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Full text of "The Encyclopaedia Britannica : a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature and general information"


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THE 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



FIRST edition, published in three volumes, 1768 1771. 

SECOND ten 17771784. 

THIRD eighteen 17881797. 

FOURTH twenty 1801 1810. 

FIFTH twenty 18151817. 

SIXTH twenty 1823 1824. 

SEVENTH twenty-one 18301842. 

EIGHTH twenty-two 18531860. 

NINTH twenty-five 18751889. 

TENTH ninth edition and eleven 

supplementary volumes, 1902 1903. 

ELEVENTH ,, published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910 1911. 



COPYRIGHT 

in all countries subscribing to the 
Bern Convention 

by 
THE CHANCELLOR, MASTERS AND SCHOLARS 

of the 
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE 



All rights reserved 



THE 

ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



DICTIONARY 

OF 

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL 

INFORMATION 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME XXVII 

TONALITE to VESUVIUS 




Cambridge, England: 

at the University Press 

New York, 35 West 32nd Street 
191 1 



E.3 



Copyright, in the United States of America, 1911, 

by 
The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company 



INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XXVII. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL 

CONTRIBUTORS, 1 WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE 

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED. 



A. B. Go. ALFRED BRADLEY GOUGH, M.A., PH.D. f 

Sometime Casberd Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. English Lector at the T Trier. 
University of Kiel, 1896-1905. I 

A. C. S. ALGERNON CHARLES SWINBURNE. / Tourneur CvrtI 

See the biographical article: SWINBURNE, ALGERNON CHARLES. 

A. E. H. L. AUGUSTUS EDWARD HOUGH LOVE, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. f 

Sedleian Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Oxford. Secretary J Variafinnc r-,in,,i,,c f 
to the London Mathematical Society. Hon. Fellow of Queen's College, Oxford ; 1 DS> LalCl Ot ' 

formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. 

A. F. L. ARTHUR FRANCIS LEACH, M.A. [" 

Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. Charity Commissioner for England and Wales. J JTJ-I M !O I._I.. C 
Formerly Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Fellow of All Souls 1 UOal> nlcnolas - 
College, Oxford, 1874-1881. Author of English Schools at the Reformation; &c. 

A. F. P. ALBERT FREDERICK POLLARD, M.A., F.R.HisT.S. f 

Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls J 

College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893- | Vermigli, Pietro Martire. 
1901. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1892; Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of 
England under the Protector Somerset ; Henry VIII. ; Life of Thomas Cranmer ; &c. * 

A. Ge. SIR ARCHIBALD GEIKIE, K.C.B. /Vesuvius (in fiarti 

See the biographical article: GEIKIE, SIR ARCHIBALD. I Vl 5 (tn pa ">- 

A. Go.* REV. ALEXANDER GORDON, M.A. f Unitarianism; 

Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester. \ Valdes, Juan de. 

A. H. K. AUGUSTUS HENRY KEANE, LL.D., F.R.G.S., F.R.ANTHROP.INST. 

Emeritus Professor of Hindustani at University College, London. Author of -I Tripoli: North, Africa (m pan); 

Ethnology; Man Past and Present; The World's Peoples; &c. I Ural-Altaic. 

A. H.-S. SIR A. HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, C.I.E. J IT i L- f 

General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak. | unuia, Lan 

A. J. ALEXANDER JOHNSTON. / I .. 

See the biographical article : JOHNSTON, ALEXANDER. \ Umted States: Sttt "? WJMK 

A. J. G. REV. ALEXANDER JAMES GRIEVE, M.A., B.D. r 

Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United Independent J , Cf / .-, 

College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University, and Member of ] ursula > M (.** P art >- 
Mysore Educational Service. 

A. J. L. ANDREW JACKSON LAMOUREUX. 

Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. Editor of the Rio News J Venezuela: Geography and 
(Rio de Janeiro), 1879-1901. [ Statistics. 

A. L. ANDREW LANG. f 

See the biographical article: LANG, ANDREW. \ Totemism. 

A. Lo. AUGUSTE LONGNON. r 

Professor at the College de France, Paris. Director of the Ecole des Hautes Etudes. Tr-nvnc- r/,,,/c / TV 

Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Livre des vassaux du Comti de Cham- J ,, 

pagne et de Brie; Geographie de la Gaule au VI siecle; Atlas historique de la France } Vermancjols. 

depuis Cesar jusqu'a nos jours ; &c. 

A. M.* REV. ALLAN MENZIES, M.A., D.D. r 

Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism, St Mary's College, St Andrews. Author J United Free Church Of Scotland. 

of History of Religion ; &c. Editor of Review of Theology and Philosophy. 

A. M.-Fa. ALFRED MOREL-FATIO. r 

Professor of Romance Languages at the College de France, Paris. Member of the J yega Carpio (in part). 
Institute of France; Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Secretary of the Ecole 1 
des Chartes, 1885-1906. Author of L'Espagne au XVI' et au XVII' siecles. [ 

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume. 

v 



VI 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



A. N. 
A. P. H. 

A. R. B. 

A. Sp. 
A. Sy. 
A. W. H.* 

A. W. R. 

B. M. 
B. R. 



r Toucan; Touracou; 

ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S. J Tree-creeper; Trogon; 

See the biographical article: NEWTON, ALFRED. Tropic-bird; Trumpeter; 

I Turkey; Turnstone. 

ALFRED PETER HILLIER, M.D., M.P. (~ 

Author of South African Studies; The Commonweal; &c. Served in Kaffir War, 

1878-1879. Partner with Dr L. S. Jameson in South Africa till 1896. Member of i Transvaal: History (in part). 
Reform Committee, Johannesburg, and political prisoner at Pretoria, 1895-1896. 
M.P. for the Hitchin Division of Herts, 1910. 

THE REV. AUGUSTUS ROBERT BUCKLAND, M.A. [ 

Secretary of the Religious Tract Society, London. Morning Preacher, Foundling -j Tract: Tract Societies. 
Hospital, London. Author of The Heroic in Missions ; &c. L 



ARCHIBALD SHARP. 

Consulting Engineer and Chartered Patent Agent. 

ARTHUR SYMONS. 

See the biographical article: SYMONS, ARTHUR. 

ARTHUR WILLIAM HOLLAND. 

Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. 



Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900. 



Tricycle. 



Verlaine, Paul. 



Utrecht, Treaty of. 



Vaseline. 



B. W. G. 

C. A. C. 

C. A. S. 

C. B. P. 
C. C. W. 

C. D. W. 
C. El. 

C. F. A. 
C. H. Ha. 
C. J. L. 

C. M. 

C* K. D* 



ALEXANDER WOOD RENTON, M.A., LL.B. J _ . -,.,,/. rt 

Puisne Judge of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Editor of Encyclopaedia of the Laws ] *raae marKS \m part), 
of England. 

BRANDER MATTHEWS, A.M., LL.D., LITT.D., D.C.L. f 

Professor of Dramatic Literature, Columbia University, New York. President of I Twain, Mark. 
the Modern Language Association of America (1910). Author of French Dramatists | 
of the iQth Century ; &c. I 

SIR BOVERTON REDWOOD, D.Sc., F.R.S. (Edin.), F.I.C., Assoc.lNST.C.E., 

M.lNST.M.E. 

Adviser on Petroleum to the Admiralty, Home Office, India Office, Corporation of 
London, and Port of London Authority. President of the Society of Chemical 
Industry. Member of the Council of the Chemical Society. Member of Council of 
the Institute of Chemistry. Author of Cantor Lectures on Petroleum; Petroleum 
and its Products ; Chemical Technology ; &c. 

BENEDICT WILLIAM GINSBURG, M.A., LL.D. 

St Catharine's College, Cambridge. Barrister-at-Law of the Inner Temple. J Tonnage. 
Formerly Editor of The Navy, and Secretary of the Royal Statistical Society. 1 
Author of Hints on the Legal Duties of Shipmasters ; &c. 

CHARLES ARTHUR CONANT. 

Member of Commission on International Exchange of U.S., 1903. Treasurer, -j Trust Company. 
Morton Trust Co., New York, 1902-1906. Author of History of Modern Banks I 
of Issue; The Principles of Money and Banking; &c. 

REV, CHARLES ANDERSON SCOTT, M.A. 

Dunn Professor of the New Testament, Theological College of the Presbyterian 
Church of England, Cambridge. Author of Ulfilas, Apostle of the Goths; &c. 

CATHERINE BEATRICE PHILLIPS (MRS W. ALISON PHILLIPS). 
Associate of Bedford College, London. 



Ulfilas. 



Unicorn. 



CHARLES CRAWFORD WHINERY, A.M. f United States: History (in 

Cornell University. Assistant Editor nth Edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. \ part). 



HON. CARROLL DAVIDSON WRIGHT. 

See the biographical article: WRIGHT, CARROLL DAVIDSON. 

SIR CHARLES NORTON EDGCUMBE ELIOT, K.C.M.G., LL.D., D.C.L. 

Vice-Chancellor of Sheffield University. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, 
Oxford. H.M.'s Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief for the British East 
Africa Protectorate; Agent and Consul-General at Zanzibar; Consul-General for 
German East Africa, 1900-1904. 

CHARLES FRANCIS ATKINSON. 

Formerly Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal 
Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbor. 

CARLTON HUNTLEY HAYES, A.M., PH.D. 

Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York.. Member of the 
American Historical Association. 

SIR CHARLES JAMES LYALL, K.C.S.I., C.I.E., LL.D. (Edin.). 

Secretary, Judicial and Public Department, India Office, London. Fellow of I 
King's College, London. Secretary to Government of India in Home Department, { Tulsi Das. 
1889-1894. Chief Commissioner, Central Provinces, India, 1895-1898. Author of 
Translations of Ancient Arabic Poetry; &c. 

CARL THEODOR MIRBT, D.Tn. f Trent, Council of; 

Professor of Church History in the University of Marburg. Author of Publizistik -| Ultramontanism; 
im Zeitalter Gregor VII. ; Quellen zur Geschichle des Papstthums ; &c. Vatican Council The. 

CHARLES RAYMOND BEAZLEY, M.A., D.Lixr., F.R.G.S., F.R.HiST.S. f 

Professor of Modern History in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow Varthema, LudoviCO di; 
of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. H v, A 
Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Ves P uccl > AmengO. 
Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c. 



Trade Unions: United Slates. 



Turks. 

("Transvaal: History (in part); 
4 Turenne, Vicomte de; 
I Uniforms. 

J Truce of God; 
\ Urban II.-VI. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES vii 

C. W. W. SIR CHARLES WILLIAM WILSON, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1836-1907). f 

Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary J . . , 

Commission. .Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894. Director- j v * n: Turkey (in part). 
General of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From Korti to Khartoum; I 
Life of Lord Clive ; &c. 

D. B. Ma. DUNCAN BLACK MACDONALD, M.A., D.D. 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Hartford Theological Seminary, Hartford, Conn. J 
Author of Development of Muslim Theology, Jurisprudence and Constitutional 1 
Theory; Selections from Ibn Khaldun; Religious Attitude and Life in Islam; &c. I 

D. C. B. DEMETRIUS CHARLES BOULGER. 

Author of England and Russia in Central Asia; History of China; Life of Gordon;} Tnurnai 

India in the loth Century; History of Belgium; Belgian Life in Town and Country; \ 

&c. 

D. C. G. DANIEL COIT OILMAN. J Universities- United 

See the biographical article : GILMAN, DANIEL COIT. \ um 

D. (X T. DAVID CROAL THOMSON. J 

Formerly Editor of the Art Journal. Author of The Brothers Maris; The Barbizon ) Troyon, Constant. 
School of Painters ; Life of " Phiz " ; Life of Bewick ; &c. 

D. F. T. DONALD FRANCIS TOVEY. f 

Author of Essays in Musical Analysis: comprising The Classical Concerto, The\ Variations. 
Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other classical works. 

D. G. H. DAVID GEORGE HOGARTH, M.A. 

Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, and Fellow of Magdalen College. Tralles; 

Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and 4 Tripoli: Syria; 

1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at Trov and Trnad (in barti 

Athens, 1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. 

D. H. DAVID HANNAY. f Toulon; 

Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal < Tourville, Comte de; 
Navy; Life of Emilia Castelar; &c. L Trafalgar, Battle of. 

E. B.* ERNEST CHARLES FRANCOIS BABELON. 

Professor at the College de France. Keeper of the Department of Medals and 
Antiquities at the Bibliotheque Nationale. Member of the Academic des In- J Utica. 
scriptions et Belles Lettres, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of 
Descriptions Historiques des Monnaies de la Republique Romaine; Traites des 
Monnaies Grecques et Romaines ; Catalogue des Camees de la Bibliotheque Nationale. 

E. C. B. RT. REV. EDWARD CUTHBERT BUTLER, O.S.B., M.A., D.Lrra. J T . J 

Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of " The Lausiac History of Palladius," | * 
in Cambridge Texts and Studies, vol. vi. L Vallombrosians. 

E. E. A. ERNEST E. AUSTEN. J 

Assistant in the Department of Zoology, Natural History Museum, South 1 Tsetse-fly. 
Kensington. 

E. F. S. EDWARD FAIRBROTHER STRANGE. 

Assistant Keeper, Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensington. Member of < Utamaro. 

Council, Japan Society. Author of numerous works on art subjects. Joint -editor 
of Bell's " Cathedral " Series. 

I Topelius, Zakris; Triolet; 

E. G. EDMUND GOSSE, LL.D., D.C.L. I Troubadour; Trouvere; 

See the biographical article: GOSSE, EDMUND. j Usk, Thomas; 

[ Vers de Soeiete; Verse. 

E. Ga. EMILE GARCKE, M.lNST.E.E. c 

Managing Director of the British Electric Traction Co., Ltd. Author of Manual of ^ Tramway. 

Electrical Undertakings; &c. [ 

E. H. M. ELLIS HOVELL MINNS, M.A. f 

University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian ( Tyras. 
at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College. 

E. J. W. G. ELIAS JOHN WILKINSON GIBB. f Turkev . ji tera i ure 

Translator of several Turkish books. \ * ' 

E. K. C. EDMUND KERCHEVER CHAMBERS. 

Assistant Secretary, Board of Education. Sometime Scholar of Corpus Christ! 

College, Oxford. Chancellor's English Essayist, 1891. Author of The Medieval J. Vaughan Thomas. 

Stage. Editor of the "Red Letter" Shakespeare; Donne's Poems; Vaughan's 

Poems. 

Ed. M. EDUARD MEYER, PH.D., D.LITT., LL.D. f 

Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Ge<schichte des J, Vardanes. 
Alterthums; Geschichte des alien Aegyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstamme. [ 

E. 0.* EDMUND OWEN, F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. f Tongue: Surgery; 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, I Tonsillitis; Ulcer; 
Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of A 1 Varicose Veins; 
Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. I Venereal Diseases 

E. Tn. REV. ETHELRED LUKE TAUNTON, S.J. (d. 1907). J Torquemada, Thomas. 

Author of The English Black Monks of St Benedict; History of the Jesuits in England. \ 



Vlll 

E. W. H. 

F. C. C. 
F. D. A. 

F. G. M. B. 
F. G. P. 

F. J. H. 

F. J. T. 
F. Po. 

F. R. C. 

F. R. M. 

F. S. P. 

F. Wa. 
F. W. Ga. 

F. W. R.* 

G. A. B. 
G. A. C.* 

G. E. 
G. E. D. 

G. H. Bo. 
G. J. T. 

G. Re. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

ERNEST WILLIAM HOBSON, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.R.A.S. f 

Fellow and Tutor in Mathematics, Christ's College, Cambridge. Stokes Lecturer in -i Trigonometry. 
Mathematics in the University. 

FREDERICK CORNWALLIS CONYBEARE, M.A., D.Tn. 

Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. I Toneues Qitt O f 
Editor of The Ancient Armenian Texts of Aristotle. Author of Myth, Magic and \ 
Morals; &c. 



FRANK DAWSON ADAMS, PH.D.. D.Sc., F.G.S., F.R.S. 

Dean of the Faculty of Applied Science and Logan Professor of Geology, McGill J Vancouver 
University, Montreal. President of the Canadian Mining Institute. Author of 



nes, . 

Papers dealing with problems of Metamorphism ; &c. 



i 



Island 



Vandals (in part). 



FREDERICK GEORGE MEESON BECK, M.A. 

Fellow and Lecturer of Clare College, Cambridge. 

FREDERICK GYMER PARSONS, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.ANTHROP.INST. r Tongue; 

Vice- President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on I Vascular System: Anatomy- 
Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital, London, and the London School of Medicine for *! 
Women. Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. 

FRANCIS JOHN HAVERFIELD, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A. [Trimontium; 

Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of I Trinovantes; 
Brasenose College. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Censor, Student, 1 Urieoniunr 
Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1906-1907. I v eru lamium 
Author of Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain ; &c. 

FREDERICK JACKSON TURNER, M.A., LL.D., LITT.D., PH.D. J United States: History (in 

Professor of History, Harvard University. Formerly Professor of American i p art \ 
History at the University of Wisconsin. Author of Rise of the New West ; &c. 

SIR FREDERICK POLLOCK, Bart., LL.D., D.C.L. 
See the biographical article: POLLOCK (Family). 



Tort. 



FRANK R. CANA. 

Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union. 



FRANCIS RICHARD MAUNSELL, C.M.G. 

Lieut.-Col., Royal Artillery. Military Vice-Consul, Sivas, Trebizond, Van (Kurd- 
istan), 1807-1898. Military Attache^ British Embassy, Constantinople, 1901-1905. 
Author of Central Kurdistan; &c. 



(Transvaal: Geography and 
Statistics, and History (in 
Part); 
Tripoli: North Africa (in part) ; 
Tsana (in part) ; Tuat. 

r 

Van: Turkey (in part). 



FRANCIS SAMUEL PHILBRICK, A.M., PH.D. 

Formerly Fellow of Nebraska State University and Scholar and Resident Fellow "! 
of Harvard University. Member of the American Historical Association. 



States: Population 
Social Conditions; 

ntiit Cnmmerrf 
(met ^uinrnKrLc, 

Finance and Army. 



United 

and 



FRANCIS WATT, M.A. 

Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. 



Author of Law's Lumber Room. 



-! Treasure Trove. 



Trematodes. 



FREDERICK WILLIAM GAMBLE, D.Sc., F.R.S. 

Professor of Zoology, Birmingham University. Formerly Assistant Director of the 
Zoological Laboratories and Lecturer in Zoology, University of Manchester. Author 
of Animal Life. Editor of Marshall and Hurst's Practical Zoology; &c. t 

FREDERICK WILLIAM RUDLER, I.S.O., F.G.S. f Topaz; 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1897-1902.^ Tourmaline; 
President of the Geologists' Association, 1887-1889. [ Turquoise 

GEORGE A. BOULENGER, D.Sc., F.R.S. f 

In charge of the Collections of Reptiles and Fishes, Department of Zoology, British { 
Museum. Vice- President of the Zoological Society of London. 

REV. GEORGE ALBERT COOKE, M.A., D.D. 

Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture, Oxford, and Fellow of Oriel _, 
College. Canon of Rochester. Hon. Canon of St Mary's Cathedral, Edinburgh. " 
Author of Text-Book of North Semitic Inscriptions; &c. 

REV. GEORGE EDMUNDSON, M.A., F.R.HisT.S. 

Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Ford's Lecturer, 1909. 
Hon. Member Dutch Historical Society, and Foreign Member, Netherlands Associa- * 
tion of Literature. 

GEORGE EDWARD DOBSON, M.A., M.B., F.Z.S., F.R.S. (1848-1805). 

Army Medical Department, 1868-1888. Formerly Curator of the Royal Victoria _ 
Museum, Netley. Author of Monograph of the Asiatic Chiroptera; A Monograph of' 
the Inseclivora, Systematic and Anatomical; &c. 

REV. GEORGE HERBERT Box, M.A. 

Rector of Sutton Sandy, Beds. Formerly Hebrew Master, Merchant Taylors' - 
School, London. Author of Translation of the Book of Isaiah; &c. 

GEORGE JAMES TURNER. 

Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln's Inn. 
Society. 



Trout. 



Tyre (in part). 



Utrecht: Province (in part). 



Vampire. 



Urim and Thummin. 



Editor of Select Pleas of the Forests for the Selden J Trinoda Necessitas. 



SIR GEORGE REID, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: REID, SIR GEORGE. 



-I Turner. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES ix 

G. W. C.* REV. GEORGE WILLIS COOKE. f 

Lecturer at Rand School of Social Science, New York. Author of Critical Study of j Tr!o,-n-- TT , j c, , 

Emerson; History of Unitarianism in America; Woman in the Progress of Civiliza- 1 Unilariamsm. United Mates. 
lion; &c. 

H. A. C. HOWARD ADAMS CARSON, A.M. C 

Civil Engineer. Past President of the Boston Society of Civil Engineers. Formerly J 
Chief Engineer of the Boston Transit Commission. In charge of designing and con- | 
structing the Boston Subway, the East Boston Tunnel ; &c. I 

H. Ch. HUGH CHISHOLM, M.A. f 

Formerly Scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Editor of the nth edition of 4 Transvaal: History (in part). 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Co-editor of the loth edition. 1_ 

H. De. REV. HIPPOLYTE DELEHAYE, S.J. / Valentine; 

Bollandist. Joint-editor of the Ada Sanctorum and the Analecta Bollandiana. \ Veronica, St. 

H. E. A. HENRY EDWARD ARMSTRONG, PH.D., LL.D., F.R.S. f 

Professor of Chemistry at the City and Guilds of London Central Institute, South -j Valency. 
Kensington. Author of Introduction to the Study of Organic Chemistry. I 

H. F. B. HORATIO ROBERT FORBES BROWN, LL.D. 

Editor of the Calendar of Venetian State Papers, for the Public Record Office. J ir-,.-- 
Author of Life on the Lagoons; Venetian Studies; John Addington Symonds, a | venlce - 
Biography; &c. I 

H. F. G. HANS FRIEDRICH GADOW, F.R.S., PH.D. f . 

Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. < Tortoise. 
Author of " Amphibia and Reptiles " in the Cambridge Natural History. 

H. F. T. REV. HENRY FANSHAWE TOZER, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

Hon. Fellow, formerly Fellow and Tutor of Exeter College, Oxford. Fellow of the 
British Academy. Corresponding Member of the Historical Society of Greece. < Trebizond. 
Author of History of Ancient Geography; Classical Geography; Lectures on the 
Geography of Greece ; &c. 

H. H HENRI SIMON HYMANS, PH.D. 

Keeper of the Bibliotheque Royale de Belgique, Brussels. Author of Rubens: sa 1 Van Dyck (in part). 
vie el son ceuvre. 



H. Ha. HEBER^LEONIDAS ^HART, LL.D. j Valuation and Valuers. 

H. H. F. H. HAMILTON FYFE. C 

Special Correspondent of the Daily Mail ; Dramatic Critic of The World. Author -I Tricoupis Charilaos 
of A Modern Aspasia; The New Spirit in Egypt; &c. [ 

H. H. J. SIR HARRY HAMH/TON JOHNSTON, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., D.Sc., LL.D. ("Tunisia; 

See the biographical article: JOHNSTON, SIR H. H. \ Uganda; Unyoro. 

H. Lb. HORACE LAMB, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc., F.R.S. r 

Professor of Mathematics, University of Manchester. Formerly Fellow and Assistant 
Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. Member of Council of the Royal Society, J. Vector Analysis 
1894-1896. Royal Medallist, 1902. President of the London Mathematical 
Society, 1902-1904. Author of Hydrodynamics ; &c. I 

H. L. C. HUGH LONGBOURNE CALLENDAR, F.R.S., LL.D. f 

Professor of Physics, Royal College of Science, London. Formerly Professor of < Vaporization. 
Physics in McGill College, Montreal, and in University College, London. 



Tuberculosis. 



H. L. H. HARRIET L. HENNESSY, M.D. (Brux.), L.R.C.P.I., L.R.C.S.I. 

H. L. 0. HERBERT LEVI OSGOOD, A.M., PH.D. f 

Professor of History at Columbia University, New York. Author of The American J United States: Historydn part). 
Colonies in the Seventeenth Century; &c. 

H. M. C. HECTOR MUNRO CHADWICK, M.A. r -r^.. 

Fellow and Librarian of Clare College, Cambridge. Author of Studies on Anglo- J * ' 
Saxon Institutions. \ Valkyries. 

H. M. R. HUGH MUNRO Ross. ( _, . ,, , D .. , 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Lincoln College, Oxford. Editor of The Times Engineer- \ yPgrapny- Modern Practical 
ing Supplement. Author of British Railways. [ Typography (in part). 

H. M. Wo. HAROLD MELLOR WOODCOCK, D.Sc. f" 

Assistant to the Professor of Proto-Zoology, London University. Fellow of Uni- J . 
versity College, London. Author of " Haemoflagellates " in Sir E. Ray Lankester's ] 1 rypanosomes. 
Treatise on Zoology, and of various scientific papers. 

H. St. HENRY STURT, M.A. f ... 

Author of Idola Theatri; The Idea of a Free Church; Personal Idealism. \ Utilitarianism. 

H. Sw. HENRY SWEET, M.A., PH.D., LL.D. r 

University Reader in Phonetics, Oxford. Member of the Academies of Munich, 

Berlin, Copenhagen and Helsingfors. Author of A History of English Sounds since "j Universal Languages. 

the Earliest Period ; A Handbook of Phonetics ; &c. 

I. M. A. REV. ISAAC MORGAN Arwoop, M.A., D.D., LL.D. r 

Secretary of the Universalist General Convention. Associate-editor of the Uni- I 

versalist Leader, Boston. General Superintendent of the Universalist Church, H Universalist Church. 

1898-1906. Author of Latest Word of Unitiersalism; &c. 

J. An. JOSEPH ANDERSON, LL.D. 

Keeper of the National Museum of Antiquities, Edinburgh, and Assistant Secretary 

of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. Honorary Professor of Antiquities to J Tumulus. 

the Royal Scottish Academy. Author of Scotland in Early Christian and Pagan 

Times. 



x INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

J. A. P. JOHN AMBROSE FLEMING, M.A., F.R.S., D.Sc. 

Fender Professor of Electrical Engineering in the University of London. Fellow of I Transformers; 
University College, London. Formerly Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, and 1 Tjnits Physical 
Lecturer on Applied Mechanics in the University. Author of Magnets and Electric I 
Currents. 

J. A. H. JOHN ALLEN HOWE. JTorridonian; 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of "j. TV:.--:- c v ctem 
The Geology of Building Stones. I TltKSlc System. 

[ Tribonian; 

J. Br. RIGHT HON. JAMES BRYCE, D.C.L., D.Lixr. J United States: Constitution 

See the biographical article: BRYCE, JAMES [ and Government. 



J. Bt. JAMES BARTLETT. 

. Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation. Quantities, &c., at King's I Vpntilatinn 

College, London. Member of the Society of Architects. Member of the Institute 
of Junior Engineers. 

J. B. M. JAMES BASS MULLINGER, M.A. r 

Lecturer in History, St John's College, Cambridge. Formerly University Lecturer 
in History and President of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. Birkbeck Lecturer J Universities, 
in Ecclesiastical History at Trinity College, Cambridge, 1890-1894. Author of 
History of the University of Cambridge; The Schools of Charles the Great; &c. L 

Jj. C. H. RIGHT REV. JOHN CUTHBERT HEDLEY, O.S.B., D.D. /Transubstantiation. 

R.C. Bishop of Newport. Author of The Holy Eucharist; &c. \ 

J. F.-K. JAMES FITZMAURICE-KELLY, Lrrr.D., F.R.Hisx.S. r_ 

Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. .Translation; 
Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. -I Valera y Alcala Galiano, Juan; 
Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of Vega Carpio (in part). 
Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c. 

J. F. W. JOHN FORBES WHITE, M.A., LL.D. (d. 1904). /Velazquez (in part). 

Joint-author of the Life and Art of G. P. Chalmers, R.S.A.; &c. \ 

J. G. H. JOSEPH G. HORNER, A.M.I.MECH.E. /_ . 

Author of Plating and Boiler-Making; Practical Metal-Turning; &c. \ 1001. 

J. G. M. JOHN GRAY M'KENDRICK, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S. (Edin.). f Touch; 

Emeritus Professor of Physiology in the University of Glasgow. Professor of ( Vascular System: History 
Physiology, 1876-1906. Author of Life in Motion ; Life of Helmholtz; &c. Of Discovery. 

J. H. H. JOHN HENRY HESSELS, M.A. J TvDOCTanhv jjistorv 

Author of Gutenberg: an Historical Investigation. \ 

J H. M. JOHN HENRY MIDDLETON, M.A., Lrrr.D., F.S.A., D.C.L. (1846-1896). f 

Slade Professor of Fine Art in the University of Cambridge, 1886-1895. Director Verona (M part); 
of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 1889-1892. Art Director of the South -j Verrocchio, Andrea del; 
Kensington Museum, 1892-1896. Author of The Engraved Gems of Classical Vesta (in part). 
Times ; Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Mediaeval Times. 

J. H. R. JOHN HORACE ROUND, M.A., LL.D. f 

Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family] Vere (Family). 
History; Peerage and Pedigree, [ 

J. J. T. SIR JOSEPH JOHN THOMSON, F.Sc., LL.D., PH.D., F.R.S. r 

Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics and Fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge. President of the British Association, 19091910. Author of A Treatise -I Vacuum Tube. 
on the Motion of Vortex Rings; Application of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry; 
Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism ; &c. L 

J. L.* SIR JOSEPH LARMOR, M.A., D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S. [ 

Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, and Lucasian Professor of Mathematics _ ., _.. 

in the University. Secretary of the Royal Society. Professor of Natural Philo- 1 Umts Dimensions Of. 

sophy, Queen's College, Galway, 1880-1885. Author of Ether and Matter, and 

various memoirs on Mathematics and Physics. 

J. L. E. D JOHN Louis EMIL DREYER. f 

Director of Armagh Observatory. Author of Planetary Systems from Thales to { Transit Circle. 
Kepler; &c. L 

J. L. W. JESSIE LAIDLAY WESTON. f Tristan. 

Author of Arthurian Romances unrepresented in Malory. \ 

J. 0. JOSIAH OLDFIELD, M.A., D.C.L., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. f 

Barrister-at-law. Senior Physician of the Lady Margaret Fruitarian Hospital, 1 Vegetarianism. 
Bromley. Author of Myrrh and Amaranth; The Voice of Nature; &c. 

J. 0. B. JOHN OLIVER BORLEY, MA. f Trawling, Seining and Netting. 

Gonville and Cams College, Cambridge. ^ 

J. P.-B. JAMES GEORGE JOSEPH PENDEREL-BRODHURST. f 

Editor of the Guardian, London. 1 

J. P. P REV. JOHN PUNNETT PETERS, PH.D., D.D. (" 

Canon Residentiary, Protestant Episcopal Cathedral of St John the Divine in New 
York City. Formerly Professor of Hebrew, University of Pennsylvania. In charge J i 
of the Expedition of the University of Pennsylvania to Nippur, 1888-1895. Author I 
of Scriptures, Hebrew and Christian; Nippur, or Explorations and Adventures on I 
the Euphrates; &c. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



XI 



J. So. 
J. S. F. 

J. S. N. 
J. S. R. 



J. T. Be. 

J. W. 
J. W. He. 

J. W. J. 
K. S. 

L. C.* 
L. Du. 

L. E. H. 

L. J.* 
L. J. S. 
L. V.* 

M. Br. 
M. G. 

M. N. T. 
M. 0. B. C. 
N. D. M. 



JOHN SOUTHWARD. 

Author of A Dictionary of Typography and its Accessory Arts; Practical Printing; 
&c. 

JOHN SMITH FLETT, D.Sc., F.G.S. 

Petrographer to the Geological Survey. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in 
Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby 
Medallist of the Geological Society of London. 

JOSEPH SHIELD NICHOLSON, M.A., Sc.D. 

Professor of Political Economy at Edinburgh University. Fellow of the British 
Academy. Author of Principles of Political Economy; Money and Monetary 
Problems; &c. 

JAMES SMITH REID, M.A., LL.D., Lirr.D. 

Professor of Ancient History and Fellow and Tutor of Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambridge. Hon. Fellow, formerly Fellow and Lecturer of Christ's College. 
Browne's and Chancellor's Medals. Editor of editions of Cicero's Academia; De 
Amicitia; &c. 



JOHN THOMAS BEALBY. 

Joint-author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical - 
Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c. 



Typography: Modern Practical 
[ Typography (in part). 

f Tonalite; Trachyte; 

Tuff; Variolites; 
! Veins (Geology). 

Usury; 
[ Value. 

Trajan; 

Tribune; 

Varro, Marcus Terentius. 

Transbaikalia (in part); 
Transcaspian Region (in part) ; 
Turgai (in part); 
Turkestan (in part); 
Ufa (Government) (in part); 
Ural Mountains (in part). 



JAMES WILLIAMS, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D. f 

All Souls Reader in Roman Law in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of Lincoln ] Torture. 
College. Author of Wills and Succession ; &c. 

JAMES WYCLIFFE HEADLAM, M.A. 

Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education, London. I 

Formerly Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Professor of Greek and Ancient -j Treitschke Heinrich von. 

History at Queen's College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the 

German Empire; &c. I 

JEREMIAH WHIPPLE JENKS. 

See the biographical article: JENKS, JEREMIAH WHIPPLE. 



KATHLEEN SCHLESINGER. 

Editor of The Portfolio o f Musical Archaeology. 
Orchestra. 



Author of The Instruments of the 



Trusts. 

Trigonon; Tromba Marina; 
Trombone (in part); 
Trumpet (in part); 
Tuba; Valves. 



Louis COURTAULD, M.A., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 

Formerly Research Scholar, Middlesex Hospital Cancer Laboratories. Author of -.' Tumour. 
Life-History of Pneumococcus; &c. 

Louis DUNCAN, PH.D., M.AM.INST.E.E. 

Late Associate Professor of Applied Electricity, at the Johns Hopkins University, I T f . 
Baltimore, Md. Head of the Department of Electrical Engineering, Massachusetts 1 * rac " on - 
Institute of Technology. 

LEONARD ERSKINE HILL, F.R.S., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. r 

Lecturer on Physiology at the London Hospital. Formerly Demonstrator of J 

Physiology in the University of Oxford ; and Assistant Professor of Physiology, 1 Vascular System: Physiology. 
University College, London. Author of Manual of Physiology; &c. 

LIONEL JAMES, F.R.G.S. r 

The Times Special Correspondent in South Africa, 1899-1901. Reuter's Special 

Correspondent in the Chitral Campaign, 1894-1895. Author of With the Chitral~] Transvaal: History (in part). 
Relief Force; On the Heels of De Wet; &c. &c. | 

LEONARD JAMES SPENCER, M.A. r , 

Assistant in the Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar J , 
of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the * 
Mineralogical Magazine. 

LuiGI VlLLARI. 

Italian Foreign Office (Emigration Department). Formerly Newspaper Corre- 
spondent in the east of Europe. Italian Vice-Consul in New Orleans, 1906; Phila- 
delphia, 1907; and Boston, 1907-1910. Author of Italian Life in Town and 
Country; &c. 

MARGARET BRYANT. 



T,*, 

lle> 
Tndymite; Vanadinite; 



[ Vesuvianite. 



Tuscany: History; 
Vespers, Sicilian. 



MOSES CASTER, PH.D. 



/Tourneur, Cyril: Introduction 

\ and Bibliography. 

SEb VjAS'l'EKj rH.JJ. r 

Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic Communities of England. Vice- President, Zionist 

Congress, 1898, 1899, 1900. Ilchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and Byzantine J Vacarescu. 

Literature, 1886 and 1891. Author of A New Hebrew Fragment of Ben-Sira; The ' 

Hebrew Version of the Secretum Secretorum of Aristotle. { 

MARCUS NIEBUHR TOD, M.A. r 

Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. J Vaphio. 
Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum. 

MAXIMILIAN OTTO BISMARCK CASPARI, M.A. r T racm - s . 

Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham J T . . ' , . . ... 
University, 1905-1908. ' [ Umbna (Ancient). 



NEWTON DENNISON MERENESS, A.M., PH.D. 
Author of Maryland as a Proprietary Province. 



f United States: 

\ Flora. 



Fauna and 



Xll 
0. Ba. 

P. A. K. 

P. C. M. 

P. C. Y. 
P. Gi. 

P. G. K. 

P. La. 

R. A.* 
R. A. S. 

R. C. J. 
R. D. S. 

R. I. P. 
R. J. M. 

R. K. D. 
R. L.* 

R. N. B. 

R. P. S. 

R. S. C. 

R. Tr. 
S. A. C. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

OSWALD BARRON, F.S.A. f Tournament- 

Editor of the Ancestor, 1002-1005. Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the-^ _ '., 

Honourable Society of the Baronetage. I Tudor ( Faml 



PRINCE PETER ALEXEIVITCH KROPOTKIN. 

See the biographical article: KROPOTKIN, PRINCE P. A. 



Transbaikalia (in part}; 
Transcaspian Region (in part) ; 
Turgai (in part); 
Turkestan (in part); 
Ufa (Government) (in part); 
Ural Mountains (in part). 



PETER CHALMERS MITCHELL, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc., LL.D. f 

Secretary of the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Com- J Variation and Selection; 
parative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888-1891. 1 Vertebrata. 
Author of Outlines of Biology; Sec. 

PHILIP CHESNEY YORKE, M.A. / y ane gj r g 

Magdalen College, Oxford. Editor of Letters of Princess Elizabeth of England. 

PETER GILES, M.A., LL.D., Lrrr.D. f 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University J **. 
Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philo- 1 V. 
logical Society. I 

PAUL GEORGE KONODY. f Van Dyck (in part)- 

Art Critic of the Observer and the Daily Mail. Formerly Editor of the Artist. { - 
Author of The Art of Walter Crane; Velasquez: Life and Work; &c. 

PHILIP LAKE, M.A., F.G.S. r 

Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge University. Formerly 
of the Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian 
Trilobites. Translator and Editor of Kayser's Comparative Geology. 



Venezuela: Geology. 



ROBERT ANCHEL. 

Archivist of the Department de 1'Eure. 

RICHARD ALEXANDER STREATFEILD. f 

Assistant in the Department of Printed Books, British Museum. Musical Critic of 4 Verdi, Guiseppe. 
the Daily Graphic. Author of Masters of Italian Music ; The Opera ; &c. 

SIR RICHARD CLAVERHOUSE JEBB, LL.D., D.C.L., Lnr.D. 
See the biographical article: JEBB, SIR RICHARD C. 

ROLLIN D. SALISBURY, A.M., LL.D. r' 

Geologist in charge of Pleistocene Geology of New Jersey. Dean of Ogden (Grad.) | United States: Geology (in 

School of Science and Head of the Department of Geography in the University of 1 part). 

Chicago. 



Vendee, Wars of the. 



< Troy and Troad (in part). 



REGINALD INNES POCOCK, F.Z.S. 

Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London. 



| Trilobites. 



f Tone, Theobald Wolfe; 
Formerly Editor of the St James's J Tyler, Wat; 

[ Ulster, Earls of. 

ROBERT KENNAWAY DOUGLAS. r 

Formerly Keeper of Oriental Printed Books and MSS. at the British Museum; and 

Professor of Chinese, King's College, London. Author of The Language and Lilera- H Tseng Kuo-fan. 

lure of China; &c. 



RONALD JOHN MCNEILL, M.A. 

Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-law. 
Gazette (London). 

SIR 



RICHARD LYDEKKER, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S. 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of Toxodontia; 

Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum; The Deer \ Tylopoda; 
of All Lands; The Game Animals of Africa; &c. i Uneulata 



ROBERT NISBET BAIN (d. 1909). 

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. 
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 



Author of Scandinavia: 



{Torkenskjold, Peder; 
Torstensson, Count; 
Valdemar I., II. ana IV. of 
Denmark; 
Verboczy, Istvan. 

PHENE SPIERS, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A. 

Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past 
President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King's College, . 
London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson's 
History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c. 



-Tower; 
Tracery; 

Triumphal Arch; 
Vault. 



ROBERT SEYMOUR CONWAY, M.A., D.Lnr. (Cantab.). r 

Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. Veneti; 
Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff; and Fellow of Gonville ] Voctini' 
and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects. 



ROLAND TRUSLOVE, M.A. 

Fellow, Dean and Lecturer in Classics at Worcester College, Oxford. 



S Troyes. 



STANLEY ARTHUR COOKE, M.A. f 

Editor for the Palestine Exploration Fund. Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and 
formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Examiner in Hebrew J Tree-Worship' 
and Aramaic, London University, 1904-1908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic] Ti-~- a i, 
Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on uzzlan> 
Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 



Xlll 



S. M. C. 



S. M. E.-W. 



S. N. 



T. As. 



SYDNEY MONCKTON COPEMAN, M.A., M.D., F.R.C.P., M.R.C.S., F.R.S. 

Medical Inspector to H.M. Local Government Board, London. Medical Lecturer 
on Public Health at Westminster Hospital. Lt.-Col. and Divisional Sanitary , 
Officer, 1st London Division, Territorial Force. Milroy Lecturer, Royal College of I Vaccination. 
Physicians, London, 1898. Author of Vaccination, its Natural History and Patho- 
logy; &c. 

SIR SYDNEY MAROW EARDLEY-WILMOT. 

Rear-Admiral (retired). Commanded H.M.S. " Dolphin " in Red Sea, 1885-1886, j 

and assisted in the defence of Suakin. Superintendent of Ordnance Stores, "j Torpedo. 

19021909. Author of Life of Vice- Admiral Lord Lyons; Our Navy for a Thousand 

Years ; &c. [ 



SIMON NEWCOMB, LL.D., D.Sc. 

See the biographical article : NEWCOMB, SIMON. 



THOMAS ASHBY, M.A., D.LITT. 

Director of the British School of Archaeology at Rome. 



Formerly Scholar of 



f Uranus (Astronomy). 
I. Venus (Astronomy). 

Tortona; Trapani; 

Trasimene, Lake; Trebula; 

Turin; Turris Libisonis; 

Tuscany: Geography; 

Tusculum; Tyndaris; 



Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member' 



of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. 

graphy of the Roman Campagna. 



Author of The Classical Topo- 



T. A. A. 
T. A. I. 
T. C. C. 



T. E. H. 

T. F. C. 
T. H. 
T. S. 

T. Se. 
V. C.* 

V. M. 

W. A. B. C. 

W. A. He. 

W. A. P. 
W. Bo. 



THOMAS ANDREW ARCHER, M.A. 

Author of The Crusade of Richard I. ; &c. 

THOMAS ALLAN INGRAM, M.A., LL.D. 
Trinity College, Dublin. 

THOMAS CHROWDER CHAMBERLIN, A.M., PH.D., LL.D., Sc.D., F.G.S., 

F.A.A.S., &c. 

Professor and Head of Department of Geology and Director of the Walker Museum, 
University of Chicago. Investigator of Fundamental Problems of Geology at the 
Carnegie Institute. Consulting Geologist, United States and Wisconsin .Geological 
Survey. Author of Geology of Wisconsin; General Treatise on Geology (with R. D. 
Salisbury) ; &c. 

THOMAS ERSKINE HOLLAND, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D., K.C. r 

Fellow of the British Academy. Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Professor of 
International Law and Diplomacy in the University of Oxford, 1874-1910. Bencher I Treaties; 
of Lincoln's Inn. Author of Studies in International Law; The Elements of Juris- 1 Vacarius. 
prudence ; A Iberici Gentilis de jure belli ; The Laws of War on Land; Neutral Duties 
in a Maritime War; &c. 



Udine; Umbria (Modern); 
Valeria Via; Varia; Vasto; 
Veii; Veleia; Velia; 
Velletri; Venafrum; Venusia; 
Vercelli; Verona (in part); 
Vesuvius (in part). 

Ursula, St (in part). 



j Unemployment; Vagrancy. 



United States: Geology 
(in part). 



THEODORE FREYLINGHUYSEN COLLIER, PH.D. 

Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass. 

THOMAS HODGKIN, D.C.L., Lixx.D. 

See the biographical article: HODGKIN, THOMAS. 



J Urban VII. and VIII. 
4 Vandals (in part). 



THE RIGHT HONOURABLE LORD SHAW or DUNFERMLINE. 

Lord of Appeal. M.P. for Hawick District, 1892-1909. Lord Advocate for Scotland, -| Vergniaud, Pierre. 
1905-1909. I 

THOMAS SECCOMBE, M.A. f 

Balliol College, Oxford. Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, J vanhmo-h ir Tnhn 
University of London. Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Assistant Editor of | V 
Dictionary of National Biography, 1891-1901. Author of The Age of Johnson; &c. l 

SIR VINCENT HENRY PENALVER CAILLARD. f 

Director of Vickers, Sons & Maxim, Ltd.; and the London, Chatham & Dover J Turkey: Geography and 
Railway. Formerly President of the Ottoman Public Debt Council, and Financial } (-,, t -' f - 
Representative of England, Holland and Belgium in Constantinople. Author of 
Imperial Fiscal Reform. 

VICTOR CHARLES MAHILLON. /Trombone (in part); 

Principal of the Conservatoire Royal deMusique at Brussels. Chevalier of the Legion | Trumpet (in part) 
of Honour. L 



REV. WILLIAM AUGUSTUS BREVOORT COOLIDGE, M.A., F.R.G.S. 

Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David's 
College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature 
and in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1889. 

WILLIAM ABBOT HERDMAN, D.Sc., F.R.S. 

Professor of Natural History in the University of Liverpool. President of the 
Linnean Society, 1904. Author of Report upon the Tunicata collected during the 
Voyage of the " Challenger " ; &c. 

WALTER ALISON PHILLIPS, M.A. 

Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John's College, 
Oxford. Author of Modern Europe ; &c. 

WlLHELM BOUSSET, D.Tn. 

Professor of New Testament Exegesis in the University of Gottingen. Author of 
Das Wesen der Religion; The Antichrist Legend; &c. 



{Topfier, Rodolphe; Trent; 
Tschudi; Unterwalden; 
Uri; Valais; Var; Vaud. 

\ Tunicata. 

Utrecht: Province (in part); 
Valet; Vavassor; 
Verona, Congress of; 
Vestments. 

j Valentinus and the 
[ Valentinians. 



XIV 
W. E. G. 

W. F. C. 
W. G.* 
W. L. F. 
W. MeD. 

W. MacD.* 

W. M. D. 

W. P. C. 
W. R. M. 

W. R. S. 



INITIALS AND HEADINGS OF ARTICLES 

SIR WILLIAM EDMUND GARSTIN, G.C.M.G. j 

Governing Director, Suez Canal Co. Formerly Inspector-General of Irrigation, J. Tsana (in part). 
Egypt, and Adviser to the Ministry of Public Works in Egypt. 

WILLIAM FEILDEN CRAIES, M.A. J Trade Marks (in part); 

Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. Lecturer on Criminal Law, King s College, 1 Treason; Trial; Venue. 
London. Editor of Archbold's Criminal Pleading (zyd edition). 

AL GeoloEist on 'H.M. Geological Survey. Author of The Gold-bearing Rocks of the S. \ Transvaal: Geology. 

m i .. .. i TTr _ _ iiT_ _ f A f..: T"7._ ^- / ,.. nf /~"f*fi1 ,IM A fnfil \/ftt'*>it'vi a fvr- 



LjCOlOglSt On n.m. vjeuiogl^ill ouivcy. xrui" "& - ;-~ 

Transvaal; Mineral Wealth of Africa; The Geology of Coal and Coal Mining; 

WALTER LYNWOOD FLEMING, A.M., Pn.D. 

Professor of History in Louisiana State University. Editor of Documentary History 
of Reconstruction ; &c. 

WILLIAM MCDOUGALL, M.A. 

Wilde Reader in Mental Philosophy in the University of Oxford. Formerly bellow 
of St John's College, Cambridge. 

WILLIAM MACDONALD, LL.D. 

Professor of American History in Brown University, Providence, R.I. Protessor ol 
History and Political Science at Bowdoin, 1893-1901. Author of History and 
Government of Maine ; &c. Editor of Select Documents illustrative of the History of 
the United States ; &c. 

WILLIAM MORRIS DAVIS, D.Sc., PH.D. 

Professor of Geology in Harvard University. Formerly Professor of Physical -j 
Geography. Author of Physical Geography ; &c. L 



Union League of America, 
The. 

Trance. 



Tyler, John; 

Van Buren, Martin. 

f United States: Physical 
Geography and Climate. 



WILLIAM PRIDEAUX COURTNEY. 

See the biographical article: COURTNEY, L. H. BARON. 

WILLIAM RICHARD MORFILL, M.A. (d. 1910). 

Formerly Professor of Russian and the other Slavonic Languages in the University 
of Oxford. Curator of the Taylorian Institution, Oxford. Author of Russia: 
Slavonic Literature ; &c. 

WILLIAM ROBERTSON SMITH, LL.D. 

See the biographical article: SMITH, WILLIAM ROBERTSON. 



J Tooke, John Home. 



Turgueniev, Ivan. 
Tyre (in part). 



PRINCIPAL UNSIGNED ARTICLES 



Tonga. 

Tongking. 

Toronto. 

Toul. 

Toulouse. 

Touraine. 

Tours. 

Townshend, Charles. 

Townshend, Viscount. 

Trade, Board of. 

Trade Organization. 

Trade Unions (in part). 

Transylvania. 

Transylvanian Mountains. 

Trap. 

Trenck, Franz. 

Trendelenburg, Friedrich. 

Trenton (N.J.). 

Tresham, Francis. 

Trespass. 

Triazines. 

Trieste. 

Trinidad. 

Tristan da Cunha. 



Trollope, Anthony. 

Tromp. 

Tropine. 

Troy (N.Y.). 

Truffle. 

Trust and Trustees. 

Tschaikovsky, Peter. 

Tuareg. 

Tuke (Family). 

Tulip. 

Tungsten. 

Tunis. 

Turgot, Anne Robert 

Jacques. 

Turkey: History. 
Turpentine. 

Tweeddale, Marquesses of. 
Tyndale, William. 
Tyndall, John. 
Tynemouth. 
Typewriter. 
Typhoid Fever. 
Typhus Fever. 
Tyrone. 



Ulfeldt, Korflts. 

Ulm. 

Ulrich. 

Umbelliferae. 

United Kingdom of Great 

Britain and Ireland. 
United Presbyterian Church. 
United Provinces of Agra and 

Oudh. 

United States Naval Academy. 
Upsala. 
Uranium. 
Urbino. 
Urea. 

Urinary System. 
Ursins, Princess des. 
Urticaceae. 
Uruguay. 
Usher, James. 
Uskoks. 
Utah. 

Utica (N.Y.). 
Utrecht. 
Uxmal. 



Valencia (Province). 

Valencia (City). 

Valens. 

Valentinian I.-II. 

Valerian. 

Valla, Lorenzo. 

Valladolid. 

Valtellina. 

Vanadium. 

Vanderbilt, Cornelius. 

Vane, Sir Henry. 

Vanilla. 

Vauban. 

Vaughan, Henry. 

Vauvenargues, Marquis de. 

Venezuela: History. 

Venus's Fly-trap. 

Verdun. 

Vermont. 

Vernet (Family). 

Verney (Family). 

Vernon, Edward. 

Versailles. 

Vespasian. 



ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA 



ELEVENTH EDITION 



VOLUME XXVII 



TONALITE, in petrology, a rock of the diorite class, first 
described from Monte Adamello near Tonale in the Eastern 
Alps. It may be described as a quartz-diorite containing 
biotite and hornblende in nearly equal proportions. The prin- 
cipal felspar is plagioclase, but orthoclase occurs also, usually 
in small amount. Those varieties which are rich in orthoclase, 
in addition to plagioclase, have been called quartz-monzonites 
or adamellites, but a better term is grano-diorite, which has 
been very generally adopted in America for rocks which are 
intermediate in character between the granites and the diorites. 
The hornblende of the diorites is green, sometimes with a tinge 
of brown; the biotite is always brown and strongly pleochroic. 
Often these two minerals are clustered together irregularly or in 
parallel growths. They have generally a fairly strong tendency 
to idiomorphism, but may sometimes enclose plagioclase fel- 
spar in ophitic manner. Both of them decompose to chlorite, 
epidote and carbonates. The plagioclase felspar, which may 
form more than one-half of the rock, is andesine or oligoclase; 
simple crystals are rare, the majority being complex growths 
with centres of felspar rich in lime, while in the external zones the 
proportion of soda felspar increases greatly. The inner portions 
have often well-defined, but very irregular, boundaries, and are 
sometimes sponge-like, with the cavities filled up with a later, 
more acid, deposit. This seems to indicate that growth has 
taken place in stages, alternating with periods when the 
crystallized felspar was eroded or partly dissolved. The ortho- 
clase sometimes forms irregular plates enclosing individuals 
of plagioclase. Quartz occurs both in irregular simple grains 
and as micropegmatite. Occasionally pale green pyroxene is 
visible in the centre of crystals of dark green hornblende. The 
accessory minerals apatite, magnetite and zircon are always 
present, and very common also are orthite in coffee-coloured 
zonal prisms practically always encircled by yellow epidote, 
and reddish-brown crystals of sphene, simple or twinned. 

In external appearance the tonalites are very like the granites 
but usually darker in colour. Tonalite-porphyrites often accom- 
pany them, having the same composition but with phenocrysts 
of felspar, quartz, hornblende and biotite in a fine-grained ground- 
mass. Veins and threads of fine grey rock, mainly composed of 
quartz and felspar, often intersect tonalite-masses and have been 
called tonalite-aplites, seeing that they bear the same relations to 
aplites as the aplites do to the granites. They contain more soda- 
lime felspar than the normal aplites. Towards their margins 
the larger alpine masses of tonalite often assume banded or gneissic 
facies, due apparently to movement during intrusion. 

XXVII. I 



In eastern Tirol another tonalite occurs at Rieserferner ; there 
is also a well-known mass of this rock near Traversella. In the south 
of Scotland (Galloway district) tonalites accompany hornblende- 
and biotite-granites, hornblende- and augite-diorites. The newer 
granites of the Highlands of Scotland in many places pass into 
tonalites, especially near their margins, and similar rocks occur in 
Ireland in a few places. Grano-diorites have been described from 
California, and rocks of very similar character occur in the Andes, 
Patagonia and the lesser Antilles. Tonalites are also said to be 
frequent among the igneous rocks of Alaska. (J. S. F.) 

TONAWANDA, a city of Erie county, New York, U.S.A., 
about ii m. by rail N. of Buffalo on the Niagara River at the 
mouth of Tonawanda Creek (opposite North Tonawanda), 
and on the Erie Canal. Pop. (1900), 7421, of whom 1834 were 
foreign-born; (1910 census), 8290. Tonawanda is served 
by the New York Central & Hudson River and the Erie railways, 
and is connected with Buffalo, Niagara Falls and Lockport by 
electric lines. The industries depend chiefly on electric power 
generated by the Niagara Falls, 11 m. distant. There are rolling- 
mills, planing-mills, ship-yards, and blast-furnaces, and among 
the manufactures are wooden ware, flour and paper. The 
surrounding region was the scene of hostilities during the Seven 
Years' War, and the War of 1812. The first permanent white 
settlement was made about 1809, and Tonawanda was in- 
corporated as a village in 1854 and was chartered as a city in 
1903. The name of the city is an Indian word said to mean 
" swift water." 

TONBRIDGE [TUNBRIDGE], a market town in the Tonbridge 
or south-western parliamentary division of Kent, England, 
295 m. S.S.E. of London by the South Eastern & Chatham 
railway. Pop. of urban district (1901), 12,736. It is situated 
on rising ground above the river Medway, which is crossed by a 
stone bridge erected in 1775. The church of St Peter and St 
Paul, chiefly Decorated and Perpendicular, with some portions 
of earlier date, was completely restored in 1879. There are 
remains of an ancient castle, consisting chiefly of a finely pre- 
served gateway, of the Early Decorated period, flanked by two 
round towers. The castle was formerly defended by three 
moats, one of them formed by the Medway. Tonbridge School 
was founded by Sir Andrew Judd, lord mayor of London in 
the time of Edward VI., and was rebuilt in 1865, remodelled 
in 1880, and extended subsequently. Ornamental articles of 
inlaid wood, called Tonbridge ware, chiefly sold at Tunbridge 
Wells, are largely manufactured. There are gunpowder mills 
on the banks of the Medway, and wool-stapling, brewing and 



TONDERN TONE 



tanning are carried on. There is some traffic on the Medway, 
which is navigable for barges. 

Tonbridge owed its early importance to the castle built by 
Richard, earl of Clare, in the reign of Henry I. The castle 
was besieged by William Rufus, was taken by John in the wars 
with the barons, and again by Prince Edward, son of Henry III. 
After being in the possession of the earls of Clare and Hert- 
ford, and of the earls of Gloucester, it became the property of 
the Staffords, and on the attainder of the duke of Bucking- 
ham in the reign of Henry VIII. was taken by the Crown. It 
was dismantled during the Civil War. The lords of the castle 
had the right of attending the archbishops of Canterbury on 
state occasions as chief butlers. 

TONDERN, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of 
Schleswig-Holstein, on the Widane, 8 m. from the North Sea at 
Hoyer, opposite the island of Sylt, and 42 m. by rail N.W. from 
Flensburg. Pop. (1900), 4244. Tondern was in early days a 
seaport, but since the reclamation of the marshes and the dredg- 
ing of the Widane navigation has ceased, and vessels load and 
unload at Hoyer, with which the place has direct railway com- 
munication. The trade consists chiefly in agricultural produce 
and cattle, and there is an important horse market. 

In the village of Galhus, lying about 4m. N., were discovered, 
in 1639 an d 1734 respectively, two golden horns of the Scandi- 
navian period; these were stolen in 1802 from tne Museum of 
Northern Antiquities in Copenhagen, where they had been 
treasured, and have never been recovered. 

See Karstens, Die Stadt Tondern (Tondern, 1861). 

TONE, THEOBALD WOLFE (1763-1798), Irish rebel, the 
son of Peter Tone, a Dublin coachmaker, was born in Dublin 
on the aoth of June 1763. His grandfather was a small 
farmer in county Kildare, and his mother was the daughter of 
a captain in the merchant service. Though entered as a student 
at Trinity College, Dublin, Tone gave little attention to study, 
his inclination being for a military career; but after eloping 
with Matilda Witherington, a girl of sixteen, he took his degree 
in 1786, and read law in London at the Middle Temple and after- 
wards in Dublin, being called to the Irish bar in 1789. Though 
idle, Tone had considerable ability. Chagrined at finding no 
notice taken of a wild scheme for founding a military colony 
in the South Seas which he had submitted to Pitt, he turned to 
Irish politics. An able pamphlet attacking the administration 
of the marquess of Buckingham in 1790 brought him to the 
notice of the Whig club; and in September 1791 he wrote a 
remarkable essay over the signature " A Northern Whig," of 
which 10,000 copies are said to have been sold. The principles 
of the French Revolution were at this time being eagerly em- 
braced in Ireland, especially among the Presbyterians of Ulster, 
and two months before the appearance of Tone's essay a great 
meeting had been held in Belfast, where republican toasts 
had been drunk with enthusiasm, and a resolution in favour 
of the abolition of religious disqualifications had given the first 
sign of political sympathy between the Roman Catholics and 
the Protestant dissenters of the north. The essay of "A 
Northern Whig " emphasized the growing breach between the 
Whig patriots like Flood and Grattan, who aimed at Catholic 
emancipation and parliamentary reform without disloyalty 
to the connexion with England, and the men who desired to 
establish a separate Irish republic. Tone expressed in his 
pamphlet unqualified contempt for the constitution which 
Grattan had so triumphantly extorted from the English govern- 
ment in 1782; and, himself a Protestant, he urged co-operation 
between the different religious sects in Ireland as the only 
means of obtaining complete redress of Irish grievances. 

In October 1791 Tone converted these ideas into practical 
policy by founding, in conjunction with Thomas Russell (1767- 
1803), Napper Tandy (q.v.) and others, the society of the " United 
Irishmen." The original purpose of this society was no more 
than the formation of a political union between Roman Catholics 
and Protestants, with a view to obtaining a liberal measure of 
parliamentary reform; it was only when that object appeared 
to be unattainable by constitutional methods that the majority 



of the members adopted the more uncompromising opinions which 
Wolfe Tone held from the first, and conspired to establish an 
Irish republic by armed rebellion. Tone himself admitted 
that with him hatred of England had always been " rather an 
instinct than a principle," though until his views should become 
more generally accepted in Ireland he was prepared to work 
for reform as distinguished from revolution. But he desired 
to root out the popular respect for the names of Charlemont 
and Grattan, and to transfer to more violent leaders the conduct 
of the national movement. Grattan was a reformer and a 
patriot without a tincture of democratic ideas; Wolfe Tone was 
a revolutionary whose principles were drawn from the French 
Convention. Grattan's political philosophy was allied to that 
of Edmund Burke; Tone was a disciple of Danton and Thomas 
Paine. 

Democratic principles were gaining ground among the Roman 
Catholics as well as the Presbyterians. A quarrel between the 
moderate and the more advanced sections of the Roman Catholic 
Committee led, in December 1791, to the secession of sixty-eight 
of the former, led by Lord Kenmare; and the direction of the 
committee then passed to more violent leaders, of whom the 
most prominent was John'Keogh, a Dublin tradesman. The 
active participation of the Roman Catholics in the movement 
of the United Irishmen was strengthened by the appointment 
of Tone as paid secretary of the Roman Catholic Committee in 
the spring of 1792. When the legality of the Roman Catholic 
Convention in 1792 was called in question by the government, 
Tone drew up for the committee a statement of the case on which 
a favourable opinion of counsel was obtained; and a sum of 
1500 with a gold medal was voted to Tone by the Convention 
when it dissolved itself in April 1793. Burke and Grattan were 
anxious that provision should be made for the education of 
Irish Roman Catholic priests at home, to preserve them from 
the contagion of Jacobinism in France; Wolfe Tone, " with an 
incomparably juster forecast," as Lecky observes, " advocated 
the same measure for exactly opposite reasons." He rejoiced 
that the breaking up of the French schools by the revolution 
had rendered necessary the foundation of Maynooth College, 
which he foresaw would draw the sympathies of the clergy into 
more democratic channels. In 1794 the United Irishmen, 
persuaded that their scheme of universal suffrage and equal 
electoral districts was not likely to be accepted by any party in 
the Irish parliament, began to found their hopes on a French 
invasion. An English clergyman named William Jackson, a 
man of infamous notoriety who had long lived in France, where 
he had imbibed revolutionary opinions, came to Ireland to 
negotiate between the French committee of public safety and 
the United Irishmen. For this emissary Tone drew up a 
memorandum on the state of Ireland, which he described as 
ripe for revolution; the paper was betrayed to the government 
by an attorney named Cockayne to whom Jackson had impru- 
dently disclosed his mission; and in April 1794 Jackson was 
arrested on a charge of treason. Several of the leading United 
Irishmen, including Reynolds and Hamilton Rowan, immediately 
fled the country; the papers of the United Irishmen were seized; 
and for a time the organization was broken up. Tone, who had 
not attended meetings of the society since May 1793, remained 
in Ireland till after the trial and suicide of Jackson in April 
1795. Having friends among the government party, including 
members of the Beresford family, he was enabled to make terms 
with the government, and in return for information as to what 
had passed between Jackson, Rowan and himself he was per- 
mitted to emigrate to America, where he arrived in May 1795. 
Taking up his residence at Philadelphia, he wrote a few months 
later to Thomas Russell expressing unqualified dislike of the 
American people, whom he was disappointed to find no more 
truly democratic in sentiment and no less attached to order and 
authority than the English; he described George Washington 
as a " high-flying aristocrat," and he found the aristocracy of 
money in America still less to his liking than the European 
aristocracy of birth. 

Tone did not feel himself bound in honour by his compact 



TONGA 



with the government at home to abstain from further conspiracy ; 
and finding himself at Philadelphia in the congenial company 
of Reynolds, Rowan and Napper Tandy, he undertook a mission 
to Paris to persuade the French government to send an expedi- 
tion to invade Ireland. In February 1796 he arrived in Paris 
and had interviews with De La Croix and L. N. M. Carnot, who 
were greatly impressed by his energy, sincerity and ability. A 
commission was given him as adjutant-general in the French 
army, which he hoped might protect him from the penalty of 
treason in the event of capture by the English; though he himself 
claimed the authorship of a proclamation said to have been issued 
by the United Irishmen, enjoining that all Irishmen taken with 
arms in their hands in the British service should be instantly 
shot ; and he supported a project for landing a thousand criminals 
in England, who were to be commissioned to burn Bristol and 
commit any other atrocity in their power. He drew up two 
memorials representing that the landing of a considerable 
French force in Ireland would be followed by a general rising 
of the people, and giving a detailed account of the condition of 
the country. The French directory, which possessed informa- 
tion from Lord Edward Fitzgerald (q.v.) and Arthur O'Connor 
confirming Tone, prepared to despatch an expedition under 
Hoche. On the 15th of December 1796 the expedition, consist- 
ing of forty-three sail and carrying about 15,000 men with a 
large supply of war material for distribution in Ireland, sailed 
from Brest. Tone, who accompanied it as " Adjutant-general 
Smith," had the greatest contempt for the seamanship of the 
French sailors, which was amply justified by the disastrous 
result of the invasion. Returning to France without having 
effected anything, Tone served for some months in the French 
army under Hoche; and in June 1797 he took part in prepara- 
tions for a Dutch expedition to Ireland, which was to be sup- 
ported by the French. But the Dutch fleet was detained in the 
Texel for many weeks by unfavourable weather, and before it 
eventually put to sea in October, only to be crushed by Duncan 
in the battle of Camperdown, Tone had returned to Paris; and 
Hoche, the chief hope of the United Irishmen, was dead. Bona- 
parte, with whom Tone had several interviews about this time, 
was much less disposed than Hoche had been to undertake in 
earnest an Irish expedition; and when the rebellion broke out 
in Ireland in 1798 he had started for Egypt. When, therefore, 
Tone urged the directory to send effective assistance to the Irish 
rebels, all that could be promised was a number of small raids 
to descend simultaneously on different points of the Irish coast. 
One of these under Humbert succeeded in landing a force in 
Killala Bay, and gained some success in Connaught before it was 
subdued by Lake and Cornwallis, Wolfe Tone's brother Matthew 
being captured, tried by court-martial, and hanged; a second, 
accompanied by Napper Tandy (q.v.), came to disaster on the 
coast of Donegal; while Wolfe Tone took part in a third, under 
Admiral Bompard, with General Hardy in command of a force 
of about 3000 men, which encountered an English squadron 
near Lough Swilly on the i2th of October 1798. Tone, who was 
on board the " Hoche," refused Bompard's offer of escape in a 
frigate before the action, and was taken prisoner when the 
" Hoche " was forced to surrender. When the prisoners were 
landed a fortnight later Sir George Hill recognized Tone in the 
French adjutant-general's uniform. At his trial by court-martial 
in Dublin, Tone made a manly straightforward speech, avowing 
his determined hostility to England and his design " by fair and 
open war to procure the separation of the two countries," and 
pleading in virtue of his status as a French officer to die by the 
musket instead of the rope. He was, however, sentenced to be 
hanged on the I2th of November; but on the nth he cut his 
throat with a penknife, and on the igth of November 1798 he 
died of the wound. 

Although Wolfe Tone had none of the attributes of greatness, 
" he rises," says Lecky, "far above the dreary level of common- 
place which Irish conspiracy in general presents. The tawdry 
and exaggerated rhetoric; the petty vanity and jealousies; the 
weak sentimentalism; the utter incapacity for proportioning 
means to ends, and for grasping the stern realities of things, 



which so commonly disfigure the lives and conduct even of the 
more honest members of his class, were wholly alien to his nature. 
His judgment of men and things was keen, lucid and masculine, 
and he was alike prompt in decision and brave in action." In 
his later years he overcame the drunkenness that was habitual 
to him in youth ; he developed seriousness of character and unsel- 
fish devotion to what he believed was the cause of patriotism; 
and he won the respect of men of high character and capacity 
in France and Holland. His journals, which were written for 
his family and intimate friends, give a singularly interesting 
and vivid picture of life in Paris in the time of the directory. 
They were published after his death by his son, William Theobald 
Wolfe Tone (1791-1828), who was educated by the French 
government and served with some distinction in the armies of 
Napoleon, emigrating after Waterloo to America, where he died, 
in New York City, on the roth of October 1828. 

See Life of Theobald Wolfe Tone by himself, continued by his son, 
with his political writings, edited by W. T. Wolfe Tone (2 vols., 
Washington, 1826), another edition of which is entitled Auto- 
biography of Theobald Wolfe Tone, edited with introduction by 
R. Barry O'Brien (2 vols., London, 1893) ; R. R. Madden, Lives of 
the United Irishmen (7 vols., London, 1842); Alfred Webb, Com- 
pendium of Irish Biography (Dublin, 1878) ; W. E. H. Lecky, 
History of Ireland in the Eighteenth Century, vols. iii., iv., v. (cabinet 
ed., 5 vols., London, 1892). (R. J. M.) 

TONGA, or FRIENDLY ISLANDS (so called by Captain Cook), 
an archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about 350 m. S.S.W. 
of Samoa and 250 m. E.S.E. of Fiji. The long chain of islands, 
numbering about 150, though with a collective land area of 
only 385 sq. m., extends from 18 5' to 22 29' S. and 174 to 
176 10' W., and is broken into three groups, viz. the Tonga to 
the south, Hapai (which again is divided into three clusters) in 
the centre and Vavau to the north. The largest island is 
Tongatabu (the Sacred Tonga, Tasman's Amsterdam) in the 
southern group, measuring about 25 by 10 m., and 165 sq. m. 
in area, which contains the capital, Nukualofa. The vegetation 
is rich and beautiful, but the scenery tame, the land seldom rising 
above 60 ft.; Eua (Tasman's Middelburg), 9 m. south-east and 
67 sq. m. in area, is 1078 ft. in extreme height, and much more 
picturesque, being diversified by rocks and woods. Vavau, 
in the northern group, is 55 sq. m. in extent and 300 ft. high. 
Next to these come the coral islands Nomuka and Lifuka in 
the Hapai group; Tofua, 2846 ft., Late or Lette, 1800 ft. and Kao, 
3020 ft. high, which are volcanic and smaller. The numerous 
islets of the central group are very fertile. It is along the western 
side of the northern half of the chain that the line of volcanic 
action is apparent; the islands here (of which some are active 
volcanoes) are lofty. To the east the whole chain is bounded 
by a profound trough in the ocean bed, which extends south- 
westward, east of the Kermadec Islands, towards New Zealand. 
The majority of the Tonga Islands, however, are level, averaging 
40 ft. high, with hills rising to 600 ft.; their sides are generally 
steep. The surface is covered with a rich mould unusual in 
coral islands, mixed towards the sea with sand, and having a 
substratum of red or blue clay. The soil is thus very productive, 
although water is scarce and bad. Barrier reefs are rare; 
fringing reefs are numerous, except on the east side, which is 
nearly free, and there are many small isolated reefs and volcanic 
banks among the islands. If the reefs impede navigation they 
form some good harbours. The best is on the south-western side 
of Vavau; another is on the north of Tongatabu. Earthquakes 
are not infrequent. From 1845 to 1857 volcanic eruptions were 
very violent, and islands once fertile were devastated and nearly 
destroyed. A new island rose from the sea, and was at once 
named " Wesley," but disappeared again. In 1886 there was 
a serious volcanic eruption in the outlying island of Niuafoou, 
and at the same time Falcon Reef, normally awash at high water, 
discharged sufficient scoriae and pumice to form a new island 
50 ft. high. In 1898 the island had been washed away, but in 
1900 H.M.S. " Porpoise " found that a solid core of black rock 
had been extruded 6 ft. above high water. All the volcanoes 
in the group were then quiescent. 

Geology. The line of volcanic action extends along the western side 
of the northern half of the chain. Some of the islands are built of 



TONGA 



volcanic rocks alone; such are Hongu-tonga and Hongu-hapai, which 
appear to be fragments of a single ancient crater, Tofua, Kao, Late, 
Metis, Amargua and Falcon Island. The lava is a basic au'gite- 
andesite. Another group of islands consists of elevated masses of 
submarine volcanic deposits, upon some of which coral-reef limestone 
forms a more or less complete covering; such are Tonumeia and the 
Nomuka group (Mango, Tonua, Nomuka-iki). All the volcanic rocks 
of these islands are submarine stratified tuffs which are penetrated 
here and there by andesite or diabase dikes. The Vavau group 
consists entirely of coral limestone, which is occasionally crystalline, 
and contains stalactitic caves of great beauty. 

Climate, Flora, Fauna. The climate is healthy for Europeans, 
being dry and cool as compared with that of Samoa and Fiji. There 
are frequent alternations of temperature, which averages 75 to 
77 F., though considerably higher in the wet season. Cool south- 
east trade winds blow, sometimes with great violence, from April 
to December. During the rest of the year the winds blow from 
west-north-west and north, with rain and occasional destructive 
hurricanes. A cyclone which devastated Vavau in April 1900 was the 
most destructive ever recorded in the group, but hurricanes are rare. 
The average rainfall for the year is about 80 ins. The vegetation 
is similar to that of Fiji, but more definitely Indo-Malayan in 
character; it embraces all the plants of the groups to the east with 
many that are absent there. Ferns abound*, some of them peculiar, 
and tree ferns on the higher islands, and all the usual fruit trees 
and cultivated plants of the Pacific are found. There are several 
kinds of valuable timber trees. The only indigenous land mammalia 
are a small rat and a few curious species of bats. The dog and the 
pig were no doubt introduced by man. Of birds some 30 kinds 
are known, an owl being the only bird of prey; parrots, pigeons, 
kingfishers, honey-suckers, rails, ducks, and other water birds are 
numerous. There are snakes and small lizards, but no frogs or 
toads. Of insects there are relatively few kinds; but ants, beetles 
and mosquitoes abound. The fishes, of an Indo-Malay type, are 
varied and numerous. Turtle and sea-snakes abound, as do mollusca, 
of which a few are peculiar, and zoophytes. 

Inhabitants. The population of the archipelago is about 
19,000, of whom about 370 are whites or half-castes. The 
natives, a branch of the Polynesian race, are the most progressive 
and most intellectual in the Pacific Islands, except the 
Hawaiians. They have exercised an influence over distant 
neighbours, especially in Fiji, quite out of proportion to their 
numbers. Their conquests have extended as far as Niu6, or 
Savage Island, 200 m. east, and to various other islands to the 
north. In Captain Cook's time Poulaho, the principal chief, 
considered Samoa to be within his dominions. This pre- 
eminence may perhaps be due to an early infusion of Fijian 
blood: it has been observed that such crosses are always more 
vigorous than the pure races in these islands; and this influence 
seems also traceable in the Tongan dialect, and appears to have 
been partially transmitted thence to the Samoan. Various 
customs, traditions and names of places also point to a former 
relation with Fiji. Their prior conversion to Christianity gave 
the Tongans material as well as moral advantages over their 
neighbours. Crime is infrequent, and morality, always above 
the Polynesian average, has improved. The people have strict 
notions of etiquette and gradations of rank. In disposition 
they are amiable and courteous, but arrogant, lively, inquisitive 
and inclined to steal their attacks in earlier days on Europeans, 
when not caused by misunderstandings, being due probably 
to their coveting property which to them was of immense value. 
They are brave and not unenergetic, though the soft climate 
and the abundance of food discourage industry. They value 
children, and seldom practised infanticide, and cannibalism was 
rare. Their women are kindly treated, and only do the lighter 
work. Agriculture, which is well understood, is the chief 
industry. They are bold and skilful sailors and fishermen; 
other trades, as boat and house building, carving, cooking, net 
and mat making, are usually hereditary. Their houses are 
slightly built, but the surrounding ground and roads are laid 
out with great care and taste. 

There were formerly (till the early l8th century) two sovereigns; 
the higher of these, called Tui Tonga (chief of Tonga), was greatly 
reverenced but enjoyed little power. The real ruler and the chief 
officers of _the state were members of the Tubou family, from which 
also the wife of the Tui Tonga was always chosen, whose descendants 
through the female line had special honours and privileges, under 
the title of tamaha, recalling the vasu of Fiji. The explanation 
of the dual kingship is probably this the Tui Tonga were regarded 
as the direct descendants of the original head of the family from 
which the people sprang; regarded with reverence, and possessing 



unlimited power, they came to misuse this and discontent resulted, 
whereupon, to protect themselves, they appointed an executive 
deputy. Below these came the Eiki or chiefs, and next to them the 
class called Matabule. These were the hereditary counsellors and 
companions of the chiefs, and conveyed to the people the decisions 
formed at their assemblies. They also directed the national cere- 
monies, and preserved the popular traditions. While, under the 
control of Europeans, the Tongans have shown some aptitude for 
administration, they fail when left to themselves. They pick up 
superficial acquirements with astonishing ease, but seem to be 
incapable of mastering any subject. They write shorthand, but 
speak no English; they have a smattering of higher mathematics, 
yet are ignorant of book-keeping. Their government, effective 
enough when dealing with natives, breaks down in all departments 
concerned with Europeans, and becomes the prey of designing 
traders. Their ambition is to rank as a civilized state, and the 
flattery lavished on them by their teachers has spoiled them. 

There are some ancient stone remains in Tongatabu, burial places 
(feitoka) built with great blocks, and a remarkable monument 
consisting of two large upright blocks morticed to carry a transverse 
one, on which was formerly a circular basin of stone. 

Administration and Trade. In May 1900 the group became a 
British protectorate under the native flag, the appointment of 
the consul and agent being transferred to the government of 
New Zealand. In 1904 the financial and legal administration 
was put into the hands of the British High Commissioner for 
the Western Pacific. The native king is assisted by a legislative 
assembly consisting, in equal numbers, of hereditary nobles and 
popular (elected) representatives. The wisdom of King George 
Tubou in refusing to alienate an acre of land, except upon lease, 
has resulted in Tonga having been the last native state in the 
Pacific to lose its independence. There is a revenue of about 
21,000 annually derived chiefly from a poll-tax, leases and 
customs. The principal exports are copra, bananas, oranges and 
fungus, and the annual values of exports and imports are 80,000 
and 70,000 respectively on an average, though both fluctuate 
considerably. British coin is legal tender (since 1905). There 
are five churches in Tonga the Free Wesleyans, embracing the 
great majority of the inhabitants, Wesleyans, Roman Catholics, 
and Seventh Day Adventists. These last are few; a still smaller 
number of natives are nominally Anglicans. 

History. In 1616 the vessels of Jacob Lemaire and Willem 
Cornelis Schouten reached the island of Niuatobutabu, and had 
a hostile encounter with the natives. In 1643 Abel Tasman 
arrived at Tongatabu and was more fortunate. The next visit 
was that of Samuel Wallis in 1767, followed in 1773 by that of 
Captain Cook. In 1777 Cook returned, and stayed seven weeks 
among the islands. In 1799 a revolution, having its origin in 
jealousy between two natives of high rank, broke out. Civil 
war dragged on for many years long after the deaths of the 
first leaders but Taufaahau, who became king in 1845 under 
the name of George Tubou I., proved a strong ruler. In 1822 
a Methodist missionary had arrived in the island, and others 
followed. The attempt to introduce a new faith led to renewed 
strife, this time between converts and pagans, but King George 
(who fully appreciated the value of intercourse with foreigners) 
supported the missionaries, and by 1852 the rebels were subdued. 
The missionaries, finding their position secure, presently began 
to take action in political affairs, and persuaded the king to 
grant a constitution to the Tongans, who welcomed it with a 
kind of childish enthusiasm, but were far from fitted to receive 
it. A triennial parliament, a cabinet, a privy council, and an 
elaborate judicial system were established, and the cumbrous 
machinery was placed in the hands of a " prime minister," a 
retired Wesleyan missionary, Mr Shirley Baker. Treaties of 
friendship were concluded with Germany, Great Britain, and 
the United States of America. Baker induced the king to break 
off his connexion with the Wesleyan body in Sydney, and to set 
up a state church. Persecution of members of the old church 
followed, and in 1890 the missionary-premier had to be removed 
from the group by the high commissioner. He afterwards 
returned to initiate a new sect called the " Free Church of 
England," which for a time created further divisions among the 
people. 

King George Tubou died in 1893 at the age of ninety-six, and 
was succeeded by his great-grandson under the same title. 



TONGKING 



Mr Basil Thomson (who after Baker's deportation had carried 
out reforms which the natives, when left alone, were incapable 
of maintaining) was sent in 1900 to conclude the treaty by 
which the king placed his kingdom under British protection. 

See Captain Cook's Voyages and other early narratives; Martin, 
Mariner's account of the Tonga Islands (Edinburgh, 1827) ; Vason, 
Four Years in Tongatabu (London, 1815) ; A. Monfort, Les Tonga, ou 
Archipel des Amis (Lyons, 1893); B. H. Thomson, The Diversions 
of a Prime Minister (London, 1894). 

TONGKING, 1 a province of French Indo-China, and protec- 
torate of France, situated between 20 and 235 N. and 102 and 
1085 E., and bounded N. by the Chinese provinces of Kwang- 
Tung, Kwang-Si and Yun-nan, W. by Laos, S. by Annam, and 
E. by the Gulf of Tongking. Area, about 46,000 sq. m. The 
population is estimated at 6,000,000, including 33,000 Chinese 
and about 4000 Europeans. Geographically, Tongking com- 
prises three regions: (i) the delta of the Song-Koi (Red river), 
which, beginning at Son-Tay and coalescing with the delta of 
the Thai-Binh, widens out into the low-lying and fertile plain 
within which are situated the principal cities. (2) Two moun- 
tainous tracts, to the north and west of the delta, running 
approximately from north-west to south-east, one separating 
the basins of the Song-Koi and the Canton river, the other those 
of the Song-Koi and the Mekong. (3) A region of plateaus 
and low hills forming a transition between the delta and the 
mountains. The main geographical feature in the country is 
the Song-Koi, which, taking its rise near Tali Fu, in Yun-nan, 
enters Tongking at Lao-Kay (the Lao boundary), and flows 
thence in a south-easterly direction to the Gulf of Tongking. 
It was this river which mainly, in the first instance, attracted the 
French to Tongking, as it was believed by the explorers that, 
forming the shortest route by water to the rich province of 
Yun-nan, it would prove also to be the most convenient and 
expeditious means of transporting the tin, copper, silver and 
gold which are known to abound there. This belief, however, 
has proved fallacious. The upper course of the stream is 
constantly impeded by rapids, the lowest being about thirty 
miles above Hung-Hoa. Beyond Lao-Kay navigation is 
impracticable during the dry season, and at all other times of 
the year goods have to be there transferred into light junks. 
Below Lao-Kay larger junks, and in the summer months steam 
launches of shallow draught use the river. Within the limits 
of Yun-nan the navigation is still more difficult. Near Son-Tay 
the Song-Koi receives the waters of the Song-Bo (Black 
river) and the Song-Ka (Clear river), parallel affluents 
rising in Yun-nan, and from that point divides into a network of 
waterways which empty themselves by countless outlets into 
the sea. The Song-Cau rises in north-eastern Tongking and 
below the town of Sept Pagodes, where it is joined by the Song- 
Thuong to form the Thai-Binh, divides into numerous branches, 
communicating with the Song-Koi by the Canal des Rapides 
and the Canal des Bambous. 

The coast line of Tongking from Mon-Kay on the Chinese 
frontier to Thanh-Hoa, near that of Annam, has a length of 
375 m. From Mon-Kay as far as the estuary of the Song-Koi it 
is broken, rugged and fringed with islands and rocky islets. The 
bay of Tien-Hien, to the south of which lies the island of Ke-Bao, 
and the picturesque bay of Along, are the chief indentations. 
Beyond the island of Cac-Ba, south of the Bay of Along, the coast 
is low, flat and marshy, and tends to advance as the alluvial 
deposits of the delta accumulate. 

The climate of Tongking is less trying to Europeans than that 
of the rest of French Indo-China. During June, July and August, 
the temperature ranges between 82 and 100 F., but from October 
to May the weather is cool. The country is subject to typhoons in 
August and September. 

In the wooded regions of the mountains the tiger, elephant 
and panther are found, and wild buffalo, deer and monkeys are 
common. The delta is the home of ducks and many other varieties 
of aquatic birds. Tea, cardamom, and mulberry grow wild, and 
in general the flora approximate to that of southern China. 

The Annamese (see ANNAM), who form the bulk of the population 
of Tongking, are of a somewhat better physique than those of the 



1 See also INDO-CHINA, FRENCH, and ANNAM. 



rest of Indo-China. Savage tribes inhabit the northern districts 
the Muongs the mountains bordering the Black river, the Th6s the 
regions bordering the Clear river and the Thai-Binh. The Muongs 
are bigger and stronger than the Annamese. They have square 
foreheads, large faces and prominent cheek-bones, and their eyes are 
often almost straight. 

Rice, which in some places furnishes two crops annually, is incom- 
parably the most important product of the delta. Elsewhere there 
are plantations of coffee, tobacco, ramie, paper-tree (Daphne odora), 
cotton, jute, sugar-cane, pepper and mulberry. The cultivation 
of silkworms is of growing importance. 

Gold, copper, tin, lead and other metals are found in the higher 
regions of Tongking, but only gold and tin are exploited, and these 
only to a very limited extent. There is a large output of coal of 
inferior quality from Hon-Gay on the bay of Along and there are 
coal-workings on the island of Ke-Bao. 

Hanoi, Hai-phong and Nam-Dinh carry on cotton-spinning, and 
Hanoi and Nam-Dinh are well known for the manufacture of carved 
and inlaid furniture. The natives are skilful at enamelling and the 
chasing and ornamentation of gold and other metals. The manu- 
facture of paper from the fibrous bark of the paper-tree is a wide- 
spread industry and there are numerous distilleries of rice-spirit. 

The imports of Tongking, which in 1905 reached a value of 
3,501,422, comprise railway material, cereals, flour, liquors, woven 
goods, petroleum, glassware, paper, prepared skins, clocks and 
watches, arms and ammunition, &c. Exports (valued at 1,393,674 
in 1905) comprise rice, rubber, manila hemp, ramie, lacquer and 
badian oils, raw skins, silk-waste, coal, Chinese drugs, rattan, mats, 
gamboge. 

The transit trade via Tongking between Hong-Kong and the 
province of Yun-nan in southern China is of considerable importance, 
reaching in 1905 a value of 1,146,000. This trade is entirely in 
the hands of Chinese houses, the tin of the Yun-nan mines and 
cotton yarns from Hong-Kong constituting its most important 
elements. Goods in transit enjoy a rebate of 80% of the customs 
duties. Goods are carried on the Song-Koi to Lao-Kay or Man-Hao, 
thence on mules. The waterways of the delta are lined with em- 
bankments, the causeways along which form the chief means of land 
communication of the region. (For railways, see INDO-CHINA, 
FRENCH.) 

The protectorate of Tongking approaches nearer to direct admin- 
istration than that of Annam, where the conditions of the protector- 
ate are more closely observed. Till 1897 the emperor of Annam 
was represented in Tongking by a viceroy (kinh-luoc), but now the 
native officials are appointed by and are directly under the control 
of the resident-superior, who resides at Hanoi, presides over [the (pro- 
tectorate council, and is the chief territorial representative of France. 
Tongking is divided into nineteen provinces, in each of which 
there is a resident or a vice-resident, and four military territories, 
the latter administered by commandants. In each province there 
is a council of native " notables," elected by natives and occupied 
with the discussion of the provincial budget and public works. 
There is also a deliberative council of natives (instituted 1907) fof 
the whole of Tongking. The provincial administration, local 
government and educational system are analogous to those of Annam 
(g.t;.). Two chambers of the court of appeal of Indo-China and a 
criminal court sit at Hanoi; there are tribunals of first instance and 
tribunals of commerce at Hanoi and Hai-Phong. When both 
parties to a suit are Annamese, it comes within the jurisdiction of 
the An-Sat or native judge of the province. 

The following is a summary of the budgets of 1899 and 1904: 





Receipts. 


Expenditure. 


1899 
1904 



461,235 
756,648 



427,993 
494,034 



The chief source of revenue is the direct taxes (including especially 
the poll-tax and land-tax), which amounted in 1904 to 417,723, 
while the chief items of expenditure are the cost of the residencies 
and general staff, public works and the civil guard. 

For the early history of Tongking, see ANNAM and INDO-CHINA, 
FRENCH. Tongking was loosely united to Annam until 1801, 
when Gia-long, king of Annam, brought it definitely under his 
sway. Having, by the treaty of 1862 and the annexation of 
Cochin China, firmly established themselves in Annames* 
territory, the French began to turn their attention to Tongking, 
attracted by the reported richness of its mineral wealth. They 
found a pretext for interfering in its affairs in the disturbances 
arising from the invasion of its northern provinces by the 
disbanded followers of the Taiping rebels. The Franco-German 
War of 1870-71 put an end to the project for a time, but the 
return of peace in Europe was the signal for the renewal of hos- 
tilities in the East. The appearance of Garnier's work on his 
expedition up the Mekong again aroused an interest in Tongking, 



TONGKING 



and the reported wealth of the country added the powerful 
motive of self-interest to the yearnings of patriotism. Already 
Jean Dupuis, a trader who in the pursuit of his calling had 
penetrated into Yun-nan, was attempting to negotiate for the 
passage up the Song-Koi of himself and a cargo of military stores 
for the Chinese authorities in Yun-nan. Meanwhile Captain 
Senez appeared from Saigon, having received instructions to 
open the route to French commerce. But to neither the trader 
nor the naval officer would the Tongkingese lend a favourable 
ear, and in default of official permission Dupuis determined to 
force his way up the river. This he succeeded in doing, but 
arrived too late, for he found the Taiping rebellion crushed and 
the stores no longer wanted. 

On the return of Dupuis to Hanoi, the Tongkingese general 
at that place wrote to the king of Annam, begging him to induce 
the governor of Cochin-China to remove the intruder. An order 
was thereupon issued calling upon Dupuis to leave the country. 
This he declined to do, and, after some negotiations, Francis 
Gamier with a detachment was sent to Hanoi to do the best 
he could in the difficult circumstances. Gamier threw himself 
heart and soul into Dupuis's projects, and, when the Tongkingese 
authorities refused to treat with him except on the subject of 
Dupuis's expulsion, he attacked the citadel in November, 1873, 
and carried it by assault. Having thus secured his position, 
he sent to Saigon for reinforcements, and meanwhile sent small 
detachments against the five other important fortresses in the 
delta (Hung-yen, Phu-Ly, Hai-Duong, Ninh-Binh and Nam- 
Dinh), and captured them all. The Tongkingese now called in 
the help of Lu-Vinh-Phuoc, the leader of the " Black Flags," l 
who at once marched with a large force to the scene of action. 
Within a few days he recaptured several villages near Hanoi, 
and so threatening did his attitude appear that Gamier, who had 
hurried back after capturing Nam-Dinh, made a sortie from the 
citadel. The movement proved a disastrous one, and resulted 
in the death of Gamier and of his second in command, Balny 
d'Avricourt. 

Meanwhile the news of Garnier's hostilities had alarmed the 
governor of Saigon, who, having no desire to be plunged into a 
war, sent Philastre, an inspector of native affairs, to offer 
apologies to the king of Annam. When, however, on arriving 
in Tongking Philastre heard of Garnier's death, he took command 
of the French forces, and at once ordered the evacuation of 
Nam-Dinh, Ninh-Binh and Hai-Duong a measure which, 
however advantageous it may have been to the French at the 
moment, was most disastrous to the native Christian population, 
the withdrawal of the French being the signal for a general 
massacre of the converts. In pursuance of the same policy 
Philastre made a convention with the authorities (March, 1874) 
by which he bound his countrymen to withdraw from the occu- 
pation of the country, retaining only the right to trade on the 
Song-Koi and at Hanoi and Hai-Phong, and agreed to put an 
end to Dupuis's aggressive action. 

For a time affairs remained in stai/u quo, but in 1882 Le Myre 
deVillers, the governor of Cochin-China, sent Henri Riviere with 
a small force to open up the route to Yun-nan by the Song-Koi. 
With a curious similarity the events of Garnier's campaign were 
repeated. Finding the authorities intractable, Riviere stormed 
and carried the citadel of Hanoi, and then, with very slight loss, 
he captured Nam-Dinh, Hai-Duong, and other towns in the delta. 
And once again these victories brought the Black Flags into 
the neighbourhood of Hanoi. As Gamier had done, so Riviere 
hurried back from Nam-Dinh on news of the threatened danger. 
Like Gamier also he headed a sortie against his enemies, and like 
Gamier he fell a victim to nis own impetuosity (May, 1883). 

In the meantime the Annamese court had been seeking to 
enlist the help of the Chinese in their contest with the French. 
The tie which bound the tributary nation to the sovereign state 
had been for many generations slackened or drawn closer as 
circumstances determined, but it had never been entirely 
dissevered, and from the Annamese point of view this was one 

1 Bands of Chinese rebels who infested the mountainous region of 
Tongking. 



of the occasions when it was of paramount importance that it 
should be acknowledged and acted upon. With much more 
than usual regularity, therefore, the king despatched presents 
and letters to the court of Peking, and in 1880 he sent a special 
embassy, loaded with unusually costly offerings, and bearing a 
letter in which his position of a tributary was emphatically 
asserted. Far from ignoring the responsibility thrust upon him, 
the emperor of China ordered the publication of the letter in the 
Peking Gazette. 

The death of Riviere and the defeat of his troops had placed 
the French in a position of extreme difficulty. M. Jules Ferry, 
who had become premier of France in February 1883, determined 
on a vigorous forward policy. But for the moment the outlying 
garrisons, except those of Nam-Dinh and Hai-Phong, had to 
be withdrawn and Hanoi itself was besieged by the Black Flags. 
Reinforcements brought by Admiral Courbet and General Bouet 
were insufficient to do more than keep them at bay. So con- 
tinued was the pressure on the garrison that Bouet determined 
to make an advance upon Son-Tay to relieve the blockade. .He 
attacked Vong, a fortified village, but he met with such resistance 
that, after suffering considerable loss, he was obliged to retreat 
to Hanoi. In the lower delta fortune sided with the French, 
and almost without a casualty Hai-Duong and Phu-Binh fell 
into their hands. Meanwhile, in order to put more effective 
pressure upon the court of Hue, Dr Harmand, commissary- 
general, supported by Courbet, proceeded with a naval force to 
the Hue river. They found that, though King Tu Due was dead, 
his policy of resistance was maintained, and therefore stormed 
the city. After a feeble defence it was taken, and Harmand 
concluded a treaty with the king (August 1883) in which the 
French protectorate was fully recognized, the king further 
binding himself to recall the Annamese troops serving in Tong- 
king, and to construct a road from Saigon to Hanoi. 

Though this treaty was exacted from Annam under pressure, 
the French lost no time in carrying out that part of it which 
gave them the authority to protect Tongking, and Bouet again 
advanced in the direction of Son-Tay. But again the resistance 
he met with compelled him to retreat, after capturing the fortified 
post of Palan. Meanwhile, on the determination to attack 
Son-Tay becoming known in Paris, the Chinese ambassador 
warned the ministry that, since Chinese troops formed part of 
the garrison, he should consider it as tantamount to a declaration 
of war. But his protest met with no consideration. On the 
arrival of reinforcements an advance was again made; and on the 
i6th of December 1883, after some desperate fighting, Son-Tay 
fell. 

During 1884 the French made themselves masters of the lower 
delta. Throughout the campaign Chinese regulars fought 
against the French, who thus found themselves involved in war 
with China. While hostilities were in progress M. Fournier, (he 
French consul at Tientsin, had been negotiating for peace, so 
far as China was concerned, with Li Hung-chang, and in May 
1884 had signed and sealed a memorandum by which the 
Chinese plenipotentiary agreed that the Chinese troops should 
evacuate the northern provinces of Tongking " immediatement." 
In the following month another treaty, signed at Hue, confirmed 
the French protectorate over Annam and Tongking. It was 
not, however, followed by a cessation of military operations. 
A misunderstanding arose between the French and the Chinese 
as to the exact date for the evacuation of their posts by the 
Chinese, and in June General Millot, then commander-in-chief of 
the French forces, dispatched Colonel Dugenne at the head of 
a strong force to occupy Lang-Son. The expedition was badly 
arranged; the baggage train was far too unwieldy; and the pace 
at which the men were made to march was too quick for that 
scorching time of the year. They advanced, however, to Bac-Le, 
within 25 m. of Lang-Son, when they suddenly came upon a 
Chinese camp. An irregular engagement began, and, in the 
pitched battle which ensued, the Chinese broke the French lines, 
and drove them away in headlong flight. This brought the 
military operations for the season to a close. 

During the rainy season fevers of all kinds became alarmingly 



TONGS TONGUE 



prevalent, and the number of deaths and of men invalided 
was very large. In the meantime, however, an expedition, led 
by Colonel Donnier, against the Chinese garrison at Chu, about 
10 m. south-east from Lang-kep, was completely successful; 
and in a battle fought near Chu the Chinese were defeated, with 
a loss of 3000 killed, the French loss being only 20 killed and 90 
wounded. In the skirmishes which followed the French were 
generally victorious, but not to such a degree as to warrant any 
enlargement of the campaign. 

In January 1885 large reinforcements arrived and Briere 
de 1'Isle, who had succeeded Millot as commander-in-chief, 
ordered an advance towards Lang-Son. The difficulties of 
transport greatly impeded his movements, still the expedition 
was successful. On the 6th of February three forts at Dong- 
Song, with large supplies of stores and ammunition, fell into the 
hands of the French. Three days' heavy fighting made them 
masters of a defile on the road, and on the i3th Lang-Son was 
taken, the garrison having evacuated the town just before the 
entrance of the conquerors. With his usual energy General 
Negrier, who commanded a division under Briere de 1'Isle, 
pressed on in pursuit to Ki-Hea, and even captured the frontier 
town of Cua-Ai. But Briere de 1'Isle had now to hurry back 
to the relief of Tuyen-Kwan, which was doggedly resisting the 
attacks of an overwhelming Chinese force, and Negrier was left 
in command at Lang-Son. The withdrawal of Briere de ITsle's 
division gave the Chinese greater confidence, and, though for a 
time Negrier was able to hold his own, on the 22nd and 23rd of 
March he sustained a severe check between Lang-Son and 
That-Ke, which was finally converted into a complete rout, 
his troops being obliged to retreat precipitately through Lang- 
Son to Than-Moi and Dong-Song. Briere de 1'Isle reached 
Tuyen-Kwan, the garrison of which was commanded by Colonel 
Domine, on the 3rd of March, and effected its relief. The 
disaster at Lang-Son caused the downfall of the Ferry ministry 
(March 30). Shortly afterwards Sir Robert Hart succeeded 
in negotiating peace with China. By the terms agreed on at 
Tientsin (June, 1885), it was stipulated that France was to take 
Tongking and Annam under its protection and to evacuate 
Formosa and the Pescadores. (For further history, see INDO- 
CHINA.) 

See J. Dupuis, Le Tong-kin et I' intervention fran^aise (Paris, 
1898); C. B. Norman, Tonkin or France in the Far East (London, 
1884); Prince Henri d'Orl&ms, Autour du Tonkin (Paris, 1896); 
J. Ferry, Le Tonkin et la mere-palrie (Paris, 1890); J. Chailley, 
Paul Bert au Tonkin (Paris, 1887) ; E. Lunet de Lajonquiere, 
Ethnographic du Tonkin Septentrional (Paris, 1906) ; A. Gaisman, 
L'CEuvre de la France au Tonkin (Paris, 1906) ; also the bibliography 
under INDO-CHINA, FRENCH. 

TONGS (O. Eng. tange, M. Eng. longe, cf. Du. tang, Ger. Zange, 
from base tang, to bite, cf. Gr. SaKveiv), a gripping and lifting 
instrument, of which there are many forms adapted to their 
specific use. Some are merely large pincers or nippers, but the 
greatest number fall into three classes: the first, as in the com- 
mon fire-tongs, used for picking up pieces of coal and placing 
them on a fire, which have long arms terminating in small fiat 
circular grippers and are pivoted close to the handle; the second, 
as in the sugar-tongs, asparagus tongs, and the like, consisting 
of a single band of metal bent round or of two bands joined at 
the head by a spring, and third, such as the blacksmith's tongs 
or the crucible-tongs, in which the pivot or joint is placed close 
to the gripping ends. A special form of tongs is that known as 
the " lazy-tongs," consisting of a pair of grippers at the end of a 
series of levers pivoted together like scissors, the whole being 
closed or extended by the movement of the handles communi- 
cated to the first set of levers and thence to the grippers, the 
whole forming an extensible pair of tongs for gripping and lifting 
things at a distance. 

TONGUE (O. Eng. tunge), in anatomy, a movable organ 
situated in the floor of the mouth, and serving for the sensation 
of taste besides helping in the mastication of food, in articulate 
speech, and in feeling the exact position of any structure 
within the mouth. 

The tongue is divided into a main part or body, a base which 



looks backward toward the pharynx, a dorsum or upper surface, 
a root by which it is attached to the hyoid bone and floor of the 
mouth, a tip which is free and an inferior free surface in contact 
with the front part of the floor of the mouth and with the lower 
incisor teeth. Owing to the large amount of muscle in its com- 
position the shape of the tongue varies considerably from time 
to time. The dorsum of the tongue is covered by stratified 
squamous epithelium, and, when at rest, is convex both antero- 
posteriorly and transversely; it is thickly studded with papillae, 
of which four kinds are recognized. 

Filiform papillae are minute conical projections covering the 
whole of the dorsum, by which term the true upper surface is 
meant, as well as the tip and borders of the tongue. They are very 
numerous and contain a short core of subepithelial mucous mem- 
brane covered by a thick coating of epithelial cells, which coating 
may divide at its tip into a number of thread-like processes. 

Fungiform papillae are less numerous than the last, and somewhat 
resemble "button mushrooms"; they generally contain special 
taste buds. 

Circumiiallate papillae are usually from seven to ten in number 
and are arranged in the form of a V, the apex of which points down 
the throat. They lie quite at the back of the upper surface of the 
tongue and each consists of a little flat central mound surrounded 
by a deep moat, the outer wall of which is slightly raised above the 
surface, and it is to this that the papillae owe their name. Both 
sides of the moat have taste buds embedded in them, while into the 
bottom small serous glands open. 

Foliate papillae are only vestigial in man and consist of a series 
of vertical ridges occupying a small oval area on each side of the 
tongue near its base and just in front of the attachment of the 
anterior pillars of the fauces. (See PHARYNX.) 

The posterior surface or base of the tongue forms part of the anterior 
wall of the pharynx and has a quite different appearance to that of 
the dorsum. On it are found numerous circular or oval elevations 
of the mucous membrane caused by lymphoid tissue (lymphoid 
follicles), on the summit of the most of which is a mucous crypt 
or depression. The division between the superior or oral surface 
of the tongue and the posterior or pharyngeal is sharply marked by 
a V-shaped shallow groove called the sulcus terminals which lies 
just behind and parallel to the V-shaped row of circumvallate 
papillae. At the apex of this V is a small blind pit, the foramen 
caecum. 

At the lower part of the pharyngeal surface three folds of mucous 
membrane, called glosso-epiglottic folds, run backward ; the middle 
one passes to the centre of the front of the epiglottis, while the two 
lateral ones, in modern anatomy often called pharyngo-epiglottic 
folds, pass backward and outward to the fossa of the tonsil. 

On the inferior free surface of the tongue, that is to say, the surface 
which is seen when the mouth is looked into and the tongue turned 
up, there is a median fold of mucous membrane called the fraenum 
linguae, which is attached below to the floor of the mouth. On each 
side of this the blue outlines of the ranine veins are seen, while close 
to these a little fold on each side, known as a plica fimbriata, is often 
found. It must not, however, be confused with the plica sublin- 
gualis described in the article MOUTH AND SALIVARY GLANDS. 

The substance of the tongue is composed almost entirely of striped 
muscle fibres which run in different directions. Some of these 
bundles, such as the superficial, deep, transverse and oblique linguales 
are confined to the tongue and are spoken of as intrinsic muscles. 
Other muscles, such as the hyo-glossus, stylo-glossus, &c. come 
from elsewhere and are extrinsic; these are noticed under the head 
of MUSCULAR SYSTEM. The arteries of the tongue are derived 
from the lingual, a branch of the external carotid (see ARTERIES), 
while the veins from the tongue return the blood, by one or more 
veins on each side, into the internal jugular vein (see VEINS). 

The nerves to the tongue are the (i) lingual or gustatory, a branch 
of the fifth (see NERVES .Cranial) which supplies the anterior two- 
thirds with ordinary sensation and also, by means of the chorda 
tymphani which is bound up with it, with taste sensation; (2) 
the glossopharyngeal which supplies the circumvallate papillae 
and posterior third of the tongue with taste and ordinary sensation ; 
(3) a few twigs of the superior laryngeal branch of the vagus to the 
pharyngeal surface of the tongue; and (4) the hypoglossal which is 
the motor nerve to the muscles. 

Embryology. 

The mucous membrane covering the second and third visceral 
arches fuses to form the furcula (see RESPIRATORY SYSTEM). Just 
in front of this a rounded eminence appears at an early date in 
the ventral wall of the pharynx to form the tuberculum impar 
which is separated from the furcula by the depression known as 
the sinus arcuatus. This tuberculum impar gradually grows to 
form the central part of the tongue in front of the foramen 
caecum, while the anterior part of the organ is derived from two 
lateral swellings which appear in the floor of the mouth and surround 
the tuberculum impar antero-laterally. The posterior third, or 
pharyngeal part, is developed from the anterior part of the furcula 



8 



TONGUE 



in the middle line, that is to say from the third visceral arch. The 
sinus arcuatus becomes gradually shallower as these two parts of 
the tongue grow together and eventually is indicated by the sulcus 
terminalis; in the mid line, however, the isthmus of the thyroid 
grows down from it, forming the thyro-glossal duct the remains of 
which are seen in the foramen caecum (see DUCTLESS GLANDS). 
It will be seen that the tongue is developed in connexion with the 
first, second and third visceral arches, and it is therefore to be 
expected that the fifth, seventh and ninth nerves which supply 
those arches would help to supply it, but the vagus from the fourth 
arch reaches it in addition, while the fact that most of the muscular 
substance of the tongue is supplied by the hypoglossal nerve is 
explained on the theory that some of the cervical skeletal muscula- 
ture has grown cephalad into the tongue and has carried its nerve 
with it. 

Comparative Anatomy. 

The tongue is present in fishes but it is an immovable swelling in 
the floor of the mouth and is practically devoid of muscles. In the 
hag (Myxine) among the Cyclostomata, and pike (Esox) among the 



Internal jugular vein 
Spinal accessory nerve 
Digastric muscle | 



Hypoglossal nerve 

Internal carotid artery 
| Pneumogastric nerve 
I | Sympathetic 

Ascending phoryngeal artery 
Odontoid proc 



Styloltyoid 
Glosso- 

pharyngeal nerve 

Parotid gland 

Temporo- 

maxillary vein 

External carotid 

artery 

Slyloglossu 

Ascending 
palatine artery 

Internal pterygoid 
Epiglottis 

Frenulum 
epiglottidis 

Massetei 

Pharyftgeal portioi 
of tongu 



Post-pharyngeal 
lymphatic gland 

Superior 

constrictor muscle 
Posterior palatine 
arch 



Pharyngo-epiglottic 
fold 

Anterior palatine 
arch 



Fuogiform 




Buccinat 



Fungiform papill 



(From Ambrose Birmingham in Cunningham's Text Book of Anatomy.} 

Horizontal Section through Mouth and Pharynx at the Level of the Tonsils. 

Teleostei, teeth are developed on the tongue. In the Amphibia 
the tailed forms (Urodela) usually have tongues like fishes, though in 
the genus Spelerpes the organ is very free and can be protruded for 
a great distance. In the majority of the Anura the tongue is usually 
attached close to the front of the floor of the mouth so that it can 
be flapped forward with great rapidity. There are, however, two 
closely allied families of frogs (Xenopodidae and Pipidae) which 
form the order of Aglossa, because in them the tongue is suppressed. 

In the reptiles the tongue is generally very movable, though 
this is not the case in the Crocodilia and many of the Chelonia. The 
forked tongues of snakes and many lizards and the highly specialized 
telescopic tongue of the chameleon are familiar objects. 

In_ birds the tongue is usually covered with horny epithelium 
and is poorly supplied with muscles. When it is very protrusible, 
as in the woodpecker, the movement is due to the hyoid, with the 
base of the tongue attached, moving forward. 

In the Mammalia the tongue is always movable by means of well- 
developed extrinsic and intrinsic muscles, while papillae and glands 
are numerous. The filiform papillae reach their maximum in the 
feline family of the Carnivora where they convert the tongue into 
a rasp by which bones can be licked clean of all flesh attached to 
them. 

Foliate papillae are best seen in the rodents, and when they are 



well developed the circumvallate papillae are few, often only one 
on each side. 

In the lemurs an under tongue or sub lingua is found, which is 
probably represented by the plicae fimbriatae under the human 
tongue, and by some morphologists is regarded as the homologue 
of the whole tongue of the lower vertebrates, the greater part of 
the mammalian tongue being then looked upon as a new formation. 

For further details and literature see R. Wiedersheim's Compara- 
tive Anatomy of Vertebrates, translated by W. N. Parker (London, 
1907) ; C. Gegenbaur, Vergleich. Anat. der Wirbelthiere (Leipzig, 
1901); A. Oppel, Lehrb. vergleich. mikroskop. Anat. der Wirbelthiere, 
Teil 3 (Jena, 1900); Parker and Haswell, Text Book of Zoology 
(London, 1897). (F. G. P.) 

Surgery of the Tongue. 

During infancy it is sometimes noticed that the little band of 
membrane (fraenum) which binds the under part of the tongue 
to the middle line of the floor of the mouth is unusually short. The 
condition will probably, right itself as the front part of the tongue 
takes on its natural growth. In some children the tongue is so 

large that it hangs out of the mouth, 
scratching itself upon the teeth. This 
condition is likely to be associated 
with weak intellect. 

Acute inflammation of the tongue 
may be caused by the sting of a wasp 
or by the entrance of septic germs 
through a wound, and the trouble may 
end in an abscess. 

Chronic inflammation of the tongue 
may be caused by syphilis, by the 
irritation of decayed teeth or of a 
badly-fitting plate of artificial teeth, 
or by excessive smoking. The con- 
dition is one of danger in that it may 
lead eventually to the tongue becom- 
ing the seat of cancer. The treatment 
demands the removal of every source 
of irritation. The teeth must be made 
sound and smooth and must be kept 
so. Smoking must be absolutely and 
entirely given up, and salt, mustard, 
pickles, spirits, aerated waters, and 
everything else which is likely to be a 
cause of irritation must be avoided. 

Cancer of the tongue is the result of 
chronic irritation which produces an 
excessive growth of the scaly covering 
of the tongue and causes an invasion 
of the deeper parts of the tongue by 
the scales. It is more often found in 
men than women and is usually asso- 
ciated with a hard swelling at one side 
of the tongue perhaps near a jagged 
tooth or at the spot where the end of 
the pipe-stem approaches the tongue. 
The nerves of the tongue being caught 
and compressed in the growth, pain 
is constant and severe, and the move- 
ments during mastication cause great 
distress. The swelling gradually in- 
creases in size and, spreading to the 
floor of the mouth, hinders the free 
movements of the tongue. In due 
course it breaks down in the middle 
and a hard-walled ulcer appears. All 
this time the small scales of the cancer 

are finding their way along the lymph-channels and causing a 
secondary enlargement in the glands just below the jaw and along 
the side of the neck. Enlargement of the cervical glands is a very 
serious complication of cancer of the tongue. 

