in the department of the 
lord chamberlain of the household. It comprises a lord chamberlain, 
a vice-chamberlain and treasurer, equerry and the various ladies of 
the royal household, a groom and a clerk of the robes. The ladies 
of the household are the mistress of the robes, the ladies of the 
bedchamber, the bedchamber women and the maids of honour, 
The mistress of the robes in some measure occupies the position of 
the groom of the stole.' She is the only lady of the court who comes 
into office and goes out with the administration. She is always a 
duchess, and attends the queen consort at all state ceremonies and 
entertainments, but is never in permanent residence at the palace.' 
The ladies of the bedchamber share the personal attendance on 

4 The offices of master of the great wardrobe and master of the 
jewel house in the lord chamberlain's department were abolished in 

6 In the reign of Queen Anne, Sarah duchess of Marlborough from 
1704, and Elizabeth duchess of Somerset from 1710, held the com- 
bined offices of mistress of the robes and groom of the stole. 

8 Since the great " bedchamber question " of 1839 the settled 
practice has been for all the ladies of the court except the mistress 
of the robes to receive and continue in their appointments inde- 
pendently of the political connexions of their husbands, fathers and 
brothers (see Gladstone's Gleanings of Past Years, i. 40; and 
Torrens's Memoirs of Lord Melbourne, ii. 304). 

xvn. i 


the queen consort throughout the year. Of these there are eight 
always peeresses, and each is in waiting for a fortnight or three 
weeks at a time. But the women of the bedchamber, of whom there 
are also eight, appear only at court ceremonies and entertainments 
according to a roster annually issued under the authority of the lord 
chamberlain of the queen consort. They are usually the daughters 
of peers or the wives of the sons of peers, and formerly, like the 
mistress of the robes and the ladies of the bedchamber, habitually 
assisted the queen at her daily toilette. But this has long ceased to 
be done by any of them. The eight maids of honour have the 
same terms of waiting as the ladies of the bedchamber. They are 
commonly if not always the daughters or granddaughters of peers 
and when they have no superior title and precedence by birth are 
called honourable " and placed next after the daughters of barons 
LORD CHIEF JUSTICE, in England, the presiding judge of 
the king's bench division of the High Court of Justice, and in 
the absence of the lord chancellor, president of the High Court. 
He traces his descent from the justiciar of the Norman kings. 
This officer appears first as the lieutenant or deputy of the king, 
exercising all the functions of the regal office in the absence of 
the sovereign. "In this capacity William Fitz-Osbern, the 
steward of Normandy, and Odo of Bayeux, acted during the 
Conqueror's visit to the continent in 1067; they were left, 
according to William of Poitiers, the former to govern the north 
of England, the latter to hold rule in Kent, vice sua; Florence 
of Worcester describes them as "custodes Angliae," and Ordericus 
Vitalis gives to their office the name of " praefectura." It would 
seem most probable that William Fitz-Osbern at least was left 
in his character of steward, and that the Norman seneschalship 
was thus the origin of the English justiciarship " (Stubbs's 
Constitutional History, i. 346). The same authority observes 
that William of Warenne and Richard Clare (Bienfaite), who 
were left in charge of England in 1074, are named by a writer 
in the next generation " praecipui Angliae justitiarii "; but 
he considers the name to have not yet been definitely attached 
to any particular office, and that there is no evidence to show that 
officers appointed to this trust exercised any functions at all 
when the king was at home, or in his absence exercised supreme 
judicial authority to the exclusion of other high officers of the 
court. The office became permanent in the reign of William 
Rufus, and in the hands of Ranulf Flambard it became co- 
extensive with the supreme powers of government. But it was 
not till the reign of Henry II. that the chief officer of the crown 
acquired the exclusive right to the title of capitalis or totius 
Angliae juslitiarius. Stubbs considers that the English form 
of the office is to be accounted for by the king's desire to prevent 
the administration falling into the hands of an hereditary noble. 
The early justiciars were clerics, in whom the possession of power 
could not become hereditary. The justiciar continued to be the 
chief officer of state, next to the king, until the fall of Hubert 
de Burgh (in the reign of King John), described by Stubbs as 
the last of the great justiciars. Henceforward, according to 
Stubbs, the office may be said to have survived only in the judicial 
functions, which were merely part of the official character of the 
chief justiciar. He was at the head of the curia regis, which was 
separating itself into the three historical courts of common law 
about the time when the justiciarship was falling from the supreme 
place. The chancellor took the place of the justiciar in council, 
the treasurer in the exchequer, while the two offshoots from the 
curia regis, the common pleas and the exchequer, received chiefs 
of their own. The king's bench represented the original stock of 
the curia regis, and its chief justice the great justiciar. The 
justiciar may, therefore, be said to have become from a political 
a purely judicial officer. A similar development awaited his 
successful rival the chancellor. Before the Judicature Act the 
king's bench and the common pleas were each presided over by a 
lord chief justice, and the lord chief justice of the king's bench 
was nominal head of all the three courts, and held the title of 
lord chief justice of England. The titles of lord chief justice of 
the common pleas and lord chief baron were abolished by the 
Judicature Act 1873, and all the common law divisions of the 
High Court united into the king's bench division, the president 
of which is the lord chief justice of England. 

The lord chief justice is, next to the lord chancellor, the highest 
judicial dignitary in the kingdom. He is an ex-officio judge of the 

court of appeal. He holds office during good behaviour, and can only 
be removed by the crown (by whom he is appointed) after a joint 
address of both houses of parliament. He is now the only judicial 
functionary privileged to wear the collar of SS. There has been much 
discussion as to the origin and history of this collar; 1 it was a badge 
or insignia attached to certain offices entitling the holders to wear it 
only so long as they held those offices. The collar of SS. was worn 
by the chiefs of the three courts previous to their amalgamation in 
1873, and that now worn by the lord chief justice of England was 
provided by Sir A. Cockburn in 1859 and entailed by him on all 
holders of the office. The salary is 8000 a year. 

In the United States the supreme court consists of a chief justice 
and eight associate justices, any six of whom make a quorum. The 
salary of the chief justice is $13,000 and that of the associates 
$12,500. The chief justice takes rank next after the president and 
he administers the oath on the inauguration of a new president and 
vice-president. The principal or presidingjudge in most of thestate 
judicatures also takes the title of chief justice. 

LORD GREAT CHAMBERLAIN, in England, a functionary 
who must be carefully distinguished from the lord chamberlain; 
he is one of the great officers of state, whose office dates frorr 
Norman times; and the only one who still holds it under a 
creation of that period. As his name implies, he was specially 
connected by his duties with the king's chamber (camera curie); 
but this phrase was also used to denote the king's privy purse, 
and the chamberlain may be considered as originally the financial 
officer of the household. But as he was always a great baron, 
deputies performed his financial work, and his functions became, 
as they are now, mainly ceremonial, though the emblem of his 
office is still a key. The office had been held by Robert Malet, 
son of a leading companion of the Conqueror, but he was forfeited 
by Henry I., who, in 1133, gave the great chamberlainship to 
Aubrey de Vere and his heirs. Aubrey's son was created earl of 
Oxford, and the earls held the office, with some intermission, 
till 1526, when the then earl left female heirs. His heir-male 
succeeded to the earldom, but the crown, as is now established, 
denied his right to the office, which was thenceforth held under 
grants for life till Queen Mary and Elizabeth admitted in error 
the right of the earls on the strength of their own allegation. 
So matters continued till 1626, when an earl died and again 
left an heir-male and an heir-female. After an historic contest 
the office was adjudged to the former, Lord Willoughby d'Eresby. 
No further question arose till 1779, when his heirs were two sisters. 
In 1781 the House of Lords decided that it belonged to them 
jointly, and that they could appoint a deputy, which they did. 
Under a family arrangement the heirs of the two sisters respec- 
tively appointed deputies in alternate reigns till the death of 
Queen Victoria, when Lord Ancaster, the heir of the elder, who 
was then in possession, claimed that he, as such, had sole right 
to the office. Lord Cholmondeley and Lord Carrington as co- 
heirs of the younger sister, opposed his claim, and the crown 
also claimed for itself on the ground of the action taken by the 
king in 1526. After a long and historic contest, the House of 
Lords (1902) declined to re-open the question, and merely 
re-affirmed the decision of 1781, and the office, therefore, is now 
vested jointly in the three peers named and their heirs. 

The lord great chamberlain has charge of the palace of 
Westminster, especially of the House of Lords, in which he has 
an office; and when the sovereign opens parliament in person 
he is responsible for the arrangements. At the opening or closing 
of the session of parliament by the sovereign in person he dis- 
poses of the sword of state to be carried by any peer he may select, 
and walks himself in the procession on the right of the sword of 
state, a little before it and next to the sovereign. He issues the 
tickets of admission on the same occasions. He assists at the 
introduction of all peers into the House of Lords on their creation, 
and at the homage of all bishops after their consecration. At 
coronations he emerges into special importance; he still asserts 
before the court of claims his archaic right to bring the king his 
" shirt, stockings and drawers " and to dress him on coronation 
day and to receive his ancient fees, which include the king's 
bed and " night robe." He also claims in error to serve the king 

1 Notes and Queries, series I, vol. ii.; series 4, vols. ii. ix. x. ; series 
6, vols. ii. iii.; Planche, Dictionary of Costume, p. 126; Foss, Lives 
of the Judges, vol. vii.; Dugdale, Orig. Jud. fol. 102. 


with water before and after the banquet, which was the function 
of the " ewry," a distinct office held by the earls of Oxford 
At the actual coronation ceremony he takes an active part in 
investing the king with the royal insignia. 

See J. H. Round, " The Lord Great Chamberlain " (Monthly 
Review, June 1002) and " Notes on the Lord Great Chamberlain 
Case " (Ancestor, No. IV.). (J. H. R.) 

LORD HIGH CHANCELLOR, one of the great officers of state 
of the United Kingdom, and in England the highest judicia 
functionary. The history of the office and of the growth o 
the importance of the lord chancellor will be found under 
CHANCELLOR. The lord chancellor is in official rank the 
highest civil subject in the land outside the royal family 
and takes precedence immediately after the archbishop 01 
Canterbury. His functions have sometimes been exercised by 
a lord keeper of the great seal (see LORD KEEPER), the only real 
difference between the two offices being in the appointment oi 
the keeper by mere delivery of the seal, while a lord chancellor 
receives letters patent along with it. He is by office a privy 
councillor, and it has long been the practice to make him a peer 
and also a cabinet minister. He is by prescription Speaker 
or prolocutor of the House of Lords, and as such he sits upon 
the woolsack, which is not strictly within the House. Unlike 
the Speaker of the House of Commons, the lord chancellor takes 
part in debates, speaking from his place in the House. He votes 
from the woolsack instead of going into the division lobby. 
The only function which he discharges as Speaker practically 
is putting the question; if two debaters rise together, he has 
no power to call upon one, nor can he rule upon points of order. 
Those taking part in debates address, not the lord chancellor, 
but the whole House, as " My Lords." The lord chancellor 
always belongs to a political party and is affected by its fluctua- 
tions. This has often been denounced as destructive of the 
independence and calm deliberativeness essential to the purity 
and efficiency of the bench. In defence, however, of the 
ministerial connexion of the chancellor, it has been said that, 
while the other judges should be permanent, the head of the 
law should stand or fall with the ministry, as the best means of 
securing his effective responsibility to parliament for the 
proper use of his extensive powers. The transference of the 
judicial business of the chancery court to the High Court 
of Justice removed many of the objections to the fluctuating 
character of the office. As a great officer of state, the lord 
chancellor acts for both England and Scotland, and in some 
respects for the United Kingdom, including Ireland (where, 
however, an Irish lord chancellor is at the head of the legal 
system). By Article XXIV. of the Act of Union (1705) 
one great seal was appointed to be kept for all public acts, 
and in this department the lord chancellor's authority extends 
to the whole of Britain, and thus the commissions of the 
peace for Scotland as well as England issue from him. 1 As 
an administrative officer, as a judge and as head of the 
law, he acts merely for England. His English ministerial 
functions are thus briefly described by Blackstone: "He be- 
came keeper of the king's conscience, visitor, in right of the 
king, of all hospitals and colleges of the king's foundation, 
and patron of all the king's livings under the value of twenty 
marks per annum in the king's books. He is the general guardian 
of all infants, idiots and lunatics, and has the general super- 
intendence of all charitable uses in the kingdom." But these 
duties and jurisdiction by modern statutes have been distributed 
for the most part among other offices or committed to the 
judges of the High Court (see CHARITY AND CHARITIES; INFANT; 
INSANITY). Under the Judicature Act 1873 the lord chancellor 
is a member of the court of appeal, and, when he sits, its president, 
and he is also a judge of the High Court of Justice. He is named 
as president of the chancery division of the latter court. His 
judicial patronage is very extensive, and he is by usage the 
adviser of the crown in the appointment of judges 2 of the 
1 The great seal, which exists in duplicate for Irish use, is the great 
seal of the United Kingdom. 

Except the lord chief justice, who is appointed on the nomination 
of the prime minister. 

High Court. He presides over the hearing of appeals in the 
House of Lords. His proper title is " Lord High Chancellor 
of Great Britain and Ireland." His salary is 10,000 per annum, 
and he is entitled to a pension of 5000 per annum. 

AUTHORITIES. Observations concerning the Office of Lord Chancellor 
(1651), attributed to Lord Chancellor Ellesmere; Blackstone's 
Commentaries; Campbell's Lives of the Chancellors; and D. M 
Kerly, Historical Sketch of the Equitable Jurisdiction of the Court of 
Chancery (1890). 

LORD HIGH CONSTABLE, in England, the seventh of the 
great officers of state. His office is now called out of abeyance 
for coronations alone. The constable was originally the com- 
mander of the royal armies and the master of the horse. He 
was also, in conjunction with the earl marshal, president of 
the court of chivalry or court of honour. In feudal times martial 
law was administered in the court of the lord high constable. 
The constableship was granted as a grand serjeanty with the 
earldom of Hereford by the empress Maud to Milo of Gloucester, 
and was carried by his heiress to the Bohuns, earls of Hereford 
and Essex. Through a coheiress of the Bohuns it descended to 
the Staffords, dukes of Buckingham; and on the attainder 
of Edward Stafford, third duke of Buckingham, in the reign of 
Henry VIII. it became merged in the crown. The Lacys and 
Verduns were hereditary constables of Ireland from the izth to 
the i4th century; and the Hays, earls of Erroll, have been 
hereditary constables of Scotland from early in the I4th century. 

LORD HIGH STEWARD. The Lord High Steward of England, 
who must not be confused with the Lord Steward, ranks as the 
first of the great officers of state. Appointments to this office 
are now made only for special occasions, such as the coronation 
of a sovereign or the trial of a peer by his peers. The history 
of the office is noteworthy. The household of the Norman and 
Angevin kings of England included certain persons of secondary 
rank, styled dapifers, seneschals or stewards (the prototypes of 
the lord steward), who were entrusted with domestic and state 
duties; the former duties were those of purveyors and sewers to 
the king, the latter were undefined. At coronations, however, 
and great festivals it became the custom in England and else- 
where to appoint magnates of the first rank to discharge for the 
occasion the domestic functions of the ordinary officials. In 
accordance with this custom Henry II. appointed both Robert II., 
earl of Leicester, and Hugh Bigod, earl of Norfolk, to be his 
honorary hereditary stewards; and at the Christmas festival 
of 1 1 86 the successors in title of these two earls, with William, 
;arl of Arundel, who held the similar honorary office of hereditary 
butler, are described as serving the king at the royal banqueting 
table. Subsequently the earls of Leicester bought out the rights 
of the earls of Norfolk for ten knights' fees. 

The last of these earls of Leicester to inherit the hereditary 
stewardship was Simon V. de Montfort; how he served as steward 
at the coronation of Eleanor, queen of Henry III., is described 
n the Exchequer Red Book. The office of steward in France, 
then recently suppressed, had for some time been the highest 
office of state in that kingdom, and Simon de Montfort appears 
to have considered that his hereditary stewardship entitled him 
.o high official position in England; and after his victory at 
^ewes he repeatedly figures as steward of England in official 
documents under the great seal. After Simon's death at Eves- 
lam his forfeited estates were conferred on his son Edmund 
of Lancaster, who also obtained a grant of the stewardship, 
)ut only for life. Edmund was succeeded by Thomas, earl of 
^ancaster, who received a fresh grant of the stewardship to 
u'mself and the heirs of his body from Edward II.; and this 
earl it was who, during the weak administration of the last- 
mentioned king, first put forward in a celebrated tract the claim 
of the steward to be the second personage in the realm and 
upreme judge in parliament, a claim which finds some slight 
ecognition in the preamble to the statute passed against the 
Despencers in the first year of Edward IH. 

Earl Thomas was executed for treason, and though his 

attainder was reversed he left no issue, and was succeeded in 

he earldom by his brother Henry. The subsequent earls and 

dukes of Lancaster were all recognized as stewards of England, 


the office apparently being treated as annexed to the earldom, or 
honor, of Leicester. John of Gaunt, indeed, at a time when it 
was possible that he would never obtain the Leicester moiety of 
the Lancastrian estates, seems to have made an ingenious but 
quite unfounded claim to the office as annexed to the honor of 
Hinckley. Strictly speaking, none of the Lancasters after 
Thomas had any clear title either by grant or otherwise; such 
title as they had merged in the crown when Henry IV. usurped 
the throne. Meanwhile the stewardship had increased in im- 
portance. On the accession of Edward III., Henry, earl of 
Lancaster, as president of the council, had superintended the 
coronation of the infant king; John of Gaunt did the same 
for the infant Richard II.; and, as part of the duties involved, 
sat in the White Hall of Westminster to hear and determine the 
claims to perform coronation services. The claims were made by 
petition, and included amongst others: the claim of Thomas of 
Woodstock to act as constable, the rival claims of John Dymock 
and Baldwin de Frevile to act as champion, and the claim of 
the barons of the Cinque Ports to carry a canopy over the king. 
Minutes of these proceedings, in which the duke is stated to 
have sat " as steward of England," were enrolled by his order. 
This is the origin of what is now called the Court of Claims. 
The precedent of Richard II. has been followed on all subsequent 
occasions, except that in modern times it has been the practice 
to appoint commissioners instead of a steward to superintend 
this court. In 1397 John of Gaunt created a notable precedent 
in support of the steward's claim to be supreme judge in parlia- 
ment by presiding at the trial of the earl of Arundel and others. 
When Henry IV. came to the throne he appointed his young 
son Thomas, afterwards duke of Clarence, to the office of steward. 
Clarence held the office until his death. He himself never acted 
as judge in parliament; but in 1415 he was appointed to preside 
at the judgment of peers delivered in Southampton against 
Richard, earl of Cambridge, and Lord Scrope of Masham, who 
had been previously tried by commissioners of oyer and terminer. 
No permanent steward was ever again created; but a steward 
was always appointed for coronations to perform the various 
ceremonial services associated with the office, and, until the Court 
of Claims was entrusted to commissioners, to preside over that 
court. Also, in the isth century, it gradually became the custom 
to appoint a steward pro hac vice to preside at the trial, or at the 
proceedings upon the attainder of a peer in parliament; and 
later, to preside over a court, called the court of the lord high 
steward, for the trial of peers when parliament was not sitting. 
To assist in establishing the latter court a precedent of 1400 
appears to have been deliberately forged. This precedent is 
reported in the printed V 'ear-Book of 1400, first published in 
1553; it describes the trial of " the earl of H " for participation 
in the rebellion of that year, and gives details of procedure. 
John Holand, earl of Huntingdon, is undoubtedly the earl 
indicated, but the evidence is conclusive that he was murdered 
in Essex without any trial. The court of the lord high steward 
seems to have been first definitely instituted in 1499 for the trial 
of Edward Plantagenet, earl of Warwick; only two years earlier 
Lord Audley had been condemned by the court of chivalry, a 
very different and unpopular tribunal. The Warwick trial was 
most carefully schemed: the procedure, fundamentally dis- 
similar to that adopted in 1415, follows exactly the forged 
precedent; but the constitution of the court was plainly derived 
from the Southampton case. The record of the trial was con- 
signed to a new repository (commonly but wrongly called the 
Baga de Secretis), which thenceforth became the regular place 
of custody for important state trials. Latterly, and possibly 
from its inception, this repository consisted of a closet with 
three locks, of which the keys were entrusted, one to the chief 
justice of England, another to the attorney-general and the third 
to the master of the crown office, or coroner. Notwithstanding 
the irregular origin of the steward's court, for which Henry VII. 
must be held responsible, the validity of its jurisdiction cannot 
be questioned. The Warwick proceedings were confirmed by 
act of parliament, and ever since this court has been fully 
recognized as part of the English constitution. 

For about a century and a half prior to the reign of James I. 
the criminal jurisdiction of parliament remained in abeyance, 
and bills of attainder were the vogue. The practice of appoint- 
ing a steward on these occasions to execute judgment upon a 
peer was kept up till 1477, when George, duke of Clarence, was 
attainted, and then dropped. Under the Stuarts the criminal 
jurisdiction of parliament was again resorted to, and when the 
proceedings against a peer were founded on indictment the 
appointment of a steward followed as a matter of settled practice. 
The proper procedure in cases of impeachment had, on the 
contrary, never been defined. On the impeachment of Strafford 
the lords themselves appointed Arundel to be high steward. 
In Danby's case a commission under the great seal issued in the 
common form adopted for the court of the steward; this was 
recalled, and the rule agreed to by a joint committee of both 
houses that a steward for trials of peers upon impeachments 
was unnecessary. But, as such an appointment was obviously 
convenient, the lords petitioned for a steward; and a fresh 
commission was accordingly issued in an amended form, which 
recited the petition, and omitted words implying that the appoint- 
ment was necessary. This precedent has been treated as settling 
the practice of parliament with regard to impeachments. 

Of the proceedings against peers founded upon indictment 
very few trials antecedent to the revolution took place in parlia- 
ment. The preference given to the steward's court was largely 
due to the practice, founded upon the Southampton case, of 
summoning only a few peers selected by the steward, a practice 
which made it easy for the king to secure a conviction. This 
arrangement has been partially abrogated by the Treason Act 
of William III., which in cases of treason and misprision of 
treason requires that all peers of parliament shall be summoned 
twenty days at least before every such trial. The steward's 
court also differed in certain other particulars from the high 
court of parliament. For example, it was ruled by Lord Chan- 
cellor Jeffreys, as steward at the trial of Lord Delamere, that, 
in trials of peers which take place during the recess of parliament 
in the steward's court, the steward is the judge of the court, 
the court is held before him, his warrant convenes the prisoner 
to the bar, his, summons convenes the peers for the trial, and he 
is to determine by his sole authority all questions of law that arise 
in the course of the trial, but that he is to give no vote upon the 
issue of guilty or not guilty; during a session of parliament, on 
the contrary, all the peers are both triers and judges, and the 
steward is only as chairman of the court and gives his vote 
together with the other lords. Lord Delamere was tried in 1685 
in the steward's court; since then all trials of peers have taken 
place before the lords Jn parliament. The most recent trial was 
that of Earl Russell in 1901, when Lord Chancellor Halsbury 
was made lord high steward. The steward is addressed as " his 
grace," he has a rod of office, and the commission appointing 
him is dissolved according to custom by breaking this rod. 

A court of claims sat and a steward was appointed for the 
coronation of Edward VII.; and during the procession in West- 
minster Abbey the duke of Marlborough, as steward, carried 
" St Edward's crown" in front of the bearer of the Bible (the 
bishop of London), who immediately preceded the king; this 
function of the steward is of modern origin. The steward's 
ancient and particular services at coronations are practically 
obsolete; the full ceremonies, procession from Westminster 
Hall and banquet in which he figured prominently, were aban- 
doned on the accession of William IV. 

For the early history of the steward see L. W. Vernon-Harcourt, 
His Grace the Steward and Trial of Peers (1907) ; for the later history 
of the office see Sir E. Coke, Institutes (1797) ; Cobbett and Howelf, 
State Trials (1809, seq.); S. M. Phillipps, State Trials (1826); John 
Hatsell, Precedents, vol. 4 (1818); and Sir M. Foster, Crown Law 
(1809). See also the various works on Coronations for the steward's 
services on these occasions. (L. W. V.-H.) 

LORD HIGH TREASURER, in England, once the third great 
officer of state. The office was of Norman origin and dated 
from 1216. The duty of the treasurer originally was to act as 
keeper of the royal treasure at Winchester, while as officer of 
the exchequer he sat at Westminster to receive the accounts 


of the sheriffs, and appoint officers to collect the revenue. The 
treasurer was subordinate to both the justiciar and the chancellor, 
but the removal of the chancery from the exchequer in the 
reign of Richard I., and the abolition of the office of justiciars 
in the reign of Henry III., increased his importance. Indeed, 
from the middle of the reign of Henry III. he became one of 
the chief officers of the crown. He took an important part 
in the equitable jurisdiction of the exchequer, and was now 
styled not merely king's treasurer or treasurer of the exchequer, 
but lord high treasurer and treasurer of the exchequer. The 
first office was conferred by delivery of a white staff, the second 
by patent. Near the end of the i6th century he had developed 
into an official so occupied with the general policy of the country 
as to be prevented from supervising personally the details of 
the department, and Lord Burleigh employed a secretary for 
this purpose. On the death of Lord Salisbury in 1612 the office 
was put in commission; it was filled from time to time until 
1714, when the duke of Shrewsbury resigned it; since that time 
it has always been in commission (see TREASURY) . The Scottish 
treasury was merged with the English by the Act of Union, 
but the office of lord high treasurer for Ireland was continued 
until 1816. 

LORD HOWE, an island of the southern Pacific Ocean, lying 
about 31 36' S., 159 5' E., 520 m. E.N.E. of Sydney. Pop. 
120. It was discovered in 1778 by Lieutenant Ball (whose 
name is commemorated in the adjacent islet of Ball's Pyramid), 
and is a dependency of New South Wales. It measures about 
5^ m. by i m., and is well wooded and hilly (reaching a height 
of 2840 ft. at the southern end), being of volcanic formation, 
while there are coral reefs on the western shore. It has a pleasant 
climate. The name Lord Howe is given also to an islet of the 
Santa Cruz group, and to two islands, also known under other 
names Mopiha, of the Society group, and Ongtong Java of 
the Solomon Islands. 

LORD JUSTICE CLERK, in Scotland, a judge next in rank 
to the lord justice-general. He presides in the second division 
of the court of session, and in the absence of the lord justice- 
general, presides in the court of justiciary. The justice clerk 
was originally not a judge at all, but simply clerk and legal 
assessor of the justice court. In course of time he was raised 
from the clerk's table to the bench, and by custom presided 
over the court in the absence of the justice-general. Up to 
1672 his position was somewhat anomalous, as it was doubtful 
whether he was a clerk or a judge, but an act of that year, which 
suppressed the office of justice-depute, confirmed his position 
as a judge, forming him, with the justice-general and five of 
the lords of session into the court of justiciary. The lord justice 
clerk is also one of the officers of state for Scotland, and one of 
the commissioners for keeping the Scottish Regalia. His salary 
is 4800 a year. 

LORD JUSTICE-GENERAL, the highest judge in Scotland, 
head of the court of justiciary, called also the lord president, 
and as such head of the court of session and representative of 
the sovereign. The office of justice-general was for a consider- 
able time a sinecure post held by one of the Scottish nobility, 
but by the Court of Session Act 1830, it was enacted that, at 
the termination of the existing interest, the office should be united 
with that of lord president of the court of session, who then 
became presiding judge of the court of justiciary. The salary 
is 5000 a year. 

LORD KEEPER OF THE GREAT SEAL, in England, formerly 
a great officer of state. The Great Seal of England, which is 
affixed on all solemn occasions to documents expressing the 
pleasure of the sovereign, was first adopted by Edward the 
Confessor (see SEALS), and entrusted to a chancellor for keeping. 
The office of chancellor from the time of Becket onwards varied 
much in importance; the holder being an ecclesiastic, he was 
not only engaged in the business of his diocese, but sometimes 
was away from England. Consequently, it became not unusual 
to place the personal custody of the great seal in the hands of 
a vice-chancellor or keeper; this, too, was the practice followed 
during a temporary vacancy in the chancellorship. This office 

gradually developed into a permanent appointment, and the 
lord keeper acquired the right of discharging all the duties 
connected with the great seal. He was usually, though not 
necessarily, a peer, and held office during the king's pleasure, 
he was appointed merely by delivery of the seal, and not, like 
the chancellor, by patent. His status was definitely fixed (in the 
case of lord keeper Sir Nicholas Bacon) by an act of Elizabeth, 
which declared him entitled to " like place, pre-eminence, 
jurisdiction, execution of laws, and all other customs, com- 
modities, and advantages " as the lord chancellor. In sub- 
sequent reigns the lord keeper was generally raised to the 
chancellorship, and retained the custody of the seal. The last 
lord keeper was Sir Robert Henley (afterwards Lord Northington), 
who was made chancellor on the accession of George III. 

LORD MAYOR'S DAY, in England, the oth of November, 
the date of the inauguration of the lord mayor of London 
(see Vol. XVI., p. 966), marked by a pageant known as the 
Lord Mayor's Show. The first of these pageants was held in 
1215. The idea originated in the stipulation made in a charter 
then granted by John that the citizen chosen to be mayor 
should be presented to the king or his justice for approval. 
The crowd of citizens who accompanied the mayor on horse- 
back to Westminster developed into a yearly pageant, which 
each season became more elaborate. Until the isth century 
the mayor either rode or walked to Westminster, but in 1453 
Sir John Norman appears to have set a fashion of going 
by water. From 1639 to 1655 the show disappeared owing to 
Puritan opposition. With the Restoration the city pageant 
was revived, but interregnums occurred during the years of 
the plague and fire, and in 1683 when a quarrel broke out 
between Charles and the city, ending in the temporary abro- 
gation of the charter. In 1711 an untoward accident befell 
the show, the mayor Sir Gilbert Heathcote (the original of 
Addison's Sir Andrew Freeport) being thrown by his horse. 
The next year a coach was, in consequence, provided for the 
chief magistrate. In 1757 this was superseded by a gilded and 
elaborately decorated equipage costing 10,065 which was used 
till 1896, when a replica of it was built to replace it. 

LORD PRESIDENT OF THE COUNCIL, in England, one of the 
great officers of state, and a member of the ministry. It was 
only in 1679 that the office of lord president became permanent. 
Previously either the lord chancellor, the lord keeper of the 
seal, or some particular court official took formal direction of 
the Privy Council. In the reign of Charles I. a special lord 
president of the council was appointed, but in the following 
reign the office was left unfilled. The office was of considerable 
importance when the powers of the Privy Council, exercised 
through various committees, were of greater extent than at the 
present time. For example, a committee of the lords of the 
council was formerly responsible for the work now dealt with by 
the secretary of state for foreign affairs; so also with that now 
discharged by the Board of Trade. The lord president up to 
1855 when a new post of vice-president of the council was 
created was responsible for the education department. He 
was also responsible for the duties of the council in regard to 
public health, now transferred to the Local Government Board, 
and for duties in regard to agriculture, now transferred to the 
Board of Agriculture and Fisheries. The duties of the office now 
consist of presiding on the not very frequent occasions when the 
Privy Council meets, and of the drawing up of minutes of council 
upon subjects which do not belong to any other department of 
state. The office is very frequently held in conjunction with 
other ministerial offices, for example, in Gladstone's fourth 
ministry the secretary of state for India was also lord president 
of the council, and in the conservative ministry of 1903 the 
holder of the office was also president of the Board of Education. 
The lord president is appointed by a declaration made in council 
by the sovereign. He is invariably a member of the House of 
Lords, and he is also included in the cabinet. 

LORDS JUSTICES OF APPEAL, in England, the ordinary 
judges of the court of appeal, the appellate division of the High 
Court of Justice. Their style was provided for by the Supreme 


Court of Judicature Act 1877. The number was fixed at five 
by the Supreme Court of Judicature Act 1881, s. 3. Their 
salary is 5000 a. year (see APPEAL). 

LORDS OF APPEAL IN ORDINARY, in England, certain 
persons (limited to four), who, having held high judicial office 
or practised at the bar for not less than fifteen years, sit as 
members of the House of Lords to adjudicate in cases before 
that House in its legal capacity, and also to aid the judicial 
committee of the Privy Council in hearing appeals. Of the four 
lords of appeal in ordinary one is usually appointed from the 
Irish bench or bar and one from Scotland. Their salary is 
6000 a year. They hold office on the same conditions as other 
judges. By the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876, under which they 
are appointed, lords of appeal in ordinary are, by virtue of and 
according to the date of their appointment, entitled during 
life to rank as barons and during the time that they continue in 
office are entitled to a writ of summons to attend, and to sit and 
vote in the House of Lords. They are life peers only. The 
patent of a lord of appeal in ordinary differs from that of a baron 
in that he is not " created " but " nominated and appointed 
to be a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary by the style of Baron." 

LORD STEWARD, in England, an important official of the 
king's household. He is always a member of the government, 
a peer and a privy councillor. Up to 1782, the office was one of 
considerable political importance and carried cabinet rank. 
The lord steward receives his appointment from the sovereign 
in person, and bears a white staff as the emblem and warrant of 
his authority. He is the first dignitary of the court. In the 
Statutes of Eltham he is called " the lord great master," but in 
the Household Book of Queen Elizabeth " the lord steward," 
as before and since. In an act of Henry VIII. (1539) " for 
placing of the lords," he is described as " the grand master or 
lord steward of the king's most honourable household." He 
presides at the Board of Green Cloth. 1 In his department are 
the treasurer and comptroller of the household, who rank next 
to him. These officials are usually peers or the sons of peers and 
privy councillors. They sit at the Board of Green Cloth, carry 
white staves, and belong to the ministry. But the duties which 
in theory belong to the lord steward, treasurer and comptroller 
of the household are in practice performed by the master of the 
household, who is a permanent officer and resides in the palace. 
He is a white-staff officer and a member of the Board of Green 
Cloth but not of the ministry, and among other things he pre- 
sides at the daily dinners of the suite in waiting on the sovereign. 
In his case history repeats itself. He is not named in the Black 
Book of Edward IV. or in the Statutes of Henry VIII., and 
is entered as " master of the household and clerk of the green 
cloth " in the Household Book of Queen Elizabeth. But he has 
superseded the lord steward of the household, as the lord steward 
of the household at one time superseded the lord high steward 
of England. 

In the lord steward's department are the officials of the Board 
of Green Cloth, the coroner (" coroner of the verge "),and pay- 
master of the household, and the officers of the almonry (see 
ALMONER). Other offices in the department were those of the 
cofferer of the household, the treasurer of the chamber, and the 
paymaster of pensions, but these, with six clerks of the Board of 
Green Cloth, were abolished in 1782. The lord steward had 
formerly three courts besides the Board of Green Cloth under 
him. First, the lord steward's court, superseded (1541) by 
second the Marshalsea court, a court of record having jurisdic- 
tion, both civil and criminal within the verge (the area within a 
radius of 12 m. from where the sovereign is resident), and 
originally held for the purpose of administering justice between 
the domestic servants of the sovereign, " that they might not 
be drawn into other courts and their service lost." Its criminal 

*A committee of the king's household, consisting of the lord 
steward and his subordinates, charged with the duty of examining 
and passing all the accounts of the Household. The board had also 
power to punish all offenders within the verge or jurisdiction of the 
palace, which extended in every direction for 200 yds. from the gates 
of the court yard. The name is derived from the green-covered table 
at which the transactions of the board were originally conducted. 

jurisdiction had long fallen into disuse and its civil jurisdiction 
was abolished in 1849. Third, the palace court, created by letters 
patent in 1612 and renewed in 1665 with jurisdiction over all 
personal matters arising between parties within 12 m. of White- 
hall (the jurisdiction of the Marshalsea court, the City of London, 
and Westminster Hall being excepted). It differed from the 
Marshalsea court in that it had no jurisdiction over the sovereign's 
household nor were its suitors necessarily of the household. 
The privilege of practising before the palace court was limited 
to four counsel. It was abolished in 1849. The lord steward or 
his deputies formerly administered the oaths to the members 
of the House of Commons. In certain cases (messages from the 
sovereign under the sign-manual) " the lords with white staves" 
are the proper persons to bear communications between the 
sovereign and the houses of parliament. 

AUTHORITIES. Statutes of Eltham; Household Book of Queen 
Elizabeth; Coke, Institutes; Reeves, History of the Law of England; 
Stephen, Commentaries on the Laws of England; Hatsell, Precedents 
of Proceedings in the House of Commons; May, Parliamentary 

LORE, AMBROISE DE (1396-1446), baron of Ivry in Nor- 
mandy and a French commander, was born at the chateau of 
Lore (Orne, arrondissement of Domfront). His first exploit in 
arms was at the battle of Agincourt in 1415; he followed the 
party of the Armagnacs and attached himself to the dauphin 
Charles. He waged continual warfare against the English in 
Maine until the advent of Joan of Arc. He fought at Jargeau, 
at Meung-sur-Loire and at Patay (1429). Using his fortress 
of Saint Ceneri as a base of operations during the next few years, 
he seized upon Matthew Gough near Vivoin in 143 1 , and made an 
incursion as far as the walls of Caen, whence he brought away 
three thousand prisoners. Taken captive himself in 1433, he 
was exchanged for Talbot. In 1435 he and Dunois defeated 
the English near Meulan, and in 1436 he helped the constable 
Arthur, earl of Richmond (de Richmond), to expel them from 
Paris. He was appointed provost of Paris in February 1437, 
and in 1438 he was made " judge and general reformer of the 
malefactors of the kingdom." He was present in 1439 at the 
taking of Meaux, in 1441 at that of Pontoise, and he died on the 
24th of May 1446. 

See the Nouvelle Biographie Generate, vol. xxxi., and the Revue 
Historique du Maine, vols. iii. and vi. (]. V.*) 

LORE, properly instruction, teaching, knowledge. The O. Eng. 
l&r, as the Dutch leer and Ger. Lehre, represents the Old Teutonic 
root, meaning to impart or receive knowledge, seen in " to 
learn," " learning." In the Gentleman's Magazine for June 
1830 it was suggested that " lore " should be used as a termination 
instead of the Greek derivative -ology in the names of the various 
sciences. This was never done, but the word, both as termination 
and alone, is frequently applied to the many traditional beliefs, 
stories, &c., connected with the body of knowledge concerning 
some special subject; e.g. legendary lore, bird-lore, &c. The 
most familiar use is in " folk-lore " (<?..). 

LORELEI (from Old High Ger. Lur, connected with modern 
Ger. lauern, " to lurk," " be on the watch for," and equivalent 
to elf, and lai, " a rock "). The Lorelei is a rock in the Rhine 
near St Goar, which gives a remarkable echo, which may partly 
account for the legend. The tale appears in many forms, but is 
best known through Heinrich Heine's poem, beginning Ich 
weiss nicht was soil es bedeuten. In the commonest form of the 
story the Lorelei is a maiden who threw herself into the Rhine 
in despair over a faithless lover, and became a siren whose voice 
lured fishermen to destruction. The 13th-century minnesinger, 
known as Der Marner, says that the Nibelungen treasure was 
hidden beneath the rock. The tale is obviously closely con- 
nected with the myth of Holda, queen of the elves. On the Main 
she sits combing her locks on the Hullenstein, and the man 
who sees her loses sight or reason, while he who listens is con- 
demned to wander with her for ever. The legend, which Clemens 
Brentano claimed as his own invention when he wrote his poem 
" Zu Bacharach am Rheine " in his novel of Godwi (1802), bears 
all the marks of popular mythology. In the igth century it 
formed material for a great number of songs, dramatic sketches, 


operas and even tragedies, which are enumerated by Dr Hermann 
Seeliger in his Loreleysage in Dichtung und Musik (Leipzig- 
Reudnitz, 1898). The favourite poem with composers was 
Heine's, set to music by some twenty-five musicians, the settings 
by Friedrich Silcher (from an old folk-song) and by Liszt being 
the most famous. 

LORETO, an episcopal see and pilgrimage resort of the Marches, 
Italy, in the province of Ancona, 15 m. by rail S.S.E. of that 
town. Pop. (1901) 1178 (town), 8033 (commune). It lies 
upon the right bank of the Musone, at some distance from the 
railway station, on a hill-side commanding splendid views from 
the Apennines to the Adriatic, 341 ft. above sea-level. The town 
itself consists of little more than one long narrow street, lined 
with shops for the sale of rosaries, medals, crucifixes and similar 
objects, the manufacture of which is the sole industry of the place. 
The number of pilgrims is said to amount to 50,000 annually, 
the chief festival being held on the 8th of September, the 
Nativity of the Virgin. The principal buildings, occupying the 
four sides of the piazza, are the college of the Jesuits, the Palazzo 
Apostolico, now Reale (designed by Bramante), which contains 
a picture gallery with works of Lorenzo Lotto, Vouet and 
Caracci and a collection of majolica, and the cathedral church 
of the Holy House (Chiesa della Casa Santa), a Late Gothic 
structure continued by Giuliano da Maiano, Giuliano da Sangallo 
and Bramante. The handsome facade of the church was erected 
under Sixtus V.,who fortified Loretoand gave it the privileges 
of a town (1586); his colossal statue stands in the middle of the 
flight of steps in front. Over the principal doorway is a life-size 
bronze statue of the Virgin and Child by Girolamo Lombardo; 
the three superb bronze doors executed at the latter end of the 
i6th century and under Paul V. (1605-1621) are also by Lom- 
bardo, his sons and his pupils, among them Tiburzio Vergelli, 
who also made the fine bronze font in the interior. The doors 
and hanging lamps of the Santa Casa are by the same artists. 
The richly decorated campanile, by Vanvitelli, is of great height; 
the principal bell, presented by Leo X. in 1516, weighs n tons. 
The interior of the church has mosaics by Domenichino and Guido 
Reni and other works of art. In the sacristies on each side of 
the right transept are frescoes, on the right by Melozzo da Forli, 
on the left by Luca Signorelli. In both are fine intarsias. 

But the chief object of interest is the Holy House itself. It 
is a plain stone building, 28 ft. by 12$ and 13 J ft. in height; 
it has a door on the north side and a window on the west; 
and a niche contains a small black image of the Virgin and Child, 
in Lebanon cedar, and richly adorned with jewels. St Luke is 
alleged to have been the sculptor; its workmanship suggests 
the latter half of the isth century. Around the Santa Casa is a 
lofty marble screen, designed by Bramante, and executed under 
Popes Leo X., Clement VII. and Paul III., by Andrea Sansovino, 
Girolamo Lombardo, Bandinelli, Guglielmo della Porta and 
others. The four sides represent the Annunciation, the Nativity, 
the Arrival of the Santa Casa at Loreto and the Nativity of the 
Virgin respectively. The treasury contains a large variety of 
rich and curious votive offerings. The architectural design is 
finer than the details of the sculpture. The choir apse is decorated 
with modern German frescoes, which are somewhat out of place. 

The legend of the Holy House seems to have sprung up (how 
is not exactly known) at the close of the crusading period. 

It is briefly referred to in the Italia Illustrata of Flavius 
Blondus, secretary to Popes Eugenius IV., Nicholas V., 
Calixtus III. and Pius II. (ob. 1464); it is to be read in all its 
fullness in the " Redemptoris mundi Matris Ecclesiae Lauretana 
historia," by a certain Teremannus, contained in the Opera Omnia 
(1576) of Baptista Mantuanus. According to this narrative the 
house at Nazareth in which Mary had been born and brought up, 
had received the annunciation, and had lived during the childhood 
of Jesus and after His ascension, was converted into a church 
by the apostles. In 336 the empress Helena made a pilgrimage 
to Nazareth and caused a basilica to be erected over it, in which 
worship continued until the fall of the kingdom of Jerusalem. 
Threatened with destruction by the Turks, it was carried by 
angels through the air and deposited (1291) in the first instance 

on a hill at Tersatto in Dalmatia, where an appearance of the 
Virgin and numerous miraculous cures attested its sanctity, 
which was confirmed by investigations made at Nazareth by 
messengers from the governor of Dalmatia. In 1294 the angels 
carried it across the Adriatic to a wood near Recanati ; from this 
wood (lauretum), or from the name of its proprietrix (Laureta), 
the chapel derived the name which it still retains (" sacellum 
gloriosae Virginis in Laureto "). From this spot it was after- 
wards (1295) removed to the present hill, one other slight 
adjustment being required to fix it in its actual site. Bulls in 
favour of the shrine at Loreto were issued by Pope Sixtus IV. 
in 1491 and by Julius II. in 1507, the last alluding to the trans- 
lation of the house with some caution (" ut pie creditur et fama 
est "). The recognition of the sanctuary by subsequent pontiffs 
has already been alluded to. In the end of the I7th century 
Innocent XII. appointed a " missa cum officio proprio" for the 
feast of the Translation of the Holy House, and the feast is 
still enjoined in the Spanish Breviary as a " greater double " 
(December 10). 
See also U. Chevalier, Notre-Dame de Lorelte (Paris, 1906). 

LORETO, an inland department of Peru, lying E. of the 
Andean Cordilleras and forming the N.E. part of the republic. 
Extensive territories, nominally parts of this department, are in 
dispute between Peru and the neighbouring republics of Brazil, 
Colombia and Ecuador (see PERU), and the northern and eastern 
boundaries of the territory are therefore not definitely determined. 
Loreto is bounded W. by the departments of Amazonas and San 
Martin (the latter a new department, with an area of 30,744 sq. m. , 
taken from Loreto, lying between the central and eastern 
Cordilleras and extending from the 6th to the gth parallels, 
approximately), and S. by Hu&nuco and Cuzco. The area of the 
department, including the territories claimed by Peru, is estimated 
at 257,798 sq. m. The population is estimated (1906) at 120,000. 
The aboriginal population is not numerous, as the thick, humid 
forests are inhabited only where lakes and streams make open 
spaces for sunlight and ventilation. With the exception of the 
eastern Andean slopes and a little-known range of low mountains 
on the Brazilian frontier, called the Andes Conomamas, the suiface 
is that of a thickly wooded plain sloping gently towards the 
Maranon, or Upper Amazon, which crosses it from W. to E. 
There are open plains between the Ucayali and Huallaga, known 
as the Pampas del Sacramento, but otherwise there are no 
extensive breaks in the forest. The elevation of the plain near 
the base of the Andes is 526 ft. on the Ucayali, 558 on the 
Huallaga, and 453 at Barranca, on the Maranon, a few miles 
below the Pongo de Manseriche. The eastward slope of the 
plain is about 250 ft. in the 620 m. (direct) between this point 
and Tabatinga, on the Brazilian frontier; this not only shows 
the remarkably level character of the Amazon valley of which it 
forms a part, but also the sluggish character of its drainage. 
From the S. the principal rivers traversing Loreto are the Ucayali 
and Huallaga, the former entering from Cuzco across its southern 
boundary and skirting the eastern base of the Andes for about 
four degrees of latitude before it turns away to the N.E. to join the 
Maranon, and the latter breaking through the Eastern Cordillera 
between the 6th and 7th parallels and entering the Maranon 
143 m. below Yurimaguas, where navigation begins. The lower 
Ucayali, which has a very tortuous course, is said to have 868 m. 
of navigable channel at high water and 620 m. at low water. 
North of the Maranon several large rivers pass through Peruvian 
territory between the Santiago and Napo (see ECUADOR) , nearly 
all having navigable channels. On the level plains are a number 
of lakes, some are formed by the annual floods and are temporary 
in character. Among the permanent lakes are the Gran Cocama, 
of the Pampas del Sacramento, the Caballococha a widening 
of the Amazon itself about 60 m. N.W. of Tabatinga and 
Rimachuma, on the north side of the Maranon, near the lower 

The natural resources of this extensive region are incalculable, 
but their development has been well nigh impossible through 
lack of transport facilities. They include the characteristic 
woods of the Amazon valley, rubber, nuts, cinchona or Peruvian 



bark, medicinal products, fish, fruits and fibres. The cultivated 
products include cocoa, coffee, tobacco and fruits. Straw hats and 
hammocks are manufactured to some extent. The natural outlet 
of this region is the Amazon river, but this involves 2500 m. of 
river navigation from Iquitos before the ocean is reached. 
Communication with the Pacific coast cities and ports of Peru 
implies the crossing of three high, snow-covered ranges of the 
Andes by extremely difficult trails and passes. A rough mountain 
road has been constructed from Oroya to Puerto Bermudez, at 
the head of navigation on the Pachitea, and is maintained by the 
government pending the construction of a railway, but the 
distance is 210 m. and it takes nine days for a mule train to make 
the journey. At Puerto Bermudez a river steamer connects with 
Iquitos, making the distance of 930 m. in seven days. From 
Lima to Iquitos by this route, therefore, involves 17 days travel 
over a distance of 1268 m. The most feasible route from the 
department to the Pacific coast is that which connects Puerto 
Limon, on the Maranon, with the Pacific port of Payta, a distance 
of 410 m., it being possible to cross the Andes on this route at the 
low elevation of 6600 ft. The climate of Loreto is hot and humid, 
except on the higher slopes of the Andes. The year is divided 
into a wet and a dry season, the first from May to October, and the 
average annual rainfall is estimated at 70 in. though it varies 
widely between distant points. The capital and only town of 
importance in the department is Iquitos. 

LORIENT, a maritime town of western France, capital of an 
arrondissement in the department of Morbihan, on the right 
bank of the Scorff at its confluence with the Blavet, 34 m. W. by 
N. of Vannes by rail. Pop. (1906) 40,848. The town is modern 
and regularly built. Its chief objects of interest are the church 
of St Louis (1709) and a statue by A. Mercie of Victor Masse, the 
composer, born at Lorient in 1822. It is one of the five maritime 
prefectures in France and the first port for naval construction in 
the country. The naval port to the east of the town is formed by 
the channel of the Scorff, on the right bank of which the chief 
naval establishments are situated. These include magazines, 
foundries, forges, fitting-shops, rope-works and other workshops 
on the most extensive scale, as well as a graving dock, a covered 
slip and other slips. A floating bridge connects the right bank 
with the peninsula of Caudan formed by the union of the Scorff 
and Blavet. Here are the shipbuilding yards covering some 
38 acres, and comprising nine slips for large vessels and two others 
for smaller vessels, besides forges and workshops for iron ship- 
building. The commercial port to the south of the town consists 
of an outer tidal port protected by a jetty and of an inner dock, 
both lined by fine quays planted with trees. It separates the 
older part of the town, which is hemmed in by fortifications from 
a newer quarter. In 1905, 121 vessels of 28,785 tons entered 
with cargo and 145 vessels of 38,207 tons cleared. The chief 
export is pit-timber, the chief import is coal. Fishing is actively 
carried on. Lorient is the seat of a sub-prefect, of commercial 
and maritime tribunals and of a tribunal of first instance, and has 
a chamber of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a lycee, 
schools of navigation, and naval artillery. Private industry is 
also engaged in iron-working and engine making. The trade in 
fresh fish, sardines, oysters (which are reared near Lorient) and 
tinned vegetables is important and the manufacture of basket- 
work, tin-boxes and passementerie, and the preparation of 
preserved sardines and vegetables are carried on. The road- 
stead, formed by the estuary of the Blavet, is accessible to vessels 
of the largest size; the entrance, 3 or 4 m. south from Lorient, 
which is defended by numerous forts, is marked on the east by the 
peninsula of Gavres (an artillery practising ground) and the 
fortified town of Port Louis; on the west are the fort of Lpqueltas 
and, higher up, the battery of Kernevel. In the middle of the 
channel is the granite rock of St Michel, occupied by a powder 
magazine. Opposite it, on the right bank of the Blavet, is the 
mouth of the river Ter, with fish and oyster breeding establish- 
ments from which 10 millions of oysters are annually obtained. 
The roadstead is provided with six lighthouses. Above Lorient 
on the Scorff, here spanned by a suspension bridge, is Kerentrech, 
a pretty village surrounded by numerous country houses. 

Lorient took the place of Port Louis as the port of the Blavet. 
The latter stands on the site of an ancient hamlet which was 
fortified during the wars of the League and handed over by 
Philip Emmanuel, duke of Morcceur, to the Spaniards. After the 
treaty of Vervins it was restored to France, and it received its 
name of Port Louis under Richelieu. Some Breton merchants 
trading with the Indies had established themselves first at Port 
Louis, but in 1628 they built their warehouses on the other bank. 
The Compagnie des Indes Orientales, created in 1664, took 
possession of these, giving them the name of 1'Orient. In 1745 
the Compagnie des Indes, then at the acme of its prosperity, 
owned thirty-five ships of the largest class and many others of 
considerable size. Its decadence dates from the English conquest 
of India, and in 1770 its property was ceded to the state. In 1782 
the town was purchased by Louis XVI. from its owners, the 
Rohan-Guemene family. In 1746 the English under Admiral 
Richard Lestock made an unsuccessful attack on Lorient. 

LORINER, or LORIMER (from O. Fr. loremier or lorenier, a 
maker of lorains, bridles, from Lat. lorum, thong, bridle; the 
proper form is with the n; a similar change is found in Latimer 
for Latiner, the title of an old official of the royal household, the 
king's interpreter), one who makes bits and spurs and the metal 
mountings for saddles and bridles; the term is also applied to a 
worker in wrought iron and to a maker of small iron ware. The 
word is now rarely used except as the name of one of the London 
livery companies (see LIVERY COMPANY). 

LORIS, a name of uncertain origin applied to the Indo-Malay 
representatives of the lemurs, which, together with the African 
pottos, constitute the section Nycticebinae of the family Nyctice- 
bidae (see PRIMATES). From their extremely slow movements 
and lethargic habits in the daytime these weird little creatures 
are commonly called sloths by Anglo-Indians. Their soft fur, 
huge staring eyes, rudimentary tails and imperfectly developed 
index-fingers render lorises easy of recognition. The smallest 
is the slender loris (Loris gracilis) of the forests of Madras and 
Ceylon, a creature smaller than a squirrel. It is of such exceeding 
strangeness and beauty that it might have been thought it 
would be protected by the natives; but they hold it alive before 
a fire till its beautiful eyes burst in order to afford a supposed 
remedy for ophthalmia! The mainland and Cingalese animals 
form distinct races. Both in this species and the slow loris 
there is a pair of rudimentary abdominal teats in addition to 
the normal pectoral pair. The slow loris (Nycticebus lardigradus) 
is a heavier built and larger animal, ranging from eastern Bengal 
to Cochin China, Siam, the Malay Peninsula, Java and Sumatra. 
There are several races, mostly grey in colour, but the Sumatran 
N. t. hilleri is reddish. (R. L.*) 


88), Russian statesman, son of an Armenian merchant, was 
born at Tiflis in 1825 or 1826, and educated in St Petersburg, 
first in the Lazarev School of Oriental Languages, and afterwards 
in the Guards' Cadet Institute. He joined a hussar regiment, 
and four years afterwards (1847) he was sent to the Caucasus, 
where he remained for more than twenty years, and made for 
tiimself during troublous times the reputation of a distinguished 
cavalry officer and an able administrator. In the latter capacity, 
though a keen soldier, he aimed always at preparing the warlike 
and turbulent population committed to his charge for the 
transition from military to normal civil administration, and in 
this work his favourite instrument was the schoolmaster. In 
he Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 he commanded a separate 
corps d'armee on the Turkish frontier in Asia Minor. After 
:aking the fortress of Ardahan, he was repulsed by Mukhtar 
Pasha at Zevin, but subsequently defeated his opponent at 
Aladja Dagh, took Kars by storm, and laid siege to Erzerum. 
For these he received the title of Count. In the following 
year he was appointed temporary governor-general of the region 
of the Lower Volga, to combat an outbreak of the plague. The 
measures he adopted proved so effectual that he was transferred 
to the provinces of Central Russia to combat the Nihilists and 
Anarchists, who had adopted a policy of terrorism, and had 
succeeded in assassinating the governor of Kharkov. His 


success in this struggle led to his being appointed chief of the 
Supreme Executive Commission which had been created in 
St Petersburg to deal with the revolutionary agitation in general. 
Here, as in the Caucasus, he showed a decided preference for 
the employment of ordinary legal methods rather than excep- 
tional extra-legal measures, and an attempt on his own life soon 
after he assumed office did not shake his convictions. In his 
opinion the best policy was to strike at the root of the evil by 
removing the causes of popular discontent, and for this purpose 
he recommended to the emperor a large scheme of administrative 
and economic reforms. Alexander II., who was beginning to 
lose faith in the efficacy of the simple method of police repression 
hitherto employed, lent a willing ear to the suggestion; and 
when the Supreme Commission was dissolved in August 1880, 
he appointed Count Loris-Melikov Minister of the Interior with 
exceptional powers. The proposed scheme of reforms was at 
once taken in hand, but it was never carried out. On the very 
day in March 1881 that the emperor signed a ukaz creating 
several commissions, composed of officials and eminent private 
individuals, who should prepare reforms in various branches of 
the administration, he was assassinated by Nihilist conspirators; 
and his successor, Alexander III., at once adopted a strongly 
reactionary policy. Count Loris-Melikov immediately resigned, 
and lived in retirement until his death, which took place at Nice 
on the zznd of December 1888. (D. M. W.) 

LORIUM, an ancient village of Etruria, Italy, on the Via 
Aurelia, 1 2 m. W. of Rome. Antoninus Pius, who was educated 
here, afterwards built a palace, in which he died. It was also 
a favourite haunt of Marcus Aurelius. Remains of ancient 
buildings exist in the neighbourhood of the road on each side 
(near the modern Castel di Guido) and remains of tombs, inscrip- 
tions, &c., were excavated in 1823-1824. Two or three miles 
farther west was probably the post-station of Bebiana, where 
inscriptions show that some sailors of the fleet were stationed 
no doubt a detachment of those at Centumcellae, which was 
reached by this road. 

LORRACH, a town in the grand-duchy of Baden, in the 
valley of the Wiese, 6 m. by rail N.E. of Basel. Pop. (1905) 
10,794. It is the seat of considerable industry, its manufactures 
including calico, shawls, cloth, silk, chocolate, cotton, ribbons, 
hardware and furniture, and has a trade in wine, fruit and 
timber. There is a fine view from the neighbouring Schutzenhaus, 
1085 ft. high. In the neighbourhood also is the castle of Rotteln, 
formerly the residence of the counts of Hachberg and of the 
margraves of Baden; this was destroyed by the French in 1678, 
but was rebuilt in 1867. Lorrach received market rights in 
1403, but did not obtain municipal privileges until 1682. 

See Hochstetter, Die Stadt Lorrach (Lorrach, 1882). 

LORRAINE, one of the former provinces of France. The 
name has designated different districts in different periods. 
Lotharingia, or Lothringen, i.e. regnum Lotharii, is derived 
from the Lotharingi or Lotharienses (O.G. Lotheringen, Fr. 
Loherains, Lorrains), a term applied originally to the Prankish 
subjects of Lothair, but restricted at the end of the 9th century 
to those who dwelt north of the southern Vosges. 

Lorraine in Medieval Times. The original kingdom of Lorraine 
was the northern part of the territories allotted by the treaty 
of Verdun (August 843) to the emperor Lothair I., and in 855 
formed the inheritance of his second son, King Lothair. This 
kingdom of Lorraine was situated between the realms of the 
East and the West Franks, and originally extended along the 
North Sea between the mouths of the Rhine and the Ems, 
including the whole or part of Frisia and the cities on the right 
bank of the Rhine. From Bonn the frontier followed the Rhine 
as far as its confluence with the Aar, which then became the 
boundary, receding from the left bank in the neighbourhood 
of Bingen so as to leave the cities of Worms and Spires to 
Germany, and embracing the duchy of Alsace. After crossing 
the Jura, the frontier joined the Sa6ne a little south of its con- 
fluence with the Doubs, and followed the Sa6ne for some distance, 
and finally the valleys of the Meuse and the Scheldt. Thus the 
kingdom roughly comprised the region watered by the Moselle 

and the Meuse, together with the dioceses of Cologne, Trier, 
Metz, Toul, Verdun, Liege and Cambrai, Basel, Strassburg 
and Besancon, and corresponded to what is now Holland and 
Belgium, parts of Rhenish Prussia, of Switzerland, and of the old 
province of Franche-Comt6, and to the district known later as 
Upper Lorraine, or simply Lorraine. Though apparently of 
an absolutely artificial character, this kingdom corresponded 
essentially to the ancient Francia, the cradle of the Carolingian 
house, and long retained a certain unity. It was to the in- 
habitants of this region that the name of Lotharienses or Lotharingi 
was primitively applied, although the word Lotharingia, as the 
designation of the country, only appears in the middle of the 
xoth century. 

The reign of King Lothair (?..), which was continually 
disturbed by quarrels with his uncles, Charles the Bald and 
Louis the German, and by the difficulties caused by the divorce 
of his queen Teutberga, whom he had forsaken for a concubine 
called Waldrada, ended on the 8th of August 869. His inherit- 
ance was disputed by his uncles, and was divided by the treaty 
of Meersen (8th of August 870), by which Charles the Bald 
received part of the province of Besancon and some land between 
the Moselle and the Meuse. Then for a time the emperor Charles 
the Fat united under his authority the whole of the kingdom 
of Lorraine with the rest of the Carolingian empire. After the 
deposition of Charles in 888 Rudolph, king of Burgundy, got 
himself recognized in Lorraine. He was unable to maintain 
himself there, and succeeded in detaching definitively no more 
than the province of Besancon. Lorraine remained in the 
power of the emperor Arnulf, who in 895 constituted it a distinct 
kingdom in favour of his son Zwentibold. Zwentibold quickly 
became embroiled with the nobles and the bishops, and especially 
with Bishop Radbod of Trier. Among the lay lords the most 
important was Regnier (incorrectly called Long-neck), count of 
Hesbaye and Hainault, who is styled duke by the Lotharingian 
chronicler Reginon, though he does not appear ever to have 
borne the title. In 898 Zwentibold stripped Regnier of his 
fiefs, whereupon the latter appealed to the king of France, 
Charles the Simple, whose intervention, however, had no enduring 
effect. After the death of Arnulf in 899, the Lotharingians 
appealed to his successor, Louis the Child, to replace Zwentibold, 
who, on the I3th of August ooo, was killed in battle. In spite 
of the dissensions which immediately arose between him and the ' 
Lotharingian lords, Louis retained the kingdom till his death. 
The Lotharingians, however, refused to recognize the new 
German king, Conrad I., and testified their attachment to the 
Carolingian house by electing as sovereign the king of the West 
Franks, Charles the Simple. Charles was at first supported 
by Giselbert, son and successor of Regnier, but was abandoned 
by his ally, who in 919 appealed to the German king, Henry I. 
The struggle ended in the treaty of Bonn (921), by which appar- 
ently the rights of Charles over Lorraine were recognized. The 
revolt of the Prankish lords in 922 and the captivity of Charles 
finally settled the question. After an unsuccessful attack by 
Rudolph or Raoul, king of France, Henry became master of 
Lorraine in 925, thanks to the support of Giselbert, whom he 
rewarded with the hand of his daughter Gerberga and the title 
of duke of Lorraine. Giselbert at first remained faithful to 
Henry's son, Otto the Great, but in 938 he appears to have 
joined the revolt directed against Otto by Eberhard, duke of 
Franconia. In 939, in concert with Eberhard and Otto's 
brother, Henry of Saxony, he declared open war against Otto 
and appealed to Louis d'Outremer, who penetrated into Lorraine 
and Alsace, but was soon called back to France by the revolt 
of the count of Vermandois. In the same year Giselbert and 
Eberhard were defeated and killed near Andernach, and Otto 
at once made himself recognized in the whole of Lorraine, securing 
it by a treaty with Louis d'Outremer, who married Giselbert's 
widow Gerberga, and entrusting the government of it to Count 
Otto, son of Ricuin, until Giselbert's son Henry should have 
attained his majority. 

After the deaths of the young Henry and Count Otto in 944, 
Otto the Great gave Lorraine to Conrad the Red, duke of 



Franconia, the husband of his daughter Liutgard, a choice which 
was not completely satisfactory to the Lotharingians. In 
953 Conrad, in concert with Liudulf, the son of the German 
king, revolted against Otto, but was abandoned by his supporters. 
Otto stripped Conrad of his duchy, and in 954 gave the govern- 
ment of it to his own brother Bruno, archbishop of Cologne. 
Bruno had to contend against the efforts of the last Carolingians 
of France to make good their claims on Lorraine, as well as 
against the spirit of independence exhibited by the Lotharingian 
nobles; and his attempts to raze certain castles built by brigand 
lords and to compel them to respect their oath of fidelity 
resulted in serious sedition. To obviate these difficulties Bruno 
divided the ducal authority, assigning Lower Lorraine to a certain 
Duke Godfrey, who was styled dux Ripuariorum, and Upper 
Lorraine to Frederick (d. 959), count of Bar, a member of the 
house of Ardenne and son-in-law of Hugh the Great, with the 
title of dux Mosellanorum; and it is probable that the partition 
of the ancient kingdom of Lorraine into two new duchies was 
confirmed by Otto after Bruno's death in 965. In 977 the 
emperor Otto II. gave the government of Lower Lorraine to 
Charles I., a younger son of Louis d'Outremer, on condition 
that that prince should acknowledge himself his vassal and 
should oppose any attempt of his brother Lothair on Lorraine. 
The consequent expedition of the king of France in 978 against 
Aix-la-Chapelle had no enduring result, and Charles retained 
his duchy till his death about 992. He left two sons, Otto, 
who succeeded him and died without issue, and Henry, who 
is sometimes regarded as the ancestor of the landgraves of 
Thuringia. The duchy of Lower Lorraine, sometimes called 
Lothier (Lotharium) , was then given to Godfrey (d. 1023), son of 
Count Godfrey of Verdun, and for some time the history of 
Lorraine is the history of the attempts made by the dukes of 
Lothier to seize Upper Lorraine. Gothelon (d. 1043) , son of Duke 
Godfrey, obtained Lorraine at the death of Frederick II., duke of 
Upper Lorraine, in 1027, and victoriously repulsed the incursions 
of Odo (Eudes) of Blois, count of Champagne, who was defeated 
and killed in a battle near Bar (1037). At Gothelon's death in 
1043, his son Godfrey the Bearded received from the emperor 
only Lower Lorraine, his brother Gothelon II. obtaining Upper 
Lorraine. Godfrey attempted to seize the upper duchy, but was 
defeated and imprisoned in 1045. On the death of Gothelon 
in 1046, Godfrey endeavoured to take Upper Lorraine from 
Albert of Alsace, to whom it had been granted by the emperor 
Henry III. The attempt, however, also failed; and Godfrey 
was for some time deprived of his own duchy of Lower Lorraine 
in favour of Frederick of Luxemburg. Godfrey took part in the 
struggles of Pope Leo IX. against the Normans in Italy, and in 
1053 married Beatrice, daughter of Duke Frederick of Upper 
Lorraine and widow of Boniface, margrave of Tuscany. On the 
death of Frederick of Luxemburg in 1065 the emperor Henry IV. 
restored the duchy of Lower Lorraine to Godfrey, who retained 
it till his death in 1069, when he was succeeded by his son Godfrey 
the Hunchback (d. 1076), after whose death Henry IV. gave the 
duchy to Godfrey of Bouillon, the hero of the first crusade, son 
of Eustace, count of Boulogne, and Ida, sister of Godfrey the 
Hunchback. On the death of Godfrey of Bouillon in noo 
Lower Lorraine was given to Henry, count of Limburg. The 
new duke supported the emperor Henry IV. in his struggles 
with his sons, and in consequence was deposed by the emperor 
Henry V., who gave the duchy in 1 106 to Godfrey, count of 
Louvain, a descendant of the Lotharingian dukes of the beginning 
of the loth century. This Godfrey was the first hereditary duke 
of Brabant, as the dukes of Lower Lorraine came to be called. 

Upper Lorraine. The duchy of Upper Lorraine, or Lorraine 
MoseUana, to which the name of Lorraine was restricted from 
the nth century, consisted of a tract of undulating country 
watered by the upper course of the Meuse and Moselle, and 
bounded N. by the Ardennes, S. by the table-land of Langres, 
E. by the Vosges and W. by Champagne. Its principal fiefs 
were the countship of Bar which Otto the Great gave in 951 
to Count Frederick of Ardenne, and which passed in 1093 to the 
lords of Montbeliard; the countship of Chiny, formed at the end 

of the loth century, of which, since the I3th, Montmedy was 
the capital; the lordship of Commercy, whose rulers bore the 
special title of damoiseau, and which passed in the i3th century 
to the house of Saarebrucken; and, finally the three important 
ecclesiastical lordships of the bishops of Metz, Toul and Verdun. 
Theodoric, or Thierri (d. 1026), son of Frederick, count of Bar 
and first duke of Upper Lorraine, was involved in a war with the 
emperor Henry II., a war principally remarkable for the siege 
of Metz (1007). After having been the object of numerous 
attempts on the part of the dukes of Lower Lorraine, Upper 
Lorraine was given by the emperor Henry III. to Albert of Alsace, 
and passed in 1048 to Albert's brother Gerard, who died by 
poison in 1069, and who was the ancestor of the hereditary 
house of Lorraine. Until the isth century the representatives 
of the hereditary house were Theodoric II., called the Valiant 
(1069-1115), Simon (1115-1139), Matthew(i 139-1 176), Simon II. 
(i 176-1205), Ferri I. (1205-1206), Ferri II. (1206-1213), Theobald 
(Thibaut) I. (1213-1220), Matthew II. (1220-1251), Ferri III. 
(1251-1304), Theobald II. (1304-1312), Ferri IV., called the 
Struggler (1312-1328), Rudolph, or Raoul (1328-1346), John 
(1346-1391) and Charles II. or I., called the Bold (1391-1431). 
The 1 2th century and the first part of the I3th were occupied 
with wars against the counts of Bar and Champagne. Theobald 
I. intervened in Champagne to support Erard of Brienne against 
the young count Theobald IV. The regent of Champagne, 
Blanche of Navarre, succeeded in forming against the duke of 
Lorraine a coalition consisting of the count of Bar and the 
emperor Frederick II., who had become embroiled with Theobald 
over the question of Rosheim in Alsace. Attacked by the 
emperor, the duke of Lorraine was forced at the treaty of Amance 
(1218) to acknowledge himself the vassal of the count of Cham- 
pagne, and to support the count in his struggles against his 
ancient ally the count of Bar. The long government of Ferri III. 
was mainly occupied with wars against the feudal lords and the 
bishop of Metz, which resulted in giving an impulse to the 
municipal movement through Ferri's attempt to use the move- 
ment as a weapon against the nobles. The majority of the 
municipal charters of Lorraine were derived from the charter 
of Beaumont in Argonne, which was at first extended to the 
Barrois and was granted by Ferri, in spite of the hostility of 
his barons, to La Neuveville in 1257, to Frouard in 1263 and to 
Luneville in 1265. In the church lands the bishops of Toul and 
Metz granted liberties from the end of the i2th century to the 
communes in their lordship, but not the Beaumont charter, 
which, however, obtained in the diocese of Verdun in the I4th 
and isth centuries. 

By the will of Duke Charles the Bold, Lorraine was to pass 
to his daughter Isabella, who married Rene of Anjou, duke of 
Bar, in 1420. But Anthony of Vaudemont, Charles's nephew 
and heir male, disputed this succession with Rene, who obtained 
from the king of France an army commanded by Arnault 
Guilhem de Barbazan. Ren6, however, was defeated and taken 
prisoner at the battle of Bulgneville, where Barbazan was 
killed (2nd of July 1431). The negotiations between Rene's 
wife and Anthony had no result, in spite of the intervention 
of the council of Basel and the emperor Sigismund, and it was 
not until 1436 that Rene obtained his liberty by paying a 
ransom of 200,000 crowns, and was enabled to dispute with 
Alfonso of Aragon the kingdom of Naples, which he had inherited 
in the previous year. In 1444 Charles VII. of France and the 
dauphin Louis went to Lorraine, accompanied by envoys from 
Henry VI. of England, and procured a treaty (confirmed at 
Chalons in 1445), by which Yolande, Rene's eldest daughter, 
married Anthony's son, Ferri of Vaudemont, and Rene's second 
daughter Margaret became the wife of Henry VI. of England. 
After his return to Lorraine in 1442, Rene was seldom in the 
duchy. Like his successor John, duke of Calabria, who died 
in 1470, he was continually occupied with expeditions in Italy 
or in Spain. John's son and successor, Nicholas (d. 1473), who 
supported the duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, against 
the king of France, died without children, and his heir was 
Ren6, son of Frederick of Vaudemont. The duke of Burgundy, 



however, disputed this inheritance, and carried off the young 
Rene and his mother, but on the intervention of Louis XI. had 
to set them at liberty. Ren6 helped the Swiss during their 
wars with Charles the Bold, who invaded Lorraine and was 
killed under the walls of Nancy (1477). Rene's last years 
were mainly spent in expeditions in Provence and Italy. He 
died in 1508, leaving by his second wife three sons Anthony, 
called the Good, who succeeded him; Claude, count (and 
afterwards duke) of Guise, the ancestor of the house of Guise; 
and John (d. 1 5 50) , known as the cardinal of Lorraine. Anthony, 
who was declared of age at his father's death by the estates 
of Lorraine, although his mother had tried to seize the power 
as regent, had been brought up from the age of twelve at the 
French court, where he became the friend of Louis XII., whom 
he accompanied on his Italian expeditions. In 1525 he had to 
defend Lorraine against the revolted Alsatian peasants known 
as rustauds (boors), whom he defeated at Lupstein and Scher- 
weiler; and he succeeded in maintaining a neutral position in 
the struggle between Francis I. of France and the emperor 
Charles V. He died on the I4th of June 1 544, and was succeeded 
by his son Francis I., who died of apoplexy (August 1545) at 
the very moment when he was negotiating peace between the 
king of France and the emperor. 

Lorraine in Modern Times. Francis's son Charles III. or II., 
called the Great, succeeded under the tutelage of his mother 
and Nicholas of Vaudemont, bishop of Metz. Henry II. of 
France took this opportunity to invade Lorraine, and in 1552 
seized the three bishoprics of Metz, Toul and Verdun. In the 
same year the emperor laid siege to Metz, but was forced to 
retreat with heavy loss before the energetic resistance of Duke 
Francis of Guise. On leaving Lorraine, Henry II. took Charles 
to France, brought him up at the court and married him to his 
daughter Claude. After the accession of Francis II., the young 
duke returned to Lorraine, and, while his cousins the Guises 
endeavoured to make good the claims of the house of Lorraine 
to the crown of France by virtue of its descent from the Carolin- 
gians through Charles, the son of Louis d'Outremer, he devoted 
himself mainly to improving the administration of his duchy. 
He reconstituted his domain by revoking the alienations irregu- 
larly granted by his predecessors, instructed his chambre des 
comptes to institute inquiries on this subject, and endeavoured to 
ameliorate the condition of industry and commerce by re- 
organizing the working of the mines and saltworks, unifying 
weights and measures and promulgating edicts against vagabonds. 
His duchy suffered considerably from the passage of German 
bands on their way to help the Protestants in France, and also 
from disturbances caused by the progress of Calvinism, 
especially in the neighbourhood of the three bishoprics. To 
combat Calvinism Charles had recourse to the Jesuits, whom 
he established at Pont-a-Mousson, and to whom he gave over 
the university he had founded in that town in 1572. To this 
foundation he soon added chairs of medicine and law, the first 
professor of civil law being the mattre des requites, the Scotsman 
William Barclay, and the next Gregory of Toulouse, a pupil 
of the jurist Cujas. Charles died on the i4th of May 1608, and 
was succeeded by his eldest son Henry II., called the Good, 
who rid Lorraine of the German bands and died in 1624 without 

Henry was succeeded by his brother Francis II., who abdicated 
on the 26th of November 1624 in favour of his son Charles IV. 
or III. At the beginning of the reign of Louis XIII. Charles 
embroiled himself with France by harbouring French malcontents. 
Louis entered Lorraine, and by the treaty of Vic (3ist of 
December 1631) bound over Charles to desist from supporting 
the enemies of France, and compelled him to cede the fortress 
of Marsal. Charles's breach of this treaty led to a renewal of 
hostilities, and the French troops occupied St Mihiel, Bar-le-duc, 
Pont-a-Mousson and Nancy, which the duke was forced to cede 
for four years (1633). In 1632, by the treaty of Liverdun, he 
had already had to abandon the fortresses of Stenay and Clermont 
in Argonne. On the igth of January 1634 he abdicated in 
favour of his younger brother Francis Nicholas, cardinal of 

Lorraine, and withdrew to Germany, the parlement of Paris 
declaring him guilty of rebellion and confiscating his estates. 
After vain attempts to regain his estates with the help of the 
emperor, he decided to negotiate with France; and the treaty 
of St Germain (29th of March 1641) re-established him in his 
duchy on condition that he should cede Nancy, Stenay and 
other fortresses until the general peace. This treaty he soon 
broke, joining the Imperialists in the Low Countries and defeating 
the French at Tuttlingen (December 1643). He was restored, 
however, to his estates in 1644, and took part in the wars of the 
Fronde. He was arrested at Brussels in 1654, imprisoned at 
Toledo and did not recover his liberty until the peace of the 
Pyrenees in 1659. On the 28th of February 1661 the duchies 
of Lorraine and Bar were restored to him by the treaty of 
Vincennes, on condition that he should demolish the fortifications 
of Nancy and cede Clermont, Saarburg and Pfalzburg. In 
1662 Hugues de Lionne negotiated with him the treaty of 
Montmartre, by which Charles sold the succession to the duchy 
to Louis XIV. for a life-rent; but the Lorrainers, perhaps 
with the secret assent of their prince, refused to ratify the treaty. 
Charles, too, was accused of intriguing with the Dutch, and was 
expelled from his estates, Marshal de Crequi occupying Lorraine. 
He withdrew to Germany, and in 1673 took an active part in 
the coalition of Spain, the Empire and Holland against France. 
After an unsuccessful invasion of Franche-Comte he took his 
revenge by defeating Cre'qui at Conzer Briicke (nth of August 
1675) and forcing him to capitulate at Trier. On the i8th of 
September 1675 died this adventurous prince, who, as Voltaire 
said, passed his life in losing his estates. His brother Francis, 
in favour of whom he had abdicated, was a cardinal at the age of 
nineteen and subsequently bishop of Toul, although he had 
never taken orders. He obtained a dispensation to marry his 
cousin, Claude of Lorraine, and died in 1670. He had one son, 
Charles, who in 1675 took the title of duke of Lorraine and was 
recognized by all the powers except France. After an unsuccess- 
ful attempt to seize Lorraine in 1676, Charles vainly solicited 
the throne of Poland, took an active part in the wars in Hungary, 
and married Eleanor of Austria, sister of the emperor Leopold I., 
in 1678. At the treaty of Nijmwegen France proposed to restore 
his estates on condition that he should abandon a part of them ; 
but Charles refused, and passed the rest of his life in Austria, 
where he took part in the wars against the Turks, whom he 
defeated at Mohacz (1687). He died in 1690. 

Leopold, Charles's son and -successor, was restored to his 
estates by the treaty of Ryswick (1697), but had to dismantle 
all the fortresses in Lorraine and to disband his army with the 
exception of his guard. Under his rule Lorraine flourished. 
While diminishing the taxes, he succeeded in augmenting 
his revenues by wise economy. The population increased 
enormously during his reign that of Nancy, for instance, 
almost trebling itself between the years 1699 and 1 735. Leopold 
welcomed French immigrants, and devoted himself to the 
development of commerce and industry, particularly to the 
manufacture of stuffs and lace, glass and paper. He was respon- 
sible, too, for the compilation of a body of law which was known 
as the " Code Leopold." Some time after his death, which 
occurred on the 27th of March 1729, his heir Francis III. was 
betrothed to Maria Theresa of Austria, the daughter and heiress 
of the emperor Charles VI. France, however, could not admit 
the possibility of a union of Lorraine with the Empire; and in 
r 73S> at the preliminaries of Vienna, Louis XV. negotiated an 
arrangement by which Francis received the duchy of Tuscany, 
which was vacant by the death of the last Medici, in exchange 
for Lorraine, and Stanislaus Leszczynski, the dethroned king of 
Poland and father-in-law of Louis XV., obtained Lorraine, which 
after his death would pass to his daughter in other words, 
to France. These arrangements were confirmed by the treaty 
of Vienna (i8th of November 1738). In 1736, by a secret agree- 
ment, Stanislaus had abandoned the financial administration 
of his estates to Louis XV. for a yearly subsidy. The intendant, 
Chaumont de la Galaiziere, was instructed to apply the French 
system of taxation in Lorraine; and in spite of the severity of 


the administration Lorraine preserved a grateful memory of 
the good king Stanislaus, who held his brilliant little court at 
Luneville, and founded an academy and several libraries and 
hospitals. At his death in February 1766 the two duchies of 
Lorraine and Bar became definitively incorporated in the 
kingdom of France. The treaties of 1735 and 1736, however, 
guaranteed their legislation, the privileges enjoyed by the three 
orders, and their common law and customs tariffs, which they 
retained until the French Revolution. Lorraine and Barrois 
formed a large government corresponding, together with the 
little government of the three bishoprics, to the intendance of 
Lorraine and the generality of Metz. For legal purposes, Metz 
had been the seat of a parlement since 1633, and the parlement 
of Nancy was created in 1776. There was, too, a chambre des 
comptes at Metz, and another at Bar-le-duc. (For the later 
history see ALSACE-LORRAINE.) 

See Dom. A. Calmet, Histoire ecclesiastique et civile de Lorraine 
(2nd ed., Nancy, i_747-?757); A. Bigot, Histoire de Lorraine (1879- 
1880); E. Huhn, Geschichte Lothringens (Berlin, 1877); R. Parisot, 
Le Royaume de Lorraine sous les Carolingiens (Paris, 1899); Comte 
D'Haussonville, Histoire de la reunion de la Lorraine a la France 
(2nd ed., Paris, 1860); E. Bonvalot, Histoire du droit et des insti- 
tutions de la Lorraine et des Trois-Eveches (Paris, 1895); and E. 
Duvernoy , Les Etats Generaux des duches de Lorraine et de Barjusqu'a 
la majorite de Charles III. (Paris, 1904) (R. Po.) 

LORTZING, GUSTAV ALBERT (1801-1851), German composer, 
was born at Berlin on the 23rd of October 1801. Both his 
parents were actors, and when he was nineteen the son began 
to play youthful lover at the theatres of Dusseldorf and Aachen, 
sometimes also singing in small tenor or baritone parts. His 
first opera Alt Pascha von Jannina appeared in 1824, but his 
fame as a musician rests chiefly upon the two operas Der Wild- 
schiitz (1842) and Czar und Zimmermann (1837). The latter, 
although now regarded as one of the masterpieces of German 
comic opera, was received with little enthusiasm by the public 
of Leipzig.* Subsequent performance in Berlin, however, provoked 
such a tempest of applause that the opera was soon placed on 
all the stages of Germany. It was translated into English, 
French, Swedish, Danish, Dutch, Bohemian, Hungarian and 
Russian. Der Wildschillz was based on a comedy of Kotzebue, 
and was a satire on the unintelligent and exaggerated admiration 
for the highest beauty in art expressed by the bourgeois gentil- 
homme. Of his other operas it is only necessary to note Der 
Pole und sein Kind, produced shortly after the Polish insurrection 
of 1831, and Undine (1845). Lortzing died at Berlin on the 
zist of January 1851. 

LORY, CHARLES (1823-1889), French geologist, was born 
at Nantes on the 3Oth of July 1823. He graduated D. es Sc. 
in 1847; in 1852 he was appointed to the chair of geology at 
the University of Grenoble, and in 1881 to that of the Ecole 
Normale Suptrieure in Paris. He was distinguished for his 
researches on the geology of the French Alps, being engaged on 
the geological survey of the departments of Isere, Dr6me and 
the Hautes Alpes, of which he prepared the maps and explanatory 
memoirs. He dealt with some of the disturbances in the Savoy 
Alps, describing the fan-like structures, and confirming the views 
of J. A. Favre with regard to the overthrows, reversals and 
duplication of the strata. His contributions to geological 
literature include also descriptions of the fossils and strati- 
graphical divisions of the Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic rocks 
of the Jura. He died at Grenoble on the 3rd of May 1889. 

LORY (a word of Malayan origin signifying parrot, in general 
use with but slight variation of form in many European languages), 
the name of certain birds of the order Psitiaci, mostly from the 
Moluccas and New Guinea, remarkable for their bright scarlet 
or crimson colouring, though also, and perhaps subsequently, 
applied to some others in which the plumage is chiefly green. 
The lories have been referred to a considerable number of genera, 
of which Lorius (the Domicella of some authors), Eos and 
Chalcopsittacus may be here particularized, while under the name 
of " lorikeets " may be comprehended such genera as Tricho- 
glossus, Charmosyna, Loriculus and Coriphilus. By most 
systematists some of these forms have been placed far apart, 
even in different families of Psittaci, but A. H. Garrod has 

shown (Proc. Zool. Society, 1874, pp. 586-598, and 1876, p. 692) 
the many common characters they possess, which thus goes 
some way to justify the relationship implied by their popular 
designation. A full account of these birds is given in the first 
part of Count T. Salvador! 's Ormtologia della Papuasia e delle 
Molucche (Turin 1880), whilst a later classification appeared in 
Salvadori's section of the British Museum Catalogue of Birds, 
xx., 1891. 

Though the name lory has often been used for the species 
of Eclectus, and some other genera related thereto, modern 
writers would restrict its application to the birds of the genera 
Lorius, Eos, Chalcopsittacus and their near allies, which are 
often placed in a subfamily, Loriinae, belonging to the so-called 
family of Trichoglossidae or " brush-tongued " parrots. Garrod 
in his investigations on the anatomy of Psittaci was led not to 
attach much importance to the structure indicated by the 
epithet " brush-tongued " stating (Proc. Zool. Society, 1874, 
p. 597) that it " is only an excessive development of the papillae 
which are always found on the lingual surface." The birds 
of this group are very characteristic of the New Guinea subregion, 1 
in which occur, according to Count Salvador!, ten species of 
Lorius, eight of Eos and four of Chalcopsittacus; but none 
seem here to require any further notice, 2 though among them, 
and particularly in the genus Eos, are included some of the 
most richly-coloured birds in the whole world; nor does it 
appear that more need be said of the lorikeets. 

The family is the subject of an excellent monograph by St George 
Mivart (London, 1896). (A. N.) 

LOS ANDES, a former state of Venezuela under the redivision 
of 1 88 1, which covered the extreme western part of the republic 
N. of Zamora and S. of Zulia. In the redivision of 1904 Los 
Andes was cut up into three states Merida Tachira and 

LOS ANGELES, a city and the county-seat of Los Angeles 
county, in southern California, U.S.A., along the small Los 
Angeles river, in the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains; 
a narrow strip, 18 m. long, joins the main part of the city to 
its water front on the ocean, San Pedro Bay. Pop. (1880) 
11,183, (1890) 50,395, (1900) 102,479, of whom 19,964 were 
foreign-born; 3 the growth in population since 1900 has been 
very rapid and in 1910 it was 319,198. The city had in 
1910 an area of 85-1 sq. m., of which nyjre than one-half has been 
added since 1890. Los Angeles is served by the Southern 
Pacific, the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, and the San Pedro, Los 
Angeles & Salt Lake railways; by steamers to San Francisco; 
and by five systems of urban and suburban electric railways, 
which have 300 m. of track within the city and 700 m. within a 
radius of 30 m. beyond its limits. Inclined railways ascend 
Third Street Hill and Court Street Hill, in the heart of the city; 
and a system of subways extends from the centre of the city 
to its western limits. The harbour, San Pedro Bay, originally 
open and naturally poor, has been greatly improved by the 
Federal government; a breakwater 9250 ft. long was begun in 
1898 and the bar has been deepened, and further improvements 
of the inner harbour at Wilmington (which is nearly landlocked 
by a long narrow island lying nearly east and west across its 
mouth) were begun in 1907. Important municipal docks have 
been built by the city. 

The situation of the city between the mountains and the 
sea is attractive. The site of the business district is level, and 
its plan regular; the suburbs are laid out on hills. Although 
not specifically a health resort, Los Angeles enjoys a high 

1 They extend, however, to Fiji, Tahiti and Fanning Island. 

1 Unless it be Oreopsittacus arfaki, of New Guinea, remarkable as 
the only parrot known as yet to have fourteen instead of twelve 

1 In addition to the large foreign-born population (4023 Germans, 
3017 English, 2683 English Canadians, 1885 Chinese, 1720 Irish and 
smaller numbers of French, Mexicans, Swedes, Italians, Scots, 
Swiss, Austrians, Danes, French Canadians, Russians, Norwegians, 
Welsh and Japanese) 26,105 of the native white inhabitants were of 
Foreign parentage (i.e. had one or both parents not native born), so 
that only 54,121 white persons were of native parentage. German, 
French and Italian weekly papers are published in Los Angeles. 


reputation for its climate. From July 1877 to 1908 (inclusive) 
the mean of the minima for January, the coldest month of the 
year, was 44-16 F.; the mean of the minima for August, the 
warmest month, was 60- 1 F.; and the difference of the mean 
temperature of the coldest and the warmest month was about 
1 8 F.; while on five days only in this period (and on no day in 
the years 1904-1908) did the official thermometer fall below 
32 F. There are various pleasure resorts in the mountains, 
and among seaside resorts are Santa Monica, Ocean Park, Venice, 
Playadel Rey, Hermosa, Redondo, Terminal Island, Long Beach, 
Alamitos Bay, Huntington Beach, Newport, Balboa and Corona 
del Mar. There are excellent roads throughout the country. 
Los Angeles has beautiful shade trees and a wealth of semi-tropic 
vegetation. Its residential portions are characterized by 
detached homes set in ample and beautiful grounds. Towering 
eucalyptus, graceful pepper trees, tropic palms, rubber trees, 
giant bananas, yuccas and a wonderful growth of roses, heliotrope, 
calla lilies in hedges, orange trees, jasmine, giant geraniums 
and other flowers beautify the city throughout the year. There 
are 22 parks, with about 3800 acres within or on the borders 
of the city limits; among the parks are Griffith (3015 acres), 
Elysian (532 acres), 'Eastlake (57 acres), Westlake (35 acres) 
and Echo (38 acres). The old Spanish-Moorish mission architec- 
ture has considerably influenced building styles. Among the 
important buildings are the Federal Building, the County Court 
House, the City Hall, a County Hall of Records, the Public 
Library with about 1 10,000 volumes in 1908, the large Auditorium 
and office buildings and the Woman's Club. The exhibit in 
the Chamber of Commerce Building illustrates the resources 
of southern California. Here also are the Coronel Collection, 
given in 1901 by Dona Mariana, the widow of Don Antonio 
Coronel, and containing relics of the Spanish and Mexican 
r6gime in California; and the Palmer Collection of Indian 
antiquities. In Los Angeles also are the collections of the 
Southwest Society (1904; for southern California, Arizona and 
New Mexico) of the Archaeological Institute of America. On 
the outskirts of the city, near Eastlake Park, is the Indian 
Crafts Exhibition, which contains rare collections of aboriginal 
handiwork, and where Indians may be seen making baskets, 
pottery and blankets. Of interest to visitors is that part of the 
city called Sonora Town.with its adobe houses, Mexican quarters, 
old Plaza and the Church of Our Lady, Queen of the Angels 
(first erected in 1822; rebuilt in 1861), which contains interesting 
paintings by early Indian converts. Near Sonora Town is the 
district known as Chinatown. The principal educational 
institutions are the University of Southern California (Methodist 
Episcopal, 1880), the Maclay College of Theology and a 
preparatory school; Occidental College (Presbyterian, 1887), 
St Vincent's College (Roman Catholic, founded 1865; chartered 
1869) and the Los Angeles State Normal School (1882). 

The economic interests of Los Angeles centre in the culture of 
fruits. The surrounding country is very fertile when irrigated, 
producing oranges, lemons, figs and other semi-tropical fruits. 
Thousands of artesian wells have been bored, the region between 
Los Angeles, Santa Clara and San Bernardino being one of the most 
important artesian well regions of the world. The city, which then 
got its water supply from the Los Angeles river bed, in 1907 author- 
ized the issue of $23,000,000 worth of 4 % bonds for the construction 
of an aqueduct 209 m. long, bringing water to the city from the 
Owens river, in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. It was estimated 
that the project would furnish water for one million people, beside 
supplying power for lighting, manufacturing and transportation 
purposes. All the water in excess of the city's actual needs may be 
employed for irrigation. Work on the aqueduct was begun in 1908, 
and it was to be completed in five years. From 1900 to 1905 
the value of the factory products increased from $15,133,696 to 
$34,814,475 or 130%, and the capital employed in manufactures 
from $10,045,095 to $28,181,418 or 180-5%. The leading manu- 
facturing industries in 1905, with the product-value of each in this 
year, were slaughtering and meat-packing ($4,040,162), foundry 
and machine shop work ($3,146,914), flour and grist milling 
($2,798,740), lumber manufacturing and planing ($2,519,081), 
printing and publishing (newspapers and periodicals, $2,097,339; 
and book and job printing, $1,278,841), car construction and repair- 
ing ($1,549,836) in 1910 there were railway shops here of the 
Southern Pacific, Pacific Electric, Los Angeles Street, Salt Lake and 
Santa Fe railways and the manufacture of confectionery ($953,915), 

furniture ($879,910) and malt liquors ($789,393). The canning and 
preserving of fruits and vegetables are important industries. There 
is a large wholesale trade with southern California, with Arizona and 
with the gold-fields of Nevada, with which Los Angeles is connected 
by railway. Los Angeles is a port of entry, but its foreign commerce 
is relatively unimportant. The value of its imports increased from 
$721,705 in 1905 to $1,654,549 in 1907; in 1008 the value was 
$ I . I 93.55 2 - The city's exports were valued at $45,000 in 1907 and 
at $306,439 in 1908. The coastwise trade is in lumber (about 
700,000,000 ft. annually), shipped from northern California, Oregon 
and 'Washington, and in crude oil and general merchandise. There 
are rich oil-fields N. and W. of the city and wells throughout the city; 
petroleum is largely employed as fuel in factories. The central 
field, the Second Street Park field in the city, was developed between 
1892 and 1895 and wells were drilled farther E. until in 1896 the 
eastern field was tapped with wells at Adobe and College streets; 
the wells within the city are gradually being abandoned. The 
western field and the western part of the central field were first 
worked in 1899-1900. The Salt Lake field, controlled by the Salt 
Lake Oil Company, near Rancho de Brea, W.S.W. of the city, first 
became important in 1902 and in 1907 it was the most valuable field 
in California, S. of Santa-Barbara county, and the value of its product 
was $1,749,980. In 1905 the value of petroleum refined in Los 
Angeles was $461,281. 

Land has not for many years been cheap (i.e. absolutely) in the 
southern Californian fruit country, and immigration has been, gener- 
ally, of the comparatively well-to-do. This fact has greatly affected 
the character and development of the city. The assessed valuation 
of property increased more than threefold from 1900 to 1910, being 
$276,801,517 in the latter year, when the bonded city debt was 
$17,259,312-50. Since 1896 there has been a strong independent 
movement in politics, marked by the organization of a League for 
Better City Government (1896) and a Municipal League (1900), 
and by the organization of postal primaries to secure the co-operation 
of electors pledged to independent voting. Since 1904 the public 
school system has been administered by a non-partisan Board of 
Education chosen from the city at large, and not by wards as there- 

Los Angeles, like all other Californian cities, has the privilege 
of making and amending its own charter, subject to the approval 
of the state legislature. In 1902 thirteen amendments were 
adopted, including provisions for the initiative, the referendum 
and the recall. The last of these provides that 25% of 
the voters choosing a municipal officer may, by signing a 
petition for his recall, force a new election during his term of 
office and thereby remove him if another candidate receives a 
greater number of votes. This provision, introducing an 
entirely new principle into the American governmental system, 
came into effect in January 1903, and was employed in the 
following year when a previously elected councilman who was 
" recalled " by petition and was unsuccessful in the 1904 election 
brought suit to hold his office, and on a mere technicality the 
Supreme Court of the state declared the recall election invalid. 
In 1909 there was a recall election at which a mayor was removed 
and another chosen in his place. 

The Pueblo de Nuestra Sefiora la Reina de los Angeles was 
founded in 1781. The Franciscan mission of San Gabriel still 
a famous landmark had been established ten years earlier a 
few miles eastward. Beginning about 1827, Los Angeles, being 
the largest pueblo of the territory, became a rival of Monterey 
for the honour of being the capital of California, was the seat of 
conspiracies to overthrow the Mexican authority, and the 
stronghold of the South California party in the bickerings and 
struggles that lasted down to the American occupation. In 
1835 it was made a city by the Mexican Congress, and declared 
the capital, but the last provision was not enforced and was 
soon recalled. In 1836-1838 it was the headquarters of C. A. 
Carrillo, a legally-named but never de facto governor of California, 
whose jurisdiction was never recognized in the north; and in 
1845-1847 it was the actual capital. The city was rent by 
factional quarrels when war broke out between Mexico and the 
United States, but the appearance of United States troops under 
Commodore Robert F. Stockton and General John C. FrSmont 
before Los Angeles caused both factions to unite against a 
common foe. The defenders of Los Angeles fled at the approach 
of the troops, and on the I3th of August 1846 the American flag 
was raised over the city. A garrison of fifty men, left in control, 
was compelled in October to withdraw on account of a revolt 
of the inhabitants, and Los Angeles was not retaken until 


General Philip Kearny and Commodore Stockton entered the 
city on the i8th of January 1847. This was the only important 
overt resistance to the establishment of the new regime in 
California. The city was chartered in 1850. It continued to 
grow steadily thereafter until it attained railway connexion 
with the Central Pacific and San Francisco in 1876, and with 
the East by the Santa F6 system in 1885. The completion of 
the latter line precipitated one of the most extraordinary of 
American railway wars and land booms, which resulted in giving 
southern California a great stimulus. The growth of the city 
since 1890 has been even more remarkable. In 1909 the township 
of Wilmington (pop. in 1900, 2983), including the city of San 
Pedro (pop. in 1900, 1787), Colegrove, a suburb W.N.W. of the 
city, Cahuenga (pop. in 1900, 1586), a township N.W. of the 
former city limits, and a part of Los Feliz were annexed to the 

LOS ISLANDS (!SLAS DE LOS IDOLOS), a group of islands 
off the coast of French Guinea, West Africa, lying south of 
Sangarea Bay, between 9 25' and 9 31' N. and 13 46' and 
13 51' W., and about 80 m. N.N.W. of Freetown, Sierra Leone. 
There are five principal islands: Tamara, Factory, Crawford, 
White (or Ruma) and Coral. The two largest islands are Tamara 
and Factory, Tamara, some 8 m. long by i to 2 m. broad, being 
the largest. These two islands lie parallel to each other, Tamara 
to the west; they form a sort of basin, in the centre of which 
js the islet of Crawford. The two other islands are to the south. 
The archipelago is of volcanic formation, Tamara and Factory 
islands forming part of a ruined crater, with Crawford Island 
as the cone. The highest point is a knoll, some 450 ft. above 
sea-level, in Tamara. All the islands are richly clothed with 
palm trees and flowering underwood. Tamara has a good 
harbour, and contains the principal settlement. The inhabitants, 
about 1500, are immigrants of the Baga tribe of Senegambian 
negroes, whose home is the coast land between the Pongo and 
Nunez rivers. These are chiefly farmers. The Church of England 
has a flourishing mission, with a native pastorate. At one time 
the islands were a great seat of slave-traders and pirates. The 
latter are supposed to have buried large amounts of treasure in 
them. In an endeavour to stop the slave trade and piracy, the 
islands were garrisoned (1812-1813) by British troops, but the 
unhealthiness of the climate led to their withdrawal. In 1818 
Sir Charles McCarthy, governor of Sierra Leone, obtained the 
cession of the islands to Great Britain from the chiefs of the 
Baga country, and in 1882 France recognized them to be a 
British possession. They were then the headquarters of several 
Sierra Leone traders. By article 6 of the Anglo-French conven- 
tion of the 8th of April 1904, the islands were ceded to France. 
They were desired by France because of their geographical 
position, Konakry, the capital of French Guinea, being built 
on an islet but 3 m. from Factory Island, and at the mercy 
of long range artillery planted thereon. The islands derive 
their name from the sacred images found on them by the early 
European navigators. 

See A. B. Ellis, West African Islands (London, 1885), and the 
works cited under FRENCH GUINEA. 

LOSSIEMOUTH, a police burgh of Elginshire, Scotland. 
Pop. (1901) 3904. It embraces the villages of Lossiemouth, 
Branderburgh and Stotfield, at the mouth of the Lossie, 5! m. 
N.N.E. of Elgin, of which it is the port, by a branch line of the 
Great North of Scotland railway. The industries are boat- 
building and fishing. Lossiemouth, or the Old Town, dates 
from 1700; Branderburgh, farther north, grew with the harbour 
and began about 1830; Stotfield is purely modern and contiguous 
to the splendid golf-course. The cliffs at Covesea, 2 m. W., 
contain caves of curious shape. Sir Robert Gordon of Gordons- 
town used one as a stable in the rebellion of 1745; weapons oi 
prehistoric man were found in another, and the roof of a third 
is carved with ornaments and emblems of early Celtic art. 

Kinneddar Castle in the parish of Drainie in which Lossiemouth 
is situated was a seat of the bishops of Moray, and Old Duffus 
Castle, 2\ m. S.W., was built in the reign of David II. The estate of 
Gordonstown, close by, was founded by Sir Robert Gordon (1580- 
1656), historian of the Sutherland family, and grandfather of the 

Daronet who, because of his inventions and scientific attainments, 
was known locally as " Sir Robert the Warlock " (1647-1704). 
Nearly midway between Lossiemouth and Elgin stand the massive 
ruins of the palace of Spynie, formerly a fortified residence of the 
bishops of Moray. " Davie's Tower, 60 ft. high with walls 9 ft. 
thick, was built by Bishop David Stewart about 14.70. The adjacent 
loch is a favourite breeding-place for the sea-birds, which resort to 
the coast of Elginshire in enormous numbers. A mile S.E. of the 
lake lies Pitgaveny, one of the reputed scenes of the murder of King 
Duncan by Macbeth. 

LOSSING, BENSON JOHN (1813-1891), American historical 
writer, was born in Beekman, New York, on the 1 2th of February 
1813. After editing newspapers in Poughkeepsie he became 
an engraver on wood, and removed to New York in 1839 for the 
practice of his profession, to which he added that of drawing 
illustrations for books and periodicals. He likewise wrote or 
edited the text of numerous publications. His Pictorial Field- 
Book of the Revolution (first issued in 30 parts, 1850-1852, and 
then in 2 volumes) was a pioneer work of value in American 
historical literature. In its preparation he travelled some 
9000 m. during a period of nearly two years; made more than 
a thousand sketches of extant buildings, battlefields, &c.; and 
presented his material in a form serviceable to the topographer 
and interesting to the general reader. Similar but less character- 
istic and less valuable undertakings were a Pictorial Field-Book 
of the War of 1812 (1868), and a Pictorial History of the Civil 
War in the United States of America (3 vols. 1866-1869). His 
other books were numerous: an Outline History of the Fine 
Arts; many illustrated histories, large and small, of the United 
States; popular descriptions of Mount Vernon and other 
localities associated with famous names; and biographical 
sketches of celebrated Americans, of which The Life and Times 
of Major-General Philip Schuyler (2 vols. 1860-1873) was the 
most considerable. He died at Dover Plains, New York, on 
the 3rd of June 1891. 

LOSSNITZ, a district in the kingdom of Saxony, extending for 
about 5 m. along the right bank of the Elbe, immediately N.W. 
of Dresden. Pop. (1905) 6929. A line of vine-clad hills shelters 
it from the north winds, and so warm and healthy is the climate 
that it has gained for the district the appellation of the " Saxon 
Nice." Asparagus, peaches, apricots, strawberries, grapes and 
roses are largely cultivated and find a ready market in Dresden. 

LOST PROPERTY. The man who loses an article does not 
lose his right thereto, and he may recover it from the holder 
whoever he be, unless his claim be barred by some Statute of 
Limitations or special custom, as sale in market overt. The 
rights and duties of the finder are more complex. If he know 
or can find out the true owner, and yet convert the article to 
his own use, he is guilty of theft. But if the true owner cannot 
be discovered, the finder keeps the property, his title being 
superior to that of every one except the true owner. But this 
is only if the find be in public or some public place. Thus 
if you pick up bank notes in a shop where they have been lost 
by a stranger, and hand them to the shopkeeper that he may 
discover and repossess the true owner, and he fail to do so, then 
you can recover them from him. The owner of private land, 
however, is entitled to what is found on it. Thus a man sets 
you to clear out his pond, and you discover a diamond in the 
mud at the bottom. The law will compel you to hand it over 
to the owner of the pond. This applies even against the tenant. 
A gas company were lessees of certain premises; whilst making 
excavations therein they came upon a prehistoric boat; and 
they were forced to surrender it to their lessor. An aerolite 
becomes the property of the owner of the land on which it falls, 
and not of the person finding or digging it out. The principle 
of these three last cases is that whatever becomes part of the 
soil belongs to the proprietor of that soil. 