The only treatment for cancer of the tongue which is at present 
known in surgery is the early removal by operation. It not seldom 
happens that because there is a certain amount of doubt as to the 
exact nature of the growth in the early weeks delay in operating 
is reasonably permitted, but during this time there is the risk of 
the cells of the disease finding their way to the lymphatic system. 
Still, inasmuch as there may be great difficulty in determining the 
diagnosis from tertiary syphilitic disease, a course of treatment by 
iodide of potassium may well be recommended. Syphilis is often 
the precursor of lingual cancer, and it is impossible to say exactly 
when the syphilitic lesion becomes malignant. In the case of a 
cancerous tumour of the tongue being so deeply or so widely attached 
that its removal cannot be recommended, relief may be afforded by 
the extraction of most, or all of the teeth, by limiting the food to the 
most simple and unirritating kinds, and possibly by dividing the 
great sensory nerves of the tongue. 

Cancer of the tongue is now operated on in advanced cases such as in 
former years would not have been dealt with by a radical operation. 
An incision is made beneath the jaw and through the floor of *he 



Raphe of tongue 



Conical papillae 



TONGUES, GIFT OF 



mouth, by which the tongue is drawn out and rendered easily 
accessible, the arteries being leisurely secured as the tissues are cut 
across. The upper part of the gullet is plugged by a sponge so that 
no blood can enter the lungs, and unimpeded respiration is provided 
for by the preliminary introduction of a tube into the windpipe. 
Through the incision which is made below the jaw the infected 
lymphatic glands are removed. To Dr Kocher of Berne the profes- 
sion and the public are indebted for this important advance in the 
treatment of this disease. (E. O*.) 

TONGUES, GIFT OF, or GLOSSOLALIA (y^Sxraa, tongue, 
\a\fiv, speak), a faculty of abnormal and inarticulate vocal 
utterance, under stress of religious excitement, which was 
widely developed in the early Christian circles, and has its 
parallels in other religions. In the New Testament such 
experiences are recorded in Caesarea (Acts x. 46), at Corinth 
(Acts xix. 6; i Cor. xii., xiv.), Thessalonica (i Thess. v. 19), 
Ephesus (Eph. v. 18), and universally (Mark xvi. 17). From 
the epistles of Paul, who thanked God that he spake with tongues 
more than all or any of his Corinthian converts, we can gather a 
just idea of how he regarded this gift and of what it really was. 

Firstly, then, it was a grace (charisma) of the spirit, yet not 
of the holy or pure spirit only, but of evil spirits also who on 
occasions had been known to take possession of the larynx of a 
saint and exclaim, " Jesus is Anathema." As no one could 
curse Jesus except under the influence of a devilish afflatus, so 
none could say " Jesus is Lord " except he was inspired by the 
Holy Spirit. But, secondly, the pneumatic utterances techni- 
cally known as speaking with tongues failed to reach this level 
of intelligibility; for Paul compares " a tongue " to a material 
object which should merely make a noise, to a pipe or harp 
twanged or blown at random without tune or time, to a trumpet 
blaring idly and not according to a code of signal notes. Unless, 
therefore, he that has the gift of tongues also possess the gift 
of interpreting his exclamations, or unless some one present can 
do so for him, he had not better exercise it in church. He is 
a barbarian to others and they to him, since they cannot under- 
stand what is spoken by him. Paul discriminates between the 
Spirit which during these paroxysms both talks and prays to God 
and the nous or understanding which informs a believer's psalm, 
teaching, revelation or prophesy, and renders them intelligible, 
edifying and profitable to the assembly. Accordingly Paul 
lays down rules which he regarded as embodying the Lord's 
commandment. A man " that speaketh in a tongue speaketh 
not unto men, but unto God; for no man understandeth;" and 
therefore it is expedient that he keep this gift for his private 
chamber and there pour out the mysteries. In church it is best 
that he should confine himself to prophesying, for that brings 
to others " edification and comfort and consolation." If, 
however, tongues must be heard in the public assembly, then let 
not more than three of the saints exhibit the gift, and they only 
in succession. Nor let them exhibit it at all, unless there is 
some one present who can interpret the tongues and tell the 
meeting what it all means. If the whole congregation be 
talking with tongues all at once, and an unbeliever or one with 
no experience of pneumatic gifts come in, what will he think, 
asks Paul. Surely that " you are mad." So at Pentecost on 
the occasion of the first outpouring of the Spirit the saints were 
by the bystanders accused of being drunk (Acts ii. 15). In 
the church meeting, says Paul, " I had rather speak five words 
with my understanding, that I might instruct others also, than 
ten thousand words in a tongue." 

The writer of Acts ii., anxious to prove that Providence 
from the first included the Gentiles in the Messianic Kingdom, 
assumes that the gift of tongues was a miraculous faculty of 
talking strange languages without having previously learned 
them. Augustine accordingly held that each of the disciples 
talked all languages miraculously; Chrysostom that each talked 
one other than his own. The Pentecostal inspiration has been 
construed as a providential antithesis to the confusion of tongues 
an idea which Grotius expressed in the words: " Poena 
linguarum dispersit homines; donum linguarum disperses in 
unum populum collegit." Competent critics to-day recognize 
that such a view is impossible; and it has been suggested with 



much probability that in the second chapter of Acts the words 
in . 5: " Now there were dwelling . . . under heaven " as well as 
. 6-i i : " because that every man . . . mighty works of God " 
were interpolated by Luke in the document he transcribed. 1 
The faithful talking with tongues were taken by bystanders 
for drunken men, but intoxicated men do not talk in languages 
of which they are normally ignorant. 2 

Paul on the whole discouraged glossolaly. " Desire earnestly 
the greater gifts," he wrote to the Corinthians. The gift of 
tongues was suitable rather to children in the faith than to the 
mature. Tongues were, he felt, to cease whenever the perfect 
should come; and the believer who spoke with the tongues of 
men and of angels, if he had not love, was no better than the 
sounding brass and clanging cymbal of the noisy heathen 
mysteries. It was clearly a gift productive of much disturbance 
in the Church (i Cor. xiv. 23). He would not, however, entirely 
forbid and quench it (i Thess. v. 19), so long as decency and order 
were preserved. 

It is not then surprising that we hear little of it after the 
apostolic age. It faded away in the great Church, and probably 
Celsus was describing Montanist circles (though Origen assumed 
that they were ordinary believers) when he wrote 3 of the many 
Christians of no repute who at the least provocation, whether 
within or without their temples, threw themselves about like 
inspired persons; while others did the same in cities or among 
armies in order to collect alms, roaming about cities or camps. 
They were wont to cry out, each of himself, " I am God; I am 
the Son of God; or I am the divine Spirit." They would indulge 
in prophecies of the last judgment, and back their threats with 
a string of strange, half-frantic and utterly unmeaning sounds, 
the sense of which no one with any intelligence could discover; 
for they were obscure gibberish, and merely furnished any fool 
or impostor with an occasion to twist the utterances as he chose 
to his own purposes. 

In the above we get a glimpse both of the glossalist and of his 
interpreter as they appeared to the outside world; and the 
impression made on them is not unlike that which Paul appre- 
hended would be left on outsiders by an indiscriminate use of 
the gift. Tertullian early in the 3rd century testifies that 
glossolaly still went on in the Montanist Church which he had 
joined; for we must so interpret the following passage in his 
De anima, cap. ix.: " There is among us at the present time a 
sister who is endowed with the charismatic gift of revelations, 
which she suffers through ecstasy in the spirit during the Sunday 
service in church. She converses with angels, sometimes even 
with the Lord, and both hears and see mysteries." The magical 
papyri teem with strings of senseless and barbaric words which 
probably answer to what certain of the Fathers called the 
language of demons. It has been suggested that we here have 
recorded the utterances of glossolalists. 

The attitude of Paul toward glossolaly among his converts 
strikingly resembles Plato's opinion as expressed in the Timaeus, 
p. 7 2, of the enthusiastic ecstasies of the ancient >&VT (sooth- 
sayer) . " God," he writes, " has given the art of divination not to 
the wisdom, but to the foolishness of man ; for no man, when in 
his wits, attains prophetic truth and inspiration; but when he 
receives the inspired word either his intelligence is enthralled 
by sleep, or he is demented by some distemper or possession. 
And he who would understand what he remembers to have been 
said, whether in a dream or when he was awake, by the prophetic 
and enthusiastic nature, or what he has seen, must first recover 
his wits; and then he will be able to explain rationally what all 

1 This misunderstanding of Acts ii. has influenced the official 
Roman doctrine of demoniacal possession. The Sacerdotale indi- 
cates as one of the symptoms of possession the ability of the possessed 
to talk other tongues than his own. Cf. the Fustis daempnum, 
cap. xi. Venetus (1606): " Aliqui sermonem alienum a patria sua 
loquuntur etsi nunquam e laribus paternis recesserint." 

2 It is noteworthy that in Eph. v. 18 Paul contrasts the being filled 
with the Spirit with the foolishness of intoxication with wine, and 
remarks that those filled with the Spirit speak to themselves in 
psalms and hymns and spiritual songs and give thanks always for 
all things. 

3 Orieen, Contra Celsum, vii. 9. 



IO 



TONK TONNAGE 



such words and apparitions mean, and what indications they 
afford to this man or that, of past, present or future good and 
evil. But, while he continues demented, he cannot judge of 
the visions which he sees or the words which he utters. . . . And 
for this reason it is customary to appoint diviners or interpreters 
to be judges of the true inspiration." 1 From such passages 
as the above we infer that the gift of tongues and of their inter- 
pretation was not peculiar to the Christian Church, but was a 
repetition in it of a phase common in ancient religions. The 
very phrase y\6xrffcu.s XaXsTc, " to speak with tongues," was 
not invented by the New Testament writers, but borrowed from 
ordinary speech. 

Virgil (Aen. vi. 46, 98) draws a life-like picture of the ancient 
prophetess " speaking with tongues." He depicts her quick 
changes of colour, her dishevelled hair, her panting breast, her 
apparent increase of stature as the god draws nigh and fills her 
with his divine afflatus. Then her voice loses its mortal's ring: 
" nee mortale sonans." The same morbid and abnormal trance 
utterances recur in Christian revivals in every age, e.g. among 
the mendicant friars of the i3th century, among the Jansenists, 
the early Quakers, the converts of Wesley and Whitefield, the 
persecuted protestants of the Cevennes, the Irvingites. 

Oracular possession of the kind above described is also common 
among savages and people of lower culture; and Dr Tylor, in 
his Primitive Culture, ii. 14, gives examples of ecstatic utterance 
interpreted by the sane. Thus in the Sandwich Islands the 
god Oro gave his oracles through a priest who " ceased to act 
or speak as a voluntary agent, but with his limbs convulsed, 
his features distorted and terrific, his eyes wild and strained, 
he would roll on the ground foaming at the mouth, and reveal 
the will of the god in shrill cries and sounds violent and indis- 
tinct, which the attending priests duly interpreted to the 
people." 

See E. B. Tylor, Primitive Culture; H. Weinel, Die Wirkungen 
des Geisles und der Geister (Freiburg, 1899); Shaftesbury's Letter on 
Enthusiasm; Mrs Oliphant, Life of Irving, vol. ii. (F. C. C.) 

TONK, a native state of India, in the Rajputana agency. It 
consists of six isolated tracts, some of which are under the Central 
India agency. Total area, 2553 sq. m.; total population (1901), 
273,201; estimated revenue 77,000. No tribute is payable. 
The chief, whose title is nawab, is a Mahommedan of Afghan 
descent. The founder of the family was Amir Khan, the noto- 
rious Pindari leader at the beginning of the igth century, who 
received the present territory on submitting to the British in 
1817. The nawab Mahommed Ibrahim Ali Khan, G.C.I.E., 
succeeded in 1867, and was one of the few chiefs who attended 
both Lord Lytton's Durbar in 1877 and the Delhi Durbar of 1903 
as rulers of their states. The late minister, Sir Sahibzada 
Obeidullah Khan, was deputed on political duty to Peshawar 
during the Tirah campaign of 1897. Grain, cotton, opium and 
hides are the chief exports. Two of the outlying tracts of the 
state are served by two railways. Distress was caused by 
drought in 1899-1900. The town of Tonk is situated 1462 ft. 
above sea-level, 60 m. by road south from Jaipur, near the right 
bank of the river Banas. Pop. (1901), 38,759. It is surrounded 
by a wall, with a mud fort. It has a high school, the Walter 
female hospital under a lady superintendent, and a hospital for 
males. 

There is another town in India called Tonk, or Tank, in Dera 
Ismail Khan district, North-West Frontier Province; pop. (1901), 
4402. It is the residence of a nawab, who formerly exercised 
semi-independent powers. Here Sir Henry Durand, lieutenant- 
governor of the Punjab, was killed in 1870 when passing on an 
elephant under a gateway. 

TONNAGE. The mode of ascertaining the tonnage of mer- 
chant ships is settled by the Merchant Shipping Acts. But 
before explaining the method by which this is computed, it is 
well to remark that there are several tonnages employed in 
different connexions. Displacement tonnage is that which is 
invariably used in respect of warships, and is the actual weight 
of water displaced by the vessel whose tonnage is being dealt 
1 Jowett's translation. 



with. Men-of-War are designed to carry all their weights, 
including coal, guns, ammunition, stores and water in tanks and 
in boilers, at a certain draught, and the tonnage attributed to 
them is the weight of water which at that designed draught 
they actually displace. This displacement tonnage is therefore 
a total made up of the actual weight of the ship's fabric and 
that of everything that is on board of her. It can be found by 
ascertaining the exact cubic space occupied by the part of her 
body which is immersed (including her rudder, propellers and 
external shafting) at the draught under consideration in cubic 
feet, and dividing this by 35, since 35 cubic feet of sea-water 
weigh one ton. Of course there is nothing to prevent displace- 
ment tonnage from being used in describing the size of merchant 
ships, and indeed in regard to the performances of fast steam- 
ships on trial it is usual to give their draught on the occasion 
when they are tested, and to state what was their actual displace- 
ment under these trial conditions. But it is obvious, from what 
has been said as to the components which go to make up the 
displacement at load draught, that this tonnage must, in respect 
of any individual ship, be the greatest figure which can be quoted 
in regard to her size. It is usual for dues to be assessed against 
merchant vessels in respect of their registered tonnage. This must 
therefore be fixed by authority, and at present vessels are 
measured by the officer of customs according to the rules laid 
down in the second schedule to the Merchant Shipping Act 
1894. As will be seen from the explanation of the method 
adopted, this is a somewhat arbitrary process, and even the 
gross registered tonnage affords little indication of the actual 
size of the ship, whilst the under-deck and net tonnages are 
still less in accord with the extreme dimensions. 

As to length for tonnage, the measurements start with the 
tonnage deck, which in vessels with less than three decks is the 
upper, and in vessels of three or more decks is the second from 
below. The length for tonnage is measured in a straight line 
along this deck from the inside of the inner plank at the bow 
to the inside of the inner plank at the stern, making allowance 
for the rake, if any, which the midship bow and stern timbers 
may have in the actual deck. When this is measured it is 
apparent into which of five classes the ship's tonnage-length 
places her. If she be under 50 ft. in length she falls into the 
first class, while if she be over 225 ft. in length she falls into the 
fifth class, the remaining three classes being intermediate to 
these. Vessels of the first class are measured as in four equal 
sections, and vessels of the larger class as in twelve equal sections, 
according to their length. Then at each of the points of division 
so marked off transverse areas are taken. This is done by 
measuring the depth in feet from a point at a distance of one- 
third of the round of the beam below the tonnage deck to the 
upper side of the floor timbers. Where the vessel has a ceiling 
and no water-ballast tanks at the point of measurement, 25 in. 
is allowed for ceiling. But where there are such tanks the 
measurement is taken from the top of the tank and no allowance 
is made for ceiling, whether there in fact be any or not. If the 
midship depth so found exceeds 16 ft., each depth is divided into 
six equal parts, and the horizontal breadths are measured at 
each point of division and also at the upper and lower points of 
the depth, extending each measurement to the average thickness 
of that part of the ceiling which is between the points of measure- 
ment. They are then numbered from above, and the second, 
fourth and sixth multiplied by four, whilst the third and fifth 
are multiplied by two. The products are then added together. 
To the sum are added the first and the seventh breadths. This 
total having been multiplied by one-third the common interval 
between the breadths, the resultant is the transverse area. The 
transverse areas so obtained at each point of the vessel's length 
are numbered from the bow aft. Omitting the first and last, the 
second and every even area so obtained are multiplied by four, 
whilst the third and every odd area are multiplied by two. 
These products are added together, as are also those of the first 
and last areas if they yield anything, and the figure thus reached 
is multiplied by one-third of the common interval between the 
areas. This product is reckoned as the cubical capacity of the 



TONNAGE AND POUNDAGE TONSILLITIS 



ii 



ship in feet. When divided by 100 the result is the registered 
under-deck tonnage of the ship subject to the additions and 
deductions ordered by the act. Directions of a kind similar 
to those already set out are given whereby the tonnage in the 
space enclosed between the tonnage and upper decks may be 
ascertained, and also for the measuring of any break, poop or 
other permanent closed-in space on the upper deck available 
for stores, and the sum of the capacity of these must be added 
to the under-deck tonnage to arrive at the gross registered tonnage. 
But an express proviso is enacted that no addition shall be made 
in respect of any building erected for the shelter of deck pas- 
sengers and approved by the board of trade. In the process of 
arriving at the net tonnage the main deduction allowed from the 
gross tonnage is that of machinery space in steamships. The 
method of measurement here is similar to that by which the 
under-deck tonnage is reached. Where the engines and boilers 
are fitted in separate compartments, each compartment is 
measured separately, as is the screw shaft tunnel in the case 
of steamships propelled by screws. The tonnage of these spaces 
is reckoned, not from the tonnage deck, but from the crown of 
the space; whilst, if it has previously been reckoned in the gross 
tonnage, there may be an allowance for the space above the 
crown, if enclosed for the machinery or for the admission of 
light and air. Allowances are only made in respect of any 
machinery space if it be devoted solely to machinery or to 
light and air. It must not be used for cargo purposes or 
for cabins. Further, by the act itself in the case of paddle 
steamships, where the machinery space is above 20% and 
under 30% of the gross tonnage, it is allowed to be reckoned 
as 37% f such gross tonnage; whilst similarly, in the case of 
screw steamships, where such machinery space is over 13 % 
and under 20 % of the gross tonnage, it is allowed to be reckoned 
as 32%. Further deductions are also made in respect of space 
used solely for the accommodation of the master and the crew, 
and for the chart-room and signal- room, as well as for the wheel- 
house and chain cable locker and for the donkey-engine and 
boiler, if connected with the main pumps of the ship, and in 
sailing vessels for the sail locker. The space in the double 
bottom and in the water-ballast tanks, if these be not available 
for the carriage of fuel stores or cargo, is also deducted if it has 
been reckoned in the gross tonnage in the first instance. 

From the rules above laid down it follows that it is possible 
for vessels, if built with a full midship section, to have a gross 
registered tonnage considerably below what the actual cubical 
capacity of the ship would give, whilst in the case of steam 
tugs of high power it is not unprecedented, owing to the large 
allowances for machinery and crew spaces, for a vessel to 
have a registered net tonnage of nil. 

Suez Canal dues being charged on what is practically the 
registered tonnage (though all deductions permitted by the 
British board of trade are not accepted), it is usual, at all events 
in the British navy, for warships to be measured for what would 
be their registered tonnage if they were merchant ships, so that 
in case they may wish to pass through the canal a scale of 
payment may be easily reached. But such tonnage is never 
spoken of in considering their size relative to other vessels. 

Two other tonnages are also made use of in connexion with 
merchant ships, especially when specifications for vessels are 
being made. The first of these is measurement capacity. This 
is found by measuring out the true cubic capacity of the holds, 
whereby it is found what amount of light measurement goods 
can be carried. The second is deadweight capacity. This is 
generally given as excluding what is carried in the coal bunkers, 
and it is therefore the amount of deadweight which can be carried 
in the holds at load draught when the vessel is fully charged 
with coals and stores. (B. W. G.) 

TONNAGE AND POUNDAGE, in England, customs duties 
anciently imposed upon exports and imports, the former being a 
duty upon all wines imported in addition to prisage and butlerage, 
the latter a duty imposed ad valorem at the rate of twelve- 
pence in the pound on all merchandise imported or exported. 
The duties were levied at first by agreement with merchants 



(poundage in 1302, tonnage in 1347), then granted by parliament 
in *373> a t first for a limited period only. They were considered 
to be imposed for the defence of the realm. From the reign 
of Henry VI. until that of James I. they were usually granted 
for life. They were not granted to Charles I., and in 1628 that 
king took the unconstitutional course of levying them on his 
own authority, a course denounced a few years later by 
16 Car. I. c. 18 (1640), when the Long Parliament granted them 
for two months. After the Restoration they were granted to 
Charles II. and his two successors for life. By acts of Anne and 
George I. the duties were made perpetual, and mortgaged for the 
public debt. In 1 787 they were finally abolished, and other modes 
of obtaining revenue substituted, by 27 Geo. III. c. 13 (1787). 

Poundage also signifies a fee paid to an officer of a court for his 
services, e.g. to a sheriff's officer, who is entitled by 29 Eliz. c. 4 
(1586-1587) to a poundage of a shilling in the pound on an execution 
up to 100, and sixpence in the pound above that sum. 

TONNERRE, a town of north-central France, capital of an 
arrondissement in the department of Yonne, 52 m. S.E. of Sens 
on the Paris-Lyon railway. Pop. (1906), 3974. It is situated 
on a slope of the vineclad hills on the left bank of the Armangon. 
At the foot of the hill rises the spring of Fosse-Dionne, enclosed 
in a circular basin 49 ft. in diameter. The town has two interest- 
ing churches. That of St Pierre, which crowns the hill, possesses 
a fine lateral portal of the Renaissance period to which the church, 
with the exception of the choir (1351), belongs. The church of 
Notre-Dame is mainly Gothic, but the facade is a fine specimen 
of Renaissance architecture. The Salle des Malades, a large 
timber-roofed apartment in the hospital, dates from the end of 
the I3th century and is used as a chapel. It is 330 ft. long and 
contains the tombs of Margaret of Burgundy, wife of Charles 
of Anjou, king of Sicily, and foundress of the hospital, and of 
Frangois-Michel Le Tellier, marquis of Louvois, war minister 
of Louis XIV. The hospital itself was rebuilt in the igth 
century. The Renaissance Hotel d'Uzes was built in the i6th 
century. Tonnerre is the seat of a sub-prefect and has a tribunal 
of first instance. The vineyards of the vicinity produce well- 
known wines. The trade of the town is chiefly in wine, in 
the good building-stone found in the neighbourhood and in 
Portland cement. Cooperage is carried on. 

Its ancient name of Tornodorum points to a Gallic or Gallo- 
Roman origin for Tonnerre. In the 6th century it became the 
capital of the region of Tonnerrois and in the loth century of a 
countship. After passing into the possession of several noble 
families, it was bought from a count of Clermont-Tonnerre by 
Louvois, by whose descendants it was held up to the time of 
the Revolution. 

TONQUA BEAN. The Tonqua, Tonka or Tonquin bean, 
also called the coumara nut, is the seed of Dipterix odorala, a 
leguminous tree growing to a height of 80 ft., native of tropical 
South America. The drupe-like pod contains a single seed 
possessed of a fine sweet " new-mown hay " odour, due to the 
presence of coumarin (q.v.}. Tonqua beans are used principally 
for scenting snuff and as an ingredient in perfume sachets and 
in perfumers' " bouquets." 

TONSBERG, a fortified seaport of Norway, in Jarlsberg- 
Laurvik ami (county), situated on a bay on the south coast, 
near the entrance to Christiania Fjord, 72 m. S. by W. of Christi- 
ania on the Skien railway. Pop. (1900), 8620. It is one of 
the most ancient towns in Norway. It is the headquarters of a 
sealing and whaling fleet. The principal industries are refineries 
for preparing whale and seal oil and saw-mills. An interesting 
collection of antiquities and whaling implements is preserved in 
the Slotstaarn on Castle Hill. 

TONSILLITIS, acute inflammation of the tonsils, or quinsy, 
due to the invasion of the tonsil, or tonsils, by septic micro- 
organisms which may have gained access through the mouth or 
by the blood-stream. Sometimes the attack comes on as the 
result of direct exposure to sewer gas, and it is not at all an 
uncommon affection of house surgeons, nurses and others 
who have to spend most of their time in a hospital. The 
association of quinsy with rheumatism may be the result of the 



12 



TONSON TONTINE 



infection of the tonsils by the micro-organisms or the toxins 
of that disease. Acute tonsillitis is very apt to run on to the 
formation of abscess. Quinsy may begin with a feeling of 
chilliness or with an attack of shivering. Then comes on a 
swelling in the throat with pain, tenderness and difficulty in 
swallowing. Indeed, if both tonsils are acutely inflamed it 
may be impossible to swallow even fluid and the breathing 
may be seriously embarrassed. The temperature may be raised 
several degrees. There is pain about the ear and about the 
jaw, and there is a swelling of the glands in the neck. The 
breath is offensive and the tongue is thickly coated. There 
may be some yellowish markings on the surface of the tonsil, 
but these differ from the patches of " false membrane " of 
diphtheria in that they can be easily brushed off by a swab, but 
often a true diagnosis can only be made by bacteriological 
examination. The treatment consists in giving a purgative, 
and in encouraging the patient to use an inhaler containing hot 
carbolized water. Hot compresses also may be applied to the 
neck. As regards medicines, the most trustworthy are salicylic 
acid, iron and quinine. As soon as abscess threatens, a 
slender-bladed knife should be thrust from before backward 
deeply into the swollen mass. And if, as most likely happens, 
matter then escapes, the patient's distress speedily ends. Con- 
valescence having set in, a change of air and course of tonic 
treatment will be advisable. 

Chronic tonsillitis is often associated with adenoid vegetations 
at the back of the throat of tuberculous or delicate children, such 
children being spoken of as being " liable to sore throat." Chronic 
enlargement of the tonsils may seriously interfere with a child's 
general health and vigour and, should the condition not subside 
under general measures such as a stay at a bracing seaside place 
and the taking of cod-liver oil and iron, it will be well to treat the 
tonsils by operation. (E. O.*) 

TONSON, the name of a family of London booksellers and 
publishers. Richard and Jacob Tonson (c. 1656-1736), sons 
of a London barber-surgeon, started in 1676 and 1677 indepen- 
dently as booksellers and publishers in London. In 1679 Jacob, 
the better known of the two, bought and published Dryden's 
Troilus and Cressida, and from that time was closely associated' 
with Dryden, and published most of his works. He published 
the Miscellany Poems (1684-1708) under Dryden's editorship, 
the collection being known indifferently as Dryden's or Tonson's 
Miscellany, and also Dryden's translation of Virgil (1697). 
Serious disagreements over the price paid, however, arose 
between poet and publisher, and in his Faction Displayed 
(1705) Dryden described Tonson as having " two left legs, and 
Judas-coloured hair." Subsequently the relations between the 
two men improved. The brothers jointly published Dryden's 
Spanish Friar (1683). Jacob Tonson also published Congreve's 
Double Dealer, Sir John Vanbrugh's The Faithful Friend and 
The Confederacy, and the pastorals of Pope, thus justifying 
Wycherly's description of him as "gentleman usher to the 
Muses." He bought also the valuable rights of Paradise Lost, 
half in 1683 and half in 1690. This was his first profitable 
venture in poetry. In 1712 he became joint publisher with 
Samuel Buckley of the Spectator, and in the following year 
published Addison's Cato. He was the original secretary and 
a prominent member of the Kit-Cat Club. About 1720 he gave 
up business and retired to Herefordshire, where he died on the 
and of April 1736. His business was carried on by his 
nephew, Jacob Tonson, jun. (d. 1735), and subsequently by 
his grand-nephew, also Jacob (d. 1767). 

TONSURE (Lat. tonsura, from tondere, to shave), a religious 
observance in the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Eastern 
Churches, consisting of the shaving or cutting part of the hair 
of the head as a sign of dedication to special service. The 
reception of the tonsure in these churches is the initial ceremony 
which marks admission to orders and to the rights and privileges 
of clerical standing. It is administered by the bishop with an 
appropriate ritual. Candidates for the rite must have been 
confirmed, be adequately instructed in the elements of the 
Christian faith, and be able to read and write. Those who have 
received it are bound (unless in exceptional circumstances) 
to renew the mark, consisting of a bare circle on the crown of 



the head, at least once a month, otherwise they forfeit the 
privileges it carries. The practice is not a primitive one; Ter- 
tullian simply advises Christians to avoid vanity in dressing 
their hair, and Jerome deprecates both long and closely cropped 
hair. According to Prudentius (IlepuT. xiii. 30) it was customary 
for the hair to be cut short at ordination. Paulinus of Nola 
(c. 490) alludes to the tonsure as in use among the (Western) 
monks; from them the practice quickly spread to the clergy. 
For Gaul about the year 500 we have the testimony of Sidonius 
ApoUinaris (iv. 13), who says that Germanicus the bishop had 
his hair cut " in rotae speciem." 

The earliest instance of an ecclesiastical precept on the subject 
occurs in can. 41 of the Council of Toledo (A.D. 633) : " omnes clerici, 
detonso superius capite toto, inferius solam circuli coronam relin- 
quant." Can. 33 of the Quinisext council (692) requires even singers 
and readers to be tonsured. Since the 8th century three tonsures 
have been more or less in use, known respectively as the Roman, 
the Greek and the Celtic. The first two are sometimes distinguished 
as the tonsure of Peter and the tonsure of Paul. The Roman or 
St Peter's tonsure prevailed in France, Spain and Italy. It consisted 
in shaving the whole head, leaving only a fringe of hair supposed to 
symbolize the crown of thorns. Late in the middle ages this 
tonsure was lessened for the clergy, but retained for monks and 
friars. In the Eastern or St Paul's tonsure the whole head was 
shaven, but when now practised in the Eastern Church this tonsure 
is held to be adequately shown when the hair is shorn close. In 
the Celtic tonsure (tonsure of St John, or, in contempt, tonsure of 
Simon Magus) all the hair in front of a line drawn over the top of 
the head from ear to ear was shaven (a fashion common among the 
Hindus). The question of the Roman or Celtic tonsure was one of 
the points in dispute in the early British Church, settled in favour 
of the Roman fashion at the Council of Whitby (664). The tonsure 
at first was never given separately, and even children when so 
dedicated were appointed readers, as no one could belong to the 
clerical state without at least a minor order. From the 7th century, 
however, children were tonsured without ordination, and later on 
adults anxious to escape secular jurisdiction were often tonsured 
without ordination. Till the loth century the tonsure could be 
given by priests or even by laymen, but its bestowal was gradually 
restricted to bishops and abbots. 

TONTINE, a system of life insurance owing its name to 
Lorenzo Tonti, an Italian banker, born at Naples early in the i7th 
century, who settled in France about 1650. In 1653 he proposed 
to Cardinal Mazarin a new scheme for promoting a public loan. 
A total of 1,025,000 livres was to be subscribed in ten portions 
of 102,500 livres each by ten classes of subscribers, the first class 
consisting of persons under 7, the second of persons above 7 and 
under 14, and so on to the tenth, which consisted of persons 
between 63 and 70. The annual fund of each class was to be 
divided among the survivors of that class, and on the death of the 
last individual the capital was to fall to the state. This plan of 
operations was authorized under the name of "tontine royale" 
by a royal edict, but this the parlement refused to register, and the 
idea remained in abeyance till 1689, when it was revived by 
Louis XIV., who established a tontine of 1,400,000 livres divided 
into fourteen classes of 100,000 each, the subscription being 300 
livres. This tontine was carried on till 1726, when the last bene- 
ficiary died a widow who at the time of her decease was drawing 
an annual income of 73,500 livres. Several other government 
tontines were afterwards set on foot; but in 1763 restrictions 
were introduced, and in 1770 all tontines at the time in existence 
were wound up. Private tontines continued to flourish in 
France for some years, the " tontine Lefarge," the most cele- 
brated of the kind, being operled in 1791 and closed in 1889. 

The tontine principle has often been applied in Great Britain, 
at one time in connexion with government life annuities. Many 
such tontines were set on foot between the years 1773 and 1789, 
those of 1773, 1775 and 1777 being commonly called the Irish 
tontines, as the money was borrowed under acts of the Irish parlia- 
ment. The most important English tontine was that of 1789, which 
was created by 29 Geo. III. c. 41. Under this act over a million was 
raised in 10,000 shares of 100, 53. It was also often applied to the 
purchase of estates or the erection of buildings. The investor 
staked his money on the chance of his own life or the life of his 
nominee enduring for a longer period than the other lives involved 
in the speculation, in which case he expected to win a large prize. It 
was occasionally introduced into life assurance, more particularly 
by American life offices, but newer and more ingenious forms of 
contract fiave now made the tontine principle practically a thing 
of the past. (See NATIONAL DEBT; INSURANCE.) 



TOOKE, J. H. 



TOOKE, JOHN HORNE (1736-1812), English politician and 
philologist, third son of John Home, a poulterer in Newport 
Market, whose business the boy when at Eton happily veiled 
under the title of a " Turkey merchant," was born in Newport 
Street, Long Acre, Westminster, on the 25th of June 1736. 
After passing some time at school in Soho Square, and at a 
Kentish village, he went from 1744 to 1746 to Westminster 
School and for the next five or six years was at Eton. On the 
1 2th of January 1754 he was admitted as sizar at St John's 
College, Cambridge, and took his degree of B.A. in 1758, as last 
but one of the senior optimes, Richard Beadon, his lifelong friend, 
afterwards bishop of Bath and Wells, being a wrangler in the 
same year. Home had been admitted on the 9th of November 
1756, as student at the Inner Temple, making the friendship of 
John Dunning and Lloyd Kenyon, but his father wished him to 
take orders in the English Church, and he was ordained deacon 
on the 23rd of September 1759 and priest on the 23rd of 
November 1760. For a few months he was usher at a boarding 
school at Blackheath, but on the 26th of September 1760 he 
became perpetual curate of New Brentford, the incumbency of 
which his father had purchased for him, and he retained its 
scanty profits until 1773. During a part of this time (1763-1764) 
he was absent on a tour in France, acting as the bear-leader of a 
son of the miser Elwes. Under the excitement created by the 
actions of Wilkes, Home plunged into politics, and in 1765 
brought out a scathing pamphlet on Lords Bute and Mansfield, 
entitled " The Petition of an Englishman." In the autumn of 
1765 he escorted to Italy the son of a Mr Taylor. In Paris he 
made the acquaintance of Wilkes, and from Montpellier, in 
January 1766, addressed a letter to him which sowed the seeds 
of their personal antipathy. In the summer of 1767 Home 
landed again on English soil, and in 1768 secured the return of 
Wilkes to parliament for Middlesex. With inexhaustible energy 
he promoted the legal proceedings over the riot in St George's 
Fields, when a youth named Allen was killed, and exposed the 
irregularity in the judge's order for the execution of two Spital- 
fields weavers. His dispute with George Onslow, member for 
Surrey, who at first supported and then threw over Wilkes for 
place, culminated in a civil action, ultimately decided, after the 
reversal of a verdict which had been obtained through the charge 
of Lord Mansfield, in Home's favour, and in the loss by his 
opponent of his seat in parliament. An influential association, 
called " The Society for Supporting the Bill of Rights," was 
founded, mainly through the exertions of Home, in 1769, but 
the members were soon divided into two opposite camps, and 
in 1771 Home and Wilkes, their respective leaders, broke out 
into open warfare, to the damage of their cause. On the ist 
of July 1771 Home obtained at Cambridge, though not without 
some opposition from members of both the political parties, his 
degree of M.A. Earlier in that year he claimed for the public the 
right of printing an account of the debates in parliament, and 
after a protracted struggle between the ministerial majority and 
the civic authorities, the right was definitely established. The 
energies of the indefatigable parson knew no bounds. In the 
same year (1771) he crossed swords with Junius, and ended in 
disarming his masked antagonist. Up to this time Home's fixed 
income consisted of those scanty emoluments attached to a 
position which galled him daily. He resigned his benefice in 
1773 and betook himself to the study of the law and philology. 
An accidental circumstance, however, occurred at this moment 
which largely affected his future. His friend Mr William Tooke 
had purchased a considerable estate, including Purley Lodge, 
south of the town of Croydon in Surrey. The possession of 
this property brought about frequent disputes with an ad- 
joining landowner, Thomas de Grey, and, after many actions 
in the courts, his friends endeavoured to obtain, by a bill 
forced through the houses of parliament, the privileges which 
the law had not assigned to him (February 1774). Home, 
thereupon, by a bold libel on the Speaker, drew public atten- 
tion to the case, and though he himself was placed for a 
time in the custody of the serjeant-at-arms, the clauses which 
were injurious to the interest of Mr Tooke were eliminated from 



the bill. Mr Tooke declared his intention of making Home 
the heir of his fortune, and, if the design was never carried 
into effect, during his lifetime he bestowed upon him large 
gifts of money. No sooner had this matter been happily 
settled than Home found himself involved in serious 
trouble. For his conduct in signing the advertisement soliciting 
subscriptions for the relief of the relatives of the Americans 
" murdered by the king's troops at Lexington and Concord," 
he was tried at the Guildhall on the 4th of July 1777, before 
Lord Mansfield, found guilty, and committed to the King's Bench 
prison in St George's Fields, from which he only emerged after 
a year's durance, and after a loss in fines and costs amounting to 
1200. Soon after his deliverance he applied to be called to the 
bar, but his application was negatived on the ground that his 
orders in the Church were indelible. Home thereupon tried his 
fortune, but without success, on farming some land in Hunting- 
donshire. Two tracts about this time exercised great influence 
in the country. One of them, Fads Addressed to Landholders, 
&c. (1780), written by Home in conjunction with others, 
criticizing the measures of Lord North's ministry, passed through 
numerous editions; the other, A Letter on Parliamentary Reform 
(1782), addressed by him to Dunning, set out a scheme 
of reform, which he afterwards withdrew in favour of that 
advocated by Pitt. On his return from Huntingdonshire he 
became once more a frequent guest at Mr Tooke's house at 
Purley, and in 1782 assumed the name of Home Tooke. In 
1786 Home Tooke conferred perpetual fame upon his bene- 
factor's country house by adopting, as a second title of his 
elaborate philological treatise of "Eirta impoevTa, the more 
popular though misleading title of The Diversions of Purley. 
The treatise at once attracted attention in England and the 
Continent. The first part was published in 1786, the second 
in 1805. The best edition is that which was published in 1829, 
under the editorship of Richard Taylor, with the additions 
written in the author's interleaved copy. 

Between 1782 and 1790 Tooke gave his support to Pitt, and 
in the election for Westminster, in 1784, threw all his energies 
into opposition to Fox. With Fox he was never on terms of 
friendship, and Samuel Rogers, in his Table Talk, asserts that 
their antipathy was so pronounced that at a dinner party given 
by a prominent Whig not the slightest notice was taken by Fox 
of the presence of Home Tooke. It was after the election of 
Westminster in 1788 that Tooke depicted the rival statesmen 
(Lord Chatham and Lord Holland, William Pitt and C. J. Fox) 
in his celebrated pamphlet of Two Pair of Portraits. At the 
general election of 1790 he came forward as a candidate for that 
distinguished constituency, in opposition to Fox and Lord Hood, 
but was defeated; and, at a second trial in 1796, he was again 
at the bottom of the poll. Meantime the excesses of the French 
republicans had provoked reaction in England, and the Tory 
ministry adopted a policy of repression. Home Tooke was 
arrested early on the morning of the i6th of May 1794, and 
conveyed to the Tower. His trial for high treason lasted for six 
days (i7th to 22nd of November) and ended in his acquittal, 
the jury only taking eight minutes to settle their verdict. His 
public life after this event was only distinguished by one act of 
importance. Through the influence of the second Lord Camel- 
ford, the fighting peer, he was returned to parliament in 1801 
for the pocket borough of Old Sarum. Lord Temple endeavoured 
to secure his exclusion on the ground that he had taken orders 
in the Church, and one of Gilray's caricatures delineates the two 
politicians, Temple and Camelford, playing at battledore and 
shuttlecock, with Home Tooke as the shuttlecock. The ministry 
of Addington would not support this suggestion, but a bill 
was at once introduced by them and carried into law, which 
rendered all persons in holy orders ineligible to sit in the House 
of Commons, and Home Tooke sat for that parliament only. 

The last years of Tooke's life were spent in retirement in a 
house on the west side of Wimbledon Common. The traditions 
of his Sunday parties have lasted unimpaired to this day, 
and the most pleasant pages penned by his biographer describe 
the. politicians and the men of letters who gathered round his 



14 

hospitable board. His conversational powers rivalled those of 
Dr Johnson; and, if more of his sayings have not been chronicled 
for the benefit of posterity, the defect is due to the absence of a 
Boswell. Through the liberality of his friends, his last days 
were freed from the pressure of poverty, and he was enabled 
to place his illegitimate son in a position which soon brought 
him wealth, and to leave a competency to his two illegitimate 
daughters. Illness seized him early in 1810, and for the next 
two years his sufferings were acute. He died in his house at 
Wimbledon on the i8th of March 1812, and his body was buried 
with that of his mother at Baling, the tomb which he had 
prepared in the garden attached to his house at Wimbledon 
being found unsuitable for the interment. An altar-tomb still 
stands to his memory in Ealing churchyard. A catalogue of 
his library was printed in 1813. 

The Life of Horne Tooke, by Alexander Stephens, is written in an 
unattractive style and was the work of an admirer only admitted 
to his acquaintance at the close of his days. The notice in the 
Quarterly Review, June 1812, of W. Hamilton Reid's compilation, 
is by J. W. Ward, Lord Dudley. The main facts of his life are set 
out by Mr J. E. Thorold Rogers, in his Historical Gleanings, 2nd 
series. Many of Horne Tooke 's wittiest sayings are preserved in the 
Table Talk of Samuel Rogers and S. T. Coleridge. (W. P. C.) 

TOOKE, THOMAS (1774-1858), English economist, was born 
at St Petersburg on the 2Qth of February 1774. Entering a 
large Russian house in London at an early age, he acquired 
sound practical experience of commercial matters and became 
a recognized authority on finance and banking. He was one of 
the earliest advocates of free trade and drew up the Merchants' 
Petition presented to the House of Commons by Alexander 
Baring, afterwards Lord Ashburton. He gave evidence before 
several parliamentary committees, notably the committee of 
1821, on foreign trade, and those of 1832, 1840 and 1848 on the 
Bank Acts. He was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 
1821. He died in London on the 26th of February 1858. 

Tooke was the author of Thoughts and Details on the High and Low 
Prices of the last Thirty Years (1823), Considerations on the State of 
the Currency (1826), in both of which he showed his hostility to the 
policy afterwards carried out in the Bank Act of 1844, but he is 
best known for his History of Prices and of the State of the Circulation 
during the Years 1703-1856 (6 vols., 1838-1857). In the first four 
volumes he treats (a) of the prices of corn, and the circumstances 
affecting prices; (b) the prices of produce other than corn; and (c) 
the state of the circulation. The two final volumes, written in 
conjunction with W. Newmarch (q.v.), deal with railways, free trade, 
banking in Europe and the effects of new discoveries of gold. 

TOOL (O. Eng. 161, generally referred to a root seen in the 
Goth, taujan, to make, or in the English word " taw," to work or 
dress leather), an implement or appliance used by a worker 
in the treatment of the substances used in his handicraft, 
whether in the preliminary operations of setting out and 
measuring the materials, in reducing his work to the required 
form by cutting or otherwise, in gauging it and testing its 
accuracy, or in duly securing it while thus being treated. 

For the tools of prehistoric man see such articles as ARCHAEOLOGY ; 
FLINT IMPLEMENTS; and EGYPT, Art and Archaeology. 

In beginning a survey of tools it is necessary to draw the 
distinction between hand and machine tools. The former class 
includes any tool which is held and operated by the unaided 
hands, as a chisel, plane or saw. Attach one of these to some 
piece of operating mechanism, and it, with the environment of 
which it is the central essential object, becomes a machine tool. 
A very simple example is the common power-driven hack saw 
for metal, or the small high-speed drill, or the wood-boring auger 
held in a frame and turned by a winch handle and bevel-gears. 
The difference between these and a big frame-saw cutting down a 
dozen boards simultaneously, or the immense machine boring the 
cylinders of an ocean liner, or the great gun lathe, or the hydraulic 
press, is so vast that the relationship is hardly apparent. Often 
the tool itself is absolutely dwarfed by the machine, of which 
nevertheless it is the central object and around which the machine 
is designed and built. A milling machine weighing several tons 
will often be seen rotating a tool of but two or three dozen 
pounds' weight. Yet the machine is fitted with elaborate slides 
and self-acting movements, and provision for taking up wear, 



TOOKE, T. TOOL 



and is worth some hundreds of pounds sterling, while the tool 
may not be worth two pounds. Such apparent anomalies are 
in constant evidence. We propose, therefore, first to take a 
survey of the principles that underlie the forms of tools, and 
then pursue the subject of their embodiment in machine tools. 

HAND TOOLS 

The most casual observation reveals the fact that tools admit 
of certain broad classifications. It is apparent that by far the 
larger number owe their value to their capacity for cutting or 
removing portions of material by an incisive or wedge-like 
action, leaving a smooth surface behind. An analysis of the 
essential methods of operation gives a broad grouping as 
follows: 

I. The chisel group . . Typified by the chisel of the woodworker. 
II. The shearing group . scissors. 
III. The scrapers . . cabinet-maker's scrape. 

IV " Th d e etrrjve S gi V o e u P ^ \ " " "" and the I"*- 
V. The moulding group . trowel. 

The first three are generally all regarded as cutting tools, 
notwithstanding that those in II. and III. do not operate as 
wedges, and therefore are not true chisels. But many occupy 
a border-line where the results obtained are practically those 
due to cutting, as in some of the shears, saws, milling cutters, 
files and grinding wheels, where, if the action is not directly 
wedge-like, it is certainly more or less incisive in character. 

Cutting Tools. The cutting edge of a tool is the practical outcome 
of several conditions. Keenness of edge, equivalent to a small 
degree of angle between the tool faces, would appear at first sight 
to be the prime element in cutting, as indeed it is in the case of a 
razor, or in that of a chisel for soft wood. But that is not the prime 
condition in a tool for cutting iron or steel. Strength is of far 
greater importance, and to it some keenness of edge must be sacri- 
ficed. All cutting tools are wedges; but a razor or a chisel edge, 
included between angles of 15 or 20, would be turned over at once 
if presented to iron or steel, for which angles of from 60 to 75 are 
required. Further, much greater rigidity in the latter, to resist 
spring and fracture, is necessary than in the former, because the 
resistance to cutting is much greater. A workman can operate a 
turning tool by hand, even on heavy pieces of metal-work. Formerly 
all turning, no matter how large, was done by hand-operated tools, 
and after great muscular exertion a few pounds of metal might be 
removed in an hour. But coerce a similarly formed tool in a rigid 
guide or rest, and drive it by the power of ten or twenty men, and 
it becomes possible to remove say a hundredweight of chips in an 
hour. Or, increase the size of the tool and its capacity for endurance, 
and drive by the power of 40 or 60 horses, and half a ton of chips 
may be removed in an hour. 

All machine tools of which the chisel is the type operate by cutting ; 
that is, they act on the same principle and by the same essential 
method as the knife, razor or chisel, and not by that of the grind- 
stone. A single tool, however, may act as a cutting instrument at 
one time and as a scrape at another. The butcher's knife will 
afford a familiar illustration. It is used as a cutting tool when sever- 
ing a steak, but it becomes a scrape when used to clean the block. 
The difference is not therefore due to the form of the knife, but to the 
method of its application, a distinction which holds good in reference 
to the tools used by engineers. There is a very old hand too} once 
much used in the engineer's turnery, termed a graver." This was 
employed for cutting and for scraping indiscriminately, simply by 
varying the angle of its presentation. At that time the question 
of the best cutting angles was seldom raised or discussed, because 
the manipulative instinct of the turner settled it as the work pro- 
ceeded, and as the material operated on varied in texture and degree 
of hardness. But since the use of the slide rest holding tools rigidly 
fixed has become general, the question of the most suitable tool 
formation has been the subject of much experiment and discussion. 
The almost unconscious experimenting which goes on every day 
in every workshop in the world proves that there may be a difference 
of several degrees of angle in tools doing similar work, without 
having any appreciable effect upon results. So long as certain 
broad principles and reasonable limits are observed, that is sufficient 
for practical purposes. 

Clearly, in order that a tool shall cut, it must possess an incisive 
form. In fig. I, A might be thrust over the surface of the plate of 
metal, but no cutting action could take place. It would simply 
grind and polish the surface. If it were formed like B, the grinding 
action would give place to scraping, by which some material would 
be removed. Many tools are formed thus, but there is still no 
incisive or knife-like action, and the tool is simply a scrape and not 
a cutting tool. But C is a cutting tool, possessing penetrative 
capacity. If now B were tilted backwards as at D, it would at 



HAND TOOLS] 



TOOL 



once become a cutting tool. But its bevelled face would rub and 
grind on the surface of the work, producing friction and heat, and 
interfering with the penetrative action of the cutting edge. On 
the other hand, if C were tilted forwards as at E its action would 
approximate to that of a scrape for the time being. But the high 
angle of the hinder bevelled face would not afford adequate support 
to the cutting edge, and the latter would therefore become worn 
off almost instantly, precisely as that of a razor or wood-working 
chise! would crumble away if operated on hard metal. It is obvious 




FIG. i. 

A, Tool which would burnish F, G, H, Presentations of tools 

only. for planing, turning and 

B, Scrape. boring respectively. 

C, Cutting tool. J, K, L, Approximate angles of 
D and E, Scraping and cutting tools; a, clearance angle, or 

tools improperly presented. bottom rake ; b, front or top 

rake; c, tool angle. 

therefore that the correct forirt for a cutting tool must depend upon 
a due balance being maintained between the angle of the front 
and of the bottom faces " front " or " top rake," and "bottom 
rake " or " clearance " considered in regard to their method of 
presentation to the work. Since, too, all tools used in machines are 
held rigidly in one position, differing in this respect from hand- 
operated tools, it follows that a constant angle should be given to 
instruments which are used for operating on a given kind of metal 
or alloy. It does not matter whether a tool is driven in a lathe, 
or a planing machine, or a sharper or a slotter; whether it is cutting 
on external or internal surfaces, it is always maintained in a direction 
perpendicularly to the point of application as in fig. I, F, G, H, 
planing, turning and boring respectively. It is consistent with 
reason and with fact that the softer and more fibrous the metal, 
the keener must be the formation of the tool, and that, conversely, 
the harder and more crystalline the metal the more obtuse must be 
the cutting angles, as in the extremes of the razor and the tools 
for cutting iron and steel already instanced. The three figures 
J, K, L show tools suitably formed, for wrought iron and mild steel, 
for cast iron and cast steel, and for brass respectively. Cast iron 
and cast steel could not be cut properly with the first, nor wrought 
iron and fibrous steel with the second, nor either with the third. 
The angles given are those which accord best with general practice, 
but they are not constant, being varied by conditions, especially 
by lubrication and rigidity of fastenings. The profiles of the first 
and second tools are given mainly with the view of having material 
for grinding away, without the need for frequent reforgmg. But 
there are many tools which are formed quite differently when used 
in tool-holders and in turrets, though the same essential principles 
of angle are observed. 

The angle of clearance, or relief, a, in fig. I, is an important detail 
of a cutting tool. It is of greater importance than an exact angle 
of top rake. But, given some sufficient angle of clearance, its 
exact amount is not of much moment. Neither need it be uniform 
for a given cutting edge. It may vary from say 3 to 10, or even 
20, and under good conditions little or no practical differences will 
result. Actually it need never vary much from 5 to 7. The object 
in giving a clearance angle is simply to prevent friction between 
the non-cutting face immediately adjacent to the edge and the 
surface of the work. The limit to this clearance is that at which 
insufficient support is afforded to the cutting edge. These are the 
two facts, which if fulfilled permit of a considerable range in clear- 
ance angle. The softer the metal being cut the greater can be the 
clearance; the harder the material the less clearance is permissible 
because the edge requires greater support. 

The front, or top rake, b in fig. I, is the angle or slope of the front, 
or top face, of the tool; it is varied mainly according as materials 
are crystalline or fibrous. In the turnings and cuttings taken off 
the more crystalline metals and alloys, the broken appearance of the 
chips is distinguished from the shavings removed from the fibrous 
materials. This is a feature which always distinguishes cast iron 
and unannealed cast steel from mild steel, high carbon steel from 



that low in carbon, and cast iron from wrought iron. It indicates 
too that extra work is put on the tool in breaking up the chips, 
following immediately on their severance, and when the comminu- 
tions are very small they indicate insufficient top rake. This 
is a result that turners try to avoid when possible, or at least to 
minimize. Now the greater the slope of the top rake the more 
easily will the cuttings come away, with the minimum of break in the 
crystalline materials and absolutely unbroken over lengths of many 
feet in the fibrous ones. The breaking up, or the continuity 
of the cuttings, therefore affords an indication of the suitability of 
the amount of top rake to its work. But compromise often has 
to be made between the ideal and the actual. The amount of top 
rake has to be limited in the harder metals and alloys in order to 
secure a strong tool angle, without which tools would lack the endur- 
ance required to sustain them through several hours without 
regrinding. 

The too/ angle, c, is the angle included between top and bottom 
faces, and its amount, or thickness expressed in degrees, is a measure 
of the strength and endurance of any tool. At extremes it varies 
from about 15 to 85. It is traceable in all kinds of tools, having 
very diverse forms. It is difficult to place some groups in the 
cutting category; they are on the border-line between cutting and 
scraping instruments. 

Typical Tools. A bare enumeration of the diverse forms in which 
tools of the chisel type occur is not even possible here. The grouped 
illustrations (figs. 2 to 6) show some of the types, but it will be 
understood that each is varied in dimensions, angles and outlines 
to suit all the varied kinds of metals and alloys and conditions of 
operation. For, as every tool has to be gripped in a holder of some 
kind, as a slide-rest, tool-box, turret, tool-holder, box, cross-slide, 
&c., this often determines the choice of some one form in preference 
to another. A broad division is that into roughing and finishing 




FIG. 2. Metal-turning Tools. 



A , Shape of tool used for scrap- E, Diamond or angular-edge tool 

ing brass. for cutting all metals. 

B, Straightforward tool for turn- F, Plan of finishing tool. 

ing all metals. G, Spring tool for finishing. 

C, Right- and left-hand tools for H, Side or knife tool. 

all metals. J, Parting or cutting-off tool. 

D, A better form of same. K, L, Round-nose tools. 

M, Radius tool. 




FIG. 3. Group of Planer Tools. 

Planer type of tool, cranked E, Parting or cutting-off or 

grooving tool. 

F, V tool for grooves. 

G, Right- and left-hand tools for 

V-slots. 

H , Ditto for T-slots. 
/, Radius tool held in holder. 



to avoid digging into the 
metaj. 

B, Face view of roughing tool. 

C, Face view of finishing tool. 

D, Right- and left-hand knife or 

side tools. 



i6 



TOOL 



[HAND TOOLS 



tools. Generally though not invariably the edge of the first is 
narrow, of the second broad, corresponding with the deep cutting 
and fine traverse of the first and the shallow cutting and broad 




B 

I 

FIG. 4. Group of Slotter Tools. 

A, Common roughing tool. B, Parting-off or grooving tool. 
C, Roughing or finishing tool in a holder. D, Double-edged tool 
for cutting opposite sides of a slot. 




FIG. 5. Group of Tool-holders. 

A, Smith & Coventry swivelling holder. B, Holder for square 
steel. C, D, right- and left-hand forms of same. E, Holder for 
round steel. F, Holder for narrow parting-off tool. 

traverse of the second. The following are some of the principal 
forms. The round-nosed roughing tool (fig. 2) B is of straight- 
forward type, used for turning, 
planing and shaping. As the 
correct tool angle can only occur 
on the middle plane of the tool, it 
is usual to employ cranked tools, 
C, D, E, right- and left-handed, 
for heavy and moderately heavy 
duty, the direction of the crank- 
ing corresponding with that in 
which the tool is required to 
traverse. Tools for boring are 
cranked and many for planing 
(fig. 3). The slotting tools (fig. 4) 
embody the same principle, but 
their shanks are in line with 
the direction of cutting. Many 
roughing and finishing tools are 
of knife type H. Finishing tools 
have broad edges, F, G, H. They 
occur in straightforward and 
right- and left-hand types. 
These as a rule remove less than 




FIG. 6. Group of Chisels. 

A, Paring chisel. 

B, Socket chisel for heavy duty. 

C, Common chipping chisel. 



in. in depth, while the rough- 
ing tools may cut an inch or 

D, Narrow cross-cut or cape chisel, more into the metal. But the 

E, Cow-mouth chisel, or gouge. traverse of the first often exceeds 

F, Straight chisel or sett. 
C, Hollow chisel or sett. 



an inch, while in that of the 
second J in. is a yery coarse 
amount of feed. Spring tools, G, 
used less now than formerly, are only of value for imparting a smooth 
finish to a surface. They are finishing tools only. Some spring 
tools are formed with considerable top rake, but generally they act 
by scraping only. 

Solid Tools v. Tool-holders. It will be observed that the fore- 
going are solid tools ; that is, the cutting portion is forged from a solid 



bar of steel. This is costly when the best tool steel is used, hence 
large numbers of tools comprise points only, which are gripped in 
permanent holders in which they interchange. _ Tool^ steel usually 
ranges from about J in. to 4 in. square; most engineers' work is done 
with bars of from J in. to li in. square. It is in the smaller and 
medium sizes of tools that holders prove of most value. Solid tools, 
varying from 2\ in. to 4 in. square, a,re used for the heaviest cutting 
done in the planing machine. Tool-holders are not employed for very 
heavy work, because the heat generated would not get away fast 
enough from small tool points. There are scores of holders; per- 
haps a dozen good approved types are in common use. They are 
divisible into three great groups: those in which the top rake of 
the tool point is embodied in the holder, and is constant; those in 
which the clearance is similarly embodied; and those in which 
neither is provided for, but in which the tool point is ground to any 
angle. Charles Babbage designed the first tool-holder, and the 
essential type survives in several modern forms. The best-known 
holders now are the Tangye, the Smith & Coventry, the Armstrong, 
some by Mr C. Taylor, and the Bent. The Smith & Coventry (fig. 5), 
used more perhaps than any other single design, includes two forms. 
In one E the tool is a bit of round steel set at an angle which gives 
front rake, and having the top end ground to an angle of top rake. 
In the other A the tool has the section of a truncated wedge, set 
for constant top rake, or cutting angle, and having bottom rake 
or clearance angle ground. The Smith & Coventry round tool is 
not applicable for all classes of work. It will turn plain work, and 
plane level faces, but will not turn or plane into corners or angles. 
Hence the invention of the tool of V-section, and the swivel tool- 
holder. The round tool-holders are made right- and left-handed, 
the swivel tool-holder has a universal movement. The amount of 
projection of the round tool points is very limited, which impairs 
their utility when some overhanging of the tool is necessary. The 
V-tooIs can be slid out in their holders to operate on faces and 
edges situated to some considerable distance inwards from the end 
of the tool-holder. 

Box Tools. In one feature the box tools of the turret lathes 
resemble tool-holders. The small pieces of steel used for tool 
points are gripped in the boxes, as in tool-holders, and all the 
advantages which are derived from this arrangement of separating 
the point from its holder are thus secured (fig. 7). But in all other 




FIG. 7. Box Tool for Turret Lathe. (Alfred Herbert, Ltd., Coventry.) 
A, Cutting tool. B, Screw for adjusting radius of cut. C C, 
V-steadies supporting the work in opposition to A. D, Diameter 
of work. E, Body of holder. F, Stem which fits in the turret. 

respects the two are dissimilar. Two or three tool-holders of different 
sizes take all the tool points used in a lathe, but a new box has to- 
be devised in the case of almost every new job, with the exception 
of those the principal formation of which is the turning down of 
plain bars. The explanation is that, instead of a single point, 
several are commonly carried in a box. As complexity increases 
with the number of tools, new designs and dimensions of boxes 
become necessary, even though there may be family resemblances 
in groups. A result is that there is not, nor can there be : anything 
like finality in these designs. Turret work has become one of the 
most highly specialized departments of machine-shop practice, and 
the design of these boxes is already the work of specialists. More 
and more of the work of the common lathe is being constantly 
appropriated by the semi- and full-automatic machines, a result to 
which the magazine feeds for castings and forgings that cannot 
pass through a hollow spindle have contributed greatly. New 
work is constantly being attacked in the automatic machines that 
was deemed impracticable a short time before ; some of the commoner 
jobs are produced with greater economy, while heavier castings 
and forgings, longer and larger bars, are tooled in the turret lathes. 
A great deal of the efficiency of the box tools is due to the support 
which is afforded to the cutting edges in opposition to the stress 
of cutting. V-blocks are introduced in most cases as in fig. 7, and 
these not only resist the stress of the cutting, but gauge the diameter 
exactly. 

Shearing Action. In many tools a shearing operation takes place, 
by which the stress of cutting is lessened. Though not very 
apparent, it is present in the round-nosed roughing tools, in the 
knife tools, in most milling cutters, as well as in all the shearing 
tools proper the scissors, shears, &c. 

Planes. We pass by the familiar great chisel group, used by wood- 
workers, with a brief notice. Generally the tool angles of these lie 
between 15 and 25. They include the chisels proper, and the 
gouges in numerous shapes and proportions, used by carpenters, 



HAND TOOLS] 



TOOL 



cabinet-makers, turners, stone-masons and allied tradesmen. These 
are mostly thrust by hand to their work, without any mechanical 
control. Other chisels are used percussively, as the stout mortise 
chisels, some of the gouges, the axes, adzes and stone-mason's tools. 
The large family of planes embody chisels coerced by the mechanical 
control of the wooden (fig. 8) or metal stock. These also differ 










FIG. 8. Section through Plane. 
A, Cutting iron. B, Top or back iron. C, Clamping screw. 

D, Wedge. E, Broken shaving. F, Mouth. 

from the chisels proper in the fact that the face of the cutting iron 
does not coincide with the face of the material being cut, but lies 
at an angle therewith, the stock of the plane exercising the necessary 
coercion. We also meet with the function of the top or non-cutting 




B 'c 'D 'E^ " 'F' 

FIG. 9. Group of Wood-boring Bits. 

A, Spoon bit. B, Centre-bit. C, Expanding centre-bit. 
Gilpin or Gedge auger. E, Jennings auger. ' F, Irwin auger. 



D. 




IT 




a 












i 


F 




k 








\ 




I 












HI 








1 1 






Tl 


it 


i \ 


1 







FIG. 10. Group of Drills for Metal. 

A, Common flat drill. 5, Twist drill. C, Straight fluted drill. 
D, Pin drill for flat countersinking. E, Arboring or facing tool. 
F.. Tool for boring sheet-metal. 



iron in breaking the shaving and conferring rigidity upon the cutting 
iron. This rigidity is of similar value in cutting wood as in cutting 
metal though in a less marked degree. 

Drilling and Boring Tools. Metal and timber are bored with 
equal facility; the tools (figs. 9 and 10) embody similar differences 
to the cutting tools already instanced for wood and metal. All the 
wood- working bits are true cutting tools, and their angles, if analysed, 
will be found not to differ much from those of the razor and common 
chisel. The drills for metal furnish examples both of scrapers and 
cutting tools. The common drill is only a scraper, but all the twist 
drills cut with good incisive action. An advantage possessed by all 
drills is that the cutting forces are balanced on each side of the 
centre of rotation. The same action is embodied in the best wood- 
boring bits and augers, as the Jennings, the Gilpin and the Irwin 
much improved forms of the old centre-bit. But the balance is 
impaired if the lips are not absolutely symmetrical about the centre. 
This explains the necessity for the substitution of machine grinding 
for hand grinding of the lips, and great developments of twist drill 
grinding machines. Allied to the drills are the D-bits, and the 
reamers (fig. n). The first-named both initiate and finish a hole; 




B 




FIG. II. 

A, D-bit. B, Solid reamer. C, Adjustable reamer, having six flat 
blades forced outward by the tapered plug. Two lock-nuts at the 
end fix the blades firmly after adjustment. 

the second are used only for smoothing and enlarging drilled holes, 
and for correcting holes which pass through adjacent castings or 
plates. The reamers remove only a mere film, and their action 
is that of scraping. The foregoing are examples of tools operated 
from one end and unsupported at the other, except in so far as they 
receive support within the work. One of the objectionable features 
of tools operated in this way is that they tend to " follow the hole," 
and if this is cored, or rough-drilled out of truth, there is risk of 
the boring tools following it to some extent at least. With the one 
exception of the D-bit there is no tool which can be relied on to take 
out a long bore with more than an approximation to concentricity 
throughout. Boring tools (fig. 12) held in the slide-rest will spring 
and bend and chatter, and unless the lathe is true, or careful com- 
pensation is made for its want of truth, they will bore bigger at one 
end than the other. Boring tools thrust by the back centre are 
liable to wabble, and though they are variously coerced to prevent 
them from turning round, that does not check the to-and-fro wabbly 




FIG. 12. Group of Boring Tools. 

A, Round boring tool held in V-blocks on slide-rest. B, C, Square 
and V-pointed boring tools. D, Boring bar with removable cutters, 
held straight, or angularly. 

motion from following the core, or rough bore. In a purely reaming 
tool this is permitted, but it is not good in tools that have to initiate 
the hole. 

This brings us to the large class of boring tools which are supported 
at each end by being held in bars carried between centres. There 
are two main varieties: in one the cutters are fixed directly in 
the bar (fig. 13, A to D), in the other in a head fitted on the bar 



i8 



TOOL 



[HAND TOOLS 



(fig. 13, E), hence termed a " boring head." As lathe heads are 
fixed, the traverse cannot be imparted to the bars as in boring 
machines. The boring heads can be traversed, or the work can be 




FIG. 13. Group of Supported Boring Tools. 



A, Single-ended cutter in boring 

bar. 

B, Double-ended ditto. 

C, Flat single-ended finishing 

cutter. 



D, Flat double-ended finishing 

cutter. 

E, Boring head with three cutters 

and three steady blocks. 




traversed by the* mechanism of the lathe saddle. The latter must be 
done when cutters are fixed in bars. A great deal of difference 
exists in the details of the fittings both of bars and heads, but they 
are not so arbitrary as they might seem at first sight. The principal 
differences are those due to the number of cutters used, their shapes, 
and their method of fastening. Bars receiving their cutters direct 
include one, two or four, cutting on opposite sides, and therefore 
balanced. Four give better balance than two, the cutters being 
set at right angles. If a rough hole runs out of truth, a single cutter 
is better than a double-ended one, provided a tool of the roughing 
shape is used. The shape of the tools varies from roughing to 
finishing, and their method of attachment is by screws, wedges or 
nuts, but we cannot illustrate the numerous differences that are 
met with. 

Saws. The saws are a natural connecting link between the chisels 
and the milling cutters. Saws are used for wood, metal and stone. 

Slabs of steel several inches 

I in thickness are sawn 
through as readily as, 
though more slowly than, 
timber planks. Circular 
and band saws are common 
in the smithy and the 
boiler and machine shops 
for cutting off bars, forgings 
and rolled sections. But 
the tooth shapes are not 
those used for timber, nor is 
the cutting speed the same. 
In the individual saw-teeth 
both cutting and scraping 
actions are illustrated (fig. 
14). Saws which cut tim- 
ber continuously with the 
grain, as rip, hand, band, 
circular, have incisive teeth. 
For though many are desti- 
tute of front rake, the 
method of sharpening at 
an angle imparts a true 
shearing cut. But all cross- 
cutting teeth scrape only, 
the teeth being either of 
triangular or of M-form, 
variously modified. Teeth 
for metal cutting also act 
strictly by scraping. The 
pitching of the teeth is 
related to the nature of 
the material and the 
for timber than for metal, 





AA7VAA 
nrtnnn 

FIG. 14. Typical Saw Teeth. 
Teeth of band and ripping saws. 
Teeth of circular saw for hard wood 

shows set. 
Ditto for soft wood. 

D, Teeth of cross-cut saw. 

E, M-teeth for ditto. 



A 
B 

C, 



direction of cutting. It is coarser 

coarser for ripping or sawing with the grain than forVross' cutting,' 
coarser for soft than for hard woods. The setting of teeth 
or the bending over to right and left, by which the clearance is 
provided for the blade of the saw, is subject to similar variations. 
It is greatest for soft woods and least for metals, where in 
fact the clearance is often secured without set, by merely thinning 
But it is greater for cross cutting than for 



the blade backwards. 



ripping timber. Gulleting follows similar rules. The softer the 
timber, the greater the gulleting, to permit the dust to escape freely. 
Milling Cutters. Between a circular saw for cutting metal and 
a thin milling cutter there is no essential difference. Increase the 
thickness as if to produce a very wide saw, and the essential plain 
edge milling cutter for metal results. In its simplest form the 
milling cutter is a cylinder with teeth lying across its periphery, or 
parallel with its axis the edge tnill (fig. 15), or else a disk with teeth 
radiating on its face, or at right angles with its axis the end mill 
(fig. 16). Each is used indifferently for producing flat faces and 
edges, and for cutting grooves which are rectangular in cross-section. 
These milling cutters invade the province of the single-edged tools 
of the planer, shaper and slotter. Of these two typical forms the 




FIG. 15. Group of Milling Cutters, 
mill, with 



A, Narrow edge 

straight teeth. 

B, Wide edge mill with spiral 

teeth. 

C, Teeth on face and edges. 



D, Cutter having teeth like C. 

E, Flat teeth held in with screws 

and wedges. 

F, Large inserted tooth mill; with 

taper pins secure cutters. 





FIG. 16. Group of End Mills. 



/ cV Wlth stra 'g h t teeth. B, Ditto with spiral teeth. 

C, bhowing method of holding shell cutter on arbor, with screw 
and key. D, T-slot cutter. 



HAND TOOLS] 



TOOL 



changes are rung in great variety, ranging from the narrow slitting 
tools which saw off bars, to the broad cutters of 24 in. or more in 
width, used on piano-millers. 

When more than about an inch in width, surfacing cylindrical 
cutters are formed with spiral teeth (fig. 15, B), a device which is 




A, Straddle Mill, cutting faces and edges. 

B, Set of three mills cutting grooves. 




FIG. 18. Group of Angular Mills. 

A, Cutter with single slope. 

B, Ditto, producing teeth in another cutter. 

C, Double Slope Mill, with unequal angles. 

essential to sweetness of operation, the action being that of shearing. 
These have their teeth cut on universal machines, using the dividing 
and spiral head and suitable change wheels, and after hardening 
they are sharpened on universal grinders. When cutters exceed 
about 6 in. in length the difficulties of hardening and grinding render 
the " gang " arrangement more suitable. Thus, two, three or more 
similar edge mills are set end to end on an arbor, with the spiral 
teeth running in reverse directions, giving a broad face with balanced 
endlong cutting forces. From these are built up the numerous 
gang mills, comprising plane faces at right angles with each other, 
of which the straddle mills are the best known (fig. 17, A). A 
common element in these combinations is the key seat type B having 
teeth on the periphery and on both faces as in fig. 15, C, D. By 
these combinations half a dozen faces or more can be tooled simul- 
taneously, and all alike, as long as the mills retain their edge. The 
advantages over the work of the planer in this class of work are seen 
in tooling the faces and edges of machine tables, beds and slides, in 
shaping the faces and edges of caps to fit their bearing blocks. In 
a single cutter of the face type, but having teeth on back and edge 
also, T-slots are readily milled (fig. 1 6, D) ; this if done on the planer 
would require re-settings of awkwardly cranked tools, and more 
measurement and testing with templets than is required on a 
milling machine. 

When angles, curves and profile sections are introduced, the 
capacity of the milling cutter is infinitely increased. The making 
of the cutters is also more difficult. Angular cutters (fig. 18) are 
used for producing the teeth of the mills themselves, for shaping 
the teeth of ratchet wheels, and, in combination with straight cutters 
in gangs, for angular sections. With curves, or angles and curves 
in combination, taps, reamers and drills can be fluted or grooved, 

the teeth of wheels shapeo!, and in 
fact any outlines imparted (fig. 19). 
Here the work of the fitter, as well 
as that of the planing and allied 
machines, is invaded, for much of 
this work if prepared on these 
machines would have to be finished 
laboriously by the file. 

There are two ways in which 
milling cutters are used, by which 
their value is extended; one is to 
transfer some of their work proper 
to the lathe and boring machine, 
the other is by duplication. A 
good many light circular sections, 




i r 



FIG. 19. 

A, Convex Cutter. 

B, Concave Cutter. 

C, Profile Cutter. 



as wheel rims, hitherto done in lathes, are regularly prepared in 
the milling machine, gang mills being used for tooling the peri- 
phery and edges at once, and the wheel blank being rotated. 
Similarly, holes are bored by a rotating mill of the cylindrical type. 
Internal screw threads are done similarly. Duplication occurs 
when milling sprocket wheels in line, or side by side, in milling nuts 
on an arbor, in milling a number of narrow faces arranged side by 
side, in cutting the teeth of several spur-wheels on one arbor and 
m milling the teeth of racks several at a time. 

One of the greatest advances in the practice of milling was that 
of making backed-off cutters. The sectional shape behind the tooth 



face is continued identical in form with the profile of the edge, the 
outline being carried back as a curve equal in radius to that of the 
cutting edge (fig. 20). The 
result is that the cutter may 
be sharpened on the front 
faces of the teeth without 
interfering with the shape 
which willbe milled, because 
the periphery is always con- 
stant in outline. After re- 
peated sharpenings the teeth 
would assume the form indi- 
cated by the shaded portion 

on two of the teeth. The FlG . 2 o. Relieved Teeth of Milling 
limit of grinding is reached Cutter, 

when the tooth becomes too 

thin and weak to stand up to its work. But such cutters will endure 
weeks or months of constant service before becoming useless. The 





-/.CD 




FIG. 21. Group of Scrapes. 

A, MetaJ- worker's scrape, pushed D, Diamond point used by 

straightforward. wood-turners. 

B, Ditto, operated laterally. E, F, Cabinet-makers' scrapes. 

C, Round-nosed tool used by 

wood-turners. 

chief advantage of backing-off or relieving is in its application to 
cutters of intricate curves, which would be difficult or impossible to 
sharpen along their edges. Such cutters, moreover, if made with 




A, Warding. 

B, Mill. 

C, Flat. 

D, Pillar. 

E, Square. 

F, G, Swaged reapers. 
H, Mill. 



FIG. 22. Cross-sectional Shapes of Files. 



P, 

Q, 



J, Topping. 

K, Reaper. 

L, Knife. 

M, Three-square. 

N, Cant. 

0, Slitting or 
feather-edge. 

ordinary teeth would soon be worn down, and be much weaker than 
the strong form of teeth represented in fig. 20. The relieving is usually 
done in special lathes, employing a profile tool which cuts the surface 



Round. 

Pit-saw or 
frame-saw. 
R, Half-round. 
5, T, Cabinet. 
U, Tumbler. 
V, Crossing. 



-/I 





IfA 

H Ij UK L 



A , Parallel or blunt. 

B, Taper bellied. 

C, Knife reaper. 

D, Tapered square. 

E, Parallel triangular. 



FIG. 23. Longitudinal Shapes of Files. 



F, Tapered triangular. K, Tapered half- 

G, Parallel round. round. 
H, Taper or rat-tail. L, Riffler. 
/, Parallel half- 
round. 



20 

of the teeth back at the required radius. Relieved cutters can of 
course be strung together on a single arbor to form gang mills, by 
which very complicated profiles may be tooled, beyond the capacity 
of a single solid mill. 

Scrapes. The tools which operate by scraping (fig. 21) include 
many of the broad finishing tools of the turner in wood and metal 
(cf. fig. 2), and the scrape of the wood worker and the fitter. The 
practice of scraping surfaces true, applied to surface plates, machine 
slides and similar objects, was due to Sir Joseph Whitworth. It 
superseded the older and less accurate practice of grinding to a 
mutual fit. Now, with machines of precision, the practice of grinding 
has to a large extent displaced the more costly scraping. Scraping 
is, however, the only method available when the most perfect contact 
is desired. Its advantage lies in the fact that the efforts of the work- 
man can be localized over the smallest areas, and nearly infinitesimal 
amounts removed, a mere fine dust in the last stages. 

Files. These must in strictness be classed with scrapes, for, 
although the points are keen, there is never any front rake. Collec- 
tively there is a shearing action because the rows of teeth are cut 
diagonally. The sectional forms (fig. 22) and the longitudinal 
forms (fig. 23) of the files are numerous, to adapt them to all classes 
of work. In addition, the method of cutting, 
and the degrees of coarseness of the teeth, vary, 
being single, or float cut, or double cut (fig. 24). 
The rasps are another group. Degrees of coarse- 
ness are designated as rough, middle cut, bastard 
cut, second cut, smooth, double dead smooth; 
the first named is the coarsest, the last the 
finest. The terms are relative, since the larger 
a file is the coarser are its teeth, though of the 
same name as the teeth in a shorter file, which 
are finer. 

Screwing Tools. The forms of these will be 
found discussed under SCREW. They can scarcely 
be ranked among cutting tools, yet the best kinds 
remove metal with ease. This is due in great 
measure to the good clearance allowed, and to 
the narrowness of the cutting portions. Front 
rake is generally absent, though in some of the 
best screwing dies there is a slight amount. 

Shears and Punches. These maybe of cutting 
or non-cutting types. Shears (fig. 25) have no 
front rake, but only a slight clearance. They 
a slight shearing cut, because the blades do not 



TOOL 



[HAND TOOLS 




FIG. 24. File 
Teeth. 



A, 
B, 



Float cut. 
Double cut. 



C, Rasp cut. 



generally give _ _^_ 

lie parallel, but the cutting begins at one end and continues in detail 
to the other. But strictly the shears, like the punches, act by a 

I. I 



J 




FlG. 25. Shear Blades. 

a, a, Blades. 

b, Plate being sheared. 



FIG. 26. Punching. 
a, Punch, b, Bolster. 
c, Plate being punched. 



severe detrusive effort; for the punch, with its bolster (fig. 26), 
forms a pair of cylindrical shears. Hence a shorn or punched 
edge is always rough, ragged, and covered with minute, shallow 
cracks. Both processes are therefore dangerous to iron and steel. 
The metal being unequally stressed, fracture starts in the annulus 
of metal. Hence the advantage of the practice of reamering out 
this annulus, which is completely removed by enlargement by 
about an f in. diameter, so that homogeneous metal is left throughout 
the entire unpunched section. The same results follow reamering 
both in iron and steel. Annealing, according to many experiments, 
has the same effect as reamering, due to the rearrangement of the 
molecules of metal. The perfect practice with punched plates 
is to punch, reamer, and finally to anneal. The effect of shearing 
is practically identical with that of punching, and planing and 
annealing shorn edges has the same influence as reamering and 
annealing punched holes. 

Hammers. These form an immense group, termed percussive, 
from the manner of their use (fig. 27). Every trade has its own 
peculiar shapes, the total of which number many scores, each with 
its own appropriate name, and ranging in size from the minute 
forms of the jeweler to the sledges of the smith and boiler maker 
and the planishing hammers of the coppersmith. Wooden hammers 
are termed mallets, their purpose being to avoid bruising tools or 
the surfaces of work. Most trades use mallets of some form or 
another. Hammer handles are rigid in all cases except certain 
percussive tools of the smithy, which are handled with withy rods, 
or iron rods flexibly attached to the tools, so that when struck by 
the sledge they shall not jar the hands. The fullering tools, and 
flatters, and setts, though not hammers strictly, are actuated by 



percussion. The dies of the die forgers are actuated percussively, 
being closed by powerful hammers. The action of caulking tools 
is percussive, and so is that of moulders' rammers. 




A, Exeter type. 

B, Joiner's hammer. 



JW KW I), 
FIG. 27. Hammers. 

F, Ditto, straight pane. 

G, Sledge hammer, straight 



C, Canterbury claw hammer pane. 

(these are wood-workers' H, Ditto, double-faced, 

hammers). /, K, L, M, Boiler makers' ham- 

D, Engineer's hammer, ball pane. mers. 

E, Ditto, cross-pane. N, Scaling hammer. 

Moulding Tools. This is a group of tools which, actuated either 
by simple pressure or percussively, mould, shape and model forms 
in the sand of the moulder, in the metal of the smith, and in press 
work. All the tools of the moulder (fig. 28) with the exception of 
the rammers and vent wires act by moulding the sand into shapes 




FIG. 28. Moulding Tools. 



/, Button sleeker. 
K, Pipe smoother. 



A , Square trowel. E, Flange bead. 

B, Heart trowel. F, Hollow bead. 

C, D, Cleaners. G, H, Square corner sleekers. 

by pressure. Their contours correspond with the plane and curved 
surfaces of moulds, and with the requirements of shallow and deep 
work. They are made in iron and brass. The fullers, swages and 
flatters of the smith, and the dies used with hammer and presses, 
all mould by percussion or by pressure, the work taking the counter- 
part of the dies, or of some portion of them. The practice of die 
forging consists almost wholly of moulding processes. 

Tool Steels. These now include three kinds. The common 
steel, the controlling element in which is carbon, requires to be 
hardened and tempered, and must not be overheated, about 500 F. 
being the highest temperature permissible- the critical tempera- 
ture. Actually this is seldom allowed to be reached. The dis- 
advantage of this steel is that its capabilities are limited, because the 
heat generated by heavy cutting soon spoils the tools. The second 
is the Mushet steel, invented by R. F. Mushet in 1868, a carbon 
steel, in which the controlling element is tungsten, of which it contains 
from about ;> to 8%. It is termed self-hardening, because it is 
cooled in air instead of being quenched in water. Its value consists 
in its endurance at high temperatures, even at a low red heat. 
Until the advent of the high-speed steels, Mushet steel was 
reserved for all heavy cutting, and for tooling hard tough 
steels. It is made in six different tempers suitable for various 
kinds of duty. Tools of Mushet steel must not be forged below 
a red heat. It is hardened by reheating the end to a white heat, 
and blowing cold in an air blast. The third kind of steel is termed 
high-speed, because much higher cutting speeds are practicable 
with these than with other steels. Tools made of them are hardened 
in a blast of cold air. The controlling elements are numerous and 
vary in the practice of different manufacturers, to render the 



MACHINE TOOLS] 



TOOL 



21 



tools adaptable to cutting various classes of metals and alloys. 
Tungsten is the principal controlling element, but chromium is 
essential, and molybdenum and vanadium are often found of 
value. The steels are forged at a yellow tint, equal to about 
1850 F. They are raised to a white heat for hardening, and copied 
in an air blast to a bright red. They are then often quenched in a 
bath of oil. 

The first public demonstration of the capacities of high speed 
steels was made at the Paris Exhibition of 1900. Since that time 
great advances have been made. It has been found that the 
section of the shaving limits the practicable speeds, so that, although 
cutting speeds of 300 and 400 ft. a minute are practicable with 
light cuts, it is more economical to limit speeds to less than 100 ft. 
per minute with much heavier cuts. The use of water is not 
absolutely essential as in using tools of carbon steel. The new 
steels show to much greater advantage on mild steel than on cast 
iron. They are more useful for roughing down than for finishing. 
The removal of 20 tb of cuttings per minute with a single tool 
is common, and that amount is often exceeded, so that a lathe 
soon becomes half buried in turnings unless they are carted away. 
The horse-power absorbed is proportionately large. Ordinary 
heavy lathes will take from 40 to 60 h.p. to drive them, or from 
four to six times more than is required by lathes of the same centres 
using carbon steel tools. Many remarkable records have been 
given of the capacities of the new steels. Not only turning and 
planing tools but drills and milling cutters are now regularly made 
of them. It is a revelation to see these drills in their rapid descent 
through metal. A drill of I in. in diameter will easily go through 
5 in. thickness of steel in one minute. 

MACHINE TOOLS 

The machine tools employed in modern engineering factories 
number many hundreds of well-defined and separate types. 
Besides these, there are hundreds more designed for special 
functions, and adapted only to the work of firms who handle 
specialities. Most of the first named and many of the latter admit 
of grouping in classes. The following is a natural classification: 

I. Turning Lathes. These, by common consent, stand as a 
class alone. The cardinal feature by which they are distin- 
guished is that the work being operated on rotates against a 
tool which is held in a rigid fixture the rest. The axis of 
rotation may be horizontal or vertical. 

II. Reciprocating Machines. The feature by which these 
are characterized is that the relative movements of tool and 
work take place in straight lines, to and fro. The recipro- 
cations may occur in horizontal or vertical planes. 

III. Machines which Drill and Bore Holes. These have some 
features in common with the lathes, inasmuch as drilling and 
boring are often done in the lathes, and some facing and turning 
in the drilling and boring machines, but they have become 
highly differentiated. In the foregoing groups tools having 
either single or double cutting edges are used. 

IV. Milling Machines. This group uses cutters having 
teeth arranged equidistantly round a cylindrical body, and 
may therefore be likened to saws of considerable thickness. 
The cutters rotate over or against work, between which and the 
cutters a relative movement of travel takes place, and they may 
therefore be likened to reciprocating machines, in which a 
revolving cutter takes the place of a single-edged one. 

V. Machines for Cutting the Teeth of Gear-wheels. These 
comprise two sub-groups, the older type in which rotary milling 
cutters are used, and the later type in which reciprocating 
single-edged tools are employed. Sub-classes are designed for 
one kind of gear only, as spur-wheels, bevels, worms, racks, 
&c. 

VI. Grinding Machinery. This is a large and constantly 
extending group, largely the development of recent years. 
Though emery grinding has been practised in crude fashion for 
a century, the difference in the old and the new methods lies 
in the embodiment of the grinding wheel in machines of high 
precision, and in the rivalry of the wheels of corundum, car- 
borundum and alundum, prepared in the electric furnace with 
those of emery. 

VII. Sawing Machines. In modern practice these take an 
important part in cutting iron, steel and brass. Few shops 
are without them, and they are numbered by dozens in some 
establishments. They include circular saws for hot and cold 
metal, band saws and hack saws. 



VIII. Shearing and Punching Machines. These occupy a 
border line between the cutting and non-cutting tools. Some 
must be classed with the first, others with the second. The 
detrusive action also is an important element, more especially 
in the punches. 

IX. Hammers and Presses. Here there is a percussive action 
in the hammers, and a purely squeezing one in the presses. 
Both are made capable of exerting immense pressures, but the 
latter are far more powerful than the former. 

X. Portable Tools. This large group can best be classified 
by the common feature of being readily removable for operation 
on large pieces of erection that cannot be taken to the regular 
machines. Hence they are all comparatively small and light. 
Broadly they include diverse tools, capable of performing 
nearly the whole of the operations summarized in the pre- 
ceding paragraphs. 

XI. Appliances. There is a very large number of articles 
which are neither tools nor machine tools, but which are in- 
dispensable to the work of these; that is, they do not cut, or 
shape, or mould, but they hold, or grip, or control, or aid in 
some way or other the carrying through of the work. Thus 
a screw wrench, an angle plate, a wedge, a piece of packing, a 
bolt, are appliances. In modern practice the appliance in 
the form of a templet or jig is one of the principal elements 
in the interchangeable system. 

XII. Wood-working Machines. This group does for the 
conversion of timber what the foregoing accomplish for metal. 
There is therefore much underlying similarity in many machines 
for wood and metal, but still greater differences, due to the 
conditions imposed on the one hand by the very soft, and on the 
other by the intensely hard, materials operated on in the two 
great groups. 

XIII. Measurement. To the scientific engineer, equally 
with the astronomer, the need for accurate measurement is of 
paramount importance. Neither good fitting nor interchange- 
ability of parts is possible without a system of measurement, 
at once accurate and of ready and rapid application. Great 
advances have been made in this direction lately. 

I. LATHES, 1 

The popular conception of a lathe, derived from the familiar 
machine of the wood turner, would not give a correct idea of the 
lathe which has been developed as the engineer's machine tool. 
This has become differentiated into nearly fifty well-marked.types, 
until in some cases even the term lathe has been dropped for more 
precise definitions, as vertical boring machine, automatic machine, 
while in others prefixes are necessary, as axle lathe, chucking lathe, 
cutting-off lathe, wheel lathe, and so on. With regard to size and 
mass the height of centres may range from 3 in. in the bench lathes 
to 9 or 10 ft. in gun lathes, and weights will range from say 50 Ib 
to 200 tons, or more in exceptional cases. While in some the 
mechanism is the simplest possible, in others it is so complicated 
that only the specialist is able to grasp its details. 

Early Lathes. Space will not permit us to trace the evolution 
of the lathe from the ancient bow and card lathe and the pole 
lathe, in each of which the rotary movement was alternately for- 
ward, for cutting, and backward. The curious thing is that the 
wheel-driven lathe was a novelty so late as the lAth and isth 
centuries, and had not wholly displaced the ancient forms even in 
the West in the igth century, and the cord lathe still survives in 
the East. Another thing is that all the old lathes were of dead 
centre, instead of running mandrel type; and not until 1794 did the 
use of metal begin to take the place of wood in lathe construction. 
Henry Maudslay (1771-1831) did more than any other man to 
develop the engineer's self-acting lathe in regard to its essential 
mechanism, but it was, like its immediate successors for fifty 
years after, a skeleton-like, inefficient weakling by comparison 
with the lathes of the present time. 

Broad Types. A ready appreciation of the broad differences in 
lathe types may be obtained by considering the differences in the 
great groups of work on which lathes are designed to operate. 
Castings and forgings that are turned in lathes vary not only in 
size, but also in relative dimensions. Thus a long piece of driving 
shafting, or a railway axle, is very differently proportioned in length 
and diameter from a railway wheel or a wheel tire. Further, while 
the shaft has to be turned only, the wheel or the tire has to be 
turned and bored. Here then we have the first cardinal distinction 
between lathes, viz. those admitting work between centres (fig. 29) 
and face and boring lathes. In the first the piece of work is pivoted 
and driven between the centres of head-stock and tail-stock or loose 
poppet; in the second, it is held and gripped only by the dogs or 



22 



TOOL 



[LATHES 



jaws of a face-plate, on the head-stock spindle, the loose 
poppet being omitted. 

These, however, are broad types only, since proportions 
of length to diameter differ, and with them lathe designs 
are modified whenever there is a sufficient amount of work 
of one class to justify the laying down of a special machine 
or machines to deal with it. Then further, we have dupli- 
cate designs, in which, for example, provision is made in 
one lathe for turning two or three long shafts simultane- 
ously, or for turning and boring two wheels or tires at 
once. Further, the position of the axis of a face lathe 
need not be horizontal, as is necessary when the turning 
of long pieces has to be done between centres. There are 
obvious advantages in arranging it vertically, the princi- 
pal being that castings and forgings can be more easily 
set and secured to a horizontal chuck than to one the face 
of which lies vertically. The chuck is also better sup- 
ported, and higher rates of turning are practicable. In 
recent years these vertical lathes or vertical turning and 
boring mills (fig. 30) have been greatly increasing in num- 
bers; they also occur in several designs to suit either 
general or special duties, some of them being used for 
boring only, as chucking lathes. Some are of immense 
size, capable of boring the field magnets of electric 
generators 40 ft. in diameter. 

Standard Lathes. But for doing what is termed 
the general work of the engineer's turnery, the stan- 
dard lathes (fig. 29) predominate, i.e. self-acting, sliding 
and surfacing lathes with headstock, loose poppet and 
slide-rest, centres, face plates and chucks, and an equip- 
ment by which long pieces are turned, either between 
centres or on the face chucks, and bored. One of 
the greatest objections to the employment of these 
standard types of lathes for indiscriminate duty is due 
to the limited height of the centres or axis of the head- 
stock, above the face of the bed. This is met generally 
by providing a gap or deep recess in the bed next 
the fast headstock, deep enough to take face work of 
large diameter. The device is very old and very common, 
but when the volume of work warrants the employment 
of separate lathes for face-work and for that done 
between centres it is better to have them. 

Screw-cutting.^ A most important section of the work 
of the engineer's turnery is that of cutting screws (see 
SCREW). This has resulted in differentiation fully as 
great as that existing between centres and face-work. 
The slide-rest was designed with this object, though 
it is also used for plain turning. The standard " self- 
acting sliding, surfacing and screw-cutting lathe " is 
essentially the standard turning lathe, with the addi- 
tion of the screw-cutting mechanism. This includes a 
master screw the lead or guide screw, which is 
gripped with a clasp nut, fastened to the travelling 
carriage of the slide-rest. The lead-screw is connected 
to the headstock spindle by change wheels, which are 
the variables through which the relative rates of move- 
ment of the spindle and the lead-screw, and therefore 
of the screw-cutting tool, held and traversed in the 
slide-rest, are effected. By this beautiful piece of 
mechanism a guide screw, the pitch of which is per- 
manent, is made to cut screw-threads of an almost 
infinite number of possible pitches, both in whole and 
fractional numbers, by virtue of rearrangements of 
the variables, the change wheels. The objection to 
this method is that the trains of change wheels have 
to be recalculated and rearranged as often as a screw 
of a different pitch has to be cut, an operation which 
takes some little time. To avoid this, the nest or 
cluster system of gears has been largely adopted, its 
most successful embodiment being in the Hendey- 
Norton lathe. Here all the change wheels are arranged 
in a series permanently on one shaft underneath the 
headstock, and any one of them is put into engagement 
by a sliding pinion operated by the simple movement 
of a lever. Thus the lead-screw is driven at different 
rates without removing any wheel from its spindle. 
This has been extensively applied to both small and 
large lathes. But a moment's thought will show that 
even this device is too cumbrous when large numbers of 
small screws are required. There is, for example, little 
in common between the screw, say of 5 or 6 ft. in 
length, for a massive penstock or valve, and J-in. bolts, 
or the small screws required in thousands for electrical 
fittings. Clearly while the self-acting screw-cutting 
lathe is the best possible machine to use for the first 
it is unsuitable for the last. So here at once, from the 
point of view of screw cutting only, an important diver- 
gence takes place, and one which has ultimately led 
to very high specialization. 

Small Screws. When small screws and bolts are cut in 




LATHES] 



TOOL 



large quantities, the guide-screw and change wheels give place to other 
devices, one of which involves the use of a separate master-screw 
for every different pitch, the other that of encircling cutting in- 
struments or dies. The first are represented by the chasing lathe, 
the second by the screwing lathes and automatics. Though the 
principles of operation are thus stated in brief, the details in design 
are most extensive and varied. 

In a chasing lathe the master-screw or hob, which may be either 
at the rear of the headstock or in front of the slide-rest, receives 
a hollow clasp-nut or a half-nut, or a star-nut containing several 
pitches, which, partaking of the traverse movement of the screw- 
thread, imparts the same horizontal movement to the cutting tool. 
The latter is sometimes carried in a hinged holder, sometimes in 
a common slide-rest. The attendant throws it into engagement 
at the beginning of a traverse, and out when completed, and also 



this is an economical system, but in others not. It cannot be 
considered so when bolts, screws and allied forms are of small 
dimensions. 

Hollow Mandrel Lathes. It has been the growing practice since 
the last decade of the igth century to produce short articles, re- 
quired in large quantities, from a long bar. This involves making 
the lathe with a hollow mandrel; that is, the mandrel of the head- 
stock has a hole drilled right through it, large enough to permit 
of the passage through it of the largest bar which the class of work 
requires. Thus, if the largest section of the finished pieces should 
require a bar of ij in. diameter, the hole in the mandrel would be 
made if in. Then the bar, inserted from the rear-end, is gripped 
by a chuck or collet at the front, the operations of turning, screwing 
and cutting off done, and the bar then thrust farther through 
to the exact length for the next set of identical operations to be 




FIG. 30. Boring and Turning Mill, vertical lathe. (Webster Bennett, Ltd., Coventry.) 



A, Table, running with stem in vertical bearing. 

B, Frame of machine. 

C, Driving cones. 

D, Handle giving the choice of two rates, through concealed 

sliding gears, shown dotted. 

E, Bevel-gears driving up to pinion gearing with ring of teeth 

on the table. 

F, Saddle moved on cross-rail G. 

changes the hobs for threads of different sections. The screwed 
stays cf locomotive fire-boxes are almost invariably cut on chasing 
lathes of this class. 

In the screwing machines the thread is cut with dies, which 
encircle the rotating bar; or alternatively the dies rotate round a 
fixed pipe, and generally the angular lead or advance of the thread 
draws the dies' along. These dies differ in no essentials from similar 
tools operated by a hand lever at the bench. There are many 
modifications of these lathes, because the work is so highly special- 
ized that they are seldom used for anything except the work of 
cutting screws varying but little in dimensions. Such being the 
case they can hardly be classed as lathes, and are often termed 
screwing machines, because no provision exists for preliminary 
turning work, which is then done elsewhere, the task of turning 
and threading being divided between two lathes. In some cases 



H, Vertical slide, carrying turret J. 

K, Screw feeding F across. 

L, Splined shaft connecting to H for feeding the latter up or 
down. 

M, M, Worm-gears throwing out clutches N, N at predeter- 
mined points. 

O, Cone pulley belted up to P, for driving the feeds of saddle 
and down-slide. 

performed, and so on. This mechanism is termed a wire feed, because 
the first lathes which were built of this type only operated on large 
wires; the heavy bar lathes have been subsequently developed 
from it. In the more advanced types of lathes this feeding through 
the hollow spindle does not require the intervention of the attendant, 
but is performed automatically. 

The amount of preliminary work which has to be done upon a 
portion of a bar before it is ready for screwing varies. The simplest 
object is a stud, which is a parallel piece screwed up from each end. 
A bolt is a screw with a head of hexagonal, square or circular 
form, and the production of this involves turning the shank and 
shoulder and imparting convexity to the end, as well as screwing. 
But screw-threads have often to be cut on objects which are not 
primarily bolts, but which are spindles of various kinds used on 
mechanisms and machine tools, and in which reductions in the form 



TOOL 



[LATHES 



of steps have to be made, and recesses, or flanges, or other features 
produced. Out of the demands for this more complicated work, 
as well as for plain bolts and studs, has arisen the great group of 
turret or capstan lathes (fig. 31) and the automatics or automatic 
screw machines which are a high development of the turret lathes. 



Turret Lathes. The turret or capstan (fig. 32) is a device for grip- 
ping as many separate tools as there are distinct operations to be 
performed on a piece of work; the number ranges from four to as 
many as twenty in some highly elaborated machines, but five or 
six is the usual number of holes. These tools are brought round 




FIG. 31. Turret, Lathe. _ (Webster & Bennett, Ltd., Coventry.) 



A, 
B, 
C, 
D, 
E, 
F, 
H, 
J, 
K, 
M, 



Bed. 

Waste oil tray. 

Headstock. 

Hollow mandrel. 

Cones keyed to D. 

Split tapered close-in chuck, actuated by tube G. 

Toggle dogs which push G. 

Coned collar acting on H. 

Handle to slide / through sleeve on bar L. 

Rack slid on release of chuck, moving bearing /V lorward. 



0, 
P, 

ft 

5, 
T, 
V, 



Bearing to feed the work through mandrel (constituting the 
wire or bar feed). A collar is clamped on the work, and is 
pushed by the bearing N at each time of feeding. 

Cross-slide. 

Hand-wheel operating screw to travel 0. 

Turret-slide. 

Cross-handle moving Q to and fro. 

Turret or capstan. 

U, Sets of fast and loose pulleys, for open and crossed belts. 

Cone belted down to E on lathe. 



I 




FIG. 32. Plan of Set of Turret Tools. (A. Herbert, Ltd.) 



A, 
B, 

C, 



Turret. 

Tool for first operation or 
chucking. 

Cutting tools for second 
operation, starting or point- 
ing. 



D, Box tool carrying two cutters 

for third operation, rough 
turning. 

E, Similar tool for fourth opera- 

tion, finish turning. 

F, Screwing tools in head for 

final operation of screwing. 



in due succession, each one doing its little share of work, until the 
cycle of operations required to produce the object is complete, 
the cycle including such operations as turning and screwing, rough- 
ing and finishing cuts, drilling and boring. Severance of the finished 
piece is generally done by a tool or tools held by a cross-slide between 
the headstpck and turret, so termed because its movements take 
place at right angles with the axis of the machine. This also 
often performs the duty of " forming," by which is meant the shap- 
ing of the exterior portion of an object of irregular outline, by a 
tool the edge of which is an exact counterpart of the profile required. 
The exterior of a cycle hub is shaped thus, as also are numerous 
handles and other objects involving various curves and shoulders, 
&c. The tool is fed perpendicularly to the axis of the rotat- 
ing work and completes outlines at once: if this were done in 
ordinary lathes much tedious manipulation of separate tools would 
be involved. 

Automatics. But the marvel of the modern automatics (fig. 33) 
lies in the mechanism by which the cycle of operations is rendered 
absolutely independent of attendance, beyond the first adjustments 
and the insertion of a fresh bar as often as the previous one becomes 
used up. The movements of the rotating turret and of the cross- 
slide, and the feeding of the bar through the hollow spindle, take 
place within a second, at the conclusion of the operation preceding. 
These movements are effected by a set of mechanism independent 
of that by which the headstock spindle is rotated, viz. by cams 
or cam drums on a horizontal cam shaft, or other equivalent 
device, differing much in arrangement, but not principle. Move- 
ments are hastened or retarded, or pauses of some moments may 
ensue, according to the cam arrangements devised, which of course 
have to be varied for pieces of different proportions and dimensions. 
But when the machines with their tools are once set up, they will 
run for days or weeks, repeating precisely the same cycle of opera- 
tions; they are self-lubricating, and only require to be fed with 
fresh lengths of bar and to have their tools resharpened occasionally. 
Of these automatics alone there are something like a dozen distinct 
types, some with their turrets vertical, others horizontal. Not 
only so but the use of a single spindle is not always deemed suffi- 
ciently economical, and some of these designs now have two, three 
and four separate work spindles grouped in one head. 



LATHES] 



TOOL 



Specialized Lathes. Outside of these main types of lathes there 
are a large number which do not admit of group classification. 
They are designed for special duties, and only a representative list 
can be given. Lathes for turning tapered work form a limited 




FIG. 33. Automatic Lathe or Screw Machine. (A. Herbert, Ltd.) 



A, Main body. 

B, Waste oil tray. 

C, Headstock. 

D, Wire-feed tube. 

E, Slide for closing chuck. 

F, Shaft for ditto. 

G, Feed-slide. 

H, Piece of work. 

J, Turret wich box tools. 

K, Turret slide. 

L, Saddle for ditto, adjustable 

along bed. 
M, Screw Tor locating adjustable 

slide. 

N, Cut-off and forming cross- 
slide. 
O, 0, Back and front tool-holders 

on slide. 
P, Cam shaft. 
Q, Cam drum for operating 

chuck. 
R, Cam drum for operating 

turret. 
S, Cam disk for actuating 

cross-slide. 



a, a, a, Cams for actuating chuck 
movements through pins 
b, b. The cam which re- 
turns D is adjustable but 
is not in view. 

c, Feeding cam for turret. 

d,<i,Return cams for turret. 

e, e.Cams on cam disk for oper- 
ating the lever /, which 
actuates the cut-off and 
forming slide. 

T, Worm-wheel which drives 
cam shaft by a worm on 
the same shaft as the 
feed-pulley U. 

V, Handwheel on worm shaft for 
making first adjustments. 

W, Change feed disk. 

g, g.Change feed dogs adjustable 
round disk. 

X, Change feed lever. 

Y, Oil tube and spreader for 
lubricating tools and work. 

Z, Tray for tools, &c. 






number, and they include the usual provisions for ordinary turning. 
In some designs change wheels are made use of for imparting a 
definite movement of cross traverse to the tool, which being com- 
pounded with the parallel sliding movements produces the taper. 
In others an upper bed carrying the heads and work swivels on a 
lower bed, which carries the slide rest. More often tapers are 
turned by a cross adjustment of the loose poppet, or by a taper 
attachment at the rear of the lathe, which coerces the movement 
of the top or tool-carrying slide of the rest. Or, as in short tapers, 
the slide-rest is set to the required angle on its carriage. Balls 
are sometimes turned by a spherical attachment to the slide-rest 
of an ordinary lathe. Copying lathes are those in which an object 
is reproduced from a pattern precisely like the objects required. 
The commonest example is that in which gun-stocks and the spokes 
of wheels are turned, but these are used for timber, and the engineer's 
copying lathe uses a form or cam and a milling cutter. The form 
milling machine is the copying machine for metal-work. The 
manufacture of boilers has given birth to two kinds of lathes, one 
for turning the boiler ends, the other the boiler flue flanges, the 
edges of which have to be caulked. Shaft pulleys have appropriated 
a special lathe containing provision for turning the convexity of 
the faces. Lathes are duplicated in two or three ways. Two, 
four, six or eight tools sometimes operate simultaneously on a piece 
of work. Two lathes are mounted on one bed. A tool will be boring 
a hole while another is turning the edges of the same wheel. One 
will be boring, another turning a wheel tire, and so on. The rolls 
for iron and steel mills have special lathes for trueing them up. 
The thin sheet metal-work produced by spinning has given rise to 
a special kind of spinning lathe where pressure, and not cutting, 
is the method adopted. 

Methods of Holding and Rotating Work. Chucks. The term chuck 
signifies an appliance used in the lathe to hold and rotate work. 
As the dimensions and shapes of the latter vary extensively, so 
also do those of the chucks. Broadly, however, the latter corre- 
spond with the two principal classes of work done in the lathe, 
that between centres, and that held at one end only or face work. 



This of course is an extremely comprehensive classification, because 
chucks of the same name differ vastly when used in small and large 
lathes. The chucks, again, used in turret work, though they grip 
the work by one end only, differ entirely in design from the face 
chucks proper. 

Chucking between Centres. The simplest and by far the commonest 
method adopted is to drill countersunk centres at the ends of the 
work to be turned, in the centre or longitudinal axis (fig. 34, A), 
and support these on the point centres of headstock and poppet. 
The angle included by the centres is usually 60, and the points 
may enter the work to depths ranging from as little as A in- in very 
light pieces to J in., f in. or i in. in the heaviest. Obviously a 
piece centred thus cannot be rotated by the mere revolution of the 
lathe, but it has to be driven by some other agent making con- 




D 

FIG. 34. 

A, Centring and driying; a, point B, Face-plate driver or _ catch- 
centre; 6, carrier; c, driver 
fixed in slot in body of point 



centre; d, back centre; e, 
work. 



plate; a, centre; b, driver. 

C, Common heart-shaped carrier. 

D, Clement double driver; a, face- 

plate; 6, 6, drivers; c, loose 
plate carrying drivers. 

nexion between it and the mandrel. The wood turner uses a forked 
or prong centre to obtain the necessary leverage at the headstock 
end, but that would be useless in metal. A driver is therefore used, 
of which there are several forms (fig. 34), the essential element 
being a short stiff prong of metal set away from the centre, and rotat- 
ing the work directly, or against a carrier which encircles and 
pinches the work. As this method of driving sets up an unbalanced 
force, the " Clement " or double driver (fig. 34, D), was invented, 
and is frequently made use of, though not nearly so much as the 
common single driver. In large and heavy work it is frequently 
the practice to drive in another way, by the dogs of the face-plate. 
Steadies. Pieces of work which are rigid enough to withstand 
the stress of cutting do not require any support except the centres. 




FIG. 35- 

A, Travelling steady with adjust- slotted bolt holes a, a; 6, b, 

able studs a, a; b, work; brass or steel facings. 

c, tool ; d, slide-rest. C, Fixed steady with hinged top 

B, Steady with horizontal and and three setting pieces. 

vertical adjustment through 

But long and comparatively slender pieces have to be steadied at 
intermediate points (fig. 35). Of devices for this purpose there 
are many designs; some are fixed or bolted to the bed and are 
shifted when necessary to new positions, and others are bolted to 
the carriage of the slide-rest and move along with it travelling 



26 



TOOL 



[LATHES 



steadies. In some the work is steadied in a vee, or a right angle, 
in others adjustable pins or arms are brought into contact with it. 
As the pressure of the cut would cause an upward as well as back- 
ward yielding of the work, these two movements are invariably 
provided against, no matter in what ways the details of the steadies 
are worked out. Before a steady can be used, a light cut has to 
be taken in the locality where the steady has to take its bearing, 
to render the work true in that place. The travelling steady 
follows immediately behind the tool, coming in contact therefore 
with finished work continually. 

Mandrels. Some kinds of work are earned between centres 
indirectly, upon mandrels or arbors (fig. 36). This is the method 




FIG. 36. Mandrels. 

A, Plain mandrel. B, Stepped mandrel. C, Expanding mandrel, 
adopted when wheels, pulleys, bushes and similar articles are bored 
first and turned afterwards, being chucked by the bore hole, which 
fits on a mandrel. The latter is then driven between point centres 
and the bore fits the mandrel sufficiently tightly to resist the stress 
of turning. The large number of bores possible involves stocking 
a considerable number of mandrels of different diameters. As it 
is not usual to turn a mandrel as often as a piece of work requires 
chucking, economy is studied by the use of stepped mandrels, which 
comprise several diameters, say from three to a dozen. A better 
device is the expanding mandrel, of which there are several forms. 
The essential principle in all is the capacity for slight adjustments 
in diameter, amounting to from j in. to | in., by the utilization 
of a long taper. A split, springy cylinder may be moved endwise 
over a tapered body, or separate single keys or blades may be 
similarly moved. 

Face-Work. That kind of work in which support is given at the 
headstock end only, the centre of the movable poppet not being 
required, is known as face-work. It includes pieces the length of 
which ranges from something less than the diameter to about 
three or four times the diameter, the essential condition being that 
the unsupported end shall be sufficiently steady to resist the stress 
of cutting. Work which has to be bored, even though long, cannot 
be steadied on the back centre, and if long is often supported on 
a cone plate. The typical appliance used for face-work is the common 
face-plate (fig. 37). It is a plain disk, screwed on the mandrel 




FIG. 37. Face-plate. 
A, Screwed hole to fit mandrel nose. B, Slots for common bolts. 

C, Tee-slots for tee-head bolts, 
nose, and having slot holes in which bolts are inserted for the pur- 
pose of cramping pieces of work to its face. There are numerous 
forms of these clamps, and common bolts also are used. The face- 
plate may also serve to receive an intermediary, the angle-plate, 
against which work may be bolted when its shape is such as to 
render bolting directly to the plate inconvenient. 

Jaw Chucks. When a face-plate has fitted to it permanent dogs 
or jaws it is termed a dog or jaw chuck (fig. 38). In the commonest 
form the jaws are moved radially and independently, each by 
its own screw, to grip work either externally or internally. In 
some cases the dogs are loosely fitted to the holes in a plain face- 
plate. In all these types the radial setting is tentative, that is 



the jaws being independent, there is no self-centring capacity, and 
thus much time is lost. A large group, therefore, are rendered 
self-centring by the turning of a ring which actuates a face scroll 




FIG. 38. Independent Jaw Chuck. 

A, Body. b. Square heads of screws for 
a,' Recess to receive face-plate. key. 

B, Jaws or dogs. c, Tee-grooves for bolts. 

C, Screws for operating jaws. 




FIG. 39. Scroll Chuck, ungeared. 

A, Face-plate screwed to man- E, Jaws in chuck face, having 

drel nose. 

B, Back of chuck screwed to 

A. 

C, Knurled chuck body with 



scroll a on face. 
D, Chuck face. 



sectional scroll teeth en- 
gaging with scroll a, and 
moved inwards or outwards 
by the scroll when C is 
turned. 

b, Tommy or lever hole in C. 

F, Piece of work outlined. 




B, 
C, 



FIG. 40. Combination Geared 

Scroll Chuck. 

A , Back plate ; o, recess for face- 
plate. 
Pinions. 

Circular rack with scroll b on 
face. 

D, Chuck body. 

E, Jaws fitting on intermediate 

pieces c that engage with 
the scroll b. 

d, Screws for operating jaws 
independently. 




FIG. 41. Spiral Geared Chuck, 
concentric movement. (C.Taylor, 
Birmingham.) 

A, Back. 

B, Body. 

C, Spiral plate with teeth engag- 

ing in jaws D. 

E, Bevel pinions gearing with 
teeth on back of C. 



RECIPROCATING MACHINES] 



TOOL 



(fig. 39) or a circular rack with 
pinions (fig. 40), turned with 
a key which operates all the 
jaws simultaneously inwards 
or outwards. But as some 
classes of jobs have to be 
adjusted eccentrically, many 
chucks are of the combination 
type (fig. 40), capable of being 
used independently or con- 
centrically, hence termed uni- 
versal chucks. The change 
from one to the other simply 
means throwing the ring of 
teeth out of or into engage- 
ment with the pinions t>y 
means of cams or equivalent 
devices. Each type of chuck 
occurs in a large range of 
dimensions to suit lathes of all 
centres, besides which every 
lathe includes several chucks, 
large and small, in its equip- 
ment. The range of dia- 
meters which can be taken 
by any one chuck is limited, 
though the jaws are made 
with steps, in addition to the 
range afforded by the ope- 
rating screws. The " Taylor " 
spiral chucks (fig. 41) differ 

essentially from the scroll types in having the actuating threads set spirally 
on the sloping interior of a cone. The result is that the outward pressure 
of each jaw is received behind the body, because the spiral rises up at the 
back. In the ordinary scroll chucks the pressure is taken only at the bottom 
of each jaw, and the tendency to tilt and pull the teeth out of shape is very 
noticeable. The spiral, moreover, enables a stronger form of tooth to be used, 
together with a finer pitch of threads, so that the wearing area can be 
increased. 

The foregoing may be termed the standard chucks. But in addition there 
are large numbers for dealing with special classes of work. Brass finishers 
have several. Most of the hollow spindle lathes and automatics have draw-in 
or push-out chucks, in which the jaws are operated simultaneously by the 
conical bore of the encircling nose, so that their action is instantaneous and 
self-centring. They are either operated by hand, as in fig. 31, or automatically, 
as in fig. 33. There is also a large group used for drills and reamers the drill 
chucks employed in lathes as well as in drilling machines. 

II. RECIPROCATING MACHINE TOOLS 
This is the only convenient head under which to group three great classes of 

machine tools which possess the feature of reciprocation in common. It 

includes the planing, shaping and slotting machines. The feature of reciproca- 
tion is that the cutting tool is operative only in one direction; that is, it cuts 

during one stroke or movement and is idle during the return stroke. It is, 

therefore, in precisely the same condition as a hand tool such as a chisel, a 

carpenter's plane or a hand 

saw. We shall return again 

to this feature of an idle 

stroke and discuss the devices 

that exist to avoid it. 

Planing Machines. In the 

standard planer for general 

shop purposes (fig. 42) the 

piece of work to be operated 

on is attached to a horizontal o 

table moving to and fro on a 

rigid bed, and passing under- 
neath the fixed cutting tool. 

The tool is gripped in a box 

having certain neccssary'ad- 

justments and movements, so 

that the tool can be carried 

or fed transversely across the 

work, or at right angles with 

the direction of its travel, to 

take successive cuts, and also 

downwards or in a vertical 

direction. The tool-box is 

carried on a cross-slide which 

has capacity for several feet 

of vertical adjustment on up- 
right members to suit work 

of varying depths. These up-(j , 

rights or housings are bolted 

to the sides of the bed, and 

the whole framing is so rigidly 

designed that no perceptible 

tremor or yielding takes place 

under the heaviest duty im- 
posed by the stress of cutting. 




liv 



s 3 

ess 



oj C oj 
Z rt-C 



1) .-BC 

3>^ 
aji a T 

; 3*2 tj"ft3 



"2 5 



1 | 



.H 8 



ill? 1 

hll ? 

J C 4-. .0 

r-=^so> 

U1 CO J 





(I 






_ 

'i .......... J.4....4J ----- .-... 

',.,,,~, 







. 

PH 0-i Cu r_/) 



,2 



.,. 
!fJJt.& 



28 



TOOL 



[RECIPROCATING MACHINES 



Moreover, after the required adjustments have been made and the 
machine started, the travel and the return of the work- table and 
the feeding of the tool across the surface are performed by self-acting 
mechanism actuated by the reciprocations of the table itself, the 
table being driven from the belt pulleys. 



To such a design there are objections, which, though their im- 
portance has often been exaggerated, are yet real. First, the cross- 
rail and housings make a rigid enclosure over the table, which 
sometimes prevents the admission of a piece that is too large to 
pass under the cross-rail or between the housings. Out of this 




FIG. 43. 2O-in. Side Planing Machine. 

A, Bed. 

B, B, Feet. 

C, C, Work tables adjustable vertically on the faces D, D, by 

means of screws E, E, from handles F, F, through bevel 
gears. 



(G. Richards & Co., Ltd., Manchester.) 

G, Tool-box on travelling arm H, travelled by fast and loose 

pulleys J for cutting, and by pulleys K for quick return. 
L, Feed-rod with adj ustable dogs a, a, for effecting reversals through 

the belt forks b, b. 
M, Brickwork pit to receive deep objects. 




FIG. 44. 8-in. Shaping Machine. 

A, Base. 

B, Work-table, having vertical movement on carriage C, which has 

horizontal movement along the face of A, 

D, Screw for effecting vertical movement, by handle E and bevel 
gears. 

F, Screw for operating longitudinal movement with feed by hand 

or power. 

G, Tool ram. 
H, Tool-box. 

a, Worm-gear for setting tool-holder at an angle. 

b, Crank handle spindle for operating ditto. 

c, Handle for actuating down feed of tool. 



(Cunliffe & Croom, Ltd., Manchester.) 

J, Driving cone pulley actuating pinion d, disk wheel e, with slotted 
disk, and adjustable nut moving in the slot of the crank /, 
which actuates the lever g, connected to the tool ram G, the 
motion constituting the Whitworth quick return; g is pivoted 
to a block which is adjustable along a slot in G, and the 
clamping of this block in the slot regulates the position of the 
ram G, to suit the position of the work on the table. 

k, Feed disk driven by small gears from cone pulley. 

j, Pawl driven from disk through levers at various rates, and con- 
trolling the amount of rotation of the feed screw F. 

K, Conical mandrel for circular shaping, driven by worm and 
wheel /. 



RECIPROCATING MACHINES] 



TOOL 



29 



objection has arisen a new design, the side planer (fig. 43), in which 
the tool-box is carried by an arm movable along a fixed bed or base, 
and overhanging the work, which is fastened to the side of the 
base, or on angle brackets, or in a deep pit alongside. Here the 
important difference is that the work is not traversed under the 
tool as in the ordinary planer, but the tool moves over the work. 
But an evil results, due to the overhang of the tool arm, which being 
a cantilever supported at one end only is not so rigid when cutting 
as the cross-rail of the ordinary machine, supported at both ends 
on housings. The same idea is embodied in machines built in other 
respects on the reciprocating table model. Sometimes one housing 
is omitted, and the tool arm is carried on the other, being therefore 
unsupported at one end. Sometimes a housing is made to be 
removable at pleasure, to be temporarily taken away only when a 
piece of work of unusual dimensions has to be fixed on the table. 
Another objection to the common planer is this. It seems 
unmechanical in this machine to reciprocate a heavy table and 
piece of work which often weighs several tons, and let the tool 
and its holder of a few hundredweights only remain stationary. 
The mere reversal of the table absorbs much greater horse-power 



there is no limitation whatever to the length of the work, since it 
may extend to any distance beyond the base-plate. 

Shaping Machines. The shaping machine (fig. 44) does for com- 
paratively small pieces that which the planer does for long ones. 
It came later in time than the planer, being one of James Nasmyth's 
inventions, and beyond the fact that it has a reciprocating non- 
cutting return stroke it bears no resemblance to the older machine. 
Its design is briefly as follows: The piece of work to be shaped is 
attached to the top, or one of the vertical side faces, of a right- 
angled bracket or brackets. These are carried upon the face of a 
main standard and are adjustable thereon in horizontal and vertical 
directions. In small machines the ram or reciprocating arm (see 
fig. 44, G) slides in fixed guides on the top of the pillar, and the 
necessary side traverse is imparted to the work table B. To the top 
of the main standard, in one design, a carriage is fitted with hori- 
zontal traverse to cover the whole breadth, within the capacity of the 
machine, of any work to be operated on. In the largest machines 
two standards support a long bed, on which the carriage, with its 
ram, traverses past the work. These machines are frequently made 
double-headed, that is carriages, rams and work tables are dupli- 




FIG. 45. 12-in. Stroke Slotting Machine 

A, Main framing. 

B, Driving cone. 

C, D, Gears driven by cones. 

E, Shaft of L. 

F, Tool ram driven from shaft E through disk G and rod H , with 

quick return mechanism D. 
J, Counter-balance lever to ram. 

than the actual work of cutting. Hence a strong case is often 
stated for the abandonment of the common practice. But, on the 
other hand, the centre of gravity of the moving table and work 
lies low down, while when the cross-rail and housings with the cut- 
ting tool are travelled and reversed, their centre of gravity is high, 
and great precautions have to be taken to ensure steadiness of 
movement. Several planers are made thus, but they are nearly 
all of extremely massive type the pit planers. The device is 
seldom applied to those of small and medium dimensions. 

But there is a great group of planers in which the work is always 
fixed, the tools travelling. These are the wall planers, vertical 
planers or wall creepers, used chiefly by marine engine builders. 
They are necessary, because many of the castings and forgings 
are too massive to be put on the tables of the largest standard 
machines. They are therefore laid on the base-plate of the wall 
planer, and the tool-box travels up and down a tall pillar bolted to 
the wall or standing independently, and so makes vertical cutting 
strokes. In some designs horizontal strokes are provided for, or 
either vertical or horizontal as required. Here, as in the side planer, 



(Greenwood & Batley, Ltd., Leeds.) 
K, Flywheel. 
L, Driving-disk. 

M, N, Feed levers and shaft operated from disk, actuating linear 
movements of slides 0, P, and circular movement of table 

E, through gears R. 
ed motions to table. 
T, Countershaft. 

cated, and the operator can set one piece of work while the other 
is being shaped. In all cases the movement of the reciprocating 
arm, to the outer end of which the tool is attached, takes place in a 
direction transversely to the direction of movement of the carriage, 
and the tool receives no support beyond that which it receives from 
the arm which overhangs the work. Hence the shaper labours 
under the same disadvantages as the side planer it cannot operate 
over a great breadth. A shaper with a 24-in. stroke is one of large 
capacity, 16 in. being an average limit. Although the non-cutting 
stroke exists, as in the planer, the objection due to the mass of a 
reciprocating table does not exist, so that the problem does not 
assume the same magnitude as in the planer. The weak point in 
the shaper is the overhang of the arm, which renders it liable to 
spring, and renders heavy cutting difficult. Recently a novel 
design has been introduced to avoid this, the draw-cut shaper, in 
which the cutting is done on the inward or return stroke, instead of 
on the outward one. 

Slotting Machines. In the slotting machine (fig. 45) the cutting 
takes place vertically and there is a lost return stroke. All the 



TOOL 



[DRILLING MACHINES 



necessary movements save the simple reciprocating stroke are im- 
parted to the compound table on which the work is carried. These 
include two linear movements at right angles with each other and 
a circular motion capable of making a complete circle. Frequently 
a tilting adjustment is included to permit of slotting at an angle. 
The slotting machine has the disadvantage of an arm unsupported 
beyond the guides in which it moves. But the compound movements 
of the table permit of the production of shapes which cannot be done 
on planers and shapers, as circular parts and circular arcs, in com- 
bination with straight portions. Narrow key grooves in the bores 
of wheels are also readily cut, the wheels lying on the horizontal 
table, which would only be possible on planer and shaper by the use 
of awkward angle brackets, and of specially projecting tools. 

Quick return in planers is accomplished by having two distinct 
sets of gearing a slow set for cutting and a quick train for return, 
each operated from the same group of driving pulleys. The return 
travel is thus accomplished usually three, often four, times more 
quickly than the forward rate; sometimes even higher rates are 
arranged for. In the shaper 
and slotter such acceleration 
is not practicable, a rate of 
two to one being about the 
limit, and this is obtained not 
by gears, but by the slotted 
crank, the Whitworth return, 
on shapers and slotters, or by 
elliptical toothed wheels on 
slotters. The small machines 
are generally unprovided with 
this acceleration. 

The double-cutting device 
seems at first sight the best 
solution, and it is adopted on 
a number of machines, though 
still in a great minority. The 
pioneer device of this kind, 
the rotating tool-box of 
Whitworth, simply turns the 
tool round through an angle 
of 180 at the termination of 
each stroke, the movement 
being self-acting. In some 
later designs, instead of the 
box being rotated to reverse 
the tool, two tools are used 
set back to back, and the one 
that is not cutting is relieved 
for the time being, that is 
tilted to clear the work. 
Neither of these tools will 
plane up to a shoulder as will 
the ordinary ones. 

Allied Machines. The re- 
ciprocation of the tool or the 
work, generally the former, is 
adopted in several machines 
besides the standard types 
named. The plate-edge planer 
is used by platers and boiler 
makers. It is a side planer, 
the plates being bolted to a 
bed, and the tool traversing 
and cutting on one or both 
strokes. Provision is often 
included for planing edges at 
right angles. The key-seaters 
are a special type, designed 



the speed of the tools, and this controls the design of the driving 
and feeding mechanism. Another important difference is that 
between drilling or boring one or more holes simultaneously. With 
few exceptions the tool rotates and the work is stationary. The 
notable exceptions are the vertical boring lathes already mentioned. 
Obviously the demands made upon drilling machines are nearly as 
varied as those on lathes. There is little in common between the 
machines which are serviceable for the odd jobs done in the general 
shop and those which are required for the repetitive work of the 
shops which handle specialities. Provision often has to be made 
for drilling simultaneously several holes at certain centres or 
holes at various angles or to definite depths, while the mass of 
the spindles of the heavier machines renders counter-balancing 
essential. 

Bench Machines are the simplest and smallest of the group. They 
are operated either by hand or by power. In the power machines 
generally, except in the smallest, the drill is also fed downwards 
by power, by means of toothed gears. The upper part of the drilling 














~~\ 



A, Base-plate. 

B, Pillar. 

C, Radial arm. 

D, Spindle carriage. 

E, Drill spindle. 

F, Main driving cones driving vertical shaft G 

through mitre-gears H. 

J, Spur-wheels, driving from C to vertical shaft K. 

L, Mitre-wheels, driving from K to horizontal 
shaft M, having its bearings in the radial arm. 

N, Nest of mitre-wheels driving the wheel spindle 
E from M. 

O, Feed-gears to drill spindle, actuated by hand- 
wheel P or worm-gears Q. 



FIG. 46. Pillar Radial Drilling Machine, 5 ft. radius. 

R, R, Feed cones driving from shaft M to worm- 
shaft S, for self-acting feed of drill. 

T, Change-speed gears. 

U, Hand-wheel for racking carriage D along radial 
arm C. 

V, Clutch and lever for reversing direction of 
rotation of spindle. 

W, Worm-gear for turning pillar B. 

d, Handle for turning worm. 

X, Screw for adjusting the height of the radial 
arm. 

Y, Gears for actuating ditto from shaft C. 

i, Rod with handle for operating elevating gear. 



mainly to remove the work of cutting key grooves in the bores 
of wheels and pulleys from the slotting machine. The work is 
fixed on a table and the keyway cutting tool is drawn downwards 
through the bore, with several resulting practical advantages. 
Many planing machines are portable so that they may be fixed 
upon very massive work. Several gear-wheel cutting machines 
embody the reciprocating tool. 

III. DRILLING AND BORING MACHINES 

The strict distinction between the operations of drilling and 
boring is that the first initiates a hole, while the second enlarges one 
already existing. But the terms are used with some latitude. A 
combined drilling and boring machine is one which has provision 
for both functions. But when holes are of large dimensions the 
drilling machine is useless because the proportions and gears are 
unsuitable. A 6-in. drill is unusually large, but holes are bored up 
to 30 ft. or more in diameter. 

Types of Machines. The distinction between machines with 
vertical and horizontal spindles is not vital, but of convenience only. 
1 he principal controlling element in design is the mass of the work, 
which often determines whether it or the machine shall be adjusted 
relatively to each other. Also the dimensions of a hole determine 



spindle being threaded is turned by an encircling spur-wheel, operated 
very slowly by a pinion and hand-wheel by the right hand of the 
attendant, the movement being made independent of the rotation 
of the spindle. A rack sleeve encircling the spindle is also common. 
In the power machines gears are also used, but a belt on small cone 
pulleys drives from the main cone shaft at variable speeds. From 
three to four drilling and feeding speeds are provided for by the 
respective cone pulleys. Work is held on or bolted to a circular 
table, which may have provision for vertical adjustment to suit 
pieces of work of different depths, and which can usually be swung 
aside out of the way to permit of deep pieces of work being introduced, 
resting on the floor or on blocking. 

Watt Machines. One group of these machines resembles the bench 
machines in general design, but they are made to bolt to a wall 
instead of on a bench. Their value lies in the facilities which they 
afford for drilling large pieces of work lying on the floor a on block- 
ing, which could not go on the tables of the bench machines. Some- 
times a compound work-table is fastened to the floor beneath; 
and several machines also are ranged in line, by means of which long 
plates, angles, boilers or castings may be brought under the simul- 
taneous action of the group of machines. Another type is the 
radial arm machine, with or without a table beneath. In each case 



DRILLING MACHINES] 



TOOL 



an advantage gained is that a supporting pillar or standard is not 
required, its place being taken by the wall. 

Self-contained Pillar Machines include a large number having the 
above-named feature in common. In the older and less valuable 
types the framework is rigid, and the driving and feeding are by belt 
cones. But the machines being mostly of larger capacities than those 
just noted, back-gears similar to those of lathes are generally in- 
troduced. The spindles also are usually counterbalanced. The 
machine framing is bolted to a bed-plate. A circular work-table 
may or may not be included. When it is, provision is made for 
elevating the table by gears, and also for swinging it aside when deep 
work has to be put on the base-plate. 

Radial Arm Machines, In these (fig. 46) the drilling mechanism 
is carried on a radial arm which is pivoted to the pillar with the 
object of moving the drill over the work, when the latter is too massive 
to permit of convenient adjustment under the drill. The driving 
takes place through shafts at right angles, from a horizontal shaft 
carrying the cones and back-geared to a vertical one, thence to a 
horizontal one along the radial arm, whence the vertical drilling 



makers and platers. In others the spindles are adjustable in circles 
of varying radii, as in those employed for drilling the bolt holes in 
pipe flanges. In many of these the spindles are horizontal. Some 
very special multiple-spindle machines have the spindles at different 
angles, horizontal and vertical, or at angles. 

Universal Machines are a particular form of the pillar type in 
which the spindle is horizontal, moving with its carriage on a pillar 
capable of traversing horizontally along a bed; the carriage has ver- 
tical adjustment on its pillar and so commands the whole of the face 
of a large piece of work bolted to a low bed-plate adjacent to the 
machine. The term " universal " signifies that the machine com- 
bines provision for drilling, boring, tapping screws and inserting 
screw studs, facing and in some cases milling. The power required 
for boring is obtained by double and treble gears. These machines 
are used largely in marine engine works, where very massive 
castings and forgings must be operated on with their faces set 
vertically. 

Boring Machines. Many machines are classified as suitable for 
drilling and boring. That simply means that provision is made on 




FIG. 47. Lincoln Milling Machine. 

A, Bed. 

B, B, Legs. 

C, Upright. 

D, Spindle or arbor. 

E, Headstock, carrying bearings for spindle D. 

F, Tailstock, carrying point centre for tail end of spindle. 

G, Hand-wheel for effecting adjustment in height of headstock, 

through bevel-gears H and screw ./. 

K, Cross-bar connecting head- and tail-stocks, and ensuring 
equal vertical adjustment of the spindle bearings from the 
screw /. 

spindle is driven. The latter has its bearings in a carriage which 
can be traversed along the arm for adjustment of radius. The 
spindle is counterbalanced. Hand as well as power adjustments 
are included. In the work-tables of radial and rigid machines 
there is a great diversity, so that work can be set on top, or at the 
sides, or at an angle, or on compound tables, so covering all the 
requirements of practice. 

Sensitive Machines have developed greatly and have superseded 
many of the older, slower designs. The occasion for their use lies 
in the drilling of small holes, ranging up to about an inch in diameter. 
They are belt-driven, without back-gears, and usually without 
bevel-gears to change the direction of motion. The feed is by lever 
moving a rack sleeve. A slender pillar with a foot supports the 
entire mechanism, and the work-table, with a range of vertical 
adjustment. 

Multiple Spindle Machines. Many of the sensitive machines 
are fitted with two, three or more spindles operated in unison with 
a belt common to all. In other machines the multiple spindles are 
capable of adjustment for centres, as in the machines used by boiler 



(John Holroyd & Co., Ltd., Milnrow.) 
L, Speed cones for driving spindle, through pinion M and wheel 

N. 
0, Frame, carrying the bearings for the cone pulley L, and pivoted 

to the bed at a, and to the headstock E. This device keeps 

the gears M and N in engagement in all variations in the 

height of the spindle D. 
P, Q, Cones for driving the table R through worm-gears S, T, and 

spurs U, V, to the table screw. 
W, Stop for automatic knock-off to feed. 
X, Hand-wheel for turning the same screw through worm-gears 

Y, Z. 

a drilling machine for boring holes of moderate size, say up to 8 or 
10 in., by double and treble back-gears. But the real boring machine 
is of a different type. In the horizontal machines a splined bar 
actuated by suitable gears carries a boring head which holds the 
cutters, which head is both rotated with, and traversed or fed along 
the bar. The work to be bored is fixed on a table which has pro- 
vision for vertical adjustment to suit work of different dimensions. 
The boring-bar is supported at both ends. In the case of the 
largest work the boring-bar is preferably set with its axis vertically, 
and the framing of the machine is arch-like. The bar is carried in 
a bearing at the crown of the arch and driven and fed there by suit- 
able gears, while the other end of the bar rotates in the table which 
forms the base of the machine. Some boring machines for small 
engine cylinders and pump barrels have no bar proper, but a long 
boring spindle carrying cutters at the further end is supported along 
its entire length in a long stiff boss projecting from the headstock 
of the machine the snout machine. The work is bolted on a carriage 
which slides along a bed similar to a lathe bed. Many of these 
machines have two bars for boring two cylinders simultaneously. 



TOOL 



[MILLING MACHINES 



IV. MILLING MACHINES 

In milling machines rotary saw-like cutters are employed. To a 
certain extent these and some gear-cutting machines overlap because 
they have points in common. Many gear-wheel teeth are produced 
by rotary cutters on milling machines. In many machines designed 
for gear cutting only, rotary cutters alone are used. For this reason 
the two classes of machines are conveniently and naturally grouped 
together, notwithstanding that a large and increasing group of gear- 
cutting machines operate with reciprocating tools. 

The French engineer, Jacques de Vaucanson (1709-1782), is 
credited with having made the first milling cutter. The first very 
crude milling machine was made in 1818 at a gun factory in Connecti- 
cut. To-day the practice of milling ranks as of equal economic value 
with that of any other department of the machine shop, and the 
varieties of milling machines made are as highly differentiated as are 
those of any other group. An apparent incongruity which is rather 
striking is the relative disproportion between the mass of these 
machines and the small dimensions of the cutters. The failures of 
many of the early machines were largely due to a lack of appreciation 
of the intensity of the stresses involved in milling. A single-edged 
cutting tool has generally a very narrow edge in operation. Milling 
cutters are as a rule very wide by comparison, and several teeth in 
deep cuts are often in simultaneous operation. The result is that 
the machine spindle and the arbor or tool mandrel are subjected to 
severe stress, the cutter tends to spring away from the surface being 
cut, and if the framings are of light proportions they vibrate, and in- 
accuracy and chatter result. Even with the very stiff machines now 
made it is not possible to produce such accurate results on wide sur- 
faces as with the planer using a narrow-edged tool. Because 
of this great resistance and stress, cutters of over about 
an inch in width are always made with the teeth arranged 
spirally, and wide cutters which are intended for roughing 
down to compete with the planer always have either 
inserted cutters or staggered teeth. Hence the rotary cutter 
type of machine has not been able to displace the planing 
machine in wide work when great accuracy is essential. Its place 
lies in other spheres, in some of which its position is unassailable. 
Nearly all pieces of small and medium dimensions are machined as 
well by milling as by single-edged tools. All pieces which have more 
than one face to be operated on are done better in the milling machine 
than elsewhere. All pieces which have profiled outlines involving 
combinations of curves and plane faces can generally only be pro- 
duced economically by milling. Nearly all work that involves 
equal divisions, or pitchings, as in the manufacture of the cutters 
themselves, or spiral cutting, or the teeth of gear-wheels when pro- 
duced by rotary cutters, must be done in milling machines. Beyond 
these a large quantity of work lies on the border-line, where the choice 
between milling and planing, shaping, slotting, &c., is a matter for 
individual judgment and experience. It is a matter for some sur- 
prise that round the little milling cutter so many designs of machines 
have been built, varying from each other in the position of the tool 
spindles, in their number, and in the means adopted for actuating 
them and the tables which carry the work. 

A very early type of milling machine, which remains extremely 
popular, was the Lincoln. It was designed, as were all the early 
machines, for the small arms factories in the United States. The 
necessity for all the similar parts of pistols and rifles being inter- 
changeable, has had the paramount influence in the development 
of the milling machine. In the Lincoln machine as now made 
(fig. 47) the work is attached to a table, or to a vice on the table, 
which has horizontal and cross traverse movements on a bed, but 
no capacity for vertical adjustment. The cutter is held and rotated 
on an arbor driven from a headstock pulley, and supported on a tail- 
stock centre at the other end, with capacity for a good range of ver- 
tical adjustment. This is necessary both to admit pieces of work 
of different depths or thicknesses between the table and the cutter, 
and to regulate the depth of cutting (vertical feed). Around this 
general design numerous machines small and large, with many 
variations in detail, are built. But the essential feature is the ver- 
tical movement of the spindle and cutter, the support of the arbor 
(cutter spindle) at both ends, and the rigidity afforded by the bed 
which supports head- and tail-stock and table. 

The pillar and knee machines form another group which divides 
favour about equally with the Lincoln, the design being nearly of 
an opposite character. The vertical movements for setting and 
feed are imparted to the work, which in this case is carried on a 
bracket or knee that slides on the face of the pillar which supports 
the headstock. Travelling and transverse movements are imparted 
to the table slides. The cutter arbor may or may not be supported 
away from the headstock by an arched overhanging arm. None of 
these machines is of large dimensions. They are made in two leading 
designs the plain and the universal. The first embodies rectangular 
relations only, the second is a marvellous instrument both in 
its range of movements and fine degree of precision. The first 
machine of this kind was exhibited at Paris in 1867. The design 
permits the cutting of spiral grooves, the angle of which is embodied 
in the adjustment of a swivelling table and of a headstock thereon 
(universal or spiral head). The latter embodies change-gears like 



a screw-cutting lathe and worm-gear for turning the head, in com- 
bination with an index or dividing plate having several circles of 
holes, which by the insertion of an index peg permit of the work 
spindle being locked during a cut. The combinations possible with 
the division plate and worm-gear number hundreds. The head also 
has angular adjustments in the vertical direction, so that tapered 
work can be done as well as parallel. The result is that there is 
nothing in the range of spiral or parallel milling, or tapered work or 
spur or bevel-gear cutting, or cutter making, that cannot be done 
on this type of machine, and the_ accuracy of the results of equal 
divisions of pitch and angle of spiral do not depend on the human 
element, but are embodied in the mechanism. 




FIG. 48. Vertical Spindle Milling Machine. (James 
Archdale & Co., Ltd.) 

A, Main framing. 

B, Knee. 

C, Spindle, having its vertical position capable of adjustment by 

the sliding of D on A. 
E, Driving cone, belt driving over guide pulleys F to spindle 

pulley G. 

H, Enclosed gears for driving spindle by back gear. 
J, Hand-wheel for adjusting spindle vertically. 
K, K, Pulleys over which spindle is counterbalanced. 
L, Feed pulley, driven from counter shaft. 
M, Vertical feed shaft, driven from L through mitre-gears. 
N, Change gear box. 
O, Horizontal feed shaft, operating longitudinal and transverse 

feed of table through spiral and spur-gears. 

P, P, Handles for operating changes in feed speeds, nine in number. 
Q, Handle for reversing direction of motion of table R. 
S, Hand-wheel for longitudinal movement of table. 
T, Hand-wheel for effecting cross adjustments. 
V, Spiral gears indicated for effecting self-acting rotation of 

circular table W. 

X, Hand-wheel for rotation of table. 
Y, Hand-wheel for vertical movements of knee B on screw Z. 

Machines with vertical spindles (fig. 48) form another great group, 
the general construction of which resembles that either of the com- 
mon drilling machine or of the slotting machine. In many cases the 
horizontal position is preferable for tooling, in others the vertical, 
but often the matter is indifferent. For general purposes, the heavier 
class of work excepted, the vertical is more convenient. But apart 
from the fitting of a special brace to the lower end of the spindle 
which carries the cutter, the spindle is unsupported there and is 
thus liable to spring. But a brace can only be used with a milling 
cutter that operates by its edges, while one advantage of the vertical 
spindle machine is that it permits of the use of end or face cutters. 
One of the greatest advantages incidental to the vertical position 
of the spindle is that it permits of profile milling being done. One 
of the most tedious operations in the machine shop is the production 
of outlines which are not those of the regular geometric figures, 
as rectangles and circles, or combinations of the same. There is 



GEAR-CUTTING MACHINES] 



TOOL 



33 



only one way in which irregular forms can be produced cheaply 
and interchangeably, and that is by controlling the movements of 
the tool with an object of similar shape termed a "form" or 
" former," as in the well-known copying lathes, in the cam grinding 
machine, and in the forming adjuncts fitted to vertical spindle milling 
machines, so converting those into profiling machines. The prin- 
ciple and its application are alike simple. An object (the form) is 
made in hardened steel, having the same outlines as the object to be 
milled, and the slide which carries the cutter spindle has a hardened 
former pin or roller, which is pulled hard against the edges of 
the form by a suspended weight, so causing the tool to move and cut 
in the same path and in the same plane around the edges of the work. 
Here the milling machine holds a paramount place. No matter 
how many curves and straight portions may be combined in a piece, 
the machine reproduces them all faultlessly, and a hundred or a 
thousand others all precisely alike without any tentative corrections. 
Piano-millers, also termed slabbing machines, form a group that 
grows in value and in mass and capacity. They are a comparatively 
late development, becoming the chief rivals to the planing machines, 
for all the early milling was of a very light character. In general 
outlines the piano-millers closely resemble the planing machines, 
having bed, table, housings and cross-rail. The latter in the piano- 
miller carries the bearings for the cutter spindle or spindles under 
which the work travels and reciprocates. These spindles are ver- 
tical, but in some machines horizontal ones are fitted also, as in 
planers, so that three faces at right or other angles can be operated 
on simultaneously. The slabbing operations of the piano-millers do 
not indicate the full or even the principal utilities of these machines. 
To understand these it must be remembered that the cross-sections 
of very many parts which have to be tooled do not lie in single planes 
merely, but in combinations of plane surfaces, horizontal, vertical 
or angular. In working these on the planing machine separate 
settings of tools are required, and often successive settings. But 
milling cutters are built up in " gangs " to deal with such cases, and 
in this way the entire width of profile is milled at once. Horizontal 
faces, and vertical and angular edges and grooves, are tooled simul- 
taneously, with much economy in time, and the cutter profile will 
be accurately reproduced on numbers of separate pieces. Allied 
to the piano-millers are the rotary planers. They derive their name 
from the design of the cutters. An iron disk is pierced with holes 
for the insertion of a large number of separate cutters, which by the 
rotation of the disk produce plane surfaces. These are milling 
cutters, though the tools are single-edged ones, hence termed 
" inserted tooth mills." These are used on other machines besides 
the rotary planers, but the latter are massive machines built on 
the planer model, with but one housing or upright to carry the 
carriage of the cutter spindle. These machines, varied considerably 
in design, do good service on a class of work in which a very high 
degree of accuracy is not essential, as column flanges, ends of 
girders, feet of castings, and such like. 

V. GEAR-CUTTING MACHINES 

The practice of cutting the teeth of gear-wheels has grown but 
slowly. In the gears used by engineers, those of large dimensions 
are numerous, and the cost of cutting these is often prohibitive, 
though it is unnecessary in numbers of mechanisms for which 
cast wheels are as suitable as the more accurately cut ones. The 
smallest gears for machines of precision have long been produced 
by cutting, but of late years the practice has been extending to 
include those of medium and large dimensions, a movement which 
has been largely favoured by the growth of electric driving, the 
high speeds of which make great demands on reduction and trans- 
mission gears. Several new types of gear-cutting machines have 
been designed, and specialization is still growing, until the older 
machines, which would, after a fashion, cut all forms of gears, 
are being ousted from modern establishments. 

The teeth of gear-wheels are produced either by rotary milling 
cutters or by single-edged tools (fig. 49). The advantage of the 
first is that the cutter used has the same sectional form as the inter- 
tooth space, so that the act of tooth cutting imparts the shapes 
without assistance from external mechanism. But this holds good 
only in regard to spur-wheel teeth, that is, those in which the teeth 
lie parallel with the axis of the wheel. The teeth of bevel-wheels, 
though often produced by rotary cutters, can never be formed 
absolutely correctly, simply because a cutter of unalterable section 
is employed to form the shapes which are constantly changing 
in dimensions along the length of the teeth (the bevel-wheel being 
a frustum of a cone). Hence, though fair working teeth are ob- 
tained in this way, they result from the practice of varying the 
relative angles of the cutters and wheel and removing the material 
in several successive operations or traverses, often followed by a 
little correction with the file. Although this practice is still commonly 
followed in bevel-wheels of small dimensions, and was at one time 
the only method available, the practice has been changing in favour 
of shaping the teeth by a process of planing with a single-edged 
reciprocating tool. As, however, such a tool embodies no formative 
section as do the milling cutters, either it or the wheel blank, or 
both, have to be coerced and controlled by mechanism outside the 
tool itself. Around this method a number of very ingenious 

xxvn. 2 



machines have been designed, which may be broadly classed under 
two great groups the form and the generating types. 

In the form machines a pattern tooth or form-tooth is prepared 
in hardened steel, usually three times as large as the actual teeth 
to be cut, and the movement of the mechanism which carries the 
wheel blank is coerced by this form, so that the tool, reciprocated 
by its bar, produces the same shape on the reduced dimensions of 
the wheel teeth. The generating machines use no pattern tooth, 
but the principles of the tooth formation are embodied in the mechan- 
ism itself. These are very interesting designs, because they not 
only shape the teeth without a pattern tooth, but their movements 
are automatically controlled. A large number of these have been 
brought out in recent years, their growth being due to the demand 
for accurate gears for motor cars, for electric driving, and for 
general high-class engineers' work. These are so specialized that 
they can only cut the one class of gear for which they are designed 
the bevel-wheels, and these in only a moderate range of dimensions 
on a single machine of a given size. The principal bevel-gear 
cutting machines using forms or formers, are the Greenwood & 
Batley, Le Progrfes Industriel, the Bouhey (cuts helical teeth), 
the Oerlikon, which includes two types, the single and double 
cutting tools, the Gleason and the Rice. Generating machines 
include the Bilgram (the oldest), the Robey-Smith, the Monneret, 
the Warren, the Beale and the Dubosc. 




FIG. 49. Gear Cutting. 

A, Rotary milling cutter pro- D, Action of " Fellows " cutter, 

ducing tooth space. planing teeth. 

B, Planer tool operating on tooth E, Shape of " Fellows " cutter. 

flank. F, Hobbing cutter. 

C, Planer form-tool finishing G, Tapered hob beginning worm- 

tooth space. wheel. 

H, Ditto finishing. 

As the difficulties of cutting bevel-wheels with rotary cutters, 
consequent on change of section of the teeth, dp not occur in spur- 
gears, there are no examples of form machines for spur-wheel 
cutting, and only one generating planing type of machine, the 
Fellows, which produces involute teeth by a hardened steel-cutting 
pinion, which shapes wheels having any number of teeth of the 
same pitch, the cutter and blank being partly rotated between each 
cut as they roll when in engagement. 

The worm-gears appropriate a different group of machines, the 
demands on which have become more exacting since the growth 
of electric driving has brought these gears into a position of greater 
importance than they ever occupied before. With this growth 
the demand for nothing less than perfect gears has developed. 
A perfect gear is one in which the teeth of the worm-wheel are 
envelopes of the worm or screw, and this form can only be produced 
in practice in one way by using a cutter that is practically a 
serrated worm (a hob), which cuts its way into the wheel just as 
an actual worm might be supposed to mould the teeth of a wheel 
made of a plastic substance. To accomplish this the relative move- 
ments of the hob and the wheel blank are arranged to be precisely 
those of the working worm and wheel. Very few such machines 
are made. A practical compromise is effected by causing the hob 



34 



TOOL 



[GRINDING MACHINES 



both to drive and cut the blank in an ordinary machine. When 
worms are not produced by these methods the envelope cannot be 
obtained, but each tooth space is cut by an involute milling cutter 
set at the angle of thread in a universal machine, or else in one of 
the general gear-cutting machines used for spur, bevel and worm 
gears, and only capable of yielding really accurate results in the 
case of spur-wheels. 

The previous remarks relate only to the sectional forms of the 
teeth. But their pitch or distance from centre to centre requires 
dividing mechanism. This includes a main dividing or worm- 
wheel, a worm in conjunction with change gears, and a division 
plate for setting and locking the mechanism. The plate may have 
four divisions only to receive the locking lever or it may be drilled 
with a large number of holes in circles for an index peg. The 
first is adopted in the regular gear-cutters, the second on the 
universal milling machines which are used also for gear-cutting. 
In the largest number of machines this pitching has to be done by 
an attendant as often as one tooth is completed. But in a good 
number of recent machines the pitching is effected by the move- 
ments of the machine itself witnout human intervention. With 
spur-wheels the cutting proceeds until the wheel is complete, when 
the machine is often made to ring a bell to call attention to the 
fact. But in bevel-wheels only one side of the teeth all the way 
round can be done; the attendant must then effect the necessary 
settings for the other side, after which the pitchings are automatic. 

As a general rule only one tooth is being operated on at one time. 
But economy is studied in spur-gears by setting several similar 
wheels in line on a mandrel and cutting through a single tooth 
of the series at one traverse of the tool. In toothed racks the 
same device is adopted. Again, there are cases in which cutters 
are made to operate simultaneously on two, three or more adjacent 
teeth. 

Recently a generating machine of novel design has been manu- 
factured, the spur-wheel hobbing machine. In appearance the 
hob resembles that employed for cutting worm-gears, but it also 
generates the teeth of spur and spiral gears. The hob is a worm 
cut to form teeth, backed off and hardened. The section of the 
worm thread is that of a rack. Though it will cut worm-wheels, 
spiral-wheels or spur-wheels equally correctly, the method of pre- 
sentation varies. When cutting worm-wheels it is fed inwards per- 
pendicularly to the blank; when cutting spirals it is set at a suitable 
angle and fed across the face of the blank. The angle of the worm 
thread in the hob being about 2j, it has to be set by that amount 
out of parallel with the plane of the gear to be cut. It is then fed 
down the face of the wheel blank, which is rotated so as to syn- 
chronize with the rotation of the worm. This is effected through 
change gears, which are altered for wheels having different numbers 
of teeth. The advantage is that of the hob over single cutters; 
one hob serves for all wheels of the same pitch, and each wheel 
is cut absolutely correct. While using a set of single cutters many 
wheels must have their teeth only approximately correct. 

VI. GRINDING MACHINES 

The practice of finishing metallic surfaces by grinding, though 
very old, is nevertheless with regard to its rivalry with the work 
of the ordinary machine tools a development of the last part of the 
I9th century. From being a non-precision method, grinding has 
become the most perfect device for producing accurate results 
measured precisely within thousandths of an inch, ft would be 
rather difficult to mention any class of machine-shop work which 
is not now done by the grinding wheel. The most recent develop- 
ments are grinding out engine cylinders and grinding the lips of 
twist drills by automatic movements, the drills rotating constantly. 

There are five very broad divisions under which grinding machines 
may be classified, but the individual, well-defined groups or types 
might number a hundred. The main divisions are: (l) Machines 
for dealing with plane surfaces; (2) machines for plain cylindrical 
work, external and internal; (3) the universals, which embody 
movements rendering them capable of angular setting; (4) the 
tool grinders: and (5) the specialized machines. Most of these 
might be again classed under two heads, the non-precision and the 
precision types. The difference between these two classes is that 
the first does not embody provision for measuring the amount of 
material removed, while the second does. This distinction is a 
most important one. 

The underlying resemblances and the differences in the main 
designs of the groups of machines just now noted will be better 
understood if the essential conditions of grinding as a correc- 
tive process are grasped. The cardinal point is that accurate 
results are produced by wheels that are themselves being abraded 
constantly. That is not the case in steel cutting tools, or at least 
in but an infinitesimal degree. A steel tool will retain its edge for 
several hours (often for days) without the need for regrinding, 
Dut the particles of abrasive in an emery or other grinding wheel 
are being incessantly torn out and removed. A wheel in traversing 
along a shaft say of 3 ft. in length is smaller in diameter at the 
terrrujnation than at the beginning of the traverse, and therefore 
the shaft must be theoretically larger at one end than the other. 
Shafts, nevertheless, are ground parallel. The explanation is, and 



it lies at the basis of emery grinding, that the feed or amount 
removed at a single traverse is extremely minute, say a thousandth 
or half a thousandth of an inch. The minuteness of the feed 
receives compensation in the repetition and rapidity of the traverse. 
The wear of the wheel is reduced to a minimum and true work 
is produced. 

From this fact of the wear of grinding wheels two important 
results follow. One is that a traverse or lateral movement must 
always take place between the wheel and the piece of work being 
ground. This is necessary in order to prevent a mutual grooving 
action between the wheel and work. The other is that it is essential 
to provide a large range in quality of wheels, graded according to 
coarseness and fineness, of hardness and softness of emery to suit 
all the different metals and alloys. Actually about sixty grades 
are manufactured, but about a dozen will generally cover average 
shop practice. With such a choice of wheels the softest brass as 
well as the hardest tempered steel or case-hardened glass-like 
surfaces that could not possibly be cut in lathe or planer, can be 
ground with extreme accuracy. 




FIG. 50. Universal Grinding Machine, 7 in. centres; 3 ft. 6 in. 
between centres. (H. W. Ward & Co., Ltd., Birmingham.) 



Base or body, with waste 
water tray round top edge, 
and interior fitted as cup- 
boards, with shelves and 
doors. 

B, Sliding table. 

C, Swivej table. 

D, Grinding wheel. 

E, Wheel guard. 

F, Wheel headstock swivelling 

in a horizontal plane, and 
having the base graduated 
into degrees for angular 
setting. 

G, Slide carrying headstock. 

H, Hand-wheel for traversing 
table. 



/, Headstock for carrying and 
driving work, used for 
chuck work or dead centre 
work ; the base is graduated 
into degrees. 

a, Dogs, which regulate auto- 
matic reversals. An internal 
grinding fixture, not shown, 
is fitted to wheel head. 

L, Countershaft pulley driving to 
wheel pulley. 

M, Pulley driving to cones. 

N, Pulley driving to work head- 
stock pulley. 

O, Belt from line shaft. 

P, Water pipe from pump. 

Q, Water guards above table. 



Plane surfacing machines in many cases resemble in general 
outlines the well-known planing machine and the vertical boring 
mill. The wheels traverse across the work, and they are fed 
vertically to precise fractional dimensions. They fill a large place 
in finishing plane surfaces, broad and narrow alike, and have be- 
come rivals to the planing and milling machines doing a similar 
class of work. For hardened surfaces they have no rival. 

Cylindrical grinders include many subdivisions to embrace 
external and internal surfaces, either parallel or tapered, small or 



GRINDING MACHINES] 



TOOL 



35 



large. In their highest development they fulfil what are termed 
" universal " functions (fig. 50), that is, they are capable of grinding 
both external and internal cylinders, plane faces, tapers, both of 
low and high angle, and the teeth of various kinds of tools and 
cutters. These machines occur in two broad types. In one the 
axis of the revolving wheel is traversed past- the work, which 
revolves but is not traversed. In the other the reverse occurs, 
the work traversing and the axis of the wheel with its bearings 
remaining stationary. Equally satisfactory results are obtained 
by each. 

In all external cylindrical grinding, when the work can be rotated, 
the piece being ground rotates in an opposite direction to the 
rotation of the wheel (fig. 51, A). In all small pieces ground 
internally the same procedure is adopted (fig. 51, B). Incidentally, 




FIG. 51. 

A, External cylindrical grinding. B, Internal ditto. C, External 
grinding when the work is fixed. D, Internal ditto. 

mention should be made of the fineness of the fitting required and 
attained in the construction of the spindles which carry the wheels 
for internal grinding. The perfection of fitting and of the means 
of adjustment for eliminating the effects of wear in the ordinary 
spindles for external and internal grinding is remarkable. The 
spindles for internal work have to revolve at rates ranging from about 
6000 to 30,000 times ,in a minute, yet run so truly that the holes 
ground do not depart from accuracy by more than say 5^3 to rsJnnr 
of an inch. Yet so long as the work can be revolved no special 
complication of mechanism is required to ensure good results. 
The revolution of the wheel and the work is mutually helpful. The 
real difficulties arise when the work, on account of its mass or awk- 
wardness of shape, cannot be revolved. The principle embodied 
in machines designed to deal satisfactorily with such cases, though 
much diversified in detail, is the application of the planet device to 
the grinding wheels. That is, the wheel spindle rotating at a high 
speed, 6000 or 7000 revolutions per minute, is simultaneously 
carried round in a circular path, so that its axis makes about 25 
or 30 revolutions per minute (fig. 51, C and D). The diameter of 
the path is capable of adjustment with minute precision within 
wide limits to suit bores of different diameters. The periphery of 
the grinding wheel which lies farthest from its axis of revolution 
sweeps round in a path -the diameter of which equals that of the 
bore to be ground. These machines are now used largely for 
grinding out the cylinders of gas and petrol engines, valve seatings, 
the bushed holes of coupling rods, and similar classes of work. 
Many of them have their spindles set horizontally, others vertically. 

Allied to these are a relatively small but important group of 
machines used for grinding the slot links of the slide-valve gear 
of locomotive and other engines. The slot is mounted on a pivoted 
bar adjusted to the same radius as the slot to be ground, and the 
slot is moved relatively to the wheel, so producing the required 
curves. 

In another direction much development has taken place jn the 
practice of grinding. The increasing use of the milling cutter has 




FIG. 52. 



A, Grinding front edges of milling cutter. B, Grinding side 
edges of milling cutter; a, a, Tooth rests. C, Grinding face of 
formed mill. 

been the occasion for the growth and high specialization of the cutter 
grinding machines. It is essential to the efficiency of such cutters 
that regrinding shall be done without drawing the temper, and this 
can only be effected by the use of an abrasive. In the early days 
of their use the temper had to be drawn to permit of filing and 
rehardening effected with its inevitable distortion. 

Cutter grinding machines must possess universality of movements 
to deal with the numerous shapes in which milling cutters are made; 
hence they often resemble in general outlines the universal grinding 
machines. But as a rule they are built on lighter models, and with 
a smaller range of movements, because the dimensions of cutters are 



generally much smaller than those of the ordinary run of engineers' 
work which has to be ground. Frequently a single pillar or standard 
suffices to carry the mechanism. In an ordinary universal tool 
grinder all the teeth of any form of cutter can be ground pre^sely 
alike (fig. 52) excepting those having irregular profiled outlines, for 
which a special machine, or an extra attachment to an ordinary 
machine, is necessary. But little of this is done, because in such 
cases, and in many others, the faces of the teeth are ground instead 
of the edge. This idea, due to the firm of Brown & Sharpe, may 
seem a trifle, but nevertheless to it the credit is largely due for the 
economies of cutter grinding. The principle is that in the " formed 
cutter," as it is termed, the profiles of the teeth are not struck from 
the axis of revolution, but from another centre (fig. 20) ; grinding 
the tooth faces, therefore, has no effect on the shapes of the profiles, 
but only lessens the tooth thicknesses. Designed originally for 
the cutters for the teeth of gear-wheels, it has long been applied 
to profiles which involve combinations of curves. The pitching 
of the teeth is effected by a strip of metal, or tooth rest a (fig. 52), 
on which each successive tooth rests and is coerced during the 
grinding. If teeth are of special form the traverse movement of 
a spiral tooth along the rest ensures the required movement. 

Besides the cutter grinders used for milling cutters, reamers and 
screwing taps, there are two other groups of tool grinders, one for 
twist drills o^Jry and the other for the single-edged tools used in 
lathe, planer, shaper and other machines. Both these in their best 
forms are of recent development. The machines used for grinding 
twist drills embody numerous designs. Hand grinding is practically 
abandoned, the reason being that a very minute departure from 
symmetry on the two cutting lips of the drill results inevitably in 
the production of inaccurate holes. It is essential that the two 
lips be alike in regard to length, angle and clearance, and these are 
embodied in the mechanism of the grinding machines. But formerly 
in all these the drill holder had to be moved by hand around its 
pivot, and one lip ground at a time There are now some very 
beautiful machines of German manufacture in which the necessary 
movements are all automatic, derived from the continuous rotation 
of a belt pulley. The drill rotates constantly, and small amounts 
are ground off each lip in turn until the grinding is finished. The 
other group for grinding single-edged tools is a very small one. 
The correct angles for grinding are embodied in the setting of the 
machine, with the great advantage that any number of similar tools 
can be ground all alike without skilled attendance. 

Lying outside these broad types of machines there is a large and 
growing number designed for special service. The knife-grinding 
group for sharpening the planer knives used in wood-working 
machinery is a large one. Another is that for gulleting or deepening 
the teeth of circular saws as they wear. Another is designed for 
grinding the cups and cones for the ball races of cycle wheels, and 
another for grinding the hardened steel balls employed in ball 
bearings. 





B C D 

FIG. 53. Typical Grinding Wheels. 

A , Common disk held on spindle with washers and nuts. 

B, Thin disk. 

C, Flanged disk for grinding to shoulders. 

D, Bevelled disk for cutter grinding. 

E, F, Cupped and dished wheels for cutter grinding. 

G, Cup wheel for grinding on face o; diameter remains constant. 

Emery grinding is dependent for much of its success on a plentiful 
supply of water. Dry grinding, which was the original practice, 
is hardly employed now. The early difficulties of wet grinding were 
due to the want of a cementing material which would not soften 
under the action of water. Now wheels will run constantly without 
damage by water, and they are so porous that water will filter through 
them. Improvements in the manufacture of wheels, and the 
increased use of water, have concurred to render possible heavier 
and more rapid grinding without risk of distortion due to heating 
effects. In the best modern machines the provisions for water 
supply are a study in themselves, including a centrifugal pump, a 
tank, jointed piping, spraying tube, guards to protect the bearings 
and slides from damage, and trays to receive the waste water and 
conduct it back to the tank. 

There are two points of view from which the modern practice 
of grinding is now regarded one as a corrective, the other as a 



TOOL 



[SAWING MACHINES 




formative process. The first is the older and is still by far the most 
important. The second is a later ideal towards which design and 
practice have been extending. As yet 
grinding cannot compete with the work 
of the single-edged tools and milling cut- 
ters when large quantities of material 
have to be removed. Just as some 
leading firms have been designing 
stiffer machines having fuller lubri- 
cation with a view to increase the duty 
of grinding wheels, the advent of the 
high-speed steels has given a new lease 
of life to the single-edged cutting tools. 
The rivalry now lies not with the tools 
of carbon temper steel, but with high- 
speed varieties. But as a corrective 
process grinding never occupied so im- 
portant a position as it does to-day, 
and its utility continues to extend. 

The commoner forms in which grind- 
ing wheels are made are shown in fig. 53. 
These are varied largely in dimensions, 
from tiny cylindrical rollers a fraction 
of an inch in diameter for hole grind- 
ing, to big wheels of 3 ft. or more 
in diameter. Safety mountings, two 
examples of which are shown in fig. 54, 
embody means of retaining the broken 
pieces of a wheel in case it bursts. 

Sand-blast. The well-known erosive 
action of sand when driven against 
rocks and stones by the wind is utilized 
Fl G 54 Safety Devices industrially in the sand-blastapparatus, 

A, Grinding wheel, with the invention of B. C. Tilghman. The 

coned washer to retain sand . ls propelled by a current of steam 
broken pieces in case or *"' . an ,9 bem 8 delivered through a 
of fracture nozzle is directed against the surface of 

B, Cup wheel with encircling the ^ ork ' cutting it away by the action 

ring, moved backwards of ., t P e enormous number of grains 

as the wheel face wears. strlkln g th e face, each removing a very 

minute quantity of material. The 

action is very gentle, and may be modified 

by varying the class of sand and its velocity. 

Other materials, such as emery, chilled iron 

globules, &c., are employed for certain classes 

of work. _In some instances the powder is 

used dry, in others it is mixed with water, 

being then in the condition of fluid mud. The 

plant includes an air-compressing engine, an 




B 



air reservoir and the blast nozzle through which the air passes and 
propels the sand in the form of a jet. The pressures range from 
8 Ib up to about 60 tb per sq. in., depending on the class of work 
which is done. 

The peculiar advantage of the sandblast lies in its adaptability to 
the working of irregular surfaces, which could not be touched by any 
other class of grinding. The blast penetrates hollows and recesses, 
and acts over an entire surface. There are many classes of 
operation done with the sand-blast, including cleaning, frosting, 
ornamentation, engraving and sharpening. In engineers' works 
a large amount of cleaning is effected upon castings, forgings, sheets 
and other products, either preparatory to machining or to painting, 
enamelling, tinning, galvanizing or plating. Cycle frames are 
cleaned with the sand-blast after brazing. The teeth of files are 
sharpened by directing a stream of sand and water against their 
backs, with the result that the burr thrown up by the chisel when 
cutting is obliterated, and a strong form of tooth is produced. Worn 
files may also be sharpened up to equal new ones by sand-blasting 
them. Frosting glass is another useful application of the sand-blast, 
and by attaching suitable patterns or designs to the surface the sand 
may be caused to work ornamental figurings. It is a peculiar circum- 
stance that the sand has little effect upon soft and yielding substances 
in comparison with the abrasion it produces on hard surfaces, so 
that the pattern will remain undamaged, while the glass or other 
object beneath is frosted where the sand reaches it, through the 
openings. Not only can designs be worked on glass, or cut in stone, 
but perforations may be made in glass, &c., by the continued action 
of the sand, without any risk of fracture occurring. Much sand- 
blasting is performed inside closed chambers, having panes through 
which the workman watches the progress of the operation. But 
when the blast must be used in the open, protection is necessary and 
is afforded to the operator by a special helmet, which keeps out the 
flying dust and gives a supply of pure air through a tube in a 
similar fashion to the diver's helmet. 

VII. SAWING MACHINES 

Metal-sawing machines are employed extensively in engineering 
works for cutting off bars, shafts, rails, girders and risers on steel 
castings, and for getting out curved pieces which would be difficult 
and expensive to slot. There are three classes of these saws, circular, 
band and reciprocating. The first named are used for straight- 
forward work, operating at 
right or other angles, the 
second for straight cuts and 
also for curves which can- 
not be treated with circular 
saws, and the third for small 
pieces. The circular sawsem- 
body a stiff spindle, carrying 
the saw disk and driven by 
gearing. This spindle may 
be mounted in a sliding 
bearing to carry it past the 
work held on a fixed table, 
or the spindle may be sta- 
tionary and the work be 
moved along past the saw. 
The method of feeding should 
be sensitive, so that it will 
" give " and prevent damage 




A, Saw blade. 

B, Spindle. 

C, Sliding spindle carriage. 

D, Driving pulleys. 

, First pinion, connecting through train of gears to wheel F, driving 

splined shaft G. 

H, Wheel driven from sliding pinion on G. 

J, Bevel-gears, communicating the motion to spindle B. 

K, Screw for feeding carriage C along. 



P, 



FIG. 55. Cold-sawing Machine. (Isaac Hill & Son, Derby.) 

L, Three-step cone on shaft G, belted to M , connected by bevel-gears 

N and worm-gear O, to the screw K. 
Clutch for throwing in O to drive K. 

Gears connecting shaft of L direct to K, also through clutch P. 
R, Handle for operating clutch P, which thus gives slow feed when 
clutch is in mesh with O, and quick return when engaging with P. 
S, Tappet rod, having dogs struck by carriage to stop feeding. 
T , Work-table, with clamp to hold objects. 
U, H-Girder being sawn off. 



SHEARING MACHINES] 



TOOL 



37 



to the teeth, should undue stress come upon the saw. This is usually 
effected by the use of weights or springs, which allow a certain free- 
dom or latitude to the driving gears. The work is held by screw 
clamps, V-blocks being required in the case of circular objects. A 
number of pieces, such as shafts, rails or girders, can be fastened down 
close together in a pile and cut through in one operation. 

There is a very useful class of circular saw, the flush-side (fig. 55), 
ti:at is valuable for cutting close up to a surface. The disk is bolted 
to a flange on the end of the spindle with countersunk bolts, so that 
the face is quite flat. Another class of saw used for dealing with 
girders and bars is carried in bearings upon a pivoted arm, which 
is pulled downwards by a weight to give the feed. The work is 
bolted to a table below the saw. Ample lubrication, by oil or soapy 
water, is essential in cutting wrought iron and steel; it is pumped 
on the blade, keeping it cool and washing away the cuttings. 

Band-saw machines resemble in outline the familiar types employed 
for sawing wood, but they are necessarily stronger and stiffer, and 
the saws run at a much lower speed. The tables, moreover, differ 
in possessing compound slides for moving the work and in the provi- 
sion of a series of slots on the top table, whereby the object to be sawn 
is secured with bolts and clamps. The tables are moved automatic- 
ally or by hand. The rate of cutting must be varied according to 
the thickness of metal. Lubrication is effected by running the lower 
saw pulley in a bath of oil or soapy water, which is carried up, so 
keeping the blade cool and " easing " the cut. 

The reciprocating class of saw has until recently been confined to 
small types for workshop use, termed hack saws, which have a 
small blade ranging from 12 to 18 in. long. This is strained between 
a couple of bearings in a frame which is reciprocated above the work 
clamped in a vice. An arrangement of weights feeds the saw 
downwards. The larger hack saws cut off bars and girders up 
to 12 in. across, and in some there is a provision introduced for giving 
intermittent rotation to the bar, thus presenting fresh faces to 
the saw. The hack saw is of great utility for comparatively light 
work, and, as the smallest blades are cheap enough to be thrown away 
when worn out, there is no trouble and expense connected with their 
sharpening, as in the circular and band saws. An adaptation of the 
reciprocating saw is that of the jig type, which has a small blade 
set vertically and passing up through a table on which the work is 
laid. It is handy for cutting out dies and various curved outlines, 
in the same manner that fret-sawing in wood is done. 

VIII. SHEARING AND PUNCHING MACHINES 

These have much in common as regards their mode of operation. 
They are actuated either by belt and spur gearing, by steam-engine, 
by electric motor, or hydraulically. The first named is only suitable 
where arrangements can be made for driving from a line shaft. 
In view of the great convenience of the other methods of driving, 
they are coming into greater use, especially for ship-yards and other 
works where shafting is undesirable or inconvenient. 

For boiler makers' and platers' use the function of punching, and 
shearing are usually combined in one machine, the rams being placed 
at opposite ends and actuated from the same source of power. The 
last shaft in the train of gearing is set to bring its ends within the 
boxes containing the rams, and eccentrics on the shaft are moved 
within die blocks fitted to the rams, so that as the shaft revolves it 
causes the rams to move up and down and operate the shear blade and 




P, 




FlG. 56. Hydraulic Punching and Shearing Machine. (Musgrave Brothers, Leeds.) 
A, Frame. E, Punch. /, K, Main and return rams for 

B Shear blades, set angularly. F & G, Main and return rams ditto. 

C, Ram for operating blade. for punch. L, M, N, Attendant's control- 

D, Small ram for returning ditto. H, Angle shear. ling handles. 



FIG. 57. Steam Hammer, small Overhanging Type. 
(B. & S. Massey, Manchester). 

A, Standard. B, Base-plate. 

C, Anvil block (independent of standards). 

D, Tup or hammer head. 

E, Pallets, or forging blocks, attached to anvil and tup. 

Steam cylinder. 

Piston, solid with piston rod H. 

Piston valve, regulating period of admission of steam, operated 

by hand by lever K or lever N. 
Stop or throttle valve for controlling admission of steam to 

valve chest, operated by hand lever M. 
Lever in contact with roller on tup D, which moves the valve 

J automatically as the tup rises and falls. 

Lever for pre-ad justing the range of movement of N and J, 
according to its setting in the notches of the quadrant from 

a to b. 
Steam supply pipe from boiler. Q, Exhaust steam pipe. 

the punch attached to the bottom 
end. Another class of machines is 
worked by means of massive levers, 
pivoted in the framing, and actuated 
by cams on the driving shaft which 
cause the levers to rock and move 
the punches or shears up and down 
by the opposite ends. The punch 
slides are constructed to " dwell " 
for a short period at the top of the 
stroke at each revolution, thus giving 
the attendant time to place and ad- 
just the plate accurately beneath the 
punch. The same effect is obtained 
in the eccentric types of machines 
mentioned above, by a disengaging 
motion .which is thrown in by touching 
a lever, thus stopping the punch until 
the operator is ready for its descent. 
The more complete machines have an 
angle shear situated centrally, with 
V-blades for severing angle iron. The 
largest forms of shears, for massive 
plates, usually have the blade recipro- 
cated by crank or eccentrics on the 
driving shaft, coupled by connecting- 
rods to the slide. 

Hydraulic punching and shearing 
machines are used largely on account 
of their convenience, since they dis- 
pense with all belts, engines or motors 
in the vicinity, and give a very powerful 



TOOL 



[HAMMERS AND PRESSES 



stroke. The hydraulic cylinder is generally direct-connected to 
the slides, and the operator turns on the pressure water by a lever. 



work; they embody two circular blades placed with their axes 
parallel, and the sharp bevelled edges nearly in contact. The blades 
being rotated sever the plate as it is fed between them. Either 
straight or circular cuts may be made; true circles or disks are pro- 
duced by mounting the plate on a fixed stud and rotating it through 
a complete revolution past the cutters. 

IX. HAMMERS AND PRESSES 

The growth in the use of hammers actuated by steam and com- 
pressed air, and of presses worked by water power, has been remark- 
able. The precursors of the power hammers were the helve and 
the Oliver; the first named was operated by gravity, being lifted 
by a circle of cams, while the second was lifted by a spring pole 
overhead and pulled down by the foot of the workman, acting on 
a lever the hammer shaft. The first was used by the ironworkers 
and the second by the smiths, until displaced by the Nasmyth hammer 
and its extensive progeny. Even now the old helve and Oliver 
survive in some unprogressive shops. 

Steam Hammers. The original hammer as invented by James 
Nasmyth was single acting, operating simply by gravity, the function 
of the steam being to lift the hammer for each succeeding fall. The 
first improvement was made by Rigby, who took the waste steam 
exhausted from the lower side of the piston to the upper side and 
so imparted some slight pressure in the descent. It was a stage 
between the early and the present hammers. In these, high-pressure 
steam is admitted above the piston to impart a more powerful blow, 
compounded of velocity X mass, than is obtainable by gravity; 
hence they are termed double-acting hammers (fig. 57). The 
principal difficulties which have to be surmounted in their construc- 
tion are those due to the severe concussion of the blows, which 
very sensibly shake the ground over an area of many yards. Fram- 
ings are made very rigid, and in the larger hammers double, enclosing 
the hammer head between them. The foundations are fay far the 
heaviest used in any machine tools. Deep piling is often resorted 
to, supporting crossing timber balks; or concrete is laid in mass on 
which the iron anvil block is bedded. This block weighs anywhere 
between 100 and 1000 tons. The piston and its rod and the 
hammer head are generally a solid steel forging, for the piston rod 
is a weak element and cottered or screwed fittings are not trust- 
worthy. Piston valves are gener- 
ally used in preference to ordinary 
D-valves, combining simplicity 
of fitting with good balance. 
The periods of steam admission 
are under the control of the 
attendant, so that the length of 
stroke and the force of the blow 
are instantly responsive to his 
manipulation of the operating 
lever. Many hammers can be 
set to run automatically for any 
given length of stroke. 

Pneumatic Hammers. A suc- 
cessful type of hammer for the 
ordinary operations of the smithy 
is that which is actuated by com- 
pressed air. Though designs 
vary the principle is the same, 
namely, air compressed in a 
controlling cylinder (fig. 58), and 
brought into an operating or 
hammer cylinder above the piston. 
Cushioning,or releaseof the air be- 
low the piston, is under control, as 
is the pressure of the air above it. 
Drop Hammers. The require- 
ments of forged work have, be- 
sides the power hammers ope- 
FIG. 58 Pneumatic Forging rated by a po s i t i ve down stroke, 




Hammer. 

(W. & J. Player, Birmingham.) 
A , Standards. 
Base-plate. 
Anvil block. 
Tup. 
Pallets. 



B, 

C, 
D, 

E, E, 
C, 



H, 



R, 



been the cause of the develop- 
ment of an equally large group 
which are gravity hammers only 
the drop hammers. They are 
put into operation by a belt or 
belts, but the function of the 
belt is simply to lift the hammer 

Hammer cylinder, the piston to the height desired, at which 
rod of L which is attached point it is released and falls, 
to D. The place of the drop hammer 

Air compressing cylinder. is in the lighter class of smith's 
Belt pulleys which reciprocate work, as that of the steam 
by means of the crank O, hammer lies in the heavier, but 
the piston in H. there is much overlapping, since 

Handle controlling the valve small steam hammers are rivals 
between H and G. to the others in light forging. 



But, speaking generally, the largest volume of repetitive die forging 
or stamping of light articles is done under drop hammers. The 
small arms factories and the regular stamping shops scarcely use 
any other type. They may be roughly divided into three great 
groups; the belt, the board and the latest form the Brett lifter. 
In each the hammer head or tup, is lifted to any height within the 
range of lift, the height being controlled by the attendant at each 
blow. In most machines setting can be done at any constant 
height and the blows delivered automatically. Control is effected 
by hand or foot or both. Drop hammers generally have the 
advantage of working with greater rapidity than steam hammers. 
The original drop hammers, which are believed to have originated 
with the locksmiths of Birmingham and district, consisted of a 
hammer head attached to a rope, one end of which ran up over 
a loose pulley suspended in the roof, and the other was pulled by a 
man or two men, so lifting the hammer, which was then allowed to 
drop. The principle is embodied in many belt hammers to-day, 
but the pulley is driven constantly by shafting, and when the 
attendant pulls at the free end of the belt the friction of the pulley 
draws the belt over and lifts the hammer until the attendant lets 
it go. The weight lifted is greater than in the old type, but the 
labour is nevertheless very severe, and the blows are not rapid 
enough for quick forging. A far better machine is the board hammer. 
In this (fig. 59) the place of the belt is taken by an ordinary strip 
of board which passes between two rollers at the top of the hammer, 
which rollers are belt driven. The rollers are fitted on eccentric 




FIG. 59. Drop Hammer board type. 
Manchester.) 



(B. & S. Massey, 



A, A, Standards. 

B, Anvil, or baseblock. 

C, Tup. 

D, Board, fitting in slot in tup. 

E, F, Rollers gripping and lifting board. 

C, H, Pulleys actuating rollers through eccentrics J, K. 

L, Rod by which the amount of lift is regulated. 

a, Dog and lever adjustable on L, which strikes the edge b of the 

tup, releasing eccentrics and roller and allowing tup to fall. 
c, Catch on which tup rests previous to release, fitted into either 

one of the row of holes beneath, to suit various heights of drop. 
M, Mechanism struck fay the edge d of the tup, which either keeps 

the roller F clear of the board D, allowing the tup to fall, or 

brings the rollers E and F into contact, and lifts the board 

and tup. 

N, Hand-lever for operating hammer. 
O, Foot-lever for ditto, connected by chain e. 
f, Spring for lifting levers. 
P, Rod with nuts g, to compensate for wear on the rollers by the 

adjustment of roller E. 



HAMMERS AND PRESSES] 



TOOL 



39 



pins, so that the movement of levers causes them to grip the board 
for the lift, or release it for the fall, these levers being under the 
control of the attendant. They can also be set to operate automically 
for any height of lift. 

These types are all subject to much concussion and vibration, 
because the machines are self-contained ; anvil, standards and heads 
being rigidly bolted together, the concussion of every blow is trans- 
mitted through the entire mechanism. The Brett hammers (fig. 60) 
are designed to lessen this, in some cases by making the anvil distinct 
from the superstructure, and in all by connecting the lifting ropes 
to the ends of long levers which act something like elastic springs, 
absorbing vibration. The driving mechanism is also original, 
comprising a cylinder with a wing piston, which is rotated by steam 
pressure through an arc of a circle only, sufficiently to operate the 
lifting levers. Another advantage is that the lifter cylinder need 
not be immediately over the hammer, but may be situated elsewhere. 
The hammer can be operated by hand directly for each stroke, or 
be set to work automatically. 




FIG. 60. 5 cwt. Belt Drop Hammer with Brett's Lifter. 
(Brett's Patent Lifter Co., Ltd., Coventry.) 



b, 



arrest 



Buffer blocks which 
motion of lever c. 

d, Lever for automatic regula- 

tion of valve. 
/, Lever for regulating amount 

of opening of valve by hand. 
K, Foot lever for holding tup in 

either of the stops L. 

e, Spring for foot lever. 



A, A, Uprights. 

B, Anvil. 

C, Tup. 

D, Belt. 

E, Lifter cylinder. 

F, Valve casing. 

G, Rod operating valve by 

lever H. 

a, Rock shaft. 

Spring Hammers are a rather smaller group than the others. 
In these a belt-driven pulley actuates the tup through the medium 
of elastic leaf springs. The length of stroke is adjustable across 
the face of a slotted disk on the driving shaft. 

Forging Machines. The Ryder forging machine is fitted with 
four or five pairs of swage tools, the lower halves being fixed and 
the upper ones driven by a rotating eccentric shaft. The operations 
imitate those on the anvil by hand forging, but from 800 to 1200 
blows are delivered in a minute. The swages are arranged in succes- 
sion, so that an operation is begun at one end and finished at the 
other, the attendant moving the bar rapidly through the successive 
swages or dies. 

Forging Presses. These are rivals to the hammers, especially 
for heavy forgings, from which hammers are being rapidly dis- 
placed (fig. 61). It is now well understood that a hammer will not 



effect the consolidation of a massive forging right to the centre as a 

press will. The force of the hammer blow is not transmitted to the 

centre as is that of a press, nor is the 

hammer so useful in work of large 

dimensions but of no great weight. 

In railway and wagon shops the 

presses are used far more frequently 

than the hammers. A great advan- 

tage of the press is that two and 

three rams can be brought into 

operation so that a forging may be 

pressed from above, from below and 

to one side, which is of great value 

in complicated forms and in welding, 

but is not practicable in the hammers. 

Hence the forging presses have be- 

come developed for work of average 

dimensions as well as for the most 

massive. Many are of horizontal type, 

termed bull-dozers. 

Power presses for working sheet- 
metal articles include those for cut- 
ting out the blanks, termed cutting- 
out or blanking presses, and those 
for cupping or drawing the flat blank 
into shape if desired (fig. 62). The 
lower dies are held upon a bed, and 

the upper in a sliding ram, moved FIG. 61. Hydraulic Forg- 
up and down by a cam or crank- ing Press. (Fielding & Platt, 
shaft. A clutch mechanism is fitted, Ltd., Gloucester.) 
by means of which this shaft is 
connected with or disconnected from 




^4 fable 
' 



, i j . . . . ... 

the heavy driving-wheel at will to c Drawbac k ram for return- 

give a single stroke or a series of j ng g 

strokes to the ram. In the normal D Horizontal ram. 

state the ram remains stationary at Controlling valves. 

the top position. The lightest presses 

are driven direct by belt on the crank-shaft pulley, but in the heavier 

classes spur-gearing must be interposed between the pulley shaft 

and the final shaft. The operation of drawing requires an encircling 

die which presses on the blank as it lies on its die, the cupping 

of the blank being effected by the downward motion of the plunger. 




Sectional Elevation. Front Elevation. 

FIG. 62. Power Press. 

A, Main frame. 

B, Bed for attaching dies. 

C, Central slide. 

D, Outer slide. 

E, Belt pulleys on shaft, geared to wheel F thrown in by clutch 

to drive its shaft, which has two crank pins to reciprocate D 
and a cam disk actuating C. 

G Extractor rocked downwards as slide rises to raise lever H and 
work an ejector rod, forcing finished article out of die. 

This is why the machine shown in fig. 62 has an outer slide D, which 
is made to " dwell " with an even pressure, while the middle ram 
is moving down and drawing out the article. Blanking and cupping 
may be done as one continuous operation if the work is shallow. 

Inclinable presses are employed for certain classes of work, the 
object being to let the stamped articles slide down the slope of the 
bed as rapidly as they are produced, instead of having to be removed 
by the operator. Much work can be placed on the dies by hand, 
but for producing large quantities of small articles automatic feeds 



TOOL 



[PORTABLE TOOLS 



are employed whenever possible. A good deal of work is produced 
from flat sheet, supplied in the form of a roll and fed through rollers 
by intermittent movements to the dies. Circular turn-tables are 
also used, operated by ratchet devices, which turn the tables round 
to bring a ring of pockets, carrying the pieces, successively under 
the dies; the attendant keeps the pockets supplied, but his hands 
do not come near the dies. 

X. PORTABLE TOOLS 

The growth of portable machine tools is one of the remarkable 
movements of the present day. To some extent they have always 
been used, notably in the drilling and tapping operations of loco- 
motive fire-boxes, but 'not until recently to any important extent 
in the ordinary fitting and erecting shops. The main reason lay 
in the difficulties due to transmission of power by ropes or shafts. 
The employment of compressed air, water, electricity and flexible 
shafts, by which long distances can be covered, has given new life 
to the portable system, which is destined to occupy a place of even 
greater importance than it does at present. The reason for the grow- 
ing desirability of these tools is to be seen in the massive character 
of much engine and machine construction of the present time. 
Although firms that undertake the largest work can generally arrange 
to tool the individual parts on machines of massive sizes, that only 
meets a part of the difficulty. Very big work cannot be treated 
like that of small or even medium dimensions, done repetitively; 
that is, it is not practicable to drill and bore and ream and provide 
for the fitting of every piece by the aid of templets and jigs, while 
the work lies on the machine, but a great deal of adjustment and 
mutual fitting has to be accomplished in the course of erection. 
Therein lies the opportunity for the portable machine. If this is 
not used the alternatives are partial dismantling of the work and 
the transference of certain portions to machines or hand work. 
Another cause has been the substitution of machining for much hand 
work formerly done on massive constructions. 

The principal operations for which portable tools are designed are 
the following: Drilling, screwing, cutting the seatings for keys, 
planing short portions of work, facings for the attachment of other 
pieces, as brackets and bearings, hammering operations, as in making 
welded joints, caulking the edges of boiler plates, chipping with 
hammer and chisel, riveting, ramming sand in foundry moulds, 
planing ships' decks, and some operations of lesser magnitude. 

Portable tools are used in various ways. The first and most 
obvious is to attach them directly to the casting, forging or machine 
which is being built up. Thus a drilling machine will be clamped 
just where it is required to operate. Or if it has to be used on a 
large plane surface as a ship's deck, an electrical machine is suitable, 
in which magnetic attraction is set up between the foot of the machine 
and the deck sufficient to hold it down. A key-seating machine 
will be clamped on the shaft in which a keygroove has to be cut. 
A drilling machine may be fastened to a pipe with a chain embracing 
the pipe. Very many of the drills, and all the caulking and chipping 
hammers, are grasped in the hands and so thrust to their work. 
The tapping of screw holes is mostly done in this way, a common 
example being the holes for the stay bolts in the fire-boxes of steam 
boilers. 

Another later method which has been introduced and practised 
in a few shops consists in installing a cast-iron floor-plate of large 
area, planed truly and provided with bolt holes and slots. On this 
a massive casting, forging or piece of work undergoing erection will 
be bolted. Then the portable tools planers, drills, &c., as required 
will be bolted to the table and brought into operation on the various 
sections of the work, several sometimes operating simultaneously. 
This method is to a certain extent coming into rivalry with the 
abnormal growth of machine tools, the development of which has 
been greatly accelerated by the massive dimensions of productions 
which only became possible by the substitution of steel made by 
the Bessemer and Siemens processes for iron. 

The reciprocating motion necessary to effect hammering, chipping 
or caulking operations is produced by the action of a solid piston, 
sliding in a cylinder (fig. 63) and driven sharply against the end 
of the tool by the inrush of compressed air, being then returned 
for another stroke. The strokes range in number up to as many 
as 2000 per minute in some cases. For heavy riveting a " long- 
stroke " hammer is employed, having a longer barrel than the 
chipping hammer shown in fig. 63, in order to obtain a greater force 
of blow. The operator grasps the hammer by the handle, with his 
fingers or thumb on the controlling lever, and as long as this is held 
down the blows continue. The air-supply pipe is flexible, so that 
it does not impede the movements of the workman. The tools at 
the end of the cylinder are simply held in a socket, so that they can 
be changed rapidly. 

Rotative motion can be produced either by electric or pneumatic 
motors, and both systems are in wide use. Pneumatic motors are 
very suitable when an air-compressing plant is already laid down 
for other tools, while if electricity is used in the works portable tools 
operated by this agent may be employed instead of the pneumatic 
ones. In the electric drills (fig. 64) a small motor is fitted within 
the body and_ connected by spur-gears to the spindle to effect suitable 
speed reduction. A switch provides for stopping and starting the 
motor; the current is brought through a flexible cable which, like 



pneumatic hose, is armoured with wire to protect it from damage. 
The smallest drills are simply gripped in the operator's hand and 




FIG. 63. Tierney Pneumatic Chipping Hammer. (The Globe 
Pneumatic Engineering Co., Ltd.) 

A, Cylinder. 

B, Tool socket, carrying chisel C. 

D, Piston, which strikes the back of C. 

E, Handle, screwed and clamped to A. 

F, Trigger or lever clasped by operator's hand and opening valve G, 

admitting compressed air through connexion H, up passage J, 
through valve-box K, past valve L, and so against end of D, 
moving it towards C. As soon as the groove in the piston D 
registers with the hole M, air is admitted from a small hole 
(not shown), passes round the groove through hole M and 
passage N to the rear of the valve. This acting on the back of 
the valve throws it forward, thus shutting off the supply to the 
rear of the piston and permitting a small quantity of air to flow 
to the forward end of the piston for driving it in a backward 
direction. As soon as the air pressure is relieved on the 
back of the valve by the uncovering of exhaust holes (not 
seen) by the piston D, the valve is returned to the original 
position, owing to the air constantly pressing on the small area 
of the valve. 

pushed up to the work; larger ones are supported by a pillar and 
arm, against which the thrust is taken, and the feed given by turning 
a screw at intervals. 




FIG. 64. Electrically-driven Hand Drill. (Kramos Ltd., Bath.) 

A, Body, cast in aluminium, with handles a, a. 

B, Motor, with revolving armature C, connected by spur-gears D, 

to the drill spindle E, fitted with ball thrust bearings. 
F, Switch, operated by attendant pushing in a plug; the current 
is brought by flexible wires through the right-hand handle a. 

Pneumatic drills are usually worked by little motors having 
oscillating cylinders, by which the air and exhaust ports are covered 
and uncovered. They run at a high speed and are geared down 
to the spindle. In some cases two cylinders are used, but often 
four are fitted to give a powerful and equable turning moment. 
Grinding machines are also built with air motors directly coupled 
to the wheel spindle, the machines being moved about over the work 
by handles. 

Another class of portable tools is driven, not by self-contained 
motors, but from an outside source of power, which is conveyed to 
the tools through flexible shafts built up of a series of spiral springs, 
or through flexible joints which form a connexion that permits the 
shaft to bend round corners and accommodate itself to any position 
in which the tool may be placed. The advantage of this is that the 
tool itself is much lightened, since there is no motor, and it can 
therefore be easily handled. Thus a drill simply contains the 
spindle, running in a frame which carries bevel-gears for transmitting 
the motion of the flexible shaft. Portable grinders also have nothing 
but the spindle, wheel and frame. 

XI. APPLIANCES 

Appliances are vastly more numerous in a modern shop than in 
the older works, largely on account of the more repetitive character 



WOOD-WORKING MACHINERY] 



TOOL 






of the operations done and of the desire to eliminate human labour, 
with its greater cost and chances of inaccuracy in the finished pro- 
duct. On all machines there are numerous aids by which the fixing 
of the work is facilitated. Many of these consist of simple packing 
blocks, by which heights are adjusted. These reach their higher 
developments in wedge-shaped packings, some of which are operated 
by a screw, while others act directly by screws. In some cases the 
exact height can be ascertained by observing graduations on 
the packings. Circular work is held in V-blocks, which occur in 
numerous modified forms. Various kinds of straps, clamps and bolts 
are used for gripping work with sufficient security to enable it to 
withstand the stress of the heaviest cutting. The highest develop- 
ment of all is attained in the templets and jigs, which are now 
indispensable in all modern shops, and which increase in number 
and complexity as the product of the shop becomes more specialized. 
A templet is a piece of metal cut to a definite shape, which being 
laid upon the work becomes a guide for striking the same shape 
on the surface of the work with a pointed scriber, and by which the 
tooling of any number of similar pieces is done without the labour 
of lining out each separate piece. Obviously, in such a case the 
degree of accuracy of the tooling still depends on the machine hand, 
who may work exactly, or only approximately, to these lines. Hence 
a great advance is made in the jig, which may be defined generally 
as a templet that is clamped rigidly to the work, or a box in which 
the work to be tooled is held. No marking off is done, but the jig 
becomes the actual guide for the operation of the cutting tools. 
The operation most frequently performed in jigs is drilling. Then 
the holes in the jig receive and coerce the drills, so that the holes 
made cannot vary in the least degree from those already in the jig. 
As it will often happen that hundreds or thousands of similar pieces 
will have to be tooled in this manner, holes in jigs are generally 
bushed with hardened steel, which is capable of enduring very 
lengthy service, and which can be renewed when worn. This is 
a simple illustration, but many jigs are of an extremely elaborate 
character, for it is obvious that the cost of a jig, though it may run 
into many pounds, becomes a mere trifle when spread over some 
thousands of pieces of work. 

XII. WOOD-WORKING MACHINERY 

There is a large range of various classes of tools for performing 
the operations on timber, from the rough log to the finished product. 
Division is effected by saws, planing and finishing to outlines by 
knives or cutters, boring by augers and smoothing by sandpaper. 

The first operation is that of tree-felling, which is often effected 
by machine, consisting of a reciprocating blade, working horizontally 
in a frame and moved by a steam cylinder. The boiler is separate, 
so that the machine may be transported about and set to work over 
a considerable area, steam being conveyed to it by a flexible pipe. 
When the trees are brought into the saw-mills in the form of logs, 
i.e. with the branches lopped off, they are often cross-cut to reduce 
them to suitable lengths. This operation is effected either by a 
reciprocating saw, operated by a pulley and crank, or by an electric 
motor, or else with a circular saw, travelling on a carriage which 
moves the saw through the log laid in front of it. The next opera- 
tion, that of division or breaking-down into smaller portions, is 
done by saws of various types, according to the class of work. The 
oldest form of machine is the frame-saw, which is still used very 
largely. It comprises a framing within which a saw-gate or saw- 
frame is reciprocated up and down by a crank; the frame holds a 
number of saws or webs of flat form, strained up tightly with wedges 
or cotters between the top and bottom of the frame, the distance 
between the saws being capable of variation to, suit boards of all 
thicknesses. The log is fed longitudinally to the gang of saws upon 
carriages, which are of two types. In the roller-feed, which is 
suitable tor comparatively even and straight logs, ribbed rollers 
in front and behind the saws obtain a bite on the top and bottom 
of the timber and feed it forward by their rotation. In the rack-feed 
the log is mounted bodily upon a long carriage that runs by rollers 
upon a set of rails, and the carriage is travelled along by pinions and 
racks, which give a positive feed regardless of the shape of the log. 
The carriage in the roller-feed machines is only represented by a 
couple of plain trolleys supporting the timber at back and front. 
The feed is obtained through a friction wheel of V-shape, with a 
smooth pawl, called the silent feed; the wheel is given a partial 
rotation at each down stroke of the saw-gate to turn the rollers or 
the pinions for carrying forward the log. The division of the timber 
may be either into deals or flitches, or planks or boards. In the 
last-named case as many as fifty saw-blades are sometimes held in 
a frame. 

For the more valuable hardwoods a single blade reciprocating 
saw, operated horizontally, is used very largely, the machine being 
termed a board-cutter. The log is clamped to a travelling table, 
passing underneath the saw, which is strained in a frame sliding 
on a cross-rail that can be adjusted up or down on a couple of up- 
rights like a planing machine. The saw is worked from a crank and 
connecting-rod. As only one board is sawn at a time the attendant 
is able to see the figuring of the timber and to avoid waste when bad 
places are encountered. 

A machine much more rapid in operation is the horizontal band- 



saw, modelled on the lines of the above machine, but with a band- 
saw blade running over two pulleys, at a high speed, of about 7000 ft. 
per minute. The saws are very thin, so that a minimum of wood is 
wasted in the cut or " kerf,' a very important consideration in 
dealing with costly woods. Vertical band-saws, having one pulley 
above the other so that the blade runs vertically, are very popular 
in America; they occupy less floor space than the horizontal types. 
It is necessary to present the log from the side, and it is therefore 
clamped by dogs upon a carriage running on rails, with provision 
for feeding the log laterally to the saw by sliding ways on the carriage. 

The use of circular saws for breaking-down is confined chiefly 
to squaring up heavy balks, which need only a cut on each side, or 
for cutting thick slabs. The thickness of the saw entails considerable 
waste of wood, and a large amount of power is required for driving. 
The machines are termed rack-benches, and comprise a long divided 
table built up of thin plates and travelling past the fixed saw upon 
rollers, the movement being effected by a rack and pinion. 

Re-sawing machines are those designed for further cutting-up 
deals, flitches, planks, &c., already broken out from the log, into 
boards and other scantlings. The deal and flitch frames are built 
on the model of the frame-saws first described, but with the differ- 
ences that roller feed is always used, because the stuff is smooth and 
easily fed, and that the back of the timber is run against fences to 
keep it moving in a straight line. In the double equilibrium frames, 
which are much favoured, there are two sets of saws in separate 
frames connected by rods to opposite crank-shafts, so that as one 
frame is rising the other is going down ; the forces are thus balanced 
and vibration is diminished, so that the machines can be speeded 
rather higher. Re-sawing is also done on circular and band saws 
of various types, fitted with fences for guiding the timber and 
controlling the thicknesses. 

The cross-cut saws constitute another large group. They are 
employed for cutting-off various classes of stuff, after breaking-down 
or re-sawing, and are of circular saw type. The pendulum saw is 
a suspended form, comprising a circular saw at the bottom of a hang- 
ing arm, which can be pulled over by the attendant to draw the 
saw through a piece of wood laid on a bench beneath. Circular 
saws are also mounted in tables or benches and made to part off 
stuff moved laterally upon a sliding-table. When there is sufficient 
repetition work machines with two or more saws are used to cut 
one or more pieces to accurate length without the necessity for 
measurement. 

The lighter classes of circular and band-saws, employed for sawing 
up comparatively small pieces of timber, embody numerous provisions 
for quickening output. The plain saw benches, with circular saws, 
are the simplest class, consisting merely of a framed table or bench 
carrying bearings for the saw spindle and a fence on the top to guide 
the wood. A mechanical feed is incorporated in the heavier machines 
to push the timber along. The rope-feed mechanism includes a 
drum driven at varying rates and giving motion to a rope, which is 
connected with a hook to the timber, to drag it along past the saw, 
roller supports on rails taking the weight at each end of the bench. 
Roller-feed saws propel the stuff by the contact of vertical fluted 
rollers placed opposite the fence. Other classes of saws for joinery 
work, &c., are constructed with rising and falling spindles, so that 
the saw may be made to project more or less from the table, this 
provision being necessary in grooving and tonguing with special 
types of saws. The same effect is obtained by making the table 
instead of the spindle rise and fall. 

As it is necessary to use different saws for ripping (with the grain) 
and cross-cutting, some machines embody two saws so that work 
can be cut to shape on the same machine. These " dimension saws " 
have two spindles at the opposite ends of a pivoted arm that can 
be turned on a central pin to bring one or the other saw above as 
required. In cases where much angular and intricate sawing is 
done universal benches are employed, having in addition to the 
double saws a tilting motion to the table, which in conjunction with 
various special fittings enables the sawyer to produce a large range 
of pieces for any class of construction. 

Band-saws, which have a thin narrow blade, are adapted especi- 
ally for curved sawing and cutting-out work which the circular saw 
cannot manage. The usual design of machine (fig. 65) comprises a stiff 
standard supporting a lower pulley in fixed bearings, and an upper 
one in a sliding bearing, which by means of a weight or spring is 
caused to rise and maintain an even tension on the saw blade as it 
is driven by the lower pulley, and runs the upper one. India-rubber 
tires are placed around the pulley rims to prevent damage to the 
saw teeth. The table, placed between the pulleys, may be angled 
for cutting bevel work. It is necessary, in order to do true work, 
to guide the saw blade above and below the cut, and it is therefore 
run in guides consisting of flat strips, in combination with anti- 
friction rollers which take the backward thrust of the saw. Fret 
or jig saws are a small class with a vertical reciprocating blade, 
employed chiefly for cutting out interior portions which necessitate 
threading the saw first through a hole. 

Planing machines, used for truing up the surfaces of wood after 
sawing, depend for their action upon rapidly revolving knives 
fastened to flat-sided cutter blocks. The simplest machines, the 
hand-planers, have a cutter cylinder revolving between two flat 



TOOL 



[WOOD-WORKING MACHINERY 



table slides adjustable for height to support the wood while it is 
pushed along over the knives by the hand. A fence guides it in a 
straight line. Exact thicknessing is done on another type of 
machine, the panel planer or thicknesser, in which the cutter cylinder 
revolves above -the table and the stuff is fed through by rollers above 




FIG. 65. Band-sawing Machine with 30 in. pulleys. 
(Thomas White & Sons, Paisley.) 

A, Cast-iron cored frame. 

B, Fast and loose pulleys driving pulley C. 
D, Belt shipper operated by handle E. 

F, Upper saw pulley, with its shaft carried in swivel bearing. 

G, Screw for raising or lowering F to suit saw. 

H, Spring to maintain even tension on saw, by raising E. 

J, Counterbalanced guide bar, having a Jackson guide K at bottom ; 
K has wooden strips embracing the saw and a ball-bearing 
roller against which the back runs, while / is adjusted up or 
down to bring K as near to the work as convenient. 

L, Table, with slit for saw; it may be canted for bevel sawing, by 
means of hand worm-gear M. 

N, Protective casing to saw. 

0, Guard to prevent saw flying over in case of breakage. 

and below. By altering the height of the table the thickness of 
wood can be varied. Double machines include a cutter cylinder 
above and below the timber, so that the upper and under sides are 
planed simultaneously. A combination of the hand-planer and 
the thicknesser is useful in cases where space or expenditure must 
be limited. 

When large quantities of planed stuff are wanted, such as for 
flooring-boards, &c., other types of machines are employed. The 
four-cutter planers are the most rapid in output, and the timber 
is passed through them at a high rate, ranging up to 150 ft. per 
minute. There is first a revolving cutter cylinder, which roughs 
off the underside of the stuff, whence it passes (being propelled by 
rollers) to a fixed knife which imparts a very smooth face. A little 
farther on in the machine two vertical cutter blocks are encountered 
which carry cutters to plane or tongue or mould the edges, after 
which another cylinder above finishes the top face. Similar types 
of machines are made to produce mouldings, using four cutters 
shaped to suit the pattern required. 

Moulding is also done on the vertical spindle shapers, which carry 
a cutter or cutters at the top of a spindle projecting through a flat 
table. The work is slid over the table and controlled by touching 
a collar below the cutter. Any form may be given to the cutters 
to produce different profiles. Some special moulding machines 



use a cutter at the end of a spindle projecting downwards from an 
arm overhanging a table, an arrangement which enables recessing 
and carving to be performed. 

Boring machines comprise rotating spindles and feeding mechanism 
to actuate augers. The single spindle machines are satisfactory 
enough for ordinary work, but when a number of differently sized 
holes have to be bored in a single piece of work, or in rapid succession, 
it is the practice to employ a machine with a number of spindles, so 
that a succession of augers of graduated diameters may be ready 
to use at will. 

Mortising or cutting slots is done in vertical machines with a 
reciprocating spindle, operated either by hand or by crank disk 
and pulleys. The tool that cuts the mortise resembles a wood- 
worker's chisel, but is of stouter form and has a suitable shank to 
fit in the spindle. The latter can be reversed to turn round and let 
the chisel face in the opposite direction for cutting at each end of a 




Machine with graduated stroke. 
i Sons, Johnstone.) 



FIG. 66. Mortising and Boring 
(John McDowall <5 

A, Frame. 

B, Auger head, driven by belt C. 

D, Mortising chisel reciprocated up and down by crank-disk E. 

F, G, Levers connecting crank-pin to spindle of D. 

H, Treadle connected to F; a gradually increasing stroke is 
imparted to the chisel by depressing H, which brings F, G 
into play and continually lengthens the stroke of D, cutting 
the mortise without shock. 

/, Fast and loose pulleys driving E. 

K, Cord actuated from shaft of /, which reverses the chisel when 
the handle L is moved and makes it cut in the reverse 
position. 

M, Knee raised or lowered by hand-wheel and screw. 

N, Cross-slide, adjusted by hand-wheel and screw. 

O, Longitudinal slide, moved by rack and pinion and hand- 
wheel. 

P, Timber vice. 

mortise. A boring spindle is often incorporated with the machine 
to make holes for the mortising chisel to start in (fig. 66). Another 
class of mortiser employs a square hollow chisel, inside of which an 
auger rotates and first bores a hole, leaving to the chisel the duty 
of finishing out the corners. The chain mortiser is another type; 
it has an endless chain of flat links, sharpened to make cutting teeth, 
and is run around a bar and a roller at a high speed, so that when 
fed into the wood a recess or mortise is cut out. 

Tenoning machines, designed to cut the reduced ends or tenons 
to fit in mortises, perform their work by the aid of cutter blocks, 
revolved on horizontal sp : ndles above and below the timber, which 
is fed laterally upon a sliding carriage. 

Dovetailing is effected by revolving cutters in machines having 
mechanism for pitching out the cuts, or if the work warrants it an 
entire row of dovetails is made at one traverse, by fitting a row of 



MEASUREMENT] 



TOOL 



43 



cutters and feeding simultaneously. Corner-locking, or cutting 
parallel tongues and grooves in the edges of boxes, &c., is a rather 
more rapid operation than dovetailing, and is done with suitable 
cutter blocks or disks of appropriate thickness and pitching apart. 

The general joiner, as its name implies, will do a large variety of 
operations, and is used in shops and on estates where a complete 
plant of machines would be out of the question. It usually has a 
circular saw and sometimes a band-saw also, together with planing 
and moulding apparatus, a moulding spindle, boring spindle and 
tenoning apparatus. 

The lathes used in woodworking comprise the plain hand types 
with a simple T-rest on which the turner rests the tools to deal with 
the work revolving between centres, and the copying or Blanchard 
lathes, in which a master form or copy is rotated and caused by the 
contact and coercion of a roller to move the cutter rest in a corre- 
sponding fashion, so that the work is cut away until it exactly 
matches the shape of the copy. 

Sand-papering machines, which finish the surface of wood to a 
high degree, deal with both flat and curved faces. Flat boards, 
panels, &c., can be done by contact against revolving drums or 
disks covered with glass-paper, being fed along over them by hand 
or by rotating rollers. In one class of machine a revolving disk is 
placed at the end of a series of jointed arms, by which the disk can 
be moved about over the work resting on a table underneath. 

XIII. MEASUREMENT 

An advance of the greatest importance made in mechanical 
engineering is that of measurement. Since the beginning of the loth 
century steady movement has been going on in this direction until it 
seems impossible that much greater refinement can now be looked for. 
Probably the chief advances to be expected will lie in the general 
extension in workshop practice of the knowledge already acquired, 
rather than in the acquisition of higher degrees of refinement. 

Methods of measurement adopted in woodworking have but little 
application in high-class engineers' work. They are adopted, how- 
ever, to a considerable extent in the metal trades which are allied 
to engineering, as sheet metal working, girder work, &c. When a 
carpenter or joiner sets about constructing a door, window sash, 
roof or box he takes a two-foot rule, a flat lead pencil, and marks off 
the dimensions and lines by which he intends to work. If he has to 
work very carefully, then instead of using a pencil he cuts a line 
with the edge of a keen scriber or chisel-like tool, by which to saw, 
plane or chisel. If outlines are curved, the compasses are brought 
into requisition, and these cut a fine line or lines on the surface of 
the wood. But in any case the eye alone judges of the coincidence 
of the cutting with the lines marked. Whether the tool used be saw, 
chisel, gouge or plane, the woodworker estimates by sight alone 
whether or not the lines marked are worked by. 

The broad difference between his method and that of the engineer's 
machinist lies in this, that while the first tests his work by the eye, 
the second judges of its accuracy or otherwise by the sense of touch. 
It may seem that there cannot be very much difference in these two 
methods, but there is. To the first, the sixty-fourth part of an inch 
is a fine dimension, to the second one-thousandth of an inch is rather 
coarse. Now the thickness of tissue paper is about one-thousandth 
of an inch, and no one could possibly work so closely as that by the 
eye alone. Engineers' steel rules usually have one inch which is 
divided into one hundred parts. Tolerably keen sight is required 
to distinguish those divisions, and few could work by them by ocular 
measurement alone, that is, by placing them in direct juxtaposition 
with the work. A thousandth part of an inch seems by com- 
parison a fine dimension. But it is very coarse when considered 
in relation to modern methods of measurement. In what are called 
" limit gauges " the plugs and rings are made of slightly different 
dimensions. If a plug is made a thousandth of an inch less than 
its ring it will slip tnrough it easily with very perceptible slop. 
The common rule is therefore scarcely seen in modern machine 
shop, while the common calipers fill but a secondary place, their 
function having been invaded by the gauges. A minute dimension 
cannot be tested by lines of division on a rule, neither can a dimen- 
sion which should be fixed be tested with high precision with a 
movable caliper of ordinary type. Yet it must not be supposed 
that the adoption of the system of gauging instead of the older 
methods of rule measurement relieves men of responsibility. The 
instruments of precision require delicate handling. Rough forcing 
of gauges will not yield correct results. A clumsy workman is as 
much out of place in a modern machine shop as he would be in a 
watch factory. Without correctness of measurement mechanical 
constructions would be impossible, and the older device of mutual 
fitting of parts is of lessening value in face of the growth of the inter- 
changeable system, of international standards, and of automatic 
machine tools which are run with no intervention save that of feeding 
stock. 

The two broad divisions of measurement by sight and by contact 
are represented in a vast number of instruments. To the first- 
named belong the numerous rules in wood and metal and with 
English and metric divisions, and the scales which are used for 
setting out dimensions on drawings smaller than those of the real 
objects, but strictly proportional thereto. The second include all 



the gauges. These are either fixed or movable, an important sub- 
division. The first embrace two groups one for daily workshop 
service, the other for testing and correcting the wear of these, hence 
termed " reference gauges." They are either made to exact standard 
sizes, or they embody " limits of tolerance," that is, allowances for 
certain classes of fits, and for the minute degrees of inaccuracy 
which are permissible in an interchangeable system of manufacture. 
The movable group includes a movable portion, either correspond- 
ing with one leg of a caliper or having an adjustable rod, with pro- 
vision for precise measurement in the form of a vernier or of a screw 
thread divided micrometrically. These may be of general character 
for testing internal or external diameters, or for special functions 
as screw threads. Subtitles indicate some particular aspect or 
design of the gauges, as " plug and ring," " caliper," " horseshoe," 
" depth," " rod," " end measure," &c. So severe are the require- 
ments demanded of instruments of measurement that the manu- 
facture of the finer kinds remains a speciality in the hands of a very 
few firms. The cost and experience necessary are so great that 
prices rule high for the best instruments. As these, however, are 
not required for ordinary workshop use, two or three grades are 
manufactured, the limits of inaccuracy being usually stated and a 
guarantee given that these are not exceeded. 

Measurement by Sight. Rules and Scales. The rules are used 
for marking off distances and dimensions in conjunction with other 
instruments, as scribers, compasses, dividers, squares; and for test- 
ing and checking dimensions when marked, and work in course of 
reduction or erection, directly or from calipers. They are made in 
boxwood and in steel, the latter being either rigid or flexible, as 
when required to go round curves. Rules are fitted in combination 
with other instruments, as sliding calipers, squares, depth gauges, 
&c. The scales are of boxwood, of ivory, the value of which is dis- 
counted by its shrinkage, and of paper. They are of flat section 
with bevelled edges, and of oval and of triangular sections, each 
giving a thin edge to facilitate readings. They are fully divided, 
or open divided; in the first case each division is alike subdivided, 
in the second only the end ones are thus treated. 

The Gauges. Fixed Gauges. These now embrace several kinds, 
the typical forms being represented by the cylindrical or plug and 
ring gauges and by the caliper form or snap gauges. The principle 
in each is that a definite dimension being embodied in the gauge, 
the workman has not to refer to the rule, either directly or through 
the medium of a caliper. This distinction, though slight, is of 
immense importance in modern manufacturing. Broadly it corre- 
sponds with the difference between the older heterogeneous and the 
present interchangeable systems. 

Plug and Ring Gauges. The principal ones and the originals of 
all the rest, termed Whitworth gauges after the inventor, are the 
plug and ring gauges (fig. 67, A and 
B). The principle on which they 
depend is that if the two gauges are 
made to fit with perfect accuracy, 
without tightness on the one hand 
or slop on the other, then any 
work which is measured or turned 
and bored or ground by them will 
also fit with equal accuracy. Bored 
holes are tested by the plug gauge, 
and spindles are tested by the 
ring gauge, and such spindles and 
holes make a close fit if the work 
is done carefully. Of course, in prac- 
tice, there is very much variation in 
the character of the work done, 
and the finest gauges are too fine 
for a large proportion of engineers' 
work. It is possible to make these 
gauges within 5^ of an inch. AB p , nd 
But they are seldom required so c ' niffprem-p o-amrp 
fine as that for shop use; VA a is ' g D ed reference eau^e 
generally fine enough. For general " 

shop work the gauges are made to within about r^Va of an 
inch. Standard gauges in which the plug and ring are of the 
same diameter will only fit by the application of a thin film of oil 
and by keeping the plug in slight movement within the ring. 
Without these precautions the two would " seize " so hard that they 
could not be separated without force and injury. 

Plug and Ring v. Horseshoe Gauges. The horseshoe, snap or 
caliper gauges (fig. 68) are often used in preference to the plug and 
ring types. They are preferred because the surfaces in contact 
are narrow. These occur in various designs, with and without 
handles, separately and in combination and in a much larger range 
of dimensions than the plug and ring. Ring gauges are not quite 
such delicate instruments as the fixed caliper gauges. But since 
they measure diameter only, and turned work is not always quite 
circular, the caliper gauges are not so convenient for measurement 
as the round gauges, which fit in the same manner as the parts have 
to fit to one another. 

Fixed Gauges. Limit Gauges. Some fits have to be what 
is termed in the shops " driving fits," that is, so tight that they 




44 



TOOL 



[MEASUREMENT 



have to be effected by driving with a hammer or a press, while 
others have to be " working fits," suitable, say, for the revolution of 
a loose pulley on its shaft or of an axle in its bearings. The " limit " 
or " difference gauges " (figs. 67 and 68) are designed for producing 
these working fits ; that is, the plug and ring gauges differ in dimen- 
sions so that the work bored will drive tightly, or slide freely over 




FIG. 68. 



A, Separate caliper or snap C, Difference gauge. 

gauges. D, Newall adjustable limit 

B, Combined internal and ex- gauge. 

ternal gauges. a, b, Plugs. 

the work turned. These are variously sub-classified. The system 
which is generally accepted is embodied in the gauges by the Newall 
Engineering Co. These embrace force fits, which require the applica- 
tion of a screw or hydraulic press; driving fits, that require less 
power, as that of a hammer; push fits, in which a spindle can be 
thrust into its hole by hand; and running fits, such as that of shafts 
in bearings. Fixed gauges are made for each of these, but as this 
involves a heavy outlay the Newall firm have adjustable limit 
gauges (fig. 68, D) for external dimensions, the standard plug being 
used for holes. The setting is done by screwed plugs or anvils 
adjusted by reference bars. In all these gauges the " go on " and 
" not go on " ends respectively are stamped on the gauge, or the 
equivalents of -f- and . 

Fixed Reference Gauges. Reference Disks and End Measuring 
Rods. Shop working gauges become in time so damaged by service 
that they fail to measure so accurately as when new. To correct 
these errors reference gauges are provided, by which the inaccuracy of 
the worn ones is brought to the test. These are never used in the 
shops for actual measurement of work, but are only kept for checking 
the truth of the working gauges. They include disk, stepped and 
end measurement gauges. The disk and the stepped are used for 
testing the ring gauges, the stepped kind comprising essentially a 
collection of disks in one piece (fig. 67, D). The end measure pieces 
test the external gauges. The end measure standard lengths 
made by the Pratt & Whitney Co. are so accurate that any sizes 
taken at random in any numbers from } in. to 4 in., varying by 
sixteenths of an inch, will, when placed end to end, make up an exact 
length ; this is a difficult test, since slight variations in the lengths of 
the components would add up materially when multiplied by the 
number of pieces. The ends are ground off with diamond dust or 
emery in a special machine under water, and are so true that one 
piece will support another by cohesive force, and this though the 
surfaces are less than } in. square. 

Movable Gauges. This extensive group may be regarded as 
compounded of the common caliper and the Whitworth measuring 
machine. They are required when precise dimensions have to be 
ascertained in whole numbers and minute fractional parts. They 
combine the sense of touch by contact, as in the calipers, with the 
exact dimensions obtained by inspection of graduated scales, either 
the vernier or the micrometer screw. If gauges must not vary by 
more than nrfrinr of an inch, which is the limit imposed by 
modern shop ideals, then instruments must be capable of measuring 
to finer dimensions than this. Hence, while the coarser classes of 
micrometers read directly to tiftnv P art of an inch, the finest 
measure up to-iojftnnj of an inch, about 200 times as fine as the 
diameter of a human hair. They range in price correspondingly 
from about a sovereign to 100. 

Ttif Calipers. Common calipers (fig. 69) are adjusted over or 
within work, and the dimensions are taken therefrom by a rule or a 
gauge. They usually have no provision for minute adjustment 
beyond the gentle tapping of one of the legs when setting. In some 
forms screw adjustment is provided, and in a few instances a vernier 
attachment on the side of the pivot opposite to the legs. 

Vernier Calipers. The vernier fitting, so named after its inventor, 
Pierre Vernier, in 1631, is fitted to numerous calipers and caliper 
rules. It is applied to calipers for engineers' use to read toryinr 
of an inch without requiring a magnifier. The beam of the caliper 
is divided into inches and tenths of the inch, and each tenth into 



fourths and the vernier into twenty-five parts, or the beam is divided 
into fiftieths of an inch (fig. 70) and the vernier has 20 divisions to 
19 on the rule. The caliperiaws are adapted to take both external 
and internal dimensions. These " beam calipers " are also made 
for metric divisions. Minor variations in design by different 
manufacturers are numerous. 




FIG. 69. Calipers. 

A, Ordinary external type, adjusted by tapping the legs. 

B, Type adjusted by screw in auxiliary leg. 

C, Screw calipers, opened by contraction of curved spring and closed 

by nut. 

D, Self-registering caliper, with pointer moving over quadrant. 

E, Common internal type. 

F, Screw type with spring. 

G, Combined internal and external for measuring chambered holes. 
H, Compass caliper for finding centres. 

J, Keyhole caliper for measuring from hole to outside of boss. 




FIG. 70. Vernier Caliper. 
A, Beam; B, vernier; C, fixed jaw; D, movable jaw; E, 
clamping head; F, abutment head, with adjusting screw a, for 
fine adjustment of D. 




So oo 



o 




FIG. 71. Measuring Machine. (The Newall Engineering Co.) 

A, Hollow base or bed, mounted on three points. 

B, Measuring or fast headstock. 

C, Movable head, or tailstock. 

D, Spirit-level to indicate alterations in length of piece being 

measured due to changes in temperature, termed the indi- 
cator or comparator. 

E, Measuring screw. 

F, Nut for rapid adjustment of ditto. 

G, Knob of speed screw for slow movement of ditto. 
H, Dividing and measuring wheel. 

J, Vernier or reading bar. 

a, a, Points between which contact is made. 



MEASUREMENT] 



TOOL 



45 



Micrometer Calipers are the direct offspring of the Whitworth 
measuring machine. In the original form of this machine a screw 
of 20 threads to the inch, turned by a worm-wheel of 200 teeth 
and single-threaded worm, had a wheel on the axis of the worm with 
250 divisions on its circumference, so that an adjustment of IB oh) OB of 
an inch was possible. The costly measuring machines made to-day 
have a dividing wheel on the screw, but they combine modifications 
to ensure freedom from error, the fruits of prolonged experience. 
Good machines are made by the Whitworth, the Pratt & Whitney, 
the Newall (fig. 71), and the Brown & Sharpe firms. These are 
used for testing purposes. But there are immense numbers of small 
instruments, the micrometer calipers (fig. 72), made for general 
shop use, measuring directly to rjVj of an inch, and in the 

B 




FIG. 72. Micrometer Calipers. (Brown & Sharpe Mfg. Co.) 

A, Frames. a, Adjusting nuts for taking up 

B, Anvil or abutment. 

C, Hub divided longitudinally. b, 

D, Spindle with micrometer 1 c, 

screw. 

E, Thimble, divided circularly. 



wear. 

Clamping nut. 

Ratchet stop, which slips under 
undue pressure to ensure 
uniform measurement. 



hands of careful men easily to half and quarter thousandths ; these 
cost from i to i, IDS. only. In these the subdivision of the turns 
of the screw is effected by circular graduations. Usually the screw 




at a. a 





FIG. 73. Beam Micrometer Calipers. 

C, Abutment block with screw 

c for fine adjustment. 

d, Clamping screws. 

D, Micrometer. 

e. Anvil. 



A, Beam. 

B, Head, adjustable by equal 

inch divisions, by lines a, a, 
or holes b, b, and plug b' 
holes bushed. 



pitch is 40 to the inch, and the circular divisions number 25, so that 
a movement of one division indicates that the screw has been ad- 
vanced fa of 4 V r 10*00 f an . inch. Provision for correcting or 
taking up the effects of wear is included in these designs (e.g. at 
a in fig. 72), and varies with different manufacturers. A vernier is 
sometimes fitted in addition, in very high class instruments, to the 
circular divisions, so that readings of ten thousandths of an inch can 
be taken. Beam micrometer calipers (fig. 73) take several inches 
in length, the micrometer being reserved for fractional parts of the 
inch only. 