Property lost at sea is regulated by different rules. Those 
who recover abandoned vessels are entitled to salvage. Property 
absolutely lost upon the high seas would seem to belong to the 
finder. It has been claimed for the crown, and the American 
courts have held, that apart from a decree the finder is only 
entitled to salvage rights, the court retaining the rest, and thus 


practically taking it for the state on the original owner not being 
found. The modern English law on the subject of wreck (includ- 
ing everything found on the shore of the sea or tidal river) 
is contained in the Merchant Shipping Act 1894. The finder 
must forthwith make known his discovery to the receiver of 
wreck under a penalty. He is entitled to a salvage reward, but 
the property belongs to the crown or its grantee unless the true 
owner claims within a year. In the United States unclaimed wreck 
after a year generally becomes the property of the state. In 
Scotland the right to lost property is theoretically in the crown, 
but the finder would not in practice be interfered with except 
under the provisions of the Burgh Police (Scotland) Act 1892. 
Section 412 requires all persons finding goods to deliver them 
forthwith to the police under a penalty. If the true owner is 
not discovered within six months the magistrates may hand 
them over to the finder. If the owner appears he must pay a 
reasonable reward. Domestic animals, including swans, found 
straying without an owner may be seized by the crown or lord 
of the manor, and if not claimed within a year and a day they 
become the property of the crown or the lord, on the observance 
of certain formalities. In Scotland they were held to belong to 
the crown or its donatory, usually the sheriff of a county. By 
the Burgh Police Act above quoted provision is made for the 
sale of lost animals and the disposal of the free proceeds for the 
purposes of the act unless such be claimed. In the United 
States there is diversity of law and custom. Apart from special 
rule, lost animals become the property of the finder, but in 
many cases the proceeds of their sale are applied to public 
purposes. When property is lost by carriers, innkeepers or 
railway companies, special provisions as to their respective 
responsibilities apply. As to finds of money or the precious 
metals, see TREASURE TROVE. 

LOSTWITHIEL, a market town and municipal borough in the 
Bodmin parliamentary division of Cornwall, England, 30% m. 
W. of Plymouth by the Great Western railway. Pop. (1901) 
1379. It is pleasantly situated on the banks of the river Fowey. 
The church of St Bartholomew is remarkable for a fine Early 
English tower surmounted by a Decorated spire; there are also 
beautiful Decorated windows and details in the body of the 
church, and a richly carved octagonal font. A bridge of the 
1 4th century crosses the river. The shire hall includes 
remains of a building, called the Stannary prison, dating from 
the i3th century. The Great Western railway has workshops 
at Lostwithiel. 

Lostwithiel owed its ancient liberties probably its existence 
to the neighbouring castle of Restormel. The Pipe Rolls (1194- 
1203) show that Robert de Cardinan, lord of Restormel, paid 
ten marks yearly for having a market at Lostwithiel. By an 
undated charter still preserved with the corporation's muniments 
he surrendered to the burgesses all the liberties given them by 
his predecessors (antecessores) when they founded the town. 
These included hereditary succession to tenements, exemption 
from sullage, the right to elect a reeve (praepositus) if the grantor 
thought one necessary and the right to marry without the lord's 
interference. By Isolda, granddaughter of Robert de Cardinan, 
the town was given to Richard, king of the Romans, who in the 
third year of his reign granted to the burgesses a gild merchant 
sac and soc, toll, team and infangenethef, freedom from pontage, 
lastage, &c., throughout Cornwall, and exemption from the 
jurisdiction of the hundred and county courts, also a yearly 
fair and a weekly market. Richard transferred the assizes from 
Launceston to Lostwithiel. His son Edmund, earl of Cornwall, 
built a great hall at Lostwithiel and decreed that the coinage 
of tin should be at Lostwithiel only. In 1325 Richard's charter 
was confirmed and the market ordered to be held on Thursdays. 
In 1386 the assizes were transferred back to Launceston. In 
1609 a charter of incorporation provided for a mayor, recorder, 
six capital burgesses and seventeen assistants and courts of 
record and pie powder. The boundaries of the borough were 
extended in 1733. Under the reformed charter granted in 1885 
the corporation consists of a mayor, four aldermen and twelve 
councillors. From 1305 to 1832 two members represented 

Lostwithiel in parliament. The electors after 1609 were the 
twenty-five members of the corporation. Under the Reform 
Act (1832) the borough became merged in the county. For the 
Thursday market granted in 1326 a Friday market was sub- 
stituted in 1733, and this continues to be held. The fair granted 
in 1326 and the three fairs granted in 1733 have all given place 
to others. The archdeacon's court, the sessions and the county 
elections were long held at Lostwithiel, but all have now been 
removed. For the victory gained by Charles I. over the earl of 
Essex in 1644, see GREAT REBELLION. 

LOT, in the Bible, the legendary ancestor of the two Palestinian 
peoples, Moab and Ammon (Gen. xix. 30-38; cp. Ps. Ixxxiii. 8); 
he appears to have been represented as a Horite or Edomite 
(cp. the name Lotan, Gen. xxxvi. 20, 22). As the son of Haran 
and grandson of Terah, he was Abraham's nephew (Gen. xi. 31), 
and he accompanied his uncle in his migration from Haran to 
Canaan. Near Bethel 1 Lot separated from Abraham, owing tc 
disputes between their shepherds, and being offered the first 
choice, chose the rich fields of the Jordan valley which were as 
fertile and well irrigated as the " garden of Yahweh " (i.e. Eden, 
Gen. xiii. 7 sqq.). It was in this district that the cities of Sodom 
and Gomorrah were situated. He was saved from their fate 
by two divine messengers who spent the night in his house, and 
next morning led Lot, his wife, and his two unmarried daughters 
out of the city. His wife looked back and was changed to a 
pillar of salt, 2 but Lot with his two daughters escaped first to 
Zoar and then to the mountains east of the Dead Sea, where the 
daughters planned and executed an incest by which they became 
the mothers of Moab and Ben-Ammi (i.e. Ammon; Gen. xix.). 
The account of Chedorlaomer's invasion and of Lot's rescue by 
Abraham belongs to an independent source (Gen. xiv.), the age 
and historical value of which has been much disputed. (See 
further ABRAHAM; MELCHIZEDEK.) Lot's character is made 
to stand in strong\'contrast with that of Abraham, notably in the 
representation of his,selfishness (xiii. 5 sqq.), and reluctance to 
leave the sinful city (xix. 16 sqq.); relatively, however, he was 
superior to the rest (with the crude story of his insistence upon 
the inviolable rights of guests, xix. 5 sqq.; cf. Judges xix. 22 sqq.), 
and is regarded in 2 Pet. ii. 7 seq. as a type of righteousness. 

Lot and his daughters passed into Arabic tradition from the Jews. 
The daughters are named Zahy and Ra'wa by Mas'udi ii. 139; but 
other Arabian writers give other forms. Paton (Syria and Palestine, 
pp. 43, 123) identifies Lot-Lotan with Kitten, one of the Egyptian 
names for Palestine; its true meaning is obscure. For traces of 
mythical elements in the story see VVinckler, Altorienl. Forsch. ii. 
87 seq. See further, J. Skinner, Genesis, pp. 310 sqq. (S. A. C.) 

LOT (Lat. Oltis) , a river of southern France flowing westward 
across the central plateau, through the departments of Lozere, 
Aveyron, Lot and Lot-et-Garonne. Its length is about 300 m., 
the area of its basin 4444 sq. m. The river rises in the CeVennes 
on the Mont du Goulet at a height of 4918 ft. about 15 m. E. 
of Mende, past which it flows. Its upper course lies through 
gorges between the Causse of Mende and Aubrac Mountains 
on the north and the tablelands (causses) of Sauveterre, Severac 
and Comtal on the south. Thence its sinuous course crosses 
the plateau of Quercy and entering a wider fertile plain flows 
into the Garonne at Aiguillon between Agen and Marmande. 
Its largest tributary, the Truyere, rises in the Margeride moun- 
tains and after a circuitous course joins it on the right at 
Entraygues (department of Aveyron), its affluence more than 

1 The district is thus regarded as the place where the Hebrews, on 
the one side, and the Moabites and Ammonites, on the other, com- 
mence their independent history. Whilst the latter settle across the 
Jordan, Abraham moves down south to Hebron. 

1 Tradition points to the Jebel Usdum (cp. the name Sodom) at 
the S.W. end of the Dead Sea. It consists almost entirely of pure 
crystallized salt with pillars and pinnacles such as might have given 
rise to the story (see Driver, Genesis, p. 201 ; and cf. also Palestine 
Explor. Fund, Quart. Statements, 1871, p. 16, 1885, p. 20; Conder, 
Syrian Stone-lore, p. 279 seq.). Jesus cites the story of Lot and his 
wife to illustrate the sudden coming of the Kingdom of God (Luke 
xvii. 28-32). The history of the interpretation of the legend by the 
early and medieval church down to the era of rational and scientific 
investigation will be found in A. D. White, Warfare of Science with 
Theology, ii. ch. xviii. 



doubling the volume of the river. Lower down it receives 
the Dourdou de Bozouls (or du Nord) on the left and on the right 
the Cele above Cahors (department of Lot), which is situated 
on a peninsula skirted by one of the river's many windings. 
Villeneuve-sur-Lot (department of Lot-et-Garonne) is the 
only town of any importance between this point and its mouth. 
The Lot is canalized between Bouquies, above which there is no 
navigation, and the Garonne (160 m.). 

LOT, a department of south-western France, formed in 1790 
from the district of Quercy, part of the old province of Guyenne. 
It is bounded N. by Correze, W. by Dordogne and Lot-et-Garonne, 
S. by Tarn-et-Garonne, and E. by Aveyron and Cantal. Area 
2017 sq. m. Pop. (1906) 216,611. The department extends 
over the western portion of the Massif Central of France; it 
slopes towards the south-west, and has a maximum altitude 
of 2560 ft. on the borders of Cantal with a minimum of 213 ft. 
at the point where the river Lot quits the department. The Lot, 
which traverses it from east to west, is navigable for the whole 
distance (106 m.) with the help of locks; its principal tributary 
within the department is the Cele (on the right). In the north 
of the department the Dordogne has a course of 37 m.; among 
its tributaries are the Cere, which has its rise in Cantal, and the 
Ouysse, a river of no great length, but remarkable for the 
abundance of its waters. The streams in the south of Lot all 
flow into the Tarn. The eastern and western portions of the 
department are covered by ranges of hills; the north, the centre, 
and part of the south are occupied by a belt of limestone plateaus 
or causses, that to the north of the Dordogne is called the Causse 
de Martel; between the Dordogne and the Lot is the Causse 
de Gramat or de Rocamadour; south of the Lot is the Causse 
de Cahors. The causses are for the most part bare and arid 
owing to the rapid disappearance of the rain in clefts and chasms 
in the limestone, which are known as igues. These are most 
numerous in the Causse de Gramat and are sometimes of great 
beauty; the best known is the Gouffre de Padirac, 7 m. N.E. 
of Rocamadour. The altitude of the causses (from 700 to 1300 ft., 
much lower than that of the similar plateaus in Lozere, Herault 
and Aveyron) permits the cultivation of the vine; they also 
yield a small quantity of cereals and potatoes and some wood. 
The deep intervening valleys are full of verdure, being well 
watered by abundant springs. The climate is on the whole that 
of the Girondine region; the valleys are warm, and the rainfall 
is somewhat above the average for France. The difference of 
temperature between the higher parts of the department belong- 
ing to the central plateau and the sheltered valleys of the 
south-west is considerable. Wheat, maize, oats and rye are the 
chief cereals. Wine is the principal product, the most valued 
being that of Cahors grown in the valley of the Lot, which is, 
in general, the most productive portion of the department. 
It is used partly for blending with other wines and partly for 
local consumption. The north-east cantons produce large 
quantities of chestnuts; walnuts, apples and plums are common, 
and the department also grows potatoes and tobacco and 
supplies truffles. Sheep are the most abundant kind of live 
stock; but pigs, horned cattle, horses, asses, mules and goats 
are also reared, as well as poultry and bees. Iron and coal are 
mined, and there are important zinc deposits (Planioles). Lime- 
stone is quarried. There are oil-works and numerous mills, and 
wool spinning and carding as well as cloth making, tanning, 
currying, brewing and the making of agricultural implements 
are carried on to some extent. The three arrondissements are 
those of Cahors, the capital, Figeac and Gourdon; there are 
29 cantons and 329 communes. 

Lot belongs to the I7th military district, and to the acadlmie 
of Toulouse, and falls within the circumscription of the court 
of appeal at Agen, and the province of the archbishop of Albi. 
It is served by the Orleans railway. Cahors, Figeac and Roca- 
madour are the principal places. Of the interesting churches 
and chateaux of the department, may be mentioned the fine 
feudal fortress at Castelnau occupying a commanding natural 
position, with an audience hall of the i2th century, and the 
Romanesque abbey-church at Souillac with fine sculpturing 

on the principal entrance. The plateau of Puy dTssolu, near 
Vayrac, is believed by most authorities to be the site of the 
ancient Uxcellodunum, the scene of the last stand of the- Gauls 
against Julius Caesar in 51 B.C. Lot has many dolmens, the 
finest being that of Pierre Martine, near Livernon (arr. of 

LOT-ET-GARONNE, a department of south-western France, 
formed in 1790 of Agenais and Bazadais, two districts of the 
old province of Guienne, and of Condomois, Lomagne, Brullois 
and pays d'Albret, formerly portions of Gascony. It is bounded 
W. by Gironde, N. by Dordogne, E. by Lot and Tarn-et-Garonne, 
S. by Gers and S.W. by Landes. Area 2079 sq. m. Pop. (1906) 
274,610. The Garonne, which traverses the department from 
S.E. to N.W., divides it into two unequal parts. That to the 
north is a country of hills and deep ravines, and the slope is 
from east to west, while in the region to the south, which is a 
continuation of the plateau of Lannemezan and' Armagnac, the 
slope is directly from south to north. A small portion in the 
south-west belongs to the sterile region of the Landes (<?..); 
the broad valleys of the Garonne and of its affluent the Lot are 
proverbial for their fertility. The wildest part is towards the 
north-east on the borders of Dordogne, where a region of causses 
(limestone plateaus) and forests begins; the highest point 
(896 ft.) is also found here. The Garonne, where it quits the 
department, is only some 20 ft. above the sea-level; it is navig- 
able throughout, with the help of its lateral canal, as also are the 
Lot and Baise with the help of locks. The Drot, a right affluent 
of the Garonne in the north of the department, is also navigable 
in the lower part of its course. The climate is that of the 
Girondine region mild and fine the mean temperature of 
Agen being 56-6 Fahr., or 5 above that of Paris; the annual 
rainfall, which, in the plain of Agen, varies from 20 to 24 in., is 
nearly the least in France. Agriculturally the department is 
one of the richest. Of cereals wheat is the chief, maize and oats 
coming next. Potatoes, vines and tobacco are important 
sources of wealth. The best wines are those of Clairac and 
Buzet. Vegetable and fruit-growing are prosperous. Plum-trees 
(pruniers d'ente) are much cultivated in the valleys of the Garonne 
and Lot, and the apricots of Nicole and Tonneins are well known. 
The chief trees are the pine and the oak; the cork-oak flourishes 
in the Landes, and poplars and willows are abundant on the 
borders of the Garonne. Horned cattle, chiefly of the Garonne 
breed, are the principal live stock. Poultry and pigs are also 
reared profitably. There are deposits of iron in the department. 
The forges, blast furnaces and foundries of Fumel are important; 
and agricultural implements and other machines are manu- 
factured. The making of lime and cement, of tiles, bricks and 
pottery, of confectionery and dried plums (pruneaux d'Agen) 
and other delicacies, and brewing and distilling, occupy many 
of the inhabitants. At Tonneins (pop. 4691 in 1906) there is a 
national tobacco manufactory. Cork cutting, of which the 
centre is M6zin, hat and candle making, wool spinning, weaving 
of woollen and cotton stuffs, tanning, paper-making, oil-making, 
dyeing and flour and saw-milling are other prominent industries. 
The peasants still speak the Gascon patois. The arrondissements 
are 4 Agen, Marmande, Nerac and Villeneuve-sur-Lot and 
there are 35 cantons and 326 communes. 

Agen, -the capital, is the seat of a bishopric and of the court 
of appeal for the department of Lot-et-Garonne. The depart- 
ment belongs to the region of the XVII. army corps, the acadlmie 
of Bordeaux, and the province of the archbishop of Bordeaux. 
Lot-et-Garonne is served by the lines of the Southern and the 
Orleans railways, its rivers afford about 160 m. of navigable 
waterway, and the lateral canal of the Garonne traverses it for 
54 m. Agen, Marmande, N6rac and Villeneuve-sur-Lot, the 
principal places, are treated under separate headings. The 
department possesses Roman remains at Mas d'Agenais and at 
Aiguillon. The churches of Layrac, Monsempron, Mas d'Agenais, 
Moirax, Mezin and Vianne are of interest, as also are the fortifica- 
tions of Vianne of the I3th century, and the chateaux of 
Xaintrailles, Bonaguil, Gavaudun and of the industrial town 
of Casteljaloux. 


LOTHAIR I. (795-855), Roman emperor, was the eldest son 
of the emperor Louis I., and his wife Irmengarde. Little is 
known of his early life, which was probably passed at the court 
of his grandfather Charlemagne, until 815 when he became 
ruler of Bavaria. When Louis in 8 1 7 divided the Empire between 
his sons, Lothair was crowned joint emperor at Aix-la-Chapelle 
and given a certain superiority over his brothers. In 821 he 
married Irmengarde (d. 851), daughter of Hugo, count of Tours; 
in 822 undertook the government of Italy; and, on the 5th of 
April 823, was crowned emperor by Pope Paschal I. at Rome. 
In November 824 he promulgated a statute concerning the 
relations of pope and emperor which reserved the supreme 
power to the secular potentate, and he afterwards issued various 
ordinances for the good government of Italy. On his return to 
his father's court his step-mother Judith won his consent to her 
plan for securing a kingdom for her son Charles, a scheme which 
was carried out in 829. Lothair, however, soon changed his 
attitude, and spent the succeeding decade in constant strife 
over the division of the Empire with his father. He was alter- 
netely master of the Empire, and banished and confined to Italy; 
at one time taking up arms in alliance with his brothers and 
at another fighting against them; whilst the bounds of his 
appointed kingdom were in turn extended and reduced. When 
Louis was dying in 840, he sent the imperial insignia to Lothair, 
who, disregarding the various partitions, claimed the whole 
of the Empire. Negotiations with his brother Louis and his 
half-brother Charles, both of whom armed to resist this claim, 
were followed by an alliance of the younger brothers against 
Lothair. A decisive battle was fought at Fontenoy on the 25th 
of June 841, when, in spite of his personal gallantry, Lothair 
was defeated and fled to Aix. With fresh troops he entered 
upon a war of plunder, but the forces of his brothers were too 
strong for him, and taking with him such treasure as he could 
collect, he abandoned to them his capital. Efforts to make 
peace were begun, and in June 842 the brothers met on an 
island in the Saone, and agreed to an arrangement which 
developed, after much difficulty and delay, into the treaty of 
Verdun signed in August 843. By this Lothair received Italy 
and the imperial title, together with a stretch of land between 
the North and Mediterranean Seas lying along the valleys of 
the Rhine and the Rhone. He soon abandoned Italy to his 
eldest son, Louis, and remained in his new kingdom, engaged 
in alternate quarrels and reconciliations with his brothers, and 
in futile efforts to defend his lands from the attacks of the 
Normans and the Saracens. In 855 he became seriously ill, 
and despairing of recovery renounced the throne, divided his 
lands between his three sons, and on the 23rd of September 
entered the monastery of Priim, where he died six days later. 
He was buried at Priim, where his remains were found in 1860. 
Lothair was entirely untrustworthy and quite unable to maintain 
either the unity or the dignity of the empire of Charlemagne. 

See " Annales Fuldenses "; Nithard, " Historiarum Libri," both 
in the Monumenta Germaniae historica. Scriptores, Bande i. and ii. 
(Hanover and Berlin, 1826 fol.); E. Muhlbacher, Die Regesten des 
Kaiserreichs unter den Karolingern (Innsbruck, 1881); E. Dummler, 
Geschickte des ostfrankischen Reichs (Leipzig, 1887-1888) ; B. Simson, 
Jahrbucher des deutschen Retches unter Luduiig dent Frommen (Leipzig, 

LOTHAIR II. or III. (c. 1070-1137), surnamed the "Saxon," 
Roman emperor, son of Gebhard, count of Supplinburg, belonged 
to a family possessing extensive lands around Helmstadt in 
Saxony, to which he succeeded on his father's death in 1075. 
Gebhard had been a leading opponent of the emperor Henry IV. 
in Saxony, and his son, taking the same attitude, assisted 
Egbert II., margrave of Meissen, in the rising of 1088. The 
position and influence of Lothair in Saxony, already considerable, 
was increased when in noo he married Richenza, daughter of 
Henry, count of Nordheim, who became an heiress on her father's 
death in 1101, and inherited other estates when her brother 
Otto died childless in 1116. Having assisted the German king, 
Henry V., against his father in 1104, Lothair was appointed 
duke of Saxony by Henry, when Duke Magnus, the last of the 
Billungs, died in 1106. His first care was to establish his 

authority over some districts east of the Elbe; and quickly 
making himself independent of the king, he stood forth as the 
representative of the Saxon race. This attitude brought him 
into collision with Henry V., to whom, however, he was forced 
to submit after an unsuccessful rising in 1112. A second rising 
was caused when, on the death of Ulrich II., count of Weimar 
and Orlamiinde, without issue in 1112, Henry seized these 
counties as vacant fiefs of the empire, while Lothair supported 
the claim of Siegfried, count of Ballenstadt, whose mother was 
a relative of Ulrich. The rebels were defeated, and Siegfried 
was killed at Warnstadt in 1113, but his son secured possession 
of the disputed counties. After the defeat by Lothair of Henry's 
forces at Welfesholz on the nth of February 1115, events called 
Henry to Italy; and Lothair appears to have been undisturbed 
in Saxony until 1123, when the death of Henry II., margrave of 
Meissen and Lusatia raised a dispute as to the right of appoint- 
ment to the vacant margraviates. A struggle ensued, in which 
victory remained with the duke. The Saxony policy of Lothair 
during these years had been to make himself independent, and 
to extend his authority; to this end he allied himself with the 
papal party, and easily revived the traditional hostility of the 
Saxons to the Franconian emperors. 

When Henry V. died in 1125, Lothair, after a protracted 
election, was chosen German king at Mainz on the 3Oth of August 
1125. His. election was largely owing to the efforts of Adalbert, 
archbishop of Mainz, and the papal party, who disliked the 
candidature of Henry's nephew and heir, Frederick II. of 
Hohenstaufen, duke of Swabia. The new king was crowned at 
Aix-la-Chapelle on the I3th of September 1125. Before suffering 
a severe reverse, brought about by his interference in the internal 
affairs of Bohemia, Lothair requested Frederick of Hohenstaufen 
to restore to the crown the estates bequeathed to him by the 
emperor Henry V. Frederick refused, and was placed under the 
ban. Lothair, unable to capture Nuremberg, gained the support 
of Henry the Proud, the new duke of Bavaria, by giving him his 
daughter, Gertrude, in marriage, and that of Conrad, count of 
Zahringen, by granting him the administration of the kingdom 
of Burgundy, or Aries. As a counterstroke, however, Conrad 
of Hohenstaufen, the brother of Frederick, was chosen German 
king in December 1127, and was quickly recognized in northern 
Italy. But Lothair gained the upper hand in Germany, and by 
the end of 1129 the Hohenstaufen strongholds, Nuremberg and 
Spires, were in his possession. This struggle was accompanied 
by disturbances in Lorraine, Saxony and Thuringia, but order 
was soon restored after the resistance of the Hohenstaufen 
had been beaten down. In 1131 the king led an expedition 
into Denmark, where one of his vassals had been murdered 
by Magnus, son of the Danish king, Niels, and where general 
confusion reigned; but no resistance was offered, and Niels 
promised to pay tribute to Lothair. 

The king's attention at the time was called to Italy where 
two popes, Innocent II. and Anacletus II., were clamouring 
for his support. At first Lothair, fully occupied with the affairs 
of Germany, remained heedless and neutral; but in March 
1131 he was visited at Li6ge by Innocent, to whom he promised 
his assistance. Crossing the Alps with a small army in September 
1 132, he reached Rome in March 1 133, accompanied by Innocent. 
As St Peter's was held by Anacletus, Lothair's coronation as 
emperor took place on the 4th of June 1133 in the church of 
the Lateran. He then received as papal fiefs the vast estates 
of Matilda, marchioness of Tuscany, thus securing for his 
daughter and her Welf husband lands which might otherwise 
have passed to the Hohenstaufen. His efforts to continue the 
investiture controversy were not very serious. He returned to 
Germany, where he restored order in Bavaria, and made an 
expedition against some rebels in the regions of the lower Rhine. 
Resuming the struggle against the Hohenstaufen, Lothair 
soon obtained the submission of the brothers, who retained their 
lands, and a general peace was sworn at Bamberg. The emperor's 
authority was now generally recognized, and the annalists speak 
highly of the peace and order of his later years. In 1 135, Eric II., 
king of Denmark, acknowledged himself a vassal of Lothair; 


Boleslaus III., prince of the Poles, promised tribute and received 
Pomerania and Rugen as German fiefs; while the eastern 
emperor, John Comnenus, implored Lothair's aid against 
Roger II. of Sicily. 

The emperor seconded the efforts of his vassals, Albert the 
Bear, margrave of the Saxon north mark, and Conrad I., margrave 
of Meissen and Lusatia, to extend the authority of the Germans 
in the districts east of the Elbe, and assisted Norbert, archbishop 
of Magdeburg, and Albert I., archbishop of Bremen, to spread 
Christianity. In August 1 136, attended by a large army, Lothair 
set out upon his second Italian journey. The Lombard cities 
were either terrified into submission or taken by storm; Roger II. 
was driven from Apulia; and the imperial power enforced 
over the whole of southern Italy. A mutiny among the German 
soldiers and a breach with Innocent concerning the overlordship 
of Apulia compelled the emperor to retrace his steps. An 
arrangement was made with regard to Apulia, after which 
Lothair, returning to Germany, died at Breitenwang, a village 
in the Tirol, on the 3rd or 4th of December 1137. His body was 
carried to Saxony and buried in the monastery which he had 
founded at Konigslutter. Lothair was a strong and capable 
ruler, who has been described as the " imitator and heir of the 
first Otto." Contemporaries praise his justice and his virtue, 
and his reign was regarded, especially by Saxons and churchmen, 
as a golden age for Germany. 

The main authorities for the life and reign of Lothair are: " yita 
Norberti archiepiscopi Magdeburgensis " ; Otto von Freising, 
" Chronicon Annalista Saxo " and " Narratio de electione Lotharii " 
all in the Monumenta Germaniae historica. Scriptores, Bande vi., 
xii. and xx. (Hanover and Berlin, 1826-1892). The best modern 
works are: L. von Ranke, Weltgeschichtc, pt. viii. (Leipzig, 1887- 
1888); W. von Giesebrecht, Geschichte der Deutschen Kaiserzeit, 
Band iv. (Brunswick, 1877), Band v. (Leipzig, 1888); Ph. Jaffe, 
Geschichle des Deutschen Reiches unter Lothar (Berlin, 1843); W. 
Bernhardi, Lothar von Supplinburg (Leipzig, 1879); O. von Heine- 
mann, Lothar der Sachse und Konrad III. (Halle, 1869); and Ch. 
Volkmar, " Das Verhaltniss Lothars III. zur Investiturfrage," in 
the Forschungen zur Deutschen Geschichte, Band xxvi. (Gottingen, 

LOTHAIR (941-986), king of France, son of Louis IV., suc- 
ceeded his father in 954, and was at first under the guardianship 
of Hugh the Great, duke of the Franks, and then under that of 
his maternal uncle Bruno, archbishop of Cologne. The beginning 
of his reign was occupied with wars against the vassals, particu- 
larly against the duke of Normandy. Lothair then seems to 
have conceived the design of recovering Lorraine. He attempted 
to precipitate matters by a sudden attack, and in the spring 
of 978 nearly captured the emperor Otto II. at Aix-la-Chapelle. 
Otto took his revenge in the autumn by invading France. He 
penetrated as far as Paris, devastating the country through 
which he passed, but failed to take the town, and was forced 
to retreat with heavy loss. Peace was concluded in 980 at 
Margut-sur-Chiers, and in 983 Lothair was even chosen guardian 
to the young Otto III. Towards 980, however, Lothair quarrelled 
with Hugh the Great's son, Hugh Capet, who, at the instigation 
of Adalberon, archbishop of Reims, became reconciled with 
Otto III. Lothair died on the 2nd of March 986. By his wife 
Emma, daughter of Lothair, king of Italy, he left a son who 
succeeded him as Louis V. 

See F. Lot, Les Dernier s Carolingiens (Paris, 1891); and the 
Recueti des actes de Lothair e et de Louis V., edited by L. Halphen and 
F. Lot (1908). 

LOTHAIR (825-869), king of the district called after him 
Lotharingia, or Lorraine, was the second son of the emperor 
Lothair I. On his father's death in 855, he received for his 
kingdom a district lying west of the Rhine, between the North 
Sea and the Jura mountains, which was called Regnum Lotharii 
and early m the loth century became known as Lotharingia 
or Lorraine. On the death of his brother Charles in 863 he added 
some lands south of the Jura to this inheritance, but, except 
for a few feeble expeditions against the Danish pirates, he seems 
to have done b'ttle for its government or its defence. The 
reign was chiefly occupied by efforts on the part of Lothair 
to obtain a divorce from his wife Teutberga, a sister of Hucbert, 
abbot of St Maurice (d. 864) ; and his relations with his uncles, 

Charles the Bald and Louis the German, were influenced by his 
desire to obtain their support to this plan. Although quarrels 
and reconciliations between the three kings followed each other 
in quick succession, in general it may be said that Louis favoured 
the divorce, and Charles opposed it, while neither lost sight of the 
fact that Lothair was without male issue. Lothair, whose desire ' 
for the divorce was prompted by his affection for a certain 
Waldrada, put away Teutberga; but Hucbert took up arms 
on her behalf, and after she had submitted successfully to the 
ordeal of water, Lothair was compelled to restore her in 858. 
Still pursuing his purpose, he won the support of his brother, 
the emperor Louis II., by a cession of lands, and obtained the 
consent of the local clergy to the divorce and to his marriage 
with Waldrada, which was celebrated in 862. A synod of 
Prankish bishops met at Metz in 863 and confirmed this decision, 
but Teutberga fled to the court of Charles the Bald, and Pope 
Nicholas I. declared against the decision of the synod. An 
attack on Rome by the emperor was without result, and in 
865 Lothair, convinced that Louis and Charles at their recent 
meeting had discussed the partition of his kingdom, and 
threatened with excommunication, again took back his wife. 
Teutberga, however, either from inclination or compulsion, 
now expressed her desire for a divorce, and Lothair went to 
Italy to obtain the assent of the new pope Adrian II. Placing 
a favourable interpretation upon the words of the pope, he had 
set out on the return journey, when he was seized with fever 
and died at Piacenza on the 8th of August 869. He left, by 
Waldrada, a son Hugo who was declared illegitimate, and his 
kingdom was divided between Charles the Bald and Louis 
the German. 

See Hincmar, " Opusculum de divortio Lotharii regis et Tetbergae 
reginae," in Cursus completus patrologiae, tome cxxv., edited by 
J. P. Migne (Paris, 1857-1879); M. Sdralek, Hinkmars von Rheims 
Kanonistisches Gutachten tiber die Ehescheidung des Kdnigs Lothar II. 
(Freiburg, 1881); E. Diimmler, Geschichte des ostfrankischen Reiches 
(Leipzig, 1887-1888); and E. Miihlbacher, Die Regenten des Kaiser- 
reichs unter den Karolingern (Innsbruck, 1881). 

ist earl of Lothian (d. 1609), was the eldest son of Mark Kerr 
(d. 1584), abbot, and then commendator, of Newbattle, or 
Newbottle, and was a member of the famous border family of 
Ker of Cessford. The earls and dukes of Roxburghe, who are 
also descended from the Kers of Cessford, have adopted the 
spelling Ker, while the earls and marquesses of Lothian have 
taken the form Kerr. Like his father, the abbot of Newbattle, 
Mark Kerr was an extraordinary lord of session under the 
Scottish king James VI.; he became Lord Newbattle in 1587 
and was created earl of Lothian in 1606. He was master of 
inquests from 1577 to 1606, and he died on the 8th of April 
1609, having had, as report says, thirty-one children by his wife, 
Margaret (d. 1617), daughter of John Maxwell, 4th Lord Herries. 
His son Robert, the 2nd earl, died without sons in July 1624. 
He had, in 1621, obtained a charter from the king enabling his 
daughter Anne to succeed to his estates provided that she 
married a member of the family of Ker. Consequently in 1631 
she married William Ker, son of Robert, ist earl of Ancrum 
(1578-1654), a member of the family of Ker of Ferniehurst, 
whose father, William Ker, had been killed in 1590 by Robert 
Ker, afterwards ist earl of Roxburghe. Robert was in attend- 
ance upon Charles I. both before and after he came to the 
throne, and was created earl of Ancrum in 1633. He was a 
writer and a man of culture, and among his friends were the poet 
Donne and Drummond of Hawthornden. His elder son William 
was created earl of Lothian in 1631, the year of his marriage with 
Anne Kerr, and Sir William Kerr of Blackhope, a brother of the 
2nd earl, who had taken the title of earl of Lothian in 1624, was 
forbidden to use it (see Correspondence of Sir Robert Ker, earl of 
Ancrum, and his son William, third earl of Lothian, 1875). 

WILLIAM KER (c. 1605-1675), who thus became 3rd earl of 
Lothian, signed the Scottish national covenant in 1638 and 
marched with the Scots into England in 1640, being present when 
the English were routed at Newburn, after which he became 
governor of Newcastle-on-Tyne. During the Civil War he was 


prominent rather as a politician than as a soldier; he became 
a Scottish secretary of state in 1649, and was one of the com- 
missioners who visited Charles II. at Breda in 1650. He died 
at Newbattle Abbey, near Edinburgh, in October 1675. William's 
eldest son Robert, the 4th earl (1636-1703), supported the Revolu- 
tion of 1688 and served William III. in several capacities; he 
became 3rd earl of Ancrum on the death of his uncle Charles 
in 1690, and was created marquess of Lothian in 1701. His 
eldest son William, the and marquess (c. 1662-1722), who had 
been a Scottish peer as Lord Jedburgh since 1692, was a supporter 
of the union with England. His son William, the 3rd marquess 
(c. 1690-1 767), was the father of William Henry, the 4th marquess, 
who was wounded at Fontenoy and was present at Culloden. 
He was a member of parliament for some years and had reached 
the rank of general in the army when he died at Bath on the 1 2th 
of April 1775. His grandson William, the 6th marquess (1763- 
1824), married Henrietta (1762-1805), daughter and heiress of 
John Hobart, 2nd earl of Buckinghamshire, thus bringing 
Blickling Hall and the Norfolk estates of the Hobarts into the 
Kerr family. In 1821 he was created a peer of the United 
Kingdom as Baron Ker and he died on the 27th of April 1824. 
In 1900 Robert Schomberg Kerr (b. 1874) succeeded his father, 
Schomberg Henry, the gth marquess (1833-1900), as zoth 
marquess of Lothian. 

LOTHIAN. This name was formerly applied to a considerably 
larger extent of country than the three counties of Linlithgow, 
Edinburgh and Haddington. Roxburghshire and Berwickshire 
at all events were included in it, probably also the upper part of 
Tweeddale (at least Selkirk). It would thus embrace the 
eastern part of the Lowlands from the Forth to the Cheviots, 
i.e. all the English part of Scotland in the nth century. This 
region formed from the 7th century onward part of the kingdoms 
of Bernicia and Northumbria, though we have no definite informa- 
tion as to the date or events by which it came into English 
hands. In Roman times, according to Ptolemy, it was occupied 
by a people called Otadini, whose name is thought to have been 
preserved in Manaw Gododin, the home of the British king 
Cunedda before he migrated to North Wales. There is no reason 
to doubt that the district remained in Welsh hands until towards 
the close of the 6th century; for in the Historia Brittonum the 
Bernician king Theodoric, whose traditional date is 572-579, is 
said to have been engaged in war with four Welsh kings. One 
of these was Rhydderch Hen who, as we know from Adamnan, 
reigned at Dumbarton, while another named Urien is said to 
have besieged Theodoric in Lindisfarne. If this statement is 
to be believed it is hardly likely that the English had by this 
time obtained a firm footing beyond the Tweed. At all events 
there can be little doubt that the whole region was conquered 
within the next fifty years. Most probably the greater part of 
it was conquered by the Northumbrian king iEthelfrith, who, 
according to Bede, ravaged the territory of the Britons more 
often than any other English king, in some places reducing the 
natives to dependence, in others exterminating them and 
replacing them by English settlers. 

In the time of Oswic the English element became predominant 
in northern Britain. His supremacy was acknowledged both 
by the Welsh in the western Lowlands and by the Scots in 
Argyllshire. On the death of the Pictish king Talorgan, the son 
of his brother Eanfrith, he seems to have obtained the sovereignty 
over a considerable part of that nation also. Early in Ecgfrith's 
reign an attempt at revolt on the part of the Picts proved un- 
successful. We hear at this time also of the establishment of an 
English bishopric at Abercorn, which, however, only lasted for 
a few years. By the disastrous overthrow of Ecgfrith in 685 
the Picts, Scots and some of the Britons also recovered their 
independence. Yet we find a succession of English bishops at 
Whithorn from 730 to the 9th century, from which it may be 
inferred that the south-west coast had already by this time 
become English. The Northumbrian dominions were again 
enlarged by Eadberht, who in 750 is said to have annexed Kyle, 
the central part of Ayrshire, with other districts. In conjunction 
with (Engus mac Fergus, king of the Picts, he also reduced the 

whole of the Britons to submission in 756. But this subjugation 
was not lasting, and the British kingdom, though now reduced 
to the basin of the Clyde, whence its inhabitants are known as 
Strathclyde Britons, continued to exist for nearly three centuries. 
After Eadberht 's time we hear little of events in the northern part 
of Northumbria, and there is some reason for suspecting that 
English influence in the south-west began to decline before 
long, as our list of bishops of Whithorn ceases early in the gth 
century; the evidence on this point, however, is not so decisive 
as is commonly stated. About 844 an important revolution 
took place among the Picts. The throne was acquired by 
Kenneth mac Alpin, a prince of Scottish family, who soon became 
formidable to the Northumbrians. He is said to have invaded 
" Saxonia " six times, and to have burnt Dunbar and Melrose. 
After the disastrous battle at York in 867 the Northumbrians 
were weakened by the loss of the southern part of their territories, 
and between 883 and 889 the whole country as far as Lindisfarne 
was ravaged by the Scots. In 919, however, we find their leader 
Aldred calling in Constantine II., king of the Scots, to help them. 
A few years later together with Constantine and the Britons they 
acknowledged the supremacy of Edward the Elder. After his 
death, however, both the Scots and the Britons were for a time 
in alliance with the Norwegians from Ireland, and consequently 
/Ethelstan is said to have ravaged a large portion of the Scottish 
king's territories in 934. Brunanburh, where .(Ethelstan defeated 
the confederates in 937, is believed by many to have been in 
Dumfriesshire, but we have no information as to the effects 
of the battle on the northern populations. By this time, how- 
ever, the influence of the Scottish kingdom certainly seems to 
have increased in the south, and in 945 the English king Edmund 
gave Cumberland, i.e. apparently the British kingdom of Strath- 
clyde, to Malcolm I., king of the Scots, in consideration of his 
alliance with him. Malcolm's successor Indulph (954-962) 
succeeded in capturing Edinburgh, which thenceforth remained 
in possession of the Scots. His successors made repeated attempts 
to extend their territory southwards, and certain late chroniclers 
state that Kenneth II. in 971-975 obtained a grant of the whole 
of Lothian from Edgar. Whatever truth this story may contain, 
the cession of the province was finally effected by Malcolm II. 
by force of arms. At his first attempt in 1006 he seems to have 
suffered a great defeat from Uhtred, the son of earl Waltheof. 
Twelve years later, however, he succeeded in conjunction with 
Eugenius, king of Strathclyde, in annihilating the Northumbrian 
army at Carham on the Tweed, and Eadulf Cudel, the brother 
and successor of Uhtred, ceded all his territory to the north of 
that river as the price of peace. Henceforth in spite of an in- 
vasion by Aldred, the son of Uhtred, during the reign of Duncan, 
Lothian remained permanently in possession of the Scottish 
kings. In the reign of Malcolm III. and his son, the English 
element appears to have acquired considerable influence in the 
kingdom. Some three years before he obtained his father's 
throne Malcolm had by the help of earl Siward secured the 
government of Cumbria (Strathclyde) with which Lothian 
was probably united. Then in 1068 he received a large number 
of exiles from England, amongst them the ^Etheling Eadgar, 
whose sister Margaret he married. Four other sons in succession 
occupied the throne, and in the time of the youngest, David, 
who held most of the south of Scotland as an earldom from 
1107-1124 and the whole kingdom from 1124-1153, the court 
seems already to have been composed chiefly of English and 

AUTHORITIES. Bede, Historia Ecclesiastic^ (ed. C. Plummer, 
Oxford, 1896); Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (ed. Earle and Plummer, 
Oxford, 1899) ; Simeon of Durham (Rolls Series, ed. T. Arnold, 
1882); W. F. Skene, Chronicle of Picts and Scots (Edinburgh, 1867), 
and Celtic Scotland (Edinburgh. 1876-1880); and I. Rhys, Celtic 
Britain (London). (F. G. M. B.) 

LOTI, PIERRE [the pen-name of Louis MARIE JULIEN 
VIAUD] (1850- ), French author, was born at Rochefort on 
the 1 4th of January 1850. The Viauds are an old Protestant 
family, and Pierre Loti consistently adhered, at least nominally, 
to the faith of his fathers. Of the picturesque and touching 
incidents of his childhood he has given a very vivid account 



in Le Roman d'un enfant (1890). His education began in Roche- 
fort, but at the age of seventeen, being destined for the navy, 
he entered the naval school, Le Borda, and gradually rose in his 
profession, attaining the rank of captain in 1906. In January 
1910 he was placed on the reserve list. His pseudonym is said 
to be due to his extreme shyness and reserve in early life, which 
made his comrades call him after le Loti, an Indian flower which 
loves to blush unseen. He was never given to books or study 
(when he was received at the French Academy, he had the courage 
to say, " Loti ne sait pas lire "), and it was not until 1876 that 
he was persuaded to write down and publish some curious 
experiences at Constantinople, in Aziyade, a book which, like 
so many of Loti's, seems half a romance, half an autobiography. 
He proceeded to the South Seas, and on leaving Tahiti published 
the Polynesian idyl, originally called Rarahu (1880), which 
was reprinted as Le Manage de Loti, and which first introduced 
to the wider public an author of remarkable originality and 
charm. Le Roman d'un spahi, a record of the melancholy 
adventures of a soldier in Senegambia, belongs to 1881. In 1882 
Loti issued a collection of short studies under the general title 
of Fleurs d' ennui. In 1883 he achieved the widest celebrity, 
for not only did he publish Man jrere Yves, a novel describing 
the life of a French bluejacket in all parts of the world perhaps 
his most characteristic production but he was involved in a 
public discussion in a manner which did him great credit. While 
taking part as a naval officer in the Tongking War, Loti had 
exposed in the Figaro a series of scandals which followed on the 
capture of Hue (1883), and was suspended from the service 
for more than a year. He continued for some time nearly silent, 
but in 1886 he published a novel of life among the Breton fisher- 
folk, called Pecheur d'islande, the most popular of all his writings. 
In 1887 he brought out a volume of extraordinary merit, which 
has not received the attention it deserves; this is Propos d'exil, 
a series of short studies of exotic places, in his peculiar semi- 
autobiographic style. The fantastic novel of Japanese manners, 
Madame Chrysantheme, belongs to the same year. Passing over 
one or two slighter productions, we come in 1890 to Au Maroc, the 
record of a journey to Fez in company with a French embassy. A 
collection of strangely confidential and sentimental reminiscences, 
called Le Livre de la pitii et de la mart, belongs to 1891. Loti 
was on board his ship at the port of Algiers when news was 
brought to him of his election, on the aist of May 1891, to the 
French Academy. In 1892 he published Fantdme d' orient, 
another dreamy study of life in Constantinople, a sort of con- 
tinuation of Aziyade. He described a visit to the Holy Land, 
somewhat too copiously, in three volumes (1895-1896), and 
wrote a novel, Ramuntcho (1897), a story of manners in the 
Basque province, which is equal to his best writings. In 1900 
he visited British India, with the view of describing what he saw; 
the result appeared in 1903 L'Inde (sans les Anglais). At his 
best Pierre Loti was unquestionably the finest descriptive writer 
of the day. In the delicate exactitude with which he reproduced 
the impression given to his own alert nerves by unfamiliar forms, 
colours, sounds and perfumes, he was without a rival. But he 
was not satisfied with this exterior charm ; he desired to blend 
with it a moral sensibility of the extremest refinement, at once 
sensual and ethereal. Many of his best books are long sobs 
of remorseful memory, so personal, so intimate, that an English 
reader is amazed to find such depth of feeling compatible with 
the power of minutely and publicly recording what is felt. 
In spite of the beauty and melody and fragrance of Loti's books 
his mannerisms are apt to pall upon the reader, and his later books 
of pure description were rather empty. His greatest successes 
were gained in the species of confession, half-way between fact 
and fiction, which he essayed in his earlier books. When all his 
limitations, however, have been rehearsed, Pierre Loti remains, 
in the mechanism of style and cadence, one of the most original 
and most perfect French writers of the second half of the igth 
century. ' Among his later works were : La Troisieme jeunesse de 
Mme Prune (1905); Les Desenchanlees (1906, Eng. trans, by 
C. Bell); La Mart de Philae (1908); Judith Renaudin (Theatre 
Antoine, 1904), a five-act historical play based on an earlier 

book; and, in collaboration with Emile Vedel, a translation of 
King Lear, also produced at the Theatre Antoine in 1904. (E.G.) 

LOTSCHEN PASS, or LOTSCHBERG, an easy glacier pass 
(8842 ft.) leading from Kandersteg in the Bernese Oberland to 
the Lotschen valley in the Valais. It is a very old pass, first 
mentioned distinctly in 1352, but probably crossed previously 
by the Valaisans who colonized various parts of the Bernese 
Oberland. In 1384 and again in 1419 battles were fought on 
it between the Bernese and the Valaisans, while in 1698 a mule 
path (of which traces still exist) was constructed on the Bernese 
slope, though not continued beyond owing to the fear of the 
Valaisans that the Bernese would come over and alter their 
religion. In 1906 the piercing of a tunnel (83 m. long) beneath 
this pass was begun, starting a little above Kandersteg and 
ending at Goppenstein near the mouth of the Lotschen valley. 
Subsidies were granted by both the confederation and the canton 
of Bern. This pass is to be carefully distinguished from the 
Lotschenliicke (10,512 ft.), another easy glacier pass which leads 
from the head of the Lotschen valley to the Great Aletsch 
glacier. (W. A. B. C.) 

LOTTERIES. The word lottery 1 has no very definite significa- 
tion. It may be applied to any process of determining prizes by 
lot, whether the object be amusement or gambling or public 
profit. In the Roman Saturnalia and in the banquets of aristo- 
cratic Romans the object was amusement; the guests received 
apophoreta. The same plan was followed on a magnificent scale 
by some of the emperors. Nero gave such prizes as a house or 
a slave. Heliogabalus introduced an element of absurdity- 
one ticket for a golden vase, another for six flies. This custom 
descended to the festivals given by the feudal and merchant 
princes of Europe, especially of Italy; and it formed a prominent 
feature of the splendid court hospitality of Louis XIV. In 
the Italian republics of the i6th century the lottery principle was 
applied to encourage the sale of merchandise. The lotto of 
Florence and the seminario of Genoa are well known, and Venice 
established a monopoly and drew a considerable revenue for 
the state. The first letters patent for a lottery in France were 
granted in 1539 by Francis I., and in 1656 the Italian, Lorenzo 
Tonti (the originator of " Tontines ") opened another for the 
building of a stone bridge between the Louvre and the Faubourg 
St Germain. The institution became very popular in France, 
and gradually assumed an important place in the government 
finance. The parlements frequently protested against it, but it 
had the support of Mazarin, and L. Phelypeaux, comte de 
Pontchartrain, by this means raised the expenses of the Spanish 
Succession War. Necker, in his Administration des finances, 
estimates the public charge for lotteries at 4,000,000 livres per 
annum. There were also lotteries for the benefit of religious com- 
munities and charitable purposes. Two of the largest were the 
Loteries de Piete and Des Enfans Trouvls. These and also the 
great Loterie de I'Ecole militaire were practically merged in the 
Loterie Royale by the decree of 1776, suppressing all private 
lotteries in France. The financial basis of these larger lotteries 
was to take -^fths for expenses and benefit, and return ^ths 
to the public who subscribed. The calculation of chances had 
become a familiar science. It is explained in detail by Caminade 
de Castres in Enc. mith. finances, ii. s.v. " Loterie." The 
names of the winning numbers in the first drawing were (i) 
extrait, (2) ambe, (3) terne, (4) quaterne, (5) quine. After this 
there were four drawings called primes gratuites. The extrait 
gave fifteen times the price of the ticket; the quine gave one 

1 The word " lottery " is directly derived from Ital. lotteria, cf. 
Fr. loterie, formed from lotto, lot, game of chance. " Lot " is in 
origin a Teutonic word, adopted into Romanic languages. In O. Eng. 
it appears as hlot, cf . Dutch lot, Ger. Loos, Dan. lod, &c. The meaning 
of the Teutonic root Ueut from which these words have derived is 
unknown. Primarily " lot " meant the object, such as a disk or 
counter of wood, a pebble, bean or the like, which was drawn or 
cast to decide by chance, under divine guidance, various matters, 
such as disputes, divisions of property, selection of officers and 
frequently as a method of divination in ancient times. From this 
original sense the meaning develops into that which falls to a person 
by lot, chance or fate, then to any portion of land, &c., allotted to 
a person, and hence, quite generally, of a quantity of anything. 



million times the price. These are said to be much more favour- 
able terms than were given in Vienna, Frankfort and other 
leading European cities at the end of the i8th century. The 
Loterie Royale was ultimately suppressed in 1836. Under the law 
of the zgth of May 1844 lotteries may be held for the assistance 
of charity and the fine arts. In 1878 twelve million lottery 
tickets of one franc each were sold in Paris to pay for prizes to 
exhibitors in the great Exhibition and expenses of working-men 
visitors. The first prize was worth 5000; the second, 4000, 
and the third and fourth 2000 each. The Soci6te du Credit 
Foncier, and many of the large towns, are permitted to contract 
loans, the periodical repayments of which are determined by 
lot. This practice, which is prohibited in Germany and England, 
resembles the older system of giving higher and lower rates of 
interest for money according to lot. Lotteries were suppressed 
in Belgium in 1830, Sweden in 1841 and Switzerland in 1865, 
but they still figure in the state budgets of Austria-Hungary, 
Prussia and other German States, Holland, Spain, Italy and 
Denmark. In addition to lottery loans, ordinary lotteries 
(occasion lotteries) are numerous in various countries of the con- 
tinent of Europe. They are of various magnitude and are 
organized for a variety of purposes, such as charity, art, agricul- 
ture, church-building, &c. It is becoming the tendency, however, 
to discourage private and indiscriminate lotteries, and even state 
lotteries which contribute to the revenue. In Austria-Hungary 
and Germany, for instance, every year sees fewer places where 
tickets can be taken for them receive licenses. In 1904 a 
proposal for combining a working-class savings bank with a 
national lottery was seriously considered by the Prussian 
ministry. The scheme, which owes its conception to August 
Scherl, editor of the Berlin Lokalanzeiger, is an endeavour to 
utilize the love of gambling for the purpose of promoting thrift 
among the working-classes. It was proposed to make weekly 
collections from subscribers, in fixed amounts, ranging from 
sixpence to four shillings. The interest on the money deposited 
would not go to the depositors but would be set aside to form 
the prizes. Three hundred thousand tickets, divisible into 
halves, quarters and eighths, according to the sum deposited 
weekly, would form a series of 12,500 prizes, of a total value 
of 27,000. At the same time, the subscriber, while having his 
ordinary lottery chances of these prizes, still has to his credit 
intact the amount which he has subscribed week by week. 

In England the earliest lotteries sanctioned by government 
were for such purposes as the repair of harbours in 1569, and the 
Virginia Company in 161 2. In the lottery of 1 569, 40,000 chances 
were sold at ten shillings each, the prizes being " plate, and certain 
sorts of merchandises." In 1698 lotteries, with the exception 
of the Royal Oak lottery for the benefit of the Royal Fishing 
Company, were prohibited as common nuisances, by which 
children, servants and other unwary persons had been ruined. 
This prohibition was in the i8th century gradually extended 
to illegal insurances on marriages and other events, and to a great 
many games with dice, such as faro, basset, hazard, except 
backgammon and games played in the royal palace. In spite of 
these prohibitions, the government from 1709 down to 1824 
annually raised considerable sums in lotteries authorized by 
act of parliament. The prizes were in the form of terminable or 
perpetual annuities. The 10 tickets were sold at a premium 
of say 40% to contractors who resold them in retail (sometimes in 
one-sixteenth parts) by " morocco men," or men with red leather 
books who travelled through the country. As the drawing ex- 
tended over forty days, a very pernicious system arose of insuring 
the fate of tickets during the drawing for a small premium of 
4d. or 6d. This was partly cured by the Little Go Act of 1802, 
directed against the itinerant wheels which plied between the 
state lotteries, and partly by Perceval's Act in 1806, which 
confined the drawing of each lottery to one day. From 1793 to 
1824 the government made an average yearly profit of 346,765. 
Cope, one of the largest contractors, is said to have spent 36,000 
in advertisements in a single year. The English lotteries were 
used to raise loans for general purposes, but latterly they were 
confined to particular objects, such as the improvement of 

London, the disposal of a museum, the purchase of a picture 
gallery, &c. Through the efforts of Lord Lyttleton and others 
a strong public opinion was formed against them, and in 1826 
they were finally prohibited. An energetic proposal to revive 
the system was made before the select committee on metropolitan 
improvements in 1830, but it was not listened to. By a unique 
blunder in legislation, authority was given to hold a lottery 
under an act of 1831 which provided a scheme for the improve- 
ment of the city of Glasgow. These " Glasgow lotteries " 
were suppressed by an act of 1834. Art Unions were legalized 
by the Art Unions Act 1846. The last lottery prominently 
before the public in England was that of Dethier's twelfth-cake 
lottery, which was suppressed on the 2 7th of December 1860. 
As defined at the beginning of this article, the word lottery has a 
meaning wide enough to include missing-word competitions, 
distributions by tradesmen of prize coupons, sweepstakes, &c. 
See Report of Joint Select Committee on Lotteries, ffc. (1908). 
The statute law in Scotland is the same as in England. At 
common law in Scotland it is probable that all lotteries and raffles, 
for whatever purpose held, may be indicted as nuisances. The 
art unions are supposed to be protected by a special statute. 

United States. The American Congress of 1776 instituted a 
national lottery. Most states at that time legalized lotteries 
for public objects, and before 1820 the Virginia legislature 
passed seventy acts authorizing lotteries for various public 
purposes, such as schools, roads, &c. about 85% of the 
subscriptions being returned in prizes. At an early period (1795) 
the city of Washington was empowered to set up lotteries 
as a mode of raising money for public purposes; and this 
authorization from the Maryland legislature was approved by 
an act of the Federal Congress in 1812. In 1833 they were 
prohibited in New York and Massachusetts and gradually in the 
other states, until they survived only in Louisiana. In that 
state, the Louisiana State Lottery, a company chartered in 
1868, had a monopoly for which it paid $40,000 to the state 
treasury. Its last charter was granted in 1879 for a period of 
twenty-five years, and a renewal was refused in 1800. In 1800 
Congress forbade the use of the mails for promoting any lottery 
enterprise by a statute so stringent that it was held to make it a 
penal offence to employ them to further the sale of Austrian 
government bonds, issued under a scheme for drawing some 
by lot for payment at a premium (see Horner v. United States, 
147 United States Reports, 449). This had the effect of com- 
pelling the Louisiana State Lottery to move its quarters to 
Honduras, in which place it still exists, selling its bonds to a 
considerable extent in the Southern States. 

Since lotteries have become illegal there have been a great number 
of Judicial decisions defining a lottery. In general, where skill or 
judgment is to be exercised there is no lottery, the essential element 
of which is chance or lot. There are numerous statutes against 
lotteries, the reason being given that they " tend to promote a 
gambling spirit," and that it is the duty of the state to " protect 
the morals and advance the welfare of the people." In New York 
the Constitution of 1846 forbade lotteries, and by 324 of the 
Penal Code a lottery is declared " unlawful and a public nuisance." 
" Contriving " and advertising lotteries is also penal. The following 
have been held illegal lotteries: In New York, a concert, the tickets 
for which entitled the holder to a prize to be drawn by lot ; in Indiana, 
offering a gold watch to the purchaser of goods who guesses the 
number of beans in a bottle; in Texas, selling " prize candy " boxes; 
and operating a nickel-in-the-slot machine so also in Louisiana; 
jn Massachusetts, the " policy " or " envelope game," or a " raffle "; 
in Kentucky (1905), prize coupon packages, the coupons having to 
spell a certain word ( U.S. v. Jefferson, 134 Fed. R. 299) ; in Kansas 
(1907) it was held, by the Supreme Court that the gift of a hat-pin 
to each purchaser was not illegal as a " gift enterprise," there being 
no chance or lot. In Oklahoma (1907) it was held that the making 
of contracts for the payment of money, the certainty in value of 
return being dependent on chance, was a lottery (Fidelity Fund Co. 
v. Vaughan, 90 Pac. Rep. 34). The chief features of a lottery are 
" procuring through lot or chance, by the investment of a sum of 
money or something of value, some greater amount of money or thing 
of greater value. When such are the chief features of any scheme 
whatever it may be christened, or however it may be guarded or 
concealed by cunningly devised conditions or screens, it is under 
the law a lottery " (U.S. v. Wallace, 58, Fed. Rep. 942). In 1894 
and 1897 Congress forbade the importation of lottery tickets or 

In 1899, setting up or 

advertisements into the United States. 



promoting lotteries in Alaska was prohibited by Congress, and in 
1900 it forbade any lottery or sale of lottery tickets in Hawaii. In 
Porto Rico lotteries, raffles and gift-enterprises are forbidden (Pena 
Code, 1902, 291). 

AUTHORITIES. Critique hist. pol. mor. econ. et comm. sur les 
loteries anc. et mod. spirituettes et temporelles des etats et des eglises 
(3 vols., Amsterdam, 1697), by the Bolognese historian Gregorio 
Leti; T. Dessaulx, De la passion du jeu depuis les anciens temps 
jusqu'a nos jours (Paris, 1779); Endemann, Beitrage zur Geschichte 
der Lottrie und zur heutigen Lotterie (Bonn, 1882); Larson, Lottrie 
und Volkswirthschaft (Berlin, 1894); J. Ashton, History of English 
Lotteries (1893); Annual Report of the American Historical Associa- 
tion (1892); Journal of the American Social Science Association 
xxxvi. 17. 

LOTTI, ANTONIO (1667 ?-i 740), Italian musical composer, 
was the son of Matteo Lotti, Kapellmeister to the court of 
Hanover. He was born, however, at Venice and as a pupil of 
Legrenzi. He entered the Doge's chapel as a boy, and in 1689 
was engaged as an alto singer, succeeding later to the posts of 
deputy organist (1690), second organist (1692), first organist 
(1704), and, finally, in 1736 Maestro di Cappella at St Mark's 
church. He was also a composer of operas, and having attracted 
the interest of the crown prince of Saxony during his visit to 
Venice in 1712, he was invited to Dresden, where he went in 
1717. After producing three operas there he was obliged to 
return to his duties at Venice in 1719. He died on the sth of 
January 1740. Like many other Venetian composers he wrote 
operas for Vienna, and enjoyed a considerable reputation outside 
Italy. A volume of madrigals published in 1705 contains the 
famous In una siepe ombrosa, passed off by Bononcini as his own 
in London. Another is quoted by Martini in his Saggio di 
Contrappunto. Among his pupils were Alberti, Bassani, Galuppi, 
Gasparini and Marcello. Burney justly praises his church music, 
which is severe in style, but none the less modern in its grace and 
pathos. A fine setting of the Dies Irae is in the Imperial Library 
at Vienna, and some of his masses have been printed in the 
collections of Proske and Luck. 

LOTTO, LORENZO (c. 1480-1556), Italian painter, is variously 
stated to have been born at Bergamo, Venice and Treviso, 
between 1475 and 1480, but a document published by Dr Bampo 
proves that he was born in Venice, and it is to be gathered from 
his will that 1480 was probably the year of his birth. Over- 
shadowed by the genius of his three great contemporaries, Titian, 
Giorgione and Palma, he had been comparatively neglected by 
art historians until Mr Bernhard Berenson devoted to him an 
" essay in constructive art criticism," which not only restores 
to him his rightful position among the great masters of the 
Renaissance, but also throws clear light upon the vexed question 
of his artistic descent. Earlier authorities have made Lotto a 
pupil of Giovanni Bellini (Morelli), of Previtali (Crowe and 
Cavalcaselle), of Leonardo da Vinci (Lomazzo), whilst others 
discovered in his work the influences of Cima, Carpaccio, Durer, 
Palma and Francia. Mr Berenson has, however, proved that he 
was the pupil of Alvise Vivarini, whose religious severity and 
asceticism remained paramount in his work, even late in his life, 
when he was attracted by the rich glow of Giorgione's and 
Titian's colour. What distinguishes Lotto from his more famous 
contemporaries is his psychological insight into character and 
his personal vision his unconventionally, which is sufficient 
to account for the comparative neglect suffered by him when his 
art is placed beside the more typical art of Titian and Giorgione, 
the supreme expression of the character of the period. 

That Lotto, who was one of the most productive painters of his 
time, could work for thirty years without succumbing to the 
mighty influence of Titian's sumptuous colour, is explained 
by the fact that during these years he was away from Venice, 
as is abundantly proved by documents and by the evidence of 
signed and dated works. The first of these documents, dated 
I 53. proves him to have lived at Treviso at this period. His 
earliest authentic pictures, Sir Martin Conway's " Danae " 
(about 1498) and the " St Jerome " of the Louvre (a similar 
subject is at the Madrid Gallery ascribed to Titian), as indeed 
all the works executed before 1509, have unmistakable Vivarin- 
esque traits in the treatment of the drapery and landscape, and 
cool grey tonality. To this group belong the Madonnas at 

Bridgewater House, Villa Borghese, Naples, and Sta Cristina 
near Treviso, the Recanati altarpiece, the " Assumption of the 
Virgin " at Asolo, and the portrait of a young man at Hampton 
Court. We find him at Rome between 1 508 and 1 5 1 2, at the time 
Raphael was painting in the Stanza della Signatura. A document 
in the Corsini library mentions that Lotto received 100 ducats as 
an advance payment for fresco-work in the upper floor of the 
Vatican, but there is no evidence that this work was ever executed. 
In the next dated works, the "Entombment " at Jesi (1512), 
and the " Transfiguration," " St James," and " St Vincent " at 
Recanati, Lotto has abandoned the dryness and cool colour of 
his earlier style, and adopted a fluid method and a blonde, joyful 
colouring. In 1513 we find him at Bergamo, where he had 
entered into a contract to paint for 500 gold ducats an altarpiece 
for S. Stefano. The picture was only completed in 1516, and is 
now at S. Bartolommeo. From the next years, spent mostly at 
Bergamo, with intervals in Venice and Jesi in the Marches, date 
the Dresden " Madonna," " Christ taking leave of his Mother " 
at the Berlin Gallery, the " Bride and Bridegroom " at Madrid, 
the National Gallery " Family Group " and portrait of the 
Protonothary Giuliano, several portraits in Berlin, Milan and 
Vienna, numerous altarpieces in and near Bergamo, the strangely 
misnamed " Triumph of Chastity " at the Rospigliosi Palace in 
Rome, and the portrait of Andrea Odoni at Hampton Court. 
In 1526 or 1527 Lotto returned to Venice, where Titian ruled 
supreme in the world of art; and it was only natural that the 
example of the great master should have fired him to emulation, 
though his experiments in this direction were confined to an 
attempt at rivalling the master's rich and ruddy colour-schemes. 
Even in the Carmine altarpiece, the " St Nicholas of Bari," 
which is his nearest approach to Titian, he retained his individual- 
ized, as opposed to Titian's generalized, expression of emotion. 
But it was only a passing phase, and he soon returned to the 
cooler schemes of his earlier work. Among his chief pictures 
executed in Venice between 1529 and 1540 are the " Christ and 
the Adulteress," now at the Louvre, the " Visitation " at the 
Jesi Library, the " Crucifixion " at Monte S. Giusto, the Madonna 
at the Uffizi, the " Madonna and Saints " at Cingoli, and some 
portraits at the Berlin and Vienna museums, the Villa Borghese 
and Doria Palace in Rome, and at Dorchester House. He is 
again to be found at Treviso from 1 542-1 545, at Ancona in 1 550, the 
year in which he entirely lost his voice; and in 1552 he " devoted 
his person and all his property to the Holy Virgin of Loreto " and 
took up his abode with the monks of that shrine. He died 
in 1556. A codex in his own handwriting, discovered in the 
archives of Loreto, not only includes a complete statement of 
his accounts from about 1539 to his death, but has a most 
interesting entry from whkh we gather that in 1540 Lotto 
completed the portraits of Martin Luther and his wife. These 
portraits could not have been painted from life; they were 
presumably executed from some contemporary engraving. 
See Lorenzo Lotto, by Bernard Berenson (London, 1901). 
LOTTO (Ital. for " lot "), a gambling game usually called Keno 
in America, played by any number of persons upon large boards 
or cards, each of which is divided into three horizontal rows of 
nine spaces, four spaces in each row being left blank and the other 
five marked with numbers up to 90. Each card is designated by 
a general number. The cards usually lie on the gambling-table, 
and a player may buy from the bank as many as he cares to use, 
each card being registered or pegged on an exposed table as soon 
as bought. Ninety small ivory markers, generally balls flattened 
on one side, numbered from i to 90, are placed in a bag and shaken 
out one by one, or, more usually, in a so-called keno-goose, a kind 
of urn with a spout through which the balls are allowed to roll by 
means of a spring. When a number falls out, the banker, or 
keno-roller, calls it out distinctly, and each player upon whose 
card that number occurs places a mark over it. This is repeated 
until one player has all the numbers in one row of his card 
covered, upon which he calls out " Keno ! " and wins all the 
money staked excepting a percentage to the bank. 

LOTUS, a popular name applied to several plants. The lotus 
ruits of the Greeks belonged to Zizyphus Lotus, a bush native 


in south Europe with fruits as large as sloes, containing a mealy 
substance which can be used for making bread and also a fer- 
mented drink. In ancient times the fruits were an important 
article of food among the poor; whence " lotophagi " or lotus- 
eaters. Zizyphus is a member of the natural order Rhamnaceae 
to which belongs the British buckthorn. The Egyptian lotus 
was a water-lily, Nymphaea Lotus; as also is the sacred lotus of 
the Hindus, Nelumbium speciosum. The lotus tree, known to 
the Romans as the Libyan lotus, and planted by them for shade, 
was probably Celtis australis, the nettle-tree (?..), a southern 
European tree, a native of the elm family, with fruits like small 
cherries, which are first red and then black. Lotus of botanists 
is a genus of the pea-family (Leguminosae) , containing a large 
number of species of herbs and undershrubs widely distributed 
in the temperate regions of the old world. It is represented in 
Britain by L. corniculatus, bird's foot trefoil, a low-growing herb, 
common in pastures and waste places, with clusters of small 
bright yellow pea-like flowers, which are often streaked with 
crimson; the popular name is derived from the pods which when 
ripe spread like the toes of a bird's foot. 

LOTUS-EATERS (Gr. Auro&ayoi) , a Libyan tribe known 
to the Greeks as early as the time of Homer. Herodotus (iv. 
177) describes their country as in the Libyan district bordering 
on the Syrtes, and says that a caravan route led from it to Egypt. 
Victor Berard identifies it with the modern Jerba. When 
Odysseus reached the country of the Lotophagi, many of his 
sailors after eating the lotus lost all wish to return home. Both 
Greeks and Romans used the expression " to eat the lotus " 
to denote forgetfulness (cf. Tennyson's poem " The Lotus- 
Eaters "). 

There has been considerable discussion as to the identification of 
the Homeric lotus. Some have held that it is a prickly shrub, 
Zizyphus Lotus, which bears a sweet-tasting fruit, and still grows 
in the old home of the Lotophagi. It is eaten by the natives, who 
also make a kind of wine from the juice. P. Champault (Pheniciens 
el Grecs en Italie d'aprks I'0dyss6e,p. 400, note 2), however, maintains 
that the lotus was a date; Victor BeVard (Les Pheniciens et I'Odyssee, 
1902-1903, ii. 102) is doubtful, but contends that it was certainly a 
tree-fruit. If either of these be correct, then the lotus of Od. iv. 
603-^04 is quite a different plant, a kind of clover. Now Strabo 
(xvii. 8290) calls the lotus rbav nvA. nal #fw. Putting these two 
references together with Sulpicius Severus, Dialogi i. 4. 4, R. M. 
Henry suggests that the Homeric lotus was really the ir6a of Strabo, 
i.e. a kind of clover (Classical Review, December 1906, p. 435). 

LOTZE, RUDOLF HERMANN (1817-1881), German philoso- 
pher, was born in Bautzen on the 2ist of May 1817, the son of a 
physician. He received his education in the gymnasium of 
Zittau under teachers who inspired him with an enduring love 
of the classical authors, as we see from his translation of the 
Antigone of Sophocles into Latin verse, published when he had 
reached middle life. He went to the university of Leipzig 
as a student of philosophy and natural sciences, but entered 
officially as a student of medicine. He was then only seventeen. 
It appears that thus early Lotze's studies were governed by two 
distinct interests. The first was scientific, based upon mathe- 
matical and physical studies under the guidance of E. H. Weber, 
W. Volckmann and G. T. Fechner. The other was his aesthetical 
and artistic interest, which was developed under the care of C. 
H. Weisse. To the former he owes his appreciation of exact 
investigation and a complete knowledge of the aims of science, 
to the latter an equal admiration for the great circle of ideas 
which had been diffused by the teaching of Fichte, Schelling 
and Hegel. Each of these influences, which early in life must 
have been familiar to him, tempered and modified the other. 
The true method of science which he possessed forced him to 
condemn as useless the entire form which Schelling's and Hegel's 
expositions had adopted, especially the dialectic method of the 
latter, whilst his love of art and beauty, and his appreciation of 
moral purposes, revealed to him the existence of a trans- 
phenomenal world of values into which no exact science could 
penetrate. It is evident how this initial position at once defined 
to him the tasks which philosophy had to perform. First there 
were the natural sciences, themselves only just emerging from 
a confused conception of their true method; especially those 

which studied the borderland of physical and mental phenomena, 
the medical sciences; and pre-eminently that science which 
has since become so popular, the science of biology. 

Lotze's first essay was his dissertation De fulurae biologiac 
principibus philosophicis, with which he gained (1838) the degree 
of doctor of medicine, after having only four months previously 
got the degree of doctor of philosophy. Then, secondly, there 
arose the question whether the methods of exact science sufficed 
to explain the connexion of phenomena, or whether for the ex- 
planation of this the thinking mind was forced to resort to some 
hypothesis not immediately verifiable by observation, but 
dictated by higher aspirations and interests. And, if to satisfy 
these we were forced to maintain the existence of a world of 
moral standards, it was, thirdly, necessary to form some opinion 
as to the relation of these moral standards of value to the forms 
and facts of phenomenal existence. These different tasks, 
which philosophy had to fulfil, mark pretty accurately the 
aims of Lotze's writings, and the order in which they were 
published. He laid the foundation of his philosophical system 
very early in his Melaphysik (Leipzig, 1841) and his Logik 
(1843), short books published while he was still a junior lecturer 
at Leipzig, from which university he migrated to Gottingen, 
succeeding Herbart in the chair of philosophy. But it was 
only during the last decade of his life that he ventured, with 
much hesitation, to present his ideas in a systematic and final 
form. The two books mentioned remained unnoticed by the 
reading public, and Lotze first became known to a larger circle 
through a series of works which aimed at establishing in the 
study of the physical and mental phenomena of the human 
organism in its normal and diseased states the same general 
principles which had been adopted in the investigation of in- 
organic phenomena. These works were his Allgemeine Pathologic 
und Therapie als mechanische Naturwissenscfiaflen (Leipzig, 
1842, 2nd ed., 1848), the articles " Lebenskraft " (1843) and 
" Seele und Seelenleben " (1846) in Rud. Wagner's Handworter- 
buch der Physiologic, his Allgemeine Physiologic des Korper- 
lichen Lebens (Leipzig, 1851), and his Medizinische Psychologic 
oder Physiologic der Seele (Leipzig, 1852). 

When Lotze published these works, medical science was still 
much under the influence of Schelling's philosophy of nature. 
The mechanical laws, to which external things were subject, 
were conceived as being valid only in the inorganic world; 
in the organic and mental worlds these mechanical laws were 
conceived as being disturbed or overridden by other powers, 
such as the influence of final causes, the existence of types, 
the work of vital and mental forces. This confusion Lotze, 
who had been trained in the school of mathematical reasoning, 
tried to dispel. The laws which govern particles of matter in 
the inorganic world govern them likewise if they are joined into 
an organism. A phenomenon a, if followed by b in the one case, 
is followed by the same ft also in the other case. Final causes, 
vital and mental forces, the soul itself can, if they act at .all, 
only act through the inexorable mechanism of natural laws. 
As we therefore have only to do with the study of existing 
complexes of material and spiritual phenomena, the changes 
in these must be explained in science by the rule of mechanical 
laws, such as obtain everywhere in the world, and only by such. 
One of the results of these investigations was to extend the 
meaning of the word mechanism, and comprise under it all laws 
which obtain in the phenomenal world, not excepting the 
phenomena of life and mind. Mechanism was the unalterable 
connexion of every phenomenon a with other phenomena ft, 
c, d, either as following or preceding it; mechanism was the 
inexorable form into which the events of this world are cast, 
and by which they are connected. The object of those writings 
was to establish the all-pervading rule of mechanism. But 
the mechanical view of nature is not identical with the material- 
istic. In the last of the above-mentioned works the question 
is discussed at great length how we have to consider mind, and 
the relation between mind and body; the answer is we have 
to consider mind as an immaterial principle, its action, however, 
on the body and vice versa as purely mechanical, indicated 


by the fixed laws of a psycho-physical mechanism. These 
doctrines of Lotze though pronounced with the distinct and 
reiterated reserve that they did not contain a solution of the 
philosophical question regarding the nature, origin, or deeper 
meaning of this all-pervading mechanism, neither an explanation 
how the action of external things on each other takes place 
nor yet of the relation of mind and body, that they were merely 
a preliminary formula of practical scientific value, itself requiring 
a deeper interpretation these doctrines were nevertheless 
by many considered to be the last word of the philosopher who, 
denouncing the reveries of Schelling or the idealistic theories 
of Hegel, established the science of life and mind on the same 
basis as that of material things. Published as they were during 
the years when the modern school of German materialism was 
at its height, 1 these works of Lotze were counted among the 
opposition literature which destroyed the phantom of Hegelian 
wisdom and vindicated the independent and self-sufficing 
position of empirical philosophy. Even philosophers of the 
eminence of I. H. Fichte (the younger) did not escape this mis- 
interpretation of Lotze's true meaning, though they had his 
Metaphysik and Logik to refer to, though he promised in his 
Allgemeine Physiologic (1851) to enter in a subsequent work 
upon the " bounding province between aesthetics and physi- 
ology," and though in his Medizinische Psychologic he had 
distinctly stated that his position was neither the idealism of 
Hegel nor the realism of Herbart, nor materialism, but that 
it was the conviction that the essence of everything is the part 
it plays in the realization of some idea which is in itself valuable, 
that the sense of an all-pervading mechanism is to be sought 
in this, that it denotes the ways and means by which the highest 
idea, which we may call the idea of the good, has voluntarily 
chosen to realize itself. 

The misinterpretations which he had suffered induced Lotze 
to publish a small pamphlet of a polemical character (Slreil- 
schriften, Leipzig, 1857), in which he corrected two mistakes. 
The opposition which he had made to Hegel's formalism had 
induced some to associate him with the materialistic school, 
others to count him among the followers of Herbart. Lotze 
publicly and formally denied that he belonged to the school of 
Herbart, though he admitted that historically the same doctrine 
which might be considered the forerunner of Herbart's teachings 
might lead to his own views, viz. the monadology of Leibnitz. 

When Lotze wrote these explanations, he had already given 
to the world the first volume of his great work, Mikrokosmus 
(vol. i. 1856, vol. ii. 1858, vol. iii. 1864; 3rd ed., 1876-1880). 
In many passages of his works on pathology, physiology, and 
psychology Lotze had distinctly stated that the method of 
research which he advocated there did not give an explanation 
of the phenomena of life and mind, but only the means of 
observing and connecting them together; that the meaning 
of all phenomena, and the reason of their peculiar connexions, 
was a philosophical problem which required to be attacked from 
a different point of view; and that the significance especially 
which lay in the phenomena of life and mind would only unfold 
itself if by an exhaustive survey of the entire life of man, in- 
dividually, socially, and historically, we gain the necessary 
data for deciding what meaning attaches to the existence of 
this microcosm, or small world of human life, in the macrocosm 
of the universe. This review, which extends, in three volumes, 
over the wide field of anthropology, beginning with the human 
frame, the soul, and their union in life, advancing to man, 
his mind, and the course of the world, and concluding with 
history, progress, and the connexion of things, ends with the 
same idea which was expressed in Lotze's earliest work, his 
Metaphysik. The view peculiar to him is reached in the end as 
the crowning conception towards which all separate channels 
of thought have tended, and in the light of which the life of man 
in nature and mind, in the individual and in society, had been 
surveyed. This view can be briefly stated as follows: Every- 
where in the wide realm of observation we find three distinct 

'See Vogt, Physiologische Briefe (1845-1847); Moleschott, Der 
Kreislauf des Lebens (1852) ; Biichner, Kraft and Staff (1855). 

regions, the region of facts, the region of laws and the region 
of standards of value. These three regions are separate only in 
our thoughts, not in reality. To comprehend the real position 
we are forced to the conviction that the world of facts is the 
field in which, and that laws are the means by which, those higher 
standards of moral and aesthetical value are being realized; 
and such a union can again only become intelligible through 
the idea of a personal Deity, who in the creation and preservation 
of a world has voluntarily chosen certain forms and laws, through 
the natural operation of which the ends of His work are gained. 
Whilst Lotze had thus in his published works closed the circle 
of his thought, beginning with a conception metaphysically 
gained, proceeding to an exhaustive contemplation of things 
in the light it afforded, and ending with the stronger conviction 
of its truth which observation, experience, and life could afford, 
he had all the time been lecturing on the various branches of 
philosophy according to the scheme of academical instruction 
transmitted from his predecessors. Nor can it be considered 
anything but a gain that he was thus induced to expound his 
views with regard to those topics, and in connexion with those 
problems, which were the traditional forms of philosophical 
utterance. His lectures ranged over a wide field: he delivered 
annually lectures on psychology and on logic (the latter including 
a survey of the entirety of philosophical research under the 
title Encydopadie der Philosophic), then at longer intervals 
lectures on metaphysics, philosophy of nature, philosophy of 
art, philosophy of religion, rarely on history of philosophy and 
ethics. In these lectures he expounded his peculiar views in 
a stricter form, and during the last decade of his life he embodied 
the substance of those courses in his System der Philosophic, 
of which only two volumes have appeared (vol. i. Logik, ist ed., 
Leipzig, 1874, 2nd ed., 1880; vol. ii. Metaphysik, 1879). The 
third and concluding volume, which was to treat in a more 
condensed form the principal problems of practical philosophy, 
of philosophy of art and religion, never appeared. A small 
pamphlet on psychology, containing the last form in which he 
had begun to treat the subject in his lectures (abruptly terminated 
through his death on the ist of July 1881) during the summer 
session of 1881, has been published by his son. Appended to 
this volume is a complete list of Lotze's writings, compiled by 
Professor Rehnisch of Gottingen. 

To understand this series of Lotze's writings, it is necessary to 
begin with his definition of philosophy. This is given after his 
exposition of logic has established two points, viz. the existence in 
our mind of certain laws and forms according to which we connect 
the material supplied to us by our senses, and, secondly, the fact that 
logical thought cannot be usefully employed without the assump- 
tion of a further set of connexions, not logically necessary, but 
assumed to exist between the data of experience and observation. 
These connexions of a real not formal character are handed to us 
by the separate sciences and by the usage and culture of everyday 
life. Language has crystallized them into certain definite notions 
and expressions, without which we cannot proceed a single step, 
but which we have accepted without knowing their exact meaning, 
much less their origin. In consequence the special sciences and the 
wisdom of common life entangle themselves easily and frequently 
in contradictions. A problem of a purely formal character thus 
presents itself, viz. this to try to bring unity and harmony into 
the scattered thoughts of our general culture, to trace them to their 
primary assumptions and follow them into their ultimate conse- 
quences, to connect them all together, to remodel, curtail or amplify 
them, so as to remove their apparent contradictions, and to combine 
them in the unity of an harmonious view of things, and especially 
to investigate those conceptions which form the initial assumptions 
of the several sciences, and to fix the limits of their applicability. 
This is the formal definition of philosophy. Whether an harmonious 
conception thus gained will represent more than an agreement 
among our thoughts, whether it will represent the real connexion of 
things and thus possess objective not merely subjective value, cannot 
be decided at the outset. It is also unwarranted to start with the 
expectation that everything in the world should be explained by one 
principle^ and it is a needless restriction of our means to expect unity 
of method. Nor are we able to start our philosophical investigations 
by an inquiry into the nature of human thought and its capacity to 
attain an objective knowledge, as in this case we would be actually 
using that instrument the usefulness of which we were trying to 
determine. The main proof of the objective value of the view we 
may gain will rather lie in the degree in which it succeeds in assigning 
to every element of culture its due position, or in which it is able to- 


appreciate and combine different and apparently opposite tendencies 
and interests, in the sort of justice with which it weighs our manifold 
desires and aspirations, balancing them in due proportions, refusing 
to sacrifice to a one-sided principle any truth or conviction which ex- 
perience has proven to be useful and necessary. The investigations 
will then naturally divide themselves into three parts, the first of 
which de?ls with those to our mind inevitable forms in which we 
are obliged to think about things, if we think at all (metaphysics), 
the second being devoted to the great region of facts, trying to 
apply the results of metaphysics to these, specially the two great 
regions of external and mental phenomena (cosmology and psy- 
chology), the third dealing with those standards of value from 
which we pronounce our aesthetical or ethical approval or dis- 
approval. In each department we shall have to aim first of all at 
views clear and consistent within themselves, but, secondly, we shall 
in the end wish to form some general idea or to risk an opinion how 
laws, facts and standards of value may be combined in one compre- 
hensive view. Considerations of this latter kind will naturally 
present themselves in the two great departments of cosmology and 
psychology, or they may be delegated to an independent research 
under the name of religious philosophy. We have already mentioned 
the final conception in which Lotze's speculation culminates, that of 
a personal Deity, Himself the essence of all that merits existence for 
its own sake, who in the creation and government of a world has 
voluntarily chosen certain laws and forms through which His ends 
are to be realized. We may add that according to this view nothing 
is real but the living spirit of God and the world of living spirits 
which He has created ; the things of this world have only reality in 
so far as they are the appearance of spiritual substance, which 
underlies everything. It is natural that Lotze, having this great 
and final conception always before him, works under its influence 
from the very beginning of his speculations, permitting us, as 
we progress, to gain every now ana then a glimpse of that inter- 
pretation of things which _to him contains the solution of our 

The key to Lotze's theoretical philosophy lies in his metaphysics, 
to the exposition of which important subject the first and last of 
his larger publications have been devoted. To understand Lotze's 
philosophy, a careful and repeated perusal of these works is abso- 
lutely necessary. The object of his metaphysics is so to remodel 
the current notions regarding the existence of things and their 
connexions with which the usage of language supplies us as to 
make them consistent and thinkable. The further assumption, 
that the modified notions thus gained have an objective meaning, 
and that they somehow correspond to the real order of the existing 
world which of course they can never actually describe, depends 
upon a general confidence which we must have in our reasoning 
powers, and in the significance of a world in which we ourselves 
with all the necessary courses of our thoughts have a due place 
assigned. The principle therefore of these investigations is opposed 
to two attempts frequently repeated in the history of philosophy, 
viz.: (l) the attempt to establish general laws or forms, which the 
development of things must have obeyed, or which a Creator must 
have followed in the creation of a world (Hegel) ; and (2) the attempt 
to trace the genesis of our notions and decide as to their meaning and 
value (modern theories of knowledge). Neither of these attempts is 
practicable. The world of many things surrounds us; our notions, 
by which we manage correctly or incorrectly to describe it, are also 
ready made. What remains to be done is, not to explain how such a 
world manages to be what it is, nor how we came to form these 
notions, but merely this to expel from the circle and totality of our 
conceptions those abstract notions which are inconsistent and jarring, 
or to remode| and define them so that they may constitute a consistent 
and harmonious view. In this endeavour Lotze discards as useless 
and untenable many favourite conceptions of the school, many crude 
notions of everyday life. The course of things and their connexion 
is only thinkable by the assumption of a plurality of existences, the 
reality of which (as distinguished from our knowledge of them) can 
be conceived only as a multitude of relations. This quality of 
standing in relation to other things is that which gives to a thing its 
reality. And the nature of this reality again can neither be con- 
sistently represented as a fixed and hard substance nor as an un- 
alterable something, but only as a fixed order of recurrence of 
continually changing events or impressions. But, further, every 
attempt to think clearly what those relations are, what we really 
mean, if we talk of a fixed order of events, forces upon us the necessity 
of thinking also that the different things which stand in relations or 
the different phases which follow each other cannot be merely 
externally strung together or moved about by some indefinable 
external power, in the form of some predestination or inexorable fate. 
The things themselves which exist and their changing phases must 
stand in some internal connexion; they themselves must be active 
or passive, capable of doing or suffering. This would lead to the view 
of Leibnitz, that the world consists of monads, self-sufficient beings, 
leading an inner life. But this idea involves the further conception 
of Leibnitz, that of a pre-established harmony, by which the Creator 
has taken care to arrange the life of each monad, so that it agrees 
with that of all others. This conception, according to Lotze, is 
neither necessary nor thoroughly intelligible. Why not interpret at 
once and render intelligible the common conception originating 

in natural science, viz. that of a system of laws which governs the 
many things? But, in attempting to make this conception quite 
clear and thinkable, we are forced to represent the connexion of 
things as a universal substance, the essence of which we conceive as 
a system of laws which underlies everything and in its own self 
connects everything, but imperceptible, and known to us merely 
through the impressions it produces on us, which we call things. 
A final reflection then teaches us that the nature of this universal 
and all-pervading substance can only be imagined by us as some- 
thing analogous to our own mental life, where alone we experience 
the unity of a substance (which we call self) preserved in the multi- 
tude of its (mental) states. It also becomes clear that only where 
such mental life really appears need we assign an independent 
existence, but that the purposes of everyday life as well as those of 
science are equally served if we deprive the material things outside 
of us of an independence, and assign to them merely a connected 
existence through the universal substance by the action of which 
alone they can appear to us. 

The universal substance, which we may call the absolute, is at 
this stage of our investigations not endowed with the attributes 
of a personal Deity, and it will remain to be seen by further analysis 
in how far we are able without contradiction to identify it 
with the object of religious veneration, in how far that which to 
metaphysics is merely a postulate can be gradually brought nearer 
to us and become a living power. Much in this direction is said 
by Lotze in various passages of his writings; anything complete, 
however, on the subject is wanting. Nor would it seem as if it 
could be the intention of the author to do much more than point 
out the lines on which the further treatment of the subject should 
advance. The actual result of his personal inquiries, the great idea 
which lies at the foundation of his philosophy, we know. It may 
be safely stated that Lotze would allow much latitude to individual 
convictions, as indeed it is evident that the empty notion of an 
absolute can only become living and significant to us in the same 
decree as experience and thought have taught us to realize the 
seriousness of life, the significance of creation, the value of the 
beautiful and the good, and the supreme worth of personal holiness. 
To endow the universal substance with moral attributes, to maintain 
that it is more than the metaphysical ground of everything, to say 
it is the perfect realization of the holy, the beautiful and the good, 
can only have a meaning for him who feels within himself what 
real not imaginary values are clothed in those expressions. 

We have still to mention that aesthetics formed a principal and 
favourite study of Lotze's, and that he has treated this subject also 
in the light of the leading ideas of his philosophy. See his essays 
Ueber den Begriff der Schonheil (Gottingen, 1845) and Ueber Bedin- 
gungen der Kunstschonheit, ibid. (1847); and especially his Geschichte 
der Aesthetik in Deutschland (Munich, 1868). 

Lotze's historical position is of much interest. Though he dis- 
claims being a follower of Herbart, his formal definition of philosophy 
and his conception of the object of metaphysics are similar to those 
of Herbart, who defines philosophy as an attempt to remodel the 
notions given by experience. In this endeavour he forms with Her- 
bart an opposition to the philosophies of Fichte, Schelling and Hegel, 
which aimed at objective and absolute knowledge, and also to the 
criticism of Kant, which aimed at determining the validity of all 
human knowledge. But this formal agreement includes material 
differences, and the spirit which breathes in Lotze's writings is more 
akin to the objects and aspirations of the idealistic school than to the 
cold formalism of Herbart. What, however, with the idealists was 
an object of thought alone, the absolute, is to Lotze only inadequately 
definable in rigorous philosophical language; the aspirations bf the 
human heart, the contents of our feelings and desires, the aims of art 
and the tenets of religious faith must be grasped in order to fill the 
empty idea of the absolute with meaning. These manifestations of 
the divine spirit again cannot be traced and understood by reducing 
(as Hegel did) the growth of the human mind in the individual, in 
society and in history to the monotonous rhythm of a speculative 
schematism; the essence and worth which is in them reveals itself 
only to the student of detail, for reality is larger and wider than 
philosophy; the problem, " how the one can be many," is only solved 
for us in the numberless examples in life and experience which 
surround us, for which we must retain a lifelong interest and which 
constitute the true field of all useful human work. This conviction 
of the emptiness of terms and abstract notions, and of the fulness 
of individual life, has enabled Lotze to combine in his writings the 
two courses into which German philosophical thought had been 
moving since the death of its great founder, Leibnitz. We may 
define these courses by the terms esoteric and exoteric the former 
the philosophy of the school, cultivated principally at the universities, 
trying to systematize everything and reduce all our knowledge to an 
intelligible principle, losing in this attempt the deeper meaning of 
Leibnitz's philosophy; the latter the unsystematized philosophy of 
general culture which we find in the work of the great writers of the 
classical period, Lessing, Winkelmann, Goethe, Schiller and Herder, 
all of whom expressed in some degree their indebtedness to Leibnitz. 
Lotze can be said to have brought philosophy out of the lecture- 
room into the market-place of life. By understanding and combining 
what was great and valuable in those divided and scattered en- 
deavours, he became the true successor of Leibnitz. 


The age in which Lotze lived and wrote in Germany was not one 
peculiarly fitted to appreciate the position he took up. Frequently 
misunderstood, yet rarely criticized, he was nevertheless greatly 
admired, listened to by devoted hearers and read by an increasing 
circle. But this circle never attained to the unity of a philosophical 
school. The real meaning of Lotze's teaching is reached only by 
patient study, and those who in a larger or narrower sense call them- 
selves his followers will probably feel themselves indebted to him 
more for the general direction he has given to their thoughts, for the 
tone he has imparted to their inner life, for the seriousness with which 
he has taught them to consider even small affairs and practical duties, 
and for the indestructible confidence with which his philosophy 
permits them to disregard the materialism of science, the scepticism 
of shallow culture, the disquieting results of philosophical and 
historical criticism. 

See E. Pfleiderer, Lotze's philosophische Weltanschauung nach ihren 
Grundzugen (Berlin, 1882; 2nd ed., 1884); E. von Hartmann, 
Lotze's Philosophic (Leipzig, 1888); O. Caspari, H. Lotze in seiner 
Stellung zu der durch Kant begrundeten neuesten Geschichte der Phil- 
osophic (Breslau, 1883; 2nd ed., 1894); R. Falckenberg, Hermann 
Lotze (Stuttgart, 1901); Henry Jones, A Critical Account of the 
Philosophy of Lotze (Glasgow, 1895)7 Paul Lange, Die Lehre vom 
Instincte bei Lotze und Darwin (Berlin, 1896); A. Lichtenstein, Lotze 
and Wundt (Bern, 1900). (J- T. M.; H. ST.) 

LOUBET, SMILE FRANCOIS (1838- ), 7th president of 
the French republic, was born on the 3oth of December 1838, 
the son of a peasant proprietor at Marsanne (Dr6me), who was 
more than once mayor of Marsanne. He was admitted to the 
Parisian bar in 1862, and took his doctorate-in-law next year. 
He was still a student when he witnessed the sweeping triumph 
of the Republican party in Paris at the general election in 1863. 
He settled down to the exercise of his profession in Montelimar, 
where he married in 1869 Marie Louis Picard. He also inherited 
a small estate at Grignan. At the crisis of 1870 he became 
mayor of Montelimar, and thenceforward was a steady supporter 
of Gambetta's policy. Elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 

1876 by Montelimar he was one of the famous 363 who in June 

1877 passed the vote of want of confidence in the ministry of 
the due de Broglie. In the general election of October he was 
re-elected, local enthusiasm for him being increased by the fact 
that the government had driven him from the mayoralty. 
In the Chamber he occupied himself especially with education, 
fighting the clerical system established by the Loi Falloux, and 
working for the establishment of free, obligatory and secular 
primary instruction. In 1880 he became president of the depart- 
mental council in Dr6me. His support of the second Jules 
Ferry ministry and his zeal for the colonial expansion of France 
gave him considerable weight in the moderate Republican party. 
He had entered the Senate in 1885, and he became minister of 
public works in the Tirard ministry (December 1887 to March 
1888). In 1892 President Sadi Carnot, who was his personal 
friend, asked iim to form a cabinet. Loubet held the portfolio 
of the interior with the premiership, and had to deal with the 
anarchist crimes of that year and with the great strike of 
Carmaux, in which he acted as arbitrator, giving a decision 
regarded in many quarters as too favourable to the strikers. 
He was defeated in November on the question of the Panama 
scandals, but he retained the ministry of the interior in the next 
cabinet under Alexandra Ribot, though he resigned on its re- 
construction in January. His reputation as an orator of great 
force and lucidity of exposition and as a safe and honest states- 
man procured for him in 1896 the presidency of the Senate, and 
in February 1899 he was chosen president of the republic in 
succession to Felix Faure by 483 votes as against 279 recorded 
by Jules Meline, his only serious competitor. He was marked 
out for fierce opposition and bitter insult as the representative 
of that section of the Republican party which sought the revision 
of the Dreyfus case. On the day of President Faure's funeral 
Paul Deroulede met the troops under General Roget on their 
return to barracks, and demanded that the general should march 
on the filysee. Roget sensibly took his troops back to barracks. 
At the Auteuil steeplechase in June the president was struck 
on the head with a cane by an anti-Dreyfusard. In that month 
President Loubet summoned Waldeck-Rousseau to form a 
cabinet, and at the same time entreated Republicans of all 
shades of opinion to rally to the defence of the state. By the 

efforts of Loubet and Waldeck-Rousseau the Dreyfus affair was 
settled, when Loubet, acting on the advice of General Galh'ffet, 
minister of war, remitted the ten years' imprisonment to which 
Dreyfus was condemned at Rennes. Loubet 's presidency saw 
an acute stage of the clerical question, which was attacked 
by Waldeck-Rousseau and in still more drastic fashion by the 
Combes ministry. The French ambassador was recalled from 
the Vatican in April 1905, and in July the separation of church 
and state was voted in the Chamber of Deputies. Feeling had 
run high between France and England over the mutual 
criticisms passed on the conduct of the South African War and 
the Dreyfus case respectively. These differences were composed 
by the Anglo-French entente, and in 1904 a convention between 
the two countries secured the recognition of French claims in 
Morocco in exchange for non-interference with the English 
occupation of Egypt. President Loubet was a typical example 
of the peasant-proprietor class, and had none of the aristocratic, 
not to say monarchical, proclivities of President Faure. He 
inaugurated the Paris Exhibition of 1900, received the tsar 
Nicholas II. in September 1901 and paid a visit to Russia in 
1902. He also exchanged visits with King Edward VII., 
with the king of Italy and the king of Spain. The king of Spain's 
visit in 1905 was the occasion of an attempt on his life, a bomb 
being thrown under his carriage as he was proceeding with his 
guest to the opera. His presidency came to an end in January 
1906, when he retired into private life. 

Austrian soldier, was born at Tootzen in Livonia, on the 2nd of 
February 1717. His family, of Scottish origin, 1 had been settled 
in that country since before 1400. His father was a lieutenant- 
colonel, retired on a meagre pension from the Swedish service, 
and the boy was sent in 1732 into the Russian army as a cadet. 
He took part in Field Marshal Miinnich's siege of Danzig in 
1734, in the march of a Russian corps to the Rhine in 1735 and 
in the Turkish war 1738-1739. Dissatisfied with his prospects 
he resigned in 1741 and sought military employment elsewhere. 
He applied first to Frederick the Great, who declined his services. 
At Vienna he had better fortune, being made a captain in Trenck's 
free corps. He took part in its forays and marches, though not 
in its atrocities, until wounded and taken prisoner in Alsace. 
He was shortly released by the advance of the main Austrian 
army. His next active service, still under Trenck, was in the 
Silesian mountains in 1745, in which campaign he greatly dis- 
tinguished himself as a leader of light troops. He was present 
also at Soor. He retired shortly afterwards, owing to his distaste 
for the lawless habits of his comrades in the irregulars, and after 
long waiting in poverty for a regular commission he was at last 
made a captain in one of the frontier regiments, spending the 
next ten years in half-military, half-administrative work in the 
Carlstadt district. At Bunich, where he was stationed, he built 
a church and planted an oak forest now called by his name. 
He had reached the rank of lieutenant-colonel when the outbreak 
of the Seven Years' War called him again into the field. From 
this point began his fame as a soldier. Soon promoted colonel, 
he distinguished himself repeatedly and was in 1757 made a 
General-feldwacht-meister (major-general of cavalry) and a 
knight of the newly founded order of Maria Theresa. In the 
campaign of 1758 came his first opportunity for fighting an 
action as a commander-in-chief, and he used it so well that 
Frederick the Great was obliged to give up the siege of Olmiitz 
and retire into Bohemia (action of Dom-stadtl, 3oth of June). 
He was rewarded with the grade of lieutenant-field-marshal 
and having again shown himself an active and daring com- 
mander in the campaign of Hochkirch, he was created a Freiherr 
in the Austrian nobility by Maria Theresa and in the peerage 
of the Holy Roman Empire by her husband the emperor Francis. 
Maria Theresa gave him, further, the grand cross of the order 
she had founded and an estate near Kuttenberg in Bohemia. 
He was placed in command of the Austrian contingent sent to 

1 His name is phonetically spelt Laudon or Laudohn by Germans, 
and the latter form was that adopted by himself and his family. 
In 1759, however, he reverted to the original Scottish form. 



join the Russians on the Oder. At Kunersdorf he turned defeat 
into a brilliant victory, and was promoted Feldzeugmeister 
and made commander-in-chief in Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia. 
In 1760 he destroyed a whole corps of Frederick's army under 
Fouqu6 at Landshut and stormed the important fortress of 
Glatz. In 1 760 he sustained a reverse at Frederick's hands in the 
battle of Liegnitz (Aug. isth, 1760), which action led to bitter 
controversy with Daun and Lacy, the commanders of the main 
army, who, Loudon claimed, had left his corps unsupported. 
In 1761 he operated, as usual, in Silesia, but he found his Russian 
allies as timid as they had been after Kunersdorf, and all attempts 
against Frederick's entrenched camp of Bunzelwitz (see SEVEN 
YEARS' WAR) failed. He brilliantly seized his one fleeting 
opportunity, however, and stormed Schweidnitz on the night of 
Sept. 30/October ist, 1761. His tireless activity continued to the 
end of the war, in conspicuous contrast with the temporizing 
strategy of Daun and Lacy. The student of the later campaigns 
of the Seven Years' War will probably admit that there was 
need of more aggressiveness than Daun displayed, and of more 
caution than suited Loudon's genius. But neither recognized 
this, and the last three years of the war are marked by an ever- 
increasing friction between the " Fabius " and the " Marcellus," 
as they were called, of the Austrian army. 

After the peace, therefore, when Daun became the virtual 
commander-in-chief of the army, Loudon fell into the back- 
ground. Offers were made, by Frederick the Great amongst 
others, to induce Loudon to transfer his services elsewhere. 
Loudon did not entertain these proposals, although negotiations 
went on for some years, and on Lacy succeeding Daun as president 
of the council of war Loudon was made inspector-general of 
infantry. Dissensions, however, continued between Loudon 
and Lacy, and on the accession of Joseph II., who was intimate 
with his rival, Loudon retired to his estate near Kuttenberg. 
Maria Theresa and Kaunitz caused him, however, to be made 
commander-in-chief in Bohemia and Moravia in 1769. This 
post he held for three years, and at the end of this time, con- 
templating retirement from the service, he settled again on his 
estate. Maria Theresa once more persuaded him to remain in 
the army, and, as his estate had diminished in value owing to 
agrarian troubles in Bohemia, she repurchased it from him 
(1776) on generous terms. Loudon then settled at Hadersdorf 
near Vienna, and shortly afterwards was made a field-marshal. 
Of this Carlyle (Frederick the Great) records that when Frederick 
the Great met Loudon in 1776 he deliberately addressed him 
in the emperor's presence as " Herr Feldmarschall." But the 
hint was not taken until February 1778. 

In 1778 came the War of the Bavarian Succession. Joseph 
and Lacy were now reconciled to Loudon, and Loudon and Lacy 
commanded the two armies in the field. On this occasion, 
however, Loudon seems to have in a measure fallen below his 
reputation, while Lacy, who was opposed to Frederick's own 
army, earned new laurels. For two years after this Loudon 
lived quietly at Hadersdorf, and then the reverses of other 
generals in the Turkish War called him for the last time into the 
field. Though old and broken in health, he was commander-in- 
chief in fact as well as in name, and he won a last brilliant success 
by capturing Belgrade in three weeks, 1789. He died within the 
year, on the I4th of July at Neu-Titschein in Moravia, still 
on duty. His last appointment was that of commander-in-chief 
of the armed forces of Austria, which had been created for him 
by the new emperor Leopold. Loudon was buried in the grounds 
of Hadersdorf. Eight years before his death the emperor 
Joseph had caused a marble bust of this great soldier to be 
placed in the chamber of the council of war. 

His son JOHANN LUDWIG ALEXIUS, Freiherr von Loudon 
(1762-1822) fought in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars 
with credit, and rose to the rank of lieutenant-field-marshal. 

See memoir by v. Arneth in AUgemeine deutsche Biographie, s.v. 
" Laudon," and life by G. B. Malleson. 