Depth Gauges. It is often necessary to measure the depth of 
one portion of a piece of work below another part, or the height of 
one portion relatively to a lower one. To hold a rule perpendicularly 
and take a sight is not an accurate method, because the same 
objections apply to this as to rule measurement in general. There 
are many depth gauges made with rule divisions simply, and then 
these have the advantage of a shouldered face which rests upon the 
Upper portion of the work and from which the rule measurement is 




FIG. 74. Depth Gauges. 

A, Plain round rod a, sliding in head b, and pinched with screw c. 

B, Rule a, graduated into inches or metric divisions, sliding on head 

b, in grooved head of clamping screw c. 

C, Slocomb depth gauge, fitted with micrometer, a, Rod marked in 

half inches, sliding in head b ; c, hub ; d, thimble corresponding 
with similar divided parts in the micrometer calipers; e, clamp- 
ing screw. 

taken (fig. 74). These generally have a clamping arrangement. 
But for very accurate work either the vernier or the micrometer 
fitting is applied, so that depths can be measured in thousandths 
of an inch, or sometimes in sixty-fourths, or in metric subdivisions. 




FIG. 75. Rod Gauges. 

A, Pratt & Whitney gauge, a, Tube split at ends; 6, 6, chucks 

clamping tube on plain rod c, and screwed end d. Rough 
adjustment is made on rod c, of which several are provided; 
fine adjustment is by screwed end d. 

B, Sawyer gauge, a, Body; 6, extension rods for rough adjust- 

ment, several being supplied and pinched with screw c; 
d, screwed end with graduated head ; e, reading arm extending 
from body over graduations; /, clamping screw. 

Rod Gauges. When internal diameters have to be taken, too 
large for plug gauges or calipers to span, the usual custom is to set 
a rod of iron or steel across, file it till it fits the bore, and then 
measure its length with a rule. More accurate as well as adjust- 
able are the rod gauges (fig. 75) to which the vernier or the micro- 
meter are fitted. These occur in a few varied designs. 

Screw Thread Gauges. The taking of linear dimensions, though 
provided for so admirably by the systems of gauging just dis- 
cussed, does not cover the important section of screw measurement. 
This is a department of the highest importance. In most English 
shops the only test to-day of the size of a screw or nut is the use 
of a standard screw or nut. That there is variation in these is 
evidenced by the necessity for fitting nuts to bolts when large 



4 6 



TOOL 



[MEASUREMENT 



numbers of these are being assembled, after they have been used 
in temporary erections or when nuts are brought from the stores 
to fit studs or bolts cut in the shop. This method may suffice in 
many classes of work, but it is utterly unsuited to an interchange- 
able system; and when there is a fair amount of the latter firms 
sometimes make thread gauges of their own, in general form like 
the plug and ring gauges, using a hard quality of steel for small 
sizes or a tough quality of cast iron for the larger. These, though 
not hardened, will endure for a long time if treated carefully. But 




B 2 

FIG. 76. Screw Thread Gauges. (Pratt & Whitney Co.) 

A, Plug gauge; a, size of tapping hole; b, thread. 

B, Ring gauge; a, pins to prevent lateral movement; b, adjusting 
screw for opening gauge ; c, screw for closing ditto. 

though very useful and far better than none at all they lack two 
essentials. They are simply accommodation gauges, made to an 
existing tap or die, and do not therefore embody any precise abso- 
lute measurement, nor do they include 
any means for measuring variations from 
standard, nor are they hardened. To 
produce gauges to fulfil these require- 
ments demands an original standard to 
work by, micrometric measurements, and 
the means of grinding after the harden- 
ing process. These requirements are 
fulfilled in the screw thread gauges and 
calipers of the Pratt & Whitney and the 
Brown & Sharpe companies. The essen- 
tial feature of a screw gauge is that it 
measures the sides of the threads with- 
out risk of a possible false reading due 
to contact on the bottom or top of the 
V. This is fulfilled by flatting the top 
and making the bottom of the gauge 
keen. The Pratt & Whitney gauges are 
made as a plug and ring (fig. 76), the 
plug being solid and the ring capable of 
precise adjustment round it. There is 
a plain round end, ground and lapped 
exactly to the standard size of the bottom 
of the thread, a dimension which is 



of an inch (fig. 77). They are used in some kinds of lathe chuck 
work, but their principal value is in fitting and erecting the finer 
mechanisms. 




FIG. 77. Indicator. 

A, Base; B, stem; C, arm; D, pointer or feeler, pivoted at 
a, and magnifying movement of the work E upon the scale b; 
F, spring to return D to zero. 

Surface Plates and Cognate Forms. Allied to the gauges are the 
instruments for testing the truth of plane surfaces: the surface 
plates, straight-edges and winding strips. The origination of plane 
surfaces by scraping, until the mutual coincidence of three plates, 
is secured, was due to Whitworth. These surface plates (fig. 78, A) 
fill an important place in workshop practice, since in the best 
work plane surfaces are tested on them and corrected by scraping. 
To a large extent the precision grinding machines have lessened 
the value of scraping, put it is still retained for machine slides 
and other work of a similar class. In the shops there are two 
classes of surface plates: those employed daily about the shops, 
the accuracy of which becomes impaired in time, and the standard 






C, Common square. 

D, Square with adjustable blade. 



obliterated in the threaded end because of the bottoms of the 
angles being made keen for clearance. There are three kinds of 
this class of gauge made; the first and most expensive is hardened 
and ground in the angle, while the second is hardened but not 
ground. The first is intended for use when a very perfect gauge 
is required, the second for ordinary shop usage. The third is 



made unhardened for purposes of reference simply, and it is 
not brought into contact with the work to be tested at all, 
but measurements are taken by calipers; in every detail it repre- 
sents the standard threads. The Brown & Sharpe appliance is 
of quite a different character. It is a micrometer caliper having 
a fixed V and a movable point between which the screw to be 
measured is embraced. By the reading of the micrometer and 
the use of a constant the diameter of any thread in the middle 
of the thread can be estimated. 

Miscellaneous. The foregoing do not exhaust the gauges. There 
are gauges for the sectional shapes of screw threads of all pitches, 
gauges for drilled holes that have to be screwed, gauges for the 
depth and thickness of the teeth of gear-wheels, gauges for the tapers 
of machine spindles, gauges for key-grooves, &c. There are also 
the woodworker's gauges the marking and cutting, the panel, 
the mortise and the long-tooth. 

Indicators are a small group of measuring instruments of a rather 
peculiar character. They magnify the most minute error by adapta- 
tions of long and short lever arms. The Bath, the Starrett and the 
Brown & Sharpe are familiar in high-class shops. Some simply 
magnify inaccuracy, but in one type an index reads to thousandths 



FIG. 78. 

A, Surface plate ; a, protecting cover for ditto 

when not in use. 

B, Large ribbed straight-edge. 

plate or plates employed for test and correction. Straight-edges 
are derived from the surface plates, or may be originated like them. 
The largest are made of cast-iron, ribbed and curved on one edge, 
to prevent flexure, and provided 
with feet (fig. 78, B). But the 
smaller straight-edges are gener- 



ally parallel, and a similar pair 
constitutes " winding strips," by 
which any twist or departure 
from a plane surface is detected. 
Squares, of which there are numer- 
ous designs (fig. 78, C and D), are 
straight-edges set at right angles. 
Bevels or Devel-squares (fig. 79), 
are straight-edges comprising a 
stock and a blade, which are ad- 
justable for angle in relation to 
each other. Shop protractors often p JG 

include a blade adjustable for ^ Common bevel 
angle, forming a bevel with gradua- B ' Universal bev l for test ; ng 
tions. Spirit-levels test the hon- , ana \K 

zontal truth of surfaces. Many 

levels have two bubble tubes at right angles with each other, one 
of which tests the truth of vertical faces. Generally levels have 
flat feet, but some are made of V-section to fit over shafting. The 
common plumb-bob is in frequent use for locating the vertical 
position of centres not in the same horizontal plane. When a 




TOOLE TOP 



47 






plumb-bob is combined with a parallel straight-edge the term plumb- 
rule is applied. It tests the truth of vertical surface more accurately 
than a spirit-level. (J. G. H.) 

TOOLE, JOHN LAWRENCE (1832-1906), English actor, son 
of an old employe of the East India Company who for many years 
acted as toast-master in the City of London, was born in London 
on the i2th of March 1832. He was educated at the City of 
London School, and started life in a wine merchant's office; but 
his natural propensity for comic acting was not to be denied, and 
after some practice as an amateur with the City Histrionic Club, 
he definitely took to the stage in 1852, appearing in Dublin as 
Simmons in The Spitalfields Weaver. He gained experience in 
the provinces, and in 1854 made his first professional appearance 
in London at the St James's theatre, acting Samuel Pepys in 
The King's Rival and Weazel in My Friend the Major. In 1857, 
having just had a great success as Paul Pry, he met Henry 
Irving in Edinburgh, and recommended him to go to' London; 
and their friendship remained thenceforth of the closest kind. 
In 1858 Toole joined Webster at the Adelphi, and established 
his popularity as a comedian, among other parts creating Joe 
Spriggins in Id on parle fran$ais. In 1868 he was engaged at 
the Gaiety, appearing among other pieces in Thespis, the first 
Gilbert and Sullivan collaboration. His fame was at its height 
in 1874, when he went on tour to the United States, but he failed 
to reproduce there the success he had in England. In 1879 he 
took the " Folly " theatre in London, which he renamed " Toole's " 
in 1882. He was constantly away in the provinces, but he pro- 
duced here a number of plays: H. J. Byron's Upper Crust and 
Auntie; Pinero's Hester's Mystery and Girls and Boys; burlesques 
such as Paw Claudian, and, later, J. M. Barrie's Walker, London. 
But his appearances gradually became fewer, and after 1893 he 
was seen no more on the London stage, while his theatre was 
pulled down shortly afterwards for an extension of Charing Cross 
Hospital. He published his reminiscences in 1888. Toole 
married in 1854; and the death of his only son in 1879, and later 
of his wife and daughter, had distressing effects on his health; 
attacks of gout, from 1886 onwards, crippled him, and ultimately 
he retired to Brighton, where after a long illness he died on the 
3oth of July 1906. In his prime he was immensely popular, 
and also immensely funny in a way which depended a good deal 
on his tricks and delivery of words. He excelled in what may 
be called Dickens parts combining humour and pathos. He 
was a good man of business, and left a considerable fortune, 
out of which he made a number of bequests to charity and to 
his friends. His genial and sympathetic nature was no less 
conspicuous off the stage than on it. 

TOOMBS, ROBERT (1810-1885), American political leader, 
was born near Washington, Wilkes county, Georgia, on the 
2nd of July 1810. He was educated at Franklin College (univer- 
sity of Georgia), at Union College, Schenectady, New York, 
from which he graduated in 1828, and at the law school of the 
university of Virginia. He was admitted to the bar in 1830, 
and served in the Georgia House of Representatives (1838, 
1840-1841 and 1843-1844), in the Federal House of Represen- 
tatives (1845-1853), and in the United States Senate (1853- 
1861). He opposed the annexation of Texas, the Mexican War, 
President Polk s Oregon policy, and the Walker Tariff of 1846. 
In common with Alexander H. Stephens and Howell Cobb, he 
supported the Compromise Measures of 1850, denounced the 
Nashville Convention, opposed the secessionists in Georgia, and 
helped to frame the famous Georgia platform (1850). His 
position and that of Southern Unionists during the decade 1850- 
1860 has often been misunderstood. They disapproved of 
secession, not because they considered it wrong in principle, 
but because they considered it inexpedient. On the dissolution 
of the Whig party Toombs went over to the Democrats. He 
favoured the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, the admission of Kansas 
under the Lecompton Constitution, and the English Bill (1858), 
and on the 24th of June 1856 introduced in the Senate the 
Toombs Bill, which proposed a constitutional convention in 
Kansas under conditions which were acknowledged by various 
anti-slavery leaders as fair, and which mark the greatest con- 



cessions made by the pro-slavery senators during the Kansas 
struggle. The bill did not provide for the submission of the 
constitution to popular vote, and the silence on this point of the 
territorial law under which the Lecompton Constitution of 
Kansas was framed in 1857 was the crux of the Lecompton 
struggle (see KANSAS). In the presidential campaign of 1860 
he supported John C. Breckinridge, and on the 22nd of December, 
soon after the election of Lincoln, sent a telegram to Georgia 
which asserted that " secession by the 4th of March next should 
be thundered forth from the ballot-box by the united voice of 
Georgia." He delivered a farewell address in the Senate 
(Jan. 7, 1861), returned to Georgia, and with Governor Joseph 
E. Brown led the fight for secession against Stephens and 
Herschel V. Johnson (1812-1880). His influence was a most 
powerful factor in inducing the " old-line Whigs " to support 
immediate secession. After a short term as secretary of state in 
President Davis's cabinet, he entered the army (July 21, 1861),, 
and served first as a brigadier-general in the Army of Northern 
Virginia and after 1863 as adjutant and inspector-general of 
General G. W. Smith's division of Georgia militia. He then spent 
two years in exile in Cuba, France and England, but returned to 
Georgia in 1867, and resumed the practice of law. Owing to his 
refusal to take the oath of allegiance, he was never restored to the 
full rights of citizenship. He died at his home in Washington, 
Georgia, on the 1 5th of December 1885. 

See Pleasant A. Stovall, Robert Toombs, Statesman, Speaker, 
Soldier, Sage (New York, 1892). 

TOOTHWORT, the popular name for a small British plant of 
curious form and growth, known botanically as Lathraea squa- 
maria. It grows parasitically on roots, chiefly of hazel, in shady 
places such as hedge sides. It consists of a branched whitish 
underground stem closely covered with thick fleshy colourless 
leaves, which are bent over so as to hide the under surface; 
irregular cavities communicating with the exterior are formed 
in the thickness of the leaf. On the inner wall of these chambers 
are stalked hairs, which when stimulated by the touch of an 
insect send out delicate filaments by means of which the insect 
is killed and digested. The only portions that appear above 
ground are the short flower-bearing shoots, which bear a spike of 
two-lipped dull purple flowers. The scales which represent the 
leaves also secrete water, which escapes and softens the ground 
around the plant. Lathraea is closely allied to another British 
parasitic plant, broomrape (Orobanche). 

TOOWOOMBA, a town of Aubigny county, Queensland, 
Australia, 76 m. by rail W. by N. of Ipswich, and 101 m. from 
Brisbane. It is situated on the summit of the Great Dividing 
Range, and is the centre of the rich pastoral and agricultural 
district of Darling Downs. The chief buildings are the town-hall, 
a large theatre, a school of arts and a library; the Christian 
Brothers College and several handsome churches. The industries 
are brewing, tanning, soap-boiling, flour-milling, malting, iron- 
founding, saw-milling and jam-making. Vineyards are culti- 
vated by a German colony and large quantities of wine are made. 
The town received a municipal charter in 1860, and during the 
governorship of Lord Lamington (1896-1897) became the summer 
residence of the governor and his staff. Pop. (1901), 9137; 
within the five-mile radius, 14,087. 

TOP (cf. Dan. top, Ger. Topf, also meaning pot), a toy consist- 
ing of a body of conical, circular or oval shape with a point or 
peg on which it turns or is made to whirl. The twisting or whirl- 
ing motion is applied by whipping or lashing when it is a " whip- 
ping top " or " peg-top," or by the rapid unwinding of a string 
tightly wound round a head or handle. When the body is 
hollow this results in a whirring noise, whence the name " hum- 
ming top." Other kinds of tops are made as supports for coloured 
disks which on revolving show a kaleidoscopic variation of 
patterns. The top is also used in certain games of chance, when 
it is generally known as a " teetotum." There are many references 
to it in ancient classical literature. The Greek terms for the 
toy are /3e/ij3t^, which was evidently the whipping or peg top 
(Arist. Birds, 1461), and orpo/SiXos, a humming top, spun by a 
string (Plato, Rep. iv. 436 E.). In Homer (//. xiv. 413) the word 



TOPAZ TOPEKA 



orpo/Lt/Sos seems to point to the humming top. The Latin name 
for the top was turbo. This word and the Greek /ioju/3os are 
sometimes translated by " top " when they refer to the 
instrument used in the Dionysiac mysteries, which, when 
whirled in the air by a string, produced a booming noise. This 
was no doubt the equivalent of the " bull roarer " (q.v.). Strutt 
(Games and Pastimes, 491) says that the top was known in 
England as early as the I4th century. For the scientific 
properties of the top see GYROSCOPE and GYROSTAT. 

This word must be distinguished from that signifying the highest 
or uppermost part of anything. It appears to have meant origin- 
ally a tuft or crest of hair, cf. Ger. Zopf, Du. top, Icel. topps, &c. ; 
it is allied to Eng. " tap," a spike for a cask, and " tip,' point. 
Some etymologists have identified the two words, the toy being 
so called from spinning on its top or tip, but the two German 
forms seem to prove conclusively that the words are different. 

TOPAZ, a mineral usually found in connexion with granitic 
rocks and used, when fine, as a gem-stone. It is believed that 
the topaz of modern mineralogists was unknown to the ancients, 
and that the stone described under the name of Toirdftos, in 
allusion to its occurrence on an island in the Red Sea known as 
TOTraf tos i^tros, was the mineral which is now termed chrysolite 
or peridot (q.v.). The Hebrew pitdah, translated " topaz " in 
the Old Testament, may also have been the chrysolite. 

Topaz crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, usually with a 
prismatic habit (figs, i and 2). Many of the crystals, like those 
from Saxony and Siberia, are rich in faces, and present with the 
prisms a complicated combination of pyramids and domes. The 
faces of the prism-zone are usually striated vertically. Doubly- 
terminated crystals are rare, and sometimes apparently hemi- 
morphic. The mineral presents a perfect cleavage transverse 





M 



FIG. i. 



M 



FIG. 2. 



to the long axis of the prism, and the cleavage-plane often has a 
pearly lustre. The chemical composition of the topaz has given 
rise to much discussion, but it is now generally regarded as an 
aluminium fluo-silicate having the formula Al 2 F 2 SiC>4. It was 
shown by Professor S. L. Penfield and Mr J. C. Minor that the 
fluorine may be partially replaced by hydroxyl. When strongly 
heated topaz suffers considerable loss of weight. Sir D. Brewster 
found in topaz numerous microscopic cavities containing fluids, 
some of which have received the names of brewsterlinite and 
cryptolinite. Possibly some of the liquid inclusions may be 
hydrocarbons. 

The topaz, when pure, may be colourless, and if cut as a 
brilliant has been mistaken for diamond. It has, too, the 
same specific gravity, about 3-5. It is, however, greatly 
inferior in hardness, the hardness of topaz being only 8; and it 
has lower refractivity and dispersive powers: moreover, being an 
orthorhombic mineral, it possesses double refraction. From 
phenacite and from rock-crystal, for which it may be mistaken, it 
is distinguished by being biaxial and by having a much higher 
specific gravity. The topaz becomes electric by heating, by 
friction or by pressure. Colourless limpid topazes are known in 
Brazil as pingos d'agoa, or " drops of water," whilst in England 
they pass in trade as " minas novas," from a locality in the 
state of Minas Geraes in Brazil. 

Coloured topazes usually present various shades of yellow, blue 
or brown. The pleochroism is fairly marked, the colour of the 
sherry-yellow crystals from Brazil being generally resolved by the 



dichroscope into a brownish-yellow and a rose-pink. The colour 
in many cases is unstable, and the brown topazes of Siberia are 
specially liable to suffer bleaching by exposure to sunlight. In 
1750 a Parisian jeweller named Dumelle discovered that the 
yellow Brazilian topaz becomes pink on exposure to a moderate 
heat, and this treatment has since been extensively applied, so 
that nearly all the pink topaz occurring in jewelry has been 
artificially heated. Such " burnt topaz " is often known as 
" Brazilian ruby," a name applied also to the natural red topaz, 
which, however, is excessively rare. " Brazilian sapphire " is 
the term sometimes given to blue topaz, but the colour is usually 
pale. The delicate green topaz has been incorrectly called 
aquamarine, which is a name applicable only to the sea-green 
beryl (q.v.). According to A. K. Coomaraswamy, yellow sapphire 
is often sold as topaz in Ceylon, where yellow topaz is unknown, 
whilst pink corundum is frequently called there " king topaz." 

The topaz is cut on a leaden wheel, and polished with tripoli. 
It is generally step-cut, or table-cut, but its beauty is best 
developed when in the form of a brilliant. Cut topazes of 
large size are known, and it is said that the great " Braganza 
diamond " of Portugal is probably a topaz. 

Topaz usually occurs in granitic and gneissose rocks, often in 
greisen, and is commonly associated with cassiterite, tourmaline and 
beryl. It seems to have been formed, in many cases, by pneumato- 
lytic action. In the west of England it is found in Cornwall, 
notably at St Michael's Mount and at Cligga Head near St Agnes. 
It occurs also in Lundy Island. The finest British topaz is found 
in the Cairngorm group of mountains in the central Highlands, 
especially at Ben a Buird. Rolled pebbles occur in the bed of the 
Avon in Banffshire. Beautiful, though small, crystals occur in 
the drusy cavities of the granite of the Mourne Mountains in 
Ireland. The famous topaz-rock of the Schneckenstein, near 
Auerbach, in Saxony, yields pale yellow crystals, formerly cut for 
jewelry, and it is said that these do not become pink on heating. 
Fine topazes occur in Russia, at several localities in the Urals and 
in the Adun-chalon Mountains, near Nerchinsk, in Siberia. A very 
fine series from the Koksharov collection is in the British Museum. 
Beautiful crystals of topaz are found in Japan, especially at Taka- 
yama in the province of Mino, and at Tanokamiyama in Omi 
province. Ceylon and _ Burma occasionally yield topazes. Brazil 
is a famous locality, the well-known sherry-yellow crystals coming 
from Ouro Preto, formerly called Villa Rica, the capital of Minas 
Geraes, where they occur in a kaolinitic matrix, resulting from the 
alteration of a mica-schist, which is regarded by Professor O. A. 
Derby as a metamorphosed igneous rock. Topaz occurs in the 
tin-drifts of New South Wales, especially in the New England 
district; it has been discovered in the Coolgardie goldfield. West 
Australia; and it is found also in the tinfields of Tasmania and on 
Flinders Island in Bass's Strait. Fine topaz has been worked 
near Pike's Peak in Colorado, and in San Diego county, California. 
The mineral occurs in rhyolite at Nathrop in Chaffee county and 
Chalk Mountain in Summit county, Colorado, and in trachyte 
near Sevier Lake, Utah. The occurrence of topaz in these volcanic 
rocks is very notable, and contrasts with its common occurrence 
in granites. It is found in like manner in rhyolite at San Luis 
Potosi in Mexico; and beautiful little limpid crystals accompany 
stream-tin at Durango. Common topaz occurs in coarse crystals 
at many localities. A columnar variety from the tin-districts of 
Saxony and Bohemia, and from Mt Bischoff in Tasmania, is 
known as pycnite (nvnvk, dense) ; whilst a coarse opaque topaz 
from granite near Falun, in Sweden, has been termed pyrophysa- 
lite (irDp, fire; 4>woa>, to blow), in allusion to its behaviour when 
heated. 

" Oriental topaz " is the name sometimes given to yellow corun- 
dum, a mineral readily distinguished from true topaz by superior 
hardness and density. Yellow and smoke-tinted quartz, or cairn- 
gorm, is often known as " Scotch topaz " or " Spanish topaz," 
according to its locality; but these, on the contrary, are inferior 
in hardness and density. The chief differences between the three 
minerals may be seen in the following table, in which they are 
arranged in order of hardness, density and refractivity : 





Scotch 
Topaz. 


True 
Topaz. 


Oriental 
Topaz. 


Hardness .... 
Specific gravity 
Refractive indices 
Crystallization 
Chemical composition 


1-6 

1-54, 1-55 
Hexagonal 
SiO 2 


8 

3-5 
1-61, 1-62 
Orthorhombic 
Al 2 F 2 SiO4 


9 
4 
1-76, 1-77 
Hexagonal 
A1 2 3 


(F. W. R.*) 
TOPEKA, a city and the county-seat of Shawnee county, 
Kansas, U.S.A., the capital of the state, situated on both sides of 



TOPELIUS TOPFFER 



49 



the Kansas river, in the east part of the state, about 60 m. W. of 
Kansas City. Pop. (1900), 33,608, of whom 3201 were foreign- 
born (including 702 Germans, 575 Swedes, 512 English, 407 
Russians, 320 Irish, &c.) and 4807 were negroes; (1910, census), 
43,684. It is served by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, the 
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the Union Pacific and the 
Missouri Pacific railways. The city is regularly laid out on a 
fairly level prairie bench, considerably elevated above the river 
and about 890 ft. above sea-level. Among its prominent build- 
ings are the United States government building, the Capitol 
(erected 1866-1903 at a cost of $3,200,589 and one of the best 
state buildings in the country), the county court house, the 
public library (1882), an auditorium (with a seating capacity 
of about 5000), the Y.M.C.A. building, a memorial building, 
housing historical relics of the state, and Grace Church Cathedral 
(Protestant Episcopal). The city is the see of a Protestant 
Episcopal bishop. In the Capitol are the library (about 6000 
volumes) and natural history collections of the Kansas Academy 
of Science, and the library (30,000 books, 94,000 pamphlets and 
28,500 manuscripts) and collections of the Kansas State Historical 
Society, which publishes Kansas Historical Collections (1875 
sqq.) and Biennial Reports (1879 sqq.). The city is the seat of 
Washburn (formerly Lincoln) College (1865), which took its 
present name in 1868 in honour of Ichabod Washburn of Wor- 
cester, Massachusetts, who gave it $25,000; in 1909 it had 783 
students (424 being women). Other educational establishments 
are the College of the Sisters of Bethany (Protestant Episcopal, 
1861), for women, and the Topeka Industrial and Educational 
Institute (1895), for negroes. In Topeka are the state insane 
asylum, Christ's Hospital (1894), the Jane C. Stormont Hospital 
and Training School for nurses (1895), the Santa Fe Railway 
Hospital, the Bethesda Hospital (1906) and the St Francis 
Hospital (1909). Topeka is an important manufacturing city. 
Its factory product was valued in 1905 at $14,448,869. Natural 
gas is piped from southern Kansas for manufacturing and 
domestic use. 

The first white settlement on the site of Topeka was made in 
1852, but the city really originated in 1854, when its site was 
chosen by a party from Lawrence. It was from the first a free- 
state stronghold. More than one convention was held here in 
Territorial days, including that which framed the Topeka 
Constitution of 1855; and some of the meetings of the free-state 
legislature chosen under that document (see KANSAS) were also 
held here. Topeka was made the temporary state capital under 
the Wyandotte Constitution, and became the permanent capital 
in 1861. It was first chartered by the pro-slavery Territorial 
legislature in 1857, but did not organize its government until 
1858 (see LAWRENCE). In 1881 it was chartered as a city of the 
first class. The first railway outlet, the Union Pacific, reached 
Eugene, now North Topeka, in 1865. The construction of the 
Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe was begun here in 1868, and its 
construction shops, of extreme importance to the city, were built 
here in 1878. In 1880, just after the great negro immigration to 
Kansas, the coloured population was 31% of the total. 

See F. W. Giles, Thirty Years in Topeka (Topeka, 1886). 

TOPELIUS, ZAKRIS [ZACH ARIAS] (1818-1898), Finnish 
author, was born at Kuddnas, near Nykarleby, on the 
I4th of January 1818. He was the son of a doctor of 
the same name, who was distinguished as the earliest collector 
of Finnish folk-songs. Topelius became a student at Hel- 
singfors in 1833, was made professor in 1863 and received 
in succession all the academic distinctions open to him. 
Quite early in his career he began to distinguish himself 
as a lyric poet, with the three successive volumes of his 
Heather Blossoms (1845-1854). The earliest of his historical 
romances was The Duchess of Finland, published in 1850. 
He was also editor-in-chief of the Helsingfors Gazette from 
1841 to 1860. In 1878 Topelius was allowed to withdraw from 
his professional duties, but this did not sever his connexion 
with the university; it gave him, however, more leisure for his 
abundant and various literary enterprises. Of all the multi- 
farious writings of Topelius, in prose and verse, that which has 



enjoyed the greatest popularity is his Tales of a Barber-Surgeon, 
episodes of historical fiction from the days of Gustavus II. 
Adolphus to those of Gustavus III., treated in the manner of 
Sir Walter Scott; the five volumes of this work appeared at 
intervals between 1853 and 1867. Topelius attempted the 
drama also, with most success in his tragedy of Regina von 
Emmeritz (1854). Topelius aimed, with eminent but perhaps 
pathetic success, at the cultivation of a strong passion of 
patriotism in Finland. He died on the I3th of March 1898 
at Helsingfors. Topelius was an exceptionally happy writer 
for children, his best-known book being Lasning for barn. 
His abundant poetry is graceful and patriotic, but does not 
offer any features of great originality. (E. G.) 

TOPETE, JUAN BAUPTISTA (1821-1885), Spanish naval 
commander and politician, was born in Mexico on the 24th of 
May 1821. His father and grandfather were also Spanish 
admirals. He entered the navy at the age of seventeen, cut out 
a Carlist vessel in 1839, became a midshipman at twenty-two, 
obtained the cross of naval merit for saving the life of a sailor in 
1841 and became a lieutenant in 1845. He served on the West 
Indian station for three years, and was engaged in repressing the 
slave trade before he was promoted frigate captain in 1857. He 
was chief of staff to the fleet during the Morocco War, 1859, after 
which he got the crosses of San Fernando and San Hermenegildo. 
Having been appointed chief of the Carrara arsenal at Cadiz, he 
was elected deputy and joined the Union Liberal of O'Donnell 
and Serrano. He was sent out to the Pacific in command of the 
frigate " Blanca," and was present at the bombardment of 
Valparaiso and Callao, where he was badly wounded, and in 
other engagements of the war between Chile and Peru. On his 
return to Spain, Topete was made port captain at Cadiz, which 
enabled him to take the lead of the conspiracy in the fleet against 
the Bourbon monarchy. He sent the steamer " Buenaventura " 
to the Canary Isle for Serrano and the other exiles; and when 
Prim and Sagasta arrived from Gibraltar, the whole fleet under 
the influence of Topete took such an attitude that the people, 
garrison and authorities of Cadiz followed suit. Topete took 
part in all the acts of the revolutionary government, accepted the 
post of marine minister, was elected a member of the Cortes of 
1869, supported the pretensions of Montpensier, opposed the 
election of Amadeus, sat in several cabinets of that king's reign, 
was prosecuted by the federal republic of 1873 and again took 
charge of the marine under Serrano in 1874. After the Restora- 
tion Topete for some years held aloof, but finally accepted the 
presidency of a naval board in 1877, and sat in the Senate as a 
life peer until his death on the 2gth of October 1885 at Madrid. 

TOPFFER, RODOLPHE (1799-1846), the inventor of pedes- 
trian journeys in Switzerland by schoolboys, was born at Geneva 
on the 3ist of January 1799. His grandfather, a tailor, came 
about 1 760 from Schweinfurt (Bavaria) to settle in Geneva, while 
his father, Adam, was an artist. Rodolphe's literary education 
was rather desultory, as he intended to be an artist, like his father. 
But in 1819 his weak eyesight put an end to that intention, so 
he studied in Paris, intending to devote himself to the profession 
of schoolmaster. After passing some time in a private school in 
Geneva (1822-1824), he founded (1824) one of his own, after his 
marriage. It was in 1823 that he made his first foot journey 
in the Alps with his pupils, though this became his regular 
practice only from 1832 onwards. These Voyages en zigzag were 
described annually (1832-1843) in a series of lithographed volumes, 
with sketches by the author the first printed edition appeared 
at Paris in 1844, and a second series (Nouveaux voyages en zig- 
zag) also at Paris in 1854. Both series have since passed through 
many editions. In 1832 he was named professor of belles-lettres 
at the university of Geneva, and held that chair till his death, 
on the 8th of June 1846. As early as 1830 he published an article 
in the Bibliotheque universelle of Geneva. It was followed by a 
number of tales, commencing with the Bibliotheque de man oncle 
(1832), many of which were later collected (1841) into the well- 
known volume which bears the title of Nowvelles genevoises. 
He took some part (on the Conservative side) in local politics, 
and was (1841-1843) editor of the Courrier de Geneve. Among 



50 

his other works are an edition of Demosthenes (1824), and a 
volume of artistic studies, the Reflexions el menus propos d'un 
peinire genevois (1848). 

Lives by A. Blondel and the abb<5 Relave (both published at 
Paris, 1886), and shorter notices in E. Rambert's iLcrivains nationaux 
(Geneva, 1874) ; and E. Javelle's Souvenirs d'un alpinists (Lausanne, 
1886; Eng. trans., 1899, under the title of Alpine Memories), and 
several chapters in Ste Beuve's Causeries du lundi, Derniers 
portraits litteraires and Portraits contemporains. (W. A. B. C.) 

TOPHET, or TOPHETH ( nynn), the name given in 2 Kings 
xxiii. 10; Jer. vii. 31, to a spot in the valley of Ben Hinnom near 
Jerusalem where the Hebrews in the time of Ahab and Manasseh 
offered children to Molech and other heathen gods. Josiah 
" denied" it as part of his reforming activity, and it became a 
place for the bestowal and destruction of refuse, and a synonym 
for Gehenna (Isa. xxx. 33 ; Jer. vii. 32). 

The uncertain etymology of the word is discussed in the Ency. 
Bib., s.v. " Molech," 3, "Topheth." 

TOPIARY, a term in gardening or horticulture for the cutting 
and trimming of shrubs, such as cypress, box or yew, into regular 
and ornamental shapes. It is usually applied to the cutting of 
trees into urns, vases, birds and other fantastic shapes, which 
were common at the end of the iyth century and through 
the 1 8th, but it also embraces the more restrained art necessary 
for the laying out of a formal garden. Yew and holly trees cut 
into fantastic objects may still be seen in old-fashioned cottage 
or farmhouse gardens in England. The Lat. topiarius meant an 
ornamental or landscape gardener, and was formed from topia 
(Gr. roxos, place), a term specially employed for a formal kind of 
landscape painting used as a mural decoration in Roman houses. 

TOPLADY, AUGUSTUS MONTAGUE (1740-1778), Anglican 
divine, was born at Farnham, Surrey, and educated at West- 
minster and Trinity College, Dublin. Although originally a 
follower of Wesley, he in 17 58 adopted extreme Calvinist opinions. 
He was ordr.ined in 1762 and became vicar of Harpford with 
Fenn-Ottery, Devonshire, in 1766. In 1768 he exchanged to the 
living of Broadhembury, Devonshire. He is chiefly known as a 
writer of hymns and poems, including " Rock of Ages," and the 
collections entitled Poems on Sacred Subjects (Dublin, 1759) and 
Psalms and Hymns for Public and Private Worship (London, 
1776). His best prose work is the Historic Proof of the Doctrinal 
Calvinism of the Church of England (London, 1774). Some 
comments by Wesley upon Toplady's presentation of Calvinism 
led to a controversy which was carried on with much bitter- 
ness on both sides. Toplady wrote a venomous Letter to 
Mr Wesley (1770), and Wesley repeated his comments in The 
Consequence Proved (1771), whereupon Toplady replied with 
increased acridity in More Work for Mr Wesley (1772). From 
1775 to 1778, having obtained leave of non-residence at 
Broadhembury, he lived in London, and ministered at a 
Calvinist church in Orange Street. 

TOPOGRAPHY (Gr. TOTOJ, place, yp^fiv, to write), a 
description of a town, district or locality, giving details of its 
geographical and architectural features. The term is also applied 
in anatomy to the mapping out of the surface of the human 
body, either according to a division based on the organs or parts 
lying below certain regions, or on a superficial plotting out of 
the body by anatomical boundaries and landmarks. 

TORAN, the name in Hindustani (Skr. torana, from tor, pass) 
of a sacred or honorific gateway in Buddhist architecture. Its 
typical form is a projecting cross-piece resting on two uprights 
or posts. It is made of wood or stone, and the cross-piece is 
generally of three bars placed one on the top of the other; both 
cross-piece and posts are usually sculptured. 

10RBERNITE (or cupro-uranite), a mineral which is one of the 
" uranium micas "; a hydrous uranium and copper phosphate, 
Cu(UO 2 )2(PO4)2+i2H 2 O. Crystals are tetragonal and have the 
form of square plates, which are often very thin. There is a 
perfect micaceous cleavage parallel to the basal plane, and on 
this face the lustre is pearly. The bright grass-green colour 
is a characteristic feature of the mineral. The hardness is z\ 
and the specific gravity 3-5. The radio-activity of the mineral 



TOPHET TORDENSKJOLD 



is greater than that of some specimens of pitchblende. It was 
first observed in 1772 at Johanngeorgenstadt in Saxony, but the 
best examples are from Gunnislake near Calstock and Redruth 
in Cornwall. The name torbenite is after Torbern Bergman: 
chalcolite is a synonym. (L. J. S.) 

TORCELLO, an island of Venetia, Italy, in the lagoons about 
6 m. to the N.W. of Venice, belonging to the commune of Burano. 
It was a flourishing city in the early middle ages, but now has 
only a few houses and two interesting churches. The former 
cathedral of S. Maria was founded in the 7th century. The 
present building, a basilica with columns, dates from 864; the 
nave was restored in 1008, in which year the now ruined octagonal 
baptistery was built. It contains large mosaics of the i2th 
century, strongly under Byzantine influence; those on the west 
wall represent the Resurrection and Last Judgment. The 
seats for the priests are arranged round the semicircular apse, 
rising in steps with the bishop's throne in the centre an arrange- 
ment unique in Italy. Close by is S. Fosca, a church of the i2th 
century, octagonal outside, with colonnades on five sides and a 
rectangular interior intended for a dome which was never 
executed, beyond which is a three-apsed choir. In the local 
museum are four Mycenaean vases, one found in the island and 
another on the adjacent island of Mazzorbo, proving direct 
intercourse with the Aegean Sea in prehistoric times. 

SeeR. M. Dawkins, in Journal of Hellenic Studies (\<)Q$ , xxiv. 125. 

TORCH (O. Fr. torche, from Med. Lat. lorlia, derived from 
tortus, twisted, torquere, to twist), a light or illuminant that can 
be carried in the hand, made of twisted tow, hemp or other 
inflammable substance. Torches or " links " were, till the general 
introduction of street lighting, necessary adjuncts for passengers 
on foot or in carriages in towns at night, and many of the older 
houses in London and elsewhere still retain the iron stands 
outside their doors, in which the torches might be placed. 

TORCHERE, a candelabrum mounted upon a tall stand of 
wood or metal, usually with two or three lights. When it 
was first introduced in France towards the end of the I7th 
century the torchere mounted one candle only, and when the 
number was doubled or tripled the improvement was regarded 
almost as a revolution in the lighting of large rooms. 

TORDENSKJOLD, PEDER (1691-1720), eminent Danish 
naval hero, the tenth child of alderman Jan Wessel of Bergen, in 
Norway, was born at Trondhjem on the 28th of October 1691. 
Wessel was a wild unruly lad who gave his pious parents much 
trouble. Finally he ran away from them by hiding in a ship 
bound for Copenhagen, where the king's chaplain Dr Peder Jes- 
persen took pity on the friendless lad, gratified his love for the 
sea by sending him on a voyage to the West Indies, and finally 
procured him a vacant cadetship. After further voyages, 
this time to the East Indies, Wessel was, on the 7th of July 
1711, appointed 2nd lieutenant in the royal marine and shortly 
afterwards became the captain of a little 4-gun sloop " Ormen" 
(The Serpent), in which he cruised about the Swedish coast 
and picked up much useful information about the enemy. 
In June 1712 he was promoted to a 2o-gun frigate, against 
the advice of the Danish admiralty, which pronounced him to 
be too flighty and unstable for such a command. His dis- 
criminating patron was the Norwegian admiral Lovendal, 
who was the first to recognize the young man's ability as a 
naval officer. At this period Wessel was already renowned for 
two things: the audacity with which he attacked any Swedish 
vessels he came across regardless of odds, and his unique seaman- 
ship, which always enabled him to escape capture. The Great 
Northern War had now entered upon its later stage, when Sweden, 
beset on every side by foes, employed her fleet principally to 
transport troops and stores to her distressed German provinces. 
The audacity of Wessel impeded her at every point. He was 
continually snapping up transports, dashing into the fjords where 
her vessels lay concealed, and holding up her detached frigates. 
In July 1714 he encountered a frigate which had been equipped 
in England for the Swedes and was on its way to Gothenburg 
under the command of an English captain. Wessel instantly 



TOREADOR TORENO 



attacked her but in the English captain he met his match. 
The combat lasted all day, was interrupted by nightfall, and 
renewed again indecisively the following morning. Wessel's 
free and easy ways procured him many enemies in the Danish 
navy. He was accused of unnecessarily endangering his 
majesty's war-ships in the affairs with the frigate and he was 
brought before a court-martial. But the spirit with which 
he defended himself and the contempt he poured on his less 
courageous comrades took the fancy of King Frederick IV., 
who cancelled the proceedings and raised Wessel to the rank of 
captain. When in the course of 1715 the return of Charles XII. 
from Turkey to Stralsund put a new life into the jaded and 
dispirited Swedish forces, Wessel distinguished himself in 
numerous engagements off the Pomeranian coast and did the 
enemy infinite damage by cutting out their frigates and destroy- 
ing their transports. On returning to Denmark in the beginning 
of 1716 he was ennobled under the title of " Tordenskjold " 
(Thundershield). When in the course of 1716 Charles XII. 
invaded Norway and sat down before the fortress of Fredrik- 
shald, Tordenskjold compelled him to raise the siege and 
retire to Sweden by pouncing upon the Swedish transport 
fleet laden with ammunition and other military stores which 
rode at anchor in the narrow and dangerous strait of Dynekil, 
utterly destroying the Swedish fleet with little damage to him- 
self. For this, his greatest exploit, he was promoted to the rank 
of commander, but at the same time incurred the enmity of 
his superior officer Admiral Gabel, whom he had omitted to 
take into his confidence on the occasion. Tordenskjold 's first 
important command was the squadron with which he was 
entrusted in the beginning of 1717 for the purpose of destroying 
the Swedish Gothenburg squadron which interrupted the com- 
munications between Denmark and Norway. Owing to the 
disloyalty of certain of his officers who resented serving under 
the young adventurer, Tordenskjold failed to do all that was 
expected of him. His enemies were not slow to take advantage 
of his partial failure. The old charge of criminal recklessness 
was revived against him at a second court-martial before which 
he was summoned in 1718; but his old patron Admiral U. C. 
Gyldenlove again intervened energetically in his behalf and 
the charge was quashed. In December 1718 Tordenskjold 
brought to Frederick IV. the welcome news of the death of 
Charles XII. and was made a rear-admiral for his pains. Tor- 
denskjold's last feat of arms was his capture of the Swedish 
fortress of Marstrand, when he partially destroyed and partially 
captured the Gothenburg squadron which had so long eluded him. 
He was rewarded with the rank of vice-admiral. Tordenskjold 
did not long survive the termination of the war. On the 2oth 
of November 1720 he was killed in a duel with a Livonian 
colonel, Jakob Axel Stael von Holstein. Although, Dynekil 
excepted, Tordenskjold ; s victories were of far less importance 
than Sehested's at Stralsund and Gyldenlove's at Rugen, he is 
certainly, after Charles XII., the most heroic figure of the Great 
Northern War. His courage was fully equal to the courage 
of " The Lion of the North," but he lacked that absolute self- 
command which gives to the bravery of Charles XII. its peculiar, 
almost superhuman, character. 

See Carstensen and Lutken, Tordenskjold (Copenhagen, 1887). 

(R. N. B.) 

TOREADOR, a Spanish word derived from torear, to engage 
in a bull-fight, two, a bull, Latin taurus, for one of the principal 
performers in the national sport of bull-fighting (q.v.). 

TORELL, OTTO MARTIN (1828-1900), Swedish geologist, 
was born in Varberg on the sth of June 1828. He was edu- 
cated at Lund for the medical profession, but became interested 
in zoological and geological studies, and being of independent 
means he devoted himself to science. He gave his attention 
first especially to the invertebrate fauna and the physical 
changes of pleistocene and recent times. He studied the 
glacial phenomena of Switzerland, Spitzbergen and Green- 
land, making two Arctic expeditions in company with A. E. 
Nordenskiold. In 1866 he became professor of zoology and 
geology in the University at Lund, and in 1871 he was appointed 



chief of the Swedish Geological Survey. In the latter capacity 
he laboured until 1897. His published contributions, though of 
much interest and importance, were not large, but his influence 
in promoting a knowledge of geology in Sweden was of great 
service. His Arctic experiences enabled him to interpret 
the method of origin of the drift deposits in northern Europe, 
and to show that they were largely of glacial or fluvio-glacial 
origin. In the English drifts he recognized many boulders of 
Scandinavian origin. He died on the nth of September 1900. 

His publications include: Bidrag till Spitzbergens molluskfauna 
('859); and memoirs to accompany several sheets of the Geological 
Survey map of Sweden. 

Obituary with portrait, in Geol. Mag (May 1902), reproduced in 
abridged form from memoir by L. Holmstrom, in Geologiska forenin- 
gen i Stockholm's forhandlingar, xxiii. 

TORENO, JOS6 MARIA QUIEPO DE LLANO RUIZ DE 
SARAVIA, COUNT OF (1786-1843), Spanish politician and his- 
torian, was born at Oviedo on the 25th of November 1786. His 
family was wealthy and belonged to the most ancient nobility 
of Asturias. His mother, Dominga Ruiz de Saravia, had 
property in the province of Cuenca. The son received a better 
education in classics, mathematics and modern languages 
than was usual at that time. The young viscount of Matarrosa, 
the title he bore in his father's lifetime, was introduced 
to the writings of Voltaire and Rousseau by the abbot 
of the Benedictine house of Monserrat in Madrid. He was 
present at Madrid when the city rose against Murat on the 2nd 
of May 1808, and took part in the struggle which was the 
beginning of the Peninsular War. From Madrid he escaped 
to Asturias, and on the 3oth of May he embarked in a Jersey 
privateer at Gijon, with other delegates, in order to ask for the 
help of England against the French. The deputation was 
enthusiastically received in London. By the 3Oth of December 
he was back in Asturias, his father having died in the interval. 
During the Peninsular War he saw some service in the first 
occupation of Asturias by the French, but he was mainly occu- 
pied by his duties as a member of the Cortes. In 1809 he was at 
Seville, where one of his uncles was a member of the central 
Junta. In the following year he was a leader of the party which 
compelled the Regency to summon the Cortes to which he was 
elected by Asturias early in 1811 though he wanted some months 
of the legal age of twenty-five. His election was opposed by 
some of his own relatives who did not share his advanced opinions, 
but it was ratified by the Cortes. Toreno was conspicuous 
among the well-meaning men who framed the constitution of 
1812, which was made as if it was meant for some imaginary 
republic and not for Catholic and monarchical Spain. When 
Ferdinand VII. returned from prison in France in 1814 Toreno 
foresaw a reaction, and put himself out of reach of the king. 
He was the more an object of suspicion because his brother- 
in-law, Porlier, perished in a wild attempt to support the con- 
stitution by force. Toreno remained in exile till the outbreak 
of the revolution of 1820. Between that year and 1823 he was 
in Spain serving in the restored Cortes, and experience had 
abated his radical ardour. When the French intervened in 1823 
Toreno had again to go into exile, and remained abroad till the 
king published the amnesty of the isth of October 1832. He 
returned home in July 1833, but remained on his estates till 
the king's death on the 29th of September. As hereditary 
standard bearer of Asturias (Alferez Mayor) it fell to him to 
proclaim the young queen, Isabella II. In 1834 his now 
moderate opinions pointed him out to the queen regent, Maria 
Christina, as a useful man for office. In June 1834 he was 
minister of finance, and became prime minister on the 7th of 
June. His tenure of the premiership lasted only till the I4th of 
September of the same year, when the regent's attempt to retain 
a practically despotic government under a thin constitutional 
veil broke down. The greater part of the remainder of his 
life was spent in voluntary exile, and he died in Paris on the 
1 6th of September 1843. As a politician he felt the need for a 
revision of the worn out despotism which ruled till 1808, but he 
was destitute of any real political capacity. Toreno is chiefly 
remembered as the author of the History of the Rising, War 



TORENO TORONTO 



and Revolution of Spain, which he began between 1823 and 
1832 and published in 1836-1838 in Paris. As a work of military 
criticism it is not of high value, and Toreno was prejudiced in 
favour of his colleagues of the Cortes, whose errors and ex- 
cesses he shared in and excused. The book is, however, written 
in excellent Castilian, and was compiled with industry. It is 
worth consulting as an illustration of the time in which the author 
lived, as a patriotic Spanish view of the war, and for the pro- 
minence it gives to the political side of the Peninsular War, 
which he justly treated as a revolution. 

A biography by Don Antonio de Cueto is prefixed to the reprint 
of the Levantamiento guerra y revolution de Espana, in vol. Ixiy. 
of the Biblioleca de auiores espanoles of Rivadeneyra (Madrid 
1846-1880). 

TORENO, QUEIPO DE LLANO Y GAYOSO DE, COUNT 
(1840-1890), Spanish politician, son of the preceding, was 
born in Madrid in 1840. He was educated at the Madrid 
Institute and University, entered parliament in 1864 as 'a 
Moderado, and sat in all the Cortes of Queen Isabella's reign 
as a deputy for his ancestral province, Asturias. Loyal to the 
Bourbons all through the revolution, he nevertheless became a 
deputy in the Cortes of 1871-1873, and founded an Alphonsist 
paper, El Tiempo, in 1873. When the Restoration took place, 
its first cabinet made Count de Toreno mayor of the capital, 
and in 1875 minister of public works, in which capacity he im- 
proved the public libraries, museums, academies and archives, 
and caused many important works to be published, includ- 
ing the Cartas de Indias. In 1879 he became minister for 
foreign affairs, in 1880 president of the House of Deputies, in 
1884 again governor of Madrid, and in 1885 again president 
of the House of Deputies. During the reign of Alphonso XII. 
and the first years of the regency of Queen Christina Count de 
Toreno was one of the most prominent Conservative leaders, 
and was often consulted by the Crown. He died on the 3ist 
of January 1890. He was a patron of the turf, and established 
a race-course in Madrid, where the first races took place in the 
reign of Alphonso XII. 

TORGAU, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of 
Saxony, situated on the left bank of the Elbe, 30 m. N.E. of 
Leipzig and 26 m. S.E. of Wittenberg by rail. Pop. (1905), 
12,299. Its most conspicuous building is the Schloss Hartenfels, 
on an island in the Elbe, which was built, or at least was finished, 
by the elector of Saxony, John Frederick the Magnanimous. 
This castle, which is now used as a barracks, is one of the largest 
Renaissance buildings in Germany. It was for some time the 
residence of the electors of Saxony and contains a chapel con- 
secrated by Martin Luther. The town hall, a 16th-century 
building, houses a collection of Saxon antiquities. Torgau 
has two Evangelical churches and a Roman Catholic church. 
One of the former, the Stadt Kirche, contains paintings by 
Lucas Cranach and the tomb of Catherine von Bora, the wife of 
Luther. The chief industries of the town are the manufacture 
of gloves, carriages, agricultural machinery, beer and bricks; 
there is a trade in grain both on the Elbe and by rail. The 
fortifications, begun in 1807 by order of Napoleon, were dis- 
mantled in 1889-1891. In the vicinity is the royal stud farm of 
Graditz. 

Torgau is said to have existed as the capital of a distinct 
principality in the time of the German king Henry I., but early 
in the I4th century it was in the possession of the margraves 
of Meissen and later of the electors of Saxony, who frequently 
resided here. The town came into prominence at the time of 
the Reformation. In 1526 John, elector of Saxony, Philip, 
landgrave of Hesse, and other Protestant princes formed a 
league against the Roman Catholics, and the Torgau articles, 
drawn up here by Luther and his friends in 1530, were the 
basis of the confession of Augsburg. Torgau is particularly 
celebrated as the scene of a battle fought on the 3rd of November 
1760, when Frederick the Great defeated the Austrians (see 
SEVEN YEARS' WAR). In January 1814 Torgau was taken by 
the Germans after a siege of three months and it was formally 
ceded to Prussia in 1815. 



See Grulich and Btirger, Denkwurdigkeiten der altsachsischen 
Resident Torgau aus der Zeit der Reformation (Torgau, 1855) ; Knabe, 
Geschichte der Stadt Torgau bis zur Reformation (Torgau, 1880); 
and the publications of the Altertumverein zu Torgau (Torgau 
1884 sqq.). 

TORNADO (Span., tornado, a turning about, cf. " turn "), 
a local whirlwind of extreme violence, usually formed within a 
thunderstorm. In appearance it consists of a funnel-shaped 
cloud, depending from the mass of storm-cloud above, and when 
fully developed tapering downwards to the earth. Besides its 
whirling motion, a tornado has an advancing movement of 
from 20 to 40 m. an hour and along its own narrow path it 
carries destruction. Its duration is usually from half an hour 
to an hour. Tornadoes are most common in America, espe- 
cially in the Mississippi Valley and the Southern states ; in Europe 
and elsewhere they are comparatively rare. Owing to their 
association with thunderstorms they generally occur in warm 
weather. A tornado is the result of a condition of local in- 
stability in the atmosphere, originating high above the earth. 
A current of air is induced to ascend with a rapid spiral motion 
round a central core of low pressure. The moisture in the 
ascending air is condensed by cooling both as it ascends and as 
it expands into the low-pressure core. The cloud-funnel appears 
to grow downwards because the moisture in the air is condensed 
more rapidly than the air itself, following a spiral course, ascends. 

TORO, a town of Spain, in the province of Zamora, on the 
right bank of the river Duero (Douro), and on the Zamora- 
Medina del Campo railway. Pop. (1900), 8379. Toro is an 
ancient fortified town, with picturesque narrow streets, among 
which are many medieval churches, convents and palaces, 
besides modern schools and public buildings. A fine bridge 
of twenty-two arches spans the river. The cathedral church 
is Romanesque; it dates from the I2th century but has been 
partially restored. The palace of the marquesses of Santa 
Cruz was the meeting place of the Cortes of 1371, 1442 and 
1505, which made Toro and its code of laws celebrated. Toro 
is first mentioned in documents of the loth century. It played 
an important part in the development of the kingdoms of Leon 
and Castile and in the reconquest of Spain from the Moors. 

TORONTO, the capital of the province of Ontario, and the 
second largest city in the Dominion of Canada, situated on 
the northern shore of Lake Ontario, almost due north from the 
mouth of the Niagara river. It lies on a plateau gradually 
ascending from the lake shore to an altitude of 220 ft., and 
covers an area of nearly 20 sq. m. The river Don flows 
through the eastern part of the city, and the river Humber 
forms its western limit. The fine bay in front of the city, 
affording a safe and commodious harbour, is formed by an 
island stretching along the south of it. The city is well laid 
out for the most part, the streets crossing each other at right 
angles; Yonge Street, the chief artery, running north from the 
bay, was constructed as a military road in 1796, and extends 
under the same name for upwards of 30 m. to Lake Simcoe. It 
constitutes the dividing line of the city, the cross streets being 
called east or west according to the side of it they are on. 

Toronto is the seat of government for the province, and 
contains the parliament buildings, the lieutenant-governor's 
residence, the courts of law and the educational departmental 
buildings. The parliament buildings are situated in Queen's 
Park, almost in the centre of [the city, and are an imposing 
structure of red sandstone in the neo-Greek style built at great 
cost. They are shortly to be enlarged, as the needs of the 
province have outgrown them. A little distance to the west 
stand the university buildings, the central one being a splendid 
piece of architecture in the Norman style. Stretching in a semi- 
circle round the broad campus are the library, the medical 
building, the biology building and museum, the school of practical 
science, the geology and chemistry buildings and the convoca- 
tion hall, their architecture varying very greatly, beauty having 
been sacrificed to more practical considerations; the magnetic 
observatory is also in the grounds, but is overshadowed by some 
of the more recent erections. It is one of the meteorological 



TORPEDO 



53 



stations established by the British government on the recom- 
mendation of the Royal Society in 1840 and is now maintained 
by the Dominion government. The university of Toronto, 
for the support of which the province is responsible, includes 
faculties of arts, science and medicine, in the teaching of which 
it is strictly secular. But near at hand and in full affiliation 
with the university are Victoria College (Methodist), Wycliffe 
College (Anglican), Knox College (Presbyterian) and St Michael's 
College (Roman Catholic), wherein courses in divinity are given 
and degrees conferred. Victoria College, likewise, provides a 
course in arts, but none in science. Trinity College (Anglican), 
though some distance away, is also affiliated with the univer- 
sity, and her students enjoy its full advantages. Besides the 
university, Toronto is remarkably rich in educational institu- 
tions. Upper Canada College, founded in 1829, in many respects 
resembles one of the English public schools. It has over 300 
students. St Andrew's College, also for boys, is a more recent 
establishment, and has about the same number of pupils. 
There are three large collegiate institutes, having some 300 to 
600 pupils each, and in addition a number of schools for girls, 
such as Havergal College and Westminster College. Osgoode 
Hall, a stately structure in the heart of the city, houses the 
higher courts of law and appeal, and also a flourishing law school. 
The city hall and court-house is one of the finest civic build- 
ings in North America. It is in the Romanesque style, and 
accommodates all the civic offices, the board of education, the 
police and county courts, &c. Many of the churches are worthy 
examples of good architecture. 

Toronto is essentially a residential city. The houses of the 
better class stand separate, not in long rows, and have about 
them ample lawns and abundant trees. It is consequently a 
widespread city, the length from east to west approximating 
ten miles. An electric railway system provides means of com- 
munication. There are many parks, ranging in size from 
Carlton Park of one acre to High Park (375 acres) and Island 
Park (389), the latter being across the harbour and constitut- 
ing the favourite resort of the people during the summer. In 
Exhibition Park there is held annually an industrial and agri- 
cultural exhibition that has grown to great magnitude. It lasts 
a fortnight in late summer. It is a municipal enterprise and 
the profits belong to the city. 

The population in 1907, as shown by the police census, 
exceeded 300,000. The government of the city is vested in a 
council consisting of the mayor and four controllers elected 
annually and eighteen aldermen (three from each of the six wards 
into which the city is divided). The council as a whole is the 
legislative body, while the board of control is the executive 
body, and as such is responsible for the supervision of all matters 
of finance, the appointment of officials, the carrying on of 
public works, and the general administration of the affairs of 
the city, except the departments of education and of police, 
the first being under the control of the board of education, 
elected annually by the citizens, and the latter under the 
board of police commissioners, consisting of the mayor, the 
county judge and the police magistrate. 

Toronto is one of the chief manufacturing centres of the 
dominion; agricultural machinery, automobiles, bicycles, cotton 
goods, engines, furniture, foundry products, flour, smoked meats, 
tobacco, jewelry, &c., are flourishing industries, and the list is 
constantly extending. The situation of the city is favourable 
to commerce, and the largest vessels on the lakes can use its 
harbour. It is the outlet of a rich and extensive agricultural 
district, and throughout the season of navigation lines of steamers 
ply between Toronto and the other lake ports on both the 
Canadian and American sides, the route of some of them 
extending from Montreal to Port Arthur on Lake Superior. 
Railway communication is complete, three great trunk lines 
making the city a terminal point, viz. the Grand Trunk, the 
Canadian Pacific and the Canadian Northern. 

As a financial centre Toronto has made remarkable advance. 
The transactions on the stock exchange rival those of Montreal. 
The Bank of Commerce has its headquarters here, as have also 



the Bank of Nova Scotia, the Bank of Toronto, the Standard 
Traders, Imperial, Sovereign, Dominion, Crown, United Empire, 
Sterling and other banks. 

The name of the city is of Indian origin, meaning "a place of 
meeting," the site in the days before the coming of the white 
man being an established rendezvous among the neighbouring 
Indian tribes. It first appears in history in 1749 as a centre of 
trade when the French built a small fort and started a trading 
establishment called Fort Rouille. Before long, however, 
British traders came up from the south and entered into active 
rivalry with the French, and in 1793 the fort was burned by 
the latter to prevent its occupation by their foes. A year later 
Governor Simcoe transferred the seat of government of the new 
province of Upper Canada from the town of Newark at the 
mouth of the Niagara River to Toronto, giving the new capital 
the Mame of York, in honour of the second son of George III. 
Under its new name it made slow progress as the surrounding 
country was cleared and settled. The entrance to the harbour 
was guarded by two blockhouses; provision was made for 
barracks and garrison stores; buildings were erected for the 
legislature; and there the members of parliament, summoned 
by royal proclamation to "meet us in our provincial parliament 
in our town of York," assembled on the ist of June 1797. 
Sixteen years later the population numbered only 456. The 
town was twice sacked in the war of 1812. General Dearborn 
captured it at the head of a force of upwards of 2000. On their 
advance to the outworks of the garrison the magazine of the 
fort exploded, whether by accident or design, killing many of 
the invaders. The halls of legislature and other buildings were 
burnt and the town pillaged. On the restoration of peace the 
work of creating a capital for Upper Canada had wellnigh to 
begin anew. The organization of Upper Canada College in 
1830, with a staff of teachers nearly all graduates of Cambridge, 
gave a great impetus to the city and province. In 1834 the 
population of York numbered fully 10,000; and an act of the 
provincial legislature conferred on it a charter of incorporation, 
with a mayor, aldermen and councilmen. Under this charter 
it was constituted a city with the name of Toronto. Since 
that time the progress of the city has been rapid and substantial, 
the population doubling every twenty years. In 1885 the 
total assessment was $69,000,000; in 1895 $146,000,000 and in 
1906 $167,411,000, the rate of taxation being i8 mills. 

TORPEDO. In 1805 Robert Fulton demonstrated a new 
method of destroying ships by exploding a large charge of 
gunpowder against the hull under water. No doubt then 
remained as to the effectiveness of this form of attack when 
successfully applied; it was the difficulty of getting the torpedo, 
as it was called, to the required position which for many years 
retarded its progress as a practical weapon of naval warfare. 
Attempts were first made to bring the explosive in contact with 
the vessel by allowing it to drift down to her by the action of 
tide or current, and afterwards to fix it against her from some 
form of diving boat, but successive failures led to its restriction 
for a considerable period to the submarine mine (g.v.) in which 
the explosive is stationary and takes effect only when the ship 
itself moves over or strikes the charge. Used in this way, it 
is an excellent deterrent to hostile warships forcing a harbour. 

Spar or Outrigger Torpedo. The limitations attached to the 
employment of submarine mines, except for coast defence, 
revived the idea of taking the torpedo to the ship instead of 
waiting for the latter to gain some exact point which she might 
very possibly avoid. This first took practical shape in the spar 
or outrigger torpedo. This consisted of a charge of explosive, 
at the end of a long pole projecting from the bow of a boat, 
the pole being run out and immersed on arriving near the object. 
Directly the charge came in contact with the hull of the ship it 
was exploded by an electric battery in the boat. If the boat 
was not discovered and disabled while approaching, the chances 
were favourable to success and escape afterwards. Against a 
vigilant enemy it was doubtless a forlorn hope, but to brave 
men the venture offered considerable attractions. 

Frequent use of this spar or outrigger torpedo was made during 



TORPEDO 



the American Civil War. A notable instance was the destruction 
of the Confederate ironclad " Albemarle " at the end of October 
1864. On this mission Lieut. Gushing took a steam launch 
equipped with an outrigger torpedo up the Roanoke River, in 
which lay the " Albemarle." On arriving near the ship Gushing 
found her surrounded by logs, but pushing his boat over them, 
he immersed the spar and exploded his charge in contact with 
the " Albemarle " under a heavy fire. Ship and launch sank 
together, but the gallant officer jumped overboard, swam away 
and escaped. Submerged boats were also used for similar 
service, but usually went to the bottom with their crews. 
During the war between France and China in 1884 the " Yang 
Woo " was attacked and destroyed by an outrigger torpedo. 

Locomotive Torpedoes. Though the spar torpedo had scored 
some successes, it was mainly because the means of defence 
against it at that time were inefficient. The ship trusted solely 
to her heavy gun and rifle fire to repel the attack. The noise, 
smoke, and difficulty of hitting a small object at night with a 
piece that could probably be discharged but once before the boat 
arrived, while rifle bullets would not stop its advance, favoured 
the attack. When a number of small guns and electric lights 
were added to a ship's equipment, success with an outrigger 
torpedo became nearly, if not entirely, impossible. Attention 
was then turned in the direction of giving motion to the torpedo 
and steering it to the required point by electric wires worked 
from the shore or from another vessel; or, dispensing with any 
such connection, of devising a torpedo which would travel under 
water in a given direction by means of self-contained motive 
power and machinery. Of the former type are the Lay, Sims- 
Edison and Brennan torpedoes. The first two electrically 
steered by a wire which trails behind the torpedo have in- 
sufficient speed to be of practical value, and are no longer used. 
The Brennan torpedo, carrying a charge of explosive, travels 
under water and is propelled by unwinding two drums or 
reels of fine steel wire within the torpedo. The rotation of 
these reels is communicated to the propellers, causing the 
torpedo to advance. The ends of the wires are connected 
to an engine on shore to give rapid unwinding and 
increased speed to the torpedo. It is steered by vary- 
ing the speed of unwinding the two wires. This tor- 
pedo was adopted by the British war office for harbour 
defence and the protection of narrow channels. 

Uncontrolled, Torpedoes. The objection of naval 
officers to have any form of torpedo connected by wire 
to their ship during an action, impeding her free move- 
ment, liable to get entangled in her propellers and 
perhaps exploding where not desired disadvantages 
which led them to discard the Harvey towing torpedo 
many years ago has hitherto prevented any navy from 
adopting a controlled torpedo for its sea-going fleet. The 
last quarter of the igth century saw, however, great 
advances in the equipment of ships with locomotive torpedoes of 
the uncontrolled type. The Howell may be briefly described, 
as it has a special feature of some interest. Motive power is 
provided by causing a heavy steel fly-wheel inside the torpedo 
to revolve with great velocity. This is effected by a small special 
engine outside operating on the axle. When sufficiently spun 
up, the axle of the flywheel is connected with the propeller 
shafts and screws which drive the torpedo, so that on entering 
the water it is driven ahead and continues its course until the 
power stored up in the flywheel is exhausted. Now when a 
torpedo is discharged into the sea from a ship in motion, it has 
a tendency to deflect owing to the action of the passing water. 
The angle of deflexion will vary according to the speed of the 
ship, and is also affected by other causes, such as the position 
in the ship from which the torpedo is discharged, and its own 
angle with the line of keel. Hence arise inaccuracies of shooting; 
but these do not occur with this torpedo, for the motion of the 
flywheel, acting as a gyroscope the principle of which applied 
to the Whitehead torpedo is described later keeps this torpedo 
on a straight course. This advantage, combined with simplicity 
in construction, induced the American naval authorities at one 



time to contemplate equipping their fleet with this torpedo, for 
they had not, up to within a few years ago, adopted any loco- 
motive torpedo. A great improvement in the torpedo devised 
by Mr Whitehead led them, however, definitely to prefer the 
latter and to discontinue the further development of the Howell 
system. 

The Whitehead torpedo is a steel fish-shaped body which 
travels under water at a high rate of speed, being propelled by 
two screws driven by compressed air. It carries a large charge 
of explosive which is ignited on the torpedo striking any hard 
substance, such as the hull of a ship. The body is divided into 
three parts. The foremost portion or head contains the explo- 
sive usually wet gun-cotton with dry primer and mechanical 
igniting arrangement; the centre portion is the air chamber 
or reservoir, while the remaining part or tail carries the engines, 
rudders, and propellers besides the apparatus for controlling 
depth and direction. This portion also gives buoyancy to the 
torpedo. 

When the torpedo is projected from a ship or boat into the 
water a lever is thrown back, admitting air into the engines 
causing the propellers to revolve and drive the torpedo ahead. 
It is desirable that a certain depth under water should be main- 
tained. An explosion on the surface would be deprived of the 
greater part of its effect, for most of the gas generated would 
escape into the air. Immersed, the water above confines the 
liberated gas and compels it to exert all its energy against the 
bottom of the ship. It is also necessary to correct the tendency 
to rise that is due to the torpedo getting lighter as the air is 
used up, for compressed air has an appreciable weight. This 
is effected by an ingenious apparatus long maintained secret. 
The general principle is to utilize the pressures due to different 
depths of water to actuate horizontal rudders, so that the 
torpedo is automatically directed upwards or downwards as 
its tendency is to sink or rise. 

The efficiency of such a torpedo compared with all previous types 
was clearly manifest when it was brought before the maritime 
states by the inventor, Whitehead, and it was almost universally 
adopted. The principal defect was want of speed which at first 

Sped 23 Knots to 800 Mctni 
: U3 tis e Gun Coc/i 




Speed 30 Knots to 600 Yds. 
C/Mrye_ //5(t>so 
t^706 Lbs 



14-INCH TORPEDO 




FIG. I. Diagrams of 14- and i8-in. Torpedoes, 
did not exceed 10 knots an hour but by the application of Brother- 
hood's 3-cylinder engine the speed was increased to 18 knots 
a great advance. From that time continuous improvements have 
resulted in speeds of 30 knots and upwards for a short range being 
obtained. For some years a torpedo 14 ft. long and 14 in. in 
diameter was considered large enough, though it had a very limited 
effective range. For a longer range a larger weapon must be 
employed capable of carrying a greater supply of air. To obtain 
this, torpedoes of 18 in. diameter, involving increased length and 
weight, have for some time been constructed, and have taken the 
place of the smaller torpedo in the equipment of warships. This 
advance in dimensions has not only given a faster and steadier 
torpedo, but enabled such a heavy charge of gun-cotton to be 
carried that its explosion against any portion of a ship would inevit- 
ably either sink or disable her. The dimensions, shape, &c., of the 14- 
and i8-in. torpedoes are shown in fig. I. A limited range was 
still imposed by the uncertainty of its course under water. The 
speed of the ship from which it was discharged, the angle with her 
keel at which it entered the water, and the varying velocity of 
impulse, tended to error of flight, such error being magnified the 
farther the path of the torpedo was prolonged. Hence 8po yds. 
was formerly considered the limit of distance within which the 
torpedo should be discharged at sea against an object from a ship 
in motion. 

In these circumstances, though improvements in the manufacture 
of steel and engines allowed of torpedoes.of far longer range being 



TORPEDO 



55 



made (the fastest torpedo up to 1898 having a speed of 29 knots 
for 800 yds.), it was of no advantage to make them, as they could 
not be depended upon to run in a straight line from a stationary 
point for more than 800 yds., while from a ship in motion good 
practice could only be ensured at a reduced range. It was obvious, 
therefore, that to increase the effective range of the torpedo, these 
errors of direction must be overcome by some automatic steering 
arrangement. Several inventors turned their attention to the 
subject, nearly all of whom proposed to utilize the principle of the 
gyroscope for the purpose. The first which gave any satisfactory 
results was an apparatus devised by Ludwig Obry an engineer 
in Austria and tried by the Italian government about 1896. 
These trials demonstrated the feasibility of accurately and auto- 
matically steering a torpedo in a direct line by this means. Messrs 
Whitehead & Co., of Fiume, then acquired the invention, and after 
exhaustive experiments produced the apparatus which is now 
fitted to every torpedo made. It is based on the principle that 
a body revolving on a free axis tends to preserve its plane of rotation. 
A gyroscope with plane of rotation parallel to the vertical axis of 
the torpedo will have an angular motion if the torpedo is diverted 
from its original course. This angular motion is employed to actuate 
the steering mechanism by operating an air motor connected 
with the rudders, and keeping the torpedo in the line of discharge. 
The apparatus consists of a flywheel caused to rotate by a spring, 
the barrel on which the latter is wound having a segmental wheel 
which gears into a toothed pinion spindle of the flywheel. Owing 
to the diameter of the segment being much greater than the pinion, 
a rapid rotatory motion is imparted. The spring is wound up by a 
key from outside the torpedo, and kept in tension until the pro- 
jectile is discharged, when the spring is released by the air lever 
being thrown back, which admits air to the engine; the gyroscope 
is then freed and set in motion with its plane in the plane of the 
vertical axis of the torpedo as it was in the launching tube. 

Assuming now that the course of the torpedo is diverted by any 
cause, its axis will move or perform a certain angular motion with 
regard to the plane of the flywheel, which will have the same 
result as if we consider the conditions reversed, i.e. as if the plane 
of rotation of the flywheel were altered and that of the axis of the 
torpedo remained the same. The axis of the flywheel performs 
a relative angular motion which it imparts to a crank actuating 
a servo-motor worked by compressed air, and connected with the 
rudders _ of the torpedo, moving them in the opposite direction 
to that in which the torpedo was diverted from its original course. 
Thus all inaccuracies of flight due to errors of adjustment, mis- 
calculation of deflexion, or even damage to some part, are elimin- 
ated. As long as the gyroscope is in good order the torpedo is 
bound to run in the line it was pointing when the flywheel was 
started. It is placed in the after-body of the torpedo, as indicated 
in fig. 2. 



limited by the strength of the engines and other parts. Improve- 
ments in steel manufacture have permitted the use of much higher 
pressures of air and the construction of air-chambers able to with- 
stand the pressure of 2000 Ib to the sq. in. with the same weight of 
air-chamber. This has enabled increased range without reduction 
in speed to be attained, or conversely, increased speed at shorter 
ranges. By improvement in the engines which are now of the 
Brotherhood 4-cylinder central crank type further gains have 
been effected. 

Having reached the limit of pressure and endurance of air- 
chambers with present materials without undue increase of weight, 
the designer had to seek additional energy in another direction. 
Now the energy obtainable from a given weight of compressed air 
is dependent upon the volume of air available at the working 
pressure of the engines. At a constant pressure this volume of 
air is proportionate to its absolute temperature. If then the air 
be stored cold and highly heated before delivery to the engine 
the available energy from a given weight will be greatly increased. 
By this means we obtain the equivalent of a larger and heavier 
air-chamber without the increased weight such would involve. 

As originally used a quantity of hydrocarbon fuel was placed in 
the air-vessel. Upon discharging the torpedo this fuel was auto- 
matically ignited and the contents of the air-chamber were heated. 
Unless, however, the combustion could be regulated there were 
serious risks of abnormal pressures, of overheating and weakening 
the air-vessel. Devices have been applied to overcome this liability, 
and other methods devised to obtain the same result. 

By the use of heating and thereby increasing the volume of air 
in proportion to the rise of temperature the extra volume will 
allow of an increased speed for a given range or a greater range 
without increase of speed. The limit to the development of this 
system seems to be the temperature the materials will stand, but 
even at this early stage it has added several knots to the speed of 
this wonderful weapon. 

Torpedo Carriages and Discharge. As no gun which is ineffi- 
ciently mounted can give good results, so the best torpedo is valueless 
without a good carriage or system of discharge. In the early days 
of the Whitehead, discredit came upon it because the importance 
of this was not sufficiently realized; and an erratic course under 
water was in nine cases out of ten due to a crude method of dis- 
charge. A delicate piece of mechanism was dropped into the water 
from a height of several feet, and naturally suffered internal derange- 
ment. Gun-ports were then used for the purpose, but now a special 
orifice is made, to which the torpedo carriage is fitted with a ball- 
and-socket joint forming a water-tight aperture so that this 
carriage or tube may be only 2 or 3 ft. above the water-line. The 
ball-and-socket joint enables it also to have a considerable angle 
of training. Originally the torpedo was pushed out by a rod 
acted upon by compressed air, in which case the carriage was a 




FIG. 2. Arrangement 

The efficiency of the Whitehead torpedo has thus been enormously 
increased, and more accurate practice can now be made at 
2000 yds. than was formerly possible at 800 yds. This adds con- 
siderably to the chances of torpedo-boats attacking ships, even in 
day-time, at sea or at anchor, and will render further protection 
necessary against this weapon. Against a ship in motion there is 
still, however, the calculation as to her speed and the distance she 
will travel before the torpedo reaches her. Should this be mis- 
calculated, an increased range for torpedoes will magnify the error. 
For instance, a 3O-knot torpedo will travel 1000 yds. in a minute. 
If aimed at a ship on the beam assumed to be steaming 15 knots 
an hour, to reach her when 1000 yds. distant the torpedo must 
be discharged at a point 500 yds. ahead of her. But if the ship 
is actually steaming 12 knots, she will have travelled only 400 yds. 
in the minute, and the torpedo will be 100 yds. in advance of 
her. If discharged at a range of 500 yds., such a miscalculation 
causes an error of only 50 yds. or 150 ft. But if the object is 
300 it. long, and her centre was taken as the target, her bow would 
be just at the spot the torpedo would reach in thirty seconds. It 
would seem, therefore, that increased velocity of torpedo is necessary 
before the full advantages of the gyroscope can be realized. Now 
the range of the torpedo is entirely dependent upon the store of 
energy which can be carried; upon, therefore, the capacity of the 
air reservoir, the maximum pressure it can stand, and on the effici- 
ency of the propelling engines. The speed over a given range is 
also dependent upon these factors; the maximum speed being 



of Gyroscope in Torpedo. 

simple frame. The rod, pressing against the tail with some force, 
was apt to damage or disarrange the rudders, so the air-gun took 
the place of rod impulse. Here the torpedo fits closely in a tube 
or cylinder with an opening at the rear made air-tight when closed. 
At the desired moment compressed air is admitted to the rear 
part of the cylinder and blows the torpedo out. Gunpowder then 
superseded air for this operation; and now this has given place to 
a small charge of cordite, which does not leave any deposit on the 
inside of the cylinder. There is a double risk in the use of locomotive 
torpedoes from above water, (i) The charge may be exploded 
by hostile fire. Though mainly consisting of damp gun-cotton, 
which is not readily ignited, the dry primer and detonator may be 
struck, which would lead to a disastrous explosion. (2) The air- 
chamber is also a source of danger. As it contains air compressed 
to a high degree of tension, experiments have shown that if struck 
by a small shell it may burst with great violence; and as it offers 
a considerable mark, this is not an improbable event in an action. 
An instance of the danger of above-water torpedo tubes occurred 
in the Spanish-American War at the battle of Santiago. A shell 
entered the " Almirante Oquendo " and struck a 14-in. torpedo 
in the tube. The charge detonated, causing a fearful explosion 
and practically wrecking that part of the vessel. The develop- 
ment of moderate-sized quick-firing guns has increased this risk. 
Hence we find the use of above-water torpedo tubes now mainly 
confined to torpedo and other craft too small for submerged 
discharge. 



TORPEDO 



Submerged Discharge. The risk attached to having loaded 
torpedoes above the water-line independently of the fact that to 
get the best result they should start in the elejnent to which they 
belong has given great impetus to the system of submerged 



Gun end Torpedo reedy to fire 



VERTICAL SECTION. 




and tube into the ship again, so that practically the whole operation 

is one motion. 

Fig. 3 will further explain this apparatus. A is the outer tube; 

B the inner tube; C the shield; D torpedo; E explosion chamber 
for cordite charge placed at K ; F pipe for gas to pass 
into outer tube ; G and Y doors of inner and outer tube ; 
J the valve which opens automatically when inner tube 
arrives at position shown in fig. 2 ; T and P appliance 
for running the tube in and out by hand when desired ; 
O arrangement for bringing whole apparatus back 
for repair, &c. ; M and N sluice- valve and handle; 
R, r 1 , r", r 3 , for draining tubes before torpedo is put in; 
X indicator showing position of inner tube. 

Torpedoes have been discharged from this apparatus 
with successful result from a ship steaming at I7i 
knots. 

The advantage of cordite over compressed air for 
impulse is that it requires no attention : when a charge 



PLAN V IEW 




FIG. 3. Broadside Submerged l8-in. Torpedo Tube. 



discharge. From the earliest days of the weapon this has been 
employed to some extent. But it was principally in the direction 
of right-ahead fire, by having an orifice in the stem of the ship under 
water, to which a torpedo tube was connected. The tactical 
idea was thus to supplement attack with the ram, so that if the 
vessel endeavouring to ram saw that the object would evade this 
attack, she could project a torpedo ahead, which, travelling faster 
than the vessel, might as effectually accomplish the required service. 
The stem orifice had a water-tight cover, which was removed on 
the torpedo being placed in the tube and the inner door closed; 
then, sufficient impulse being imparted to eject the torpedo, and its 
machinery being set in motion at the same time, it darted forward 
towards the enemy. There is, however, some risk of the ship using 
a torpedo in this manner striking it before the missile has gathered 
the necessary impetus from its propellers to take it clear of the 
vessel. The system, moreover, has the disadvantage of weakening 
the ram, the construction of which should be of immense strength. 
There is the further liability of ramming with a torpedo in the bow 
tube, which would be as disastrous to friend as foe. This method 
of submerged discharge has therefore given place to ejecting the 
torpedo from the broadside. Considerable difficulty attached to 
getting the torpedo clear of the ship from this position without 
injury, especially when the vessel was proceeding at speed. The 
natural tendency of the passing water acting on the head of 
the torpedo as it emerged was to give a violent wrench and crush 
the rear end before that portion could clear the aperture. To prevent 
this the torpedo must be held rigid in the line of projection until 
the tail is clear of the ship. This is thus effected. Besides the 
tube with the aperture in side of the ship under water, fitted with 
sluice-valve, all broadside submerged discharge apparatus possess 
the following features: A shield is pushed out from the ship's 
side. In this shield there are grooves of some form. Guides on 
the torpedoes fit and run in these grooves. When discharged the 
torpedo is thus supported against the streams of passing water, 
and guided so that its axis continues in the line of projection until 
the tail is clear of the side, the shield being of such length that this 
occurs at the same time that the guides on the torpedo leave the 
grooves in the shield. An apparatus on this principle has been 
fitted to a number of ships of the British navy, and gives good 
results at high rates of speed. It has the defect that the shield 
must be run out previous to the torpedo being discharged, and 
brought back afterwards, thus involving three separate operations, 
each performed by compressed air. 

In the broadside submerged discharge, designed, constructed 
and supplied to many foreign navies by Messrs Armstrong of the 
Elswick works, the three operations are combined in one. There is 
an outer tube as before, but it contains an inner tube carrying the 
torpedo. Fized to this tube, and prolonging it, is the shield fitted 
with grooves. Both tubes have a door at the rear made air- 
tight when closed by which the torpedo is entered. A charge of 
cordite is used for ejection instead of compressed air, the gas from 
which entering the outer cylinder first forces the inner tube out, 
and then by means of a valve in the door of the inner tube passes 
in and blows put water and torpedo together, the shield supporting 
the latter until the tail is clear of the ship. By this time the cordite 
gas has expanded and cooled so as to relieve the pressure in rear- 
this causes the pressure of the water outside to push the shield 



is placed in the explosion chamber, and a torpedo is in the tube, 
all is in readiness for firing when desired, without further attention 
in the torpedo-room. The cordite is fired by electricity from the 
conning-tower; the officer, therefore, having ascertained that all is 
ready below, has only to press a button when the object is in the 
required position. Automatic indications are given in the conning- 
tower when the sluice-valve is opened and when all is in readiness 
for firing. 

This method of discharging torpedoes from the broadside under 
water eliminates the principal danger of the system, which required 
the shield to be put into position beforehand. It was then liable 
to be struck and distorted by passing wreckage without the fact 
being apparent to those in the ship. On the discharge of a torpedo 
its course might thus be arrested, or possibly the charge be pre- 
maturely exploded in dangerous proximity to its own ship. There 
was a risk of getting the shield out too soon, and thereby exposing 
it unduly to injury, or leaving the operation until too late. The 
tendency of naval equipment being towards complication, any 
readjustment which makes for simplicity cannot be otherwise 
than beneficial, and this feature is especially desirable in all matters 
connected with the use of torpedoes. 

The compartment containing the broadside submerged apparatus 
usually extends across the ship, so as to contain a tube for each 
side. 

Use in War. This has been mainly confined to attacks upon 
squadrons and single ships by torpedo craft of various types. 
At the battle of Yalu, between the Chinese and Japanese fleets, 
torpedoes were discharged by the former, but none took effect. 
The Japanese trusted solely to gun-fire. After the defeat of 
the Chinese at sea, their remaining ships took refuge in the 
harbour of Wei-hai-Wei. Here they were blockaded by the 
Japanese fleet, which, having a number of torpedo-boats, made 
several determined attacks upon the ships inside. After one 
or two attempts, foiled by the obstructions placed by the 
Chinese to bar the passage, the Japanese boats succeeded in 
torpedoing several ships, and thus expedited the reduction of the 
place. In the war between Spain and the United States the 
inferiority of Admiral Cervera's squadron to that under Admiral 
Sampson might at the battle of Santiago have been to some 
extent counterbalanced by a skilful and vigorous use of torpedoes. 
If, instead of striving only to escape, a bold dash had been made 
for the American ships, the Spanish cruisers rapidly approaching 
end on to the foe, enveloped in the smoke of their own guns, 
should some at least have got within torpedo range without 
fatal injury. Closing each other at a speed of 10 knots only 
they would cover an interval of 6000 yds. in 9 minutes a 
short time in which to disable a ship by gun-fire under such 
conditions. But Cervera elected to offer a passive resistance 
only, and while suffering destruction wrought no material injury 
upon his opponents. On the other hand, there have been 



TORPEDO 



57 



several instances of large warships being sunk by locomotive 
torpedoes discharged from small craft. During the Chilean 
revolutionary war of 1891, a battleship, the " Blanco Encalada," 
of 3500 tons, was attacked in Caldera Bay by two torpedo vessels 
the " Lynch " and " Condell " of 750 tons. They entered the 
bay at dawn, the " Condell " leading. This vessel fired three 
torpedoes which missed the ironclad; then the " Lynch," after 
one ineffective shot, discharged a second torpedo, which struck 
the " Blanco " on the side nearly amidships. The latter had 
opened fire with little result, and sank soon afterwards. A 
similar incident occurred in 1894, when the Brazilian ironclad 
" Aquidaban " was sunk in Catherina Bay by the " Sampaio " 
a torpedo vessel of 500 tons. She entered the bay at night, 
and first discharged her bow torpedo at the ironclad, which 
missed; she then fired a broadside torpedo, which struck and 
exploded against the bow of the " Aquidaban." It caused a 
great shock on board, throwing an officer on the bridge into the 
water. The vessel sank soon afterwards, and the " Sampaio " 
escaped uninjured. 

In the war (1904-5) 'between Russia and Japan the Whitehead 
torpedo did not exercise an important influence upon the naval 
operations. It scored a success at the beginning of the struggle 
when a Japanese torpedo-flotilla made an attack upon the 
Russian fleet lying at anchor outside Port Arthur. For some 
unaccountable reason, though war was imminent, little or no 
precautions seemed to have been taken for effectually guarding 
the vessels. They had no nets in position nor boats patrolling 
outside them. Thus taken by surprise when the Japanese 
torpedo-boats suddenly appeared about midnight on the 8th of 
February 1904, several Russian ships were struck by torpedoes 
before they could offer any resistance. The most damaged 
were the " Retvisan " and " Tsarevitch " (battleships) and 
" Pallada " (cruiser), but all managed to get into Port Arthur 
and were eventually repaired. With three ships hors de 
combat the Russian fleet was considerably weakened at an 
early stage. The loss of the " Petropavlovsk " in April from a 
mine explosion was a further discouragement, especially as 
with this ship went down the gallant and energetic Admiral 
Makarov. In these circumstances the Russian fleet could not 
assume the offensive nor prevent the Japanese troops being 
sent by sea to invest Port Arthur. In June when the injured 
vessels were fit for service again the fleet put to sea but returned 
the same evening. The incident is noteworthy only because it 
led to an attack by the Japanese torpedo craft on the retiring 
squadron after sunset. As illustrating the uncertainty of hit- 
ting a moving object at sea with the Whitehead torpedo, already 
mentioned, no vessels were struck on this occasion and they 
reached the anchorage uninjured. In the battle of Tsushima 
the Japanese torpedo-boats attacked the Russian fleet after its 
disablement by gun-fire and gave the coup de grdce to some 
of the ships, which had little power of resistance owing to the 
destruction of their light armament. This war, therefore, did 
not increase to any extent our knowledge of the actual capability 
of this weapon. 

E/ect upon Naval Tactics: Blockade. It has often been 
assumed that steam and the torpedo will in future render 
blockade impossible as it was carried out in the old wars; that, 
no longer dependent upon the wind to allow egress from the 
blockaded port, a vessel using steam can emerge when she 
chooses, while the fear of torpedo attack will deter a blockading 
squadron from keeping such watch as to foil the attempt. As 
regards the power conferred by steam, it will be no less advan- 
tageous to a blockading squadron, enabling it to maintain its 
position, whereas sailing ships were often driven by gales to leave 
their station and seek a port. This gave opportunities for the 
blockaded vessels to escape. As regards torpedo-boats, they 
would no doubt be a danger to a blockading squadron unpro- 
vided with a means of defence against these craft. Such defence 
consists in an adequate number of small vessels interposing an 
in-shore squadron between the port and the main body outside. 
Thus they perform the twofold service of watching the enemy's 
movements within and frustrating a torpedo attack. As an 



instance of blockade under modern conditions, we have that 
of Admiral Sampson upon Santiago a guard more rigidly 
maintained than any in the old wars. So little was he deterred 
by the knowledge that Admiral Cervera had two torpedo 
vessels in his force, that he drew his squadron closer in at night 
when an attack might be expected, actually illuminating the 
entrance of the harbour with his electric searchlights, so that 
no craft could come out unperceived. No attempt was made to 
dislodge him from that position, and we may assume that 
blockade, if required in any scheme of naval strategy, will be 
carried out, whatever the weapons of warfare. 

As regards the effect of torpedoes upon tactics at sea, and in 
general, as well as single ship, actions, they must operate against 
close range and employment of the ram. If it is recognized that 
a vessel within 1000 yds. is liable to a fatal blow, she will 
endeavour in ordinary circumstances to keep outside that 
distance and rely upon gun-fire. The exception would be where 
she is overmatched in that respect, and hence might endeavour 
to restore the balance by the use of torpedoes. In a fleet action 
the danger of missing a foe and hitting a friend would restrict 
the discharge of torpedoes; and this risk increases as formations 
disappear. But the torpedo must be conceded a tactical 
superiority over the ram for the following reasons: A vessel 
to use the latter must come within torpedo range, while her 
adversary may successfully apply torpedoes without placing 
herself in any danger of being rammed. The ram can only be 
used in one direction, and a small miscalculation may cause 
disaster. If a vessel has more than one position from which 
torpedoes can be discharged, she is not confined as regards 
attack to a single bearing or direction. 

In action we may consider the speed of the torpedo as double 
that of the ship, and since against a moving object allowance 
must be made for the space traversed while ram or torpedo is 
travelling towards it, the faster weapon is less affected in its 
chance of successful impact by change of direction and speed 
of the object at the last moment. Lastly, with machinery 
disabled a ship is powerless to use the ram, but can avert a ram 
attack with her torpedoes. The movements of squadrons or 
single ships on entering an action are not likely to be influenced 
by any contemplated immediate use of torpedoes, for the gun 
must remain the primary weapon, at any rate at the first 
onset. Commanders would hardly risk being crushed by 
gun-fire before getting within torpedo range. Having faith 
in the efficiency of their ordnance and the gunnery skill of their 
crew, they would first manoeuvre to bring these into play. 
Tactics for torpedo attack in such circumstances have not 
therefore been laid down, and it is only necessary to consider 
the positions which are advantageous for the use of this weapon, 
and, conversely, what should be avoided when a vessel, finding 
herself overmatched in gunnery, seeks to redress the balance 
with torpedoes. 

Size of Target. This, with a ship, varies in length as the torpedo 
approaches end on to the vessel, or at angle to the line of keel; 
the greatest being when the path of both forms a right angle. 
Hence the object is to place your ship where it presents the former 
condition to the enemy, while he affords the larger target. It 
must be remembered that, owing to the comparatively slow velocity 
of the torpedo, it must be aimed not directly at a ship in motion 
like a shot from a gun but at a point ahead which the ship will 
reach after the torpedo has traversed the intervening distance. 
Thus speed of object has to be estimated, and hence the importance 
of adding to the velocity of the torpedo and getting a broadside 
shot so as to reduce as much as possible errors of calculation. 
The great increase of the dimensions of warships, especially in 
length, which now has reached 500 ft., adds to the chances of a 
successful hit with torpedoes, and will doubtless tend to diminish 
a desire in future naval tactics to close inside torpedo range for the 
purpose of ramming. 

Range Though the effective range of a_ torpedo discharged 
from a ship or torpedo vessel against a single object moving 
at high speed may be considered as approximately within 1000 
yds. this limit of distance is considerably augmented where the 
target consists of several vessels at sea in close order, or is that 
afforded by a fleet at anchor. In the first case it may be worth 
while to discharge torpedoes from a distance of two or three thou- 
sand yards at the centre of the line for the chance of hitting one of 
the vessels composing it. As regards a mass of ships at anchor, 



TORQUAY TORQUEMADA, T. 



unless protected by an impenetrable guard such as a breakwater 
or some invulnerable defence carried by the ships themselves, the 
increased range and accuracy of the torpedo imparted by recent 
developments would give it a chance of success if discharged against 
such a target at even greater distance. 

Finally, by improvements in construction and methods of dis- 
charge the torpedo has recovered the place it was rapidly losing a 
few years ago. As armour receives increased resisting power to 
above-water projectiles, and gets on a level again with the gun, 
more attention will be given to under-water attack, against which 
no adequate protection has yet been devised. Thus we. shall 
probably find the torpedo taking a very prominent place in any 
future war between the great maritime powers. (S. M E.-W.) 

TORQUAY, a municipal borough, seaport and watering place, 
in the Torquay parliamentary division of Devonshire, England, 
on Tor Bay of the English Channel, 26 m. S. of Exeter, by the 
Great Western railway. Pop. (1901), 33,625. Owing to the 
beauty of its site and the equability of its climate, and to its 
being screened by lofty hills on the north, east and west, and 
open to the sea-breezes of the south, it has a high reputation 
as a winter residence. The temperature seldom rises as high 
as 70 F. in summer or falls below freezing-point in winter. 
To the north lies the populous suburb of St Mary Church. 
There are some remains of Tor or Torre Abbey, founded 
for Praemonstratensians by William, Lord Brewer, in 1196. 
They stand north of the modern mansion, but, with the 
exception of a beautiful pointed arch portal, are of small 
importance. On the south of the gateway is a 13th-century 
building, known as the Spanish barn. On Chapel Hill are 
the remains of a chapel of the I2th century, dedicated to 
St Michael, and supposed to have formerly belonged to the 
abbey. St Saviour's parish church of Tor-Mohun, or Tor- 
moham, an ancient stone structure, was restored in 1874. 
The old church at St Mary Church, north of Torquay, was 
rebuilt in Early Decorated style; and in 1871 a tower was 
erected as a memorial to Dr Phillpotts, bishop of Exeter, who 
with his wife is buried in the churchyard. St John's Church, 
by G. E. Street, is a fine example of modern Gothic. Among 
the principal buildings and institutions are the town-hall, 
museum of the natural history society, theatre and opera-house 
(1880), market, schools of art and science, the Torbay infirmary 
and dispensary, the Western hospital for consumption, Crypt 
House institution for invalid ladies and the Mildmay home for 
incurable consumptives. The control of the harbour, piers, 
pleasure grounds, &c., was acquired from the lord of the manor 
by the local board in 1886. The harbour has a depth of over 
20 ft. at low water. The principal imports are coal, timber 
and slates, and the principal export stone of the Transition 
limestone or Devonshire marble. In the town are a number of 
marble-polishing works. Terra-cotta ware of fine quality is 
also manufactured from a deposit of clay at Watcombe and 
at Hele. The town is governed by a mayor, 9 aldermen and 
27 councillors. Area, 3588 acres. 

There was a village at Torre even before the foundation of the 
abbey, and in the neighbourhood of Torre evidence has been 
found of Roman occupation. The manor was granted by 
William the Conqueror to Richard de Bruvere or de Brewere, and 
was subsequently known as Tor Brewer. After the defeat of the 
Spanish Armada, Don Pedro's galley was brought into Torbay; 
and William, prince of Orange, landed at Torbay on the sth of 
November 1688. Until the middle of the igth century it was 
an insignificant fishing village. It was incorporated in 1892. 

TORQUE, or TORC (Lat. torquis, torques, a twisted collar, 
torquere, to twist), the term given by archaeologists to the 
twisted collars or armlets of gold or other metal worn particu- 
larly by the ancient Gauls and other allied Celtic races. The 
typical torque is a circlet with twisted rope-like strands, the ends 
not joined together; the torque was usually worn with the 
opening in the front as seen in a figure of a Gaul in a sculptured 
sarcophagus in the Capitoline Museum at Rome. In mechanics, 
the term " torque " is used of the turning-moment of a system- 
force, as in a series dynamo. 

TORQUEMADA, JUAN DE (1388-1468), or rather JOHANNES 
DE TURRECREMATA, Spanish ecclesiastic, was born at Valladolid, 



in 1388, and was educated in that city. At an early age he 
joined the Dominican order, and soon distinguished himself 
for learning and devotion. In 1415 he accompanied the general 
of his order to the Council of Constance, whence he proceeded 
to Paris for study, and took his doctor's degree in 1423. After 
teaching for some time in Paris he became prior of the Dominican 
house first in Valladolid and then in Toledo. In 1431 Pope 
Eugenius IV. called him to Rome and made him " magister 
sancti palatii." At the Council of Basel he was one of the ablest 
supporters of the view of the Roman curia, and he was rewarded 
with a cardinal's hat in 1439. He died at Rome on the 26th of 
September 1468. 

His principal works are In Gratiani Decretum commentarii 
(4 vpls., Venice, 1578) ; Expositio brevis et utilis super toto psalterio 
(Mainz, 1474); Quaesliones spirituales super evangelia totius anni 
(Brixen, 1498); Summa ecclesiastica (Salamanca, 1550). The last- 
named work has the following topics: (l) De universa ecclesia; 
(2) De Ecclesia romana et ppntificis primatu ; (3) De universali- 
bus conciliis ; (4) De schismaticis et haereticis. His De conceptime 
deiparae Mariae, libri viii. (Rome, 1547), was edited with preface 
and notes by E. B. Pusey (London, 1869 seq.). 

TORQUEMADA, THOMAS (1420-1498), inquisitor-general of 
Spain, son of Don Pedro Ferdinando, lord of Torquemada, a small 
town in Old Castile, was born in 1420 at Valladolid during the 
reign of John II. Being nephew to the well-known cardinal of the 
same name, he early displayed an attraction for the Dominican 
order; and, as soon as allowed, he joined the Friars Preachers 
in their convent at Valladolid. His biographers state that he 
showed himself from the beginning very earnest in austere life 
and humility; and he became a recognized example of the 
virtues of a Dominican. Valladolid was then the capital, and in 
due course eminent dignities were offered to him, but he gave 
signs of a determination to lead the simple life of a Friar Preacher, 
In the convent, his modesty was so great that he refused to 
accept the doctor's degree in theology, which is the highest 
prized honour in the order. His superiors, however, obliged 
him to take the priorship of the convent of Santa Cruz in 
Segovia, where he ruled for twenty-two years. The royal family, 
especially the queen and the infanta Isabella, often stayed at 
Segovia, and Torquemada became confessor to the infanta, 
who was then very young. He trained her to look on her 
future sovereignty as an engagement to make religion respected. 
Esprit Flechier, bishop of Nimes, in this Histoire du cardinal 
Jimenes (Paris, 1693), says that Torquemada made her promise 
that when she became queen she would make it her principal 
business to chastise and destroy heretics. He then began to 
teach her the political advantages of religion and to prepare the 
way for that tremendous engine in the hands of the state, the 
Inquisition. 

Isabella succeeded to the throne (1474) on the death of 
Henry IV. Torquemada had always been strong in his advice 
that she should marry Ferdinand of Aragon and thus consolidate 
the kingdoms of Spain. Hitherto he had rarely appeared at 
court ; but now the queen entrusted him not only with the care of 
her conscience, but also with the benefices in the royal patronage. 
He also helped her in quieting Ferdinand, who was chafing under 
the privileges of the Castilian grandees, and succeeded so 
well that the king also took him as confessor. Refusing the rich 
see of Seville and many other preferments he accepted that 
of councillor of state. For a long time he had pondered over 
the confusion in which Spain was, which he attributed to the 
intimate relations allowed between Christians and infidels for 
the sake of commerce. He saw Jews, Saracens, heretics and 
apostates roaming through Spain unmolested; and in this lax 
toleration of religious differences he thought he saw the main 
obstacle to the political union of the Spains, which was the 
necessity of the hour. He represented to Ferdinand and 
Isabella that it was essential to their safety to reorganize the 
Inquisition, which had since the I3th century (1236) been 
established in Spain. The bishops, who were ex officio inquisitors 
in their own dioceses, had not succeeded in putting a stop to 
the evils, nor had the friars, by whom they had been practically 
superseded. By the middle of the 15th century there was 



TORQUEMADA, T. 



59 






hardly an active inquisitor left in the kingdom. In 1473 
Torquemada and Gonzalez de Mendoza, archbishop of Toledo, 
approached the sovereigns. Isabella had been for many years 
prepared, and she and Ferdinand, now that the proposal for 
this new tribunal came before them, saw in it a means of over- 
coming the independence of the nobility and clergy by which 
the royal power had been obstructed. With the royal sanction 
a petition was addressed to Sixtus IV. for the establishment of 
this new form of Inquisition; and as the result of a long intrigue, 
in 1479 a papal bull authorized the appointment by the Spanish 
sovereigns of two inquisitors at Seville, under whom the 
Dominican inquisitions already established elsewhere might serve. 
In the persecuting activity that ensued the Dominicans, " the 
Dogs of the Lord " (Domini canes), took the lead. Commissaries 
of the Holy Office were sent into different provinces, and ministers 
of the faith were established in the various cities to take cogni- 
sance of the crimes of heresy, apostasy, sorcery, sodomy and 
polygamy, these three last being considered to be implicit 
heresy. The royal Inquisition thus started was subversive of 
the regular tribunals of the bishops, who much resented the 
innovation, which, however, had the power of the state at its 
back. 

In 1481, three years after the Sixtine commission, a tribunal 
was inaugurated at Seville, where freedom of speech and licence 
of manner were rife. The inquisitors at once began to detect 
errors. In order not to confound the innocent with the guilty, 
Torquemada published a declaration offering grace and pardon 
to all who presented themselves before the tribunal and avowed 
their fault. Some fled the country, but many (Mariana says 
17,000) offered themselves for reconciliation. The first seat of 
the Holy Office was in the convent of San Pablo, where the friars, 
however, resented the orders, on the pretext that they were not 
delegates of the inquisitor-general. Soon the gloomy fortress of 
Triana, on the opposite bank of the Guadalquivir, was prepared 
as the palace of the Holy Office; and the terror-stricken Sevil- 
lianos read with dismay over the portals the motto of the 
Inquisition: " Exsurge, Domine, Judica causam tuam, Capite 
nobis vulpes." Other tribunals, like that of Seville and under 
La Suprema, were speedily established in Cordova, Jaen and 
Toledo. The sovereigns saw that wealth was beginning to flow 
in to the new tribunals by means of fines and confiscations; 
and they obliged Torquemada to take as assessors five persons 
who would represent them in all matters affecting the royal 
prerogatives. These assessors were allowed a definite vote in 
temporal matters but not in spiritual, and the final decision 
was reserved to Torquemada himself, who in 1483 was appointed 
the sole inquisitor-general over all the Spanish possessions. In 
the next year he ceded to Diego Deza, a Dominican, his office of 
confessor to the sovereigns, and gave himself up to the congenial 
work of reducing heretics. A general assembly of his inquisitors 
was convoked at Seville for the 2gth of November 1484; and 
there he promulgated a code of twenty-eight articles for the 
guidance of the ministers of the faith. Among these rules are 
the following, which will give some idea of the procedure. 
Heretics were allowed thirty days to declare themselves. Those 
who availed themselves of this grace were only fined, and their 
goods escaped confiscation. Absolution in foro externo was 
forbidden to be given secretly to those who made voluntary 
confession; they had to submit to the ignominy of the public 
auto-de-fe. The result of this harsh law was that numerous 
applications were made to Rome for secret absolution; and thus 
much money escaped the Inquisition in Spain. Those who 
were reconciled were deprived of all honourable employment, 
and were forbidden to use gold, silver, jewelry, silk or fine wool. 
Against this law, too, many petitions went to Rome for rehabili- 
tation, until in 1498 the Spanish pope Alexander VI. granted 
leave to Torquemada to rehabilitate the condemned, and with- 
drew practically all concessions hitherto made and paid for at 
Rome. Fines were imposed by way of penance on those 
confessing willingly. If a heretic in the Inquisition asked for 
absolution, he could receive it, but subject to a life imprisonment; 
but if his repentance were but feigned he could be at once 



condemned and handed over to the civil power for execution. 
Should the accused, after the testimony against him had been 
made public, continue to deny the charge, he was to be con- 
demned as impenitent. When serious proof existed against one 
who denied his crime, he could be submitted to the question by 
torture; and if under torture he avowed his fault and confirmed 
his guilt by subsequent confession he was punished as one con- 
victed; but should he retract he was again to be submitted to 
the tortures or condemned to extraordinary punishment. This 
second questioning was afterwards forbidden; but the prohibi- 
tion was got over by merely suspending and then renewing the 
sessions for questioning. It was forbidden to communicate to 
the accused the entire copy of the declaration of the witnesses. 
The dead even were not free from the Holy Office; but processes 
could be instituted against them and their remains subjected 
to punishment. But along with these cruel and unjust measures 
there must be put down to Torquemada's credit some advanced 
ideas as to prison life. The cells of the Inquisition were, as a rule, 
large, airy, clean and with good windows admitting the sun. 
They were, in those respects, far superior to the civil prisons of 
that day. The use of irons was in Torquemada's time not 
allowed in the Holy Office; the use of torture was in accordance 
with the practice of the other royal tribunals; and when these 
gave it up the Holy Office did so also. 

Such were some of the methods that Torquemada introduced 
into the Spanish Inquisition, which was to have so baneful an 
effect upon the whole country. During the eighteen years that 
he was inquisitor-general it is said that he burnt 10,220 persons, 
condemned 6860 others to be burnt in effigy, and reconciled 
97,321, thus making an average of some 6000 convictions a year. 
These figures are given by Llorente, who was secretary of the 
Holy Office from 1790 to 1792 and had access to the archives; 
but modern research reduces the list of those burnt by Torque- 
mada to 2000, in itself an awful holocaust to the principle of 
intolerance. The constant stream of petitions to Rome opened 
the eyes of the pope to the effects of Torquemada's severity. 
On three separate occasions he had to send Fray Alfonso Badaja 
to defend his acts before the Holy See. The sovereigns, too, 
saw the stream of money, which they had hoped for, diverted 
to the coffers of the Holy Office, and in 1493 they made com- 
plaint to the pope; but Torquemada was powerful enough to 
secure most of the money for the expenses of the Inquisition. 
But in 1496, when the sovereigns again complained that the 
inquisitors were, without royal knowledge or consent, disposing 
of the property of the condemned and thus depriving the public 
revenues of considerable sums, Alexander VI. appointed Jimenes 
to examine into the case and make the Holy Office disgorge the 
plunder. 

For many years Torquemada had been persuading the sove- 
reigns to make an attempt once for all to rid the country of the 
hated Moors. Mariana holds that the founding of the Inquisi- 
tion, by giving a new impetus to the idea of a united kingdom, 
made the country more capable of carrying to a satisfactory 
ending the traditional wars against the Moors. The taking of 
Zahaia in 1481 by the enemy gave occasion to reprisals. Troops 
were summoned to Seville and the war began by the siege of 
Alhama, a town eight leagues from Granada, the Moorish 
capital. Torquemada went with the sovereigns to Cordova, to 
Madrid or wherever the states-general were held, to urge on 
the war; and he obtained from the Holy See the same spiritual 
favours that had been enjoyed by the Crusaders. But he did 
not forget his favourite work of ferreting out heretics; and his 
ministers of the faith made great progress over all the kingdom, 
especially at Toledo, where merciless severity was shown to the 
Jews who had lapsed from Christianity. The Inquisition, 
although as a body the clergy did not mislike it, sometimes 
met with furious opposition from the nobles and common people. 
At Valentia and Lerida there were serious conflicts. At 
Saragossa Peter Arbue, a canon and an ardent inquisitor, 
was slain in 1485 whilst praying in a church; and the threats 
against the hated Torquemada made him go in fear of his life, 
and he never went abroad without an escort of forty familiars 



6o 



TORRE ANNUNZIATA TORRENS 



of the Holy Office on horseback and two hundred more on 
foot. In 1487 he went with Ferdinand to Malaga and thence to 
Valladolid, where in the October of 1488 he held another general 
congregation of the Inquisition and promulgated new laws 
based on the experience already gained. He then hurried 
back to Andalusia where he joined the sovereigns, who 
were now besieging Granada, which he entered with the 
conquering army in January 1492 and built there a convent 
of his order. 

The Moors being vanquished, now came the turn of the 
Jews. In 1490 had happened the case of El Santo nino de 
la Guardia a child supposed to have been killed by the Jews. 
His existence had never been proved; and in the district of 
Guardia no child was reported as missing. The whole story 
was most probably the creation of imaginations stimulated by 
torture and despair, unless it was a deliberate fiction set forth 
for the purpose of provoking hostility against the Jews. For 
a long time' Torquemada had tried to get the royal consent to 
a general expulsion; but the sovereigns hesitated, and, as the 
victims were the backbone of the commerce of the country, 
proposed a ransom of 30x5,000 ducats instead. The indignant 
friar would hear of no compromise: "Judas," he cried, " sold 
Christ for 30 pence; and your highnesses wish to sell Him again 
for 300,000 ducats." Unable to bear up against the Domini- 
can's fiery denunciations, the sovereigns, three months after 
the fall of Granada, issued a decree ordering every Jew either 
to embrace Christianity or to leave the country, four months 
being given to make up their minds; and those who refused to 
become Christians to order had leave to sell their property and 
carry off their effects. But this was not enough for the in- 
quisitor-general, who in the following month (April) issued orders 
to forbid Christians, under severe penalties, having any communi- 
cation with the Jews or, after the period of grace, to supply 
them even with the necessaries of life. The former prohibition 
made it impossible for the unfortunate people to sell their 
goods which hence fell to the Inquisition. The numbers 
of Jewish families driven out of the country by Torquemada 
is variously stated from Mariana's 1,700,000 to the more 
probable 800,000 of later historians. The loss to Spain was 
enormous, and from this act of the Dominican the commercial 
decay of Spain dates. 

Age was now creeping on Torquemada, who, however, never 
would allow his misdirected zeal to rest. At another general 
assembly, his fourth, he gave new and more stringent rules, which 
are found in the Compilacidn de las instructions del officio de la 
Santa Inquisicidn. He took up his residence in Avila, where 
he had built a convent; and here he resumed the common life 
of a friar, leaving his cell in October 1497 to visit, at Salamanca, 
the dying infante, Don Juan, and to comfort the sovereigns 
in their parental distress. They often used to visit him at 
Avila, where in 1498, still in office as inquisitor-general, he 
held his last general assembly to complete his life's work. 
Soon afterwards he died, on the i6th of September 1498, 
" full of years and merit " says his biographer. He was buried 
in the chapel of the convent of St Thomas in Avila. 

The name of Torquemada stands for all that is intolerant 
and narrow, despotic and cruel. He was no real statesman 
or minister of the Gospel, but a blind fanatic, who failed to 
see that faith, which is the gift of God, cannot be imposed on 
any conscience by force. (E. TN.) 