Scottish politician, eldest son of Sir James Campbell of Lawers, 
became Baron Loudoun in right of his wife Margaret, grand- 

daughter of Hugh Campbell, ist Baron Loudoun (d. 1622). He 
was created earl on the i2th of May 1633, but in consequence 
of his opposition to Charles I.'s church policy in Scotland the 
patent was stopped in Chancery. In 1637 he was one of the 
supplicants against the introduction of the English liturgy; 
and with John Leslie, 6th earl of Rothes, he took a leading part 
in the promulgation of the Covenant and in the General Assembly 
which met at Glasgow in the autumn of 1638. He served under 
General Leslie, and was one of the Scottish commissioners at the 
Pacification of Berwick in June 1639. In November of that year 
and again in 1640 the Scottish estates sent Loudoun with Charles 
Seton, 2nd earl of Dunfermline, to London on an embassy to 
Charles I. Loudoun intrigued with the French ambassador and 
with Thomas Savile, afterwards earl of Sussex, but without much 
success. He was in London when John Stewart, earl of Traquair, 
placed in Charles's hands a letter signed by Loudoun and six 
others and addressed to Louis XIII. In spite of his protest that 
the letter was never sent, and that it would in any case be covered 
by the amnesty granted at Berwick, he was sent to the Tower. 
He was released in June, and two months later he re-entered 
England with the Scottish invading army, and was one of the 
commissioners at Ripon in October. In the following August 
(1641) Charles opened parliament at Edinburgh in person, and 
in pursuance of a policy of conciliation towards the leaders of the 
Covenant Loudoun was made lord chancellor of Scotland, and 
his title of earl of Loudoun was allowed. He also became first 
commissioner of the treasury. In 1642 he was sent by the Scottish 
council to York to offer to mediate in the dispute between 
Charles and the parliament, and later on to Oxford, but in the 
second of these instances Charles refused to accept his authority. 
He was constantly employed in subsequent negotiations, and in 
1647 was sent to Charles at Carisbrooke Castle, but the " Engage- 
ment " to assist the king there made displeased the extreme 
Covenanters, and Loudoun was obliged to retract his support of 
it. He was now entirely on the side of the duke of Argyll and 
the preachers. He assisted in the capacity of lord chancellor 
at Charles II.'s coronation at Scone, and was present at Dunbar. 
He joined in the royalist rising of 1653, but eventually sur- 
rendered to General Monk. His estates were forfeited by 
Cromwell, and a sum of money settled on the countess and her 
heirs. At the Restoration he was removed from the chancellor- 
ship, but a pension of 1000 granted him by Charles I. in 1643 
was still allowed him. In 1662 he was heavily fined. He died 
in Edinburgh on the isth of March 1663. 

The earl's elder son, James (d. 1684), and earl of Loudoun, passed 
his life out of Great Britain, and when he died at Leiden was suc- 
ceeded by his son Hugh (d. 1731). The 3rd earl held various high 
positions in England and Scotland, being chosen one of the repre- 
sentative peers for Scotland at the union of the parliaments in 1707. 
He rendered good service to the government during the rising of 
1715, especially at the battle of Sheriff muir, and was succeeded 
as 4th earl by his son John (1705-1782), who fought against the 
Jacobites in 1745, was commander-in-chief of the British force in 
America in 1756 and died unmarried. The title then passed to 
James Mure Campbell (d. 1786), a grandson of the 2nd earl, and was 
afterwards borne Dy the marquesses of Hastings, descendants of the 
5th earl's daughter and heiress, Flora (1780-1840). Again revert- 
ing to a female on the death of Henry, 4th marquess of Hastings, 
in 1868, it came afterwards to Charles (b. 1855), a nephew of this 
marquess, who became nth earl of Loudoun. 

LOUDUN, a town of western France, capital of an arrondisse- 
ment in the department of Vienne, on an eminence overlooking 
a fertile plain, 45 m. by rail S.W.of Tours. Pop. (1906) 3931. 
It was formerly surrounded by walls, of which a single gateway 
and two towers remain. Of the old castle of the counts of Anjou 
which was destroyed under Richelieu, the site now forming a 
public promenade, a fine rectangular donjon of the 1 2th century 
is preserved; at its base traces of Roman constructions have 
been found, with fragments of porphyry pavement, mosaics and 
mural paintings. The Carmelite convent was the scene of the 
trial of Urban Grandier, who was burnt alive for witchcraft in 
1634; the old Romanesque church of Sainte Croix, of which he 
was cure, is now used as a market. The church of St Pierre-du- 
MarchS, Gothic in style with a Renaissance portal, has a lofty 
stone spire. There are several curious old houses in the town. 



Theophraste Renaudot (d. 1653), founder of the Gazette de France, 
was born at Loudun, where there is a statue of him. The manu- 
facture of lace and upholstery trimming and of farm implements 
is carried on, and there is a considerable trade in agricultural 
products, wine, &c. Loudun (La.ud.unum in ancient times) was 
a town of importance during the religious wars and gave its 
name in 1616 to a treaty favourable to the Protestants. 

LOUGHBOROUGH, a market town and municipal borough in 
the Loughborough (Mid) parliamentary division of Leicestershire, 
England, near the river Soar and on the Loughborough canal. 
Pop. (1901) 21,508. It is no m. N.N.W. of London by the 
Midland railway, and is served by the Great Central and a 
branch of the London and North- Western railways. The neigh- 
bourhood is a rich agricultural district, and to the S.W. lies 
the hilly tract known as Charnwood Forest. The church of All 
Saints stands on rising ground, and is a conspicuous object for 
many miles round; it is of Decorated work, and the tower is 
Perpendicular. The other churches are modern. Public build- 
ings include the town hall and exchange, town offices, county 
hall and free library. The grammar school, founded in 1495 
under the charity of Thomas Burton, occupies modern buildings 
in pleasant grounds. There is also a girls' grammar school partly 
dependent on the same foundation. The principal industry is 
hosiery making; there are also engineering, iron and dye works 
and bell foundries. The great bell for St Paul's- cathedral, 
London, was cast here in 1881. Loughborough was incorporated 
in 1888. Area, 3045 acres. 

The manor of Loughborough (Lucleburne, Lucteburg, Lughte- 
burgh) was granted by William the Conqueror to Hugh Lupus, 
from whom it passed to the Despensers. In 1226-1227 when it 
belonged to Hugh Despenser he obtained various privileges for 
himself and his men and tenants there, among which were 
quittance from suits at the county and hundred courts, of sheriffs' 
aids and of view of frankpledge, and also a market every Thursday 
and a fair on the vigil, day and morrow of St Peter ad vincula. 
The market rights were purchased by the town in 1880 from the 
trustees of Thomas Cradock, late lord of the manor. Edward II. 
visited the manor several times when it belonged to his favourite, 
Hugh Despenser the elder. Among the subsequent lords were 
Henry de Beaumont and Alice his wife, Sir Edward Hastings, 
created Baron Hastings of Loughborough in 1558, Colonel Henry 
Hastings, created baron in 1645, and the earls of Huntingdon. 
Alexander Wedderburn was created Baron Loughborough in 
1780 when he became chief justice of the common pleas. During 
the igth century most of the manorial rights were purchased by 
the local board. Loughborough was at first governed by a bailiff, 
afterwards by a local board, and was finally incorporated in 1888 
under a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors. It has never been 
represented in parliament. Lace-making was formerly the chief 
industry, but machines for making lace set up in the town by John 
Heathcote were destroyed by the Luddites in 1816, and the 
manufacture lost its importance. Bell-founding was introduced 
in 1840. John Cleveland, the Royalist poet, was born at 
Loughborough in 1613, John Howe the painter in 1630 and 
Richard Pulteney the botanist in 1730. 

See Victoria County History, Leicestershire; W. G. D. Fletcher, 
Chapters in the History of Loughborough (1883) ; Sir Thomas Pochin, 
" Historical Description of Loughborough " (1770) (vol. viii. of 
Bibliotheca topographica Britannica). 

LOUGHREA, a market town of Co. Galway, Ireland, 
pleasantly situated on the N. shore of Lough Rea, 116 m. W. from 
Dublin by a branch from Attymon Junction on the Midland 
Great Western railway. Pop. (1901), 2815. There are slight 
remains of an Early English Carmelite friary dating c. 1300, which 
escaped the Dissolution. Loughrea is the seat of the Roman 
Catholic bishop of Clonfert, and has a cathedral built in 1900- 
1905. A part of the castle of Richard de Burgh, the founder of 
the friary, still survives, and there are traces of the town fortifica- 
tions. In the neighbourhood are a cromlech and two ruined 
towers, and crannogs, or ancient stockaded islands, have been 
discovered in the lough. Apart from the surroundings of the 
lough, the neighbouring country is peculiarly desolate. 

LOUGHTON, an urban district in the Epping parliamentary 
division of Essex, England, 113 m. N.N.E. of Liverpool Street 
station, London, by the Great Eastern railway. Pop. (1901), 
4730. This is one of the villages which has become the centre of 
a residential district, and is frequented by holiday-makers from 
London, owing to its proximity to the pleasant woodland scenery 
of Epping Forest. It lies on the eastern outskirts of the Forest, 
near the river Roding. There are several modern churches. 
The lordship of the manor was granted to Waltham Abbey. 
In the vicinity are large earthworks, probably of British origin, 
known as Loughton Camp. 

LOUHANS, a town of east-central France in the old province 
of Franche-Comte, now capital of an arrondissement in the 
department of Saone-et-Loire, 34 m. N.N.E. of Macon by road. 
Pop. ( 1 906) ,3216. Its church has a fine to wer of the 1 5th century, 
of which the balustrade is carved so as to form the first words 
of the Ave Maria. There are also a hospital of the i7th century 
with a collection of ancient earthenware, a town-hall of the i8th 
century and remains of ramparts of the i6th and i7th century. 
The town is the central market of the agricultural plain of Bresse; 
chickens form the chief article of commerce. There is also a 
large felt-hat manufactory. 

LOUIS, or LEWIS (from the Prankish Chlodowich, Chlodwig, 
Latinized as Chlodowius, Lodhuwicus, Lodhuvicus, whence in 
the Strassburg oath of 842 O. Fr. Lodhuwigs, then Chlovis, Lays 
and later Louis, whence Span. Luiz and through the Angevin 
kings Hungarian Ldjos; cf. Ger. Ludwig or Ludewig, from 
O. H. Ger. Hluduwlc, Hludwig, Ludhuwig, M. H. Ger. Ludewic; 
Ital. Lodovico), a masculine proper name, meaning " Fame-fight " 
or " Famous in fight," from old Frankish Mud, Mod (0. H. Ger. 
ftlud, Mod), " fame," and wich (O. H. Ger. wtc., wig, A.S. wig) 
" war," " battle " (cf. Gr. KXwoyuaxoj). The name has been 
borne by numerous European sovereigns and others, of whom 
some are noticed below in the following order: (i) Roman 
emperors and Frankish and German kings, (2) kings of Bavaria, 
(3) kings of France, (4) kings of Hungary, (5) kings of Naples, 
(6) Louis of Nassau. (Louis Philippe, king of the French, is dealt 
with separately.) 

LOUIS I. (778-840), surnamed the " Pious," Roman emperor, 
third son of the emperor Charlemagne and his wife Hildegarde, 
was born at Chasseneuil in central France, and crowned king of 
Aquitaine in 781. He received a good education; but as his 
tastes were ecclesiastical rather than military, the government 
of his kingdom was mainly conducted by his counsellors. Louis, 
however, gained sound experience in warfare in the defence of 
Aquitaine, shared in campaigns against the Saxons and the Avars, 
and led an army to Italy in 792. In 794 or 795 he married 
Irmengarde, daughter of Ingram, count of Haspen. After the 
deaths of his two elder brothers, Louis, at his father's command, 
crowned himself co-emperor at Aix-la-Chapelle on the nth of 
September 813, and was formally associated in the government 
of the Empire, of which he became sole ruler, in the following 
January. He earned the surname of " Pious " by banishing 
his sisters and others of immoral life from court; by attempting 
to reform and purify monastic life; and by showing great 
liberality to the church. In October 816 he was crowned 
emperor at Reims by Pope Stephen IV.; and at Aix in July 
817, he arranged for a division of his Empire among his sons. 
This was followed by a revolt of his nephew, Bernard, king of 
Italy; but the rising was easily suppressed, and Bernard was 
mutilated and killed. The emperor soon began to repent of 
this cruelty, and when his remorse had been accentuated by the 
death of his wife in 818, he pardoned the followers of Bernard 
and restored their estates, and in 822 did public penance at 
Attigny. In 819 he married Judith, daughter of Welf I., count 
of Bavaria, who in 823 bore him a son Charles, afterwards 
called the Bald. Judith made unceasing efforts to secure a 
kingdom for her child; and with the support of her eldest 
step-son Lothair, a district was carved out for Charles in 829. 
Discontent at this arrangement increased to the point of rebellion, 
which broke out the following year, provoked by Judith's in- 
trigues with Bernard, count of Barcelona, whom she had installed 


as her favourite at court. Lothair and his brother Pippin joined 
the rebels, and after Judith had been sent into a convent and 
Bernard had fled to Spain, an assembly was held at Compiegne, 
when Louis was practically deposed and Lothair became the 
real ruler of the Empire. Sympathy was, however, soon aroused 
for the emperor, who was treated as a prisoner, and a second 
assembly was held at Nimwegen in October 830 when, with 
the concurrence of his sons Pippin and Louis, he was restored to 
power and Judith returned to court. 

Further trouble between Pippin and his father led to the 
nominal transfer of Aquitaine from Pippin to his brother 
Charles in 831. The emperor's plans for a division of his 
dominions then led to a revolt of his three sons. Louis met them 
in June 833 near Kolmar, but owing possibly to the influence 
of Pope Gregory IV., who took part in the negotiations, he found 
himself deserted by his supporters, and the treachery and 
falsehood which marked the proceedings gave to the place the 
name of Lugenfeld, or the " field of lies." Judith, charged 
with infidelity, was again banished; Louis was sent into the 
monastery of St Medard at Soissons; and the government of 
the Empire was assumed by his sons. The emperor was forced 
to confess his sins, and declare himself unworthy of the throne, 
but Lothair did not succeed in his efforts to make his father 
a monk. Sympathy was again felt for Louis, and when the 
younger Louis had failed to induce Lothair to treat the emperor 
in a more becoming fashion, he and Pippin took up arms on 
behalf of their father. The result was that in March 834 Louis 
was restored to power at St Denis; Judith once more returned 
to his side and the kingdoms of Louis and Pippin were increased. 
The struggle with Lothair continued until the autumn, when 
he submitted to the emperor and was confined to Italy. To 
make the restoration more complete, a great assembly at Dieden- 
hofen declared the deposition of Louis to have been contrary 
to law, and a few days later he was publicly restored in the 
cathedral of Metz. In December 838 Pippin died, and a new 
arrangement was made by which the Empire, except Bavaria, 
the kingdom of Louis, was divided between Lothair, now 
reconciled to his father, and Charles. The emperor was returning 
from suppressing a revolt on the part of his son Louis, provoked 
by this disposition, when he died on the 2oth of June 840 on an 
island in the Rhine near Ingelheim. He was buried in the church 
of St Arnulf at Metz. Louis was a man of strong frame, who 
loved the chase, and did not shrink from the hardships of war. 
He was, however, easily influenced and was unequal to the govern- 
ment of the Empire bequeathed to him by his father. No 
sustained effort was made to ward off the inroads of the Danes 
and others, who were constantly attacking the borders of the 
Empire. Louis, who is also called Le Dtbonnaire, counts as 
Louis I., king of France. 

See Annales Fuldenlt*; Annales Bertiniani; Thegan, Vita 
Hludowici; the Vita Hiudowici attributed to Astronomus; Er- 
moldus Nigellus, In honorem Hludowici imperatoris; Nithard, 
Hisloriarum libri, all in the Monumenta Germaniae historica. Scrip- 
lores, Bande i. and ii. (Hanover and Berlin, 1826 fol.) ; E. Muhl- 
bacher, Die Regesten des Kaiserreichs unter den Karolingern (Inns- 
bruck, 1881); and Deutsche Geschichte unter den Karolingern (Stutt- 
gart, 1886) ; B. Simson, Jahrbucher des frankischen Reichs unter 
Ludwig dem Frommen (Leipzig, 1874-1876); and E. Dummler, 
Geschichte des ostfrdnkischen Keiches (Leipzig, 1887-1888). 

(A. W. H.*) 

LOUIS II. (825-875), Roman emperor, eldest son of the emperor 
Lothair I., was designated king of Italy in 839, and taking up 
his residence in that country was crowned king at Rome by Pope 
Sergius II. on the isth of June 844. He at once preferred a 
claim to the rights of an emperor in the city, which was decisively 
rejected; but in 850 he was crowned joint emperor at Rome 
by Pope Leo IV., and soon afterwards married his cousin, Engel- 
berga, a daughter of King Louis the German, and undertook the 
independent government of Italy. He took the field against 
the Saracens; quashed some accusations against Pope Leo; 
held a diet at Pavia; and on the death of his father in September 
855 became sole emperor. The division of Lothair's dominions, 
by which he obtained no territory outside Italy, aroused his 
discontent, and in 857 he allied himself with Louis the German 

against his brother Lothair, king of Lorraine, and King Charles 
the Bald. But after Louis had secured the election of Nicholas 
I. as pope in 858, he became reconciled with his brother, and 
received some lands south of the Jura in return for assistance 
given to Lothair in his efforts to obtain a divorce from his wife, 
Teutberga. In 863, on the death of his brother Charles, Louis 
received the kingdom of Provence, and in 864 came into collision 
with Pope Nicholas I. over his brother's divorce. The arch- 
bishops, who had been deposed by Nicholas for proclaiming this 
marriage invalid, obtained the support of the emperor, who 
reached Rome with an army in February 864; but, having 
been seized with fever, he made peace with the pope and left 
the city. In his efforts to restore order in Italy, Louis met 
with considerable success both against the turbulent princes 
of the peninsula and against the Saracens who were ravaging 
southern Italy. In 866 he routed these invaders, but could not 
follow up his successes owing to the want of a fleet. So in 
869 he made an alliance with the eastern emperor, Basil I., 
who sent him some ships to assist in the capture of Bari, the 
headquarters of the Saracens, which succumbed in 871. Mean- 
while his brother Lothair had died in 869, and owing to his 
detention in southern Italy he was unable to prevent the partition 
of Lorraine between Louis the German and Charles the Bald. 
Some jealousy between Louis and Basil followed the victory 
at Bari, and in reply to an insult from the eastern emperor 
Louis attempted to justify his right to the title " emperor of 
the Romans." He had withdrawn into Benevento to prepare 
for a further campaign, when he was treacherously attacked 
in his palace, robbed and imprisoned by Adelchis, prince of 
Benevento, in August 871. The landing of fresh bands of 
Saracens compelled Adelchis to release his prisoner a month 
later, and Louis was forced to swear he would take no revenge 
for this injury, nor ever enter Benevento with an army. Return- 
ing to Rome, he was released from his oath, and was crowned a 
second time as emperor by Pope Adrian II. on the i8th of May 
872. He won further successes against the Saracens, who were 
driven from Capua, but the attempts of the emperor to punish 
Adelchis were not very successful. Returning to northern Italy, 
he died, somewhere in the province of Brescia, on the I2th of 
August 875, and was buried in the church of St Ambrose at Milan, 
having named as his successor in Italy his cousin Carloman, 
son of Louis the German. Louis was an excellent ruler, of 
whom it was said " in his time there was great peace, because 
every one could enjoy his own possessions." 

See Annales Bertiniani, Chronica S. Benedicti Casinensis, both in 
the Monumenta Germaniae historica. Scriptores, Bande i. and iii. 
(Hanover and Berlin, 1826 fpL); E. Muhlbacher, Die Regesten des 
Kaiserreichs unter den Karolingern (Innsbruck, 1881); Th. Sickel, 
Acta regum et imperatorum Karolinorum, digesta el enarrata (Vienna, 
1867-1868); and E. Dummler, Geschichte des oslfrdnkischen Retches 
(Leipzig, 1887-1888). (A. W. H.*) 

LOUIS III. (c. 880-928), surnamed the " Blind," Roman 
emperor, was a son of Boso, king of Provence or Lower Burgundy, 
and Irmengarde, daughter of the emperor Louis II. The 
emperor Charles the Fat took Louis under his protection on the 
death of Boso in 887; but Provence was in a state of wild 
disorder, and it was not until 890, when Irmengarde had secured 
the support of the Bavarian king Arnulf and of Pope Stephen V., 
that Louis was recognized as king. In 900, after the death of 
the emperor Arnulf, he went to Italy to obtain the imperial 
crown. He was chosen king of the Lombards at Pavia, and 
crowned emperor at Rome in February 901 by Pope Benedict IV. 
He gained a temporary authority in northern Italy, but was 
soon compelled by his rival Berengar, margrave of Friuli, to 
leave the country and to swear he would never return. In 
spite of his oath he went again to Italy in 904, where he secured 
the submission of Lombardy; but on the 2ist of July 905 he 
was surprised at Verona by Berengar, who deprived him of his 
sight and sent him back to Provence, where he passed his days 
in enforced inactivity until his death in September 928. He 
married Adelaide, possibly a daughter of Rudolph I., king of 
Upper Burgundy. His eldest son, Charles Constantine, succeeded 
to no more than the county of Vienne. 


See Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte, Bande ix. and x 
(Gottingen, 1862-1886); E. Dummler, Geschichte des ostfrdnkischen 
Reichs (Leipzig, 1887-1888); and Gesta Berengarii imperatori 
(Halle, 1871); and F. de Gingins-la-Sarra. Memoires pour servir i 
I'histoire de Provence et de Bourgogne Jurane (Zurich, 1851). 

(A. W. H.*) 

LOUIS IV., or V. (c. 1287-1347), surnamed the Bavarian 
Roman emperor and duke of Upper Bavaria, was the seconc 
son of Louis II., duke of Upper Bavaria and count palatine o: 
the Rhine, and Matilda, daughter of the German king Rudolph 
I. Having lost his father in 1294 he inherited, jointly with 
his elder brother Rudolph, Upper Bavaria and the Palatinate 
but passed his time mainly at the court of the Habsburgs in 
Vienna, while his early experiences of warfare were gained in 
the campaigns of his uncle, the German king Albert I. He was 
soon at variance with his brother over their joint possessions 
Albert taking the part of Louis in this quarrel, Rudolph promised 
in 1301 to admit his brother to a share in the government oi 
Bavaria and the Palatinate. When Albert was murdered in 
May 1308, Louis became a candidate for the German throne 
but his claim was not strongly supported. The new king, 
Henry VII., was very friendly with Rudolph, and as the promise 
of 1301 had not been carried out, Louis demanded a partition 
of their lands. Upper Bavaria was accordingly divided in 1310, 
and Louis received the north-western part of the duchy; but 
Rudolph refused to surrender any part of the Palatinate. In 
1310, on the death of Stephen I., duke of Lower Bavaria, Louis 
undertook the guardianship of his two young sons. This led 
to a war between the brothers, which lasted till June 1313, when 
peace was made at Munich. Many of the nobles in Lower Bavaria, 
however, angered at Louis, called in the aid of Frederick I. 
(the Fair), duke of Austria; but he was defeated at Gammelsdorf 
on the gth of November 1313, a victory which not only led to 
peace, but conferred considerable renown on Louis. 

In August 1313 the German throne had again become vacant, 
and Louis was chosen at Frankfort on the 2oth of October 1314 
by a majority of the electors, and his coronation followed at 
Aix-la-Chapelle on the 25th of November. A minority of princes 
had, however, supported Frederick of Austria; and a war 
followed between the rivals, during which Louis was supported 
by the cities and the districts of the middle and lower Rhine. 
His embarrassments were complicated by a renewal of the 
dispute with his brother; but when this had been disposed of 
in 1317 by Rudolph's renunciation of his claims on upper Bavaria 
and the Palatinate in consideration of a yearly subsidy, Louis 
was able to give undivided attention to the war with Frederick, 
and obtained several fresh allies. On the 28th of September 
1322 a battle was fought at Mvihldorf, which ended in a complete 
victory for Louis, owing mainly to the timely aid of Frederick IV. 
of Hohenzollern, burgrave of Nuremburg. Frederick of Austria 
was taken prisoner, but the struggle was continued by his brother 
Leopold until the latter's death in 1326. Attempts to enable 
the two kings to rule Germany jointly failed, and about 1326 
Frederick returned to Austria, leaving Louis in undisputed posses- 
sion of the country. Before this conclusion, however, a new 
enemy had taken the field. Supported by Philip V. of France 
in his desire to free Italy entirely from German influence, Pope 
John XXII. refused to recognize either Frederick or Louis, and 
asserted his own right to administer the empire during a vacancy. 
After the battle of Muhldorf Louis sent Berthold of Neifen, 
count of Marstetten, into Italy with an army, which soon com- 
pelled the papal troops to raise the siege at Milan. The pope 
threatened Louis with excommunication unless he resigned his 
kingdom within three months. The king thereupon appealed 
to a general council, and was placed under the papal ban on 
the 23rd of March 1324, a sentence which he answered by pub- 
lishing his charges against the pope. In the contest Louis was 
helped by the Minorites, who were upholding against John 
the principal of clerical poverty, and by the writings of Marsilius 
of Padua (who dedicated to Louis his Defensor pacis), William of 
Occam, John of Jandun and others. Taking the offensive, 
Louis met his Ghibelline supporters at Trent and reached Italy 
in March 1327; and in May he received the Lombard crown 

at Milan. Although the pope renewed his fulminations Louis 
compelled Pisa to surrender, and was hailed with great re- 
joicing in Rome. On the i7th of January 1328 he was crowned 
emperor in St Peter's by Sciarra Colonna, a Roman noble; and 
he answered the continued attacks of Pope John by pronouncing 
his deposition, and proclaiming Peter of Corvara pope as Nicholas 
V. He then undertook an expedition against John's ally, Robert, 
king of Naples, but, disunion among his troops and scarcity 
of money and provisions, drove him again to Rome, where, 
finding that his exactions had diminished his popularity, he left 
the city, and after passing six months at Pisa, returned to 
Germany in January 1330. The struggle with the pope was 
renewed in Germany, and when a formidable league had been 
formed against Louis, his thoughts turned to a reconciliation. 
He was prepared to assent to very humiliating terms, and even 
agreed to abdicate; but the negotiations, which were prolonged 
by further demands on the part of the pope, were interrupted 
by his death in December 1334. John's successor, Benedict 
XII., seemed more anxious to come to an arrangement, but was 
prevented from doing so by the influence of Philip VI. of France. 
Overtures for peace were made to Philip, but without success; 
and in July 1337 Louis concluded an alliance with Edward 
III., king of England, and made active preparations for war. 
During these years his attention was also occupied by a quarrel 
with John, king of Bohemia, over the possession of Tirol, by a 
campaign in Lower Bavaria, and a futile expedition against 
Nicholas I., bishop of Constance. But although his position 
was shaken by the indifferent success which attended these 
campaigns, it was improved when the electors meeting at Rense 
in July 1338 banded themselves together to defend their elective 
rights, and when the diet at Frankfort confirmed a decree which 
declared that the German king did not need the papal appro- 
bation to make his election valid. 

Louis devoted considerable thought and time to extending 
the possessions of the Wittelsbach family, to which he belonged. 
Tirol had for some time been a subject of contention between 
the emperor and other princes. The heiress of this county, 
Margaret Maultasch, had married John Henry, margrave of 
Moravia, son of King John of Bohemia. Having quarrelled 
with her husband, Margaret fled to the protection of Louis, who 
seized the opportunity to declare her marriage void and to unite 
ber in 1342 with his son Louis. The emperor also increased his 
possessions by his own marriage. In 1322 his first wife, Beatrice, 
daughter of Henry III., count of Glogau, had died after thirteen 
years of married life, and Louis then married Margaret, daughter 
of William III., count of Holland. When her brother, count 
William IV., died childless in 1345, the emperor obtained posses- 
sion of Holland, Zealand and Friesland. In 1341 he recovered 
a portion of the Palatinate, and soon deserted Edward of England 
and came to terms with Philip of France*. The acquisition of the 
territories, and especially of Tirol, had provided Louis with many 
enemies, prominent among whom were John of Bohemia and his 
amily, that of Luxemburg. John, therefore, entered into an 
alliance with Pope Clement VI. The course of the war which 
ensued in Germany was such as to compel the emperor to submit 
to humiliating terms, though he stopped short of accepting the 
election of Charles, margrave of Moravia (afterwards the emperor 
Charles IV.) as German king in July 1346. Charles consequently 
attacked Tirol; but Louis, who appeared to have considerable 
chances of success, died suddenly at a bear-hunt near Munich 
on the nth of October 1347. He was buried in the Frauenkirche 
at Munich, where a statue was erected to his memory in 1622 
>y Maximilian I., elector of Bavaria, and where a second was 
unveiled in 1905. He had seven sons, three of whom were sub- 
equently electors of Brandenburg, and ten daughters. 

Various estimates have been formed of the character of Louis. 
As a soldier he possessed skill as well as bravery, but he lacked 
>erseverance and decision in his political relations. At one 
ime haughtily defying the pope, at another abjectly craving his 
jardon, he seems a very inglorious figure; and the fact that he 
emained almost undisturbed in the possession of Germany 
n spite of the utmost efforts of the popes, is due rather to the 


political and intellectual tendencies of the time than to his own 
good qualities. Nevertheless he ruled Bavaria with consider- 
able success. He befriended the towns, encouraged trade and 
commerce and gave a new system of laws to the duchy. German 
took the place of Latin in the imperial charters, and although 
not a scholar, the emperor was a patron of learning. Louis was 
a man of graceful appearance, with ruddy countenance and 
prominent nose. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Many of the authorities for the life and reign of 
Louis are found in the Forties rcrum Germanicarum, Bande i. and iv., 
edited by J. F. Bohmer (Stuttgart, 1843-1868). Among these is the 
Vila Ludovici IV., by an unknown author. A number of important 
documents are found in the Regesta imperii 1314-1347, edited by 
J. F. Bohmer and J. Ficker (Innsbruck, 1865); Acta imperii selecta, 
edited by J. F. Bohmer and J. Ficker (Innsbruck, 1870); Urkunden 
zur Geschichte des Romerzuges Konigs Ludwigs des Bayern, edited 
by I. Ficker (Innsbruck, 1865); Urkundliche Beitrage zur Geschichte 
Kaisers Ludwigs IV., edited by C. Hofler (Munich, 1839); Valikan- 
ische Urkunden zur Geschichte Kaisers Ludwigs des Bayern, Bande v. 
and yi. (Stuttgart, 1877-1888); Vatikanische Akten zur Deutschen 
Geschichte in der Zeit Kaisers Ludwigs des Bayern, edited by S. 
Riezler (Innsbruck, 1891). In the Forschungen zur Deutschen 
Geschichte (Gottingen, 1862-1886), Band xx., is found Urkunden 
zur Bairischen und Deutschen Geschichte 1256-1343, edited by S. 
Riezler; and in Band xiii. is C. Hautle's Beitrage zum Itinerar 
Kaiser Ludwigs. 

The following may also be consulted: C. Gewoldus, Defensio 
Ludovici IV. contra A. Bzovium (Ingolstadt, 1618); J. G. Herwartus, 
Ludovicus IV. imperator defensus (Mainz, 1618); N. Burgundus, 
Historia Bavarica sive Ludovicus IV. imperator (Ingolstadt, 1636). 
The best modern authorities are F. von Weech, Kaiser Ludwig der 
Bayer und Konig Johann von Bohmen (Munich, 1860); S. Riezler, 
Die literarischen Widersacher der Pdpste zur Zeit Ludwigs des 
Bayern (Leipzig, 187^); C. Muhling, Die Geschichte der Doppelwahl 
des Jahres 1314 (Munich, 1882) ; R. Dobner, Die Auseinandersetzung 
zwischen Ludwig IV. dem Bayern und Friedrich dem Schonen von 
Oesterreich (Gottingen, 1875); W. Altmann, Der Rdmerzug 
Ludwigs des Bayern (Berlin, 1886); A. Chroust, Beitrage zur 
Geschichte Ludwigs des Bayern und seiner Zeit (Gotha, 1877); 
K. Miiller, Der Kampf Ludwigs des Bayern mil der romischen Curie 
(Tubingen, 1870-1880); W. Preger, Der Kirchenpolitische Kampf 
unter Ludwig dem Bayern (Munich, 1877) ; Sievers, Die politischen 
Beziehungen Kaiser Ludwigs des Bayern zu Frankreich (Berlin, 
1896); Steinberger, Kaiser Ludwig der Bayer (Munich, 1901); and 
Uedine, Ludwig der Bayer und die niederrheinischen Stadte (Fader- 
born, 1904). (A. W. H.*) 

LOUIS (804-876) surnamed the " German," king of the 
East Franks, was the third son of the emperor Louis I. and his 
wife Irmengarde. His early years were partly spent at the 
court of his grandfather Charlemagne, whose special affection 
he is said to have won. When the emperor Louis divided his 
dominions between his sons in 817, Louis received Bavaria and 
the neighbouring lands, but did not undertake the government 
until 825, when he became involved in war with the Slavonic 
tribes on his eastern frontier. In 827 he married Emma, daughter 
of Welf I., count of Bavaria, and sister of his stepmother Judith; 
and he soon began to interfere in the quarrels arising from 
Judith's efforts to secure a kingdom for her own son Charles, 
and the consequent struggles of Louis and his brothers with the 
emperor Louis I. (<?..). When the elder Louis died in 840 and 
his eldest son Lothair claimed the whole Empire, Louis in alliance 
with his half-brother, king Charles the Bald, defeated Lothair 
at Fontenoy on the 2Sth of June 841. In June 842 the three 
brothers met on an island in the Saone to negotiate a peace, and 
each appointed forty representatives to arrange the boundaries 
of their respective kingdoms. This developed into the treaty 
of Verdun concluded in August 843, by which Louis received the 
bulk of the lands of the Carolingian empire lying east of the Rhine, 
together with a district around Spires, Worms and Mainz, on 
the left bank of the river. His territories included Bavaria, 
where he made Regensburg the centre of his government, 
Thuringia, Franconia and Saxony. He may truly be called the 
founder of the German kingdom, though his attempts to main- 
tain the unity of the Empire proved futile. Having in 842 
crushed a rising in Saxony, he compelled the Abotrites to own 
his authority, and undertook campaigns against the Bohemians, 
the Moravians and other tribes, but was not very successful 
in freeing his shores from the ravages of Danish pirates. At his 
instance synods and assemblies were held where laws were 

decreed for the better government of church and state. In 853 
and the following years Louis made more than one attempt 
to secure the throne of Aquitaine, which the people of that 
country offered him in their disgust with the cruel misrule of 
Charles the Bald. But though he met with sufficient success 
to encourage him to issue a charter in 858, dated " the first 
year of the reign in West Francia," treachery and desertion 
in his army, and the loyalty to Charles of the Aquitanian 
bishops brought about the failure of the enterprise, which 
Louis renounced by a treaty signed at Coblenz on the 7th of 
June 860. 

In 855 the emperor Lothair died, and was succeeded in Italy by 
his eldest son Louis II., and in the northern part of his kingdom 
by his second son, Lothair. The comparative weakness of these 
kingdoms, together with the disorder caused by the matrimonial 
troubles of Lothair, afforded a suitable opening for the intrigues 
of Louis and Charles the Bald, whose interest was increased by 
the fact that both their nephews were without male issue. 
Louis supported Lothair in his efforts to divorce his wife 
Teutberga, for which he received a promise of Alsace, while Charles 
opposed the divorce. But in 865 Louis and Charles meeting 
near Toul, renewed the peace of Coblenz, and doubtless discussed 
the possibility of dividing Lothair's kingdom. In 868 at Metz 
they agreed definitely to a partition; but when Lothair died in 
869, Louis was lying seriously ill, and his armies were engaged 
with the Moravians. Charles the Bald accordingly seized the 
whole kingdom; but Louis, having recovered, compelled him 
by a threat of war to agree to the treaty of Mersen, which divided 
it between the claimants. The later years of Louis were troubled 
by risings on the part of his sons, the eldest of whom, Carloman, 
revolted in 861 and again two years later; an example that 
was followed by the second son Louis, who in a further rising 
was joined by his brother Charles. A report that the emperor 
Louis II. was dead led to peace between father and sons. The 
emperor, however, was not dead, but a prisoner; and as he was 
not only the nephew, but also the son-in-law of Louis, that 
monarch hoped to secure both the imperial dfgnity and the Italian 
kingdom for his son Carloman. Meeting his daughter Engelberga, 
the wife of Louis II., at Trent in 872, Louis made an alliance with 
her against Charles the Bald, and in 874 visited Italy doubtless 
on the same errand. The emperor, having named Carloman 
as his successor, died in August 875, but Charles the Bald 
reached Italy before his rival, and by persuading Carloman, 
when he did cross the Alps, to return, secured the imperial crown. 
Louis was preparing for war when he died on the 28th of 
September 876 at Frankfort, and was buried at Lorsch, leaving 
three sons and three daughters. Louis was in war and peace 
alike, the most competent of the descendants of Charlemagne. 
He obtained for his kingdom a certain degree of security in face 
of the attacks of Normans, Hungarians, Moravians and others. 
He lived in close alliance with the Church, to which he was 
very generous, and entered eagerly into schemes for the con- 
version of his heathen neighbours. 

See Annales Fuldenses; Annales Bertiniani; Nithard, Histori- 
arum Libri, all in the Monumenta Germaniae historica. Scriptores, 
Bande i. and ii. (Hanover and Berlin, 1826 seq.); E. Dummler, 
Geschichte des ostfrdnkischen Reiches (Leipzig, 1887-1888); Th. 
Sickel, Die Urkunden Ludwigs des Deutschen (Vienna, 1861-1862); 
E. Muhlbacher, Die Regesten des Kaiserreichs unter den Karolingern 
(Innsbruck, 1881) ; and A. Krohn, Ludwig der Deutsche (Saarbrucken, 
1872). (A. W. H.*) 

LOUIS I., king of Bavaria (1786-1868), son of the then prince, 
afterwards duke and elector, Max Joseph of Zweibriicken and his 
wife Princess Augusta of Hesse-Darmstadt ( -i 796), was born 
at Strassburg on the 25th of August 1786. He received a careful 
education at home, afterwards (in 1803) going to the Bavarian 
national university of Landshut and to Gottingen. As a young 
man he was drawn into the Romantic movement then at its 
height; but both the classics and contemporary classical poetry 
took hold upon his receptive mind (he visited Goethe in 1827). 
He had himself strong artistic tendencies, though his numerous 
poems show but little proof of this, and as a patron of the 
arts he proved himself as great as any who had ever occupied a 


German throne, and more than a mere dilettante. His first visit 
to Italy, in 1804, had an important influence upon this side of 
his development. 

But even in Italy the crown prince (his father had become 
elector in 1799 and king of Bavaria in 1805) did not forget his 
nationality. He soon made himself leader of the small anti- 
French party in Bavaria. Napoleon sought in vain to win him 
over, and Louis fell more and more out of favour with him. 
Napoleon was even reported to have said: " Qui m'empeche 
de laisser fusilier ce prince? " Their relations continued to be 
strained, although in the campaigns of 1807 and 1809, in which 
Bavaria was among the allies of France, Louis won his laurels 
in the field. 

The crown prince was also averse from a Napoleonic marriage, 
and preferred to marry (October 12, 1810) the Princess Therese 
of Saxe-Hildburghausen (1792-1854). Three daughters and 
four sons were born of this marriage, one of whom succeeded 
him as Maximilian II., while another, Luitpold, became prince 
regent of Bavaria on the death of Louis II. 

During the time that he was crown prince Louis resided chiefly 
at Innsbruck or Salzburg as governor of the circle of the Inn and 
Salzach. In 1815 he attended the Congress of Vienna, where he 
was especially occupied in endeavouring to obtain the restoration 
of Alsace and Lorraine to Germany; and later in the year he 
was with the allies in Paris, using his influence to secure the 
return of the art treasures carried off by the French. 

After 1815 also the crown prince maintained his anti-French 
attitude, and it was mainly his influence that in 1817 secured the 
fall of Montgelas, the minister with French sympathies. Opposed 
to absolutism, Louis took great interest in the work of organizing 
the Bavarian constitution (1818) and defended it against Metter- 
nich and the Carlsbad Decrees (1819); he was also one of the 
most zealous of the ardent Philhellenes in Germany at the time. 
He succeeded to the crown of Bavaria on the I2th of October 
1825, and at once embarked upon a moderate constitutional 
policy, in which he found himself in general agreement with the 
parliament. Although he displayed a loyal attachment to the 
Catholic Church, especially owing to his artistic sympathies, 
he none the less opposed all its more exaggerated pretensions, 
especially as represented by the Jesuits, whom he condemned 
as un-German. In the year of his accession he abolished an old 
edict concerning the censorship. He also furthered in many ways 
the internal administration of the state, and especially that of 
the finances. His personal tastes, apart from his activities as a 
Maecenas, being economical, he endeavoured also to limit public 
expenditure, in a way which was not always a benefit to the 
country. Bavaria's power of self-defence especially was 
weakened by his economies and by his lack of interest in the 
military aspect of things. 

He was a warm friend of learning, and in 1826 transferred the 
university of Landshut to Munich, where he placed it under his 
special protection. Prominent scholars were summoned to it, 
mostly belonging to the Romantic School, such as Goerres, 
Schubert and Schelling, though others were not discouraged. 
In the course of his visits to Italy he formed friendships with 
famous artists such as Thorwaldsen and Cornelius. He was 
especially anxious to obtain works of art, mainly sculpture, 
for the famous Munich collections which he started, and in this 
he had the advantage of the assistance of the painter Martin 
Wagner. He also set on foot movements for excavation and the 
collection of works of art in Greece, with excellent results. 

Under the influence of the July revolution of 1830, however, 
he also began to be drawn into the current of reaction; and 
though he still declared himself openly against absolutism, and 
never took up such a hostile attitude towards constitutional ideas 
as his brother-in-law King Frederick William IV., he allowed 
the reactionary system of surveillance which commended itself 
to the German Confederation after 1830 to be introduced into 
Bavaria (see BAVARIA: History). He continued, on the other 
hand, to do much for the economic development of the country. 
As a follower of the ideas' of Friedrich List, he furthered 
the foundation of the Zollverein in the year 1833 and the 

making of canals. Railways he looked upon as a " necessary 

In external politics peace was maintained on the whole after 
1825. Temporary diplomatic complications arose between 
Bavaria and Baden in connexion with Louis's favourite project 
of winning back the part then belonging to Baden of the old 
Palatinate, the land of his birth, which was always very dear to 

Of European importance was his enthusiasm for the liberation 
of Greece from the rule of Turkey. Not only did he erect the 
Propylaen at Munich in her honour, but he also helped her in the 
most generous way both with money and diplomatic, resources. 
And after his second son Otto had become king of Greece in 1832, 
Greek affairs became from time to time the central point of his 
foreign policy. In 1835 he made a visit to Greece, partly political, 
partly inspired by his old interest in art. But his son proved 
unequal to his task, and in 1862 was forced to abdicate (see 
OTHO, king of Greece). For this unfortunate issue Louis was 
not without blame; for from the very first, owing to an 
exaggerated idealism and love of antiquity, he had totally 
misunderstood the national character of the Greeks and the 
problems involved in the attempts to govern them by bureaucratic 

In Bavaria, too, his government became more and more con- 
servative, especially after Karl Abel became the head of the 
ministry in 1837. The king had not yet, it is true, altogether 
committed himself to the clerical ultras, and on the occasion of 
the dispute about the bishops in Prussia in the same year had 
taken up a wise attitude of compromise. But in Bavaria itself 
the strict Catholic party influenced affairs more and more 
decisively. For a while, indeed, this opposition did not impair 
the king's popularity, due to his amiable character, his extra- 
ordinary services in beautifying his capital of Munich, and to his 
benevolence (it has been reckoned that he personally received 
about 10,000 letters asking for help every year, and that the 
money he devoted to charity amounted to about a fifth of his 
income). The year 1846, however, brought a change which had 
sad consequences. This was due to the king's relations with the 
Spanish dancer Lola Montez, who appeared in Munich in October 
1846, and soon succeeded by her beauty and wit in fascinating 
the king, who was always susceptible to feminine charms. The 
political importance of this lay in the fact that the royal mistress 
began to use her great influence against the clerical policy of the 
Abel ministry. So when the king was preparing the way for 
ennobling her, in order to introduce her into court circles, which 
were unwilling to receive her, the ministry protested in the 
famous memorandum of the nth of February 1847 against the 
king's demand for her naturalization as a Bavarian, the necessary 
preliminary to her ennoblement. The position was still further 
embittered by the fact that, owing to an indiscretion, the 
memorandum became known to the public. Thereupon the king, 
irritated and outraged, replaced Abel's Clerical ministry by a 
more accommodating Liberal one under Zu Rhein under which 
Lola Montez without more difficulty became Countess Landsberg. 
Meanwhile, the criticism and opposition of the people, and 
especially of the students, was turned against the new leader of 
the court of Munich. On top of this came the revolutionary 
movement of 1848. The king's position became more and more 
difficult, and under the pressure of popular opposition he was 
forced to banish the countess. But neither this nor the king's 
liberal proclamation of the 6th of March succeeded in esta- 
blishing peace, and in the capital especially the situation became 
increasingly threatening. All this made such a deep impression 
on the king, that on the 2oth of March 1848 he abdicated in 
favour of his son Maximilian. 

He now retired entirely into private life, and continued 
to play the Maecenas magnificently, frequently staying at his 
villa in Rome, the Villa Malta, and enjoying extraordinary 
vigour of mind and body up to the end of his days. His popu- 
larity, which had been shaken by the Montez affair, he soon 
recovered, especially among artists. To him Munich owes her 
finest art collections and most remarkable buildings. The 



monarch's artistic sense led him not only to adorn his house 
with a number of works of antique art, but also to study German 
medieval art, which he did to good effect. To him Munich owes 
the acquisition of the famous Rhenish collection of the Boissere 
brothers. The king also worked with great zeal for the care 
of monuments, and the cathedrals of Spires and Cologne en- 
joyed his special care. He was also an unfailing supporter of 
contemporary painting, in so far as it responded to his romantic 
tendencies, and he gave a fresh impulse to the arts of working 
in metal and glass. As visible signs of his permanent services 
to art Munich possesses the Walhalla, the Glyptothek, the two 
Pinakotheken, the Odeon, the University, and many other 
magnificent buildings both sacred and profane. The r61e which 
the Bavarian capital now plays as the leading art centre of Ger- 
many would have been an impossibility without the splendid 
munificence of Louis I. 

He died on the 28th of February 1868 at Nice, and on the 
9th of March was buried in Munich, amid demonstrations of 
great popular feeling. 

The chief part of Louis's records is contained in seven sealed 
chests in the archives of his family, and by the provisions of 
his will these were not to be opened till the year 1918. These 
records contain an extraordinarily large and valuable mass of 
historical material, including, as one item, 246 volumes of the 
king's diary. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Of the numerous pamphlets, especially of the 
years 1846-1848, we need only mention here: P. Erdmann, Lola 
Montez und die Jesuiten (1847); Geheimbericht iiber Bayern (1847), 
published by Fowmicr in Deutsche Revue, vol. 27. See also 
F. v. Ritter, Beitrdge zur Regierungsgeschichte Konig Ludwies I. 
(1825-1826) (2 vols., 1853-1855); Sepp, Ludwig I. Augustus, Konig 
von Bayern und das Zeitalter der Wtedergeburt der Kunste (1869; 
2nd ed., 1903); Ottokar Lorenz, Drei Bucher Geschichte (1876; 2nd 
ed., 1879); K. Th. v. Heigel, Ludwig I. (1872; 2nd ed., 1888); 
" Ludwig I. und Martin Wagner," Neue historische Vortrage (1883); 
"Ludwig I.," Allgemeine deutsche Biographie (1884); "Ludwig I. 
als Freund der Geschichte " and " Kronprinz Ludwig in den Feld- 
ziigen von 1807 und 1809," in Historische Vortrage und Studien 
(1887); Die Verlegung der Universitat nach Miinchen, Rektoratsrede 
(1887); " Ludwig I. und die Munchener Hochschule," Quellen und 
Abhandlungen zur Geschichte Bayerns, n.s. (1890); "Ludwig I. als 
Erzieher seines Volkes," ib.\ Reidelbach, Ludwig I. und seine 
Kunstschopfungen (1887; 2nd ed., 1888); L. Trose, Ludwig I. in 
seinen Briefen an seinen Sohn, den Konig Otto von Griechenland 
(1891); L. v. Kobell, Unter den vier ersten Konigen Bayerns (1894); 
A. Fournier, " Aus den Tagen der Lola Montez," Neue Deutsche 
Rundschau (1901); M. Doebere', "Ludwig I. und die deutsche 
Frage," Festgabe fur Heigel (1903); E. Fiichs, Lola Montez in der 
Karrikatiire (1904) ; L. Brunner, Nurnberg 1848-1840 (1907). 

(J. HN.) 

LOUIS II., king of Bavaria (1845-1886), son of his predecessor 
Maximilian II. and his wife Maria, daughter of Prince William 
of Prussia, was born at Nymphenburg on the 25th of August 
1845. Together with his brother Otto, three years younger 
than himself, Louis received, in accordance with the wishes 
of his learned father, a simple and serious education modelled 
on that of the German Gymnasien, of which the classical languages 
are the chief feature. Of modern languages the crown prince 
learnt only French, of which he remained fond all his life. The 
practical value of the prince's training was small. It was not 
till he was eighteen years old that he received his first pocket- 
money, and at that age he had no ideas about money and its 
value. Military instruction, physical exercises and sport, in 
spite of the crown prince's strong physique, received little 
attention. Thus Louis did not come enough into contact with 
young men of his own age, and consequently soon developed 
a taste for solitude, which was found at an early age to be com- 
bined with the romantic tendencies and musical and theatrical 
tastes traditional in his family. 

Louis succeeded to the throne on the loth of March 1864, 
at the age of eighteen. The early years of his reign were marked 
by a series of most serious political defeats for Bavaria. In the 
Schleswig-Holstein question, though he was opposed to Prussia 
and a friend of Duke Frederick VIII. of Augustenburg, he did 
not command the material forces necessary effectively to resist 
the powerful policy of Bismarck. Again, in the war of 1866, 
Louis and his minister von der Pfordten took the side of Austria, 

XVII. 2 

and at the conclusion of peace (August 22) Bavaria had, in 
addition to the surrender of certain small portions of her territory, 
to agree to the foundation of the North German Confederation 
under the leadership of Prussia. The king's Bavarian patriotism, 
one of the few steadfast ideas underlying his policy, was deeply 
wounded by these occurrences, but he was face to face with the 
inevitable, and on the loth of August wrote a letter of reconcilia- 
tion to King William of Prussia. The defeat of Bavaria in 1866 
showed clearly the necessity for a reform of the army. Under 
the new Liberal ministry of Hohenlohe (December 29, 1866- 
February 13, 1870) and under Prauckh as minister of war, a 
series of reforms were carried through which prepared for the 
victories of 1870. As regards his ecclesiastical policy, though 
Lou' 5 remained personally true to the Catholic Church, he strove 
for a greater independence of the Vatican. He maintained 
friendly relations with Ignaz von Dollinger, the leader of the 
more liberal Catholics who opposed the definition of papal 
infallibility, but without extending his protection to the anti- 
Roman movement of the Old Catholics. In spite of this the 
Old Bavarian opposition was so aroused by the Liberalism 
of the Hohenlohe ministry that at the beginning of 1870 Louis 
had to form a more Conservative cabinet under Count Bray- 
Steinburg. On the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War he 
at once took the side of Prussia, and gave orders for mobilization. 
In 1871 it was he who offered the imperial crown to the king 
of Prussia; but this was not done on his own initiative. Bis- 
marck not only determined the king of Bavaria to take the 
decisive step which put an end to a serious diplomatic crisis, 
but actually drafted the letter to King William which Louis 
copied and despatched without changing a word. Louis placed 
very few difficulties in the way of the new German Empire under 
the leadership of Prussia, though his Bavarian particularism 
remained unchanged. 

Though up till the beginning of the year 1880 he did not 
cease to give some attention to state affairs, the king's interests 
lay in quite other spheres. His personal idiosyncrasies had, 
in fact, developed meanwhile in a most unhappy direction. His 
enthusiasm for all that is beautiful soon led him into dangerous 
bypaths. It found its most innocent expression in the earliest 
years of his reign when he formed an intimate friendship with 
Richard Wagner, whom from May 1864 to December 1865 
he had constantly in his company. Louis was entirely possessed 
by the soaring ideas of the master, and was energetic in their 
realization. He not only established Wagner's material position 
at the moment by paying 18,000 gulden of debts for him and 
granting him a yearly income of 4000 gulden (afterwards in- 
creased to 8000), but he also proceeded to realize the ambitious 
artistic plans of the master. A series of brilliant model per- 
formances of the Wagnerian music-dramas was instituted in 
Munich under the personal patronage of the king, and when 
the further plan of erecting a great festival theatre in Munich 
for the performance of Wagner's " music of the future " broke 
down in the face of the passive resistance of the local circles 
interested, the royal enthusiast conceived the idea of building 
at Bayreuth, according to Wagner's new principles, a theatre 
worthy of the music-dramas. For a time Louis was entirely 
under Wagner's influence, the fantastic tendencies of whose 
art cast a spell over him, and there is extant a series of emotional 
letters of the king to Wagner. Wagner, on the whole, used his 
influence in artistic and not in political affairs. 1 In spite of this 
the opposition to him became permanent. Public opinion 
in Bavaria for the most part turned against him. He was 
attacked for his foreign origin, his extravagance, his intrigues, 
his artistic Utopias, and last but by no means least, for his 
unwholesome influence over the king. Louis in the end was 
compelled to give him up. But the relations between king 
and artist were by no means at an end. In face of the war 
which was imminent in 1866, and in the midst of the preparation 
for war, the king hastened in May to Triebschen, near Lucerne, 

1 It was on Wagner's advice that the king appointed Hohenlohe 
prime minister in 1866. See Hohenlohe-Schillingfurst, Prince 
Chlodwig zu, under HOHENLOHE. [Eo.J 



in order to see Wagner again. 1 In 1868 they were seen together 
in public for the last time at the festival performances in Munich. 
In 1876 Wagner's Ring des Nibelungen was performed for the 
first time at Bayreuth in the presence of the king. Later, in 
1 88 1, the king formed a similar friendship with Joseph Kainz 
the actor, but it soon came to an end. In January 1867 the 
young king became betrothed to Duchess Sophie of Bavaria 
(afterwards Duchesse d'Alencon), daughter of Duke Max and 
sister of the empress of Austria; but the betrothal was dissolved 
in October of the same year. 

Though even in his later years he remained interested in lofty 
and intellectual pursuits, as may be gathered, apart from his 
enthusiasm for art and nature, from his wide reading in history, 
serious poetry and philosophy, yet in his private life there became 
increasingly marked the signs of moral and mental weakness 
which gradually gained the mastery over his once pure and noble 
nature. A prominent feature was his blind craving for solitude. 
He cut himself off from society, and avoided all intercourse 
with his family, even with his devotedly affectionate mother. 
With his ministers he came to communicate in writing only. 
At the end he was surrounded only by inferior favourites and 
servants. His life was now spent almost entirely in his castles 
far from the capital, which irked him more and more, or in short 
and hasty journeys, in which he always travelled incognito. 
Even the theatre he could now only enjoy alone. He arranged 
private performances in his castles or in Munich at fabulous 
cost, and appointed an official poet to his household. Later 
his avoidance of society developed into a dread of it, accom- 
panied by a fear of assassination and delusions that he was 
being followed. 

Side by side with this pathological development his inborn 
self-consciousness increased apace, turning more and more to 
megalomania, and impelling the weak-willed monarch to those 
extraordinary displays of magnificence which can still be admired 
to-day in the castles built or altered by him, such as Berg on 
the Starnberger See, Linderhof, Herrenchiemsee, Hohensch- 
wangau, Neuschwanstein, &c., which are among the most splendid 
buildings in Germany. It is characteristic of the extravagance 
of the king's ideas that he adopted as his model the style of 
Louis XIV. and fell into the habit of imitating the Roi Soldi. 
He no longer stayed for any length of time in one castle. Often 
he scoured the country in wild nocturnal rides, and madness gained 
upon him apace. His mania for buying things and making 
presents was comparatively harmless, but more serious matters 
were the wild extravagance which in 1880 involved him in 
financial ruin, his fits of destructive rage, and the tendency 
to the most cruel forms of abnormal vice. None the less, at 
the time when the king's mental weakness was increasing, his 
character still retained lovable traits his simple sense of beauty, 
his kindliness, and his highly developed understanding of art 
and artistic crafts. Louis's love of beauty also brought material 
profit to Bavaria. 

But the financial and political dangers which arose from the 
king's way of life were so great that interference became 
necessary. On the 8th of June 1886 medical opinion declared 
him to be affected with chronic and incurable madness and he 
was pronounced incapable of governing. On the toth of June 
his uncle, Prince Luitpold, assumed the regency, and after 
violent resistance the late king was placed under the charge 
of a mental specialist. On the i3th of June 1886 he met with 
his death by drowning in the Starnberger See, together with 
his doctor von Gudden, who had unwisely gone for a walk 
alone with his patient, whose physical strength was enormous. 
The details of his death will never be fully known, as the only 
possible eye-witness died with him. An examination of the brain 
revealed a condition of incurable insanity, and the faculty 
submitted a report giving the terrible details of his malady. 
Louis's brother Otto, who succeeded him as king of Bavaria, 
was also incurably insane. 

_ l Hohenlohe (Denkwiirdigkeiten) comments on the lact that the 
king did not even take the trouble to review the troops proceeding 
to the war. [En.] 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. K. v. Heigel, Ludwig II. (1893); Luise v. 
Kobell, Unter den vier ersten Konigen Bayerns (1894); C. Buier, 
Ludwig II. (1897); Luise v. Kobell, " Wilhelm I. und Ludwig II." 
Deutsche Revue, 22; Ludwig II. und die Kunst (1898); Ludwig II. 
und Bismarck (1870, 1899); Anonym, Endlich vo'llige Klarheit iiber 
den Tod des Konigs Ludwig II. . . . (1900); Freiherr v. Voldern- 
dorff, " Aus meiner Hofzeit," in Velhagen und Klasings Monatshefte 
(1900); Francis Gerard, The Romance of Ludwig II. of Bavaria; 
J. Bainville, Louis II. de Baviere (Paris, 1900) ; E. v. Possart, Die 
Separatvorstellungen von Ko'nig Ludwig II. (1901); O. Bray-Stein- 
burg, Denkwiirdigkeiten (1901); S. Rocke, Ludwig II. und Richard 
Wagner (1903); W. Busch, Die Kdmpfe iiber Reichsverfassung und 
Kaisertum (1906); Chlodwig Hohenlohe, Denkwiirdigkeiten (2 vols., 
1907) ; A. v. Ruville, Bayern und die Wiederaufrichtung des Deutschen 
Reiches (1909); K. A. v. Muller, Bayern im Jahre 1866 und die 
Berufung des Fiirsten Hohenlohe (1909); G. Kuntzel, Bismarck und 
Bayern in der Zeit der Reichsgriindung (1910); Hesselbarth, Die 
Enstehung des deutsch-franzozischen Krieges (1910); W. Strohmayer, 
" Die Ahnentafel Ludwigs II. und Ottos I.," Archiv fur Rassen- und 
Gesellschaftsbiologie, vol. vii. (1910). (J. HN.) 

LOUIS II.* (846-879), king of France, called " le Begue " or 
" the Stammerer," was a son of Charles II. the Bald, Roman 
emperor and king of the West Franks, and was born on the ist 
of November 846. After the death of his elder brother Charles 
in 866 he became king of Aquitaine, and in October 877 he 
succeeded his father as king of the West Franks, but not as 
emperor. Having made extensive concessions to the nobles 
both clerical and lay, he was crowned king by Hincmar, arch- 
bishop of Reims, on the 8th of December following, and in 
September 878 he took advantage of the presence of Pope 
John VIII. at the council of Troyes to be consecrated afresh. 
After a feeble and ineffectual reign of eighteen months Louis 
died at Compiegne on the loth or nth of April 879. The king 
is described as " un homme simple et doux, aimant la paix, la 
justice et la religion." By his first wife, Ansgarde, a Burgundian 
princess, he had two sons, his successors, Louis III. and Carloman; 
by his second wife, Adelaide, he had a posthumous son, Charles 
the Simple, who also became king of France. (A. W. H.*) 

LOUIS III. (c. 863-882), king of France, was a son of Louis 
II. and with his brother Carloman succeeded his father as king 
in April 879. A strong party, however, cast some doubts upon 
the legitimacy of the young princes, as the marriage of their 
parents had not been recognized by the emperor Charles the 
Bald; consequently it was proposed to offer the crown to the 
East Prankish ruler Louis, a son of Louis the German. But this 
plan came to nothing, and in September 879 the brothers were 
crowned at Ferrieres by Ansegisus, archbishop of Sens. A few 
months later they divided their kingdom, Louis receiving the 
part of France north of the Loire. They acted together against 
the Northmen, over whom in August 881 they gained a memorable 
victory. They also turned against Boso who had been set up 
as king in Burgundy and Provence. On the sth of August 
882 Louis died at St Denis. He left no sons and Carloman became 
sole king. (A. W. H.*) 

LOUIS IV. (921-954), king of France, surnamed " d'Outremer " 
(Transmarinus), was the son of Charles III. the Simple. In 
consequence of the imprisonment of his father in 922, his mother 
Odgiva (Eadgyfu), sister of the English king ^Ethelstan, fled 
to England with the young Louis a circumstance to which 
he owes his surname. On the death of the usurper Rudolph 
(Raoul), Ralph of Burgundy, Hugh the Great, count of Paris, 
and the other nobles between whom France was divided, chose 
Louis for their king, and the lad was brought over from England 
and consecrated at Laon on the igth of June 936. Although 
his de facto sovereignty was confined to the town of Laon and 
to some places in the north of France, Louis displayed a zeal 
beyond his years in procuring the recognition of his authority 
by his turbulent vassals. The beginning of his reign was marked 
by a disastrous irruption of the Hungarians into Burgundy 
and Aquitaine (937). In 939 Louis became involved in a struggle 
with the emperor Otto the Great on the question of Lorraine, 
the nobles of which district had sworn an oath of fidelity to the 
king of France. When Louis married Gerberga, sister of Otto, 
and widow of Giselbert, duke of Lorraine, there seemed to be a 
1 The emperor Louis I. is counted as Louis I., king of France. 



fair prospect of peace; but the war was resumed, Otto supporting 
the rebel lords of the kingdom of France, and peace was not 
declared until 942, at the treaty of Vise-sur-Meuse. On the death 
of William Longsword, duke of Normandy, who had been 
assassinated by Arnulf, count of Flanders, in December 942, 
Louis endeavoured to obtain possession of the person of Richard, 
the young son and heir of the late duke. After an unsuccessful 
expedition into Normandy, Louis fell into the hands of his 
adversaries, and was for some time kept prisoner at Rouen 
(945), and subsequently handed over to Hugh the Great, who 
only consented to release him on condition that he should 
surrender Laon. Menaced, however, by Louis' brother-in-law, 
Otto the Great, and excommunicated by the council of Ingelheim 
(948), the powerful vassal was forced to make submission and 
to restore Laon to his sovereign. The last years of the reign 
were troubled by fresh difficulties with Hugh the Great and 
also by an irruption of the Hungarians into the south of France. 
Louis died on the loth of September 954, and was succeeded by 
his son Lothair. 

The chief authority for the reign is the chronicler FJodoard. See 
also Ph. Lauer, La Regne de Louis IV d' Outre- Mer (Paris, 1900) ; and 
A. Heil, Die politischen Beziehungen zwischen Otto dem Grossen und 
Lttdwig IV. von Frankreich (Berlin, 1904). (R. Po.) 

LOUIS V. (967-987), king of France, succeeded his father 
Lothair in March 986 at the age of nineteen, and finally embroiled 
the Carolingian dynasty with Hugh Capet and Adalberon, 
archbishop of Reims. From the absence of any important event 
in his one year's reign the medieval chroniclers designated him 
by the words " qui nihil fecit," i.e. " le Faineant " or " do- 
nothing." Louis died in May 987, his mother Emma being 
accused of having poisoned him. He had married Adelaide, 
sister of Geoffrey Grisegonelle, count of Anjou, but had no issue. 
His heir by blood was Charles, duke of Lower Lorraine, son of 
Louis IV., but the defection of the bishops and the treason of 
Adalberon (Ascelinus), bishop of Laon, assured the success of 
Hugh Capet. 

See F. Lot, Les Derniers Carolingiens (Paris, 1891); and the 
Recueil des actes de Lothaire et de Louis V, edited by L. Halphen and 
F. Lot (1908). (R. Po.) 

LOUIS VI. (1081-1137), king of France, surnamed " the Fat," 
was the son of Philip I. of France and Bertha of Holland. He 
was also surnamed the "Wide-awake" and " the Bruiser," 
and lost none of his energy when he earned the nickname by 
which he is known in history. In 1098 Louis was made a knight, 
and about the same time was associated with his father in the 
government, which the growing infirmities of Philip left more and 
more to his son, in spite of the opposition of Bertrada, the queen, 
whose criminal union with Philip had brought the anathema of 
the church. From noo to 1108 Louis by his victorious wars on 
the English and brigands had secured the army on his side, 
while the court supported Bertrada. Unable to make headway 
against him in war she attempted to poison him, and contem- 
porary chroniclers attributed to this poison the pallor of his face, 
which seems to have been in remarkable contrast to his stalwart, 
and later his corpulent figure. Louis' reign is one of the most 
important in the history of France. He is little less than the 
second founder of the Capetian dynasty. When the feeble and 
incompetent Philip I. died (29th of July 1108) Louis was faced 
by feudal barons as powerful as himself, and ready to rise against 
him. He was forced to have himself hurriedly crowned at Orleans, 
supported by a handful of vassals and some ecclesiastics. As 
king he continued the policy he had followed during the previous 
eight years, of securing the roads leading to Paris by putting down 
feudal brigands and destroying their strongholds in the lle-de- 
France. The castle of the most notorious of these, Hugues du 
Puiset, was three times taken and burned by the king's men, but 
Hugues was spared to go back each time to his robber life, until 
he died on a crusade. In the north, Thomas de Marie, son of 
Enguerrand de Coucy, carried on a career of rapine and murder 
for almost thirty years before the king succeeded in taking 
him prisoner (1130). Twenty-four years of continuous war 
finally rooted out the robber barons who lived on the plunder of 
the roads leading to Paris: the lords of Montlheri, who com- 

manded the roads to Orleans, Melun and the south, those of 
Montmorency near St Denis on the north (who had to restore 
what they had robbed the abbey of St Denis), those of Le Puiset 
toward the west, on the way to Chartres, and many others. 
Parallel with this consolidation of his power in the ancestral 
domains Louis met energetically the Anglo-Norman danger, 
warring with Henry I. of England for twenty-five years. After 
the victory of Tinchebray (1106) Louis supported the claims 
of William Clito, son of Robert, duke of Normandy, against 
Henry I. A ruthless war followed, in which Louis was at times 
reduced to the sorest straits. In 1 1 19, at a council held at Reims 
under the presidency of Pope Calixtus II., the enemies were 
reconciled; but William Clito's claims were not satisfied, and 
in 1123 war began again on a larger scale. Henry I. induced the 
emperor Henry V. to join in the attack upon France; and, hi? 
heir having been drowned in the loss of the " White Ship," 
won the count of Anjou by marrying his only daughter Matilda 
to Geoffrey, the Angevin heir (1127). The invasion of Henry V. 
was met by something like a national army, which gathered undei 
Louis at Reims. " For a few days at least, the lord of the lle- 
de-France was truly a king of France " (Luchaire). Suger 
proudly gives the list of barons who appeared. Henry V. came 
no farther than Metz. Royalty had won great prestige. Even 
Theobald, count of Chartres, the king's greatest enemy, 
the soul of feudal coalitions, came with his contingent. Shortly 
afterwards (1126), Louis was able to overawe the great count 
of Aquitaine, William IX., and force his vassal, the count of 
Auvergne, to treat justly the bishop of Clermont. In Flanders 
Louis interfered upon the assassination of Charles the Good, 
He caused the barons to elect as their count in Arras the same 
William Clito who claimed Normandy, and who was closely 
bound to the king. For a while Louis had Flanders absolutely 
at his disposal, but he had hardly left William alone (1127) 
when his brutal oppression roused both towns and nobles, who 
declared that Louis had no right to interfere in Flanders. The 
death of William Clito, and a savage war with his own seneschal, 
prevented Louis from effectually resenting this attitude; but 
Thierry of Alsace, the new count, consented in 1128 to receive 
from Louis the investiture of all his French fiefs, and henceforth 
lived on good terms with him. In all his wars those mentioned 
are but a part of them Louis fought in person. Proud of his 
strength, reckless in the charge as on the march, plunging into 
swollen rivers, entering blazing castles, he gained the reputa- 
tion of a national hero, the protector of the poor, the church, the 
peasants and the towns. The communal movement grew during 
his reign, and he encouraged it on the fiefs of his vassals in order 
to weaken them; but, the title " Father of the Communes " by 
which he was known in history is not deserved, though he did 
grant some privileges to towns on his domains. Neither was 
Louis the author of the movement for the emancipation of the 
serfs, as was formerly claimed. His attitude toward the move- 
ment was like that of his predecessors and contemporaries, 
to favour emancipation when it promised greater chance of 
profit, greater scope for exploitation of the peasants; otherwise 
to oppose it. He was a great benefactor to the church, aided the 
new, reformed monastic congregations of Clteau, Premontrfi 
and Fontevrault, and chose his two chief ministers from the 
clergy. Etienne de Garlande, whom Louis raised from obscurity 
to be archdeacon of Notre Dame at Paris, chancellor and seneschal 
of France, was all-powerful with the king from 1108 to 1127. 
His relatives monopolized the highest offices of the state. But the 
queen Adelaide became his enemy; both Ivo of Chartres and 
St Bernard bitterly attacked him; and the king suddenly 
stripped him of all his offices and honours. Joining the re- 
bellious barons, Etienne then led a bitter war against the king 
for three years. When Louis had reduced him to terms he 
pardoned him and restored him to the chancellorship (1132), 
but not to his old power. Suger (q.v.), administrator of St 
Denis, enters the scene toward the close of this reign, but his 
great work belongs to the next. Louis VI. died on the ist of 
August 1137, just a few days after his son, Louis the Young, 
had set out for the far south-west, the Aquitaine which had been 


won by the marriage with Eleanor. His wife was Adelaide, 
or Alice, daughter of Humbert II., count of Savoy, by whom 
he had seven sons and a daughter. 

See A. Luchaire, Louis le Gros, annales de sa vie et son regne (1890), 
and the same writer's volume, Les Premiers Capetiens, in E. Lavisse's 
Histoire de France. (J. T. S.*) 

LOUIS VII. (c. 1121-1180), king of France, son of Louis VI. 
the Fat, was associated with his father and anointed by Innocent 
II. in 1131. In 1137 he succeeded his father, and in the same 
year married at Bordeaux Eleanor, heiress of William II., duke 
of Aquitaine. In the first part of his reign he was vigorous and 
jealous of his prerogatives, but after his crusade his religiosity 
developed to such an extent as to make him utterly inefficient. 
His accession was marked by no disturbances, save the risings of 
the burgesses of Orleans and of Poitiers, who wished to organize 
communes. But soon he came into violent conflict with Pope 
Innocent II. The archbishopric of Bourges became vacant, 
and the king supported as candidate the chancellor Cadurc, 
against the pope's nominee Pierre de la Chatre, swearing upon 
relics that so long as he lived Pierre should never enter Bourges. 
This brought the interdict upon the king's lands. At the same 
time he became involved in a war with Theobald, count of 
Champagne, by permitting Rodolphe (Raoul), count of Ver- 
mandois and seneschal of France, to repudiate his wif e, Theobald's 
niece, and to marry Petronille of Aquitaine, sister of the queen 
of France. The war, which lasted two years (1142-44), was 
marked by the occupation of Champagne by the royal army 
and the capture of ,Vitry, where many persons perished in the 
burning of the church. Geoffrey the Handsome, count of Anjou, 
by his conquest of Normandy threatened the royal domains, 
and Louis VII. by a clever manoeuvre threw his army on the 
Norman frontier and gained Gisors, one of the keys of Normandy. 
At his court which met in Bourges Louis declared on Christmas 
Day 1145 his intention of going on a crusade. St Bernard assured 
its popularity by his preaching at Vezelay (Easter 1146), and 
Louis set out from Metz in June 1147, on the overland route 
to Syria. The expedition was disastrous, and he regained 
France in 1149, overcome by the humiliation of the crusade. 
In the rest of his reign he showed much feebleness and poor 
judgment. He committed a grave political blunder in causing 
a council at Beaugency (on the 2ist of March 1152) to annul his 
marriage with Eleanor of Aquitaine, under pretext of kinship, 
but really owing to violent quarrels during the crusade. Eleanor 
married Henry II. of England in the following May, and brought 
him the duchy of Aquitaine. Louis VII. led a half-hearted war 
against Henry for having married without the authorization of 
his suzerain; but in August 1154 gave, up his rights over 
Aquitaine, and contented himself with an indemnity. In 1154 
Louis married Constance, daughter of the king of Castile, and 
their daughter Marguerite he affianced imprudently by the treaty 
of Gisors (1158) to Henry, eldest son of the king of England, 
promising as dowry the Vexin and Gisors. Five weeks after the 
death of Constance, on the 4th of October 1160, Louis VII. 
married Adele of Champagne, and Henry II. to counterbalance 
the aid this would give the king of France, had the marriage of 
their infant children celebrated at once. Louis VII. gave little 
sign of understanding the danger of the growing Angevin power, 
though in 1159 he made an expedition in the south to aid 
Raymond V., count of Toulouse, who had been attacked by 
Henry II. At the same time the emperor Frederick I. in the east 
was making good the imperial claims on Aries. When the schism 
broke out, Louis took the part of the pope Alexander III., 
the enemy of Frederick, and after two comedy-like failures of 
Frederick to meet Louis VII. at Saint Jean de Losne (on the 2gth 
of August and the 22nd of September 1162), Louis definitely 
gave himself up to the cause of Alexander, who lived at Sens 
from 1163101165. Alexander gave the king, in return for his 
loyal support, the golden rose. Louis VII. received Thomas 
Becket and tried to reconcile him with King Henry II. He 
supported Henry's rebellious sons, but acted slowly and feebly, 
and so contributed largely to the break up of the coalition 
(1173-1174). Finally in 1177 the pope intervened to bring the 

two kings to terms at Vitry. By his third wife, Adele, Louis had 
an heir, the future Philip Augustus, born on the 2ist of August 
1165. He had him crowned at Reims in 1179, but, already 
stricken with paralysis, he himself was not able to be present 
at the ceremony, and died on the i8th of September 1180. His 
reign from the point of view of royal territory and military 
power, was a period of retrogression. Yet the royal authority 
had made progress in the parts of France distant from the royal 
domains. More direct and more frequent connexion was made 
with distant feudatories, a result largely due to the alliance of 
the clergy with the crown. Louis thus reaped the reward for 
services rendered the church during the least successful portion 
of his reign. 

See R. Hirsch, Studien zur Geschichte Konig Ludwigs VII. von 
Frankreich (1892); A. Cartellieri, Philipp II. August von Frankreich 
bis zum Tode seines Vaters, 1165-1180 (1891); and A. Luchaire in 
E. Lavisse's Histoire de France, tome iii. 1st part, pp. 1-81. 

(J. T. S.*) 

LOUIS VIII. (1187-1226), king of France, eldest son of Philip 
Augustus and of Isabella of Hainaut, was born in Paris on the 
5th of September 1187. Louis was short, thin, pale-faced, 
with studious tastes, cold and placid temper, sober and chaste 
in his life. He left the reputation of a saint, but was also a 
warrior prince. In 1213 he led the campaign against Ferrand, 
count of Flanders; in 1214, while Philip Augustus was winning 
the victory of Bouvines, he held John of England in check, and 
was victorious at La Roche-aux-Moines. In the autumn of 1215 
Louis received from a group of English barons, headed by Geoffrey 
de Mandeville, a request to " pluck them out of the hand of this 
tyrant " (John). Some 7000 French knights were sent over to 
England during the winter and two more contingents followed, 
but it was only after twenty-four English hostages had arrived 
in Paris that Louis himself prepared to invade England. The 
expedition was forbidden by the papal legate, but Louis set out 
from Calais on the 2oth and landed at Stonor on the 22nd of 
May 1216. In three months he had obtained a strong foothold 
in eastern England, and in the end of July he laid siege to Dover, 
while part ot his army besieged Windsor with a view to securing 
the safety of London. The pretexts on which he claimed the 
English crown were set down in a memorandum drawn up by 
French lawyers in 1215. These claims that John had forfeited 
the crown by the murder of his nephew, Arthur of Brittany, 
and that the English barons had the right to dispose of the vacant 
throne lost their plausibility on the death of King John and the 
accession of his infant son as Henry III. in October 1216. The 
papal legate, Gualo, who had forbidden the enterprise, had 
arrived in England at the same time as Louis. He excom- 
municated the French troops and the English rebels, and Henry 
III. found a valiant defender in William Marshal, earl of 
Pembroke. After the " Fair of Lincoln," in which his army 
was defeated, Louis was compelled to resign his pretensions, 
though by a secret article of the treaty of Lambeth (September 
1217) he secured a small war indemnity. Louis had assisted 
Simon de Montfort in his war against the Albigeuses in 1215, 
and after his return to France he again joined the crusade. 
With Simon's son and successor, Amauri de Montfort, he directed 
the brutal massacre which followed the capture of Marmande. 
Philip II., suspicious of his son until the close of his life, took 
precautions to assure his obedience, narrowly watched his 
administration in Artois, which Louis held from his mother 
Isabella, and, contrary to the custom of the kings of France, 
did not associate his son with him by having him crowned. 
Philip Augustus dying on the I4th of July 1223, Louis VIII. 
was anointed at Reims on the 6th of August following. He 
surrounded himself with councillors whom his father had chosen 
and formed, and continued his father's policy. His reign was 
taken up with two great designs: to destroy the power of the 
Plantagenets, and to conquer the heretical south of France. An 
expedition conquered Poitou and Saintonge (1224); in 1226 he 
led the crusade against the Albigenses in the south, forced 
Avignon to capitulate and received the submission of Languedoc. 
While passing the Auvergne on his return to Paris, he was 
stricken with dysentery, and died at Montpensier on the 8th of 



November 1226. His reign, short as it was, brought gains both 
to the royal domains and to the power of the crown over the 
feudal lords. He had married in 1200 Blanche of Castile, 
daughter of Alphonso IX. of Castile and granddaughter of 
Henry II. of England, who bore him twelve children; his 
eldest surviving son was his successor, Louis IX. 

See C. Petit-Dutaillis, tude sur la vie el le rkgne de Louis VIII. 
(Paris, 1894) ; and E. Lavisse, Histoire de France, tome iii. (1901). 

(M. BR.) 

LOUIS IX. (1214-1270), king of France, known as Saint Louis, 
was born on the 2$th of April 1214, and was baptized at Poissy. 
His father, Louis VIII., died in 1226, leaving the first minority 
since the accession of the Capetians, but his mother, Queen 
Blanche of Castile, proved more than a match for the feudal 
nobility. She secured her son's coronation at Reims on the 
29th of November 1226; and, mainly by the aid of the papal 
legate, Romano Bonaventura, bishop of Porto (d. 1243), and of 
Thibaut IV., count of Champagne, was able to thwart the 
rebellious plans of Pierre Mauclerc, duke of Brittany, and 
Philippe Hurepel, a natural son of Philip Augustus. Mauclerc's 
opposition was not finally overcome, however, until 1234. 
Then in 1 236 Thibaut, who had become king of Navarre, turned 
against the queen, formed an alliance with Brittany, marrying 
his daughter without royal consent to Jean le Roux, Mauclerc's 
son, and attempted to make a new feudal league. The final 
triumph of the regent was shown when the king's army assembled' 
at Vincennes. His summons met with such general and prompt 
obedience as to awe Thibaut into submission without striking 
a blow. Thus the reign of Louis IX. began with royal prerogatives 
fully maintained; the kingdom was well under control, and 
Mauclerc and Thibaut were both obliged to go on crusade. 
But the influence of the strong-willed queen-mother continued 
to make itself felt to the close of her life. Louis IX. did not 
lack independence of character, but his confidence in his mother 
had been amply justified and he always acted in her presence 
like a child. This confidence he withheld from his wife, Margaret, 
daughter of Raymond Berenger, count of Provence, whom he 
married at Sens in May 1234. The reign was comparatively 
uneventful. A rising of the nobles of the south-west, stirred 
up by Isabella, widow of King John of England, and her husband, 
Hugh de Lusignan, count of the Marche, upon the occasion of 
the investment of Alphonse of Poitiers with the fiefs left him 
by Louis VIII. as a result of the Albigensian crusade, reached 
threatening dimensions in 1242, but the king's armies easily 
overran Count Hugh's territories, and defeated Henry III. of 
England, who had come to his aid, at Saintes. Isabella and 
her husband were forced to submit, and Raymond VII., count 
of Toulouse, yielded without resistance upon the advent of two 
royal armies, and accepted the peace of Lorris in January 1243. 
This was the last rising of the nobles in Louis's reign. 

At the end of 1244, during an illness, Louis took the cross. 
He had already been much distressed by the plight of John of 
Brienne, emperor at Constantinople, and bought from him the 
crown of thorns, parts of the true cross, the holy lance, and the 
holy sponge. The Sainte Chapelle in Paris still stands as a 
monument to the value of these relics to the saintly king. But 
the quarrel between the papacy and the emperor Frederick II., 
in which Louis maintained a watchful neutrality only interfering 
to prevent the capture of Innocent IV. at Lyons and the 
difficulties of preparation, delayed the embarkation until August 
1248. His defeat and capture at Mansura, in February 1250, 
the next four years spent in Syria in captivity, in diplomatic 
intrigues, and finally in raising the fortifications of Caesarea 
and Joppa, these events belong to the history of the crusades 
(q.v.). His return to France was urgently needed, as Blanche 
of Castile, whom he had left as regent, had died in November 
1252, and upon the removal of her strong hand feudal turbulence 
had begun to show itself. 

This period between his first and second crusades (1254-1269) 
is the real age of Saint Louis in the history of France. He imposed 
peace between warring factions of his nobility by mere moral 
force, backed up by something like an awakened public 

opinion. His nobles often chafed under his unrelenting justice 
but never dared rebel. The most famous of his settlements 
was the treaty of Paris, drawn up in May 1258 and ratified in 
December 1259, by which the claims of Henry III. of England 
were adjusted. Henry renounced absolutely Normandy, Anjou, 
Touraine, Maine and Poitou, and received, on condition of 
recognizing Louis as liege suzerain, all the fiefs and domains 
of the king of France in the dioceses of Limoges, Cahors and 
Perigueux, and the expectation of Saintonge south of the 
Charente, and Agenais, if they should fall to the crown of France 
by the death of Alphonse of Poitiers. In addition, Louis 
promised to provide Henry with sufficient money to maintain 
500 knights for two years. This treaty was very unpopular 
in France, since the king surrendered a large part of France 
that Henry had not won; but Louis was satisfied that the 
absolute sovereignty over the northern provinces more than 
equalled the loss in the south. Historians still disagree as to 
its wisdom. Louis made a similar compromise with the king 
of Aragon in the treaty of Corbeil, 1258, whereby he gave up 
the claims of kings of France to Roussillon and Barcelona, which 
went back to the conquest of Charlemagne. The king of Aragon 
in his turn gave up his claims to part of Provence and Languedoc, 
with the exception of Narbonne. Louis's position was strikingly 
shown in 1264 when the English barons submitted their attempt 
to bind Henry III. by the Provisions of Oxford to his arbitration. 
His reply in the " Dit " or Mise of Amiens was a flat denial of 
all the claims of the barons and failed to avert the civil war. 
Louis was more successful in preventing feuds between his own 
nobles: between the counts of Brittany and Champagne over 
the succession to Navarre; the dauphin of Vienne (Guigues 
VII.) and Charles of Anjou; the count of Burgundy and the 
count of Chalons; Henry of Luxemburg and the duke of Lorraine 
with the count of Bar. Upon the whole he maintained peace 
with his neighbours, although both Germany and England were 
torn with civil wars. He reluctantly consented to sanction the 
conquest of Naples by his brother, Charles, duke of Anjou, and 
it is possible that he yielded here in the belief that it was a step 
toward another crusade. 

On the 24th of March 1267, Louis called to Paris such of his 
knights as were not with Charles of Anjou in Naples. No one 
knew why he had called them; but when the king in full assembly 
proclaimed his purpose of going on a second crusade, few ventured 
to refuse the cross. Three years of preparation followed; then 
on the ist of July 1270 they sailed from Aigues Mortes for Tunis, 
whither the expedition seems to have been directed by the 
machinations of Charles of Anjou, who, it is claimed, persuaded 
his brother that the key to Egypt and to Jerusalem was that 
part of Africa which was his own most dangerous neighbour. 
After seventeen days' voyage to Carthage, one month of the 
summer's heat and plague decimated the army, and when 
Charles of Anjou arrived he found that Louis himself had died 
of the plague on the 25th of August 1270. 

Saint Louis stands in history as the ideal king of the middle 
ages. An accomplished knight, physically strong in spite of 
his ascetic practices, fearless in battle, heroic in adversity, of 
imperious temperament, unyielding when sure of the justness 
of his cause, energetic and firm, he was indeed " every inch a king." . 
Joinville says that he was taller by a head than any of his knights. 
His devotions would have worn out a less robust saint. He 
fasted much, loved sermons, regularly heard two masses a day 
and all the offices, dressing at midnight for matins in his chapel, 
and surrounded even when he travelled by priests on horseback 
chanting the hours. After his return from the first crusade, 
he wore only grey woollens in winter, dark silks in summer. 
He built hospitals, visited and tended the sick himself, gave 
charity to over a hundred beggars daily. Yet he safeguarded 
the royal dignity by bringing them in at the back door of the 
palace, and by a courtly display greater than ever before in 
France. His naturally cold temperament was somewhat 
relieved by a sense of humour, which however did not prevent 
his making presents of haircloth shirts to his friends. He had no 
favourite, nor prime minister. Louis was canonized in 1 297. 


As a statesman Louis IX. has left no distinct monument. 
The famous " tablissements of St Louis " has been shown 
in our own day to have been private compilation. It was a 
coulumier drawn up before 1273, including, as well as some royal 
decrees, the civil and feudal law of Anjou, Maine and the 
Orleanais. Recent researches have also denied Louis the credit 
of having aided the communes. He exploited them to the full. 
His standpoint in this respect was distinctly feudal. He treated 
his clergy as he did his barons, enforcing the supremacy of 
royal justice, and strongly opposing the exactions of the pope 
until the latter part of his reign, when he joined forces with him 
to extort as much as possible from the clergy. At the end of 
the reign most of the sees and monasteries of France were in 
debt to the Lombard bankers. Finally, the reign of Saint 
Louis saw the introduction of the pontifical inquisition into 

There are numerous portraits of St Louis, but they are unauthentic 
and contradictory. In 1903 M. Salomon Reinach claimed to have 
found in the heads sculptured in the angles of the arches of the chapel 
at St Germain portraits of St Louis, his brothers and sisters, and 
Queen Marguerite, or Blanche, made between 1235 and 1240. This 
conjectured portrait somewhat resembles the modern type, which 
is based upon a statue of Charles V. once in the church of the Celestins 
in Paris, and which Lenoir mistakenly identified as that of Louis IX. 
The king had eleven children, six sons and five daughters, among 
them being his successor, Philip III., and Robert, count of Clermont, 
the ancestor of Henry IV. 

The best contemporary accounts of Louis IX. are the famous 
Memoirs of the Sire Jean de Joinville (?..), published by N. de 
Wailly for the Soc. de I' Hist, de France, under the title Histoire de 
Saint Louis (Paris, 1868), and again with translation (1874) ; English 
translation by J. Hutton (1868). See also William of Nangis, Gesta 
Ludovici IX., edited by M. Bouquet in vol. xx. of the Recueil des 
historiens des Gaules el de la France. Of modern works may be 
mentioned C. V. Langlois in E. Lavisse's Histoire de France, tome iii., 
with references to literature; Frederick Perry, Saint Louis, the Most 
Christian King (New York, IQOI); E. J. Davis, The Invasion of 
Egypt by Louis IX. of France (1898); H. A. Wallon, Saint Louis et 
son temps (1875) ; A. Lecoy de la Marche, Saint Louis (Tours, 1891) ; 
and E. Berger, Saint Louis et Innocent IV (Paris, 1893), and Histoire 
de Blanche de Castille (1895). See also The Court of a Saint, by 
Winifred F. Knox (1909). (J. T. S.*) 

LOUIS X. (1289-1316), king of France and Navarre, called 
le Hutin or " the Quarreller," was the son of Philip IV. and 
of Jeanne of Navarre. He was born at Paris on the 4th of 
October 1289, took the title king of Navarre on the death of 
his mother, on the 2nd of April 1305, and succeeded Philip IV. 
in France on the 29th of November 1314, being crowned at 
Reims in August 1315. The origin of his surname is uncertain. 
Louis X. is a somewhat indistinct figure among the kings of 
France, the preponderating influence at court during his short 
reign being that of his uncle, Charles of Valois. The reign 
began with reaction against the policy of Philip IV. Private 
vengeance was wreaked on Enguerrand de Marigny, who was 
hanged, Pierre de Latilli, bishop of Chalons and chancellor, 
and Raoul de Presle, advocate of the parlement, who were 
imprisoned. The leagues of the lesser country gentry, formed 
in 1314 before the accession of Louis, continued to demand 
the ancient privileges of the nobility, tourneys, private wars 
and judgment of nobles not by king's officers but by their peers 
and to protest against the direct call by the king of their vassals 
to the royal army. Louis X. granted them charters in which 
he made apparent concessions, but used evasive formulas which 
in reality ceded nothing. There was a charter to the Normans, 
one to the Burgundians, one to the Languedocians (1315). 
Robert de Bethune, count of Flanders, refused to do homage, 
and his French fiefs were declared confiscate by a court of his 
peers. In August 1315 Louis X. led an army toward Lille, 
but the flooded Lys barred his passage, the ground was so soaked 
with rains that the army could not advance, and it was thrown 
back, without a battle, on Tournai. Need of money inspired 
one famous ordinance of this reign; in 1315 the serfs of the 
royal domains were invited to buy their civil liberty, an in- 
vitation which did not meet with great enthusiasm, as the 
freedman was merely freed for further exploitation, and Philip V. 
was obliged to renew it in 1318. Louis X. died suddenly on 
the sth of June 1316. His first wife was Margaret, daughter 

of Robert II., duke of Burgundy; she was accused of adultery 
and died a prisoner in the chateau Gaillard. By her he had one 
daughter, Jeanne, wife of Philip, count of Evreux and king 
of Navarre. By his second wife Clemence, daughter of Charles 
Martel, titular king of Hungary, he left a posthumous son, 
King John I. 

See Ch. Dufayard, " La reaction feodale sous les fils de Philippe le 
Bel," in Revue historique (1894) ; Paul Lehugeur, Histoire de Philippe 
le Long, roi de France (Paris, 1897); and Joseph Petit, Charles de 
Valois (Paris, 1900). (J. T. S.*) 

LOUIS XI. (1423-1483), king of France, the son of Charles 
VII. and his queen, Marie of Anjou, was born on the 3rd of July 
1423, at Bourges, where his father, then nicknamed the " King 
of Bourges," had taken refuge from the English. At the birth 
of Louis XI. part of France was in English hands; when he 
was five years old, Joan of Arc appeared; he was just six when 
his father was crowned at Reims. But his boyhood was spent 
apart from these stirring events, in the castle of Loches, where 
his father visited him rarely. John Gerson, the foremost theo- 
logian of France, wrote a manual of instructions (still extant) 
for the first of his tutors, Jean Majoris, a canon of Reims. His 
second tutor, Bernard of Armagnac, was noted for his piety 
and humility. If, as has been claimed, Louis owed to them 
any of his tendency to prefer the society of the poor, or rather 
of the bourgeois, to that of the nobility, their example was his 
best lesson in the craft of kingship. In June 1436, when scarcely 
thirteen, he was married to Margaret (c. 1425-1445), daughter 
of James I. of Scotland, a princess of about his own age, but 
sickly and romantic, and in every way his opposite. Three 
years after this unhappy marriage Louis entered upon his stormy 
political career. Sent by his father in 1439 to direct the defence 
of Languedoc against the English, and to put down the brigandage 
in Poitou, he was induced by the rebellious nobles to betray 
his trust and place himself at the head of the Praguerie (q.v.). 
Charles VII. pardoned him this rebellion, due to his ambition 
and the seductive proposal of the nobles to make him regent. 
The following year he was fighting the English, and in 1443 
aided his father to suppress the revolt of the count of Armagnac. 
His first important command, however, was in the next year, 
when he led an army of from 15,000 to 20,000 mercenaries and 
brigands, the product of the Hundred Years' War, against 
the Swiss of the canton of Basel. The heroism of some two 
hundred Swiss, who for a while held thousands of the French 
army at bay, made a great impression on the young prince. 
After an ineffective siege of Basel, he made peace with the 
Swiss confederation, and led his robber soldiers into Alsace to 
ravage the country of the Habsburgs, who refused him the 
promised winter quarters. Meanwhile his father, making a 
parallel campaign in Lorraine, had assembled his first brilliant 
court at Nancy, and when Louis returned it was to find the 
king completely under the spell of Agnes Sorel. He at first 
made overtures to members of her party, and upon their re- 
jection through fear of his ambition, his deadly hatred of her and 
of them involved the king. The death in 1445 of his wife 
Margaret, who was a great favourite of Charles VII., made the 
rupture complete. From that year until the death of the king 
father and son were enemies. Louis began his rebellious career 
by a futile attempt to seduce the cities of Agenais into treason, 
and then he prepared a plot to seize the king and his minister 
Pierre de Br6z6. Antoine de Chabannes, who was to be the 
instrument of the plot, revealed it to Charles, and Louis was 
mildly punished by being sent off to Dauphin6 (144?)- He 
never saw his father again. 

Louis set out to govern his principality as though it were 
an independent state. He dismissed the governor; he determined 
advantageously to himself the boundaries between his state 
and the territories of the duke of Savoy and of the papacy; 
and he enforced his authority over perhaps the most unruly 
nobility in western Europe, both lay and ecclesiastical. The 
right of private warfare was abolished; the bishops were obliged 
to give up most of their temporal jurisdiction, the scope of their 
courts was limited, and appeals to Rome were curtailed. On 



the other hand, Louis granted privileges to the towns and con- 
sistently used their alliance to overthrow the nobility. He 
watched the roads, built new ones, opened markets, protected 
the only bankers of the country, the Jews, and reorganized the 
administration so as to draw the utmost revenue possible from 
the prosperity thus secured. His ambition led him into foreign 
entanglements; he made a secret treaty with the duke of Savoy 
which was to give him right of way to Genoa, and made arrange- 
ments for a partition of the duchy of Milan. The alliance with 
Savoy was sealed by the marriage of Louis with Charlotte, 
daughter of Duke Lodovico, in 1452, in spite of the formal 
prohibition of Charles VII. The king marched south, but 
withdrew again leaving his son unsubdued. Four years later, 
as Charles came to the Bourbonnais, Louis, fearing for his life, 
fled to Flanders to the court of Philip the Good, duke of Bur- 
gundy, leaving Dauphine to be definitely annexed to the crown 
of France. The policy of the dauphin was reversed, his ten 
years' work was undone. Meanwhile he was installed in the 
castle of Genappe, in Brabant, where he remained until the death 
of his father. For this he waited impatiently five years, keeping 
himself posted by spies of every stage of the king's last illness, 
and thus laying himself open to the accusation, believed in 
by Charles himself, that he had hastened the end by poison, a 
charge which modern historians deny. 

On the isth of August 1461, Louis was anointed at Reims, 
and Philip of Burgundy, as doyen of the peers of France, placed 
the crown on his head. For two months Philip acted as though 
the king were still his protege. But in the midst of the festivities 
with which he was entertaining Paris, the duke found that Louis 
ventured to refuse his candidates for office, and on the 24th of 
September the new king left abruptly for Touraine. His first 
act was to strike at the faithful ministers of Charles VII. Pierre 
dc Brez6 and Antoine de Chabannes were captured and im- 
prisoned, as well as men of sterling worth like Etienne Chevalier. 
But the king's shrewdness triumphed before long over his venge- 
ance, and the more serviceable of the officers of Charles VII. 
were for the most part soon reinstated, Louis' advisers were 
mostly men of the middle class. He had a ready purse for 
men of talent, drawing them from England, Scotland, Italy, 
Spain and Portugal. Such a motley throng of competent men 
had never before been seen at the court of France. Their origin, 
their previous crimes or virtues, their avarice or brutality, 
were indifferent to him so long as they served him loyally. 
Torture and imprisonment awaited them, whether of high or 
low degree, if he fancied that they were betraying him. Among 
the most prominent of these men in addition to Brez6, Chevalier 
and Chabannes, were Tristan Lermite, Jean de Daillon, Olivier 
le Dain (the barber), and after 1472, Philippe de Commines, 
drawn from the service of Charles the Bold of Burgundy, who 
became his most intimate adviser and biographer. Surrounded 
by men like these Louis fought the last great battle of French 
royalty with feudalism. 

Louis XI. began his reign with the same high-handed treat- 
ment of the nobles which had marked his rule in Dauphind, 
going so far as to forbid them to hunt without his permission. He 
forced the clergy to pay long-neglected feudal dues, and intrigued 
against the great houses of Anjou and Orleans in Italy. The mal- 
content nobles soon began to plan revolt. Discharged officers of 
Charles VII. like Jean Dunois and John II. duke of Bourbon, 
stirred up hostility to the new men of the king, and Francis II. 
duke of Brittany was soon embroiled with Louis over an attempt 
to assert royal control over that practically independent duchy. 
The dissatisfied nobility found their greatest ally in Charles the 
Bold, afterwards duke of Burgundy, and in 1465 formed a 
" league of public welfare " and declared war on their king. 
The nominal head was the king's brother Charles, duke of Berry, 
then eighteen years old, a weak character, the tool of the rebels 
as he was later the dupe of the king. Every great noble in 
France was in the league, except Gaston de Foix who kept the 
south of France for the king, and the counts of Vend6me and 
Eu. The whole country seemed on the verge of anarchy. It 
was saved by the refusal of the lesser gentry to rise, and by the 

alliance of the king with the citizen class, which was not led 
astray by the pretences of regard for the public weal which 
cloaked the designs of the leaguers. After a successful campaign 
in the Bourbonnais, Louis fought an indecisive battle with the 
Burgundians who had marched on Paris at Montlhery, on the 
i6th of July 1465, and then stood a short siege in Paris. On the 
28th of September he made a truce with Charles the Bold, and 
in October the treaties of Conflans and Saint Maur-les-Fosses, 
ended the war. The king yielded at all points; gave up the 
" Somme towns " in Picardy, for which he had paid 200,000 
gold crowns, to Philip the Good, thus bringing the Burgun- 
dians close to Paris and to Normandy. Charles, the king's 
brother, was given Normandy as an apanage, thus joining 
the territories of the rebellious duke of Brittany with those 
of Charles the Bold. The public weal was no longer talked 
about, while the kingdom was plundered both by royal tax 
gatherers and by unsubdued feudal lords to pay the cost of 
the war. 

After this failure Louis set to work to repair his mistakes. The 
duke of Bourbon was won over by the gift of the government 
of the centre of France, and Dunois and Chabannes by restoring 
them their estates. Two months after he had granted Normandy 
to Charles, he took advantage of a quarrel between the duke of 
Brittany and his brother to take it again, sending the duke 
of Bourbon " to aid " Charles, while Dunois and Chabannes 
prepared for the struggle with Burgundy. The death of Duke 
Philip, on the isth of June 1467, gave Charles the Bold a free 
hand. He gained over Edward IV. of England, whose sister 
Margaret he married; but while he was celebrating the wedding 
Louis invaded Brittany and detached Duke Francis from 
alliance with him. Normandy was completely reduced. The 
king had won a great triumph. It was followed by his greatest 
mistake. Eager as he always was to try diplomacy instead of 
war, Louis sent a gift of 60,000 golden crowns to Charles and 
secured a safe conduct from him for an interview. The interview 
took place on the 9th of October 1468 at Peronne. News came on 
the nth that, instigated by the king of France, the people of 
Liege had massacred their bishop and the ducal governor. The 
news was false, but Charles, furious at such apparent duplicity, 
took Louis prisoner, only releasing him, three days later, on the 
king signing a treaty which granted Flanders freedom from 
interference from the parlement of Paris, and agreeing to accom- 
pany Charles to the siege of his own ally, Liege. Louis made 
light of the whole incident in his letters, but it marked the greatest 
humiliation of his life, and he was only too glad to find a scapegoat 
in Cardinal Jean Balue, who was accused of having plotted the 
treason of Peronne. Balue thereupon joined Guillaume de 
Harancourt, bishop of Verdun, in an intrigue to induce Charles of 
France to demand Champagne and Brie in accordance with the 
king's promise to Charles the Bold, instead of distant Guienne 
where the king was determined to place him. The discovery of 
this conspiracy placed these two high dignitaries in prison (April 
1469). Balue (q.v.) spent eleven years in prison quarters, com- 
fortable enough, in spite of the legend to the contrary, while 
Harancourt was shut up in an iron cage until 1482. Then Louis, 
inducing his brother to accept Guienne, where, surrounded by 
faithful royal officers, he was harmless for the time being, under- 
took to play off the Lancastrians against Edward IV. who, as 
the ally of Charles the Bold, was menacing the coast of Normandy. 
Warwick, the king-maker, and Queen Margaret were aided in the 
expedition which in 1470 again placed Henry VI. upon the English 
throne. In the autumn Louis himself took the offensive, and royal 
troops overran Picardy and the Maconnais to Burgundy itself. 
But the tide turned against Louis in 1471. While Edward IV. 
won back England by the battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury, 
Charles the Bold besieged Amiens, and Louis was glad to make 
a truce, availing himself of the double dealing of the constable, 
the count of Saint Pol, who, trying to win an independent position 
for himself in Picardy, refused his aid to Charles unless he would 
definitely join the French nobility in another rising against the 
king. This rising was to be aided by the invasion of France by 
John II. of Aragon, Yolande, duchess of Savoy, and Edward IV. 


of England, who was to be given the old Plantagenet inheritance. 
The country was saved a desperate civil war by the death of the 
king's brother, Charles, the nominal head of the coalition, on the 
24th of May 1472. Louis' joy on receiving news of this death 
knew no bounds. Charles the Bold, who had again invaded 
France, failed to take Beauvais, and was obliged to make a 
lasting truce. His projects were henceforth to be directed 
towards Germany. Louis then forced the duke of Brittany 
to make peace, and turned against John V. count of Armagnac, 
whose death at the opening of March 1473 ended the power of 
one of the most dangerous houses of the south. The first period 
of Louis' reign was closed, and with it closed for ever the danger 
of dismemberment of France. John of Aragon continued the war 
in Roussillon and Cerdagne, which Louis had seized ten years 
before, and a most desperate rising of the inhabitants protracted 
the struggle for two years. After the capture of Perpignan on the 
loth of March 1475, the wise and temperate government of 
Imbert de Batarnay and Boffile de Juge slowly pacified the new 
provinces. The death of Gaston IV. count of Foix in 1472 
opened up the long diplomatic struggle for Navarre, which was 
destined to pass to the loyal family of Albret shortly after the 
death of Louis. His policy had won the line of the Pyrenees 
for France. 

The overthrow of Charles the Bold was the second great task 
of Louis XI. This he accomplished by a policy much like that 
of Pitt against Napoleon. Louis was the soul of all hostile 
coalitions, especially urging on the Swiss and Sigismund of 
Austria, who ruled Tirol and Alsace. Charles's ally, Edward IV., 
invaded France in June 1475, but Louis bought him off on the 
2Qth of August at Picquigny where the two sovereigns met on 
a bridge over the Somme, with a strong grille between them, 
Edward receiving 75,000 crowns, and a promise of a pension of 
50,000 crowns annually. The dauphin Charles was to marry 
Edward's daughter. Bribery of the English ministers was not 
spared, and in September the invaders recrossed to England. 
The count of Saint Pol, who had continued to play his double 
part, was surrendered by Charles to Louis, and executed, as was 
also Jacques d'Armagnac, duke of Nemours. With his vassals 
terrorized and subdued, Louis continued to subsidize the Swiss 
and Rene II. of Lorraine in their war upon Charles. The defeat 
and death of the duke of Burgundy at Nancy on the sth of 
January 1477 was the crowning triumph of Louis' diplomacy. 
But in his eagerness to seize the whole inheritance of his rival, 
Louis drove his daughter and heiress, Mary of Burgundy, into 
marriage with Maximilian of Austria (afterwards the emperor 
Maximilian I.),who successfully defended Flanders after a savage 
raid by Antoine de Chabannes. The battle of Guinegate on the 
7th of August 1479 was indecisive, and definite peace was 
not established until after the death of Mary, when by the treaty 
of Arras (1482) Louis received Picardy, Artois and the Boulonnais, 
as well as the duchy of Burgundy and Franche Comte. The 
Austrians were left in Flanders, a menace and a danger. Louis 
failed here and in Spain; this failure being an indirect cause of 
that vast family compact which surrounded France later with 
the empire of Charles V. His interference in Spain had made 
both John II. of Aragon and Henry IV. of Castile his enemies, 
and so he was unable to prevent the marriage of their heirs, 
Ferdinand and Isabella. But the results of these marriages 
could not be foreseen, and the unification of France proved of 
more value than the possession of so wide-spread an empire. 
This unification was completed (except for Brittany) and the 
frontiers enlarged by the acquisition, upon the death of Rene 
of Anjou in 1480, of the duchies of Anjou and Bar, and in 1481 
of Maine and Provence upon the death of Charles II., count of 
Maine. Of the inheritance of the house of Anjou only Lorraine 
escaped the king. 