TORRE ANNUNZIATA, a seaport of Campania, Italy, in 
the province of Naples, on the east of the Bay of Naples, and 
at the south foot of Mt Vesuvius, 14 m. S.E. of Naples by rail. 
Pop. (1901), 25,070 (town); 28,084 (commune). It is on the main 
line to Battipaglia, at the point of junction of a branch line 
from Cancello round the east of Vesuvius, and of the branch to 
Castellammare di Stabia and Gragnano. It has a royal arms 
factory established by Charles IV., and other ironworks, 
considerable manufacture of macaroni, paper, breeding of 
silkworms, and some fishing and shipping. The harbour is 
protected by moles. Remains attributed to the Roman post- 
station of Oplontis were discovered in making the railway 



between Torre del Greco and Torre Annunziata, a little west of 
the latter, in 1842. 

TORRE DEL GRECO, a seaport of Campania, Italy, in the 
province of Naples, 7! m. S.E. of that city by rail. Pop. 
(1901), 35,328. It lies at the south-west foot of Vesuvius, on the 
shore of the Bay of Naples. It is built chiefly of lava, and stands 
on the lava stream of 1631, which destroyed two-thirds of the 
older town. Great damage was done by the eruptions of 
1737 and 1794; the earthquake of 1857 and the eruption of the 
8th of December 1861 were even more destructive. After each dis- 
aster the people returned, the advantage of the rich volcanic land 
overcoming apprehensions of danger. In the outskirts are 
many beautiful villas and gardens. The town has shipbuilding 
yards and lava quarries. The inhabitants take part in the 
coral and sponge fishing off the African and Sicilian coasts, and 
coral is worked in the town. There is also fishing for tunny, 
sardines and oysters; hemp is woven, and the neighbourhood 
is famed for its fruit and wine. In June the great popular 
festival "Dei Quattro Altari " is annually celebrated here in 
commemoration of the abolition of the feudal dominion in 
1700. Remains of ancient villas and baths have been found 
here. 

TORRENS, ROBERT (1780-1864), English soldier and econo- 
mist, was born in Ireland in 1780. He entered the Marines 
in 1797, became a captain in 1806, and major in 1811 for 
bravery in Anhalt during the Walcheren expedition. He 
fought in the Peninsula, becoming lieutenant-colonel in 1835 
and retiring as colonel in 1837. After abortive attempts to 
enter parliament in 1818 and 1826, he was returned in 1831 as 
member for Ashburton. He was a prolific writer, principally on 
financial and commercial policy. Almost the whole of the pro- 
gramme which was carried out in legislation by Sir Robert Peel 
had been laid down in his economic writings. He was an 
early and earnest advocate of the repeal of the corn laws, 
but was not in favour of a general system of absolute free trade, 
maintaining that it is expedient to impose retaliatory duties 
to countervail similar duties imposed by foreign countries, 
and a lowering of import duties on the productions of countries 
retaining their hostile tariffs would occasion a decline in 
prices, profits and wages. 

His principal writings of a general character were: The Economist 
[i.e. Physiocrat] refuted (1808); Essay on the Production of Wealth 
(1821); Essay on the External Corn-trade (eulogized by Ricardp) 
(1827) ; The Budget, a Series of Letters on Financial, Commercial 
and Colonial Policy (1841-1843); The Principles and Practical 
Operations of Sir Robert Peel's Act of 1844 Explained and Defended 
(1847). 

TORRENS, SIR ROBERT RICHARD (1814-1884), British 
colonial statesman, was born at Cork, Ireland, in 1814, and 
educated at Trinity College, Dublin. He went to South Aus- 
tralia in 1840, and was appointed collector of customs. He was 
an official member of the first legislative council and in 1852 
was treasurer and registrar-general. When responsible govern- 
ment was established he was elected as a representative for 
Adelaide and became a member of the first ministry. In 1857 
he introduced his famous Real Property Act, the principle of 
which consists of conveyance by registration and certificate 
instead of deeds. The system was rapidly adopted in the other 
colonies and elsewhere, and was expounded by the author during 
a visit to the United Kingdom in 1862-1864. After leaving 
South Australia, Sir R. R. Torrens represented Cambridge 
in the House of Commons from 1868 to 1874; in 1872 he was 
knighted. He was the author of works on the effect of the 
gold discoveries on the currency, and other subjects. He died 
on the 3ist of August 1884. 

TORRENS, WILLIAM TORRENS M'CULLAGH (1813-1894), 
English politician and social reformer, son of James M'Cullagh 
(whose wife's maiden name, Torrens, he assumed in 1863), 
was born near Dublin on the I3th of October 1813. He was 
called to the bar, and in 1835 became assistant commissioner 
on the special commission on Irisrupoor-relief, which resulted 
in the extension of the workhouse system in Ireland in 
1838. In the "forties he joined the Anti-Corn Law League, 



TORRES NAHARRO, B. DE TORRICELLI 



61 



and in 1846 published his Industrial History of Free Nations. 
In 1847 he was elected to parliament for Dundalk, and sat 
till 1852. In 1857 he was elected as a Liberal for Yarmouth 
and from 1865 to 1885 he represented Finsbury. Torrens 
was a well known man in political life, and devoted himself 
mainly to social questions in parliament. It was an amend- 
ment of his to the Education Bill of 1870 which established 
the London School Board, and his Artisans' Dwellings Bill in 
1868 facilitated the clearing away of slums by local authorities. 
He published several books, and his Twenty Years in Parlia- 
ment (1893) and History of Cabinets (1894) contain useful 
material. He died in London on the 26th of April 1894. 

TORRES NAHARRO, BARTOLOM6 DE (1480-1530;, 
Spanish dramatist, was born towards the end of the isth century 
at Torres, near Badajoz. After some years of soldiering and of 
captivity in Algiers, Torres Naharro took orders, settled in 
Rome about 1511, and there devoted himself chiefly to writing 
plays. Though he alludes to the future pope, Clement VII. as 
his protector, he left Rome to enter the household of Fabrizio 
Colonna at Naples where his works were printed under the title 
of Propaladia (1517). He is conjectured to have returned to his 
native place, and to have died there shortly after 1529. His 
Dialogo del nacimiento is written in unavowed, though obvious, 
imitation of Encina, but in his subsequent plays he shows a 
much larger conception of dramatic possibilities. He classifies his 
pieces as comedias a noticia and comedias d fantasia; the former, 
of which the Soldatesca and Tinellaria are examples, present 
in dramatic form incidents within his personal experience; the 
latter, which include such plays as Serafina, Himenea, Calamita 
and Aquilana, present imaginary episodes with adroitness and 
persuasiveness. Torres Naharro is much less dexterous in stage- 
craft than many inferior successors, his humour is rude and 
boisterous and his diction is unequal; but to a varied knowledge 
of human nature he adds knowledge of dramatic effect, and his 
rapid dialogue, his fearless realism and vivacious fancy prepared 
the way for the romantic drama in Spain. 

TORRES NOVAS, a town of Portugal, in the district of San- 
tarem, 19 m. N.N.E. of Santarem on the Lisbon-Entroncamento 
railway. Pop. (1900), 10,746. It manufactures cottons, linens, 
jute, paper, leather and spirits. It was probably founded by 
Greeks, and was held by the Romans, Goths and Moors, from 
whom it was conquered in 1148 by Alphonso I. of Portugal. 

TORRES VEDRAS, a town of Portugal, in the district of 
Lisbon, 43 m. N. by W. of Lisbon, on the Lisbon-Figueira da 
Foz railway. Pop. (1900), 6900. Torres Vedras is built on 
the left bank of the river Sizandro; it has a Moorish citadel 
and hot sulphur baths. Roman inscriptions and other remains 
have been found here, but the Latin name of the town, Turres 
Veleres, is probably medieval. Here were the noted fortifica- 
tions known as the " lines of Torres Vedras," constructed by 
Wellington in 1810 (see PENINSULAR WAR). Here also in 1846 
the troops of General Saldanha defeated those of the count 
de Bomfin and seized the castle and town (see PORTUGAL: 
History). 

TORRES Y VILLAROEL, DIEGO DE (1696-1759?), Spanish 
miscellaneous writer, was born hi 1696 at Salamanca, where his 
father was bookseller to the university. In his teens Torres 
escaped to Portugal where he enlisted under a false name; he 
next moved tc Madrid, living from hand to mouth as a hawker; 
in 1717 he was ordained subdeacon, resumed his studies at 
Salamanca, and in 1726 became professor of mathematics at 
the university. A friend of his having stabbed a priest, Torres 
was suspected of complicity, and once more fled to Portugal, 
where he remained till his innocence was proved. He then 
returned to his chair, which he resigned in 1751 to act as steward 
to two noblemen; he was certainly alive in 1758, but the date 
of his death is not known. Torres had so slight a smattering 
of mathematics that his appointment as professor was thought 
scandalous even in his own scandalous age; yet he quickly 
acquired a store of knowledge which he displayed with serene 
assurance. His almanacs, his verses, his farces, his devotional 
and pseudo-scientific writings show that he possessed the alert 



adaptiveness of the born adventurer; but all that remains of 
his fourteen volumes (1745-1752) is his autobiography, an 
amusing record of cynical effrontery and successful imposture. 

TORREVIEJA, a seaport of south-eastern Spain, in the pro- 
vince of Alicante, 3 m. S.W. of Cape Cervera, and at the 
terminus of a railway to Albatera on the Alicante-Murcia line. 
Pop. (1900), 7706. The district is famous for its salt beds, which 
are owned and worked by the state, the Laguna Grande alone 
yielding more than 100,000 tons a year. The other industries 
are chiefly fishing, shipbuilding and the manufacture of ropes 
and sails. The roadstead affords safe anchorage. There is an 
active trade in fruit and agricultural products. 

TORREY, JOHN (1796-1873), American botanist, was bom 
at New York on the i5th of August 1796. When he was 15 
or 16 years of age his father received a prison appointment at 
Greenwich, and there he made the acquaintance of Amos Eaton 
(i 776-1842), a pioneer of natural history studies in America. He 
thus learned the elements of botany, as well as something of 
mineralogy and chemistry. In 1815 he began the study of 
medicine, qualifying in 1818. In the following year he issued 
his Catalogue of Plants growing spontaneously within Thirty Miles 
of the City of New York, and in 1824 he issued the first and only 
volume of his Flora of the Northern and Middle States. In the 
same year he obtained the chair of chemistry and geology at 
West Point military academy, and three years later the pro- 
fessorship of chemistry and botany in the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, New York. In 1836 he was appointed botanist 
to the state of New York and produced his Flora of that state in 
1843; while from 1838 to 1843 he carried on the publication of 
the earlier portions of Flora of North America, with the assistance 
of his pupil, Asa Gray. From 1853 he was chief assayer to the 
United States assay office, but he continued to take an interest 
in botanical teaching until his death at New York on the loth 
of March 1873. He made over his valuable herbarium and 
botanical library to Columbia College in 1860, and he was the 
first president of the Torrey Botanical Club in 1873. His name 
is commemorated in the small coniferous genus Torreya, found 
in North America and in China and Japan. T. taxifolia, a 
native of Florida, is known as the Torrey tree or savin, and also 
as the stinking cedar. 

TORREY, REUBEN ARCHER (1856- ), American evange- 
list, was born in Hoboken, New Jersey, on the 28th of January 
1856. He graduated at Yale University in 1875 and at the Yale 
Divinity School in 1878. He became a Congregational minister 
in 1878, studied theology at Leipzig and Erlanger in 1882-1883, 
joined D. L. Moody in his evangelistic work in Chicago in 1889, 
and became pastor of the Chicago Avenue Church in 1894 and 
afterwards superintendent of the Moody Bible Institute of 
Chicago. In 1902-1903 he preached in nearly every part of the 
English-speaking world, and with Charles McCallon Alexander 
(b. 1867) conducted revival services in Great Britain in 1903- 
1905; Torrey conducted a similar campaign in American and 
Canadian cities in 1906-1907. 

TORRICELLI, EVANGELISTA (1608-1647), Italian physicist 
and mathematician, was born at Faenza on the isth of October 
1608. Left fatherless at an early age, he was educated under 
the care of his uncle, a Camaldolese monk, who in 1627 sent him 
to Rome to study science under the Benedictine Benedetto 
Castelli (1577-1644), professor of mathematics at the Collegio 
di Sapienza. The perusal of Galileo's Dialoghi delle nuove 
scienze (1638) inspired him with many developments of the 
mechanical principles there set forth, which he embodied in a 
treatise De motu (printed amongst his Opera geometrica, 1644). 
Its communication by Castelli to Galileo in 1641, with a proposal 
that Torricelli should reside with him, led to Torricelli repairing 
to Florence, where he met Galileo, and acted as his amanuensis 
during the three remaining months of his life. After Galileo's 
death Torricelli was nominated grand-ducal mathematician 
and professor of mathematics in the Florentine academy. The 
discovery of the principle of the barometer (q.v.) which has 
perpetuated his fame (" Torricellian tube " " Torricellian 
vacuum ") was made in 1643. 



TORRIDONIAN TORRINGTON, EARL OF 



The publication amongst Torricelli's Opera geometrica 
(Florence, 1644) of a tract on the properties of the cycloic 
involved him in a controversy with G. P. de Roberval, who 
accused him of plagiarizing his earlier solution of the problem oi 
its quadrature. There seems, however, no room for doubt that 
Torricelli's was arrived at independently. The matter was 
still in debate when he was seized with pleurisy, and died at 
Florence on the 25th of October 1647. He was buried in San 
Lorenzo, and a commemorative statue of him erected at Faenza 
in 1864. 

Among the new truths detected by him was the valuable 
mechanical principle that if any number of bodies be so con- 
nected that, by their motion, their centre of gravity can neither 
ascend nor descend, then those bodies are in equilibrium. He 
also discovered the remarkable fact that the parabolas described 
(in a vacuum) by indefinitely numerous projectiles discharged 
from the same point with equal velocities, but in all directions 
have a paraboloid of revolution for their envelope. His theorem 
that a fluid issues from a small orifice with the same velocity 
(friction and atmospheric resistance being neglected) which it 
would have acquired in falling through the depth from its sur- 
face is of fundamental importance in hydraulics. He greatly 
' improved both the telescope and microscope. Several large 
object lenses, engraven with his name, are preserved at Florence. 
He used and developed B. Cavalieri's method of indivisibles. 

A selection from Torricelli's manuscripts was published by 
Tommaso Bonaventura in 1715, with the title Lezioni accademiche 
(Florence). They include an address of acknowledgment on his 
admission to the Accademia della Crusca. His essay on the inun- 
dations of the Val di Chiana was printed in Raccolta d'autori 
che trattano del motodelV acque, iv. 115 (Florence, 1768), and amongst 
Opusculi idraidici, iii. 347 (Bologna, 1822). For his life see Fabroni, 
Vitae Italorum, i. 345 ; Ghinassi, Lettere fin qui inedite di Evan- 
gelista Torricelli (Faenza, 1864) ; Tiraboschi, Storia della lett. it. 
viii. 302 (ed. 1824); Montucla, Hist, des math., vol. ii. ; Marie, Hist, 
des sciences, iv. 133. 

TORRIDONIAN, in geology, a series of pre-Cambrian are- 
naceous sediments extensively developed in the north-west high- 
lands of Scotland and particularly in the neighbourhood of upper 
Loch Torridon, a circumstance which suggested the name 
Torridon Sandstone, first applied to these rocks by J. Nicol. 
The rocks are mainly red and chocolate sandstones, arkoses, 
flagstones and shales with coarse conglomerates locally at the 
base. Some of the materials of these rocks were derived from 
the underlying Lewisian gneiss, upon the uneven surface of 
which they rest; but the bulk of the material was obtained 
from rocks that are nowhere now exposed. Upon this ancient 
denuded land surface the Torridonian strata rest horizontally 
or with gentle inclination. Their outcrop extends in a belt of 
variable breadth from Cape Wrath to the Point of Sleet in Skye, 
running in a N.N.E.-S.S.W. direction through Ross-shire and 
Sutherlandshire. They form the isolated mountain peaks of 
Canisp, Quinag and Suilven in the neighbourhood of Loch 
Assynt, of Slioch near Loch Maree and other hills. They attain 
their maximum development in the Applecross, Gairloch and 
Torridon districts, form the greater part of Scalpay, and occur 
also in Rum, Raasay, Soay and the Crowlin Islands. The 
Torridonian rocks have been subdivided into three groups: an 
upper Aultbea group, 3000-5000 ft.; a middle or Applecross 
group, 6000-8000 ft.; and a lower or Diabeg group, 500 ft. in 
Gairloch but reaching a thickness of 7200 ft. in Skye. 

See " The Geological Structure of the North- West Highlands 
of Scotland," Mem. Geol. Survey (Glasgow, 1907). (J. A. H.) 

TORRIGIANO, PIETRO (1472-1522), Florentine sculptor, 
was, according to Vasari, one of the group of talented youths 
who studied art under the patronage of Lorenzo the Magnificent 
in Florence. Benvenuto Cellini, reporting a conversation with 
Torrigiano, relates that he and Michelangelo, while both young, 
were copying the frescoes in the Carmine chapel, when some 
slighting remark made by Michelangelo so enraged Torrigiano 
that he struck him on the nose, and thus caused that disfigure- 
ment which is so conspicuous in all the portraits of Michelangelo. 
Soon after this Torrigiano visited Rome, and helped Pintu- 
ricchio in modelling the elaborate stucco decorations in the 



Apartamenti Borgia for Alexander VI. After some time spent as a 
hired soldier in the service of different states, Torrigiano was 
invited to England to execute the magnificent tomb for Henry 
VII. and his queen, which still exists in the lady chapel of West- 
minster Abbey. This appears to have been begun before the 
death of Henry VII. in I5O9> but was not finished till 1517. 
The two effigies are well modelled, and have lifelike but not 
too realistic portraits. After this Torrigiano received the com- 
mission for the altar, retable and baldacchino which stood at 
the west, outside the screen of Henry VII. 's tomb. The altar 
had marble pilasters at the angles, two of which still exist, and 
below the mensa was a life-sized figure of the dead Christ in 
painted terra-cotta. The retable consisted of a large relief of 
the Resurrection. The baldacchino was of marble, with enrich- 
ments of gilt bronze; part of its frieze still exists, as do also a 
large number of fragments of the terra-cotta angels which sur- 
mounted the baldacchino and parts of the large figure of Christ. 
The whole of this work was destroyed by the Puritans in the i7th 
century. 1 Henry VIII. also commissioned Torrigiano to make 
him a magnificent tomb, somewhat similar to that of Henry 
VII., but one-fourth larger, to be placed in a chapel at Windsor; 
it was, however, never completed, and its rich bronze was melted 
by the Commonwealth, together with that of Wolsey's tomb. 
The indentures for these various works still exist, and are printed 
by Neale, Westminster Abbey, i. 54-59 (London, 1818). These 
interesting documents are written in English, and in them 
the Florentine is called " Peter Torrysany." For Henry VII. 's 
tomb he contracted to receive 1500, for the altar and its fit- 
tings 1000, and 2000 for Henry VIII. 's tomb. Other works 
attributed from internal evidence to Torrigiano are the tomb 
of Margaret of Richmond, mother of Henry VII., in the south 
aisle of his chapel, and a terra-cotta effigy in the chapel of the 
Rolls. 

While these royal works were going on Torrigiano visited 
Florence in order to get skilled assistants. He tried to induce 
Benvenuto Cellini to come to England to help him, but Cellini 
refused partly from his dislike to the brutal and swaggering 
manners of Torrigiano, and also because he did not wish to 
live among " such beasts as the English." The latter part 
of Torrigiano's life was spent in Spain, especially at Seville, 
where, besides the painted figure of St Hieronymus in the 
museum, some terra-cotta sculpture by him still exists. His 
violent temper got him into difficulties with the authorities, 
and he ended his life in 1522 in the prisons of the Inquisition. 

See Wilhelm Bode, Die italienische Plastik (Berlin, 1902). 

TORRINGTON, ARTHUR HERBERT, EARL OF (1647- 
1716), British admiral, was the son of a judge, Sir Edward 
Herbert (c. 1591-1657). He entered the navy in 1663, and served 
in the Dutch wars of the reign of Charles II., as well as against 
the Barbary pirates. From 1680 to 1683 he commanded in 
the Mediterranean. His career had been honourable, and he 
had been wounded in action. The known Royalist sentiments 
of his family combined with his reputation as a naval officer to 
point him out to the favour of the king, and James II. appointed 
bim rear-admiral of England and master of the robes. The 
king no doubt counted on his support of the repeal of the Test 
Acts, as the admiral was member for Dover. Herbert refused, 
and was dismissed from his places. He now entered into com- 
munication with the agents of the prince of Orange, and promised 
to use his influence with the fleet to forward a revolution. 
After the acquittal of the seven bishops in 1688 he carried the 
nvitation to William of Orange. The Revolution brought him 
ample amends for his losses. He was named first lord, and took 
the command of the fleet at home. In 1689 he was at sea 
attempting to prevent the French admiral Chateau-Renault 
(q.ii.) from landing the troops sent by the king of France to the 
aid of King James in Ireland. Though he fought an action with 

'An old drawing still exists showing this elaborate work; it is 
ngraved in the Hierurgia anglicana, p. 267 (London, 1848). Many 
lundreds of fragments of this terra-cotta sculpture were found a 
ew years ago hidden under the floor of the triforium in the abbey; 
hey are unfortunately too much broken and imperfect to be fitted 
together. 



TORRINGTON, VISCOUNT TORRINGTON 



the French in Bantry Bay on the loth of May he failed to baffle 
Chateau-Renault, who had a stronger force. Being discontented 
with the amount of force provided at sea, he resigned his place 
at the admiralty, but retained his command at sea. In May 
1689 he was created earl of Torrington. In 1690 he was in the 
Channel with a fleet of English and Dutch vessels, which did 
not rise above 56 in all, and found himself in front of the much 
more powerful French fleet. In his report to the council of 
regency he indicated his intention of retiring to the Thames, and 
losing sight of the enemy, saying that they would not do any 
harm to the coast while they knew his fleet to be " in being." 
The council, which knew that the Jacobites were preparing for 
a rising, and only waited for the support of a body of French 
troops, ordered him not to lose sight of the enemy, but rather 
than do that to give battle " upon any advantage of the wind." 
On the loth of July Torrington, after consulting with his Dutch 
colleagues, made a half-hearted attack on the French off Beachy 
Head in which his own ship was kept out of fire, and severe 
loss fell on his allies. Then he retired to the Thames. The 
French pursuit was fortunately feeble (see TOURVILLE, COMTE 
DE) and the loss of the allies was comparatively slight. The 
indignation of the country was at first great, and Torrington 
was brought to a court martial in December. He was acquitted, 
but never again employed. Although twice married, he was 
childless when he died on the i4th of April 1716, his earldom 
becoming extinct. The unfavourable account of his moral 
character given by Dartmouth to Pepys is confirmed by Bishop 
Burnet, who had seen much of him during his exile in Holland. 
An attempt has been made in recent years to rehabilitate the 
character of Torrington, and his phrase " a fleet in being " has 
been widely used (see Naval Warfare, by Vice-Admiral P. H. 
Colomb). 

See Charnock's Biog. Nav., i. 258. The best account of the battle 
of Beachy Head is to be found in " The Account given by Sir John 
Ashby Vice-Admiral and Rear-Admiral Rooke, to the Lords Com- 
missioners " (1691). 

TORRINGTON, GEORGE BYNG, VISCOUNT (1663-1733), 
English admiral, was born at Wrotham, Kent. His father, 
John Byng, was compelled by pecuniary losses to sell his property 
and his son entered the navy as a king's letter boy (see NAVY) 
in 1678. He served in a ship stationed at Tangier, and for a 
time left the navy to enter one of the regiments of the garrison, 
but in 1683 he returned to the navy as lieutenant, and went to 
the East Indies in the following year. During the year 1688, 
he had an active share in bringing the fleet over to the prince 
of Orange, and by the success of the revolution his fortune was 
made. In 1702 he was appointed to the command of the 
" Nassau," and was at the taking and burning of the French 
fleet at Vigo, and the next year he was made rear-admiral of 
the red. In 1704 he served in the Mediterranean under Sir 
Cloudesley Shovel, and reduced Gibraltar. He was in the battle 
of Malaga, and for his gallantry received the honour of knight- 
hood. In 1708 as admiral of the blue he commanded the 
squadron which baffled the attempt of the Old Pretender to land 
in Scotland. In 1718 he commanded the fleet which defeated the 
Spaniards off Cape Passaro and compelled them to withdraw from 
their invasion of Sicily. This commission he executed so well 
that the king made him a handsome present and sent him full 
powers to negotiate with the princes and states of Italy. Byng 
procured for the emperor's troops free access into the fortresses 
which still held out in Sicily, sailed afterwards to Malta, and 
brought out the Sicilian galleys and a ship belonging to the 
Turkey Company. By his advice and assistance the Germans 
retook the city of Messina in 1719, and destroyed the ships which 
lay in the basin an achievement which completed the ruin 
of the naval power of Spain. To his conduct it was entirely 
owing that Sicily was subdued and the king of Spain forced to 
accept the terms prescribed him by the quadruple alliance. 
On his return to England in 1721 he was made rear-admiral 
of Great Britain, a member of the privy council, Baron Byng 
of Southill, in the county of Bedford and Viscount Torrington 
in Devonshire. He was also made one of the Knights Com- 



panions of the Bath upon the revival of that order in 1725. 
In 1727 George II. on his accession made him first lord of the 
admiralty, and his administration was distinguished by the 
establishment of the Royal Naval College at Portsmouth. He 
died on the I7th of January 1733, and was buried at Southill, 
in Bedfordshire. Two of his eleven sons, Pattee (1699-1747) 
and George (1701-1750), became respectively the 2nd and 3rd 
viscounts. The title is still held by the descendants of the 
latter. 

See Memoirs relating to Lord Torrington, Carnden Soc., new series 
46, and A True Account of the Expedition of the British Fleet to Sicily 
1718-1720, published anonymously, but known to be by Thomas 
Corbett of the admiralty in 1739. Forbin's Memoirs contain 
the French side of the expedition to Scotland in 1708. 

TORRINGTON, a borough of Litchfield county, Connecticut, 
U.S.A., in the township of Torrington, on the Naugatuck river, 
about 25 m. W. of Hartford. Pop. (1900), 8360, of whom 2565 
were foreign-born; (1910) 15,483; of the township, including the 
borough (1900) 12,453; (1910) 16,840. It is served by the New 
York, New Haven & Hartford railway and by an electric line con- 
necting with Winsted. It has a public library (1865) with 15,000 
volumes in 1909. There is a state armoury in the borough. 
Torrington is a prosperous manufacturing centre. In 1905 the 
value of the factory product was $9,674,124. The township 
of Torrington, originally a part of the township of Windsor, 
was first settled in 1734, and was separately incorporated in 
1740. The site was covered by pine trees, which were much 
used for ship-building, and for this reason it was known as 
Mast Swamp. In 1751 a mill was erected, but there were few, 
if any, residences until 1800. In 1806 the settlement was known 
as New Orleans village. In 1813 members of the Wolcott family 
of Litchfield, impressed with the water-power, bought land and 
built a woollen mill, and the village that soon developed was 
called Wolcottville. Its growth was slow until 1864. In 1881 
its name was changed to Torrington, and in 1887 the borough 
was incorporated. 

See S. Orcutt's History of Torrington (Albany, 1878), and an 
article, " The Growth of Torrington," in the Connecticut Magazine, 
vol. ix., No. i. 

TORRINGTON (GREAT TORRINGTON), a market town and 
municipal borough in the South Molton parliamentary division 
of Devonshire, England, on the Torridge, 225 m. W. by S. of 
London by the London & South-Western railway. Pop. 
(1901), 3241. It stands on a hill overlooking the richly wooded 
valley of the Torridge, here crossed by three bridges. Glove 
manufactures on a large scale, with flour and butter making 
and leather dressing, are the staple industries. The town is 
governed by a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors. Area, 
3592 acres. 

Torrington (Toritone) was the site of very early settlement, 
and possessed a market in Saxon times. The manor was held 
by Brictric in the reign of Edward the Confessor, and in 1086 
formed part of the Domesday fief of Odo Fitz Gamelin, which 
later constituted an honour with Torrington as its caput. In 
1 221 it appears as a mesne borough under William de Toritone, 
a descendant of Odo and the supposed founder of the castle, 
which in 1228 was ordered to be razed to the ground, but is 
said to have been rebuilt in 1340 by Richard de Merton. The 
borough had a fair in 1221, and returned two members to parlia- 
ment from 1295 until exempted from representation at its own 
request in 1368. The government was vested in bailiffs and 
a commonalty, and no charter of incorporation was granted 
till that of Queen Mary in 1554, which instituted a governing 
body of a mayor, 7 aldermen and 18 chief burgesses, with 
authority to hold a court of record every three weeks on 
Monday; law-days and view of frankpledge at Michaelmas and 
Easter; a weekly market on Saturday, and fairs at the feasts 
of St Michael and St George. This charter was confirmed by 
Elizabeth in 1568 and by James I. in 1617. A charter from 
James II. in 1686 changed the style of the corporation to a 
mayor, 8 aldermen and 12 chief burgesses. In the i6th century 
Torrington was an important centre of the clothing trade, and 
in 1605 the town is described as very prosperous, with three 



TORSTENSSON TORT 



fairs, and a great market " furnished from far on every quarter, 
being the most convenient place for occasions of king or county 
in those parts." The Saturday market is still maintained, but 
the fairs have been altered to the third Saturday in March and 
the first Thursday in May. In 1643 Colonel Digby took up 
his position at Torrington and put to flight a contingent of 
parliamentary troops; but in 1646 the town was besieged by Sir 
Thomas Fairfax and finally forced to surrender. The borough 
records were destroyed by fire in 1724. 

See Victoria County History: Devonshire; F. T. Colby, History 
of Great Torrington (1878). 

TORSTENSSON, LENNART, COUNT (1603-1651), Swedish 
soldier, son of Torsten Lennartsson, commandant of Elfsborg, 
was born at Forstena in Vestergotland. At the age of fifteen 
he became one of the pages of the young Gustavus Adolphus 
and served during the Prussian campaigns of 1628-29. In 
1629 he was set over the Swedish artillery, which under his 
guidance materially contributed to the victories of Breitenfeld 
(1631) and Lech (1632). The same year he was taken prisoner 
at Alte Veste and shut up for nearly a year at Ingolstadt. 
Under Baner he rendered distinguished service at the battle of 
Wittstock (1636) and during the energetic defence of Pomerania 
in 1637-38, as well as at the battle of Chemnitz (1638) and in 
the raid into Bohemia in 1639. Illness compelled him to return 
to Sweden in 1641, when he was made a senator. The sudden 
death of Baner in May 1641 recalled Torstensson to Germany 
as generalissimo of the Swedish forces and governor-general of 
Pomerania. He was at the same time promoted to the rank 
of field marshal. The period of his command (1641-1645) 
forms one of the most brilliant chapters in the military history 
of Sweden. In 1642 he marched through Brandenburg and 
Silesia into Moravia, taking all the principal fortresses on his 
way. On returning through Saxony he well nigh annihilated 
the imperialist army at the second battle of Breitenfeld 
(Oct. 23, 1642). In 1643 he invaded Moravia for the second 
time, but was suddenly recalled to invade Denmark, when his 
rapid and unexpected intervention paralysed the Danish 
defence on the land side, though Torstensson's own position in 
Jutland was for a time precarious owing to the skilful handling 
of the Danish fleet by Christian IV. In 1644 he led his army 
for the third time into the heart of Germany and routed 
the imperialists at Jiiterbog (Nov. 23). At the beginning 
of November 1645 he broke into Bohemia, and the brilliant 
victory of Jankow (Feb. 24, 1645) laid open before him the 
road to Vienna. Yet, though one end of the Danube bridge 
actually fell into his hands, his exhausted army was unable to 
penetrate any farther and, in December the same year, Tor- 
stensson, crippled by gout, was forced to resign his command 
and return to Sweden. In 1647 he was created a count. From 
1648 to 1651 he ruled all the western provinces of Sweden, as 
governor-general. On his death at Stockholm (April 7, 
1651) he was buried solemnly in the Riddarholmskyrka, the 
Pantheon of Sweden. Torstensson was remarkable for the 
extraordinary and incalculable rapidity of his movements, 
though very frequently he had to lead the army in a litter, as 
his bodily infirmities would not permit him to mount his horse. 
He was also the most scientific artillery officer and the best and 
most successful engineer in the Swedish army. 

His son, Senator Count Anders Torstensson (1641-1686), 
was from 1674 to 1681 governor-general of Esthonia. The 
family became extinct on the sword-side in 1727. 

See J. W. de Peyster, History of the Life of L. Torstensson (Pough- 
keepsie, 1855); J. Feil, Torstensson before Vienna (trans, by de 
Peyster, New York, 1885); Gustavus III., Eulogy of Torstensson 
(trans, by de Peyster, New York, 1872). (R. N. B.) 

TORT (Fr. for wrong, from Lat. tortus, twisted, participle 
of torquere), the technical term, in the law of England, of those 
dominions and possessions of the British Empire where the 
common law has been received or practically adopted in civil 
affairs, and of the United States, for a civil wrong, i.e. the 
breach of a duty imposed by law, by which breach some person 
becomes entitled to sue for damages. A tort must, on the 



one hand, be an act which violates a general duty. The rule 
which it breaks must be one made by the law, not, as in the 
case of a mere breach of contract, a rule which the law protects 
because the parties have made it for themselves. On the other 
hand, a tort is essentially the source of a private right of action. 
An offence which is punishable, but for which no one can bring 
a civil action, is not a tort. It is quite possible for one and the 
same act to be a tort and a breach of contract, or a tort and a 
crime; it is even possible in one class of cases for the plaintiff 
to have the option for purposes of procedural advantage of 
treating a real tort as a fictitious contract; but there is no 
necessary or general connexion. Again, it is not the case that 
pecuniary damages are always or necessarily the only remedy 
for a tort; but the right to bring an action in common law juris- 
diction, as distinct from equity, matrimonial or admiralty 
jurisdiction, with the consequent right to damages, is invariably 
present where a tort has been committed. 

This technical use of the French word tort (which at one 
time was near becoming a synonym of wrong in literary 
English) is not very ancient, and anything like systematic 
treatment of the subject as a whole is very modern. Since 
about the middle of the i9th century there has been a current 
assumption that all civil causes of action must be founded on 
either contract or tort; but there is no historical foundation for 
this doctrine, though modified forms of the action of trespass 
actions in consimili casu, or "on the case " in the accustomed 
English phrase did in practice largely supplant other more 
archaic forms of action by reason of their greater convenience. 
The old forms were designed as penal remedies for manifest 
breach of the peace or corruption of justice; and traces of the 
penal element remained in them long after the substance of the 
procedure had become private and merely civil. The transition 
belongs to the general history of English law. 

In England the general scope of the law of torts has never 
been formulated by authority, the law having in fact been 
developed by a series of disconnected experiments with the 
various forms of action which seemed from time to time to 
promise the widest and most useful remedies. But there is 
no doubt that the duties enforced by the English law of torts 
are broadly those which the Roman institutional writers summed 
up in the precept Alterum non laedere. Every member of a 
civilized commonwealth is entitled to require of others a certain 
amount of respect for his person, reputation and property, 
and a certain amount of care and caution when they go about 
undertakings attended with risk to their neighbours. Under 
the modern law, it is submitted, the question arising when one 
man wilfully or recklessly harms another is not whether some 
technical form of action can be found in which he is liable, but 
whether he can justify or excuse himself. This view, at any rate, 
is countenanced by a judgment of the Supreme Court of the 
United States delivered in 1904. If it be right, the controverted 
question whether conspiracy is or is not a substantive cause 
of action seems to lose most of its importance. Instead of the 
doubtful proposition of law that some injuries become unlawful 
only when inflicted by concerted action, we shall have the plain 
proposition of fact that some kinds of injury cannot, as a rule, 
be inflicted by one person with such effect as to produce any 
damage worth suing for. 

The precise amount of responsibility can be determined only 
by full consideration in each class of cases. It is important to 
observe, however, that a law of responsibility confined to a man's 
own personal acts and defaults would be of next to no practical 
use under the conditions of modern society. What makes the 
law of torts really effective, especially with regard to redress 
for harm suffered by negligence, is the universal rule of law that 
every one is answerable for the acts and defaults of his servants 
(that is, all persons acting under his direction and taking their 
orders from him or some one representing him) in the course of 
their employment. The person actually in fault is not the less 
answerable, but the remedy against him is very commonly not 
worth pursuing. But for this rule corporations could not be 
liable for any negligence of their servants, however disastrous 



TORT 



to innocent persons, except so far as it might happen to constitute 
a breach of some express undertaking. We have spoken of the 
rule as universal, but, in the case of one servant of the same 
employer being injured by the default of another, an unfortunate 
aberration of the courts, which started about two generations 
ago from small beginnings, was pushed to extreme results, 
and led to great hardship. A partial remedy was applied in 
1880 by the Employers' Liability Act; and in 1897 a much bolder 
step was taken by the Workmen's Compensation Act (super- 
seded by a more comprehensive act in 1906). But, as the 
common law and the two acts (which proceed on entirely 
different principles) cover different fields, with a good deal of 
overlapping, and the acts are full of complicated provisos and 
exceptions, and. contain very special provisions as to procedure, 
the improvement in substantial justice has been bought, so 
far, at the price of great confusion in the form of the law, and 
considerable difficulty in ascertaining what it is in any but 
the most obvious cases. The Workmen's Compensation Act 
includes cases of pure accident, where there is no fault at all, 
or none that can be proved, and therefore goes beyond the 
reasons of liability with which the law of torts has to do. In 
fact, it establishes a kind of compulsory insurance, which can 
be justified only on wider grounds of policy. A novel and 
extraordinary exception to the rule of responsibility for 
agents was made in the case of trade combinations by the 
Trade Disputes Act 1906. This has no interest for law as 
a science. 

There are kinds of cases, on the other hand, in which the law, 
without aid from legislation, has imposed on occupiers and other 
persons in analogous positions a duty stricter than that of 
being answerable for themselves and their servants. Duties 
of this kind have been called " duties of insuring safety." Gene- 
rally they extend to having the building, structure, or works in 
such order, having regard to the nature of the case, as not 
to create any danger to persons lawfully frequenting, using, or 
passing by them, which the exercise of reasonable care and skill 
could have avoided; but in some cases of " extra-hazardous " 
risk, even proof of all possible diligence according to English 
authority, which is not unanimously accepted in America will 
not suffice. There has lately been a notable tendency to extend 
these principles to the duties incurred towards the public by 
local authorities who undertake public works. Positive duties 
created by statute are on a similar looting, so far as the breach 
of them is capable of giving rise to any private right of 
action. 

The classification of actionable wrongs is perplexing, not 
because it is difficult to find a scheme of division, but because it is 
easier to find many than to adhere to any one of them. We may 
start either from the character of the defendant's act or omission, 
with regard to his knowledge, intention and otherwise; or from 
the character of the harm suffered by the plaintiff. Whichever 
of these we take as the primary line of distinction, the results can 
seldom be worked out without calling in the other. Taking 
first the defendant's position, the widest governing principle is 
that, apart from various recognized grounds of immunity, a 
man is answerable for the " natural and probable " consequences 
of his acts; i.e. such consequences as a reasonable man in his 
place should have foreseen as probable. Still more is he answer- 
able for what he did actually foresee and intend. Knowledge 
of particular facts may be necessary to make particular kinds 
of conduct wrongful. Such is the rule in the case of fraud and 
other allied wrongs, including what is rather unhappily called 
" slander of title," and what is now known as " unfair com- 
petition " in the matter of trade names and descriptions, short 
of actual piracy of trade-marks. But where an absolute right 
to security for a man's person, reputation or goods is interfered 
with, neither knowledge nor specific intention need be proved. 
In these cases we trespass altogether at our peril. It is in 
general the habit of the law to judge acts by their apparent 
tendency, and not by the actor's feelings or desires. I cannot 
excuse myself by good motives for infringing another man's 
rights, whatever other grounds of excuse may be available; 
xxvn. 3 



and it is now settled conversely, though after much doubt, 
that an act not otherwise unlawful is not, as a rule, made 
unlawful by being done from an evil motive. This rule was 
known some time ago to apply to the exercise of rights of 
property, and such speculative doubt as remained was removed 
by the decision of the House of Lords in the leading case of 
Allen v. Flood (1898, A.C. i). We now know that it applies to 
the exercise of all common rights. The exceptions are very 
few, and must be explained by exceptional reasons. Indeed, 
only two are known to the present writer malicious prose- 
cution, and the misuse of a " privileged occasion " which would 
justify the communication of defamatory matter if made in good 
faith. In each case the wrong lies in the deliberate perversion 
of a right or privilege allowed for the public good, though the 
precise extent of the analogy is not certain at present. 1 It 
must be remembered, however, that the presence or absence 
of personal ill will, and the behaviour of the parties generally, 
may have an important effect, when liability is proved or 
admitted, in mitigating or aggravating the amount of 
damages awarded by juries and allowed by the court to be 
reasonable. It may likewise be noted, by way of caution, that 
some problems of criminal law, with which we are not here 
concerned, require more subtle consideration. However, it is 
hardly ever safe to assume that the bounds of civil and criminal 
liability will be found coextensive. Perhaps we may go so far 
as to say that a man is neither civilly nor criminally liable for a 
mere omission (not being disobedience to a lawful command 
which he was bound to obey), unless he has in some way assumed 
a special duty of doing the act omitted. 

We have already had to mention the existence of grounds 
of immunity for acts that would otherwise be wrongful. Such 
grounds there must be if the law is to be enforced and justice 
administered at all, and if the business of life is to be carried 
on with any freedom. Roughly speaking, we find in these 
cases one of the following conditions: Either the defendant 
was executing a lawful authority; or he was justified by 
extraordinary necessity; or he was doing something permitted 
by legislation for reasons of superior utility, though it may 
produce damage to others, and either with or without special 
provisions for compensating damage; or he was exercising a 
common right in matters open to free use and competition; 
or the plaintiff had, by consent or otherwise, disabled himself 
from having any grievance. Pure accident will hardly seem to 
any one who is not a lawyer to be a special ground of exemption, 
the question being rather how it could ever be supposed to be a 
ground of liability. But it was supposed so by many lawyers 
down to recent times; the reason lying in a history of archaic 
ideas too long to be traced here. Exercise of common rights 
is the category where most difficulty arises. Here, in fact, 
the point at which a man's freedom is limited by his neighbour's 
has to be fixed by a sense of policy not capable of formal 
demonstration. 

As Justice Holmes of the Supreme Court of the United States 
has said, we allow unlimited trade competition (so long as it is 
without fraud) though we know that many traders must suffer, 
and some may be ruined by it, because we hold that free com- 
petition is worth more to society than its costs. A state with 
different economic foundations might have a different law on this, 
as on many other points. This freedom extends not only to the 
exercise of one's calling, but to choosing with whom and under 
what conditions one will exercise it. Also the law will not inquire 
with what motives a common right is exercised ; and this applies 
to the ordinary rights of an owner in the use of his property 

1 It was formerly supposed that an action by a party to a con- 
tract against a third person for procuring the other party to break 
his contract was within the same class, i.e. that malice must be 
proved. But since Allen v. Flood, and the later decision of the 
House of Lords in Quinn v. Leathern (1901, A.C. 495), this view 
seems untenable. The ground of action is the intentional violation 
of an existing legal right; which, however, since 1906, may 
be practised with impunity in the United Kingdom " in 
contemplation or furtherance of a trade dispute " : Trade 
Disputes Act, 3. 



66 



TORTOISE 



as well as to the right of every man to carry on his business. 1 
Owners and occupiers of immovable property are bound, indeed, 
to respect one another's convenience within certain limits. 
The maxim or precept Sic utere tuo ut alienum non laedas does 
not mean that I must not use my land in any way which can 
possibly diminish the profit or amenity of my neighbour's. 
That would be false. It is a warning that both his rights and 
mine extend beyond being free from actual unlawful entry, 
and that if either of us takes too literally the more popular but 
even less accurate maxim, " Every man may do as he will with his 
own," he will find that there is such a head of the law as nuisance. 

From the point of view of the plaintiff, as regards the kind of 
damage suffered by him, actionable wrongs may be divided 
into four groups. We have some of a strictly personal kind; 
some which affect ownership and rights analogous to owner- 
ship; some which extend to the safety, convenience and profit of 
life generally in short, to a man's estate in the widest sense; 
and some which may, according to circumstances, result in 
damage to person, property or estate, any or all of them. Per- 
sonal wrongs touching a man's body or honour are assault, false 
imprisonment, seduction or " enticing away " of members of 
his family. Wrongs to property are trespass to land or goods, 
" conversion " of goods (i.e. wrongful assumption of dominion 
over them), disturbance of easements and other individual 
rights in property not amounting to exclusive possession. Tres- 
pass is essentially a wrong to possession; but with the aid of 
actions " on the case " the ground has been practically covered. 
Then there are infringements of incorporeal rights which, though 
not the subject of trespass proper, are exclusive rights of 
enjoyment and have many incidents of ownership. Actions, 
in some cases expressly given by statute, lie for the piracy of 
copyright, patents and trade marks. Wrongs to a man's estate 
in the larger sense above noted are defamation (not a strictly 
personal wrong, because according to English common law the 
temporal damage, not the insult, is, rightly or wrongly, made 
the ground of action); deceit, so-called "slander of title" 
and fraudulent trade competition, which are really varieties 
of deceit; malicious prosecution; and nuisance, which, though 
most important as affecting the enjoyment of property, is not 
considered in that relation only. Finally, we have the results of 
negligence and omission to perform special duties regarding 
the safety of one's neighbours or customers, or of the public, 
which may affect person, property, or estate generally. 

The law of wrongs is made to do a great deal of work which, 
in a system less dependent on historical conditions, we should 
expect to find done by the law of property. We can claim or 
reclaim our movable goods only by complaining of a wrong 
done to our possession or our right to possess. There is no 
direct assertion of ownership like the Roman vindicatio. The 
law of negligence, with the refined discussions of the test and 
measure of liability which it has introduced, is wholly modern; 
and the same may be said of the present working law of nuisance, 

1 The rule that a man's motives for exercising his common 
rights are not examinable involves the consequence that advising 
or procuring another, who is a free agent, to do an act of this kind 
can, a fortiori, not be an actionable wrong at the suit of a third 
person who is damnified by the act, and that whatever the adviser's 
motives may be. This appears to be included in the decision of 
the House of Lords in Allen v. Flood. That decision, though not 
binding in any American court, is approved and followed in most 
American jurisdictions. It is otherwise where a system of coercion 
is exercised on a man's workmen or customers in order to injure 
him in his business. The extension of immunity to such conduct 
would destroy the value of the common right which the law pro- 
tects: Quinn v. Leathern. The coercion need not be physical, and 
the wrong as a whole may be made up of acts none of which taken 
alone would be a cause of action. In this point there is nothing 
novel, for it is so in almost every case of nuisance. Conspiracy is 
naturally a frequent element in such cases, but it does not appear 
to be necessary; if it were, millionaires and corporations might 
exceed the bounds of lawful competition with impunity whenever 
they were strong enough. The reasons given in Quinn v. Leathern 
are many and various, but the decision is quite consistent with 
Allen v. Flood. However, the Trade Disputes Act will probably have 
its intended effect of reducing the law on this head to relative 
insignificance in England. 



though the term is of respectable antiquity. Most recent of all 
is the rubric of " unfair competition," which is fast acquiring 
great importance. 

It will be observed that the English law of torts answers 
approximately in its purpose and contents to the Roman law 
of obligations ex delicto and' quasi ex delicto. When we have 
allowed for the peculiar treatment of rights of property in the 
common law, and remembered that, according to one plausible 
theory, the Roman law of possession itself is closely connected 
in its origin with the law of delicts, we shall find the corre- 
spondence at least as close as might be expected a priori. Nor 
is the correspondence to be explained by borrowing, for this 
branch of the common law seems to owe less to the classical 
Roman or medieval canon law than any other. Some few 
misunderstood Roman maxims have done considerable harm in 
detail, but the principles have been worked out in all but 
complete independence. 

A list of modern books and monographs will be found at the 
end of the article on " Torts " by the present writer in the Encyclo- 
paedia of the Laws of England (2nd ed.). Among recent editions 
of works on the law of torts and new publications the following may 
be mentioned here: Addison, by W. E. Gordon and W. H. Griffith 
(8th ed., 1906); Clerk and Lindsell, by Wyatt Paine (4th ed., 
1906); Pollock (8th ed., 1908); Salmond, The Law of Torts (and ed., 
1910). In America: Burdick, The Law of Torts (1905); Street, The 
Foundations of Legal Liability (1906), 3 vols. of which vol. i. is 
on Tort. (F. Po.) 

TORTOISE. Of the three names generally used for this order 
of reptiles, viz. tortoise, turtle and terrapin, the first is derived 
from the Old French word tortis, i.e. twisted, and was probably 
applied first to the common European species on account of 
its curiously bent forelegs. Turtle is believed to be a corruption 
of the same word, but the origin of the name terrapin is un- 
known: since the time of the navigators of the i6th century it 
has been in general use for fresh-water species of the tropics, 
and especially for those of the New World. The name tortoise 
is now generally applied to the terrestrial members of this group 
of animals, and that of turtle to those which live in the sea or 
pass a great part of their existence in fresh water. They consti- 
tute one of the orders of reptiles, the Chelonia: toothless reptiles, 
with well developed limbs, with a dorsal and a ventral shell 
composed of numerous bony plates, large firmly fixed quadrates, 
a longitudinal anal opening and an unpaired copulatory organ. 

The whole shell consists of the dorsal, more or less convex carapace 
and the ventral plastron, both portions being joined laterally by 
the so-called bridge. The carapace is (with the exception of 
Sphargis) formed by dermal ossifications which are arranged in 
regular series, viz. a median row (l nuchal, mostly 8 neurals and 
1-3 supracaudal or pygal plates), a right and left row of costal 
plates which surround and partly replace the ribs, and a consider- 
able number (about 1 1 pairs) of marginal plates. The plas- 
tron consists of usually 9, rarely II, dermal bones, viz. paired 
epi-, hyo-, hypo- and xiphi-plastral plates and the unpaired 
endo-plastral ; the latter is homologous with the interclavicle, the 
epi-plastra with the clavicles, the rest with so-called abdominal 
ribs of other reptiles. 

In most Chelonians the bony shell is covered with a hard epi- 
dermal coat, which is divided into large shields, commonly called 
" tortoiseshell." These horny shields or scutes do not correspond 
in numbers and extent with the underlying bones, although there 
is a general, vague resemblance in their arrangement; for instance, 
there is a neural, a paired costal and a paired marginal series. 
The terminology may be learned from the accompanying illus- 
trations (figs, i and 2). 

The integuments of the head, neck, tail and limbs are either 
soft and smooth or scaly or tubercular, frequently with small osseous 
nuclei. 

All the bones of the skull are suturally united. The dentary 
portion of the mandible consists of one piece only, both halves 
being completely fused together. The pectoral arch remains 
separate in the median line ; it consists of the coracoids, which slope 
backwards, and the scapulae, which stand upright and often abut 
against the inside of the first pair of costal plates. Near the glenpid 
cavity for the humerus arises from the scapula a long process which 
is directed transversely towards its fellow ; it represents the acromial 
process of other vertebrates, although so much enlarged, and is 
neither the precoracoid, nor the clavicle, as stated by the thought- 
less. The tail is still best developed in the Chelydridae, shortest in 
the Trionychoidea. Since it contains the large copulatory organ, 
it is less reduced in the males. No Chelonians possess the slightest 



TORTOISE 



67 



traces of teeth, but their jaws are provided with horny sheaths, with 
hard and sharp edges, forming a beak. 

The number of Chelonians known at present may be estimated 
at about 200, the fresh-water species being far the most numerous, 
and are abundant in well-watered districts of the tropical and 
sub-tropical zones. Their number and variety decrease beyond 
the tropics, and in the north they disappear entirely about the 
5<3th parallel in the western and about the 56th in the eastern 
hemisphere, whilst in the southern hemisphere the terrestrial 
forms seem to advance to 36 S. only. The marine turtles, 
which are spread over the whole of the equatorial and sub-tropical 
seas, sometimes stray beyond those limits. As in other orders 




FIGS. I, 2. Shell of Testudo pardalis, to show the divisions of 
the integument, which are marked by entire lines, and of the 
osseous carapace, these being marked by dotted lines. Fig. I, 
Upper or dorsal aspect. Fig. 2, Lower or ventral aspect. 



Epidermal shields: 

co, Costals. 

t>, Vertebrals. 

m, Marginals. 

g, Gulars. 

pg, Postgulars or numerals. 

p. Pectorals. 

ab, Abdominals. 

pa, Preanals or femorals. 

an, Anals. 



Bones of the Carapace: 
co 1 , Costals. 
ne, Neurals. 
nu, Nuchal. 
py, Pygals. 
m l . Marginals. 
ent, Entoplastron. 
ep, Epiplastron. 
hyo, Hyoplastron. 
hyp, Hypoplastron. 
xyp, Xiphiplastron. 



of reptiles, the most specialized and the largest forms are 
restricted to the tropics (with the exception of Macroclemmys) ; 
but, unlike lizards or snakes, Chelonians are unable to exist in 
sterile districts or at great altitudes. 

They show a great divergence in their mode of life some 
living constantly on land, others having partly terrestrial 
partly aquatic habits, others again rarely leaving the water 
or the sea. The first-mentioned, the land tortoises proper, have 
short club-shaped feet with blunt claws, and a very convex, 
heavy, completely ossified shell. In the fresh-water forms 
the joints of the limb bones are much more mobile, the digits 
distinct, armed with sharp claws, and united by a membrane 



or web; their shell is less convex, and is flattened, and more 
or less extensive areas may remain unossified, or transparent 
windows are formed with age, for instance in Batagur. As a 
rule, the degree of development of the interdigital web and of 
convexity of the shell indicates the prevalence of aquatic or 
terrestrial habits of a species of terrapin. Finally, the marine 
turtles have paddle-shaped limbs resembling those of Cetaceans. 

Land tortoises are sufficiently protected by their carapace, 
and therefore have no need of any special modification of 
structure by means of which their appearance would be assimi- 
lated to the surroundings and thus give them additional 
security from their enemies. These, however, are few in number. 
On the other hand, among the carnivorous terrapins and fresh- 
water turtles instances of protective resemblance are not 
scarce, and may even attain to a high degree of specialization, 
as in Chelys, the matamata. The colours of land tortoises are 
generally plain, or in yellow and brown patterns, whilst 
those of many terrapins are singularly varied, bright and 
beautiful, especially in the very young, but all this beauty is 
lost in the adult of many species. 

Chelonians are diurnal animals; only a few are active during 
the night, habitually or on special occasions, as, for instance, 
during oviposition. Land tortoises are slow in all their move- 
ments, but all kinds living in water can execute rapid motions, 
either to seize their prey or to escape from danger. All 
Chelonians are stationary, residing throughout the year in 
the same locality, with the exception of the marine turtles, 
which periodically migrate to their breeding-stations. Species 
inhabiting temperate regions hibernate. 

Land tortoises, a few terrapins, and some of the marine 
turtles are herbivorous, the others carnivorous, their prey con- 
sisting chiefly of fish, frogs, molluscs, and other small aquatic 
animals; some, e.g. Clemmys insculpta and Cistudo Carolina, 
have a mixed vegetable and animal diet. 

All Chelonians are oviparous, and the eggs are generally covered 
with a hard shell, mostly elliptical, rarely quite round, as in the 
case of the marine turtles. The various modifications, and also 
the not uncommon individual variations, in the composition of 
the carapace plates and the number and disposition of the shields, 
are very significant. They show an unmistakable tendency 
towards reduction in numbers, a concentration and simplification 
of the shell and its covering shields. We can to a certain extent 
reconstruct a generalized ancestral tortoise and thereby narrow 
the wide gap which separates the Chelonia from every other reptilian 
order. The early Chelonians possessed most likely more than 
five longitudinal dorsal rows of plates. The presence of several 
small supramarginal shields in Macroclemmys may be an indication 
that the total number of longitudinal rows was originally at least 
seven. The number of transverse rows, both of plates and shields, was 
also greater. We can account for at least twelve median plates and 
as many pairs of marginals, but for only eieht median and eight pairs 
of costal shields (individual variations observed in Thalassochelys) . 
It stands to reason that originally each trunk metamere had its full 
complement of plates and shields ; consequently that about twelve 
trunk metameres partook in the formation of the shell, which, 
with subsequent shortening and broadening of the trunk, has under- 
gone considerable concentration and reduction, a process which 
has reduced the costal plates to seven pairs in the American species 
of Trionyx, has completely abolished the neural plates of some 
Chelydidae, and has brought down the costal shields to four pairs in 
the majority of recent Chelonians. In several species of Testudo 
the little nuchal shield is suppressed, thereby reducing the unpaired 
median shields to five. The complete absence of shields in the Triony- 
chidae and in Carettochelys is also due to a secondary process, which, 
however, has proceeded in a different way. 

Classification of Chelonia. 

H. Stannius in 1854 clearly separated the Trionychoidea 
from the rest. E. D. Cope, in 1870, distinguished between 
Pleurodira and Cryptodira according to whether the neck, 
Sept) or SetpTj, is bent sidewards, or hidden by being withdrawn 
in an S-shaped curve in a vertical plane; he also separated 
Sphargis as Athecae from all the other Chelonians, for which 
L. Dollo, in 1886, proposed the term Thecophora. These terms 
are most unfortunate, misleading. Athecae (from OitKij, 
shell) has reference to the absence of a horny shell-covering in 
the leathery turtle; but since the same character applies to 
Trionychoidea and to Carettochelys, nobody can guess that 



68 



TORTOISE 



the term Athecae in Dollo's sense refers to the fact that the 
shell of the leathery turtle is not homologous with the typical 
shell or 61)107 of the other Chelonians. The grouping of the 
latter into families recognizable by chiefly internal, skeletal 
characters has been effected by G. A. Boulenger. For practical 
purposes the following " key " is preferable to those taxonomic 
characters which are mentioned in the descriptions of the 
different families. The relationships between them may be 
indicated as follows: 

f Athecae Sphargidae 

("Pelomedusidae 
Chelonia-j fPleurodira J. Chelydidae 

Carettochelydidae 
rChelydridae Derma- 
temydidae-Cinosternida 



[Thecophora 



Cryptodira 



-I Platysternidae 
Testudinidae 
Chelonidae 



Neck bending sideways under the shell 



Trionychoidea 
Key to the Families of Chelonia. 
Shell covered with horny shields. 

Digits distinct, with five or four claws. 
Pectoral shields separated from the mar- 
ginals by inframarginals. 
Tail long and crested. Plastron small 

and cruciform ....... Chelydridae 

Tail long, covered with rings of shields. 

Plastron large Platysternidae 

_ .. , ( Dermatemydidae 

Tail short { Cinosternidae 

Pectoral shields in contact with the mar- 
ginals. 
Plastral shields 1 1 or 12, without an inter- 

gular. 
Neck retractile in an S-shaped vertical 

curve Testudinidae 

Plastral shields 13, an intergular being 
present. 

( Chelydidae 
\ Pelomedusidae 
Limbs paddle-shaped, with one or two 

claws Chelonidae 

Shell without horny shields, covered with soft 

leathery skin. 
Digits distinct, broadly webbed, but with 

only three claws Trionychoidea 

Limbs paddle-shaped. 

Shell composed of regular series of bony 

plates. Two claws Carettochelydidae 

Shell composed of very many small plates 

arranged like mosaic. No claws . . Sphargidae. 

Sub-order I. Athecae. The shell consists of a mosaic of numerous 
small polygonal osseous plates and is covered with leathery skin 
without any horny shields. The limbs are transformed into paddles, 
without claws. Marine. Sole representative Sphargis or Derma- 
tochelys coriacea, the leathery turtle or luth ; it is the largest of living 
Chelonians, surpassing 6 ft. in length, has a wide 
distribution over all the intertropical seas, but 
is very rare everywhere; a few stragglers have 
appeared as far north as the coasts of Long 
Island, and those of Great Britain, Holland and 
France. It is a curious fact that only adults 
and young, but none of intermediate size, happen 
to be known. This creature shows many im- 
portant features. The vertebrae and ribs are 
not fused with, but remain free from, the cara- 
pace, and this is fundamentally different from 
and not homologous with that of other Chelon- 
ians. O. P. Hay has suggested that the mosaic 
polygonal components of the shell of Sphargis 
are, so to speak, an earlier generation of osteo- 
dermal plates than the fewer and larger plates 
of the Thecophora, which in them fuse with the 
neural arches and the ribs. Sphargis has, how- 
ever, the later category in the plastron and in its first neural or nuchal 
plate. If this suggestion is correct, this turtle has either lost or 
perhaps never had developed the horny shields. The many mosaic 
plates comprise larger plates which form an unpaired median, 
two pairs of other dorsal, a lateral and three pairs of ventral series 
or ridges ; thirteen, or when the inner ventral pair fuses, twelve pairs 
in all. 

The skull, excellently studied by J. F. van Bemmelen, much 
resembles that of Chelone, but so-called epipterygoids are absent; 
further, the pterygoids, instead of sending lateral arms to the jugals 
and maxillaries, are widely separated from these bones by the 



palatines, and these do not at all ventrally roof over the choanae. 
The position of Sphargis in the system is still a moot question. 
G. A. Boulenger looks upon it as the sole remnant of a primitive 
group in opposition to all the other recent Chelonia; G. Baur con- 
sidered it the most specialized descendant of the Chelonidae, a 




FIG. 3. A portion of the Osseous Plates of the Carapace of 
Sphargis coriacea, showing three large keeled plates of one of the 
longitudinal ridges of the carapace, with a number of the small 
irregular plates on either side of them. 

view which has been supported by W. Dames, E. C. Case, and to 
a certain extent by J. F. van Bemmelen. For literature, &c., 
see L. Dollo, Bull. S. R. Bruxelles (Fevrier 4, 1901). 

Sub-order II. Thecophora. The bony shell is composed of 
several longitudinal series of plates (on the dorsal side a median 
or neural, a paired lateral or costal series, and marginal plates). 
With few exceptions this shell is covered with large horny scutes 
or shields. 

Super-family I. Cryptodira. The neck, if retractile, bends in 
an S-shaped curve in a vertical plane. The pelvis is not fused 
with the shell, and this is covered with large horny shields, except 
in Carettochelys. 

Family I . Chelydridae. The plastron is rather narrow, and cross- 
shaped ; the bridge is very narrow and is covered by a pair of shields, 
the displaced abdominals, which are separated from the marginals 
by a few inframarginals. The limbs, neck and head are so stout 
that they cannot completely be withdrawn into the shell. The 
tail is very long. Only two genera with three species, confined to 
America. Chelydra serpentina, the " snapping turtle," ranging 
from the Canadian lakes through the United States east of the 



Rockies ; 
Ecuador. 



closely allied is C. rossignoni of Central America and 
Macroclemmys temmincki, the " alligator turtle," is 



the largest known fresh- water Chelonian, its shell growing to a length 




FIG. 4. The Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina). 

of 3 ft. It is characterized by the three series of strong prominent 
keels ajong the back; it inhabits the whole basin of the Mississippi 
and Missouri rivers. 

Family 2. Dermatemydidae. The pectoral shields are widely 
separated from the marginals by inframarginals, the gulars are 
small or absent, and the tail is extremely short. Only a few species, 
in Central America. The plastron is composed of nine plates. 
The nuchal plate has a pair of rib-like processes like those of the 
Chelydridae. One or more of the posterior costal plates meet in 
the middle line. The shell of these aquatic, broadly web-fingered 
tortoises, is very flat and the covering shields are thin. They feed 



TORTOISE 



69 



upon leaves, grass and especially fruit. Staurotypus, e.g. salvini 
with 23, Dermalemys, e.g. mawi, with 25 marginal shields. 

Family 3. Cinosternidae. Closely allied to the two previous 
families from which Cinosternum, the only genus, differs chiefly 
by the absence of the endo-plastral plate. Inframarginals are 
present. The nuchal plate has a pair of rib-like processes. The 
neural plates are interrupted by the meeting of several pairs of the 
costal plates. Twenty-three marginal shields. In some species the 
skin of the legs and neck is so baggy that these parts slip in, the 
skin rolling off, when such a turtle withdraws into its shell. In 
some the plastron is hinged and the creature can shut itself up tightly, 
e.g. C. leucostoma of Mexico; in others the plastron leaves gaps, 
or it is narrow and without hinges, e.g. C. odoratum, the mud turtle 
or stinkpot terrapin of the eastern half of North America. About 
a dozen species, mostly Central American. 

Family 4. Platysternidae. Platysternum megacephalum, the only 
species, from Burma to southern China. The total length of these 
thick-headed, very long-tailed turtles is about I ft., only 5 in. 
belonging to the shell. The plastron is large, oblong, not cruci- 
form, composed of nine plates. The nuchal is devoid of rib-like 
processes. A unique arrangement is that the jugals are completely 
shut off from the orbits owing to the meeting of the post-frontals 
with the maxillaries. 

Family 5. Testudinidae. The shell is always covered with well- 
developed shields; those which cover the plastral bridge are in 
direct contact with the marginals. The plastron is composed 
of nine bones. The digits have four or five claws. The neck is 
completely retractile. 

This family contains the majority of tortoises, divided into as 
many as 20 genera. These, starting with Entys as the least special- 
ized, can be arranged in two main diverging lines, one culminating 
in the thoroughly aquatic Batagur, the other in the exclusively 
terrestrial forms. Emys, with the plastron movably united to the 
carapace; with well-webbed limbs, amphibious. E. orbicularis or 
europaea was, towards the end of the Pleistocene period, distributed 
over a great part of middle Europe, remains occurring in the peat 
of England, Belgium, Denmark and Sweden ; it is now withdrawing 
eastwards, being restricted in Germany to isolated localities east 
of Berlin, but it reoccurs in Poland and Russia, whence it extends 
into western Asia ; it is common in south Europe. The other species, 
E. blandingi, lives in Canada and the north-eastern states of the 
Union. Clemmys with the plastron immovably united to the cara- 

ace; temperate holarctic region, e.g. C. caspica, C. leprosa in 
pain and Morocco; C. insculpta, in north-east America. Mala- 
coclemmys with a few species in North America, e.g. M. terrapin, 
the much prized " diamond-back. " Chrysemys with many American 
species, e.g. Ch. picta, the " painted terrapin " and C. concinna, 
most of them very handsomely coloured and marked when still 
young. Batagur and Kachuga in the Indian sub-region. 

Cistudo Carolina, the box tortoise of North America, with the 
plastron divided into an anterior and a posterior movable lobe, so 
that the creature can shut itself up completely. Although essen- 
tially by its internal structure a water tortoise, it has become 
absolutely terrestrial in habits, and herewith agree the high- 
backed instead of depressed shell, the short webless fingers and its 
general coloration. It has a mixed diet. The eyes of the males 
are red, those of the females are brown. From Long Island to 
Mexico. Cinixys, e.g. belliana of tropical Africa, has the posterior 
portion of the carapace movably hinged. Pyxis arachnoides of 
Madagascar has the front-lobe of the plastron hinged. 

Testudo, the main genus, with about 40 species, is cosmopolitan 
in tropical and sub-tropical countries, with the exception of the whole 
of the Australian and Malay countries; most of the species are 
African. T. graeca, in Mediterranean countries and islands. T. 
marginata in Greece with the posterior margin of the carapace 
much flanged or serrated, and T. ibera or mauritanica from Morocco 
to Persia; both differ from T. graeca by an unpaired supracaudal, 
marginal shield, and by the possession of a strong, conical, horny 
tubercle on the hinder surface of the thigh. With age the posterior 
portion of the plastron develops a transverse ligamentous hinge. 
T. polyphemus, the " gopher " of southern United States, lives in 
pairs in self-dug burrows. T. labulata is one of the few South 
American terrestrial tortoises. 

Of great interest are the so-called gigantic land tortoises. In 
former epochs truly gigantic species of the genus Testudo had a wide 
and probably more continuous distribution. There was T. atlas, 
of the Pliocene of the Sivalik hills with a skull nearly 8 in. long, 
but the shell probably measured not more than 6 ft. in length, 
the restored specimen in the Natural History Museum at South 
Kensington being exaggerated. T. perpigniana of Pliocene France 
was also large. Large land tortoises, with a length of shell of 
more than 2 ft., became restricted to two widely separated regions 
of the world, viz. the Galapagos Islands (called thus after the Spanish 
galapago, i.e. tortoise), and islands in the western Indian Ocean 
viz. the Mascarenes (Bourbon, Mauritius and Rodriguez) and Aldabra. 
When they became extinct in Madagascar is not known, but 
T. grandidieri was a very large kind, of apparently very recent date. 
At the time of their discovery those smaller islands were un- 
inhabited by man or any predaceous mammal. It was on these 
peaceful islands that land tortoises lived in great numbers; with 



plenty of food there was nothing for them to do but to feed, to 
propagate, to grow and to vary. Most of the islands were or are 
inhabited by one or more typical, local forms. As they provided, 
like the equally ill-fated dodo and solitaire, a welcome provision 
of excellent meat, ships carried them about, to be slaughtered as 
occasion required, and soon almost exterminated them; some 
were occasionally liberated on other islands, for instance, on the 
Seychelles and on the Chagos, or they were left as presents, in 
Ceylon, Java or on Rotuma near the Fijis. Thus it has come to 
pass that the few survivors have been very much scattered. The 
small genuine stock at Aldabra is now under government protection, 
in a way. A large male of T. gigantea or elephanlina or hololissa 
or ponderosa, was brought to London and weighed 870 ft; another 
specimen had in 1908 been living at St Helena for more than one 
hundred years. A specimen of T. daudini, native of the South 
Island of Aldabra, was known for many years on Egmont Island, 
one of the Chagos group, then it was taken to Mauritius and then 
to England, where of course it soon died ; its shell measures 55 in. 
in a straight line, and it weighed 560 ft. The type specimen of 
T. sumeirei, supposed to have come originally from the Seychelles, 
was in 1908 still kept in the barrack grounds at Port Louis, Mauri- 
tius, and had been known as a large tortoise for about 1 50 years. 
T. vosmaeri was a very thin-shelled species in Rodriguez. Of the 
Galapagos species T. ephippium still survives on Duncan Island; 
T. abingdoni lived on Abingdon Island; of T. elephanlopus or 
vicina, G. Baur still collected 21 specimens in 1893 on Albemarle 
Island. One monster of this kind is said to have measured 56 in. 
over the curve of the carapace, with a skull a little more than 7 in. 
in length. All the Galapagos species are remarkable for their 
comparatively small head and the very long neck, which is much 
larger and more slender than that of the eastern species. 

Family 6. Chelonidae. Marine turtles, with only two recent 
genera, with three widely distributed species. The limbs are paddle- 
shaped, with only one or two claws, and the shell is covered with 
horny shields. The neck is short and incompletely retractile. 
The parietals, post-frontals, squamosals, quadrato-jugals, and jugals 
are much expanded and form an additional or false roof over the 
temporal region of the skull. 

The Chelonidae are a highly specialized offshoot of the Cryptodira, 
adapted to marine life. Fundamentally they agree most with the 
Testudinidae, and there is nothing primitive about them except 
that they still possess complete series of inframarginal shields. 

Chelone, with only 4 pairs of costal shields, with 5 neurals and 
a broad nuchal. C. mydas s. viridis, the " green or edible turtle," 




FIG. 5. Green Turtle (Chelone mydas). 



has, when adult, a nearly smooth shell. It attains a length of 
nearly 4 ft., and may then weigh more than three hundredweight. 
Their food consists of algae, and of Zostera marina. Their capture 
forms a regular pursuit wherever they occur in any numbers. 
Comparatively few are caught in the open sea, others in staked 
nets, but the majority are intercepted at well-known periods and 
localities where they go ashore to deposit their eggs. These are 
round, with a parchment-like shell and buried in the sand, above 
the high-tide mark, as many as 100 to 250 being laid by one female. 
They are eagerly searched for and eaten. The famous turtle- 
soup is made not only of the meat and the fat, but also from the 
thick and gelatinous layer of subcutaneous tissue which lines the 
inside of the shell. Only the females are eaten ; the males, recogniz- 
able by the longer tail, are rejected at the London market. This 
species inhabits the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. 

C. imbricata, the " hawksbill turtle. " The shields are thick, 
strongly overlapping each other from before backwards, but in 
old specimens the shields lose their keel, flatten and become juxta- 
posed. The horny cover of the upper jaw forms a hooked beak. 
This species lives upon fish and molluscs and is not eaten; but 
is much persecuted for the horny shields which yield the 



7 o 



TORTOISE 



" tortoise-shell, " so far as this is not a fraudulent imitation. When 
heated in oil, or boiled, the shields (which singly are not thick enough 
to be manufactured into larger articles) can be welded together 
under pressure and be given any desired shape. The " hawksbill " 




FIG. 6. Hawksbill Turtle (Chelone imbricata). 

ranges over all the tropical and sub-tropical seas and scarcely reaches 
3 ft. in length, but such a shell yields up to 8 Ib of tortoiseshell. 

Thalassochelys caretla, the " loggerhead, " has normally five pairs 
of costal shields, but whilst the number of shields in the genus 
Chelone is very constant, that of the loggerhead varies individually 
to an astonishing extent. The greatest number of neurals ob- 
served, and counting the nuchal as the first, is 8, and 8 pairs of 
costal, in all 24; the lowest numbers are 6 neurals with 5 pairs of 
costals; odd costals are frequent. The most interesting facts are 
that some of the supernumerary shields are much smaller than the 
others, sometimes mere vestiges in all stages of gradual suppression, 
and that the abnormalities are much more common in babies and 
small specimens than in adults. The importance of these ortho- 
genetic variations has been discussed by H. Gadow in A. Willey's 
Zoolog. Results, pt. iii. p. 207-222, pis. 24, 25 (Cambridge 1899). 




FIG. 7. Loggerhead (Thalassochelys caretta). 



The " loggerhead " is carnivorous, feeding on fish, molluscs and 
crustaceans, and is not esteemed as food. A great part of the 
turtle-oil which finds its way into the market is obtained from it; 
its tortoiseshell is of an inferior quality. Besides all the inter- 
tropical seas it inhabits the Mediterranean, and is an accidental 
visitor of the western coasts of Europe. The old specimen captured 
on the Dutch coast in 1894 contained the enormous number of 
1150 eggs. 

Super-family 2. Pleurodira. The long neck bends laterally and 
is tucked away between the anterior portion of the carapace and the 



plastron. The dorsal and ventral ends of the pelvis are anchylosed 
to the shell. Fresh-water tortoises of South America, Australia, 
Africa and Madagascar. 




FIG. 8. The Matamata (Chelys fimbriata) with side view of 
head, and separate view of plastron. 



Family I . Pelomedusidae. Neck completely retractile. 
' which the nuchal is wanting. 



Carapace 

covered with horny shields, of which the nuchal is wanting. Plastron 
composed of II plates. With 24 marginal and 13 plastral shields, 




FIG. 9. Lower view of Trionyx euphratica. 

inclusive of a conspicuous intergular. Sternolhaerus in Africa and 
Madagascar. Pelomedusa galeata in Madagascar and from the Cape 
to the Sinaitic peninsula. Podocnemis is common in tropical 
South America, e.g. P. expansa of Brazilian rivers, noteworthy for 



TORTOISESHELL TORTONA 



the millions of eggs which are, or were, annually collected for the 
sake of their oil. Bates (The Naturalist on the River Amazon) 
gives a most interesting account of these turtles, which are entirely 
frugivorous. 

Family 2. Chelydidae. The neck, when bent, remains partly 
exposed. Shell covered with shields. Plastron composed of 9 

Elates, but covered with 13 shields. This family, still represented 
y nearly 30 species, with 8 genera, is found in South America 
and in Australia. Chelys fimbriata, the " matamata " in the rivers of 
Guiana and North Brazil; total length about 3 ft.; with animal 
diet. Hydromedusa, e.g. tectifera, with very long neck, in Brazil, 
much resembling Chelodina, e.g. longicollis of the Australian region. 
Family 3. Carettochelydidae. Carettochelys insculpta, the only 
species, in the Fly river of New Guinea; still imperfectly known. 
This peculiar turtle seems to stand in the same relation to the Chely- 
didae and to the Trionychidae as do the Chelonidae to the Testu- 
dinidae by the transformation of the limbs into paddles with only two 
claws, and the complete reduction of the horny shields upon the 
shell, which is covered with soft skin. The plastron is composed 
of 9 plates; the 6 neural plates are all separated from one another 
by the costals. The premaxilla is single, as elsewhere only in 




FIG. 10. Upper view of the Turtle of the Euphrates (Trionyx 
euphratica). 

Chelys and in the Trionychidae. The neck is short and non-retractile. 
Length of shell about 18 in. 

Super-family 3. Trionychoidea. The shell is very flat and much 
smaller than the body, and covered with soft leathery skin, but 
traces of horny structures are still represented, especially in the 
young of some species, by numerous scattered little spikes on the 
back of the shell and even on the soft parts of the back. The limbs 
are short, broadly webbed and only the three inner digits are pro- 
vided with claws. Head and neck are retractile, bending in a sig- 
moid curve in a vertical plane. The jaws are concealed by soft 
lip-like flaps and the nose forms a short soft proboscis. The tem- 
poral region is not covered in by any arches; the quadrate is trumpet- 
shaped as in the Chelydidae, but the jugular arch is complete. 
The pelvis is not anchylosed to the shell. The carapace is much 
reduced in size, the ribs extending beyond the costal plates, and 
there are no marginals; except in the African Cyclanorbts the 
neural plates form a continuous series. All the nine elements of 
the plastron are deficient and but very loosely connected with each 
other. Most of these reductions in the skeletal and tegumentary 
armature are the result of life in muddy waters, in the bottom of 
which these creatures bury themselves with only the head exposed. 
They feed upon aquatic animals; those which are partial to hard- 
shelled molluscs soon wear down the sharp horny edges of the jaws, 
and thick horny crushing pads are developed in their stead. They 



only crawl upon land in order to lay their round brittle eggs. 
Trionyxes inhabit the rivers of Asia, Africa and North America. 
Trionyx ferox, the " soft-shelled turtle," in the whole of the Missis- 
sippi basin and in the chain of the great northern lakes. T. triunguis 
in Africa, the largest species, with a length of shell of 3 ft. T. 
hurum and T. gangeticus are the commonest Indian species. The 
young are ornamented with two or three pairs of large, round, 
ocellated spots on the back. (H. F. G.) 

TORTOISESHELL. The tortoiseshell of commerce consists 
of the epidermic plates covering the bony carapace of the 
hawksbill turtle, Chelonia imbricata, the smallest of the sea 
turtles. The plates of the back or carapace, technically called 
the head, are 13 in number, 5 occupying the centre, flanked 
by 4 on each side. These overlap each other to the extent of 
one-third of their whole size, and hence they attain a large size, 
reaching in the largest to 8 in. by 13 in., and weighing as 
much as 9 oz. The carapace has also 24 marginal pieces, 
called hoofs or claws, forming a serrated edge round it; but these, 
with the plates of the plastron, or belly, are of inferior value. The 
plates of tortoiseshell consist of horny matter, but they are 
harder, more brittle, and less fibrous than ordinary horn. 
Their value depends on the rich mottled colours they display a 
warm translucent yellow, dashed and spotted with rich brown 
tints and on the high polish they take and retain. The finest 
tortoiseshell is obtained from the Eastern Archipelago, par- 
ticularly from the east coast of Celebes to New Guinea; but the 
creature is found and tortoiseshell obtained from all tropical 
coasts, large supplies coming from the West Indian Islands and 
Brazil. 

Tortoiseshell is worked precisely as horn; but, owing to the high 
value of the material, care is taken to prevent any waste in its 
working. The plates, as separated by heat from the bony skeleton, 
are keeled, curved, and irregular in form. They are first flattened 
by heat and pressure, and superficial inequalities are rasped away. 
Being harder and more brittle than horn, tortoiseshell requires 
careful treatment in moulding it into any form, and as high heat 
tends to darken and obscure the material it is treated at as low a 
heat as practicable. For many purposes it is necessary to increase 
the thickness or to add to the superficial size of tortoiseshell, and 
this is readily done by careful cleaning and rasping of the surfaces 
to be united, softening the plates in boiling water or sometimes by 
dry heat, and then pressing them tightly together by means of heated 
pincers or a vice. The heat softens and liquefies a superficial film 
of the horny material, and that with the pressure effects a perfect 
union of the surfaces brought together. Heat and pressure are 
also employed to mould the substance into boxes and the numerous 
artificial forms into which it is made up. 

Tortoiseshell has been a prized ornamental material from very 
early times. It was one of the highly esteemed treasures of the 
Far East brought to ancient Rome by way of Egypt, and it was 
eagerly sought by wealthy Romans as a veneer for their rich furniture. 
In modern times it is most characteristically used in the elaborate 
inlaying of cabinet-work known as buhl furniture, and in com- 
bination with silver for toilet articles. It is also employed as a 
veneer for small boxes and frames. It is cut into combs, moulded 
into snuff-boxes and other small boxes, formed into knife-handles, 
and worked up into many other similar minor articles. The plates 
from certain other tortoises, known commercially as turtle-shell, 
possess a certain industrial value, but they are either opaque or 
soft and leathery, and cannot be mistaken for tortoiseshell. A 
close imitation of tortoiseshell can be made by staining translucent 
horn or by varieties of celluloid. 

TORTOLI, a town and episcopal see of Sardinia, on the east 
coast, 140 m. N.N.E. of Cagliari by rail (55 m. direct). Pop. 
(1901), 2105. It lies 60 ft. above sea-level to the south-west of a 
large lagoon, which renders it unhealthy. The harbour is 2\ m. to 
the east, and serves for the export of the wine and agricultural 
produce of the Ogliastra. A little to the south of Tortoli was 
the station of Sulci on the Roman coast road, known to us only 
from the itineraries. 

TORTONA (anc. Dertona), a town and episcopal see of Pied- 
mont, Italy, in the province of Alessandria, from which it is 
14 m. E. by rail, on the right bank of the Scrivia, at the northern 
foot of the Apennines, 394 ft. above sea-level. Pop. (1901), 
11,308 (town); 17,419 (commune). Tortona is on the main line 
from Milan to Genoa; from it a main line runs to Alessandria, 
a branch to Castelnuovo Scrivia, and a steam tramway to 
Sale. Its fortifications were destroyed by the French after 
Marengo (1799); the ramparts are now turned into shady 



TORTOSA TORTURE 



promenades. The cathedral, erected by Philip II., contains a 
remarkably fine Roman sarcophagus of the Christian period. 
Silk- weaving, tanning and hat-making are the chief industries; 
and there is some trade in wine and grain. 

Dertona, which may have become a Roman colony as early 
as the 2nd century B.C. and certainly did so under Augustus, 
is spoken of by Strabo as one of the most important towns of 
Liguria. It stood at the point of divergence of the Via 
Postumia (see LIGURIA) and the Via Aemilia, while a branch 
road ran hence to Pollentia. A number of ancient inscriptions 
and other objects have been found here. In the middle ages 
Tortona was zealously attached to the Guelphs, on which 
account it was twice laid waste by Frederick Barbarossa, in 
1 155 and 1163. (T. As.) 

TORTOSA, a fortified city of north-east Spain, in the province 
of Tarragona; 40 m. by rail W.S.W. of the city of Tarragona, 
on the river Ebro 22 m. above its mouth. Pop. (1900), 24,452. 
Tortosa is for the most part an old walled town on the left bank 
of the river, with narrow, crooked and ill-paved streets, in which 
the houses are lofty and massively built of granite. But some 
parts of the old town have been rebuilt, and there is a modern 
suburb on the opposite side of the Ebro. The slope on which 
old Tortosa stands is crowned with an ancient castle, which 
has been restored and converted into barracks and a hospital. 
All the fortifications are obsolete. The cathedral occupies the 
site of a Moorish mosque built in 914. The present structure, 
which dates from 1347, has its Gothic character disguised 
by a classical facade with Ionic pillars and much tasteless 
modernization. The stalls in the choir, carved by Cristobal de 
Salamanca in 1588-1593, and the sculpture of the pulpits, as well 
as the iron-work of the choir-railing and some of the precious 
marbles with which the chapels are adorned, deserve notice. 
The other public buildings include an episcopal palace, a town- 
hall and numerous churches. There are manufactures of 
paper, hats, leather, ropes, porcelain, majolica, soap, spirits, 
and ornaments made of palm leaves and grasses. There is an 
important fishery in the river, and the harbour is accessible to 
vessels of 100 tons burden. Corn, wine, oil, wool, silk, fruits 
and liquorice (a speciality of the district) are exported. The 
city is connected with Barcelona and Valencia by the coast 
railway, and with Saragossa by the Ebro valley line; it is also 
the terminus of a railway to San Carlos de la Rapita on the 
Mediterranean. Near Tortosa are rich quarries of marble and 
alabaster. 

Tortosa, the Derlosa of Strabo and the Colonia Julia Augusta 
Dertosa of numerous coins, was a city of the Ilercaones in 
Hispania Tarraconensis. Under the Moors it was of great im- 
portance as the key of the Ebro valley. It was taken by Louis 
the Pious in 811 (after an unsuccessful siege two years before), 
but was soon recaptured. Having become a haunt of pirates, 
and exceedingly injurious to Italian commerce, it was made the 
object of a crusade proclaimed by Pope Eugenius III. in 1148, 
and was captured by Ramon Berenguer IV., count of Barcelona, 
assisted by Templars, Pisans and Genoese. An attempt to 
recapture the city in 1149 was defeated by the heroism of the 
women, who were thenceforth empowered by the count to wear 
the red sash of the Order of La Hacha (The Axe), to import 
their clothes free of duty, and to precede their bridegrooms at 
weddings. Tortosa fell into the hands of the duke of Orleans 
in 1708; during the Peninsular War it surrendered in 1811 to 
the French under Suchet, who held it till 1814. 

TORTURE (from Lat. torquere, to twist), the general name for 
innumerable modes of inflicting pain which have been from time 
to time devised by the perverted ingenuity of man, and especially 
for those employed in a legal aspect by the civilized nations of 
antiquity and of modern Europe. From this point of view 
torture was always inflicted for one of two purposes: (i) As a 
means of eliciting evidence from a witness or from an accused 
person either before or after condemnation; (2) as a part of the 
punishment. The second was the earlier use, its function as a 
means of evidence arising when rules were gradually formulated 
by the experience of legal experts. 



Torture as a part of the punishment may be regarded as 
including every kind of bodily or mental pain beyond what is 
necessary for the safe custody of the offender (with or without 
enforced labour) or the destruction of his life in the language 
of Bentham, an " afflictive " as opposed to a " simple " punish- 
ment. Thus the unnecessary' sufferings endured in English 
prisons before the reforms of John Howard, the peine forte 
et dure, and the drawing and quartering in executions for 
treason, fall without any straining of terms under the category 
of torture. 

The whole subject is now one of only historical interest as far 
as Europe is concerned. It was, however, up to a comparatively 
recent date an integral part of the law of most countries 
(to which England, Aragon and Sweden 1 formed honourable 
exceptions) as much a commonplace of law as trial by jury 
in England. 2 The prevailing view, no doubt, was that truth was 
best obtained by confession, the regina probationum. Where 
confession was not voluntary, it must be extorted. Speaking 
generally, torture may be said to have succeeded the ordeal 
and trial by battle. Where these are found in full vigour, 
as in the capitularies of Charlemagne, there is no provision for 
torture. It was no doubt accepted reluctantly as being a 
quasi judicium Dei, but tolerated in the absence of any better 
means of eliciting truth, especially in cases of great gravity, on 
the illogical assumption that extraordinary offences must be 
met by extraordinary remedies. Popular feeling too, says 
Verri, preferred, as causes of evil, human beings who could be 
forced to confess, rather than natural causes which must be 
accepted with resignation. Confession, as probatio probatissima 
and vox vera, was the best of all evidence, and all the machinery 
of law was moved to obtain it. The trials for witchcraft 
remain on record as a refutation of the theory. 

The opinions of the best lay authorities have been almost 
unanimously against the use of torture, even in a system where 
it was as completely established as it was in Roman law. " Tor- 
menta," says Cicero, 3 in words which it is almost impossible to 
translate satisfactorily, " gubernat dolor, regit quaesitor, flectit 
libido, corrumpit spes, infirmat metus, ut in tot rerum angustiis 
nihil veritati loci relinquatur." Seneca says bitterly, " it forces 
even the innocent to lie." St Augustine 4 recognizes the fallacy 
of torture. " If," says he, " the accused be innocent, he will 
undergo for an uncertain crime a certain punishment, and that 
not for having committed a crime, but because it is unknown 
whether he committed it." At the same time he regards it as 
excused by its necessity. The words of Ulpian, in the Digest 
of Justinian, 6 are no less impressive: " The torture (quaestio) 
is not to be regarded as wholly deserving or wholly undeserving 
of confidence; indeed, it is untrustworthy, perilous and decep- 
tive. For most men, by patience or the severity of the torture, 
come so to despise the torture that the truth cannot be elicited 
from them; others are so impatient that they will lie in any 
direction rather than suffer the torture; so it happens that they 
depose to contradictions and accuse not only themselves but 
others." Montaigne's 6 view of torture as a part of the punish- 
ment is a most just one: "All that exceeds a simple death 
appears to me absolute cruelty; neither can our justice expect 
that he whom the fear of being executed by being beheaded or 
hanged will not restrain should be any more awed by the imagina- 
tion of a languishing fire, burning pincers, or the wheel." 
He continues with the curious phrase: " He whom the judge 
has tortured (gehenne) that he may not die innocent, dies inno- 
cent and tortured." Montesquieu 7 speaks of torture in a most 
guarded manner, condemning it, but without giving reasons, 
and eulogizing England for doing without it. The system was 
condemned by Bayle and Voltaire with less reserve. Among 

1 But even in these countries, whatever the law was, torture 
certainly existed in fact. 

1 Primitive systems varied. There is no trace of it in Babylonian 
or Mosaic law, but Egyptian and Assyrian provided for it; and the 
story of Regulus seems to show that it was in use at Carthage. 

8 Pro Sulla, c. 28. 4 De civ. Dei, bk. xix. c. 6. 

6 Dig. xlviii. 18, 23. 'Essay Ixv. (Cotton's trans.) 

7 Esprit des lois, bk. vi. c. 17. 



TORTURE 



73 



the Germans, Sonnenfels (1766), and, among the Italians, 
Beccaria, 1 Verri 2 and Manzoni 3 will be found to contain most that 
can be said on the subject. The influence of Beccaria in rendering 
the use of torture obsolete was undoubtedly greater than that of 
any other legal reformer. The great point that he makes is 
the unfair incidence of torture, as minds and bodies differ in 
strength. Moreover, it is, says he, to confound all relations to 
expect that a man should be both accuser and accused, and that 
pain should be the test of truth, as though truth resided in the 
muscles and fibres of a wretch under torture. The result of the 
torture is simply a matter of calculation. Given the force of the 
muscles and the sensibility of the nerves of an innocent person, 
it is required to find the degree of pain necessary to make him 
confess himself guilty of a given crime. Bentham's 4 objection 
to torture is that the effect is exactly the reverse of the intention. 
" Upon the face of it, and probably enough in the intention of 
the framers, the object of this institution was the protection 
of innocence; the protection of guilt and the aggravation of the 
pressure upon innocence was the real fruit of it." The apologists 
of torture are chiefly among jurists. But theoretical objections 
to it are often urged by the authors of books of practice, as by 
Damhouder, von Rosbach, von Boden, Voet, and others named 
below under the head of The Netherlands. It is worthy 
of note as illustrative of the feeling of the time that even Bacon 5 
compares experiment in nature to torture in civil matters as the 
best means of eliciting truth. Muyart de Vouglans 6 derives 
the origin of torture from the law of God. Other apologists 
are Simancas, bishop of Badajoz, 7 Engel, 8 Pedro de Castro, 9 
and in England Sir R. Wiseman. 10 

Greece. The opinion of Aristotle was in favour of torture as a 
mode of proof. ' It is," he says, " a kind of evidence, and appears 
to carry with it absolute credibility because a kind of constraint 
is applied." It is classed as one of the " artless persuasions " 
(&Tfx"i T(<TTS). U " It was the surest means of obtaining evidence, 
says Demosthenes. 12 At Athens slaves, and probably at times 
resident aliens, were tortured, 13 in the former case generally with 
the master's consent, but torture was seldom applied to free citizens, 14 
such application being forbidden by a psephism passed in the 
archonship of Scamandrius. After the mutilation of the Hermae 
in 415 B.C. a proposition was made, but not carried, that it should 
be applied to two senators named by an informer. In this particular 
case Andocides gave up all his slaves to be tortured. 16 Torture was 
sometimes inflicted in open court. The rack was used as a punish- 
ment even for free citizens. Antiphon was put to death by this 
means. 16 The torture of Nicias by the Syracusans is alluded to by 
Thucydides"as an event likely to happen, and it was only in order 
to avoid the possibility of inconvenient disclosures that he was put 
to death without torture. Isocrates and Lysias refer to torture 
under the generic name of <TTpej8\w<r, but it was generally called 
/9d<raw>t, in the plural, like tormenta. As might be expected, 
torture was frequently inflicted by the Greek despots, and both 
Zeno and Anaxarchus are said to have been put to it by such irre- 
sponsible authorities. At Sparta the despot Nabis was accustomed, 
as we learn from Polybius, 18 to put persons to death by an instrument 
of torture in the form of his wife Apega, a mode of torture no doubt 
resembling the Jungfernkuss once used in Germany. At Argos, as 
Diodorus informs us (xv. 57), certain conspirators were put to the 
torture in 371 B.C. 19 



1 Dei Delilti e delle pene, c. xvi. ! Osservazioni sutta tortura. 
3 Storia delta Colonna infatne. 4 Works, vii. 525. 

6 Nov. Org., bk. i. aph. 98. In the Advancement of Learning, 
bk. iv. ch. 4, Bacon collects many instances of constancy under 
torture. 

' Instituts du droit criminel (Paris, 1757). 

7 De catholicis institutionibus liber, ad praecavendas el extirpandas 
haereses admodum necessarius (Rome, 1575). 

8 De tortura ex for is christianis non proscribenda (Leipzig, 1733). 
' Defensa de la tortura (Madrid, 1778). 

10 Law of Laws, p. 122 (London, 1686). 

11 Rhet. i. 15, 26. 12 In Onetum, i. 874. 

13 Usually by the diaetetae in the Hephaestaeum, Isocrates, 
Trapez. 361. 

14 The opinion of Cicero (De partitionibus oratoriis, 34), that it 
was so applied at Athens and Rhodes, seems, as far as regards Athens, 
not to be justified by existing evidence. 

16 The demand for, or the giving up of, a slave for torture was called 
TpAcX7|<ris tlj ffaaavov. 

16 In the Ranae of Aristophanes, v. 617, there is a list of kinds of 
torture, and the wheel is alluded to in Lysistrata, v. 846. 

17 vii. 86. " xiii. 7. 

u For the whole subject, see Diet. Ant., s.v. Tormenta. 



Rome. The Roman system was the basis of all subsequent 
European systems which recognized torture as a part of their pro- 
cedure, and the rules attained a refinsment beyond anything 
approached at Athens. The law of torture was said by Cicero to rest 
originally on custom (mores majorum), but there is no allusion to it 
in the Twelve Tables. There are frequent allusions to it in the 
classical writers, 20 both of the republic and the empire. The law, 
as it existed under the later empire, is contained mainly in the titles 
De quaestionibus 11 of the Digest and the Code 22 the former consisting 
largely of opinions from the Sententiae receptae of Paulus, 23 the latter 
being for the most part merely a repetition of constitutions contained 
in the Theodosian Code. 24 Both substantive law and procedure 
were dealt with by these texts of Roman law, the latter, however, 
not as fully as in medieval codes, a large discretion being left to the 
judges. Torture was used both in civil and criminal trials, but in 
the former only upon slaves and freedmen or infamous persons (after 
Nov. xc. I, i, upon ignoli and obscuri if they showed signs of corrup- 
tion) such as gladiators and in the absence of alia manifesta 
indicia, as in cases affecting the inheritance (res hereditariae). Its 
place in the case of free citizens was taken by the reference to the 
oath of the party. During the republic torture appears to have 
been confined to slaves in all cases, but with the empire a free man 
became liable to it if accused of a crime, though in most cases not as 
a witness. On an accusation of treason every one, whatever his 
rank, was liable to torture, for in treason the condition of all was 
equal. 26 The same was the case of those accused of sorcery (magi), 
who were regarded as humani generis inimici." A wife might be 
tortured (but only after her slaves had been put to the torture) it 
accused of poisoning her husband. In accusations of crimes other 
than treason or sorcery, certain persons were protected by the dignity 
of their position or their tender age. The main exemptions were 
contained in a constitution of Diocletian and Maximian, and included 
soldiers, nobles of a particular rank, i.e. eminentissimi and perfectis- 
simi, and their descendants to the third generation, and decuriones 
and their children to a limited extent (tormenta moderata) that is 
to say, they were subject to the torture of the flumbatae in certain 
cases, such as fraud on the revenue and extortion. In addition to 
these, priests (but not clergy of a lower rank), children under fourteen 
and pregnant women were exempt. A free man could be tortured 
only where he had been inconsistent in his depositions, or where 
there was a suspicion that he was lying. 28 The rules as to the torture 
of slaves were numerous and precise. It was a maxim of Roman 
law that torture of slaves was the most efficacious means of obtaining 
truth. 29 They could be tortured either as accused or as witnesses 
for their masters in all cases, but against their masters only in 
accusations of treason, adultery, frauds on the revenue, coining, and 
similar offences (which were regarded as a species of treason), 
attempts by a husband or wife on the life of the other, and in cases 
where a master had bought a slave for the special reason that he 
should not give evidence against him. The privilege from accusa- 
tions by the slave extended to the master's father, mother, wife, or 
tutor, and also to a former master. On the same principle a freedman 
could not be tortured against his patron. The privilege did not 
apply where the slave was joint property, and one of his masters had 
been murdered by the other, or where he was the property of a 
corporation, for in such a case he could be tortured in a charge against 
a member of the corporation. Slaves belonging to the inheritance 
could be tortured in actions concerning the inheritance. The adult 
slaves of a deceased person could be tortured where the deceased had 
been murdered. In a charge of adultery against a wife, her husband's, 
her own and her father's slaves could be put to the torture. A 
slave manumitted for the express purpose of escaping torture was 
regarded as still liable to it. Before putting a slave to torture 
without the consent of his master, security must be given to the 
master for his value and the oath of calumny must be taken. 80 The 
master of a slave tortured on a false accusation could recover double 
his value from the accuser. The undergoing of torture had at one 
time a serious effect upon the after-life of the slave, for in the time of 
Gaius a slave who had been tortured could on manumission obtain 
no higher civil rights than those of a dediticius. 31 The rules of 
procedure were conceived in a spirit of as much fairness as such rules 
could be. Some of the most important were these: The amount 
of torture was at the discretion of the judge, but it was to be so 



20 An instance is Pliny's letter to Trajan (Epist. x. 97), where he 
mentions having put to the torture two Christianr deaconesses 
(ministrae). The words are confitentes iterum ac tertio interrogavi. 
This supports Tertullian's objection to the torture of Christians, 
torquemur confitentes (Apol. c. 2). 

21 Quaestio included the whole process of which torture was a part. 
In the words of Cujacius, Quaestio est interrogatio quaefit per lormenta, 
vel de reis, vel de testibus qui facto intervenisse dicuntur. 

22 Dig. xlviii. 18; Cod. ix. 41. 

23 v. 14, 15, 16. 24 ix. 35. 

26 Cod. ix. 8, 3. * Ibid. ix. 8, 4. 

27 Ibid. ix. 1 8, 7. ffl Ibid. iv. 20, 13. 

29 Ibid. i. 3, 8. 

30 Ibid. ii. 59, I, i. The demand of another man's slave for torture 
was postulare. 

31 Gaius i. 13. 



74 



TORTURE 



applied as not to injure life or limb. If so applied the judge was 
infamis. The examination was not to begin by torture; other 
proofs must be exhausted first. The evidence 1 must have advanced 
so far that nothing but the confession of the slave was wanting to 
complete it. Those of weakest frame and tenderest age were to be 
tortured first. Except in treason, the unsupported testimony of a 
single witness was not a sufficient ground for torture. The voice 
and manner of the accused were to be carefully observed. A spon- 
taneous confession, or the evidence of a personal enemy, was to be 
received with caution. Repetition of the torture could only be 
ordered in case of inconsistent depositions or denial in the face of 
strong evidence. There was no rule limiting the number of repeti- 
tions. Leading questions were not to be asked. A judge was not 
liable to an action for anything done during the course of the examina- 
tion. An appeal from an order to torture was competent to the 
accused, except in the case of slaves, when an appeal could be made 
only by the master. 2 The appellant was not to be tortured pending 
the appeal, but was to remain in prison. 3 The quaesitor asked the 
questions, the tortores applied the instruments. The principal 
forms of torture in use were the equuleus, or rack (mentioned as far 
back as Cicero), 4 the plumbatae, or leaden balls, the ungulae, or 
barbed hooks, the lamina, or hot plate, the mala mansio, 6 and the" 
fidiculae, or cord compressing the arm. Other allusions in the 
Digest and Code, in addition to those already cited, may be shortly 
noticed. The testimony of a gladiator or infamous person (such as 
an accomplice) was not valid without torture. 6 This was no doubt 
the origin of the medieval maxims (which were, however, by no 
means universally recognized) Vilitas personae est justa causa 
torquendi testem, and Torlura purgatur infamia. Torture could not 
be inflicted during the forty days of Lent. 7 Robbers and pirates 
might be tortured even on Easter day, the divine pardon being hoped 
for where the safety of society was thus assured. 8 Capital punish- 
ment was not to be suffered until after conviction or confession under 
torture.' Withdrawal from prosecution (abolitio) was not to be 
allowed as a rule after the accused had undergone the torture. 10 In 
charges of treason the accuser was liable to torture if he did not 
prove his case. 11 The infliction of torture, not judicial, but at the 
same time countenanced by law, was at one time allowed to creditors. 
They were allowed to keep their debtors in private prisons, and most 
cruelly ill-use them, in order to extort payment. 12 Under the empire 
private prisons were forbidden. 13 In the time of Juvenal the Roman 
ladies actually hired the public torturers to torture their domestic 
slaves. 14 As a part of the punishment torture was in frequent use. 
Crucifixion, mutilation, exposure to wild beasts in the arena and 
other cruel modes of destroying life were common, especially in the 
time of the persecution of the Christians under Nero. 16 Crucifixion 
as a punishment was abolished by Constantine in 315, in veneration 
of the memory of Him who was crucified for mankind. On the other 
hand, where the interests of the Church were concerned the tendency 
was in favour of greater severity. Thus, by the Theodosian Code, 
a heretic was to be flogged with lead (conlusus plumbo) before 
banishment, 16 and Justinian made liable to torture and exile any one 
insulting a bishop or priest in a church, or saying litany, if a layman. 17 



1 The evidence on which the accused might be tortured was 
expressed in Roman law by the terms argumentum and indicium 
(used technically as early as Cicero, Verres, i. 10 and 17). The 
latter term, as will be seen, afterwards became one of the most 
important in the law of torture, but the analysis of indicium is later 
than Roman law. Indicium was not quite the same thing as semi- 
plena probatio, though the terms appear to be occasionally used as 
synonyms. Indicium was rather the foundation or cause of 
probatio, whether plena or semiplena. An indicium or a concurrence 
of indicia might, according to circumstances, constitute a plena or 
semiplena probatio. The phrase legilima indicia was sometimes used. 
In Sir T. Smith's work, c. 24 (see below), index means a prisoner 
acting as an approver under torture. Tormentum, tortura and 
quaestio appear to be equivalent terms. The medieval jurists 
derived the first of these from torquere mentem, an etymology as false 
as testamenlum from testatio mentis (Inst. ii. 10 pr.). 

8 Dig. xlix. i. 15. * Cod. vii. 62, 12. 

4 Mtlo, Ivii. 

' Of doubtful meaning, but perhaps like the " Little Ease " of the 
Tower of London. 

6 Dig. xxii. 5, 21, 2. 7 Cod. iii. 12, 6. 

* Ibid. iii. 12, 10. Ibid. ix. 47, 16. 

10 Ibid. ix. 42, 3. Ibid. ix. 8, 3. 

12 See, for instance, Livy vi. 36. 13 Cod. i. 4, 23 ; ix. 5. 

14 Ibid. vi. 480. 

15 As an example of such punishments, cf. the well-known lines 
of Juvenal (Sat. i. 155): 

" Taeda lucebis in ilia, 

Qua stantes ardent qui fixo gutture fumant." 

For other poetical allusions, see vi. 480, xiv. 21; Lucr. iii. 1030; 
Propert. iv. 7, 35. 
" xvi. 53. 

17 Nov. cxxiii. 31. On the subject of torture in Roman law 
reference may be made to Wasserscheben, Historia quaeslionum 
per tormenta apud Romanos (Berlin, 1836); H. Wallon. Hisloire de 
I'esclavage dans I'antiquite (Paris, 1879); Mommsen, Romisches 



The Leges barbarorum are interesting as forming the link of connexion 
between the Roman and the medieval systems. Through them the 
Roman doctrines were transmitted into the Roman law countries. 
The barbarian codes were based chiefly on the Theodosian Code. 
As compared with Roman law there seems to be a leaning towards 
humanity, e.g. the provision for redemption of a slave after confession 
by s. 40 of the Lex salica. After the edict of Gundobald in 501 
the combat rather than the torture became the expression of the 
judicium Dei. 

The Church. As far as it could the Church adopted the Roman 
jaw. The Church generally secured the almost entire immunity of 
its clergy, at any rate of the higher ranks, from torture by civil 
tribunals; 18 but in general, where laymen were concerned all persons 
were equal. In many instances councils of the Church pronounced 
against torture, e.g. in a synod at Rome in 384. 19 Torture even of 
heretics seems to have been originally left to the ordinary tribunals. 
Thus a bull of Innocent IV., in 1282, directed the torture of heretics by 
the civil power, as being robbers and murderers of souls, and thieves 
of the sacraments of God. 20 The Church also enjoined torture for 
usury. 21 A characteristic division of torture, accepted by the Church, 
but not generally acknowledged by lay authorities, was into spiritual 
and corporal, the latter being simply the imposition of the oath of 
purgation, the only form originally in use in the ecclesiastical courts. 
The canon law contains little on the subject of torture, and that little 
of a comparatively humane nature. It laid down that it was no sin in 
the faithful to inflict torture, 22 but a priest might not do so with his 
own hands, 23 and charity was to be used in all punishments. 24 No 
confession was to be extracted by torture 26 and it was not to be 
ordered indiciis non praecedentibus. The principal ecclesiastical 
tribunal by which torture was inflicted in more recent times was the 
Inquisition. The code of instructions issued by Torquemada in 
Spain in 1484 provided that an accused person might be put to the 
torture if semiplena probatio existed against the accused- that is, 
so much evidence as to raise a grave and not merely a light presump- 
tion of guilt, often used for the evidence of one eye or ear witness of 
a fact. If the accused confessed during torture, and afterwards 
confirmed the confession, he was punished as convicted ; if he 
retracted, he was tortured again, or subjected to extraordinary 
punishment. One or two inquisitors, or a commissioner of the Holy 
Office, were bound to be present at every examination. Owing to the 
occurrence of certain cases of abuse of torture, a decree of Philip II. 
was issued, in 1558, forbidding the administration of torture 
without an order from the council. But this decree does not appear 
to have been fully observed. By the edict of the inquisitor-general 
Vald6s, in 1561, torture was to be left to the prudence and equity of 
the judges. They must consider motives and circumstances before 
decreeing torture, and must declare whether it is to be employed in 
caput proprium, i.e. to extort a confession, or in caput alienum, i.e. 
to incriminate an accomplice. Torture was not to be decreed until 
the termination of the process and after defence heard, and the 
decree was subject to appeal, but only in doubtful cases, to the Council 
of the Supreme. It was also only in doubtful cases that the inquisitors 
were bound to consult the council; where the law was clear (and 
of this they were the judges) there need be no consultation, and no 
appeal was allowed. On ratification twenty-four hours afterwards 
of a confession made under torture, the accused might be reconciled, 
if the inquisitors believed him to be sincerely repentant. If 
convicted of bad faith he might be relaxed, i.e. delivered to the 
secular power to be burned. The inquisitors had a discretion to 
allow the accused to make the canonical purgation by oath 
instead of undergoing corporal torture, but the rule which allows 
this to be done at the same time discountenances it as fallacious. 
It is remarkable that the rules do not allow much greater efficacy 
to torture. They speak of it almost in the terms of Roman law 
as dangerous and uncertain, and depending for its effects on 
physical strength. 27 Torture had ceased to be inflicted before the 
suppression of the Inquisition, and in 1816 a papal bull decreed 
that torture should cease, that proceedings should be public, and 
that the accuser should be confronted with the accused. The 
rules in themselves were not so cruel as the construction put upon 
them by the inquisitors. For instance, by Torquemada's instruc- 
tions torture could not be repeated unless in case of retractation. 
This led to the subtlety of calling a renewed torture a continuation, 

Strafrecht, iii. 5 (Leipzig, 1899); Greenidge, Legal Procedure of 
Cicero's Time, p. 479 (Oxford, 1901). 

18 See Escobar, Theol. Mor. tract, vi. c. 2. They were to be tor- 
tured only by the clergy, where possible, and only on indicia of 
special gravity. 

19 Lea, Superstition and Force, p. 419 (3rd ed., Philadelphia, 
1878). 

20 Leges et constilutiones contra haereticos, 26. 

21 Lecky, Rationalism in Europe, ii. 34. 

22 Decretum, pt. ii. 23, 4, 45. 23 Ibid. pt. i. 86, 25. 

24 Ibid. pt. ii. 12, 2, II. 26 Ibid. pt. ii. 15, 6, I. 

26 Decretals, v. 41, 6. 

27 The rules will be found in H. C. Lea, Hist, of the Inquisition of 
Spain (1906). See also Hist, of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages 
(New York, 1888) by the same writer; R. Schmidt, Die Herkvnft 
des Inquisitionsprocesses (Berlin, 1902). 



TORTURE 



75 



and not a repetition. The rules of Torquemada and of Valdes are 
those of the greatest historical importance, the latter forming the 
code of the Holy Office until its suppression, not only in Spain, but 
in other countries where the Inquisition was established. But 
several other manuals of procedure existed before the final perfec- 
tion of the system by Vald<;s. The earliest is perhaps the instruc- 
tions for inquisitors (Directorium inquisitorum) compiled a century 
earlier than Torquemada by Nicholas Eymerico, grand inquisitor 
of Aragon about 1368.' Rules of practice were also framed two 
centuries later by Simancas, whose position as an apologist has been 
already stated. The textbook of procedure of the Italian Inquisi- 
tion was the Sacro arsenale. 2 In 1545 and 1550 instructions for the 
guidance of inquisitors were issued by Charles V. The liability of 
a judge for exceeding the law was not always recognized by the 
Inquisition to the same extent as by the lay tribunals. Llorente 
gives an instance of a warrant by an inquisitor to a licentiate order- 
ing the torture of an accused person, and protesting that, in case 
of death or fracture of limbs, the fact is not to be imputed to the 
licentiate. 3 

Thus far of the law. In practice all the ingenuity of cruelty was 
exercised to find new modes of torment. 4 These cruelties led at 
times to remonstrance from the civil power. One example is the 
edict of Philip II. just mentioned. Another and an earlier one is 
an ordonnance of Philip the Fair, in 1302, bidding the Inquisition 
confine itself within the limits of the law. 6 At Venice the senate 
decreed that three senators should be present as inquisitors. 

As the practice of torture became more systematized, it grew to 
be the subject of casuistical inquiry by churchmen to an extent far 
exceeding the scanty discussion of the question in the text of the 
canon law. It will be sufficient here to cite as an example the treat- 
ment of it by Liguori, who incorporates the opinions of many of the 
Spanish casuists. On the whole, his views appear to be more humane 
than the prevailing practice. The object of torture he defines 
very neatly as being to turn semiplena into plena probatio. For 
this proper indicia are necessary. He then proceeds to decide 
certain questions which had arisen, the most interesting of which 
deal with the nature of the sin of which the accused and the judge 
are guilty in particular instances. A judge sins gravely if he does 
not attempt all milder means of discovering truth before resorting 
to torture. He sins in a criminal cause, or in one of notable infamy, 
if he binds the accused by oath to tell the truth before there is proof 
against him. It is the same if without oath he uses threats, terror 
or exhibition of torments to confound the witness. 6 If any one, to 
avoid grave torments, charges himself with a capital crime, he does 
not sin mortally. 7 It was a doubtful question whether he sinned 
gravely in such a case. Escobar at an earlier date supported the 
morally dangerous view that an inquisitor may follow a probable 
opinion in ordering torture, relinquishing a more probable. 8 

England. It is the boast of the common law of England that it 
never recognized torture as legal. One, perhaps the chief, reason 
for this position taken by the law is the difference of the nature of 
the procedure in criminal cases from that in general use in European 
countries. To use words more familiar in foreign jurisprudence, 
the English system is accusatorial as distinguished from inquisitorial. 
In the former the accuser has to prove guilt, in the latter the accused 
has to prove innocence. The common law of England has always 
shown itself averse from the inquisitorial system, and so (at least 
in theory) to the torture which may be regarded as an outcome of 
the system whose one end was to obtain a confession from the accused. 
The tendency of the small amount of statute law bearing on the 
subject is in the same direction. It was provided by Magna Carta, 
29, " that no free man . . . should be destroyed in any way unless 
by legal judgment of his equals or by the law of the land." On 
this Sir E. Coke comments, " No man destroyed, &c., that is, fore- 
judged of life or limb, disinherited, or put to torture or death." 9 
The act of 27 Hen. VIII. c. 4 enacted that, owing to the frequent 
escape of pirates in trials by the civil law, " the nature whereof 
is that before any judgment of death can be given against the 
offenders they must plainly confess their offence (which they will 
never do without torture or pains)," such persons should be tried 
by jury before commissioners under the Great Seal. Finally, the 
Bill of Rights provided that cruel and unusual punishments ought 
not to be inflicted. The opinions of the judges have been invariably 
against torture in theory, however much some of them may have 

1 An edition was published at Rome in 1558, and a compendium at 
Lisbon in 1762, and by Marchena at Montpellier in 1821. 

2 It was by Father Masini, and went through numerous editions 
(complete or compendia) from 1558 to 1730. Among other manuals 
of practice were those of Carenas Caesar (1655), Morellet (1762). 

3 Llorente c. xiv. 

4 Among others were the gradual pouring of water drop by drop 
on a particular spot of the body, the tormento de toca, or pouring of 
water into a gauze bag in the throat, which gradually forced the 
gauze into the stomach, and the pendola, or swinging pendulum, 
so graphically described in one of Edgar Poe's tales. 

6 Ordonnances des rois, i. 346. 

8 Theol. mar. bk. ix. 202. ' Ibid. 274. 

Ibid. v. 3 and 7. > 2 Inst. 48 b. 



been led to countenance it in practice. The strongest authority 
is the resolution of the judges in Felton's case (1628), that he ought 
not by the law to be tortured by the rack, for no such punishment 
is known or allowed by our law." 10 In accordance with this are 
the opinions of Sir John Fortescue, 11 Sir Thomas Smith u and Sir 
E. Coke. The latter says, " As there is no law to warrant tortures 
in this land, nor can they be justified by any prescription, being 
so lately brought in." 13 In spite of all this, torture in criminal 
proceedings was inflicted in England with more or less frequency 
for some centuries, both as a means of obtaining evidence and as 
a part of the punishment. But it should be remarked that torture 
of the former kind was invariably ordered by the Crown or council, 
or by some tribunal of extraordinary authority, such as the Star 
Chamber, not professing to be bound by the rules of the common 
law. In only two instances was a warrant to torture issued to a 
common law judge. 14 

A licence to torture is found as early as the Pipe Roll of 34 Hen. II." 
The Templars were tortured in 1310 by royal warrant addressed 
to the mayor and sheriffs of London. 16 In this case it is recorded that 
torture was unknown in England, and that no torturer was to be 
found in the realm. 17 A commission was issued concerning the 
tortures at Newgate in I334- 18 The rack in the Tower is said to 
have been introduced by the duke of Exeter in the reign of Henry VI., 
and to have been thence called "the duke of Exeter's daughter." 19 
In this reign torture seems to have taken its place as a part of 
what may be called extraordinary criminal procedure, claimed, and 
it may be said tacitly recognized, as exercisable by virtue of the 
prerogative, and continued in use down to l64O. 20 The infliction 
of torture gradually became more common under the Tudor monarchs. 
Under Henry VIII. it appears to have been in frequent use. Only 
two cases are recorded under Edward VI., and eight under Mary. 21 
The reign of Elizabeth was its culminating point. In the words 
of Hallam, " the rack seldom stood idle in the Tower for all the 
latter part of Elizabeth's reign." 22 The varieties of torture used at 
this period are fully described by Dr Lingard, 23 and consisted of 
the rack, the scavenger's daughter, 24 the iron gauntlets or bilboes, 
and the cell called " Little Ease." The registers of the council 
during the Tudor and early Stuart reigns are full of entries as to 
the use of torture, both for state and for ordinary offences. 26 Among 
notable prisoners put to the torture were Anne Askew, the Jesuit 
Campion, Guy Fawkes 26 and Peacham (who was examined by Bacon 
" before torture, in torture and after torture "). 27 The prevalence 
of torture in Elizabeth's reign led to the well-known defence at- 
tributed to Lord Burghley, " A declaration of the favourable dealing 
of Her Majesty's commissioners appointed for the examination of 
certain traitors, and of tortures unjustly reported to be done upon 
them for matter of religion," 1583. ffl The use of torture in England 
being always of an extraordinary and extra-judicial nature, it is 



10 3 State Trials, 371. 

11 De laudibus legum Angliae, c. 22. 

12 Commonwealth of England, bk. ii. c. 27 (1583; ed. by L. Alston, 
1906). It is curious that Sir T. Smith, with all his hatred of torture, 
was directed by a warrant under the queen's seal alone (not through 
the council) to torture the duke of Norfolk's servants in 1571. In 
a letter to Lord Burghley he pleaded for exemption from so hateful 
a task. 

13 3 Inst. 35. Nevertheless, in the trials of Lord Essex and 
Southampton, Coke is found extolling the queen's mercy for not 
racking or torturing the accused (i State Trials, 1338). (See further 
authorities in Pollock and Maitland, Hist, of English Law, ii. 656.) 

14 Jardine, Reading on the Use of Torture in the Criminal Law of 
England (1837), p. 52. 

6 L. O. Pike, Hist, of Crime in England, i. 427. 

16 Rymer, Foedera, iii. 228, 232. 

17 Walter of Hemingford, p. 256. 

18 Pike i. 481. 19 3 Inst. 34. 

20 This is the date of the latest warrant in Jardine's work, but it 
was used on three Portuguese at Plymouth during the Common- 
wealth (Thurloe iii. 298). 

21 It is to be noticed, as Jardine observes, that all these are cases 
of an ordinary nature, and afford no ground for the assertions made 
by Strutt and Bishop Burnet that torture was used to heretics as 
heretics. 

22 Const. Hist. i. 201. 

23 Hist, of England, vol. viii. app. note v. 

24 These two were exactly opposite in principle. The rack stretched 
the limbs of the sufferer; the scavenger's daughter compressed him 
into a ball. 

25 Fifty-five of these will be found in the appendix to Mr Jardine's 
work. An ordinary robber of plate was threatened with torture 
in 1567. Froude, Hist, of England, viii. 386. 

26 It is not certain whether he was racked, but probably he was, 
in accordance with the king's letter: " If he will not otherwise confess 
the gentlest tortures are to be first used to him, and so on, step by 
step, to the most severe, and so God speed the good work." 

27 Dalrymple, Memoirs and Letters of James I. p. 85; Macaulay's 
essay on the works of Bacon. 

28 Lord Somers's Tracts, i. 189. 



7 6 



TORTURE 



comparatively certain that it could hardly have been applied with 
that observation of forms which existed in countries where it was 
regulated by law. There were no rules and no responsibility beyond 
the will of the Crown or council. This irresponsibility is urged by 
Selden * as a strong objection to the use of torture. The main 
differences between the infliction of torture in England and on the 
continent of Europe seem to be that English lawyers made no dis- 
tinction of those liable to it, never allowed torture of witnesses, and 
elaborated no subtle rules as to plena and semiplena probatio. 

So far of what may be called torture proper, to which the common 
law professed itself a stranger. There were, however, cases fully 
recognized by the common law which differed from torture only 
in name. The peine forte el dure was a notable example of this. 
If a prisoner stood mute of malice instead of pleading, he was 
condemned to the peine, that is, to be stretched upon his back and 
to have iron laid upon him as much as he could bear, and more, 
and so to continue, fed upon bad bread and stagnant water through 
alternate days until he pleaded or died. 2 It was abolished by 12 
Geo. III. c. 20. 7 and 8 Geo. IV. c. 28 enacted that a plea of " not 
guilty " should be entered for a prisoner so standing mute. A case 
of peine occurred as lately as 1726. At times tying the thumbs 
with whip-cord was used instead of the peine. This was said to be 
a common practice at the Old Bailey up to the i8th century. 3 In 
trials for witchcraft the legal proceedings often partook of the 
nature of torture, as in the throwing of the reputed witch into a 
pond to see whether she would sink or swim, in drawing her blood, 4 
and in thrusting pins into the body to try to find the insensible spot. 
Confessions, too, appear to have been often extorted by actual 
torture, and torture of an unusual nature, as the devil was supposed 
to protect his votaries from the effects of ordinary torture. 

Torture as a part of the punishment existed in fact, if not in 
name, down to a very recent period. Mutilation as a punishment 
appears in some of the pre-Conquest codes, such as those of Alfred, 
Athelstan and Canute, in the laws attributed to William the 
Conqueror and in the assize of Northampton (1176). Bracton, who 
does not notice torture as a means of obtaining evidence, divides 
corporal punishment into that inflicted with and without torture. 5 
Later instances are the punishment of burning to death inflicted 
on heretics under the Six Articles (31 Hen. VIII. c. 14) and other 
acts, and on women for petit treason (abolished by 30 Geo. III. 
c. 48), the mutilation inflicted for violence in a royal palace by 
33 Hen. VIII. c. 12, the punishment for high treason, which 
existed nominally until 1870, the pillory (abolished by 7 Will. IV. 
and i Viet. c. 23), the stocks, branks and cucking-stool, and the 
burning in the hand for felony (abolished by 19 Geo. III. c. 74^). 
Corporal punishment now exists only in the case of juvenile 
offenders and of robbery with violence. It was abolished in the 
army by the Army Act i88i. 6 Cruelty in punishment did not 
entirely cease in prisons even after the Bill of Rights. See such 
cases as R. v. Huggins, 17 State Trials, 298; Castell v. Bambridge, 
2 Strange's Rep. 856. 

Scotland. Torture was long a recognized part of Scottish criminal 
procedure, and was acknowledged as such by many acts and warrants 
of the Scottish parliament and warrants of the Crown and the privy 
council. Numerous instances occur in the Register of the Privy 
Council. 7 Two acts in 1649 dealt with torture; one took the form 
of a warrant to examine witnesses against William Barton by any 
form of probation, 8 the other of a warrant to a committee to inquire 
as to the use of torture against persons suspected of witchcraft. 9 
The judges in 1689 were empowered by the estates to torture Chiesly 
of Dalrye, charged with the murder of the lord president Lockhart, 
in order to discover accomplices. In the same year the use of torture 
without evidence or in ordinary cases was declared illegal in the 
Claim of Right. The careful wording of this will be noticed : it 
does not object to torture altogether, but reserves it for cases where 
a basis of evidence had already been laid, and for crimes of great 
gravity, thus admitting the dangerous principle, founded on Roman 
law, that the importance of the crime is a reason for departing from 
the ordinary rules of justice. However great the crime, it is no 
more certain than in the case of a crime of less gravity that the 
person accused was the person who committed it. A warrant issued 
in the same year to put to the torture certain persons accused of 
conspiring against the government, and also certain dragoons 
suspected of corresponding with Lord Dundee. In 1690 an act 
passed reciting the torture of William Carstares, a minister, in 1683, 
and re-establishing his competency as a witness. 10 The last warrant 
appears to be one in 1690 for torturing a man accused of rape and 
murder. In 1708 torture in Scotland was finally abolished by 7 



1 Table Talk, " Trial." 

1 Stephen, Hist, of the Criminal Law, i. 297. 



1 Stephen i. 300; Kelyng, Reports, p. 27. 

4 The superstition was that any one drawing a witch's blood was 



free from her power. This is alluded to in Henry VI. pt. i. act i. 
sc. 5; " Blood will I draw on thee; thou art a witch." 

6 1046. 

7 E.g. i. 525, iv. 680, vi. 156. 

' c. 370. 

"The thumbscrew with which Carstares had been tortured was 
afterwards presented to him as a remembrance by the privy council. 



8 44 Viet. c. 9, s 7. 
8 c. 333. 



Anne c. 21, 55. Many details of the tortures inflicted will be found 
in Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, the introduction to ]. Maclaurins' 
R. Criminal Cases and J. H. Burton's Narratives from Criminal 
Trials. Among other varieties the nature of some of them can 
only be guessed were the rack, the pilniewinkis, the boot, 11 the 
caschie-laws, the lang irnis, the narrow-bore, the pynebankis, and 
worst of all, the waking, or artificial prevention of sleep. 12 The 
ingenuity of torture was exercised in a special degree on charges 
of witchcraft, notably in the reign of James VI., an expert both in 
witchcraft and in torture. The act of 1649 already cited shows 
that the principle survived him. Under the government of the dukes 
of Lauderdale and York torture as a practice in charges of religious 
and political offences reached its height. " The privy council was 
accustomed to extort confessions by torture; that grim divan of 
bishops, lawyers and peers sucking in the groans of each undaunted 
enthusiast, in hope that some imperfect avowal might lead to the 
sacrifice of other victims, or at least warrant the execution of the 
present." 13 With such examples before them in the law, it is scarcely 
to be wondered at that persons in positions of authority, especially 
the nobility, sometimes exceeded the law and inflicted torture at 
their own will and for their own purposes. There are several 
instances in the Register of the Privy Council of suits against such 
persons, e.g. against the earl of Orkney, in 1605, for putting a son 
of Sir Patrick Bellenden in the boots. 

Ireland seems to have enjoyed comparative immunity from torture. 
It was not recognized by the common or statute law, and the cases 
of its infliction do not appear to be numerous. In 1566 the president 
and council of Munster, or any three of them, were empowered to 
inflict torture, " in cases necessary, upon vehement presumption 
of any great offence in any party committed against the Queen's 
Majesty." 14 In 1583 Hurley, an Irish priest, was tortured in Dublin 
by toasting his feet against the fire with hot boots." 15 In 1627 the 
lord deputy doubted whether he had authority to put a priest 
named O'Cullenan to the rack. An answer was returned by Lord 
Killultagh to the effect that " you ought to rack him if you saw cause 
and hang him if you found reason." " The latest case of peine forte 
et dure seems to have been in 1740. 

British Colonies and Dependencies. The infliction of torture in 
any British colony or dependency has usually been regarded as 
contrary to law, and ordered only by arbitrary authority. It is 
true that in the trial of Sir Thomas Picton in 1806, for subjecting, 
while governor of Trinidad, a woman named Luisa Calderon to the 
torture of the picquet, l7 one of the grounds of defence was that such 
torture was authorized by the Spanish law of the island, but the 
accused was convicted in spite of this defence, and the final decision 
of the cofirt of king's bench, in 1812, decreeing a respite of the 
defendant's recognizances till further order, was perhaps not so 
much an affirmation of the legality in the particular instance as 
the practical expression of a wish to spare an eminent public servant. 18 
As to India, the second charge against Warren Hastings was extortion 
from the begums of Oude by means of the torture of their servants. 19 
In the present Indian Penal Code and Evidence Acts there are 
provisions intended, as Sir James Stephen says, 20 to prevent the 
practice of torture by the police for the purpose of extracting con- 
fessions from persons in their custody. 21 In Ceylon torture, which 
had been allowed under the Dutch government, was expressly 
abolished by royal proclamation in 1799. 

In the Channel Islands confessions of persons accused of witch- 
craft in the I7th century were frequently obtained by torture. 22 

United States. ^One instance of the peine forte et dure is known. 
It was inflicted in 1692 on Giles Cory of Salem, who refused to 
plead when arraigned for witchcraft. 23 The constitution of the 
United States provides, in the words of the Bill of Rights, that 
cruel and unusual punishments are not to be inflicted. 24 This is 
repeated in the constitutions of most states. The infliction of cruel 
and unusual punishment by the master or officer of an American 
vessel on the high seas, or within the maritime jurisdiction of the 
United States, is punishable with fine or imprisonment, or both. 25 
There have been a good many decisions on the question of cruel 
and unusual punishments; e.g. Wilkerson v. Utah, 99 U.S. Rep. 130; 



11 Persons subjected to more than usual torture from the boot 
were said to be " extremely booted." 

12 This seems to have been used in one case in England. Lecky, 
Rationalism in Europe, i. 122. 

13 Hallam, Const. Hist. iii. 436. See Burnet, Hist, of Own Time, 
i. 583; and SCOTLAND. 

14 Frpude, Hist, of England, viii. 386. 

15 Ibid xi. 263. 16 Jardine, p. 54. 

17 In the picquet the sufferer was supported only on the great toe 
(which rested on a sharp stake), and by a rope attached to one arm. 

18 30 State Trials, 449, besides many pamphlets of the period. 

19 See the Report of the Proceedings, vol. i. 

20 Stephen, Indian Evidence Act, p. 126. 

21 Sections 327-331 of code; ss. 25-27 of act. 

22 J. L. Pitts, Witchcraft in the Channel Islands, p. o. (Guernsey, 
1886). 

23 Bouvier, Law Diet., s.y. " Peine forte et dure." 

24 Amendments, art. viii. (1789). 
26 Revised Stat. 5347. 



TORTURE 



77 



Territory of New Mexico v. Ketchum, 65 Pacific Rep. 169 (death 
penalty for train robbery held not unconstitutional). 

Continental European States. These fall into four main groups, 
the Latin, Teutonic, Scandinavian and Slav states respectively. 
The principles of Roman law were generally adopted in the first 
and second groups. 

Latin States. In France torture does not seem to have existed 
as a recognized practice before the itth century. From that period 
until the I7th century it was regulated by a series of royal ordonnances 
at first of local obligation, afterwards applying to the whole kingdom. 
Torture was used only by the royal courts, its place in the seigneurial 
courts being supplied by the judicial combat. The earliest ordonnance 
on the subject was that of Louis IX. in 1254 for the reformation of 
the law in Languedoc. It enacted that persons of good fame, though 
poor, were not to be put to the question on the evidence of one 
witness. 1 Numerous other provisions were made between 1254 
and 1670, when an ordonnance was passed under Louis XIV., which 
regulated the infliction of torture for more than a century. Two 
kinds were recognized, the question preparatoire and the question 
prealable. The first was used where strong evidence of a capital 
crime strong, but of itself insufficient for conviction was produced 
against the accused. The second was used to obtain a confession 
of accomplices after conviction. There was also a mitigated torm 
called the presentment, in which the accused was simply bound 
upon the rack in terrorem and there interrogated. No person was 
exempt on the ground of dignity, but exemption was allowed to 
youths, old men, sick persons and others. Counsel for the accused 
were usually not allowed. The question preparatoire was abolished 
by royal decree in 1780, but in 1788 the parliaments refused to 
register a decree abolishing the prealable. But torture of all kinds 
was abolished by an ordonnance in 1789. The Declaration of Right 
in 1791 (art. viii.) affirmed that the law ought not to establish any 
punishments other than such as are strictly and evidently necessary. 
In modern law the code penal enacts that all criminals shall be 
punished as guilty of assassination who for the execution of their 
crimes employ torture. 2 The code also makes it punishable to 
subject a person under arrest to torture. 3 The theory of semiplena 
probalio was worked out with more refinement than in other systems. 
In some parts of France not only were half-proofs admitted, but 
quarters and eighths of proofs.* Among the numerous cases of 
historical interest were those of the Templars in 1307, Villon about 
1457, Dolet in 1546, the marquise de Brinvilliers in 1676 and Jean 
Galas in 1762. 5 

The law as it existed in Italy is contained in a long line of authorities 
chiefly supplied by the school of Bologna, beginning with the 
glossatores and coming down through the post-glossatores, until the 
system attained its perfection in the vast work of Farinaccius, 
written early in the I7th century, where every possible question 
that could arise is treated with a revolting completeness. One 
of the earliest jurists to treat it was Cino da Pistoia, the friend of 
Dante. 6 He treats it at no great length. With him the theory of 
indicia exists only in embryo, as they cannot be determined by law 
but must be at the discretion of the judge. Differing from Bartolus, 
he affirms that torture cannot be repeated without fresh indicia. 
The writings of jurists were supplemented by a large body of legis- 
lative enactments in most of the Italian states, extending from the 
constitutions of the emperor Frederick II. down to the i8th century. 
It is not until Bartolus (1314-1357) that the law begins to assume 
a definite and complete form. In his commentary on book xlviii. 
of the Digest he follows Roman law closely, but introduces some 
further refinements: e.g. though leading questions may not be 
asked in the main inquiry they are admissible as subsidiary. There 
is a beginning of classification of indicia. A very full discussion 
of the law is contained in the work on practice of Hippolytus de 
Marsiliis, 7 a jurist of Bologna, notorious, on his own admission, as 
the inventor of the torture of keeping without sleep. He defines 
the question as inquisitio veritatis per tormenta et cordis dolorem, 
thus recognizing the mental as well as the physical elements in 
torture. It was to be used only in capital cases and atrocious crimes. 
The works of Farinaccius and of Julius Clarus nearly a century later 
were of great authority from the high official positions filled by the 
writers. Farinaccius was procurator-general to Pope Paul V., 
and his discussion of torture is one of the most complete of any. 8 
It occupies 251 closely printed folio pages with double columns. 
The length at which the subject is treated is one of the best proofs 

1 Ordonnances des rois, i. 72. * s. 303. * s. 344. 

4 See Pollock and Maitland, ii. 658, note. 

6 On the French system generally see Imbettus, Institutiones 
forenses gallicae (Utrecht, 1649); N. Weiss, La Chambre ardente, 
1540-1550 (Paris, 1889). A large number of authorities deal 
mainly with the ordonnance of 1670; Muyart de Vouglans, Inst. 
crim. (Paris, 1767), and Jousse, Traite de la justice crim. (Paris, 1771), 
are examples. F. Siegneux de Correvon, Essai sur V usage, I'abus, 
et les inconveniens de la torture (Geneva, 1768), is one of the 
opponents of the system. 

6 Cinus Pistorensis, Super codice, de tormentis (Venice, 1493). 

7 Practica criminalis quae Ayerolda nuncupatur (Venice, 1532). 
'Praxis et theorica criminalis, bk. ii. tit. v. quaest. 36-51 

(Frankfort, 1622). 



of the science to which it had been reduced. The chief feature of 
the work is the minute and skilful analysis of indicia, jama, prae- 
sumptio, and other technical terms. Many definitions of indicium 
are suggested, the best perhaps being conjectura ex probabUibus et nan 
necessariis orta, a quibus potest abesse veritas sed non verisimilitude. 
For every infliction of torture a distinct indicium is required. 
A single witness or an accomplice constitutes an indicium. 
But this rule does not apply where it is inflicted for discovering 
accomplices or for discovering a crime other than that for which 
it was originally inflicted. Torture may be ordered in all 
criminal cases, except small offences, and in certain civil 
cases; such as denial of a depositum, bankruptcy, usury, 
treasure trove, and fiscal cases. It may be inflicted on all 
persons, unless specially exempted (clergy, minors, &c.), and 
even those exempted may be tortured by command of the 
sovereign. There are three kinds of torture, levis, gravis and 
gravissima, the first and second corresponding to the ordinary 
torture of French writers, the last to the extraordinary. The 
extraordinary or gravissima was as much as could possibly be borne 
without destroying life. The judge could not begin with torture; 
it was only a subsidium. If inflicted without due course of law, 
it was void as a proof. The judge was liable to penalties if he 
tortured without proper indicia, if a privileged person, or if to the 
extent that death or permanent illness was the result. An immense 
variety of tortures is mentioned, and the list tended to grow, for, as 
Farinaccius says, judges continually invented new modes of torture 
to please themselves. Numerous casuistical questions are treated 
at length, such as, what kinds of reports or how much hearsay 
evidence constituted fame? Were there three or five grades in 
torture? Julius Clarus of Alessandria was a member of the council 
of Philip II. To a great extent he follows Farinaccius.' He puts 
the questions for the consideration of the judge with great clearness. 
They are whether (i) a crime has been committed, (2) the charge 
is one in which torture is admissible, (3) the fact can be proved other- 
wise, (4) the crime was secret or open, (5) the object of the torture 
is to elicit confession of crime or discovery of accomplices. The 
clergy can be tortured only in charges of treason, poisoning and 
violation of tombs. On the great question whether there are three 
or five grades, he decides in favour of five, viz. threats, taking to the 
place of torment, stripping and binding, lifting on the rack, racking. 9 
Other Italian writers of less eminence have been referred to for the 
purposes of this article. The burden of their writings is practically 
the same, but they have not attained the systematic perfection of 
Farinaccius. Citations from many of them are made by Manzoni 
(see below). Among others are Guido de Suzara, Paris de Puteo, 
Aegidius Bossius of Milan, Casonus of Venice, Decianus, Follerius 
and Tranquillus Ambrosianus, whose works cover the period from the 
1 3th to the end of the 1 7th century. The law depended mainly 
on the writings of the jurists as interpreters of custom. At the 
same time in all or nearly all the Italian states and colonies 10 the 
customary law was limited, supplemented, or amended by legislation. 
That a check by legislative authority was necessary appears from 
the glimpses afforded by the writings of the jurists that the letter of 
the law was by no means always followed. The earliest legislation 
after the Roman law seems to be the constitutions of the emperor 
Frederick II. for Sicily promulgated in 1231. Torture was abolished 
in Tuscany in 1786, largely owing to the influence of Beccaria, whose 
work first appeared in 1764, and other states followed, but the puntale 
or piquet seems to have existed in practice at Naples up to 1859. 

Several instances of the torture of eminent persons occur in Italian 
history, such as Savonarola, Machiavelli, Giordano Bruno, Cam- 
panella. Galileo appears to have only been threatened with the 
esame rigoroso. The historical case of the greatest literary interest 
is that of the persons accused of bringing the plague into Milan 
in 1630 by smearing the walls of houses with poison. An analysis 
of the case was undertaken by Verri " and Manzoni, 12 and puts in a 
clear light some of the abuses to which the system led in times of 
popular panic. Convincing arguments are urged by Manzoni, 
after an exhaustive review of the authorities, to prove the ground- 
lessness of the charge on which two innocent persons underwent 
the torture of the canape, or hempen cord (the effect of which was 
partial or complete dislocation of the wrist), and afterwards suffered 
death by breaking on the wheel. The main arguments, shortly 
stated, are these, all based upon the evidence as recorded, and the 
law as laid down by jurists, (i) The unsupported evidence of an 
accomplice was treated as an indicium in a case not one of those 
exceptional ones in which such an indicium was sufficient. The 
evidence of two witnesses or a confession by the accused was neces- 
sary to establish a remote indicium, such as lying. (2) Hearsay 
evidence was received when primary evidence was obtainable. (3) 
The confession made under torture was not ratified afterwards. 
(4) It was made in consequence of a promise of impunity. (5) It 
was of an impossible crime. 

* Practica criminalis finalis (Lyons, 1637). 

10 It is obvious from the allusion at the end of Othello that Shake- 
speare regarded torture as possible in Cyprus when it was a Venetian 
colony. 

11 Osservazioni sulla tortura. 

12 Storia della Colonna infame. Neither writer alludes to Beccaria. 



TORTURE 



In Spain, as in Italy, the law depended partly on the writings of 
jurists, partly on legislation. Roman law was carried through the 
Visigothic Code and the Fuero juzgo 1 (which repeats it almost 
word for word) down to the Siete partidas? This treatise, com- 
piled by Alphonso the Wise about 1243, but not promulgated till 
1256, amended the previously existing law in the direction of greater 
precision. Torment is defined as a manner of punishment which 
lovers of justice use, to scrutinize by it the truth of crimes committed 
secretly and not provable in any other manner. Repetition was 
allowed in case of grave crimes. There were the usual provisions 
for the infliction of torture only by a judge having jurisdiction, and 
for the liability of the judge for exceeding legal limits. Subsequent 
codes did little more than amend the Partulas in matters of pro- 
cedure. Torture is not named in the Ordenanzas reales of Ferdinand 
and Isabella (1485). The Nueva recopilacion of Philip II. enacted 
that torture was to be applied by the alcaldes on due sentence 
of the court-^-even on hidalgos in grave crimes without regard 
to alleged privilege or custom. In the Novisima recopilacion 
of 1775 the only provisions on the subject are that the alcaldes 
are not to condemn to torment without preceding sentence 
according to law, and that hidalgos are not to be tormented 
or suffer infamous punishment. In Aragon, while it was an inde- 
pendent state, torture was not in use to the same extent as in other 
parts of Spain. It was abolished in the I3th century by the General 
Privilege of 1283 except in the case of vagabonds charged with coin- 
ing. A statute of 1335 made it unlawful to put any freeman to the 
torture. 3 On the other hand, the Aragonese nobility had a power, 
similar to the peine forte et dure, of putting a criminal to death by 
cold, hunger and thirst. 4 The jurists dealing with the subject are 
not as numerous as in Italy, no doubt because Italian opinions were 
received as law in all countries whose systems were based on Roman 
law. 6 Some of the Italian jurists too, like Clarus, were at that 
same time Spanish officials. The earliest Spanish secular jurist 
appears to be Suarez de Paz. 6 According to him the most usual 
tortures in Spain were the water and cord, the pulley or strappado, 
the hot brick, and the tablillas, or thumbscrew and boot combined. 
Three was the greatest number of times that any torture could be 
applied. It might be decreed either on demand of the accuser or 
at will of the judge. The Roman rule of beginning with the weakest 
was amplified into a series of regulations that a son was to be put 
to the question before a father, a woman before a man, &c. The 
fullest statement of Spanish law is to be found in the work of Antonio 
Gomez, a professor at Salamanca. 7 With him no exceptions apply 
in charges of iaesa majeslas divina or humana. A judge is liable 
to different punishment according as he orders torture dolose or 
culpabiliter. Differing from Hippolytus de Marsiliis, Gomez holds 
that the dying accusation of a murdered man is not an indicium. 
A confession on insufficient indicia is void. His division of torture 
into tortura actualis and terror propinquus is the same as that of 
the French jurists into torture and presentment. The conclusions 
of the ecclesiastical writers of Spain, such as Eymerico and Simancas, 
were accepted wholly or partially by the secular writers, such as 
Alvarez de Velasco, 8 and the Peruvian, Juan de Hevia Bolanos, 9 
who points out differences in the ecclesiastical and secular systems, 
e.g. the former brought up the accused for ratification in three days, 
the latter in twenty-four hours. A good deal of the Spanish law 
will be found in the proceedings against Sir Thomas Picton (see 
above). Torture in Spain seems to have been inflicted on Jews to 
an extraordinary extent, as it was also in Portugal, where the latest 
legislation as to torture seems to be of the year 1678. In 1790 it 
had become obsolete, 10 and in a work on criminal procedure four 
years later it is only referred to for the purpose of stating that when 
it did exist it was realis or verbalist 

Teutonic Slates. Germany (including Austria) is distinguished 
by the possession of the most extensive literature and legislation 

1 vi. 4, 5. 

2 Partida, vii. 30. It was one of the earliest books printed in 
Spain, the earliest edition appearing in 1491. 

' Cited Hallam, Middle Ages, iii. 76. 
4 Du Cange, s.v. Fame necare. 

In all the Latin countries the idea of torture had become a 
commonplace. The dramatists contain frequent allusions to it. 
In Lope de Vega's El Perro del hortelano (" The Dog in the Manger "), 
one of the characters says, " Here's a pretty inquisition!" to which 
the answer is, " The torture will be next applied." Moliere and 
Racine both make use of it. In L'Avare, act iv. sc. J, Harpagon 
threatens to put his whole household to the question. In Les 
Plaideurs Dandin invites Isabelle to see la question as a mode of 
passing an hour or two. In England Bacon (Essay Ivi.) says, 
" There is no worse torture than the torture of laws." The same 
jdea occurs again in the Advancement of Learning, viii. 3, 13, " It 
is a cruel thing to torture the laws that they may torture men." 

Praxis ecclesiastica et saecularis, vol. i. pt. v. . 3 (Salamanca, 
1583)- 

7 Variae resolutiones, p. 412 (Antwerp, 1593). 
' Judex perfectus (Lausanne, 1740). 

Curia fuipica (Madrid, 1825). 

u Repertorio geral das leis extravagantes, p. 381 (Coimbra, 1815). 
u Paschal Freirus, Inst. jur. crim. lusitani, p. 203 (Lisbon, 1794). 



on the subject. The principal writers are Langer, von Rosbach 
and von Boden. In addition may be cited the curious Layenspiegel 
of Ulrich Tengler (1544), and the works of Remus, Casonus and 
Carpzow. 12 Legislation was partly for the empire, partly for its 
component states. Imperial legislation dealt with the matter in 
the Golden Bull (1356), the Ordinance of Bamberg (1507), the 
Carolina (;532) 13 and the Constitulio criminalis theresiana (1768). u 
The Carolina followed the usual lines, the main difference being 
that the infliction must be in the presence of two scabini and a 
notary, who was to make a detailed record of the proceedings. The 
code of Maria Theresa defines torture as " a subsidiary means of 
eliciting truth." It could be applied only in cases where condemna- 
tion would have involved capital or severe corporal punishment. 
The illustrated edition was suppressed by Prince Kaunitz a few 
days after its appearance. Torture was formally abolished in the 
empire in 1776. In Prussia it was practically abolished by Frederick 
the Great in 1740, formally in 1805. Even before its abolition it 
was in use only to discover accomplices after conviction." In 
some other states it existed longer, in Baden as late as 1831. It 
was carried toexcess in Germany, as in the Netherlands and Scotland 
in charges of witchcraft. 

The Netherlands. The principal legislative enactment was the 
code of criminal procedure promulgated by Philip II. in 1570 and 
generally known as the Ordonnance sur le style. 16 One of its main 
objects was to assimilate the varieties of local custom, as the Nueva. 
recopilacion had done in Spain three years earlier. The French 
ordonnance of 1670 is probably largely based on it. In spite of 
the attempt of the ordinance to introduce uniformity, certain cities 
of Brabant, it is said, still claimed the privilege of torturing in 
certain cases not permitted by the ordinance, e.g. where there was 
only one witness. 17 

The law of 1670 continued to be the basis of cnrnutal procedure 
in the Austrian Netherlands until 1787. In the United Provinces 
it was not repealed until 1798. The principal Itext-writers are 
Damhouder, 18 van Leeuwen 19 and Voet. Van Leeuwen lays down 
as a fundamental principle that no one was to be condemned to 
death without confession, and such confession, if attainable in no 
other way, ought to be elicited by torture. Witnesses could be 
tortured only if they varied on confrontation. One of the indicia 
not always recognized by jurists was previous conviction for a similar 
crime. Voet's commentary ad Pandectas 20 is interesting for its 
taking the same view as St Augustine as to the uselessness of torture, 
and compares its effect with that of the trial by battle. At the 
same time he allows it to be of some value in the case of very grave 
crimes. The value of torture was doubted by others as well as 
Voet, e.g. by A. Nicholas 21 and by van Essen. 22 At the same time a 
writer was found to compose a work on the unpromising subject 
of the rack. 23 

Scandinavian Countries. There is a notice of torture in the Ice- 
landic Code known as the Gragas (about 1119). Judicial torture 
is said to have been introduced into Denmark by Valdemar I. in 
1 157. 24 In the code of Christian V. (1683) it was limited to cases of 
treason. 26 It was abolished by the influence of Struensee in 1771, 
but notwithstanding this he was threatened with it, though it was 
not actually inflicted, before his execution in 1772. In Sweden 
torture never existed as a system, and in the code of 1734 it was 
expressly forbidden. 26 It was however occasionally inflicted, as 
in England, by extrajudicial authorities, called secret committees. 

11 Extracts from these and other writers will be found in Lea, 
Superstition and Force, and in R. Quanter, Die Falter in der 
deutschen Rechtspflege sonst und jetzt (Berlin, 1900). 

13 Chs. 33-44. 

14 Art. 38 (Vienna, 1769). 

16 This statement is made on the authority of a work attributed 
to Frederick himself, Dissertation sur les raisons d'etablir ou d'abroger 
les lois (1748). 

" A list of the numerous commentaries on this code will be 
found in Nybels, Les Ordonnances criminelles de Philippe II. de 1570, 
p. 23 (Brussels, 1856). 

17 Nybels, pp. 31, 33. 

18 Pratique judiciaire en causes criminelles (Antwerp, 1564). 

19 Censura forensis, pt. ii. bk. ii. chs. 8, 9 (Leiden, 1677). 

20 On Dig. xlviii. 18. There are numerous editions of Voet, the 
sixth (generally found in libraries) is the Hague (1734). 

21 Si la torture est un moyen sur a verifier les crimes (Amsterdam, 
1681). Also by an anonymous writer thirty years earlier, De 
Pijnbank wedersproken en bematigt (Rotterdam, 1651). 

22 Jus ecclesiaslicum universum (Louvain, 1720). 

23 Hieronymi Magii Anglarenis de equuleo liber postumus (Amster- 
dam, 1664). There are several works dealing with torture in 
witchcraft proceedings. A large number of cases will be found in 
I. Scheltema, Geschiedenis der Hexen-processen (Haarlem, 1828). 
For torture in the i8th century see E. Hubert, La Torture aux Pays 
Bas autrichiens pendant la xviii' siecle (Brussels, 1897). 

24 Baden, Dansk juridisk Ordbog, s.v. " Tortur " (Copenhagen,. 
1828). 

26 Kolderup-Rosenvinge, Udvalg af gamle Danske-Domme, bk. i. 
c. 20 (Copenhagen, 1848). 

28 Cod. leg. svecicarum, pp. 233, 370 (Stockholm, 1743). 



TORUS TOTEMISM 



79 



The " cave of roses," where reptiles were kept for the purpose of 
torture, was closed by Gustavus III. in 1772. 

Slav Countries. The earliest mention of torture seems to be that 
of the mutilation provided for certain offences by the code of Stephen 
Dushan in 1349. In Russia torture does not occur in the recensions 
of the earlier law. It was possibly of Tatar origin, and the earliest 
mention of it in an official document is probably in the Sudebnik 
of Ivan the Terrible (1497). In the ordinance of 1556 there are 
elaborate regulations, which one learns from history were not always 
observed in periods of political disturbance, and torture seems to 
have been used even as a means of enforcing payment of debts. 
The reaction begins with Peter the Great and culminates with 
Catharine II., who was largely influenced by the opinions of Beccaria 
and Voltaire. In the instructions to the commission for framing 
a criminal code (1766), it is declared that all punishments by which 
the body is maimed ought to be abolished, 1 and that the torture 
of the rack violates the rules of equity and does not produce the end 
proposed by the laws. 2 It was formally abolished by Alexander I. 
in 1801, and in 1832 the Svod Zakonov subjected to penalties any 
judge who presumed to order it. But even as late as 1847 it seems 
to have been inflicted in one or two exceptional cases. 3 

AUTHORITIES. For England Jardine's is still the standard work. 
Much general information and numerous authorities will be found 
in Lipenius, Bibliotheca realis Juridica, s.v. " Tortura " (Frankfort, 
1679), and in the more modern work of J. Helbing, Die Tortur 
(Berlin, 1902). For those who can obtain access to it the catalogue 
issued at the sale of M. G. Libri (1861) is valuable. He had collected 
most of the books on the subject. There are several publications 
dealing with cases of individuals in addition to the numerous ones 
on witchcraft trials, e.g. those of William Lithgow, the Amboyna 
case, Dellon and Van Halen. Lithgow' s story has been republished 
(Glasgow, 1907). (J. W.) 

TORUS, a Latin word, meaning a round swelling or pro- 
tuberance, applied to a convex moulding in architecture, which 
in section is generally a semicircle. The earliest examples 
are found in Egypt, where it was carried up the angles of the 
pylon and temple walls and horizontally across the same. Its 
most frequent employment is in the bases of columns; in the 
Roman Doric order being the lowest moulding; in the Ionic 
orders there are generally two torus mouldings separated by a 
scotia with fillets. Both in Greek and Roman bases sometimes 
the torus is elaborately carved. (See MOULDING.) 

TORZHOK, a town of Russia, in the government of Tver, 
on the river Tvertsa, 21 m. by rail S.W. of the Likhoslavl, 
station of the St Petersburg & Moscow railway. Pop. (1900), 
15,119. It dates from the nth century, and the name (market- 
place) shows that this dependency of Novgorod was a commercial 
centre. It was fortified with a stone wall, which only partially 
protected it from the attacks of Mongols, Lithuanians and 
Poles. Torzhok is celebrated in Russia for its embroidered 
velvet and embroidered leather-work, for the manufacture of 
travelling bags, and for its trade in corn and flour. 

TOSCANELLA (anc. Tuscana, q.v.}, a town of the province of 
Rome, Italy, 15 m. N.E. of Corneto by road, 545 ft. above sea- 
level. Pop. (1901), 4839. The medieval walls with their towers 
are still preserved. On the ancient citadel hill is the Romanesque 
church of S. Pietro, belonging to four different periods 739, 
1093 (the date of the reconstruction of the crypt), the middle of 
the 1 2th and the end of the i2th century. It has the shape of a 
Roman basilica, with a nave and two aisles and one apse. The 
elaborate facade with its rose window also belongs to the I2th 
century. S. Maria in the valley below dates from 1050 to 1206, 
and has a similar facade and a massive square campanile. In 
the town are two other Romanesque churches. 

See G. T. Rivoira, Origini dell architettura Lombarda i. 146 
(Rome 1901). 

TOSTIG (d. 1066), earl of Northumbria, was a son, probably 
the third, of Earl God wine, and in 1051 married Judith, sister 
or daughter of Baldwin V., count of Flanders. In the year of 
his marriage he shared the short exile of his father, returning 
with him to England in 1052, and became earl of Northumbria 
after the death of Earl Siward in 1055. He was very intimate 
with his brother-in-law, Edward the Confessor, and in 1061 he 
visited Pope Nicholas II. at Rome in the company of Aldred, 
archbishop of York. By stern and cruel measures Tostig 

1 Art. 96. s Ibid. 192-197. 

* See the various histories of Russian law, such as Maceiovski, 
Lange and Zagoskin, under the heads of puitka or muchenie. 



introduced a certain amount of order into the wild northern 
district under his rule; this severity made him exceedingly 
unpopular, and in 1065 Northumbria broke into open revolt. 
Declaring Tostig an outlaw and choosing Morkere in his stead, 
the rebels marched southwards and were met at Oxford by 
Earl Harold, who, rather against the will of the king, granted 
their demands. Tostig sailed to Flanders and thence to Nor- 
mandy, where he offered his services to Duke William, who 
was related to his wife and who was preparing for his invasion of 
England. He then harried the Isle of Wight and the Kentish 
and Lincolnshire coasts, and, after a stay in Scotland and possibly 
a visit to Norway, joined another invader, Harald III. Hardrada, 
king of Norway, in the Tyne. Together they sailed up the Hum- 
ber and at Gate Fulford, near York, defeated Earls Morkere 
and Edwine and entered York. But Harold, now king, was 
hurrying to the north. Taking the Norwegians by surprise 
at Stamford Bridge he destroyed their army on the 25th of 
September 1066, and in this battle both Tostig and the king of 
Norway were slain. Tostig's two sons appear to have taken refuge 
in Norway, and his widow Judith married Welf , duke of Bavaria. 
See E. A. Freeman, The Norman Conquest, vols. ii. and iii. 
(1870-1876). 

TOTANA, a town of eastern Spain, in the province of Murcia, 
on the Lorca-Murcia railway. Pop. (1900), 13,703. The 
town, which consists of two parts, the Barrio de Sevilla and 
Barrio de Triana, contains several handsome public buildings, 
among them the church of Santiago, with its three naves. Water 
is conveyed to Totana from the Sierra de Espuna by an aqueduct 
7 m. long. Saltpetre is obtained among the hills, and there 
is a thriving trade in wheat, oranges, olives, almonds, and wine 
from the Sangonera valley. Other industries are the manufac- 
ture of linen, leather and the earthenware jars called tinajas, 
which are used for the storage of oil and wine. 

TOTEMISM. The word " totem " is used in too many varying 
senses by students of early society and religion. The term 
came into the English language in the form of " totam," through 
a work of 1791, by J. Long, an interpreter between the whites 
and the Red Indians of North America. 4 Long himself 
seems to have used the word to denote the protective familiar, 
usually an animal, which each Indian selected for himself, 
generally through the monition of a dream during the long 
fast of lads at their initiation. Such selected (or, when bestowed 
by medicine-men or friends, " given ") totems are styled 
" personal totems " and have no effect in savage law, nor are 
they hereditary, with any legal consequences. 

In stricter terminology " totem " denotes the object, gene- 
rally of a natural species, animal or vegetable, but occasionally 
rain, cloud, star, wind, which gives its name to a kindred 
actual or supposed, among many savages and barbaric races in 
America, Africa, Australia and Asia and the isles. Each 
child, male or female, inherits this name, either from its 
mother (" female descent ") or from its father (" male descent "). 
Between each person and his or her name-giving object, a 
certain mystic rapport is supposed to exist. Where descent 
wavers, persons occasionally have, in varying degrees, the 
totems of both parents. 

Religious Aspect of the Totem. As a rule, by no means in- 
variable, the individual may not kill or eat the name-giving 
object of his kin, except under dire necessity; while less usually 
it is supposed to protect him and to send him monitory dreams. 
This is the " religious " or semi-religious aspect of the totem, 
or this aspect is, by some students, called " religious." 

We also hear of customs of burying and lamenting dead ani- 
mals which are regarded with reverence by this or that " family," 
or " clan." This custom is reported among the Samoans, and 
one " clan " was said to offer first-fruits to its sacred animal, 
the eel; while the " clan " that revered the pigeon kept and fed 
a tame specimen. 6 But in Samoa, though the sacred animals 
of "clans " or " families " are, in all probability, survivals of 
totemism, they are now regarded by the people as the vehicles 

4 Long, Voyages and Travels of an Indian Interpreter (1791), p. 86. 
6 Turner, Samoa, p. 71. 



8o 



TOTEMISM 



of " clan " or " family " gods, and therefore receive honours 
not paid to the hereditary totems of Australia and North 
America, which have nothing godlike. It is to be presumed that 
" totem dances " in which some Australian tribes exhibit, in 
ballets d'action, the incidents of a myth concerning the totem, 
are, in a certain sense, " religious "; when they are not magical, 
and intended to foster and fertilize the species, animal or 
vegetable or other to which the totem belongs. 

The magical performances for the behoof of the totem crea- 
tures may be studied in the chapters on " Intichiuma " in Messrs 
Spencer and Gillen's Native Tribes of Central Australia, and 
Native Tribes of Northern Australia. Among the many guesses 
at the original purpose of totemism, one has been that the 
primal intention of totem sets of human beings was to act as 
magical co-operative stores for supplying increased quantities 
of food to the tribe. But this opinion has gone the way of 
other conjectures. The " religious " status of the totem is 
lowest among peoples where its influence on social regulations 
is greatest, and vice versa, a topic to which we recur. 

There are also various rites, in various tribes, connecting the 
dead man with his totem at his funeral; perhaps at his initia- 
tion, when a boy, into the esoteric knowledge and rules of his 
tribe. Men may identify themselves with their totems, or, 
mark themselves as of this or that totem by wearing the hide 
or the plumage of the bird or beast, or by putting on a mask 
resembling its face. The degree of " religious " regard for the 
revered object increases in proportion as it is taken to contain 
the spirit of an ancestor or to be the embodiment of a god: 
ideas not found among the most backward savages. 

The supreme or superior being of low savage religion or 
mythology is never a totem. He may be able, like Zeus in 
Greek mythology, to assume any shape he pleases; and in the 
myths of some Australian tribes he ordained the institution of 
totemism. Byamee, among the Euahlayi tribe of north-west New 
South Wales, had all the totems in him, and when he went to 
his paradise, Bullimah, he distributed them, with the mar- 
riage rules, among his people. 1 In other legends, especially 
those of central and northern Australia, the original totem 
creatures, animal in form, with bestial aspect, were developed in a 
marine or lacustrine environment, and from them were evolved 
the human beings of each totem kin. The rule of non-inter- 
marriage within the totem was, in some myths, of divine institu- 
tion; in others, was invented by the primitive wandering totemic 
beings; or was laid down by the wisdom of mere men who saw 
some unknown evil in consanguine unions. The strict regard 
paid to the rule may be called " religious "; in so far as totemists 
are aware of no secular and social raison d" lire of the rule it 
has a mysterious character. But whereas to eat the totem is 
sometimes thought to be automatically punished by sickness or 
death, this danger does not attach to marriage within the totem 
save in a single known case. The secular penalty alone is 
dreaded; so there seems to be no religious fear of offending a 
superior being, or the totem himself: no tabu of a mystic sort. 

Social Aspect of the Totem. The totem has almost always a 
strong influence on or is associated with marriage law, and 
except in the centre of Australia, and perhaps in the little-known 
West, men and women of the same totem may not intermarry, 
" however far apart their hunting grounds," and though there is 
no objection on the score of consanguinity. 

This is the result, in Australia, of the custom, there almost 
universal, which causes each individual to belong, by birth, to 
one or other of the two main exogamous and intermarrying 
divisions of the tribe (usually called " phratries "). The phra- 
tries (often known by names of animals, as Eagle Hawk and 
Crow, Crow and White Cockatoo) contain each a number of 
totem kins, as Dog, Wild Cherry, Wombat, Frog, Owl, Emu, 
Kangaroo, and so on, and (except among the Arunta " nation " 
of five tribes in Central Australia) the same totem kin never 
occurs in both phratries. Thus as all persons except in the 
Arunta nation, marry out of their own phratry, none can marry 
into his or her totem kin. 

1 Mrs Langloh Parker, The Euahlayi Tribe. 



In some parts of North America the same rule prevails; with 
this peculiarity that the phratries, or main exogamous divisions, 
are not always two, as in Australia, but, for example, among 
the Mohegans three Wolf, Turtle, and Turkey. 2 In Wolf 
all the totems are quadrupeds; under Turtle they are various 
species of turtles and the yellow eel; and under Turkey all 
the totems are birds. 

Clearly this ranking of the totems in the phratries is the result 
of purposeful design, not of accident. Design may also be 
observed in such phratries of Australian tribes as are named after 
animals of contrasted colours, such as White Cockatoo and 
Crow, Light Eagle Hawk and Crow. It has been supposed by 
Mr J. Mathew, Pere Schmidt and others that these Australian 
phratries arose in an alliance with connubium between a darker 
and a lighter race. 3 But another hypothesis is not less prob- 
able; and as we can translate only about a third of Australian 
phratry names, conjecture on this subject is premature. 

Both in Australia and America the animals, as Eagle Hawk and 
Crow, which give their names to the phratries, are almost always 
totem kins within their own phratries. 4 

The Moquis of Arizona are said to have ten phratries, by 
Captain Ulick Bourke in his Snake Dance of the Moquis, but 
possibly he did not use the term " phratry " in the sense which 
we attach to it. 

Among the Urabunna of Southern Central Australia, and 
among the tribes towards the Darling River, a very peculiar rule 
is said to prevail. There are two phratries, and in each are many 
totem kins, but each totem kin may intermarry with only one 
totem kin which must be in the opposite phratry. 6 Thus there 
are as many exogamous divisions as there are totems in the 
tribes, which reckon descent in the female line; children in- 
heriting the mother's totem only. Corroboration of these 
statements is desirable, as the tribes implicated are peculiarly 
" primitive," and theirs may be the oldest extant set of 
marriage rules. 

The existence of two or more main exogamous divisions, 
named or unnamed, is found among peoples where there are 
either no totem kins, or where they have fallen into the back- 
ground, as in parts of Melanesia, among the Todas and Meitchis 
of India and the Wanika in East Africa. 6 

An extraordinary case is reported from South Australia where 
people must marry in their own phratry, while their children 
belong to the opposite phratry. 7 This awaits corroboration. 

We now see some of the numerous varieties which prevail 
in the marriage rules connected with the totems. Even among 
a tribe whose members, it is reported, may marry into their 
own phratries, it appears that they must not marry within their 
own totem kins. This is, indeed, the rule wherever totemic 
societies are found in anything approaching to what we deem 
their most archaic constitution as in south-east Australia and 
some tribes of North America. 

Exogamy: The Arunta Abnormality. Meanwhile, in Central 
Australia, in the Arunta " nation," the rule forbidding marriage 
within the totem kin does not exist. Totems here are not, as 
everywhere else, inherited from either parent, but a child is of 
what we may call " the local totem " of the place where its 
mother first became conscious of its life within her. The idea 
is that the spirits of a primal race, in groups each of one totem 
only (" Alcheringa folk"), haunt various localities; or spirits 
(ratapa) emanating from these primal beings do so; they enter 
into passing married women, and are incarnated and born again. 8 

2 Morgan, Ancient Society, p. 174. 

* Mathew, Eagle Hawk and Crow; Schmidt, Anthropos (1909). 
4 See Lang, The Secret of the Totem, pp. 154, 170; and N. W. 
Thomas, Kinship and Marriage in Australia, pp. 9, 31. 

6 Howitt, Native Tribes of South-East Australia, pp. 93, 181, 188; 
Spencer and Gillen, Native Tribes of Central Australia, pp. 60, 61, 
Northern Tribes, p. 71 ; Lang, Anthropological Essays; Tyler's Fest- 
schrift, pp. 203-210. 

8 Thomas, ut supra, p. 10. See, for numerous examples, T. G. 
Frazer, Totemism (1910). 

7 MS. of Mrs Bates. 

8 It is necessary to state here the sources of our information 
about the central, north, north-western and south-eastern forms of 



TOTEMISM 



81 



Thus if a woman, whatever her own totem, and whatever her 
husband's may be, becomes conscious of her child's life in a 
known centre of Wild Cat spirits, her child's totem is Wild Cat, 
and so with all the rest. 

As a consequence, a totem sometimes here appears in what 
the people call the " wrong " (i.e. not the original) exogamous 
division; and persons may marry within their own totem name, 
if that totem be in the " right " exogamous division, which is not 
theirs. Each totem spirit is among the Arunta associated with 
an amulet or churinga of stone; these are of various shapes, and 
are decorated with concentric circles, spirals, cupules, and other 
archaic patterns. These amulets are only used in this sense by 
the Arunta nation and their neighbours the Kaitish, " and it is 
this idea of spirit individuals associated with churinga and 
resident in certain definite spots that lies at the root of the present 

totemism. About the central Arunta tribe with its neighbours, the 
Urabunna, we have the evidence very carefully collected by Mr 
Gillen, a protector of the aborigines, and Professor Baldwin Spencer 
(Native Tribes of Central Australia). Concerning the peoples north 
from the centre to the Gulf of Carpentaria, the same scholars furnish 
a copious account in their Northern Tribes. These two explorers had 
the confidence of the blacks ; witnessed their most secret ceremonies, 
magical and initiatory; and collected their legends. Their, books, 
however, contain no philological information as to the structure 
and interrelation of the dialects, information which is rarely to be 
found in the works of English observers in Australia. As far as 
appears, the observers conversed with the tribes only in " pidgin 
English." If this be the case that lingua franca is current among 
some eighteen central-northern tribes speaking various native 
dialects. We are told nothing about the languages used in each 
case; perhaps the Arunta men who accompanied the expedition 
arranged a system of interpreters. 

For the Dieri tribe, neighbours of the Urabunna, we have copious 
evidence in Native Tribes of South-East Australia by the late Mr 
A. W. Howitt, who studied the peoples for forty years; was made 
free of their initiatory ceremonies; and obtained intelligence from 
settlers in regions which he did not visit. We have also legends 
with Dieri texts and translations from the Rev. Mr Siebert, a mis- 
sionary among the Dieri. That tribe appears now to exist in a very 
dwindled condition under missionary supervision. The accounts 
of tribes from the centre to the south-east by Mr R. E. Mathew, 
are scattered in many English, Australian and American learned 
periodicals. Mr Mathew has given a good deal of information 
about some of the dialects. His statements as to the line of descent 
and on other points among certain tribes are at variance with those 
of Messrs Spencer and Gillen (see an article by Mr A. R. Brown in 
Man, March 1910). Mr Mathew, however, does not enable us to 
test the accuracy of his informants among the northern tribes, which 
is unfortunate. For the Aranda (or Arunta) of a region apparently 
not explored by Messrs Spencer and Gillen, and for the neighbouring 
Loritja tribe, we have Die Aranda und Loritja Stamme, two volumes 
by the Rev. C. Strehlow (Baer, Frankfurt am Main, 1907, 1908). 
Mr Strehlow is a German missionary who, after working among 
the Dieri and acquiring their language, served for many years among 
a branch of the Arunta (the Aranda), differing considerably in 
dialect, myths and usages from the Arunta of Messrs Spencer and 
Gillen. In some points, for example as to the primal ancestors 
and the spirits diffused by them for incarnation in human bodies, 
the Aranda and Loritja are more akin to the northern tribes than 
to Mr Spencer's Arunta. In other myths they resemble some 
south-eastern tribes reported on by Mr Howitt. Unlike the Arunta 
of Messrs Spencer and Gillen, but like the Arunta described by 
Mr Gillen earlier in The Horn Expedition, they believe in " a 
magnified non-natural man," Altjira, with a goose-foot, dwelling 
in the heavens. Unlike the self-created Atnatu of the Kaitish of 
Messrs Spencer and Gillen, he is not said to have created things, 
or to take any concern about human beings, as Atnatu does in 
matters of ceremonial. Mr Strehlow gives Aranda and Lortija 
texts in the original, with translations and philological remarks. 

Mr Frazer, in his Totemism, makes no use of Mr Strehlow's 
information (save in a single instance). To us it seems worthy of 
study. His reason for this abstention is that, in a letter to him 
(Melbourne, March 10, 1908), Mr Spencer says that for at least twenty 
years the Lutheran Missions have taught the natives " that altjira 
means ' god ' ; have taught that their sacred ceremonies and secular 
dances are ' wicked ' ; have prohibited them, and have never seen 
them. Flour and tobacco, &c., are only given to natives who attend 
church and school. Natives have been married who, according 
to native customary law, belong to groups to which marriage is 
forbidden. For these reasons Mr Frazer cannot attempt " to 
filter the native liquor clear of its alien sediment," (Totemism, 
i. 186, note 2). 

Against this we may urge that, as regards the goose-footed sky- 
dweller, Mr Strehlow reports less of his active interest in human 
affairs than Mr Gillen does concerning his " Great Ulthaana of the 



totemic system of the Arunta," says Messrs Spencer and Gillen. 1 
Every Arunta born incarnates a pre-existent primal spirit 
attached to one of the stone churinga dropped by primal totemic 
beings, all of one totem in each case, at a place called an 
oknanikilla. Each child belongs to the totem of the primal 
beings of the place, where the mother became aware of the 
child's life. 

Thus the peculiar causes which have produced the unique 
Arunta licence of marrying within the totem are conspicuously 
obvious. 

Contradictory Theories about the Arunta Abnormal Totemism. 
At this point theories concerning the origin of totemism begin 
to differ irreconcilably. Mr Frazer, Mr Spencer, and, apparently 
Dr Rivers, hold that, in Australia at least, totemism was 
originally " conceptional." It began in the belief by the women 
that pregnancy was caused by the entrance into them of some 
spirit associated with a visible object, usually animal or vegetable; 
while the child born, in each case, was that object. Hence that 
class of objects was tabued to the child; was its totem, but such 
totems were not hereditary. 

Next, for some unknown reason, the tribes were divided into 
two bodies or segments. The members of segment A may not 
intermarry; they must marry persons of segment B, and vice 
versa. Thus were evolved the primal forms of totemism and 
exogamy now represented in the law of the Arunta nation alone. 
Here, and here alone, marriage within the totem is permitted. 
The theory is, apparently, that, in all other exogamous and totemic 
peoples, totems had been, for various reasons, made hereditary, 
before exogamy was enforced by the legislator in his wisdom. 
Thus, all over the totemic world, except in the Arunta nation, 
the method of the legislator was simply to place one set of 
totem kins in tribal segment A, and the other in segment B, and 
make the segments exogamous and intermarrying. Thus it 
was impossible for any person to marry another of the same 
totem. This is the theory of Mr Frazer. 

Upholders of the contradictory system maintain that the 
Arunta nation has passed through and out of the universal and 
normal system of hereditary and exogamous totemism into its. 
present condition, by reason of the belief that children are 
incarnations of pre-existing animal or vegetable spirits, plus the 
unique Arunta idea of the connexion of such spirits with their 
stone churinga. Where this combination of the two beliefs does 
not occur, there the Arunta non-hereditary and non-exogamous 
totemism does not occur. It would necessarily arise in any 
normal tribe which adopted the two Arunta beliefs, which are not 
" primitive." 

Arguments against Mr Frazer' s Theory. There was obviously 
a time, it is urged, when all totems were, as everywhere else, 

heavens " among the Arunta. Mr Strehlow's being, Altjira, has 
a name apparently meaning " mystic " or sacred, which is applied 
to other things, for example to the inherited maternal totem of 
each native. His names for Altjira (god) and for the totemic 
ancestors (totem gods), are inappropriate, but may be discounted. 
Many other tribes who are discussed by Mr Frazer have been long 
under missionary influence as well as the Aranda. According to 
Mr Frazer the Dieri tribe had enjoyed a German Lutheran mission 
station (since 1866) for forty-four years up to 1910. About 150 
Dieri were alive in 1909 (Totemism, iii. 344). Nevertheless the 
Dieri myths published by Mr Siebert in the decadence of the 
tribe, and when the remnant was under missionaries, show no 
" alien sediment." Nor do the traditions of Mr Strehlow's Aranda. 
Their traditions are closely akin, now to those of the Arunta, now 
to those of the northern tribes, now to those of the Euahlayi of Mrs 
Langloh Parker (The Euahlayi Tribe) in New South Wales, and once 
more to those of Mr Howitt's south-eastern tribes. There is no trace 
of Christian influence in the Aranda and Loritja matter, no vestige 
of " alien " (that is, of European) " sediment," but the account of 
Atnatu among the Kaitish reported on by Messrs Spencer and Gillen 
reads like a savage version of Milton's " Fall of the Angels " in Paradise 
Lost. For these reasons we do not reject the information of Mr 
Strehlow, who is master of several tribal languages, and, of course, 
does not encourage wicked native rites by providing supplies of 
flour, tobacco, &c., during the performances, as Mr Howitt and 
others say that they found it necessary to do. Sceptical colonists 
have been heard to aver that natives will go on performing rites as, 
long as white men will provide supplies. 
1 Native Tribes of Central Australia, p. 123. 



82 



TOTEMISM 



in what the Arunta call "the right" divisions; Arunta, that is, 
were so arrayed that no totem existed in more than one division. 
Obliged, as row, to marry out of their own exogamous division 
(one of four sub-classes among the Arunta) into one of the four 
sub-classes of the opposite side, no man could then find in it a 
woman of his own totem to marry. But when Arunta ceased to 
be hereditary, and came to be acquired, as now, by the local 
accident of the totem spirits all, in each case, of one totem 
name, which haunt the supposed place of a child's conception 
some totems inevitably would often get out of their original 
sub-class into another, and thus the same totems are in 
several divisions. But granting that a man of division 
A may legally marry a woman of division B, he is not 
now prevented from doing so because his totem (say Wild 
Cat) is also hers. His ..or hers has strayed, by accident 
of supposed place of conception, out of its " right " 
into its " wrong " division. The words " right " and " wrong " 
as here used by the Arunta make it certain that they still 
perceive the distinction, and that, before the Arunta evolved 
the spiritual view of conception, they had, like other people, 
their totems in each case confined to a single main exogamous 
division of their tribe, and therefore no persons could then 
marry into their own totems. 

But when the theory of spiritual conception arose, and was 
combined, in the Arunta set of tribes alone (it is common enough 
elsewhere in northern and western Australia), with the churinga 
doctrine, which gave totems by accident, these two factors, as 
Messrs Spencer and Gillen say, became the causes " lie at the 
root " of the present Arunta system by which persons may marry 
others of " the right " division, but of " the wrong " totem. 
That system is strictly confined to the group of tribes (Ilpirra, 
Loritja, Unmaterja, Kaitish, Arunta) which constitute " the 
Arunta nation." Elsewhere the belief in spiritual conception 
widely prevails, but not the belief in the connexion of spirits of 
individuals with the stone churinga of individuals. Consequently 
the Arunta system of marriage within the totem exists nowhere, 
and the non-exogamous non-hereditary totem exists nowhere, 
except in the Arunta region. Everywhere else hereditary totems 
are exogamous. 1 

Thus the practice of acquiring the totem by local accident 
is absolutely confined to five tribes where the churinga doctrine 
coexists with it. That the churinga belief, coexistent with the 
spiritual theory of conception, is of relatively recent origin is a 
demonstrable fact. Had it always been present among the 
Arunta the inevitable result, in the course of ages, would be the 
scattering of the totems almost equally, as chance would scatter 
them among the eight exogamous divisions. 

This can be tested by experiment. Take eight men, to 
represent the eight exogamous divisions, and set them apart in 
two groups of four. Take four packs of cards, 208 cards, to 
represent the Arunta totems, which are over 200 in number. 
Deal the cards round in the usual way to each of the eight men; 
each will receive 26 cards. It will not be found that group A has 
" the great majority " of spades and clubs, while group B has 
" the great majority " of diamonds and hearts, and neither group 
will have " the great majority " of court cards. Accident does 
not work in that way. But while accident alone now determines 
the totem to which an Arunta shall belong, nevertheless " in the 
Arunta, as a general rule, the great majority of the members of 
any one totemic group belong to one moiety of the tribe; but this 
is by no means universal . . . " that is, of the totems the great 
majority in each case, as a rule, belongs to one or the other set of 
four exogamous sub-classes. 2 

The inference is obvious. While chance has now placed only 
the small minority of each totem in all or several of the eight 
exogamous divisions, the great majority of totems is in one or 
another of the divisions. This great majority cannot come by 
chance, as Arunta totems now come; consequently it is but lately 
that chance has determined the totem of each individual. Had 
chance from the first been the determining cause, each totem 

1 N.T.C.A.p. 257; cf. Frazer, Totemism, i. 200-201. 
1 Northern Tribes, pp. 151 sqq. 



would not be fairly equally present in each of the two sets of four 
exogamous divisions. But determination by accident has only 
existed long enough to affect " as a general rule " a small minority 
of cases. " The great majority " of totems remain in what is 
recognized as " the right," the original divisions, as elsewhere 
universally. Arunta myth sometimes supports, sometimes 
contradicts, the belief that the totems were originally limited, 
in each case, to one or other division only, and, being self- 
contradictory, has no historic value. 

A further proof of our point is that the northern neighbours 
of the Arunta, the Kaitish, have only partially accepted Arunta 
ideas, religious and social. Unlike the Arunta they have a 
creative being, Atnatu, from whom half of the population 
descend; the other half were evolved out of totemic forms. 3 In 
the same way the Kaitish totems " are more strictly divided 
between the two moieties " (main exogamous divisions) " of the 
tribe." 4 Consequently a man may marry a woman of his own 
totem if she be in the right exogamous division. " She is not 
actually forbidden to him, as a wife becomes of this identity and 
totem, as she would be in the Warramunga neighbouring 
tribe . . ." " It is a very rare thing for a man to marry a 
woman of the same totem as himself," 6 naturally, for the old 
rule holds, in sentiment, and a totem is still very rarely in the 
wrong division. The Arunta system of accidental determination 
of the totem has as yet scarcely produced among the Kaitish 
any of its natural and important effects. 

This view of the case seems logical: Arunta non-exogamous 
non-hereditary totemism is the result, as Messrs Spencer and 
Gillen show, of the theory of spiritual conception and the theory 
of the relation of the spirit part of each individual to his churinga. 
These two beliefs have already caused a minority of Arunta 
totems to get out of the original and into the wrong exogamous 
Arunta divisions. The process is not of old standing; if it were, 
all totems would now be fairly distributed among the divisions 
by the laws of chance. In the Kaitish tribe, on the other hand, 
the processes must be of very recent operation, for they have only 
begun to produce their necessary effects. The totemism of the 
Arunta is thus the reverse of " primitive," and has but slightly 
affected the Kaitish. 

Precisely the opposite view of the facts is taken by Mr Frazer 
in his erudite and exhaustive work Totemism. In the Kaitish, 
he writes, " we may detect the first stage in the transition from 
promiscuous marriage and fortuitous descent of the totem to 
strict exogamy of the totem clans and strict heredity of the 
totems in the paternal line." 6 By "promiscuous marriage," 
marriage within or without the totem, at pleasure, is obviously 
intended, for the Arunta do not marry " promiscuously " do 
not marry their nearest kin. 

How, on Mr Frazer's theory, was the transition from the 
condition of the Arunta to that of the Kaitish made? If the 
Kaitish were once in the actual Arunta stage of totemism, how 
did their totems come now to be much more strictly divided 
between the two moieties, though " the division is not so 
absolute as amongst the Urabunna in the south and the tribes 
farther north . . ."? How did this occur? The Kaitish have 
not made totems hereditary by law; they are acquired by local 
accident. They have not made a rule that all totems should, 
as among the more northern neighbours of the Arunta, be 
regimented so that no totem occurs in more than one division: 
to this rule there are exceptions. A man " is not actually 
forbidden " to marry a woman of his own totem provided she 
be of " the right division," but it is clear that he " does not 
usually do so." This we can explain as the result of a survival 
in manners of the old absolute universal prohibition. 

Meanwhile our view of the facts makes all the phenomena 
seem natural and intelligible in accordance with the statement 
of the observers, Messrs Spencer and Gillen, that the cause of 
the unique non-hereditary non-exogamous totems of the Arunta 
is the combination of the churinga spiritual belief with the belief 
in spiritual conception. This cause, though now present among 

' Northern Tribes, pp. 153, 154, 175. * Ibid. p. 152. 

6 Ibid. p. 175. * Totemism, i. 244. 



TOTEMISM 



the Kaitish, has, so far, operated but faintly. We have been 
explicit on these points because on them the whole problem of 
the original form of totemism hinges. In our view, for the reasons 
stated, the Arunta system of non-exogamous non-hereditary 
totemism is a peculiarity of comparatively recent institution. 
But Mr Frazer, and the chief observer of the phenomena, Mr 
Spencer, consider the Arunta system, non-exogamous and non- 
hereditary, to be the most archaic form of totemism extant. 

As to non-hereditary, we find another report of the facts in 
Die Aranda und Loritja Stiimme, by the Rev. Mr Strehlow, who 
has a colloquial and philological knowledge of the language of 
these tribes. As he reports, among other things, that the 
Aranda (Arunta) in his district inherit their mother's totems, in 
addition to their " local totems," they appear to retain an 
archaic feature from which their local totem system and marriage 
rules are a departure. 1 

The hereditary maternal totem is, in Mr Strehlow's region, the 
protective being (altjira) of each Arunta individual. 

Are the Arunta " Primitive " or not? In the whole totemic 
controversy the question as to whether the non-exogamous 
non-hereditary totemism of the Arunta or the hereditary and 
exogamous totemism of the rest of Australia and of totemic 
mankind, be the earlier, is crucial. 

That Arunta totemism is a freak or " sport," it is argued, 
is made probable first by the fact that the Arunta inherit all 
things hereditable in the male line, whereas inheritance in the 
female descent is earlier. (To this question we return; see below, 
Male and Female Lines of Descent.) M. Van Gennep argues 
that tribes in contact, one set having female, the other male, 
descent, " like the Arunta have combined the systems." 2 But 
several northern tribes with male descent of the totem which are 
not in contact with tribes of female descent show much stronger 
traces of the " combination " than the Arunta, who intermarry 
freely with a tribe of female descent, the Urabunna; while the 
Urabunna, though intermarrying with the Arunta who inherit 
property and tribal office in the male line, show no traces of 
" combination." Thus the effects occur where the alleged 
causes are not present; and the alleged causes, in the case of 
the Urabunna and Arunta, do not produce the effects. 

Next the Arunta have no names for their main exogamous 
divisions, these names being a very archaic feature which in many 
tribes with sub-classes tend to disappear. In absence of phratry 
names the Arunta are remote from the primitive. M. Van 
Gennep replies that perhaps the Arunta have not yet made the 
names, or have not yet borrowed them. This is also the view 
of Mr Frazer. As he says, the Southern Arunta lived under the 
rule of eight classes, but of these four were anonymous, till the 
names for them were borrowed from the north. The people 
can thus have anonymous exogamous divisions; the two main 
divisions, or phratries, of the Arunta may, therefore, from the 
first, have been anonymous. 

To this the reply is that people borrow, if they can, what they 
need. The Arunta found names for their four hitherto anony- 
mous classes to be convenient, so they borrowed them. But 
when once class-names did, as they do, all that is necessary, the 
Arunta had no longer any use for the names of the two primary 
main divisions: these were forgotten; there is nothing to be got 
by borrowing that; while four Arunta " sub-classes " are gaining 
their names, the " classes " (phratries or main divisions) have 
lost them. It is perfectly logical to hold that while things 
useful, but hitherto anonymous, are gaining names, other things, 
now totally useless, are losing their names. One process is as 
natural as the other. In all Australia tribes with two main 
divisions and no sub-classes, the names of the two main divisions 
are found, because the names are useful. In several tribes with 
named sub-classes, which now do the work previously thrown on 
the main divisions, the names of the main divisions are unknown: 
the main divisions being now useless, and superseded by the sub- 
classes. The absence of names of the two main divisions in the 
Arunta is merely a result, often found, of the rise of the sub- 

1 Strehlow, ii. 57 (1908). 

2 Mythes et legendes d'Australie, p. xxxii. 



classes, which, as Mr Frazer declares, are not primitive, but the 
result of successive later legislative acts of division.' 

Manifestly on this point the Arunta are at the farthest point 
from the earliest organization: their loss of phratry names is 
the consequence of this great advance from the " primitive." 

All Arunta society rests on a theory of reincarnated spirits, 
a theory minutely elaborated. M Van Gennep asks " why 
should this belief not be primitive? " Surely neither the 
belief in spirits, nor the elaborate working out of the belief 
connecting spirits with manufactured stone amulets, can have 
been primitive. Nobody will say that peculiar stone amulets 
and the Arunta belief about spirits associated with them are 
primitive. To this M Van Gennep makes no reply. 4 

The Arunta belief that children are spirit-children (ralapa) 
incarnated is very common in the other central and northern 
tribes, and, according to Mrs Bates, in Western Australia; Dr 
Roth reports the same for parts of Queensland. It is alleged by 
Messrs Spencer and Gillen that the tribes holding this belief 
deny any connexion between sexual unions and procreation. 
Mr Strehlow, on the other hand, says that in his region the 
older Arunta men understand the part of the male in procreation ; 
and that even the children of the Loritja and Arunta understand, 
in the case of animals. 5 (Here corroboration is desirable and 
European influence may be asserted.) Dr Roth says that the 
Tully River blacks of Queensland admit procreation for all 
other animals, which have no Koi or soul, but not for men, who 
have souls. (Their theory of human birth, therefore, merely 
aims primarily at accounting for the spiritual part of man.) 6 

According to Mrs Bates, some tribes in the north of South 
Australia, tribes with the same " class " names as the Arunta, 
hold that to have children a man must possess two spirits 
(ranee). If he has but one, he remains childless. If he has two, 
he can dream of an animal, or other object, which then passes 
into his wife, and is born as a child, the animal thus becoming the 
child's totem. This belief does not appear to apply to reproduc- 
tion in the lower animals. It is a spiritual theory of the begetting 
of a soul incarnated. If a man has but one spirit, he cannot give 
one to a child, therefore he is childless. 

It is clear that this, and all other systerr s in which reproduction 
is explained in spiritual terms, can only arise among peoples 
whose whole mode of thinking is intensely " animistic." It is 
also plain that all such myths answer two questions (i) How 
does a being of flesh and spirit acquire its spiritual part? (2) 
How is it that every human being is in mystical rcpport 
with an animal, plant, or other object, the totem? Manifestly 
the second question could not arise and need answer before 
mankind were actually totemists. It may be added that in 
the south of Western Australia the name for the mythical 
" Father of All " (a being not there worshipped, though 
images of him are made and receive some cult at certain 
licentious festivals) and the name for " father-stock " is 
maman, which Mrs Bates finds to be the native term for 
membrum virile. All this appears to be proof of understand- 
ing of the male part in reproduction, though that understanding 
is now obscured by speculation about spirits. 

The question arises then, is the ignorance of procreation, where 
that ignorance exists, " primitive," and is the Arunta totemism 
also " primitive," being conditioned, as we are told it is, by the 
unique belief in some churinga? Or is the ignorance due to 
attempts of native thinkers to account for the spirit in man as a 
pre-existing entity that has been from the beginning? The 
former view is that of Messrs Spencer and Gillen, and Mr Frazer. 
For the latter see Lang, Anthropological Essays presented to 
E. B. Tylor, pp. 210-218. We can hardly call people primitive 
because they have struggled with the problem " how has material 
man an indwelling spirit?" 

Theories of the Origin of Totemic Exogamy. Since the word 
" exogamy " as a name for the marriage systems connected (as 
a rule) with totemism was used by J. F. McLennan in his. 

8 Totemism, i. 282, 283. 4 Van Gennep, pp. xxxiii-xxxv. 

6 Loritja Stiimme, p. 52, note 7. 

Roth, Bulletin, No. 5, pp. 17, 22, 65, 81. 



8 4 



TOTEMISM 



Primitive Marriage (1866), theories of the origin of exogamy 
have been rife and multifarious. All, without exception, are 
purely conjectural. One set of disputants hold that man 
(whatever his original condition may have been) was, when he 
first passed an Act of Exogamy, a member of a tribe. Hewitt's 
term for this tribe was " the undivided commune." It had, 
according to him, its inspired medicine-man, believed to be in 
communication with some superior being. It had its pro- 
bouleutic council of elders or " headmen " and its general 
assembly. Such was man's political condition. 1 It is not dis- 
tinguishable from that of many modern Australian tribes. Other 
tribes, said by some to be the most primitive, the Arunta and 
their neighbours, pay no attention to the dictates of a superior 
being, and the Arunta of Spencer and Gillen seem to know no 
such entity, though as Atnatu, Tukura, Altjira, and " the Great 
Ulthaana of the heavens," he exists in a dwindled form among 
the Kaitish, Loritja and outlying portions of the Arunta tribe. 
In religion Howitt's early men were already in advance of Mr 
Spencer's Arunta. Socially, man, at this date, according to 
Howitt, at first left the relations of the sexes wholly unregulated; 
the nearest kinsfolk by blood coupled at will, though perfectly 
aware that they were, at least on the maternal side, actual 
brothers and sisters, parents and children. 

Upholders of the first theory, that man lived promiscuously 
in a tribal state with legislative assemblies and then suddenly 
reformed promiscuity away, must necessarily differ in their 
opinion as to the origins of totems and exogamy from the friends 
of the second theory, who believe that man never was "pro- 
miscuous," and given to sexual union with near kin. Why man, 
on the first theory familiar as he was with unions of the nearest 
kin suddenly abolished them is explained in four or five different 
ways. Perhaps the most notable view is Mr Frazer's; he easily 
confutes, in thirty-five pages, the other hypotheses. 2 Man saw, 
or thought he saw, injurious consequences to the wedded near- 
related couples, and therefore he prohibited, first, unions between 
mothers and sons, and brothers and sisters. 3 But, in his fourth 
volume, Mr Frazer sees conclusive objections to this view 4 and 
prefers another. Some peoples, far above the estate of savagery, 
believe that human incest blights and sterilizes the crops, 
women and animals. " If any such belief were entertained by 
the founders of exogamy, they would clearly have been perfectly 
sufficient motives for instituting the system, for they would 
perfectly explain the horror with which incest has been regarded 
and the extreme severity with which it has been punished." 6 
That is to say, people had a horror and hatred of incest because 
they supposed that it blighted the crops and other things. Mr 
Frazer had previously written (iv. 108) " It is important to bear 
steadily in mind that the dislike of certain marriages must always 
have existed in the minds of the people, or at least of their leaders, 
before that dislike, so to say, received legal sanction by being 
embodied in an exogamous rule." 

Again (iv. 112) " There had, for some reason unknown to us, 
been long growing up a strong aversion to consanguineous 
unions " before any legislative bar was raised against them. 
This is insisted on. The prohibition " must have answered to 
certain general sentiments of what was right and proper " 
(iv. 121). But here the theorist has to explain the origin of 
the strong aversion, the general sentiment that unions of near 
kin are wrong and improper. But Mr Frazer does not seem to 
explain the point that most needs explanation. That " strong 
aversion," that " general sentiment," cannot have arisen from 
a growing belief that unions of close kin spoiled the crops or 
the natural resources of the country. That superstition could 
only arise as a consequence of the horror and aversion with 
which " incest " was regarded. Now no idea corresponding 
to " incest " could arise before unions of near kin were deemed 
abominable. When once such unions were thought hateful to 
gods and men, and an upsetting of the cosmic balance, then, 
but not till then, they might be regarded as injurious to the 
crops. All such beliefs are sanctions of ideas already in strong 

1 N.T.S.E.A. pp. 89, 90. Ibid. i. 165. 

1 Totemism, iv. 75-120. 4 Ibid. iv. 155, 156. 

6 Ibid. iv. 158. 



force. The idea that such or such a thing is wrong begets 
the prohibition, followed by the sanction the belief that 
the practice of the thing is injurious in a supernormal way: 
where that belief exists. We do not know it in Australia, for 
example. 

A belief that close sexual unions were maleficent cosmic 
influences could not possibly arise previous to, and could not 
then cause, " the dislike of certain marriages "; " the strong 
aversion to consanguineous unions " which existed already. 
This latest guess of Mr Frazer at the origin of the idea of 
" incest " of the abomination of certain unions is untenable. 
What he has to explain is the origin of the dislike, the aversion, 
the horror. Once that has arisen, as he himself observes, the 
prohibition follows, and then comes the supernormal sanction. 
Thus no theory of exogamous rules as the result of legislation 
to prevent the unions of persons closely akin, can produce, or 
has produced, any reason for the aversion to such unions arising 
among people to whom, on the theory, they were familiar. 
Mr Frazer has confuted the guesses of MacLennan, Morgan, 
Durkheim and others; but his own idea is untenable. 

The Supposed Method of Reform. On Mr Frazer's theory 
the reformers first placed half of the mothers of the tribe, 
with their children, in division A; and the rest of the mothers, 
with their children, in division B. The members of each division 
(phratry) must marry out of it into the other, and thus no man 
could marry his sister or mother. (The father could marry his 
daughter, but in tribes with no exogamous explicit rule against 
the union, he never does.) Later the two divisions were bisected 
each into a couple of pairs (classes) preventing marriage 
between father and daughter; and another resegmentation 
prohibited the unions of more distant relations. These systems, 
from the simplest division into two phratries, to the more 
complex with two " sub-classes " in each phratry, and the 
most elaborate of all with four sub-classes in each phratry, 
exist in various tribes. Environment and climate have 
nothing to do with the matter. The Urabunna and the 
Arunta live in the same climate and environment, and inter- 
marry. The Urabunna have the most primitive, the Arunta 
have the most advanced of these organizations. While the 
rules are intended to prevent consanguineous marriages, the 
names of the " sub-classes " (when translatable, the names of 
animals) cannot perhaps be explained. They have a totemic 
appearance. 

Totems in Relation to Exogamy. So far, in this theory nothing 
has been said of totems, though it is an all but universal rule 
that people of the same totem may not intermarry, even if the 
lovers belong to tribes separated by the breadth of the continent. 
In fact, according to the hypothesis which has been set forth, 
totems, though now exogamous, played no original part in 
the evolution of exogamy. They came in by accident, not by 
design, and dropped into their place in a system carefully 
devised. 

Originally, on this theory, a totem came to a child, not as is 
usual now, by inheritance, but by pure accident; the mother 
supposing that any object which caught her attention at the 
moment when she first felt the life of her child, or any article 
of food which she had recently eaten, became incarnate in her, 
so that the emu (say) which she saw, or had eaten of, was her 
child. He or she was an Emu man or woman, by totem was an 
Emu. 

Certain localities, later, were somehow associated each with 
one given object cat, kangaroo, grub, or anything else, and 
now " local totems " (if the phrase may be used) took the place 
of " conceptional totems," as among the Arunta. The child 
inevitably was of the local totem and its supposed place of 
conception. 

Finally all tribes except the Arunta " nation " made the totem 
hereditary, either from mother or father; and as the mother or 
father, an Emu, was in division A, so was the child, and he 
or she must marry out of that division into the other, B.' 

The objections taken to this theory are now to be stated: 

' Frazer, Totemism, i. 157-167. 



TOTEMISM 



(i.) The theory can by no possibility apply to tribes with three 
or more main exogamous divisions or phratries, such as we find 
in North America. In a three-phratry tribe we are reduced to 
suppose that there were three sexes, or resort to some other 
solution not perhaps compatible with the theory, (ii.) We have 
no evidence that any totemic people, except the Navajoes, 
think the closest sexual unions injurious to the parties or their 
offspring. The theory is thus merely extracted from the facts 
certain unions are forbidden, therefore they must have been 
deemed injurious. Now, even if they were generally thought 
injurious, the belief would be a mere inference from the fact 
that they were forbidden, (iii.) The supposed original legisla- 
tive exogamous division produced a very different effect than 
that said to be aimed at, namely, the prohibition of marriage 
between brothers and sisters. It forbade to every man marriage 
with half the women of his tribe, most of whom were not, even 
in the wide native use of the term, his " tribal " sisters, that 
is, women in a man's phratry of the same status as his own 
sisters. Such relationships, of course, could not exist before 
they were created by the supposed Act of Division. It would 
have been easy to prohibit marriages of brothers with sisters 
directly, just as, though no exogamous rule forbids, the father, 
in tribes of female descent, is directly forbidden to marry his 
daughters. The natives can take a simple instead of a bewilder- 
ing path. To this natural objection Mr Frazer replies: 1 " If we 
assume, as we have every right to do, that the founders of exo- 
gamy in Australia recognized the classificatory system of rela- 
tionship, and the classificatory system of relationship only, we 
shall at once perceive that what they intended to prevent was 
not merely the marriage of a man with his sister, his mother, 
or his daughter in the physical sense in which we use these 
terms; their aim was to prevent his marriage with his sister, 
his mother and his daughter in the classificatory sense of 
these terms; that is, they intended to place bars to marriage 
not between individuals merely but between the whole groups 
of persons who designated their group, not their individual 
relationships, their social, not their consanguineous ties, by the 
names of father and mother, brother and sister, son and daughter. 
And in this intention the founders of exogamy succeeded per- 
fectly." Mr Frazer's theory of the origin of exogamy appears 
now to waver. It was 2 that the primal bisection of the 
tribe was " deliberately devised and adopted as a means of 
preventing the marriage, at first, of brother with sisters. . . ." 
Here was the place to say, if it was then intended to say, that 
the Australians " recognized the classificatory system of rela- 
tionships only." As a matter of fact they recognize both the 
consanguine and the classificatory systems. It is not the 
case that " the savage Australian, it may be said with truth, 
has no idea of relationships as we understand them, and does 
not discriminate between his actual father and mother and 
the men and women who belong to the group, each member of 
which might have lawfully been either his father or his mother, 
as the case may be." 

This statement is made inadvertently and unfortunately by 
Messrs Spencer and Gillen, 3 but it is contradicted by their 
own observations. An Arunta can tell you, if asked, which of 
all the men whom he calls " father " is his very own father. 4 
The Dieri have terms for " great " (actual) and " little " (tribal) 
father, and so for other relationships. In Arunta orgies 
a woman's " tribal " " fathers " and " brothers " and " sons " 
are admitted to her embraces; her actual father and brothers 
and sons are excluded. 6 Thus, if the prohibition be based on 
aversion to unions of persons closely akin by blood, as the 
actual father is excluded, the actual father, among the Arunta, 
is, or has been, amongst that people, regarded as near of blood to 
his daughters. The Arunta are ignorant, we are told, of the 
part of the male in procreation. Be it so, but there has been 
a time when they were not ignorant, and when the father was 
recognized as of the nearest kin by blood to his daughters. If 



1 Totemism, i. 288. 

1 Northern Tribes, pp. 95 seq. ; 

4 Central Tribes, p. 57. 



2 Ibid. i. 163. 

Totemism, i. 289. 

6 Ibid. p. 97. 



not, and if the prohibition is based on hatred of unions of 
close kin, why is the father excluded? Nothing, in short, can 
be more certain than that Australian tribes distinguish between 
" social " or " tribal " relations on the one hand, and close 
consanguine relations on the other. Among the Arunta office 
is inherited by a man from his mother's husband, his father quern 
nuptiae demonstrant; not from any " tribal " father. 6 

Mr Frazer 7 apparently meant in his earlier statement that 
brothers and sisters consanguine, and these only, were to 
be excluded from intermarriage, because he went on to say that 
science cannot decide as to whether the closest interbreeding 
is injurious to the offspring of healthy parents, however near 
in blood; and that very low savages could not discover what is 
hidden from modern science. He had therefore marriages of 
consanguine brothers and sisters present to his mind: " the 
closest interbreeding." Brothers and sisters were finally for- 
bidden, on this theory, to intermarry, not because of any dread 
of injury to the offspring. " The only alternative open to us 
seems to be to infer that these unions were forbidden because 
they were believed to be injurious to the persons engaged in 
them, even when they were both in perfect health." 8 These 
" incestuous unions " are between brothers and sisters, mothers 
and sons. Here brothers and sisters consanguine, children of the 
same mother in each case, certainly appear to be intended. Who 
else, indeed, can be intended? But presently 9 we are to assume 
that the Australians, before they made the first exogamous 
division of the tribe " recognized the classificatory system of 
relationship, and the classificatory system only." They meant, 
now, to bar marriage between " whole groups of persons," 
related by " social, not consanguineous ties." But this seems 
to be physically impossible. These " whole groups " never 
existed, and never could exist, as far as we can see, till they 
were called into being by the legislative division of the tribe 
into two exogamous phratries which had not yet been made. 
How could a man call a whole group of women " nupa," as at 
present (the word being applied to his wife and to all women 
of the opposite phratry to his whom he might legally marry) 
before the new law had constituted such a group? In what 
sense, again, were all women of a certain status called my 
" sisters " (like my actual sisters) before the new law made a 
new group of them in regard to marriage as sacred as my own 
sisters now were to me? It cannot be said that all women 
of my status were called, collectively, my " sisters " before the 
new division of the tribe and new rule arose, because previously, 
all women of my status in the tribe have been my " sisters." 
Who else could be collectively my " sisters "? If to marry a 
" sister " were reckoned dangerous to her and to me, I must have 
been forbidden to marry all the women of my status in the 
tribe. How could a law which merely halved the number of my 
" sisters " remove the unknown danger from half of them? If 
any women except my actual sisters were, before the new rule, 
reckoned as socially my sisters, all women in the tribe of a certain 
status must have been so reckoned. If all dangerous, I must 
marry none of them. But by the new rule, I may marry half 
of them! Why have they ceased to be dangerous? 

If the theory be that originally only brothers and sisters con- 
sanguine were thought dangerous to each other in sexual rela- 
tions, and the superstition was later extended so as to include 
all " classificatory " brothers and sisters, who were in these 
days (before the exogamous division) classificatory brothers and 
sisters? How and for what reason were some marriageable 
girls in the tribe classificatory sisters of a young man while 
others, equally young and marriageable, were not ? The classi- 
ficatory brothers and sisters must have been all the marriageable 
youth of both sexes in a generation, in the tribe. 

But then if all the youth of a generation, of both sexes, 
were classificatory brothers and sisters, and if therefore their 
unions were dangerous to themselves, or to the crops, the danger 
could not be prevented by dividing them into two sets, and 

6 See Proceedings of British Academy, iii. 4. Lang, "^Origin 
of Terms of Human Relationships." 

7 Totemism, i. 163. " Ibid. i. 165. Ibid. i. 288. 



86 



TOTEMISM 



allowing each set of brothers to marry each set of sisters. The 
only way to parry the danger was to force all these brothers and 
sisters to marry out of the local tribe into another local tribe 
with the same superstition. When that was done, the two local 
tribes, exogamous and intermarrying, were constituted into the 
two phratries of one local tribe. But that is not the theory of 
observers on the spot: their hypothesis is that a promiscuous 
and communistic local tribe, for no known or conceivable 
reason, bisected itself into two exogamous and intermarrying 
" moieties." 

On the face of it, it is a fatal objection to the theory that when 
men dwelt in an undivided commune they recognized no system 
of relationships but the classificatory, yet were well aware of 
consanguineous relationships; were determined to prohibit 
the marriages of people in such relationships; and included in 
the new prohibition people in no way consanguineous, but 
merely of classificatory kin. The reformers, by the theory, 
were perfectly able to distinguish consanguineous kinsfolk, so 
that they might easily have forbidden them to intermarry; 
while if all the members of the tribe were not in the classificatory 
degrees of relationship, who were? How were persons in classifi- 
catory relationships with each other discriminated from other 
members of the tribe who were not? They were easily discrim- 
inated as soon as the phratries were instituted, but, we think, not 
before. 

Term of Classificatory Relationships. Here it is necessary to 
say a few words about " classificatory " terms of relationship. 
Among many peoples the terms or names which with us denote 
relationships of consanguinity or affinity, such as Father, 
Mother, Brother, Sister, Son, Daughter, Husband, Wife, are 
applied both to the individuals actually consanguineous in 
these degrees, and also to all the other persons in the speaker's 
own main exogamous division or phratry who are of the same 
" age-grade " and social status as the Father, Mother, Brother, 
Sister, Son, Daughter, Husband, Wife, and so forth. As a 
man thus calls all the women whom he might legally have married 
by the same term as Re calls his wife, and calls all children of 
persons of his own " age-grade," class and status by the same 
name as he calls his own children, many theorists hold this to 
be a proof of the origin of the nomenclature " in a system of 
group marriage in which groups of men exercised marital rights 
over groups of women, and the limitation of one wife to one 
husband was unknown. Such a system would explain very 
simply why every man gives the name of wife to a whole group 
of women, and every woman gives the name of husband to a 
whole group of men," and so on with all such collective terms 
of relationship. 1 

Certainly this is a very simple explanation. But if we wished 
to explain why every Frenchman applies the name which he 
gives to his " wife " (femme) to every " woman " in the world, 
it would be rather simpler than satisfactory to say that this 
nomenclature arose when the French people lived in absolute 
sexual promiscuity. The same reasoning applies to English 
" wife," German Weib, meaning " woman," and so on in many 
languages. Moreover the explanation, though certainly very 
simple, is not " the only reasonable and probable explanation." 
Suppose that early man, as in a hypothesis of Darwin's, lived, 
not in large local tribes with the present polity of such tribes 
in Australia, but in " cyclopean families," where the sire con- 
trolled his female mates and offspring; and suppose that he, 
from motives of sexual jealousy, and love of a quiet life, forbade 
amours between his sons and daughters. Suppose such a society 
to reach the dimensions of a tribe. The rules that applied to 
brothers and sisters, mothers and sons, would persist, and the 
original names for persons in such relationships in the family 
would be extended, in the tribe, to all persons of the same 
status: new terms being adopted, or old terms extended, to 
cover new social relationships created by social laws in a wider 
society. 

Another Theory of the Origin of Totemism and Exogamy. How 
this would happen may be seen in studying the other hypothesis 
1 Totemism, \. 304. 



of exogamy and totemism. 2 Man was at first, as Darwin sup- 
posed, a' jealous brute who expelled his sons from the neighbour- 
hood of his women; he thus secured the internal peace of his. 
fire circle; there were no domestic love-feuds. The sons there- 
fore of necessity married out were exogamous. As man 
became more human, a son was permitted to abide among his 
kin, but he had to capture a mate from another herd (exogamy). 

The groups received sobriquets from each other, as Emu, 
Frog, and so forth, a fact illustrated copiously in the practice 
of modern and English and ancient Hebrew villages.* 

The rule was now that marriage must be outside of the local 
group-name. Frog may not marry Frog, or Emu, Emu. The 
usual savage superstition which places all folk in mystic 
rapport with the object from which their names are derived 
gradually gave a degree of sanctity to Emu, Frog and the rest. 
They became totems. 

Perhaps the captured women in' group Emu retained and 
bequeathed to their children their own group-names; the 
children were Grubs, Ants, Snakes, &c. in Emu group. Let 
two such groups, Emu and Kangaroo, tired of fighting for 
women, make peace with connubium, then we have two phra- 
tries, exogamous and intermarrying, Emu and Kangaroo, with 
totem kins within them. (Another hypothesis is necessary 
if the original rule of all was, as among the Uraburtha and other 
tribes, that each totem kin mustmarryout of itself into only one 
other totem kin. 4 But we are not sure of the fact of one 
totem to one totem marriage.) In short, the existence of the 
two main exogamous divisions in a tribe is the result of an alliance 
of two groups, already exogamous and intermarrying, not of a 
deliberate dissection of a promiscuous horde. 6 

The first objection to this system is that it is not held by 
observers on the spot, such as Mr Howett and Mr Spencer. 
But while all the observed facts of these observers are accepted 
(when they do not contradict their own statements, or are not 
corrected by fresh observations), theorists are not bound to 
accept the hypotheses of the observers. Every possible respect 
is paid to facts of observation. Hypotheses as to a stage of 
society which no man living has observed may be accepted as 
freely from Darwin as from Howitt, Spencer and L. Morgan. 

It is next objected that " the only ground for denying that the 
elaborate marriage-system" (systems?) "of the Australian 
aborigines has been devised by them for the purpose which 
it actually serves, appears to be a preconceived idea that these 
savages are incapable of thinking out and putting in practice 
a series of checks on marriage so intricate that many civilized 
persons lack either the patience or the ability to understand 
them . . . The truth is that all attempts to trace the origin and 
growth of human institutions without the intervention of human 
intelligence and will are radically vicious and foredoomed to 
failure."* But nobody is denying that the whole set of 
Australian systems of marriage is the result of human emotions, 
intelligence and will. Nobody is denying that, in course of 
time, the aborigines have thought out and by successive steps 
have elaborated their systems. The only questions are, what 
were the human motives and needs which, in the first instance, 
set human intelligence and will to work in these directions; and 
how, in the first instance, did they work? The answers given 
to these questions are purely and inevitably hypothetical, 
whether given by observers or by cloistered students. 

It is objected, as to the origin of totemism, that too much 
influence is given to accident, too little to design. The answer 
is that " accident " plays a great part in all evolution, and that, 

5 Lang and Atkinson, Social Origins and Primal Law. Lang, 
Secret of the Totem. 

3 Lang, Social^ Origins and Secret of the Totem. 

4 Anthropological Essays, pp. 206-209. 

6 This theory, already suggested by the Rev. J. Mathew, and Mr 
Daniel McLennan, occurred independently to M. Van Gennep, who, 
in Mythes it leeendes d'Australie, suppressed his chapter on it, after 
reading The Secret of the Totem. The conclusions were almost 
identical with those of that work (Op. cit. pp. vi. xxxiv.). The 
details of the evolution, which are many, may be found in Social 
Origins and Primal Law, and revised in The Secret of the Totem. 

6 Totemism, i. 280, 281. 



TOTEMISM 



in the opposed theory, the existence and actual exogamous 
function of totems is also accidental, arising from ignorance 
and a peculiar superstition. It is urged that no men would 
accept a nickname given from without by hostile groups. This 
is answered by many examples of cases in which tribes, clans, 
political parties, and, of course, individuals, have accepted 
sobriquets from without, and even when these were hostile and 
derisive. 1 It is asked, Why, on this theory, are there but two 
exogamous divisions in the tribe? The reply is that in America 
there may be three or more: that in the Urabunna there are as 
many exogamous divisions (dual) as there are totems, and that 
these, like the main exogamous divisions, go in pairs, because 
marriage is between two contracting parties. 2 

It is maintained in this theory that Australian blacks, who are 
reflective and by no means illogical men, have long ago observed 
that certain marriages are rigorously barred by their social 
system, for no obvious reason. Thus a man learns that he 
must not marry in his own main exogamous division, say 
Eagle Hawk. He must choose a wife from the opposite division, 
Crow. She must belong to a certain set of women in Crow, 
whose tribal status is precisely that, in Crow, of his own sisters, 
and his " little sisters " (the women of his sister's status) in 
Eagle Hawk. The reflective tribesman does not know why these 
rules exist. But he perceives that the marriageable women in 
his own main division bear the same title as his sisters by 
blood. He therefore comes to the conclusion that they are 
all what his own sisters manifestly are, " too near flesh," as the 
natives say in English; and that the purpose of the rule is to 
bar marriage to him with all the women who bear the name 
" sisters " that denotes close consanguinity. Presently he 
thinks that other kinsfolk, actual, or bearing the same collective 
title as actual kinsfolk of his, are also " too near flesh," and he 
goes on to bar them till he reaches the eight class model; or 
like some south-eastern tribes, drops the whole cumbrous 
scheme in favour of one much like our own. 

The reflective savage, in short, acts exactly as the Church 
did when she extended to cousins the pre-existing Greek and 
Roman prohibitions against the marriages of very near kin; 
and, again, extended them still further, to exclude persons not 
consanguineous at all but called by the same title as real 
consanguines, " father," " mother " and " child " in " gossipred " 
godfather, godmother, godchild. 

The savage and ecclesiastical processes are parallel and 
illustrate each other. Probably when a tribe with two main 
exogamous and intermarrying divisions came into existence in 
the way which we have indicated, the names used in families for 
father, mother, daughter, son, husband, wife, brother, sister, 
were simply extended so as to include, in each case, all persons in 
the tribe who were now of the same status, socially, with the 
same rights, restrictions and duties, as had been theirs in the 
fire-circle before the tribe was made a tribe by the union of two 
exogamous and previously hostile intermarrying local groups; 
or two sets of such groups. The process is natural; the wide 
extension now given to old names of relationships saved the 
trouble of making new names. Thus we have found a reasonable 
and probable way of accounting for classificatory terminology 
without adopting the hypothesis that it arose out of " group- 
marriage " and asking " But how did group-marriage arise?" 

There is no accident here, all is deliberate and reflective 
design, beginning with the purely selfish and peace-loving 
design of the jealous sire. Meanwhile the totemic prohibition, 
" no marriage in the same totem name," has been retained and 
expanded even beyond the tribe, and " however remote the 
hunting grounds " of two persons, they may not intermarry if 
their totem name be the same. 

Such are the two chief opposed theories of the origins of 
exogamy, and of the connexions of exogamy with totemism. 
The second does not enjoy the benefit of notice and criticism 
in Mr Frazer's Totemism. 

1 The Secret of the Totem, pp. 128, 13,1. 

* For other arguments explaining the duality of the divisions 
see Van Gennep, ut supra, p. xxxiv. and note I. 



Relations of the Social and Religious Aspects of Totemism. It 
is a curious fact (if it be accepted as a fact) that the social 
aspect of totemism the prohibition to marry a person of the 
same hereditary totem name is sometimes strongest where 
the " religious " prohibition against killing or eating the totem 
is weakest; while the highest regard is paid to the totem, or 
to the god which is supposed to inhabit the totem species, where 
there is no prohibition on marrying within the totem name. 
Thus in Australia, where (except in the centre, among the 
Arunta) almost all tribes prohibit marriages within the totem 
name, it is scarcely possible to find an instance in which irreligious 
treatment of the totem, killing or eating it, is (as among many 
other totemic peoples) thought to be automatically or " reli- 
giously " punished by illness, death or miscarriage. Religion, 
in these cases, does not hold that the injured majesty of the 
totem avenges itself on the malefactor. On the other hand the 
Samoans, who pay no regard to the sacred animal of each 
community in the matter of not marrying within his name, 
believe that he will inflict death if one of his species be eaten 
and if no expiatory rite be performed. 3 In Samoa, we saw, 
the so-called totem is the vehicle of a God; in Australia no such 
idea is found. 

Meanwhile the offence of marrying within the totem name is 
nowhere automatically punished in any way except among the 
American Navajos, where, to make certain, the totem kin also 
inflicts secular penalties; 4 and it is part of the magic of the 
Intichiuma rites for the behoof of the totem that his kin should 
eat of him sparingly, as on all occasions they may do. In all 
other quarters, where marriage within the totem kin is forbidden, 
the penalty of a breach of law has been death or tribal excom- 
munication. The offence is secular. The Euahlayi, who never 
marry within the totem name, " may and do eat their hereditary 
totems with no ill effects to themselves." 6 This is very 
common in South Australia. As a rule, however, in Australia 
some respect is paid to the actual plant or animal, and some 
Northern tribes who inherit the paternal totem respect it almost 
as much as the maternal totem. As they also inherit property 
in the maternal line, it seems clear that they have passed from 
female to male descent, as regards the totem, but not as regards 
inheritance. 6 

Male and Female Descent of the Totem. It was the almost 
universal opinion of anthropologists that, in the earliest totemic 
societies, the totem was inherited from the mother, and that 
inheritance from the father was a later development. But when 
the peculiar totemism of the Arunta was discovered, and it was 
desired to prove that this non-exogamous totemism was the 
most primitive extant, it was felt to be a difficulty that the Arunta 
reckon descent of everything hereditable in the male, not the 
female line. If then, the Arunta were not primitive but advanced, 
in this matter as well as in their eight sub-classes and ceremonies, 
how could their totemism be primitive? It would have been 
easy to reply that a people might be " primitive " in some details 
though advanced in others the fact is notorious. But to escape 
from the dilemma the idea was proposed that neither male nor 
female descent was more primitive than the other. One tribe 
might begin with male, one with female descent. Nobody can 
prove that it was not so, but " whereas evidence of the passage 
from female to male reckoning may be observed, there is virtually 
none of a change in the opposite direction." 7 

Thus the Worgaia and Northern neighbours of the Arunta, 
with male descent, have certainly passed through a system of 
female descent of the totem, and actually inherit property in the 
female line, while Strehlow's Aranda or Arunta inherit their 
mothers' totems. Moreover Howitt shows us at least one tribe 

8 Turner, Samoa, p. 31, sqq. 

4 Bourke, Snake Dance of the Moquis, p. 279. 

6 Mrs Langloh Parker, The Euahlayi Tribe, p. 279. 

6 See for Worgaia and Warramunga reverence of the mother's 
totem, though they inherit the father's, Spencer and Gillen, Northern 
Tribes, p. 166. That these tribes, though reckoning descent in 
the paternal line, inherit property in the maternal is certain, see 
pp. 523, 524- 

'Thomas, ut supra, p. 15. 



TOTEMISM 



with female descent, the Dieri, actually in the process of diverging 
from female to male descent of the totem. " A step further is 
when a man gives his totem name to his son, who then has those 
of both father and mother. This has been done even in the 
Dieri tribe," which appears to mean that it is also done in other 
tribes. 1 

A difficult case in marriage law is explained by saying that 
" possibly some man, as is sometimes the case, gave his Murdu 
(totem) to his son, who was then of two Murdus, and so could not 
marry a girl of one of his two totems." 2 We thus see how the 
change from female to male descent of the totem is " directly 
led to," as Mr Howitt says, 3 by a man's mere fatherly desire to 
have his son made a member of his own totem kin. On the other 
hand, we never read that with male descent of the totem a mother 
gives hers to son or daughter. All these facts make it hard to 
doubt (though absolute proof is necessarily impossible) that 
female everywhere preceded male descent of the totem. 

Proof of transition from female to male descent of the totem 
appears to be positive in some tribes of the south of South 
Australia. Among them each person inherits his mother's 
totem, and may not marry a woman of the same. But he also 
inherits his father's totem, which " takes precedence," and gives 
its name to the local group. No person, as apparently among 
the Dieri when a father has " given his totem " to a son, may 
marry into either his father's or his mother's totem kin (Mrs 
Bates). 

Thus we have a consecutive series of evolutions: (a) All 
inherit the maternal totem only, and must not marry within it. 
This is the rule in tribes of south-east Australia with female 
descent, (b) Some fathers in this society give their totems to 
sons, who already inherit their maternal totems. Such sons can 
marry into neither the paternal nor maternal totems. This was 
a nascent rule among the Dieri. (c) All inherit both the paternal 
and the maternal totem, and may marry into neither (southern 
South Australia), (d) All inherit the religious regard for the 
maternal totem, but may marry within it, while they may not 
marry within the paternal totem (Worgaia and Warramunga of 
north central Australia), (e) The paternal totem alone is 
religiously regarded, and alone is exogamous (tribes of south- 
east Australia with male descent). (/) The totem is neither 
hereditary on either side nor exogamous (Spencer's Arunta). 
(g) The maternal totem is hereditary and sacred, but not 
exogamous (Strehlow's Arunta). 

In this scheme we give the degrees by which inheritance of the 
totem from the mother shades into inheritance of the totem from 
both parents (Dieri) , thence to inheritance of both the maternal 
and paternal totem while the paternal alone regulates marriage 
(Worgaia and Warramunga), thence to exclusive inheritance of 
the paternal, without any regard paid to the maternal totem 
(some tribes of South Australia) , and so on. 

Meanwhile we hear of no tribe with paternal descent of the 
totem in which mothers are giving their own totems also to their 
children. We cannot expect to find more powerful presumptions 
in favour of the opinion that tribes having originally only 
maternal have advanced by degrees to only paternal descent of 
the totem. Mr Frazer says, " So far as I am aware, there is no 
evidence that any Australian tribe has exchanged maternal for 
paternal descent, and until such evidence is forthcoming we are 
justified in assuming that those tribes which now trace descent 
from the father formerly traced it from the mother." 4 

We have now provided, however, the evidence for various 
transitional stages from maternal to paternal descent, but have 
found no traces of the contrary process, nor more than one way of 
interpreting the facts. It is admitted by Mr Frazer that in several 
North American tribes the change from female to male descent 
has to all appearance been made. 6 Among the Delawares the 
initial process was much akin to that of the Dieri, who, in a tribe 
of female descent, " gives " his own totem to his sons. " The 
Delawares had a practice of sometimes naming a child into its 
father's clan," and a son thus became a member of his father's 

1 N.T.S.E.A. p. 284. * Ibid. p. 167. 

' Ibid. p. 284. ' Totemism, \. 317. ' Ibid. iii. 42, 58, 72, 80. 



clan. This " may very well have served to initiate a change of 
descent from the female to the male line." 6 Howitt says pre- 
cisely the same thing about the paternal practice of the Dieri. 
Thus there is no reason for denying that the change from female 
to male descent can be made by Australian as readily as by 
American tribes. We have given evidence for every step in the 
transition. The opposite opinion arose merely in an attempt 
to save the primitiveness of the Arunta, some of whom actually 
still make the maternal totem hereditary. 