Failure in Spain was compensated for in Italy. Without 
waging war Louis made himself virtual arbiter of the fate of 
the principalities in the north, and his court was always besieged 
by ambassadors from them. After the death of Charles the 
Bold, Yolande, duchess of Savoy, was .obliged to accept the 
control of Louis, who was her brother. In Milan he helped to 

place Lodovico il Moro in power in 1479, but he reaped less from 
this supple tyrant than he had expected. Pope Sixtus IV. 
the enemy of the Medici, was also the enemy of the king of 
France. Louis, who at the opening of his reign had denounced 
the Pragmatic Sanction of 1438, had played fast and loose with 
the papacy. When Sixtus threatened Florence after the Pazzi 
conspiracy, 1478, Louis aided Lorenzo dei Medici to form an 
alliance with Naples, which forced the papacy to come to terms. 

More than any other king of France, Louis XI. was a 
" bourgeois king." The upper bourgeois, the aristocracy of 
his " good cities," were his allies both against the nobles and 
against the artisan class, whenever they revolted, driven to 
desperation by the oppressive royal taxes which furnished the 
money for his wars or diplomacy. He ruled like a modern 
capitalist; placed his bribes like investments in the courts of 
his enemies; and, while draining the land of enormous sums, 
was pitiless toward the two productive portions of his realm, 
the country population and the artisans. His heartlessness 
toward the former provoked even an accomplice like Commines 
to protest. The latter were kept down by numerous edicts, 
tending to restrict to certain privileged families the rank of master 
workman in the gilds. There was the paternalism of a Frederick 
the Great in his encouragement of the silk industry, " which 
all idle people ought to be made to work at," in his encourage- 
ment of commerce through the newly acquired port of Marseilles 
and the opening up of market placed. He even dreamed of a 
great trading company " of two hundred thousand livres or 
more," to monopolize the trade of the Mediterranean, and 
planned to unify the various systems of weights and measures. 
In 1479 he called a meeting of two burgesses from each " good 
city " of his realm to consider means for preventing the influx 
of foreign coin. Impatient of all restraint upon his personal rule, 
he was continually in violent dispute with the parlement of 
Paris, and made " justice " another name for arbitrary govern- 
ment; yet he dreamed of a unification of the local customary 
laws (co&tumes) of France. He was the perfect model of a tyrant. 
The states-general met but once in his reign, in 1468, and then 
no talk of grievances was allowed; his object was only to get 
them to declare Normandy inalienable from the crown. They 
were informed that the king could raise his revenue without 
consulting them. Yet his budgets were enormously greater 
than ever before. In 1481 the taille alone brought in 4,600,000 
livres, and even at the peaceful close of his reign his whole 
budget was 4,655,000 livres as against 1,800,000 livres at 
the close of his father's reign. 

The king who did most for French royalty would have made 
a sorry figure at the court of a Louis XIV. He was ungainly, 
with rickety legs. His eyes were keen and piercing, but a long 
hooked nose lent grotesqueness to a face marked with cunning 
rather than with dignity. Its ugliness was emphasized by the 
old felt hat which he wore, its sole ornament the leaden figure 
of a saint. Until the close of his life, when he tried to mislead 
ambassadors as to the state of his health by gorgeous robes, 
he wore the meanest clothes. Dressed in grey like a pilgrim, 
and accompanied by five or six trustworthy servants, he would 
set out on his interminable travels, " ambling along on a good 
mule." Thus he traversed France, avoiding all ceremony, 
entering towns by back streets, receiving ambassadors in way- 
side huts, dining in public houses, enjoying the loose manners 
and language of his associates, and incidentally learning at first 
hand the condition of his people and the possibilities of using 
or taxing them his needs of them rather than theirs of him. 
He loved to win men, especially those of the middle class, by 
affability and familiarity, employing all his arts to cajole and 
seduce those whom he needed. Yet his honied words easily 
turned to gall. He talked rapidly and much, sometimes for 
hours at a time, and most indiscreetly. He was not an agreeable 
companion, violent in his passions, nervous, restless, and in old 
age extremely irascible. Utterly unscrupulous, and without a 
trace of pity, he treated men like pawns, and was content only 
with absolute obedience. 

But this Machiavellian prince was the genuine son of St Louis. 


His religiosity was genuine if degenerate. He lavished presents 
on influential saints, built shrines, sent gifts to churches, went 
on frequent pilgrimages and spent much time in prayer employ- 
ing his consummate diplomacy to win celestial allies, and 
rewarding them richly when their aid secured him any advantage. 
St Martin of Tours received 1200 crowns after the capture of 
Perpignan. He tried to bribe the saints of his enemies, as he 
did their ministers. An unfaltering faith taught him the value 
of religion as a branch of politics. Finally, more in the spirit 
of orthodoxy, he used the same arts to make sure of heaven. 
When the ring of St Zanobius and the blood of Cape Verde 
turtles gave him no relief from his last illness, he showered gifts 
upon his patron saints, secured for his own benefit the masses 
of his clergy, and the most potent prayers in Christendom, those 
of the two most effective saints of his day, Bernardin of Doulins 
and Francis of Paolo. 

During the last two or three years of his life Louis lived in 
great isolation, " seeing no one, speaking with no one, except 
such as he commanded," in the chateau of Plessis-les-Tours, 
that " spider's nest " bristling with watch towers, and guarded 
only by the most trusty servitors. A swarm of astrologers and 
physicians preyed upon his fears and his purse. But, however 
foolish in his credulity, he still made his strong hand felt both in 
France and in Italy, remaining to the last " the terrible king." 
His fervent prayers were interrupted by instructions for the 
regency which was to follow. He died on the 3oth of August 
1483, and was buried, according to his own wish, without royal 
state, in the church at Clery, instead of at St Denis. He left 
a son, his successor, Charles VIII., and two daughters. 

See the admirable re'sume' by Charles Petit-Dutaillis in Lavisse's 
Histotre de France, tome iv. pt. ii. (1902), and bibliographical indi- 
cations given there. Michelet's wonderful depiction in his Histotre 
de France (livres 13 to 17) has never been surpassed for graphic 
word-painting, but it is inaccurate in details, and superseded in 
scholarship. Of the original sources for the reign the Lettres de 
Louis XI. (edited by Charavay and Vaesen, 8 vols., 18831902), 
the celebrated Memoires of Philippe de Commines and the Journal 
of Jean de Royl naturally come first. The great mass of literature on 
the period is analysed in masterly fashion by A. Molinier, Sources 
de I histoire de France (tome v. pp. 1-146), and to this exhaustive 
bibliography the reader is referred for further research. See also 
C. Hare, The Life of Louis XI. (London, 1907). (J. T. S.*) 

LOUIS XII. (1462-1515), king of France, was grandson of 
Louis of Orleans, the brother of Charles VI., and son of the 
poet prince, Charles of Orleans, who, after the battle of Agin- 
court, spent twenty-five years of captivity in England. Louis 
was duke of Orleans until his accession to the throne, and he 
was fourteen years old when Louis XI. gave him the hand of 
his second daughter, Joan the Lame. In the first years of the 
reign of Charles VIII., Louis made a determined stand against 
the government of the Beaujeus, stirred up coalitions of the 
feudal nobles against them, and was finally defeated and taken 
prisoner at St Aubin du Cormier in 1488. Charles VIII. set 
him at liberty in 1491. These successive checks tamed him a 
little. In the Italian expedition of 1494 he commanded the 
vanguard of the royal army, occupied Genoa, and remained in 
the north of Italy, menacing Milan, on which he was already 
dreaming of asserting his rights. The children of Charles VIII. 
having died in infancy, he became heir-presumptive to the throne, 
and succeeded Charles in 1499. Louis was then thirty-six years 
old, but he seems to have grown old prematurely. He was 
fragile, narrow-shouldered and of a sickly constitution. His 
intelligence was mediocre, his character weak, and he allowed 
himself to be dominated by his wife, Anne of Brittany, and 
his favourite the Cardinal d'Amboise. He was a good king, 
full of moderation and humanity, and bent upon maintaining 
order and improving the administration of justice. He enjoyed 
a genuine popularity, and in 1 506 the estates of Tours conferred 
on him the surname of Pere du Peuple. His foreign policy, 
which was directed wholly towards Italy, was for the most part 
unskilful; to his claims on Naples he added those on Milan, 
which he based on the marriage of his grandfather, Louis of 
Orleans, with Valentina Visconti. He led in person several 
armies into Italy, and proved as severe and pitiless towards 

his enemies as he was gentle and clement towards his subjects. 
Louis had no children. After his accession he had divorced 
his virtuous and ill-favoured queen, Joan, and had married, 
in 1499, Anne of Brittany, the widow of Charles VIII. On her 
death in January 1514, in order to detach England from the 
alliance against him, he married on the 9th of October 1514, 
Mary Tudor, sister of Henry VIII. of England (see MARY, queen 
of France). He died on the ist of January 1515. 

For a bibliography of the printed sources see Henri Hauser, Les 
Sources de I' histoire de France, XVI" siecle, vol. I. (Paris, 1906). 
The principal secondary authorities are De Maulde, Histoire de 
Louis XII. (Paris, 1889-1893); Le Roux de Lincy, Vie de la reine 
Anne de Bretagne (Paris, 1860); H. Lemonnier, Les Guerres a' Italic 
(Paris, 1903) in the Histoire de France by E. Lavisse. (J. I.) 

LOUIS XIII. (1601-1643), king of France, was the son of 
Henry IV. and of Marie de' Medici. He became king on his 
father's assassination in 1610; but his mother at once seized 
the full powers of regent. She determined to reverse the policy 
of her husband and to bring France into alliance with Spain 
and the Austrian house, upon which power Henry had been 
meditating an attack at the time of his death. Two marriages 
were designed to cement this alliance. Louis was to marry 
Anne of Austria, daughter of the Spanish king, Philip III., 
and the Spanish prince, afterwards Philip IV., himself was to 
marry the Princess Elizabeth, the king's sister. Notwith- 
standing the opposition of the Protestants and nobles of France, 
the queen carried through her purpose and the marriages were 
concluded in 1615. The next years were full of civil war and 
political intrigue, during which the queen relied upon the 
Marshal d'Ancre. Louis XIII. was a backward boy, and his 
education had been much neglected. We have the fullest 
details of his private life, and yet his character remains some- 
thing of a mystery. He was fond of field sports and seemed 
to acquiesce in his mother's occupation of power and in the rule 
of her favourites. But throughout his life he concealed his 
purposes even from his closest friends; sometimes it seems as 
if he were hardly conscious of them himself. In 1617 he was 
much attached to Charles d'Albert, sieur de Luynes; and with 
his help he arrested Marshal d'Ancre, and on his resistance had 
him assassinated. From this time to her death the relation 
between the king and his mother was one of concealed or open 
hostility. The article on FRANCE must be consulted for the 
intricate events of the following years. 

The decisive incident for his private life as well as for his 
reign was the entrance of Cardinal Richelieu, hitherto the 
queen's chief adviser, into the king's council in 1624. Hence- 
forth the policy of France was directed by Richelieu, who took 
up in its main features the system of Protestant alliances and 
opposition to the power of Austria and Spain, which had been 
begun by Henry IV. and had been interrupted by the queen- 
mother during the regency; while he asserted the power of the 
crown against all rivals at home. This policy had remarkable 
results for the king's private life. It not only brought him into 
unremitting conflict with the Protestants and the nobles of 
France, but also made him the enemy of his mother, of his brother 
Gaston of Orleans, who made himself the champion of the cause 
of the nobles, and sometimes even of his wife. It is not easy 
to define his relations to Richelieu. He was convinced of his 
loyalty and of his genius, and in the end always supported his 
policy. But he disliked the friction with his family circle which 
this policy produced. In the difficulty with which he expressed 
himself and in a certain indecision of character the king was 
curiously unlike his father, the frank and impetuous Henry 
of Navarre, and his absolute son Louis XIV. He took a great 
interest in all the externals of war. He was present, and is 
said to have played an important part at the passage of Susa 
in 1629, and also eagerly participated in the siege of Rochelle, 
which surrendered in the same year. But for the most part 
his share in the great events of the reign was a passive one. The 
one all-important fact was that he supported his great minister. 
There were certain occasions when it seemed as if that support 
would be denied. The chief of these was what is known as the 
" Day of Dupes " (1630). Then the queen-mother and the king's 


brother passionately attacked the minister, and for a moment 
it was believed that Richelieu was dismissed and that the queen- 
mother and a Spanish policy had triumphed. But the sequel 
only strengthened the power of the minister. He regained his 
ascendancy over the king, punished his enemies and forced 
Marie de' Medici and Gaston of Orleans to sue for pardon. 
In 1631 Gaston fled to Lorraine and the queen-mother to 
Brussels. Gaston soon returned, to plot, to fail and to sue for 
pardon again and again; but Marie de'Medici ended her life 
in exile. 

Richelieu's position was much strengthened by these incidents, 
but to the end of life he had to struggle against conspiracies 
which were designed to deprive him of the king's support, and 
usually Gaston of Orleans had some share in these movements. 
In 1632 the duke of Montmorency's conspiracy brought its 
leader to the scaffold. But the last great effort to overthrow 
Richelieu was closely connected with the king. Louis XIII. 
had from the beginning of his reign had favourites young men 
for the most part with whom he lived freely and intimately 
and spoke of public affairs lightly and unreservedly; and who 
in consequence often exaggerated their influence over him. 
Henri d'Effiat, marquis de Cinq-Mars, was the last of these 
favourites. The king is said to have allowed him to speak 
hostilely of Richelieu and even to recall the assassination of 
Marshal d'Ancre. Cinq-Mars believed himself secure of the 
king's favour. He entered into negotiations with Spain and 
was secretly supported by Gaston of Orleans. But Richelieu 
discovered his treasonous relations with Spain and by this 
means defeated his plot. Louis was reconciled to his minister. 
" We have lived too long together to be separated " he is 
reported to have said (September 1642). Yet when Richelieu 
died in December of the same year he allowed himself to speak 
of him in a jealous and satirical tone. He died himself a few 
months later (May 1643). 

His nature was timid, lethargic and melancholy, and his court 
was not marked by the scandals which had been seen under 
Henry IV. Yet Mademoiselle de la Fayette and Madame 
d'Hautefort and others are said to have been his mistresses. 
His brother Gaston survived him, but gave unexpectedly little 
trouble during the wars of the Fronde which ensued on the death 
of Louis XIII. 

The chief source of information on Louis XIII.'s life is to be found 
in the contemporary memoirs, of which the chief are: Bassompierre, 
Fontenay-Mareuil, Gaston d'Orleans, Montr^sor, Omer Talon. 
Richelieu's own Memoirs are chiefly concerned with politics and 
diplomacy. Of modern works those most directly bearing on the 
king's personal life are R. de Beauchamp, Louis XIII. d aprbs so. 
correspondance aiiec le cardinal de Richelieu; G. Hanotaux, Histoire 
du cardinal de Richelieu (1893-1896); Rossignol, Louis XIII. avant 
Richelieu; M. Topin, Louis XIII. et Richelieu (1876). See too 
Professor R. Lodge, Richelieu; J. B. H. R. Capefigue, Richelieu, 
Mazarin et la Fronde (1835-1836) ; and Dr J. H. Bridges, Richelieu, 
Mazarin and Colbert (1866). 

For full bibliography see G. Monod, Bibliographie de I'histoire de 
France; Cambridge Modern History, vol. iv. (" The Thirty Years' 
War ") ; Lavisse et Rambaud, Histoire generate, vol. v. (" Guerres 
de religion "). ' (A. J. G.*) 

LOUIS XIV. (1638-1715), king of France, was born at Saint- 
Germain-en-Laye on the sth of September 1638. His father, 
Louis XIII., had married Anne of Austria, daughter of Philip III., 
king of Spain, in 1615, but for twenty years the marriage 
had remained without issue. The childlessness of the king was 
a constant threat to the policy of his great minister Richelieu; 
for the king's brother and heir, Gaston of Orleans, was a deter- 
mined opponent of that policy. The birth of the prince who 
was destined to reign as Louis XIV. was therefore hailed as a 
triumph, not less important than any of those won by diplomacy 
or arms. The death of his father made Louis XIV. king on the 
1 4th of May 1643, but he had to wait sixteen years before he 
began to rule. Power lay for some time in the hands of the 
queen-mother and in those of her minister, Cardinal Mazarin, 
who found it difficult to maintain the power of the throne and 
the integrity of French territory during the domestic troubles 
of the Fronde and the last stages of the Thirty Year's War. The 
minister was hated as a foreigner, and the childhood of the king 

weakened the royal authority. Twice the court had to flee from 
Paris; once when there was a rumour of intended flight the 
populace was admitted to see the king in his bed. The memory 
of these humiliations played their part in developing later the 
autocratic ideas of Louis. Mazarin, in spite of all disadvantages, 
triumphed alike over his domestic and his foreign opponents. 
The Fronde was at an end by 1653; the peace of Westphalia 
(1648) and the peace of the Pyrenees (1659) marked the success 
of the arms and of the diplomacy of France. Louis XIV. 
was now twenty-one years of age and was anxious to rule as 
well as to reign. The peace of the Pyrenees was a decisive 
event in his personal history as well as in that of France, for 
one of its most important stipulations referred to his marriage. 
He had already been strongly attracted to one of the nieces of 
Mazarin, but reasons of state triumphed over personal impulse ; 
and it was agreed that the new friendship with Spain should 
be cemented by the marriage of Louis to his cousin, the Infanta 
Maria Theresa. A large dowry was stipulated for; and in 
consideration of this the king promised to forgo all claims that 
his wife might otherwise possess to the Spanish crown or any part 
of its territories. The dowry was never paid, and the king held 
himself free of his promise. 

The marriage took place at once, and the king entered Paris 
in triumph in 1660. Mazarin died in the next year; but so 
strong was the feeling that the kings of France could only rule 
through a first minister that it was generally expected that 
Mazarin would soon have a successor. The king, however, at 
once announced his intention of being his own first minister; 
and from this resolution he never swerved. Whatever great 
qualities he may have lacked he certainly possessed industry and 
patience in the highest degree. He built up a thoroughly 
personal system of government, and presided constantly over the 
council and many of its committees. He was fond of gaiety and 
of sport; but neither ever turned him away from the punctual 
and laborious discharge of his royal duties. Even the greatest 
of his ministers found themselves controlled by the king. 
Fouquet, the finance minister, had accumulated enormous 
wealth during the late disturbances, and seemed to possess power 
and ambition too great for a subject. Louis XIV. found it 
necessary almost to conspire against him; he was overthrown 
and condemned to perpetual imprisonment. Those who had 
most of the king's confidence afterwards were Colbert for home 
affairs; Lionne for diplomacy; Louvois for war; but as his 
reign proceeded he became more self-confident and more 
intolerant of independence of judgment in his ministers. 

His court was from the first one of great brilliance. In art 
and in literature, the great period, which is usually called by 
the king's name, had in some respects passed its zenith when he 
began to reign. But France was unquestionably the first state 
in Europe both in arms and arts, and within France the authority 
of the king was practically undisputed. The nation, proud of 
its pre-eminence and weary of civil war, saw in the king its true 
representative and the guarantee of its unity and success. Louis 
was singularly well fitted by his physical and intellectual gifts 
for the role of Grand Monarque and he played it to perfection. 
His wife Maria Theresa bore him children but there was no 
community of tastes between them, and the chief influence at 
court is to be found not in the queen but in the succession 
of avowed mistresses. Mademoiselle de la Valliere held the 
position from 1662 to 1670; she was then ousted by Madame de 
Montespan, who had fiercely intrigued for it, and whose proud 
and ambitious temper offered a great contrast to her rival. She 
held her position from 1670 to 1679 and then gave place to the 
still more famous Madame de Maintenon, who ruled, however, 
not as mistress but as wife. The events that brought about this 
incident form the strangest episode in the king's private life. 
Madame de Maintenon was the widow of the dramatist Scarron, 
and first came into relationship with the king as governess to 
his illegitimate children. She was a woman of unstained life 
and strongly religious temperament; and it was by this that she 
gained so great an influence over the king. Through her influence 
the king was reconciled to his wife, and, when Maria Theresa 



died in 1683, Madame de Maintenon shortly afterwards (in 1684) 
became the king's wife, though this was never officially declared. 
Under her influence the court lost most of its gaiety, and 
religion came to exercise much control over the life and the 
policy of the king. 

The first years of the king's rule were marked by the great 
schemes of Colbert for the financial, commercial, industrial 
and naval reorganization of France, and in these schemes Louis 
took a deep interest. But in 1667 began the long series of wars, 
which lasted with little real intermission to the end of the reign 
(see FRANCE). In the steps that led to these wars and in their 
conduct the egotistic ambition and the vanity of the king played 
an important part; though he never showed real military skill 
and took no share in any military operations except in certain 
sieges. The War of Devolution (cr the Queen's War) in 1667-68 
to enforce the queen's claim to certain districts in the Spanish 
Netherlands, led to the Dutch War (1672-78), and in both these 
wars the supremacy of the French armies was clearly apparent. 
The next decade (1678-1688) was the real turning-point in the 
history of the reign, and the strength of France was seriously 
diminished. The chief cause of this is to be found in the revoca- 
tion of the Edict of Nantes. The -church had always opposed 
this settlement and had succeeded in altering it in many points. 
Now the new religious zeal and the autocratic temper of Louis 
XIV. came to the support of the church. The French Huguenots 
found their privileges decreased, and then, in 1685, the edict was 
altogether withdrawn. The results were ruinous to France. It 
was not only that she lost many thousands of her best citizens, 
but this blow against Protestantism deprived her of those 
Protestant alliances in Europe which had been in the past her 
great diplomatic support. Then the English Revolution came 
in 1688 and changed England from a wavering ally into the most 
determined of the enemies of France. 

The war with the Grand Alliance, of which King William III. 
was the heart and soul, lasted from 1688 to 1697; and the treaty 
of Ryswick, which brought it to an end, deprived France of 
certain territories on her frontier. But Louis saw in the Spanish 
question a chance of more than making up for this loss. The 
Spanish king Charles II. was dying, and the future of the 
possessions of Spain was doubtful. The astute diplomacy of 
Louis succeeded in winning the inheritance for his grandson 
Philip. But this involved France and Europe in an immense 
war (1700) and by the peace of Utrecht (1713), though the 
French prince retained the Spanish crown, France had again to 
make concessions of territory. 

Louis XIV. had shown wonderful tenacity of purpose during 
this disastrous war, and sometimes a nobler and more national 
spirit than during the years of his triumphs. But the condition 
of France was terrible. She was burdened with debt; the 
reforms of Colbert were ruined; and opposition to the king's 
re'gime began to make itself felt. Peace brought some relief to 
France, but the last years of the king's life were gloomy in the 
extreme. His numerous descendants seemed at one time to 
place the succession beyong all difficulty. But his eldest son, 
the dauphin, died in April 1711; his eldest grandson the duke of 
Burgundy in February 1712; and his great-grandson the duke 
of Brittany in March 1712. The heir to the throne was now the 
duke of Burgundy's son, the duke of Anjou, afterwards Louis XV. 
The king died on the ist of September 1715, after the longest 
recorded reign in European history. The judgment of posterity 
has not repeated the flattering verdict of his contemporaries; 
but he remains the model of a great king in all that concerns the 
externals of kingship. 

The reign of Louis XIV. is particularly rich in memoirs describing 
the life of the court. The chief are Madame de Motteville's memoirs 
for the period of the Fronde, and the letters of Madame de S6vign6 
and the memoirs of Saint-Simon for the later period. The king's 
ideas are best seen in the Memoires de Louis XIV. pour V instruction 
du dauphin (edited by Dreyss, 2 yols.). His private life is revealed 
in the letters of Madame de Maintenon and in those of Madame, 
Duchesse d'Orldans. Of the ordinary historians of France Michelet 
is fullest on the private life of the king. Mention may also be made 
of Voltaire, Siecle de Louis XIV. ; P. Cldment, Histoire delavieetde 
I' administration de Colbert; Sainte-Beuve, Causeries de lundi. Full 

bibliographies of the reign will be found in G. Monod's Bibliographie 
de I'histoire de France; vol. v. (" The Age of Louis XIV.") of the 
Cambridge Modern History; and vol. vi. (" Louis XIV.") of the 
Histoire generate of Lavisse and Rambaud. (A. J. G.*) 

LOUIS XV. (1710-1774), king of France, was the great-grand- 
son of Louis XIV. and the third son of Louis, duke of Burgundy, 
and Marie Adelaide, princess of Savoy. The first son had died 
in 1705, and in 1712 the second son, the duke of Brittany, as 
well as his father and mother, was carried off by a mysterious 
disease. Louis was thus unexpectedly brought into the line 
of the succession, and was only five years old when Louis XIV. 
died. The dead king had endeavoured by his will to control 
the administration even after his death by a carefully selected 
council of regency, in which the duke of Orleans should have only 
the nominal presidency; but with the help of the parlement 
of Paris the arrangement was at once set aside, and the duke 
was declared regent with full traditional powers. The duke 
had capacity, but his life was so licentious that what influence 
he had upon the king was for evil. Fleury, bishop of Frejus, 
was appointed his tutor, and the little king was sincerely attached 
to him. The king attained his legal majority at the age of 
thirteen, shortly before the death of the duke of Orleans. His 
first minister was the incapable duke of Bourbon, who in 1725 
procured the repudiation of the Spanish princess, to whom the 
king had been betrothed, and his marriage to Maria Leszczynska, 
daughter of the exiled king of Poland, then resident in Alsace. 
In 1726 the duke of Bourbon was displaced by the king's tutor, 
Bishop (afterwards Cardinal) Fleury, who exercised almost 
absolute power, for the king took little interest in affairs of state. 
His administration was successful and peaceful until the year 
1734, when a disputed succession in Poland brought about the 
interference of France on behalf of the queen's father. France 
was unsuccessful in her immediate object, but at the peace of 
Vienna (1735) secured the possession of Lorraine. Up to this 
point the reign had been prosperous; but from this time on 
it is a record of declining national strength, which was not 
compensated by some days of military glory. Fleury's great 
age (he died still in office at the age of ninety) prevented him 
from really controlling the policy of France and of Europe. 
In 1740 the war of the Austrian Succession broke out and 
France drifted into it as an ally of Frederick of Prussia and 
the enemy of England, and of Maria Theresa of Austria. 

On Fleury's death in 1743 no one took his place, and the 
king professed to adopt the example of Louis XIV. and to 
establish a personal autocracy. But he was not strong enough 
in will or intellect to give unity to the administration. The 
marquis d'Argenson writes that at the council table Louis 
" opened his mouth, said little and thought not at all," and 
again that " under the appearance of personal monarchy it 
was really anarchy that reigned." He had followed too in his 
domestic life the example of his predecessors. The queen for 
some time seems to have secured his affections, and she bore 
him seven children. But soon we hear of the royal mistresses. 
The first to acquire notoriety was the duchess of Chateauroux, 
the third sister of one family who held this position. She was 
at least in part the cause of the only moment of popularity 
which the king enjoyed. She urged him to take part personally 
in the war. France had just received a humiliating check at 
Dettingen, and the invasion of the north-eastern frontier was 
feared. The king went to Metz in 1744, and his presence there 
did something to ward off the danger. While the nation felt 
genuine gratitude for his energy and its success, he was reported 
to have fallen dangerously ill. The king, of whom it was said 
that the fear of hell was the only part of religion which had 
any reality for him, now dismissed the duchess of Chateauroux 
and promised amendment. Prayers were offered everywhere 
for his recovery, and the country was swept by a delirium of 
loyal enthusiasm, which conferred on him the title of Louis le 
bien aimi. But his future life disappointed all these hopes. 
The duchess of Chateauroux died in the same year, but her place 
was taken in 1745 by Madame de Pompadour. This woman 
had philanthropic impulses and some real interest in art and 



letters; but her influence on public affairs was a fatal one. 
She had many rivals during her lifetime and on her death in 
1764 she was succeeded by Madame du Barry (q.v.). But 
the mention of these three women gives no idea of the degradation 
of the king's life. There has doubtless been exaggeration as 
to certain details, and the story of his seraglio at the Pare aux 
cerfs is largely apocryphal. But it would be difficult to mention 
the name of any European king whose private life shows such 
a record of vulgar vice unredeemed by higher aims of any kind. 
He was not without ambition, but without sufficient tenacity 
of purpose to come near to realizing it. To the last he main- 
tained the pretence of personal rule, but the machinery of 
government fell out of gear, and the disorder of the finances was 
never remedied before the revolution of 1789. 

The peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), which ended the war 
of the Austrian Succession, brought no gains to France in spite 
of her victories at Fontenoy and Raucoux; and the king was 
blamed for the diplomatic failure. The interval between this 
war and the Seven Years' War (1756) saw that great reversal 
of alliances which is sometimes called the " Diplomatic Revolu- 
tion "; whereby France repudiated the alliance of Frederick 
the Great and joined hands with her old enemy Austria. The 
intrigues of Madame de Pompadour played in this change an 
important though not a decisive part. It was the cause of 
immense disasters to France; for after a promising beginning, 
both by land and sea, France suffered reverses which lost her 
both India and Canada and deprived her of the leading position 
which she had so long held in Europe. Her humiliation was 
declared by the peace of Paris (1763). 

The article on the history of France (q.v.) shows how there 
arose during the last years of Louis XV. 's reign a strong reaction 
against the monarchy and its methods. Military success had 
given it its strength; and its prestige was ruined by military 
failure. In the parlements, provincial and Parisian; in religion 
and in literature, a note of opposition is struck which was never 
to die until the monarchy was overthrown. France annexed 
Corsica in 1 768, but this was felt to be the work of the minister 
Chauvelin, and reflected no credit on the king. He died in 1774 
of smallpox. If the reign of his predecessor shows us almost 
the ideal of personal monarchy we may see in that of Louis 
XV. all the vices and errors exemplified which lie in wait for 
absolute hereditary rule which has survived the period of its 

For the king's life generally see the memoirs of Saint-Simon, 
d'Argenson, Villars and Barbier, and for the details of his private life 
E. Boutaric, Correspondance secrete de Louis XV.; Madame de 
Pompadour's Correspondance published by P. Malassi; Dietric, Les 
Mattresses de Louis X V. ; and Fleury, Louis X V. intimes et les petites 
mattresses (1909). 

For the system of secret diplomacy and organized espionage, 
known as the Secret du roi, carried on under the auspices of Louis 
XV., see Albert due de Broglie, Le Secret du roi. Correspondance 
secrete de Louis XV. avec ses agents diplomatique! 1752-1774 (Paris, 
1878) ; and for a general account of the reign, H. Carr6, La France 
sous Louis XV. (Paris, 1891). For other works, general and special, 
see G. Monod, Bibliographie de la France, and the bibliography in the 
Histoire generate of Lavisse and Rambaud, vol. vii., and the Cambridge 
Modern History, vol. vi. (A. J. G.*) 

LOUIS XVI. (1754-1793), king of France, was the son of Louis, 
dauphin of France, the son of Louis XV., and of Marie Joseph 
of Saxony, and was born at Versailles on the 23rd of August 
1754, being baptized as Louis Augustus. His father's death 
in 1765 made him heir to the throne, and in 1770 he was married 
to Marie Antoinette, daughter of the empress Maria Theresa. 
He was just twenty years old when the death of Louis XV. on the 
loth of May 1774 placed him on the throne. He began his reign 
under good auspices, with Turgot, the greatest living French 
statesman, in charge of the disorganized finances; but in less than 
two years he had yielded to the demand of the vested interests 
attacked by Turgot's reforms, and dismissed him. Turgot's 
successor, Necker, however, continued the regime of reform 
until 1781, and it was only with Necker's dismissal that the 
period of reaction began. Marie Antoinette then obtained that 
ascendancy over her husband which was partly responsible for 

the extravagance of the ministry of Calonne, and brought on the 
Revolution by the resulting financial embarrassment. 1 The 
third part of his reign began with the meeting of the states- 
general on the 4th of May 1789, which marked the opening of 
the Revolution. The revolt of Paris and the taking of the Bastille 
on the i4th of July were its results. The suspicion, not without 
justification, of a second attempt at a coup d'etat led on the 
6th of October to the " capture " of the king and royal family 
at Versailles by a mob from Paris, and their transference to the 
Tuileries. In spite of the growing radicalism of the clubs, however, 
loyalty to the king remained surprisingly strong. When he swore 
to maintain the constitution, then in progress of construction, at 
the festival of the federation on the I4th of July 1790, he was at 
the height of his popularity. Even his attempted flight on the 
zoth of June 1791 did not entirely turn the nation against him, 
although he left documents which proved his opposition to the 
whole Revolution. Arrested at Varennes, and brought back to 
Paris, he was maintained as a constitutional king, and took 
his oath on the I3th of September 1791. But already a party 
was forming in Paris which demanded his deposition. This 
first became noticeable in connexion with the affair of the Champ 
de Mars on the I7th of July 1791. Crushed for a time the party 
gained strength through the winter of 1791-1792. The declara- 
tion of war against the emperor Francis II., nephew of Marie 
Antoinette, was forced upon the king by those who wished to 
discredit him by failure, or to compel him to declare himself 
openly an enemy to the Revolution. Their policy proved effec- 
tive. The failure of the war, which intensified popular hatred 
of the Austrian queen, involved the king; and the invasion of 
the Tuileries on the 2oth of June 1792 was but the prelude to 
the conspiracy which resulted, on the loth of August, in the 
capture of the palace and the " suspension " of royalty by the 
Legislative Assembly until the convocation of a national con- 
vention in September. On the 2ist of September 1792 the 
Convention declared royalty abolished, and in January it tried 
the king for his treason against the nation, and condemned him 
to death. He was executed on the 2ist of January 1793. 

Louis XVI. was weak in character and mentally dull. His 
courage and dignity during his trial and on the scaffold has left 
him a better reputation than he deserves. His diary shows 
how little he understood, or cared for, the business of a king. 
Days on which he had not shot anything at the hunt were 
blank days for him. The entry on the I4thof July 1789 was 
" nothing "I The greater part of his time was spent hunting. 
He also amused himself making locks, and a little at masonry. 
Awkward and uncourtly, at heart shy, he was but a poor figure- 
head for the stately court of France. At first he did not care 
for Marie Antoinette, but after he came under her influence, 
her thoughtless conduct compromised him, and it was largely 
she who encouraged him in underhand opposition to the 
Revolution while he pretended to accept it. The only point 
on which he had of his own initiative shown a strong objec- 
tion to revolutionary measures was in the matter of the civil 
constitution of the clergy. A devoted and sincere Roman 
Catholic, he refused at first to sanction a constitution for the 
church in France without the pope's approval, and after he had 
been compelled to allow the constitution to become law he 
resolved to oppose the Revolution definitely by intrigues. 
His policy was both feeble and false. He was singularly un- 
fortunate even when he gave in, delaying his acquiescence until 
it had the air of a surrender. It is often said that Louis XVI. 
was the victim of the faults of his predecessors. He was also the 
victim of his own. 

Having lost his elder son in 1789 Louis left two children, Louis 
Charles, usually known as Louis XVII., and Marie Th6rese 
Charlotte (1778-1851), who married her cousin, Louis, duke of 
Angouleme, son of Charles X., in 1799. The "orphan of the 
Temple," as the princess was called, was in prison for three years, 

1 The responsibility of Marie Antoinette for the policy of the king 
before and during the Revolution has been the subject of much 
controversy. In general it may be said that her influence on politics 
has been much exaggerated. (See MARIE ANTOINETTE.) [Ed.] 



during which time she remained ignorant of the fate which had 
befallen her parents. She died on the igth of October 1851. 
Her life by G. Lenotre has been translated into English by J. L. 
May (1908). 

F. X. J. Droz, Histoire du regne de Louis XVI. (3 vols., Paris, 1860), 
a sane and good history of the period ; and Arsene Houssaye, Louis 
XVI. (Paris, 1891). See also the numerous memoirs of the time, 
and the marquis de S6gur's Au couchant de la monarchic, Louis XVI. 
et Turgot (1910). 

For bibliographies see G. Monod, Bibl. de la France; Lavisse et 
Rambaud, Hist. Univ., vols. vii. and viii.; and the Cambridge 
Modern History, vol. viii. (R- A.") 

LOUIS XVII. (1785-1795?), titular king of France, second son 
of Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette, was born at Versailles 
on the 27th of March 1785, was christened the same day Louis 
Charles, and given the title of duke of Normandy. Louis 
Charles became dauphin on the death of his elder brother on the 
4th of June 1789. It is only with his incarceration in the Temple 
on the I3th of August 1792, that his history, apart from that of his 
parents, becomes of interest. The royal party included, beside 
the king and queen, their daughter Marie Therese Charlotte 
(Madame Royale), the king's sister Madame Elisabeth, the valet 
Clery and others. The prisoners were lodged at first in the smaller 
Tower, but were removed to the larger Tower on the 27th of 
October. Louis Charles was then separated from his mother 
and aunt to be put in his father's charge, except for a few hours 
daily, but was restored to the women when Louis was isolated 
from his family at the beginning of his trial in December. 

On the 2ist of January 1793 Louis became, for the royalists, 
king of France, and a week later the comte de Provence arrogated 
to himself the title of regent. From that moment began new 
plots for the escape of the prisoners from the Temple, the chief 
of which were engineered by the Chevalier de Jarjayes, 1 the 
baron de Batz, 2 and the faithful Lady Atkyns. 3 On the 3rd of 
July the little dauphin was again separated from his mother, 
this time to be given into the keeping of the cobbler Antoine 
Simon 4 who had been named his guardian by the Committee 
of General Security. The tales told by the royalist writers of the 
barbarous cruelty inflicted by Simon and his wife on the child are 
not proven. Marie Jeanne, in fact, took great care of the child's 
person, and there is documentary evidence to prove that he had 
air and food. But the Simons were obviously grotesquely unfit 
guardians for a prince, and they doubtless caused much suffering 
to the impressionable child, who was made on occasion to eat and 
drink to excess, and learnt the language of the gutter. But the 
scenes related by A. de Beauchesne of the physical martyrdom 
of the child are not supported by any other testimony, though 
he was at this time seen by a great number of people. On the 
6th of October Pache, Chaumette, Hebert and others visited 
him and secured from him admissions of infamous accusations 
against his mother, with his signature to a list of her alleged 
crimes since her entry in the Temple, and next day he was con- 
fronted with his sister Marie Therese for the last time. 

1 F. A. Regnier de Jarjayes (1745-1822). See P. Gaulot, Un 
Complot sous la Terreur. 

'Jean, baron de Batz (1761-1822), attempted to carry off the 
dauphin in 1794. See G. Len&tre, Un Conspirateur royaliste pendant 
la Terreur, le baron de Batz (1896). 

Charlotte Walpole (c. 1785-1836), an English actress who married 
in 1779 Sir Edward Atkyns, and spent most of her life in France. 
She expended large sums in trying to secure the escape of the prisoners 
of the Temple. See F. Barbey, A Friend of Marie Antoinette (Eng. 
ed. 1906). 

4 Antoine Simon (173671794) married Marie Jeanne Aladame, 
and belonged to the section of the Cordeliers. They owed their 
position to Anaxagoras Chaumette, procureur of the Commune, 
and to the fact that Simon had prevented one of the attempts of the 
baron de Batz. Simon was sent to the guillotine with Robespierre 
in 1794, and two years later Marie Jeanne entered a hospital for in- 
curables in the rue de Sevres, where she constantly affirmed the 
dauphin's escape. She was secretly visited after the Restoration by 
the duchess of Angoulgme. On the i6th of November 1816, she was 
interrogated by the police, who frightened her into silence about the 
supposed substitution of another child for the dauphin. She died in 
1819. See G. Len6tre, Vieilles maisons, vieux papiers (and series, 

Simon's wife now fell ill, and on the I9th of January 1794 the 
Simons left the Temple, after securing a receipt for the safe trans- 
fer of their prisoner, who was declared to be in good health. 
A large part of the Temple records from that time onwards 
were destroyed under the Restoration, so that exact knowledge 
of the facts is practically impossible. Two days after the 
departure of the Simons the prisoner is said by the Restoration 
historians to have been put in a dark room which was barricaded 
like the cage of a wild animal. The story runs that food was 
passed through the bars to the child, who survived in spite of the 
accumulated filth of his surroundings. Robespierre' visited 
Marie Therese on the nth of May, but no one, according to the 
legend, entered the dauphin's room for six months until Barras 
visited the prison after the 9th Thermidor (July 27, 1794). 
Barras's account of the visit describes the child as suffering from 
extreme neglect, but conveys no idea of the alleged walling in. 
It is nevertheless certain that during the first half of 1794 he was 
very strictly secluded; he had no special guardian, but was under 
the charge of guards changed from day to day. The child made 
no complaint to Barras of his treatment, probably because he 
feared to do so. He was then cleansed and re-clothed, his room 
cleaned, and during the day he was visited by his new attendant, 
a Creole and a compatriot of Josephine de Beauharnais, named 
Jean Jacques Christophe Laurent (1770-1807), who had from 
the 8th of November onwards assistance for his charge from 
a man named Gomin. The child was now taken out to walk 
on the roof of the Tower. From about the time of Gomin's 
entrance the prisoner was inspected, not by delegates of the 
Commune, but by representatives of the civil committee of the 
48 sections of Paris. The rare recurrence of the same inspectors 
would obviously facilitate fraud, if any such were intended. 
From the end of October onwards the child maintained an 
obstinate silence, explained by Laurent as a determination taken 
on the day he made his deposition against his mother. On the 
19th of December 1794 he was visited by three commissioners 
from the Committee of General Security J. B. Harmand de la 
Meuse, J. B. C. Mathieu and J. Reverchon who extracted no 
word from him. On Laurent's retirement fitienne Lasnewas 
appointed on the 3ist of March 1795 to be the child's guardian. 
In May 1795 the prisoner was seriously ill, and a doctor, P. J. 
Desault, well acquainted with the dauphin, having visited him 
seven months earlier, was summoned. Desault died suddenly, 
not without suspicion of poison, on the ist of June, and it was 
some days before doctors Pelletan and Dumangin were called. 
Then it was announced that on the 8th Louis Charles died. 
Next day an autopsy was held at which it was stated that a child 
apparently about ten years of age, " which the commissioners 
told us was the kte Louis Capet's son," had died of a scrofulous 
affection of long standing. He was buried on the loth in the 
cemetery of Ste Marguerite, but no stone was erected to mark 
the spot. 

The weak parts of this story are the sudden and unexplained 
departure of the Simons; the subsequent useless cruelty of 
treating the child like a wild beast and keeping him in a dark 
room practically out of sight (unless any doubt of his identity 
was possible), while his sister was in comparative comfort; 
the cause of death, declared to be of long standing, but in fact 
developed with such rapidity; the insufficient excuse provided 
for the child's muteness under Gomin's r6gime (he had answered 
Barras) and the irregularities in the formalities in attending 
the death and the funeral, when a simple identification of the 
body by Marie Therese would have prevented any question of 
resuscitated dauphins. Both Barras and Harmand de la Meuse 

6 In a bulletin dated May 17-24, Paris, and enclosed by Francis 
Drake (June 17, 1794) at Milan to Lord Grenville, it is stated (Hist. 
MSS. Comm. Fortescue Papers at Dropmore, vol. ii. 576-577) that 
Robespierre in the night of 23-24 May fetched the king (the dauphin) 
from the Temple and took him to Meudon. " The fact is certain, 
although only known to the Committee of Public Safety. It is said 
to be ascertained that he was brought back to the Temple the night 
of 24-25th, and that this was a test to assure the ease of seizing 
him." This police report at least serves to show the kind of rumour 
then current. 


are said to have given leave for the brother and sister to see each 
other, but the meeting was never permitted. The argument 
from the sudden disappearance of persons in a position to know 
something of the truth is of a less convincing character. It may 
be noted that the more famous of the persons alleged by partisans 
of subsequent pretenders to have been hustled out of the world 
for their connexion with the secret are the empress Josephine, 
the due d'Enghien and the due de Berri. 

Immediately on the announcement of the dauphin's death 
there arose a rumour that he had escaped. Simien-Despreaux, 
one of Louis XVIII. 's own authors, stated at a later period (1814) 
that Louis XVII. was living and that among the signatories of 
the treaty of April i3th were some who possessed proofs of his 
existence; and Eckard, one of the mainstays of the official 
account, left among his unpublished papers a statement that 
many members of " an assembly of our wise men " obstinately 
named Louis XVII. as the prince whom their wishes demanded. 
Unfortunately the removal of the child suited the plans of the 
comte de Provence (now Louis XVIII. for the Emigres) as well 
as it suited the revolutionary government, and no serious attempt 
was made by the royal family to ascertain the truth, though 
they paid none of the tributes to the memory of the dead king 
which might reasonably have been expected, had they been 
convinced of his death. Even his sister wore no mourning for 
him until she arrived at Vienna and saw that this was ex- 
pected of her. In spite of the mass of literature which has 
accumulated on the subject, neither his death in the Temple 
nor his escape therefrom has been definitely established, 
though a very strong presumption is established in favour of 
the latter. 

Some forty candidates for bis honours were forthcoming 
under the Restoration. The most important of these pretenders 
were Karl Wilhelm Naundorff and the comte de Richemont. 
Naundorff's story rested on a series of complicated intrigues. 
According to him Barras determined to save the dauphin in 
order to please Josephine Beauharnais, the future empress, 
having conceived the idea of using the dauphin's existence 
as a means of dominating the comte de Provence in the event 
of a restoration. The dauphin was concealed in the fourth storey 
of the Tower, a wooden figure being substituted for him. Laurent, 
to protect himself from the consequences of the substitution, 
replaced the wooden figure by a deaf mute, who was presently 
exchanged for the scrofulous child of the death certificate. 
The deaf mute was also concealed in the Temple. It was not the 
dead child, but the dauphin who left the prison in the coffin, 
whence he was extracted by his friends on the way to the 
cemetery. Richemont's tale that the woman Simon, who was 
genuinely attached to him, smuggled him out in a basket, is 
simple and more credible, and does not necessarily invalidate 
the story of the subsequent operations with the deaf mute and 
the scrofulous patient, Laurent in that case being deceived 
from the beginning, but it renders them extremely unlikely. 
A third pretender, Eleazar Williams, did not affect to know 
anything of his escape. He possessed, he said, no consciousness 
of his early years, only emerging from idiocy at the age of thirteen, 
when he was living with an Indian family in New York State. 
He was a missionary to the Indians when the prince de Joinville, 
son of Louis Philippe, met him, and after some conversation 
asked him to sign a document abdicating his rights in favour of 
Louis Philippe, in return for which he, the dauphin (alias 
Eleazar Williams), was to receive the private inheritance which 
was his. This Eleazar refused to do. The wildness of this tale 
refutes itself. 

Richemont (Henri Ethelbert Louis Victor Hebert) was in 
prison in Milan for seven years and began to put forward his 
claims in Paris in 1828. In 1833 he was again arrested, was 
brought to trial in the following year and was condemned to 
twelve years' imprisonment. He escaped after a few months and 
left the country, to return in 1840. He died at Gleize on the 
xoth of August 1853, the name of Louis Charles de France 
being inscribed on his tomb until the government ordered its 

Naundorff, or Naundorff, who had arrived from nowhere in 
Berlin in 1810, with papers giving the name Karl Wilhelm 
Naundorff, in order to escape the persecutions of which he 
declared himself the object, settled at Spandau in 1812 as a 
clockmaker, and married in 1818 Johanna Einert. In 1822 he 
removed to Brandenburg, and in 1828 to Crossen, near Frankfort. 
He was imprisoned from 1825 to 1828 for coining, though 
apparently on insufficient evidence, and in 1833 came to push his 
claims in Paris, where he was recognized as the dauphin by many 
persons formerly connected with the court of Louis XVI. Ex- 
pelled from France in 1836, the day after bringing a suit against 
the duchess of Angouleme for the restitution of the daupnin's 
private property, he lived in exile till his death at Delft on the 
loth of August 1845, and his tomb was inscribed " Louis XVII., 
roi de France et de Navarre (Charles Louis, due de Normandie)." 
The Dutch authorities who had inscribed on his death certificate 
the name of Charles Louis de Bourbon, due de Normandie (Louis 
XVII.) permitted his son to bear the name de Bourbon, and when 
the family appealed in 1850-1851, and again in 1874, for the 
restitution of their civil rights as heirs of Louis XVI. no less an 
advocate than Jules Favre pleaded their cause. Of all the pre- 
tenders Naundorff has the best case. He was certainly not the 
Jew of Prussian Poland which his enemies declared him to be, 
and he has to this day a circle of devoted adherents. Since he 
was sincerely convinced of his own rights, it is surprising that 
he put forward no claim hi 1814. 

If the dauphin did escape, it seems probable that he perished 
shortly afterwards or lived in a safe obscurity. The account of 
the substitution in the Temple is well substantiated, even to 
the names of the substitutes. The curious imbroglio deceived 
royalists and republicans alike. Lady Atkyns was trying by 
every possible means to get the dauphin out of his prison when 
he was apparently already in safe hands, if not outside the Temple 
walls. A child was in fact delivered to her agents, but he was a 
deaf mute. That there was fraud, and complicated fraud, in the 
guardians of the dauphin may be taken as proved by a succession 
of writers from 1850 onwards, and more recently by Frederic 
Barbey, who wisely attempts no ultimate solution. When the 
partisans of Richemont or Naundorff come to the post-Temple 
careers of their heroes, they become in most cases so uncritical 
as to be unconvincing. 

The official version of the dauphin's history as accepted under the 
Restoration was drawn up by Simien Despreaux in his uncritical 
Louis XVII. (1817), and is found, fortified by documents, in M. 
Eckard's Memoires historiques sur Louis XVII. (1817) and in A. de 
Beauchesne's Louis XVII., sa vie, son agonie, sa mart. Captivitt 
de la famille royale au Temple (2 vpls., 1852, and many subsequent 
editions), containing copies of original documents, and essential to 
the study of the question, although its sentimental pictures of the 
boy martyr can no longer be accepted. L. de la Sicotiere, " Les faux 
Louis XVII.," in Revue des questions historiques (vol. xxxii., 1882), 
deals with the pretenders Jean Marie Hervagault, Mathurin Bruneau 
and the rest ; see also Dr Cabanes, Les Marts mysterieuses de I'histoire 
(1901), and revised catalogue of the J. Sanford Saltus collection of 
Louis XVII. books (New York, 1908). Catherine Welch, in The 
Little Dauphin (1908) gives a r6sum6 of the various sides of the 

Madame Royale's own account of the captivity of the Temple 
was first printed with additions and suppressions in 1817, and often 
subsequently, the best edition being that from her autograph text 
by G. Len&tre, La Fille de Louis XVI., Marie Therese Charlotte de 
France, duchesse d'Angouleme, le Temple, I'echange, I'exil (1907). 
There are two collections of writings on the subject : Marie Therese 
de France, compiled (1852) by the marquis de Pastoret, and com- 

C rising beside the memoir written by Marie Th6rese herself, articles 
y M. de Montbel, Sainte-Beuve, J. Lemoine, La GueYonniere and 
extracts from Joseph Weber's memoirs ; and Memoires de Marie 
Therese duchesse d'Angouleme, comprising extracts from the narra- 
tives of Charles Goret (Man Temoignage, 1852), of C. F. Beaulieu 
(Memoire adressee a la nation, 1795), of L. G. Michaud (Opinion 
d'un Francais, 1795) and of Mme de Tourzel (Memoires 1883). 
Cf . A. Lanne, La Saiur de Louis X VII., and the articles on " Madame 
Royale," on the " Captivit6 de la famille royale au Temple " and on 
the " Mise en libertd de Madame " in M. Tourneux's BiUiographie 
de I'histoire de Paris pendant la revolution franc.aise (vol. iv., 1906, 
and vol. i., 1890). 

Naundorff. for the case of Naundorff see his own narrative, 
Abrege de I'histoire des infortunes du Dauphin (London, 1836; 
Eng. trans., 1838); also Modeste Gruau de la Barre, Intrigues 



devoilees ou Louis XVII. ... (3 vols., Rotterdam, 1846-1848); 
O. Friedrichs, Correspondance intime et inedite de Louis XVII. 
(Naundorff) 1834-1838 (2 vols., 1904); Plaidoirie de Jules Favre 
devant la cour d'appel de Paris pour Us heritiers de feu Charles- 
Guillaume Naundorff (1874); H. Provins, Le Dernier roi legilime 
de France (2 vols., the first of which consists of destructive criticism 
of Beauchesne and his followers, 1889) ; A. Lanne, " Louis XVII. et le 
secret de la Revolution," Bulletin mensuel (1893 et seq.) of the Societe 
des etudes sur la question Louis XVII., also La Legitimite (Bordeaux, 
Toulouse, 1883-1898). See further the article " Naundorff ' in 
M. Tourneux, Bibl. de la ville de Paris pendant la Revolution, vol. iv. 

Williams. J. H. Hanson, The Lost Prince: Facts tending to 
prove the Identity of Louis XVII. of France and the Rev. Eleazer 
Williams (London and New York, 1854). 

De Richemont. Memoires du due de Normandie,fils de Louis XVI., 
ecrits et publics par lui-meme (Paris, 1831), compiled, according to 
Querard, by E. T. Bourg, called Saint Edme; Morin de Gueriviere, 
Quelques souvenirs . . . (Paris, 1832); and J. Suvigny, La Restaura- 
tion convaincue . . . ou preuves de I' existence du fils de Louis X VI. 
(Paris, 1851). 

The widespread interest taken in Louis XVII. is shown by the fact 
that since 1905 a monthly periodical has appeared in Pans on this 
subject, entitled Revue historique de la question Louis XVII., also by 
the promised examination of the subject by the Societe d'Histoire 
contemporaine. (M. BR.) 

LOUIS XVIII. (Louis LE DESIRE) (1755-1824). Louis- 
Stanislas-Xavier, comte de Provence, third son of the dauphin 
Louis, son of Louis XV., and of Maria Josepha of Saxony, was 
born at Versailles on the I7th of November 1755. His education 
was supervised by the devout due de la Vauguyon, but his own 
taste was for the writings of Voltaire and the encyclopaedists. 
On the 1 4th of May 1771 took place his marriage with Louise- 
Marie-Josephine of Savoy, by whom he had no children. His 
position at court was uncomfortable, for though ambitious and 
conscious of possessing greater abilities than his brother (Louis 
XVI.), his scope for action was restricted; he consequently 
devoted his energies largely to intrigue, especially against 
Marie Antoinette, whom he hated. 1 During the long absence 
of heirs to Louis XVI., " Monsieur," as heir to the throne, courted 
popularity and took an active part in politics, but the birth of 
a dauphin (1781) was a blow to his ambitions. 2 He opposed 
the revival of the parlements, wrote a number of political 
pamphlets, 3 and at the Assembly of Notables presided, like the 
other princes of the blood, over a bureau, to which was given the 
name of the Comite des sages; he also advocated the double 
representation of the tiers. At the same time he cultivated 
literature, entertaining poets and writers both at the Luxembourg 
and at his chateau of Brunoy (see Dubois-Corneau, Le Comte de 
Provence a Brunoy, 1909), and gaining a reputation for wit by 
his verses and mots in the salon of the charming and witty 
comtesse de Balbi, one of Madame's ladies, who had become 
his mistress, 4 and till 1793 exerted considerable influence over 
him. He did not emigrate after the taking of the Bastille, but, 
possibly from motives of ambition, remained in Paris. Mirabeau 
thought at one time of making him chief minister in his projected 
constitutional government (see Corr. de Mirabeau et La March, ed 
Bacourt, i. 434, 436, 442), but was disappointed by his caution 
and timidity. The a/aire Favras (Dec. 1789) aroused great 
feeling against Monsieur, who was believed by many to have 
conspired with Favras, only to abandon him (see Lafayette's 
Mems. and Corr. of Mirabeau). In June 1791, at the time of the 

1 See Arneth and Geffroy, Corr. de Marie-Therese avec le comte de 
Mercy-Argenteau, vol. i., " Mercy to Maria Theresa, June 22nd 
1771," also i. 261, ii. 186, 352, 393. Marie Antoinette says (ii. 393) 
" . . . a un caractere tres faible, il joint une marche souterraine, et 
quelquefois tres basse." 

1 See his letters to Gustavus III. of Sweden in A. Geffroy, Gustave 
III et la cour de France, vol. ii. appendix. 

1 Two pamphlets at least are ascribed to him: " Les Mannequins 
conte ou histoire, comme Ton youdra " (against Turgot; anon. 
Paris, 1776) and " Description historique d'un monstre symbolique 
pris vivant sur les bords du lac Fagua, pres de Santa-Fe, par les soms 
de Francisco Xaveiro de Neunris " (against Calonne; Paris, 1784^ 
(A. Debidour in La Grande Encyclopedic). 

4 It has frequently been alleged that his relations with Mme di 
Balbi, and indeed with women generally, were of a platonic nature 
De Reiset (La Comtesse de Balbi, pp. 152-161) produces evidence to 
disprove this assertion. 

flight to Varennes, Monsieur also fled by a different route, 
and, in company with the comte d'Avaray' who subsequently 
replaced Mme de Balbi as his confidant, and largely influenced 
lis policy during the emigration succeeded in reaching Brussels, 
where he joined the comte d'Artois and proceeded to Coblenz, 
which now became the headquarters of the emigration. 

Here, living in royal state, he put himself at the head of 
the counter-revolutionary movement, appointing ambassadors, 
soliciting the aid of the European sovereigns, and especially 
of Catherine II. of Russia. Out of touch with affairs in France 
and surrounded by violent anti-revolutionists, headed by 
Calonne and the comte d'Artois, he followed an entirely selfish 
policy, flouting the National Assembly (see his reply to the 
summons of the National Assembly, in Daudet, op. cit. i. 96), 
Issuing uncompromising manifestoes (Sept. 1791, Aug. 1792, &c.), 
and obstructing in every way the representatives of the king and 
queen. 8 After Valmy he had to retire to Hamm in Westphalia, 
where, on the death of Louis XVI., he proclaimed himself regent; 
from here he went south, with the idea of encouraging the 
royalist feeling in the south of France, and settled at Verona, 
where on the death of Louis XVII. (8th of June 1795) he took 
the title of Louis XVIII. At this time ended his liaison with 
Mme de Balbi, and the influence of d'Avaray reached its height. 
From this time onward his life is a record of constant wanderings, 
negotiations and conspiracies. In April 1796 he joined Conde's 
army on the German frontier, but was shortly requested to leave 
the country, and accepted the hospitality of the duke of Bruns- 
wick at Blanckenberg till 1797, when, this refuge being no longer 
open to him, the emperor Paul I. permitted him to settle at 
Mittau in Courland, where he stayed till 1801. All this time 
he was in close communication with the royalists in France, but 
was much embarrassed by the conflicting policy pursued by the 
comte d'Artois from England, and was largely at the mercy 
of corrupt and dishonest agents. 7 At Mittau was realized his 
cherished plan of marrying Madame Royale, daughter of Louis 
XVI., to the due d'Angouleme, elder son of the comte d'Artois. 
From Mittau, too, was sent his well-known letter to Bonaparte 
(1799) calling upon him to play the part of Monk, a proposal 
contemptuously refused (E. Daudet, Hist, de Immigration, ii. 
371, 436) , though Louis in turn declined to accept a pension from 
Bonaparte, and later, in 1803, though his fortunes were at their 
lowest ebb, refused to abdicate at his suggestion and accept 
an indemnity. 

Suddenly expelled from Mittau in 1801 by the capricious 
Paul I., Louis made his way, in the depth of winter, to Warsaw, 
where he stayed for three years. All this time he was trying 
to convert France to the royalist cause, and had a " conseil 
royal " in Paris, founded at the end of 1799 by Royer-Collard, 
Montesquiou and Clermont-Gallerande, the actions of which 
were much impeded by the activity of the rival committee of 
the comte d'Artois (see E. Daudet, op. cit. ii., and Remade, 
Bonaparte et les Bourbons, Paris, 1899), but after 1800, and still 
more after the failure of the royalist conspiracy of Cadoudal, 
Pichegru and Moreau, followed by the execution of the due 
d'Enghien (March 1804), and the assumption by Napoleon of 
the title of emperor (May 1804), the royalist cause appeared 
quite hopeless. In September 1804 Louis met the comte d'Artois 
at Calmar in Sweden, and they issued a protest against Napoleon's 
action, but being warned that he must not return to Poland, he 
gained permission from Alexander I. again to retire to Mittau. 
After Tilsit, however (1807), he was again forced to depart, and 
took refuge in England, where he stayed first at Gosfield in Essex, 
and afterwards (1809 onwards) at Hartwell in Buckinghamshire. 

Antoine-Louis-Francois de Besiade, comte, afterwards due, 
d'Avaray. In spite of his loyalty and devotion, the effect of his 
influence on Louis XVIII. may be gathered from a letter of J. de 
Maistre to Blacas, quoted by FJ. Daudet, Hist, de I'emigration, ii._ 1 1 : 
" celui cjui n'a pu dans aucun pays abprder aucun homme politique 
sans 1'ahener n'est pas fait pour les affaires." 

See KlinckowstrSm, Le Comte de Fersen et la cour de France. 
Fersen says (i. 7), " Monsieur ferait mieux seul, mais il est entiere- 
ment subjugue par 1'autre " (i.e. the comte d'Artois, who was in 
turn under the influence of Calonne). See Daudet, op. cit. vol. i. 

7 See E. Daudet, La Conjuration de Pichegru (Paris, 1901). 


In 1810 his wife died, and in 1811 d'Avaray died, his place as 
favourite being taken by the comte de Blacas. 1 After Napoleon's 
defeats in 1813 the hopes of the royalists revived, and Louis 
issued a fresh manifesto, in which he promised to recognize the 
results of the Revolution. Negotiations were also opened with 
Bernadotte, who seemed willing to support his cause, but was 
really playing for his own hand. 

In March 1814 the Allies entered Paris, and thanks to Talley- 
rand's negotiations the restoration of the Bourbons was effected, 
Louis XVIII. entering Paris on the 2nd of May 1814, after issuing 
the declaration of St Ouen, in which he promised to grant the 
nation a constitution (pctroyer une charte). He was now nearly 
sixty, wearied by adversity, and a sufferer from gout and obesity. 
But though clear-sighted, widely read and a good diplomatist, 
his impressionable and sentimental nature made him too subject 
to personal and family influences. His concessions to the 
reactionary and clerical party of the emigres, headed by the 
comte d'Artois and the duchesse d' Angouleme, aroused suspicions 
of his loyalty to the constitution, the creation of his Maison 
militaire alienated the army, and the constant presence of Blacas 
made the formation of a united ministry impossible. After 
the Hundred Days, during which the king was forced to flee to 
Ghent, the dismissal of Blacas was made one of the conditions 
of his second restoration. On the 8th of July he again entered 
Paris, " in the baggage train of the allied armies," as his enemies 
said, but in spite of this was received with the greatest enthusiasm 2 
by a people weary of wars and looking for constitutional govern- 
ment. He was forced to retain Talleyrand and Fouche in his 
first ministry, but took the first opportunity of ridding himself 
of them when the elections of 1815 assured him of a strong 
royalist majority in the chamber (the chambre introwiable, 
a name given it by Louis himself). At this time he came into 
contact with the young comte (afterwards due) Decazes, prefect 
of the police under Fouche, and minister of police in Richelieu's 
ministry, who now became his favourite and gained his entire 
confidence (see E. Daudet, Louis XVIII. et le due Decazes). 
Having obtained a ministry in which he could trust, having 
as members the due de Richelieu and Decazes, the king now 
gave it his loyal support and did his best to shield his ministers 
from the attacks of the royal family. In September 1816, 
alarmed at the violence of the chambre introwiable, he was 
persuaded to dissolve it. An attempt on the part of the 
Ultras to regain their ascendancy over the king, by conniving 
at the sudden return of Blacas from Rome to Paris,* ended in 

The events and ministerial changes of Louis XVIII. 's reign 
are described under the article FRANCE: History, but it may be 
said here that the king's policy throughout was one of prudence 
and common sense. His position was more passive than active, 
and consisted in giving his support as far as possible to the 

1 Pierre-Louis-Casimir, comte (afterwards due) de Blacas d'Aulps, 
was as rigidly royalist as d'Avaray, but more able. E. Daudet, Hist, 
de V emigration, i. 458, quotes a judgment of him by J. de Maistre: 
" II est ne homme d'etat et ambassadeur." 

2 See account by Decazes in E. Daudet, Louis XVIII. et le due 
Decazes, pp. 48-49, and an interesting " secret and confidential " 
letter of Castlereagh to Liverpool (July 8, 1815) in the unpublished 
Foreign Office records: "The king sent for the duke and me this 
evening to the Thuilleries. . . . We found him in a state of great 
emotion and exaltation at the reception he had met with from his 
subjects, which appears to have been even more animated than on his 
former entrance. Indeed, during the long audience to which we were 
admitted, it was almost impossible to converse, so loud were the 
shouts of the people in the Thuilleries Gardens, which were full, 
though it was then dark. Previous to the king's dismissing us, he 
carried the duke and me to the open window. Candles were then 
brought, which enabled the people to see the king with the duke 
by his side. They ran from all parts of the Gardens, and formed a 
solid mass of an immense extent, rending the air with acclamations. 
The town is very generally illuminated, and I understand from men 
who have traversed the principal streets that every demonstration 
of joy was manifested by the inhabitants." 

* It is as yet not proved that Blacas returned from his embassy 
in response to a summons from the Ultras. But whether it was on 
his _ own initiative or not, there can be no doubt as to the hopes 
which they built on his arrival (see Daudet, Louis XVIII. et le due 

ministry of the day. While Decazes was still in power, the king's 
policy to a large extent followed his, and was rather liberal and 
moderate, but after the assassination of the due de Berry (1820), 
when he saw that Decazes could no longer carry on the govern- 
ment, he sorrowfully acquiesced in his departure, showered 
honours upon him, and transferred his support to Richelieu, 
the head of the new ministry. In the absence of Decazes a new 
favourite was found to amuse the king's old age, Madame du 
Cayla (Zoe Talon, comtesse du Cayla), a protegee of the vicomte 
Sosthene de la Rochefoucauld and consequently a creature of 
the Ultras. As the king became more and more infirm, his power 
of resistance to the intrigues of the Ultras became weaker. The 
birth of a posthumous son to the due de Berry (Sept. 1820), the 
death of Napoleon (5th of May 1821) and the resignation of 
Richelieu left him entirely in their hands, and after Villele had 
formed a ministry of a royalist character the comte d'Artois 
was associated with the government, which passed more and 
more out of the king's hands. He died on the i6th of September 
1824, worn out in body, but still retaining flashes of his former 
clear insight and scepticism. The character of Louis XVIII. 
may be summed up in the words of Bonaparte, quoted by Sorel 
(L'Europe et la Rev. Jr. viii. 416 footnote), " C'est Louis XVI. 
avec moins de franchise et plus d'esprit. " He had all the Bourbon 
characteristics, especially their love of power, combined with a 
certain nobility of demeanour, and a consciousness of his dignity 
as king. But his nature was cold, unsympathetic and calculating, 
combined with a talent for intrigue, to which was added an 
excellent memory and a ready wit. An interesting judgment 
of him is contained in Queen Victoria's Letters, vol. i., in a letter 
of Leopold I., king of the Belgians, to the queen before her 
accession, dated the i8th of November 1836, "Poor Charles X. 
is dead. . . . History will state that Louis XVIII. was a most 
liberal monarch, reigning with great mildness and justice to 
his end, but that his brother, from his despotic and harsh disposi- 
tion, upset all the other had done and lost the throne. Louis 
XVIII. was a clever, hard-hearted man, shackled by no principle, 
very proud and false. Charles X. an honest man, a kind friend," 
&c. &c. This seems fairly just as a personal estimate, though 
it does not do justice to their respective political roles. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. There is no trustworthy or complete edition of 
the writings and correspondence of Louis XVIII. The Memoires 
de Louis XVIII. recueillis et mis en ordre par M. le due de D. . . . 
(12 vols., Paris, 1832-1833) are compiled by Lamothe-Langon, a 
well-known compiler of more or less apocryphal memoirs. From 
the hand of Louis XVIII. are: Relation d'un voyage a Bruxelles et a 
Coblentz, 1791 (Paris, 1823, with dedication to d'Avaray); and 
Journal de Marie-Therese de France, duchesse d' Angouleme, corrige et 
annote par Louis XVIII., ed. Imbert de St Amand (Paris, 1896). 
Some of his letters are contained in collections, such as Lettres 
d'Artwett; correspondence politique et privee de Louis XVIII., roi 
de France (Paris, 1830; letters addressed to d'Avaray) ; Lettres et 
instructions de Louis XVIII. au comte de Saint-Priest, ed. Barante 
(Paris, 1845) ; Talleyrand et Louis XVIII., corr. pendant le congres de 
Vienne, 1814-181;, ed. Pallain (1881 ; trans., 2 vols., 1881); see also 
the corr. of Castlereagh, Metternich, J. de Maistre, the Wellington 
Dispatches, &c., and such collections as Corr. diplomatique de Pozzo 
di Borgo avec le comte de Nesselrode (2 vols., 1890-1897), the corre- 
spondence of C. de Remusat, Villele, &c. The works of E. Daudet 
are of the greatest importance, and based on original documents; 
the chief are: La Terreur Blanche (Paris, 1878) ; Hist, de la restaura- 
tion 1814-1830 (1882) ; Louis XVIII. et le due Decazes (1899) ; Hist, 
de ^emigration, in three studies: (i.) Les Bourbons et la Russie (1886), 
(ii.) Les Emigres et la seconde coalition (1886), (iii.) Coblenz, 1780-1793 
(1890). Developed from these with the addition of much further 
material is his Hist, de Immigration (3 vols., 1904-1907). Also based 
on original documents is E. Romberg and A. Malet, Louis X VIII. et 
les cent-jours a Gand (1898). See also G. Stenger, Le Retour des 
Bourbons (1908) ; Cte. L. de Remade, Bonaparte et les Bourbons. 
Relations secrets des agents du cte. de Provence sous le consulat (Paris, 
1899). For various episodes, see Vicomte de Reiset, La Comtesse 
de Balbi (Paris, 1908; contains a long bibliography, chiefly of 
memoirs concerning the emigration, and is based on documents); 
J. B. H. R. Capefigue, La Comtesse du Cayla (Paris, 1866) ; J. Turquan, 
Les Favorites de Louis X VIII. (Paris, 1900) ; see also the chief 
memoirs of the period, such as those of Talleyrand, Chateaubriand, 
Guizot, due de Broglie, Villele, Vitrolles, Pasquier, the comtesse de 
Boigne (ed. Nicoullaud, Paris, 1907), the Vicomte L. F. Sosthene 
de la Rochefoucauld (15 vols., Paris, 1861-1864); anc < the writings 
of Benjamin Constant, Chateaubriand, &c. 



General Works. See the histories of France, the Emigration, the 
Restoration and especially the very full bibliographies to chapters 
i., ii. and iii. of Cambridge Modern History, and Lavisseand Rambaud, 
Hist, generate, vol. x. (C. B. P.) 

LOUIS I. (1326-1382), called " the great," king of Hungary 
and Poland, was the third son of Charles Robert, king of Hungary, 
and Elizabeth, daughter of the Polish king, Ladislaus Lokietek. 
In 1342 he succeeded his father as king of Hungary and was 
crowned at Szekesfehervar on the 2ist of July with great en- 
thusiasm. Though only sixteen he understood Latin, German 
and Italian as well as his mother tongue. He owed his relatively 
excellent education to the care of his mother, a woman of pro- 
found political sagacity, who was his chief counsellor in diplo- 
matic affairs during the greater part of his long reign. Italian 
politics first occupied his attention. As a ruler of a rising 
great power in search of a seaboard he was the natural adversary 
of the Venetian republic, which already aimed at making the 
Adriatic a purely Venetian sea and resented the proximity of 
the Magyars in Dalmatia. The first trial of strength began in 
I34S, when the city of Zara placed herself under the protection 
of Hungary and was thereupon invested by the Venetians. 
Louis fought a battle beneath the walls of Zara (July ist, 1346), 
which has been immortalized by Tintoretto, but was defeated 
and compelled to abandon the city to the republic. The struggle 
was renewed eleven years later when Louis, having formed, with 
infinite trouble, a league of all the enemies of Venice, including 
the emperor, the Habsburgs, Genoa and other Italian towns, 
attacked his maritime rival with such vigour that she sued for 
peace, and by the treaty of Zara (February i8th, 1358) ceded 
most of the Dalmatian towns and renounced the title of duke 
of Dalmatia and Croatia, hitherto borne by the doge. Far 
more important than the treaty itself was the consequent volun- 
tary submission of the independent republic of Ragusa to the 
suzerainty of the crown of St Stephen the same year, Louis, 
in return for an annual tribute of 500 ducats and a fleet, under- 
taking to defend Ragusa against all her enemies. Still more 
glorious for Hungary was Louis's third war with Venice (1378- 
1381), when he was again aided by the Genoese. At an early 
stage of the contest Venice was so hardly pressed that she offered 
to do homage to Hungary for all her possessions. But her 
immense resources enabled her to rally her forces, and peace 
was finally concluded between all the powers concerned at the 
congress of Turin (1381), Venice virtually surrendering Dalmatia 
to Louis and undertaking to pay him an annual tribute of 7000 
ducats. The persistent hostility of Venice is partially attribut- 
able to her constant fear lest Louis should inherit the crown 
of Naples and thus threaten her trade and her sea-power from 
two sides simultaneously. Louis's younger brother Andrew 
had wedded Joanna, grand-daughter and heiress of old King 
Robert of Naples, on whose death, in 1343, she reigned in her 
own right, refused her consort any share in the government, 
and is very strongly suspected of having secured his removal 
by assassination on the night of the ipth of September 1345. 
She then married Prince Louis of Taranto, and strong in the 
double support of the papal court at Avignon and of the Venetian 
republic (both of whom were opposed to Magyar aggrandisement 
in Italy) questioned the right of Louis to the two Sicilies, which 
he claimed as the next heir of his murdered brother. In 1347, 
and again in 1350, Louis occupied Naples and craved per- 
mission to be crowned king, but the papal see was inexorable 
and he was compelled to withdraw. The matter was not decided 
till 1378 when Joanna, having made the mistake of recognizing 
the antipope Clement VII., was promptly deposed and ex- 
communicated in favour of Prince Charles of Durazzo, who had 
been brought up at the Hungarian court. Louis, always in- 
exhaustible in expedients, determined to indemnify himself 
in the north for his disappointments in the south. With the 
Habsburgs, Hungary's natural rivals in the west, Louis generally 
maintained friendly relations. From 1358 to 1368, however, 
the restless ambition of Rudolph, duke of Austria, who acquired 
Tirol and raised Vienna to the first rank among the cities of 
Europe, caused Louis great uneasiness. But Louis always 

preferred arbitration to war, and the peace congresses of Nagys- 
zombat (1360) and of Pressburg (1360) summoned by him 
adjusted all the outstanding differences between the centra) 
European powers. Louis's diplomacy, moreover, was materially 
assisted by his lifelong alliance with his uncle, the childless 
Casimir the Great of Poland, who had appointed him his suc- 
cessor; and on Casimir's death Louis was solemnly crowned king 
of Poland at Cracow (Nov. 17, 1370). This personal union 
of the two countries was more glorious than profitable. Louis 
could give little attention to his unruly Polish subjects and 
was never very happy among them. Immovably entrenched 
behind their privileges, they rendered him only the minimum 
of service; but he compelled their representatives, assembled at 
Kassa, to recognize his daughter Maria and her affianced husband, 
Count Sigismund of Brandenburg, as their future king and 
queen by locking the gates of the city and allowing none to leave 
it till they had consented to his wishes (1374). Louis is the first 
European monarch who came into collision with the Turks. 
He seems to have arrested their triumphant career (c. 1372), 
and the fine church erected by him at Maria-Zell is a lasting 
memorial of his victories. From the first he took a just view 
of the Turkish peril, but the peculiar local and religious difficul- 
ties of the whole situation in the Balkans prevented him from 
dealing with it effectually (see HUNGARY, History). Louis died 
suddenly at Nagyszombat on the loth of September 1382. He 
left two daughters Maria and Jadwiga (the latter he destined 
for the throne of Hungary) under the guardianship of his widow, 
the daughter of the valiant ban of Bosnia, Stephen Kotromanic, 
whom he married in 1353, and who was in every way worthy 
of him. 

See Rationes Collectorum Pontif. in Hungaria, 1281-1375 (Buda- 
pest, 1887) ; Dano Gruber, The Struggle of Louis I. with the Venetians 
for Dalmatia (Croat.) (Agram, 1903); Antal Por, Life of Louis the 
Great (Hung.) (Budapest, 1892); and History of the Hungarian 
Nation (Hung.) (vol. 3, Budapest, 1895). (R. N. B.) 

LOUIS II. (1506-1526), king of Hungary and Bohemia, was 
the only son of Wladislaus II., king of Hungary and Bohemia, 
and the French princess Anne of Candale. Prematurely born 
at Buda on the ist of July 1506, it required all the resources of 
medical science to keep the sickly child alive, yet he developed 
so precociously that at the age of thirteen he was well bearded 
and moustached, while at eighteen his hair was silvery white. 
His parts we're good and he could speak and write six languages 
at a very early age, but the zeal of his guardians and tutors 
to make a man of him betimes nearly ruined his feeble con- 
stitution, while the riotous life led by him and his young consort, 
Maria of Austria, whom he wedded on the I3th of January 1522, 
speedily disqualified him for affairs, so that at last he became 
an object of ridicule at his own court. He was crowned king of 
Hungary on the 4th of June 1508, and king of Bohemia on the 
nth of May 1509, and was declared of age when he succeeded 
his father on the nth of December 1521. But during the greater 
part of his reign he was the puppet of the magnates and kept 
in such penury that he was often obliged to pawn his 
jewels to get proper food and clothing. His guardians, Cardinal 
Bakocz and Count George of Brandenburg- Anspach, shamefully 
neglected him, squandered the royal revenues and distracted 
the whole kingdom with their endless dissensions. Matters 
grew even worse on the death of Bakdcz, when the magnates 
Istvan Bathory, Jinos Zapolya and Istvan Verboczy fought 
each other furiously, and used the diets as their tools. Added to 
these troubles was the ever-present Turkish peril, which became 
acute after the king, with insensate levity, arrested the Ottoman 
envoy Berham in 1521 and refused to unite with Suleiman in a 
league against the Habsburgs. Nevertheless in the last ex- 
tremity Louis showed more of manhood than any of his coun- 
sellors. It was he who restored something like order by interven- 
ing between the magnates and the gentry at the diet of 1525. 
It was he who collected in his camp at Tolna the army of 25,000 
men which perished utterly on the fatal field of Mohacs on 
the 29th of August 1526. He was drowned in the swollen 
stream of Csele on his flight from the field, being the second 


prince of the house of Jagiello who laid down his life for 

See Rerum Hungaricarum libri (vol. 2, ed. Ferencz Toldy, Buda- 
pest, 1867) ; and Jozsef Podhradczky, King Louis (Hung.) (Budapest, 
i860). (R. N. B.) 

LOUIS, the name of three kings of Naples, members of the 
house of Anjou. 

Lotus I., duke of Anjou and count of Maine (1339-1384), was 
the second son of John II., king of France, and was born at 
Vincennes on the 23rd of July 1339. Having been given the 
duchy of Anjou in 1356 he led a wing of the French army at the 
battle of Poitiers and was sent to England as a hostage after the 
conclusion of the treaty of Bretigny in 1360, but he broke his 
parole in 1363 and so brought about King John's return into 
captivity. He took part in the war against England which was 
renewed in 1369, uniting the rival houses of Foix and Armagnac 
in the common cause, and in other ways rendering good service 
to his brother, King Charles V. Anjou's entrance into the 
troubled politics of Italy was one result of the papal schism 
which opened in 1378. Anxious to secure the support of France, 
the antipope Clement VII. persuaded the queen of Naples, 
Joanna I., to name Louis as her heir, and about the same time 
the death of Charles V. (September 1380) placed the duke in 
the position of regent of France. Neglecting France to prosecute 
his ambitions in Italy, he collected money and marched on 
Naples; but although helped by Amadeus VI., count of Savoy, 
he was unable to drive his rival, Charles, duke of Durazzo, from 
Naples. His army was destroyed by disease and Louis himself 
died at Biseglia, near Bari, on the zoth of September 1384, 
leaving two sons, his successor, Louis II., and Charles, duke of 

Louis II., duke of Anjou (1377-1417), born at Toulon on the 
7th of October 1377, took up the struggle for Naples after his 
father's death and was crowned king by Clement VII. in 1389. 
After carrying on the contest for some years his enemies prevailed 
and he was compelled to take refuge in France, where he took 
part in the intestine strife which was desolating that kingdom. 
A few years later he made other attempts to secure the kingdom 
of Naples, which was now in the possession of Ladislas, a son of 
his father's foeman, Charles of Durazzo, and he gained a victory 
at Roccoserra in May 1411. Soon, however, he was again driven 
back to France, and after sharing anew in the civil wars of his 
country he died at Angers on the 29th of April 141.7. His wife 
was Yolande, a daughter of John I., king of Aragon, and his 
son was his successor, Louis III. 

Louis III., duke of Anjou (1403-1434), born on the 2Sth of 
September 1403, made in his turn an attempt to conquer Naples. 
This was in 1420, and he had met with considerable success in his 
task when he died at Cosenza on the isth of November 1434. In 
1424 Louis received from King Charles VII. the duchy of Touraine. 

Another titular king of Naples of this name was Louis, a son of 
Philip, prince of Taranto. In 1346 he became the husband of 
Joanna I., queen of Naples, and in 1352 he was crowned king. 
After making an attempt to conquer Sicily he died on the 26th 
of May 1362. 

LOUIS (893-911), surnamed the " Child," king of the Franks, 
son of the emperor Arnulf, was born at Ottingen, designated by 
Arnulf as his successor in Germany in 897, and crowned on the 
4th of February 900. Although he never received the imperial 
crown, he is sometimes referred to as the emperor Louis IV. His 
chief adviser was Hatto I., archbishop of Mainz; and during his 
reign the kingdom was ravaged by Hungarians and torn with 
internal strife. He appears to have passed his time in journeys 
from place to place, and in 910 was the nominal leader of an 
expedition against the Hungarians which was defeated near 
Augsburg. Louis, who was the last of the German Carolingians, 
died in August or September 911 and was buried at Regensburg. 

See Regino von Prum, " Chronicon," in the Monumenta Ger- 
maniae historica. Scriptores, Band i. (Hanover and Berlin, 1826); 
E. Dummler, Geschichte des ostfrankischen Reichs (Leipzig, 1887- 
1888) ; O. Dietrich, Beitrage zur Geschichte Arnolfs von Karnthen und 
Ludwigs des Kindes (Berlin, 1890) ; and E. Miihlbacher, Die Regesten 
des Kaiserreichs unter den Karolingern (Innsbruck, 1881). 

(A. W. H.*) 


LOUIS OF NASSAU (1538-1574), son of William, count of 
Nassau, and Juliana von Stolberg, and younger brother of 
William the Silent, took an active part in the revolt of the Nether- 
lands against Spanish domination. He was one of the leaders 
of the league of nobles who signed the document known as " the 
Compromise " in 1566, and a little later was a member of the 
deputation who presented the petition of grievances called " the 
Request " to the regent, Margaret of Parma. It was on this 
occasion that the appellation of " the Beggars " (les Gueux) was 
first given to the opponents of King Philip's policy. On the 
arrival of Alva at Brussels, Count Louis, with his brother 
William, withdrew from the Netherlands and raised a body of 
troops in defence of the patriot cause. In the spring of 1568 
Louis invaded Friesland, and at Heiligerlee, on the 23rd of May, 
completely defeated a Spanish force under Count Aremberg, who 
was killed. Alva then advanced to meet the invaders with a 
large army, and at Jemmingen (July 21), with very slight loss, 
annihilated the levies of Louis, who himself escaped by swimming 
from the field across an estuary of the Ems. He now joined the 
army of his brother William, which had in October to beat a 
hasty retreat before Alva's superior skill. Then Louis, in 
company with his brothers William and Henry, made his way 
across the French frontier to the camp of the Huguenot leader, 
Admiral Coligny. Louis took an active part in the campaign 
and fought heroically at Jarnac and Moncontour. In 1572 
Louis, not deterred by previous disaster, raised a small force in 
France, and, suddenly entering Hainaut, captured Mons (May 23). 
Here he was besieged by Don Frederick of Toledo, Alva's natural 
son, who blockaded all approach to the town. William made an 
attempt to relieve his brother, but failed, and Mons had to 
surrender (September 17). Louis, who was sick with fever, with- 
drew to his ancestral home, Dillenburg, to recruit his health, 
and then once more to devote his energies to the raising of money 
and troops for another invasion of the Netherlands. In the hope 
of drawing away the Spaniards from the siege of Leiden by a 
diversion in the south, Louis, with his brothers John and Henry, 
at the head of a force of mixed nationalities and little discipline, 
crossed the frontier near Maastricht, and advanced as far as the 
Mookerheide near Nijmwegen. Here he was attacked by a body 
of Spanish veterans under an experienced leader, Sancho d'Avila, 
and speedily routed. In the disorderly flight both Louis and his 
younger brother Henry, refusing to abandon the field, lost their 
lives. Their bodies were never recovered. Thus perished at the 
age of thirty-six one of the most chivalrous and gifted of a gallant 
band of brothers, four of whom laid down their lives in their 
country's cause. 

See P. J. Blok, Lodewijk von Nassau, 1538-1574 (The Hague, 
1689), and the Cambridge Modern History, vol. iii. chs. vi. and vii., 
and bibliography (1904); also A. J. Van der Aa, Biographisch 
woordenboek der Nederlanden (22 vols., Haarlem, 1852-1878). 

statesman and financier, was born at Toul (Meurthe) on the 
I3th of November 1755. At the outbreak of the Revolution the 
abbe Louis (he had early taken orders) had already some reputa- 
tion as a financial expert. He was in favour of the constitutional 
movement, and on the great festival of federation (July 14, 1790) 
he assisted Talleyrand, then bishop of Autun, to celebrate 
mass at the altar erected in the Champ de Mars. In 1792, 
however, he emigrated to England, where he spent his time 
studying English institutions and especially the financial system 
of Pitt. Returning to France on the establishment of the 
Consulate he served successively in the ministry of war, the 
council of state, and in the finance department in Holland and 
in Paris. Made a baron of the empire in 1809 he nevertheless 
supported the Bourbon restoration and was minister of finance 
in 1814-1815. Baron Louis was deputy from 1815 to 1824 and 
from 1827 to 1832. He resumed the portfolio of finance in 1815, 
which he held also in the Decazes ministry of 1818; he was 
the first minister of finance under the government of Louis 
Philippe, and held the same portfolio in 1831-1832. In 1832 he 
was made a peer of France and he died on the 26th of August 


LOUIS PHILIPPE I., king of the French (1773-1850), was the 
eldest son of Louis Philip Joseph, duke of Orleans (known 
during the Revolution as Philippe Egalite) and of Louise Marie 
Adelaide de Bourbon, daughter of the due de Penthievre, and 
was born at the Palais Royal in Paris on the 6th of October 1773. 
On his father's side he was descended from the brother of Louis 
XIV., on his mother's from the count of Toulouse, "legitimated " 
son of Louis XIV. and Madame de Montespan. The legend that 
he was a supposititious child, really the son of an Italian police 
constable named Chiapponi, is dealt with elsewhere (see MARIA 
STELLA, countess of Newborough). The god-parents of the duke 
of Valois, as he was entitled till 1785, were Louis XVI. and Queen 
Marie Antoinette; his governess was the famous Madame de 
Genlis, to whose influence he doubtless owed many of the qualities 
which later distinguished him: his wide, if superficial knowledge, 
his orderliness, and perhaps his parsimony. Known since 1785 
as the due de Chartres, he was sixteen at the outbreak of the 
Revolution, into which like his father he threw himself with 
ardour. In 1790 he joined the Jacobin Club, in which the 
moderate elements still predominated, and was assiduous in 
attendance at the debates of the National Assembly. He thus 
became a persona grata with the party in power; he was already 
a colonel of dragoons, and in 1792 he was given a command in 
the army of the North. As a lieutenant-general, at the age 
of eighteen, he was present at the cannonade of Valmy (Sept. 
20) and played a conspicuous part in the victory of Jemappes 
(Nov. 6). 

The republic had meanwhile been proclaimed, and the due 
de Chartres, who like his father had taken the name of Egalitl, 
posed as its zealous adherent. Fortunately for him, he was too 
young to be elected deputy to the Convention, and while his 
father was voting for the death of Louis XVI. he was serving 
under Dumouriez in Holland. He shared in the disastrous day 
of Neerwinden (March 1 8, 1 793) ; was an accomplice of Dumouriez 
in the plot to march on Paris and overthrow the republic, and 
on the 5th of April escaped with him from the enraged soldiers 
into the Austrian lines. He was destined not to return to France 
for twenty years. He went first, with his sister Madame Adelaide , 
to Switzerland where he obtained a situation for a few months 
as professor in the college of Reichenau under an assumed name, 1 
mainly in order to escape from the fury of the emigres. The 
execution of his father in November 1793 had made him duke 
of Orleans, and he now became the centre of the intrigues of the 
Orleanist party. In 1795 he was at Hamburg with Dumouriez, 
who still hoped to make him king. With characteristic caution 
Louis Philippe refused to commit himself by any overt preten- 
sions, and announced his intention of going to America; but 
in the hope that something might happen in France to his 
advantage, he postponed his departure, travelling instead 
through the Scandinavian countries as far north as Lapland. 
But in 1796, the Directory having offered to release his mother 
and his two brothers, who had been kept in prison since the Terror, 
on condition that he went to America, he set sail for the United 
States, and in October settled in Philadelphia, where in February 
1797 he was joined by his brothers the due de Montpensier and 
the comte de Beaujolais. Two years were spent by them in 
travels in New England, the region of the Great Lakes, and of the 
Mississippi; then the news of the coup d'etat of 18 Brumaire 
decided them to return to Europe. They returned in 1800, only 
to find Napoleon Bonaparte's power firmly established. Imme- 
diately on his arrival, in February 1800, the duke of Orleans, 
at the suggestion of Dumouriez, sought an interview with the 
comte d'Artois, through whose instrumentality he was reconciled 
with the exiled king Louis XVIII., who bestowed upon his brothers 
the order of the Saint Esprit. The duke, however, refused to 
join the army of Conde and to fight against France, an attitude 
in which he persisted throughout, while maintaining his loyalty 
to the king. 2 He settled with his brothers at Twickenham, near 

1 As M. Chabaud de la Tour. He was examined as to his fitness 
before being appointed. Gruyer, p. 165. 

1 This at least was his own claim and the Orleanist view. The 
matter became a question of partisan controversy, the legitimists 
asserting that he frequently offered to serve against France, but that 

London, where he lived till 1807 for the most part in studious 

On the i8th of May 1807 the due de Montpensier died at 
Christchurch in Hampshire, where he had been taken for change 
of air, of consumption. The comte de Beaujolais was ill of the 
same disease and in 1808 the duke took him to Malta, where he 
died on the 29th of May. The duke now, in response to an 
invitation from King Ferdinand IV., visited Palermo where, 
on the 25th of November 1809 he married Princess Maria 
Amelia, the king's daughter. He remained in Sicily until the 
news of Napoleon's abdication recalled him to France. He was 
cordially received by Louis XVIII.; his military rank was 
confirmed, he was named colonel-general of hussars, and such 
of the vast Orleans estates as had not been sold were restored 
to him by royal ordinance. The object may have been, as 
M. Debidour suggests, to compromise him with the revolutionary 
parties and to bind him to the throne; but it is more probable 
that it was no more than an expression of the good will which 
the king had shown him ever since 1800. The immediate effect 
was to make him enormously rich, his wealth being increased 
by his natural aptitude for business until, after the death of his 
mother in 1821, his fortune was reckoned at some 8,000,000. 

Meanwhile, in the heated atmosphere of the reaction, his 
sympathy with the Liberal opposition brought him again under 
suspicion. His attitude in the House of Peers in the autumn 
of 1815 cost him a two years' exile to Twickenham; he courted 
popularity by having his children educated en bourgeois at the 
public schools; and the Palais Royal became the rendezvous 
of all the leaders of that middle-class opinion by which he was 
ultimately to be raised to the throne. 

His opportunity came with the revolution of 1830. During 
the three "July days" the duke kept himself discreetly in the 
background, retiring first to Neuilly, then to Raincy. Meanwhile, 
Thiers issued a proclamation pointing out that a Republic would 
embroil France with all Europe, while the duke of Orleans, 
who was " a prince devoted to the principles of the Revolution" 
and had " carried the tricolour under fire " would be a " citizen 
king " such as the country desired. This view was that of the 
rump of the chamber still sitting at the Palais Bourbon, and 
a deputation headed by Thiers and Laffitte waited upon the 
duke to invite him to place himself at the head of affairs. He 
returned with them to Paris on the 3Oth, and was elected by the 
deputies lieutenant-general of the realm. The next day, wrapped 
in a tricolour scarf and preceded by a drummer, he went on foot 
to the H6tel de Ville the headquarters of the republican party 
where he was publicly embraced by Lafayette as a symbol that 
the republicans acknowledged the impossibility of realizing 
their own ideals and were prepared to accept a monarchy based 
on the popular will. Hitherto, in letters to Charles X., he had 
protested the loyalty of his intentions, 3 and the king now nomi- 
nated him lieutenant-general and then, abdicating in favour of 
his grandson the comte de Chambord appointed him regent. 
On the 7th of August, however, the Chamber by a large majority 
declared Charles X. deposed, and proclaimed Louis Philippe 
"King of the French, by the grace of God and the will of the 

The career of Louis Philippe as King of the French is dealt 
with elsewhere (see FRANCE: History). Here it must suffice 
to note something of his personal attitude towards affairs and 
the general effects which this produced. For the trappings 
of authority he cared little. To conciliate the revolutionary 

his offers were contemptuously refused. A. Debidour in the article 
" Louis-Philippe " in La Grande Encydopidie supports the latter 
view; but see Gruyer, La Jeunesse, and E. Daudet, Une reconcilia- 
tion de famille en 1800," in the Revue des Deux Mondes, Sept. 15, 
!95. P- 3i- M. Daudet gives the account of the interview left by 
the comte d'Artois, and he also makes it clear that Louis Philippe, 
while protesting his loyalty to the head of his house, did not disguise 
his opinion that a Restoration would only be possible if the king 
accepted the essential changes made by the Revolution. 

' To say that these protestations were hypocritical is to assume too 
much. Personal ambition doubtless played a part; but he must 
have soon realized that the French people had weaned of " legitim- 
ism " and that a regency in the circumstances was impossible. 


passion for equality he was content to veil his kingship for a 
while under a middle-class disguise. He erased the royal lilies 
from the panels of his carriages; and the Palais Royal, like the 
White House at Washington, stood open to all and sundry who 
cared to come and shake hands with the head of the state. This 
pose served to keep the democrats of the capital in a good 
temper, and so leave him free to consolidate the somewhat 
unstable foundation of his throne and to persuade his European 
fellow-sovereigns to acknowledge in him not a revolutionary 
but a conservative force. But when once his position at home 
and abroad had been established, it became increasingly clear 
that he possessed all the Bourbon tenaciousness of personal 
power. When a " party of Resistance " came into office with 
Casimir-Perier in March 1831, the speech from the throne 
proclaimed that " France has desired that the monarchy should 
become national, it does not desire that it should be powerless "; 
and the migration of the royal family to the Tuileries symbolized 
the right of the king not only to reign but to rule. Republican 
and Socialist agitation, culminating in a series of dangerous 
risings, strengthened the position of the king as defender of 
middle-class interest; and since the middle classes constituted 
the pays Itgal which alone was represented in Parliament, he 
came to regard his position as unassailable, especially after the 
suppression of the risings under Blanqui and Barbes in 1839. 
Little by little his policy, always supported by a majority in 
a house of representatives elected by a corrupt and narrow 
franchise, became more reactionary and purely dynastic. His 
position in France seeming to be unassailable, he sought to 
strengthen it in Europe by family alliances. The fact that his 
daughter Louise was the consort of Leopold I., king of the 
Belgians, had brought him into intimate and cordial relations 
with the English court, which did much to cement the entente 
cordiale with Great Britain. Broken in 1840 during the affair 
of Mehemet Ali (q.v.) the entente was patched up in 1841 by 
the Straits Convention and re-cemented by visits paid by 
Queen Victoria and Prince Albert to the Chateau d'Eu in 1843 
and 1845 and of Louis Philippe to Windsor in 1844, only to be 
irretrievably wrecked by the affair of the " Spanish marriages," 
a deliberate attempt to revive the traditional Bourbon policy 
of French predominance in Spain. If in this matter Louis 
Philippe had seemed to sacrifice the international position of 
France to dynastic interests, his attempt to re-establish it by 
allying himself with the reactionary monarchies against the 
Liberals of Switzerland finally alienated from him the French 
Liberal opinion on which his authority was based. When, in 
February 1848, Paris rose against him, he found that he was 
practically isolated in France. 

Charles X., after abdicating, had made a dignified exit from 
France, marching to the coast surrounded by the cavalry, 
infantry and artillery of his Guard. Louis Philippe was less 
happily situated. Escaping with the queen from the Tuileries 
by a back entrance, he made his way with her in disguise to 
Honfleur, where the royal couple found refuge in a gardener's 
cottage. They were ultimately smuggled out of the country 
by the British consul at Havre as Mr and Mrs Smith, 1 arriving 
at Newhaven " unprovided with anything but the clothes they 
wore." They settled at Claremont, placed at their disposal by 
Queen Victoria, under the incognito of count and countess of 
Neuilly. Here on the 26th of August 1850, Louis Philippe died. 

The character of Louis Philippe is admirably traced by Queen 
Victoria in a memorandum of May 2, 1855, in which she com- 
pares him with Napoleon III. She speaks of his " vast know- 
ledge upon all and every subject," and " his great activity of 
mind." He was, unlike Napoleon, " thoroughly French in char- 
acter, possessing all the liveliness and talkativeness of that 
people." But she also speaks of the " tricks and over-reachings " 
practised by him, " who in great as well as in small things took a 
pleasure in being cleverer and more cunning than others, often 
when there was no advantage to be gained by it, and which was, 

1 There is a vivid account in Mr Featherstonhaugh to Lord Pal- 
merston, Havre, March 3, 1848, in The Letters of Queen Victoria 
(pop. ed., ii. 156). 

unfortunately, strikingly displayed in the transactions connected 
with the Spanish marriages, which led to the king's downfall, 
and ruined him in the eyes of all Europe " (Letters, pop. ed., 
iii. 122). 

Louis Philippe had eight children. His eldest son, the popular 
Ferdinand Philippe, duke of Orleans (b. 1810), who had married 
Princess Helena of Mecklenburg, was killed in a carriage accident 
on the I3th of July 1842, leaving two sons, the comte de Paris 
and the due de Chartres. The other children were Louise, 
consort of Leopold I., king of the Belgians; Marie, who married 
Prince Alexander of Wurttemberg and died in 1839; Louis 
Charles, due de Nemours; Clementine, married to the duke of 
Coburg-Kohary; Francois Ferdinand, prince de Joinville; 
Henri Eugene, due d'Aumale (q.v.); Antoine Philippe, due de 
Montpensier, who married the Infanta, younger sister of Queen 
Isabella of Spain. 

AUTHORITIES. F. A. Gruyer, La Jeunesse du roi Louis-Philippe, 
d'apres les pourtraits et des tableaux (Paris, 1909), edition de luxe, 
with beautiful reproductions of portraits, miniatures, &c. ; Marquis 
de Flers, Louis-Philippe, vie anecdotique, 1773-1850 (Paris, 1891); 
E. Daudet, Hist, de Immigration (3 yols., Paris, 1886^1890). Of 
general works on Louis Philippe's reign may be mentioned Louis 
Blanc, Hist, de Dix Ans, 1830^-1840 (5 vols., Paris, 1841-1844), 
from the republican point of view; J. O. d'Haussonville, Hist, de 
la pplitique exterieure de la monarchie de juillet, 1830^184.8 (2 vols., 
Paris, 1850); V. de Nouvion, Hist, de Louis-Philippe (4 vols., Paris, 
1857-1861) ; F. Guizot, France under Louis Philippe, 1841-1847 (Eng. 
trans., 1865); Karl Hillebrand, Geschichte Frankreichs von der 
Thronbesteigung Louis Philippes, 1830-1841 (2 yols., Gotha, 1877- 
1879); V. du Bled, Hist, de la monarchie de juillet (2 vols., Paris, 
1887); P. Thureau-Dangin, Hist, de la monarchie de juillet (Paris, 
1887, &c.); A. Malet, " La France sous la monarchie de juillet," in 
Lavisse and Rambaud's Hist. Generale, vol. x. ch. x. (Paris, 1898); 
G. Weill, La France sous la monarchie de juillet (Paris, 1902) ; Emile 
Bourgeois, " The Orleans Monarchy," ch. xv. of vol. x., and " The 
Fall of Constitutionalism in France," ch. ii. of vol. xi. of the Cambridge 
Modern History (Cambridge, 1907 and 1909). Further works will 
be found in the bibliographies attached by M. Bourgeois to his 
chapters (vol. x. p. 844, vol. xi. p. 874; the latter including works 
on the revolution of 1848 and the Second Republic). -To the list of 
published correspondence and memoirs there mentioned may be 
added the Chronique of the duchesse de Dino (Paris, 1909). 

Louis Philippe himself published the Journal du due de Chartres, 
1700-1791; Man Journal, evenements de 1815 (2 vols., 1849); 
Discours, allocutions et reponses de S. M. Louis-Philippe, 1830- 
1846 ; and after his death was issued his Correspondence, memoire et 
discours inedits (Paris, 1863). (W. A. P.) 

LOUISBURG, a town and port of entry of Cape Breton county, 
Nova Scotia, Canada, on the Sydney & Louisburg railway, 
39 m. from Sydney. Pop. (1901) r$88. Under the French 
rtgime, Louisburg was second only to Quebec. A fortress was 
erected at enormous expense, and the city was the centre of the 
cod-fisheries. The fortress was, however, captured in 1 745 by the 
American colonists, under Sir William Pepperrell (1696-1759), 
assisted by the British fleet, and again in 1758 by a British land 
and sea force under General Jeffrey Amherst (1717-1797) and 
Admiral Boscawen. The jealousy of the British settlement of 
Halifax led to its almost utter destruction, and only a few case- 
mates now remain. Under English rule a fishing village grew up 
on the other side of the harbour, and has now become the winter 
shipping port of the Dominion Coal Company. The harbour is 
deep, spacious and open all the year round, though occasionally 
blocked by drift ice in the spring. 


queen of Prussia, was born on the loth of March 1776 in Hanover, 
where her father, Prince Charles of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, was 
field-marshal of the household brigade. Her mother was a 
princess of Hesse-Darmstadt. In 1793 Louise met at Frankfort 
the crown prince of Prussia, afterwards King Frederick William 
III., who was so fascinated by her beauty, and by the nobleness 
of her character, that he asked her to become his wife. They 
were married on the 24th of December of the same year. As 
queen of Prussia she commanded universal respect and affection, 
and nothing in Prussian history is more pathetic than the dignity 
and unflinching courage with which she bore the sufferings 
inflicted on her and her family during the war between Prussia 
and France. After the battle of Jena she went with t her husband 



to Konigsberg, and when the battles of Eylau and Friedland 
had placed Prussia absolutely at the mercy of France, she made 
a personal appeal to Napoleon at his headquarters in Tilsit, but 
without success. Early in 1808 she accompanied the king from 
Memel to Konigsberg, whence, towards the end of the year, she 
visited St Petersburg, returning to Berlin on the 23rd of December 
1809. During the war Napoleon attempted to destroy the queen's 
reputation, but the only effect of his charges in Prussia was to 
make her more deeply beloved. On the igth of July 1810 she 
died in her husband's arms, while visiting her father in Strelitz. 
She was buried in the garden of the palace at Charlottenburg, 
where a mausoleum, containing a fine recumbent statue by 
Rauch, was built over her grave. In 1840 her husband was 
buried by her side. The Louise Foundation (Luisenstift) for the 
education of girls was established in her honour, and in 1814 
Frederick William III. instituted the Order of Louise (Luisen- 
orden). In 1880 a statue of Queen Louise was erected in the 
Thiergarten at Berlin. 