The change to male descent is socially very important. The 
totem kin of a man, for example, takes up his blood feud. Where 
the descent is female a " man may probably have some (totemic) 
kinsmen in the same group, but equally a considerable number 
of members of other totem kins." But it is clear that the rule 
of male descent gives far greater security to the members of a 
local group; for they are surrounded by kinsmen, local totem 
groups only occurring where male descent of the totem prevails, 
or is predominant. 7 The change from female to male descent of 
the totem, or the adoption of male descent from the first (if if 
ever occurred) is thus a great social advantage. 

The Ways out of Totemism. While Howitt believed (though 
later he wavered in his opinion) that female had always preceded 
male descent of the totem, he also observed that with male 
descent came in abnormal developments. One of these is that 
the people of a district with male descent are often known by 
the name of the region, or of some noted object therein (say wild 
cherries). 8 They may even regard (or white observers suppose 
that they regard) some object as their " local totem," yet they 
marry within that so-called totem. But they take to marrying, 
not out of the hereditary totem kin, which becomes obsolescent, 
but out of their own region into some other given locality. Thus 
in the Kurnai tribe there were no inevitable hereditary totems, 
but thundung were given by the fathers to lads" when about ten 
years old or at initiation." 9 The animal thundung(tlder brother) 
was to protect the boy, or girl (the girl's thundung was 'called 
banung). The names of the creatures, in each case, appear to 
have been given to their human brothers and sisters; the 
thundung name descended to a man's sons. " The names 
are perpetuated " (under male descent) " from- generation to 
generation in the same locality." 10 

Thus it appears that when a Kurnai wishes to marry he 
goes to a locality where he finds girls of banung names into 
which he may lawfully wed. So far he seems, in fact, to practise 
totemic exogamy; that he has to travel to a particular locality 
is merely an accident. Though the thundung and banung 
names are not inherited at birth by the children, they are given 
by the father when the child is old enough to need them. 11 

On the whole, we seem to see, in tribes where male descent 
is of old standing, that the exogamous function of the totem 
becomes obsolete, but a shadow of him, as thundung, retains a 
sort of " religious " aspect and even an unappreciated influence 
in marriage law. 

In Fiji and Samoa, in Melanesia w and British New Guinea, 
many types of contaminated and variegated survivals of totem- 
ism may be studied. In the Torres Islands 13 hero-worship blends 
with totemic survivals. As in parts of South Africa, where a 
tribe, not a kin, has a sacred animal, as in Fiji, he seems to be the 
one survivor of many totems, the totem of some dominant local 

Totemism, iii. 42. 

7 Except among the Arunta, where, though totems come by 
change, local groups are usual. See Spencer and Gillen, Central 
Tribes, p. g. How this occurs we can only guess. See Folk Lore, 
vol. xx., No. 2, pp. 229-231. Here it is conjectured that adults 
of the totem congregate for the purpose of convenience in performing 
Intich''.uma, or magical services for the propagation of the totem 
as an article of food. For the nature of these rites, common in 
the central and northern but unknown to the south-eastern tribes, 
see Central Tribes, pp. 167-212, and Northern Tribes, pp. 283-320. 
The Arunta totem aggregates are magical local societies. 

8 Central Tribes, pp. 8, 9. ' N.T.S.E.A. p. 146. 

10 Ibid. p. 146. u Cf. Howitt, ibid. pp. 270-279. 

12 Rivers, " Totemism in Polynesia and Melanesia," Journ. Anthrop. 
Inst. vol. xxxix. 

13 Haddon, Cambridge Expedition, vol. v. 



TOTEMISM 



89 



totem group, before which the other totems have fled, or but 
dimly appear, or are vehicles of gods, or, in Africa, of ancestral 
spirits. (These African tribal sacred animals are called Siboko 1 .) 
Some tribes explain that the Siboko originated in an animal 
sobrique, as ape, crocodile, given from without. 2 Sibokoism, the 
presence of a sacred animal in a local tribe, can hardly be called 
toteraism, though it is probable that the totem of the leading 
totem kin, among several such totem kins in a tribe, has become 
dominant, while the others have become obsolete. On the Gold 
Coast of Africa as long ago as 1819, Bowdich 3 found twelve 
" families," as he called them, of which most were called by the 
name of an animal, plant or other object, more or less sacred 
to them. They might not marry a person of the same kindred 
name, and there can be little doubt that totemism, with exogamy, 
had been the rule. But now the rules are broken down, especially 
in the peoples of the coast. The survivals and other informa- 
tion may be found in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute 
(1906) xxxvi. 178, 188. 

There are fainter traces of totemism in the Awemba between 
Lake Tanganyika and Lake Bangweolo. 4 A somewhat vague 
account of Bantu totems in British East Africa, by Mr C. W. 
Hobley, indicates that among exogamous " clans " a certain 
animal is forbidden as food to each " clan." 6 The largest 
collection of facts about African totemism, from fresh and 
original sources, is to be found in Mr Frazer's book. For 
totemism in British Columbia the writings of Mr Hill Tout may 
be consulted. 6 The Thlinkit tribes have the institution in 
what appears to be its earliest known form, with two exogamous 
phratries and female descent. Among the Salish tribes " per- 
sonal " totems are much more prominent. Mr Hill Tout, with 
Professor F. Boas, considers the hereditary exogamous totem 
to have its origin in the non-exogamous personal totem, which is 
acquired in a variety of ways. The Salish are not exogamous, 
and have considerable property and marked distinctions of rank. 
It does not, therefore, appear probable that their system of 
badges or crests and personal totems is more primitive than the 
totemic rules of the less civilized Thlinkits, who follow the form 
of the south-east Australian tribes. 7 

Other very curious examples of what we take to be aberrant 
and decadant totemism in New Guinea are given by Mr Selig- 
mann (Man, 1908, No. 89), and by Dr Rivers for Fiji (Man, 
1908, No. 75). Mr Seligmann (Man, 1908, No. 100) added to 
the information and elucidated his previous statements. The 
" clans " in British south-east New Guinea usually bear geo- 
graphical names, but some are named after one of the totems 
in the " clan." " Every individual in the clan has the same 
linked totems," of which a bird, in each case, and a fish seem 
to be predominant and may not be eaten. " The clans are 
exogamous . . . and descent is in the female line." It appears, 
then, that a man, having several totems, all the totems in his 
" clan," must marry a woman of another " clan " who has all 
the totems of her " clan." 

Similar multiplicity of totems, each individual having a 
number of totems, is described in Western Australia (Mrs 
Bates). In this case the word " totem " seems to be used rather 
vaguely and the facts require elucidation and verification. 
In this part of Australia, as in Fiji 8 "pour la naissance . . . 
1'apparition du totem-animal avait toujours lieu." In Fiji 
the mother sees the animal, which does not affect conception, 
and " is merely an omen for the child already conceived." But 
in Western Australia, as we have seen, the husband dreams 
of an animal, which is supposed to follow him home, and to be 
the next child borne by his wife If it is correctly stated that 
when the husband has dreamed of no animal, while nevertheless 
his wife has a baby, the husband spears the man whom he 
suspects of having dreamed of an animal, the marital jealousy 

1 Frazer, " Totemism, South Africa," Man (1901), No. Hi. 

2 See Secret of the Totem, pp. 25, 26. 3 Mission to Ashanti. 
4 Journ. Anthrop. Inst. (1906), xxxvi. 154. 

6 Ibid. (1903), xxxiii. 346-348. " Ibid. (1903-1904). 

7 See discussion in Secret of the Totem for details and references. 

8 Pere Schmidt, Man (1908), No. 84, quoting Pere de Marzan, 
Anthrapos, ii. 400-405. 



takes an unusual form and human life becomes precarious. But 
probably the husband has some reason for the direction of his 
suspicions. He never suspects a woman. 

" The Banks' Islanders," says Mr Frazer, " have retained the 
primitive system of conceptional totemism." 9 On the other hand 
Dr Rivers, who is here our authority, writes " totemism is absent " 
from " the northern New Hebrides, the Banks' and the Terres 
groups." 10 In a place where totemism is absent it does not prima 
facie seem likely that we shall discover " the primitive system 
of conceptional totemism." The Banks' Islanders have no 
totemism at all. But they have a certain superstition applying 
to certain cases, and that superstition resembles Arunta and 
Loritja beliefs, in which Mr Frazer finds the germs of totemism. 
The superstition, however, has not produced any kind of 
totemism in the Banks' group of isles, at least, no totemism is 
found. " There are," writes Dr Rivers, " beliefs which would seem 
to furnish the most natural starting-point for totemism, beliefs 
which Dr Frazer has been led by the Australian evidence " 
(by part of the Australian evidence, we must say) " to regard 
as the origin of the institution." Thus, in Banks' Islands we 
have the starting-point of the institution, without the institution 
itself, and in many Australian tribes we have the institution 
without the facts which are " the most natural starting-point." 
As far as they go these circumstances look as if " the most 
natural " were not the actual starting-point. The facts are 
these: in the Isle of Mota, Banks' group, " many individuals " 
are under a tabu not to eat, in each case, a certain animal 
or fruit, or to touch certain trees, because, in each case, " the 
person is believed to be the animal or fruit in question." 

This tabu does not, as in totemism, apply to every individual; 
but only to those whose mothers, before the birth of the indivi- 
duals, " find an animal or fruit in their loin-cloths." This, 
at least, " is usually " the case. No other cases are given. 
The women, in each case, are informed that their child " will 
have the qualities of the animal " (or fruit) " or even, it appeared 
would be himself or herself the animal " (or fruit). A coco-nut 
or a crocodile, a flying fox or a brush turkey, could not get 
inside a loin-cloth; the animal and fruits must be of exiguous 
dimensions. When the animal (or fruit) disappears " it is 
believed that it is because the animal has at the time of its dis- 
appearance entered into the woman. It seemed quite clear that 
there was no belief in physical impregnation on the part 
of the animal nor of the entry of a material object in the form 
of the animal . . , but, so far as I could gather, an animal 
found in this way was regarded as more or less supernatural, a 
spirit animal and not one material, from the beginning." 

" There was no ignorance of the physical r61e of the human 
father, and the father played the same part in conception as 
in cases unaccompanied by an animal appearance." The part 
played by the animal or fruit is limited to producing a tabu 
against the child eating it, in each case, and some community 
of nature with the animal or fruit. Nothing here is hereditary. 
The superstition resembles some of those of the Arunta, Loritja 
and Euahlayi. Among the Euahlayi the superstition has no 
influence; normal totemism prevails; among the Arunta nation 
it is considered to be, and Dr Rivers seems to think that it is, 
likely to have been the origin of totemism. In Mota, however, 
it either did not produce totemism, or it did; and, where the 
germ has survived in certain cases, the institution has disappeared 
while the germinal facts have vanished in the great majority 
of totemic societies. Dr Rivers does not explain how a brush 
turkey, a sea snake or a flying fox can get into a woman's 
loin-cloth, yet these animals, also crabs, are among those tabued 
in this way. Perhaps they have struck the woman's fancy 
without getting into her loin-cloth. 

It is scarcely correct to say that " the Banks' Islanders 
have retained the primitive system of conceptional totemism." 
They only present, in certain instances, features like those which 
are supposed to be the germs of a system of conceptional 

Man, iv. 128. 

10 " Totemism in Polynesia and Melanesia," Journ. Anthrop. Inst. 
xxxix. 173, sqq. 



9 o 



TOTEMISM 



totemism. In the case of the Arunta we have demonstrated 
that hereditary and exogamous totemism of the normal type 
preceded the actual conceptional method of acquiring, by local 
accident, " personal totems." If the Banks' Islanders were 
ever totemists they have ceased to be so, and merely retain, in 
cases, a superstition analogous to that which, among the Arunta, 
with the aid of the stone churinga, has produced the present 
unique and abnormal state of affairs totemic. 

For totemism in India, see Dal ton, Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal; 
for the north of Asia, Strahlenberg's Description, &c. (1738); and in 
all instances Mr Frazer's book. 

Myths of Totem Origins. The myths of savages about the 
origin of totemism are of no historical value. Not worshipping 
ancestral spirits, an Australian will not, like an ancestor- 
worshipping African, explain his totem as an ancestral spirit. 
But where, as in the north and centre, he has an elaborate 
philosophy of spirits, there the primal totems exude spirits 
which are incarnated in women. 

In their myths as to the origin of totemism, savages vary 
as much as the civilized makers of modern hypotheses. Some 
claim descent from the totem object; others believe that an 
original race of animals peopled the world; animals human in 
character, but bestial, vegetable, astral or what not, in form. 
These became men, while retaining the rapport with their 
original species; or their spirits are continually reincarnated in 
women and are born again (Arunta of Messrs Spencer and 
Gillen); or spirits emanating from the primal forms, or from 
objects in nature, as trees or rocks, connected with them, enter 
women and are reincarnated (Arunta of Mr Strehlow and some 
Australian north-western tribes, studied by Mrs Bates). 
Other Australians believe that the All-Father, Baiame, gave 
totems and totemic laws to men. 1 There are many other explana- 
tory myths wherever totemism, or vestiges thereof, is found in 
Australia, Africa, America and Asia. 

All the myths of savages, except mere romantic Marchen, and 
most of the myths of peoples who, like the Greeks, later became 
civilized, are " aetiological," that is, are fanciful hypotheses 
made to account for everything, from the universe, the skies, 
the sun, the moon, the stars, fire, rites and ceremonies, to the 
habits and markings of animals. It is granted that almost all of 
these fables are historically valueless, but an exception has been 
made, by scholars who believe that society was deliberately 
reformed by an act bisecting a tribe into two exogamous divisions, 
for savage myths which hit on the same explanation. We might 
as well accept the savage myths which hit on other explanations, 
for example the theory that Sibokoism arose from animal 
sobriquets. Exceptions are also made for Arunta myths in 
which the primal ancestors are said to feed habitually if not 
exclusively on their own totems. But as many totems, fruit, 
flowers, grubs, and so on are only procurable for no longer than 
the season of the May-fly or the March-brown, these myths are 
manifestly fabulous. 

Again the Arunta primal ancestors are said to have cohabited 
habitually with women of their own totem, though without 
prejudice against women of other totems whom they encountered 
in their wanderings. These myths are determined by the 
belief in oknanikilla, or spots haunted by spirits all of one totem, 
which, again, determine the totem of every Arunta. The 
idea being that the fabled primal ancestors male and female 
in each wandering group of miracle-workers were always all of 
one totem, it follows that, if not celibate, which these savages 
never are, they must have cohabited with women of their own 
totem, and, by the existing Arunta system, there is no reason 
why they should not have done so. In no other field of research 
is historical value attributed to savage legends about the 
inscrutable past that lies behind existing institutions. 

We are thus confronted by an institution of great importance 
socially where it regulates marriages and the blood-feud, 
or where it is a bond of social union between kinsmen in the 
totem or members of a society which does magic for the behoof 

1 Mrs Langloh Parker, The Euahlayi Tribe. 



of its totem (central and north-western Australia), and is of 
some " religious " and mythical importance when, as in Samoa, 
the sacred animal is regarded as the vehicle of a god. Of the 
origin of these beliefs, which have practical effects in the evolution 
of society and religion, much, we saw, is conjectured, but as we 
know no race in the act of becoming totemic as in all peoples 
which we can study totemism is an old institution, and in most 
is manifestly decaying or being transmuted we can only form 
the guesses of which examples have been given. Others may 
be found in the works of Herbert Spencer and Lord Avebury, 
and criticisms of all of them may be read in A. Lang's Social 
Origins. 

Whether or not survivals of totems are to be found in the 
animal worship of ancient Egypt, in the animal attendants of 
Greek gods, in Greek post-Homeric legends of descent from gods 
in various bestial disguises, and in certain ancient Irish legends, it 
is impossible to be certain, especially as so many gods are now 
explained as spirits of vegetation, to which folk-lore assigns 
carnal forms of birds and beasts. 

^ Other Things called Totems. As has been said, the name 
" totem " is applied by scholars to many things in nature which 
are not hereditary and exogamous totems. The " local totem " 
(so called) has been mentioned, also " linked totems." 

Personal Totems. This is the phrase for any animal or other 
object which has been " given " to a person as a protective 
familiar, whether by a sorcerer 2 or by a father, or by a congress 
of spaewives at birth; or whether the person selects it for him- 
self, by the monition of a dream or by caprice. The Euahlayi 
call the personal totem Yunbeai, the true totem they style Dhe. 
They may eat their real but not their personal totems, which 
answer to the hares and black cats of our witches. 

Three or four other examples of tribes in which " personal 
totems " are " given " to lads at initiation are recorded by 
Howitt. 3 The custom appears to be less common in Australia 
than in America and Africa (except in South Australia, where 
people may have a number of " personal totems "). In one case 
the " personal totem " came, to a man in a dream, as in North 
America. 4 Here it may be noted that the simplest and appar- 
ently the easiest theory of the origin of totemism is merely 
to suppose that a man, or with female descent a woman, 
made his or her personal totem hereditary for ever in his or her 
descendants. But nobody has explained how it happened 
that while all had evanescent personal totems those of a few 
individuals only become stereotyped and hereditary for ever. 

Sex-Totems. The so-called " sex totem " is only reported in 
Australia. Each sex is supposed by some tribes to have its 
patron animal, usually a bird, and to injure the creature is to 
injure the sex. When lovers are backward the women occasion- 
ally kill the animal patron of the men, which produces horse- 
play, and " a sort of jolly fight," like sky-larking and flirtation. 5 
The old English " jolly kind of fight," between girls as partisans 
of ivy, and men as of the holly " sex-totem," is a near analogue. 
It need not be added that " sex-totems " are exogamous, in 
the nature of things. 

Sub-Totems. This is the name of what are also styled " multi- 
plex totems," that is, numerous objects claimed for their own 
by totem kins in various Australian regions. The Emu totem 
kin, among the Euahlayi tribe, claims as its own twenty-three 
animals and the north-west wind. 6 The whole universe, 
including mankind, was apparently .divided between the totem 
kins. Therefore the list of sub-totems might be extended 
indefinitely. 7 These " sub-totems " are a savage effort at 
universal classification. 

Conclusion. We have now covered the whole field of con- 
troversy as to the causes and origins of totemic institutions. 
Australia, with North America, provides the examples of those 
institutions which seem to be " nearest to the beginning," 
and in Australia the phenomena have been most carefully and 



2 TJie Euahlayi Tribe, p. 21. 
* Ibid. p. 154. 

6 The Euahlayi Tribe, p. I *.. 

7 N.T.S.E.A. p. 454. 



3 N.T.S.E.A. pp. 144-148. 
6 Ibid. pp. 148-151. 



TOTILA TOTNES 



9 1 



elaborately observed among peoples the least sophisticated. In, 
North America most that we know of many great tribes, 
Iroquois, Hurons, Delawares and others, was collected long ago, 
and when precision was less esteemed, while the tribes have 
been much contaminated by our civilization. It has been 
unavoidably necessary to criticize, at almost every stage, the 
conclusions and hypotheses of the one monumental collection 
of facts and theories, Mr Frazer's Totemism (1910). Persons 
who would pursue the subject further may consult the books 
mentioned in the text, and they will find a copious, perhaps an 
exhaustive bibliography in the references of Mr Frazer's most 
erudite volumes, with their minute descriptive account not 
only of the totemism, but of the environment and general 
culture of hundreds of human races, in Savagery and in the 
Lower and Higher Barbarism. (A. L.) 

TOTILA (d. 552), king of the Ostrogoths, was chosen king 
after the death of his uncle Ildibad in 541, his real name being, 
as is seen from the coinage issued by him, Baduila. The work 
of his life was the restoration of the Gothic kingdom in Italy and 
he entered upon the task at the very beginning of his reign, 
collecting together and inspiring the Goths and winning a victory 
over the troops of the emperor Justinian, near Faenza. Having 
gained another victory in 542, this time in the valley of Mugello, 
he left Tuscany for Naples, captured that city and then received 
the submission of the provinces of Lucania, Apulia and Calabria. 
Totila's conquest of Italy was marked not only by celerity but also 
by mercy, and Gibbon says " none were deceived, either friends 
or enemies, who depended on his faith or his clemency." Towards 
the end of 545 the Gothic king took up his station at Tivoli and 
prepared to starve Rome into surrender, making at the same 
time elaborate preparations for checking the progress of Beli- 
sarius who was advancing to its relief. The Imperial fleet, moving 
up the Tiber and led by the great general, only just failed to 
succour the city, which must then, perforce, open its gates to 
the Goths. It was plundered, although Totila did not carry 
out his threat to make it a pasture for cattle, and when the 
Gothic army withdrew into Apulia it was from a scene of desola- 
tion. But its walls and other fortifications were soon restored, 
and Totila again marching against it was defeated by Belisarius, 
who, however, did not follow up his advantage. Several 
cities were taken by the Goths, while Belisarius remained 
inactive and then left Italy, and in 549 Totila advanced a third 
time against Rome, which he captured through the treachery 
of some of its defenders. His next exploit was the conquest 
and plunder of Sicily, after which he subdued Corsica and Sar- 
dinia and sent a Gothic fleet against the coasts of Greece. By 
this time the emperor Justinian was taking energetic measures 
to check the Goths. The conduct of a new campaign was 
entrusted to the eunuch Narses; Totila marched against him 
and was defeated and killed at the battle of Tagina in July 

552- 

See E. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, edited by J. B. Bury (1898), 
vol. iv; T. Hodgkin, Italy and her Invaders (1896), vol. iv. and 
Kampfner, Totila, Konig der Ostgoten (1889). 

TOTNES, GEORGE CAREW, or CAREY, EARL OF (1555-1629), 
English politician and writer, son of Dr George Carew, dean of 
Windsor, a member of a well-known Devonshire family, and Anne, 
daughter of Sir Nicholas Harvey, was born on the 29th of May 
I555, 1 and was educated at Broadgates Hall, Oxford, where he 
took the degree of M.A. in 1588. He distinguished himself 
on the field on several occasions and filled important military 
commands in Ireland. In 1584 he was appointed gentleman- 
pensioner to Queen Elizabeth, whose favour he gained. In 1586 
he was knighted -in Ireland. Refusing the embassy to France, 
Sir George Carew was made master of the ordnance in Ireland 
in 1588, in 1590 Irish privy councillor; and in 1592 lieutenant- 
general of the ordnance in England, in which capacity he 
accompanied Essex in the expedition to Cadiz in 1596 and to 

'According to his own statement, Archaeologia, xii. 401. In the 
introduction, however, to the Calendar of Carew MSS. the date of 
his birth is given as 1558, and his admission into Broadgates Hall in 
1572, aged 15. In the preface to Carew's Letters to Roe it is given 
as 1557- 



the Azores in 1597. In 1598 he attended Sir Robert Cecil, the 
ambassador, to France. He was appointed treasurer at war to 
Essex in Ireland in March 1599, and on the latter's sudden 
departure in September of the same year, leaving the island 
in disorder, Carew was appointed a lord justice, and in 1600 
president of Munster, where his vigorous measures enabled the 
new lord deputy, Lord Mountjoy, to suppress the rebellion. He 
returned to England in 1603 and was well received by James I., 
who appointed him vice-chamberlain to the queen the same 
year, master of the ordnance in 1608, and privy councillor in 
1616; and on the accession of Charles I. he became treasurer 
to Queen Henrietta Maria in 1626. He sat for Hastings in the 
parliament of 1604, and on the 4th of June 1605 was created 
Baron Carew of Clopton, being advanced to the earldom of 
Totnes on the 5th of February 1626. In 1610 he revisited 
Ireland to report on the state of the country; and in 1618 pleaded 
in vain for his friend Sir Walter Raleigh. He died on the 27th 
of March 1629, leaving no issue. He married Joyce, daughter of 
William Clopton, of Clopton in Warwickshire. 

Besides his fame as president of Munster, where his administration 
forms an important chapter in Irish history, Carew had a consider- 
able reputation as an antiquary. He was the friend of Camden, of 
Cotton and of Bodley. He made large collections of materials 
relating to Irish history and pedigrees, which he left to his secretary, 
Sir Thomas Stafford, reputed on scanty evidence to be his natural 
son; while some portion has disappeared, 39 volumes after coming 
into Laud's possession are now at Lambeth, and 4 volumes in the 
Bodleian Library. A calendar of the former is included in the 
State Papers series edited by J. S. Brewer and W. Bullen. His 
correspondence from Munster with Sir Robert Cecil was edited in 
1864 by Sir John Maclean, for the Camden Society, and his letters 
to Sir Thomas Roe (1615-1617) in 1860. Other letters or papers are 
in the Record Office; among the MSS. at the British Museum and 
calendared in the Hist. MSS. Com, Series, Marquess of Salisbury's 
MSS. Stafford published after Carew's death Pacata Hibernia, or 
the History of the Late Wars in Ireland (1633), the authorship of 
which he ascribes in his preface to Carew, but which has been 
attributed to Stafford himself. This was reprinted in 1810 and re- 
edited in 1896. A Fragment of the History of Ireland, a translation 
from a French version of an Irish original, and King Richard II..., 
in Ireland from the French, both by Carew, are printed in Walter 
Harris's Hibernica (1757). According to Wood, Carew contributed 
to the history of the reign of Henry V. in Speed's Chronicle. His 
opinion on the alarm of the Spanish invasion in 1596 has also been 
printed. 

See also the Life of Sir P. Carew, ed. by Sir J. Maclean (1857). 

TOTNES, a market town and municipal borough in the Totnes 
parliamentary division of Devonshire, England, on the Dart, 
29 m. S.S.W. of Exeter, by the Great Western railway. Pop. 
(1901), 4035. It stands on the west bank of the river, and is 
joined by a bridge to the suburb of Bridgetown. It was formerly 
a walled town, and two of the four gates remain. Many old 
houses are also preserved, and in High Street their overhanging 
upper stories, supported on pillars, form a covered way for 
foot-passengers. The castle, .founded by the Breton Juhel, 
lord of the manor after the Conquest, was already dismantled 
under Henry VIII.; but its ivy-clad keep and upper walls 
remain. The grounds form a public garden. Close by are the 
remains of St Mary's Priory, which comprise a large Perpen- 
dicular gatehouse, refectory, precinct wall, abbot's gate and 
still-house. A grammar school, founded 1554, occupied part 
of the Priory, but was removed in 1874 to new buildings. The 
Perpendicular church of St Mary contains a number of interest- 
ing tombs and effigies dating from the i5th century onwards, 
and much excellent carved work. The guildhall is formed from 
part of the Priory. Vessels of 200 tons can lie at the wharves 
near the bridge. The industries include brewing, flour mill- 
ing, and the export of agricultural produce, chiefly corn and 
cider. Trout and salmon are plentiful in the river. The town is 
governed by a mayor, 4 aldermen and 12 councillors. Area 
1423 acres. 

Totnes ( Toteneis, Tolton) was a place of considerable importance 
in Saxon times; it possessed a mint in the reign of /Ethelred, 
and was governed by a portreeve. In the Domesday Survey 
it appears as a mesne borough under Juhel of Totnes, founder 
of the castle and priory; it had 95 burgesses within and 15 
without the borough, and rendered military service according 



TOTONICAPAM TOUCAN 



to the custom of Exeter. In 1215 a charter from John instituted 
a gild merchant with freedom from toll throughout the land. A 
mayor is mentioned in the court roll of 1386-1387, and a charter 
from Henry VII. in 1505 ordered that the mayor should be 
elected on St Matthew's day, and should be clerk of the market. 
The present governing charter was granted by Elizabeth in 
1596, and instituted a governing body of a mayor, fourteen 
masters or councillors, and an indefinite number of burgesses, 
including a select body called " the Twenty-men." A fresh 
charter of incorporation from James II. in 1689 made no altera- 
tions of importance. The borough was represented in parlia- 
ment by one member in 1295, and by two members from 1298 
until disfranchised by the act of 1867. A market on Saturday 
existed at least as early as 1255, and in 1608 is described as well 
stocked with provisions. The charter of Elizabeth granted a 
three days' fair at the feast of SS Simon and Jude (Oct. 28), 
and in 1608 fairs were also held on May day and at the feast of 
St James (July 25). The market day has been transferred to 
Friday, but the May and October fairs are continued. The 
town was formerly noted for serges, and in 1641 the inhabitants 
represented their distress owing to the decline of the woollen 
trade. The industry is now extinct. During the Civil War 
General Goring quartered his troops at Totnes, and Fairfax 
also made it his temporary station. 

See Victoria County History; Devonshire; The History of Totnes, 
its neighbourhood and Berry Pomeroy Castle (Totnes, 1825); William 
Cotton, A Graphic and Historical Sketch of the Antiquities of Totnes 
(London, 1858). 

TOTONICAPAM, or TOTONICAPAN, the capital of the depart- 
ment of Totonicapam, Guatemala, on the same high plateau as 
Quezaltenango, the nearest railway station, from which it is 
12 m. E.N.E. Pop. (1905) about 28,000. Totonicapam is 
inhabited mainly by Quiche Indians, employed in the making 
of cloth, furniture, pottery and wooden musical instruments. 
There are hot mineral springs in the neighbourhood. In 1838 
Totonicapam was declared an independent republic, in which 
the adjoining departments of Solola and Quezaltenango were 
included. This state existed for two years, and was then again 
merged in the republic of Guatemala. Totonicapam suffered 
greatly in the earthquake of the i8th of April 1902. 

TOTTENHAM, an urban district in the Tottenham parlia- 
mentary division of Middlesex, England, forming a north 
suburb of London, 65 m. north of London Bridge, adjoining 
Edmonton on the south. Top. (1901), 102,541. Its full 
name, not now in use, was Tottenham High Cross, from the 
cross near the centre of the township. The origin and 
significance of this cross are doubtful. The present structure 
was erected c. 1600, and ornamented with stucco in 1809. In 
the time of Isaak Walton there stood by it a shady 
arbour to which the angler was wont to resort. Formerly 
Tottenham was noted for its " greens," in the centre of one 
of which stood the famous old elm trees called the " Seven 
Sisters "; these were removed in 1840, but the name is pre- 
served in the Seven Sisters Road. Bruce castle, on the site 
of the old mansion of the Bruces, but built probably by Sir 
William Compton in the beginning of the i6th century, was 
occupied by a boarding-school founded by Mr (afterwards Sir) 
Rowland Hill in 1827 on the system instituted by him at Hazle- 
wood, Birmingham. It became public property in 1892. 
The church of All Hallows, Tottenham, was given by David, 
king of Scotland (c.ii26), to the canons of the church of Holy 
Trinity, London. It retains Perpendicular portions, a south 
porch of brick of the i6th century and numerous ancient monu- 
ments and brasses. The grammar school was enlarged and 
endowed in 1686 by Sarah, dowager duchess of Somerset. The 
urban district formerly included Wood Green to the west, but 
this became a separate urban district in 1888 (pop. 34,233). 

In the reign of Edward the Confessor the manor of Tottenham 
was possessed by Earl Waltheof . It was inherited by his daughter 
Maud, who was married first to Simon de St Liz and after- 
wards to David, son of Malcolm III., king of Scotland, who was 
created by Henry I. earl of Huntingdon, and received possession 



of all the lands formerly held by Earl Waltheof. The manor 
thus descended to William the Lion, king of Scotland, and was 
granted by him in 1184 to his brother David, earl of Angus 
and Galloway, the grant being confirmed in 1199 by King 
John of England, who created him earl of Huntingdon. He 
married Maud, heiress of Hugh, earl of Chester, and his son 
John inherited both earldoms. The son married Helen, daughter 
of Llewelyn, prince of Wales, by whom he was poisoned in 
1237, dying without issue. She retained possession till 1254, 
when the manor was divided between his coheirs Robert de 
Brus, John de Baliol and Henry de Hastings, each division 
forming a distinct manor bearing the name of its owner. In 
1429 they were reunited in the possession of John Gedeney, 
alderman of London. 

William Bedwell, the Arabic scholar, was vicar of Tottenham, and 
published in 1632 a Briefe Description of the Towne of Tottenham, in 
which he printed for the first time the burlesque poem, the Turna- 
ment of Tottenham. 

TOTTENVILLE, a former village of Richmond county, New 
York, U.S.A., and since 1898 a part of New York City. It is 
on the southern shore of Staten Island in New York Bay and on 
Staten Island Sound, about 20 m. S.W. of the south extremity 
of Manhattan Island, and is the terminus of the Staten Island 
Rapid Transit railway. Marine engines, terra-cotta and boats 
are manufactured here, and there are oyster fisheries. The 
" Billopp House " here (still standing) was the scene of the con- 
ference, on the nth of September 1776, between Lord Howe, 
representing Lord North, and Benjamin Franklin, John Adams 
and Edward Rutledge, representing the Continental Congress, 
with regard to Lord North's offer of conciliation. This house, 
originally called the " Manor of Bentley," was built by Captain 
Christopher Billopp (1638-1726), who sailed from England in an 
armed vessel, the " Bentley," in 1667, and, by circumnavigating 
Staten Island in 24 hours, made it, under the ruling of the 
duke of York, a part of New York. From the duke of York 
he received 1163 acres of land, including the present site of 
Tottenville. The village was long known as Bentley, but in 
1869 was incorporated (under a faulty charter, revised in 1894) 
as Tottenville, apparently in honour of Gilbert Totten, a soldier 
in the War of Independence. 

TOUCAN, the Brazilian name of a bird, 1 long since adopted 
into nearly all European languages, and apparently first given 
currency in England (though not then used as an English word) 
in 1668 2 by W. Charleton (Onomasticon, p. 115); but the bird, 
with its enormous beak and feather-like tongue, was described 
by Oviedo in his Sumario de la historia natural de las Indias, 
first published at Toledo in 1527 (ch. 42)," and, to quote 
the translation of part of the passage in F. Willughby's Ornith- 
ology (p. 1 29) , " there is no bird secures her young ones better from 
the Monkeys, which are very noisom to the young of most Birds. 
For when she perceives the approach of those Enemies, she so 
settles her self in her Nest as to put her Bill out at the hole, 
and gives the Monkeys such a welcome therewith, that they 
presently pack away, and glad they scape so." Indeed, so 
remarkable a bird must have attracted the notice of the earliest 
European invaders of America, the more so since its gaudy 
plumage was used by the natives in the decoration of their per- 
sons and weapons. In 1555 P. Belon (Hist. nat. oyseaux, p. 184) 
gave a characteristic figure of its beak, and in 1558 Thevet 
(Singularitez de la France antarctique, pp. 88-90) a long descrip- 
tion, together with a woodcut (in some respects inaccurate, 
but quite unmistakable) of the whole bird, under the name 
of " Toucan," which he was the first to publish. In 1560 
C. Gesner (Icones avium, p. 130) gave a far better figure (though 

1 Commonly believed to be so called from its cry; but Skeat 
(Proc. Philolog. Society, May 15, 1885) adduces evidence to prove 
that the Guarani Tuca is from 11, nose, and cdng, bone, i.e. nose of 
bone. 

2 In 1656 the beak of an " Aracari of Brazil," which was a toucan 
sf some sort, was contained in the Musaeum tradescantianum (p. 2), 
out the word toucan does not appear there. 

3 The writer has only been able to consult the reprint of this rare 
work contained in the Biblioteca de autores espanoles (xxii. 473-515), 
published at Madrid in 1852. 



TOUCH 



93 






still incorrect) from a drawing received from Ferrerius, and 
suggested that from the size of its beak the bird should be called 
Burhynchus or Ramphestes. This figure, with a copy of Thevet's 
and a detailed description, was repeated in the posthumous 
edition (1585) of his larger work (pp. 800, 801). By 1579 
Ambroise Pare ((Euvres, ed. Malgaigne, iii. 783) had dissected a 
toucan that belonged to Charles IX. of France, and about the 
same time Lery (Voyage fait en la terre du Brisil, ch. xi.), 
whose chief object seems to have been to confute Thevet, con- 
firmed that writer's account of this bird in most respects. In 
1599 Aldrovandus (Ornithologia, i. 801-803), always ready to 
profit by Gesner's information, and generally without acknow- 
ledgment, again described and repeated the former figures of 
the bird; but he corrupted his predecessor's Ramphestes into 
Ramphastos, and in this incorrect form the name, which should 
certainly be Rhamphestes or Rhamphastas, was subsequently 
adopted by Linnaeus and has since been recognized by system- 
atists. Into the rest of the early history of the toucan's discovery 
it is needless to go. 1 Additional particulars were supplied by 
many succeeding writers, until in 1834 J. Gould completed his 
Monograph of the family 2 (with an anatomical appendix by 
R. Owen), to which, in 1835, he added some supplementary 
plates; and in 1854 he finished a second and much improved 
edition. The most complete compendium on toucans is J. 
Cassin's " Study of the Ramphastidae," in the Proceedings 
of the Philadelphia Academy for 1867 (pp. 100-124). 

By recent systematists 5 genera and from 50 to 60 species of the 
family are recognized; but the characters of the former have never 
been satisfactorily denned, much less those of numerous subdivisions 
which it has pleased some writers to invent. There can be little 
doubt that the bird first figured and described by the earliest 
authors above named is the R. toco of nearly all ornithologists, and 
as such is properly regarded as the type of the genus and therefore 
of the family. It is one of the largest, measuring 2 ft. in length, 
and has a wide range throughout Guiana and a great part of Brazil. 
The huge beak, looking like the great claw of a lobster, more than 
8 in. long and 3 high at the base, is of a deep orange colour, with a 
large black oval spot near the tip. The eye, with its double iris 
of green and yellow, has a broad blue orbit, and is surrounded by a 
bare space of deep orange skin. The plumage generally is black, 
but the throat is white, tinged with yellow and commonly edged 
beneath with red; the upper tail-coverts are white, and the lower 
scarlet. In other species of the genus, 14 to 17 in number, the bill 
is mostly particoloured green, yellow, red, chestnut, blue and black 
variously combining so as often to form a ready diagnosis; but some 
of these tints are very fleeting and often leave little or no trace after 
death. Alternations of the brighter colours are also displayed in 
the feathers of the throat, breast and tail-coverts, so as to be in like 
manner characteristic of the species, and in several the bare space 
round the eye is yellow, green, blue or lilac. The sexes are alike in 
coloration, the males being largest. The tail is nearly square or 
moderately rounded. In the genus Pteroglossus, the " Aracaris " 
(pronounced Arassari), the sexes more or less differ in appearance, 
and the tail is graduated. The species are smaller in size, and 
nearly all are banded on the belly, which is generally yellow, with 
black and scarlet, while except in two the throat of the males at 
least is black. One of the most remarkable and beautiful is P. 
beauharnaisi, by some authors placed in a distinct genus and called 
Beauharnaisius ulocomus. In this the feathers of the top of the 
head are very singular, looking like glossy curled shavings of black 
horn or whalebone, the effect being due to the dilatation of the shaft 
and it? coalescence with the consolidated barbs. Some of the 
feathers of the straw-coloured throat and cheeks partake of the same 
structure, but in a less degree, while the subterminal part of the 
lamina is of a lustrous pearly- white. 3 The beak is richly coloured, 



1 One point of some interest may, however, be noticed. In 1705 
Plot (N.H. Oxfordshire, p. 182) recorded a toucan found within two 
miles of Oxford in 1644, the body of which was given to the repository 
in the medical school of that university, where, he said, " it is still to 
be seen." Already in 1700 Leigh in his Lancashire (i. 195, Birds, 
tab. i, fig. 2) had figured another which had been found dead on the 
coast of that county about two years before. The bird is easily kept 
in captivity, and no doubt from early times many were brought alive 
to Europe. Besides the one dissected by Par, as above mentioned, 
Joh. Faber, in his additions to Hernandez's work on the Natural 
History of Mexico (1651), figures (p. 697) one seen and described by 
Puteus (Dal Pozzo) at Fontainebleau. 

2 Of this the brothers Sturm in 1841 published at Nuremberg a 
German version. 

* This curious peculiarity naturally attracted the notice of the first 
discoverer of the species, Poeppig, who briefly described it in a letter 
published in Froriep's Notizen (xxxii. 146) for December 1831. 



being green and crimson above and lemon below. The upper 
plumage generally is dark green, but the mantle and rump are 
crimson, as are a broad abdominal belt, the flanks and many 
crescentic markings on the otherwise yellow lower parts. 4 The 
group or genus Selenodera, proposed by J. Gould in 1837 (Icones 
avium, pt. i), contains some 6 or 7 species, having the beak, which 
is mostly transversely striped, and tail shorter than in Pteroglossus. 
Here the sexes also differ in coloration, the males having the head 
and breast black, and the females the same parts chestnut; but all 
have a yellow nuchal crescent (whence the name of the group). The 
so-called hill-toucans have been separated as another genus, Andi- 
gena, and consist of some 5 or 6 species chiefly frequenting the slopes 
of the Andes and reaching an elevation of 10,000 ft., though one, 
often placed among them, but perhaps belonging rather to Ptero- 
glossus, the A. bailloni,_ remarkable for its yellow-orange head, neck 
and lower parts, inhabits the lowlands of southern Brazil. Another 
very singular form is A. laminirostris, which has affixed on either 
side of the maxilla, near the base, a quadrangular ivory-like plate, 
forming a feature unique in this or almost in any family of birds. 
The group Aulacorhamphus, or " groove-bills," with a considerable 
but rather uncertain number of species, contains the rest of the 
toucans. 

The monstrous serrated bill that so many toucans possess was 
by G. L. L. Buffon accounted a grave defect of nature, and it must 
be confessed that no one has given what seems to be a satisfactory 
explanation of its precise use, though on evolutionary principles none 
will now doubt its fitness to the bird's requirements. Solid as it 
looks, its weight is inconsiderable, and the perfect hinge by which 
the maxilla is articulated adds to its efficiency as an instrument 
of prehension. W. Swainson (Classif. Birds, ii. 138) imagined it 
merely " to contain an infinity of nerves, disposed like net-work, all 
of which lead immediately to the nostrils," and add to the olfactory 
faculty. This notion seems to be borrowed from J. W. H. Trail 
(Trans. Linn. Society, xi. 289), who admittedly had it from Waterton, 
and stated that it was " an admirable contrivance of nature to 
increase the delicacy of the organ of smell;" but R. Owen's descrip- 
tion showed this view to be groundless, and he attributed the 
extraordinary development of the toucan's beak to the need of com- 
pensating, by the additional power of mastication thus given, for the 
absence of any of the grinding structures that are so characteristic 
of the intestinal tract of vegetable-eating birds its digestive organs 
possessing a general simplicity of formation. The nostrils are placed 
so as to be in most forms invisible until sought, being obscured by 
the frontal feathers or the backward prolongation of the horny 
sheath of the beak. The wings are somewhat feeble, and the legs 
have the toes placed in pairs, two before and two behind. The tail 
is capable of free vertical motion, and controlled by strong muscles, 
so that, at least in the true toucans, when the bird is preparing to 
sleep it is reverted and lies almost flat on the back, on which also 
the huge bill reposes, pointing in the opposite direction. 

The toucans are limited to the new world, and by far the greater 
number inhabit the north of South America, especially Guiana and 
the valley of the Amazons. Some three species occur in Mexico, and 
several in Central America. One, R. vitellinus, which has its head- 
quarters on the mainland, is said to be common in Trinidad, but none 
are found in the Antilles proper. They compose the family Rham- 
phastidae of Coraciiform birds, and are associated with the wood- 
peckers (Picidae) and puff-birds and jacamars (Galbulidae) ; their 
nearest allies perhaps exist among the Capitonidae, but none of these 
is believed to have the long feather-like tongue which is so charac- 
teristic of the toucans, and is, so far as known, possessed besides 
only by the Momotidae (see MOTMOT). But of these last there is no 
reason to deem the toucans close relatives, and according to W. 
Swainson, who had opportunities of observing both, the alleged 
resemblance in their habits has no existence. Toucans in confine- 
ment feed mainly on fruit, but little seems amiss to them, and they 
swallow grubs, reptiles and small birds with avidity. They nest in 
hollow trees, and lay white eggs. (A. N.) 

TOUCH (derived through Fr. toucher from a common Teu- 
tonic and Indo-Germanic root, cf. " tug," " tuck," O. H. Ger. 
zucchen, to twitch or draw), in physiology, a sense of pressure, 
referred usually to the surface of the body. It is often understood 
as a sensation of contact as distinguished from pressure, but it 
is evident that, however gentle be the contact, a certain amount 
of pressure always exists between the sensitive surface and the 
body touched. Mere contact in such circumstances is gentle 
pressure; a greater amount of force causes a feeling of resistance 
or of pressure referred to the skin; a still greater amount causes a 
feeling of muscular resistance, as when a weight is supported 
on the palm of the hand; whilst, finally, the pressure may be so 
great as to cause a feeling of pain. The force may not be exerted 

4 Readers of F. Bates's Naturalist on the River Amazons will 
recollect the account (ii. 344) and illustration there given of his 
encounter with a flock of this species of toucan. His remarks on 
the other species with which he met are also excellent. 



94 



TOUCH 




vertically on the sensory surface, but in the opposite direction 
as when a hair on a sensory surface is pulled or twisted. Touch 
is therefore the sense by which mechanical force is appreciated 
and it presents a strong resemblance to hearing, in which the 
sensation is excited by intermittent pressures on the auditory 
organ. In addition to feelings of contact or pressure referred 
to the sensory surface, contact may give rise to a sensation oi 
temperature, according as the thing touched feels hot or cold 
These sensations of contact, pressure or temperature are usually 
referred to the skin or integument covering the body, but they 
are experienced to a greater or less extent when any serous or 
mucous surface is touched. The skin being the chief sensory 
surface of touch, it is there -that the sense is most highly 
developed both as to delicacy in detecting minute pressures and 
as to the character of the surface touched. Tactile impressions, 
properly so called, are absent from internal mucous surfaces, as 
has been proved in men having gastric, intestinal and urinary 
fistulae. In these cases, touching the mucous surface caused 
pain, and not a true sensation of touch. 

In the article NERVE (Spinal) the cutaneous distribution of the 
organs of touch is dealt with. 

The Amphibia and Reptilia do not show any special organs of 
touch. The lips of tadpoles have tactile papillae. Some snakes 
have a pair of tentacles on the snout, but the tongue is probably 
the chief organ of touch in most serpents and lizards. All reptiles 
possessing climbing powers have the sense of touch highly developed 
in the feet. 

Birds have epithelial papillae on the soles of the toes that are no 
doubt tactile. These are of great length in the capercailzie (Tetrax 

urogallus) , " enabling it to 
grasp with more security the 
frosted branches of the Nor- 
wegian pine trees " (Owen). 
Around the root of the bill 
in many birds there are 
special tactile organs, assist- 
ing the bird to use it as a kind 
of sensitive probe for the de- 
tection in soft ground of the 
worms, grubs and slugs that 
constitute its food. Special 
bodies of this kind have been 
detected in the beak and 
tongue of the duck and goose, called the tactile corpuscles of F. S. 
Merkel, or the corpuscles of Grandry (fig. i). Similar bodies have 
been found in the epidermis of man and mammals, in the outer 
root-sheath of tactile hairs or feelers. They consist of small bodies 
composed of a capsule enclosing two or more flattened nucleated 
cells, piled in a row. Each corpuscle is separated from the others 
by a transparent protoplasmic disk. Nerve fibres terminate either 
in the cells (Merkel) or in the protoplasmic intercellular matter 
(Ranyier, Hesse, Izquierdo). Another form of end-organ has been 
described by Herbst as existing in the mucous membrane of the duck's 
tongue. These corpuscles of Herbst are like small Pacinian corpuscles 
^5^==?^ with thin and very close lamellae. Develop- 

//^S^^O\ ments of integument devoid of feathers, 

/ y^^y^*\\ such as the " wattles " of the cock, the 

I i J/i-^&ru " caruncles " of the vulture and turkey, 
\ <TN<!SX'1\ are not tactile in their function. 

In the great majority of Mammalia the 
general surface of the skin shows sensitive- 
ness, and this is developed to a high degree 
on certain parts, such as the lips, the end 
of a teat and the generative organs. 
Where touch is highly developed, the skin, 
more especially the epidermis, is thin and 
devoid of hair. In the monkeys tactile 
papillae are found in the skin of the fingers 
and palms, and in the skin of the prehen- 
sile tails of various species (Ateles). Such 
papillae also abound in the naked skin of 
the nose or snout, as in the shrew, mole, pig, tapir and elephant. 
In the Ornithorhynchus the skin covering the mandibles is tactile 
(Owen). In many animals certain hairs acquire great size, length 
and stiffness. These constitute the vibrissae or whiskers. Each 
large hair grows from a firm capsule sunk deep in the true skin, 
and the hair bulb is supplied with sensory nerve filaments. In 
the walrus the capsule is cartilaginous in texture. The marine 
Carnivora have strong vibrissae which " act as a staff, in a way 
analogous to that held and applied by the hand of a blind man 
(Owen). Each species has hairs of this kind developed on the 
eyebrows, lips or cheeks, to suit a particular mode of existence, 
as, for example, the long fine whiskers of the night-prowling 
felines, and in the aye-aye, a monkey having nocturnal habits. 



FIG. I. Tactile Corpuscles from 
duck's tongue. 
n, Nerve. 




FIG. 2. Tactile Cor- 
puscle from the hand. 



In the Ungulata the hoofs need no delicacy of touch as regards 
the discrimination of minute points. Such animals, however, have 
broad, massive sensations of touch, enabling them to 
appreciate the firmness of the soil on which they tread, 
and under the hoof we find highly vascular and sen- 
sitive lamellae or papillae, contributing 
no doubt, not only to the growth of the 
hoof, but also to its sensitiveness. The 
Cetacea have numerous sensory papillae 
in the skin. Bats have the sense of 
touch strongly developed in the wings 
and external ears, and in some species 
in the flaps of skin found near the nose. 
There is little doubt that many special 
forms of tactile organs will be found in 
animals using the nose or feet for bur- 
rowing. A peculiar end-organ has been 
found in the nose of the mole, while there 
are " end-capsules " in the tongue of the 
elephant and " nerve rings " in the ears 
of the mouse. FlG. 3 .-Tactile Corpuscles 

End-Organs of Touch in Man. In from clitoris of rabbit, 
man three special forms of tactile "' 

end-organs have been described, and can be readily demon- 
strated. 

i.^ The End- Bulbs of Krause. These are oval or rounded 
bodies, from ^J-j to j^j of an inch long. Each consists of a 
delicate capsule, composed of nucleated connective tissue 





FIG. 4. End-Bulb from 
human conjunctiva. 

a, Nucleated capsule. 

b, Core. 

c, Entering nerve-fibre 

terminating in the 
core at d. 




FIG. 5. End-Bulb from 

conjunctiva of calf. 

n, Nerve. 



mclosing numerous minute cells. On tracing the nerve fibre, 

t is found that the nerve sheath is continuous with the capsule, 
whilst the axis cylinder of the nerve divides into branches 
which lose themselves among the cells. W.. Waldeyer and 

xmgworth state that the nerve fibrils terminate in the cells, 

hus making these bodies similar to the cells described by F. S. 

Vterkel (ut supra). (See fig. 4.) These bodies are found in the 
deeper layers of the conjunctiva, margins of the lips, nasal 
mucous membrane, epiglottis, fungiform and circumvallate 

>apillae of the tongue, glans penis and clitoris, mucous membrane 
the rectum of man, and they have also been found on the 
under surface of the " toes of the guinea-pig, ear and body of 

he mouse, and in the wing of the bat " (Landois and Stirling). 

n the genital organs aggregations of end-bulbs occur, known 
as the " genital corpuscles of Krause " (fig. 3). In the synovial 
membrane of the joints of the fingers there are larger end-bulbs, 

:ach connected with three four nerve-filaments. 

(2) The Touch Corpuscles of Wagner and Meissner. These 
are oval bodies, about -j-J^ of an inch long by -gfa of an inch in 

jreadth. Each consists of a series of layers of connective tissue 
arranged transversely, and containing in the centre granular 
matter with nuclei (figs. 2, 3 and 6). One, two or three 
nerve fibres pass to the lower end of the corpuscle, wind 

ransversely around it, lose the white substance of Schwann, 
penetrate into the corpuscle, where the axis cylinders, dividing, 

:nd in some way unknown. The corpuscles do not contain 
any soft core, but are apparently built up of irregular septae 

f connective tissue, in the meshes of which the nerve fibrils 
end in expansions similar to Merkel's cells. Thin describes 

imple and compound corpuscles according to the number of 
nerve fibres entering them. These bodies are found abundantly 



TOUCH 



95 



in the palm of the hand and sole of the foot, where there 
may be as many as 21 to every square millimetre (i mm. = 
5*5 inch). They are not so numerous on the back of the 
hand or foot, mamma, lips and tip of the tongue, and they 
are rare in the genital organs. 

3. The Corpuscles of Vater or 
P acini. These, first described by 
Vater so long ago as 1741, are small 
oval bodies, quite visible to the naked 
eye, from iV to iV of an inch long and 




i 

(From Landois and Stirling, after Biesiadecki.) 
FIG. 6. Vertical Section of the Skin of 
the Palm of the Hand. 

a. Blood-vessel. 

b, Papilla of the cutis vera. 

c. Capillary. 

d, Nerve-fibre passing to a touch- 

corpuscle. 

, Wagner's touch-corpuscle. 
/, Nerve-fibre, divided transversely, 
g, Cells of the Malpighian layer of the 

skin. 




FIG. 7. Vater'sor Pacini's 
Corpuscle. 

a, Stalk. 

b, Nerve-fibre entering it. 

c, d, Connective-tissue en- 

velope. 

e, Axis cylinder, with its 
end divided at /. 



fa to -jVf an inch in breadth, attached to the nerves of the 
hands and feet. They can be readily demonstrated in the 
mesentery of the cat (fig. 7). Each corpuscle consists of 40 to 
50 lamellae or coats, like the folds of an onion, thinner and 
closer together on approaching the centre. Each lamella is 
formed of an elastic material mixed with delicate connective- 
tissue fibres, .and the inner surface of each is lined by a single 
continuous layer of endothelial cells. A double-contoured nerve 
fibre passes to each. The white substance of Schwann becomes 
continuous with the lamellae, whilst the axis cylinder passes into 
the body, and ends in a small knob or in a plexus. Some- 
times a blood-vessel also penetrates the Pacinian body, entering 
along with the nerve. Such bodies are found in the sub- 
cutaneous tissue on the nerves of the fingers and toes, near 
joints, attached to the nerves of the abdominal plexuses of 
the sympathetic, on the coccygeal gland, on the dorsum 
of the penis and clitoris, in the meso-colon, in the course 
of the intercostal and periosteal nerves, and in the capsules of 
lymphatic glands. 

Physiology of Touch in Man. Such are the special end-organs 
of touch. It has also been ascertained that many sensory 
nerves end in a plexus or network, the ultimate fibrils being 
connected with the cells of the particular tissue in which they 
are found. Thus they exist in the cornea of the eye, and at 
the junctions of tendons with muscles. In the latter situation 
'' flattened end-flakes or plates " and " elongated oval end- 
bulbs " have also been found. A consideration of these 
various types of structure show that they facilitate intermittent 
pressure being made on the nerve endings. They are all, as it 
were, elastic cushions into which the nerve endings penetrate, 
so that the slight variation of pressure will be transmitted to 
the nerve. Probably also they serve to break the force of a 
sudden shock on the nerve endings. 

Sensitiveness and Sense of Locality. The degree of sensitiveness 
of the skin is determined by finding the smallest distance at which 



:he two points of a pair of compasses can be felt. This method 
first followed by Weber, is employed by physicians in the diagnosis 




Tip of tongue 

Third phalanx of finger, volar surface 



FIG. 8. Aesthesiometer of Sieveking. 

of nervous affections involving the sensitiveness of the skin. The 
following table shows the sensitiveness in millimetres for an adult. 

Mm. 
I-I 
2-2-3 

4-5 
4-4-5 
5-5-5 

6-8 

6-8 
5-6-8 
6-5-7 
5-5-6 

8-9 



Red part ol the lip 

Second phalanx of finger, volar surface 

First phalanx of finger, volar surface 

Third phalanx of finger, dorsal surface 

Tip of nose 

Head of metacarpal bone, volar 

Ball of thumb 

Ball of little finger 

Centre of palm 

Dorsum and side of tongue; white of the lips; metacarpal 

part of the thumb 9 

Third phalanx of the great toe, plantar surface. . . . 11-3 

Second phalanx of the fingers, dorsal surface . . . . 11-3 

Back n-3 

Eyelid 11-3 

Centre of hard palate . 13-5 

Lower third of the forearm, volar surface 15 

In front of the zygoma 15-8 

Plantar surface of the great toe 15-8 

Inner surface of the lip . 20-3 

Behind the zygoma .... 22-6 

Forehead 22-6 

Occiput 27-1 

Back of the hand 31-6 

Under the chin 33'8 

Vertex 33' 8 

Knee 36-1 

Sacrum (gluteal region) 44-6 

Forearm and leg 45" I 

Neck 54-1 

Back of the fifth dorsal vertebra; lower dorsal and lumbar 

region 54" r 

Middle of the neck 67-7 

Upper arm ; thigh ; centre of the back 67-7 

These investigations show not only that the skin is sensitive, 
but that one is able with great precision to distinguish the part 
touched. This latter power is usually called the sense of locality, 
and it is influenced by various conditions. The greater the number 
of sensory nerves in a given area of skin the greater is the degree 
of accuracy in distinguishing different points. Contrast in this 
way the tip of the finger and the back of the hand. Sensitiveness 
increases from the joints towards the extremities, and sensitiveness 
is great in parts of the body that are actively moved. The sensibility 
of the limbs is finer in the transverse axis than in the long axis of 
the limb, to the extent of J on the flexor surface of the upper limb 
and J on the extensor surface. It is doubtful if exercise improves 
sensitiveness, as Francis Galton found that the performances of 
blind boys were not superior to those of other boys, and he says that 
" the guidance of the blind depends mainly on the multitude of 
collateral indications, to which they give much heed, and not their 
superiority to any one of them. When the skin is moistened 
with indifferent fluids sensibility is increased. Suslowa made the 
curious discovery that, if the area between two points distinctly 
felt be tickled or be stimulated by a weak electric current, the 
impressions are fused. Stretching the skin, and baths in water 
containing carbonic acid or common salt, increase the power of 
localizing tactile impressions. In experimenting with the com- 
passes, it will be found that a smaller distance can be distinguished 
if one proceeds from greater to smaller distances than in the reverse 
direction. A smaller distance can also be detected when the points 
of the compasses are placed one after the other on the skin than 
when they are placed simultaneously. If the points of the com- 
passes are unequally heated, the sensation of two contacts becomes 
confused. An anaemic condition, or a state of venous congestion, 
or the application of cold, or violent stretching of the skin, or the 
use of. such substances as atropine, daturin, morphia, strychnine, 
alcohol, bromide of potassium, cannabin and hydrate of chloral 
blunt sensibility. The only active substance said to increase it 
is caffein. 



9 6 



TOUCH 



Absolute sensitiveness, as indicated by a sense of pressure, has 
been determined by various methods. Two different weights are 
placed on the part, and the smallest difference in weight that can 
be perceived is noted. Weber placed small weights directly on the 
skin; Aubert and Kammler loaded small plates; Dohrn made use 
of a balance, having a blunt point at one end of the beam, resting on 
the skin, whilst weights were placed on the other end of the beam 
to equalize the pressure; H. Eulenberg invented an instrument like 
a spiral spring paper-clip or balance (the baraesthesiometer), having 
an index showing the pressure in grammes; F. Goltz employed 
an India-rubber tube filled with water, and this, to ensure a constant 
surface of contact, bent at one spot over a piece of cork, is touched 
at that spot by the cutaneous part to be examined, and, by rhyth- 
mically exerted pressure, waves analogous to those of the arterial 
pulse are produced in the tube ; and L. Landois invented a mercurial 
balance, enabling him to make rapid variations in the weight without 
giving rise to any shock. These methods have given the following 
general results, (i) The greatest acuteness is on the forehead, 
temples and back of the hand and forearm, which detect a pressure 
of 0-002 gramme; fingers detect 0-005 to 0-015 gramme; the chin, 
abdomen and nose 0-04 to 0-05 gramme. (2) Goltz's method gives 
the same general results as Weber's experiment with the compasses, 
with the exception that the tip of the tongue has its sensation of 
pressure much lower in the scale than its sensation of touch. (3) 
Eulenberg found the following gradations in the fineness of the 
pressure sense : the forehead, lips, back of the cheeks, and temples 
appreciate differences of fa to ^ (200: 205 to 300: 310 grammes). 
The back of the last phalanx of the fingers, the forearm, hand, 
first and second phalanges, the palmar surface of the hand, forearm 
and upper arm distinguish differences of A to fa (200: 220 to 200: 
210 grammes). The front of the leg and thigh is similar to the fore- 
arm. Then follow the back of the foot and toes, the sole of the foot, 
and the back of the leg and thigh. Dohrn placed a weight of 
I gramme on the skin, and then determined the least additional weight 
that could be detected, with this result: third phalanx of finger 
0-499 gramme; back of the foot, 0-5 gramme; second phalanx, 0-771 
gramme; first phalanx, 0-82 gramme; leg, I gramme; back of hand, 
1-156 grammes; palm, 1-108 grammes; patella, 1-5 grammes; fore- 
arm, 1-99 grammes; umbilicus, 3-5 grammes; andback,3-8 grammes. 
(4) In passing from light to heavier weights, the acuteness increases 
at once, a maximum is reached, and then with heavy weights the 
power of distinguishing the differences diminishes. (5) A sensation 
of pressure after the weights have been removed may be noticed 
(after-pressure sensation), especially if the weight be considerable. 

(6) Valentine noticed that, if the finger were held against a blunt- 
toothed wheel, and the wheel were rotated with a certain rapidity, 
he felt a smooth margin. This was experienced when the intervals 
of time between the contacts of successive teeth were less than from 
lio to BJU of a second. The same experiment can be readily made 
by holding the finger over the holes in one of the outermost circles 
of a large syren rotating quickly: the sensations of individual 
holes become fused, so as to give rise to a feeling of touching a slit. 

(7) Vibrations of strings are detected even when _the number is 
about 1500 per second; above this the sensation of vibration ceases. 
By attaching bristles to the prongs of tuning-forks and bringing 
these into contact with the lip or tongue, sensations of a very acute 
character are experienced, which are most intense when the forks 
vibrate from 600 to 1500 per second. 

Information from Tactile Impressions. These enable us to come 
to the following conclusions, (i) We note the existence_of some- 
thing touching the sensory surface. (2) From the intensity of the 
sensation we determine the weight, tension or intensity of the 
pressure. This sensation is in the first instance referred to the skin, 
but after the pressure has reached a certain amount muscular 
sensations are also experienced the so-called muscular sense. 
(3) The locality of the part touched is at once determined, and from 
this the probable position of the touching body. Like the visual 
field, to which all retinal impressions are referred, point for point, 
there is a tactile field, to which all points on the skin surface may be 
referred. (4) By touching a body at various points, from the 
difference of pressure and from a comparison of the positions of 
various points in the tactile field we judge of the configuration of 
the body. A number of " tactile pictures are obtained by passing 
the skin over the touched body, and the shape of the body is further 
determined by a knowledge of the muscular movements necessary 
to bring the cutaneous surface into contact with_ different portions 
of it. If there is abnormal displacement of position, a false con- 
ception may arise as to the shape of the body. Thus, if a small 
marble or a pea be placed between the index and middle finger so 
as to touch (with the palm downwards) the outer side of the index 
finger and the inner side of the middle finger, a sensation of touching 
one round body is experienced ; but if the fingers be crossed, so that 
the marble touches the inner side of the index finger and the outer 
side of the middle finger, there will be a feeling of two round bodies, 
because in these circumstances there is added to the feelings of 
contact a feeling of distortion (or of muscular action) such as would 
take place if the fingers, for purposes of touch, were placed -in that 
abnormal position. Again, as snowing that our knowledge of the 
tactile field is precise, there is the well-known fact that when a piece 



of skin is transplanted from the forehead to the nose, in the operation 
for removing a deformity of the nose arising from lupus or other 
ulcerative disease, the patient feels the new nasal part as if it were 
his forehead, and he may have the curious sensation of a nasal 
instead of a frontal headache. (5) From the number of points 
touched we judge as to the smoothness or roughness of a body. A 
body having a uniformly level surface, like a billiard ball, is smooth ; 
a body having points irregular in size and number in a given area 
is rough ; and if the points are very close together it gives rise to a 
sensation, like that of the pile of velvet almost intolerable to some 
individuals. Again, if the pressure is so uniform as not to be felt, 
as when the body is immersed in water (paradoxical as this may seem, 
it is the case that the sensation of contact is felt only at the limit 
of the fluid), we experience the sensation of being in contact with a 
fluid. (6) Lastly, it would appear that touch is always the result 
of variation of pressure. No portion of the body when touching 
anything can be regarded as absolutely motionless, and the slight 
oscillations of the sensory surface, and in many cases of the body 
touched, produce those variations of pressure on which touch 
depends. 

To explain the phenomenon of the tactile field, and more specially 
the_ remarkable variations of tactile sensibility above described, 
various theories have been advanced, but none are satisfactory. 
(See article " Cutaneous Sensations " by C. S. Sherrington in 
Schafer's Physiology, ii. 920). Research shows that the sensation 
of touch may be referred to parts of the skin which do not contain 
the special end organs associated with this sense, and that filaments 
in the Malpighian layer (the layer immediately above the papillae 
ot the true skin) may form the anatomical basis of the sense. The 
skin may be regarded, also, as an extensive surface containing 
nervous arrangements by which we are brought into relation with 
the outer world. _ Accordingly, touch is not the only sensation 
referred to the skin, but we also refer sensations of temperature 
(heat and cold), and often those peculiar sensations which we call 
pain. 

Sensations of Temperature. These depend on thermic irritation 
of the terminal organs, as proved by the following experiment of 
E. H. Weber: " If the elbow be dipped into a verv cold fluid, the 
cold is only felt at the immersed part of the body (where the fibres 
terminate) ; pain, however, is felt in the terminal organs of the ulnar 
nerve, namely, in the finger points; this pain, at the same time, 
deadens the local sensation of cold. " If the sensation of cold were 
due to the irritation of a specific-nerve fibre, the sensation of cold 
would be referred to the tips of the fingers. When any part of the 
skin is above its normal mean temperature, warmth is felt; in the 
opposite case, cold. The normal mean temperature of a given area 
varies according to the distribution of hot blood in it and to the 
activity of nutritive changes occurring in it. When the skin is brought 
into contact with a good conductor of heat there is a sensation of 
cold. A sensation of heat is experienced when heat is carried to 
the skin in any way. The following are the chief facts that have 
been ascertained regarding the temperature sense: (i) E. H. 
Weber found that, with a skin temperature of from i5-5C.to35 C., 
the tips of the fingers can distinguish a difference of 0-25 C. to 0-2 C. 
Temperatures just below that of the blood (33-27 C.) are 
distinguished by the most sensitive parts, even to 0-05 C. (2) The 
thermal sense varies in different regions as follows: tip of tongue, 
eyelids, cheeks, lips, neck, belly. The " perceptible minimum " was 
found to be, in degrees C.: breast 0-4; back, 0-9; back of hand, 0-3; 
palm, 0-4 ; arm, 0-2 ; back of foot, 0-4 ; thigh, 0-5 ; leg, 0-6 to 0-2; 
cheek, 0-4; temple, 0-3. (3) If two different temperatures are applied 
side by side and simultaneously, the impressions of ten fuse, especially 
if the areas are close together. (4) Practice is said to improve the 
thermal sense. (5) Sensations of heat and cold may curiously 
alternate; thus when the skin is dipped first into water at 10 C. 
we feel cold, and if it be then dipped into water at 16 C. we have at 
first a feeling of warmth, but soon again of cold. (6) The same 
temperature applied to a large area is not appreciated in the same 
way as when applied to a small one; thus the whole hand when 
placed in water at 29-5 C. feels warmer than when a finger is 
dipped into water at 32 C. " 

There is every reason to hold that there are different nerve fibres 
and different central organs for the tactile and thermal sensations, 
but nothing definite is known. The one sensation undoubtedly 
affects the other. Thus the minimum distance at which two com- 
pass points are felt is diminished when one point is wanner than 
the other. Again, a colder weight is felt as heavier, " so that the 
apparent difference of pressure becomes greater when the heavier 
weight is at the same time colder, and less when the lighter weight 
is colder, and difference of pressure is felt with equal weights of 
unequal temperature " (E. H. Weber). Great sensibility to differ- 
ences of temperature is noticed after removal, alteration by vesicants, 
or destruction of the epidermis, and in the skin affection called 
herpes zoster. The same occurs in some cases of locomotor ataxy. 
Removal of the epidermis, as a rule, increases tactile sensibility 
and the sense of locality. Increased tactile sensibility is termed 
hyperpselaphesia, and is a rare phenomenon in nervous diseases. 
Paralysis of the tactile sense is called hypopselaphesia, whilst its 
entire loss is apselaphesia. Brown-Sequard mentions a case in 



TOUCH 



97 



which contact of two points gave rise to a sense of a third point of 
contact. Certain conditions of the nerve centres affect the senses 
both of touch and temperature. Under the influence of morphia 
the person may feel abnormally enlarged or diminished in size. As 
a rule the senses are affected simultaneously, but cases occur where 
one may be affected more than the other. 

Sensations of heat and cold are chiefly referred to the skin, and 
only partially to some mucous membranes, such as those of the 
alimentary canal. Direct irritation of a nerve does not give rise 
to these sensations. The exposed pulp of a diseased tooth, when 
irritated by hot or cold fluids, gives rise to pain, not to sensations 
of temperature. It has now been ascertained that there are minute 
areas on the skin in which sensations of heat and cold may be more 
acutely felt than in adjoining areas; and, further, that there are 
points stimulated by addition of heat, hot spots, while others are 
stimulated by withdrawal of heat, cold spots. 

A simple method of demonstrating this phenomenon is to 
use a solid cylinder of copper, 8 in. in length by in. in thick- 
ness, and sharpened at one end to a fine pencil-like point. Dip 
the pointed end into very hot water, close the eyes, and touch 
parts of the skin. When a hot spot is touched, there is an acute 
sensation of burning. Such a spot is often near a hair. Again, 
in another set of experiments, dip the copper pencil into ice-cold 
water and search for cold spots. When one of these is touched, a 
sensation of cold, as if concentrated on a point, is experienced. Thus 
it may be demonstrated that in a given area of skin there may be 
hot spots, cold spots and touch spots. 

Cold spots are more abundant than hot spots. The spots are 
arranged in curved lines, but the curve uniting a number of cold 
spots does not coincide with the curve forming a chain of hot spots. 
By Weber's method it will be found that we can discriminate cold 
spots at a shorter distance from each other than hot spots. Thus 
on the forehead cold spots have a minimum distance of 8 mm., and 
hot spots 4 mm.; on the skin of the breast, cold spots 2 mm., and 
hot spots 5 mm.; on the back, cold spots 1-5 mm., and hot spots 
4 to 6 mm.; on the back of the hand, cold spots 3 mm., and hot 
spots 4 mm. ; on the palm, cold spots 8 mm., and hot spots 2 mm. ; 
and on the thigh and leg, cold spots 3 mm., and hot spots 3-5 mm. 
Electrical and mechanical stimulation of the hot or cold spots call 
forth the corresponding sensation. No terminal organ for dis- 
crimination of temperature has yet been found. It will be observed 
that the sensation of heat or cold is excited by change of temperature, 
and that it is more acute and definite the more sudden the change. 
Thus discrimination of temperature is similar to discrimination of 
touch, which depends on more or less sudden change of pressure. 
The term cold means, physiologically, the sensation we experience 
when heat is abstracted, and the term heat, the sensation felt when 
heat is added to the part. Thus we are led to consider that the skin 
contains at least two kinds of specific terminal organs for sensations 
of touch and temperature, and two sets of nerve fibres which carry 
the nervous impulses to the brain. In all probability, also, these 
fibres have different central endings, and in their course to the brain 
run in different tracts in the spinal cord. This will explain cases 
of disease of the central nervous system in which, over certain areas 
of skin, sensations of touch have been lost while sensations of tem- 
perature and pain remain, or vice versa. Tactile and thermal 
impressions may influence each other. Thus a leg sent to "sleep" 
by pressure on the sciatic nerve will be found to be less sensitive 
to heat, but distinctly sensitive to cold. In some cases of disease 
it has been noticed that the skin is sensitive to a temperature above 
that of the limb, but insensitive to cold. It is highly probable that 
just as we found in the case of touch (pressure), the terminal organs 
connected with the sense of temperature are the fine nerve filaments 
that have been detected in the deeper strata of the Malpighian region 
of the epidermis, immediately above the true skin, and it is also 
probable that certain epidermic (epithelial) cells in that region 
play their part in the mechanism. Sensations of a painful character 
may also, in certain circumstances, be referred to the viscera, and 
to mucous and serous surfaces. Pain is not a sensation excited by 
irritating the end organs either of touch or of temperature, nor 
even by irritating directly the filaments of a sensory nerve. Even 
if sensory nerves are cut or bruised, as in surgical operations, there 
may be no sensations of pain; and it has been found that muscles, 
vessels and even the viscera, such as the heart, stomach, liver or 
kidneys, may be freely handled without giving rise to any feeling 
of pain, or indeed to any kind of sensation. These parts, in ordinary 
circumstances appear to be insensitive, and yet they contain afferent 
nerves. If the sensibility of these nerves is heightened, or possibly 
if the sensitiveness of the central terminations of the nerves is raised, 
then we may have sensations to which we give the name of pain. 
In like manner the skin is endowed with afferent nerves, distinct 
from those ministering to touch and to temperature, along which 
nervous impulses are constantly flowing. When these nervous 
impulses reach the central nervous system in ordinary circumstances 
they do not give rise to changes that reach the level of consciousness, 
but they form, as it were, the warp and woof of our mental life, and 
they also affect metabolisms, that is to say, nutritive changes in 
many parts of the body. They may also, as is well known, affect 
unconsciously such mechanisms as those of the action of the heart, 
the calibre of the blood-vessels and the movements of respiration. 

XXVII. 4 



If, however, this plane of activity is raised, as by intermittent 
pressure, or by inflammatory action, or by sudden changes of 
temperature, as in burning, scalding, &c., such nervous impulses give 
rise to pain. Sometimes pain is distinctly located, and in other 
cases it may be irradiated in the nerve centres, and referred to areas 
of skin or to regions of the body which are not really the seat of 
the irritation. Thus irritation of the liver may cause pain in the 
shoulder; disease of the hip-joint often gives rise to pain in the knee; 
and renal colic, due to_ the passage of a calculus down the ureter, 
to severe pain even in the abdominal walls. These are often 
termed reflex pains and their interpretation is of great importance 
to physicians in the diagnosis of disease. Their frequent occurrence 
has also directed attention to the distribution in the skin and 
termination in the brain of the sensory nerves. It is also notice- 
able that a sensation of pain gives us no information as to its 
cause; we simply have an agonizing sensation in a part to which, 
hitherto, we probably referred no sensations. The acuteness or 
intensity of pain depends partly on the intensity of the irritation, 
and partly on the degree of excitability of the sensory nerves at 
the time. 

Pain. In addition to sensations of touch and of temperature 
referred to the skin, there is still a third kind of sensation, unlike 
either, namely, pain. This sensation cannot be supposed to be 
excited by irritations of the end organs of touch, or of specific 
thermal end organs (if there be such), but rather to irritation of 
ordinary sensory nerves, and there is every reason to believe that 
painful impressions make their way to the brain along special tracks 
in the spinal cord. If we consider our mental condition as regards 
sensation at any moment, we notice numerous sensations more or 
less definite, not referred directly to the surface, nor to external 
objects, such as a feeling of general comfort, free or impeded breath- 
ing, hunger, thirst, malaise, horror, fatigue and pain. These are 
all caused by the irritation of ordinary sensory nerves in different 
localities, and if the irritation of such nerves, by chemical, thermal, 
mechanical or nutritional stimuli, passes beyond a certain maximum 
point of intensity the result is pain. Irritation of a nerve, in accord- 
ance with the law of " peripheral reference of sensation," will cause 
pain. Sometimes the irritation applied to the trunk of a sensory 
nerve may be so intense as to destroy its normal function, and loss 
of sensation or anaesthesia results. If then the stimulus be increased 
further, pain is excited which is referred to the end of the nerve, with 
the result of producing what has been called anaesthesia dolorosa. 
Pains frequently cannot be distinctly located, probably owing to 
the fact of irradiation in the nerve centres and subsequent reference 
to areas of the body which are not really the seat of irritations. 
The intensity of pain depends on the degree of excitability of the 
sensory nerves, whilst its massiveness depends on the number of 
nerve fibres affected. The quality of the pain is probably produced 
by the kind of irritation of the nerve, as affected by the structure 
of the part and the greater or less continuance of severe pressure. 
Thus there are piercing, cutting, boring, burning, throbbing, pressing, 
gnawing, dull and acute varieties of pain. Sometimes the excitability 
of the cutaneous nerves is so great that a breath of air or a delicate 
touch may give rise to suffering. This hyperalgia is found in 
inflammatory affections of the skin. In neuralgia the pain is charac- 
terized by its character of shooting along the course of the nerve 
and by severe exacerbations. In many nervous diseases there 
are disordered sensations referred to the skin, such as alterna- 
tions of heat and cold, burning, creeping, itching and a feeling as 
if insects were crawling on the surface (formication). This con- 
dition is termed parafgia. The term hypalgia is applied to a 
diminution and analgia to paralysis of pain, as is produced by 
anaesthetics. 

Muscular Sense. The sensory impressions considered in this 
article are closely related to the so-called muscular sense : or that 
sense or feeling by which we are aware of the state of the muscles of 
a limb as regards contraction or relaxation. Some have held that 
the muscular sense is really due to greater or less stretching of the 
skin and therefore to irritation of the nerves of that organ. That 
this is not the case is evident from the fact that disordered move- 
ments indicating perversion or loss of this sense are not affected by 
removal of the skin (Claude Bernard). Further, cases in the human 
being have been noticed where there was an entire loss of cutaneous 
sensibility whilst the muscular sense was unimpaired. It is also 
known that muscles possess sensory nerves, giving rise, in certain 
circumstances, to fatigue, and, when strongly irritated, to the pain 
of cramp. Muscular sensations are really excited by irritation of 
sensory nerves passing from the muscles themselves. There are 
specialized spindle-like bodies in many muscles, and there are organs 
connected with tendons which are regarded as sensory organs by 
which pressures are communicated to sensory nerve-filaments. 
We are thus made conscious of whether or not the muscles are 
contracted, and of the amount of contraction necessary to overcome 
resistance, and this knowledge enables us to judge of the amount 
of voluntary impulse. Loss or diminution of the muscular sense 
is seen in chorea and especially in locomotor ataxy. Increase of 
it is rare, but it is seen in the curious affection called anxietas 
tibiarum, a painful condition of unrest, which leads to a continual 
change in the position of the limbs (see EQUILIBRIUM). 

(J- G. M.) 



9 8 



TOUL TOULON 



TOUL, a garrison town of north-eastern France, capital of an 
arrondissement in the department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, 21 m. 
W. of Nancy on the Eastern railway Pop. (1906), town 9523; 
commune, 13,663. Toul is situated in a plain on the left bank 
of the Moselle, which skirts the town on the S. and S. E., while 
on the N. it is bordered by the Marne-Rhine canal. It is princi- 
pally important as being the centre of a great entrenched camp 
close to the German frontier. Immediately after the Franco- 
German War the whole system of frontier defence was revised, 
and of all the new fortresses of the Meuse and Moselle Toul is 
perhaps the most formidable. The works were begun in 1874 
by the construction of four outlying forts north, north-east 
and south of the town, but these soon became merely 
an inner line of defence. The principal defences now lie 
much farther out on all sides. The west front of the 
new line of forts occupies a long line of high ground (the 
watershed of the Meuse and the Moselle), the north front, 
about 4 m. from Toul, is in undulating country, while facing 
towards Nancy and forming the chord of the arc which 
the Moselle describes from Fontenay below to Villey-le-Sec 
above, is the strong east front, the outlying works of which 
extend far to the east (Fort Frouard and other works 
about Nancy) and to the south-east (Pont St Vincent). 
The south front extends from the Moselle at Villey-le- 
Sec south-westwards till it meets the southern end of the 
west front on the high ground overlooking the Meuse 
valley. The fort at Pagny on the Meuse to the south-west 
may be considered an outwork of this line of defence. The 
perimeter of the Toul defences proper is nearly 30 m., and 
their mean distance from the town about 6 m. Northward, 
along the Meuse, Toul is connected with the fortress of Verdun 
by the " Meuse line " of barrier forts, the best known of which 
are Gironville, Liouville and Troyon. South of Toul the country 
was purposely left unfortified as far as Epinal (q.v.) and this 
region is known as the Trouee d'Epinal. 

The town itself forms an oval within a bastioned enceinte 
pierced by three gateways. It has two important churches. 
That of St Etienne (formerly a cathedral) has a choir and 
transept of the I3th century; the nave and aisles are of the i4th, 
and the facade, the finest part of the building, of the last half of 
the isth. The two western towers, which have no spires, reach 
a height of 246 ft. The two large lateral chapels of the nave are 
in the Renaissance style. The chief features of the interior 
are its stained glass and organ loft. South of the church there 
is a fine cloister of the end of the I3th century which was 
much damaged at the Revolution. The church of St 
Gengoult, which dates chiefly from the late I3th or early i4th 
century, has a facade of the isth century and a cloister in the 
Flamboyant Gothic style of the i6th century. The h6tel- 
de-ville occupies a building of the i8th century, once the epis- 
copal palace, and contains the library and museum. Toul 
is the seat of a sub-prefect and has a tribunal of commerce 
and a communal college among its public institutions. The 
industries include the manufacture of porcelain; trade is in 
wine and brandy. 

Toul (Tullum) is one of the oldest towns of France; originally 
capital of the Leuci, in the Belgic Confederation, it acquired 
great importance under the Romans. It was evangelized by 
St Mansuy in the latter half of the 4th century, and became 
one of the leading sees of north-east Gaul. After being sacked 
successively by Goths, Burgundians, Vandals and Huns, Toul 
was conquered by the Franks in 450. Under the Merovingians 
it was governed by counts, assisted by elective officers. The 
bishops became sovereign counts in the loth century, holding 
only of the emperor, and for a period of 300 years (isth to i6th 
centuries) the citizens maintained a long struggle against 
them. Together with Verdun and Metz the town and its 
domain formed the territory of the Trois-Eveches. Toul was 
forced to yield for a time to the count of Vaudemont in the I2th 
century, and twice to the duke of Lorraine in the I5th, and was 
thrice devastated by the plague in the i6th century. Charles V. 
made a solemn entry into the town in 1 544, but in the following 



year, at the instance of the cardinal of Lorraine, it placed 
itself under the perpetual protection of the kings of France. 
Henry II. took possession of the Trois-Eveches in 1552, but the 
territory was not officially incorporated with France till 1648. 
Henry IV. was received in state in 1603, and in 1637 the 
parlement of Metz was transferred to Toul. In 1700 Vauban 
reconstructed the fortifications of the town. In 1790 the 
bishopric was suppressed and the diocese united to that of 
Nancy. Toul, which had then no modern defences, capitulated 
in 1870 after a bombardment of twelve days. 

TOULON, a seaport and first-class fortress and naval station 
of France, department of Var, capital of the arrondissement 
of Toulon, on the Mediterranean, 42 m. E.S.E. of Marseilles. 
Pop. (1886), 53,941; (1901), 101,602. The bay, which 
opens to the east, has two divisions, the Grande Rade 
and the Petite Rade; it is sheltered on the north and 
west by high hills, closed on the south by the peninsula of 
capes Sicie and Cepet, and protected on the east by a huge 
breakwater, the entrance, 1300 ft. wide, being defensible by 
torpedoes. A ship coming from the open sea must first 
pass the forts of St Marguerite, of Cap Brun, of Lamalgue 
and of St Louis to the north, and the battery of the signal 
station to the south; before reaching the Petite Rade it must 
further pass under the guns of the battery of Le Salut to the 
east, and of the forts of Balaguier and L'Aiguillette to the west. 
The Bay of La Seyne lies west of the Petite Rade, and is 
defended by the forts of Six-Fours, Napoleon (formerly Fort 
Caire), and Malbousquet, and the batteries of Les Arenes and 
Les Gaus. To the north of Toulon rise the defensive works 
of Mont Faron and Fort Rouge, to the east the forts of Artigues 
and St Catherine, to the north-east the formidable fort of 
Coudon, and to the south-east that of Colle Noire, respectively 
dominating the highway into Italy and the valley of Hyeres 
with the Bay of Carqueiranne. The town, enlarged to the 
north under the Second Empire, has on that side a fine modern 
quarter; but in the old town the streets are for the most part 
narrow, crooked and dirty, and to their 'insanitary state the 
cholera epidemic of 1884 was attributed. The chief buildings 
are the former cathedral of St Marie Majeure (from the 5th 
century Toulon was a bishop's see till 1801, when it was annexed 
to that of Frejus), the church of St Louis, the naval and military 
hospital, with a natural history collection and an anatomical 
museum attached, a naval school of medicine, a school of 
hydrography, and large barracks. In 1883-1887 a handsome 
Renaissance building was erected to accommodate the picture 
gallery and the town library. The monument in com- 
memoration of the centenary of the French Revolution was 
erected in 1890 in the Place de la Liberte, the finest in the 
new town. The imports are wine, corn, wood, coal, hemp, iron, 
sugar, coffee and fresh fish; the exports are salt, copper ore, 
barks for tanning and oils. The principal industries, apart 
from the arsenal, are shipbuilding, fishing, lace-making and 
wine-growing. Toulon possesses an observatory and a 
botanical garden. The interesting buildings and gardens of 
the hospital of St Mandrier stand on the peninsula of Cape 
Cepet, and near them is the lazaretto. 

Toulon is the most important of the French dockyards, and is 
the headquarters of the Mediterranean fleet. The arsenal, which 
was created by Louis XIV. Vauban being the engineer of the 
works lies on the north side of the Petite Rade. This is ap- 
proached from the Grande Rade by passages at the north and 
south ends of a long breakwater which extends from the direction 
of Le Mourillon towards the C6pet Peninsula. The water space 
within the moles amounts to about 150 acres, while the quays 
approach 4 m. in length. Outside in the Petite Rade is a splendid 
protected anchorage for a great fleet, the whole being commanded 
by many forts and batteries. There are four great basins ap- 
proached from the Petite Rade the Vielle Darse, to the east, 
on the side of Le Mourillon; the Darse Vauban, next to it; and the 
Darse de Castigneau and the Darse Missiessy, farther to the west. 
In the Darse Vauban are three dry docks, two of them 246 ft. long, 
with a depth of water on the sill of about 20 ft. ; while the third 
is 283 ft. long, with a depth of over 24 ft. Three other dry docks are 
in the Darse de Castigneau, of which one is in two sections. The 
largest of the docks is 385 ft. long, and the depth of water on the 
sill in all these docks averages 30 ft. In the Darse Missiessy are 



TOULOUSE, COUNT OF- -TOULOUSE 



99 






two dry docks, 426 ft. long, with a depth on the sill of over 32 ft. 
There are several building slips, and the yard is supplied with 
a gun foundry and wharf, fitting-shops, boiler works, victualling 
and other establishments, rolling mills and magazines. Le Mourillon 
is a subsidiary yard at Toulon, devoted chiefly to ship-building, 
and possessing large facilities, including five covered slips. 

The Roman Telo Martius is supposed to have stood near 
the lazaretto. The town was successively sacked by 
Goths, Burgundians, Franks and Saracens. During the 
early middle ages, and till conquered by Charles of Anjou 
in 1259, it was under lords of its own, and entered into alli- 
ance with the republics of Marseilles and Aries. St Louis, 
and especially Louis XII. and Francis I. strengthened 
its fortifications. It was seized by the emperor Charles V. 
in 1524 and 1536. Henry IV. founded a naval arsenal at 
Toulon, which was further strengthened by Richelieu, and 
Vauban made the new dock, a new enceinte, and several 
forts and batteries. In 1707 the town was unsuccessfully 
besieged by the duke of Savoy, Prince Eugene and an English 
fleet. In 1720 there was an outbreak of the plague. In 1792 
after great and sanguinary disorder, the royalists of the town 
sought the support of the English and Spanish fleets cruising 
in the neighbourhood. The Convention having replied by 
putting the town " hors la loi," the inhabitants opened their 
harbour to the English. The army of the republic now (1793) 
laid siege to the town, and on this occasion Napoleon Bonaparte 
first made his name as a soldier. The forts commanding the 
town having been taken, the English ships retired after setting 
fire to the arsenal. The conflagration was extinguished by 
the prisoners, but not before 38 out of a total of 56 vessels had 
been destroyed. Under the Directory Toulon became the 
most important French military fort on the Mediterranean; 
here Napoleon organized the Egyptian campaign, and the 
expedition against Algiers set out from Toulon in 1830. The 
fortifications have been strengthened by Napoleon I., Louis 
Philippe, Napoleon III., and since 1870. 

Battle of Toulon. This naval battle took place on the nth of 
February 1744, near the port of Toulon. A British fleet of thirty 
sail of the line under command of Thomas Mathews, who combined 
the offices of naval commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean and 
envoy to the courts of Sardinia and the Italian princes, engaged 
a combined force of Spaniards under Don Jos6 Navarrq and French 
under M. de Court. They were in all twenty-seven sail. The allies 
left Toulon on the 9th of February. Mathews was at anchor jn 
Hyeres Bay to watch them, for though France and Great Britain 
were already engaged as allies on opposite sides in the War of the 
Austrian Succession, there had been no declaration of war between 
them. It was known that the allies meant to transfer Spanish 
troops to Italy to serve against the Austrians, and Mathews had no 
hesitation in attacking them, Great Britain being at war with 
Spain. He left Hyeres in very light wind with a heavy westerly 
swell, and with his fleet in confusion. The British ships were strag T 
gling over a distance of ten miles, but he put himself between the 
enemy and Toulon. Mathews was on bad terms with his second 
in command, Lestock, who commanded the rear division and showed 
little disposition to support his superior. By the morning of the 
nth the interval between the van and centre of the British fleet 
and its rear had increased in the light breezes, and also ^hrough 
the voluntary or involuntary misapprehension of Mathews' s orders 
by Lestock. The allies were in a fairly well-formed line, heading 
to the south, and southward of the British. Mathews pursued, 
and at 1.30 p.m., when his leading ship was abreast of the centre 
ship of the allies, he attacked. Some hot fighting took place 
between Mathews and the Spaniards who formed the allied rear. 
The action was notable as the last occasion on which an attempt 
was made to use a fireship on the open sea. One was sent against 
the " Real " (114), the Spanish flagship, but she was reduced to a 
sinking state by the fire of the Spaniards, and blew up prematurely, 
with the loss of all on board. At about five o'clock, the French 
in the van turned back to support the Spaniards, and Mathews drew 
off. One Spanish ship, the " Poder " (60), which had surrendered 
was recaptured, and then set on fire by the allies. Mathews made 
only a feeble attempt to renew the battle on the following days, 
and on the 1 3th returned towards the coast of Italy, which he said 
he had to defend. The British rear division had not come into 
action at all. 

The battle, though a miserable affair in itself, is of great impor- 
tance in naval history because of the pronouncement of doctrine 
to which it led. Mathews, who was dissatisfied with his subordinate, 
Lestock, suspended him from command and sent him home for 
trial. Several of the captains had behaved ill, and the failure of 



a superior British fleet to gain a success over the allies caused 
extreme discontent at home. A parliamentary inquiry was opened 
on the I2th of March 1745, which on the l8th of April, after a 
confused investigation, ended in a petition to the king to order 
trials by court-martial of all the officers accused of misconduct. 
A long series of courts-martial began on the nth of September 
1745, and did not end till the 22nd of October 1746. Several 
captains were sentenced to be dismissed the service. Lestock was 
acquitted, but Mathews was condemned and sentenced to dis- 
missal. The finding of the court, which blamed the officer who 
actually fought, and acquitted the other who did not, puzzled and 
angered public opinion. The technical points were not appreci- 
ated by laymen. The real evil done by the condemnation of 
Mathews was not understood even in the navy. Mathews was 
blamed on the ground that he had not waited to engage till his 
van ship was abreast of the van ship of the enemy. By this declara- 
tion of principle the court confirmed the formal system of naval 
tactics which rendered all sea-fighting between equal or nearly 
equal forces so ineffective for two generations. 

See Beatson, Naval and Military Memoirs, i. 197 seq. (London, 
1804), a full and fair narrative. (D. H.) 

TOULOUSE, LOUIS ALEXANDRE DE BOURBON, COUNT OF 
(1678-1737), third son of Louis XIV. and Mme de Montespan 
was born on the 6th of June 1678. At the age of five he was 
created admiral of France. He distinguished himself during 
the War of the Spanish Succession, and inflicted a severe 
defeat on Admiral Rooke near Malaga in 1704. He kept 
aloof from the intrigues of his sister-in-law, the duchess of 
Maine, and died on the ist of December 1737. His son, Louis 
Jean Marie de Bourbon, due de Penthievre (1725-1793), succeeded 
his father in his posts, among others in that of grand admiral. 
He served under Marshal de Noailles, and fought brilliantly 
at Dettingen (1743) and Fontenoy (1745). He then lived in 
retreat at Rambouillet and Sceaux, protecting men of letters, 
an'd particularly the poet Florian, and dispensing charity. 
He lost his son, the prince of Lamballe, in 1768, and survived 
his daughter-in-law, Louise Marie Therese of Savoy-Carignan, 
the friend of Marie Antoinette, who was killed by the populace 
on the 3rd of September 1792. He died on the 4th of March 
1793; his daughter and heiress, Louise Marie Adelaide, married 
Philippe (Egalite), duke of Orleans. 

TOULOUSE, a city of south-western France, capital of the 
department of Haute-Garonne, 443 m. S. by W. of Paris by 
the Orleans railway, and 159 m. S.E. of Bordeaux by the 
Southern railway. Pop. (1906), town, 125,856; commune, 
149,438. Toulouse is situated on the right bank of the Garonne, 
which here changes a north-easterly for a north-westerly 
direction, describing a curve round which the city extends in the 
form of a crescent. On the left bank is the suburb of St Cyprien, 
which is exposed to the inundations of the river owing to its 
low situation. The river is spanned by three bridges that 
of St Pierre to the north, that of St Michel to the south, and 
the Pont Neuf in the centre; the last, a fine structure of seven 
arches was begun in 1543 by Nicolas Bachelier, the sculptor, 
whose work is to be seen in many of the churches and mansions 
of the city. East and north of the city runs the Canal du 
Midi, which here joins the lateral canal of the Garonne. Between 
the Canal du Midi and the city proper extends a long line of 
boulevards leading southwards by the Allee St Etienne to the 
Grand Rond, a promenade whence a series of allees branch out 
in all directions. South-west the Allee St Michel leads towards 
the Garonne, and south the Grande Allee towards the Faubourg 
St Michel. These boulevards take the place of the old city 
walls. Between them and the canal lie the more modern 
faubourgs of St Pierre, Arnaud-Bernard, Matabiau, &c. The 
Place du Capitole, to which streets converge from every side, 
occupies the centre of the city. Two broad straight thorough- 
fares of modern construction, the Rue de Metz and the Rue 
d'Alsace-Lorraine, intersect one another to the south of this 
point, the first running east from the Pont Neuf, the other 
running north and south. The other streets are for the most 
part narrow and irregular. 

The most interesting building in Toulouse is the church of St 
Sernin or Saturnin, whom legend represents as the first preacher 
of the gospel in Toulouse, where he was perhaps martyred about 
the middle of the 3rd century. The choir, the oldest part of the 



IOO 



TOULOUSE 



present building, was consecrated by Urban II. in 1096. The 
church is the largest Romanesque basilica in existence, being 
375 ft. from east to west and 210 ft. in extreme breadth. The nave 
(i2th and I3th centuries) has double aisles. Four pillars, support- 
ing the central tower, are surrounded by heavy masonry, which 
somewhat spoils the general harmony of the interior. In the 
southern transept is the " portail des comtes," so named because 
near it lie the tombs of William Taillefer, Ppns, and other early 
counts of Toulouse. The little chapel in which these tombs (as- 
cribed to the nth century) are found was restored by the capitols 
of Toulouse in 1648. Another chapel contains a Byzantine Christ 
of late nth-century workmanship. The choir (llth and I2th 
centuries) ends in an apse, or rather chevet, surrounded by a range 
of columns, marking off an aisle, which in its turn opens into five 
chapels. The stalls are of 16th-century work and grotesquely 
carved. Against the northern wall is an ancient table d'autel, 
which an nth-century inscription declares to have belonged to 
St Sernin. In the crypts are many relics, which, however, were 
robbed of their gold and silver shrines during the Revolution. 
On the south there is a fine outer porch in the Renaissance style; 
it is surmounted by a representation of the Ascension in Byzantine 
style. The central tower (l3th century) consists of five storeys, 
of which the two highest are of later date, but harmonize with the 
three lower ones. A restoration of St Sernin was carried out in 
the igth century by Viollet-le-Duc. 

The cathedral, dedicated to St Stephen, dates from three different 
epochs. The walls of the nave belong to a Romanesque cathedral 
of the nth century, but its roof dates from the first half of the 
J3th century. The choir was begun by Bishop Bertrand de 1'Ile 
(c. 1272), who wished to build another church in place of the old 
one. This wish was unfulfilled and the original nave, the axis of 
which is to the south of that of the choir, remains. The choir was 
burned in 1690 but restored soon after. It is surrounded by seven- 
teen chapels, finished by the cardinal d'Orleans, nephew of Louis XI., 
about the beginning of the l6th century, and adorned with glass 
dating from the 1 5th to the 1 7th century. The western gate, 
flanked by a huge square tower, was constructed by Peter du 
Moulin, archbishop of Toulouse, from 1439 to 1451. It has been 
greatly battered, and presents but a poor approximation to its 
ancient beauty. Over this gate, which was once ornamented with 
the statues of St Sernin, St Exuperius and the twelve apostles, 
as well as those of the two brother archbishops of Toulouse, Denis 
(1423-1439) and Peter du Moulin, there is a beautiful 13th-century 
rose-window, whose centre, however, is not in a perpendicular 
line with the point of the Gothic arch below. 

Among other remarkable churches may be noticed Notre-Dame 
de la Daurade, near the Pont Neuf, built on the site of a gth-century 
Benedictine abbey and reconstructed towards the end of the i8th 
century; and Notre-Dame de la Dalbade; perhaps existing in the 
nth, but in its present form dating from the l6th century, with 
a fine Renaissance portal. The church of the Jacobins, held by 
Viollet-le-Duc to be " one of the most beautiful brick churches 
constructed in the middle ages," was built towards the end of 
the 1 3th century, and consists of a nave divided into two aisles 
by a range of columns. The chief exterior feature is a beautiful 
octagonal belfry. The church belonged to a Dominican monastery, 
of which part of the cloister, the refectory, the chapter-hall and the 
chapel also remain and are utilized by the lycee. Of the other 
secular buildings the most noteworthy are the capitole and the 
museum. The capitole has a long Ionic fagade built from 1750 
to 1760. The theatre is situated in the left wing. Running along 
almost the whole length of the first floor is the salle des illustres 
adorned with modern paintings and sculptures relating to the history 
of the town. The museum (opened in 1795) occupies, besides a 
large modern building, the church, cloisters and other buildings 
of an old Augustinian convent. It contains pictures and a splendid 
collection of antiquities, notably a series of statues and busts of 
Roman emperors and others and much Romanesque sculpture. 
There is an auxiliary museum in the old college of St Raymond. 
The natural history museum is in the Jardin des Plantes. The 
law courts stand on the site of the old Chateau Narbonais, once 
the residence of the counts of Toulouse and later the seat of the 
parlement of Toulouse. Near by is a statue of the jurist Jacques 
Cujas, born at Toulouse. 

Toulouse is singularly rich in mansions of the i6th and 1 7th 
centuries. Among these may be mentioned the Hotel Bernuy, 
a fine Renaissance building now used by the lycee and the H6tel 
d'Ass6zat of the same period, now the property of the Academic 
des Jeux Floraux (see below), and of the learned societies of the city. 
In the court of the latter there is a statue of C16mence Isaure, a 
lady of Toulouse, traditionally supposed to have enriched the 
Acade'mie by a bequest in the isth century. The Maison de Pierre 
has an elaborate stone fagade of 1612. 

Toulouse is the seat of an archbishopric, of a court of appeal, 
a court of assizes and of a prefect. It is also the headquarters 
of the XVII. army corps and centre of an educational circum- 
scription (academic). There are tribunals of first instance and of 
commerce, a board of trade-arbitration, a chamber of commerce 
and a branch of the Bank of France. The educational institutions 
include faculties of law, medicine and pharmacy, science and 



letters, a Catholic institute with faculties of theology and 'letters, 
higher and lower ecclesiastical seminaries, lycees and training colleges 
for both sexes, and schools of veterinary science, fine arts and 
industrial sciences and music. 

Toulouse, the principal commercial and industrial cenitre of 
Languedoc, has important markets for horses, wine, grain, flowers, 
leather, oil and farm produce. Its pastry and other delicacies 
are highly esteemed. Its industrial establishments include the 
national tobacco factory, flour-mills, saw-mills, engineering work- 
shops and factories for farming implements, bicycles, vehicles, 
artificial manures, paper, boots and shoes, and flour pastes. 

TOLOSA, chief town of the Volcae Tectosages, does not 
seem to have been a place of great importance during the early 
centuries of the Roman rule in Gaul, though in 106 B.C. the 
pillage of its temple by Q. S. Cepio, afterwards routed by the 
Cimbri, gave rise to the famous Latin proverb habet aurum 
Tolosanum, in allusion to ill-gotten gains. It possessed a 
circus and an amphitheatre, but its most remarkable remains 
are to be found on the heights of Old Toulouse (vetus Tolosa) 
some 6 or 7 m. to the east, where huge accumulations of 
broken pottery and fragments of an old earthen vail mark 
the site of an ancient settlement. The numerous coins that 
have been discovered on the same spot do not date back farther 
than the 2nd century B.C., and seem to indicate the position 
of a Roman manufacturing centre then beginning to occupy 
the Gallic hill-fortress that, in earlier days, had in times of 
peril been the stronghold of the native tribes dwelling on the 
river bank. Tolosa does not seem to have been a Roman 
colony; but its importance must have increased greatly towards 
the middle of the 4th century. It is to be found entered in 
more than one itinerary dating from about this time; and 
Ausonius, in his Ordo nobilium urbium, alludes to it in terms 
implying that it then had a large population. In 419 it was 
made the capital of his kingdom by Wallia, king of the Visigoths, 
under whom or whose successors it became the seat of the 
great Teutonic kingdom of the West-Goths a kingdom that 
within fifty years had extended itself from the Loire to Gibraltar 
and from the Rhone to the Atlantic. On the defeat of Alaric 
II. (507) Toulouse fell into the hands of Clovis, who carried 
away the royal treasures to Angouleme. Under the Merovingian 
kings it seems to have remained the greatest city of southern 
Gaul, and is said to have been governed by dukes or counts 
dependent on one or other of the rival kings descended from 
the great founder of the Prankish monarchy. It figures pro- 
minently in the pages of Gregory of Tours and Sidonius 
Apollinaris. About 628 Dagobert erected South Aquitaine 
into a kingdom for his brother Charibert, who chose Toulouse 
as his capital. For the next eighty years its history is obscure, 
till we reach the days of Charles Martel, when it was besieged 
by Sema, the leader of the Saracens from Spain (c. 715-720), 
but delivered by Eudes, " princeps Aquitaniae," in whom 
later writers discovered the ancestor of all the later counts of 
Toulouse. Modern criticism, however, has discredited this 
genealogy; and the real history of Toulouse recommences in 
780 or 781, when Charlemagne appointed his little son Louis 
king of Aquitaine, with Toulouse for his chief city. 

During the minority of the young king his tutor Chorson 
ruled at Toulouse with the title of duke or count. Being 
deposed at the Council of Worms (790), he was succeeded by 
William Courtnez, the traditional hero of southern France, 
who in 806 retired to his newly founded monastery at Gellone, 
where he died in 812. In the unhappy days of the emperor 
Louis the Pious and his children Toulouse suffered in common 
with the rest of western Europe. It was besieged by Charles 
the Bald in 844, and taken four years later by the Normans, who 
in 843 had sailed up the Garonne as far as its walls. About 852 
Raymond I., count of Quercy, succeeded his brother Fridolo as 
count of Rouergue and Toulouse; it is from this noble that all 
the later counts of Toulouse trace their descent. Raymond I.'s 
grandchildren divided their parents' estates; of these Ray- 
mond II. (d. 924) became count of Toulouse, and Ermengaud, 
count of Rouergue, while the hereditary titles of Gothia, Quercy 
and Albi were shared between them. Raymond II. 's grandson, 
William Taillefer (d. c. 1037), married Emma of Provence, and 



TOUNGOO TOUP, J. 



101 



handed down part of that lordship to his younger son Bertrand. 1 
William's elder son Pons left two children, of whom William IV. 
succeeded his father in Toulouse, Albi, Quercy, &c.; while 
the younger, Raymond IV. of St Gilles (c. 1066), made him- 
self master of the vast possessions of the counts of Rouergue, 
married his cousin the heiress of Provence, and about 1085 began 
to rule the immense estates of his elder brother, who was still 
living. 

From this time the counts of Toulouse were the greatest 
lords in southern France. Raymond IV., the hero of the first 
crusade, assumed the formal titles of marquis of Provence, 
duke of Narbonne and count of Toulouse. While Raymond 
was away in the Holy Land, Toulouse was seized by William 
IX., duke of Aquitaine, who claimed the city in right of his 
wife Philippa, the daughter of William IV., but was unable 
to hold it long (1098-1100). Raymond's son and successor 
Bertrand followed his father's example and set out for the 
Holy Land in 1109, leaving his great estates at his death to 
his brother Alphonse Jourdain. The rule of this prince was 
disturbed by the ambition of William IX. and his grand-daughter 
Eleanor, who urged her husband Louis VII. to support her 
claims to Toulouse by war. On her divorce from Louis and 
her marriage with Henry II., Eleanor's claims passed on to this 
monarch, who at last forced Raymond V. to do him homage for 
Toulouse in 1173. Raymond V., the patron of the troubadours, 
died in 1194, and was succeeded by his son Raymond VI., 
under whose rule Languedoc was desolated by the crusaders of 
Simon de Montfort, who occupied Toulouse in 1215, but lost 
his life in besieging it in 1218. Raymond VII., the son of 
Raymond VI. and Princess Joan of England, succeeded his 
father in 1222, and died in 1249, leaving an only daughter 
Joan, married to Alfonso the brother of Louis IX. On the 
death of Alfonso and Joan in 1271 the vast inheritance of the 
counts of Toulouse lapsed to the Crown. 2 From the middle 
years of the izth century the people of Toulouse seem to have 
begun to free themselves from the most oppressive feudal 
dues. An act of Alphonse Jourdain (1141) exempts them from 
the tax on salt and wine; and in 1152 we have traces of a 
" commune consilium Tolosae " making police ordinances in 
its own name " with the advice of Lord Raymond, count of 
Toulouse, duke of Narbonne, and marquis of Provence." This 
act is witnessed by six " capitularii," four duly appointed 
judges (judices constiluti), and two advocates. Twenty-three 
years later there are twelve capitularii or consuls, six for the 
city and six for its suburbs, all of them elected and sworn to do 
justice in whatever municipal matters were brought before 
them. In 1222 their number was increased to twenty-four; 
but they were forbidden to touch the city property, which 
was to remain in the charge of certain " communarii " chosen 
by themselves. Early in the i4th century the consuls took 
the name of " domini de capitulo," or, a little later, that of 
" capitulum nobilium." From the I3th century the consuls 
met in their own house, the " palatium communitatis Tolosae " 
or h6tel-de-ville. In the i6th century a false derivation 
changed the ancient consuls (domini de capitulo) into the modern 
" capitouls " (domini cafritolii tolosani), a barbarous etymology 
which in its turn has, in the present century, transformed 
the old assembly house of Toulouse into the capitole. The 

1 About 975 there was a partition of the estates which William 
Taillefer and his cousin Raymond II. of Auvergne held in common, 
Albi, Quercy, &c., falling to William, and Gothia, &c., to 
Raymond. 

1 List of the counts of Toulouse: 



Chorson. .... 778-790 


Raymond III. . . 924-c. 950 


William I. 700-806 


William Taillefer c. 950-6. 1037 


Raymond Rafinel 


c 


1 7 

812-818 


Pons 1037-1060 


Berenger 






818-835 


William IV. . . io6o-c. 1093 


Bernard I. . 






835-844 


Raymond IV. 


1093-1096 


Warin. . . 






844-845 


Bertrand . 


1096-1109 


William II. . 






845-850 


Alphonse Jourdain 


1109-1148 


Fridolo . 






850-852 


Raymond V. . 


1148-1194 


Raymond I. . 






852-864 


Raymond VI. 


1194-1222 


Bernard . 






864-875 


Raymond VII. 


1222-1249 


Eudo 






875-018 


Alfonso and Joan 


1249-1271 


Raymond II. 




9i8-c. 924 





parlement of Toulouse was established as a permanent court 
in 1443. Louis XI. transferred it to Montpellier in 1467, but 
restored it to Toulouse before the close of the next year. This 
parlement was for Languedoc and southern France what the 
parlement of Paris was for the north. During the religious 
wars of the i6th century the Protestants of the town made 
two unsuccessful attempts to hand it over to the prince de 
Conde. After St Bartholomew's Day (1572) 30x3 of the party 
were massacred. Towards the end of the i6th century, during 
the wars of the League, the parlement was split up into 
three different sections, sitting respectively at Carcassonne or 
Beziers, at Castle Sarrasin, and at Toulouse. The three were 
reunited in 1 596. Under Francis I. it began to persecute heretics, 
and in 1619 rendered itself notorious by burning the philosopher 
Vanini. In 1762 Jean Calas, an old man falsely accused of 
murdering his eldest son to prevent him becoming a Reman 
Catholic, was broken on the wheel. By the exertions of Voltaire 
his character was afterwards rehabilitated. The university 
of Toulouse owes its origin to the action of Gregory IX., who 
in 1229 bound Raymond VII. to maintain four masters to 
teach theology and eight others for canon law, grammar, and 
the liberal arts. Civil law and medicine were taught only a 
few years later. The famous " Floral Games " of Toulouse, 
in which the poets of Languedoc contended (May 1-3) for the 
prize of the golden amaranth and other gold or silver flowers, 
given at the expense of the city, were instituted in 1323-1324. 
The Academic des Jeux Floraux still awards these prizes for 
compositions in poetry and prose. In 1814 the duke of 
Wellington defeated Marshal Soult to the north-east of the 
town. 

See L. Ariste and L. Brand, Histoire populaire de Toulouse depuis 
les origines jusqu'ti ce jour (Toulouse, 1898). This work contains 
an exhaustive bibliography. 

TOUNGOO, or TAUNG-NGU, a town and district in the Tenas- 
serim division of Lower Burma. The town is situated on the 
right bank of the river Sittang, 166 m. by rail N. from Rangoon. 
Pop. (1001), 15,837. From the I4th to the i6th century it was 
the capital of an independent kingdom. After the second 
Burmese War it was an important frontier station, but the 
troops were withdrawn in 1893. The district of Toungoo 
has an area of 6172 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 279,315, showing an 
increase of 32% in the preceding decade. Three mountain 
ranges traverse the district the Pegu Yomas, the Karen, 
and the Nat-taung or " Great Watershed " all of which have 
a north and south direction, and are covered for the most 
part with dense forest. The Pegu Yomas have a general 
elevation of from 800 to 1 200 ft., while the central range averages 
from 2000 to 3000 ft. The rest of Toungoo forms the upper 
portion of the valley of the Sittang, the only large river in the 
district, the chief tributaries of which are the Shwa, Hkabaung, 
Hpyu Thank-ye-Kat and Yank-thua-wa, all navigable for a 
great portion of their course. Limestone appears in various 
places, and in the north-east a light grey marble is quarried for 
lime. The rivers form the chief means of communication during 
the rainy season. The rainfall in 1905 was 80-30 in. There 
are 14 railway stations in the district. Rice is the staple 
crop; there are promising plantations of coffee and rubber. 
Forests cover more than 5000 sq. m., of which 1337 sq. m. 
have been reserved, yielding a large revenue. 