See F. Adami, Luise, Konigin von Preussen (7th ed., 1875); 
E. Engel, Konigin Luise (1876) ; A. Kluckhohn, Luise, Konigin von 
Preussen (1876); Mommsen and Treitschke, Konigin Luise (1876); 
in English, Hudson, Life and Times of Louisa, Queen of Prussia 
(1874); G. Horn, Das Buck von der Koniein Luise (Berlin, 1883); 
A. Lonke, Konigin Luise von Preussen (Leipzig, 1903); H. von 
Petersdorff, " Konigin Luise," Frauenleben, Bd. i. (Bielefeld, 1903, 
and ed., 1904). 

LOUISE OF SAVOY (1476-1531), duchess of AngoulSme, 
mother of Francis I. of France, was daughter of a cadet of the 
house of Savoy, Philip, count of Bresse, afterwards duke of 
Savoy. Through her mother, Marguerite de Bourbon, she was 
niece of Pierre de Bourbon, sire de Beaujeu, afterwards duke of 
Bourbon. At the age of twelve she was married to Charles of 
Valois, count of Angouleme, great-grandson of King Charles V. 
The count died in 1496, leaving her the mother of two children, 
Marguerite (b. 1492) and Francis (b. 1494). The accession of 
Louis XII., who was childless, made Francis of Angouleme the 
heir-presumptive to the throne of France. Louise brought her 
children to the court, and received Amboise as her residence. 
She lived henceforth in fear lest Louis should have a son; and 
in consequence there was a secret rivalry between her and the 
queen, Anne of Brittany. Finally, her son became king on the 
ist of January 1515 by the death of Louis XII. From him 
Louise received the county of Angouleme, which was erected 
into a duchy, the duchy of Anjou, and the counties of Maine 
and Beaufort. She was then given the title of "Madame." 
From 1515 to her death, she took the chief share in the govern- 
ment. The part she played has been variously judged, and is 
not yet completely elucidated. It is certain that Louise had a 
clear head, practical good sense and tenacity. In the critical 
situation after the battle of Pavia (1525) she proved herself 
equal to the emergency, maintained order in the kingdom, and 
manoeuvred very skilfully to detach Henry VIII. of England 
from the imperial alliance. But she appears to have been pas- 
sionate, exceedingly rapacious and ever careful of her own 
interest. In her malignant disputes with the constable de 
Bourbon on the question of his wife's succession, she goaded 
him to extreme measures, and her rapacity showed itself also 
in her dealings with the surintendant des finances, J. de Beaune, 
baron de Samblancay (d. 1527), who diverted the money intended 
for the French soldiers in Italy into the coffers of the queen, 
and suffered death in consequence. She died in 1531, and 
Francis reunited to the crown her domains, which comprised 
the Bourbonnais, Beaujolais, Auvergne, la Marche, Angoumois, 
Maine and Anjou. 

There is extant a Journal of Louise of Savoy, the authenticity of 
which seems certain. It consists of brief notes generally very 
exact and sometimes ironical which go as far as the year 1522. 
The only trustworthy text is that published by Guichenon in his 
Histoire gen&alogique de la maison de Savoie (ed.of 1778-1780, vol. iv.). 

See Poesies de Francois I" et de Louise de Savoie . . ., ed. by 
Champollion-Figeac (1847) ; De Maulde, Louise de Savoie et Francois 
I" (1895); G. Jacqueton, La Politique exterieure de Louise de 
Savoie . . . (1892); H. Hauser, " Etude critique sur le Journal de 
Louise de-Savoie," in the Revue historique, vol. 86 (1904). 

LOUISIADE ARCHIPELAGO, a chain of islands in the Pacific 
Ocean, extending south-eastward from the easternmost promon- 
tory of New Guinea, and included in the Australian territory of 
Papua (British New Guinea). The islands number over eighty, 
and are interspersed with reefs. They are rich in tropical forest 
products, and gold has been discovered on the chief island, 
Tagula or South-east (area 380 sq. m.) and on Misima or St 
Aignan. The natives are of Papuan type, and practise can- 
nibalism. The islands were probably observed 'by Torres in 
1606, but were named by L. A. de Bougainville in 1768 after 
Louis XV. 

LOUISIANA, one of the Southern States of the United States 
of America, lying on the N. coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Begin- 
ning on the N., its boundary follows eastward the parallel of 33 
N., separating Louisiana from Arkansas; then descends the 
Mississippi river, separating it from the state of Mississippi, 
southward to 31 ; passes eastward on this parallel to the Pearl 
river, still with the state of Mississippi on the E. ; and descends 
this river to the Gulf. On the W. the Sabine river, from the 
Gulf to 32 N., and, thence to the parallel of 33, a line a little W. 
of (and parallel to) the meridian of 94 W., separate Louisiana 
from Texas. Including islands in the Gulf, the stretch of 
latitude is approximately 4 and of longitude 5. The total area 
is 48,506 sq. m., of which 3097 sq. m. are water surface (including 
1060 sq. m. of landlocked coastal bays called "lakes"). The 
coast line is about 1 500 m. 

Physical Features. Geologically Louisiana is a very recent 
creation, and belongs to the " Coastal Plain Province." Most of 
the rocks or soils composing its surface were formed as submarine 
deposits; the easternmost and southernmost parts are true river 
deposits. These facts are the key to the state's chorography. The 
average elevation of the state above the sea is only about 75 ft., 
and practically the only parts more than 400 ft. high are hills in 
Sabine, Claiborne and Vernon parishes. The physiographic features 
are few and very simple. The essential elements are five * : diluvial 
plains, coast marshes, prairies, " bluffs " and " pine-hills " (to use 
the local nomenclature). These were successive stages in the geo- 
logic process which has created, and is still actively modifying, the 
state. They are all seen, spread from N. to S., west of the Mississippi, 
and also, save only the prairies, in the so-called " Florida parishes " 
E. of the Mississippi. 

These different elements in the region W. of the Mississippi are 
arranged from N. to S. in the order of decreasing geologic age and 
maturity. Beginning with elevations of about 400 ft. near the 
Arkansas line, there is a gentle slope toward the S.E. The northern 
part can best be regarded as a low plateau (once marine sediments) 
sloping southward, traversed by the large diluvial valleys of the 
Mississippi, Red and Ouachita rivers, and recut by smaller tributaries 
into smaller plateaus and rather uniform flat-topped hills. The 
" bluffs " (remnants of an eroded plain formed of alluvion deposits 
over an old, mature and drowned topography) run through the 
second tier of parishes W. of the Mississippi above the Red river. 
Below this river prairie areas become increasingly common, con- 
stituting the entire S.W. corner of the state. They are usually only 
20 to 30 ft. above the sea in this district, never above 70, and are 
generally treeless except for marginal timber along the sluggish, 
meandering streams. One of their peculiar features the sandy 
circular " mounds," 2 to 10 ft. high and 20 to 30 or even 50 ft. in 
diameter, sometimes surmounted by trees in the midst of a treeless 
plain and sometimes arranged in circles and on radii, and decreasing 
in size with distance from the centre of the field has been variously 
explained. The mounds were probably formed by some gentle 
eruptive action like that exhibited in the " mud hills " along the 
Mississippi below New Orleans; but no explanation is generally 
accepted. The prairies shade off into the coast marshes. This 
fringe of wooded swamp and sea marsh is generally 20 to 30, but in 
places even 50 and 60 m. in width. Where the marsh is open and 
grassy, flooded only at high tides or in rainy seasons, and the ground 
firm enough to bear cattle, it is used as range. Considerable tracts 
have also been diked and reclaimed for cotton, sugar and especially 
for rice culture. The tidal action of the gulf is so slight and the 
marshes are so low that perfect drainage cannot be obtained through 
tide gates, which must therefore be supplemented by pumping 
machinery when rains are heavy or landward winds long prevail. 
Slight ridges along the streams and bayous which traverse it, and 
occasional patches of slightly elevated prairie, relieve in a measure 
the monotonous expanse. It is in and along the borders of this 
coast swamp region that most of the rice and much of the sugar cane 

1 A sixth, less characteristic, might be included, viz. the " pine 
flats," generally wet, which are N. of Lake Pontchartrain, between 
the alluvial lands and the pine hills, and, in the S.E. corner of the 
state, between the hills and the prairie. 



of the state are grown. Long bar-like " islands " (conspicuous high 
land rising above the marsh and prairie) Orange, Petite Anse, 
Grand Cote, Cote Blanche and Belle Isle offer very interesting 
topographical and geological problems. " Trembling prairies "- 
land that trembles under the tread of men or cattle-^-are common 
near the coast. Most of the swamp fringe is reclaimable. The 
marshes encroach most upon the parishes of St Charles, Orleans and 
Plaquemines. In St Charles the cultivable strip of land along the 
river is only about 3 m. wide. In Orleans the city of New Orleans 
occupies nearly all the high ground and encroaches on the swamps. 
In Plaquemines there is practically no cultivable land below Forts 
Jackson and St Philip, and above there is only a narrow strip. 

The alluvial lands include the river flood plains. The principal 
rivers are the Mississippi, which flows nearly 600 m. through and 
along the border of the state, the Red river, the Ouachita (or Washita), 
Sabine and Pearl; all except the last are navigable at all stages of 
the water. There are many " bayous," several of which are of great 
importance, both for navigation and for drainage. They may be 
characterized as secondary outlets of the rivers or flood distributaries. 
Among them are Bayou Teche, Bayou Plaquemine, Atchafalaya 
Bayou, 1 Bayou Lafourche and Bayou Boeuf. Almost all secondary 
water-courses, particularly if they have sluggish currents, are known 
as bayous. Some might well be called lakes, and others rivers. The 
alluvial portion of the state, especially below the mouth of the Red 
river, is an intricate network of these bayous, which, before their 
closure by a levee system, served partially, in time of flood, to carry 
off the escaping surplus of river waters. They are comparatively in- 
active at all seasons; indeed, the action of the tides and back-waters 
and the tangle of vegetation in the sombre swamps and forests 
through which they run, often render their currents almost im- 
perceptible at ordinary water. Navigable waters are said to pene- 
trate all but four of the parishes of the state, their total length 
approximating 3800 m. 

Each of the larger streams, as well as a large proportion of the 
smaller ones, is accompanied by a belt of bottom land, of greater or 
less width, lyirrg low as regards the stream, and liable to overflow 
at times of high water. These flood plains form collectively what 
is known as the alluvial region, which extends in a broad belt down 
the Mississippi, from the mouth of the Ohio to the Gulf of Mexico, 
and up the Ouachita and its branches and the Red river to and 
beyond the limits of the state. Its breadth along the Mississippi 
within Louisiana ranges from 10 to 50 or 60 m., and that along the 
Red river and the Ouachita has an average breadth of 10 m. Through 
its great flood-plain the Mississippi river winds upon the summit of 
a ridge formed by its own deposits. In each direction the country 
falls away in a succession of minor undulations, the summits of the 
ridges being occupied by the streams and bayous. Nearly all of 
this vast flood-plain lies below the level of high water in the Missis- 
sippi, and, but tor the protection afforded by the levees, every con- 
siderable rise of its waters would inundate vast areas of fertile and 
cultivated land. The low regions of Louisiana, including the alluvial 
lands and the coast swamps, comprise about 20,000 sq. m., or nearly 
one-half the area of the state. The remainder consists of the uplands 
of prairie and forest. 

The alluvial region of the state in 1909 was mainly protected 
against overflow from the Mississippi river by 754 m. of levee on the 
Mississippi river within the state, and 84 m. on the Mississippi river, 
Cypress and Amos Bayou in Arkansas, forming part of the general 
system which extends through other states, 1000 m. up to the 
highlands about the junction of the Ohio river. The state and the 
national government co-operate in the construction and maintenance 
of this system, but the Federal government did not give material aid 
(the only exception being the grant of swamp lands m 1850) until the 
exceptionally disastrous flood in 1882. For about a century and a 
half before that time, levee building had been undertaken in a more 
or less spasmodic and tentative way, first by riparian proprietors, 
then by local combinations of public and private interests, and 
finally by the state, acting through levee districts, advised by a 
Board of Engineers. The Federal government, after its participation 
in the work, acted through a Board of Engineers, known as the 
" Mississippi River Commission." The system of 754 m. of Missis- 
sippi river levees, within the state, was built almost entirely after 
1866, and represents an expenditure of about $43,000,000 for 
primary construction alone; of this sum,, the national government 
contributed probably a third (the state expended about $24,000,000 
on levees before the Civil War). Some of the levees, especially those 
in swampy regions where outlet bayous are closed, are of extra- 
ordinary solidity and dimensions, being 20 to 40 ft. high, or even 
more, across streams or bayous formerly outlets with bases of 
8 or 10 ft. to one of height. The task of maintenance consists almost 
entirely in closing the gaps which occur when the banks on which 
the levees are built cave into the river. Levee systems on some of 
the interior or tributary rivers, aggregating some 602 m., are ex- 
clusively built and maintained by the state. Louisiana also contri- 
butes largely to the 84 m. of levee in Arkansas, necessary to its 
security from overflow. The improvement of bayous, channels, the 

'The original channel of the Red river. It has been so useful in 
relieving the Mississippi of floods, that the Red river may possibly 
be permanently diverted again into the bayou artificially. 

construction of canals and the drainage of swamp lands also contri- 
bute to the protection of the state. 

The lakes are mainly in three classes. First come the coast 
lagoons, many of which are merely land-locked salt-water bays, 
the waters of which rise and fall with the tides. Of this class are 
Pontchartrain, Borgne, Maurepas and Sabine. These are simply 
parts of the sea which have escaped the filling-in process carried on 
by the great river and the lesser streams. A second class, called 
"ox-bow" lakes, large in numbers but small in area, includes 
ordinary cut-off meanders along the Mississippi and Red rivers. A 
third class, those upon the Red river and its branches, are caused 
mainly by the partial stoppage of the water above Shreveport by 
the "raft," a mass of drift such as frequently gathers in western 
rivers, which for a distance of 45 m. almost completely closed the 
channel until it was broken up by government engineers. These 
lakes are much larger at flood season than at other times, and have 
been much reduced in size by the cutting of a channel through the 
raft. Lakes of this class are sometimes formed by the choking of 
the mouth of feeble tributaries by silt deposited by the Red river 
where the currents meet. 

Mineral Resources. Mineral resources are few, but important. 
In the Tertiary region are found small quantities of iron ore and an 
indifferent brown coal. The important mineral products are salt, 
sulphur, petroleum and natural gas. The deposit of rock salt on 
Petite Anse Island, in the coast swamp region, has been extensively 
worked since its discovery during the Civil War. The deposit is in 
places loco ft. thick, and yields salt of extraordinary purity (some- 
times 99 % pure). There are large deposits also on Orange Island 
(in places at least 1800 ft. thick), on Week's Island, on Belle Isle 
and probably beneath the intervening marshes. In 1907 Louisiana 
ranked sixth among the salt-producing states of the country (after 
New York, Michigan, Ohio, Kansas and California), its output being 
valued at $226,892, only a few hundred dollars more than that of 
Texas. Near Lake Charles, at Sulphur, are very extraordinary 
sulphur deposits. The beds lie several (for the most part four to six) 
hundred feet underground and are of disputed origin. Many regard 
them as products of an extinct volcano; according to others they 
are of vegetable origin (they are found in conjunction with gypsum). 
They were discovered before 1870 by searchers after petroleum, 
but their exploitation remained in the experimental stage until about 
1900. The sulphur is dissolved by superheated water forced down 
pipes, and the water with sulphur in solution is forced upward by 
not air pressure through other pipes; the sulphur comes, 99 % pure, 
to the surface of the ground, where it is cooled in immense bins, 
and then broken up and loaded directly upon cars for shipment. 
These mines divide with the Sicilian mines the control of the sulphur 
market of the world. The value of the sulphur taken from the mines 
of Louisiana in 1907 was a little more than $5,000,000. Evidences 
of petroleum were discovered long ago, in the very field where in 
recent years the Beaumont and Vinton wells were bored. In 1909 
Jennings was the chief field in Louisiana, lesser fields being at 
Welsh, Anse la Butte, Caddo and Vinton. The Jennings field, one 
of the greatest in the United States, produced up to and including 
1907 more than 26,000,000 barrels of high-grade oil, twelve-thir- 
teenths of which came from an area of only 50 acres, one well pro- 
ducing a tenth of the entire output. In 1907 the state produced 
5,000,221 barrels of petroleum, valued at $4,063,033. Natural gas 
is found in Caddo parish, about 20 m. N. of Shreveport. The 
depth of the wells is from 840 to 2150 ft.; two wells completed in 
1907 had a daily capacity estimated at 35,000,000 to 50,000,000 ft. 
Shreveport, Oil City, Blanchard, Mooringsport, Bossier City and 
Texarkana are supplied with natural gas by pipe lines from this field. 
Kaolin is found in the state; in 1907 the total value of all clay 
products was $928,579. 

Climate. The climate is semi-tropical and exceptionally equable 
over large areas. In the S. and S.E. the equable temperature is 
largely the effect of the network of bays, bayous and lakes, and 
throughout the state the climate is materially influenced by the pre- 
vailing southerly winds from the Gulf of Mexico. Some daily varia- 
tion in the temperature of adjoining localities is caused by a dark 
soil in the one and a light soil in the other, but the differences of mean 
annual temperature are almost wholly due to differences of latitude 
and elevation. The mean annual temperature for a period of nineteen 
years (Jan. 1888 to Dec. 1906) ranged from 70 F. at Port Eads, in 
the extreme S.E., to 65 F. at Lake Providence, in the N.E. The 
mean temperature of July, the hottest month, is comparatively 
uniform over the state, varying only from 81 to 83; the mean for 
January, the coldest month, varies from 46 in the extreme north 
to 56 in the extreme south. Even in the coldest localities eight or 
nine months are wholly free from frost, and in the coast parishes 
frost occurs only a few days in each year. Rainfall is usually heavy 
in the S.E., but it decreases toward the N.W. As much as 85-6 in. 
have fallen within a year at New Orleans, but in this locality the 
average for a year is about 57-6 in.; at Shreveport the average is 
46 in., and for the entire state it is 55 in. Much more rain falls in 
summer than in any other season, but in some parts the heaviest 
rainfall is in the spring and in others in the winter. A light fall of 
snow is not uncommon in the northern parishes, but in the southern 
part of the state snow falls not oftener than once in three to five 
years. Hailstorms are infrequent everywhere, but especially so 

Longitude West 92 of Greenwich 

Lower course of the 


Scale, 1:1,140,000 

English Mile* 
5 "> 20 




* - ,^3 Pi. Chico 


Pt. La Forttino 


Scale. 1:1,700,000 

Parish Seats 
Parish Boundaries 
Canals ... 

Emery W*Utff sc. 



in the south. Only a fourth to a half of the days of the different 
months are wholly or partly clear even in the north, and in the same 
district the monthly means of relative humidity vary from 65 to 70. 

Fauna. The entire state is included within the Austro-riparian 
life zone; the higher portions fall within the Carolinian area and the 
lower portions, including the Gulf and the Mississippi embayment 
almost to the N.E. corner of the state, constitute a special semi- 
tropical region. The native fauna of the state resembles in its 
general features that of the other Gulf states. The feral fauna was 
once rather varied. Black bears, wolves and deer are^ not yet 
extinct, and more rarely a " wild cat " (lynx) or " panther " (puma) 
is seen in the swamps. Of smaller mammals, raccoons, squirrels and 
opossums are very common. Every bayou contains alligators; 
and reptiles of various species, such as turtles, lizards, horned toads, 
rattlesnakes and moccasins are abundant. Shrimps, frogs (of great 
commercial importance), terrapin, clams and oysters are common. 
Only in very recent years have oysters, though plentiful, become of 
competitive importance in the national market; they are greatly 
favoured by state protective legislation. In 1904 a state oyster 
commission was created to supplant the independent control by the 
parishes. An important boundary dispute with Mississippi arose 
over beds lying near the state line. The state leases the beds at a 
low annual rental in tracts (limited for each person, firm or corpora- 
tion to loco acres), and draws from them a considerable revenue. 
The avifauna is varied and abundant, comprising eagles, vultures 
(protected by law), hawks, owls, pelicans, cranes, turkeys, geese, 
" partridges (called quail or " Bob White " elsewhere), ducks, &c., 
besides numerous smaller species, many of which are brilliant of 
plumage but harsh of voice. 

Flora. Heavy rainfall, high temperature and fertile soil combine 
to cover the greater part of the state, and particularly the alluvial 
regions and the coast swamps, with a most luxuriant subtropical 
vegetation, both arborescent and herbaceous. Louisiana is justly 
celebrated for the beauty and fragrance of its flowers. The range of 
temperature is not sufficient to give the variety of annual wild flowers 
of more northern climates; nevertheless flowers cover the bottom 
lands and uplands in great profusion. The upland flora is the more 
diversified. Flowering annuals are mainly aquatic. Water lilies, 
water hyacinths, which are an obstruction in many streams, and 
irises in rich variety give colour to the coast wastes and sombre 
bayous. Notable among the flora are roses, japonicas, hibiscus 
shrubs of various species, poinsettias, tea olives, crepe myrtle, 
jasmines, magnolias, camellias, oleanders, chrysanthemums, ger- 
aniums and plumbagos. The value and variety of the timber are 
very great. Much of the river swamp region is covered with cypress 
trees festooned with Spanish moss. The most common species in 
the alluvial regions and, to a less degree, in the drier portions of the 
swamps and in the stream bottoms of the prairies are various oaks, 
black, sweet and tupelo gum, holly, cotton-wood, poplar, magnolia 
sweet bay, the tulip tree, catalpa, black walnut, pecans, hickories, 
ash, beech and short-leaf pine. On drier and higher soils are the 
persimmon, sassafras, red maple, elm, black haw, hawthorn, various 
oaks (in all 10 species occur), hickories and splendid forests of long- 
leaf and loblolly yellow pine. 

Forestry. These forests are the greatest and finest of their kind 
remaining in the United States. In 1898 it was estimated by Henry 
Gannett (followed by the Federal census of 1900) that the timbered 
area covered 28,300 sq. m. Professor C. S. Sargent estimated in 
1884 that the stand of short-leaf and long-leaf pines aggregated 
respectively 21,625 and 26,558 million feet. The timber product 
of 1900 ($17,294,444) was almost ten times that of 1880 ($1,764,640) ; 
and in 1905 the product value ($35,192,374) was more than twice 
that of 1900. Nevertheless, in 1900 the cypress forests remained 
practically untouched, only slight impression had been made upon 
the pine areas, and the hard-wood forests, except that they had been 
culled of their choicest oak, remained in their primal state (U.S. 
census). Between 1900 and 1905 furniture factories and planing 
mills became somewhat important. Pond pine occurs only near the 
Pearl river. Curly pine is fairly abundant. The eastern pine belt is 
composed of the long-leaf pine, interspersed with some loblolly. It 
covers an area of about 3900 sq. m. The south-western pine belt 
contains the heaviest growth of long-leaf pine timber in the world, 
covering an area of about 4200 sq. m., and occasionally interspersed 
with short-leaf pine. The short-leaf growth is especially heavy in 
the north-western portion of the state, while the long-leaf is found 
mainly in large masses N. and S. of the Red river around Alexandria 
as a centre. The cypress forests of the alluvial and overflowed 
lands in the S. of the state are among the largest and the most 
heavily timbered known. The hard-woods are found in the river 
bottoms throughout the state. 

Agriculture and Soils. Agriculture is the chief industry of the 
state. In 1900 26-2% of the land was in farms, and of this 
area about two-fifths was improved. The size of the average 
farm decreased in the two preceding decades from 171-3 to 95-4 
acres. The percentage of farms operated by owners (i.e. owners, 
part owners, owners and tenants, and managers) fell from 64-8 
to 42-1% from 1880 to 1900, and the percentage operated by 

cash tenants increased from 13-8 in 1880 to 24-9 in 1900, and by 
share tenants from 21-5 in 1880 to 33-0 in 1900; the percentage 
of farms operated by white farmers was 49-8 in 1900. The value 
of farm property, $198,536,906 in 1900, increased 79-8% in the 
preceding decade. The value of live stock in the latter year 
was $28,869,506. The total value of all farm products in 1899 
was $72,667,302, of which $59,276,092 was the value of the 
distinctive crops cotton, sugar and rice. The state bureau of 
agriculture in 1903 estimated that of the total area 14-9 millions 
of acres were timber land, 5-7 millions pasture and marsh, and 
5-0 millions cultivated farm land. 

In the N. there are many sandy districts in the uplands, also 
sandy clays; in the " second bottoms " of the streams fertile 
sandy loams; abundant tertiary marls in the north-central 
region; some gypsum in the cretaceous " islands "; and some 
fossiliferous marls with decomposed limestones. The prairies of 
south-western Louisiana have much yellow marl underlying them. 
Alluvial soil and bluff, the location of which has been indicated, 
are of primary agricultural importance. Reclaimed marsh-land 
and fresh alluvium (the so-called " front-lands " on rivers and 
bayous) are choice soil for Indian corn, sugar-cane, perique 
tobacco, semi-tropical fruits and cotton. The bluff lands are 
simply old alluvium now well drained and above all floods. 
The prairies of the S.W. are devoted almost exclusively to rice. 
On the hills yellow-leaf tobacco can be grown. Cereals and 
forage plants can be successfully grown everywhere, and varied 
and profitable agriculture is possible even on the " pine-barrens " 
or uplands of the N.; but more intelligent and more intensive 
farming is necessary than that practised by the average " piney- 
woods " farmer. The alluvial section of lower Louisiana is 
mostly devoted to sugar, and farther northward to Indian corn 
and cotton. 

Cotton is the principal crop. In 1907 Louisiana ranked eighth in 
acreage of cotton (1,622,000 acres) among the states of the United 
States, and in 1907-1908 the cotton crop (675,428 bales) was eighth 
among the crops of the states. The average yield per acre varies 
from about -45 to -75 bale according to the season. In good seasons 
and exceptional localities the yield may approach a bale per acre, 
as in Assumption parisli, and in the Mississippi valley at the junction 
of Louisiana, Mississippi and Arkansas. For many years there has 
been a reaction against the all-cotton farming system. In general, 
the small cotton farmer was at the mercy of the commission merchant, 
to whom he mortgaged his crops in advance; but this evil has 
lessened, and in some districts the system of advancing is either non- 
existent or very slightly developed. 

In 1907-1908 all the sugar produced from cane grown in the United 
States came from Louisiana (335,000 long tons) and Texas (12,000 
tons) ; in the same year cane sugar from Hawaii amounted to 
420,000 tons, from Porto Rico to 217,000 tons and from the Philip- 
pines to 135,000 tons; and the total yield of beet sugar from the 
United States was 413,954 tons. Of all the cane grown, an amount 
between one-sixth and one-quarter and that the best must be 
reserved for seed every other year, and this is a great handicap to 
the state in competing with other cane regions and with the sugar 
beet. Of the total sugar consumption of the country in 1899-1904 
Louisiana produced somewhat more than a fifteenth. Since about 
1880 there have been central factories, and their increase has been a 
very prominent factor in the development of the industry, as it has 
been in Cuba. Though very much of the region S. of the Red river 
is fairly well suited to sugar-growing, it is stilltrue that sugar cannot, 
over much of this area, be grown to so great advantage as other 
crops. Its hold upon the delta region is, however, almost un- 
challenged, especially since the rice farmers have found in the prairie 
lands that excel the delta for their purposes. Sugar is grown also 
in St Landry and the eastern part of Attakapas ^a name formerly 
loosely applied to what are now St Mary, Iberia, Vermilion, St 
Martin and Lafayette parishes. Though introduced with success 
from Santo Domingo about the middle of the '8th century, the sugar 
industry practically dates from 1796, when Etienne Bore first suc- 
ceeded in crystallizing and clarifying the syrup. Steam motive 
power was first introduced on the plantations in 1822. The average 
product of the ten seasons i894-iox>4 was 299,745 tons. A state 
sugar experiment station is maintained at Audubon Park in New 
Orleans, its work embracing the development of seedlings, the 
improvement of cane varieties, the study of fungus diseases of the 
cane, the improvement of mill methods and the reconciliation of 
such methods (for example, the use of sulphur as a bleaching and 
clarifying agent) with the requirements of " pure food " laws. 
Good work has also been done by the Audubon sugar school of the 
state university, founded " for the highest scientific training in the 
growing of sugar cane and in the technology of sugar manufacture." 


Tobacco might be grown profitably over a large part of the state, 
but in reality very little is grown. The strong, black perique of the 
delta cultivated very generally in the lower alluvial region before 
the Civil War, but now almost exclusively in St James parish is a 
famous leaf, grown since early colonial times. Bright or yellow 
plug and smoking leaf are grown on the pine uplands and pine 
flats," and a small amount of cigar tobacco on the flats, prairies 
and " bluffs." The total value of the tobacco crop of 35,000 ft in 
1907 was only $10,000, an amount exceeded by each of the other 
24 tobacco-growing states, and the crop was about one-twentieth 
of i % of the product of the whole United States. 

Rice farming, which had its beginning immediately after the Civil 
War and first became prominent in the 'seventies, has developed 
enormously since 1880. From 1879 to 1899 the product increased 
twenty-five fold. Formerly the grain was raised by preference in 
the river bottoms, which still yield, almost invariably, the earliest 
rice of the season and perhaps the finest. The " buckshot clays " of 
the backlands, which are so stiff that they can scarcely be ploughed 
until flooded and softened, and are remarkably retentive of moisture, 
are ideal rice soil ; but none of the alluvial lands has an underlying 
hardpan, and they cannot as a rule be drained sufficiently to make 
the use of heavy harvesting machinery possible. In 1880 the prairies 
of the S.W. were opened to settlement by the railway. These prairies 
are traversed by ridges, which facilitate irrigation, and are underlaid 
by an impervious subsoil, which facilitates both effective storage 
and drainage. Thus the use of machinery became possible, and this 
revolutionized the entire industry. The year 1884 may be taken as 
the initial date of the new period, and the grain is now harvested 
exactly as is wheat in the west-central states. Previously the grain 
had ordinarily been cut with sickles and harvested by hand. The 
farms were also small, usually from 5 to 10 acres. They are now 
very much larger. All the prairies district the centre of which is 
Crowley is becoming one great rice field. Some rice also is grown 
on the lowlands of the Mississippi valley, notably in Plaquemines, 
Jefferson and Lafourche parishes. In the decade 1881-1890 Louis- 
iana produced about half of the total yield of the country, and from 
1891 to 1900 about five-sevenths. In 1904 and 1906 the Louisiana 
crop, about one-half of the total yield of the country, was larger 
than that of any other state; but in 1905 and in 1907 (6,192,955 Ib 
and 7,378,000 Ib respectively) the Louisiana crop was second in size 
to that of Texas. Carolina and Honduras rices were practically 
the only varieties until after 1896. Since that time select Japanese 
species, chosen for superior milling qualities, have been widely intro- 
duced, as the market prejudice in favour of head rice made the large 
percentage of broken rice a heavy handicap to the farmers. Hun- 
dreds of varieties have been tested by the state and federal agri- 
cultural experiment stations. A strong tendency to run to red rice 
(hardier, but not so marketable) has been a second great difficulty to 

Irrigation is almost entirely confined to rice farms. In the prairie 
region there is abundant water at depths of 100 to 400 ft. beneath 
the surface, but this was little used for irrigation for the first few 
years of the development of this field, when water was pumped from 
the streams and canals. In 1902 nearly one-eighth of the acreage 
irrigated was by systems supplied from wells. The irrigated rice 
area increased 92-9% from 1899 to 1902, and the construction cost 
of irrigation works ($4,747,359 in 1902; $12.25 P 61 " irrigated acre) 
87-7 % in the same years. This increase was almost wholly in the 
prairie parishes. Of the total irrigated area for rice of 387,580 acres 
m 1902, 310,670 acres were in the parishes of Calcasieu, Acadia and 
Vermilion. In the Mississippi valley water is taken from the river 
by flumes in the levees or by siphons. The danger of floods and the 
difficulty of drainage make the extension of the practice unprofitable, 
and the opening of the prairies has made it unnecessary. 

Many of the fruits of warm-temperate and semi-tropical lands, 
whether native or exotic, including oranges, olives, figs, grape-fruit, 
kumquats and pomegranates are cultivated. Oranges are grown 
especially on the coast. There are many fine groves on the Mississippi 
below New Orleans. The fig is a common door-yard tree as in other 
Gulf and South Atlantic states, and is never killed down by frost. 
Louisiana produced in 1899 only a fifth as great a value in sub- 
tropic fruits as Arizona and Texas combined. Orchard fruits are 
fairly varied, but, compared with other states, unimportant; and 
the production of small fruits is comparatively small, the largest 
crop being strawberries. Oranges and pears are seriously damaged 
by insect and fungus pests. The total value of fruit products in 
1899 was $412,933. Among nuts the native pecan is exceptionally 
abundant, the product (637,470 ft in 1899) being much greater than 
that of any other state save Texas. 

The total value of cereal products in 1899 was $14,491,796, in- 
cluding Indian corn valued at $10,327,723 and rice valued at 
$4,044,489; in 1907 it was more than $27,300,000, including Indian 
corn valued at $19,600,000, rice valued at $7,378,000 and oats valued 
at $223,000. Indian corn is grown only for home use. Dairying 
interests are not largely developed, and in Texas and the adjoining 
states the " Texas fever " and " charbon " have done, great damage 
to cattle. Forage crops are little grown, though soil conditions are 
favourable. Cowpeas are a common fertilizer. Garden trucking 
is very slightly developed, but has been successful where it has 
been tried. The state maintains a crop pest commission, the 

duties of which include the inspection of all nursery stock sold in 
the state. 

Manufactures. The state's manufacturing interests have 
during the last few decades grown greatly in importance. From 
1890 to 1900 the capital invested, the cost of materials used and 
the value of output (in 1900 , $121,181,683) increased respectively 
225-4, 147-3 an< l I0 9 6%. The value of the factory products 
in 1900 was $111,397,919; in 1905 it was $186,379,592. Slightly 
above one-half of the product of 1900 was from New Orleans, 
and in 1905 about 45-4%. A constitutional amendment of 1902 
exempted from parochial and municipal taxes between 1900 and 
1 910 practically all factories and mines in the state, employing at 
least five hands. Manufacturing industries are for the most 
part closely related to the products of the soil, about two-thirds of 
the value of all manufactures in 1900 and in 1905 being repre- 
sented by sugar and molasses refining, lumber and timber 
products, cotton-seed oil and cake, and rice cleaned and polished. 

Rice is milled at New Orleans, Crowley, Abbeville, Gayden, 
Jennings and Lake Charles. Ramie fibre and jute are available for 
coarse cloth; cotton weaving is almost non-existent. The lumber 
industry is centred chiefly in Calcasieu parish. Lake Charles, West- 
lake, Bogalusa, Bon Ami, Carson, Fisher, Fullerton, Leesville, 
Oakdale and Pickering were the leading sawmill towns of the state 
in 1908. Of the rarer woods particular mention may be made of 
curly pine, yielding a wood of beautiful figure and polish ; magnolia, 
hard, close-grained, of fine polish and of great lasting qualities; and 
cypress, light, strong, easily worked and never-rotting. The 
timber cut of 1000 was officially stated as 1,214,387 M. ft. B.M.,of 
which two-thirds were of yellow pine and most of the remainder of 
cypress. In some localities, especially in the " Florida parishes," 
small quantities of rosin and turpentine are taken from the long-leaf 
pine, but this industry was unimportant in Louisiana before 1908. 
Sawdust, slabs, stumps and large quantities of logs are wasted. 
Other manufactures with a product value in 1905 of between 
$4,000,000 and $1,000,000 were: bags (not paper); foundry and 
machine-shop products; planing-mill products; railway cars, 
construction and repairs; malt liquors; men's clothing; cooperage; 
food preparations; roasted and ground coffee and spice; fertilizers; 
cigars and cigarettes; cotton goods; and manufactured ice. 

Communications. The length of railway in the state was 1 740 m. in 
1890 and 4943-55 m. at the end of 1908. By the state constitution 
of 1898 and by amendments of 1902 and 1904 tax exemptions for ten 
years were granted to newly-built railroads completed before 1909. 
The principal roads are the Missouri Pacific (St Louis, Iron Mountain 
& Southern, New Orleans & North-western and St Louis, Watkins & 
Gulf), the Southern Pacific (Morgan's Louisiana & Texas Railroad & 
Steamship Co. and the Louisiana Western), the Texas & Pacific, the 
Kansas City Southern, the Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific, the 
Louisiana Railway & Navigation Co., the Yazoo & Mississippi 
Valley, the Illinois Central, and the Louisiana & Arkansas. The 
Illinois Central, the first railway giving Louisiana connexion with 
the north, and of immense importance in the trade of New Orleans, 
has only about 100 m. of double track in the state. The problem of 
inland waterways has always been a most important one in northern, 
eastern and southern Louisiana, where there are systems of improved 
bayous, lakes and canals which, with the levees, make this region 
something like Holland, on a greater scale. Many bayous are con- 
vertible by improvement into excellent drainage and irrigation canals. 
The canal system is especially well developed in the parishes of the 
Mississippi delta, where, at the close of 1907, there were about 50 m. 
of these waterways of decided commercial importance. They serve 
the trade of Lake Pontchartrain and the Florida parishes, the 
lumber, coal, fish, oyster and truck trade of New Orleans, and to 
some extent are the highway of a miscellaneous coasting trade. 
The most important canal is probably the new Atchafalaya Bay 
canal (14 ft. deep), opened in 1907, connecting the Atchafalaya river 
and Morgan City with the Gulf of Mexico. In 1907 active prelimin- 
ary work was begun on the Louisiana section of a great interstate 
inland waterway projected by the national government between the 
Mississippi and Rio Grande rivers, almost parallel to the Gulf Coast 
and running through the rice and truck-farm districts from the 
Teche to the Mermenton river (92 m.). The competition of the 
water lines is felt by all the railways, and the importance of water 
transportation is rapidly increasing. A state railroad commission, 
organized in 1899, has power to regulate railway, steamer, sleeping- 
car, express, telephone and telegraph rates within the state. Foreign 
commerce is almost wholly centred at New Orleans. 

Population. The population of the state increased in the 
ten decades from 1810 to 1910 successively by 100-4, 4'6> 
63-4, 46-9, 36-7, 2-7, 29-3, 19-0, 23-S and 19-9%. In 1910 it 
was 1,656,388 (36-5 per sq. m.). 1 In 1900 47-1% was of negro 

The population was 76,556 in 1810; I5347 in 182; 215,739 
in 1830; 352,411 in 1840; 517,762 in 1850; 708,002 in 1860; 726,915 
in 1870; 939,946 in 1880; 1,118,588 in 1890; and 1,381,825 in 1900. 



blood, as compared with 51-5 in 1890. In 1910 there were nine 
cities with more than 5000 inhabitants each: New Orleans (339, 
075); Shreveport (28,015); Baton Rouge (14,897), the capital; 
Lake Charles (11,449); Alexandria (11,213); Monroe (10,209); 
New Iberia (7449); Morgan (547?); Crowley (5099). The urban 
element is larger than in any other southern state, owing to the 
large population of New Orleans. The Acadians (see I History 
below) to-day are settled mainly in St Mary, Acadia and Ver- 
milion parishes; lesser numbers are in Avoyelles and St Landry; 
and some are scattered in various other parishes. The parishes 
of St Mary, Iberia, Vermilion, St Martin and Lafayette are known 
as the Attakapas country from an Indian name. A colony of 
Germans sent over by John Law to the Arkansas removed to the 
Mississippi above New Orleans, and gave to its bank the name of 
the "German Coast," by which it is still known. In recent years 
there has been an immigration of Italians into Louisiana, which 
seems likely to prove of great social and economic importance. 
The industrial activity of the state has required more labour than 
has been available. The negroes have moved more and more from 
the country to the towns, where they easily secure work at good 
wages. Owing to the inadequate supply of labour two important 
immigration leagues of business men were formed in 1004 and 1005, 
and in 1907 the state government began officially to attempt 
to secure desirable foreign immigration, sending agents abroad 
to foster it. Roman Catholics greatly predominate among 
religious denominations, having in 1906 477,774 members out 
of a total of 778,901 for all denominations; in the same year 
there were 185,554 Baptists, 79,464 Methodists, 9070 Protestant 
Episcopalians and 8350 Presbyterians. 

Administration. Since the admission of the state to the Union 
in 1812 there have been eight state constitutions (not counting 
that of 1 86 1 ) admirably illustrating and not less the Territorial 
government preceding them the development of American 
democracy and the problems connected with the negroes. 
Under the Territorial government the legislative officers were not 
at first elective. The "parishes" date from 1807; they were 
based on an earlier Spanish division for religious purposes 
whence the names of saints in parish nomenclature. The con- 
stitution of 1812 allowed the General Assembly to name the 
governor from the two candidates receiving the highest number 
of votes; gave the governor large powers of appointment, 
even of local functionaries; and required a property qualifica- 
tion for various offices, and even for voters. The constitution of 
1845 made the popular suffrage final in the choice of the governor, 
abolished property qualifications, and began to pare executive 
powers for the benefit of the General Assembly or the people. 
From it dates also the constitutional recognition of the public 
schools. In 1852 even the judges of the supreme court were 
placed among the officers chosen by popular vote. The con- 
stitutions of 1864 and 1868 were of importance primarily as 
bearing on negro status and national politics. That of 1879 
showed a profound distrust of legislative action, bred of recon- 
struction experiences. Nearly all special legislation was for- 
bidden. The last constitution (1898, with 26 amendments 1898- 
1906), unlike all others after that of 1812, was not submitted to 
the people for ratification. 

Under this constitution sessions of the General Assembly are bi- 
ennial (meeting the second Monday in May in even-numbered years) 
and are limited to sixty days. The number of senators is fixed by 
the constitution at 39; the number of representatives is to be 
not more than 1 16 or less than 98. Any elector is eligible for election 
as a representative if he has been a citizen of the state for five years 
and a resident of the district or parish from which he is elected for 
two years immediately preceding the_ election; a change of residence 
from the district or parish from which he was elected vacates the 
seat of a representative or senator. A senator must be at least 25 
years of age. Members of the legislature are elected for four years. 
Revenue or appropriation bills originate in the House of Repre- 
sentatives, but may be amended by the Senate. Contingent appro- 
priations are forbidden, and the constitution contains a long list 
of subjects on which special laws may not be passed. The chief 
executive officers have four-year terms, neither the governor nor the 
treasurer being eligible for immediate re-election. The governor 
must be at least 30 years old and must have been a citizen of the 
United States and a resident of the state for 10 years next preceding 
his election. Within five days after the passage of any bill by the 

General Assembly he may veto this measure, which then becomes a 
law only if passed by a two-thirds vote of all members elected to 
each house of the General Assembly. The lieutenant governor (and 
then the secretary of state) succeeds to the office of governor if the 
governor is removed, dies or leaves the state. The five judges of 
the supreme court of the state are elected by the people for 
a term of twelve years. The supreme court is almost with- 
out exception a court of appeal with jurisdiction in cases involving 
at least $2000, in cases of divorce, in suits regarding adoption, 
legitimacy and custody of children and as regards the legality and 
constitutionality of taxes, fines, &c. The supreme court appoints 
courts of appeal to judge cases involving less than $2000. The 
constitution prohibits lotteries and the sale of lottery tickets. 

The suffrage clauses are of particular interest, as they accomplish 
the practical disfranchisement of the negroes. The constitution 
requires that a voter must (in addition to other qualifications) either 
be able to show conclusively ability to read and write, or be the 
owner of property within the state assessed at not less than $300, 
on which, if personalty, all taxes are paid. But it excepts from 
these requirements thus letting down the bars for illiterate whites 
excluded with negroes by the foregoing clauses persons who were 
entitled to vote in some state on or before the 1st of January 1867 
(i.e. before the adoption of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amend- 
ments of the United States Constitution) ; also the sons or grandsons 
of such voters, not under 21 years of age, on the I2th of May 1898; 
and males of foreign birth who have resided in the state for five years 
next preceding the date of application for registration and who 
were naturalized prior to 1898. The constitution provides that no 
person less than 60 years of age shall be permitted to vote unless he 
has paid an annual poll-tax of one dollar for the two years next 
preceding the year in which he offers to vote. Convicts not pardoned 
with an explicit restoration of suffrage privileges are disfranchised a 
rare clause in the United States. Suffrage was by this constitution 
first extended to women tax-payers in questions ' submitted to the 
tax-payers, as such." The creation of a railroad commission was 
ordered and the preparation of a code of criminal law. 

The Louisiana Board of Levee Commissioners was organized in 
1 865. The state board of health was the first one effectively organized 
(1855) in the United States. It encountered many difficulties, 
and until the definite proof of the stegomyia hypothesis of yellow- 
fever inoculation made by the United States army surgeons in Cuba 
in iqoo, the greatest problem seemed insoluble. Since that time 
conditions of health in New Orleans have been revolutionized (in 
1907 state control of maritime quarantine on the Mississippi was 
supplanted by that of the national government), and smaller cities 
and towns have been stimulated to take action by her example. 
Sanitary institutes are held by the state board at various towns each 
year for the instruction of the public. Boards of appraisers and 
equalization oversee the administration of the tax system; the cost 
of collection, owing to the fee system for payment of collectors, 
was higher than in any other state of the Union until 1907, when the 
fees were greatly reduced. The state assessment in 1901 totalled 
$301,215,222 and in 1907 was $508,000,000. Schools and levees 
absorb about half of all revenues, leaving half for the payment of 
interest on the state debt (bonded debt on 1st of April 1908, 
$11,108,300) and for expenses of government. A general primary 
election law for the selection, by the voters, of candidates for state 
office came into effect in 1906. 

Law. Louisiana has been peculiar among the states of the 
Union in the history of the development of its legal system. 
In Louisiana alone (as the state is known to-day), out of all the 
territory acquired from France as the Louisiana Purchase in 
1803, was the civil law so established under French and Spanish 
rule that it persisted under American dominion. In all the other 
states formed from the Purchase, the civil law, never existent 
practically, was early expressly abrogated, and the common law 
of England established in its place. After O'Reilly established 
his power in 1769 (see History, below), the Spanish law was 
supreme. All the old codes of the Peninsula, as well as the laws 
of the Indies and special royal decrees and schedules, were in 
force in the colony. The United States left the task of altering 
the laws to the people, as far as there was no conflict between 
them and the Constitution of the United States and fundamental 
American legal customs. Copies of the Spanish codes were very 
rare, and some of them could not be had in the colonies. Dis- 
cussions of the Roman Institute and Pandects were common in 
the deliberations of the courts. Great confusion prevailed in the 
first years of American dominion owing to the diversities of 
languages and the grafting of such Anglo-Saxon institutions as 
the jury upon the older system. A provisional code of judicial 
procedure, prepared by Edward Livingston, was in effect in 
1805 to 1825. The earliest digest, completed in 1808, was mainly 
a compilation of Spanish laws. The project of the Code Napolton, 


however the code itself not being available in Louisiana, 
though promulgated in France in 1804 was used by the com- 
pilers in the arrangement and substance of their work; and the 
French traditions of the colony, thus illustrated, were naturally 
introduced more and more into the organic commentaries and 
developments that grew up around the Code Napoleon. This 
evolution was little marked, so similar in large parts were the 
systems of France and Spain (although in other parts, due to 
the Gothic element in the Spanish, they were very different) a 
similarity which explains the facility with which O'Reilly and 
his successors introduced the Spanish laws after 1769. The 
Louisiana code of 1808 was not, however, exhaustive; and the 
courts continued to go back to the old Spanish sources whenever 
the digest was inconclusive. Thus so late as 1819, when the 
legislature ordered the compilation of such parts of King Alfonso's 
Siete Partidas (the most common authority in the colony) as 
were considered in force, this compilation filled a considerable 
volume. In 1821 the legislature authorized Livingston to prepare 
the " Livingston Code " of criminal law and procedure, completed 
in 1824 (in French and English) and published in 1833, but never 
adopted by the state. In 1825 legislative sanction was given to 
the greater part of a civil code prepared by a commission (in- 
cluding Livingston) appointed in 1821, and the French element 
became steadily more important. In its present form the law 
shows plainly the Latin and English elements. English law has 
largely moulded, for example, criminal and commercial law and 
the law of evidence; the development of the law of corporations, 
damages, prohibitions and such extraordinary remedies as the 
mandamus has been very similar to that in other states; while 
in the fusion of law and equity, and the law of successions, 
family relations, &c., the civil law of Spain and France has 
been unaffected. 

Education. Schooling was very scant before the creation of the 
public schools in 1854. Very little was done for education in the 
French and Spanish period, although the Spanish governors made 
commendable efforts in this regard; the first American Territorial 
legislature began the incorporation of feeble " colleges " and 
" academies." To some of these the state gave financial aid 
($1,613,898) before 1845. The public schools were flourishing at the 
outbreak of the Civil War. War and reconstruction threw upon 
them the new burden of the black children. The constitution of 
1879 was illiberal in this respect, but a healthier public opinion soon 
prevailed. The money given by the state to the public schools is 
distributed among the parishes according to their school population, 
and the constitution of 1898 set a generous minimum to such aid. 
An annual poll-tax is also collected For the schools from every adult 
male. Local taxes, besides, are imposed, and these are becoming 
heavier. The parishes retain primary control of the schools. In- 
stitutes, summer schools and rural libraries have been introduced. 
The salaries of white teachers advanced from a monthly average of 
$38.87 in 1903 to $61.84 in I 9 6 - The average attendance of en- 
rolled black and white pupils is practically identical, but the enrol- 
ment of whites (about 52 % in 1902) is somewhat higher and that 
of the blacks about a third lower than their ratio in the population. 
The school term for white children is much longer than for negroes, 
and white teachers are paid much better salaries in 1906 the 
average monthly salary of a negro teacher was $29.15. The total 
enrolment is very low. But progress is now being made very rapidly 
in the improvement of the educational system. Higher schools 
include: the State University and Agricultural and Mechanical 
College (1860) at Baton Rouge (q.v.) ; Tulane University of Louisiana 
(1864) in New Orleans; Jefferson College (1864; Roman Catholic) 
at Convent; the College of the Immaculate Conception (1847; 
Roman Catholic) in New Orleans; St Charles College (1835; Roman 
Catholic) at Grand Couteau; St Joseph's . College (1849; Roman 
Catholic) at Baton Rouge; the following colleges for women Silli- 
man Collegiate Institute (1852; Presbyterian) at Clinton, Mansfield 
Female College (1854; Methodist Episcopal, South) at Mansfield, 
the H. Sophie Newcomb Memorial College for women (a part of 
Tulane University) in New Orleans and the Louisiana Female 
College (1856; Baptist) at Keatchie; the State Normal School of 
Louisiana (1884) at Natchitoches and the New Orleans Normal and 
Training School ; the South-western Louisiana Industrial Institute 
at Lafayette; the Louisiana Industrial Institute at Ruston; and, 
among schools for negroes, the Peabody State Normal and Industrial 
School at Alexandria and New Orleans University (1873; Methodist 
Episcopal), Luther College (Evangelical Lutheran), Leland Uni- 
versity (1870; Baptist), Straight University (Congregational) and 
Southern University (1883; aided by the state), all in New Orleans. 

Charitable and Penal Institutions. The State Board of Charities 
and Correction, for which the constitution of 1898 first made pro- 

vision, and which was organized under an act of 1904, is composed of 
six members, appointed by the governor for six years, with the 
governor as ex-officio chairman. The members of the board serve 
gratuitously, but elect a salaried secretary. The board has no ad- 
ministrative or executive power, but makes annual inspections of 
all public charitable, correctional or reformatory institutions, all 
private institutions which receive aid from, or are used by municipal 
or parochial authorities, and all private asylums for the insane; 
and reports annually to the governor on the actual condition of the 
institutions. Any suggestions as to improvements in institutions 
must be approved by the majority of the governing body of that 
institution before they may be put into effect. The charitable 
institutions include two charity hospitals at New Orleans (1832) 
and Shreveport; an Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital, a Hotel 
Dieu, the Touro Infirmary and a Home for Incurables, all at New 
Orleans; an Institute for the Deaf and Dumb (for whites there is 
no state provision for negro deaf and dumb) and an Institute for 
the Blind, both at Baton Rouge; an Insane Hospital at Jackson 
and another at Pineville; and the Louisiana Retreat for the Insane 
at New Orleans. At Monroe there is a State Reform School, and at 
New Orleans a Coloured Industrial Home and School. There is 
also a state home for disabled Confederate soldiers at New Orleans 
on Bayou St John. The State Penitentiary is at Baton Rouge, and 
a House of Detention at New Orleans; and there are parish prisons. 
State convicts, and all places in which they are confined or employed, 
are under the supervision of a Board of Control appointed by the 
governor. This board may allow commutation or diminution of 
sentence for good behaviour, meritorious services or exemplary 
conduct. The leasing or hiring of state convicts is prohibited by 
the constitution, but parish convicts may be hired or leased for farm 
and factory work, work on roads and levees, and other public under- 
takings. Such convicts are classified according to physical ability 
and a minimum rate is fixed for their hire, for not more than ten 
hours a day. Many state convicts are employed in levee con- 
struction, and there are convict farms at Angola, Hope, Oakley and 

History. The early history of Louiiiana belongs to the 
romance of American history. It is possible that the mouth of 
the Mississippi was discovered in 1519 by Alonso Alvarez de 
Pineda, but this interpretation of his vague manuscript remains 
conjectural; and that it was discovered by the expedition of 
Panfilo de Narvaez cannot be established. That Hernando de 
Soto entered the borders of the present state of Louisiana, and 
that his burial place in the Mississippi was where that river takes 
the waters of the Red, are probable enough, but incapable of 
conclusive proof. Survivors of de Solo's expedition, however, 
descended the Mississippi to its mouth in 1542. Spain set up no 
claim to the region, and when Robert Cavalier, Sieur de la Salle, 
came down the river in 1682 from the French possessions to the 
north, he took possession in the name of France, which hereby 
gained her first title to the vast drainage basin of the Mississippi. 
In honour of Louis XIV. the new possession was named "Louis- 
iana " a name then and until 1812 applied to a much larger 
area than that of the present state. La Salle attempted to settle 
a colony in 1684, but missed the Mississippi's mouth and landed 
in Texas, where he was murdered in 1687 by some of his followers. 
In 1697, after Ryswick, Pierre le Moyne d'Iberville (1662-1706) 
was chosen to lead another colony, which reached the Gulf coast 
early in 1699. Soon after Iberville had built Fort Maurepas 
(near the present city of Biloxi, Mississippi) in 1699, a fort was 
erected on the Mississippi river about 40 m. above the mouth. 

This was the earliest settlement in what is now the state of 
Louisiana. It was unhealthy and unprosperous. From 1712 to 
1717 " Louisiana," or the French possessions of the Mississippi 
valley, was held by Antoine Crozat (1655-1738) as a private 
grant from the king. It proved as great a drain upon his purse 
as it had proved to the crown, and he willingly parted with it to 
the so-called " Western Company," afterwards incorporated with 
the great Company of the Indies. The head of this company 
was John Law, who, after spreading glowing accounts of the new 
land, launched his famous " Mississippi scheme " (see LAW, 
JOHN. The company accomplished much for the colony of 
Louisiana. Jean Baptiste le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville (1680- 
1768), a brother of Iberville, was sent out as governor. For 
forty years he was the life of the colony. One of his first acts 
was to found the city of New Orleans on its present site in 1718. 
In this same year seven vessels were sent from France with stores 
and immigrants; eleven followed during the next year. Five 



hundred negroes from the Guinea coast were imported in 1719, 
and many hundreds more soon followed. The Law company 
eventually came to an end fatal to its creditors in France, but 
its misfortunes did not check the prosperity of " Louisiana." 
The company retained its grant of the colony until 1731, when it 
reverted to the crown. Meantime New Orleans had become the 
seat of government in 1722. In 1766 an official census showed a 
total population of 5552. The years of royal rule were uneventful. 
Cotton culture began in 1740, and sugar-cane was successfully 
introduced from Santo Domingo by the Jesuits in 1751. Tafia 
rum and a waxy, sticky sugar syrup subsequently became 
important products; but not until the end of the century were 
the means found to crystallize sugar and so give real prosperity 
to the industry. 

By a secret treaty of the 3rd of November 1762, " Louisiana " 
was transferred from France to Spain. This treaty was not made 
public for a year and a half, and Spain did not take fuU possession 
of the colony until 1769. By a treaty between Spain and France 
on the one hand and Great Britain and Portugal on the other, 
signed at Paris in February 1763, all that portion lying E. of the 
Mississippi river, the Iberville river, and Lakes Maurepas and 
Pontchartrain was ceded to Great Britain. The international 
interests thus created, and others that sprang from them, heavily 
burdened the diplomacy, and even threatened the safety 'of the 
United States after they were placed in possession of the eastern 
bank of the Mississippi down to 31 in 1783. 

The news of the cession of the colony to Spain roused strong 
discontent among the colonists. Antonio de Ulloa (1716-1795), 
a distinguished Spanish naval officer and scholar, came to New 
Orleans in 1766 to take possession for his king. Merchants, 
people, and many civil officers held toward him from the begin- 
ning a hostile attitude; the military, especially, refused to pass 
into the Spanish service as stipulated in the treaty; and Ulloa 
was compelled to continue in an ambiguous and anomalous 
position which his lack of military force probably first com- 
pelled him to assume ruling the colony through the French 
governor, Philippe Aubry (who loyally supported him through- 
out), without publicly exhibiting his powers. The fear of 
Spanish commercial laws powerfully stimulated resistance to 
the transfer, and though Ulloa made commercial and monetary 
concessions, they were not sufficient. When the colonists found 
protests at Paris unavailing, they turned to the idea of inde- 
pendence, but sought in vain the armed support of the British at 
Pensacola. Nevertheless they compelled Ulloa to leave the colony 
or exhibit his credentials. He took his leave in November 1768. 
The open resistance by the colonists (October 1768) was a care- 
fully planned revolt. There is no doubt that the men who led 
the Creole opposition contemplated independence, and this 
gives the incident peculiar interest. In the summer of 1769 
Alejandro O'Reilly came to New Orleans with a strong military 
force (3600 troops). Beginning his rule with an affability that 
allayed suspicions and securing from Aubry proofs against the 
popular leaders, he invited them to a reception and arrested 
them while they were his guests. Five were put to death and 
others were imprisoned at Havana. O'Reilly put down the 
rebellion with determination and in accord with the instructions 
of his king. Regarded without republican sympathies, and in 
the light of 18th-century doctrines of allegiance, his acts, however 
severe, in no way deserve the stigma of cruelty ordinarily put 
upon them. He was liberal and enlightened in his general rule. 

Among the incidents of these troubled years was the arrival 
in Louisiana (after 1765) of some hundreds of French exiles from 
Acadia, who made their homes in the Attakapas country. There 
their descendants live to-day, still somewhat primitively, and 
still in somewhat of the glamour thrown over land and people 
by the Evangdine of Longfellow. 

On the i8th of August 1769 Louisiana was formally transferred 
to Spain. Spanish law and Spanish tongue replaced the French 
officially, but the colony remained essentially French. The 
Spanish rulers made efforts to govern wisely and liberally, show- 
ing great complaisance, particularly in heeding the profit of the 
colony, even at the expense of Spanish colonial commercial 

regulations. The judicial system was much improved, a better 
grade of officials became the rule, many French Creoles were 
appointed to office, intermarriages of French and Spanish and 
even English were encouraged by the highest officials, and in 
general a liberal and conciliatory policy was followed, which 
made Louisiana under Spanish rule quiet and prosperous. Ber- 
nardo de Galvez (1756-1794), a brilliant young officer of twenty- 
one, when he became the governor of the colony, was one of the 
most liberal of the Spanish rulers and of all the most popular. 
During the American War of Independence he gave valuable 
aid to the United States; and when Spain finally joined in the 
war against Great Britain, Galvez, in a series of energetic and 
brilliant campaigns (1779-1781), captured all the important 
posts in the British colony of West Florida. The chief interest 
of the Spanish period lies in the advance of settlement in the 
western territories of the United States, the international in- 
trigues British, French and Spanish involving the future of 
the valley, the demand of the United States for free navigation 
on the Mississippi, and the growing consciousness of the supreme 
importance of the river and New Orleans to the Union. With 
the Spanish governor Estevan Miro, who succeeded Galvez 
in 1785, James Wilkinson of Kentucky, arrested at New Orleans 
with a flat-boat of supplies in 1787, intrigued, promising him 
that Kentucky would secede from the United States and would 
join the Spanish; but Wilkinson was unsuccessful in his efforts 
to carry out this plan. In 1794 Spain, hard pressed by Great 
Britain and France, turned to the United States, and by the 
treaty of 1794 the Mississippi river was recognized by Spain as 
the western boundary of the United States, separating it from 
Louisiana, and free navigation of the Mississippi was granted 
to citizens of the United States, to whom was granted for three 
years the right " to deposit their merchandise and effects in the 
port of New Orleans, and to export them from thence without 
paying any other duty than a fair price for the hire of the stores." 
At the expiration of the three years the Spanish governor refused 
the use of New Orleans as a place of deposit, and contrary to 
the treaty named no other port in its place. Spanish rule,, 
however, came unexpectedly to an end by the retrocession of 
Louisiana to France in 1800; and French dominion gave way 
in turn in 1803 as the result of a chain of events even more 
unexpected, startling, and for the United States fortunate 
to the rule of the last-named country. On the 3Oth of November 
1803 the representatives of the French republic received formal 
possession from the Spanish governor, and on the 2oth of Decem- 
ber lower Louisiana was transferred to the United States. (See 

By an Act of Congress of the 25th of March 1804,* that portion 
of the Louisiana Purchase S. of 33 was organized as the Territory 
of Orleans, and was given a government less democratic than 
might otherwise have been the case, because it was intended 
to prepare gradually for self-government the French and Spanish 
inhabitants of the territory, who desired immediate statehood. 
The foreign slave-trade was forbidden by this organic act. 
English was made the official language. The introduction of 
English law, and the changes made in the judicial and legal 
systems of Louisiana after 1804 have already been described. 

The machinations of Aaron Burr are of interest in connexion 
with Louisiana annals, and likewise the settlement and revolu- 
tionizing of West Florida by Americans. In November 1811 
a convention met at New Orleans and framed a constitution under 
which, on the 3oth of April 1812, the Territory of Orleans became 
the state of Louisiana. A few days later the portion of West 
Florida between the Mississippi and Pearl rivers (the present 
" Florida Parishes ") was included in its boundaries, making 
them as they are to-day. In this same year the first steamboat 
reached New Orleans. It descended the Ohio and Mississippi 
from Pittsburg, whence there had already been a thriving river 
trade to New Orleans for about thirty years. During the War 
of 1812 a decisive victory was won by the American forces at 
Chalmette, near New Orleans, on the 8th of January 1815. Up 

* Other acts bearing on Territorial government are those of the 
3ist of October 1803 and the 23rd of March 1805. 



to 1860 the development of the state in population, agriculture 
and commerce was very rapid. Donaldsonville was the (nominal) 
capital in 1825-1831, Baton Rouge in 1849-1864 and again after 
1882. At other times New Orleans has been the capital, and 
here too have always been various state offices which in other 
states ordinarily are in the state capital. 

By an ordinance of secession passed on the 26th of January 
1 86 1, Louisiana joined the Confederate States. In the first year 
there was very little military activity in the state, but in April 
1862 Admiral D. G. Farragut, with a powerful fleet, ascended 
the Mississippi past Forts Jackson and St Philip, which defended 
the approach to New Orleans, and a military force under General 
B. F. Butler occupied that city The navigation of the river 
being secured by this success and by later operations in the 
north ending in July 1863 with the capture of Vicksburg and Port 
Hudson, the state was wholly at the mercy of the Union armies. 
The intervening months were signalized by the capture of Baton 
Rouge in May 1862 the Confederates vainly attempting to 
recapture it in August. Later, in April 1864, the Confederates 
under General Richard Taylor won a success against the Unionists 
under General N. P. Banks at Sabine Cross Roads near Mansfield 
and were themselves repulsed at Pleasant Hill, these battles 
being incidental to a campaign undertaken by the Union forces 
to crush opposition in western Louisiana. A large portion of the 
state was occupied by them in 1862-1865. There were various 
minor skirmishes in 1862 and 1863 (including the capture of the 
Federal camp at Berwick Bay in June 1863). 

As early as December 1862 the Union military government, 
at President Lincoln's direction, had ordered elections for 
Congress, and the men chosen were admitted in February 1863. 
In March 1864 also a state government to supersede the military 
rule was established under the president's auspices. By 1863 
two parties had arisen among the loyal classes: one of radicals, 
who demanded the calling of a constitutional convention and 
the abolition of slavery; the other of conservatives. The former 
prevailed, and by a convention that assembled in April 1864 
a constitution was framed closely following that of 1852 but 
repudiating the debt incurred by Louisiana as one of the Con- 
federate states and abolishing slavery. Two-thirds of the 
delegates were from New Orleans. The legislature was ordered 
to establish free schools for the blacks, and was empowered to 
give them the suffrage: neither of these provisions, however, 
was carried out. The extent of the Union control is shown 
by the fact that the legislature of 1864 represented half of the 
area and two-thirds of the population of the state. The army 
stood at the back of the new government, and by the end of 
1864 Louisiana was apparently " reconstructed." But in 1864 
the opposition of Congress to presidential reconstruction had 
clearly developed, so that the electoral votes of Louisiana (like 
those of Tennessee) for president were not counted. By the 
spring of 1866 the ex-Confederates had succeeded in gaining 
possession of most of the local government and most of the 
state offices, although not of the governorship. The Republican 
party naturally became extremely radical. The radicals wished 
to have negro suffrage in order to get possession of the govern- 
ment. They, therefore, wanted still another constitutional 
convention. A clause in the constitution of 1864 provided for 
the reconvening of the convention in certain circumstances, 
but this clause referred only to necessities prior to the establish- 
ment of a government, and had therefore determined. Neverthe- 
less, the radicals, because it was impossible to call a convention 
through the medium of the state government, took advantage 
of this clause to reconvoke the old convention at New Orleans. 
The day set was the 3Oth of July 1866. The ex-Confederate 
party determined to prevent the gathering, but the idea of 
interference by force seems to have been abandoned. A street 
riot was precipitated, however, incidental to a procession of 
armed negroes; the metropolitan police fired upon the assembled 
convention; and altogether some 200 persons, mostly negroes, 
were killed. This incident raised the crucial question of national 
politics in 1866: namely, whether the states reconstructed by 
the president should not again be reconstructed. 

This being settled affirmatively, Louisiana was reconstructed 
with vigour. A constitution of 1868 gave suffrage to the blacks, 
and disfranchised all whites made ineligible to office under the 
proposed Fourteenth Amendment to the national Constitution, 
and also (practically) those who had by word, pen or vote 
defended secession. Then the state ratified the Fourteenth 
Amendment, and was declared readmitted to the Union in July 
1868. Probably no other southern state suffered equally with 
Louisiana from the corruption of " carpet-bag," " scalawag," 
negro legislatures. For four years (1868-1872) the government 
expenses increased to ten times their normal volume, taxation 
was enormously increased, and about $57,000,000 of debt was 
created. But a quarrel broke out among the Republicans 
(1872), the result of which was the installation of two governors 
and legislatures, one supported by the Democrats and Liberal 
Republicans and the other by the radical Republicans, the former 
being certainly elected by the people. The rivalry of these 
two state governments, clashes of arms, the recognition by the 
Federal authorities of the radical Republican government 
(Pinchback and Kellogg, successively governors) followed. One 
historic clash in New Orleans (on the I4th of September 1874) 
between the " White League " (" White Man's Party") and the 
Republican police is commemorated by a monument, and the 
day is regarded by Louisianans as a sort of state independence- 
day. Finally, in 1876, Francis Tillon Nicholls (b. 1834), a 
Democrat, was chosen governor, but the Republican candidate, 
S. B. Packard, claimed the election, and with a Republican 
legislature for a time occupied the State House. In the national 
election of 1876 there were double returns (Republican: 75,315 
for Hayes and 70,508 for Tilden; and Democratic: 83,723 for 
Tilden and 77,174 for Hayes) from Louisiana, which, as was 
the case with the double electoral returns from Florida, Oregon 
and South Carolina, were adjudicated by the Electoral Commis- 
sion in favour of the Republican electors voting for Hayes. 
Civil war being threatened within the state President Hayes 
sent to Louisiana a commission composed of Wayne McVeagh, 
Gen..J. R. Hawley, Charles B. Lawrence, J. M. Harlan, and 
John C. Brown, ex-Governor of Tennessee, which was instructed 
to promote " an acknowledgment of one government within 
the state." The rival legislatures united, organizing under the 
Nicholls government, which the commission found was upheld 
by public opinion. The president ordered the withdrawal of 
Federal troops from the capitol on the 2oth of April 1877, and 
the white party was thus left in control. 

After 1877 the state prospered markedly in all material 
respects. Of subsequent political events perhaps the most 
notable, besides the practical disfranchisement of the negroes, 
are those connected with the Louisiana State Lottery Company 
(1868-1893). For the renewal of its privileges in 1890 the 
company finally agreed to give the state $1,250,000 yearly, and 
despite strenuous opposition by a powerful party the legislature 
voted a renewal, but this measure was vetoed by the governor. 
The United States government, however, forbade lotteries the 
use of the mails, and the company withdrew its offers. The 
constitution of 1898 prohibits lotteries and the sale of lottery 
tickets within the state. In 1891 the lynching of eleven Italians 
at New Orleans gave rise to grave difficulties involving Italy, 
the United States, and the state of Louisiana. Since 1900 a 
white Republican Party has made some headway in Louisiana 
politics, but in national and state elections the state has been 
uninterruptedly and overwhelmingly Democratic since 1877. 


French Domination 1682-1762. 
A. le Moyne, Sieur de Sauyolle (died in office) . 
J. B. le Moyne, Sieur de Bienville 
M. de Muys, appointed 1707, died en route, 
Bienville continuing to serve. 

Lamothe Cadillac 

Sieur de Bienville, acting governor . 

De I'fipinay 

Sieur de Bienville . .... 



1 Terms of actual service in Louisiana ; Gayarre is the authority 
for the French and Spanish period. 



Boisbriant, ad interim 1724-1726 

Perier I/26-I733 

Sieur de Bienville I733~I743 

Marquis de Vaudreuil I743~!753 

L. Billouart, Chevalier de Kerlerec . . . 1753-1763 

D'Abbadie 1763-1765 

Philippe Aubry 1765-1769 

Spanish Domination 1762 (/7<5p)-i#oj. 

. 1769-1770 
. 1770-1777 

. 1777-1785 
. 1785-1791 
30 Dec. 1791-1797 

Antonio de Ulloa 1 

Alejandro O'Reilly* .... 

Luis de Unzaga 

Bernardo de Galvez' .... 

Estevan Miro (ad interim 1785-1786) 

F. L. Hector, Baron de Carondelet . 

M. Gayoso de Lemos (died in office) 

Francisco Bouligny, Jos6 M. Vidal, acting mili- 
tary and civil-political governors . . 1799 

Sebastian de Casa Calvo de la Puerta, Marquis 

de Casa Calvo 1799-1801 

Juan M. de Salcedo 1801-1803 

French Domination 1800-1803.* 

Laussat, Colonial Prefect . . 30 Nov.-2O Dec. 1803 
American Domination since 1803. 

Territorial Period. 

William C. C. Claiborne (appointed 1803) . 1804-1812 

Statehood Period. 

William C. C. Claiborne, Democratic Republican 1812-1816 

Jacques Viller6, Democratic Republican . . 1816-1820 
Thomas B. Robertson, Democratic Republican 

(resigned) 1820-1822 

Henry S. Thibodaux, Democratic Republican 

(acting) 1822-1824 

Henry S. Johnson, Democratic Republican . 1824-1828 
Pierre Derbigny, Democratic Republican (died 

in office) 1828-1829 

Armand Beauvais and Jacques Dupr6 (acting) 1829-1831 

Andre B. Roman, Whig 1831-1835 

Edward D. White, Whig 1835-1839 

Andre B. Roman, Whig 1839-1843 

Alfred Mouton, Whig 1843-1846 

Isaac Johnson, Democrat 1846-1850 

Joseph Walker, Democrat 1850-1853 

Paul O. Hubert, Democrat 1853-1856 

Robert C. Wickliffe, Democrat .... 1856-1860 

Thomas O. Moore, Democrat . . . . 1860-1862 

George F. Shepley, Military Governor . . 1862-1864 

Henry W. Allen, Confederate .... 1864-1865 

Michael Hahn, Unionist and Military . . 1864-1865 

James M. Wells, Democrat (acting). . . 1865-1867 

Benjamin F. Flanders, Military. . . . 1867 

Joshua Baker, Military 1867-1868 

Henry C. Warmoth, Republican . . 1868-1873 
Pinckney B. S. Pinchback, Republican (acting) 1873 
John McEnery,' Democrat-Liberal Republican 1873 
William P. Kellogg, Radical Republican . . 1873-1877 
Stephen B. Packard, 6 Radical Republican (con- 
testant) 1877 

Francis T. Nicholls, Democrat . . . . 1877-1880 

Louis A. Wiltz, Democrat (died in office) . 1880-1881 
Samuel D. McEnery, Democrat (Lieutenant- 

Governor, succeeded) 1881-1884 

Samuel D. McEnery, Democrat. . . . 1884-1888 

Francis T. Nicholls, Democrat . . . . 1888-1892 

Murphy J. Foster, Democrat .... 1892-1900 

William W. Heard, Democrat .... 1900-1904 

Newton C. Blanchard, Democrat . . . 1904-1008 

Jared Y. Sanders, 7 Democrat .... 1908 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Compare the bibliography under NEW ORLEANS 
and consult also the following. For general description : The Geology 

and Agriculture of Louisiana (Baton Rouge, Agric. Exper. Station, 
pts. 1-6, 1892-1902); also publications of U.S. Geological Survey, 

e.g. Water Supply and Irrigation Papers, No. 101, "Underground 
Waters of Southern Louisiana." For fauna and flora: publications 
of U.S. Biological Survey (Department of Agriculture, Biblio- 
graphies). For climate: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Climate 
and Crop Service, Louisiana series (monthly). For soil and agri- 

1 Did not openly assume power or supersede Aubry. 
1 Captain-general charged to establish order and settle Unzaga as 

* At first, till 1779, only acting governor. 

4 Actual exercise of power 20 days. 

5 Counted out by partisan returning-board and not recognized by 
U.S. government. 

Not recognized by U.S. government. 

7 Elected U.S. Senator 1910; accepted, but afterward withdrew. 

culture: the above state geological report and material on irrigation 
in publications of the U.S. Geological Survey and in the U.S. Census 
publications; also Commissioners of Agriculture of the State of 
Louisiana, Annual Report (Baton Rouge, biennial until 1899); 
State Agricultural Society, Proceedings (annual); Louisiana State 
University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, Bulletin of the 
Agricultural Experiment Station and Biennial Report of same (Baton 
Rouge); U.S. Department of Agriculture, various publications of 
the divisions of botany, agrostology, pomology, forestry, farmers' 
bulletins, &c. For manufactures and other industries: primarily the 
publications of the national Census, 1900, and preceding decades. 
For commerce and communications: Railroad Commissioners of 
Louisiana, Annual Report (New Orleans, 1900 ff.); U.S. Interstate 
Commerce Commission, Statistics of Railways (annual, Washington) ; 
on river navigation and river improvements, especially of the 
Mississippi, an enormous mass of material in the Annual Reports of 
the Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army (consult Index to Reports of same, 
1866-1900, 3 vols., Washington, 1902, and cp. article on MISSISSIPPI 
RIVER) ; on river commerce see U.S. Census of 1880, vol. 4 (report 
on steam navigation of the United States by T. C. Purdy), and 
Census of 1800 (report on transportation by T. J. Vivian; Rivers 
of the Mississippi Valley). For population: various national cen- 
suses and Bulletins of the Bureau of Census, 1900, e.g. No. 8, " Negroes 
in the United States " ; on the Acadians, In Acadia, The Acadians in 
Song and Story (New Orleans, 1893; compiled by M. A. Johnston). 
For pictures of Creole life and traits, George W. Cable, The Creoles 
of Louisiana (New York, 1884), and his later writings; but Mr 
Cable's views of the Creoles are very unpopular in Louisiana; for 
other views of them, and for a guide to the English and Creole litera- 
ture of Louisiana, consult Alcee Fortier, Louisiana Studies Litera- 
ture, Customs and Dialects, History and Education (New Orleans, 
1894). For administration: see reports of the various executive 
officers of the state (Baton Rouge) ; the various constitutions are 
printed in the report of the Secretary of State, as well as in B. Perley 
Poore's Constitutions (2 vols., Washington, 1877); a special account 
of the government of the territorial period may be found in D. Y. 
Thomas, History of Military Government in Newly Acquired Territory 
of the United States (Columbia University Studies in History, Econo- 
mics and Public Law, vol. xx. No. 2, 1904); for the Civil War and 
Reconstruction period compare below, also American Historical 
Association, Annual Report, 1892; (for courts during Civil War); 
also John R. Ficklen, History and Civil Government of Louisiana 
(Chicago, New York, c. 1899), a brief and popular account; on 
education, in addition to the Biennial Reports of the Board of 
Education, consult annual reports of the U.S. Commissioner of 

For history : the standard work is that of Charles E. A. Gayarre, 
coming down to the war, based on deep and scholarly research, and 
greatly altered in successive editions. The style is that of the classic 
school, that of Prescott and Motley, full of colour, characterization 
and spirit. The editions are as follows: Romance of the History of 
Louisiana (New York, 1837, 1848); Histoire de la Louisiane (2 vols., 
Nouvelle Orleans, 1846-1847); Louisiana: its Colonial History and 
Romance (N.Y., 1851); Louisiana: its History as a French Colony, 
Third Series of Lectures (N.Y., 1852); then, based upon the preced- 
ing, History of Louisiana: The French Domination (2 vols., N.Y.. 
1854) and The Spanish Domination (N.Y., 1854); The American 
Domination (N. Y., 1867); and third edition (4 vols., New Orleans, 
1 885). More important for the recent period is Alcee Fortier, AHistory 
of Louisiana (N.Y., 4 vols., 1904) devoting two volumes to American 
domination. The History and General Description of New France 
of P. F. X. de Charlevoix (best ed. by J. G. Shea, New York, 1866, 
6 vols.) is a famous old work, but now negligible. Judge F. X. 
Martin's History of Louisiana (2 vols., New Orleans, 1827-1829, 
later ed. by J. F. Condon, continued to 1861, New Orleans, 1882) 
is also valuable and supplements Gayarr6. Le Page du Pratz, 
author of Histoire de la Louisiane (3 vols., Paris, 1758; 2 vols., 
London, 1763), was the first historian of Louisiana. Berquin- 
Duvallon, Vue de la colonie espagnole du Mississippi (Paris, 1805; 
published in English under the name of John Davis, New \ork, 
1806); L. N. Baudry de Lozieres, Voyage a la Louisiane (Paris, 
1802) and Second Voyage a la Louisiane (Paris, 1803) may be 
mentioned among the travels just preceding, and A. Stoddard, 
Sketches of Louisiana (New York, 181 1), among those just following 
the establishment of American dominion. The Histoire de la 
Louisiane, et de la cession de colonie par la France aux Etats-Unis 
(Paris, 1829; in English, Philadelphia, 1830) by Barbe-Marbois 
has great importance in diplomatic history. The rarest and most 
valuable of early memoirs and much archive material are embodied 
in Benj. F. French's Historical Collections of Louisiana (5 series, N.Y., 
1846-1853) and Historical Collections of Louisiana and Florida, 
New Series (N.Y., 1869, 1875). Documentary materials on the 
greater " Louisiana " between the Gulf of Mexico and Canada will 
be found in the Jesuit Relations, edited by R. G. Thwaites (Cleveland, 
1896 ff.); and on early voyages in Pierre Margry, Decouvertes et 
etablissements des Francais (6 vols., Paris, 1870-1888). John G. 
Shea published an edition of Louis Hennepin's Description of Louisi- 
ana. . . . Translated from the Edition of 1683, &c. (New York, 1880). 
On this greater "Louisiana" the student should also consult_the 
works of Francis Parkman. And see publications of the Louisiana 


Historical Society (New Orleans). Of brief general histories there is 
that of J. R. Ficklen above cited, another by the same author in 
collaboration with Grace King (New Orleans, 1902) and another 
(more valuable) by Albert Phelps (Boston, 1905), in the American 
Commonwealth Series. For the Reconstruction period see biblio- 
graphy under UNITED STATES. 

LOUISIANA, a city of Pike county, Missouri, U.S.A., situated 
below the mouth of the Salt river, on the western bank of the 
Mississippi, about 90 m. N. of St. Louis. Pop. (1900) 5131, in- 
cluding 1075 negroes and 161 foreign-born; (1910) 4454; there 
is also a considerable suburban population. Louisiana is served 
by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy and the Chicago & Alton 
railways, and by several lines of river steamboats. The river is 
spanned here by a railway bridge. The city is laid out fairly 
regularly in the river valley and on bluffs along the river, and 
has attractive residential districts, commanding good views. 
It has very active and varied industries, and is a trade centre 
for a large grain- and fruit-producing and stock-raising region, 
and has one of the largest nurseries in the United States. 
Louisiana was laid out in 1818, was the county-seat from that 
date until 1825, was incorporated as a town in 1845 and was 
chartered as a city in 1849. 

LOUISIANA PURCHASE, a large portion of the area of the 
United States of America, purchased from the French Republic 
in 1803. The territory to which France held explorer's title 
originally included the entire valley of the Mississippi (see 
LOUISIANA) ; but the " Louisiana " which was ceded by her to 
Spain in 1762 (England refusing it, preferring the Floridas), 
retroceded to France in iSoo, 1 and ceded by Napoleon to the 
United States in violation of his pledge to Spain that he would 
not alienate the province embraced only the portion W. of 
the river and the island of New Orleans on the E. (and, as might 
be claimed with some show of argument, West Florida to the 
Perdido river). 

With the settlement of the trans- Alleghany region, the freedom 
of the Mississippi had become of vital importance to the western 
settlements, and Spain had recognized these interests in her 
treaty with the United States of 1795, by guaranteeing freedom 
of navigation and the privilege of deposit at New Orleans. 
The transfer of Louisiana from a weak neighbour to so powerful 
and ambitious a state as France was naturally unwelcome to the 
United States, and Robert R. Livingston, the American minister 
in Paris, was instructed by Secretary-of-State Madison to 
endeavour to prevent the consummation of the retrocession; 
or, should that be irrevocable, to endeavour to buy the Floridas 
(either from France, if they had passed with Louisiana, or through 
her goodwill from Spain) or at least West Florida and if 
possible New Orleans, so as to give the United States a secure 
position on the Mississippi, and insure the safety of her commerce. 
The United States was also trying to collect claims of her 
merchants for spoliations by French cruisers during the late 
war between France and Great Britain. In his preliminary 
propositions Livingston lightly suggested to Talleyrand a cession 
of Louisiana to satisfy these claims; following it with the 
more serious demand that France should pledge observance of 
the Spanish concession to the Mississippi trade. This pledge 
Napoleon readily gave. But during these negotiations a sus- 
pension by the Spanish governor of the right of deposit aroused 
extreme apprehension in America and resulted in warlike votes 
in Congress. Of these, and of London reports of a British 
expedition against New Orleans preparing in anticipation of the 
imminent rupture of the peace of Amiens, Livingston made 
most capable use; and pressed for a cession of West Florida, 
New Orleans and Louisiana north of the Arkansas river. But 
without New Orleans Louisiana was of little present worth, and 
Napoleon the collapse of whose American colonial schemes 
seemed involved in his failure in Santo Domingo, who was 
persuaded he could not hold Louisiana against Great Britain, 
and who was already turning from projects of colonial empire 

1 By the treaty of San Ildefonso, signed the 1st of October 1800. 
This was never ratified by Charles IV. of Spain, but the treaty of 
Madrid of the aist of March 1801, which confirmed it, was signed 
by him on the isth of October 1802. 

toward his later continental policy suddenly offered to Living- 
ston the whole of the province. Livingston disclaimed wanting 
the part below the Arkansas. In even mentioning Louisiana he 
had gone outside his instructions. At this stage James Monroe 
became associated with him in the negotiations. They were 
quickly closed, Barbe Marbois acting for Napoleon, and by 
three conventions signed on the 3<Dth of April 1803 the American 
ministers, without instructions, boldly accepted for their country 
a territory approximately 1,000,000 sq. m. in area about five 
times the area of continental France. For this imperial domain, 
perhaps the richest agricultural region of the world, the United 
States paid 60,000,000 francs ($11,250,000) outright, and 
assumed the claims of her citizens against France to the extent 
of 20,000,000 francs ($3,750,000) additional; the interest 
payments incidental to the final settlement raising the total 
eventually to $27,267,622, or about four cents an acre. 

Different writers have emphasized differently the various 
factors in this extraordinary diplomatic episode. Unquestion- 
ably the western people were ready to war for the navigation 
of the Mississippi; but, that being guaranteed, it seems certain 
that France might peaceably have taken and held the western 
shore. The acquisition was not a triumph of American diplomacy, 
but a piece of marvellous diplomatic good fortune; for the 
records abundantly prove, as Madison said, that the cause of 
success was a sudden policy of Napoleon, forced by European con- 
tingencies. Livingston alone of the public men concerned showed 
indubitably before the event a conception of the feasibility 
and desirability of the acquisition of a vast territory beyond 
the Mississippi. Jefferson had wished to buy the Floridas, 
but alarmed by the magnitude of the cession, declared his 
belief that the United States had no power to acquire Louisiana. 
Though such strict construction of the constitution was a 
cardinal dogma of the Democratic party, this dogma was 
abandoned outright in practice, Jefferson finding " but one 
opinion as to the necessity of shutting up the constitution " 
(or amending it, which was not done) and seeking justification 
of the means in the end. The Federalist party, heretofore 
broad-constructionists, became strict-constructionists under 
the temptation of factious politics, and a very notable political 
struggle was thus precipitated notable among other things for 
strong expressions of sectionalism. The net result was the 
establishment of the doctrine of " implied powers " in interpret- 
ing the constitution; a doctrine under which the Supreme 
Court presently found power to acquire territory implied in the 
powers to wage war and make peace, negotiate treaties, and 
" dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting 
the territory or other property belonging to the United States." 

The exact limits of the acquisition were not definitely drawn. 
The French archives show that Napoleon regarded the Rio 
Grande as the W. boundary of the territory of which he was 
to take possession, and the United States up to 1819 ably 
maintained the same claim. She also claimed all West Florida 
as part of Louisiana which, in the usage of the second half 
of the i8th century, it apparently was not. When she acquired 
the Floridas in 1810-1821 she abandoned the claim to Texas. 
The line then adopted between the American and Spanish 
possessions on the W. followed the Sabine river from the Gulf 
of Mexico to the parallel of 32 N., ran thence due N. to the 
Red river, followed this to the meridian of 100 W. and this 
line N. to the Arkansas river, thence along this to its source, 
thence N. to the parallel of 42, and along this line to the Pacific. 
Such is the accepted description of the W. boundary of the 
Louisiana Purchase waiving Texas thus retrospectively deter- 
mined, except that that boundary ran with the crest of the Rocky 
Mountains N. of its intersection with the parallel of 42. No 
portion of the Purchase lay west of the mountains, although for 
some years after 1870 the official maps of the United States 
government erroneously included Oregon as so acquired an 
error finally abandoned by 1900. 

On the 2oth of December 1803, at New Orleans, the United 
States took possession of the lower part of the province, and 
on the gth of March 1804, at St Louis, of the upper. The entire 


region then contained possibly 80,000 residents. The treaty of 
cession required the incorporation of Louisiana in the Union, and 
the admission of its inhabitants, " as soon as possible, according 
to the principles of the Federal Constitution, to the enjoyment 
of all the rights, advantages and immunities of citizens of the 
United States." By act of the 26th of March 1804 the region 
below 33 N. was organized as the Territory of Orleans (see 
LOUISIANA), and that above as the District of Louisiana. The 
region above 33, renamed in 1805 the Territory of Louisiana, 
and in 1812 the Territory of Missouri, was divided as time went 
on into many Indian reservations, territories and states. Thus 
were carved from the great domain of the Purchase Louisiana, 
Missouri, Arkansas, Iowa, Minnesota, North and South Dakota, 
Nebraska and Oklahoma in their entirety, and much the greatest 
part of Kansas, Colorado, Wyoming and Montana. There is 
justification for the saying of Thiers that the United States 
were " indebted for their birth and for their greatness " at least 
for an early assurance of greatness " to the long struggle 
between France and England." The acquisition of so vast a 
territory proved thus of immense influence in the history of the 
United States. It made it possible for them to hold a more 
independent and more dignified position between France and 
England during the Napoleonic wars; it established for ever 
in practice the doctrine of implied powers in the interpretation 
of the Federal Constitution; it gave the new republic a grand 
basis for material greatness; assured its dominance in North 
America; afforded the field for a magnificent experiment in 
expansion, and new doctrines of colonization; fed the national 
land hunger; incidentally moulded the slavery issue; and 
precipitated its final solution. 

It is generally agreed that after the Revolution and the Civil 
War, the Louisiana Purchase is the greatest fact in American 
history. In 1904 a world's fair, the Louisiana Purchase Exposi- 
tion, was held at St Louis in commemoration of the cession. 
After one hundred years the wilderness then acquired had 
become the centre of the power and wealth of the Union. It 
contained in 1903 15,000,000 inhabitants, and its taxable wealth 
alone was four hundred times the fifteen millions given to 

AUTHORITIES. The official literature is in the American State 
Papers, Foreign Relations, vol. 2, and Public Lands, vol. 2; diplo- 
matic papers reprinted in House Document 431, 5?th Congress, 2nd 
Session (1903); to which add the Histoire de la Louisiane et de la 
cession (Paris, 1820; Eng. trans., Philadelphia, 1830), by Frangois 
Barbe-Marbois. This book abounds in supposed " speeches ' of 
Napoleon, and " sayings " by Napoleon and Livingston that would 
have been highly prophetic in 1803, though no longer so in 1829. 
They have been used liberally and indiscnminatingly by the most 
prominent American historians. See also T. Donaldson, The Public 
Domain, House Miscellaneous Document 45, pt. 4, 47th Congress, 
2nd Session. For the boundary discussions by J. Q. Adams and 
Don L. de Onis, 1818-1819, American State Papers, Foreign Relations, 
vol. 4; also in Onis's Official Correspondence between Don Luis de 
Onis . . . and John Quincy Adams, &c. (London, 1818), or Memoria 
sobre las negociaciones entre Espana y los Estados Unidos que dieron 
motive al tratado de 1819 (Madrid, 1820). See also discussion and 
map in U.S. Census, /poo. Bulletin 74; and the letters of Thomas 
Jefferson, James Madison, Rufus King and other statesmen of the 
time. By far the best general account of the diplomacy is in Henry 
Adams's History of the United States, vols. I and 2 ; and of Western 
conditions and American sentiment in J. B. McMaster's History of 
the United States, vols. 2 and 3. Consult also Justin Winsor, Narra- 
tive and Critical History, vol. 7; and various valuable periodical 
articles, especially in the American Historical Review, by F. I. 
Turner and others. Reference may be made to B. Hermann, The 
Louisiana Purchase (Washington, 1898), and Theodore Roosevelt's 
Winning of the West, vol. 4. Of the various special but popular 
accounts (by J. K. Hosmer, Ripley Hitchcock, R. Blanchard, K. E. 
Winship, &c.), not one is worthy of its subject, and all contain various 

LOUISVILLE, the largest city of Kentucky, U.S.A., and the 
county-seat of Jefferson county, on the Ohio river, no m. by 
rail and 130 m. by water S.W. of Cincinnati. Pop. (1890) 161,129; 
(1900) 204,731, of whom 21,427 were foreign-born (including 
12,383 Germans and 4198 Irish) and 39,139 were negroes; 
(1910 census) 223,928. 

Louisville occupies 40 sq. m. of a plain, about 70 sq. m. in 
extent, about 60 ft. above the low-water mark of the river, 

and nearly enclosed by hills. The city extends for 8 m. along the 
river (spanned here by three bridges), which falls 26 ft. in 2 m., 
but for 6 m. above the rapids spreads out into a beautiful sheet 
of quiet water about i m. wide. The streets intersect at right ' 
angles, are from 60 to 120 ft. wide, and are, for the most part, 
well-shaded. The wholesale district, with its great tobacco 
warehouses, is largely along Main Street, which runs E. and W. 
not far from the river; and the heart of the shopping district is 
along Fourth Street in the dozen blocks S. of Main Street. 
Adjoining the shopping district on the S. is the old residence 
section; the newer residences are on "The Highlands" at the 
E. end and also at the W. end. The city is served by the Balti- 
more & Ohio South-Western, the Chesapeake & Ohio, the 
Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the Louisville, 
Henderson & St Louis, the Illinois Central, the Chicago, Indiana 
& Louisville, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, 
the Southern and the Louisville & Nashville railways; by steam- 
boat lines to Memphis, Cairo, Evansville, Cincinnati and Pitts- 
burg; by an extensive system of inter-urban electric lines; 
and by ferries to Jeffersonville and New Albany, Indiana, two 
attractive residential suburbs. 

Many of the business houses are old-fashioned and low. 
The principal public buildings are the United States government 
building, the Jefferson county court house and the city hall. 
In front of the court house stands a bronze statue of Thomas 
Jefferson, designed by Moses Ezekiel (b. 1844), and inside of the 
court house a marble statue of Henry Clay by Joel T. Hart (1810- 
1870). There are few or no large congested tenement-house 
districts; most of the wage-earners own their own homes or rent 
cottages. Louisville has an extensive park system, most of 
which was acquired after 1889 and is on the outskirts. From 
the heart of the city South Parkway, 150 ft. wide, extends S. 
6 m. to the entrance to Iroquois Park (670 acres) on a wooded bill. 
At the E. end of Broadway is Cherokee Park (nearly 330 acres), 
near which is the beautiful Cave Hill Cemetery, containing the 
grave of George Rogers Clark, the founder of the city, and the 
graves of several members of the family of George Keats, the 
poet's brother, who lived in Louisville for a time; and at the 
W. end of Broadway, Shawnee Park (about 170 acres), with a 
long sandy river beach frequented by bathers. Central Park 
occupies the space of two city squares in the old fashionable 
residence districts. Through the efforts of a Recreation League 
organized in 1901 a few playgrounds are set apart for children. 
Louisville is a noted racing centre and has some fine tracks; the 
Kentucky Derby is held here annually in May. 

The United States government has a marine hospital, and a 
life-saving station at the rapids of the river. The state has a 
school for the blind, in connexion with which is the American 
Printing House for the Blind. There are state hospitals and 
many other charitable institutions. 

The principal educational institutions are the university of 
Louisville, which has a College of Liberal Arts (1007), a law 
department (1847), and a medical department (1837) with 
which in 1907 were consolidated the Hospital College of Medicine 
(1873), the Medical Department of Kentucky University (1898), 
the Louisville Medical College (1869), and the Kentucky School 
of Medicine (1850); the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary 
(1859); the Presbyterian Theological Seminary of Kentucky, 
which was formed in 1901 by the consolidation of the Theological 
Seminary of the Presbyterian Church at Danville (1853) and 
the Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary (1893); the 
Louisville College of Pharmacy (1871), and the LouisvQle College 
of Dentistry (1887), a department of Central University. There 
are many musical clubs, and a spring festival for which a local 
chorus furnishes the nucleus, is held annually. The Louisville 
Public Library was established in 1902, and 1904 acquired the 
library, the small museum (containing the Troost collection of 
minerals) and the art gallery of the Polytechnic Society of Louis- 
ville (1878), which for many years had maintained the only public 
library in the city. The principal newspapers are the Courier 
Journal (Democratic, morning), the Herald (Republican, 
morning), the Evening Post (Independent Democratic), and the 


Times (Democratic, evening). The Courier Journal is one of the 
most influential newspapers in the South. Henry Watterson 
became editor in 1868, when the Courier (1843), established and 
owned by Walter N. Haldeman, was consolidated with the 
Journal (1830), of which Watterson had become editor in 1867, 
and with the Democrat (1844). 

The richness of the surrounding country in agricultural produce, 
timber, coal and iron, and its transport facilities have made Louis- 
ville a large commercial and manufacturing centre. The leaf- 
tobacco market is the largest in the world, most of the leaf-tobacco 
produced in Kentucky, which in 1900 was 34-9% of the entire crop 
of the United States, being handled in Louisville; the city's trade 
in whisky, mules and cement * is notably large, and that in pork, 
wheat, Indian corn, coal and lumber is extensive. The total value 
of the manutactured products increased from $54,515,226 in 1890 
to $78,746,390 in 1900 or 44-4%, and between 1900 and 1905 the 
value of the factory-made product increased from $66,110,474 to 
$83,204,125, an increase of 25-9%. Large quantities of fine 
bourbon whisky are distilled here; in 1905 the value of the factory 
product of the city was $3,878,004. The most valuable manu- 
facture in the same year was smoking and chewing tobacco (especi- 
ally plug tobacco) and snuff valued at $11,635,367 which product 
with that of cigars and cigarettes ($1,225,347) constituted 15-5% 
of the value of the factory products of the city. Other important 
manufactures in 1905 were: packed meats, particularly pork; 
men's clothing, especially " Kentucky jeans"; flour and grist mill 
products; cotton-seed oil and cake; leather, especially sole leather; 
foundry and machine shop products; steam-railway cars; cooper- 
age; malt liquors; carriages and wagons, especially farm wagons; 
and carriage and wagon materials; agricultural implements, 
especially ploughs; and plumbers' supplies, including cast-iron gas 
and water pipes. Besides, there were many other manufactures. 

The city's water-supply is taken from the Ohio river a few miles 
above the city limits, and purified by large filtering plants. Nearly 
all the capital stock of the water-works company is owned by the 

Louisville is governed under a charter of 1893, which is in the form 
of an act of the state legislature for the government of cities of the 
first class (Louisville is the only city of the first class in the state). 
The mayor is elected for four years, and appoints, subject to the 
approval of the board of aldermen, the controller and the members 
of the two principal executive boards the board of public works 
and the board of public safety. The legislative power is vested in 
a general council composed of 12 aldermen and 24 councilmen. 
Both aldermen and councilmen serve without pay, and are elected 
on a general ticket for a term of two years; not more than two 
councilmen may be residents of the same ward, but there is no such 
limitation in regard to aldermen. The treasurer, tax-receiver, 
auditor, judge of the police court, clerk of the police court, members 
of the board of school trustees (l from each legislative district) 
and members of the park commission are elected by popular vote; 
the assessor, by the general council. The duration of franchises 
given by the city is limited to 20 years. 

History. The site of the city was probably visited by La Salle 
in 1669 or 1670. In July 1773, Captain Thomas Bullitt, 2 acting 
under a commission from the College of William and Mary, 
surveyed a tract of 2000 acres, lying opposite the Falls of the 
Ohio, and laid out a town site upon this tract. Colonel William 
Preston, county surveyor of Fincastle county, within which the 
2ooo-acre tract lay, refused to approve Captain Bullitt's survey, 
and had the lands resurveyed in the following year, nevertheless 
the tract was conveyed in December 1773 by Lord Dunmore 
to his friend Dr John Connolly, a native of Lancaster county, 
Pennsylvania, who had served in the British army, as com- 
mander of Fort Pitt (under Dunmore's appointment), was an 
instigator of Indian troubles which culminated in the Battle of 
Point Pleasant, and was imprisoned from 1775 until nearly the 
close of the War of American Independence for attempting under 
Dunmore's instructions to organize the " Loyal Foresters," who 

1 Louisville cement, one of the best-known varieties of natural 
cement, was first manufactured in Shipping Port, a suburb of Louis- 
ville, in 1829 for the construction of the Louisville & Portland 
Canal ; the name is now applied to all cement made in the Louisville 
District in Kentucky and Indiana. There is a large Portland 
cement factory just outside the, city. 

'Captain Thomas Bullitt (1730-1778), a Virginian, commanded 
a company under Washington at Great Meadows (July 4, 1754), 
was in Braddock's disastrous expedition in 1755, and after the defeat 
of Major James Grant in 1758 saved his disorganized army by a 
cleverly planned attack upon the pursuers. He became Adjutant- 
General of Virginia after the peace of 1763, and took part in the 
movements which forced Lord Dunmore to leave Norfolk. Subse- 
quently he served in South Carolina under Colonel Lee. 

were to be sent against the rebellious colonists in the West. The 
city of Louisville was laid out on the upper half of this Connolly 
tract. It is possible that there was a settlement on what was 
afterward called Corn Island (which has now practically dis- 
appeared), at the Falls of the Ohio, as early as 1775; in May 
1778, General George Rogers Clark, while proceeding, by way 
of the Ohio river, against the British posts in the Illinois terri- 
tory, landed on this island and built block-houses for his stores 
and cabins for about twenty families of emigrants who had 
come with him. These emigrants (or the greater part of them) 
removed to the mainland in the winter of 1778-1779, and estab- 
lished themselves in a fort built within the present limits of Louis- 
ville. A town government was organized by them in April 1779, 
the settlement at this time being known as " the Falls of the 
Ohio." On the i4th of May 1780, the legislature of Virginia, in 
response to a petition of the inhabitants, declared that Connolly 
had forfeited his title, and incorporated the settlement under 
the name of Louisville, in recognition of the assistance given to 
the colonies in the War of Independence by Louis XVI. of France. 
In 1828 Louisville was chartered as a city; in 1851 it received a 
second city charter; in 1870, a third; and in 1893, a fourth. 
The city's growth was greatly promoted by the introduction of 
successful steam navigation on the Ohio in 1811 and still further 
by the opening of the canal around the rapids (generally called 
the " Falls of the Ohio "). This canal, which is 2\ m. in length 
and is known as the Louisville and Portland canal, was author- 
ized by the legislature in 1825 and was opened in December 1830; 
between 1855 and 1872 Congress made appropriations for 
enlarging it, and in 1874 it passed entirely under Federal 
control. The first railway to serve the city, the Louisville 
& Frankfort, was completed in 1851. The 6th of August is 
locally known as " Bloody Monday "; on this day in 1855 some 
members of the Know Nothing Party incited a riot that resulted 
in the loss of several lives and of considerable property. In 
March 1890 a tornado caused great loss in life and property in 
the city. General Clark made his home in Louisville and the 
vicinity after his return from the Illinois country in 1779. 
Louisville was also the early home of the actress Mary Anderson; 
John James Audubon lived here in 1808-1812; and 5 m. E. of 
the city are the old home and the grave (with a monument) of 
Zachary Taylor. 

See Reuben T. Durrett, The Centenary of Louisville (Louisville, 
1893), being No. 8 of the Filson Club Publications; J. S. Johnston 
(ed.), Memorial History of Louisville (Chicago, 1896) ; and L. V. 
Rule, " Louisville, the Gateway City to the South," in L. P. Powell's 
Historic Towns of the Southern States (New York, 1900). 

LOUL, a town of southern Portugal, in the district of Faro 
(formerly the province of Algarve); beautifully situated in an 
inland hilly district, 10 m N.N.W. of the seaport of Faro and 
5 m. from Sao Joao da Venda on the Lisbon-Faro railway. 
Pop. (1900) 22,478. Apart from Lisbon, Oporto and Braga, 
Louie is the most populous town in the kingdom. It is sur- 
rounded by walls and towers dating from the Moorish period. 
The neighbouring church of Nossa Senhora da Piedade is a 
favourite resort of pilgrims. Basket-making is the principal 
industry; leather, porcelain and various products of the palm, 
agave and esparto grass are also manufactured. 

LOURDES, a town of south-western France in the department 
of Hautes- Pyrenees, at the foot of the Pyrenees, 12 m. S.S.W. 
of Tarbes on the main line of the Southern railway between- that 
town and Pau. Pop. (1906) 7228. Lourdes is divided into an 
old and a new town by the Gave de Pau, which at this point 
leaves the valley of Argeles and turns abruptly to the west. The 
old quarter on the right bank surrounds on three sides a scarped 
rock, on which stands the fortress now used as a prison. Its large 
square keep of the i4th century is the chief survival of feudal 
times. Little is left of the old fortifications except a tower of 
the I3th or i4th century, surmounting a gateway known as the 
Tour de Garnabie. The old quarter is united with the new town 
by a bridge which is continued in an esplanade leading to the 
basilica, the church of the Rosary and the Grotto, with its spring 
of healing water. The present fame of Lourdes is entirely 
associated with this grotto, where the Virgin Mary is believed 


in the Roman Catholic world to have revealed herself repeatedly 
to a peasant girl named Bernadette Soubirous in 1858. A statue 
of the Virgin stands on a rock projecting above the grotto, the 
walls of which are covered with crutches and other votive offer- 
ings; the spot, which is resorted to by multitudes of pilgrims 
from all quarters of the world, is marked by a basilica built above 
the grotto and consecrated in 1876. In addition the church of 
the Rosary, a rich building in the Byzantine style, was erected 
in front of and below the basilica from 1884 to 1889. Not far 
from the grotto are several other caves, where prehistoric 
remains have been found. The Hospice de Notre-Dame de 
Douleurs is the chief of the many establishments provided for 
the accommodation of pilgrims. 

Lourdes is a fortified place of the second class; and is the seat 
of the tribunal of first instance of the arrondissement of Argeles. 
There are marble and slate quarries near the town. The pastures 
of the neighbourhood support a breed of Aquitaine cattle, which is 
most highly valued in south-western France. 

The origin of Lourdes is uncertain. From the gth century 
onwards it was the most important place in Bigorre, largely 
owing to the fortress which is intimately connected with its 
history. In 1360 it passed by the treaty of Bretigny from 
French to English hands, and its governor was murdered by 
Gaston Phoebus viscount of Beam, for refusing to surrender it 
to the count of Anjou. Nevertheless the fortress did not fall 
into the possession of the French till 1406 after a blockade of 
eighteen months. Again during the wars of religion the castle 
held out successfully after the town had been occupied by the 
troops of the Protestant captain Gabriel, count of Montgomery. 
From the reign of Louis XIV. to the beginning of the igth 
century the castle was used as a state prison. Since the visions 
of Bernadette Soubirous, their authentication by a commission of 
enquiry appointed by the bishop of Tarbes, and the authorization 
by the pope of the cult of Our Lady of Lourdes, the quarter on 
the left bank of the Gave has sprung up and it is estimated that 
600,000 pilgrims annually visit the town. The chief of the 
pilgrimages, known as the national pilgrimage, takes place in 

Several religious communities have been named after Our 
Lady of Lourdes. Of these one, consisting of sisters of the third 
order of St Francis, called the Congregation of Our Lady of 
Lourdes (founded 1877), has its headquarters in Rochester, 
Minnesota. Another, the Order of Our Lady of Lourdes, was 
founded in 1883 for work in the archdiocese of New Orleans. 

See G. Mares, Lourdes et ses environs (Bordeaux, 1894) ; Fourcade, 
L' Apparition de la grotte de Lourdes (Paris, 1862) and L' Apparition 
. . . consideree au point de vue de I' art Chretien (Bordeaux, 1862); 
Boissarie, Lourdes, histoire medicale (Paris, 1891); Bertrin, Hist. 
critique des tenements de Lourdes (2nd ed., Paris, 1905), written 
under authority of the bishop of Tarbes; H. Lasserre, Miraculous 
Episodes of Lourdes (London, 1884, tr.); R. F. Clarke, Lourdes and 
its Miracles (ib., 1889) and Medical Testimony to the Miracles (ib., 
1892); D. Barbe 1 , Lourdes hier, aujourd'hui, demain (Paris, 1893; 
Eng. trans, by A. Meynell, London, 1894); J. R. Gasquet, The Cures 
at Lourdes (London, 1895); Les Pelerinages de Lourdes. Cantiques, 
insignes, costumes (Lourdes, 1897); W. Leschner, The Origin of 
Lourdes (London, loop). Zola's Lourdes (Paris, 1894), a criticism 
from the sceptical point of view, in the form of a realistic novel, 
has called forth many replies from the Catholic side. 

LOURENCO MARQUES, capital of Portuguese East Africa, 
or Mozambique, on the north bank of the Espirito Santo or 
English river, Delagoa Bay, and 396 m. by rail via Pretoria 
from Johannesburg. Pop. (1904) 9849, of whom 4691 were 
Europeans and 1690 Asiatics. The town is situated close to 
the mouth of the river in 25 53' S. and 32 30' E., and is built 
upon a low-lying spit of sand, formerly surrounded by swamps. 
The streets are regularly laid out and adorned by several fine 
buildings. The principal thoroughfare, the Avenida Aguiar, 
2 m. long goes from the centre of the town to Reuben Point. 
The harbour is well equipped with piers, quays, landing sheds 
and electric cranes, which enable large steamers to discharge 
cargoes direct into the railway trucks. The depth of water at 
low tide is 1 8 ft. The streets are lit by electricity and there is 
an electric tramway system 7 m. in extent. At Reuben Point, 
which marks the spot where the English river enters the bay, 

xvu. 3 

are the lighthouse, barracks and the private residences of the 
wealthy citizens. At its mouth the English river is about 
2 m. across. Lourenco Marques is the nearest seaport to the 
Rand gold mines. The port is 8374 m. from Southampton via 
Cape Town and 7565 m. via the Suez canal. It is served by 
British, Portuguese and German liners, the majority of the 
goods imported being shipped at Southampton, Lisbon or 
Hamburg. Over 50% of the import trade of Johannesburg 
is with Lourenoo Marques. Great Britain and British possessions 
take some 40% of the import trade, Portugal, Germany, Norway, 
Sweden and America coming next in order. Most of the imports, 
being forwarded to the Transvaal, figure also as exports. The 
chief articles of import are food-stuffs and liquors, iron, mineral 
oils, inks and dyes, timber and live stock. These all form part 
of the transit trade. There is practically no export trade by sea 
save in coal, which is brought chiefly from the collieries at 
Middelburg in the Transvaal. At Port Matolla, 20 m. from the 
town, on the river of that name, one of the feeders of the English 
river, is a flourishing timber trade. The average value of the 
total trade of Lourenco Marques for the five years 1897-1899 
and 1902-1903 (1900 and 1901 being years during which trade 
was disorganized by the Anglo-Boer War) was over 3,500,000. 
In 1905 the value of the trade of the port was 5,682,000; of 
this total the transit trade was worth over 4,500,000 and the 
imports for local consumption 1,042,000. The retail trade, and 
trade with the natives, is almost entirely in the hands of Indians. 
The chief import for local consumption is cheap wine from 
Portugal, bought by the Kaffirs to the extent of over 500,000 
yearly. These natives form the bulk of the Africans who work 
in the Rand gold mines. 

Lourenco Marques is named after a Portuguese navigator, 
who with a companion (Antonio Calderia) was sent in 1544 by 
the governor of Mozambique on a voyage of exploration. They 
explored the lower courses of the rivers emptying their waters 
into Delagoa Bay, notably the Espirito Santo. The various 
forts and trading stations which the Portuguese established, 
abandoned and reoccupied on the north bank of the river were 
all called Lourenco Marques. The existing town dates from 
about 1850, the previous settlement having been entirely de- 
stroyed by the natives. In 1871 the town was described as a poor 
place, with narrow streets, fairly good flat-roofed houses, 
grass huts, decayed forts and rusty cannon, enclosed by a wall 
6 ft. high then recently erected and protected by bastions at 
intervals. The growing importance of the Transvaal led, how- 
ever, to greater interest being taken in Portugal in the port. 
A commission was sent by the Portuguese government in 1876 
to drain the marshy land near the settlement, to plant the blue 
gum tree, and to build a hospital and a church. It was not, 
however, until the end of the igth century that any marked 
development took place in the town, and up to 1903 cargo had 
to be discharged in tugs and lighters. 

In 1873-1877 Mr Burgers, president of the Transvaal, en- 
deavoured, unsuccessfully, to get a railway built from Pretoria 
to Delagoa Bay. In 1878-1879 a survey was taken for a line 
from Lourenco Marques to the Transvaal, and in 1883 the Lisbon 
cabinet granted to Colonel Edward McMurdo, an American 
citizen, a concession which took the place of others which had 
lapsed for the building of a railway from Lourenco Marques 
to the Transvaal frontier, the Boer government having agreed 
(1883) to continue the line to Pretoria. Under this concession 
Colonel McMurdo formed in London in 1887 a company the 
Delagoa Bay and East African Railway Company to construct 
the line. Meantime a secret agreement had been come to 
between President Kruger and Portugal for the concession to 
the Transvaal of a "steam tramway" parallel to the projected 
railway, should the company not complete the line in the time 
specified. The company, however, built the line to the frontier 
shown on the Portuguese maps of 1883 within the time limit, 
the railway being opened on the I4th of December 1888. The 
frontier by this date had been fixed at Komati Poort, 5 m. 
farther from the coast. Portugal had previously agreed to grant 
the company " a reasonable extension of time " to complete 



the line if the frontier should be traced farther inland than shown 
on the 1883 maps. The Lisbon government required the exten- 
sion to Komati Poort to be completed in eight months (five of 
which were in the rainy season), an impossible stipulation. The 
railway not being finished, the Portuguese seized the line on the 
25th of June 1889 and cancelled the concession. Portugal in 
so doing acted, to all appearance, under pressure from the 
Transvaal. Great Britain and America at once protested, 
Portugal admitted the illegality of her act and consented to 
refer the amount of compensation to the decision of three Swiss 
jurists. This was in 1890, when Portugal paid 28,000 on 
account. It was not until the 29th of March 1900 that the award 
was made known. The arbitrators ordered Portugal to pay 
in addition to the 28,000 a sum, including interest, of 950,000. 
The damages were promptly paid. Meantime the railway had 
been continued from Komati Poort and was opened for through 
traffic to Pretoria on the 8th of July 1895. In 1906-1910 
another railway (47 m. long) was built from Lourenfo Maiques 
due west to the Swaziland frontier, being a link in a new line 
to shorten the distance by rail between the Rand and the sea 
by some 60 m. 

See also DELAGOA BAY and the authorities there cited. The text 
of the railway arbitration award was published in French at Berne 
in 1900. Annual reports on the trade of Lourenco Marques are issued 
by the British Foreign Office. 

LOUSE (O. Eng. lAs, cf. Du. Ms, Ger. Laus, Dan. and Swed. 
lus), a term applied to small wingless insects, parasitic upon 
birds and mammals, and belonging strictly speaking to the order 
Anoplura, often included among the Hemiptera, though the term 
is frequently extended to the bird-lice constituting the sub- 
order Mallophaga, formerly included among the Neuroptera. 
Both agree in having nothing that can be termed a metamor- 
phosis; they are active from the time of their exit from the 
egg to their death, gradually increasing in size, and undergoing 
several moults or changes of skin. The true lice (or Anoplura) 
are found on the bodies of many Mammalia, and occasion by 
their presence intolerable irritation. The number of genera 
is few. Two species of Pediculus are found on the human body, 
and are known ordinarily as the head-louse (P. capitis) and the 
body-louse (P. vestimenti); P. capitis is found on the head, 
especially of children. The eggs, laid on the hairs, and known 
as " nits," hatch in about eight days, and the lice are full grown 
in about a month. Such is their fecundity that it has been 
asserted that one female (probably of P. vestimenti) may in 
eight weeks produce five thousand descendants. Want of 
cleanliness favours their multiplication in a high degree the 
idea once existed, and is probably still held by the very ignorant, 
that they are directly engendered from dirt. The irritation is 
caused by the rostrum of the insect being inserted into the skin, 
from which the blood is rapidly pumped up. A third human 
louse, known as the crab-louse (Phthirius pubis) is found amongst 
the hairs on other parts of the body, particularly those of the 
pubic region, but probably never on the head. The louse of 
monkeys is now generally considered as forming a separate 
genus (Pedicinus), but the greater part of those infesting domestic 
and wild quadrupeds are mostly grouped in the large genus 
Haematopinus, and very rarely is the same species found on 
different kinds of animals. 

The bird-lice (Mallophaga) are far more numerous in species, 
although the number of genera is comparatively small. With 
the exception of the genus Trichodectes, the various species of 
which are found on mammalia, all infest birds (as their English 
names implies) (see BIRD-LOUSE). Louse-infestation is known 
as phthiriasis in medical and veterinary terminology. 

AUTHORITIES. The following works are the most important: 
Denny, Monographia Anoplurorum Britanniae (London, 1843); 
Giebel, Insecta Epizoa (which contains the working-up of Nitzsch's 
posthumous materials; Leipzig, 1874); van Beneden, Animal 
Parasites (London, 1876); Piaget, Les Ptdiculines (Leiden, 1880); 
Mgnin, Les Parasites et les maladies parasitaires (Paris, 1880); 
Neumann, Parasites and Parasitic Diseases of Domesticated Animals 
(1892); Osborn, Pediculi and Mallophaga affecting Man and the 
Lower Animals (Washington, 1891 ; U.S. Dept. Agr.) ; Enderlein, 
" Lause-Studien," Zoo/. Anz. xxviii. (1904). 

LOUTH, a maritime county in the province of Leinster, Ireland, 
bounded N.E. by Carlingford Bay and Co. Down, E. by the 
Irish Sea, S.W. by Meath, and N.W. by Monaghan and Armagh. 
It is the smallest county in Ireland, its area being 202,731 acres 
or about 3 1 7 sq. m. The greater part of the surface is undulating, 
with occasionally lofty hills; in the north-east, on the borders 
of Carlingford Lough, there is a mountain range approaching 
2000 ft. in height. Many of the hills are finely wooded, and 
.towards the sea the scenery, in the more elevated districts, is 
strikingly picturesque. With the exception of the promontory 
of Clogher Head, which rises abruptly to a height of 180 ft., 
the coast is for the most part low and sandy. The narrow and 
picturesque Carlingford Lough is navigable beyond the limits 
of the county, and Carlingford and Greenore are well-known 
watering-places on the county Louth shore. The Bay of Dundalk 
stretches to the town of that name and affords convenient shelter. 
The principal rivers, the Fane, the Lagan, the Clyde and the Dee, 
flow eastwards. None of these is navigable, but ,the Boyne, 
which forms the southern boundary of the county, is navigable 
for large vessels as far as Drogheda. 

Almost all this county is occupied by an undulating lowland of 
much-folded Silurian shales and fine-grained sandstones; but 
Carboniferous Limestone overlies these rocks north and east of 
Dundalk. Dolerite and gabbro, in turn invaded by granite, have 
broken through the limestone north of Dundalk Bay, and form a 
striking and mountainous promontory. There is now no doubt 
that these rocks, with those on the adjacent moorland of Slieve 
Gullion, belong to the early Cainozoic igneous series, and may be 
compared with similar masses in the Isle of Skye. A raised beach 
provides a flat terrace at Greenore. Lead ore has been worked in 
the county, as in the adjacent parts of Armagh and Monaghan. 

In the lower regions the soil is a very rich deep mould, admirably 
adapted both for cereals and green crops. The higher mountain 
regions are covered principally with heath. Agriculture generally 
is in an advanced condition, and the farms are for the most part well 
drained. The acreage of tillage is but little below that of pasture. 
Oats, barley, flax, potatoes and turnips are all satisfactorily culti- 
vated. Cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry represent the bulk of the 
live stock. Linen manufactures are of some importance. The deep- 
sea and coast fishery has its headquarters at Dundalk, and the salmon 
fisheries at Dundalk (Castletown river) and Drogheda (river Boyne). 
These fisheries, together with oyster beds in Carlingford Lough, are 
of great value. The county is traversed from S. to N. by the Great 
Northern railway, with a branch westward from Dundalk ; while the 
same town is connected with the port of Greenore by a line owned 
by the London & North-Western railway of England. From 
Greenore the London & North-Western railway passenger steamers 
run regularly to Holyhead. The town of Ardee is served by a branch 
from the Great Northern line at Dromin. 

The population (71,914 in 1891; 65,820 in 1901) decreases at 
about an average rate, and a considerable number of the inhabitants 
emigrate. Of the total population about 92 % are Roman Catholics. 
The principal towns are Dundalk (pop. 13,076), Drogheda (12,760) 
and Ardee (1883). The county includes six baronies and sixty-four 
parishes. Assizes are held at Dundalk and quarter sessions at Ardee, 
Drogheda and Dundalk. Louth was represented by two county and 
ten borough members in the Irish parliament; the two present 
divisions are the north and south, each returning one member. The 
county is in the Protestant dioceses of Armagh and Clogher and the 
Roman Catholic diocese of Armagh. 

The territory which afterwards became the county Louth 
was included in the principality of Uriel, Orgial or Argial, which 
comprehended also the greater part of Meath, Monaghan and 
Armagh. The chieftain of the district was conquered by John 
de Courcy in 1183, and Louth or Uriel was among the shires 
generally considered to have been created by King John, and 
peopled by English settlers. Until the time of Elizabeth it 
was included in the province of Ulster. County Louth is rich 
in antiquarian remains. There are ancient buildings of all dates, 
and spears, swords, axes of bronze, ornaments of gold, and other 
relics have been discovered in quantities. Among Druidical 
remains is the fine cromlech of Ballymascanlan, between Dundalk 
and Greenore. Danish raths and other forts are numerous. 
It is said that there were originally twenty religious houses in 
the county. Of the remains of these the most interesting are at 
Monasterboice and Mellifont, both near Drogheda. At the 
former site are two churches, the larger dating probably from the 
9th century, the smaller from the i3th; a fine round tower, 
no ft. in height, but 'not 'quite perfect; and three crosses, two 
of which, 27 and 15 ft. in height respectively, are adorned with 



moulding, sculptured figures and tracery, and are among the 
finest in Ireland. At Mellifont are the remains of the first 
Cistercian monastery founded in Ireland, in 1142, with a massive 
gatehouse, an octagonal baptistery and chapter-house. Carling- 
ford and Drogheda have monastic remains, and at Dromiskin is 
a round tower, in part rebuilt. Ardee, an ancient town, incorpor- 
ated in 1376, has a castle of the I3th century. At Dunbar a 
charter of Charles II. (1679) gave the inhabitants the right to 
elect a sovereign. Louth, si m. S.W. from Dundalk, is a decayed 
town which gave its name to the county, and contains ruins of an 
abbey to which was attached one of the most noted early schools 
in Ireland. 

LOUTH, a market-town and municipal borough in the E. 
Lindsey or Louth parliamentary division of Lincolnshire, 
England, on the river Lud, 141 J m. N. of London by the Grimsby 
branch of the Great Northern railway. Pop. (1901) 9518. 
By a canal, completed in 1763, there is water communication 
with the Humber. The Perpendicular church of St James, 
c6mpleted about 1515, with a spire 300 ft. in height, is one of the 
finest ecclesiastical buildings in the county. Traces of a building 
of the I3th century are perceptible. There are a town hall, a 
corn exchange and a market-hall, an Edward VI. grammar 
school, which is richly endowed, a commercial school founded 
in 1676, a hospital and several almshouses. Thorpe Hall is a 
picturesque building dated 1584. In the vicinity are the ruins 
of a Cistercian abbey (Louth Park). The industries include 
the manufacture of agricultural implements, iron-founding, 
brewing, malting, and rope and brick-making. The town is 
governed by a mayor, 6 aldermen and 18 councillors. Area, 
2749 acres. 

Louth (, Loweth) is first mentioned in the Domesday 
record as a borough held, as it had been in Saxon times, by the 
bishop of Lincoln, who had a market there. The see retained 
the manor until it was surrendered by Bishop Holbeach to 
Henry VIII., who granted it to Edward, earl of Lincoln, but it 
was recovered by the Crown before 1 562. Louth owed much of its 
early prosperity to the adjacent Cistercian abbey of Louth Park, 
founded in 1 139 by Alexander bishop of Lincoln. The borough 
was never more than prescriptive, though burgesses were 
admitted throughout the middle ages and until 1711, their sole 
privilege being freedom from tolls. The medieval government 
of the town was by the manor court under the presidency of the 
bishop's high steward, the custom being for the reeve to be 
elected by eighteen ex-reeves. The original parish church was 
built about 1170. During the I3th and I4th centuries nine 
religious gilds were founded in the town. Fear of confiscation of 
the property of these gilds seems to have been one of the chief 
local causes of the Lincolnshire Rebellion, which broke out here 
in 1536. The disturbance began by the parishioners seizing 
the church ornaments to prevent their surrender. The bishop's 
steward, who arrived to open the manorial court for the election 
of a reeve, agreed to ride to ask the king the truth about the 
jewels, but this did not satisfy the people, who, while showing 
respect to a royal commission, seized and burnt the papers of the 
bishop's registrar. After swearing several country gentlemen to 
their cause, the rebels dispersed, agreeing to meet on the following 
day under arms. Edward VI. in 1551 incorporated Louth under 
one warden and six assistants, who were to be managers of the 
school founded by the same charter. This was confirmed in 1564 
by Elizabeth, who granted the manor of Louth to the corporation 
with all rights and all the lands of the suppressed gilds at an 
annual fee-farm rent of 84. James I. gave the commission of 
the peace to the warden and one assistant in 1605; a further 
charter was obtained in 1830. Louth has never been a parlia- 
mentary borough. The markets said to have been held from 
ancient times and the three fairs on the third Sunday after 
Easter and the feasts of St Martin and St James were confirmed 
in 1551. Louth was a seat of the wool trade as early as 1297; the 
modern manufactures seem to have arisen at the end of the i8th 
century, when, according to the charter of 1830, there was a great 
increase in the population, manufactures, trade and commerce 
of the town. 

See E. H. R. Tatham, Lincolnshire in Roman Times (Louth, 
1902) ; Richard W. Goulding, Louth Old Corporation Record* (Louth, 

LOUVAIN (Flem. Leuven), a town of Belgium hi the province 
of Brabant, of which it was the capital in the I4th century 
before the rise of Brussels. Pop. (1004)42,194. Local tradition 
attributes the establishment of a permanent camp at this spot 
to Julius Caesar, but Louvain only became important in the 
nth century as a place of residence for the dukes of Brabant. 
In 1356 Louvain was the scene of the famous Joyeuse Entrfe 
of Wenceslas which represented the principal charter of Brabant. 
At that time it had a population of at least 50,000 and was very 
prosperous as the centre of the woollen trade in central Belgium. 
The gild of weavers numbered 2400 members. The old walls 
of Louvain were 4^ m. in circumference, and have been replaced 
by boulevards, but within them there is a considerable extent of 
cultivated ground. Soon after the Joyeuse Entree a serious feud 
began between the citizens and the patrician class, and eventually 
the duke threw in his lot with the latter. After a struggle of 
over twenty years' duration the White Hoods, as the citizens 
called themselves, were crushed. In 1379 they massacred 
seventeen nobles in the town hah 1 , but this crinte brought down 
on them the vengeance of the duke, to whom in 1383 they made 
the most abject and complete surrender. With this civil strife the 
importance and prosperity of Louvain declined. Many weavers 
fled to Holland and England, the duke took up his residence in the 
strong castle of Vilvorde, and Brussels prospered at the expense 
of Louvain. What it lost in trade it partially recovered as a seat 
of learning, for in 1423, Duke John IV. of Brabant founded there 
a university and ever since Louvain University has enjoyed the 
first place in Belgium. It has always prided itself most on its 
theological teaching. In 1679 the university was established in 
the old Cloth Workers' Hall, a building dating from 1317, with 
long arcades and graceful pillars supporting the upper storeys. 
The library contains 70,000 volumes and some 500 manuscripts. 
Attached to the university are four residential colleges at which 
the number of students average two thousand. In the i6th 
century when the university was at the height of its fame it 
counted six thousand. 

The most remarkable building in Louvain is the Hotel de 
Ville, one of the richest and most ornate examples of pointed 
Gothic in the country. If less ornate than that of Oudenarde 
it is more harmonious in its details. It was the work of Mathieu 
de Layens, master mason, who worked at it from 1448 to 1463. 
The building is one of three storeys each with ten pointed 
windows forming the fafade facing the square. Above is a 
graceful balustrade behind which is a lofty roof, and at the 
angles are towers perforated for the passage of the light. The 
other three sides are lavishly decorated with statuary. The 
interior is not noteworthy. 

Opposite the H6tel de Ville is the fine church of St Pierre, 
in the form of a cross with a low tower to which the spire 
has never been added. The existing edifice was built on the 
site of an older church between 1425 and 1497. It contains 
seven chapels, in two of which are fine pictures by Dierich Bouts 
formerly attributed to Memling. Much of the iron and brass 
work is by Jean Matseys. There is also an ancient tomb, being 
the monument of Henry I., duke of Brabant, who died in 
1235. There are four other interesting churches in Louvain, 
viz. Ste Gertrude, St Quentin, St Michael and St Jacques. 
In the last-named is a fine De Grayer representing St Hubert. 
Some ruins on a hill exist of the old castle of the counts of 
Louvain whose title was merged in the higher style of the dukes 
of Brabant. 

LOUVER, LOUVRE or LUFFER, in architecture, the lantern 
built upon the roof of the hall in ancient times to allow the smoke 
to escape when the fire was made on the pavement in the middle 
of the hall. The term is also applied to the flat overlapping 
slips of wood, glass, &c., with which such openings are closed, 
arranged to give ventilation without the admission of rain. 
Openings fitted with louvers are now utilized for the purposes of 
ventilation in schools and manufactories. 



The word has been derived from the French Vouvert, the " open" 
space. This, Minsheu's guess, is now generally abandoned. The 
Old French form, of which the English is an adaptation, was lover 
or lovier. The medieval Latin lodium, lodarium, is suggested as the 
ultimate origin. Du Cange (Clossarium, s.v. " lodia ") defines it as 
lugurium, i.e. a small hut. The English form " louvre " is due to a 
confusion with the name of the palace in Paris. The origin of that 
name is also unknown; louverie, place of wolves, is one of the 
suggestions, the palace being supposed to have originally been a 
hunting-box (see PARIS). 

LOUVET, JEAN (c. 1370-*:. 1440), called the president of 
Provence, occupied the position of president of the Chambre des 
Comptes at Aix in 1415. Towards the end of that year he 
went to Paris with Louis II. of Anjou, king of Sicily, attached 
himself to the dauphin Charles, and after having been chief 
steward of the household to Queen Isabella he turned against her. 
He was one of the principal agents of the Armagnac party, and 
became the most influential adviser of Charles VII. during the 
first years of his reign. But his rapacity gained him enemies, 
and when the constable Arthur, earl of Richmond, attained a 
preponderating influence over Charles VII. Louvet retired to 
his captaincy of Avignon. He still remained a personage of 
importance in his exile, and played an influential part even in 
his last years. 

See Vallet de Viriville in the Nouvelle Biographic generate, and G. du 
FresnedeBeaucourt,.HM/0i>edeQtar/es VII. (1881-1891). (J. V.*) 

French writer and politician, was born in Paris on the i2th of 
June 1760, the son of a stationer. He became a bookseller's 
clerk, and first attracted attention with a not very moral novel 
called Les Amours du chevalier de Faublas (Paris, 1787-1789). 
The character of the heroine of this book, Lodoiska, was taken 
from the wife of a jeweller in the Palais Royal, with whom he 
had formed a liaison. She was divorced from her husband in 
1792 and married Louvet in 1793. His second novel, milie 
de Varmont, was intended to prove the utility and necessity 
of divorce and of the marriage of priests, questions raised by 
the Revolution. Indeed all his works were directed to the ends 
of the Revolution. He attempted to have one of his unpublished 
plays, L'Anobli conspirateur, performed at the Theatre Francais, 
and records naively that one of its managers, M. d'Orfeuil, 
listened to the reading of the first three acts " with mortal 
impatience," exclaiming at last: " I should need cannon in 
order to put that piece on the stage." A " sort of farce " at the 
expense of the army of the emigres, La Grande Revue des armies 
noire et blanche, had, however, better success: it ran for twenty- 
five nights. 

Louvet was, however, first brought into notice as a politician 
by his Paris justifie, in reply to a "truly incendiary" pamphlet 
in which Mounier, after the removal of the king to Paris in 
October 1789, had attacked the capital, " at that time blameless," 
and argued that the court should be established elsewhere. 
This led to Louvet's election to the Jacobin Club, for which, as he 
writes bitterly in his Memoirs, the qualifications were then 
" a genuine civisme and some talent." A self-styled philosophe 
of the true revolutionary type, he now threw himself ardently 
into the campaign against " despotism " and " reaction," i.e. 
against the moderate constitutional royalty advocated by 
Lafayette, the Abbe Maury and other " Machiavellians." On 
the asth of December 1791 he presented at the bar of the 
Assembly his Petition contre les princes, which had " a prodigious 
success in the senate and the empire." Elected deputy to 
the Assembly for the department of Loiret, he made his first 
speech in January 1792. He attached himself to the Girondists, 
whose vague deism, sentimental humanitarianism and ardent 
republicanism he fully shared, and from March to November 
1792 he published, at Roland's expense, a bi-weekly journal- 
affiche, of which the title, La Sentinelle, proclaimed its mission 
to be to " enlighten the people on all the plots " at a time when, 
Austria having declared war, the court was " visibly betraying 
our armies." On the loth of August he became editor of the 
Journal des debats, and in this capacity, as well as in the Assembly, 
made himself conspicuous by his attacks on Robespierre, Marat 
and the other Montagnards, whom he declares he would have 

succeeded in bringing to justice in September but for the poor 
support he received from the Girondist leaders. It is more 
probable, however, that his ill-balanced invective contributed 
to their ruin and his own; for him Robespierre was a " royalist," 
Marat " the principal agent of England," the Montagnards 
Orleanists in masquerade. His courageous attitude at the 
trial of Louis XVI., when he supported the " appeal to the 
people," only served still further to discredit the Girondists. 
He defended them, however, to the last with great courage, if 
with little discretion; and after the crisis of the 3ist of May 
1793 he shared the perils of the party who fled from Paris (see 
GIRONDISTS). His wife, " Lodoiska," who had actively co- 
operated in his propaganda, was also in danger. 

After the fall of Robespierre, he was recalled to the Convention, 
when he was instrumental in bringing Carrier and the others 
responsible for the Noyades of Nantes to justice. His influence 
was now considerable; he was elected a member of the Committee 
of the Constitution, president of the Assembly, and member of 
the Committee of Public Safety, against the overgrown power 
of which he had in earlier days protested. His hatred of the 
Mountain had not made him reactionary; he was soon regarded 
as one of the mainstays of the " Jacobins," and La Sentinelle 
reappeared, under his auspices, preaching union among re- 
publicans. Under the Directory (1795) he was elected a member 
of the Council of Five Hundred, of which he was secretary, and 
also a member of the Institute. Meanwhile he had returned to 
his old trade and set up a bookseller's shop in the Palais Royal. 
But, in spite of the fact that he had once more denounced the 
Jacobins in La Sentinelle, his name had become identified with 
all that the combative spirits of the jeunesse doree most disliked; 
his shop was attacked by the "young men" with cries of 
" A has la Loupe, a bas la belle Lodoiska, a has les gardes du corps 
de Louvet I" he and his wife were insulted in the streets and the 
theatres: " A bas les Louvets et les Louvetanls!" and he was 
compelled to leave Paris. The Directory appointed him to the 
consulship at Palermo, but he died on the 25th of August 1797 
before taking up his post. 

In 1795 Louvet published a portion of his Memoirs under the title 
of Quelques notices pour I'histoire et le recit de mes perils depuis le 31 
mat 1^93. They were mainly written in the various hiding-places 
in which Louvet rook refuge, and they give a vivid picture of the 
sufferings of the proscribed Girondists. They form an invaluable 
document for the study of the psychology of the Revolution; for 
in spite of their considerable literary art, they are artless in their 
revelation of the mental and moral state of their author, a character- 
istic type of the honest, sentimental, somewhat hysterical and wholly 
unbalanced minds nurtured on the abstractions of the philosophes. 
The first complete edition of the Memoires de Louvet de Couvrai, 
edited, with preface, notes and tables, by F. A. Aulard, was published 
at Paris in 1889. 

LOUVIERS, a town of north-western France, capital of an 
arrondissement in the department of Eure, 17^ m. S.S.E. of 
Rouen by road. Pop. (1906) 9449. Louviers is pleasantly situated 
in a green valley surrounded by wooded hills, on the Eure, which 
here divides into several branches. The old part of the town, 
built of wood, stands on the left bank of the river; the more 
modern portions, in brick and hewn stone, on the right. There 
are spacious squares, and the place is surrounded by boulevards. 
The Gothic church of Notre-Dame has a south portal which 
ranks among the most beautiful works of the kind produced 
in the isth century; it contains fine stained glass of the isth 
and 1 6th centuries and other works of art. The h6tel-de-ville, 
a large modern building, contains a museum and library. The 
chief industry is cloth and flannel manufacture. There are 
wool-spinning and fulling mills, thread factories and manu- 
factories of spinning and weaving machinery, and enamel ware; 
leather-working, dyeing, metal-founding and bell-founding 
are also carried on. The town is the seat of a sub-prefect and 
has a court of first instance, a tribunal of commerce, a chamber 
of arts and manufactures, and a council of trade arbitrators. 

Louviers (Lovera) was originally a villa of the dukes of Normandy 
and in the middle ages belonged to the archbishops of Rouen; its 
cloth-making industry first arose in the beginning of the I3th 
century. It changed hands once and again during the Hundred 
Years' War, and from Charles VII. it received extensive privileges, 




and the title of Louviers le Franc for the bravery of its inhabitants 
in driving the English from Pont de 1'Arche, Verneuil and Harcourt. 
It passed through various troubles successively at the period of the 
League of the Public Weal under Louis XL, in the religious wars 
(when the parlement of Rouen sat for a time at Louviers) and in the 
wars of the Fronde. 
See G. Petit, Hist, de Louviers (Louviers, 1877). 

(1641-1691), French statesman, war minister of Louis XIV., 
was born at Paris on the i8th of January 1641. His father, 
Michel le Tellier (q.v.), married him to an heiress, the marquise 
de Courtenvaux, and instructed him in the management of state 
business. The young man won the king's confidence, and in 1666 
he succeeded his father as war minister. His talents were per- 
ceived by Turenne in the war of Devolution (1667-68), who gave 
him instruction in the art of providing armies. After the peace 
of Aix-la-Chapelle, Louvois devoted himself to organizing the 
French army. The years between 1668 and 1672, says Camille 
Rousset, " were years of preparation, when Lionne was labouring 
with all his might to find allies, Colbert to find money, and 
Louvois soldiers for Louis." The work of Louvois in these years 
is bound up with the historical development of the French army 
and of armies in general (see ARMY). Here need only be men- 
tioned Louvois's reorganization of the military orders of merit, 
his foundation of the H6tel des Invalides, and the almost forcible 
enrolment of the nobility and gentry of France, in which Louvois 
carried out part of Louis's measures for curbing the spirit of 
independence by service in the army or at court. The success 
of his measures is to be seen in the victories of the great war of 
1672-78. After the peace of Nijmwegen Louvois was high in 
favour, his father had been made chancellor, and the influence of 
Colbert was waning. The ten years of peace between 1678 and 
1688 were distinguished in French history by the rise of Madame 
de Maintenon, the capture of Strassburg and the revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes, in all of which Louvois bore a prominent 
part. The surprise of Strassburg in 1681 in time of peace was not 
only planned but executed by Louvois and Monclar. A saving 
clause in the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which provided 
for some liberty of conscience, if not of worship, Louvois sharply 
annulled with the phrase " Sa majeste veut qu'on fasse sentir 
les dernieres rigueurs a ceux qui ne voudront pas se faire de sa 
religion." He claimed also the credit of inventing the dragon- 
nades, and mitigated the rigour of the soldiery only in so far as 
the licence accorded was prejudicial to discipline. Discipline, 
indeed, and complete subjection to the royal authority was the 
political faith of Louvois. Colbert died in 1683, and had been 
replaced by Le Pelletier, an adherent of Louvois, in the controller- 
generalship of finances, and by Louvois himself in his ministry 
for public buildings, which he took that he might be the minister 
able to gratify the king's two favourite pastimes, war and build- 
ing. Louvois was able to superintend the successes of the first 
years of the war of the League of Augsburg, but died suddenly of 
apoplexy after leaving the king's cabinet on July 16, 1691. 
His sudden death caused a suspicion of poison. Louvois was one 
of the greatest of the rare class of great war ministers. French 
history can only point to Carnot as his equal. Both had to 
organize armies out of old material on a new system, both were 
admirable contrivers of campaigns, and both devoted themselves 
to the material well-being of the soldiers. In private life and 
in the means employed for gaining his ends, Louvois was un- 
scrupulous and shameless. 

The principal authority for Louvois's life and times is Camille 
Rousset's Histoire de Louvois (Paris, 1872), a great work founded 
on the 900 volumes of his despatches at the Depot de la Guerre. 
Saint Simon from his class prejudices is hardly to be trusted, but 
Madame de Sevigne throws many side-lights on his times. Testament 
politique de Louvois (1695) is spurious. 

LOUYS, PIERRE (1870- ), French novelist and poet, was 
born in Paris on the loth of December 1870. When he was 
nineteen he founded a review, La Conque, which brought him 
into contact with the leaders of the Parnassians, and counted 
Swinburne, Maeterlinck, Mallarm6 and others among its con- 
tributors. He won notoriety by his novel Aphrodite (1896), 
which gave a vivid picture of Alexandrian morals at the 

beginning of the Christian era. His Chansons de Bililis, roman 
lyrique (1894), which purported to be a translation from the 
Greek, is a glorification of Sapphic love, which in subject-matter 
is objectionable in the highest degree; but its delicate decadent 
prose is typical of a modern French literary school, and some 
of the " songs " were set to music by Debussy and others. Later 
books are: La Femme et le pantin (1898); Les Aventures du roi 
Pausole (1900); Sanguines (1903); Archipel (1906). Louys 
married in 1899 Louise de Heredia, younger daughter of the poet. 
LOVAT, SIMON FRASER, I2TH BARON (c. 1667-1747), Scottish 
chief and Jacobite intriguer, was born about 1667 and was the 
second son of Thomas Fraser, third son of the 8th Lord Lovat. 
The barony of Lovat dates from about 1460, in the person of 
Hugh Fraser, a descendant of Simon Fraser (killed at Halidon 
Hill in 1338) who acquired the tower and fort of Lovat near 
Beauly, Inverness-shire, and from whom the clan Fraser was 
called " Macshimi" (sons of Simon). Young Simon was educated 
at King's College, Aberdeen, and his correspondence afterwards 
gives proof, not only of a command of good English and idiomatic 
French, but of such an acquaintance with the Latin classics as 
to leave him never at a loss for an apt quotation from Virgil or 
Horace. Whether Lovat ever felt any real loyalty to the Stuarts 
or was actuated by self-interest it is difficult to determine, but 
that he was a born traitor and deceiver there can be no doubt. 
One of his first acts on leaving college was to recruit three hundred 
men from his clan to form part of a regiment in the service of 
William and Mary, in which he himself was to hold a command, 
his object being to have a body of well-trained soldiers under his 
influence, whom at a moment's notice he might carry over to 
the interest of King James. Among other outrages in which he 
was engaged about this time was a rape and forced marriage 
committed on the widow of the zoth Lord Lovat with the view 
apparently of securing his own succession to the estates; and it 
is a curious instance of influence that, after being subjected by 
him to horrible ill-usage, she is said to have become seriously 
attached to him. A prosecution, however, having been instituted 
against him by Lady Lovat's family, Simon retired first to his 
native strongholds in the Highlands, and afterwards to France, 
where he found his way in July 1 702 to the court of St Germain. 
In 1699, on his father's death, he assumed the title of Lord Lovat. 
One of his first steps towards gaining influence in France seems 
to have been to announce his conversion to the Catholic faith. 
He then proceeded to put the project of restoring the exiled 
family into a practical shape. Hitherto nothing seems to have 
been known among the Jacobite exiles of the efficiency of the 
Highlanders as a military force. But Lovat saw that, as they 
were the only part of the British population accustomed to the 
independent use of arms, they could be at once put in action 
against the reigning power. His plan therefore was to land 
five thousand French troops at Dundee, where they might reach 
the north-eastern passes of the Highlands in a day's march, and 
be in a position to divert the British troops till the Highlands 
should have time to rise. Immediately afterwards five hundred 
men were to land on the west coast, seize Fort William or Inver- 
lochy, and thus prevent the access of any military force from the 
south to the central Highlands. The whole scheme indicates 
Lovat's sagacity as a military strategist, and his plan was 
continuously kept in view in all future attempts of the Jacobites, 
and finally acted on in the outbreak of 1745. The advisers of 
the Pretender seem to have been either slow to trust their 
coadjutor or to comprehend his project. At last, however, 
he was despatched (1703) on a secret mission to the Highlands to 
sound those of the chiefs who were likely to rise, and to ascertain 
what forces they could bring into the field. He found, however, 
that there was little disposition to join the rebellion, and he 
then apparently made up his mind to secure his own safety by 
revealing all that he knew to the government of Queen Anne. 
He persuaded the duke of Queensberry that his rival, the duke 
of Atholl, was in the Jacobite plot, and that if Queensberry 
supported him he could obtain evidence of this at St Germain. 
Queensberry foolishly entered into the intrigue with him against 
Atholl, but when Lovat had gone to France with a pass from 

7 o 


Queensberry the affair was betrayed to Atholl by Robert 
Ferguson, and resulted in Queensberry's discomfiture. The 
story is obscure, and is complicated by partisanship on either 
side; but Lovat was certainly playing a double game. His 
agility, however, was not remunerative. On returning to Paris 
suspicions got afloat as to Lovat's proceedings, and he was 
imprisoned in the castle of Angouleme. He remained nearly 
ten years under supervision, till in November 1714 he made 
his escape to England. For some twenty-five years after this 
he was chiefly occupied in lawsuit? for the recovery of his estates 
and the re-establishment of his fortune, in both of which objects 
he was successful. The intervals of his leisure were filled up by 
Jacobite and Anti-Jacobite intrigues, in which he seems to have 
alternately, as suited his interests, acted the traitor to both 
parties. But he so far obtained the confidence of the government 
as to secure the appointments of sheriff of Inverness and of colonel 
of an independent company. His disloyal practices, however, 
soon led to his being suspected; and he was deprived of both his 
appointments. When the rebellion of 1745 broke out, Lovat 
acted with characteristic duplicity. He represented to the 
Jacobites what was probably in the main true that though 
eager for their success his weak health and advanced years 
prevented him from joining the standard of the prince in person, 
while to the Lord President Forbes he professed his cordial 
attachment to the existing state of things, but lamented that his 
son, in spite of all his remonstrances, had joined the Pretender, 
and succeeded in taking with him a strong force from the clan 
of the Frasers. The truth was that the lad was unwilling to go, 
but was compelled by his father. Lovat's false professions of 
fidelity did not long deceive the government, and after the 
battle of Culloden he was obliged to retreat to the Highlands, 
after seeing from a distant height his castle of Dounie burnt by 
the royal army. Even then, broken down by disease and old age, 
carried on a litter and unable to move without assistance, his 
mental resources did not fail; and in a conference with several 
of the Jacobite leaders he proposed that they should raise a body 
of three thousand men, which would be enough to make their 
mountains impregnable, and at length force the government to 
give them advantageous terms. The project was not carried out, 
and Lovat, after enduring incredible hardships in his wanderings, 
was at last arrested on an island in Loch Morar. He was conveyed 
in a litter to London, and after a trial of five days sentence of 
death was pronounced on the igth of March 1747. His execution 
took place on the gth of April. His conduct to the last was 
dignified and even cheerful. Just before submitting his head to 
the block he repeated the line from Horace 

" Dulce et decorum est pro patria tnori." 

His son SIMON FRASER, Master of Lovat (1726-1782) (not to 
be confused with another Simon Fraser who saw somewhat 
similar service and was killed in 1777 at the battle of Saratoga), 
was a soldier, who at the beginning of the Seven Years' War 
raised a corps of Fraser Highlanders for the English service, 
and at the outbreak of the American War of Independence raised 
another regiment which took a prominent part in it. He fought 
under Wolfe in Canada, and also in Portugal, and rose to be a 
British major-general. The family estates were restored to him, 
but the title was not revived till 1837. On his death without 
issue, and also of his successor, his half-brother Archibald 
Campbell Fraser (1736-1815), the Lovat estates passed to the 
Frasers of Strichen, Aberdeenshire. The i6th Baron Lovat 
(b. 1871) raised a corps of mounted infantry (Lovat's Scouts) 
in the Boer war of 1899-1902. 

See Memoirs of Lord Lovat (1746 and 1767); J. Hill Burton, Life 
of Simon, Lord Lovat (1847); J. Anderson, Account of the Family of 
Frizell or Fraser (Edinburgh, 1825); A. Mackenzie, History of the 
Frasers of Lovat (Inverness, 1896); Mrs A. T. Thomson, Memoirs of 
the Jacobites (1845-6); and W. C. Mackenzie, Simon Fraser, Lord 
Lovat (1908). 

LOVE-BIRD, a name somewhat indefinitely bestowed, chiefly 
by dealers and their customers, on some of the smaller short- 
tailed parrots, from the affection which examples of opposite sexes 
exhibit towards each other. By many ornithologists the birds 

thus named, brought almost entirely from Africa and South 
America, have been retained in a single genus, Psittacula, though 
those belonging to the former country were by others separated 
as Agapornis. This separation, however, was neither generally 
approved nor easily justified, until Garrod (Proc. Zool. Society, 
1874, p. 593) assigned good anatomical ground, afforded by the 
structure of the carotid artery, for regarding the two groups 
as distinct, and thus removed the puzzle presented by the 
geographical distribution of the species of Psittacula in a large 
sense, though Huxley (op. cit. 1868, p. 319) had suggested one 
way of meeting the difficulty. As the genus is now restricted, 
only one of the six species of Psittacula enumerated in the 
Nomenclator Avium of Sclater and Salvin is known to be found 
outside the Neotropical Region, the exception being the Mexican 
P. cyanopygia, and not one of the seven recognized by the same 
authors as forming the nearly allied genus Urochroma. On the 
other hand, of Agapornis, from which the so-called genus Polio- 
psitta can scarcely be separated, five if not six species are known, 
all belonging to the Ethiopian Region, and all but one, A . cana 
(which is indigenous to Madagascar, and thence has been widely 
disseminated), are natives of Africa. In this group probably 
comes also Psittinus, with a single species from the Malayan 
Subregion. One of the birds most commonly called love-birds, 
but with no near relationship to any of the above, being a long- 
tailed though very small parrot, is the budgerigar (Melopsittacus 
undulalus) now more familiar in Europe than most native birds, 
as it is used to " tell fortunes " in the streets, and is bred by 
hundreds in aviaries. Its native country is Australia. (A. N.) 

LOVEDALE, a mission station in the Victoria East division 
of the Cape province, South Africa. It lies 1720 ft. above the 
sea on the banks of the Tyumie (Chumie) tributary of the 
Keiskama river, some 2 m. N. of Alice, a town 88 m. N.W. by 
rail of East London. The station was founded in 1824 by the 
Glasgow Missionary Society and was named after Dr John Love, 
one of the leading members of, and at the time secretary to, the 
society. The site first chosen was in the Ncera valley. But in 
1834 the mission buildings were destroyed by the Kaffirs. 
On rebuilding, the station was removed somewhat farther 
north to the banks of the Tyumie. In 1846 the work at Lovedale 
was again interrupted, this time by the War of the Axe (see 
CAPE COLONY: History). On this occasion the buildings were 
converted into a fort and garrisoned by regular troops. Once 
more, in 1850, the Kaffirs threatened Lovedale and made an 
attack on" the neighbouring Fort Hare, 1 built during the previous 

Until 1841 the missionaries had devoted themselves almost 
entirely to evangelistic work; in that year the Lovedale 
Missionary Institute was founded by the Rev. W. Govan, who, 
save for brief intervals, continued at its head until 1870. He 
was then succeeded by the Rev. James Stewart (1831-1905), who 
had joined the mission in 1867, having previously (1861-1863), 
and partly in company with David Livingstone, explored the 
Zambezi regions. To Stewart, who remained at the head of the 
institute till his death, is due the existing organization at Love- 
dale. The institute, in addition to its purely church work in 
which no sectarian tests are allowed provides for the education 
of natives of both sexes in nearly all branches of learning (Stewart 
discontinued the teaching of Greek and Latin, adopting English 
as the classic); it also takes European scholars, no colour dis- 
tinction being allowed in any department of the work. The 
institute gives technical training in many subjects and maintains 
various industries, including such diverse enterprises as farming 
and printing-works. It also maintains a hospital. The school 
buildings rival in accommodation and completeness those of 
the schools in large English cities. The sum paid in fees by 
scholars (of whom fully nine-tenths were Kaffirs) in the period 
1841-1908 was 84,000. The educational and industrial methods 
initiated at Lovedale have been widely adopted by other 

1 This fort was named after Colonel John Hare (d. 1846) of 
the 27th Regiment, from 1838 lieutenant-governor of the eastern 
provinces and commander of the first division of the field force in 
the War of the Axe. 


missionary bodies. Lovedale is now a branch of the work of 
the United Free Church of Scotland. 

See R. Young, African Wastes Reclaimed and Illustrated in the 
Story of the Lovedale Mission (London, 1902); J. Stewart, Lovedale, 
Past and Present (London, 1884), and Dawn in the Dark Continent 
(London, 1903) ; J. Wells, Stewart of Lovedale (London, 1908). 

LOVELACE, RICHARD (1618-1658), English poet, was born 
at Woolwich in 1618. He was a scion of a Kentish family, 
and inherited a tradition of military distinction, maintained 
by successive generations from the time of Edward III. His 
father, Sir William Lovelace, had served in the Low Countries, 
received the honour of knighthood from James I., and was killed 
at Grolle in 1628. His brother, Francis Lovelace, the " Colonel 
Francis " of Lucasta, served on the side of Charles I., and de- 
fended Caermarthen in 1644. His mother's family was legal; 
her grandfather had been chief baron of the exchequer. Richard 
was educated at the Charterhouse and at Gloucester Hall, 
Oxford, where he matriculated in 1634. Through the request 
of one of the queen's ladies on the royal visit to Oxford he was 
made M.A., though only in his second year at the university. 
Lovelace's fame has been kept alive by a few songs and the 
romance of his career, and his poems are commonly spoken 
of as careless improvisations, and merely the amusements of an 
active soldier. But the unhappy course of his life gave him 
more leisure for verse-making than opportunity of soldiering. 
Before the outbreak of the civil war in 1642 his only active 
service was in the bloodless expedition which ended in the 
Pacification of Berwick in 1640. On the conclusion of peace he 
entered into possession of the family estates at Bethersden, 
Canterbury, Chart and Halden in Kent. By that time he was 
one of the most distinguished of the company of courtly poets 
gathered round Queen Henrietta, who were influenced as a school 
by contemporary French writers of vers de socUte. He wrote a 
comedy, The Scholar, when he was sixteen, and a tragedy, 
The Soldier, when he was twenty-one. From what he says of 
Fletcher, it would seem that this dramatist was his model, but 
only the prologue and epilogue to his comedy have been preserved. 
When the rupture between king and parliament took place, 
Lovelace was committed to the Gatehouse at Westminster for 
presenting to the Commons in 1642 a petition from Kentish 
royalists in the king's favour. It was then that he wrote his 
most famous song, " To Althea from Prison." He was liberated, 
says Wood, on bail of 40,000 (more probably 4000), and 
throughout the civil war was a prisoner on parole, with this 
security in the hands of his enemies. He contrived, however, 
to render considerable service to the king's cause. He provided 
his two brothers with money to raise men for the Royalist army, 
and befriended many of the king's adherents. He was especially 
generous to scholars and musicians, and among his associates in 
London were Henry Lawes and John Gamble, the Cottons, Sir 
Peter Lely, Andrew Marvell and probably Sir John Suckling. 
He joined the king at Oxford in 1645, and after the surrender 
of the city in 1646 he raised a regiment for the service of the 
French king. He was wounded at the siege of Dunkirk, and with 
his brother Dudley, who had acted as captain in his brother's 
command, returned to England in 1648. It is not known 
whether the brothers took any part in the disturbances in Kent 
of that year, but both were imprisoned at Petre House in Alders- 
gate. During this second imprisonment he collected and revised 
for the press a volume of occasional poems, many if not most of 
which had previously appeared in various publications. The 
volume was published in 1649 under the title of Lucasta, his 
poetical name contracted from Lux Casta for a lady rashly 
identified by Wood as Lucy Sacheverell, who, it is said, married 
another during his absence in France, on a report that he had 
died of his wounds at Dunkirk. The last ten years of Lovelace's 
life were passed in obscurity. His fortune had been exhausted 
in the king's interest, and he is said to have been supported by 
the generosity of friends. He died in 1658 " in a cellar in Long- 
acre," according to Aubrey, who, however, possibly exaggerates 
his poverty. A volume of Lovelace's Posthume Poems was 
published in 1659 by his brother Dudley. They are of inferior 
merit to his own collection. 

The world has done no injustice to Lovelace in neglecting all but 
a few of his modest offerings to literature. But critics often do him 
injustice in dismissing him as a gay cavalier, who dashed off his 
verses hastily and cared little what became of them. It is a mistake 
to class him with Suckling; he has neither Suckling's easy grace 
nor his reckless spontaneity. We have only to compare the version 
of any of his poems in Lucasta with the form in which it originally 
appeared to see how fastidious was his revision. In many places it 
takes time to decipher his meaning. The expression is often elliptical, 
the syntax inverted and tortuous, the train of thought intricate and 
discontinuous. These faults they are not of course to be found in 
his two or three popular lyrics, " Going to the Wars," " To Althea 
from Prison," ' The Scrutiny " are, however, as in the case of his 
poetical master, Donne, the faults not of haste but of over-elabora- 
tion. His thoughts are not the first thoughts of an improvisatore, 
but thoughts ten or twenty stages removed from the first, and they 
are generally as closely packed as they are far-fetched. 

His poems were edited by W. C. Hazlitt in 1864. 

porter of Richard III., was son of John, 8th Baron Lovell. As 
a young man he served under Richard of Gloucester in the 
expedition to Scotland in 1480. After the death of Edward 
IV. he became one of his patron's strongest supporters. He 
had been created a viscount on the 4th of January 1483, and 
whilst still Protector Richard made him Chief Butler. As soon 
as Richard became king, Lovell was promoted to be Lord 
Chamberlain. Lovell helped in the suppression of Buckingham's 
rebellion, and as one of Richard's most trusted ministers was 
gibbeted in Collingbourne's couplet with Catesby and Rat cliff e: 
" The catte, the ratte and Lovell our dogge 

Rulyth all England under a hogge." 

He had command of the fleet which was to have stopped Henry 
Tudor's landing in 1485, but fought for Richard at Bosworth 
and after the battle fled to sanctuary at Colchester. Thence 
he escaped next year to organize a dangerous revolt in York- 
shire. When that failed he fled to Margaret of Burgundy in 
Flanders. As a chief leader of the Yorkist party he had a 
foremost part in Lambert Simnel's enterprise. With John de 
la Pole, earl of Lincoln, he accompanied the pretender to Ireland 
and fought for him at Stoke on the i6th of June 1487. He was 
seen escaping from the battle, but was never afterwards heard 
of; Bacon relates that according to one report he lived long 
after in a cave or vault (Henry VII., p. 37, ed. Lumby). More 
than 200 years later, in 1708, the skeleton of a man was found in 
a secret chamber in the family mansion at Minster Lovell in 
Oxfordshire. It is supposed that Francis Lovell had hidden 
himself there and died of starvation. 

Collingbourne's couplet is preserved by Fabyan, Chronicle, p. 672. 
For the discovery at Minster Lovell see Notes and Queries, 2nd ser. i. 
and 5th ser. x. (C. L. K.) 

LOVER, SAMUEL (1797-1868), Irish novelist, artist, song- 
writer and musician, was born in Dublin on the 24th of February 
1797. His father was a stockbroker. Lover began life as an 
artist, and was elected in 1828 a member of the Royal Hibernian 
Academy a body of which two years afterwards he became 
secretary. He acquired repute as a miniature painter, and a 
number of the local aristocracy sat to him for their portraits. 
His love for music showed itself at an early age. At a dinner 
given to the poet Tom Moore in 1818 Lover sang one of his own 
songs, which elicited special praise from Moore. One of his best- 
known portraits was that of Paganini, which was exhibited at 
the Royal Academy. He attracted attention as an author by 
his Legends and Stones of Ireland (1832), and was one of the first 
writers for the Dublin University Magazine. He went to London 
about 1835, where, among others, he painted Lord Brougham 
in his robes as lord chancellor. His gifts rendered him popular 
in society; and he appeared often at Lady Blessington's evening 
receptions. There he sang several of his songs, which were, 
so well received that he published them (Songs and Ballads, 
1839). Some of them illustrated Irish superstitions, among 
these being " Rory O'More," " The Angel's Whisper," " The 
May Dew " and " The Four-leaved Shamrock." In 1837 appeared 
Rory O'More, a National Romance, which at once made him a 
reputation as a novelist; he afterwards dramatized it for the 
Adelphi Theatre, London. In 1842 was published his best-known 
work, Handy Andy, an Irish Tale. Meanwhile his pursuits had 


affected his health; and .in 1844 he gave up writing for some 
time, substituting instead public entertainments, called by him 
" Irish Evenings," illustrative of his own works. These were 
successful both in Great Britain and in America. In addition 
to publishing numerous songs of his own, Lover edited a collec- 
tion entitled The Lyrics of Ireland, which appeared in 1858. 
He died on the 6th of July 1868. Besides the novels already 
mentioned he wrote Treasure Trove (1844), and Metrical Tales 
and Other Poems (1860). 

His Life was written in 1874 by Bayle Bernard. 

LOVERE, a town of Lombardy, Italy, in the province of 
Bergamo, at the north-west end of the Lago d' Iseo, 522 ft. 
above sea-level. Pop. (1901) 3306. It is a picturesque town, 
the houses having the overhanging wooden roofs of Switzerland 
united with the heavy stone arcades of Italy, while the situation 
is beautiful, with the lake in front and the semicircle of bold 
mountains behind. The church of Santa Maria in Valvendra, 
built in 1473, has frescoes by Floriano Ferramola of Brescia 
(d. 1528). The Palazzo Tadini contains a gallery of old pictures, 
some sculptures by Benzoni and Canova, and a zoological collec- 
tion. Lovere possesses a silk-spinning factory, and the Stabli- 
mento Metallurgico Gregorini, a large iron-work and cannon 
foundry, employs 1600 workmen. Lovere is reached by steamer 
from Sarnico at the south end of the lake, and there is a steam 
tramway through the Val Camonica, which is highly cultivated, 
and contains iron- and silk-works. From Cividate, the terminus, 
the road goes on to Edolo (2290 ft.), whence passes lead into 
Tirol and the Valtellina. 

LOW, SETH (1850- ), American administrator and edu- 
cationist, was born in Brooklyn, New York, on the i8th 
of January 1850. He studied in the Polytechnic Institute of 
Brooklyn and in Columbia University, where he graduated in 
1870. He became a clerk (1870) and then a partner (1875) in 
his father's tea and silk-importing house, A. A. Low & Brothers, 
which went out of business in 1888. In 1878 he organized, and 
became president of, the Brooklyn Bureau of Charities. In 
1882-1886 he was mayor of the city of Brooklyn, being twice 
elected on an independent ticket; and by his administration of 
his office he demonstrated that a rigid " merit " civil-service 
system was practicable in September 1884 the first municipal 
civil-service rules in the United Service were adopted in Brooklyn. 
He was president of Columbia University from 1890 to 1901, 
and did much for it by his business administration, his liberality 
(he gave $1,000,000 for the erection of a library) and his especial 
interest in the department of Political Science. In his term 
Columbia became a well-organized and closely-knit university. 
Its official name was changed from Columbia College to Columbia 
University. It was removed to a new site on Morningside 
Heights, New York City. The New York College for the Training 
of Teachers became its Teachers' College of Columbia; a Faculty 
of Pure Science was added; the Medical School gave up its 
separate charter to become an integral part of the university; 
Barnard College became more closely allied with the university; 
relations were entered into between the university and the 
General, Union and Jewish theological seminaries of New York 
City and with Cooper Union, the Metropolitan Museum of Fine 
Arts and the American Museum of Natural History; and its 
faculty and student body became less local in character. Dr 
Low was a delegate to the Hague Peace Conference in 1899. He 
was prominent among those who brought about the chartering 
of Greater New York in 1897, and in this year was an unsuccessful 
candidate, on an independent ticket, for mayor of New York 
City; in 1900, on a fusion ticket, he was elected mayor and 
served in 1901-1903. 

LOW, WILL HICOK (1853- ), American artist and writer 
on art, was born at Albany, New York, on the 3ist of May 1853. 
In 1873 he entered the atelier of J. L. Ger6me in the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts at Paris, subsequently joining the classes of Carolus- 
Duran, with whom he remained until 1877. Returning to New 
York, he became a member of the Society of American Artists 
in 1878 and of the National Academy of Design in 1890. His 
pictures of New England types, and illustrations of Keats, brought 

him into prominence. Subsequently he turned his attention to 
decoration, and executed panels and medallions for the Waldorf- 
Astoria Hotel, New York, a panel for the Essex County Court 
House, Newark, New Jersey, panels for private residences and 
stained-glass windows for various churches, including St Paul's 
Methodist Episcopal Church, Newark, N.J. He was an in- 
structor in the schools of Cooper Union, New York, in 1882- 
1885, and in the school of the National Academy of Design in 
1889-1892. Mr Low, who is known to a wider circle as the 
friend of R. L. Stevenson, published some reminiscences, A 
Chronicle of Friendships, 187 3-1 goo (1908). In 1909 he 
married Mary (Fairchild), formerly the wife of the sculptor 

LOWBOY, a small table with one or two rows of drawers, so 
called in contradistinction to the tallboy, or double chest of 
drawers. Both were favourite pieces of the i8th century, both 
in England and America; the lowboy was most frequently used 
as a dressing-table, but sometimes as a side-table. It is usually 
made of oak, walnut or mahogany, with brass handles and 
escutcheons. The more elegant examples of the Chippendale 
period have cabriole legs, claw-and-ball feet and carved knees, 
and are sometimes sculptured with the favourite shell motive 
beneath the centre drawer. 

LOW CHURCHMAN, a term applied to members of the Church 
of England or its daughter churches who, while accepting the 
hierarchical and sacramental system of the Church, do not 
consider episcopacy as essential to the constitution of the Church, 
reject the doctrine that the sacraments confer grace ex opere 
operato (e.g. baptismal regeneration) and lay stress on the Bible 
as the sole source of authority in matters of faith. They thus 
differ little from orthodox Protestants of other denominations, 
and in general are prepared to co-operate with them on equal 

The name was used in the early part of the i8th century as 
the equivalent of " Latitudinarian," i.e. one who was prepared to 
concede much latitude in matters of discipline and faith, in 
contradistinction to " High Churchman," the term applied to 
those who took a high view of the exclusive authority of the 
Established Church, of episcopacy and of the sacramental 
system. It subsequently fell into disuse, but was revived in the 
1 9th century when the Tractarian movement had brought the 
term " High Churchman " into vogue again in a modified sense, 
i.e. for those who exalted the idea of the Catholic Church and the 
sacramental system at the expense both of the Establishment 
and of the exclusive authority of Scripture. " Low Churchman " 
now became the equivalent of " Evangelical," the designation of 
the movement, associated with the name of Simeon, which laid the 
chief stress on the necessity of personal " conversion." " Lati- 
tudinarian " gave place at the same time to " Broad Churchman," 
to designate those who lay stress on the ethical teaching of the 
Church and minimize the value of orthodoxy. The revival of 
pre-Reformation ritual by many of the High Church clergy led 
to the designation " ritualist " being applied to them in a some- 
what contemptuous sense; and " High Churchman " and 
" Ritualist " have often been wrongly treated as convertible 
terms. Actually many High Churchmen are not Ritualists, 
though they tend to become so. The High Churchman of the 
" Catholic " type is further differentiated from the " old- 
fashioned High Churchman " of what is sometimes described as 
the " high and dry " type of the period anterior to the Oxford 

LOWE, SIR HUDSON (1760-1844), English general, was the 
son of an army surgeon, John Lowe, and was born at Galway 
on the 28th of July 1769. His mother was a native of that 
county. His childhood was spent in various garrison towns 
but he was educated chiefly at Salisbury grammar school. He 
obtained a post as ensign in the East Devon Militia before his 
twelfth year, and subsequently entered his father's regiment, 
the soth, then at Gibraltar (1787) under Governor- General 
O'Hara. After the outbreak of war with France early in 1793, 
Lowe saw active service successively in Corsica, Elba, Portugal 
and Minorca, where he was entrusted with the command of a 



battalion of Corsican exiles, called The Corsican Rangers. With 
these he did good work in Egypt in 1800-1801. After the peace 
of Amiens, Lowe, now a major, became assistant quartermaster- 
general; but on the renewal of war with France in 1803 he was 
charged, as lieutenant-colonel, to raise the Corsican battalion 
again and with it assisted in the defence of Sicily. On the 
capture of Capri he proceeded thither with his battalion and a 
Maltese regiment; but in October 1808 Murat organized an 
attack up'on the island, and Lowe, owing to the unsteadiness of 
the Maltese troops and the want of succour by sea, had to agree 
to evacuate the island. The terms in which Sir William Napier 
and others have referred to Lowe's defence of Capri are unfair. 
His garrison consisted of 1362 men, while the assailants numbered 
between 3000 and 4000. In the course of the year 1809 Lowe 
and his Corsicans helped in the capture of Ischia and Procida, as 
well as of Zante, Cephalonia and Cerigo. For some months he 
acted as governor of Cephalonia and Ithaca, and later on of 
Santa Maura. He returned to England in 1812, and in January 
1813 was sent to inspect a Russo-German legion then being 
formed, and he accompanied the armies of the allies through the 
campaigns of 1813 and 1814, being present at thirteen important 
battles. He won praise from Blucher and Gneisenau for his 
gallantry and judgment. He was chosen to bear to London the 
news of the first abdication of Napoleon in April 1814. He was 
then knighted and became major-general; he also received decora- 
tions from the Russian and Prussian courts. Charged with the 
duties of quartermaster-general of the army in the Netherlands in 
1814-1815, he was about to take part in the Belgian campaign when 
he was offered the command of the British troops at Genoa; but 
while still in the south of France he received (on the ist of August 
1815) news of his appointment to the position of custodian of 
Napoleon, who had surrendered to H.M.S. " Bellerophon " off 
Rochefort. Lowe was to be governor of St Helena, the place of 
the ex-emperor's exile. 

On his arrival there at Plantation House he found that 
Napoleon had already had scenes with Admiral Cockburn, of 
H.M.S. " Northumberland," and that he had sought to induce 
the former governor, Colonel Wilks, to infringe the regulations 
prescribed by the British government (see Monthly Review, 
January 1901). Napoleon and his followers at Longwood 
pressed for an extension of the limits within which he could move 
without surveillance, but it was not in Lowe's power to grant this 
request. Various matters, in some of which Lowe did not evince 
much tact, produced friction between them. The news that 
rescue expeditions were being planned by the Bonapartists in the 
United States led to the enforcement of somewhat stricter 
regulations in October 1816, Lowe causing sentries to be posted 
round Longwood garden at sunset instead of at 9 P.M. This was 
his great offence in the eyes of Napoleon and his followers. Hence 
their efforts to calumniate Lowe, which had a surprising success. 
O'Meara, the British surgeon, became Napoleon's man, and lent 
himself to the campaign of calumny in which Las Cases and 
Montholon showed so much skill. In one of the suppressed 
passages ofhis Journal Las Cases wrote that the exiles had to 
" reduce to a system our demeanour, our words, our sentiments, 
even our privations, in order that we might thereby excite a 
lively interest in a large portion of the population of Europe, and 
that the opposition in England might not fail to attack the 
ministry." As to the privations, it may be noted that Lowe 
recommended that the government allowance of 8000 a year 
to the Longwood household should be increased by one-half. 
The charges of cruelty brought against the governor by O'Meara 
and others have been completely refuted; and the most that can 
be said against him is that he was occasionally too suspicious 
in the discharge of his duties. After the death of Napoleon in 
May 1821, Lowe returned to England and received the thanks 
of George IV. On the publication of O'Meara's book he resolved 
to prosecute the author, but, owing to an unaccountable delay, 
the application was too late. This fact, together with the reserved 
behaviour of Lowe, prejudiced the public against him, and the 
government did nothing to clear his reputation. In 1825-1830 
he commanded the forces in Ceylon, but was not appointed 

to the governorship when it fell vacant in 1830. In 1842 he 
became colonel of his old regiment, the soth; he also received 
the G.C.M.G. He died in 1844. 

See W. Forsyth, History of the Captivity of Napoleon at St Helena 
(3 vols., London, 1853); Gourgaud, Journal inedite de Sainte- 
Helene (1815-1818; 2 vols., Paris, 1899); R. C. Seaton, Napoleon's 
Captivity in relation to Sir Hudson Lowe (London, 1903) ; Lieut.-Col. 
Basil Jackson, Notes and Reminiscences of a Staff-Officer (London, 
1903); the earl of Rosebery, Napoleon; the Last Phase (London 
1900); J. H. Rose, Napoleonic Studies (London, 1904). (J- HL. R.) 

L6WE, JOHANN KARL GOTTFRIED (1796-1869), German 
composer, was born at Lobejiin, near Halle, on the 3oth of 
November 1796, and was a choir-boy at Kothen from 1807 
to 1809, when he went to the Franke Institute at Halle, studying 
music with Turk. The beauty of Lowe's voice brought him 
under the notice of Madame de Stae'l, who procured him a pension 
from Jer6me Bonaparte, then king of Westphalia; this stopped 
in 1813, on the flight of the king. He entered the University 
of Halle as a theological student, but was appointed cantor at 
Stettin in 1820, and director of the town music in 1821, in which 
year he married Julie von Jacob, who died in 1823. His second 
wife, Auguste Lange, was an accomplished singer, and they 
appeared together in his oratorio performances with great success. 
He retained his office at Stettin for 46 years, when, after a stroke 
of paralysis, he was somewhat summarily dismissed. He 
retired to Kiel, and died on the 2oth of April 1869. He undertook 
many concert tours during his tenure of the post at Stettin, 
visiting Vienna, London, Sweden, Norway and Paris. His 
high soprano voice (he could sing the music of the " Queen 
of Night " in Die Zauberflote as a boy) had developed into a 
fine tenor. Lowe was a voluminous composer, and wrote five 
operas, of which only one, Die drei WUnsche, was performed 
at Berlin in 1834, without much success; seventeen oratorios, 
many of them for male voices unaccompanied, or with short 
instrumental interludes only; choral ballads, cantatas, three 
string quartets, a pianoforte trio; a work for clarinet and piano, 
published posthumously; and some piano solos. But the 
branch of his art by which he is remembered, and in which he 
must be admitted to have attained perfection, is the solo ballad 
with pianoforte accompaniment. His treatment of long narrative 
poems, in a clever mixture of the dramatic and lyrical styles, 
was undoubtedly modelled on the ballads of Zumsteeg, and has 
been copied by many composers since his day. His settings of 
the " Erlkonig " (a very early example), " Archibald Douglas," 
"Heinrich der Vogler," "Edward" and "Die Verfallene 
Mtihle," are particularly fine. 

LOWELL, ABBOTT LAWRENCE (1856- ), American 
educationalist, was born in Boston, Massachusetts on the I3th 
of December 1856, the great-grandson of John Lowell, the 
" Columella of New England," and on his mother's side, a grand- 
son of Abbott Lawrence. He graduated at Harvard College 
in 1877, with highest honours in mathematics; graduated at 
the Harvard Law School in 1880; and practised law in 1880- 
1897 in partnership with his cousin, Francis Cabot Lowell 
(b. 1855), with whom he wrote Transfer of Stock in Corporations 
(1884). In 1897 he became lecturer and in 1898 professor of 
government at Harvard, and in 1909 succeeded Charles William 
Eliot as president of the university. In the same year he was 
president of the American Political Science Association. In 
1900 he had succeeded his father, Augustus Lowell (1830- 
1901), as financial head of the Lowell Institute of Boston. He 
wrote Essays on Government (1889), Governments and Parties in 
Continental Europe (2 vols., 1896), Colonial Civil Service (1900; 
with an account by H. Morse Stephens of the East India College 
at Haileybury), and The Government of England (2 vols., 1008). 

His brother, PERCIVAL LOWELL (1855- ), the well-known 
astronomer, graduated at Harvard in 1876, lived much in Japan 
between 1883 and 1893, and in 1894 established at Flagstaff, 
Arizona, the Lowell Observatory, of whose Annals (from 1898) 
he was editor. In 1902 he became non-resident professor of 
astronomy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He 
wrote several books on the Far East, including Choson (1885), 
The Soul of the Far East (1886), Noto, an Unexplored Corner 



of Japan (1891), and Occult Japan (1895), but he is best known 
for his studies of the planet Mars he wrote Mars (1895), Mars 
and Its Canals (1907), and Mars, the Abode of Life (1908) and 
his contention that the " canals " of Mars are a sign of life and 
civilization on that planet (see MARS). He published The 
Evolution of Worlds in 1909. 

LOWELL, CHARLES RUSSELL (1835-1864), American 
soldier, was born on the 2nd of January 1835 in Boston, Massa- 
chusetts. His mother, Anna Cabot Jackson Lowell (1819-1874), 
a daughter of Patrick Tracy Jackson, married Charles Russell 
Lowell, a brother of James Russell Lowell; she wrote verse and 
books on education. Her son graduated at Harvard in 1854, 
worked in an iron mill in Trenton, New Jersey, for a few months 
in 1855, spent two years abroad, and in 1858-1860 was local 
treasurer of the Burlington & Missouri river railroad. In 1860 
he took charge of the Mount Savage Iron Works, in Cumberland, 
Maryland. He entered the Union army in June 1861 (commission 
May 14) as captain of the 3rd (afterwards 6th) U.S. cavalry; 
on the isth of April 1863 he became colonel of the 2nd Massa- 
chusetts cavalry; he was wounded fatally at Cedar Creek on 
the 1 9th of October 1864, when he was promoted brigadier- 
general of U.S. Volunteers, and died on the next day at Middle- 
town, Va. Lowell married in October 1863, Josephine Shaw 
(1843-1905), a sister of Colonel R. G. Shaw. Her home when 
she was married was on Staten Island, and she became deeply 
interested in the social problems of New York City. She was a 
member of the State Charities Aid Society, and from 1877 to 
1889 was a member of the New York State Board of Charities, 
being the first woman appointed to that board. She founded 
the Charity Organization Society of New York City in 1882, 
and wrote Public Relief and Private Charity (1884) and Industrial 
Arbitration and Conciliation (1893). 

See Edward E. Emerson (ed.), The Life and Letters of Charles 
Russell Lowell (Boston, 1907). 

LOWELL, JAMES RUSSELL (1819-1891), American author 
and diplomatist, was born at Elmwood, in Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, en the 22nd of February 1819, the son of Charles 
Lowell (i 782-I86I). 1 On his mother's side he was descended from 
the Spences and Traills, who made their home in the Orkney 
Islands, his great-grandfather, Robert Traill, returning to England 
on the breaking out of hostilities in 1775. He was brought up 
in a neighbourhood bordering on the open country, and from 
his earliest years he found a companion in nature; he was 
also early initiated into the reading of poetry and romance, 
hearing Spenser and Scott in childhood, and introduced to old 
ballads by his mother. He had for schoolmaster an Englishman 
who held by the traditions of English schools, sc that before he 
entered Harvard College he had a more familiar acquaintance 
with Latin verse than most of his fellows a familiarity which 
showed itself later in his mock-pedantic accompaniment to 
The Biglow Papers and his macaronic poetry. He was a wide 
reader, but a somewhat indifferent student, graduating at 
Harvard without special honours in 1838. During his college 
* course he wrote a number of trivial pieces for a college magazine, 
and shortly after graduating printed for private circulation 
the poem which his class asked him to write for their graduation 

He was uncertain at first what vocation to choose, and vacil- 
lated between business, the ministry, medicine and law. He 
decided at last to practise law, and after a course at the Harvard 
law school, was admitted to the bar. While studying for his 
profession, however, he contributed poems and prose articles 
to various magazines. He cared little for the law, regarding 
it simply as a distasteful means of livelihood, yet his experiments 
in writing did not encourage him to trust to this for support. 
An unhappy adventure in love deepened his sense of failure, 
but he became betrothed to Maria White in the autumn of 
1840, and the next twelve years of his life were deeply affected 
by her influence. She was a poet of delicate power, but also 
possessed a lofty enthusiasm, a high conception of purity and 
justice, and a practical temper which led her to concern herself 

1 See under LOWELL, JOHN. 

in the movements directed against the evils of intemperance 
and slavery. Lowell was already looked upon by his companions 
as a man marked by wit and poetic sentiment; Miss White 
was admired for her beauty, her character and her intellectual 
gifts, and the two became thus the hero and heroine among a 
group of ardent young men and women. The first-fruits of this 
passion was a volume of poems, published in 1841, entitled 
A Year's Life, which was inscribed by Lowell in a veiled dedica- 
tion to his future wife, and was a record of his new emotions 
with a backward glance at the preceding period of depression 
and irresolution. The betrothal, moreover, stimulated Lowell 
to new efforts towards self-support, and though nominally 
maintaining his law office, he threw his energy into the establish- 
ment, in company with a friend, Robert Carter, of a literary 
journal, to which the young men gave the name of The Pioneer. 
It was to open the way to new ideals in literature and art, and 
the writers to whom Lowell turned for assistance Hawthorne, 
Emerson, Whittier, Poe, Story and Parsons, none of them 
yet possessed of a wide reputation indicate the acumen of the 
editor. Lowell himself had already turned his studies in dramatic 
and early poetic literature to account in another magazine, 
and continued the series in The Pioneer, besides contributing 
poems; but after the issue of three monthly numbers, beginning 
in January 1843, the magazine came to an end, partly because 
of a sudden disaster which befell Lowell's eyes, partly through 
the inexperience of the conductors and unfortunate business 

The venture confirmed Lowell in his bent towards literature. 
At the close of 1843 he published a collection of his poems, and 
a year later he gathered up certain material which he had printed, 
sifted and added to it, and produced Conversations on some of 
the Old Poets. The dialogue form was used merely to secure 
an undress manner of approach to his subject; there was no 
attempt at the dramatic. The book reflects curiously Lowell's 
mind at this time, for the conversations relate only partly to 
the poets and dramatists of the Elizabethan period; a slight 
suggestion sends the interlocutors off on the discussion of current 
reforms in church and state and society. Literature and reform 
were dividing the author's mind, and continued to do so for the 
next decade. Just as this book appeared Lowell and Miss White 
were married, and spent the winter and early spring of 1845 
in Philadelphia. Here, besides continuing his literary contribu- 
tions to magazines, Lowell had a regular engagement as an 
editorial writer on The Pennsylvania Freeman, a fortnightly 
journal devoted to the Anti-Slavery cause. In the spring of 
1845 the Lowells returned to Cambridge and made their home 
at Elmwood. On the last day of the year their first child, 
Blanche, was born, but she lived only fifteen months. A second 
daughter, Mabel, was born six months after Blanche's death, 
and h'ved to survive her father; a third, Rose, died an infant. 
Lowell's mother meanwhile was living, sometimes at home, some- 
times at a neighbouring hospital, with clouded mind, and his 
wife was in frail health. These troubles and a narrow income 
conspired to make Lowell almost a recluse in these days, but 
from the retirement of Elmwood he sent forth writings which 
show how large an interest he took in affairs. He contributed 
poems to the daily press, called out by the Slavery question; 
he was, early in 1846, a correspondent of the London Daily News, 
and in the spring of 1848 he formed a connexion with the National 
Anti-Slavery Standard of New York, by which he agreed to furnish 
weekly either a poem or a prose article. The poems were most 
frequently works of art, occasionally they were tracts; but 
the prose was almost exclusively concerned with the public 
men and questions of the day, and forms a series of incisive, 
witty and sometimes prophetic diatribes. It was a period with 
him of great mental activity, and is represented by four of his 
books which stand as admirable witnesses to the Lowell of 1848, 
namely, the second series of Poems, containing among others 
" Columbus," " An Indian Summer Reverie," " To the Dande- 
lion," " The Changeling "; A Fable for Critics, in which, after 
the manner of Leigh Hunt's The Feast of lite Poets, he charac- 
terizes in witty verse and with good-natured satire American 



contemporary writers, and in which, the publication being anony- 
mous, he included himself; The Vision of Sir Launfal, a 
romantic story suggested by the Arthurian legends one of his 
most popular poems; and finally The Biglow Papers. 

Lowell had acquired a reputation among men of letters and 
a cultivated class of readers, but this satire at once brought 
him a wider fame. The book was not premeditated; a single 
poem, called out by the recruiting for the abhorred Mexican 
war, couched in rustic phrase and sent to the Boston Courier, 
had the inspiriting dash and electrifying rat-tat-tat of this 
new recruiting sergeant in the little army of Anti-Slavery re- 
formers. Lowell himself discovered what he had done at the 
same time that the public did, and he followed the poem with 
eight others either in the Courier or the Anti-Slavery Standard. 
He developed four well-defined characters in the process a 
country farmer, Ezekiel Biglow, and his son Hosea; the Rev. 
Homer Wilbur, a shrewd old-fashioned country minister; and 
Birdofredum Sawin, a Northern renegade who enters the army, 
together with one or two subordinate characters; and his 
stinging satire and sly humour are so set forth in the vernacular 
of New England as to give at once a historic dignity to this 
form of speech. (Later he wrote an elaborate paper to show 
the survival in New England of the English of the early I7th 
century.) He embroidered his verse with an entertaining 
apparatus of notes and mock criticism. Even his index was 
spiced with wit. The book, a caustic arraignment of the course 
taken in connexion with the annexation of Texas and the war 
with Mexico, made a strong impression, and the political philo- 
sophy secreted in its lines became a part of household literature. 
It is curious to observe how repeatedly this arsenal was drawn 
upon in the discussions in America about the " Imperialistic " 
developments of 1900. The death of Lowell's mother, and the 
fragility of his wife's health, led Lowell, with his wife, their 
daughter Mabel and their infant son Walter, to go to Europe 
in 1851, and they went direct to Italy. The early months of 
their stay were saddened by the death of Walter in Rome, and 
by the news of the illness of Lowell's father, who had a slight shock 
of paralysis. They returned in November 1852, and Lowell 
published some recollections of his journey in the magazines, 
collecting the sketches later in a prose volume, Fireside Travels. 
He took some part also in the editing of an American edition 
of the British Poets, but the low state of his wife's health kept 
him in an uneasy condition, and when her death (27th October 
1853) released him from the strain of anxiety, there came with 
the grief a readjustment of his nature and a new intellectual 
activity. At the invitation of his cousin, he delivered a course 
of lectures on English poets before the Lowell Institute in Boston 
in the winter of 1855. This first formal appearance as a critic 
and historian of literature at once gave him a new standing 
in the community, and was the occasion of his election to the 
Smith Professorship of Modern Languages in Harvard College, 
then vacant by the retirement of Longfellow. Lowell accepted 
the appointment, with the proviso that he should have a year 
of study abroad. He spent his time mainly in Germany, visiting 
Italy, and increasing his acquaintance with the French, German, 
Italian and Spanish tongues. He returned to America in the 
summer of 1856, and entered upon his college duties, retaining 
his position for twenty years. As a teacher he proved himself 
a quickener of thought amongst students, rather than a close 
and special instructor. His power lay in the interpretation of 
literature rather than in linguistic study, and his influence over 
his pupils was exercised by his own fireside as well as in the 
relation, always friendly and familiar, which he held to them 
in the classroom. In 1856 he married Miss Frances Dunlap, 
a lady who had since his wife's death had charge of his daughter 

In the autumn of 1857 The Atlantic Monthly was established, 
and Lowell was its first editor. He at once gave the magazine 
the stamp of high literature and of bold speech on public affairs. 
He held this position only till the spring of 1861, but he continued 
to make the magazine the vehicle of his poetry and of some 
prose for the rest of his life; his prose, however, was more 

abundantly presented in the pages of The North American 
Review during the years 1862-1872, when he was associated with 
Mr Charles Eliot Norton in its conduct. This magazine especially 
gave him the opportunity of expression of political views during 
the eventful years of the War of the Union. It was in The 
Atlantic during the same period that he published a second 
series of The Biglow Papers. Both his collegiate and editorial 
duties stimulated his critical powers, and the publication in the 
two magazines, followed by republication in book form, of a 
series of studies of great authors, gave him an important place 
as a critic. Shakespeare, Dryden, Lessing, Rousseau, Dante, 
Spenser, Wordsworth, Milton, Keats, Carlyle, Thoreau, Swinburne, 
Chaucer, Emerson, Pope, Gray these are the principal subjects 
of his prose, and the range of topics indicates the catholicity of 
his taste. He wrote also a number of essays, such as " My Garden 
Acquaintance," " A Good Word for Winter," " On a Certain 
Condescension in Foreigners," which were incursions into the 
field of nature and society. Although the great bulk of his 
writing was now in prose, he made after this date some of his 
most notable ventures in poetry. In 1868 he issued the next 
collection in Under the Willows and other Poems, but in 1865 
he had delivered his " Ode recited at the Harvard Commemora- 
tion," and the successive centennial historical anniversaries 
drew from him a series of stately odes. 

In 1877 Lowell, who had mingled so little in party politics 
that the sole public office he had held was the nominal one of 
elector in the Presidential election of 1876, was appointed by 
President Hayes minister resident at the court of Spain. He 
had a good knowledge of Spanish language and literature, and 
his long-continued studies in history and his quick judgment 
enabled him speedily to adjust himself to these new relations. 
Some of his despatches to the home government were published 
in a posthumous volume Impressions of Spain. In 1880 he 
was transferred to London as American minister, and remained 
there till the close of President Arthur's administration in the 
spring of 1885. As a man of letters he was already well known 
in England, and he was in much demand as an orator on public 
occasions, especially of a literary nature; but he also proved 
himself a sagacious publicist, and made himself a wise interpreter 
of each country to the other. Shortly after his retirement from 
public life he published Democracy and other Addresses, all of 
which had been delivered in England. The title address was an 
epigrammatic confession of political faith as hopeful as it was 
wise and keen. The close of his stay in England was saddened 
by the death of his second wife in 1885. After his return to 
America he made several visits to England. His public life had 
made him more of a figure in the world; he was decorated with 
the highest honours Harvard could pay officially, and with 
degrees of Oxford, Cambridge, St Andrews, Edinburgh and 
Bologna. He issued another collection of his poems, Heartsease 
and Rue, in 1888, and occupied himself with revising and re- 
arranging his works, which were published in ten volumes in 
1890. The last months of his life were attended by illness, and 
he died at Elmwood on the i2th of August 1891. After his 
death his literary executor, Charles Eliot Norton, published a 
brief collection of his poems, and two volumes of added prose, 
besides editing his letters. 

The spontaneity of Lowell's nature is delightfully disclosed 
in his personal letters. They are often brilliant, and sometimes 
very penetrating in their judgment of men and books; but the 
most constant element is a pervasive humour, and this humour, 
by turns playful and sentimental, is largely characteristic of his 
poetry, which sprang from a genial temper, quick in its sympathy 
with nature and humanity. The literary refinement which 
marks his essays in prose is not conspicuous in his verse, which 
is of a more simple character. There was an apparent conflict 
in him of the critic and the creator, but the conflict was superficial. 
The man behind both critical and creative work was so genuine, 
that through his writings and speech and action he impressed 
himself deeply upon his generation in America, especially upon 
the thoughtful and scholarly class who looked upon him as 
especially their representative. This is not to say that he was 


a man of narrow sympathies. On the contrary, he was demo- 
cratic in his thought, and outspoken in his rebuke of whatever 
seemed to him antagonistic to the highest freedom. Thus, 
without taking a very active part in political life, he was recog- 
nized as one of the leaders of independent political thought. 
He found expression in so many ways, and was apparently so 
inexhaustible in his resources, that his very versatility and the 
ease with which he gave expression to his thought sometimes 
stood in the way of a recognition of his large, simple political 
ideality and the singleness of his moral sight. 

WRITINGS. The Works of James Russell Lowell, in ten volumes 
(Boston and New York, Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1890); edition de 
luxe, 61 vols. (1904); Latest Literary Essays and Addresses (1891); 
The Old English Dramatists (1892); Conversations on some of the 
Old Poets (Philadelphia, David M'Kay; reprint of the volume pub- 
lished in 1843 and subsequently abandoned by its author, 1893); 
The Power of Sound: a Rhymed Lecture (New York, privately 
printed, 1896); Lectures on English Poets (Cleveland, The Rowfant 
Club, 1899). 

MEMOIRS. Letters of James Russell Lowell, edited by Charles 
Eliot Norton, in two volumes (New York, Harper & Brothers, 
1899); Life of James Russell Lowell (2 vols.), by Horace E. Scudder 
(Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1901); James Russell Lowell and his 
Friends (Boston, 1899), by Edward Everett Hale. (H. E. S.*) 

LOWELL, JOHN (1743-1802), American jurist, was born in 
Newburyport, Massachusetts, on the i7th of June 1743, and 
was a son of the Reverend John Lowell, the first pastor of 
Newburyport, and a descendant of Perceval Lowle or Lowell 
( 1 57 1-1665) i wno emigrated from Somersetshire to Massachusetts 
Bay in 1639 and was the founder of the family in New England. 
John Lowell graduated at Harvard in 1760, was admitted to the 
bar in 1763, represented Newburyport (1776) and Boston (1778) 
in the Massachusetts Assembly, was a member of the Massa- 
chusetts Constitutional .Convention of 1770-1780 and, as a 
member of the committee appointed to draft a constitution, 
secured the insertion of the clause, " all men are born free and 
equal," which was interpreted by the supreme court of the state 
in 1783 as abolishing slavery in the state. In 1781-1783 he 
was a member of the Continental Congress, which in 1782 made 
him a judge of the court of appeals for admiralty cases; in 
1784 he was one of the commissioners from Massachusetts to 
settle the boundary line between Massachusetts and New York; 
in 1780-1801 he was a judge of the U.S. District Court of Massa- 
chusetts; and from 1801 until his death in Roxbury on the 
6th of May 1802 he was a justice of the U.S. Circuit Court 
for the First Circuit (Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts 
and Rhode Island). 

His son, JOHN LOWELL (1769-1840), graduated at Harvard in 
1786, was admitted to the bar in 1789 (like his father, before he 
was twenty years old), and retired from active practice in 1803. 
He opposed French influence and the policies of the Democratic 
party, writing many spirited pamphlets (some signed " The 
Boston Rebel," some " The Roxbury Farmer "), including: 
The Antigallican (1797), Remarks on the Hon. J. Q. Adams's 
Review of Mr Ames's Works (1809), New England Patriot, 
being a Candid Comparison of the Principles and Conduct of the 
Washington and Jefferson Administrations (1810), Appeals to the 
People on the Causes and Consequences of War with Great Britain 
(181 1) and Mr Madison's War (181 2). These pamphlets contain 
an extreme statement of the anti-war party and defend impress- 
ment as a right of long standing. After the war Lowell abandoned 
politics, and won for himself the title of " the Columella of New 
England " by his interest in agriculture he was for many years 
president of the Massachusetts Agricultural Society. He was a 
benefactor of the Boston Athenaeum and the Massachusetts 
General Hospital. 

Another son of the first John Lowell, FRANCIS CABOT LOWELL 
(1775-1817), the founder in the United States of cotton manu- 
facturing, was born in Newburyport on the 7th of April 1775, 
graduated at Harvard in 1793, became a merchant in Boston, 
and, during the war of 1812, with his cousin (who was also 
his brother-in-law), Patrick Tracy Jackson, made use of the 
knowledge of cotton-spinning gained by Lowell in England 
(whither he had gone for his health in 1810) and devised a power 

loom. Experiments were successfully carried on at Waltham in 
1814. Lowell worked hard to secure a protective tariff on cotton 
goods. The city of Lowell, Massachusetts, was named in his 
honour. He died in Boston on the loth of August 1817. 

CHARLES LOWELL (1782-1861), brother of the last named, 
was born in Boston, graduated at Harvard in 1800, studied law 
and then theology, and after two years in Edinburgh and one year 
on the Continent was from 1806 until his death pastor of the 
West Congregational (Unitarian) Church of Boston, a charge 
in which Cyrus A. Bartol was associated with him after 1837. 
Charles Lowell had a rare sweetness and charm, which reappeared 
in his youngest son, James Russell Lowell (<?..). 

Francis Cabot Lowell's son, JOHN LOWELL (1790-1836), was 
born in Boston, travelled in India and the East Indies on business 
in 1816 and 1817, in 1832 set out on a trip around the world, and 
on the 4th of March 1836 died in Bombay. By a will made, said 
Edward Everett, " on the top of a palace of the Pharaohs," 
he left $237,000 to establish what is now known as the Lowell 
Institute (?..). 

See the first lecture delivered before the Institute, Edward 
Everett's A Memoir of Mr John Lowell, Jr. (Boston, 1840). 

A grandson of Francis Cabot Lowell, EDWARD JACKSON 
LOWELL (1845-1894), graduated at Harvard in 1867, was 
admitted to the Suffolk county (Mass.) bar in 1872, and practised 
law for a few years. He wrote The Hessians and the Other German 
Auxiliaries of Great Britain in the Revolutionary War (1884), 
The Eve of the French Revolution (1892) and the chapter, " The 
United States of America 1775-1782 : their Political Relations 
with Europe," in vol. vii. (1888) of Winsor's Narrative and 
Critical History of America. 

LOWELL, a city and one of the county-seats (Cambridge 
being the other) of Middlesex county, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 
situated in the N.E. part of the county at the confluence of the 
Concord and Merrimack rivers, about 25 m. N.W. of Boston. 
Pop. (1890) 77,696; (1900) 94,969, of whom 40,974 were foreign- 
born (14,674 being French Canadian, 12,147 Irish, 4485 
English Canadian, 4446 English, 1203 Greek, 1099 Scotch); 
(1910 census), 106,294. Lowell is served by the Boston & 
Maine and the New York, New Haven & Hartford railways, and 
by interurban electric lines. The area of Lowell is 14-1 sq. m., 
much the larger part of which is S. of the Merrimack. The city 
is irregularly laid out. Its centre is Monument Square, in 
Merrimack Street, where are a granite monument to the first 
Northerners killed in the Civil War, Luther C. Ladd and A. O. 
Whitney (both of Lowell), whose regiment was mobbed in 
Baltimore on the igth of April 1861 while marching to Wash- 
ington; and a bronze figure of Victory (after one by Rauch in 
the Valhalla at Ratisbon), commemorating the Northern triumph 
in the Civil War. The Lowell textile school, opened in 1897, 
offers courses in cotton manufacturing, wool manufacturing, 
designing, chemistry and dyeing, and textile engineering; 
evening drawing schools and manual training in the public 
schools have contributed to the high degree of technical perfec- 
tion in the factories. The power gained from the Pawtucket 
Falls in the Merrimack river has long been found insuffi- 
cient for these. A network of canals supplies from 14,000 to 
24,000 h.p.; and a small amount is also furnished by the Concord 
river, but about 26,000 h.p. is supplied by steam. In factory 
output ($46,879,212 in 1905; $41,202,984 in 1900) Lowell 
ranked fifth in value in 1905 and fourth in 1900 among the 
cities of Massachusetts; more than three-tenths of the total 
population are factory wage-earners, and nearly 19% of the 
population are in the cotton mills. Formerly Lowell was called 
the " Spindle City " and the " Manchester of America," but 
it was long ago surpassed in the manufacture of textiles by FalJ 
River and New Bedford: in 1905 the value of the cotton product 
of Lowell, $19,340,925, was less than 60% of the value of cotton 
goods made at Fall River. Woollen goods made in Lowell in 1905 
were valued at $2,579,363; hosiery and knitted goods, at 
$3,816,964; worsted goods, at $1,978,552. Carpets and textile 
machinery are allied manufactures of importance. There are 
other factories for machinery, patent medicines, boots and shoes, 



perfumery and cosmetics, hosiery and rubber heels. Lowell was 
the home of the inventor of rubber heels, Humphrey O'Sullivan. 

The founders of Lowell were Patrick Tracy Jackson (1780- 
1847), Nathan Appleton (1779-1861), Paul Moody (1770-1831) 
and the business manager chosen by them, Kirk Boott (1790- 
1837). The opportunity for developing water-power by the 
purchase of the canal around Pawtucket Falls (chartered for 
navigation in 1792) led them to choose the adjacent village 
of East Chelmsford as the site of their projected cotton mills; 
they bought the Pawtucket canal, and incorporated in 1822 
the Merrimack Manufacturing Company; in 1823 the first cloth 
was actually made, and in 1826 a separate township was formed 
from part of Chelmsford and was named in honour of Francis 
Cabot Lowell, who with Jackson had improved Cartwright's 
power loom, and had planned the mills at Waltham. In 1836 
Lowell was chartered as a city. Lowell annexed parts of Tewks- 
bury in 1834, 1874, 1888 and 1906, and parts of Dracut in 1851, 
1874 and 1879. Up to 1840 the mill hands, with the exception 
of English dyers and calico printers, were New England girls. 
The " corporation," as the employers were called, provided 
from the first for the welfare of their employees, and Lowell 
has always been notably free from labour disturbances. 

The character of the early employees of the mills, later largely 
displaced by French Canadians and Irish, and by immigrants from 
various parts of Europe, is clearly seen in the periodical, The Lowell 
Offering, written and published by them in 1840-1845. This 
monthly magazine.orgamzed by the Rev. Abel Charles Thomas (1807- 
1880), pastor of the First Universalist Church, was from October 
1840 to March 1841 made up of articles prepared for some of the 
many improvement circles or literary societies; it then became 
broader in its scope, received more spontaneous contributions, and 
from October 1842 until December 1845 was edited by Harriot F. 
Curtis (1813-1889), known by her pen name, " Mina Myrtle," and 
by Harriet Farley (1817-1907), who became manager and proprietor, 
and published selections from the Offering under the titles Shells 
from the Strand of the Sea of Genius (1847) and Mind among the 
Spindles (1849), with an introduction by Charles Knight. In 1854 
she married John Intaglio Donlevy (d. 1872). Famous contributors 
to the Offering were Harriet Hanson (b. 1825) and Lucy Larcom 
(1824-1893). Harriet Hanson wrote Early Factory Labor in New 
England (1883) and Loom and Spindle (1898), an important contri- 
bution to the industrial and social history of Lowell. She was 
prominent in the anti-slavery and woman suffrage agitations in 
Massachusetts, and wrote Massachusetts in the Woman Suffrage 
Movement (1881). She married in 1848 William Stevens Robinson 
(1818-1876), who wrote in 1856-1876 the political essays signed 
" Warrington " for the Springfield Republican. Lucy Larcom, 1 
born in Beverly, came to Lowell in 1835, where her widowed mother 
kept a " corporation " boarding-house, and where she became a 
" doffer," changing bobbins in the mills. She wrote much, especially 
for the Offering; became an ardent abolitionist and (in 1843) the 
friend of Whittier; left Lowell in 1846, and taught for several years, 
first in Illinois, and then in Beverly and Norton, Massachusetts. 
An Idyl of Work (1875) describes the life of the mills and A New 
England Girlhood (1889) is autobiographical; she wrote many stories 
and poems, of which Hannah Binding Shoes is best known. 

Benjamin F. Butler was from boyhood a resident of Lowell, 
where he began to practise law in 1841. James McNeill Whistler 
was born here in 1834, and in 1907 his birthplace in Worthen Street 
was purchased by the Art Association to be used as its headquarters 
and as an art museum and gallery ; it was dedicated in 1908, and in 
the same year a replica of Rodin's statue of Whistler was bought for 
the city. 

See S. A. Drake, History of Middlesex County, 2, p. 53 et seq. 
(Boston, 1880); Illustrated History of Lowell, Massachusetts (Lowell, 
1897); the books of Harriet H. Robinson and Lucy Larcom already 
named as bearing on the industrial conditions of the city between 
1835 and 1850; and the famous description in the fourth chapter of 
Dickens's American Notes. 

LOWELL INSTITUTE, an educational foundation in Boston, 
Massachusetts, U.S. A., providing for free public lectures, and en- 
dowed by the bequest of $23 7 ,000 left by John Lowell, junior, who 
died in 1836. Under the terms of his will 10% of the net income 
was to be added to the principal, which in 1909 was over a million 
dollars. None of the fund was to be invested in a building 
for the lectures; the trustees of the Boston Athenaeum were 
made visitors of the fund; but the trustee of the fund is author- 
ized to select his own successor, although in doing so he must 
" always choose in preference to all others some male descendant 

1 See D. D. Addison, Lucy Larcom; Life, Letters and Diary 
(Boston, 1897). 

of my grandfather John Lowell, provided there is one who 
is competent to hold the office of trustee, and of the name of 
Lowell," the sole trustee so appointed having the entire selection 
of the lecturers and the subjects of lectures. The first trustee 
was John Lowell junior's cousin, John Amory Lowell, who 
administered the trust for more than forty years, and was 
succeeded in 1881 by his son, Augustus Lowell, who in turn 
was succeeded in 1900 by his son Abbott Lawrence Lowell, who 
in 1909 became president of Harvard University. 

The founder provided for two kinds of lectures, one popular, 
" and the other more abstruse, erudite and particular." The 
popular lectures have taken the form of courses usually ranging 
from half a dozen to a dozen lectures, and covering almost every 
subject. The fees have always been large, and many of the most 
eminent men in America and Europe have lectured there. A 
large number of books have been published which consist of 
those lectures or have been based upon them. As to the advanced 
lectures, the founder seems to have had in view what is now 
called university extension, and in this he was far in advance 
of his time; but he did not realize that such work can only be 
done effectively in connexion with a great school. In pursuance 
of this provision public instruction of various kinds has been 
given from time to time by the Institute. The first freehand 
drawing in Boston was taught there, but was given up when the 
public schools undertook it. In the same way a school of practical 
design was carried on for many years, but finally, in 1903, was 
transferred to the Museum of Fine Arts. Instruction for working 
men was given at the Wells Memorial Institute until 1908, when 
the Franklin Foundation took up the work. A Teachers' School 
of Science is maintained in co-operation with the Natural History 
Society. For many years advanced courses of lectures were 
given by the professors of the Massachusetts Institute of 
Technology, but in 1904 they were superseded by an evening 
school for industrial foremen. In 1907, under the title of 
" Collegiate Courses," a number of the elementary courses 
in Harvard University were offered free to the public under the 
same conditions of study and examination as in the university. 

For the earlier period, see Harriett Knight Smith, History of the 
Lowell Institute (Boston, 1898). 

LOWENBERG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province 
of Silesia, on the Sober, 39 m. E. of Gorlitz by rail. Pop. 5682. 
It is one of the oldest towns in Silesia; its town hall dates 
from the i6th century, and it has a Roman Catholic church 
built in the I3th century and restored in 1862. The town has 
sandstone and gypsum quarries, breweries and woollen mills, 
and cultivates fruit and vegetables. Lowenberg became a 
town in 1217 and has been the scene of much fighting, especially 
during the Napoleonic wars. Near the town is the village and 
estate of Hohlstein, the property of the Hohenzollern family. 

LOWENSTEIN, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of 
Wurttemberg, capital of the mediatized county of that name, 
situated under the north slope of the Lowenstein range, 6 m. 
from Heilbronn. Pop. 1527. It is dominated by the ruined 
castle of the counts of Lowenstein, and enclosed by medieval 
walls. The town contains many picturesque old houses. There 
is also a modern palace. The cultivation of vines is the chief 
industry, and there is a brine spring (Theusserbad). 

Lowenstein was founded in 1123 by the counts of Calw, and 
belonged to the Habsburgs from 1281 to 1441. In 1634 the 
castle was destroyed by the imperialists. The county of Lowen- 
stein belonged to a branch of the family of the counts of Calw 
before 1281, when it was purchased by the German king Rudolph 
I., who presented it to his natural son Albert. In 1441 Henry, 
one of Albert's descendants, sold it to the elector palatine of 
the Rhine, Frederick I., and later it served as a portion for 
Louis (d. 1524), a son of the elector by a morganatic marriage, 
who became a count of the Empire in 1494. Louis's grandson 
Louis II. (d. 1611) inherited the county of Wertheim and other 
lands by marriage and called himself count of Lowenstein- 
Wertheim; his two sons divided the family into two branches. 
The heads of the two branches, into which the older and Pro- 
testant line was afterwards divided, were made princes by the 

7 8 


king of Bavaria in 1812 and by the king of Wiirttemberg in 
1813; the head of the younger, or Roman Catholic line, was 
made a prince of the Empire in 1711. Both lines are flourishing, 
their present representatives being Ernst (b. 1854) prince of 
Lowenstein- Wertheim-Freudenberg, and Aloyse (b. 1871) prince 
of Lowenstein- Wertheim-Rosenberg. The lands of the family 
were mediatized after the dissolution of the Empire in 1806. 
The area of the county of Lowenstein was about 53 sq. m. 

See C. Rommel, Grundztige einer Chronik der Stadt Lowenstein 
(Lowenstein, 1893). 

LOWESTOFT, a municipal borough, seaport and watering- 
place in the Lowestoft parliamentary division of Suffolk, England, 
117! m. N.E. from London by ' the Great Eastern railway. 
Pop. (1901) 29,850. It lies on either side of the formerly 
natural, now artificial outlet of the river Waveney to the North 
Sea, while to the west the river forms Oulton Broad and Lothing 
Lake. The northern bank is the original site. South Lowestoft 
arose on the completion of harbour improvements, begun in 
1844, when the outlet of the Waveney, reopened in 1827, was 
deepened. The old town is picturesquely situated on a lofty 
declivity, which includes the most easterly point of land in 
England. The church of St Margaret is Decorated and Per- 
pendicular. South Lowestoft has a fine esplanade, a park 
(Bellevue) and other adjuncts of a watering-place. Bathing 
facilities are good. There are two piers enclosing a harbour with 
a total area of 48 acres, having a depth of about i6ft. at high 
tide. The fisheries are important and some 600 smacks belong 
to the port. Industries include ship and boat building and 
fitting, and motor engineering. The town is governed by a 
mayor, 8 aldermen and 24 councillors. Area 2178 acres. 

Lowestoft (Lothu Wistoft, Lowistoft, Loistoft) owes its origin 
to its fisheries. In 1086 it was a hamlet in the demesne of the 
royal manor of Lothingland. The men of Lowestoft as tenants 
on ancient demesne of the crown possessed many privileges, 
but had no definite burghal rights until 1885. For several 
centuries before 1740 the fisheries were the cause of constant 
dispute between Lowestoft and Yarmouth. During the last 
half of the i8th century the manufacture of china flourished in 
the town. A weekly market on Wednesdays was granted to 
John, earl of Richmond, in 1308 together with an eight days' 
fair beginning on the vigil of St Margaret's day, and in 1445 
John de la Pole, earl of Suffolk, one of his successors as lord of 
the manor, received a further grant of the same market and also 
two yearly fairs, one on the feast of St Philip and St James and 
the other at Michaelmas. The market is still held on Wednes- 
days, and in 1792 the Michaelmas fair and another on May-day 
were in existence. Now two yearly fairs for small wares are held 
on the I3th of May and the nth of October. In 1643 Cromwell 
performed one of his earlier exploits in taking Lowestoft, captur- 
ing large supplies and making prisoners of several influential 
royalists. In the war of 1665 the Dutch under Admiral Opdam 
were defeated off Lowestoft by the English fleet commanded by 
the duke of York. 

See Victoria County History, Suffolk; E. Gillingwater, An His- 
torical Account of the Town of Lowestoft (ed. 1790). 

LOWIN, JOHN (1576-1659), English actor, was born in London, 
the son of a carpenter. His name frequently occurs in Henslowe's 
Diary in 1602, when he was playing at the Rose Theatre in the 
earl of Worcester's company, and he was at the Blackfriars in 
1603, playing with Shakespeare, Burbage and the others, and 
owning by 1608 a share and a half -of the twenty shares in 
that theatre. About 1623 he was one of the managers. He lived 
in Southwark, and Edward Alleyn speaks of his dining with him 
in 1620. " Lowin in his latter days kept an inn (the Three Pigeons) 
at Brentford, where he deyed very old." Two of his favourite 
parts were Falstaff , and Melanteus in The Maid's Tragedy. 

LOWLAND, in physical geography, any broad expanse of land 
with a general low level. The term is thus applied to the land- 
ward portion of the upward slope from oceanic depths to con- 
tinental highlands, to a region of depression in the interior of a 
mountainous region, to a plain of denudation or to any region 
in contrast to a highland. The Lowlands and Highlands of 
Scotland are typical. 

LOWNDES, THOMAS (1692-1748), founder of the Lowndean 
professorship of astronomy at Cambridge university, England, 
was born in 1692, both his father and mother being Cheshire 
landowners. In 1725 he was appointed provost marshal of 
South Carolina, a post he preferred to fill by deputy. In 1727 
Lowndes claimed to have taken a prominent part in inducing 
the British government to purchase Carolina, but he surrendered 
his patent when the transfer of the colony to the crown was 
completed. His patent was renewed in 1730, but he resigned 
it in 1733. He then brought various impractical schemes before 
the government to check the illicit trade in wool between Ireland 
and France; to regulate the paper currency of New England; 
and to supply the navy with salt from brine, &c. He died on the 
1 2th of May 1748. By his will he left his inherited Cheshire 
properties to the university of Cambridge for the foundation of 
a chair of astronomy and geometry. 

LOWNDES, WILLIAM THOMAS (1798-1843), English biblio- 
grapher, was born about 1798, the son of a London bookseller. 
His principal work, The Bibliographer's Manual of English 
Literature the first systematic work of the kind was published 
in four volumes in 1834. It took Lowndes fourteen years to 
compile, but, despite its merits, brought him neither fame nor 
money. Lowndes, reduced to poverty, subsequently became 
cataloguer to Henry George Bohn, the bookseller and publisher. 
In 1839 he published the first parts of The British Librarian, 
designed to supplement his early manual, but owing to failing 
health did not complete the work. Lowndes died on the 3ist of 
July 1843. 

LOW SUNDAY, the first Sunday after Easter, so called because 
of its proximity to the " highest" of all feasts and Sundays, 
Easter. It was also known formerly as White Sunday, being still 
officially termed by the Roman Catholic Church Dominica in 
albis, " Sunday in white garments," in allusion to the white 
garments anciently worn on this day by those who had been 
baptized and received into the Church just before Easter. Alb- 
Sunday, Quasimodo and, in the Greek Church, Antipascha, and 
fl SeurepoTrpcbn? Kupia/c^ (literally " second-first Sunday," i.e. 
the second Sunday after the first) were other names for the day. 

LOWTH, ROBERT (1710-1787), English divine and Orientalist, 
was born at Winchester on the 27th of November 1710. He was 
the younger son of William Lowth (1661-1732), rector of Buriton, 
Hampshire, a theologian of considerable ability. Robert was 
educated on the foundation of Winchester College, and in 1729. 
was elected to a scholarship at New College, Oxford. He gradu- 
ated M.A. in 1737, and in 1741 he was appointed professor of 
poetry at Oxford, in which capacity he delivered the Praelectiones 
Academicae de Sacra Poesi Hebraeorum. Bishop Hoadly ap- 
pointed him in 1744 to the rectory of Ovington, Hampshire, 
and in 1750 to the archdeaconry of Winch"-*:;'. In 1753 he was 
collated to the rectory of East Woodhay, Hampshire, and in the 
same year he published his lectures on Hebrew poetry. In 1754 
he received the degree of doctor of divinity from his university, 
and in 1755 he went to Ireland for a short time as first chaplain 
to the lord-lieutenant, the 4th duke of Devonshire. He declined 
a presentation to the see of Limerick, but accepted a prebendal 
stall at Durham and the rectory of Sedgefield. In 1758 he 
published his Life of William of Wykeham; this was followed 
in 1762 by A Short Introduction to English Grammar. In 1765, 
the year of his election into the Royal Societies of London and 
Gottingen, he engaged in controversy with William Warburton 
on the book of Job, in which he was held by Gibbon to have had 
the advantage. In June 1766 Lowth was consecrated bishop of 
St David's, and about four months afterwards he was translated 
to Oxford, where he remained till 1777, when he became bishop- 
of London and dean of the Chapel Royal. In 1778 appeared his 
last work, Isaiah, a new Translation, with a Preliminary Dis- 
sertation, And Notes, Critical, Philological, and Explanatory. 
He declined the archbishopric of Canterbury in 1783, and died 
at Fulham on the 3rd of November 1787. 

The Praelectiones, translated in 1787 by G. Gregory as Lectures on 
the Sacred Poetry of the Hebrews, exercised a great influence both in 
England and on the continent. Their chief importance lay in the- 



idea of looking at the sacred poetry as poetry, and examining it by 
the ordinary standards of literary criticism. Lowth's aesthetic criti- 
cism was that of the age, and is now in great part obsolete, a more 
natural method having been soon after introduced by Herder. 
The principal point in which Lowth's influence has been lasting is his 
doctrine of poetic parallelism, and even here his somewhat mechanical 
classification of the forms of Hebrew sense-rhythm, as it should 
rather be called, is open to serious objections. Editions of the 
Lectures and of the Isaiah have been numerous, and both have 
been translated into German. A volume of Sermons and other 
Remains, with memoir by the topographer, Peter Hall (1802- 
1849), was published in 1834, and an edition of the Popular Works 
of Robert Lowth in 3 vols. appeared in 1843. 

LOXODROME (from Gr. Xo6s, oblique, and dp&tws, course), 
the line on the earth's surface making a constant angle with 
the meridian. 

LOYALISTS or TORIES, in America, the name given to 
the colonists who were loyal to Great Britain during the War 
of Independence. In New England and the Middle Colonies 
loyalism had a religious as well as a political basis. It repre- 
sented the Anglican as opposed to the Calvinistic influence. 
With scarcely an exception the Anglican ministers were ardent 
Loyalists, the writers and pamphleteers were the ministers 
and teachers of that faith, and virtually all the military or civil 
leaders were members of that church. The Loyalists north 
of Maryland represented the old Tory traditions. In the southern 
colonies, where Anglicanism predominated, the division did not 
follow religious lines so closely. In Virginia and South Carolina 
the Whig leaders were almost without exception members of 
the established church. Out of twenty Episcopal ministers 
in South Carolina only five were Loyalists. Although many of 
the wealthy Anglican planters of the tide-water section fought 
for the mother country, the Tories derived their chief support 
from the non-Anglican Germans and Scotch in the upper country. 
The natural leaders in these colonies were members of the same 
church as the governor and vied with him in their zeal for the 
support of that church. Since religion was not an issue, the 
disputes over questions purely political in character, such as 
taxation, distribution of land and appointment of officials, 
were all the more bitter. The settlers on the frontier were 
snubbed both socially and politically by the low-country aristo- 
cracy, and in North Carolina and South Carolina were denied 
courts of justice and any adequate representation in the colonial 
assembly. Naturally they refused to follow such leaders in a 
war in defence of principles in which they had no material 
interest. They did not drink tea and had little occasion for the 
use of stamps, since they were not engaged in commerce and 
had no courts in which to use legal documents. The failure 
of the British officers to realize that conditions in the south 
differed from those in the north, and the tendency on their 
part to treat all Dissenters as rebels, were partly responsible 
for the ultimate loss of their southern campaign. The Scotch- 
Irish in the south, influenced perhaps by memories of commercial 
and religious oppression in Ulster, were mostly in sympathy 
with the American cause. 

Taking the Thirteen Colonies as a whole, loyalism drew its 
strength largely from the following classes: (i) the official 
class men holding positions in the civil, military and naval 
services, and their immediate families and social connexions, 
as, for example, Lieutenant-Governor Bull in South Carolina, 
Governor Dunmore in Virginia and Governor Tryon in New 
York; (2) the professional classes lawyers, physicians, teachers 
and ministers, such as Benjamin Kissam, Peter Van Schaack 
and Dr Azor Belts of New York and Dr Myles Cooper, president 
of King's College (now Columbia University); (3) large landed 
proprietors and their tenants, e.g. William Wragg in South 
Carolina and the De Lanceys, De Peysters and Van Cortlandts 
in New York; (4) the wealthy commercial classes in New York, 
Albany, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Charleston, whose business 
interests would be affected by war; (5) natural conservatives 
of the type of Joseph Galloway of Pennsylvania, and numerous 
political trimmers and opportunists. Before 1776 the Loyalists 
may be divided into two groups. There was a minority of 
extremists led by the Anglican ministers and teachers, who 

favoured an unquestioning obedience to all British legislation. 
The moderate majority disapproved of the mother country's 
unwise colonial policy and advocated opposition to it through 
legally organized bodies. Many even sanctioned non-importation 
and non-exportation agreements, and took part in the election 
of delegates to the First Continental Congress. The aggressive 
attitude of Congress, the subsequent adoption of the Declara- 
tion of Independence, and the refusal to consider Lord Howe's 
conciliatory propositions finally forced them into armed opposi- 
tion. Very few really sanctioned the British policy as a whole, but 
all felt that it was their first duty to fight for the preservation 
of the empire and to leave constitutional questions for a later 
settlement. John Adams's estimate that one-third of all the 
people in the thirteen states in 1776 were Loyalists was perhaps 
approximately correct. In New England the number was small, 
perhaps largest in Connecticut and in the district which after- 
wards became the state of Vermont. New York was the chief 
stronghold. The " De Lancey party " or the " Episcopalian 
party " included the majority of the wealthy farmers, merchants 
and bankers, and practically all communicants of the Anglican 
church. New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and 
Virginia contained large and influential Loyalist minorities; North 
Carolina was about equally divided; South Carolina probably, 
and Georgia certainly, had Loyalist majorities. Some of the 
Loyalists joined the regular British army, others organized 
guerilla bands and with their Indian allies inaugurated a reign 
of terror on the frontier from New York to Georgia. New 
York alone furnished about 15,000 Loyalists to the British army 
and navy, and about 8500 militia, making in all 23,500 Loyalist 
troops. This was more than any other colony supplied, perhaps 
more than all the others combined. Johnson's " Loyal Greens " 
and Butler's " Tory Rangers " served under General St Leger 
in the Burgoyne campaign of 1777, and the latter took part in 
the Wyoming and Cherry Valley massacres of 1778. The 
strength of these Loyalists in arms was weakened in New York 
by General Sullivan's success at Newtown (now Elmira) on the 
2Qth of August 1779, and broken in the north-west by George 
Rogers Clark's victories at Kaskaskia and Vincennes in 1778 and 
1779, and in the south by the battles of King's Mountain and 
Cowpens in 1 780. Severe laws were passed against the Loyalists 
in all the states. They were in general disfranchised and forbidden 
to hold office or to practise law. Eight of the states formally 
banished certain prominent Tories either conditionally or un- 
conditionally, and the remaining five, Connecticut, New Jersey, 
Delaware, Maryland and Virginia, did practically the same 
indirectly. Social and commercial ostracism forced many 
others to flee. Their property was usually confiscated for the 
support of the American cause. They went to England, to the 
West Indies, to the Bahamas, to Canada and to New York, 
Newport, Charleston and other cities under British control. 
According to a trustworthy estimate 60,000 persons went into 
exile during the years from 1775 to 1787. The great majority 
settled in Nova Scotia and in Upper and Lower Canada, where 
they and their descendants became known as " United Empire 
Loyalists." Those who remained in the United States suffered 
for many years, and all the laws against them were not finally 
repealed until after the War of 1812. The British government, 
however, endeavoured to look after the interests of its loyal 
colonists. During the war a number of the prominent Loyalists 
(e.g. Joseph Galloway) were appointed to lucrative positions, 
and rations were issued to many Loyalists in the cities, such as 
New York, which were held by the British. During the peace 
negotiations at Paris the treatment of the Loyalists presented 
a difficult problem, Great Britain at first insisting that the 
United States should agree to remove their disabilities and to 
act toward them in a spirit of conciliation. The American 
commissioners, knowing that a treaty with such provisions would 
not be accepted at home, and that the general government had, 
moreover, no power to bind the various states in such a matter, 
refused to accede; but in the treaty, as finally ratified, the United 
States agreed (by Article V.) to recommend to the legislatures 
of the various states that Loyalists should " have free liberty 



to go to any part or parts of any of the thirteen United States, 
and therein to remain twelve months, unmolested in their en- 
deavours to obtain the restitution of such of their estates, rights 
and properties as may have been confiscated," that acts and 
laws in the premises be reconsidered and revised, and- that 
restitution of estates, &c., should be made. The sixth article 
provided " that there shall be no future confiscations made, 
nor any prosecutions commenced against any person " for 
having taken part in the war; and that those in confinement 
on such charges should be liberated. In Great Britain opponents 
of the government asserted that the Loyalists had virtually 
been betrayed; in America the treaty aroused opposition 
as making too great concessions to them. Congress made 
the promised recommendations, but they were unheeded by the 
various states, in spite of the advocacy by Alexander Hamilton 
and others of a conciliatory treatment of the Loyalists; and 
Great Britain, in retaliation, refused until 1796 to evacuate 
the western posts as the treaty prescribed. Immediately after 
the war parliament appointed a commission of five to examine 
the claims of the Loyalists for compensation for services and 
losses; and to satisfy these claims and to establish Loyalists 
in Nova Scotia and Canada the British government expended 
fully 6,000,000. 

See C. H. van Tyne, The Loyalists in the American Revolution 
(New York, 1902), which contains much valuable information but 
does not explain adequately the causes of loyalism. More useful in 
this respect is the monograph by A. C. Flick, Loyalism in New York 
during the American Revolution (New York, 1901). On the bio- 
graphical side see Lorenzo Sabine, Biographical Sketches of Loyalists 
of the American Revolution (2 vols., Boston, 1864); on the literary 
side, M. C. Tyler, Literary History of the American Revolution, 1763- 
1783 (2 vols., New York, 1897). 

LOYALTY, allegiance to the sovereign or established govern- 
ment of one's country, also personal devotion and reverence 
to the sovereign and royal family. The English word came into 
use in the early part of the isth century in the sense of fidelity 
to one's oath, or in service, love, &c.; the later and now the 
ordinary sense appears in the i6th century. The O. Fr. loialte, 
mod. loyauti, is formed from loial, loyal, Scots leal, Lat. legalis, 
legal, from lex, law. This was used in the special feudal sense 
of one who has full legal rights, a legalis homo being opposed to 
the exlex, utlegatus, or outlaw. Thence in the sense of faithful, 
it meant one who kept faithful allegiance to his feudal lord, 
and so loyal in the accepted use of the word. 

LOYALTY ISLANDS (Fr. lies Loyalty or Loyaute), a group 
in the South Pacific Ocean belonging to France, about 100 m. 
E. of New Caledonia, with a total land area of about 1050 sq. m. 
and 20,000 inhabitants. It consists of Uea or Uvea (the northern- 
most), Lifu (the largest island, with an area of 650 sq. m.), Tiga 
and several small islands and Mard or Nengone. They are coral 
islands of comparatively recent elevation, and in no place rise 
more than 250 ft. above the level of the sea. Enough of the 
rocky surface is covered with a thin coating of soil to enable 
the natives to grow yams, taro, bananas, &c., for their support; 
cotton thrives well, and has even been exported in small 
quantities, but there is no space available for its cultivation 
on any considerable scale. Fresh water, rising and falling with 
the tide, is found in certain large caverns in Lifu, and by sinking 
to the sea-level a supply may be obtained in any part of the 
island. The chief product of the islands are bananas \> the chief 
export sandal-wood. 

The Loyalty islanders are Melanesians; the several islands have 
each its separate language, and in Uea one tribe uses a Samoan 
and another a New Hebridean form of speech. The Loyalty 
group was discovered at the beginning of the igth century, and 
Dumont d'Urville laid down the several islands in his chart. 
For many years the natives had a reputation as dangerous 
cannibals, but they are now among the most civilized Melanesians. 
Christianity was introduced into Mare by native teachers from 
Rarotonga and Samoa; missionaries were settled by the London 
Missionary Society at Mare in 1854, at Lifu in 1859 and at Uea 
in 1865: Roman Catholic missionaries also arrived from New 
Caledonia; and in 1864 the French, considering the islands a 

dependency of that colony, formally instituted a commandant. 
An attempt was made by this official to put a stop to the English 
missions by violence; but the report of his conduct led to so 
much indignation in Australia and in England that the emperor 
Napoleon, on receipt of a protest from Lord Shaftesbury and 
others, caused a commission of inquiry to be appointed and 
free liberty of worship to be secured to the Protestant missions. 
A further persecution of Christians in Uea, during 1875, called 
forth a protest from the British government. 

LOYOLA, ST IGNATIUS OF (1491-1556), founder of the 
Society of Jesus. Inigo Lopez de Recalde, son of Beltran, 
lord of the noble houses of Loyola and Onaz, was born, according 
to the generally accepted opinion, on the 24th of December 
1491 at the castle of Loyola, which is situated on the river 
Urola, about i m. from the town of Azpeitia, in the province of 
Guipuzcoa. He was the youngest of a family of thirteen. As 
soon as he had learnt the elements of reading and writing, he was 
sent as a page to the court of Ferdinand and Isabella; after- 
wards, until his twenty-sixth year, he took service with Antonio 
Maurique, duk,e of Nagera, and followed the career of arms. He 
was free in his relations with women, gambled and fought; 
but he also gave indications of that courage, constancy and 
prudence which marked his after life. In a political mission to 
settle certain disputes in the province he showed his dexterity 
in managing men. 

Despite the treaty of Noyon (1516), Charles V. kept Pampeluna, 
the capital of Navarre. Andr6 de Foix, at the head of the French 
troops, laid siege to the town in 1521 and Ignatius was one of the 
defending garrison. In the hour of danger, the claims of religion 
reasserted themselves on the young soldier, and, following a 
custom when no priest was at hand, he made his confession to a 
brother officer, who in turn also confessed to him. During the 
final assault on the igth of May 1521 a cannon ball struck him, 
shattering one of his legs and badly wounding the other. The 
victorious French treated him kindly for nearly two weeks, 
and then sent him in a litter to Loyola. The doctors declared 
that the leg needed to be broken and set again; and the operation 
was borne without a sign of pain beyond a clenching of his fist. 
His vanity made him order the surgeons to cut out a bone which 
protruded below the knee and spoilt the symmetry of his leg. 
He was lame for the rest of his days. Serious illness followed 
the operations, and, his life being despaired of, he received the 
last sacraments on the z8th of June. That night, however, he 
began to mend, and in a few days he was out of danger. During 
convalescence two books that were to influence his life were 
brought to him. These were a Castilian translation of The Life 
of Christ by Ludolphus of Saxony, and the popular Flowers of the 
Saints, a series of pious biographies. He gradually became 
interested in these books, and a mental struggle began. Some- 
times he would pass hours thinking of a certain illustrious lady, 
devising means of seeing her and of doing deeds that would win 
her favour; at other times the thoughts suggested by the books 
got the upper hand. He began to recognize that his career of 
arms was over: so he would become the knight of Christ. He 
determined to make the pilgrimage to Jerusalem and to practise 
all. the austerities that he read of in The Flowers of the Saints. 
Expiating his sins was not so much his aim as to accomplish 
great deeds for God. During the struggle that went on in his soul , 
he began to take note of his psychological state; and this was 
the first time that he exercised his reason on spiritual things; 
the experience thus painfully gained he found of great use after- 
wards in directing others. One night while he lay awake, he 
tells us, he saw the likeness of the Blessed Virgin with her 
divine Son; and immediately a loathing seized him for the 
former deeds of his life, especially for those relating to carnal 
desires; and he asserts that for the future he never yielded to any 
such desires. This was the first of many visions. Ignatius 
proposed after returning from Jerusalem to join the Carthusian 
order at Seville as a lay brother. About the same time Martin 
Luther was in the full course of his protest against the papal 
supremacy and had already burnt the pope's bull at Worms. The 
two opponents were girding themselves for the struggle; and 



what the Church of Rome was losing by the defection of the 
Augustinian was being counterbalanced by the conversion of 
the founder of the Society of Jesus. 

As soon as Ignatius had regained strength, he started ostensibly 
to rejoin the duke of Nagera, but in reality to visit the great 
Benedictine abbey of Montserrato, a famous place of pilgrimage. 
On the way, he was joined by a Moor, who began to jest at some 
of the Christian doctrines, especially at the perpetual virginity 
of the Blessed Virgin. Ignatius was no controversialist; and 
the Moor rode off victorious. The chivalrous nature of Ignatius 
was aroused. Seized with a longing to pursue and kill the Moor 
on account of his insulting language, Ignatius, still doubting 
as to his best course, left the matter to his mule, which at the 
dividing of the ways took the path to the abbey, leaving the 
open road which the Moor had taken. Before reaching Mont- 
serrato, Ignatius purchased some sackcloth for a garment and 
hempen shoes, which, with a staff and gourd, formed the usual 
pilgrim's dress. Approaching the abbey he resolved to do as 
his favourite hero Amadis de Gaul did keep a vigil all night 
before the Lady altar and then lay aside his worldly armour to 
put on that of Christ. He arrived at the abbey just about the 
feast of St Benedict (the zist of March 1522), and there made a 
confession of his life to a priest belonging to the monastery. 
He found in use for the pilgrims a translation of the Spiritual 
Exercises of the former abbot, Garcia di Cisneros (d. 1510); 
and this, book evidently gave Ignatius the first idea of his more 
famous work under the same title. Leaving his mule to the 
abbey, and giving away his worldly clothes to a beggar, he kept 
his watch in the church during the night of the 24th-25th of 
March, and placed on the Lady altar his sword and dagger. 
Early the next morning he received the Holy Eucharist and 
left before any one could recognize him, going to the neighbouring 
town of Manresa, where he first lived in the hospice. Here 
began a series of heavy spiritual trials which assailed him for 
many months. Seven hours a day he spent on his knees in prayer 
and three times a day he scourged his emaciated body. One day, 
almost overcome with scruples, he was tempted to end his 
miseries by suicide. At another time, for the same reason, he 
kept an absolute fast for a week. He tells us that, at this time, 
God wrought with him as a master with a schoolboy whom he 
teaches. Bait his energies were not confined to himself. He 
assisted others who came to him for spiritual advice; and seeing 
the fruit reaped from helping his neighbour, he gave up the 
extreme severities in which he had delighted and began to take 
more care of his person, so as not needlessly to offend those 
whom he might influence for good. 

During his stay at Manresa, he lived for the most part in a 
cell at the Dominican convent; and here, evidently, he had 
severe illnesses. He recounts the details of at least two of these 
attacks, but says nothing about the much-quoted swoon of 
eight days, during which he is supposed to have seen in vision 
the scheme of the future Society. Neither does he refer in any 
way to the famous cave in which, according to the Ignatian 
myth, the Spiritual Exercises were written. Fortunately we 
have the first-hand evidence of his autobiography, which is a 
surer guide than the lines written by untrustworthy disciples. 
Ignatius remained at Manresa for about a year, and in the spring 
of 1523 set out for Barcelona on his way to Rome, where he 
arrived on Palm Sunday. After two weeks he left, having 
received the blessing of Pope Adrian VI., and proceeded by 
Padua to Venice, where he begged his bread and slept in the 
Piazza di San Marco until a rich Spaniard gave him shelter 
and obtained an order from the doge for a passage in a pilgrim 
ship bound for Cyprus, whence he could get to Jaffa. In due 
course Ignatius arrived at Jerusalem, where he intended to 
remain, in order continuously to visit the holy places and help 
souls. For this end he had obtained letters of recommendation 
to the guardian, to whom, however, he only spoke of his desire 
of satisfying his devotion, not hinting his other motive. The 
Franciscans gave him no encouragement to remain; and the 
provincial threatened him with excommunication if he persisted. 
Not only had the friars great difficulty in supporting themselves, 

but they dreaded an outbreak from the fanatical Turks who 
resented some imprudent manifestations of Loyola's zeal. 
Ignatius returned to Venice in the middle of January 1524; 
and, determining to devote himself for a while to study, he set 
out for Barcelona, where he arrived in Lent. Here he consulted 
Isabella Roser, a lady of high rank and piety, and also the master 
of a grammar school. These both approved his plan; the one 
promised to teach him without payment and the other to provide 
him with the necessaries of life. Here, in his thirty-third year, 
he began to learn Latin, and after two years his master urged 
him to go to Alcala to begin philosophy. During his stay of a 
year and a half in this university, besides his classes, he found 
occasion to give to some companions his Spiritual Exercises in 
the form they had then taken and certain instructions in Christian 
doctrine. On account of these discourses Ignatius came into- 
conflict with the Inquisition. He and his companions were 
denounced as belonging to the sects of Sagali and Illuminati. 
Their mode of life and dress was peculiar and hinted at innovation. 
But, always ready to obey authority, Ignatius was able to disarm 
any charges that, now and at other times, were brought against 
him. The Inquisition merely advised him and his companions 
to dress in a less extraordinary manner and to go shod. Four 
months later he was suddenly cast into prison; and, after 
seventeen days, he learnt that he was falsely accused of 
sending two noble ladies on a pilgrimage to Jaen. During 
their absence, from the 2ist of April 1527 to the ist of June, 
he remained in prison, and was then set free with a prohibition 
against instructing others until he had spent four years in study. 
Seeing his way thus barred at Alcala, he went with his 
companions to Salamanca. Here the Dominicans, doubting the 
orthodoxy of the new-comers, had them put into prison, where 
they were chained foot to foot and fastened to a stake set up in 
the middle of the cell. Some days afterwards Ignatius was 
examined and found without fault. His patience won him many 
friends; and when he and his companions remained in prison 
while the other prisoners managed to escape, their conduct 
excited much admiration. After twenty-two days they were 
called up to receive sentence. No fault was found in their life 
and teaching; but they were forbidden to define any sins as 
being mortal or venial until they had studied for four years. 
Hampered again by such an order, Ignatius determined to go 
to Paris to continue his studies. Up to the present he was far 
from having any idea of founding a society. The only question 
before him now was whether he should join an order, or continue 
his wandering existence. He decided upon Paris for thfe present, 
and before leaving Salamanca he agreed with his companions 
that they should wait where they were until he returned; for 
he only meant to see whether he could find any means by which 
they all might give themselves to study. He left Barcelona and, 
travelling on foot to Paris, he arrived there in February 1528. 
The university of Paris had reached its zenith at the time 
of the council of Constance (1418), and was now losing its 
intellectual leadership under the attacks of the Renaissance and 
the Reformation. In 1521 the university had condemned 
Luther's Babylonish Captivity, and in 1527 Erasmus's Colloquies 
met with the same fate. Soon after his arrival, Ignatius may 
have seen in the Place de Greve the burning of Louis de Berquin 
for heresy. 1 At this period there were between twelve and 
fifteen thousand students attending the university, and the 
life was an extraordinary mixture of licentiousness and devout 
zeal. When Ignatius arrived in Paris, he lodged at first with 
some fellow-countrymen; and for two years attended the 
lectures on humanities at the college de Montaigu, supporting 
himself at first by the charity of Isabella (Roser; but, a fellow- 
lodger defrauding him of his stock, he found himself destitute 
and compelled to beg his bread. He retired to the hospice 

1 Louis de Berquin, who died on the 1 7th of April 1529, belonged 
to a noble family of Artois. He was a man of exemplary life and a 
friend of Erasmus and the humanists, besides being a persona grata 
at the court of Louise of Savoy and Francis I. His main offence 
was that he attacked the monks and clergy, and that he advocated 
the reading of the Scriptures by the people in the vulgar tongue. 
(W. A. P.) 


of St Jacques; and, following the advice of a Spanish monk, 
spent his vacations in Flanders, where he was helped by the 
rich Spanish merchants. At Bruges he became acquainted with 
the famous Spanish scholar, Juan Luis Vives, with whom he 
lodged. In the summer of 1530 he went to London, where he 
received alms more abundantly than elsewhere. As he could 
only support himself at Paris with difficulty, it was impossible 
to send for his companions in Salamanca. Others, however, 
joined him in Paris, and to some of them he gave the Spiritual 
Exercises, with the result that the Inquisition made him give up 
speaking on religious subjects during the time he was a student. 
At the end of 1529 he came into contact with the men who were 
eventually to become the first fathers of the Society of Jesus. 
He won over the Savoyard Pierre Lefevre (Faber), whose room 
he shared, and the Navarrese Francis Xavier, who taught 
philosophy in the college of St Barbara. Afterwards he became 
acquainted with the young Castilian, Diego Laynez, who had 
hea'rd of him at Acala and found him out in Paris. With 
Laynez came two other young men, the Toledan Alfonso Salmeron 
and the Portuguese Simon Rodriguez. Nicholas Bobadilla, 
a poor Spaniard who had finished his studies, was the next to 
join him. The little company of seven determined to consecrate 
their union by vows. On the isth of August 1534, the Feast 
of the Assumption, they assembled in the crypt of the church 
of St Mary on Montmartre, and Faber, the only one who was a 
priest, said Mass. They then took the vows of poverty and 
chastity, and pledged themselves to go to the Holy Land as 
missionaries or for the purpose of tending the sick; or if this 
design should prove impracticable, to go to Rome and place 
themselves at the disposal of the pope for any purpose. But, 
whatever may have been the private opinion of Ignatius, there 
was on this occasion no foundation of any society. The vows 
were individual obligations which could be kept quite apart from 
membership in a society. A provision was made that if, after 
waiting a year at Venice, they were unable to go to Jerusalem, 
this part of the vow should be cancelled and they should at 
once betake themselves to Rome. 

At this time Ignatius was again suffering from his former 
imprudent austerities; and he was urged to return for a while 
to his native air. He left Paris for Spain in the autumn of 1535, 
leaving Faber in charge of his companions to finish their studies. 
During the absence of Ignatius, Faber gained three more 
adherents. But before leaving Paris Ignatius heard once more 
that complaints had been lodged against him at the Inquisition; 
but these like the others were found to be without any foundation. 
When he arrived near Loyola he would not go to the castle, but 
lived at the public hospice at Azpeitia, and began his usual life 
of teaching Christian doctrine and reforming morals. Falling 
ill again he went to other parts of Spain to transact business for 
his companions. Then, sailing from Valencia to Genoa, he made 
his way to Venice, where he arrived during the last days of 1535. 
Here he waited for a year until his companions could join him, 
and meanwhile he occupied himself in his usual good works, 
gaining several more companions and meeting Giovanni Piero 
Caraffa, afterwards Paul IV., who had lately founded the 
Theatines. What happened between the two does not appear; 
but henceforth Caraffa seems to have borne ill will towards 
Ignatius and his companions. At Venice Ignatius was again 
accused of heresy, and it was said that he had escaped from the 
Inquisition in Spain and had been burnt in effigy at Paris. These 
charges he met successfully by insisting that the nuncio should 
thoroughly inquire into the matter. 

After a journey of fifty-four days his companions arrived at 
Venice in January 1537; and here they remained until the 
beginning of Lent, when Ignatius sent them to Rome to get 
money for the proposed voyage to Palestine. He himself stayed 
behind, as he feared that, if he went with them, Caraffa at Rome, 
together with Dr Ortiz, a German opponent in Paris and now 
Charles V.'s ambassador at the Vatican, would prejudice the 
pope against them. But Ortiz proved a friend and presented 
them to Paul III., who gave them leave to go to Palestine to 
preach the Gospel, bestowing upon them abundant alms. He 

likewise gave licence for those not yet priests to be ordained by 
any catholic bishop on the title of poverty. They had returned 
to Venice where Ignatius and the others were ordained priests 
on the 24th of June 1537, after having renewed their vows of 
poverty and chastity to the legate Verallo. Ignatius, now a 
priest, waited for eighteen months before saying Mass, which he 
did for the first time on the 25th of December 1538 in the church 
of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. 

The year of waiting passed away without any chance of going 
to the Holy Land. Finding it impossible to keep this part of 
their vow, the fathers met at Vicenza, where Ignatius was staying 
in a ruined monastery; and here after deliberation it was deter- 
mined that he, Laynez and Faber should go to Rome to place 
the little band at the disposal of the pope. It was now that the 
Society began to take some visible form. A common rule was 
devised and a name adopted. Ignatius declared that having 
assembled in the name of Jesus, the association should henceforth 
bear the name of the " Company of Jesus." The word used 
shows Loyola's military ideal of the duties and methods of the 
nascent society. 

On the road to Rome a famous vision took place, as to which 
we have the evidence of Ignatius himself. In a certain church, 
a few miles before Rome, whilst in prayer he was aware of a 
stirring and a change in his soul; and so openly did he see God 
the Father placing him with Christ, that he could not dare to 
doubt that God the Father had so placed him. Subsequent 
writers add that Christ, looking at him with a benign countenance, 
said: " I shall be propitious to you "; while others add the 
significant words, " at Rome." Ignatius, however, says nothing 
about so important a matter; indeed he understood the vision 
to mean that many things would be adverse to them, and told 
his companions when they reached the city that he saw the 
windows there closed against him. He also said: " We must of 
necessity proceed with caution; and we must not make the 
acquaintance of women unless they be of very high rank." 
They arrived in Rome in October 1537; and lived at first in a 
little cottage in a vineyard and near the Trinita dei Monti. The 
pope appointed Faber to teach Holy Scripture, and Laynez 
scholastic theology, in the university of the Sapienza. Ignatius 
was left free to carry on his spiritual work, which became so large 
that he was obliged to call his other companions to Rome. 
During the absence of the pope, a certain hermit began to spread 
heresy and was opposed by Ignatius and his companions. In 
revenge the hermit brought up the former accusations concerning 
the relations to the Inquisition, and proclaimed Ignatius and his 
friends to be false, designing men and no better than concealed 
heretics. The matter was examined and the legate ordered the 
suit to be quashed. But this did not suit Ignatius. It was 
necessary for his own good repute and the future of his work that 
a definitive sentence should be pronounced and his name cleared 
once and for all. The legate demurred; but on the pope's 
return sentence was formally given in his favour. 

The life of Ignatius is now mainly identified with the formation 
and growth of his Society (see JESUITS), but his zeal found other 
outlets in Rome. He founded institutions for rescuing fallen 
women, started orphanages and organized catechetical instruc- 
tions. He obtained, after difficulty, the official recognition of 
his Society from Paul III. on the 27th of September 1540, and 
successfully steered it through many perils that beset it in its 
early days. He was unanimously elected the first general in 
April 1541; and on the 22nd of that month received the first 
vows of the Society in the church of San Paolo fuori la mura. 
Two works now chiefly occupied the remainder of his life: the 
final completion of the Spiritual Exercises and the drawing up of 
the Constitutions, which received their final form after his death. 
These two are so constantly connected that the one cannot be 
understood without the other. The Constitutions are discussed 
in the article on the Jesuits. In these he taught his followers to 
respond to the call; by the Spiritual Exercises he moulded their 

The Book of theSpiritual Exercises has been one of the world-moving 
books. In its strict conception it is only an application of the Gospel 


precepts to the individual soul. Its object is to convince a man of 
sin, of justice and of judgment. The idea of the book is not original 
to Ignatius At Montserrato he had found in use a popular trans- 
lation of the Exercitatorio de la. vida spiritual (1500), written in Latin 
by Abbot Garcias de Cisneros (d. 1510), and divided into three ways 
or periods during which purity of soul, enlightenment and union 
are to be worked for; a fourth part is added on contemplation. 
This book evidently afforded the root idea of the Ignatian and more 
famous book. But the differences are great. While taking the title, 
the idea of division by periods and the subjects of most of the medi- 
tations from the older work, Ignatius skilfully adapted it to his own 
requirements. Above all the methods of the two are essentially 
different. The Benedictine work follows the old monastic tradition 
of the direct intercourse of the soul with God. Ignatius, with his 
military instinct and views of obedience, intervenes with a director 
who gives the exercises to the person who in turn receives them. 
If this introduction of the director is essential to the end for which 
Ignatius framed his Exercises, in it we also find dangers. A director, 
whose aim is only the personal advantage of the one who is receiving 
the exercises, will be the faithful interpreter of his founder's inten- 
tions: but in the case of one whose esprit de corps is unbalanced, 
the temporary and pecuniary advantage of the Society may be 
made of more importance than that of the exercitant. Another 
danger may come when minuteness of direction takes away the 
wholesome sense of responsibility. Apart from these abuses the 
Spiritual Exercises have proved their value over and over again, 
and have received the sincerest form of flattery in countless imita- 
tions. The original parts of the book are principally to be found in 
the meditations, which are clearly Ignatian in conception as well as 
method. These are The Reign of Christ, wherein Christ as an earthly 
king calls his subjects to war: and Two Standards, one of Jesus Christ 
and the other of Lucifer. Besides these there are various additions 
to the series of meditations, which are mostly the practical results 
of the experiences which Ignatius went through in the early stages 
of his conversion. He gives various methods of prayer; methods of 
making an election; his series of rules for the discernment of spirits; 
rules for the distribution of alms and the treatment of scruples; 
tests of orthodoxy. These additions are skilfully worked into the 
series of meditations; so that when the exercitant by meditation 
has moved his soul to act, here are practical directions at hand. 

The exercises are divided into four series of meditations technically 
called " weeks," each of which may last as long as the director con- 
siders necessary to achieve the end for which each week is destined. 
But the whole period is generally concluded in the space of a month. 
The first week is the foundation, and has to do with the consideration 
of the end of man, sin, death, judgment and hell. Having purified 
the soul from sin and obtained a detestation thereof, the second week 
treats of the kingdom of Christ, and is meant to lead the soul to 
make an election of the service of God. The third and fourth weeks 
are intended to confirm the soul in the new way chosen, to teach 
how difficulties can be overcome, to inflame it with the love of God 
and to help it to persevere. 

The Book of the Spiritual Exercises was not written at Manresa, 
although there is in that place an inscription testifying to the sup- 
posed fact. Ignatius was constantly adding to his work as his own 
personal experience increased, and as he watched the effects of his 
method on the souls of those to whom he gave the exercises. The 
latest critics, even those of the Society itself, give 1548 as the date 
when the book received its final touches; though Father Roothaan 
gives Rome, the 9th of J uly 1 54 1 , as the date at the end of the ancient 
MS. version. Ignatius wrote originally in Spanish, but the book was 
twice translated into Latin during his lifetime. The more elegant 
version (known as the common edition) differs but slightly from the 
Spanish. Francisco Borgia, while duke of Gandia, petitioned Paul 
III. to have the book examined and approved. The pope appointed 
censors for both translations, who found the work to be replete with 
piety and holiness, highly useful and wholesome. Paul III. on re- 
ceiving this report confirmed it on the aist of July 1548 by the breve 
Pastoralis officii cura. This book, which is rightly called the spiritual 
arm of the Society, was the firstjbook published by the Jesuits. 

The progress of the Society of Jesus in Loyola's lifetime was 
rapid (see JESUITS). Having always had an attraction for a life 
of prayer and retirement, in 1547 he tried to resign the general- 
ship, and again in 1550, but the fathers unanimously opposed the 
project. One of his last trials was to see in 1556 the election as 
pope of his old opponent Caraffa, who soon showed his intention 
of reforming certain points in the Society that Ignatius considered 
vital. But at this difficult crisis he never lost his peace of mind. 
He said: " If this misfortune were to fall upon me, provided it 
happened without any fault of mine, even if the Society were to 
melt away like salt in water, I believe that a quarter of an hour's 
recollection in God would be sufficient to console me and to re- 
establish peace within me." It is clear that Ignatius never 
dreamed of putting his Society before the church nor of identifying 
the two institutions. 

In the beginning of 1556 Ignatius grew very weak and resigned 
the active government to three fathers, Polanco, Madrid and 
Natal. Fever laid hold of him, and he died somewhat suddenly 
on the 3ist of July 1556, without receiving or asking for the last 
sacraments. He was beatified in 1609 by Paul V. and canonized 
in 1628 by Gregory XV. His body lies under the altar in the 
north transept of the Gesu in Rome. 

His portrait is well known. The olive complexion, a face 
emaciated by austerities, the large forehead, the brilliant and 
small eyes, the high bald head tell their own tale. He was of 
medium height and carried himself so well that his lameness was 
hardly noticeable. His character was naturally impetuous and 
enthusiastic, but became marked with great self-control as he 
gradually brought his will under his reason. There was always 
that love of overcoming difficulty inherent in a chivalrous 
nature; and this also accounts for that desire of surpassing 
every one else that marked his early days. Whilst other Chris- 
tians, following St Paul, were content to do all things for the 
glory of God, Ignatius set himself and his followers to strive after 
the greater glory. Learning by his own experience and errors, 
he wisely developed a sovereign prudence which nicely adjusted 
means to the end in view. He impressed on his followers the 
doctrine that in all things the end was to be considered. Never 
would Ignatius have countenanced so perverted an idea as that the 
end justified the means, for with his spiritual light and zeal for 
God's glory he saw clearly that means in themselves unjust were 
opposed to the very end he held in view. As a ruler he displayed 
the same common sense. Obedience he made one of his great 
instruments, yet he never intended it to be a galling yoke. His 
doctrine on the subject is found in the well-known letter to the 
Portuguese Jesuits in 1553, and if this be read carefully together 
with the Constitutions his meaning is clear. If he says that a 
subject is to allow himself to be moved and directed, under God, 
by a superior just as though he were a corpse or as a staff in the 
hands of an old man, he is also careful to say that the obedience 
is only due in all things " wherein it cannot be defined (as it is 
said) that any kind of sin appears." The way in which his 
teaching on obedience is practically carried out is the best correc- 
tive of the false ideas that have arisen from misconceptions of 
its nature. His high ideas on the subject made him a stern ruler. 
There are certain instances in his life which, taken by themselves, 
show a hardness in treating individuals who would not obey;, 
but as a rule, he tempered his authority to the capacity of those 
with whom he had to deal. When he had to choose between the 
welfare of the Society and the feelings of an individual it was 
clear to which side the balance would fall. 

There was in his character a peculiar mixture of conservatism 
and a keen sense of the requirements of the day. In intellectual 
matters he was not in advance of his day. The Jesuit system of 
education, set forth in the Ratio studiorum, owes nothing to him. 
While he did not reject any approved learning, he abhorred any 
intellectual culture that destroyed or lessened piety. He wished 
to secure uniformity in the judgment of the Society even in 
points left open and free by the church : " Let us all think in the 
same way, let us all speak in the same manner if possible."' 
Bartole, the official biographer of Ignatius, says that he would 
not permit any innovation in the studies; and that, were he 
to live five hundred years, he would always repeat " no novelties '* 
in theology, in philosophy or in logic not even in grammar. 
The revival of learning had led many away from Christ; in- 
tellectual culture must be used as a means of bringing them 
back. The new learning in religion had divided Christendom; 
the old learning of the faith, once delivered to the saints, was to 
reconcile them. This was the problem that faced Ignatius, 
and in his endeavour to effect a needed reformation in the 
individual and in society his work and the success that crowned 
it place him among the moral heroes of humanity. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The Ignatian literature is very large. Fortun- 
ately we have in the Acta quaedam what is in effect the autobiography 
of the saint. This has been translated into English under the title 
of The testament of Ignatius Loyola, being sundry acts of our Father 
Ignatius, under God, the first founder of the Society of Jesus, taken down 
from the Saint's own lips by Luis Consoles (London, 1900) ; and the 


above account of Ignatius is taken in most places directly from this, 
which is not only the best of all sources but also a valuable corrective 
of the later and more imaginative works. Next to the Acta quaedam 
comes in value Polanco's Vita Ignatii Loiolae, which is published in 
the Monumenta historica Societatis Jesu now in progress. Polanco 
was the saint's secretary towards the end of his life. Ribadeneira, 
who as a youth had been associated with the founder, wrote his 
Vida del S. Ignacio de Loyola (Madrid, 1594), based on an early 
Latin work (Naples, 1572). Bartole, the official biographer, wrote 
his Delia vita e dell' institute di S. Ignatio (Rome, 1650, 1659) ; 
Genelli wrote Das Leben des heiligen Ignatius von Loyola (Innsbruck, 
1848); Nicolas Orlandinus gives a life in the first volume of the 
Historiae Societatis Jesu (Rome, 1615). It would be impossible to 
give a list even of the other lives, most of which are without value as 
Histories, being written mainly for edification. But the student may 
be referred to the modern books Henri Joli's St Ignace de Loyola 
(Paris, 1899), which is based on the best authorities, and to H. 
Miiller's curious Les Origines de la Compagnie de Jesus (Paris, 1898), 
in which the author tries to establish a Mahommedan origin for 
many of the ideas adopted by the saint. 

The literature connected with the Spiritual Exercises is also large. 
It will be sufficient here to mention : A Book of Spiritual Exercises, 
written by Garcias de Cisneros (London, 1876) ; the official Latin text 
in the third volume of the Avignon edition of the Constitutions 
(1830); Roothaan's Exercitia spiritualia S. P. Ignatii de Loyola, 
cum versions litterali ex autographo Hispanico, notis illustrata (Namur, 
1841) ; Diertino, Historia exercitiorum S. P. Ignatii de Loyola (1887). 
Especially worthy of notice is P. Watrigant's La Genese des exercices 
de Saint Ignace de Loyola, republished from Les Etudes (zoth May, 
20th July, 20th October 1897). (E. TN.) 

LOZENGE (from the Fr. losenge, or losange; the word also 
appears in Span, losanje, and Ital. losanga; perhaps derived 
from a word meaning a stone slab laid on a grave, which appears 
in forms such as Provencal lousa, Span, losa, the ultimate origin 
of which is unknown, the Lat. lapis, stone, orlaus, praise, in the 
sense of epitaph, have been suggested), properly a four equal- 
sided figure, having two acute and two obtuse angles, a rhomb 
or " diamond." The figure is frequently used as a bearing in 
heraldry and especially as a shield so shaped on which the arms 
of a widow or spinster are emblazoned. It is used also to denote 
the diamond-shaped facets of a precious stone when cut, also 
the diamond panes of a casement window. In the I4th century 
the " lozenge pattern " was a favourite design for decoration. 
The word is also applied to a small tablet of sugar, originally 
diamond shaped, containing either medical drugs or some 
simple flavouring, or to a tablet of any concentrated substance, 
such as a meat-lozenge. In the reign of James I. of Scotland 
(1406-1437) a Scotch gold coin having a lozenge-shaped shield 
with the arms of Scotland on the obverse side was called a 
" lozenge-lion." 

LOZERE, a department of south-eastern France belonging 
to the central plateau, composed of almost the whole of Gevaudan 
and of some portions of the old dioceses of Uzes and Alais, 
districts all formerly included in the province of Languedoc. 
Pop. (1906) 128,016. Area, 1999 sq. m. It is bounded N. by 
Cantal and Haute-Loire, E. by Ardeche and Card, S. by Card 
and Aveyron and W. by Aveyron and Cantal. Lozere is moun- 
tainous throughout and in average elevation is the highest of all 
the French departments. It has three distinct regions the 
Cevennes proper to the south-east, the causses to the south-west 
and the mountain tracts which occupy the rest of its area. The 
Cevennes begin (within Lozere) with Mont Aigoual, which rises 
to a height of more than 5100 ft.; parallel to this are the moun- 
tains of Bouges, bold and bare on their southern face, but falling 
gently with wooded slopes towards the Tarn which roughly 
limits the Cevennes on the north. To the north of the Tarn is the 
range of Lozere, including the peak of Finiels, the highest point 
Of the department (5584 ft.). Farther on occurs the broad 
marshy plateau of Montbel, which drains southward^ to the 
Lot, northwards to the Allier, eastward by the Chassezac to 
the Ardeche. From this plateau extend the mountains of 
La Margeride, undulating granitic tablelands partly clothed with 
woods of oak, beech and fir, and partly covered with pastures, 
to which flocks are brought from lower Languedoc in summer. 
The highest point (True de Randon) reaches 3098 ft. Adjoining 
the Margeride hills on the west is the volcanic range of Aubrac, 
a pastoral district where horned cattle take the place of sheep; 

the highest point is 4826 ft. The causses of Lozere, having an area 
of about 564 sq. m., are calcareous, fissured and arid, but separated 
from each other by deep and well-watered gorges, contrasting 
with the desolate aspect of the plateaus. The causse of Sauve- 
terre, between the Lot and the Tarn, ranges from 3000 to 3300 ft. 
in height; that of Mejan has nearly the same average altitude, 
but has peaks some 1000 ft. higher. Between these two causses 
the Tarn valley is among the most picturesque in France. 
Lozere is watered entirely by rivers rising within its own bound- 
aries, being in this respect unique. The climate of Lozere varies 
greatly with the locality. The mean temperature of Mende 
(50 F.) is below that of Paris; that of the mountains is always 
low, but on the causses the summer is scorching and the winter 
severe; in the Cevennes the climate becomes mild enough at 
their base (656 ft.) to permit the growth of the olive. Rain falls 
in violent storms, causing disastrous floods. On the Mediter- 
ranean versant there are 76 in., in the Garonne basin 46 and in 
that of the Loire only 28. Sheep and cattle-rearing and cheese- 
making are the chief occupations. Bees are kept, and, among 
the Cevennes, silkworms. Large quantities of chestnuts are 
exported from the Cevennes, where they form an important article 
of diet. In the valley of the Lot wheat and fruit are the chief 
products; elsewhere rye is the chief cereal, and oats, barley, 
meslin and potatoes are also grown. Fruit trees and leguminous 
plants are irrigated by small canals (beats) on terraces made and 
maintained with much labour. Lead, zinc and antimony are 
found. Saw-milling, the manufacture of wooden shoes and wool- 
spinning are carried on; otherwise industries are few and 
unimportant. Of mineral springs, those of Bagnols-les-Bains are 
most frequented. The line of the Paris-Lyon company from 
Paris to Nimes traverses the eastern border of the department, 
which is also served by the Midi railway with the line from 
Neussargues to Beziers via Marvejols. The arrondissements 
are Mende, Florae and Marvejols; the cantons number 24, 
the communes 198. Loze're forms the diocese of Mende and part 
of the ecclesiastical province of Albi. It falls within the region 
of the XVI. army corps, the circumscriptions of the academic 
(educational division) of Montpellier and the appeal court of 
Nimes. Mende (q.v .) is its most important town. 

LUANG-PRABANG, a town of French Indo-China, capital 
of the Lao state of that name, on the left bank of the Me Kong 
river. It lies at the foot of the pagoda hill which rises about 
200 ft. above the plain on the promontory of land round which 
the Nam Kan winds to the main river. It has a population of 
about 9000 and contains the " palace " of the king of the state 
and several pagodas. In 1887 it was taken and sacked by the 
Haw or Black Flags, robber bands of Chinese soldiery, many 
of them survivors of the Taiping rebellion. In 1893 Siam was 
compelled to renounce her claims to the left bank of the Me 
Kong, including Luang-Prabang and the magnificent highlands 
of Chieng Kwang. That portion of the state which was on the 
right bank of the Me Kong was not affected by the treaty, except 
in so far as a portion of it fell within the sixteen miles' zone 
within which Siam agreed not to keep troops. Trade is in the 
hands of Chinese or Shan traders; hill rice and other jungle 
products are imported from the surrounding districts by the 
Kha or hill people. The exports, which include rubber, gum 
benjamin, silk, wax, sticklac, cutch, cardamon, a little ebony, 
cinnamon, indigo, rhinoceros and deer horns, ivory and fish 
roe, formerly all passed by way of Paklai to the Me Nam, and so 
to Bangkok, but have now almost entirely ceased to follow 
that route, the object of the French government being to deflect 
the trade through French territory. Luang-Prabang is the 
terminus of navigation on the upper Me Kong and the centre 
of trade thereon. 

LUBAO, a town in the south-western part of the province 
of Pampanga, Luzon, Philippine Islands, about 30 m. N.W. of 
Manila. Pop. (1903) 19,063. Lubao is served by the Manila & 
Dagupan railway, and has water communication with Manila 
by tidal streams and Manila Bay. Its products are, therefore, 
readily marketed. It lies in a low, fertile plain, suited to the 
growing of rice and sugar. Many of the inhabitants occupy 


themselves in the neighbouring nipa swamps, either preparing 
the nipa leaves for use in house construction, or distilling " nipa- 
wine " from the juice secured by tapping the blossom stalks. 
The language is Pampangan. 

LUBBEN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of 
Brandenburg, on the Spree, 47 m. S.S.E. of Berlin, on the railway 
to Gorlitz. Pop. (1905) 7173. It is the chief town of the 
Spreewald, and has saw-mills and manufactories of hosiery, 
shoes and paper, and is famous for its gurken, or small pickling 
cucumbers. The poet Paul Gerhardt (1607-1676) was pastor 
here and is buried in the parish church. 

LUBECK, a state and city (Freie und Hansestadt Liibeck) 
of Germany. The principality of Lubeck, lying north of the 
state, is a constituent of the grand-duchy of Oldenburg (q.v.). 
The state is situated on an arm of the Baltic between Holstein 
and Mecklenburg-Schwerin. It consists of the city of Lubeck, 
the town of Travemunde, 49 villages and the country districts, 
embraces 115 sq. m. of territory, and had a population in 1907 of 
109,265, of which 93,978 were included in the city and its immediate 
suburbs. The state lies in the lowlands of the Baltic, is diversified 
by gently swelling hills, and watered by the Trave and its 
tributaries, the Wakenitz and the Stecknitz. The soil is fertile, 
and, with the exception of forest land (14% of the whole area), 
is mostly devoted to market gardening. Trade is centred in 
the city of Lubeck. 

The constitution of the free state is republican, and, by the 
fundamental law of 1875, amended in 1905 and again in 1907, 
consists of two assemblies, (i) The Senate of fourteen members, 
of whom eight must belong to the learned professions, and six 
of these again must be jurists, while of the remaining six, five 
must be merchants. The Senate represents the sovereignty of 
the state and is presided over by theOberbiirgermeister, who during 
his two years' term of office bears the title of " magnificence." 
(2) The House of Burgesses (Burgerschaft), of 120 members, 
elected by free suffrage and exercising its powers partly in 
its collective capacity and partly through a committee of thirty 
members. Purely commercial matters are dealt with by the 
chamber of commerce, composed of a praeses, eighteen members 
and a secretary. This body controls the exchange and appoints 
brokers, shipping agents and underwriters. The executive 
is in the hands of the Senate, but the House of Burgesses has the 
right of initiating legislation, including that relative to foreign 
treaties; the sanction of both chambers is required to the 
passing of any new law. Lubeck has a court of first instance 
(Amtsgerkht) and a high court of justice (Landgericht) ; from 
the latter appeals lie to the Hanseatic court of appeal (Oberlandes- 
gerichl) at Hamburg, and from this again to the supreme court 
of the empire (Reicksgericht) in Leipzig. The people are nearly 
all Lutherans, and education is compulsory between the ages 
of six and fourteen. 

The estimated revenue for the year 1908-1909 amounted to 
about 650,000, and the expenditure to a like sum. The public 
debt amounted, in 1908, to about 2,518,000. Lubeck has one 
vote in the federal council (Bundesrat) of the German Empire, 
and sends one representative to the imperial parliament 

History of the Constitution. At the first rise of the town justice 
was administered to the inhabitants by the Vogt (advocates) of 
the count of Holstein. Simultaneously with its incorporation 
by Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, who presented the city 
with its own mint toll and market, there appears a magistracy 
of six, chosen probably by the Vogt from the SchS/en (scabini, 
probi homines). The members of the town council had to be 
freemen, born in lawful wedlock, in the enjoyment of estates 
in freehold and of unstained repute. Vassals or servants of any 
lord, and tradespeople, were excluded. A third of the number 
had annually to retire for a year, so that two-thirds formed 
the sitting council. By the middle of the i3th century there 
were two burgomasters (magistri burgensium). Meanwhile, 
the number of magistrates (consules) had increased, ranging 
from twenty to forty and upwards. The council appointed 
its own officers in the various branches of the administration. 

In the face of so much self-government the Vogt presently dis- 
appeared altogether. There were three classes of inhabitants, 
full freemen, half freemen and guests or foreigners. People of 
Slav origin being considered unfree, all intermarriage with them 
tainted the blood; hence nearly all surnames point to Saxon, 
especially Westphalian, and even Flemish descent. The magis- 
tracy was for two centuries almost exclusively in the hands 
of the merchant aristocracy, who formed the companies of 
traders or " nations," such as the Bergen-fahrer, Novgorod- 
fahrer, Riga-fahrer and Stockholm- fahrer. From the beginning, 
however, tradesmen and handicraftsmen had settled in the 
town, all of them freemen of German parentage and with property 
and houses of their own. Though not eligible for the council, 
they shared to a certain extent in the self-government through 
the aldermen of each corporation or gild, of which some appear 
as early as the statutes of 1240. Naturally, there arose much 
jealousy between the gilds and the aristocratic companies, 
which exclusively ruled the republic. After an attempt to upset 
the merchants had been suppressed in 1384, the gilds succeeded, 
under more favourable circumstances, in 1408. The old patrician 
council left the city to appeal to the Hansa and to the imperial 
authorities, while a new council with democratic tendencies, elected 
chiefly from the gilds, took their place. In 1416, however, owing 
to the pressure brought to bear by the Hansa, by the emperor 
Sigismund and by Eric, king of Denmark, there was a restoration. 
The aristocratic government was again expelled under the 
dictatorship of Jiirgen Wullenweber (c. 1492-1537), till the old 
order was re-established in 1535. In the constitution of 1669, 
under the pressure of a large public debt, the great companies 
yielded a specified share in the financial administration to the 
leading gilds of tradesmen. Nevertheless, the seven great com- 
panies continued to choose the magistrates by co-optation among 
themselves. Three of the four burgomasters and two of the 
senators, however, had henceforth to be graduates in law. The 
constitution, set aside only during the French occupation, has 
subsequently been slowly reformed. From 1813 the popular 
representatives had some share in the management of the 
finances. But the reform committee of 1814, whose object was 
to obtain an extension of the franchise, had made little progress, 
when the events of 1848 led to the establishment of a representative 
assembly of 120 members, elected by universal suffrage, which 
obtained a place beside the senatorial government. The republic 
has given up its own military contingent, its coinage and its 
postal dues to the German Empire; but it has preserved its 
municipal self-government and its own territory, the inhabitants 
of which enjoy equal political privileges with the citizens. 

The City of Liibeck. Lubeck, the capital of the free state, was 
formerly the head of the Hanseatic League. It is situated on a 
gentle ridge between the rivers Trave and Wakenitz, 10 m. S.W. 
of the mouth of the former in the bay of Lubeck, 40 m. by rail 
N.E. of Hamburg, at the junction of lines to Eutin, Biichen, 
Travemunde and Strassburg (in Mecklenburg-Schwerin) and 
consists of an inner town and three suburbs. The former 
ramparts between the Trave and the old town ditch have been 
converted into promenades. The city proper retains much of its 
ancient grandeur, despite the tendency to modernize streets and 
private houses. Foremost among its buildings must be men- 
tioned its five chief churches, stately Gothic edifices in glazed 
brick, with lofty spires and replete with medieval works of art 
pictures, stained glass and tombs. Of them, the Marienkirche, 
built in the i3th century, is one of the finest specimens of early 
Gothic in Germany. The cathedral, or Domkirche, founded in 
1173, contains some curious sarcophagi and a magnificent altar- 
piece in one of the chapels, while the churches of St James 
(Jakobikircke), of St Peter (Petrikirche) and of St Aegidius 
(Aegidienkirche) are also remarkable. The Rathaus (town hall) 
of red and black glazed brick, dating from various epochs during 
the middle ages, is famous for its staircase, the vaulted wine 
cellar of the city council beneath and magnificent wood carving. 
There should also be mentioned the Schiffershaus; the medieval 
gates (Holstentor, Burgtor); and the Hospital of the Holy 
Ghost, remarkable for ancient frescoes and altars in rich wood 



carving, the entrance hall of which is a 13th-century chapel, 
restored in 1866 and decorated in 1898. The museum preserves 
the most remarkable municipal archives in existence as well as 
valuable collections of historical documents. 

The poet, Emanuel Geibel (1889), and the painter, Johann 
Friedrich Overbeck (1789-1869), were natives of Liibeck. This 
city is famous for the number and wealth of its charitable 
institutions. Its position as the first German emporium of the 
west end of the Baltic has been to some extent impaired by 
Hamburg and Bremen since the construction of the North Sea 
and Baltic Canal, and by the rapid growth and enterprise of 
Stettin. In order to counterbalance their rivalry, the quays have 
been extended, a canal was opened in 1900 between the Trave 
and the Elbe, the river up to the wharves has been deepened to 
25 ft. or more. The river is kept open in winter by ice-breakers. 
A harbour was made in 1 899-190x3 on the Wakenitz Canal for 
boats engaged in inland traffic, especially on the Elbe and Elbe- 
Trave Canal. Liibeck trades principally with Denmark, Sweden, 
Finland, Russia, the eastern provinces of Prussia, Great Britairj 
and the United States. The imports amounted in value to about 
4,850,000 in 1906 and the exports to over 10,000,000. The 
chief articles of import are coal, grain, timber, copper, steel and 
wine, and the exports are manufactured goods principally to 
Russia and Scandivania. The industries are growing, the chief 
being breweries and distilleries, saw-mills and planing-mills, 
shipbuilding, fish-curing, the manufacture of machinery, engines, 
bricks, resin, preserves, enamelled and tin goods, cigars, furniture, 
soap and leather. Pop. (1885) 55,399; (1905) 9i,S4i- 

History. Old Lubeck stood on the left bank of the Trave, 
where it is joined by the river Schwartau, antf was destroyed in 
1138. Five years later Count Adolphus II. of Holstein founded 
new Lubeck, a few miles farther up, on the peninsula Buku, 
where the Trave is joined on the right by the Wakenitz, the 
emissary of the lake of Ratzeburg. An excellent harbour, 
sheltered against pirates, it became almost at once a competitor 
for the commerce of the Baltic. Its foundation coincided with 
the beginning of the advance of the Low German tribes of 
Flanders, Friesland and Westphalia along the southern shores of 
the Baltic the second great emigration of the colonizing Saxon 
element. In 1140 Wagria, in 1142 the country of the Polabes 
(Ratzeburg and Lauenburg), had been annexed by the Holtsaetas 
(the Transalbingian Saxons). From 1166 onwards there was a 
Saxon count at Schwerin. Frisian and Saxon merchants from 
Soest, Bardowiek and other localities in Lower Germany, who 
already navigated the Baltic and had their factory in Gotland, 
settled in the new town, where Wendish speech and customs 
never entered. About 1157 Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, 
forced his vassal, the count of Holstein, to give up Lubeck to 
him; and in 1163 he removed thither the episcopal see of 
Oldenburg (Stargard), founding at the same time the dioceses 
of Ratzeburg and Schwerin. He issued the first charter to the 
citizens, and constituted them a free Saxon community having 
their own magistrate, an advantage over all other towns of his 
dominions. He invited traders of the north to visit his new 
market free of toll and custom, providing his subjects were 
promised similar privileges in return. From the beginning the 
king of Denmark granted them a settlement for their herring 
fishery on the coast of Schoonen. Adopting the statutes of 
Soest in Westphalia as their code, Saxon merchants exclusively 
ruled the city. In concurrence with the duke's Vogt (adwcatus) 
they recognized only one right of judicature within the town, 
to which nobles as well as artisans had to submit. Under these 
circumstances the population grew rapidly in wealth and influence 
by land and sea, so that, when Henry was attainted by the 
emperor, Frederick I., who came in person to besiege Lubeck 
in 1181, this potentate," in consideration of its revenues and its 
situation on the frontier of the Empire," fixed by charter, dated 
the igth of September 1188, the limits, and enlarged the liberties, 
of the free town. In the year 1201 Lubeck was conquered by 
Waldemar II. of Denmark. But in 1223 it regained its liberty, 
after the king had been taken captive by the count of Schwerin. 
In 1226 it was made a free city of the Empire by Frederick II., 

and its inhabitants took part with the enemies of the Danish 
king in the victory of Bornhovede in July 1227. The citizens 
repelled the encroachments of their neighbours in Holstein and 
in Mecklenburg. On the other hand their town, being the 
principal emporium of the Baltic by the middle of the i3th 
century, acted as the firm ally of the Teutonic knights in Livonia. 
Emigrants founded new cities and new sees of Low German 
speech among alien and pagan races; and thus in the course 
of a century the commerce of Lubeck had supplanted that of 
Westphalia. In connexion with the Germans at Visby, the 
capital of Gotland, and at Riga, where they had a house from 
1231, the people of Lubeck with their armed vessels scoured the 
sea between the Trave and the Neva. They were encouraged by 
papal bulls in their contest for the rights of property in wrecks 
and for the protection of shipping against pirates and slave- 
hunters. Before the close of the century the statutes of Lubeck 
were adopted by most Baltic towns having a German population, 
and Visby protested in vain against the city on the Trave having 
become the court of appeal for nearly all these cities, and even 
for the German settlement in Russian Novgorod. In course of 
time more than a hundred places were embraced in this relation, 
the last vestiges of which did not disappear until the beginning 
of the i8th century. From about 1299 Lubeck presided over a 
league of cities, Wismar, Rostock, Stralsund, Greifswald and 
some smaller ones, and this Hansa of towns became heir to a 
Hansa of traders simultaneously on the eastern and the western 
sea, after Lubeck and her confederates had been admitted to the 
same privileges with Cologne, Dortmund and Soest at Bruges 
and in the steelyards of London, Lynn and Boston. The union 
held its own, chiefly along the maritime outskirts of the Empire, 
rather against the will of king and emperor, but nevertheless 
Rudolph of Habsburg and several of his successors issued new 
charters to Lubeck. As early as 1241 Lubeck, Hamburg and 
Soest had combined to secure their highways against robber 
knights. Treaties to enforce the public peace were concluded 
in 1291 and 1338 with the dukes of Brunswick, Mecklenburg and 
Pomerania, and the count of Holstein. Though the great federal 
armament against Waldemar IV., the destroyer of Visby, was 
decreed by the city representatives assembled at Cologne in 
1367, Lubeck was the leading spirit in the war which ended with 
the surrender of Copenhagen and the peace concluded at Stralsund 
on the 24th of May 1370. Her burgomaster, Brun Warendorp, 
who commanded the combined naval and land forces, died on 
the field of battle. In 1368 the seal of the city, a double-headed 
eagle, which in the I4th century took the placeof the more ancient 
ship, was adopted as the common seal of the confederated towns 
(civitates maritimae), some seventy in number. Towards the end 
of the 1 5th century the power of the Hanseatic League began 
to decline, owing to the rise of Burgundy in the west, of Poland 
and Russia in the east and the emancipation of the Scandinavian 
kingdom from the union of Calmar. Still Lubeck, even when 
nearly isolated, strove to preserve its predominance in a war 
with Denmark (1501-12), supporting Gustavus Vasa in Sweden, 
lording it over the north of Europe during the years 1534 and 1535 
in the person of Jiirgen Wullenweber, the democratic burgo- 
master, who professed the most advanced principles of the 
Reformation, and engaging with Sweden in a severe naval war 

But the prestige and prosperity of the town were beginning 
to decline. Before the end of the i6th century the privileges 
of the London Steelyard were suppressed by Elizabeth. As 
early as 1425 the herring, a constant source of early wealth, 
began to forsake the Baltic waters. Later on, by the discovery 
of a new continent, commerce was diverted into new directions. 
Finally, with the Thirty Years' War, misfortunes came thick. 
The last Hanseatic diet met at Lubeck in 1630, shortly after 
Wallenstein's unsuccessful attack on Stralsund; and from that 
time merciless sovereign powers stopped free intercourse on all 
sides. Danes and Swedes battled for the possession of the Sound 
and for its heavy dues. The often changing masters of Holstein 
and Lauenburg abstracted much of the valuable landed property 
of the city and of the chapter of Lubeck. Towards the end of 


the i8th century there were signs of improvement. Though 
the Danes temporarily occupied the town in 1801, it preserved 
its freedom and gained some of the chapter lands when the 
imperial constitution of Germany was broken up by the act of 
February 1803, while trade and commerce prospered for a few 
years. But in November 1806, when Blucher, retiring from 
the catastrophe of Jena, had to capitulate in the vicinity of 
LUbeck, the town was sacked by the French. Napoleon annexed 
it to his empire in December 1810. But it rose against the French 
in March 1813, was re-occupied by them till the sth of December, 
and was ultimately declared a free and Hanse town of the German 
Confederation by the act of Vienna of the 9th of June 1815. 
The Hanseatic League, however, having never been officially 
dissolved, LUbeck still enjoyed its traditional connexion, with 
Bremen and Hamburg. In 1853 they sold their common property, 
the London Steelyard; until 1866 they enlisted by special 
contract their military contingents for the German Confederation, 
and down to 1879 they had their own court of appeal at Lubeck. 
LUbeck joined the North German Confederation in 1866, profiting 
by the retirement from Holstein and Lauenburg of the Danes, 
whose interference had prevented as long as possible a direct 
railway between LUbeck and Hamburg. On the 27th of June 
1867 Lubeck concluded a military convention with Prussia, 
and on the nth of August 1868 entered the German Customs 
Union (Zolherein), though reserving to itself certain privileges 
in respect of its considerable wine trade and commerce with 
the Baltic ports. 

See E. Deecke, Die Freie und Hansestadt Lubeck (4th ed., Lubeck, 
1881) and Lubische Geschichten und Sagen (Lubeck, 1891); M. Hoff- 
mann, Geschichte der Freien und Hansestadt Lubeck (Lubeck, 1889- 
1892) and Chronik von Lubeck (Lubeck, 1908); Die Freie und 
Hansestadt Lubeck, published by Die geographische Gesellschaft in 
Lubeck (Lubeck, 1891); C. W. Pauli, Liibecksche Zustdnde im Mittel- 
alter (Lubeck, 1846-1878) ; J. Geffcken, Lubeck in der Mitte des i6" n 
Jahrliunderts (Lubeck, 1905); P. Hasse, Die Anfange Lubecks 
(Lubeck; 1893); H. Bodeker, Geschichte der Freien und Hansesladt 
Lubeck (Lubeck, 1898); A. Holm, Lubeck, die Freie und Hansestadt 
(Bielefeld, 1900) ; G. Waitz, Lubeck unter Jtirgen Wullenweber (Berlin, 
1855-1856); Klug, Geschichte Lubecks wdhrend der Vereinigung mil 
dem franzosischen Kaiserreich (Lubeck, 1857); F. Frensdorff, Die 
Stadt- und Gerichtsverfassung Lubecks im 12. und 13. Jahrhundert 
(Lubeck, 1861); the Urkundenbuch der Stadt Lubeck (Lubeck, 1843- 
1904); the Lubecker Chroniken (Leipzig, 1884-1903); and the 
Zeitschrift des Vereins fur lubeckische Geschichte (Lubeck, 1860 fol.). 

(R. P.; P. A. A.) 

LUBLIN, a government of Russian Poland, bounded N. by 
Siedlce, E. by Volhynia (the Bug forming the boundary), S. 
by Galicia, and W. by Radom (the Vistula separating the two). 
Area, 6499 sq. m. The surface is an undulating plain of Cretaceous 
deposits, 800 to 900 ft. in altitude, and reaching in one place 
1050 ft. It is largely covered with forests of oak, beech and 
lime, intersected by ravines and thinly inhabited. A marshy 
lowland extends between the Vistula and the Wieprz. The 
government is drained by the Vistula and the Bug, and by their 
tributaries the Wieprz, San and Tanev. Parts of the government, 
being of black earth, are fertile, but other parts are sandy. 
Agriculture is in good condition. Many Germans settled in 
the government before immigration was stopped in 1887; in 
1897 they numbered about 26,000. Rye, oats, wheat, barley 
and potatoes are the chief crops, rye and wheat being exported. 
Flax, hemp, buckwheat, peas, millet and beetroot are also 
cultivated. Horses are carefully bred. In 1897 the population 
was 1,165,122, of whom 604,886 were women. The Greek 
Orthodox (chiefly Little Russians in the south-east) amounted 
to 20-1% of the whole; Roman Catholics (i.e. Poles) to 62-8%; 
Jews to 14-2%; and Protestants to 2-8%. The urban popula- 
tion was 148,196 in 1897. The estimated population in 1906 
was 1,362,500. Industrial establishments consist chiefly of 
distilleries, sugar-works, steam flour-milk, tanneries, saw-mills 
and factories of bent-wood furniture. Domestic industries are 
widely developed in the villages. River navigation employs 
a considerable portion of the population. The government 
is divided into ten districts, the chief towns of which, with their 
populations in 1897, are Lublin, capital of the province (50,152) ; 
Biegoray (6286); Cholm (19,236); Hrubieszow (10,699); 

Yanow (7927); Krasnystaw or Kraznostav (8879); Lubartow 
(5249); Nova-Alexandrya or Pulawy (3892); Sarnostye (12,400); 
and Tomaszow (6224). 

LUBLIN, a town of Russian Poland, capital of the government 
of the same name, 109 m. by rail S.E. of Warsaw, on a small 
tributary of the Wieprz. Pop. (1873) 28,900; (1897) 50,152. 
It is the most important town of Poland after Warsaw and 
Lodz, being one of the chief centres of the manufacture of thread- 
yarn, linen and hempen goods and woollen stuffs; there is also 
trade in grain and cattle. It has an old citadel, several palaces 
of Polish nobles and many interesting churches, and is the head- 
quarters of the XIV. army corps, and the see of a Roman Catholic 
bishop. The cathedral dates from the i6th century. Of the 
former fortifications nothing remains except the four gates, 
one dating from 1342. 

Lublin was in existence in the loth century, and has a church 
which is said to have been built in 986. During the time the 
JageUon dynasty ruled over Lithuania and Poland it was the 
most important city between the Vistula and the Dnieper, having 
40,000 inhabitants (70,000 according to other authorities) 
and all the trade with Podolia, Volhynia and Red Russia. Indeed, 
the present town is surrounded with ruins, which prove that it 
formerly covered a much larger area. But it was frequently 
destroyed by the Tatars (e.g. 1240) and Cossacks (e.g. 1477). 
In 1568-1569 it was the seat of the stormy convention at which 
the union between Poland and Lithuania was decided. In 
1702 another convention was held in Lublin, in favour of Augustus 
II. and against Charles XII. of Sweden, who carried the town 
by assault and plundered it. In 1831 Lublin was taken by the 
Russians. The surrounding country is rich in reminiscences 
of the struggle of Poland for independence. 

LUBRICANTS. Machines consist of parts which have 
relative motion and generally slide and rub against each other. 
Thus the axle of a cart or railway vehicle is pressed against a 
metallic bearing surface supporting the body of the vehicle, 
and the two opposed surfaces slide upon each other and are 
pressed together with great force. If the metallic surfaces be 
clean, the speed of rubbing high, and the force pressing the 
surfaces together considerable, then the latter will abrade each 
other, become hot and be rapidly destroyed. It is possible, 
however, to prevent the serious abrasion of such opposing surfaces, 
and largely to reduce the frictional resistance they oppose to 
relative motion by the use of lubricants (Lat. lubricare, lubricus, 
slippery). These substances are caused to insinuate themselves 
between the surfaces, and have the property of so separating 
them as to prevent serious abrasion. The solid and semi-solid 
lubricants seem to act as rollers between the surfaces, or form a 
film between them which itself suffers abrasion or friction. The 
liquM lubricants, however, maintain themselves as liquid films 
between the surfaces, upon which the bearing floats. The 
frictional resistance is then wholly in the fluid. Even when 
lubricants are used the friction, i.e. the resistance to motion 
offered by the opposing surfaces, is considerable. In the article 
FRICTION will be found a statement of how friction is measured 
and the manner in which it is expressed. The coefficient of 
friction is obtained by dividing the force required to cause the 
surfaces to slide over each other by the load pressing them to- 
gether. For clean unlubricated surfaces this coefficient may be 
as great as 0-3, whilst for well-lubricated cylindrical bearings 
it may be as small as 0-0006. Engineers have, therefore, paid 
particular attention to the design of bearings with the object 
of reducing the friction, and thus making use of as much as 
possible of the power developed by prime movers. The import- 
ance of doing this will be seen when it is remembered that the 
energy wasted is proportional to the coefficient of friction, and 
that the durability of the parts depends upon the extent to which 
they are separated by the lubricant and thus prevented from 
injuring each other. 

There is great diversity in the shapes of rubbing surfaces, the 
loads they have to carry vary widely, and the speed of rubbing 
ranges from less than one foot to thousands of feet per minute. 
There is also a large number of substances which act as lubricants, 


some being liquids and others soft solids. In many instruments or 
machines where the surfaces in contact which have to slide upon 
each other are only lightly pressed together, and are only occasion- 
ally given relative motion, the lubricant is only needed to prevent 
abrasion. Microscopes and mathematical instruments are of this 
kind. In such cases, the lubricant which keeps the surfaces from 
abrading each other is a mere contamination film, either derived 
from the air or put on when the surfaces are finished. When such 
lubricating films are depended upon, the friction surfaces should 
be as hard as possible and, if practicable, of dissimilar metals. 
In the absence of a contamination film, most metals, if rubbed 
when in contact, will immediately adhere to each other. A large 
number of experiments have been made to ascertain the co- 
efficient of friction under these imperfect conditions of lubrica- 
tion. Within wide limits of load, the friction is proportional to 
the pressure normal to the surfaces and is, therefore, approxi- 
mately independent of the area of the surfaces in contact. 
Although the static coefficient is often less than the kinetic at 
very low speeds, within wide limits the latter coefficient de- 
creases with increasing speed. These laws apply to all bearings 
the velocity of rubbing of which is very small, or which are 
lubricated with solid or semi-solid materials. 

When the speed of rubbing is considerable and the contamina- 
tion film is liable to be destroyed, resort is had to lubricants 
which possess the power of keeping the surfaces apart, and 
thereby reducing the friction. The constant application of such 
substances is necessary in the case of such parts of machine 
tools as slide rests, the surfaces of which only move relatively 
to each other at moderate speeds, but which have to carry heavy 
loads. In all ordinary cases, the coefficient of friction of flat 
surfaces, such as those of slide blocks or pivot bearings, is high, 
owing to the fact that the lubricant is not easily forced between 
the surfaces. In the case of cylindrical bearing surfaces, such as 
those of journals and spindles, owing to the fact that the radius 
of the bearing surface is greater than that of the journal or spindle, 
the lubricant, if a liquid, is easily drawn in and entirely separates 
the surfaces (see LUBRICATION). Fortunately, cylindrical bear- 
ings are by far the most common and important form of bearing, 
and they can be so lubricated that the friction coefficient is very 
low. The lubricant, owing to its viscosity, is forced between the 
surfaces and keeps them .entirely apart. This property of vis- 
cosity is one of the most important possessed by liquid lubricants. 
Some lubricants, such as the oils used for the light spindles of 
textile machinery, are quite thin and limpid, whilst others, 
suitable for steam engine cylinders and very heavy bearings, are, 
at ordinary temperatures, as thick as treacle or honey. Gener- 
ally speaking, the greater the viscosity of the lubricant the 
greater the load the bearing will carry, but with thick lubricants 
the frictional coefficient is correspondingly high. True lubricants 
differ from ordinary liquids of equal viscosity inasmuch as they 
possess the property of " oiliness." This is a property which 
enables them to maintain an unbroken film between surfaces 
when the loads are heavy. It is possessed most markedly by 
vegetables and animal oils and fats, and less markedly by mineral 
oils. In the case of mineral lubricating oils from the same 
source, the lower the specific gravity the greater the oiliness of 
the liquid, as a rule. Mixtures of mineral oil with animal or 
vegetable oil are largely used, one class of oil supplying those 
qualities in which the other is deficient. Thus the mineral 
oils, which are comparatively cheap and possess the important 
property of not becoming oxidized into gummy or sticky sub- 
stances by the action of the air, which also are not liable to 
cause spontaneous ignition of cotton waste, &c., and can be 
manufactured of almost any desired viscosity, but which on the 
other hand are somewhat deficient in the property of oiliness, 
are mixed with animal or vegetable oils which possess the latter 
property in marked degree, but are liable to gum and become 
acid and to cause spontaneous ignition, besides being compara- 
tively expensive and limited in quantity. Oils which become 
acid attack the bearings chemically, and those which oxidize 
may become so thick that they fail to run on to the bearings 

The following table shows that the permissible load on bearings 
varies greatly: 

Description of Bearing. Load in ft 

per sq. in. 

Hard steel bearings on which the load is inter- 
mittent, such as the crank pins of shearing 

machines 3000 

Bronze crosshead neck journals . . 1200 

Crank pins of large slow engines . . 800-900 

Crank pins of marine engines . . 400-500 

Main crank-shaft bearings, slow marine 600 

Main crank-shaft bearings, fast marine 400 

Railway coach journals .... 300-400 

Fly-wheel shaft journals . . . 150-200 

Small engine crank pins .... 150-200 

Small slide blocks, marine engines . 100 

Stationary engine slide block ' . . 25-125 

Stationary engine slide block, usually . 30-60 

Propeller thrust bearings . . . 50-70 

Shafts in cast iron steps, high speed . 15 

Solid Lubricants. Solid substances, such as graphite or plumbago, 
soapstone, &c., are used as lubricants when there is some objection 
to liquids or soft solids, but the surfaces between which they are 
placed should be of very hard materials. They are frequently mixed 
with oils or greases, the lubricating properties of which they improve. 
Semi-solid Lubricants. The contrast in lubricating properties 
between mineral and fatty oils exists also in the case of a pure mineral 
grease like vaseline and an animal fat such as tallow, the latter 
possessing in a far greater degree the property of greasiness. A 
large number of lubricating greases are made by incorporating or 
emulsifying animal and vegetable fats with soap and water; also by 
thickening mineral lubricating oils with soap. Large quantities of 
these greases are used with very good results for the lubrication of 
railway waggon axles, and some oT them are excellent lubricants for 
the bearings of slow moving machinery. Care must be taken, how- 
ever, that they do not contain excess of water and are not adulterated 
with such useless substances as china clay ; also, that they melt as a 
whole, and that the oil does not run down and leave the soap. This 
is liable to occur with badly made greases, and hot bearings are the 
result. Except in special cases, greases should not be used for 
quick-running journals, shafts or spindles, on account of the high 
frictional resistance which they offer to motion. In the case of fats 
and greases whose melting points are not much above the tempera- 
ture of surrounding objects it generally happens that the lubricating 
films are so warmed by friction that they actually melt and act as 
oils. These lubricants are generally forced into the bearings by a form 
of syringe fitted with a spring piston, or are squeezed between the 
faces by means of a screw-plug. 

Liquid Lubricants. Generally speaking, all bearings which it is 
necessary should run with as little friction as possible must be sup- 
plied with liquid lubricants. These may be of animal, vegetable or 
mineral origin. The mineral oils are mixtures of hydrocarbons of 
variable viscosity, flashing-point, density and oiliness. They are 
obtained by distillation from American, Russian and other 
petroleums. The fixed oils obtained from animal and vegetable 
substances are not volatile without decomposition, and are found 
ready made in the tissues of animals and plants. Animal oils are 
obtained from the adipose tissue by simple heat or by boiling with 
water. They are usually either colourless or yellow. The oils of 
plants occur usually in the seeds or fruit, and are obtained either 
by expression or by means of solvents such as ether or petroleum. 
They are of various shades of yellow and green, the green colour 
being due to the presence of chlorophyll. The fundamental difference 
between fixed oils and mineral oils exists in their behaviour towards 
oxygen. Mineral oils at ordinary temperatures are indifferent to 
oxygen, but all fixed oils combine with it and thicken or gum more 
or less, generating heat at the same time. Such oils are, therefore, 
dangerous if dropped upon silk, cotton or woollen waste or other 
combustible fibrous materials, which are thus rendered liable to 
spontaneous ignition. 

Liquid lubricants are used for all high speed bearings. In some 
cases the rubbing surfaces work in a bath of the lubricant, which 
can then reach all the rubbing parts with certainty. Small engines 
for motor cars or road waggons are often lubricated in this way. In 
the case of individual bearings, such as those of railway vehicles, a 
pad of cotton, worsted and horse hair is kept saturated with the 
lubricant and pressed against the under side of the journal. The 
journal is thus kept constantly wetted with oil, and the film is forced 
beneath the brass as the axle rotates. In many cases, oil- ways and 
grooves are cut in the bearings, and the lubricant is allowed to run 
by gravity into them and thus finds its way between the opposing 
surfaces. To secure a steady feed various contrivances are adopted, 
the most common being a wick of cotton or worsted used as a siphon. 
In cases where it is important that little if any wear should take 
place, the lubricant is forced by means of a pump between the friction 
surfaces and a constant film of oil is thereby maintained between 

For the spindles of small machines such as clocks, watches and 
other delicate mechanisms, which are only lubricated at long intervals 



and are often exposed to extremes of temperature, the lubricant 
must be a fluid oil as free as possible from tendency to gum or thicken 
by oxidation or to corrode metal, and must often have a low freez- 
ing-point. It must also possess a maximum of " oiliness." The 
lubricants mostly used for such purposes are obtained from porpoise 
or dolphin jaw oils, bean oil, hazel nut oil, neatsfoot oil, sperm oil 
or olive oil. These oils are exposed for some time to temperatures as 
low as the mechanism is required to work at, and the portion which 
remains fluid is separated and used. Free acid should be entirely 
eliminated by chemical refining. A little good mineral oil may with 
advantage be mixed with the fatty oil. 

For all ordinary machinery, ranging from the light ring spindles of 
textile mills to the heavy shafts of large engines, mineral oils are 
almost universally employed, either alone or mixed with fatty oils, 
the general rule being to use pure mineral oils for bath, forced or 
circulating pump lubrication, and mixed oils for drop, siphon and 
other less perfect methods of lubrication. Pure mineral oils of 
relatively low viscosity are used for high speeds and low pressures, 
mixed oils of greater viscosity for low speeds and high pressures. 
In selecting oils for low speeds and great pressures, viscosity must be 
the first consideration, and next to that " oiliness." If an oil of 
sufficiently high viscosity be used, a mineral oil may give a result as 
good or better than a pure fixed oil ; a mixed oil may give a better 
result than either. If a mineral oil of sufficient viscosity be not 
available, then a fixed oil or fat may be expected to give the best 

In special cases, such as in the lubrication of textile machines, 
where the oil is liable to be splashed upon the fabric, the primary 
consideration is to use an oil which can be washed out without 
leaving a stain. Pure fixed oils, or mixtures composed largely of 
fixed oils, are used for such purposes. 

In other special cases, such as marine engines working in hot places, 
mixtures are used of mineral oil with rape or other vegetable oil 
artificially thickened by blowing air through the heated oil, and 
known as " blown " oil or " soluble castor oil." 

In the lubrication of the cylinders and valves of steam, gas and oil 
engines, the lubricant must possess as much viscosity as possible at 
the working temperature, must not evaporate appreciably and must 
not decompose and liberate fatty acids which would corrode the metal 
and choke the steam passages with metallic soaps; for gas and oil 
engines the lubricant must t>e as free as possible from tendency to 
decompose and deposit carbon when heated. For this reason steam 
cylinders and valves should be lubricated with pure mineral oils of 
the highest viscosity, mixed with no more fixed oil than is necessary 
to ensure efficient lubrication. Gas and oil engines also should be 
lubricated with pure mineral oils wherever possible. 

For further information on the theory and practice of lubrication 
and on the testing of lubricants, see Friction and Lost Work in 
Machinery and Mill Work, by R. H. Thurston (1903); and Lubri- 
cation and Lubricants, by L. Archbutt and R. M. Deeley (1906). 

(R. M. D.) 

LUBRICATION. Our knowledge of the action of oils and other 
viscous fluids in diminishing friction and wear between solid 
surfaces from being purely empirical has become a connected 
theory, based on the known properties of matter, subjected to the 
definition of mathematical analysis and verified by experiment. 
The theory was published in 1886 (Phil. Trans., 1886, 177, pp. 
157-234); but it is the purpose of this article not so much to 
explain its application, as to give a brief account of the intro- 
duction of the misconceptions that so long prevailed, and of the 
manner in which their removal led to its general acceptance. 

Friction, or resistance to tangential shifting of matter over 
matter, whatever the mode and arrangement, differs greatly 
according to the materials, but, like all material resistance, is 
essentially limited. The range of the limits in available materials 
has a primary place in determining mechanical possibilities, 
and from the earliest times they have demanded the closest 
attention on the part of all who have to do with structures or 
with machines, the former being concerned to find those materials 
and their arrangements which possess the highest limits, and the 
latter the materials in which the limits are least. Long before the 
reformation of science in the ijth and i6th centuries both these 
limits had formed the subject of such empirical research as 
disclosed numerous definite although disconnected circumstances 
under which they could be secured; and these, however far from 
the highest and lowest, satisfied the exigencies of practical 
mechanics at the time, thus initiating the method of extending 
knowledge which was to be subsequently recognized as the only 
basis of physical philosophy. In this purely empirical research 
the conclusion arrived at represented the results for the actual 
circumstance from which they were drawn, and thus afforded no 

place for theoretical discrepancies. However, in the attempts at 
generalization which followed the reformation of science, oppor- 
tunity was afforded for such discrepancies in the mere enunciation 
of the circumstances in which the so-called laws of friction of 
motion are supposed to apply. The circumstances in which 
the great amount of empirical research was conducted as to the 
resistance between the clean, plane, smooth surfaces of rigid 
bodies moving over each other under pressure, invariably include 
the presence of air at atmospheric pressure around, and to some 
extent between, the surfaces; but this fact had received no 
notice in the enunciation of these laws, and this constitutes 
a theoretical departure from the conditions under which the 
experience had been obtained. Also, the theoretical division 
of the law of frictional resistance into two laws one dealing with 
the limit of rest, and the other asserting that the friction of 
motion, which is invariably less in similar circumstances than 
that of rest, is independent of the velocity of sliding involves 
the theoretical assumption that there is no asymptotic law of 
diminution of the resistance, since, starting from rest, the 
rate of sliding increases. The theoretical substitution of ideal 
rigid bodies with geometrically regular surfaces, sliding in contact 
under pressure at the common regular surface, for the aerated 
surfaces in the actual circumstances, and the theoretical sub- 
stitution of the absolute independence of the resistance of the 
rate of sliding for the limited independence in the actual circum- 
stances, prove the general acceptance of the conceptions (i) 
that matter can slide over matter under pressure at a geometric- 
ally regular surface; (2) that, however much the resistance 
to sliding under any particular pressure (the co-efficient of 
friction) may depend on the physical properties of the materials, 
the sliding under pressure takes place at the geometrically 
regular surface of contact of the rigid bodies; and (3) as the 
consequence of (i) and (2), that whatever the effect of a lubricant, 
such as oil, might have, it could be a physical surface effect. Thus 
not only did these general theoretical conceptions, .resulting 
from the theoretical laws of friction, fail to indicate that the 
lubricant may diminish the resistance by the mere mechanical 
separation of the surfaces, but they precluded the idea that such 
might be the case. The result was that all subsequent attempts 
to reduce the empirical facts, where a lubricant was used, to 
such general laws as might reveal thc^separate functions of the 
complex circumstances on which lubrication depends, com- 
pletely failed. Thus until 1883 the science of lubrication had 
not advanced beyond the empirical stage. 

This period of stagnation was terminated by an accidental 
phenomenon observed by Beauchamp Tower, while engaged 
on his research on the friction of the journals of railway carriages. 
His observation led him to a line of experiments which proved 
that in these experiments the general function of the lubricant 
was the mechanical separation of the metal surfaces by a layer 
of fluid of finite thickness, thus upsetting the preconceived ideas 
as expressed in the laws of the friction of motion. On the publica- 
tion of Tower's reports (Proc. Inst. M.E., November 1883), it 
was recognized by several physicists (B.A. Report, 1884, pp. 14, 
625) that the evidence they contained afforded a basis for 
further study of the actions involved, indicating as it did the 
circumstances namely, the properties of viscosity and cohesion 
possessed by fluids account of which had not been taken in 
previous conclusions. It also became apparent that continuous 
or steady lubrication, such as that of Tower's experiments, is 
only secured when the solid surfaces separated by the lubricant 
are so shaped that the thickness at the ingoing side is greater than 
that at the outgoing side. 

When the general equations of viscous fluids had been shown 
as the result of the labours of C. L. M. H. Navier, 1 A. L. Cauchy, 1 
S. D. Poisson, 3 A. J. C. Barre de St Venant, 4 and in 1845 of Sir 
G. Gabriel Stokes, 6 to involve no other assumption than that 
the stresses, other than the pressure equal in all directions, 

1 Mem. de I'Acad. (1826), 6, p. 389. 

* Mem. des sav. ttrang. 1. 40. 

' Mem. de I'Acad. (1831), 10, p. 345. < B.A. Report (1846) 

1 Cambridge Phil. Trans. (1845 and 1857). 

9 o 


are linear functions of the distortional rates of strain multiplied 
by a constant coefficient, it was found that the only solutions 
of which the equations admitted, when applied to fluids flowing 
between fixed boundaries, as water in a pipe, were singular 
solutions for steady or steady periodic motion, and that the 
conclusions they entailed, that the resistance would be pro- 
portional to the velocity, were for the most part directly at 
variance with the common experience that the resistances 
varied with the square of the velocity. This discrepancy was 
sometimes supposed to be the result of eddies in the fluid, but 
it was not till 1883 that it was discovered by experiments with 
colour bands that, in the case of geometrically similar boundaries, 
the existence or non-existence of such eddies depended upon 
a definite relation between the mean velocity (U) of the fluid, 
the distance between the boundaries, and the ratio of the co- 
efficient of viscosity to the density Gu/p) , expressed by UDp/^t = K, 
where K is a physical constant independent of units, which has 
a value between 1900 and 2000, and for parallel boundaries 
D is four times the area of the channel divided by the perimeter 
of the section (Phil. Trans., 1883, part iii. 935-982). K is thus 
a criterion at which the law of resistance to the mean flow changes 
suddenly (as U increases), from being proportional to the flow, 
to a law involving higher powers of the velocity at first, but as 
the rates increase approaching an asymptote in which the power 
is a little less that the square. 

This sudden change in the law of resistance to the flow of 
fluid between solid boundaries, depending as it does on a complete 
change in the manner of the flow from direct parallel flow to 
sinuous eddying motion serves to determine analytically the 
circumstances as to the velocity and the thickness of the film 
under which any fluid having a particular coefficient of viscosity 
can act the part of a lubricant. For as long as the circumstances 
are such that UDp//i is less than K, the parallel flow is held stable 
by the viscosity, so that only one solution is possible that 
in which the resistance is the product of n multiplied by the 

rate of distortion, as pj^; in this case the fluid has lubricating 

properties. But when the circumstances are such that UDp/^t 
is greater than K, other solutions become possible, and the 
parallel flow becomes unstable, breaks down into eddying 
motion, and the resistance varies as pu", which approximates 
to pw 1 ' 78 as the velocity increases; in this state the fluid has 
no lubricating properties. Thus, within the limits of the criterion, 
the rate of displacement of the momentum of the fluid is in- 
significant as compared with the viscous resistance, and may 
be neglected; while outside this limit the direct effects of the 
eddying motion completely dominate the viscous resistance, 
which in its turn may be neglected. Thus K is a criterion which 
separates the flow of fluid between solid surfaces as definitely 
as the flow of fluid is separated from the relative motions in 
elastic solids, and it is by the knowledge of the limit on which 
this distinction depends that the theory of viscous flow can 
with assurance be applied to the circumstance of lubrication. 

Until the existence of this physical constant was discovered, 
any theoretical conclusions as to whether in any particular 
circumstances the resistance of the lubricant would follow the 
law of viscous flow or that of eddying motion was impossible. 
Thus Tower, being unaware of the discovery of the criterion, 
which was published in the same year as his reports, was thrown 
off the scent in his endeavour to verify the evidence he had 
obtained as to the finite thickness of the film by varying the 
velocity. He remarks in his first report that, " according 
to the theory of fluid motion, the resistance would be as the 
square of the velocity, whereas in his results it did not increase 
according to this law." The rational theory of lubrication does 
not, however, depend solely on the viscosity within the interior 
of fluids, but also depends on the surface action between the 
fluid and the solid. In many respects the surface actions, as 
indicated by surface tension, are still obscure, and there has 
been a general tendency to assume that there may be discontinuity 
in the velocity at the common surface. But whatever these 
actions may be in other respects, there is abundant evidence 

that there is no appreciable discontinuity in the velocity at the 
surfaces as long as the fluid has finite thickness. Hence in the 
case of lubrication the velocities of the fluid at the surfaces of 
the solids are those of the solid. In as far as the presence of 
the lubricant is necessary, such properties as cause oil in spite 
of its surface tension to spread even against gravity over a bright 
metal surface, while mercury will concentrate into globules on 
the bright surface of iron, have an important place in securing 
lubrication where the action is intermittent, as in the escapement 
of a clock. If there is oil on the pallet, although the pressure 
of the tooth causes this to flow out laterally from between the 
surfaces, it goes back again by surface tension during the 
intervals; hence the importance of using fluids with low surface 
tension like oil, or special oils, when there is no other means of 
securing the presence of the lubricant. 

The differential equations for the equilibrium of the lubricant are 
what the differential equations of viscous fluid in steady motion 
become when subject to the conditions necessary for lubrication 
as already defined (l) the velocity is below the critical value; 

(2) at the surfaces the velocity of the fluid is that of the solid; 

(3) the thickness of the film is small compared with the lateral 
dimensions of the surfaces and the radii of curvature of the surfaces. 
By the first of these conditions all the terms having p as a factor 
may be neglected, and the equations thus become the equations of 
equilibrium of the fluid ; as such, they are applicable to fluid whether 
incompressible or elastic, and however the pressure may affect the 
viscosity. But the analysis is greatly simplified by omitting all 
terms depending on compressibility and by taking /i constant ; this 
may be done without loss of generality in a qualitative sense. With 
these limitations we have for the differential equation of the equili- 
brium of the lubricant : 

du dv . dw~\ 


These are subject to the boundary conditions (2) and (3). Taking 
* as measured parallel to one of the surfaces in the direction of rela- 
tive motion, y normal to the surface and 2 normal to the plane of xy 
by condition (3), we may without error disregard the effect of any 
curvature in the surfaces. Also is small compared with u and w, 
and the variations of u and w in the directions x and 2 are small com- 
pared with their variation in the direction y. The equations (l) 
reduce to 

dp d*u dp dp d?w du . dv , <fc 

- 0= ^- 0= 




For the boundary conditions, putting f(x, z) as limiting the lateral 
area of the lubricant, the conditions at the surfaces may be expressed 
thus : 

= o, 

i > 


when f(x, z)=o, p = po , J 

Then, integrating the equations (2) over y, and determining the 
constants by equations (3), we have, since by the second of equations 
(2) p is independent of y, 


i dp 

Then, differentiating equations (4) with respect to x and 2 respec- 
tively, and substituting in the 4th of equations (2), and integrating 
from y = o to y = h, so that only the values of v at the surfaces may be 
required, we have for the differential equation of normal pressure at 
any point x, z, between the boundaries: 


("f) +.4 Wl) 


Again differentiating equations (4), with respect to x and z respec- 
tively, and substituting in the 5th and 6th of equations (2), and 
putting f x and f, for the intensities of the tangential stresses at the 
lower and upper surfaces: 





9 1 

Equations (5) and (6) are the general equations for the stresses 
at the boundaries at x, z, when A is a continuous function of * and z, 
it and p being constant. 

For the integration of equations (6) to get the resultant stresses 
and moments on the solid boundaries, so as to obtain the conditions 
of their equilibrium, it is necessary to know how * and z at any point 
on the boundary enter into h, as well as the equation /(*, z)=o, 
which determines the limits of the lubricating film. If y, the normal 
to one of the surfaces, has not the same direction for all points of 
this surface, in other words, if the surface is not plane, * and z be- 
come curvilinear co-ordinates, at all points perpendicular to y. Since, 
for lubrication, one of the surfaces must be plane, cylindrical, or a 
surface of revolution, we may put x = R0, y = r R, and z perpendicular 
to the plane of motion. Then, if the data are sufficient, the resultant 
stresses and moments between the surfaces are obtained by integrat- 
ing the intensity of the stress and moments of intensity of stress over 
the surface. 

This, however, is not the usual problem that arises. What is 
generally wanted is to find the thickness of the film where least (ho) 
and its angular position with respect to direction of load, to resist a 
definite load with a particular surface velocity. If the surfaces are 
plane, the general solution involves only one arbitrary constant, the 
least thickness (/to) ; since in any particular case the variation of k 
with * is necessarily fixed, as in this case lubrication affords no auto- 
matic adjustment of this slope. When both surfaces are curved in 
the plane of motion there are at least two arbitrary constants, ho, 
and <t> the angular position of h, with respect to direction of load; 
while if the surfaces are both curved in a plane perpendicular to the 
direction of motion as well as in the plane of motion, there are three 
arbitrary constants, ho, <fo, z. The only constraint necessary is to 
prevent rotation in the plane of motion of one of the surfaces, leaving 
this surface free to move in any direction and to adjust its position so 
as to be in equilibrium under the load. 

The integrations necessary for the solutions of these problems 
are practicable complete or approximate and have been 
effected for circumstances which include the chief cases of 
practical lubrication, the results having been verified by reference 
to Tower's experiments. In this way the verified theory is 
available for guidance outside the limits of experience as well 
as for determining the limiting conditions. But it is necessary 
to take into account certain subsidiary theories. These limits 
depend on the coefficient of viscosity, which diminishes as the 
temperature increases. The total work in' overcoming the re- 
sistance is spent in generating heat in the lubricant, the volume 
of which is very small. Were it not for the escape of heat by 
conduction through the lubricant and the metal, lubrication 
would be impossible. Hence a knowledge of the empirical law 
of the variation of the viscosity of the lubricant with temperature, 
the coefficients of conduction of heat in the lubricant and in 
the metal, and the application of the theory of the flow of heat 
in the particular circumstances, are necessary adjuncts to the 
theory of lubrication for determining the limits of lubrication. 
Nor is this all, for the shapes of the solid surfaces vary with the 
pressure, and more particularly with the temperature. 

The theory of lubrication has been applied to the explanation of 
the slipperiness of ice (Mem. Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc., 1899). 

(O. R.) 

poet of the Silver Age, grandson of the rhetorician Seneca and 
nephew of the philosopher, was born at Corduba. His mother 
was Acilia; his father, Marcus Annaeus Mela, had amassed 
great wealth as imperial procurator for the provinces. From 
a memoir which is generally attributed to Suetonius we learn 
that Lucan was taken to Rome at the age of eight months and 
displayed remarkable precocity. One of his instructors was the 
Stoic philosopher, Cornutus, the friend and teacher of Persius. 
He was studying at Athens when Nero recalled him to Rome 
and made him quaestor. These friendly relations did not last 
long. Lucan is said to have defeated Nero in a public 
poetical contest; Nero forbade him to recite in public, and the 
poet's indignation made him an accomplice in the conspiracy 
of Piso. Upon the discovery of the plot he is said to have been 
tempted by the hope of pardon to denounce his own mother. 
Failing to obtain a reprieve, he caused his veins to be opened, 
and expired repeating a passage from one of his poems descriptive 
of the death of a wounded soldier. His father was involved 
in the proscription, his mother escaped, and his widow Folia 
Argentaria survived to receive the homage of Statius under 
Domitian. The birthday of Lucan was kept as a festival after 

his death, and a poem addressed to his widow upon one of these 
occasions and containing information on the poet's work and 
career is still extant (Statius's Silvae, ii. 7, entitled Genethliacon 

Besides his principal performance, Lucan's works included 
poems on the ransom of Hector, the nether world, the fate of 
Orpheus, a eulogy of Nero, the burning of Rome, and one in 
honour of his wife (all mentioned by Statius), letters, epigrams, 
an unfinished tragedy on the subject of Medea and numerous 
miscellaneous pieces. His minor works have perished except 
for a few fragments, but all that the author wrote of the Pharsalia 
has come down to us. It would probably have concluded with 
the'^battle of Philippi, but breaks off abruptly as Caesar is about 
to plunge into the harbour of Alexandria. The Pharsalia opens 
with a panegyric of Nero, sketches the causes of the war and the 
characters of Caesar and Pompey, the crossing of the Rubicon 
by Caesar, the flight of the tribunes to his camp, and the panic 
and confusion in Rome, which Pompey has abandoned. The 
second book describes the visit of Brutus to Cato, who is persuaded 
to join the side of the senate, and his marriage a second time to 
his former wife Marcia, Ahenobarbus's capitulation at Cornnium 
and the retirement of Pompey to Greece. In the third book 
Caesar, after settling affairs in Rome, crosses the Alps for Spain. 
Massilia is besieged and falls. The fourth book describes the 
victories of Caesar in Spain over Afranius and Petreius, and the 
defeat of Curio by Juba in Africa. In the fifth Caesar and Antony 
land in Greece, and Pompey's wife Cornelia is placed in security 
at Lesbos. The sixth book describes the repulses of Caesar 
round Dyrrhachium, the seventh the defeat of Pompey at 
Pharsalia, the eighth his flight and assassination in Egypt, 
the ninth the operations of Cato in Africa and his march through 
the desert, and the landing of Caesar in Egypt, the tenth the 
opening incidents of the Alexandrian war. The incompleteness 
of the work should not be left out of account in the estimate of 
its merits, for, with two capital exceptions, the faults of the 
Pharsalia are such as revision might have mitigated or rendered. 
No such pains, certainly, could have amended the deficiency 
of unity of action, or supplied the want of a legitimate protagonist. 
The Pharsalia is not true to history, but it cannot shake off its 
shackles, and is rather a metrical chronicle than a true epic. 
If it had been completed according to the author's design, 
Pompey, Cato and Brutus must have successively enacted the 
part of nominal hero, while the real hero is the arch-enemy 
of liberty and Lucan, Caesar. Yet these defects, though glaring, 
are not fatal or peculiar to Lucan. The false taste, the strained 
rhetoric, the ostentatious erudition, the tedious harangues and 
far-fetched or commonplace reflections so frequent in this 
singularly unequal poem, are faults much more irritating, but 
they are also faults capable of amendment, which the writer 
might not improbably have removed. Great allowance should 
also be made in the case of one who is emulating predecessors 
who have already carried art to its last perfection. Lucan's 
temper could never have brooked mere imitation; his versifica- 
tion, no less than his subject, is entirely his own; he avoids 
the appearance of outward resemblance to his great predecessor 
with a persistency which can only have resulted from deliberate 
purpose, but he is largely influenced by the declamatory school 
of his grandfather and uncle. Hence his partiality for finished 
antithesis, contrasting strongly with his generally breathless 
style and turbid diction. Quintilian sums up both aspects of 
his genius with pregnant brevity, " Ardens et concitatus et 
sententiis clarissimus," adding with equal justice, " Magis 
oratoribus quam poetis annumerandus." Lucan's oratory, 
however, frequently approaches the regions of poetry, e.g. the 
apotheosis of Pompey at the beginning of the ninth book, and 
the passage in the same book where Cato, in the truest spirit of 
the Stoic philosophy, refuses to consult the oracle of Jupiter 
Ammon. Though in many cases Lucan's rhetoric is frigid, 
hyperbolical, and out of keeping with the character of the speaker, 
yet his theme has a genuine hold upon him; in the age of Nero 
he celebrates the republic as a poet with the same energy with 
which in the age of Cicero he might have defended it as an orator. 


But for him it might almost have been said that the Roman 
republic never inspired the Roman muse. 

Lucan never speaks of himself, but his epic speaks for him. 
He must have been endowed with no common ambition, industry 
and self-reliance, an enthusiastic though narrow and aristocratic 
patriotism, and a faculty for appreciating magnanimity in others. 
But the only personal trait positively known to us is his conjugal 
affection, a characteristic of Seneca also. 

Lucan, together with Statius, was preferred even to Virgil 
in the middle ages. So late as 1493 his commentator Sulpitius 
writes: " Magnus profecto est Maro, magnus Lucanus; 
adeoque prope par, ut quis sit major possis ambigere." Shelley 
and Southey, in the first transport of admiration, thought 
Lucan superior to Virgil; Pope, with more judgment, says that 
the fire which burns in Virgil with an equable glow breaks forth 
in Lucan with sudden, brief and interrupted flashes. Of late, 
notwithstanding the enthusiasm of isolated admirers, Lucan 
has been unduly neglected, but he has exercised an important 
influence upon one great department of modern literature by his 
effect upon Corneille, and through him upon the classical French 

AUTHORITIES. The Pharsalia was much read in the middle ages, 
and consequently it is preserved in a large number of manuscripts, 
the relations of which have not yet been thoroughly made out. 
The most recent critical text is that of C. Hosius (and ed. 1906), 
and the latest complete commentaries are those of C. E. Haskins 
(1887, with a valuable introduction by W. E. Heitland) and C. M. 
Francken (1896). There are separate editions of book i. by P. Lejay 
(1894) and book vii. by I. P. Ppstgate (1896). Of earlier editions 
those of Oudendorp (which contains the continuation of the Pharsalia 
to the death of Caesar by Thomas May, 1728), Burmann (1740), 
Bentley (1816, posthumous) and Weber (1829) may be mentioned. 
There are English translations by C. Marlowe (book i. only, 1600), 
Sir F. Gorges (1614), Thomas May (1626), N. Rowe (1718) and Sir E. 
Ridley (2nd ed. 1905), the two last being the best. 

(R.G.;J. P. P.) 

LUCANIA, in ancient geography, a district of southern Italy, 
extending from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Gulf of Tarentum. 
To the north it adjoined Campania, Samnium and Apulia, and 
to the south it was separated by a narrow isthmus from the 
district of Bruttii. It thus comprised almost all the modern 
province of the Basilicata, with the greater part of the pro- 
vince of Salerno and a portion of that of Cosenza. The 
precise limits were the river Silarus on the north-west, which 
separated it from Campania, and the Bradanus, which flows 
into the Gulf of Tarentum, on the north-east; while the two 
little rivers Laus and Crathis, flowing from the ridge of the 
Apennines to the sea on the west and east, marked the limits 
of the district on the side of the Bruttii. 

Almost the whole is occupied by the Apennines, here an 
irregular group of lofty masses. The main ridge approaches 
the western sea, and is continued from the lofty knot of mountains 
on the frontiers of Samnium, nearly due south to within a few 
miles of the Gulf of Policastro, and thenceforward is separated 
from the sea by only a narrow interval till it enters the district 
of the Bruttii. Just within the frontier of Lucania rises Monte 
Pollino, 7325 ft., the highest peak in the southern Apennines. 
The mountains descend by a much more gradual slope to the 
coastal plain of the Gulf of Tarentum. Thus the rivers which 
flow to the Tyrrhenian Sea are of little importance compared 
with those that descend towards the Gulf of Tarentum. Of 
these the most important are the Bfadanus (Bradano), the 
Casuentus (Basiento), the Aciris (Agri), and the Siris (Sinno). 
The Crathis, which forms at its mouth the southern limit of the 
province, belongs almost wholly to the territory of the Bruttii, 
but it receives a tributary, the Sybaris (Coscile), from the 
mountains of Lucania. The only considerable stream on the 
western side is the Silarus (Sele), which constitutes the northern 
boundary, and has two important tributaries in the Calor 
(Galore) and the Tanager (Negro) which joins it from the south. 

The district of Lucania was so called from the people bearing 
the name Lucani (Lucanians) by whom it was conquered about 
the middle of the sth century B.C. Before that period it was 
included under the general name of Oenotria, which was applied 

by the Greeks to the southernmost portion of Italy. The 
mountainous interior was occupied by the tribes known as 
Oenotrians and Chones, while the coasts on both sides were 
occupied by powerful Greek colonies which doubtless exercised 
a protectorate over the interior (see MAGNA GRAECIA). The 
Lucanians were a southern branch of the Samnite or Sabelline 
race, who spoke the Osca Lingua (q.v.). We know from Strabo 
that they had a democratic constitution save in time of war, 
when a dictator was chosen from among the regular magistrates. 
A few Oscan inscriptions survive, mostly in Greek characters, 
from the 4th or 3rd century B.C., and some coins with Oscan 
legends of the 3rd century (see Conway, Italic Dialects, p. 1 1 sqq. ; 
Mommsen, C.I.L. x. p. 21; Roehl, Inscriptiones Graecae Anti- 
quissimae, 547). The Lucanians gradually conquered the whole 
country (with the exception of the Greek towns on the coast) 
from the borders of Samnium and Campania to the southern 
extremity of Italy. Subsequently the inhabitants of the 
peninsula, now known as Calabria, broke into insurrection, and 
under the name of Bruttians established their independence, 
after which the Lucanians became confined within the limits 
already described. After this we find them engaged in hostilities 
with the Tarentines, and with Alexander, king of Epirus, who 
was called in by that people to their assistance, 326 B.C. In 298 
B.C. (Livy x. ii seq.) they made alliance with Rome, and Roman 
influence was extended by the colonies of Venusia (291 B.C.), 
Paestum (273), and above all Tarentum (272). Subsequently 
they were sometimes in alliance, but more frequently engaged 
in hostilities, during the Samnite wars. On the landing of 
Pyrrhus in Italy (281 B.C.) they were among the first to declare 
in his favour, and found themselves exposed to the resentment 
of Rome when the departure of Pyrrhus left his allies at the 
mercy of the Romans. After several campaigns they were reduced 
to subjection (272 B.C.). Notwithstanding this they espoused 
the cause of Hannibal during the Second Punic War (216 B.C.), 
and their territory during several campaigns was ravaged by 
both armies. "The country never recovered from these disasters, 
and under the Roman government fell into decay, to which 
the Social War, in which the Lucanians took part with the 
Samnites against Rome (90-88 B.C.) gave the finishing stroke. 
In the time of Strabo the Greek cities on the coast had fallen 
into insignificance, and owing to the decrease of population and 
cultivation the malaria began to obtain the upper hand. The 
few towns of the interior were of no importance. A large part 
of the province was given up to pasture, and the mountains 
were covered with forests, which abounded in wild boars, bears 
and wolves. There were some fifteen independent communities, 
but none of great importance. 

For administrative purposes under the Roman empire, 
Lucania was always united with the district of the Bruttii. 
The two together constituted the third region of 'Augustus. 

The towns on the east coast were Metapontum, a few miles south 
of the Bradanus; Heraclea, at the mouth of the Aciris; and Siris, 
on the river of the same name. Close to its southern frontier stood 
Sybaris, which was destroyed in 510 B.C., but subsequently replaced 
by Thurii. On the west coast stood Posidonia, known under the 
Roman government as Paestum; below that came Elea or Velia, 
Pyxus, called by the Romans Buxentum, and Laus, near the frontier 
of the province towards Bruttium. Of the towns of the interior 
the most considerable was Potentia, still called Potenza. To the 
north, near the frontier of Apulia, was Bantia (Aceruntia belonged 
more properly to Apulia); while due south from Potentia was 
Grumentum, and still farther in that direction were Nerulum and 
Muranum. In the upland valley of the Tanagrus wereAtina, 
Forum Popilii and Consilinum; Eburi (Eboli) and Voiceii (Buccino), 
though to the north of the Silarus, were also included in Lucania. 
The Via Popillia traversed the district from N. to S., entering it at 
the N.W. extremity; the Via Herculia, coming southwards from 
the Via Appia and passing through Potentia and Grumentum, joined 
the Via Popillia near the S.W. edge of the district: while another 
nameless road followed the east coast and other roads of less import- 
ance ran W. from Potentia to the Via Popillia, N.E. to the Via Appia 
and E. from Grumentum to the coast at Heraclea. (T. As.) 

LUCARIS, CYRILLOS (1572-1637), Greek prelate and theo- 
logian, was a native of Crete. In youth he travelled, studying 
at Venice and Padua, and at Geneva coming under the influence 
of the reformed faith as represented by Calvin. In 1602 he was 



elected patriarch of Alexandria, and in 1621 patriarch of Con- 
stantinople. He was the first great name in the Orthodox 
Eastern Church since 1453, and dominates its history in the 
I7th century. The great aim of his life was to reform the church 
on Calvinistic lines, and to this end he sent many young Greek 
theologians to the universities of Switzerland, Holland and 
England. In 1629 he published his famous Confessio, Calvinistic 
in doctrine, but as far as possible accommodated to the language 
and creeds of the Orthodox Church. It appeared the same year 
in two Latin editions, four French, one German and one English, 
and in the Eastern Church started a controversy which culminated 
in 1691 in the convocation by Dositheos, patriarch of Jerusalem, 
of a synod by which the Calvinistic doctrines were condemned. 
Lucaris was several times temporarily deposed and banished 
at the instigation of his orthodox opponents and of the Jesuits, 
who were his bitterest enemies. Finally, when Sultan Murad 
was about to set out for the Persian War, the patriarch was 
accused of a design to stir up the Cossacks, and to avoid trouble 
during his absence the sultan had him killed by the Janissaries 
(June 1637). His body was thrown into the sea, recovered and 
buried at a distance from the capital by his friends, and only 
brought back to Constantinople after many years. 

The orthodoxy of Lucaris himself continued to be a matter 
of debate in the Eastern Church, even Dositheos, in view of the 
reputation of the great patriarch, thinking it expedient to gloss 
over his heterodoxy in the interests of the Church. 
. See the article " Lukaris " by Ph. Meyer in Herzog-Hauck, 
Realencyklop. (3rd ed., Leipzig, 1902), which gives further authorities. 

LUCARNE, a French architectural term for a garret window, 
also for the lights or small windows in spires. 

LUCAS, SIR CHARLES (d. 1648), English soldier, was the son 
of Sir Thomas Lucas of Colchester, Essex. As a young man 
he saw service in the Netherlands under. the command of his 
brother, and in the " Bishops' War " he commanded a troop 
of horse in King Charles I.'s army. In 1639 he was made a knight. 
At the outbreak of the Civil War Lucas naturally took the king's 
side, and at the first cavalry fight, Powick Bridge, he was wounded. 
Early in 1643 he raised a regiment of horse, with which he 
defeated Middleton at Padbury on July ist. In January 1644 
he commanded the forces attacking Nottingham, and soon 
afterwards, on Prince Rupert's recommendation, he was made 
lieutenant-general of Newcastle's Northern army. When New- 
castle was shut up in York, Lucas and the cavalry remained 
in the open country, and when Rupert's relieving army crossed 
the mountains into Yorkshire he was quickly joined by New- 
castle's squadrons. At Marston Moor Lucas swept Fairfax's 
Yorkshire horse before him, but later in the day he was taken 
prisoner. Exchanged during the winter, he defended Berkeley 
Castle for a short time against Rainsborough, but was soon in 
the field again. As lieutenant-general of all the horse he 
accompanied Lord Astley in the last campaign of the first war, 
and, taken prisoner at Stow-on-the-Wold, he engaged not to 
bear arms against parliament in the future. This parole he must 
be held to have broken when he took a prominent part in the 
seizure of Colchester in 1648. That place was soon invested, 
and finally fell, after a desperate resistance, to Fairfax's army. 
The superior officers had to surrender " at mercy," and Lucas 
and Sir George Lisle were immediately tried by court martial 
and sentenced to death. The two Royalists were shot the same 
evening in the Castle of Colchester. 

See Lloyd, Memoirs of Excellent Personages (1669) ; and Earl de 
Grey, A Memoir of the Life of Sir Charles Lucas (1845). 

LUCAS, CHARLES (1713-1771), Irish physician and politician, 
was the son of a country gentleman of small means in Co. 
Clare. Charles opened a small business as an apothecary in 
Dublin, and between 1735 and 1741 he began his career as a 
pamphleteer by publishing papers on professional matters 
which led to legislation requiring inspection of drugs. Having 
been elected a member of the common council of Dublin in 1741 
he detected and exposed encroachments by the aldermen on the 
electoral rights of the citizens, and entered upon a controversy 
on the subject, but failed in legal proceedings against the alder- 

men in 1744. With a view to becoming a parliamentary candi- 
date for the city of Dublin he issued in 1748-1749 a series of 
political addresses in which he advocated the principles of 
Molyneux and Swift; and he made himself so obnoxious to the 
government that the House of Commons voted him an enemy 
to the country, and issued a proclamation for his arrest, thus 
compelling him to retire for some years to the continent. Having 
studied medicine at Paris, Lucas took the degree of M.D. at 
Leiden in 1752. In the following year he started practice as 
a physician in London, and in 1756 he published a work on 
medicinal waters, the properties of which he had studied on the 
continent and at Bath. The essay was reviewed by Dr Johnson, 
and although it was resented by the medical profession it gained 
a reputation and a considerable practice for its author. In 1760 
he renewed his political pamphleteering; and having obtained 
a pardon from George III., he proceeded to Dublin, where he 
received a popular welcome and a Doctor's degree from Trinity 
College. He was elected member for the city of Dublin in 1761, 
his colleague in the representation being the recorder, Henry 
Grattan's father. On the appointment of Lord Halifax as lord 
lieutenant in the same year Lucas wrote him a long letter 
(igth of Sept. 1761, MSS. Irish State Paper Office) setting forth 
the grievances which Ireland had suffered in the past, chiefly 
on account of the exorbitant pensions enjoyed by government 
officials. The cause of these evils he declared to be the un- 
representative character of the Irish constitution; and among 
the remedies he proposed was the shortening of parliaments. 
Lucas brought in a bill in his first session to effect this reform, 
but was defeated on the motion to have the bill sent to England 
for approval by the privy council; and he insisted upon the 
independent rights of the Irish parliament, which were after- 
wards in fuller measure successfully vindicated by Grattan. 
He also defended the privileges of the Irish Protestants in the 
press, and especially in the Freeman's Journal, founded in 1763. 
His contributions to the press, and his Addresses to the Lord 
Mayor and other political pamphlets made him one of the most 
popular writers in Ireland of his time, although he was anti- 
catholic in his prejudices, and although, as Lecky observes, 
" there is nothing in his remains to show that he possessed any 
real superiority either of intellect or knowledge, or even any 
remarkable brilliancy of expression." He died on the 4th of 
November 1771, and was accorded a public funeral. As an orator 
Charles Lucas appears to have had little power, and he made 
no mark in the House of Commons. 

See R. R. Madden, Hist, of Irish Periodical Literature from the End 
of the 17th to the Middle of the ipth Century (2 vols., London, 1867) ; 
Francis Hardy, Memoirs of the Earl of Charlemont (2 .vols., London, 
1812) ; W. E. H. Lecky, History of Ireland in the Eighteenth Century, 
vols. i. and ii. (5 vols., London, 1892). 

LUCAS, JOHN SEYMOUR (1840- ), English painter, was 
born in London, and was a student in the Royal Academy 
Schools. He was elected an associate of the academy in 1886 
and academician in 1898, and became a constant exhibitor of 
pictures of historical and domestic incidents, notably of the 
Tudor and Stuart periods, painted with much skill and with 
close attention to detail. One of his most important works is 
a panel in the Royal Exchange, presented by the corporation 
of London, representing William the Conqueror granting the 
first charter to the city; and one of his earlier pictures, " After 
Culloden: Rebel Hunting," is in the National Gallery of British 

LUCAS VAN LEYDEN (c. 1494-1533), Dutch painter, was born 
at Leiden, where his father Huig Jacobsz gave him the first 
lessons in art. He then entered the painting-room of Cornells 
Engelbrechtszen of Leiden, and soon became known for his 
capacity in making designs for glass, engraving copper-plates, 
painting pictures, portraits and landscapes in oil and distemper. 
According to van Mander he was born in 1494, and painted at 
the age of twelve a " Legend of St Hubert " for which he was 
paid a dozen florins. He was only fourteen when he finished 
a plate representing Mahomet taking the life of Sergius, the 
monk, and at fifteen he produced a series of nine plates for a 
"Passion," a "Temptation of St Anthony," and a "Conversion 



of St Paul." The list of his engravings in 1510, when, according 
to van Mander, he was only sixteen, includes subjects as various 
as a celebrated " Ecce Homo," " Adam and Eve expelled from 
Paradise," a herdsman and a milkmaid with three cows, and a 
little naked girl running away from a barking dog. Whatever 
may be thought of the tradition embodied in van Mander's 
pages as to the true age of Lucas van Leyden, there is no doubt 
that, as early as 1508, he was a master of repute as a copper- 
plate engraver. It was the time when art found patrons among 
the public that could ill afford to buy pictures, yet had enough 
interest in culture to satisfy itself by means of prints. Lucas 
van Leyden became the representative man for the public 
of Holland as Durer for that of Germany; and a rivalry grew 
up between the two engravers, which came to be so close that 
on the neutral market of Italy the products of each were all 
but evenly quoted. Vasari affirmed that Durer surpassed 
Lucas as a designer, but that in the use of the graver they 
were both unsurpassed, a judgment which has not been reversed. 
But the rivalry was friendly. About the time when Durer 
visited the Netherlands Lucas went to Antwerp, which then 
flourished as an international mart for productions of the pencil 
and the graver, and it is thought that he was the master who 
took the freedom of the Antwerp gild in 1521 under the name 
of Lucas the Hollander. In Durer's diary kept during his travels 
in the Low Countries, we find that at Antwerp he met Lucas, 
who asked him to dinner, and that Durer accepted. He valued 
the art of Lucas at its true figure, and exchanged the Dutchman's 
prints for eight florins' worth of his own. In 1527 Lucas made a 
tour of the Netherlands, giving dinners to the painters of the 
gilds of Middleburg, Ghent, Malines and Antwerp. He was 
accompanied during the trip by Mabuse, whom he imitated in 
his style as well as in his love of rich costume. On his return 
home he fell sick and remained ailing till his death in 1533, and 
he believed that poison had been administered to him by some 
envious comrade. 

A few days before his death Lucas van Leyden was informed 
of the birth of a grandson, first-born of his only daughter 
Gretchen. Gretchen's fourth son JEAN DE HOEY followed the 
profession of his grandfather, and became well known at the 
Parisian court as painter and chamberlain to the king of France, 
Henry IV. 

As an engraver Lucas van Leyden deserves his reputation. He has 
not the genius, nor had he the artistic tact, of Diirer ; and he displays 
more cleverness ot expression than skill in distribution or in refinement 
in details. But' his power in handling the graver is great, and some 
of his portraits, especially his own, are equal to anything by the 
master of Nuremberg. Much that he accomplished as a painter has 
been lost, because he worked a good deal upon cloth in distemper. 
In 1522 he painted the " Virgin and Child with the Magdalen and a 
Kneeling Donor," now in the gallery of Munich. His manner was 
then akin to that of Mabuse. The " Last Judgment '" in the town- 
gallery of Leiden is composed on the traditional lines of Cristus and 
Memling, with monsters in the style of Jerom Bosch and figures in 
the stilted attitudes of the South German school ; the scale of colours 
in yellow, white and grey is at once pale and gaudy, the quaintest 
contrasts are produced by the juxtaposition of alabaster flesh in 
females and bronzed skin in males, or black hair by the side of 
yellow, or rose-coloured drapery set sharply against apple-green 
or black; yet some of the heads are painted with great delicacy 
and modelled with exquisite feeling. Dr Waagen gave a favourable 
opinion of a triptych now at the Hermitage at St Petersburg, exe- 
cuted, according to van Mander, in 1531, representing the " Blind 
Man of Jericho healed by Jesus Christ." Here too the German critic 
observed the union of faulty composition with great finish and warm 
flesh-tints with a gaudy scale of colours. The same defects and 
qualities will be found in such specimens as are preserved in public 
collections, among which may be mentioned the " Card Party " at 
Wilton House, the " Penitent St Jerome " in the gallery of Berlin, 
and the hermits " Paul " and Anthony " in the Liechtenstein 
collection at Vienna. There is a characteristic " Adoration of the 
Magi " at Buckingham Palace. 

LUCCA (anc. Luca) , a town and archiepiscopal see of Tuscany, 
Italy, capital of the province of Lucca, 13 m. by rail N.E. of 
Pisa. Pop. (1901) 43,366 (town); 73,465 (commune). It is 
situated 62 ft. above the level of the sea, in the valley of the 
Serchio, and looks out for the most part on a horizon of hills 
and mountains. The fortifications, pierced by four gates, were 
begun in 1504 and completed in 1645, and long ranked among 

the most remarkable in the peninsula. They are still well- 
preserved and picturesque, with projecting bastions planted 
with trees. 

The city has a well-built and substantial appearance, its 
chief attraction lying in the numerous churches, which belong 
in the main to a well-marked basilican type, and present almost 
too richly decorated exteriors, fine apsidal ends and quadrangular 
campaniles, in some cases with battlemented summits, and 
windows increasing in number as they ascend. In style they 
are an imitation of the Pisan. It is remarkable that in the arcades 
a pillar generally occupies the middle of the facade. The cathe- 
dral of St Martin was begun in 1063 by Bishop Anselm (later 
Pope Alexander II.); but the great apse with its tall columnar 
arcades and the fine campanile are probably the only remnants 
of the early edifice, the nave and transepts having been rebuilt 
in the Gothic style in the i4th century, while the west front 
was begun in 1204 by Guidetto (lately identified with Guido 
Bigarelli of Como), and " consists of a vast portico of three 
magnificent arches, and above them three ranges of open galleries 
covered with all the devices of an exuberant fancy." The ground 
plan is a Latin cross, the nave being 273 ft. in length and 84 ft. 
in width, and the transepts 144 ft. in length. In the nave is a 
little octagonal temple or chapel, which serves as a shrine for the 
most precious of the relics of Lucca, a cedar- wood crucifix, carved, 
according to the legend, by Nicodemus, and miraculously con- 
veyed to Lucca in 782. The Sacred Countenance (Volto Santo), 
as it is generally called, because the face of the Saviour is con- 
sidered a true likeness, is only shown thrice a year. The chapel 
was built in 1484 by Matteo Civitali, a local sculptor of the early 
Renaissance (1436-1501); he was the only master of Tuscany 
outside Florence who worked thoroughly in the Florentine style, 
and his creations are among the most charming works of the 
Renaissance. The cathedral contains several other works by 
him the tomb of P. da Noceto, the altar of S. Regulus and the 
tomb of Ilaria del Carretto by Jacopo della Quercia of Siena 
(described by Ruskin in Modern Painters, ii.), the earliest of his 
extant works (1406), and one of the earliest decorative works of 
the Renaissance. In one of the chapels is a fine Madonna by Fra 
Bartolommeo; in the municipal picture gallery are a fine " God 
the Father " and another Madonna by him; also some sculptures 
by Civitali, and some good wood carving, including choir stalls. 
In the cathedral choir is good stained glass of 1485. The church 
of St Michael, founded in the 8th century, and built of marble 
within and without, has a lofty and magnificent western fafade 
(1188) an architectural screen rising much above the roof of the 
church. The interior is good but rather bare. The church of 
St Martino at Arliano near Lucca belongs to the first half of the 
8th century; it is of basilican plan (see G. T. Rivoira, Origini 
dell' Architettura Lombarda, in. [Rome, 1901] 138). St Frediano 
or Frigidian dates originally from the 7th century, but was built 
in the Romanesque style in 1112-1147, though the interior, 
originally with four aisles and nave, shows traces of the earliest 
structure; the front occupies the site of the ancient apse; in one 
of its chapels is the tomb of Santa Zita, patroness of servants 
and of Lucca itself. In S. Francesco, a fine Gothic church, is 
the tomb of Castruccio Castracane. San Giovanni (originally 
of the 1 2th century), S. Cristoforo, San Romano (rebuilt in the 
I7th century, by Vincenzo Buonamici), and Santa Maria Fori- 
sportam (of the 1 2th century) also deserve mention. 

Among the secular buildings are the old ducal palace, begun 
in 1578 by Ammanati, and now the residence of the prefect 
and seat of the provincial officers and the public picture gallery; 
the early Renaissance Palazzo Pretorio, or former residence of 
the podesta, now the seat of the civil and correctional courts; 
the palace, erected in the isth century by a member of the 
Guinigi family, of brick, in the Italian Gothic style, and now 
serving as a poor-house; the 16th-century palace of the marquis 
Guidiccioni, now used as a depository for the archives, the earliest 
documents going back to A.D. 790. The Palazzo Mansi contains 
a collection of Dutch pictures. There are several other fine 
late 16th-century palaces. The principal market-place in the 
city (Piazza del Mercato) has taken possession of the arena of the 



ancient amphitheatre, the outer arches of which can still be seen 
in the surrounding buildings. The whole building, belonging 
probably to the early Empire, measured 135 by 105 yds., and 
the arena 87 J by 58 yds. The outline of the ancient theatre can 
be traced in the Piazza delle Grazie,and some of its substructure 
walls are preserved. The ancient forum was on the site of the 
Piazza S. Michele in the centre of the town; remains of a small 
public building or shrine were found not far off in 1906 (L. Pernier 
in Notizie degli Scavi, 1906, p. 117). The rectangular disposition 
of the streets in the centre of the town is a survival of Roman 
times. Besides the academy of sciences, which dates from 1 584, 
there are several institutions of the same kind a royal philo- 
mathic academy, a royal academy of arts and a public library 
of 50,000 volumes. The archiepiscopal library and archives are 
also important, while the treasury contains some fine goldsmith's 
work, including the 14th-century Croce dei Pisani, made by the 
Pisans for the cathedral. 

The river Serchio affords water-power for numerous factories. 
The most important industries are the manufacture of jute goods 
(carried on at Ponte a Moriano in the Serchio valley, 6 m. N. of 
Lucca), tobacco, silks and cottons. The silk manufacture, intro- 
duced at Lucca about the close of the i ith century, and in the 
early part of the i6th the means of subsistence for 30,000 of its 
inhabitants, now gives employment (in reeling and throwing) 
to only about 1500. The bulk of the population is engaged in 
agriculture. The water supply is maintained by an aqueduct 
built in 1823-1832 with 459 arches, from the Pisan mountains. 

The ancient Luca, commanding the valley of the Serchio, is first 
mentioned as the place to which Sempronius retired in 218 B.C. 
before Hannibal; but there is some doubt as to the correctness 
of Livy's statement, for, though there were continual wars with 
the Ligurians, after this time, it is not mentioned again until we 
are told that in 177 B.C. a Latin colony was founded there in 
territory offered by the Pisans for the purpose. 1 It must have 
become a municipium by the lex Julia of 90 B.C., and it was here 
that Julius Caesar in 56 B.C. held his famous conference with 
Pompey and Crassus, Luca then being still in Liguria, not in 
Etruria. A little later a colony was conducted hither by the 
triumvirs or by Octavian; whether after Philippi or after Actium 
is uncertain. In the Augustan division of Italy Luca was as- 
signed to the 7th region (Etruria); it is little mentioned in the 
imperial period except as a meeting-point of roads to Florentia 
(see CLODIA, VIA), Luna and Pisae. The road to Parma given 
in the itineraries, according to some authorities, led by Luna 
and the Cisa pass (the route taken by the modern railway from 
Sarzana to Parma), according to others up the Serchio valley and 
over the Sassalbo pass (O. Cuntz in Jahreshefte des oesterr. arch. 
Instituts, 1904, 53). Though plundered and deprived of part of 
its territory by Odoacer, Luca appears as an important city and 
fortress at the time of Narses, who besieged it for three months 
in A.D. 5 S3, and under the Lombards it was the residence of a 
duke or marquis and had the privilege of a mint. The dukes 
gradually extended their power over all Tuscany, but after the 
death of the famous Matilda the city began to constitute itself an 
independent community, and in 1160 it obtained from Welf VI., 
duke of Bavaria and marquis of Tuscany, the lordship of all the 
country for 5 m. round, on payment of an annual tribute. In- 
ternal discord afforded an opportunity to Uguccione della Fag- 
giuola, with whom Dante spent some time there, to make himself 
master of Lucca in 1314, but the Lucchesi expelled him two years 
afterwards, and handed over their city to Castruccio Castracane, 
under whose masterly tyranny it became " for a moment the 
leading state of Italy," until his death in 1328 (his tomb is in 
S. Francesco). Occupied by the troops of Louis of Bavaria, sold 
to a rich Genoese Gherardino Spinola, seized by John, king of 
Bohemia, pawned to the Rossi of Parma, by them ceded to 
Martino della Scala of Verona, sold to the Florentines, surrendered 
to the Pisans, nominally liberated by the emperor Charles IV. 
and governed by his vicar, Lucca managed, at first as a demo- 

1 Some confusion has arisen owing to the similarity of the names 
Luca and Luna ; the theory of E. Bormann in Corp. Inscrip. Latin. 
(Berlin, 1888), xi. 295 is here followed. 

cracy, and after 1628 as an oligarchy, to maintain " its independ- 
ence alongside of Venice and Genoa, and painted the word 
Libertas on its banner till the French Revolution." In the begin- 
ning of the i6th century one of its leading citizens, Francesco 
Burlamacchi, made a noble attempt to give political cohesion to 
Italy, but perished on the scaffold (1548); his statue by Ulisse 
Cambi was erected on the Piazza. San Michele in 1863.' As a 
principality formed in 1805 by Napoleon in favour of his sister 
Elisa and her husband Bacchiocchi, Lucca was for a few years 
wonderfully prosperous. It was occupied by the Neapolitans 
in 1814; from 1816 to 1847 it was governed as a duchy by Maria 
Luisa, queen of Etruria, and her son Charles Louis; and it after- 
wards formed one of the divisions of Tuscany. 

The bishops of Lucca, who can be traced back to 347, received 
exceptional marks of distinction, such as the pallium in 1120, 
and the archiepiscopal cross from Alexander II. In 1726 
Benedict XIII. raised their see to the rank of an archbishopric, 
without suffragans. 

See A. Mazzarosa, Sloria di Lucca, (Lucca, 1833); E. Ridolfi, 
L'Arte in Lucca studiata nella sua Catledrale (1882); Guidi di Lucca; 
La Basilica di S. Michele in Foro in Lucca. i (T. As.) 

LUCCA, BAGNI DI (Baths of Lucca, formerly Bagno a 
Corsena), a commune of Tuscany, Italy, in the province of Lucca, 
containing a number of famous watering-places. Pop. (1901) 
13,685. The springs are situated in the valley of the Lima, 
a tributary of the Serchio; and the district is known in the 
early history of Lucca as the Vicaria di Val di Lima. Ponte 
Serraglio (16 m. N. of Lucca by rail) is the principal village 
(pop. 1312), but there are warm springs and baths also at Villa, 
Docce Bassi, Bagno Caldo, &c. The springs do not seem to have 
been known to the Romans. Bagno a Corsena is first mentioned 
in 1284 by Guidone de Corvaia, a Pisan historian (Muratori, 
R.I.S. vol. xxii.). Fallopius, who gave them credit for the 
cure of his own deafness, sounded their praises in 1569; and 
they have been more or less in fashion since. The temperature 
of the water varies from 98 to 130 Fahr.; in all cases it gives 
off carbonic acid gas and contains lime, magnesium and sodium 
products. In the village of Bagno Caldo there is a hospital 
constructed largely at the expense of Nicholas Demidoff in 
1826. In the valley of the Serchio, 3 m. below Ponte a Serraglio, is 
the medieval Ponte del Diavolo (1322) with its lofty central arch. 

LUCCEIUS, LUCIUS, Roman orator and historian, friend and 
correspondent of Cicero. A man of considerable wealth and 
literary tastes, he may be compared with Atticus. Disgusted 
at his failure to become consul in 60, he retired from public 
life, and devoted himself to writing a history of the Social and 
Civil Wars. This was nearly completed, when Cicero earnestly 
requested him to write a separate history of his (Cicero's) consul- 
ship. Cicero had already sung his own praises in both Greek 
and Latin, but thought that a panegyric by Lucceius, who had 
taken considerable interest in the affairs of that critical period, 
would have greater weight. Cicero offered to supply the material, 
and hinted that Lucceius need not sacrifice laudation to accuracy. 
Lucceius almost promised, but did not perform. Nothing 
remains of any such work or of his history. In the civil war 
he took the side of Pompey; but, having been pardoned by 
Caesar, returned to Rome, where he lived in retirement until 
his death. . 

Cicero's Letters (ed. Tyrrell and Purser), especially Ad Fam. v. 12; 
and Orelli, Onomasticon Tullianum. 

LUCCHESINI, GIROLAMO (1751-1825), Prussian diplomatist, 
was born at Lucca on the 7th of May 1751, the eldest son of 
Marquis Lucchesini. In 1779 he went to Berlin where Frederick 
the Great gave him a court appointment, making use of him 
in his literary relations with Italy. Frederick William II., 
who recognized his gifts for diplomacy, sent him in 1787 to Rome 
to obtain the papal sanction for the appointment of a coadjutor 
to the bishop of Mainz, with a view to strengthening the German 
Fttrstenbund. In 1788 he was sent to Warsaw, and brought 
about a rapprochement with Prussia and a diminution of 
Russian influence at Warsaw. He was accredited ambassador 
to the king and republic of Poland on the I2th of April 1789. 

9 6 


Frederick William was at that time intriguing with Turkey, 
then at war with Austria and Russia. Lucchesini was to rouse 
Polish feeling against Russia, and to secure for Prussia the 
concourse of Poland in the event of war with Austria and Russia. 
All his power of intrigue was needed in the conduct of these 
hazardous negotiations, rendered more difficult by the fact that 
Prussian policy excluded the existence of a strong Polish govern- 
ment. A Prusso- Polish alliance was concluded in March 1790. 
Lucchesini had been sent in January of that year to secure the 
alliance of Saxony against Austria, and in September he was 
sent to Sistova, where representatives of the chief European 
powers were engaged in settling the terms of peace between 
Austria and Turkey, which were finally agreed upon on the 4th 
of August 1791. Before he returned to Warsaw the Polish 
treaty of which he had been the chief author had become a dead 
letter owing to the engagements made between Prussia and 
Austria at Reichenbach in July 1790, and Prussia was already 
contemplating the second partition of Poland. He was recalled 
at the end of 1791, and in July 1792 he joined Frederick William 
in the invasion of France. He was to be Prussian ambassador 
in Paris when the allied forces should have reinstated the 
authority of Louis XVI. He was opposed alike to the invasion 
of France and the Austrian alliance, but his prepossessions 
did not interfere with his skilful conduct of the negotiations 
with Kellermann after the allies had been forced to retire by 
Dumouriez's guns at Valmy, nor with his success in securing 
the landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt's assistance against France. 
In 1793 he was appointed ambassador to Vienna, with the 
ostensible object of securing financial assistance for the Rhenish 
campaign. He accompanied Frederick William through the 
Polish campaign of 1793-94, and in the autumn returned to 
Vienna. His anti-Austrian bias made him extremely unpopular 
with the Austrian court, which asked in vain for his recall in 
1795. In 1797, after a visit to Italy in which he had an interview 
with Napoleon at Bologna, these demands were renewed and 
acceded to. In 1800 he was sent by Frederick William III. 
on a special mission to Paris. Despatches in which he expressed 
his distrust of Bonaparte's peaceful professions and his conviction 
of the danger of the continuance of a neutral policy were inter- 
cepted by the first consul, who sought his recall, but eventually 
accepted him as regular ambassador (1802). He consistently 
sought friendly relations between France and Prussia, but he 
warned his government in 1806 of Napoleon's intention of 
restoring Hanover to George III. and of Murat's aggressions in 
Westphalia. He was superseded as ambassador in Paris in 
September just before the outbreak of war. After the disaster 
of Jena on the i4th of October he had an interview with Duroc 
near Wittenberg to seek terms of peace. After two unsuccessful 
attempts at negotiation, the first draft being refused by Napoleon, 
the second by Frederick William, he joined the Prussian court 
at Konigsberg only to learn that his services were no longer 
required. He then joined the court of Elisa, grand duchess of 
Tuscany, at Lucca and Florence, and after Napoleon's fall 
devoted himself to writing. He died on the 2oth of October 

He published in. 1819 three volumes, Suite cause et gli effetti delta 
tonfederazione rhenana, at Florence, but revealed little that was not 
already available in printed sources. His memoirs remained in MS. 
His despatches are edited by Bailleu in Preussen und Frankreich 
(Leipzig, 1887, Publikationen aus den preussischen Staatsarchiven). 

LUCENA, a town of southern Spain, in the province of Cordova, 
37 m. S.S.E. of Cordova, on the Madrid-Algeciras railway. 
Pop. (1900) 21,179. Lucena is situated on the Cascajar, a minor 
tributary of the Genii. The parish church dates from the 
beginning of the i6th century. The chief industries are the 
manufacture of matches, brandy, bronze lamps and pottery, 
especially the large earthenware jars (linajas) used throughout 
Spain for the storage of oil and wine, some of which hold more 
than 300 gallons. There is considerable trade in agricultural 
produce, and the horse fair is famous throughout Andalusia. 
Lucena was taken from the Moors early in the i4th century; 
it was in the attempt to recapture it that King Boabdil of 
Granada was taken prisoner in 1483. 

LUCERA, a town and episcopal see of Apulia, Italy, 12! m. 
W.N.W. by rail of Foggia. Pop. (1901) 16,962. It is situated 
upon a lofty plateau, the highest point of which (823 ft.), pro- 
jecting to the W., was the ancient citadel, and is occupied by 
the well-preserved castle erected by Frederick II., and rebuilt 
by Pierre d'Angicourt about 1280. The cathedral, originally 
Romanesque, but restored after 1300 is in the Gothic style; 
the fafade is good, and so is the ciborium. The interior was 
restored in 1882. The town occupies the site of the ancient 
Luceria, the key of the whole country. According to tradition 
the temple of Minerva, founded by Diomede, contained the 
Trojan Palladium, and the town struck numerous bronze coins; 
but in history it is first heard of as on the Roman side in the 
Samnite Wars (321 B.C.), and in 315 or 314 B.C. a Latin colony 
was sent here. It is mentioned in subsequent military history, 
and its position on the road from Beneventum, via Aecae (mod. 
Troja) to Sipontum, gave it some importance. Its wool was 
also renowned. It now contains no ancient remains above 
ground, though several mosaic pavements have been found and 
there are traces of the foundations of an amphitheatre outside 
the town on the E. The town-hall contains a statue of Venus, 
a mosaic and some inscriptions (but cf. Th. Mommsen's remarks 
on the local neglect of antiquities in Corp. Inscr. Lot. ix. 75). 
In 663 it was destroyed by Constans II., and was only restored 
in 1223 by Frederick II., who transported 20,000 Saracens hither 
from Sicily. They were at first allowed religious freedom, but 
became Christians under compulsion in 1300. Up to 1806 
Lucera was the capital of the provinces of Basilicata and 
Molise. (T. As.) 

LUCERNE (Ger. Luzern; Ital. Lucerna), one of the cantons 
of central Switzerland. Its total area is 579-3 sq. m., of which 
530-2 sq. m. are classed as "productive" (forests covering 
120-4 sq. m., and vineyards -04 sq. m.). It contains no glaciers 
or eternal snows, its highest points being the Brienzer Rothhorn 
(7714 ft.) and Pilatus (6995 ft.), while the Rothstock summit 
(5453 ft.) and the Kaltbad inn, both on the Rigi, are included 
in the canton, the loftiest point of the Rigi range (the Kulm) 
being entirely in Schwyz. The shape of the canton is an irregular 
quadrilateral, due to the gradual acquisition of rural districts 
by the town, which is its historical centre. The northern portion, 
about 155 sq. m., of the Lake of Lucerne is in the canton. Its 
chief river is the Reuss, which flows through it for a short distance 
only receiving the Kleine Emme that flows down through the 
Entlebuch. In the northern part the Wigger, the Suhr and the 
Wynen streams flow through shallow valleys, separated by low 
hills. The canton is fairly well supplied with railways. The lakes 
of Sempach and Baldegg are wholly within the canton, which 
also takes in small portions of those of Hallwil and of Zug. 

In 1900 the population numbered 146,519, of which 143,337 
were German-speaking, 2204 Italian-speaking and 747 French- 
speaking, while 134,020 were Romanists, 12,085 Protestants 
and 319 Jews. Its capital is Lucerne (q.v.); the other towns 
are Kriens (pop. 5951), Willisau (4131), Ruswil (3928), Littau 
(3699), Emmen (3162) and Escholzmatt (3127). The peasants 
are a fine race, and outside the chief centres for foreign visitors 
have retained much of their primitive simplicity of manners 
and many local costumes. In the Entlebuch particularly the 
men are of a robust type, and are much devoted to wrestling 
and other athletic exercises. That district is mainly pastoral 
and is famous for its butter and cheese. Elsewhere in the canton 
the pastoral industry (including swine-breeding) is more extended 
than agriculture, while chiefly in and around Lucerne there are 
a number of industrial establishments. The Industrie des etr angers 
is greatly developed in places frequented by foreign visitors. 
The population as a whole is Conservative in politics and 
devotedly Romanist in religion. But owing to the settlement of 
many non-Lucerne hotel-keepers and their servants in the 
town of Lucerne the capital is politically Radical. 

The canton ranks officially third in the Swiss confederation 
next after Zurich and Bern. It was formerly in the diocese of 
Constance, and is now in that of Basel. It contains 5 adminis- 
trative districts and 107 communes. The existing cantonal 



constitution dates in its main features from 1875. The legislature 
or Grossrath consists of members elected in 55 electoral circles, 
in the proportion of i to every 1000 souls (or fraction over 500) 
of the Swiss population, and lasts for 4 years. On the 4th of 
April 1909 proportional representation was adopted for elections 
of members of the Grossrath. Since 1905 the executive of 7 
members is elected by a popular vote for 4 years, as are the 2 
members of the federal Standerath and the 7 members of the 
federal N ' ationalrath. Five thousand citizens ' can demand a 
facultative referendum as to all legislative projects and important 
financial decrees, or as to the revision of the cantonal constitution, 
while the same number can also revoke the mandate of the 
cantonal legislature before its proper term of office has ended, 
though this revocation does not affect the executive. Four 
thousand citizens have the right of " initiative " as to constitu- 
tional amendments or legislative projects. 

The canton is composed of the various districts which the town 
acquired, the dates being those at which the particular region 
was finally secured Weggis (1380), Rothenburg, Kriens, Horw, 
Sempach and Hochdorf (all in 1394), Wolhusen and the Entlebuch 
(1405), the so-called " Habsburger region " to the N.E. of the 
town of Lucerne (1406), Willisau (1407), Sursee and Beromunster 
(1415), Mailers (1477) and Littau (1481), while in 1803, in 
exchange for Hitzkirch, Merenschwand (held since 1397) was 
given up. (W. A. B. C.) 

LUCERNE, the capital of the Swiss canton of the same name. 
It is one of the principal tourist centres of Switzerland, being 
situated on the St Gotthard railway line, by which it is 59 m. 
from Basel and 180 m. from Milan. Its prosperity has always 
been bound up with the St Gotthard Pass, so that the successive 
improvements effected on that route (mule path in the I3th 
century, carriage road 1820-1830, and railway tunnel in 1882) 
have had much effect on its growth. It is beautifully situated 
on the banks of the river Reuss, just as it issues from the Lake 
of Lucerne, while to the south-west rises the rugged range of 
Pilatus, balanced on the east by the more smiling ridge of the 
Rigi and the calm waters of the lake. The town itself is very 
picturesque. On the rising ground to its north still stand nine 
of the towers that defended the old town wall on the Musegg 
slope. The Reuss is still crossed by two quaint old wooden 
bridges, the upper being the Kapellbriicke (adorned by many 
paintings illustrating the history of Switzerland and the town 
and clinging to the massive Wasserthurm) and the lower the 
Miihlenbriicke (also with paintings, this time of the Dance of 
Death). The old Hofbriicke (on the site of the Schweizerhof 
quay) was removed in 1852, when the process of embanking 
the shore of the lake began, the result being a splendid series 
of quays, along which rise palatial hotels. The principal building 
is the twin-towered Hofkirche (dedicated toStLegeror Leodegar) 
which, though in its present form it dates only from 1633-1635, 
was the centre round which the town gradually gathered; 
originally it formed part of a Benedictine monastery, but since 
1455 has been held by a college of secular canons. It has a fine 
17th-century organ. The 16th-century town-hall (Rathhaus) 
now houses the cantonal museum of antiquities of all dates. 
Both the cantonal and the town libraries are rich in old books, 
the latter being now specially devoted to works (MS. or printed) 
relating to Swiss history before 1848. The Lion monument, 
designed by Thorwaldsen, dedicated in 1821, and consisting of 
a dying lion hewn out of the living sandstone, commemorates 
the officers and men of the Swiss Guard (26 officers and about 
760 men) who were slain while defending the Tuileries in Paris 
in 1792, and is reflected in a clear pool at its foot. In the im- 
mediate neighbourhood is the Glacier Garden, a series of potholes 
worn in the sandstone rock bed of an ancient glacier. Among 
modern buildings are the railway station, the post office and the 
Museum of War and Peace, all in the new quarter on the left 
bank of the Reuss. In the interior of the town are many quaint 
old private houses. In 1799 the population numbered but 4337, 
but had doubled by 1840. Since then the rise has been rapid 
and continuous, being 29,255 in 1900. The vast majority are 
German-speaking (in 1900 there were 1242 Italian-speaking and 

529 French-speaking persons) and Romanists (in 1900 there 
were 4933 Protestants and 299 Jews). 

The nucleus of the town was a Benedictine monastery, founded 
ab out 7 50 on the right bank of the Reuss by the abbey of Murbach 
in Alsace, of which it long remained a " cell." It is first men- 
tioned in a charter of 840 under the name of " Luciaria," which 
is probably derived from that of the patron saint of the monastery, 
St Leger or Leodegar (in O. Ger. Leudegar or Lutgar) the form 
" Lucerrun " is first found in 1252. Under the shadow of this 
monastery there grew up a small village. The germs of a 
municipal constitution appear in 1252, while the growing power 
of the Habsburgs in the neighbourhood weakened the ties that 
bound Lucerne to Murbach. In 1291 the Habsburgs finally pur- 
chased Lucerne from Murbach, an act that led a few weeks later 
to the foundation of the Swiss Confederation, of which Lucerne 
became the fourth member (the first town to be included) in 1332. 
But it did not get rid of all traces of Habsburg domination till 
after the glorious victory of Sempach (1386). That victory led 
also to the gradual acquisition of territory ruled by and from 
the town. At the time of the Reformation Lucerne clave to the 
old faith, of which ever since it has been the great stronghold 
in Switzerland. The papal nuncio resided here from 1601 to 1873. 
In the i6th century, as elsewhere in Switzerland, the town 
government fell into the hands of an aristocratic oligarchy, 
whose power, though shaken by the great peasant revolt (1653) 
in the Entlebuch, lasted till 1798. Under the Helvetic republic 
(1798-1803) Lucerne was the seat of the central government, 
under the Act of Mediation (1803-1814) one of the six " Direc- 
torial " cantons and from 1815 to 1848 one of the three ruling 
cantons. The patrician government was swept away by the 
cantonal constitution of 1831. But in 1841 the Conservatives 
regained power, called in the Jesuits (1844) and so brought 
about the Sonderbund War (1847) in which they were defeated, 
the decisive battle taking place at Gisikon, not far from Lucerne. 
Since 1848 Lucerne has been in disfavour with the Radicals who 
control the federal government, and has not been chosen as the 
site of any great federal institution. The Radicals lost power 
in the canton in 1871, after which date the Conservatives became 
predominant in the canton, though in the town the Radicals 
were in the majority. 

See J. J. Blumer, Staats-und Rechtsgeschichte d. schweiz. Demo- 
kratien (3 vols., St Gall, 1850-1859); A. L. Gassmann, Das Volkslied 
im Luzerner Wiggerthal u. Hinterland (Basel, 1906) ; Geschichtsfreund 
(organ of the Historical Society of the Forest Cantons) from 1843. 
A. von Liebenau, CharakterbUder aus Luzern's Vergangenheit (2 vols., 
Lucerne, 1884-1801); T. von Liebenau, Das alte Luzern (Lucerne, 
1881) and " Der luzernische Bauernkrieg vom 1653 " (3 articles in 
vols. xviii.-xx., 1893-1895, of the Jahrbuch f. Schweizerische Ge- 
schichte); Heimathkunde fur den Kanton Luzern (6 vols., Lucerne, 
1867-1883); A. Ltttolf, Sagen, Brauche, Legenden aus d. Funf Orten 
(Lucerne, 1862); K. Pfyffer, Der Kanton Luzern (2 vols., 1858- 
1859) and Geschichte d. Stadt u. Kanton Luzern (2 vols., new ed., 
1861); A. P. von Segesser, Rechtsgeschichte d. Stadt u. Republik 
Luzern (4 vols., 1850-1858) and 45 Jahre (1841-1887) im Luzernischen 
Staatsdienst (Bern, 1887); J. Sowerby, The Forest Cantons of 
Switzerland (London, 1892).. (W. A. B. C.) 

LUCERNE, LAKE OF, the name .usually given by foreigners 
to the principal lake of Central Switzerland. In French it is 
called the Lac des Quatre Cantons, and in German the Vierwald- 
stdltersee, this term being often wrongly translated " Lake of the 
Four Forest Cantons," whereas it means the " Lake of the Four 
Valleys " voiles which form the four Cantons of Lucerne, 
Unterwalden, Uri and Schwyz. It takes its name from the town 
of Lucerne, which is situated at its west end, just where the Reuss 
issues from the lake, after having entered it at Fliielen at the east 
end and so practically formed it; the Muota enters the lake 
at Brunnen (northern shore) and the two mountain streams 
called the Engelberg and the Sarnen Aa at Buochs and Alpnach- 
stad respectively (S.). The lake is generally supposed to be, on 
the whole, the most beautiful in Switzerland. This is partly 
due to the steep limestone mountains between which it lies, 
the best known being the Rigi (5006 ft.) to the N., and Pilatus 
(6995 ft.) to the S.W., and to the great promontories that thrust 
themselves into its waters, such as those of Horw (S.), of Biirgen- 
stock (S.), of Meggenhorn (N.) and of Seelisberg (S.), and partly 

xvn. 4 

9 8 


to the irregularity of its shape. It is, in fact, composed of four 
main basins (with two side basins), which represent four different 
valleys, orographically distinct, and connected only by narrow 
and tortuous channels. There is, first, the most easterly basin, 
the Bay of Uri, extending from Fliielen on the south to Brunnen 
on the north. At Brunnen the great delta of the Muota forces the 
lake to the west, so that it forms the Bay of Gersau or the Gulf 
of Buochs, extending from the promontory of Seelisberg (E.) 
to that of the Biirgenstock (W.). Another narrow strait between 
the two " Noses " (Nasen) leads westwards to the Basin of Weggis, 
enclosed between the Rigi (N.) and the Biirgenstock promontory 
(S.). This last named bay forms the eastern arm of what is called 
the Cross of Lucerne, the western arm of which is formed by the 
Bay of Lucerne, while the northern arm is the Bay of Kiissnacht 
and the southern that of Hergiswil, prolonged S.W. by the 
Bay of Alpnach, with which it is joined by a very narrow channel, 
spanned by the Acher iron bridge. The Bay of Uri offers the 
sternest scenery, but is the most interesting, by reason of its 
connexion with early Swiss history at Brunnen the Everlasting 
League of 1315 was really made, while the legendary place of 
meeting of the founders of Swiss freedom was the meadow of the 
Riitli on the west (purchased by the Confederation in 1859), 
and the site of Tell's leap is marked by the Chapel of Tell (E.). 
Nearly opposite Brunnen, close to the west shore, an isolated 
rock (the Schillerstein or Mythensteiri) now bears an inscription 
in honour of Friedrich Schiller, the author of the famous play of 
William Tell (1804). In the Bay of Gersau the most interesting 
spot is the village of Gersau (N.), which formed an independent 
republic from 1390 to 1798, but in 1818 was finally united to the 
canton of Schwyz. In the next basin to the west is Weggis (N.), 
also for long in the middle ages a small independent state; 
to the S.E. of Weggis, on the north shore of the lake, is Vitznau, 
whence a rack railway (1871) leads up to the top of the Rigi 
(41 m.), while S.W. of Weggis, on the south shore of the lake, 
is Kehrsiten, whence an electric railway leads up to the great 
hotels on the Biirgenstock promontory (2854 ft.). The town 
of Lucerne is connected with Fliielen by the main line of the 
St Gotthard railway (32 m.), though only portions of this line 
(from Lucerne to Kiissnacht, 105 m., and from Brunnen to 
Fliielen, 7 m.) run along the shore; Brunnen is also connected 
with Fliielen by the splendid carriage road known as the Axen- 
strasse (7! m.)and is the starting-point of an electric line (1905) 
up to Morschach (S.E.) and the great hotels of Axenstein and 
Axenfels near it. On the promontory between Lucerne and 
Kiissnacht stands the castle of New Habsburg (modern), while 
from Kussnacht a carriage road leads through the remains of the 
" Hollow Way " (Hohle Gasse), the scene of the legendary murder 
of Gessler by William Tell. The west shore of the southern arm, 
or the basin of Hergiswil and the Bay of Alpnach, is traversed 
from Horw to Alpnachstad by the Brttnig railway (5^ m.), which 
continues towards Sarnen (Obwalden) and the Bernese Oberland, 
S.W. from Alpnachstad, whence a rack railway leads N.W. up 
Pilatus (2! m.). Opposite Hergiswil, but on the east shore of 
the Basin of Hergiswil, is Stanstad, the port of Stans (Nidwalden), 
which is connected by an electric line with Engelberg (14 m.). 
The first steamer was placed on the lake in 1835. Lucerne is the 
only town of importance, but several spots serve as ports for 
neighbouring towns or large villages (Brunnen for Schwyz, 
Fliielen for Altdorf, Stanstad for Stans, Alpnachstad for Sarnen). 
Most of the villages on the shores are frequented in summer by 
visitors (Gersau also in winter), especially Hertenstein, Weggis, 
Gersau, Brunnen, Beckenried and Hergiswil, while great hotels, 
commanding magnificent views, have been built on heights above 
it, such as the Biirgenstock, Seelisberg, and near Morschach, 
above Brunnen, besides those on the Rigi, Pilatus and the 
Stanserhorn. The area of the lake is about 44? sq. m., its length 
about 24 m., its greatest width only 2 m. and its greatest depth 
702 ft., while the surface of the water is 1434 ft. above sea-level. 
Of the total area about 155 sq. m. are in the Canton of Lucerne, 
13 sq. m. in that of Nidwalden, 7^ sq. m. in that of Uri, 
7! sq. m. in that of Schwyz, and about i sq. m. in that of 
Obwalden. (W. A. B. C.) 

LUCERNE, PURPLE MEDICK or ALFALFA, known botanically 
as Medicago saliva, a plant of the natural order Leguminosae. 
In England it is still commonly called " lucerne," but in America 
" alfalfa," an Arabic term ("the best fodder "), which, owing to 
its increasing cultivation in the western hemisphere, has come 
into widening usage since the introduction of the plant by the 
Spaniards. It is an erect perennial herb with a branched hollow 
stem i to 2 ft. high, trifoliolate leaves, short dense racemes of 
small yellow, blue or purple flowers, and downy pods coiled 
two or three times in a loose 
spiral. It has a characteristic 
long tap-root, often extending 15 
ft. or more into the soil. It is 
a native of the eastern Mediter- 
ranean region, but was intro- 
duced into Italy in the ist 
century A.D., and has become 
more widely naturalized in 
Europe; it occurs wild in hedges 
and fields in Britain, where it 
was first cultivated about 1650. 
It seems to have been taken 
from Spain to Mexico and South 
America in the i6th century, 
but the extension of its cultiva- 
tion in the Western States of 
the American Union practically 
dates from the middle of the 
1 9th century, and in Argentina 
its development as a staple crop 
is more recent. It is much culti- 
vated as a forage crop in France 
and other parts of the continent 
of Europe, but has not come 
into such general use in Britain, 
where, however, it is frequently 
met with in small patches in 
districts where the soil is very 
light, with a dry subsoil. Its Lucerne (Medicago saliva), J nat. 
thick tap-roots penetrate very s ' ze - 

deeply into the soil; and if a J; %S3%3fit. size, 
good cover is once obtained, the 3i Fruit, enlarged, 
plants will yield abundant cut- 
tings of herbage for eight or ten years, provided they are properly 
top-dressed and kept free from perennial weeds. The time to 
cut it is, as with clover and sainfoin, when it is in early flower. 

In the United States alfalfa has become the staple leguminous 
forage crop throughout the western half of the country. Some 
idea of the increase in its cultivation may be obtained from the 
figures for Kansas, where in 1891 alfalfa was cultivated over 
34,384 acres, while in 1907 the number was 743,050. The pro- 
gress of irrigation has been an important factor in many districts. 
The plant requires a well-drained soil (deep and permeable 
as possible), rich in lime and reasonably free from weeds. 

See, for practical directions as to cultivation, Farmers' Bulletin 
339 of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, by J. M. Westgate 
(Washington, December 1908). 

historian, was born in Paris on the 24th of October 1846. In 
1879 he became a professor at Bordeaux and in 1889 professor 
of medieval history at the Sorbonne; in 1895 he became a 
member of the Academic des sciences morales et poliliques, where 
he obtained the Jean Reynaud prize just before his death on the 
i4th of November 1908. The most important of Achille 
Luchaire's earlier works is his Histoire des institutions monarchiques 
de la France sous les premiers Capetiens (1883 and again 1891); 
he also wrote a Manuel des institutions franc.aises: periode des 
Capetiens directs (1892); Louis VI. le Gros, annales de sa vie 
et de son regne (1890); and Etude sur les actes de Louis VII. 
(1885). His later writings deal mainly with the history of 
the papacy, and took the form of an elaborate work on Pope 
Innocent III. This is divided into six parts: (i.) Rome et Italie 



(1904); (ii.) La Croisade des Albigeois (1905); (iii.) La Papaute et 
I 'empire (1905); (iv.) La Question a Orient (1906); (v.) Les 
Royautes vassales du Saint-Siege (1908); and (vi.) Le Conctte de 
Latran et la rtforme de l'glise (1908). He wrote two of the 
earlier volumes of E. Lavisse's Histoire de France. 

LIUKIU), a long chain of islands belonging to Japan, stretching 
from a point 80 m. S. of Kiushiu to a point 73 m. from the N.E. 
coast of Formosa, and lying between 24 and 30 N. and 123 
and 130 E. Japanese cartographers reckon the Luchu islands 
as 55, having a total coast-line of 768 m., an area of 935 sq. m., 
and a population of about 455,000. They divide them into 
three main groups, of which the northern is called Oshima- 
shoto; the central, Okinawa-gunto; and the southern, Saki- 
shima-retto. The terms shoto, gunto and retto signify " archi- 
pelago," "cluster of islands " and "string of islands" respectively. 
The last-named group is subdivided into Miyako-gunto and 
Yayeyama-gunto. The principal islands of these various 
groups are : 


Amami-Oshima . . . . 34 m. long and 17 m. broad 
Tokuno-shima . . . . 16 8J 

Okinawa-shima(GreatLuchu)63^ m. long and 14^ m. broad 

Kume-shima 9f 7! 

Okinoerabu-shima . . . 9i 5 

Ihiya-shima 5 2 

Miyako-shima .... 12} m. long and 12 m. broad 

Erabu-shima 4! ,, 3! 


Ishigaki-shima .... 243 m. long and 144 m. broad 
Iriomoto-shima .... I4i 14 

Yonakuni-shima . 7i 3i ,, 

The remaining islands of the archipelago are of very small 
size, although often thickly populated. Almost at the extreme 
north of the chain are two islands with active volcanoes: 
Nakano-shima (3485 ft.) and Suwanose-shima (2697 ft.), but 
the remaining members of the group give no volcanic indica- 
tions, and the only other mountain of any size is Yuwan-dake 
(2299 ft.) in Amami-Oshima. The islands " are composed chiefly 
of Palaeozoic rocks limestones and quartzites found in the west, 
and clay, slate, sandstone and pyroxenite or amphibolite on 
the east. . . . Pre-Tertiary rocks have been erupted through 
these. The outer sedimentary zone is of Tertiary rocks." 1 
The capital is Shuri in Okinawa, an old-fashioned place with a 
picturesque castle. The more modern town of Nafa, on the same 
island, possesses the principal harbour and has considerable 

The scenery of Luchu is unlike that of Japan. Though so close 
to the tropics, the islands cannot be said to present tropical features: 
the bamboo is rare; there is no high grass or tangled undergrowth; 
open plains are numerous; the trees are not crowded together; 
lakes are wanting; the rivers are insignificant; and an unusual 
aspect is imparted to the scenery by numerous coral crags. The 
temperature in Nafa ranges from a mean of 82 F. in July to 60 in 
January. The climate is generally (though not in all the islands) 
pleasant and healthy, in spite of much moisture, the rainfall being 
very heavy. 

The fauna includes wild boars and deer, rats and bats. Excellent 
small ponies are kept, together with cattle, pigs and goats. The 
majority of the islands are infested with venomous snakes called 
habu (Trimeresurus), which attain a length of 6 to 7 ft. and a diameter 
of from 2j to 3 in. Their bite generally causes speedy death, and in 
the island of Amami-Oshima they claim many victims every year. 
The most important cultivated plant is the sugar-cane, which provides 
the principal staple of trade. 

Luchu is noted for the production of particularly durable vermilion- 
coloured lacquer, which is much esteemed for table utensils in Japan. 
The islands also manufacture certain fabrics which are considered a 
speciality. These are Riukiu-tsumugi, a kind of fine pongee; the so- 
called Satsuma-gasuri, a cotton fabric greatly used for summer wear; 
basho-fu, or banana-cloth (called also aka-basho), which is woven 
from the fibre of a species of banana; and hoso-jofu, a particularly 
fine hempen stuff, made in Miyako-shima, and demanding such 

1 Note in Geographical Journal, xx., on S. Yoshiwara, " Raised 
Coral Reefs in the Islands of the Riukiu Curve," in Journ. Coll. of 
Science, Imp. Univ., Tokyo (1901). 

difficult processes that six months are required to weave and dye a 
piece gj yds. long. 

People. Although the upper classes in Luchu and Japan closely 
resemble each other, there are palpable differences between the lower 
classes, the Luchuans being shorter and better proportioned than 
the Japanese; having higher foreheads, eyes not so deeply set, faces 
less flattened, arched and thick eyebrows, better noses, less marked 
cheek-bones and much greater hairiness. The last characteristic has 
been attributed to the presence of Ainu blood, and has suggested a 
theory that when the Japanese race entered south-western Japan 
from Korea, they drove the Ainu northwards and southwards, one 
portion of the latter finding their way to Luchu, the other to Yezo. 
Women of the upper class never appea- in public in Luchu, and are 
not even alluded to in conversation, but women of the lower orders 
go about freely with uncovered faces. The Luchu costume resembles 
that of Japan, the only marked difference being that the men use 
two hairpins, made of gold, silver, pewter or wood, according to the 
rank of the wearer. Men shave their faces until the age of twenty- 
five, after which moustache and beard are allowed to grow, though the 
cheeks are kept free from hair. Their burial customs are peculiar 
and elaborate, and their large sepulchres, generally mitre-shaped, 
and scattered all over the country, according to Chinese fashion, 
form a striking feature of the landscape. The marriage customs are 
also remarkable. Preliminaries are negotiated by a middleman, as 
in China and Japan, and the subsequent procedure extends over 
several days. The chief staple of the people's diet is the sweet 
potato, and pork is the principal luxury. An ancient law, still in 
force, requires each family to keep four pigs. In times of scarcity a 
species of sago (obtained from the Cycas revoluta) is eaten. There is a 
remarkable absence of religious influence in Luchu. Places of worship 
are few, and the only function discharged by Buddhist priests seems 
to be to officiate at funerals. The people are distinguished by gentle- 
ness, courtesy and docility, as well as by marked avoidance of crime. 
With the exception of petty thefts, their Japanese administrators find 
nothing to punish, and for nearly three centuries no such thing 
as a lethal weapon has been known in Luchu. Professor Chamber- 
lain states that the Luchuan language resembles the Japanese in 
about the same 'degree as Italian resembles French, and says that 
they are sister tongues, many words being identical, others differing 
only by letter changes which follow certain fixed analogies, and 
sentences in the one being capable of translation into the other word 
for word, almost syllable for syllable. 

History. Tinsunshi," Grandson of Heaven," is the mythical 
founder of the Luchu monarchy. Towards the close of the 1 2th 
century his descendants were driven from the throne by rebellion, 
but the old national party soon found a victorious leader in 
Shunten, son of Tametomo, a member of the famous Minamoto 
family, who, having been expelled from Japan, had come to 
Luchu and married there. The introduction of the arts of reading 
and writing are assigned to Shunten's reign. Chinese invasions 
of Luchu may be traced back to A.D. 605, but they did not result 
in annexation; and it was in 1372 that China first obtained from 
the Luchuans recognition of supremacy. Luchuan relations 
with Japan had long been friendly, but at the end of the i6th 
century the king refused Japan assistance against Korea, and in 
1609 the prince ofSatsuma invaded the islands with 3000 men, 
took the capital by storm> captured the king and carried him off 
to Kagoshima. A few years later he was restored to his throne 
on condition of acknowledging Japanese suzerainty and paying 
tribute. The Luchuans nevertheless continued to pay tribute 
to China also. 

The Chinese government, however, though taking a benevolent 
interest in the welfare of the islanders, never attempted to bring 
them under military sway. The incongruity of this state of 
affairs did not force itself upon Japan's attention so long as her 
own empire was divided into a number of semi-independent 
principalities. But in 1879 the Japanese government, treating 
Luchu as an integral part of the mikado's dominions, dethroned 
its prince, pensioned him as the other feudal chiefs had been 
pensioned, and converted Luchu into a prefecture under the name 
of Okinawa. This name signifies " extended rope," and alludes 
to the attenuated nature of the archipelago. China remonstrat- 
ing, a conference was held in Peking, when plenipotentiaries of 
the two empires signed an agreement to the ffect that the 
archipelago should be divided equally between the claimants. 
The Chinese government, however, refused to ratify this com- 
promise, and the Japanese continued their measures for the 
effective administration of all the islands. Ultimately (1895) 
Formosa also came into Japan's possession, and her title to the 
whole chain of islands ceased to be disputed. 



Though Captain Broughton, of H.M.S. " Providence," was 
wrecked on Miyako-shima and subsequently visited Nafa in 
1797, it was not till the " Alceste " and "Lyra" expedition 
in 1816-1817, under Captains Basil Hall and Murray Maxwell, 
that detailed information was obtained about Luchu. The 
people at that time showed a curious mixture of courtesy and 
shyness. From 1844 efforts were made by both Catholic (French) 
and Protestant missionaries to Christianize them, but though 
hospitable they made it clear that these efforts were unwelcome. 
Further visits were made by British vessels under Captain 
Beechey (1826) and Sir Edward Belcher (1845). The American 
expedition under Commodore M. C. Perry (1853) added largely 
to knowledge of the islands, and concluded a treaty with the 
Luchuan government. 

See Basil Hall, Account of a Voyage of Discovery to the West Coast 
of Corea and the Great Loo-choo Island (London, 1818); Comm. 
M. C. Perry, Narrative of the Expedition of an American Squadron 
to the China Seas and Japan, 1852-1854 (Washington, 1856); 
B. H. Chamberlain, " The Luchu Islands and their Inhabitants," in 
the Geographical Journal, vol. v. (1895) ; " Contributions to a Biblio- 
graphy of Luchu," in Trans. Asiatic Soc. Japan, xxiv. (1896); C. S. 
Leavenworth, " History of the Loo-choo Islands," Journ. China Br. 
Royal Asiatic Soc. xxxvi. (1905). 

LUCIA (or LUCY), ST, virgin and martyr of Syracuse, whose 
name figures in the canon of the mass, and whose festival 
is celebrated on the i3th of December. According to the legend, 
she lived in the reign of Diocletian. Her mother, having been 
miraculously cured of an illness at the sepulchre of St Agatha 
in Catania, was persuaded by Lucia to distribute all her wealth 
to the poor. The youth to whom the daughter had been betrothed 
forthwith denounced her to Pascasius, the prefect, who ordered 
that she should be taken away and subjected to shameful outrage. 
But it was found that no force which could be applied was able 
to move her from the spot on which she stood; even boiling oil 
and burning pitch had no power to hurt her, until at last she was 
slain with the sword. The most important documents concerning 
St Lucy are the mention in the Marlyrologium Hieronymianum 
and the ancient inscription discovered at Syracuse, in which 
her festival is indicated. Many paintings represent her bearing 
her eyes in her hand or on a salver. Some artists have even 
represented her blind, but nothing in her Ada justifies this 
representation. It is probable that it originated in a play upon 
words (Lucia, from Lat. lux, light), just as St Clair is invoked 
in cases of eye-disease. 

See O. Caietanus, Vitae sanctorum Siculorum, i. 114-121 (Palermo, 
1657); loannes de loanne, Acta sincera sanctae Luciae (Palermo, 
1758); Analecta Bollandiana, xxii. 492; Cahier, Caracttristiques des 
saints, i. 105 (Paris, 1867). (H. DE.) 

LUCIAN(d. 312), Christian martyr, was born, like the famous, 
heathen writer of the same name, at Samosata. His parents, 
who were Christians, died when he was in his twelfth year. 
In his youth he studied under Macarius of Edessa, and after 
receiving baptism he adopted a strictly ascetic life, and devoted 
himself with zeal to the continual study of scripture. Settling 
at Antioch when Malchion was master of the Greek school he 
became a presbyter, and, while supporting himself by his skill 
as a rapid writer, became celebrated as a teacher, so that he is 
regarded as the founder of the famous theological school of 
Antioch. He did not escape suspicion of heresy, and is repre- 
sented as the connecting link between Paul of Samosata and 
Arius. Indeed, on the deposition of the former (A.D. 268) he 
was excluded from ecclesiastical fellowship by three successive 
bishops of Antioch, while Arius seems to have been among his 
pupils (Theodoret, Hist. Eccl. i. 3, 4). He was, however, restored 
before the outbreak of persecution, and the reputation won 
by his high character and learning was confirmed by his courage- 
ous martyrdom. He was carried to Nicomedia before Maximin 
Daza, and persisting in his faith perished on the 7th of January 
312, under torture and hunger, which he refused to satisfy with 
food offered to idols. His defence is preserved by Rufinus 
(ix. 6; on Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. ix. 9). His remains were 
conveyed to Drepanum in Bithynia, and under Constantine 
the town was founded anew in his honour with the name of 
Helenopolis, and exempted from taxes by the emperor (A.D. 327) 

(see Chron. Pasch., Bonn ed., p. 527). Here in 387, on the anni- 
versary of his death, Chrysostom delivered the panegyrical 
homily from which, with notices in Eusebius, Theodoret and the 
other ecclesiastical historians, the life by Jerome ( Vir. III. cap. 
77), but especially from the account by S. Metaphrastes (cited 
at length in Bernhardy's notes to Suidas, s.v. voBfixi), the facts 
above given are derived. See also, for the celebration of his day 
in the Syriac churches, Wright, Cat. of Syr. MSS. p. 283. 

Jerome says that Lucian wrote Libelli de fide and several letters, 
but only a short fragment of one epistle remains (Chron. Pasch., ed. 
Dindorf, i. 516). The authorship of a confession of faith ascribed to 
Lucian and put forth at the semi-Arian synod of Antioch (A.D. 341) 
is questioned. Lucian's most important literary labour was his 
edition of the Greek Old Testament corrected by the Hebrew text, 
which, according to Jerome (Adv. Ruf. ii. 77), was in current use 
from Constantinople to Antioch. That the edition of Lucian is 
represented by the text used by Chrysostom and Theodoret, as well 
as by certain extant MSS., such as the Arundelian of the British 
Museum, was proved by F. Field (Prol. ad Origenis Hexapla, cap. ix.). 

Before the publication of Field's Hexapla, Lagarde had already 
directed his attention to the Antiochian text (as that of Lucian may 
be called) and ultimately published the first part (Genesis, 2 Esdras, 
Esther) of a provisional reconstructed text. The distinguishing 
marks of the Lucianic recension are thus summarized by S. R. 
Driver, Notes on Heb. Text of Samuel, p. li. seq. : (i) The substitution 
of synonyms for the words employed by the Septuagint; (2) the 
occurrence of double renderings; (3) the occurrence of renderings 
" which presuppose a Hebrew original self-evidently superior in the 
passages concerned to the existing Massoretic text," a peculiarity 
which makes it very important for the criticism of the Hebrew Bible. 
From a statement of Jerome in his preface to the gospels it seems 
probable that Lucian had also a share in fixing the Syrian recension 
of the New Testament text, but of this it is impossible to speak with 
certainty. He was associated in his work with the Hebraist 

See, generally, A. Harnack's art. in Hauck-Herzog, Realencyk. 
vol. xi., and for " remains " Routh, Rel. Sac. iv. 3-17. A full account 
of his recension of the Septuagint is given in H. B. Swete's Introduc- 
tion to the Old Testament in Greek, p. 81 sqq. ; and a good account of his 
doctrinal position in the prolegomena to the volume on Athanasius 
in the series of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers (p. xxviii.) and 
A. Harnack's History of Dogma, especially vol. iv. 

LUCIAN [AouKtcuw] (c. A.D. 120-180), Greek satirist of the 
Silver Age of Greek literature, was born at Samosata on the 
Euphrates in northern Syria. He tells us in the Somnium or 
Vita Luciani, i, that, his means being small, he was at first 
apprenticed to his maternal uncle, a statuary, or rather sculptor 
of the stone pillars called Hermae. Having made an unlucky 
beginning by breaking a marble slab, and having been well 
beaten for it, he absconded and returned home. Here he had 
a dream or vision of two women, representing Statuary and 
Literature. Both plead their cause at length, setting forth the 
advantages and the prospects of their respective professions; 
but the youth chooses liaiotLa, and decides to pursue learning. 
For some time he seems to have made money as a prirup, following 
the example of Demosthenes, on whose merits and patriotism 
he expatiates in the dialogue Demoslhenis Encomium. He was 
very familiar with the rival schools of philosophy, and he must 
have well studied their teachings; but he lashes them all alike, 
the Cynics, perhaps, being the chief object of his derision. Lucian 
was not only a sceptic; he was a scoffer and a downright un- 
believer. He felt that men's actions and conduct always fall 
far short of their professions and therefore he concluded that the 
professions themselves were worthless, and a mere guise to secure 
popularity or respect. Of Christianity he shows some knowkdge, 
and it must have been somewhat largely professed in Syria at 
the close of the 2nd century. 1 In the] Philopatris (q,v.), though 
the dialogue so called is generally regarded as spurious, there 
is a statement of the doctrine of the Trinity, 2 and the " Galilaean 
who had ascended to the third heaven " (12), and " renewed " 
(6.vKalvt.o~fv) by the waters of baptism, may possibly allude 
to St Paul. The doctrines of the Ao-yos and the " Light of the 
world," and that God is in heaven making a record of the good 

1 In the Alexander (25) we are told that the province of Pontus, 
due north of Syria, was " full of Christians." 

1 Philopatris, 12, inl/int&oira Qtiiv fiiyav HnlipoTov otopavlwva, vlAr 
Harpits, nvevna in irorpis iKVopiv&ntvov, Iv in rpiwv Kal t ivds Tpla, 
a passage which bears on the controverted procession "a Patre 



and bad actions of men, 1 seem to have come from the same 
source, though the notion of a written catalogue of human 
actions to be used in judgment was familiar to Aeschylus and 

As a satirist and a wit Lucian occupies in prose literature 
the unique position which Aristophanes holds in Greek poetry. 
But whether he is a mere satirist, who laughs while he lashes, 
or a misanthrope, who hates while he derides, is not very clear. 
In favour of the former view it may be said that the two main 
objects of his ridicule are mythology and the sects of philosophy; 
in favour of the latter, his bitter exposure of imposture and 
chicanery in the Alexander, and the very severe attacks he 
makes on the " humbug " of philosophy , 2 which he everywhere 
assails with the most acrimonious and contemptuous epithets. 

As a writer Lucian is fluent, easy and unaffected, and a close 
follower of the best Attic models, such as Plato and the orators. 
His style is simpler than Plutarch's, and some of his compositions, 
especially the Dialogues of the Gods (pp. 204-287) and of the 
Marine Deities (288-327), and, above all, the Dialogues of the 
Dead (329-454), are models of witty, polished and accurate Greek 
composition. Not less clever, though rather lax in morality, 
are the traipiKoi 610X0701 (pp. 280-325), which remind us 
somewhat of the letters of Alciphron. The sarcasms on the 
popular mythology, the conversations of Pluto, Hermes, Charon 
and others of the powers in Hades, show a positive disbelief 
in any future state of existence. The model Lucian followed 
in these dialogues, as well in the style as in the sparkling and 
playful repartee, was the Platonic conversations, founded on the 
drama, of which the dialogue may be called the prose repre- 
sentative. Aristotle never adopted it, perhaps regarding it as 
beneath the true dignity of philosophy. The dialogue, in fact, 
was revived and improved by Lucian,* the old traditions of the 
Xo7oirotoi and Xo7O7p<i</>oi, and, above all, the immense influence 
of rhetoric as an art, having thrown some discredit on a style 
of composition which, as introduced by Plato, had formed quite 
a new era in Greek prose composition. For rhetoric loved to 
talk, expatiate and declaim, while dialectic strove to refute 
by the employment of question and answer, often in the briefest 

Lucian evinces a perfect mastery over a language as wonderful 
in its inflections as in its immense and varied vocabulary; and 
it is a well-merited praise of the author to say that to a good 
Greek scholar the pages of Lucian are almost as easy and as enter- 
taining as an English or French novel. It is true that he employs 
some forms and compounds which were not in use in the time of 
Plato or Demosthenes, and, as one who lived under Roman 
rule, has a tendency towards Latinisms. But his own sentiments 
on the propriety of diction are shown by his reproof to Lexiphanes, 
" if anywhere you have picked up an out-of-the-way word, or 
coined one which you think good, you labour to adapt the sense 
of it, and think it a loss if you do not succeed in dragging it in 
somewhere, even when it it not really wanted." 

Lucian founded his style, or obtained his fluency, from the 
successful study of rhetoric, by which he appears to have made 
a good income from composing speeches which attracted much 
attention. At a later period in life he seems to have held a 
lucrative legal office in Egypt, which he retained till his death. 

His extant works are so numerous that of some of the principal 
only a short sketch can be given. More than 80 pieces have 
come down to us under his name (including three collections 
of 71 shorter dialogues), of which about 20 are spurious or of 

1 Philopatris, 13. Aesch. Eum. 265, &e\Toyp&4xf 51 T&VT' Iru-ry. 

* In Hermotimns (51) Hermotimus says to Lycinus (who must be 
assumed to represent Lucian himself), fi/3pm)s &tl <ri, icoi obn oU' 
S TI iraBwv juffets ^iXoffo^iaK not Is TOVS 4>i\oao<t>ouvTas diroffKanrreis. 
In Icaromenippui (5; see also 29) he says he always guessed who 
were the best physical philosophers " by their sour-faced looks, their 
paleness of complexion and the length of their beards." 

3 He says (speaking as 26pos in Bis accusatus, 34) that he found 
dialogue somewhat out of repute from the too numerous questions 
(i.e. employed by Plato), and brought it up to a more human and 
natural standard, substituting banter and repartee for dialectic 
quibbles and close logical reasoning. 

doubtful authorship. To understand them aright we must 
remember that the whole moral code, the entire " duty of man," 
was included, in the estimation of the pagan Greek, in the 
various schools of philosophy. As these were generally rivals, 
and the systems they taught were more or less directly antagon- 
istic, truth presented itself to the inquirer, not as one, but as 
manifold. The absurdity and the impossibility of this forms 
the burden of all Lucian's writings. He could only form one 
conclusion, viz. that there is no such thing as truth. 

One of the best written and most amusing treatises of antiquity 
is Lucian's True History, forming a rather long narrative in two 
books, which suggested Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Rabelais's 
Voyage of Pantagruel and Cyrano de Bergerac's Journey to 
the Moon. It is composed, the author tells us in a brief intro- 
duction, not only as a pastime and a diversion from severer 
studies, but avowedly as a satire on the poets and logographers 
who had written so many marvellous tales. He names Ctesias 
and Homer; but Hellanicus and Herodotus, perhaps other 
Xo7oirotot still earlier, appear to have been in his mind. 4 The 
only true statement in his History, he wittily says (p. 72), is that 
it contains nothing but lies from beginning to end. 

The main purport of the story is to describe a voyage to the 
moon. He set out, he tells us, with fifty companions, in a well- 
provisioned ship, from the " Pillars of Hercules," intending to 
explore the western ocean. After eighty days' rough sailing they 
came to an island on which they found a Greek inscription, " This 
was the limit of the expedition of Heracles and Dionysus "; 
and the visit of the wine-god seemed attested by some miraculous 
vines which they found there. After leaving the island they 
were suddenly carried up, ship and all, by a whirlwind into the 
air, and on the eighth day came in sight of a great round island 
shining with a bright light (p. 77), and lying a little above the 
moon. In a short time they are arrested by a troop of gigantic 
" horse-vultures " and brought as captives to the " man in the 
moon," who proves to be Endymion. He is engaged in a war 
with the inhabitants of the sun, which is ruled by King Phaethon, 
the quarrel having arisen from an attempt to colonize the planet 
Venus (Lucifer). The voyagers are enlisted as " Moonites," 
and a long description follows of the monsters and flying dragons 
engaged in the contest. A fight ensues, in which the slaughter 
is so great that the very clouds are tinged with red (p. 84). The 
long description of the inhabitants of the moon is extremely 
droll and original. After descending safely into the sea, the ship is 
swallowed by a huge " sea serpent " more than 100 miles long. 
The adventures during the long confinement in the creature's 
belly are most amusing; but at last they sail out through the 
chinks between the monster's teeth, and soon find themselves 
at the " Fortunate Islands." Here they meet with the spirits 
of heroes and philosophers of antiquity, on whom the author 
expatiates 'at some length. The tale comes to an abrupt end 
with an allusion to Herodotus in the promise that he " will tell 
the rest in his next books." 

Another curious and rather long treatise is entitled Aot/ooj ^ 
"Ovos, the authorship of which is regarded as doubtful. Parts 
of the story are coarse enough; the point turns on one Lucius 
visiting in a Thessalian family, in which the lady of the house 
was a sorceress. Having seen her changed into a bird by anoint- 
ing herself with some potent drug, he resolves to try a similar 
experiment on himself, but finds that he has become an ass, 
retaining, however, his human senses and memory. The mistake 
arose from his having filched the wrong ointment; however, he 
is assured by the attendant, Palaestra, that if he can but procure 
roses to eat, his natural form will be restored. In the night a 
party of bandits break into the house and carry off the stolen 
goods into the mountains on the back of the unfortunate donkey, 
who gets well beaten for stumbling on the rough road. Seeing, 
as he fancies, some roses in a garden, he goes in quest of them, 

4 He says (p. 127) that he saw punished in Hades, more severely 
than any other sinners, writers of false narratives, among whom were 
Ctesias of Cnidus and Herodotus. Yet in the short essay inscribed 
Herodotus (p. 831), he wishes it were possible for him to imitate the 
many excellencies of that writer. 



and again gets beaten as a thief by the gardener (p. 585). After 
many adventures with the bandits, he attempts to run away, 
but is caught. A council is held, and he is condemned to die 
together with a captive, girl who had essayed to escape on his 
back. Suddenly, however, soldiers appear, and the bandits 
are arrested (p. 595). Again the ass escapes " to the great and 
populous city of Beroea in Macedonia " (p. 603). Here he is sold 
to a strolling conjurer, afterwards to a market-gardener; and 
both experiences are alike painful. Again he passes into the 
possession of a cook, where he gets fat and sleek on food more 
suited to his concealed humanity than the hard fare he has of 
late lived upon (p. 614). At last, during an exhibition in the 
theatre, he sees some roses being carried past, and, making 
a successful rush to devour them, he recovers his former shape. 
" I am Lucius," he exclaims to the wondering president of the 
exhibition, " and my brother's name is Caius. It was a Thes- 
salian witch that changed me into a donkey." Thus all ends 
well, and he returns safe to his country. 

The treatise On the Syrian Goddess (Mylitta, the moon-goddess, 
the Semitic Aphrodite) is written in the Ionic dialect in imita- 
tion perhaps of the style of Herodotus, though the resemblance 
is by no means close. The writer professes to be an Assyrian 
(p. 452), and to describe the wonders in the various temples of 
Palestine and Syria; he descanfs on the eunuchs of Syria and 
the origin of the self-imposed privation of manhood professed 
and practised by the Galli. The account of the temples, altars 
and sacrifices is curious, if really authentic; after the manner 
of Pausanias it is little more than a list, with the reasons in most 
cases added, or the origin of the custom explained. 

De Morte Peregrini is a narrative of one Proteus, a Cynic, who 
after professing various doctrines, and among them those of 
Christianity, ended his own life by ascending a burning pyre 

Bis accusatus (" Twice Accused ") is a dialogue beginning 
with a satire on the folly of the popular notion that the gods 
alone are happy. Zeus is represented as disproving this by 
enumerating the duties that fall to their lot in the government 
of the world, and Hermes remarks on the vast crowds of philo- 
sophers of rival sects, by whose influence the respect and worship 
formerly paid to the gods have seriously declined. A trial is 
supposed to be held under the presidency of the goddess AIKIJ, 
between the Academy, the Porch, the schools of the Cynics and 
Epicureans, and Pleasure, Revelry, Virtue, Luxury, &c., as 
variously impugned or defended by them. Then Conversation 
and Rhetoric come before the court, each having an action for 
defamation to bring against Syrus the essayist, who of course is 
Lucian himself (p.823). His defence is heard, and in both cases 
he is triumphantly acquitted. This essay is brilliant from its 
clever parodies of Plato and Demosthenes, and the satire on the 
Socratic method of arguing by short questions and answers. 

The Loner of Lying (^iXo^eM^s) discusses the reason why some 
persons seem to take pleasure in falsehood for its own sake. 
Under the category of lying all mythology (e.g. that of Homer 
and Hesiod) is included, and the question is asked, why the 
hearers of such stories are amused by them? Quack remedies, 
charms and miraculous cures are included among the most 
popular kinds of falsehood; witchcraft, spiritualism, exorcism, 
expulsion of devils, spectres, are discussed in turn, and a good 
ghost story is told in p. 57. An anecdote is given of Democritus, 
who, to show his disbelief in ghosts, had shut himself up in a 
tomb, and when some young men, dressed up with death's 
heads, came to frighten him at night, he did not even look up, 
but called out to them, " Stop your joking " (p. 59). This 
treatise, a very interesting one, concludes with the reflection that 
truth and sound reason are the only remedies for vain and 
superstitious terrors. 

The dialogue Navigium seu Vota ("The Ship or the Wishes ") 
gives an apparently authentic account of the measurements and 
fittings of an Egyptian ship which has arrived with a cargo of 
corn at the Peiraeus, driven out of its course to Italy by adverse 
winds. The full length is 180 ft., the breadth nearly 50, the 
depth from deck to the bottom of the hold 43 ft. The " wishes " 

turn on a party of friends, who have been to see the ship, declaring 
what they would most desire to possess. One would have the 
ship filled with gold, another a fine house with gold plate; a 
third would be a " tyrant " with a large force devoted to his 
interests; a fourth would like to make himself invisible, enter 
any house that he pleased, and be transported through the air 
to the objects of his affection. After hearing them all, the first 
speaker, Lycinus (Lucian), says that he is content with the 
privilege of laughing heartily at the vanity of human wishes, 
especially when they are those of professed philosophers. 

The dialogue between Philo and Lycinus, Convivium seu 
Lapithae, is a very amusing description of a banquet, at which 
a party of dignified philosophers quarrelled over their viands 
at a marriage feast, and came to blows. The style is a good 
imitation of Plato, and the scene reminds one of the " clients' 
dinner " in the fifth satire of Juvenal. Matters come to a climax 
by the attempt of one of the guests, Zenothemis, to secure for 
himself a fatter fowl which had been served to his next neighbour 
Hermon. Each seizes his bird and hits the other with it in the 
face, at the same time pulling his beard. Then a general fight 
ensues. The story is a satire on philosophy, the favourite topic 
of a writer who believed neither in gods nor in men. 

The Piscalor (" Fisherman "), a dialogue between Lucian, 
Socrates, Pythagoras, Empedocles, Plato and others, commences 
with a general attack on the author as the enemy of philosophy. 
Socrates proposes that the culprit should be tried, and that 
Philosophia should assist in the prosecution. Lucian declares 
that he does not know where such a person lives, long as he has 
been looking for her (n). She is found at last, but declares 
Lucian has never disparaged her, but only impostors and pre- 
tenders under her name (15). He makes a long defence (pp. 598- 
606), abusing the philosophers in the sort of language in which 
some schools of theologians abuse the monks of the middle ages 
(34). The trial is held in the Acropolis of Athens, and the sham 
philosophers, dreading a verdict against them, throw themselves 
from the rock. A Cynic flings away his scrip in the hurry, and on 
examination it is found to contain, not books or loaves of bread, 
but gold coins, dice and fragrant essences (44). At the end Lucian 
baits his hook with a fig and a gold coin, and catches gluttonous 
strollers in the city while seated on the wall of the Acropolis. 

The Voyage Home (KaTcnrXouj) opens with the complaint that 
Charon's boat is kept waiting for Hermes, who soon appears 
with his troop of ghosts. Among them is a rvpavvos, one Mega- 
penthes, who, as his name is intended to express, mourns greatly 
over the life he has just left. Amusing appeals are made by other 
souls for leave to return to life, and even bribes are offered to the 
presiding goddess of destiny, but Clotho is inexorable. The 
moral of the piece is closely like that of the parable of Dives and 
Lazarus: the rich and prosperous bewail their fate, while the 
poor and afflicted find rest from their troubles, and have no desire 
to return to them. The rvpavvos here is the man clothed in 
purple and fine linen, and Lucian shows the same bitter dislike 
of tyrants which Plato and the tragic writers display. The heavy 
penalty is adjudged to Megapenthes that he may ever remember 
in the other world the misdeeds done in life. 

The Sales of Lives is an auction held by Zeus to see what price 
the lives of philosophers of the rival sects will bring. A Pytha- 
gorean, who speaks in the Ionic dialect, first undergoes an 
examination as to what he can teach, and this contains an 
enumeration of the doctrines usually ascribed to that sect, 
including metempsychosis. He is valued at 75. 6d., and is suc- 
ceeded by Diogenes, who avows himself the champion of truth, 
a cosmopolitan (8), and the enemy of pleasure. Socrates brings 
two talents, and is purchased by Dion, tyrant of Syracuse (19). 
Chrysippus, who gives some specimens of his clever quibbles, 1 
is bought for fifty pounds, Aristotle for nearly a hundred, while 
Pyrrho the sceptic (or one of his school), who professes to " know 

1 E.g. " A stone is a body; a living creature is a body; you are a 
living creature; therefore you are a stone." Again: " Is every^ 
body possessed of life? " No. " " Is a stone possessed of life? ' 
" No. ' " Are you a body ?" " Yes." " A living body ?" 
" Yes." " Then, if a living body, you are not a stone." 



nothing," brings four pounds, " because he is dull and stupid and 
has no more sense than a grub " (27). But the man raises a doubt, 
" whether or not he has really been bought," and refuses to go 
with the purchaser till he has fully considered the matter. 

Timon is a very amusing and witty dialogue. The misanthrope, 
once wealthy, has become a poor farm-labourer, and reproaches 
Zeus for his indifference to the injustice of man. Zeus declares 
that the noisy disputes in Attica have so disgusted him that he 
has not been there for a long time (9). He tells Hermes to con- 
duct Plutus to visit Timon, and see what can be done to help 
him. Plutus, who at first refuses to go, is persuaded after a 
long conversation with Hermes, and Timon is found by them 
digging in his field (31). Poverty is unwilling to resign her 
votary to wealth; and Timon himself is with difficulty per- 
suaded to turn up with his mattock a crock of gold coins. Now 
that he has once more become rich, his former flatterers come 
cringing with their congratulations and respects, but they are 
all driven off with broken heads or pelted with stones. Between 
this dialogue and the Plutus of Aristophanes there are many 
close resemblances. 

Hermotimus (pp. 739-831) is one of the longer dialogues, 
Hermotimus, a student of the Stoic philosophy for twenty years 
(2), and Lucian (Lycinus) being the interlocutors. The long 
time forty years at the least required for climbing up to the 
temple of virtue and happiness, and the short span of life, if any, 
left for the enjoyment of it, are discussed. That the greatest 
philosophers do not always attain perfect indifference, the Stoic 
ultimatum, is shown by the anecdote of one who dragged his pupii 
into court to make him pay his fee (9), and again by a violent 
quarrel with another at a banquet (n). Virtue is compared to a 
city with just and good and contented inhabitants; but so 
many offer themselves as guides to the right road to virtue that 
the inquirer is bewildered (26). What is truth, and who are the 
right teachers of it? The question is argued at length, and 
illustrated by a peculiar custom of watching the pairs of athletes 
and setting aside the reserved combatant (irdp6pos) at the 
Olympian games by the marks on the ballots (40-43). This, it 
is argued, cannot be done till all the ballots have been examined ; 
so a man cannot select the right way till he has tried all the ways 
to virtue. But to know the doctrines of all the sects is impossible 
in the term of a life (49). To take a taste of each, like trying a 
sample of wine, will not do, because the doctrines taught are not, 
like the crock of wine, the same throughout, but vary or advance 
day by day (59). A suggestion is made (68) that the searcher 
after truth should begin by taking lessons in the science of 
discrimination, so as to be a good judge of truth before testing 
the rival claims. But who is a good teacher of such a science ? 
(70). The general conclusion is that philosophy is not worth the 
pursuit. " If I ever again," says Hermotimus, " meet a philo- 
sopher on the road, I will shun him, as I would a mad dog." 

The Anacharsis is a dialogue between Solon and the Scythian 
philosopher, who has come to Athens to learn the nature of the 
Greek institutions. Seeing the young men performing athletic 
exercises in the Lyceum, he expresses his surprise at such a waste 
of energy. This gives Socrates an opportunity of descanting at 
length on training as a discipline, and emulation as a motive for 
excelling. Love of glory, Solon says, is one of the chief goods in 
life. The argument is rather ingenious and well put; the style 
reminds us of the minor essays of Xenophon. 

The Alexander or False Prophet is the subject of a separate 
article (see ALEXANDER the PAPHLAGONIAN). 

These are the chief of Lucian's works. Many others, e.g. 
Prometheus, Menippus, Life of Demonax, Toxaris, Zeus Tra- 
goedus, The Dream or the Cock, Icaromenippus (an amusing 
satire on the physical philosophers), are of considerable literary 
value. (F. A. P.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Editio princeps (Florence, 1496); valuable 
editions with notes by T. Hcmsterhuis and 1. F. Reitz (1743-1746, 
with Lexicon Lucianeum by C. C. Reitz) and J. T. Lehmann (1822- 
1831). Editions of the text by C. Jacobitz (1886-1888) and J. 
Sommerbrodt (1886-1899). The scholia have been edited by H. 
Rabe in the Teubner series (1906). There are numerous editions 
of separate portions of Lucian's works and translations in most 

European languages; amongst the latter may be mentioned the 
German version by C. M. Wieland (1788), with valuable notes and 
commentaries: English; one by several hands (1711), for which 
Drydcn had previously written an unsatisfactory life of the author, 
by T. Francklin (1780) and W. Tooke (1820): and French; of The 
Ass, by P. L. Courier, with full bibliography by A. J. Ppns (1887), 
and of the complete works by E. Talbot (1866) and Bclin de Ballu 
(1789; revised ed. by L. Humbert, 1896). A complete modern 
English translation, racy and colloquial, appeared in 1905, The Works 
of Lucian of Samosata, by H. W. Fowler and F. G. Fowler. On 
Lucian generally, the best work is M. Croiset's Essai sur la vie el les 
ceuvres de Lucien (1882); see also E. Egger, " Parallele de Lucien et 
Voltaire," in Memoires de litterature ancienne (1862); C. Martha, 
Les Moralistes sous I'empire remain (1866); H. W. L. Hime, Lucian, 
the Syrian Satirist (1900); Sir R. C. Jebb, Essays and Addresses 
(1907); " Lucian," by W. L. Collins in Blackwopd's Ancient Classics 
for English Readers; the Prolegomena to editions of select works 
with notes by Sommerbrodt ; and the exhaustive bibliography of the 
earlier literature in Engelmann, Scriptores Graeci (1880). On some 
special questions see E. Rohde, Uber Lucians Schrift Aofocto; fj "Ovot 
(Leipzig, 1869); C. Buerger, De Lucio Patrensi (Berlin, 1887); 
J. Bernays, Lucian und die Kyniker (Berlin, 1879) ; C. G. Jacob, 
Characteristik Lucians von Samosata (Hamburg, 1832); C. F. Her- 
mann, Charakteristik Lucians (Gottingen, 1849); P. M. Bolderman, 
Studia Lucianea (Leiden, 1893); R. Helm, "Lucian und die 
Philosophenschulen," in Neue Jahrb. f. das klassische Altertum 
(1901), pp. 188, 263, 367. 

LUCIFER (d. 370/1), bishop of Cagliari (hence called Cara- 
litanus), an ardent supporter of the cause of Athanasius. After 
the unfavourable result of the synod of Aries in 353 he volunteered 
to endeavour to obtain a new and impartial council. He was 
accordingly sent by Pope Liberius, with Pancratius the presbyter 
and Hilarius the deacon, but could not prevent the condemnation 
of Athanasius, which was renewed at Milan in 355. For his own 
persistent adherence to the orthodox creed he was banished to 
Germanicia in Commagene; he afterwards lived at Eleuther- 
opolis in Palestine, and finally in the upper Thebaid. His exile 
came to an end with the publication of Julian's edict in 362. 
From 363 until his death in 371 he lived at Cagliari in a state of 
voluntary separation from ecclesiastical fellowship with his 
former friends Eusebius of Vercelli, Athanasius and the rest, on 
account of their mild decision at the synod of Alexandria in 
362 with reference to the treatment of those who had unwillingly 
Arianized under the persecutions of Constantius. Lucifer was 
hardly sufficiently educated to appreciate the real question at 
issue, and the sect which he thus founded did not continue 
long after his death. It is doubtful whether it ever formulated 
any distinctive doctrine; certainly i