TOUP, JONATHAN [JOANNES TOTJPIUS] (1713-1785), English 
classical scholar and critic, was born at St Ives in Cornwall, 
and was educated at a private school and Exeter College, 
Oxford. Having taken orders, he became rector of St Martin's 
Exeter, where he died on the igth of January 1785. Toup 
established his reputation by his Emendationes in Suidam 
(1760-1766, followed in 1775 by a supplement) and his edition 
of Longinus (1778), including notes and emendations by 
Ruhnken. The excellence of Toup's scholarship was " known 
to the learned throughout Europe " (so epitaph on the tablet 
in the church of East Looe set up by the delegates of the 
Clarendon Press), but his overbearing manner and extreme 
self-confidence made him many enemies. 



IO2 



TOURACOU TOURAINE 



TOURACOU, the name, evidently already in use, under 
which in 1743 G. Edwards figured a pretty African bird, 1 and 
presumably that applied to it in Guinea, whence it had been 
brought alive. It is the Cuculus persa of Linnaeus, and Turacus 




(After Schlegel.) 

White-Crested Tburacou (Turacus albicristatus). 
or Corythaix persa of later authors. Cuvier in 1799 or 1800 
Latinized its native name (adopted in the meanwhile by both 
French and German writers) as above, for which barbarous 
term J. K. W. Illiger, in 1811, substituted a more classical 
word. In 1788 Isert described and figured (Beobacht. Gesellsch. 
naturf. Freunde, iii. 16-20, pi. i) a bird, also from Guinea, 
which he called Musophaga violated. Its affinity to the original 
Touracou was soon recognized, and both forms have been 
joined by modern systematists in the family Musophagidae, 
commonly Englished Plantain-eaters or Touracous. 

To take first the Plantain-eaters proper, or the genus Musophaga, 
of which only two species are known. One, about the size of a 
crow, is comparatively common in museums, and has the horny 
base of its yellow bill prolonged backwards over the forehead in 
a kind of shield. The top of the head and the primaries, except 
their outer edge and tip, are deep crimson ; a white streak extends 
behind the eye; and the rest of the plumage is glossy purple. The 
second species, M. rossae, which is rare, chiefly differs by wanting 
the white eye-streak. Then of the Touracous the species origin- 
ally described is about the size of a jay, and has the head, crest 
(which is vertically compressed and tipped with red), neck and breast 
of grass-green, varied by two white streaks one, from the gape 
to the upper part of the crimson orbit, separated by a black patch 
from the other, which runs beneath and behind the eye. The 
wing-coverts, lower part of the back, and tail are of steel-purple, 
the primaries deep crimson, edged and tipped with bluish black. 
Over a dozen other congeneric species, more or less resembling 
this, have been described, and all inhabit some district of Africa. 
One, found in the Cape Colony and Natal, where it is known as 
the " Lory " (cf. xy. 7, note i), though figured by Daubenton and 
others, was first differentiated in 1841 by Strickland (Ann. Nat. 
History, vii. 33) as Turacus albicristatus its crest having a con- 
spicuous white border, while the steel-purple of T. persa is replaced 
by a rich and glossy bluish green of no less beauty. In nearly all 
the species of this genus the nostrils are almost completely hidden 
by the frontal feathers; but there are two others in which, though 
closely allied, this is not the case, and some systematists would 
place them in a separate genus Gallirex; while another species, 
the giant of the family, has been moved into a third genus as Cory- 
thaeola cristata. This differs from any of the foregoing by the 
absence of the crimson coloration of the primaries, and seems to 
lead to another group, Schizorrhis, in which the plumage is of a 
still plainer type, and, moreover, the nostrils here are not only 
exposed but in the form of a slit, instead of being oval as in all the 

1 Apparently the first ornithologist to make the bird known was 
Albin, who figured it in 1738 from the life, yet badly, as " The 
Crown-bird of Mexico." He had doubtless been misinformed as 
to its proper country; but Touracous were called " Crown-birds " 
by the Europeans in West Africa, as witness Bosnian's Description 
of the Coast of Guinea (2nd ed., 1721), p. 251, and W. Smith's Voyage 
to Guinea (1745), p. 149, though the name was also given to the 
crowned cranes, Balearica. 



rest. This genus contains about half-a-dozen species, one of which, 
S. concolor, is the Grey Touracou of the colonists in Natal, and is 
of an almost uniform slaty brown. A good deal has been written 
about these birds, which form the subject of a beautiful monograph 
De Toerako's afgebeld en beschreven by Schlegel and Westerman, 
brought out at Amsterdam in 1860; while further information is 
contained in an elaborate essay by Schalow (Journ. f. ornilhologie, 
1886, pp. 1-77). Still, much remains to be made known as to their 
distribution throughout Africa and their habits. They seem to 
be all fruit-eaters, and to frequent the highest trees, seldom coming 
to the ground. Very little can be confidently asserted as to their 
nidification, but at least one species of Schizorrhis is said to make 
a rough nest and therein lay tnree eggs of a pale blue colour. An 
extraordinary peculiarity attends the crimson coloration which 
adorns the primaries of so many of the Musophagidae. So long 
ago as 1818, Jules Verreaux observed (Proc. Zool. Society, 1871, 
p. 40) that in the case of T. albicristatus this beautiful hue vanishes 
on exposure to heavy rain and reappears only after some interval 
of time and when the feathers are dry. 1 

The Musophagidae form a distinct family, of which the Cuculidae 
are the nearest allies, the two being associated to torm the Cuculine 
as compared with the Psittacine division of Cuculiform birds 
(see BIRD and PARROT). T. C. Eyton pointed out (Ann. Nat. 
History, 3rd series, vol. ii. p. 458) a feature possessed in common by 
the latter and the Musophagidae, in the " process attached to the 
anterior edge of the ischium," which he likened to the so-called 
" marsupial " bones of Didelphian mammals. J. T. Reinhardt 
has also noticed (Vidensk. meddels. naturhist. forening, 1871, 
pp. 326-341) another Cuculine character offered by the os uncina- 
tum affixed to the lower side of the ethmoid in the Plantain-eaters 
and Touracous; but too much dependence must not be placed on 
that, since a similar structure is presented by the frigate-bird (q.v.) 
and the petrels (q.v.). A corresponding process seems also to be 
found in Trogon (q.v.). The bill of nearly all the species of Muso- 
phagidae is curiously serrated or denticulated along the margin 
and the feet have the outer toe reversible, but usually directed 
backwards. No member of the family is found outside of the 
continental portion of the Ethiopian region. (A. N.) 

TOURAINE, an old province in France, which stretched 
along both banks of the Loire in the neighbourhood of Tours, 
the river dividing it into Upper and Lower Touraine. It 
was bounded on the N. by Orleanais, W. by Anjou and 
Maine, S. by Poitou and E. by Berry, and it corresponded 
approximately to the modern department of Indre et Loire. 
Touraine took its name from the Turones, the tribe by which it 
was inhabited at the time of Caesar's conquest of Gaul. They 
were unwarlike, and offered practically no resistance to the 
invader, though they joined in the revolt of Vercingetorix 
in A.D. 52. The capital city, Caesarodunum, which was built 
on the site of the eastern part of the present city of Tours, 
was made by Valentinian the metropolis of the 3rd Lyon- 
naise, which included roughly the later provinces of Touraine, 
Brittany, Maine and Anjou. Christianity seems to have been 
introduced into Touraine not much earlier than the beginning 
of the 4th century, although tradition assigns St Gatien, the 
first bishop of Tours, to the 3rd. The most famous of its 
apostles was St Martin (fl. 375-400), who founded the 
abbey of Marmoutier, near Tours, and whose tomb in the 
city became a celebrated shrine. Tours was besieged by the 
Visigoths in 428, and though it offered a successful resistance 
on this occasion it was included fifty years later in the territory 
of the Visigoths. The Tourangeans refused to adopt the 
Arian heresy of their conquerors, and this difference in religion 
materially assisted in 507 the conquest of the province by 
Clovis, whose orthodoxy was guaranteed by the miraculous 
intervention of St Martin. St Clotilda, wife of Clovis, spent 
the last years of her life in retreat at Tours. The possession 
of Touraine was constantly the subject of dispute between 
the Merovingian princes, and the province enjoyed no settled 
peace until the reign of Charlemagne. He established Alcuin 
as abbot of St Martin of Tours, and under his auspices the 
school of Tours became one of the chief seats of learning in 

2 The fact of this colouring matter being soluble in water was 
incidentally mentioned at a meeting of the Zoological Society of 
London by W. B. Tegetmeier, and brought to the notice of Professor 
A. H. Church, who, after experiment, published in 1868 (Student 
and Intellectual Observer, i. 161-168) an account of it as " Turacin, 
a new animal pigment containing copper." Further information 
on the subject was given by Monteiro (Ghent. News, xxviii. 201; 
Quart. Journ. Science, 2nd series, vol. iv. p. 132). The property is 
possessed by the crimson feathers of all the birds of the family. 



TOURCOING TOURMALINE 



103 



the middle ages. In the gth century Tours also became the 
ecclesiastical metropolis of Brittany, Maine and Anjou, and 
when the empire was divided by Louis the Pious into various 
districts or missatica, Tours was the centre of one of these, 
the boundaries of which corresponded roughly with those of 
the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the city. Touraine suffered 
from the invasions of the Northmen, who massacred the 
monks of Marmoutier in 853, but never pillaged Tours. The 
administration of Touraine was entrusted, from Merovingian 
times onward, to counts appointed by the crown. The office 
became hereditary in 940 or 941 with Thibault the Old or the 
" Tricheur." His son Odo I. was attacked by Fulk the Black, 
count of Anjou, and despoiled of part of his territory. His 
grandson Thibault III., who refused homage to Henry I., 
king of France, in 1044, was entirely dispossessed by Geoffrey 
of Anjou, called the Hammer (d. 1060). The 7th count, 
Fulk (d. 1109), ruled both Anjou and Touraine, and the county 
of Touraine remained under the domination of the counts of 
Anjou (q.v.) until Henry II. of England deprived his brother 
Geoffrey of Touraine by force of arms. Henry II. carried out 
many improvements, but peace was destroyed by the revolt 
of his sons. Richard Coeur de Lion, in league with Philip 
Augustus, had seized Touraine, and after his death Arthur of 
Brittany was recognized as count. In 1204 it was united to 
the French crown, and its cession was formally acknowledged 
by King John at Chinon in 1214. Philip appointed Guillaume 
des Roches hereditary seneschal in 1204, but the dignity was 
ceded to the crown in 1312. Touraine was granted from time 
to time to princes of the blood as an appanage of the crown of 
France. In 1328 it was held by Jeanne of Burgundy, queen 
of France; by Philip, duke of Orleans, in 1344; and in 1360 
it was made a peerage duchy on behalf of Philip the Bold, 
afterwards duke of Burgundy. It was the scene of dispute 
between Charles, afterwards Charles VII., and his mother, 
Isabel of Bavaria, who was helped by the Burgundians. After 
his expulsion from Paris by the English Charles spent much 
of his time in the chateaux of Touraine, although his seat of 
government was at Bourges. He bestowed the duchy successively 
on his wife Mary of Anjou, on Archibald Douglas and on Louis 
III. of Anjou. It was the dower of Mary Stuart as the widow of 
Francis II. The last duke of Touraine was Francis, duke of 
Alencon, who died in 1584. Plessis-les-Tours had been the 
favourite residence of Louis XL, who granted many privileges 
to the town of Tours, and increased its prosperity by the 
establishment of the silk-weaving industry. The reformed 
religion numbered many adherents in Touraine, who suffered 
in the massacres following on the conspiracy of Amboise; 
and, though in 1562 the army of Conde pillaged the city of Tours, 
the marshal of St Andre reconquered Touraine for the Catholic 
party. Many Huguenots emigrated after the massacre of 
St Bartholomew, and after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes 
the silk industry, which had been mainly in the hands of the 
Huguenots, was almost destroyed. This migration was one 
of the prime causes of the extreme poverty of the province 
in the next century. At the Revolution the nobles of 
Touraine made a declaration expressing their sympathy 
with the ideas of liberty and fraternity. Among the many 
famous men who were born within its boundaries are Jean 
le Meingre Boucicaut, marshal of France, Beroalde de Verville, 
author of the Moyen de parvenir, Rabelais, Cardinal Richelieu, 
C. J. Avisseau, the potter (1796-1861), the novelist Balzac 
and the poet Alfred de Vigny. 

See the quarterly publication of the Memoires of the Societe 
archeologique de Touraine (1842, &c.) which include a Dictionnaire 
geographique, historique et biographique (6 vols., 1878-1884), by 
J. X. Carr6 de Busserolle. There are histories of Touraine and its 
monuments by Chalmel (4 vols. Paris, 1828), by S. Bellanger 
(Paris, 1845), by Bourrasse 1 (1858). See also Dupin de Saint Andre 1 , 
Hist, du protestantisme en Touraine (Paris, 1885); T. A. Cook, 
Old Touraine (2 vols. London, 1892). 

TOURCOING, a manufacturing town of northern France 
in the department of Nord, less than a mile from the Belgian 
frontier, and 8 m. N.N.E. of Lille on the railway to 



Ghent. Pop. (1906), 62,694 (commune, 81,671), of whom 
about one-third are natives of Belgium. Tourcoing is prac- 
tically one with Roubaix to the south, being united thereto by 
a tramway and a branch of the Canal de Roubaix. The public 
institutions comprise a tribunal of commerce, a board of trade 
arbitrators, a chamber of commerce, an exchange and a condi- 
tioning house for textiles. Together with Roubaix, Tourcoing 
ranks as one of the chief textile centres of France. Its chief 
industry is the combing, spinning and twisting of wool 
carried on in some eighty factories employing between 
10,000 and 12,000 workpeople. The spinning and twisting 
of cotton is also important. The weaving establishments 
produce woollen and mixed woollen and cotton fabrics together 
with silk and satin drapery, swanskins, jerseys and other fancy 
goods. The making of velvet pile carpets and upholstering 
materials is a speciality of the town. To these industries 
must be added those of dyeing, the manufacture of hosiery, 
of the machinery and other apparatus used in the textile factories 
and of soap. 

Famed since the i2th century for its woollen manufactures, 
Tourcoing was fortified by the Flemings in 1477, when LouisXI. 
of France disputed the inheritance of Charles the Bold 
with Mary of Burgundy, but in the same year was taken and 
pillaged by the French. In 1794 the Republican army, under 
Generals Moreau and Souham, gained a decisive victory over 
the Austrians, the event being commemorated by a monument 
in the public garden. The inhabitants, 18,000 in 1789, were 
reduced by the French Revolution to 10,000. 

TOURMALINE, a mineral of much interest to the physicist 
on account of its optical and electrical properties; it is 
also of some geological importance as a rock-constituent 
(see SCHORL), whilst certain transparent varieties have economic 
value as gem-stones. The name is probably a corruption 
of turmali, or toramalli, the native name applied to tourmaline 
and zircon in Ceylon, whence specimens of the former mineral 
were brought to Europe by the Dutch in 1703. The green 
tourmaline of Brazil had, however, been known here much 
earlier; and coarse varieties of the mineral had passed for cen- 
turies under the German name of Schorl, an old mining word 
of uncertain origin, possibly connected with the old German 
Schor (refuse), in allusion to the occurrence of the mineral with 
the waste of the tin-mines. The German village of Schorlau 
may have taken its name from the mineral. It has been 
suggested that the Swedish form skorl has possible connexion 
with the word sko'r, brittle. 

Tourmaline crystallizes in the rhombohedral division of the 
hexagonal system. The crystals have generally a prismatic habit, the 
prisms being longitudinally striated or even channelled. Trigonal 
prisms are characteristic, so that a transverse section becomes 
triangular or often nine-sided. By combination of several prisms 
the crystals may become sub-cylindrical. The crystals when doubly 
terminated are often hemimorphic or present dissimilar forms at 
the opposite ends; thus the hexagonal 
prisms in fig. I are terminated at one end 
by rhombohedral faces, o, P, and at the 
other by the basal plane k'. Doubly- 
terminated crystals, however, are com- 
paratively rare ; the crystals being usually 
attached at one end to the matrix. It is 
notable that prismatic crystals of tour- 
maline have in some cases been curved 
and fractured transversely; the displaced 
fragments having been cemented together 
by deposition of fresh mineral matter. Tourmaline is not infre- 
quently columnar, acicular or fibrous; and the fibres may radiate 
from a centre so as to form the so-called " tourmaline suns." 
Crystals of tourmaline present no distinct cleavage, but break with 
a sub-conchpidal fracture; and whilst the general lustre of the 
mineral is vitreous, that of the fractured surface is rather pitchy. 
The hardness is slightly above that of quartz (7). The specific 
gravity varies according to chemical composition, that of the 
colourless varieties being about 3, whilst in schorl it may rise to 3^2. 

Tourmaline has a great range of colour, and in many cases the 
crystals are curiously parti-coloured. Occasionally, though rarely, 
the mineral is colourless, and is then known as achroite, a name 
proposed by R. Hermann in 1845, and derived from the Greek 
SXPOOS (uncoloured). Red tourmaline, which when of fine colour 
is the most valued of all varieties, is known as rubellite (?..). Green 
tourmaline is by no means uncommon, but the blue is rather rare 




FIG. i. 



104 



TOURNAI 



and is distinguished by the name indigolite, generally written indi- 
colite. Brown is a common colour, and black still more common, 
this being the usual colour of schorl, or common coarse tourmaline. 
Thin splinters of schorl may, however, be blue or brown by 
transmitted light. 

The double refraction of tourmaline is strong. The mineral is 
optically negative, the ordinary index being about 1-64, and the 
extraordinary 1-62. Coloured tourmalines are intensely pleochroic, 
the ordinary ray, which vibrates perpendicular to the principal axis, 
being much more strongly absorbed than the extraordinary; hence 
a slice cut in the direction of the principal or optic axis trans- 
mits sensibly only the extraordinary ray, and may consequently be 
used as a polarizing medium. The brown tourmaline of Ceylon and 
Brazil is best adapted for this purpose, but the green is also used. 
Two plates properly mounted form the instrument used by opticians 
for testing spectacle-lenses, and are known as the " tourmaline tongs." 
In order to secure the best colour-effect when used as a gem-stone, 
the tourmaline should be cut with the table parallel to the optic 
axis. 

It was in tourmaline that the phenomenon of pyroelectricity was 
first observed. On being heated in peat ashes its attractive power 
was observed by the Dutch, in the early part of the l8th century; 
and this curious character obtained for it the name of aschtrekker, 
or ash-drawer. J. R. Hatty first pointed out the relation of pyroelec- 
tricity with hemimorphism. Tourmaline is also piezoelectric, that 
is, it becomes electric by pressure. If a crystal be subjected to 
pressure along the optic axis, it behaves as though it were contracting 
by reduction of temperature. The mineral may also be rendered 
electric by friction, and retains the charge for a long time. 

Tourmaline is a boro-silicate of singularly complex composition. 
Indeed the word tourmaline is sometimes regarded as the name of 
a group of isomorphous minerals rather than that of a definite 
species. Numerous analyses have been made, and the results 
discussed by a large number of authorities. In the view of S. L. 
Penfield and H. W. Foote all tourmaline may be derived from a 
boro-silicic acid of the formula HnB^iiOu. It is believed that 
the hydrogen is present as hydroxyl, and that this may be partially 
replaced by fluorine. The tourmaline acid has probably the con- 
stitution Hi8(B-OH)jSi 4 Oi9. Nine atoms of hydrogen are replaced 
by three of aluminium, and the remaining nine in part by other 
metals. Lithium is present in red tourmaline; magnesium dominates 
in brown; iron, manganese and sometimes chromium are found 
in green ; and much iron occurs in the black varieties. Four groups 
are sometimes recognized, characterized by the presence of (l) 
lithium, (2) ferrous iron, (3) ferric iron and (4) magnesium. 

Tourmaline occurs commonly in granite, greisen, gneiss and 
crystalline schists. In many cases it appears to have been formed 
by pneumatolysis, or the action on the rocks of heated vapours 
containing boron and fluorine, as in many tin-bearing districts, 
where tourmaline is a characteristic mineral. Near the margin 
of a mass of granite the rock often becomes schorlaceous or tourma- 
liniferous, and may pass into " tourmaline-rock," which is usually 
an aggregate of tourmaline and quartz. Tourmaline is an essential 
constituent of the west of England rocks called luxullianite (luxuly- 
anite) and trowlesworthite. It occurs embedded in certain meta- 
morphic limestones, where it is possibly due to fumarolic action. 
Microscopic crystals are common in clay-slate. By resistance to 
decomposition, tourmaline often survives the disintegration of the 
matrix, and thus passes into sands, clays, marls and other 
sedimentary deposits. 

Many of the finest crystals of tourmaline occur in druses in 
granitic rocks, such as those of San Piero in Elba, where some of 
the pale pink and green prisms are tipped with black, and have 
consequently been called nigger-heads. Lepidolite is a common 
associate of tourmaline, as at Rozena in Moravia. Tourmaline 
occurs, with corundum, in the dolomite of Campolongo, in canton 
Ticino, Switzerland. Fine black crystals, associated with apatite 
and quartz, were formerly found in granite at Chudleigh, near 
Bovey Tracey in Devonshire. The Russian localities for tourmaline 
are mentioned under RUBELLITE. Most of the tourmaline cut for 
jewelry comes from the gem-gravels of Ceylon. The green tour- 
maline has generally a yellowish or olive-green colour, and is known 
as " Ceylon chrysolite." Fine green crystals are found in Brazil, 
notably in the topaz-locality of Minas Novas; and when of vivid 
colour they have been called " Brazilian emeralds." Green tour- 
maline is a favourite ecclesiastical stone in South America Blue 
tourmaline occurs with the green ; this variety is found also at Ut6 
in Sweden (its original locality) and notably near Hazaribagh in 
Bengal. Certain kinds of mica occasionally contain flat crystals 
of tourmaline between the cleavage-planes. 

Many localities in the United States are famous for tourmaline. 
Magnificent specimens have been obtained from Mt Mica, near 
Pans, Maine, where the mineral was accidentally discovered in 1820 
by two students, E. L. Hamlin and E. Holmes. It occurs in granite, 
with lepidolite, smoky quartz, spodumene, &c. ; and some of the 
prismatic crystals are notable for being red at one end and 
green at the other. Mt Rubellite at Hebron, and Mt Apatite at 
Auburn, are other localities in Maine which have yielded fine tour- 
maline. At Chesterfield, Massachusetts, remarkable crystals occur, 
some of which show on transverse section a triangular nucleus of 



red tourmaline surrounded by a shell of green. Red and green 
tourmalines, with lepidolite and kunzite, are found in San Diego 
county, California. Fine coloured tourmalines occur at Haddam 
Neck, Connecticut; and excellent crystals of black tourmaline are 
well known from Pierrepont, New York, whilst remarkable brown 
crystals occur in limestone at Gouverneur in the same state. Canada 
is rich in tourmaline, notably at Burgess in Lanark county, Ontario, 
and at Grand Calumet Island in the Ottawa river. Heemskirk 
Mountain, Tasmania, and Kangaroo Island, South Australia, have 
yielded fine coloured tourmaline fit for jewelry. Madagascar is 
a well-known locality for black tourmaline in large crystals. 

Many varieties of tourmaline have received distinctive names, 
some of which are noticed above. Dravite is G. Tschermak's name 
for a brown tourmaline, rich in magnesia but with little iron, occur- 
ring near Unter Drauburg in the Drave district in Carinthia. Taltalite 
was a name given by I. Domeyko to a mixture of tourmaline and 
copper ore from Taltal in Chile. The colourless Elba tourmaline 
was called apyrite by J. F. L. Hausmann, in allusion to its refractory 
behaviour before the blow-pipe; whilst a black iron-tourmaline from 
Norway was termed aphrazite by J. B. d'Andrada, in consequence 
of its intumescence when heated. (F. W. R.*) 

TOURKAI '(Flemish Doornik), a city of Belgium, in the 
province of Hainaut, situated on the Scheldt. Pop. (1904), 
36,744. Although in the course of its long history it has 
undergone many sieges and was sacked at various epochs by 
the Vandals, Normans, French and Spaniards, it preserves 
many monuments of its ancient days. Among these is the 
cathedral of Notre-Dame, one of the finest and best preserved 
Romanesque and Gothic examples in Belgium (for plan, &c., 
see ARCHITECTURE: Romanesque and Gothic in Belgium). Its 
foundation dates from the year 1030, while the nave is Roman- 
esque of the middle of the i2th century, with much pointed 
work. The transept was added in the i3th century. The first 
choir was burned down in 1213, but was rebuilt in 1242 at 
the same time as the transept, and is a superb specimen 
of pointed Gothic. There are five towers with spires, which 
give the outside an impressive appearance, and much has been 
done towards removing the squalid buildings that formerly con- 
cealed the cathedral. There are several old pictures of merit, 
and the shrine of St Eleuthere, the first bishop of Tournai 
in the 6th century, is a remarkable product of the silversmith's 
art. The belfry on the Grand Place was built in 1187, 
partly reconstructed in 1391 and finally restored and endowed 
with a steeple in 1852. The best view of the cathedral can 
be obtained from its gallery. The church of St Quentin in 
the same square as the belfry is almost as ancient as Notre- 
Dame, and the people of Tournai call it the " little cathedral." 
In the church of St Brice is the tomb of Childeric discovered 
in 1655. Among the relics were three hundred small golden 
models of bees. These were removed to Paris, and when 
Napoleon was crowned emperor a century and a half later he 
chose Childeric's bees for the decoration of his coronation 
mantle. In this manner the bee became associated with the 
Napoleonic legend just as the lilies were with the Bourbons. 
The Pont des Trous over the Scheldt, with towers at each end, 
was built in 1290, and among many other interesting buildings 
there are some old houses still in occupation which date 
back to the I3th century. On the Grand Place is the 
fine statue of Christine de Lalaing, princess d'Epinoy, who 
defended Tournai against Parma in 1581. Tournai carries 
on a large trade in carpets (called Brussels), bonnet shapes, 
corsets and fancy goods generally. With regard to the carpet 
manufactory, it is said locally to date from the time of the 
Crusades, and it is presumed that the Crusaders learnt the 
art from the Saracens. 

The history of Tournai dates from the time of Julius Caesar, 
when it was called civitas Nerviorum or castrum Turnacum. In the 
reign of Augustus, Agrippa fixed the newly mixed colony of Suevi 
and Menapii at Tournai, which continued throughout the period 
of Roman occupation to be of importance. In the sth century 
the Franks seized Tournai, and Merovaeus made it the capital 
of his dynasty. This it remained until the subdivision of the 
Frank monarchy among the sons of Clovis. When feudal 
possessions, instead of being purely personal, were vested in the 
families of the holder after the death of Charlemagne, Tournai 
was specially assigned to Baldwin of the Iron Arm by Charles 



TOURNAMENT 



PLATE. 





KNIGHTS JOUSTING WITH CRONELLS ON THEIR LANCES. French MS. early XIV Century. (Royal MS. 14 E. Hi.) 




KNIGHTS JOUSTING. From a French MS. of the latter half of the XV Century. (Cotton MS. Nero D. ix.) 




ENGLISH KNIGHTS RIDING INTO THE LISTS. From the Great Tournament Roll of 1511; by permission of the College of Arms. 
XXVII. 104. 



TOURNAMENT 



the Bald, whose daughter Judith he had abducted, on receiving 
the hereditary title of count of Flanders. During the Bur- 
gundian period it was the residence of Margaret of York, widow 
of Charles the Bold; and the pretender Perkin Warbeck, whom 
she championed, if not born there, was the reputed son of a 
Jew of Tournai. In the early i6th century Tournai was an 
English possession for a few years and Henry VIII. sold it to 
Francis I. It did not long remain French, for in 1521 the 
count of Nassau, Charles V.'s general, took it and added it to 
the Spanish provinces. During the whole of the middle ages 
Tournai was styled the " seigneurie de Tournaisis," and pos- 
sessed a charter and special privileges of its own. Near Tournai 
was fought, jon the nth of May 1745, the famous battle 
of Fontenoy. (D. C. B.) 

TOURNAMENT, or TOURNEY (Fr. tournement, tournoi, Med. 
Lat. torneamentum, from tourner, to turn), the name popularly 
given in the middle ages to a species of mock fight, so called 
owing to the rapid turning of the horses (Skeat). Of the several 
medieval definitions of the tournament given by Du Cange 
(Glossarium, s.v. " Tourneamentum "), the best is that of Roger 
of Hoveden, who described tournaments as " military exercises 
carried out, not in the spirit of hostility (nullo inlerveniente 
odio), but solely for practice and the display of prowess (pro solo 
exercitio, atque ostentations virium)." Men who carry weapons 
have in all ages played at the game of war in time of peace. 
But the tournament, properly so called, does not appear in 
Europe before the nth century, in spite of those elaborate 
fictions of Ruexner's Thurnierbuch which detail the tournament 
laws of Henry the Fowler. More than one chronicler records 
the violent death, in 1066, of a French baron named Geoffroi de 
Preulli, who, according to the testimony of his contemporaries, 
" invented tournaments." In England, at least, the tourna- 
ment was counted a French fashion, Matthew Paris calling it 
confliclus gallicus. 

By the i2th century the tournament had grown so popular 
in England that Henry II. found it necessary to forbid the 
sport which gathered in one place so many barons and knights 
in arms. In that age we have the famous description by William 
FitzStephen of the martial games of the Londoners in Smith- 
field. He tells how on Sundays in Lent a noble train of young 
men would take the field well mounted, rushing out of the city 
with spear and shield to ape the feats of war. Divided into parties, 
one body would retreat, while another pursued striving to un- 
horse them. The younger lads, he says, bore javelins disarmed 
of their steel, by which we may know that the weapon of the 
elders was the headed lance. William of Newbury tells us how 
the young knights, balked of their favourite sport by the royal 
mandate, would pass over sea to win glory in foreign lists. 
Richard I. relaxed his father's order, granting licences for 
tournaments, and Jocelin of Brakelond has a long story of the 
great company of cavaliers who held a tournament between 
Thetford and Bury St Edmunds in defiance of the abbot. From 
that time onward unlicensed tourneying was treated as an 
offence against the Crown, which exacted heavy fees from all 
taking part in them even when a licence had been obtained. 
Often the licence was withheld, as in 1255, when the king's son's 
grave peril in Gascony is alleged as a reason for forbidding a 
meeting. In 1299 life and limb were declared to be forfeit in 
the case of those who should arrange a tourney without the royal 
licence, and offenders were to be seized with horse and harness. 
As the tournament became an occasion for pageantry and 
feasting, new reason was given for restraint: a simple knight 
might beggar himself over a sport which risked costly horses 
and carried him far afield. Jousters travelled from land to land, 
like modern cricketers on their tours, offering and accepting 
challenges. Thus Edward I., before coming to the throne, led 
eighty knights to a tournament on the Continent. Before the 
jousts at Windsor on St George's Day in 1344 heralds published 
in France, Scotland, Burgundy, Hainault, Flanders, Brabant 
and the domains of the emperor the king's offer of safe conduct 
for competitors. At the weddings of princes and magnates and 
at the crowning of kings the knights gathered to the joustings, 



which had become as much a part of such high ceremonies 
as the banquet and the minstrelsy. The fabled glories of the 
Round Table were revived by princely hosts, who would assemble 
a gallant company to keep open house and hold the field against 
all comers, as did Mortimer, the queen's lover, when, on the eve 
of his fall, he brought all the chivalry of the land to the place 
where he held his Round Table. About 1292 the " Statute of 
Arms for Tournaments " laid down, " at the request of the earls 
and barons and of the knighthood of England," new laws for 
the game. Swords with points were not to be used, nor pointed 
daggers, nor club nor mace. None was to raise up a fallen 
knight but his own appointed squires, clad in his device. The 
squire who offended was to lose horse and arms and lie three 
years in gaol. A northern football crowd would understand 
the rule that forbade those coming to see the tournament to 
wear harness or arm themselves with weapons. Disputes were 
to be settled by a court of honour of princes and earls. That 
such rules were needful had been shown at Rochester in 1251, 
where the foreign knights were beaten by the English and so 
roughly handled that they fled to the city for refuge. On their 
way the strangers were faced by another company of knights 
who handled them roughly and spoiled them, thrashing them 
with staves in revenge for the doings at a Brackley tournament. 
Even as early as the I3th century some of these tournaments 
were mere pageants of horsemen. For the Jousts of Peace held 
at Windsor Park in 1278 the sword-blades are of whalebone and 
parchment, silvered; the helms are of boiled leather and the 
shields of light timber. But the game could make rough sport. 
Many a tournament had its tale of killed and wounded in the 
chronicle books. We read how Roger of Lemburn struck 
Arnold de Montigny dead with a lance thrust under the helm. 
The first of the Montagu earls of Salisbury died of hurts taken 
at a Windsor jousting, and in those same lists at Windsor the 
earl's grandson Sir William Montagu was killed by his own 
father. William Longespee in 1256 was so bruised that he never 
recovered his strength, and he is among many of whom the like 
is written. Blunted or " rebated " lance-points came early 
into use, and by the i4th century the coronall or cronell head 
was often fitted in place of the point. After 1400 the armourers 
began to devise harness with defences specially wrought for ser- 
vice in the lists. But the joust lost its chief perils with the 
invention of the tilt, which, as its name imports, was at first a 
cloth stretched along the length of the lists. The cloth became 
a stout barrier of timber, and in the early i6th century the 
knight ran his course at little risk. Locked up in steel harness, 
reinforced with the grand-guard and the other jousting pieces, 
he charged along one side of this barrier, seeing little more through 
the pierced sight-holes of the helm than the head and shoulders 
of his adversary. His bridle arm was on the tilt-side, and thus 
the blunted lance struck at an angle upon the polished plates. 
Mishaps might befall. Henry II. of France died from the stroke 
of Gabriel de Montgomeri, who failed to cast up in time the 
truncheon of his splintered lance. But the 16th-century tourna- 
ment was, in the main, a bloodless meeting. 

The i sth century had seen the mingling of the tournament 
and the pageant. Adventurous knights would travel far afield 
in time of peace to gain worship in conflicts that perilled life 
and limb, as when the Bastard of Burgundy met the Lord Scales 
in 1466 in West Smithfield under the fair and costly galleries 
crowded with English dames. On the first day the two ran 
courses with sharp spears; on the second day they tourneyed 
on horseback, sword in hand; on the third day they met on foot 
with heavy pole-axes. But the great tournament held in the 
market-place of Bruges, when the jousting of the Knights of the 
Fleece was part of the pageant of the Golden Tree, the Giant 
and the Dwarf, may stand as a magnificent example of many 
such gay gatherings. When Henry VIII. was scattering his 
father's treasure the pageant had become an elaborate masque. 
For two days after the crowning of the king at Westminster, 
Henry and his queen viewed from the galleries of a fantastic 
palace set up beside the tilt-yard a play in which deer were pulled 
down by greyhounds in a paled park, in which the Lady Diana 



io6 



TOURNEFORT TOURNEUR 



and the Lady Pallas came forward, embowered in moving castles, 
to present the champions. Such costly shows fell out of fashion 
after the death of Henry VIII.; and in England the tournament 
remained, until the end, a martial sport. Sir Henry Lee rode 
as Queen Elizabeth's champion in the tilt-yard of Whitehall 
until his years forced him to surrender the gallant office to that 
earl of Cumberland who wore the Queen's glove pinned to the 
flap of his hat. But in France the tournament lingered on until 
it degenerated to the carrousel, which, originally a horseman's 
game in which cavaliers pelted each other with balls, became an 
unmartial display when the French king and his courtiers 
pranced in such array as the wardrobe-master of the court 
ballets would devise for the lords of Ind and Africk. 

The tournament was, from the first, held to be a sport for men 
of noble birth, and on the Continent, where nobility was more 
exactly defined than in England, the lists were jealously closed 
to all combatants but those of the privileged class. In the 
German lands, questions as to the purity of the strain of a candi- 
date for admission to a noble chapter are often settled by appeal 
to the fact that this or that ancestor had taken part in a tourna- 
ment. Konrad Griinenberg's famous heraldic manuscript 
shows us the Helmschau that came before the German tournament 
of the 1 5th century the squires carrying each his master's 
crested helm, and a little scutcheon of arms hanging from it, 
to the hall where the king of arms stands among the ladies and, 
wand in hand, judges each blazon. In England several of those 
few rolls of arms which have come down to us from the middle 
ages record the shields displayed at certain tournaments. 
Among the illustrations of the article HERALDRY will be 
seen a leaf of a roll of arms of French and English jousters at 
the Field of the Cloth of Gold, and this leaf is remarkable 
as illustrating also the system of " checques " for noting the 
points scored by the champions. (O. BA.) 

TOURNEFORT. JOSEPH PITTON DE (1656-1708), French 
botanist, was born at Aix, in Provence, on the sth of June 1656. 
He studied in the convent of the Jesuits at Aix, and was destined 
for the Church, but the death of his father left him free to 
follow his botanical inclinations. After two years' collecting, 
he studied medicine at Montpellier, but was appointed pro- 
fessor of botany at the Jardin des Plantes in 1683. By the king's 
order he travelled through western Europe, where he made 
extensive collections, and subsequently spent three years in 
Greece and Asia Minor (1700-1702). Of this journey a de- 
scription in a series of letters was posthumously published in 
3 vols. (Relation d'un voyage du Levant, Lyons, 1717). His 
principal work is entitled Institutiones rei herbariae (3 vols. 
Paris, 1700), and upon this rests chiefly his claims to remem- 
brance as one of the most eminent of the systematic botanists 
who prepared the way for Linnaeus. He died on the 28th of 
December 1708. 

TOURNEUR, CYRIL (c. 1575-1626), English dramatist, was 
perhaps the son of Captain Richard Turner, water-bailiff and 
subsequently lieutenant-governor of Brill in the Netherlands. 
Cyril Tourneur also served in the Low Countries, for in 1613 
there is a record made of payment to him for carrying letters 
to Brussels. He enjoyed a pension from the government 
of the United Provinces, possibly by way of compensation 
for a post held before Brill was handed over to the Dutch 
in 1616. In 1625 he was appointed by Sir Edward Cecil, whose 
father had been a former governor of Brill, to be secretary 
to the council of war. This appointment was cancelled by 
Buckingham, but Tourneur sailed in Cecil's company to Cadiz. 
On the return voyage from the disastrous expedition he was 
put ashore at Kinsale with other sick men, and died in Ireland 
on the 28th of February 1626. (M.BR.) 

An allegorical poem, worthless as art and incomprehensible 
as allegory, is his earliest extant work; an elegy on the death 
of Prince Henry, son of James I., is the latest. The two 
plays on which his fame rests, and on which it will rest for 
ever, were published respectively in 1607 and 1611, but all 
students have agreed to accept the internal evidence which 
assures us that the later in date of publication must be the 



earlier in date of composition. His only other known work 
is an epicede on Sir Francis Vere, of no great merit as poetry, 
but of some value as conveying in a straightforward and mascu- 
line style the poet's ideal conception of a perfect knight or 
" happy warrior," comparable by those who may think fit to 
compare it with the more nobly realized ideals of Chaucer 
and of Wordsworth. But if Tourneur had left on record no 
more memorable evidence of his powers than might be fupplied 
by the survival of his elegies, he could certainly have claimed 
no higher place among English writers than is now occupied 
by the Rev. Charles Fitzgeoffrey, whose voluminous and fer- 
vent elegy on Sir Francis Drake is indeed of more actual value, 
historic or poetic, than either or than both of Tourneur's elegiac 
rhapsodies. The singular power, the singular originality and 
the singular limitation of his genius are all equally obvious 
in The Atheist's Tragedy, a dramatic poem no less crude and 
puerile and violent in action and evolution than simple and noble 
and natural in expression and in style. The executive faculty of 
the author is in the metrical parts of his first play so imperfect 
as to suggest either incompetence or perversity in the workman; 
in The Revenger's Tragedy it is so magnificent, so simple, im- 
peccable and sublime that the finest passages of this play 
can be compared only with the noblest examples of tragic 
dialogue or monologue now extant in English or in Greek. 
There is no trace of imitation or derivation from an alien source 
in the genius of this poet. The first editor of Webster has observed 
how often he imitates Shakespeare; and, in fact, essentially 
and radically independent as is Webster's genius also, the 
sovereign influence of his master may be traced not only in the 
general tone of his style, the general scheme of his composition, 
but now and then in a direct and never an unworthy or imper- 
fect echo of Shakespeare's very phrase and accent. But the 
resemblance between the tragic verse of Tourneur and the 
tragic verse of Shakespeare is simply such as proves the natural 
affinity between two great dramatic poets, whose inspiration 
partakes now and then of the quality more proper to epic 
or to lyric poetry. The fiery impulse, the rolling music, the 
vivid illustration of thought by jets of insuppressible passion, 
the perpetual sustenance of passion by the implacable persist- 
ency of thought, which we recognise as the dominant and 
distinctive qualities of such poetry as finds vent in the utter- 
ances of Hamlet or of Timon, we recognise also in the scarcely 
less magnificent poetry, the scarcely less fiery sarcasm, with 
which Tourneur has informed the part of Vindice a harder- 
headed Hamlet, a saner and more practically savage and serious 
Timon. He was a satirist as passionate as Juvenal or Swift, 
but with a finer faith in goodness, a purer hope in its ultimate 
security of triumph. This fervent constancy of spirit relieves 
the lurid gloom and widens the h'mited range of a tragic imagina- 
tion which otherwise might be felt as oppressive rather than 
inspiriting. His grim and trenchant humour is as peculiar in 
its sardonic passion as his eloquence is original in the strenuous 
music of its cadences, in the roll of its rhythmic thunder. 
As a playwright, his method was almost crude and rude in 
the headlong straightforwardness of its energetic simplicity; 
as an artist in character, his interest was intense but narrow, 
his power magnificent but confined; as a dramatic poet, the 
force of his genius is great enough to ensure him an enduring 
place among the foremost of the followers of Shakespeare. 

(A. C. S.) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The complete list of his extant works runs: 
The Atheists Tragedie; or, The Honest Man's Revenge (1611); A 
Funerall Poeme Upon the Death of the Most Worthie and True Soldier, 
Sir Francis Vere, Knight . . . (1609) ; "A Griefe on the Death 
of Prince Henrie, Expressed in a Broken Elegie . . .," printed with 
two other poems by John Webster and Thomas Haywood as Three 
Elegies on the most lamented Death of Prince Henry (1613) ; The 
Revengers Tragaedie (1607 and 1608); and an obscure satire, 
The Transformed Metamorphosis (1600). The only other play of 
Tourneur's of which we have any record -is The Nobleman, the MS. of 
which was destroyed by John Warburton's cook. This was entered 
on the Stationers' Register (Feb. 15, 1612) as a " Tragecomedye 
called The Nobleman written by Cyrill Tourneur." In 1613 a letter 
from Robert Daborne to Henslowe states that he has commissioned 
Cyril Tourneur to write one act of the promised Arraignment of 



TOURNEUX TOURS 



London. " The Character of Robert, earl of Salisburye, Lore 
High Treasurer of England . . . written by Mr Sevill Turneur . . .,' 
in a MS in possession of Lord Mostyn (Hist. MSS. Commission. 
4th Report, appendix, p. 361) may reasonably be assigned to 
Tourneur. Although no external evidence is forthcoming, Mr R. 
Boyle names Tourneur as the collaborator of Massinger in The Secona 
Maid's Tragedy (licensed 1611). 

The Revenger's Tragedy was printed in Dodsley's Old Plays (vol. iv., 
1744, 1780 and 1825), and in Ancient British Drama (1810, vol. ii.). 
The best edition of Tourneur's works is The Plays and Poems 
Cyril Tourneur, edited with Critical Introduction and Notes, by 
Churton Collins (1878). See also the two plays printed with the 
masterpieces of Webster, with an introduction by J A. Symonds, in 
the" Mermaid Series " (l888and 1903). No particulars of Tourneur's 
life were available until the facts given above were abstracted by 
Mr Gordon Goodwin from the Calendar of State Papers (" Domestic 
Series," 1628-1629, 1629-1631, 1631-1633) and printed in the 
Academy (May 9, 1891). A critical study of the relation of The 
Atheist's Tragedy to Hamlet and other revenge-plays is given in 
Professor A. H. Thorndike's " Hamlet and Contemporary Revenge 
Plays " (Publ. of the Mod. Lang. Assoc., Baltimore, 1902). For the 
influence of Marston on Tourneur see E. E. Stoll, John Webster . . . 
(1905, Boston, Massachusetts); pp. 105-116. (M. BR.) 

TOURNEUX, JEAN MAURICE (1840- ), French man 
of letters and bibliographer, son of the artist and author J. F E. 
Tourneux, was born in Paris on the i2th of July 1849. 
He began his career as a bibliographer by collaborating in 
new editions of the Supercheries litteraires of Joseph Querard 
and the Dictionnaire des anonymes of Antoine Barbier. His 
most important bibliographical work was the Bibliographic de 
I'histoire de Paris pendant la revolution francflise (3 vols. 1890- 
1901), which was crowned by the Academy of Inscriptions. 
This valuable work serves as a guide for the history of the 
city beyond the limits of the Revolution. 

His other works include bibliographies of Prosper MeVimee (1876), 
of Thebphile Gautier (1876), of the brothers deGoncourt (1897) and 
others; also editions of F. M. Grimm's Correspondance litteraire, 
of Diderot's Neveu de Rameau (1884), of Montesquieu's Lettres 
persanes (1886), &c. 

TOURNON, a town of south-western France, capital of an 
arrondissement in the department of Ardeche, on the right bank 
of the Rhone, 58 m. S. of Lyons by rail. Pop. (1906), town, 
3642; commune, 5003. Tournon preserves a gateway of the 
15th century and other remains of fortifications and an old 
castle used as town hall, court-house and prison and con- 
taining a Gothic chapel. The church of St Julian dates chiefly 
from the I4th century. The lycee occupies an old college 
founded in the i6th century by Cardinal Francois de Tournon. 
Of the two suspension bridges which unite the town with Tain 
on the left bank of the river, one was built in 1825 and is the 
oldest in France. A statue to General Rampon (d. 1843} 
stands in the Place Carnot. Wood-sawing, silk-spinning, and 
the manufacture of chemical manures, silk goods and hosiery 
are carried on in the town, which has trade in the wine of 
the Rhone hills. Tournon had its own counts as early as 
the reign of Louis I. In the middle of the i7th century the title 
passed from them to the dukes of Ventadour. 

TOURNUS, a town of east-central France, in the depart- 
ment of Saone-et-Loire, on the right bank of the Sa6ne, 20 m. 
N. by E. of Macon on the Paris-Lyons railway. Pop. (1906), 
3787. The church of St Philibert (early nth century) once 
belonging to the Benedictine abbey of Tournus, suppressed in 
1785, is in the Burgundian Romanesque style. The facade lacks 
one of the two flanking towers originally designed for it. The 
nave is roofed with barrel vaulting, supported on tall cylin- 
drical columns. The choir beneath which is a crypt of the nth 
century has a deambulatory and square chapels. In the Place 
de l'H6tel de Ville stands a statue of J. B. Greuze, born in the 
town in 1725. There are vineyards in the surrounding dis- 
trict and the town and its port have considerable commerce in 
wine and in stone from the neighbouring quarries. Chair- 
making i? an important industry. 

TOURS, a town of central France, capital of the department 
of Indre-et-Loire, 145 m. S.W. of Paris by rail. Pop. (1906), 
town 61,507; commune, 67,601. Tours lies on the left bank of 
the Loire on a flat tongue of land between that river and the 
Cher a little above their junction. The right bank of the 



IO7 



Loire is bordered by hills at the foot of which lie the suburbs 
of St Cyr and St Symphorien. The river is crossed by two 
suspension bridges, partly built on islands in the river, and by 
a stone bridge of the second half of the i8th century, the Pont 
de Tours. Many foreigners, especially English, live at or visit 
Tours, attracted by the town itself, its mild climate and situa- 
tion in " the garden of France," and the historic chateaux in 
the vicinity. The Boulevard Beranger, with its continuation, 
the Boulevard Heurteloup, traverses Tours from west to east 
dividing it into two parts; the old town to the north, with its 
narrow streets and ancient houses, contains the principal 
buildings, the shops and the business houses, while the new 
town to the south, centring round a fine public garden, is almost 
entirely residential. The Rue Nationale, the widest and hand- 
somest street in Tours, is a prolongation of the Pont de Tours 
and runs at right angles to the boulevards, continuing under the 
name of the Avenue de Grammont until it reaches the Cher. 

St Gatien, the cathedral of Tours, though hardly among the 
greatest churches of France, is nevertheless of considerable 
interest. A cathedral of the first half of the i2th century was 
burnt in 1 1 66 during the quarrel between Louis VII. of France 
and Henry II. of England. A new cathedral was begun about 
1170 but not finished till 1547. The lower portions of the 
west towers belong to the iath century, the choir to the i3th 
century; the transept and east bays of the nave to the i4th; 
the remaining bays, a cloister on the north, and the facade, 
profusely decorated in the Flamboyant style, to the isth and 
i6th centuries, the upper part of the towers being in the 
Renaissance style of the i6th century. In the interior there is 
fine stained glass, that of the choir (i3th century) being espe- 
cially remarkable. The tomb of the children of Charles VIII., 
constructed in the first years of the i6th century and attributed 
to the brothers Juste is also of artistic interest. 

An example of Romanesque architecture survives in the great 
square tower of the church of St Julien, the rest of which is in the 
early Gothic style of the I3th century, with the exception of two 
apses added in the 1 6th century. Two towers and a Renaissance 
cloister are the chief remains of the celebrated basilica of St Martin 
built mainly during the 1 2th and I3th centuries and demolished 
in 1802. It stood on the site of an earlier and very famous church 
built from 466 to 472 by bishop St Perpetuus and destroyed together 
with many other churches in a fire in 998. Two other churches 
worthy of mention are Nptre-Dame la Riche, originally built in 
the I3th century, rebuilt in the l6th, and magnificently restored 
in the igth century; and St Saturnin of the isth century. The 
new basilica of St Martin and the church of St Etienne are modern. 
Of the old houses of Tours the h6tel Gouin and that wrongly 
known as the house of Tristan 1'Hermite (both of the isth century) 
are the best known. Tours has several learned societies and a 
valuable library, including among its MSS. a gospel of the 8th century 
on which the kings of France took oath as honorary canons of the 
church of St Martin. The museum contains a collection of pictures, 
and the museum of the Archaeological Society of Touraine has 
valuable antiquities; there is also a natural history museum. 

The chief public monuments are the fountain of the Renaissance 
built by Jacques de Beaune (d. 1527), financial minister, the statues 
of Descartes, Rabelais and Balzac, the latter born at Tours, and a 
monument to the three doctors Bretonneau, Trousseau and Velpeau. 
Tours is the seat of an archbishop, a prefect, and a court of assizes, 
and headquarters of the IX. Army Corps and has tribunals of first 
instance and of commerce, a board of trade arbitration, a chamber 
of commerce and a branch of the Bank of France. Among its 
educational institutions are a preparatory school of medicine and 
pharmacy, lycees for both sexes, a training college for girls: and schools 
}f fine art and music. The industrial establishments of the town 
nclude silk factories and numerous important printing-works, 
steel works, irort. foundries and factories for automobiles, machinery, 
oil, lime and cement, biscuits, portable buildings, stained glass, 
5Oots and shoes and porcelain. A considerable trade is carried on 
n the wine of the district and in brandy and in dried fruits, sausages 
and confectionery, for which the town is well known. Three-quarters 
)f a mile to the south-west of Tours lie unimportant remains of 
3 lessis-les-Tours, the chateau built by Louis XL, whither he retired 
Before his death in 1483. On the right bank of the Loire 2 m. 
above the town are the ruins of the ancient and powerful abbey of 
Vlarmoutier. Five miles to the north-west is the large agricultural 
reformatory of Mettray founded in 1839. 

Tours (see TOURAINE), under the Gauls the capital of the 
Turones or Turons, originally stood on the right bank of the 
Loire, a little above the present village of St Symphorien. At 



io8 



TOURVILLE, COMTE DE 



first called Altionos, the town was afterwards known as Caesaro- 
dunum. The Romans removed the town from the hill where it 
originally stood to the plain on the left bank of the river. 
Behind the present cathedral, remains of the amphitheatre 
(443 ft. in length by 394 in breadth) built towards the end of the 
2nd century might formerly be seen. Tours became Christian 
about 250 through the preaching of Gatien, who founded the 
bishopric. The first cathedral was built a hundred years later by 
StLitorius. The bishopricbecameanarchbishopricwhenGratian 
made Tours the capital of Lugdunensis Tertia though the 
bishops did not adopt the title of archbishop till the pth 
century. About the beginning of the 5th century the official 
name of Caesarodunurn was changed for that' of Civitas Turo- 
norum. St Martin, the great apostle of the Gauls, was bishop of 
Tours in the 4th century, and he was buried in a suburb which 
soon became as important as the town itself from the number of 
pilgrims who flocked to his tomb. Towards the end of the 4th 
century, apprehensive of barbarian invasion, the inhabitants 
pulled down some of their earlier buildings in order to raise a 
fortified wall, the course of which can still be traced in places. 
Their advanced fort of Larcay still overlooks the valley of the 
Cher. Affiliated to the Armorican confederation in 435, the 
town did not fall to the Visigoths till 473, and the new masters 
were always hated. It became part of the Prankish dominions 
under Clovis, who, in consideration of the help afforded by St 
Martin, presented the church with rich gifts out of the spoils 
taken from Alaric, confirmed and extended its right of sanc- 
tuary, and accepted for himself and his successors the title of 
canon of St Martin. At the end of the 6th century the bishopric 
was held by St Gregory of Tours. Tours grew rapidly in 
prosperity under the Merovingians, but abuse of the right of 
sanctuary led to great disorder, and the church itself became 
a hotbed of crime. Charlemagne re-established discipline in the 
disorganized monastery and set over it the learned Alcuin, 
who established at Tours one of the oldest public schools of 
Christian philosophy and theology. The arts flourished at 
Tours in the middle ages and the town was the centre of the 
Poitevin Romanesque school of architecture. The abbey was 
made into a collegiate church in the nth century, and was for a 
time affiliated to Cluny, but soon came under the direct rule of 
Rome, and for long had bishops of its own. The suburb in 
which the monastery was situated became as important as Tours 
itself under the name of Martinopolis. The Normans, attracted 
by its riches, pillaged it in 853 and 903. Strong walls were 
erected from 906 to 910, and the name was changed to that of 
Chateauneuf. Philip Augustus sanctioned the communal 
privileges which the inhabitants forced from the canons of 
St Martin and the innumerable offerings of princes, lords and 
pilgrims maintained the prosperity of the town all through the 
middle ages. A 13th-century writer speaks with enthusiasm 
of the wealth and luxury of the inhabitants of Chateauneuf, 
of the beauty and chastity of the women and of the rich shrine 
of the saint. In the I4tb century Tours was united to Chateau- 
neuf within a common wall, of which a round tower, the Tour 
de Guise, remains, and both towns were put under the same 
administration. The numerous and long-continued visits of 
Charles VII., Louis XI., who established the silk-industry, and 
Charles VIII. during the isth century favoured the commerce 
and industry of the town, then peopled by 75,000 inhabitants. 
In the isth and i6th centuries the presence of Jean Fouquet 
the painter of Michel Colomb and the brothers Juste the sculp- 
tors, enhanced the fame of the town in the sphere of art. In 
1562 Tours suffered from the violence of both Protestants and 
Catholics, and enjoyed no real security till after the pact entered 
into at Plessis-les-Tours between Henry III. and Henry of 
Navarre in 1589. In the I7th and i8th centuries Tours was the 
capital of the government of Touraine. Its manufactures, 
of which silk weaving was the chief, suffered from the revocation 
of the Edict of Nantes (1685). In 1772 its mint, whence were 
issued the " livres " of Tours (librae Turonenses) was suppressed. 
During the Revolution the town formed a base of operations of 
the Republicans against the Vendeans. In 1870 it was for a 



time the seat of the delegation of the government of national 
defence. In 1871 it was occupied by the Germans from the 
toth of January to the 8th of March. 

See P. Vitry, Tours et les chdteaux de Touraine (Paris, 1905); 
E. Giraudet, Histoire de la ville de Tours (Tours, 1873) I L& Artistes 
tourangeaux (Tours, 1885). 

TOURVILLE, ANNE-HILARION DE COTENTIN (or Cos- 

TANTIN), COMTE DE (1642-1701), French admiral and marshal 
of France, was the son of Cesar de Cotentin, or Costantin, who 
held offices in the household of the king and of the prince of 
Conde. He is said to have been born at Tourville in Normandy, 
but was baptized in Paris on the 24th of November 1642, was 
commonly known as M. de Tourville, and was destined by his 
family to enter the Order of Malta. From the age of fourteen 
to the age of twenty-five, he served with the galleys of the Order. 
At that time the knights were still fighting the Barbary pirates 
of Algiers and Tunis. The young Anne-Hilarion is said to have 
been distinguished for courage. His life during these years, 
however, is little known. The supposed Memoirs bearing his 
name were published by the Abbe de Magron in the i8th century 
and belong to the large class of historical romances which pro- 
fessed to be biographies or autobiographies. In 1667 he was 
back in France, and was incorporated in the corps of officers of 
the French Royal navy which Louis XIV. was then raising from 
the prostration into which it had fallen during his minority. 
The positions of French naval officer and knight of Malta were 
not incompatible. Many men held both. The usual practice 
was that they did not take the full vows till they were in middle 
life, and had reached the age when they were entitled to hold 
one of the great offices. Until then they were free to marry, 
on condition of renouncing all claim to the chief places. As 
Anne-Hilarion de Cotentin married a wealthy widow, the 
marquise de Popeliniere, in 1689 at which time he was made 
count of Tourville, he severed his connexion with the Order. 
Nor does he appear to have served with it at all after his return 
to France in 1667. He was at first employed in cruising against 
the Barbary pirates and the Turks. In the expedition sent 
against Crete in 1668-69 under command of the Due de Beau- 
fort he had command of the " Croissant " (44). The Due de 
Beaufort was killed, and the expedition was a failure. When 
the war with Holland in which France and England acted as 
allies began in 1670, Tourville commanded the " Page " (50), 
in the squadron of the comte d'Estrees (1624-1707) sent to 
co-operate with the duke of York. He was present at the battle 
of Solebay (June 7, 1672), and in the action on the coast of 
Holland in the following year, when Prince Rupert commanded 
the English fleet. When England withdrew from the alliance, 
the scene of the naval war was transferred to the Mediterranean, 
where Holland was co-operating with the Spaniards. Tourvillle 
served under Abraham Duquesne in his battles with De Ruyter. 
He particularly distinguished himself at the battle of Palermo 
on the 2nd of June 1676. By this time he was known as one of 
the best officers in the service of King Louis XIV. Unlike many 
employed by the king to command his ships in the earlier part 
of his reign, Tourville was a seaman. He had the reputation 
of being able to do all the work required in a ship, and he had 
made a study of naval warfare. The great treatise on naval 
tactics afterwards published under the name of his secretary, 
the Jesuit Hoste or 1'Hoste, was understood to have been 
inspired by him. In 1683 he was chef d'escadre rear admiral 
with Duquesne in operations against the Barbary pirates, and 
he continued on that service with D'Estrees. By 1689 he bad 
been promoted lieutenant-general des armees navales, and was 
named vice-admiral du Levant or of the East. In June of 
that year he took up the commandership-in-chief of the French 
naval forces in the war against England and her continental allies 
which had begun in the previous year. From this time till 
the failure of his resources compelled King Louis XIV. to 
withdraw his fleets from the sea, Tourville continued to com- 
mand the naval war in the Channel and the Atlantic. His 
conduct and example during this period were the source of the 
system of manoeuvring to gain an advantage by some method 



TOUSSAINT L'OUVERTURE TOWEL 



109 



other than plain fighting. The personal character of Tourville 
must be held to account largely for the timidity of the principles 
he established. Tourville's personal valour was of the finest 
quality, but like many other brave men, he was nervous under 
the weight of responsibility. It is no less clear that anxiety 
to avoid risking a disaster to his reputation was of more weight 
with him than the wish to win a signal success. He belonged 
to the type of men in whose minds the evil which may happen is 
always more visible than the good. In 1690 he had an oppor- 
tunity which might well have tempted the most cautious, and 
he missed it out of sheer care to keep his fleet safe against all 
conceivable chances, aided perhaps by a pedantic taste for 
formal, orderly movement. He was opposed in the channel 
by the allies, who had only fifty-six ships, while his own force, 
though it included some vessels of no serious value, was from 
seventy to eighty sail strong. He was feebly attacked by 
Admiral Arthur Herbert, the newly created earl of Torrington, 
off Beachy Head on the loth of July. The Dutch ships in the 
van were surrounded. The allies had to retreat in disorder, 
and Tourville followed in " line of battle " which limited his 
speed to that of his slowest ship. So his enemy escaped with 
comparatively little loss. In the following year he performed 
his famous " off shore cruise," in the Bay of Biscay. He moved 
to and fro in fine order avoiding being brought to battle, but 
also failing to inflict any harm on his opponent. In the mean- 
time the cause of King James II. was ruined in Ireland. In 
1692 the Mediterranean fleet having failed to join him, he was 
faced by a vastly superior force of the allies. The French 
king had prepared a military force to invade England, and 
Tourville was expected to prepare the way. Having at least 
a clear indication that he was expected to act with vigour, 
if not piecise orders to fight against any odds, he made a 
resolute attack on the centre of the allies on the 2gth of May off 
Cape Barfleur, and drew off before he was surrounded. This 
action which with the pursuit of the following days made up what 
is called the battle of La Hogue, from the Bay where some of 
the fugitive French ships were destroyed, or Barfleur, proved 
his readiness to face danger. But his inability to take and act 
on a painful decision was no less proved in the retreat. He 
hesitated to sacrifice his crippled flagship, and thereby detained 
his whole fleet. The result was that the " Soleil Royale " 
herself and fifteen other ships were cut off and destroyed at 
La Hogue. In 1693 he was again at sea with a great fleet, and 
had a chance to inflict extreme injury on the allies by the capture 
of the Smyrna convoy which included their whole Mediterranean 
trade for the year. He did it a great deal of harm outside the 
Straits of Gibraltar, but again he kept his fleet in battle order, 
and a large part of the convoy escaped. King Louis XIV. 
who had a strong personal regard for him, continued to treat 
him with favour. Tourville was made Marshal of France in 
1693, but the growing exhaustion of the French treasury no 
longer allowed the maintenance of great fleets at sea. Tour- 
ville remained generally at Toulon, and had no more fighting. 
He died in Paris in 1701. His only son, a colonel in the 
army, was killed at Denain in 1712. 

The English account of the battles of Beachy Head and La Hogue 
will be found in Ledyard's Naval History. Troude's Batailles navales 
de la France gives the French version of these and the other actions 
in which Tourville was concerned. Tourville is frequently mentioned 
in the Life of Duquesne by M. Jal. (D. H.) 

TOUSSAINT L'OUVERTURE (or LOUVERTURE), PIERRE- 
DOMINIQUE (c. 1746-1803), one of the liberators of Haiti, 
claimed to be descended from an African chief, his father, a slave 
in Haiti, being the chief's second son. He was at first surnamed 
Breda, but this was afterwards changed to L'Ouverture in token of 
the results of his valour in causing a gap in the ranks of the 
enemy. From childhood he manifested unusual abilities 
and succeeded, by making the utmost use of every 
opportunity, in obtaining a remarkably good education. He 
obtained the special confidence of his master, and was made 
superintendent of the other negroes on the plantation. After 
the insurrection of 1791 he joined the. insurgents, and, having 
acquired some knowledge of surgery and medicine, acted as 



physician to the forces. His rapid rise in influence aroused, 
however, the jealousy of Jean Francois, who caused his arrest 
on the ground of his partiality to the whites. He was liberated 
by the rival insurgent chief Baisson, and a partisan war ensued, 
but after the death of Baisson he placed himself under the orders 
of Jean Francois. Subsequently he joined the Spaniards, 
but, when the French government ratified the act declaring 
the freedom of the slaves, he came to the aid of the French. 
In 1796 he was named commander-in-chief of the armies of 
St Domingo, but, having raised and disciplined a powerful 
army of blacks, he made himself master of the wh'ole country, 
renounced the authority of France, and announced himself 
" the Buonaparte of St Domingo." He was taken prisoner by 
treachery on the part of France, and died in the prison of Joux, 
near Besanfon, on the 27th of April 1803. 

See Toussaint 1'Ouverture's own Memoires, with a life by Saint 
Remy; (Paris, 1850); Gragnon-Laconte, Toussaint Louverture 
(Paris, 1887); Scholcher, Vie de Toussaint Louverture (Paris, 1 889)1 
and J. R. Beard, Life of Toussaint Louverture (1853). 

TOW, the term given in textile manufacture to the short 
fibres formed during the processes of scutching and hackling, 
and also to the yarns which are made from these fibres. A 
special machine termed a carding engine or a tow card is used 
to form these fibres into a sliver, this sliver then passes to the 
drawing frames, and thereafter follows the same process as line 
yarns in flax spinning. 

TOWANDA, a borough and the county-seat of Bradford 
county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., on the west bank of the Susque- 
hanna river, about 50 m. N.W. of Wilkes-Barre. Pop. (1890), 
4169; (1900), 4663 (322 foreign-born); (1910) 4281. Towanda 
is served by the Lehigh Valley and the Susquehanna & New 
York railways. It is situated about 730 ft. above the sea, and 
is surrounded by high hills. Towanda contains the museum 
of the Bradford County Historical Society. The borough is 
in a farming, dairying and stock-raising region, and has various 
manufactures. The first settlement was made by William Means 
in 1786, the village was laid out in 1812, became the county- 
seat in the same year, was variously known for some years 
as Meansville, Overton, Williamson, Monmouth and Towanda, 
and in 1828 was incorporated as the Borough of Towanda. Its 
name is an Indian word said to mean " where we bury the 
dead." 

TOWCESTER, a market town in the southern parliamentary 
division of Northamptonshire, England, 8 m. S.S.W. of North- 
ampton, on the East & West Junction and the Northampton 
& Banbury Junction railways. Pop. (1901), 2371. It is 
pleasantly situated on the small river Tove, a left-bank affluent of 
the Ouse. The church of St Lawrence is a good Early English, 
Decorated and Perpendicular building, with a fine western 
Perpendicular tower. There are a considerable agricultural 
trade and a manufacture of boots and shoes. 

Here was a Roman town or village situated on Watling 
Street. The site has yielded a considerable number of relics. 
In the roth century a fortress was maintained here against the 
invading Danes. The site of both this and the Roman station 
is marked by an artificial mound known as Burg Hill, not far 
from the church, above the river. Towcester, with the whole 
of this district, witnessed a large part of the operations during 
the Civil War of the I7th century. 

TOWEL, a cloth used for the purpose of drying the hands, 
face or body after bathing or washing. These cloths are made 
of different materials, known as " towellings," the two principal 
kinds are " huckaback," a slightly roughened material for 
chamber towels for face and hands, and Turkish towelling, 
with a much rougher surface, for bath towels; finer towellings 
are made of linen or damask. The term has a particular eccle- 
siastical usage as applied to a linen altar cloth or to a rich cloth 
of embroidered silk, velvet, &c., covering the altar at all " such 
periods when Mass is not being celebrated." 

The Mid. Eng. towaille comes through the O. Fr. touaille 
from the Low Lat. toacula, represented in other Romanic languages 
by Sp. toalla, Ital. tovaglia; this is to be referred to the Teutonic 
verb meaning " to wash," O. H. G. twahan, M. H. G. dwahen, O. Eng. 
]miedn, and cf. Ger. Zwehle, provincial Eng. dwile, a dish-cloth. 



no 



TOWER TOWER OF LONDON 



TOWER (Lat. turns; Fr. lour, docker; Ital. tone; Ger. 
Thurm), the term given to a lofty building originally designed for 
defence, and, as such, attached to and forming part of the 
fortifications of a city or castle. Towers do not seem to have 
existed in Egypt, but in Mesopotamia from the earliest times 
they form the most important feature in the city walls, and are 
shown in the bas-reliefs of the Assyrian palaces at Nimroud 
and elsewhere. The earliest representation is perhaps that 
engraved on the tablet in the lap of Gudea the priest king of 
Lagash (270x3 B.C.), whose statue, found at Tello, is now in the 
Louvre; the drawing is that of a large fortified enclosure, with 
gates, bastions and towers, corresponding with remains of 
similar structures of the same and later periods. In the dis- 
coveries made here, at Susa and at Dom Sargoukin, the towers 
were about 40 ft. square, projecting from 16 to 20 ft. in front 
of the curtain walls which connected them, and standing about 
80 ft. apart. In Roman and Byzantine times this distance 
was increased, owing probably to the greater speed of pro- 
jectiles, and in the wall built by Theodosius at Constantinople 
the towers were 150 ft. apart (see also CASTLE and FORTIFI- 
CATION). 

From the architectural point of view, the towers which are 
of chief interest are those of ecclesiastical and secular buildings, 
those in Italy being nearly always isolated and known as cam- 
panili (see CAMPANILE). In England the earliest known are the 
Anglo-Saxon towers, the best examples of which are those at 
Earl's Barton,Monkwearmouth, Barnack, Barton-on-Humberand 
Sompting; they were nearly always square on plan and situated 
at the west end, in an axial line with the nave, their chief 
characteristics being the long-and-short work of the masonry 
at the quoins, the decoration of the wall with thin pilaster strips, 
and the slight setting back of the storeys as they rose. There 
are a few examples of central Anglo-Saxon towers, as at St 
Mary's, Dover; Breamore, Hants; and Dunham Major, Nor- 
folk; and, combined with western towers, at Ramsay and Ely; 
twin western towers existed at Exeter. Contemporary with 
these Saxon towers are many examples in France, but they are 
invariably central towers, as at Germigny-des-Pres and at 
Querqueville in Normandy; in Germany the twin towers of 
Aix-la-Chapelle are the best known. As a rule the single 
western tower is almost confined to England, prior to the end 
of the nth century, when there are many examples throughout 
Germany. In Norman times in England, central towers are 
more common, and the same obtains in France, where, however, 
they are sometimes carried to a great height, as at Perigueux, 
where the wall decoration consists of pilasters in the lower 
storeys, and semi-detached columns above, probably based on 
that of the Roman amphitheatre there: otherwise the design 
of the Romanesque church towers is extremely simple, de- 
pending for its effect on the good masonry and the enrichment 
of the belfry windows. In later periods flat buttresses are 
introduced, and these gradually assume more importance and 
present many varieties of design; greater apparent height 
is given to the tower by the string courses dividing the second 
storeys, and by rich blank arcading on them, the upper storey 
with the belfry windows forming always the most important 
feature of the tower. In those towers which are surmounted by 
spires (q.v.) the design of the latter possesses sometimes a greater 
interest both in England and France. A very large number 
of the towers of English cathedrals and churches have flat 
roofs enclosed with lofty battlemented parapets and numerous 
pinnacles and finials; in France such terminations are not 
found, and in Germany the high pitched roof is prevalent every 
where, so that the numerous examples in England have a special 
interest; sometimes the angle buttresses are grouped to carry 
octagonal pinnacles, and sometimes, as at Lincoln and Salis- 
bury, octagonal turrets rise from the base of the tower. 

Among the finest examples are those of Canterbury, Ely, York, 
Gloucester, Lincoln and Worcester cathedrals; among churches, 
those of the minster at Beverley ; St Mary's, St Neots (Huntingdon- 
shire) ; St Stephen's, Bristol, St Giles, Wrexham (Denbighshire in 
many respects the most beautiful in England) ; St Mary Magdalene, 
Taunton; Magdalen College, Oxford, St Botolph, Boston, crowned 



with an octagonal tower; St Mary's, Ilminster (Somersetshire) and 
Malvern (Worcestershire) ; and the isolated towers at Chichcster, 
Evesham and Bury St Edmund's. 

So far reference has been made only to central and western 
towers, the latter not always placed, like the Anglo-Saxon towers, 
in the axial line of the nave, but sometimes on the north or south 
side of the west end; and as a rule these are only found in Eng- 
land. In France and Germany, however, they are greatly 
increased in number; thus in Reims seven towers with spires 
were contemplated, according to Viollet-le-Duc, but never 
completed; at Chartres eight towers, and at Laon seven, of which 
six are completed; in Germany the cathedrals of Mayence and 
Spires and two of the churches in Cologne have from four to 
seven towers; and at Tournai cathedral, in Belgium, are seven 
towers. In many of the churches in Norfolk and Suffolk the 
western tower is circular, owing probably to the fact that, 
being built with stone of small dimensions, the angles of the 
quoins would have been difficult to construct. In some of the 
French towns, isolated towers were built to contain bells, and 
were looked upon as 'municipal constructions; of these there 
are a few left, as at Bethune, Evreux, Amiens and Bordeaux, 
the latter being a double tower, with the bells placed in a roof 
between them. 

The towers of secular buildings are chiefly of the town halls, of 
which there are numerous examples throughout France and Belgium, 
such as those of the h6tel de ville at St Antonin (i3th century) 
and Compiegne, both in France; at Lubeck, Danzig and Miinster 
in Germany; and Brussels, Bruges and Oudenarde in Belgium. 

(R. P. S.) 

TOWER OF LONDON, THE, an ancient fortress on the east 
side of the City of London, England, on the north bank of 
the river Thames. On a slight elevation now called the Tower 
Hill, well protected by the river and its marshes, and by woods 
to the north, there was a British stronghold. Tradition, 
however, pointed to Julius Caesar as the founder of the 
Tower (Shakespeare, Richard III., in., i; and elsewhere), 
and remains of Roman fortifications have been found beneath 
the present site. The Tower contains barracks, and is the 
repository of the regalia. It covers an irregular hexagonal area, 
and is surrounded by a ditch, formerly fed by the Thames, but 
now dry. Gardens surround it on the north and west, and an 
embankment borders the river on the south. Two lines of 
fortifications enclose the inner bail, in which is the magnificent 
White Tower or Keep, flanked by four turrets. This was built 
by Gundulf, bishop of Rochester, c. 1078. Its exterior was 
restored by Sir Christopher Wren, but within the Norman work 
is little altered. Here may be seen a collection of old armour 
and instruments of torture, the rooms said to have been Sir 
Walter Raleigh's prison, and the magnificent Norman chapel 
of St John. Among the surrounding buildings are the barracks, 
and the chapel of St Peter ad Vincula, dating from the early 
part of the i4th century, but much altered in Tudor times. 
The Ballium Wall, the inner of the two lines of fortification, 
is coeval with the keep. Twelve towers rise from it at 
intervals, in one of which, the Wakefield Tower, the Regalia or 
crown jewels are kept. The chief entry to the fortress is through 
the Middle Tower on the west, across the bridge over the moat, 
and through the By ward Tower. The Lion Gate under the Middle 
Tower took name from a menagerie kept here from Norman 
times until 1834. On the south, giving entry from the river 
through St Thomas Tower and the Bloody Tower, is the famous 
Traitor's Gate, by which prisoners of high rank were admitted. 
The chief historical interest of the Tower lies in its association 
with such prisoners. The Beauchamp Tower was for long the 
place of confinement, but dungeons and other chambers in 
various parts of the building are also associated with prisoners 
of fame. Executions took place both within the Tower and 
on Tower Hill. Many of those executed were buried in the chapel 
of St Peter ad Vincula, such as Sir Thomas More, Henry VIII. 's 
queens, Anne Boleyn and Katharine Howard, Lady Jane Grey 
and her husband Dudley, Sir Walter Raleigh, and the duke of 
Monmouth. The Tower was not only a prison from Norman 
times until the igth century, but was a royal residence at 



TOWN TOWNSHEND, C. 



in 



intervals from the reign of Stephen, if not before. The royal 
palace was demolished by order of Cromwell. The tower is 
under the governorship of a constable. The attendant staff, 
called Yeomen of the Guard or familiarly " Beefeaters," still 
wear their picturesque Tudor costume. 

AUTHORITIES. W. Hepworth Dixon, Her Majesty's Tower 
(London, 1869); Lord Ronald Sutherland Gower, The Tower of 
London (London, 1901). 

TOWN, in its most general sense, a collection or aggregation of 
inhabited houses larger than a village. The O. Eng. tun (M. Eng. 
loun) meant originally a fence or enclosure, cf. Ger. zaun, hedge, 
hence an enclosed place. The Scottish and Northern English 
use of the word for a farmhouse and its buildings, a farmstead, 
preserves this original meaning, and is paralleled by the Icel. tun, 
homestead, dwelling-house. A cognate Celtic form meaning a 
fastness, a strong place, appears in Gael, and Irish dun, Welsh, 
din, fortress, hill-fort (cf. Welsh dinas, town). This is familiar 
from the many Latinized names of places, e.g. Lugdunum, 
A ugustodunum, &c. In English law " town " is not a word defined 
by statute. For purposes of local government there are boroughs, 
urban districts and rural districts, but many urban districts are 
rural in character and the distinction is purely an administrative 
one (see BOROUGH; CITY; COMMUNE (MEDIEVAL); MUNICIPIUM; 
ENGLAND: Local Government, and the sections on local adminis- 
tration under various country headings) . The meaning attached 
to the term " township " in the local administration of the 
United States is treated under UNITED STATES: Local Government. 

TOWNELEY (or TOWNLEY), CHARLES (1737-1805), English 
archaeologist and collector of marbles, was born at Towneley, 
the family seat, near Burnley in Lancashire, on the ist of October 
1737. He was educated at the college of Douai, and subsequently 
under John Turberville Needham, the physiologist and divine. 
In 1758 he took up his residence at Towneley, where he lived the 
ordinary life of a country gentleman until about 1765, when he 
left England to study ancient art, chiefly at Rome. He also 
made several excursions to the south of Italy and Sicily. In 
conjunction with Gavin Hamilton, the artist, and Thomas 
Jenkins, a banker in Rome, he got together a splendid collection 
of antiquities, which was deposited in two houses bought 
by him for the purpose in Park Street, Westminster, where he 
died on the 3rd of January 1805. His solitary publication was 
an account of an ancient helmet found at Ribchester. His 
marbles, bronzes, coins, and gems were purchased by the British 
Museum for about 28,000, and form part of the Graeco-Roman 
collection. 

For an account of the antiquities see Sir Henry Ellis's The Townley 
Gallery (1836), and A. T. F. Michaelis's Ancient Marbles in Great 
Britain (1882). 

TOWNLEY, JAMES (1714-1778), English dramatist, second 
son of Charles Townley, merchant, was born in London on the 
6th of May 1714. Educated at Merchant Taylors' School and at 
St John's College, Oxford, he took holy orders, being ordained 
priest on the z8th of May 1738. He was lecturer at St Dunstan's 
in the East, chaplain to the lord mayor, then under-master at 
Merchant Taylors' School until 1753, when he became grammar 
master at Christ's Hospital. In 1760 he became head master 
of Merchant Taylors' School, where in 1762 and 1763 he revived 
the custom of dramatic performances. He retained his head- 
mastership until his death on the sth of July 1778. He took a 
keen interest in the theatre, and it has been asserted that many 
of David Garrick's best productions and revivals owed much 
to his assistance. He was the author, although the fact was 
long concealed, of High Life below Stairs, a two-act farce pre- 
sented at Drury Lane on the 3ist of October 1759; also of False 
Concord (Covent Garden, March 20, 1764) and The Tutor (Drury 
Lane, Feb. 4, 1765). 

TOWNSHEND, CHARLES (1725-1767), English politician, 
was the second son of Charles, 3rd Viscount Townshend, who 
married Audrey (d. 1788), daughter and heiress of Edward 
Harrison of Ball's Park, near Hertford, a lady who rivalled her 
son in brilliancy of wit and frankness of expression. Charles was 
born on the zgth of August 1725, and was sent for his education 



to Leiden and Oxford. At the Dutch university, where he 
matriculated on the 27th of October 1745, he associated with a 
small knot of English youths, afterwards well known in various 
circles of life, among whom were Dowdeswell, his subsequent 
rival in politics, Wilkes, the witty and unprincipled reformer, and 
Alexander Carlyle, the genial Scotchman, who devotes some of 
the pages of his Autobiography to chronicling their sayings and 
their doings. He represented Great Yarmouth in parliament 
from 1747 to 1761, when he found a seat for the treasury borough 
of Harwich. Public attention was first drawn to his abilities 
m 1-753, when he delivered a lively attack, as a younger son 
who might hope to promote his advancement by allying himself 
in marriage to a wealthy heiress, against Lord Hardwicke's 
marriage bill. Although this measure passed into law, he 
attained this object in August 1755 by marrying Caroline (d. 
1794), the eldest daughter of the 2nd duke of Argyll and the 
widow of Francis, Lord Dalkeith, the eldest son of the 2nd duke 
of Buccleuch. In April 1754 Townshend was transformed from 
the position of a member of the board of trade, which he had held 
from 1 749, to that of a lord of the admiralty, but at the close of 
1755 his passionate attack against the policy of the ministry, an 
attack which shared in popular estimation with the scathing 
denunciations of Pitt, the supreme success of Single-Speech 
Hamilton, and the hopeless failure of Lord Chesterfield's illegiti- 
mate son, caused his resignation. In the administration which 
was formed in November 1756, and which was ruled by Pitt, 
the lucrative office of treasurer of the chamber was given to 
Townshend, and in the following spring he was summoned to 
the privy council. 

With the accession of the new monarch in 1760 this volatile 
politician transferred his attentions from Pitt to the young 
king's favourite, Bute, and when in 1761, at the latter's instance, 
several changes were made in the ministry, Townshend was 
promoted to the post of secretary-at-war. In this place he 
remained after the great commoner had withdrawn from the 
cabinet, but in December 1762 he threw it up. Bute, alarmed 
at the growth in numbers and in influence of his enemies, tried 
to buy back Townshend's co-operation by sundry tempting 
promises, and at last secured his object in March 1763 with the 
presidency of the board of trade. When Bute retired and George 
Grenville accepted the cares of official life, the higher post of 
first lord of the admiralty fell to Townshend's lot, but with 
his usual impetuosity he presumed to designate one of his 
satellites, Sir William Burrell (1732-1796), to a place under him 
at the board, and the refusal to accept the nomination led 
to his exclusion from the new administration. While in 
opposition his mind was swayed to and fro with conflicting 
emotions of dislike to the head of the ministry and of desire 
to share in the spoils of office. The latter feeling ultimately 
triumphed; he condescended to accept in the dying days 
of Grenville's cabinet, and to retain through the " lutestring " 
administration of Lord Rockingham " pretty summer 
wear," as Townshend styled it, " but it will never stand 
the winter " the highly paid position of paymaster-general, 
refusing to identify himself more closely with its fortunes as 
chancellor of the exchequer. The position which he refused from 
the hands of Lord Rockingham he accepted from Pitt in August 
1 766, and a few weeks later his urgent appeals to the great minister 
for increased power were favourably answered, and he was 
admitted to the inner circle of the cabinet. The new chancellor 
proposed the continuance of the land tax at four shillings in the 
pound, while he held out hopes that it might be reduced next year 
to three shillings, whereupon his predecessor, William Dowdeswell, 
by the aid of the landed gentlemen, carried a motion that the 
reduction should take effect at once. This defeat proved a 
great mortification to Lord Chatham, and in his irritation 
against Townshend for this blow, as well as for some acts of in- 
subordination, he meditated the removal of his showy colleague. 
Before this could be accomplished Chatham's mind became 
impaired, and Townshend, who was the most determined and 
influential of his colleagues, swayed the ministry as he liked, 
pledging himself to find a revenue in America with which to meet 



ii2 TOWNSHEND, 2ND VISCOUNT TO WNSHEND, IST MARQUESS 



the deficiency caused by the reduction in the land tax. His wife 
was created (August 1767) baroness of Greenwich, and his elder 
brother George, the 4th viscount, was made lord-lieutenant of 
Ireland. He himself delivered in the House of Commons many 
speeches unrivalled in parliamentary history for wit and reckless- 
ness; and one of them still lives in history as the " champagne 
speech." His last official act was to carry out his intention by 
passing through parliament resolutions, which even his colleagues 
deprecated in the cabinet, for taxing several articles, such as 
glass, paper and tea, on their importation into America, which he 
estimated would produce the insignificant sum of 40,000 for the 
English treasury, and which shrewder observers prophesied would 
lead to the loss of the American colonies. Soon after this event 
he died somewhat suddenly on the 4th of September 1767. 

The universal tribute of Townshend's colleagues allows him 
the possession of boundless wit and ready eloquence, set off by 
perfect melody of intonation, but marred by an unexampled lack 
of judgment and discretion. He shifted his ground in politics 
with every new moon, and the world fastened on him the nick- 
name, which he himself adopted in his " champagne " speech, of 
the weathercock. His official knowledge was considerable; and 
it would be unjust to his memory to ignore the praises of his 
contemporaries or his knowledge of his country's commercial 
interests. The House of Commons recognized in him its spoilt 
child, and Burke happily said that " he never thought, did or 
said anything " without judging its effect on his fellow members. 

A Memoir by Percy Fitzgerald was published in 1866. See also 
W. E. H. Lecky, History of England (1892); and Horace Walpole, 
Memoirs of the Reign of George III., edited by G. F. R. Barker (1894). 

TOWNSHEND, CHARLES TOWNSHEND, 2ND VISCOUNT 
(1674-1738), English statesman, was the eldest son of Sir 
Horatio Townshend, Bart. (c. 1630-1687), a zealous supporter 
of Charles II., who was created Baron Townshend in 1661 and 
Viscount Townshend of Raynham in 1682. The old Norfolk 
family of Townshend, to which ho belonged, is descended from 
Sir Roger Townshend (d. 1493) of Raynham, who acted as legal 
adviser to the Paston family, and was made a justice of the 
common pleas in 1484. His descendant, another Sir Roger 
Townshend (c. 1543-1590), had a son Sir John Townshend 
(1564-1603), a soldier, whose son, Sir Roger Townshend (1588- 
1637), was created a baronet in 1617. He was the father of Sir 
Horatio Townshend. 

Charles Townshend succeeded to trie peerage in December 
1687, and was educated at Eton and King's College, Cambridge. 
He had Tory sympathies when he took his seat in the House of 
Lords, but his views changed, and he began to take an active 
part in politics as a Whig. For a few years after the accession 
of Queen Anne he remained without office, but in November 
1708 he was appointed captain of the yeomen of the guard, 
having in the previous year been summoned to the privy council. 
He was ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary to the 
states-general from 1709 to 1711, taking part during these years 
in the negotiations which preceded the conclusion of the treaty 
of Utrecht. After his recall to England he was busily occupied 
in attacking the proceedings of the new Tory ministry. Towns- 
hend quickly won the favour of George I., and in September 
1714, the new king selected him as secretary of state for the 
northern department. The policy of Townshend and his 
colleagues, after they had crushed the Jacobite rising of 1715, 
both at home and abroad, was one of peace. The secretary 
disliked the interference of England in the war between Sweden 
and Denmark, and he promoted the conclusion of defensive 
alliances between England and the emperor and England and 
France. In spite of these successes the influence of the Whigs 
was gradually undermined by the intrigues of Charles Spencer, 
earl of Sunderland, and by the discontent of the Hanoverian 
favourites. In October 1716, Townshend's colleague, James 
Stanhope, afterwards ist Earl Stanhope, accompanied the king 
on his visit to Hanover, and while there he was seduced from his 
allegiance to his fellow ministers by Sunderland, George being 
led to believe that Townshend and his brother-in-law, Sir 
Robert Walpole, were caballing with the prince of Wales, their 



intention being that the prince should supplant his father on 
the throne. Consequently in December 1716 the secretary was 
dismissed and was made lord-lieutenant of Ireland, but he only 
retained this post until the following April. 

Early in 1720 a partial reconciliation took place between the 
parties of Stanhope and Townshend, and in June of this year 
the latter became president of the council, a post which he held 
until February 1721, when, after the death of Stanhope and the 
forced retirement of Sunderland, a result of the South Sea 
bubble, he was again appointed secretary of state for the 
northern department, with Walpole as first lord of the treasury 
and chancellor of the exchequer. The two remained in power 
during the remainder of the reign of George I., the chief domestic 
events of the time being the impeachment of Bishop Atterbury, 
the pardon and partial restoration of Lord Bolingbroke, and ths 
troubles in Ireland caused by the patent permitting Wood to 
coin halfpence. Townshend secured the dismissal of his rival, 
John Carteret, afterwards Earl Granville, but soon differences 
arose between himself and Walpole, and he had some difficulty 
in steering a course through the troubled sea of European politics. 
Although disliking him, George II. retained him in office, but 
the predominance in the ministry passed gradually but surely 
from him to Walpole. Townshend could not brook this. So 
long, to use Walpole's witty remark, as the firm was Townshend 
and Walpole all went well with it, but when the positions were 
reversed jealousies arose between the partners. Serious differ- 
ences of opinion concerning the policy to be adopted towards 
Prussia and in foreign politics generally led to a final rupture 
in 1730. Failing, owing to Walpole's interference, in his efforts 
to procure the dismissal of a colleague and his replacement by 
a personal friend, Townshend retired on the isth of May 1730. 
His remaining years were passed at Raynham, where he inte- 
rested himself in agriculture and was responsible for introducing 
into England the cultivation of turnips on a large scale and for 
other improvements of the kind. He died at Raynham on the 
2ist of June 1738. 

Townshend was twice married first to Elizabeth (d. 1711), 
daughter of Thomas Pelham, ist Baron Pelham of Laughton, 
and secondly to Dorothy (d. 1726), sister of Sir Robert Walpole. 
He had eight sons. The eldest son, Charles, the 3rd viscount 
(1700-1764), was called to the House of Lords in 1723. The 
second son, Thomas Townshend (1701-1780), was member of 
parliament for the university of Cambridge from 1727 to 1774; 
his only son, Thomas Townshend (1733-1800), who was created 
Baron Sydney in 1783 and Viscount Sydney in 1789, was a 
secretary of state and leader of the House of Commons from July 
1782 to April 1783, and from December 1783 to June 1789 
again a secretary of state, Sydney in New South Wales being 
named after him; his grandson, John Robert Townshend (1805- 
1890), the 3rd viscount, was created Earl Sydney in 1874, the 
titles becoming extinct at his death. Charles Townshend's eldest 
son by his second wife was George Townshend (1715-1769), 
who after serving for many years in the navy, became an 
admiral in 1765. The third viscount had two sons, George, 
ist Marquess Townshend, and Charles Townshend, who are 
separately noticed. 

For the 2nd viscount see W. Coxe, Memoirs of Sir Robert Wal- 
pole (1816) ; W. E. H. Lecky, History of England in the l8th Century 
(1892); and Earl Stanhope, History of England. 

TOWNSHEND, GEORGE TOWNSHEND, IST MARQUESS (1724- 
1807), eldest son of Charles, 3rd Viscount Townshend (1700- 
1764), and brother of the politician Charles Townshend (?..), 
was born on the 28th of February 1724, his godfather being 
George I. Joining Cope's dragoons as a captain, he saw some 
service in the Netherlands in 1745, and as a member of the duke 
of Cumberland's staff was present at Culloden. Afterwards he 
accompanied the duke to the Netherlands, and was present at 
Lauffeld. By 1750 he had become lieutenant-colonel in the 
ist Foot Guards, but differences with the duke of Cumberland 
led to his retirement in that year. This difference soon became 
hostility, and, coupled with his dread of permanent armies, 
caused him to give vehement support to the Militia Bill. In 



TOWNSVILLE TOXODONTIA 



this matter his views and his methods of expressing them raised 
up a host of enemies. The retirement of the duke after the 
disastrous campaign in North Germany in 1757 brought Towns- 
hend back to active service as a colonel, and in 1758 he sailed 
for North America as one of Wolfe's three brigadiers. In the 
long and painful operations against Quebec he showed himself 
a capable officer, but his almost open dissatisfaction with Wolfe's 
methods sensibly added to the difficulty of the enterprise. At 
the battle of the Heights of Abraham the command, on the death 
of Wolfe and the wounding of Monckton, devolved upon Towns- 
hend, whose over-caution for a time imperilled the success of 
the British arms. The loss of Montcalm, however, had similarly 
paralyzed the French, and the crisis passed. Townshend sent 
home a despatch, announcing the fall of Quebec, which at once 
became the butt of the wits and the object of criticism of a more 
serious kind; and when, Monckton having taken over the com- 
mand in Canada, Townshend returned to England to enjoy, as 
he hoped, the hero-worship of the public, he was soon involved 
in bitter controversies. He succeeded to the title in 1764 
on his father's death, and in 1767, through his brother's influence, 
was made lord-lieutenant of Ireland. The story of his vice- 
royalty may be read in the article on him in the Diet. Nat. Biog., 
and in Lecky's History of England in the i8th Century (vol. iv.). 
With the best will in the world, and in spite of excellent capacity, 
he came into continual conflict with the Irish House of Commons 
in his attempt to form an English party in Ireland, and he 
excited unmeasured abuse. In 1772 he was recalled. In 1787 
he was created Marquess Townshend of Rainham. He died on 
the i4th of September 1807. 

Townshend was twice married first to Charlotte, Baroness 
de Ferrars (d. 1770) and secondly to Anne Montgomery (d. 1819). 
His eldest son George (1755-1811), who became the second 
marquess, had succeeded to the barony of de Ferrars in 1770 
and had been created earl of Leicester in 1784. Although he 
was in turn master of the mint, joint postmaster-general and 
lord steward of the royal household, he did not take much part 
in politics, but showed a great taste for antiquarian studies. 
His elder son, George Ferrars Townshend, the 3rd marquess 
(1778-1855), was disinherited by his father for conduct which 
also compelled him to reside outside England. When he died 
at Genoa in December 1855 the earldom of Leicester became 
extinct. The marquessate, however, passed to a cousin, John 
Townshend (1798-1863), who became the 4th marquess. John 
James Dudley Stuart Townshend (b. 1866), who became the 6th 
marquess in 1899, came prominently before the public in 1906 
in consequence of a judicial inquiry into his sanity, the decision 
being that he was not capable of managing his own affairs. 

TOWNSVILLE, a town of Elphinstone county, Queensland, 
Australia, 870 m. direct N.W. of Brisbane. Pop. (1901), 12,717. 
It is the seat of the Anglican bishop of North Queensland and has 
a cathedral and several handsome buildings, including the supreme 
court and the custom-house. It is picturesquely situated partly 
on the slopes of Castle Hill and Melton Hill, and partly on the 
banks of Ross Creek, which is spanned by the Victoria Bridge, a 
swing bridge 550 ft. in length, worked by hydraulic power. The 
tidal harbour is enclosed by stone breakwaters, and large vessels 
enter and load frozen meat direct from the refrigerator cars. 
The port is an outlet for a wide area of pastoral country and for 
several goldfields, and has regular communication with all ports 
north and south by lines of steamers. The immigration barracks 
on Ross Island have accommodation for five hundred persons. 
The railway station is the terminus of the Northern line, which 
extends 236 m. to Hughenden. Townsville was founded in 1864 
by John Medwin Black and named after his partner Captain 
Towns. A municipal charter was granted in 1866. 

TOWTON, a village of Yorkshire, England, 2^ m. S. of Tad- 
caster, the scene of a battle fought on Palm Sunday, the 2gth of 
March 1461, between the armies of York and Lancaster. The 
party of Lancaster had lately won the battle of St Albans, but, 
unable to gain admission into London, and threatened by the 
approach of Edward the young duke of York from the west of 
England, was compelled to fall back northward. York, having 



been proclaimed as Edward IV. on the 2nd, 3rd and 4th of March 
1460/1461, followed them up into Yorkshire, and on the 27th his 
leading troops surprised the passage of the Aire at Ferrybridge. 
The Lancastrians were encamped at Towton, some miles away, 
covering Tadcaster and York; but a force under Lord Clifford 
was promptly sent out, recaptured Ferrybridge by surprise, and 
cut to pieces the Yorkist garrison. About the same time, how- 
ever, Edward's van, under Lord Fauconberg, an experienced 
soldier, crossed the Aire higher up, and Clifford was compelled 
to retire. He was closely pressed, and at Dintingdale, within a 
few furlongs of his own camps, was cut off and killed with nearly 
all his men. Edward's main body was now close at hand, and the 
Lancastrians drew up on their chosen battlefield early on the 
agth. This field was an elevated plateau, with steep slopes, 
between the present Great North Road and the river Cock, cut 
in two by a depression called Towton Dale. On opposite sides 
of this depression stood the two armies, that of York facing north, 
their opponents southward. Both lines of battle were very 
dense. On a front of little more than a thousand yards the 
Lancastrian party had nearly 60,000 men. Edward's force 
(less than 50,000) was not all present, the rear " battle " under 
Norfolk being still distant. Snow and sleet blew in the faces 
of the Lancastrians and covered the field of battle. The skilful 
Fauconberg used this advantage to the utmost. Aided by the 
wind, his archers discharged flights of arrows against the enemy, 
who replied blindly and feebly, hampered by snow and wind. 
The Yorkists withdrew until the enemy had exhausted their 
quivers, and then advanced afresh. Their arrows soon stung the 
Lancastrians into a wild and disorderly charge. Suffering severe 
losses the latter closed with Edward's line of battle. No quarter 
was given by either party, and on the narrow front the numerical 
superiority of the Lancastrians counted for little. The long, 
doubtful and sanguinary struggle was only decided by the arrival 
of Norfolk's corps, which charged the enemy in flank. Driven 
backwards and inwards, the Lancastrians were in a desperate 
position, for their only way of escape to Tadcaster crossed the 
swollen waters of the Cock by a single narrow and difficult ford, 
and when, after a stubborn struggle, they finally broke and fled, 
they were slaughtered in thousands as they tried to cross. At the 
close of the day the defeated army had. ceased to exist. Twenty- 
five thousand Lancastrian and eight thousand Yorkist dead were 
buried in and about Towton. The neighbourhood of the battle- 
field contains many relics and memorials of this, the greatest 
battle hitherto fought on English soil. Particularly well pre- 
served is the tomb of Lord Dacre, a prominent Lancastrian, 
in Saxton churchyard. 

See R. Brooke, Visits to English Battlefields (London, 1857); 
C. R. B. Barrett, Battles and Battlefields of England (London, 1896) ; 
H. B. George, Battles of English History (London, 1895). 

TOXICOLOGY, the name of that branch of science which deals 
with poisons, their effects and antidotes, &c. For the general 
treatment of the subject and for the law relating to the sale 
thereof see POISONS, and for the criminal- law see MEDICAL 
JURISPRUDENCE. The term " toxic," meaning poisonous, is 
derived from Gr. rb^ov, bow, owing to the custom of smearing 
arrows with poison. 

TOXODONTIA, a sub-order of extinct South American Tertiary 
ungulate mammals typified by the genus Toxodon, so named 
from the bow-like curvature of the molar teeth. They all show 
signs of distant kinship to the Perissodactyla, as regards both 
limb-structure and dentition; while some exhibit resemblance 
to the Rodents and Hyraxes resemblances which, however, 
are probably to be attributed to parallelism in development. 

Under the sub-order Toxodontia may be included not only the 
typical Toxodon, but the more aberrant Typotherium (fig. l) of the 
Pleistocene of Buenos Aires and the smaller Pachyrucus and Hegeto- 
therium of the Patagonian Santa Cruz -beds. All the members 
of the sub-order have tall-crowned and curved cheek-teeth, some 
or all of which generally have persistent pulps, while at least one pair 
of incisors in each jaw is rootless. The bodies of the cervical 
vertebrae have flat articular surfaces, the bones of the two rows 
of the carpus alternate, and in the tarsus the navicular articulates 
with the calcaneum, which, as in the Artiodactyla, is articulated 
to the fibula, while the astragalus, which is slightly grooved above, 



TOY, C. H. TOYNBEE 



is formed on the Perissodactyle plan. The number of toes varies 
between three and five, of which the middle one is the largest, and 
the femur may or may not have a third trochanter. The Typo- 
theriidae and Pachyrucidae are remarkable among the Ungulates for 




(After Gervais.) 

FIG. I. Skull of Typotherium cristatum, from the Pampas 
Formation of Buenos Aires. (\ nat. size.) 

the retention of clavicles, and for their curious approximation in 
dentition and certain characters of the skeleton to the Rodentia. 
The dental formula of Typotherium is i. $, c. $, p. f , m. | ; that of the 
smaller Patagonian forms differs by the larger number (f) of pre- 
molars. The toes were unguiculate rather than ungulate in character, 
except the hind ones (four in number) of Typotherium. Certain 
allied Patagonian forms, such as A rgyrohyrax, have been supposed 
to be related to the Hyraxes. 

The Toxodontidae differ from the preceding families by the loss 
of the clavicles and the reduction of the digits to three in each foot. 
The typical genus Toxodon is represented by animals the size of a 




(From British Museum [Nat. His.] Guide to the Fossil Mammalia.) 

FIG. 2. Skeleton of the Toxodon (Toxodon platensis). From 

(About J$ nat. size.) 

rhinoceros, of which the entire skeleton is now known (fig. 2). The 
teeth, of which the formula is i. J, c. } p. |r|, m. f , all grow from per- 
sistent pulps; those of the cheek-series are very tall, highly curved, 
and with a simplified crown-structure. In the older Nesodon, on 
the other hand, the cheek-teeth are shorter-crowned, and depart 
less widely from a generalized Perissodactyle type, the total number 
of teeth being forty-four, and there being scarcely any gap in the 
series. Very remarkable changes occur in the dentition as age 
advances, most of the teeth eventually developing roots, although 
the second pair of incisors in each jaw was rootless. The complete 



skeleton is not yet known, but it is ascertained that the femur 
differs from that of Toxodon in the retention of a third trochanter. 

Toxodon is typified by T. platensis from the Pampean formation 
of Buenos Aires. Toxodontotherium and Xotodon are allied but 
rather older types. Nesodon is from the Santa Cruz beds of Patagonia, 
the typical N. imbricatus having a skull about a foot in length, but 
N. ovinus was a smaller animal, about the size of a sheep. 

(R. L.) 

TOY, CRAWFORD HOWELL (1836- ), American Hebrew 
scholar, was born in Norfolk, Virginia, on the 23rd of March 1836. 
He graduated at the university of Virginia in 1856, and studied 
at the university of Berlin in 1866-1868. In 1869-1879 he was 
professor of Hebrew in the Southern Baptist Theological 
Seminary (first in Greenville, South Carolina, and after 1877 in 
Louisville, Kentucky), and in 1880 he became professor of 
Hebrew and Oriental languages in Harvard University, where 
until 1903 he was also Dexter lecturer on biblical literature. 

He wrote The Religion of Israel (1882); Quotations from the Old 
Testament in the New Testament (1884); Judaism and Christianity 
(1890); and the Book of Proverbs (1899) in the "International 
Critical Commentary " ; and edited a translation of Erdmann's 
commentary on Samuel (1877) in Lange's commentaries; Murray's 
Origin of the Psalms (1880); and, in Haupt's Sacred Books of the 
Old Testament, the Book of Ezekiel (Hebrew text and English version, 
1899). 

TOY (an adaptation of Du. tuig, tools, implements, stuff, 
speltuig, playthings, i.e. stuff to play with, spelen, to play), a 
child's plaything, also a trifle, a worthless, petty ornament, 
a gew-gaw, a bauble. Children's toys and playthings survive 
from the most remote periods of man's life on the earth, though 
many so-called diminutive objects made and used by primitive 
man, sometimes classified as playthings, may have been work- 
men's models, votive offerings or sepulchral objects. A large 
number of wooden, earthenware, stone or metal dolls remain 
with which the children of ancient Egypt once played; thus 
in the British Museum collection there is a flat painted wooden 
doll with strings of mud-beads representing the hair, a bronze 
woman doll bearing a pot on her head, an earthenware doll 
carrying and nursing a child; some have movable jointed arms. 
There are also many toy animals, such as a painted wooden 

calf, a porcelain 
elephant with a 
rider; this once had 
movable legs,which 
have disappeared. 
Balls are found 
made of leather 
stuffed with hair, 
chopped straw and 
other material, and 
also of blue porce- 
lain or papyrus. 
Jointed dolls, 
moved by strings, 
were evidently 
favourite play- 
things of the Greek 
and Roman chil- 
dren, and small 
modelsof furniture, 
chairs, tables, sets 
of jugs painted with 
scenes of children's 
life survive from 
both Greek and 
Roman times. 
Balls, tops, rattles 

and the implements of numerous games, still favourites in all 
countries and every age, remain to show how little the amuse- 
ments of children have changed. 

See also DOLL; TOP; PLAY; and for the history of toys, with their 
varying yet unchanging fashions, see H. R. d'Allemagne, Hisloire des 
Jouets, and F. N. Jackson, Toys of other Days (1908). 

TOYNBEE, ARNOLD (1852-1883), English social reformer 
and economist, second son of Joseph Toynbee (1815-1866), 



the Pampean Formation of Argentina. 



TRABEATED TRACERY 



a distinguished surgeon, was born in London on the 23rd of 
August 1852. He had originally intended to enter the army, 
but ill health and a growing love of books changed his plans, 
and he settled down to read for the bar. Here again the same 
causes produced a change of purpose, and he entered as a 
student at Pembroke College, Oxford. Finding himself by 
no means at ease in that college he migrated after two years 
to Balliol College. Continued ill health prevented his reading 
for honours, but he made so deep an impression on the authori- 
ties of his college that on taking his degree he was appointed 
lecturer and tutor to students preparing for the Indian civil 
service. He devoted himself to the study of economics and 
economic history. He was active also as a practical social 
reformer, taking part in much public work and delivering 
lectures in the large industrial centres on economic problems. 
He overtaxed his strength, and after lecturing in London in 
January 1883 he had a complete break-down, and died of 
inflammation of the brain at Wimbledon on the gth of March. 

Toynbee had a striking influence on his contemporaries, not merely 
through his intellectual powers, but by his strength of character. 
He left behind him a beautiful memory, filled as he was with the 
love of truth and an ardent and active zeal for the public good. He 
was the author of some fragmentary pieces, published after his 
death by his widow, under the title of The Industrial Revolution. 
This volume deserves attention both for its intrinsic merit and as 
indicating the first drift of a changing method in the treatment of 
economic problems. He, however, fluctuated considerably in his 
opinion of the Ricardian political economy, in one place declaring 
it to be a detected " intellectual imposture," whilst elsewhere, 
apparently under the influence of Bagehot, he speaks of it as having 
been in recent times " only corrected, re-stated, and put into the 
proper relation to the science of life," meaning apparently, by this 
last, general sociology. He saw that the great help in the future 
for the science of economics must come from the historical method, 
to which in his own researches he gave preponderant weight. Toyn- 
bee' s interest in the poor and his anxiety to be personally acquainted 
with them led to his close association with the district of White- 
chapel in London, where the Rev. Canon S. A. Barnett (g.fi.) was 
at that time vicar an association which was commemorated after 
his death by the social settlement of Toynbee Hall, the first of many 
similar institutions erected in the East End of London for the purpose 
of uplifting and brightening the lives of the poorer classes. 

See F. C. Montague's Arnold Toynbee (Johns Hopkins University 
Studies, 1889); Lord Milner's Arnold Toynbee: a Reminiscence 
(1901); and L. L. Price's Short History of Political Economy in 
England for a criticism of Toynbee as an economist. 

TRABEATED, the architectural term given to those styles 
in which the architrave or beam (Lat. Irabs) is employed instead 
of the arch, in the latter case the term " arcuated " being used. 
The principal trabeated styles are the Egyptian, Persian, 
Greek, Lycian, nearly all the Indian styles, the Chinese, 
Japanese and South American styles, in all cases owing their 
origin to the timber construction, for which reason the term 
post-and-lintel architecture is sometimes applied to it. 

TRACERY, a late coined word from " trace," track, Lat. 
trahere, to draw; the term given in architecture (French 
equivalents are rtseau, remplissage) to the intersecting rib- 
work in the upper part of a Gothic window; applied also to 
the interlaced work of a vault, or on walls, in panels and in 
tabernacle work or screens. The tracery in windows is usually 
divided into two sections, plate tracery and rib or bar tracery, 
the latter rising out of the former, and entirely superseding 
it in the geometrical, flowing and rectilineal designs. The 
windows of the Early English period were comparatively 
narrow slits, and were sometimes grouped together under a 
single enclosing arch; the piercing of the tympanum of this 
arch with a circular light produced what is known as plate 
tracery, which is found in windows of the late i2th century, 
as in St Maurice, York, but became more common in the first 
half of the i3th century. In England the opening pierced in 
the head was comparatively small, its diameter never exceeding 
the width of one of the windows below, but in France it 
occupied the full width of the enclosing arch and was filled 
with cusping, and sometimes, as in Chartres, with cusping in 
the centre and a series of small quatrefoils round, all pierced 
on one plane face. In order further to enrich the mullions and 
arches of the window, they were moulded, as in Stowe church, 



Kent; the other portions were pierced; and finally, to give 
more importance to the principal lights, additional depth was 
given to their mouldings, so that they gradually developed into 
bar or rib tracery, of which the earliest examples in England 
are those in Westminster Abbey (c. 1250) and Netley Abbey 
near Southampton. Henceforth that which is described in 
architecture as the " element " ruled the design of the window, 
and led to the development of geometrical tracery, in which 
the bars or ribs are all about equidistant from one another. 
In windows of three lights the heads of the windows consisted 
of three circular openings, but with four lights they were grouped 
in two pairs, with a single circle over each and a larger one at 
the top in the centre. This led to increased dimensions being 
given to the moulding of the enclosing arches and the upper 
circle, forming virtually two planes in the tracery. In the 
great east window at Lincoln, with eight lights, there was a 
double subdivision and three planes, and here the upper circle 
was filled with semicircles, so that the openings were all about 
the same width. In France the upper circle always maintained 
its predominance, its subdivisions only retaining the scale. 
The next development, which would seem to have taken place 
in Gloucester Cathedral, was the omission of portions of the 
enclosing circle, so as to allow the ribs to run one into the other, 
forming therefore lines of double curvature, and giving rise 
to what is known as flowing or flamboyant tracery, of which 
the great window in Carlisle Cathedral is the most important 
example. In this window there are nine lights, the four outer 
ones in each rib being grouped together; these were not sub- 
divided again,* and consequently there are only two planes of 
tracery. The Perpendicular style which followed might per- 
haps be considered as a reaction against the abuse of the flowing 
lines in masonry, were it not that in the earlier examples it 
appears timidly. At Edington church in Wiltshire (1361), 
in a five-light window, the centre light is wider than the others 
and its mullions run straight up into the arch mould. In New 
College chapel, Oxford (1386), the head of the window is sub- 
divided into narrow vertical lights, each half the width of those 
below, and this is followed in some counties, but not in all, in 
the east of England the flamboyant tracery being retained a 
century later. In St Mary's church, Oxford, with seven lights, 
all the mullions run straight up into the arch mould, and another 
feature is introduced, already found in New College chapel, 
and at a much earlier date in domestic work and in spire-lights, 
viz. the transom. In the later Perpendicular work another 
change takes place; the pointed arch struck from two centres 
is replaced by one struck from four centres, and this eventually 
in domestic work is superseded by the flat arch. 

So far reference has been made only to that which may be called 
the " element " of the window. The enrichment of the lights with 
cusping gave additional beauty to them, took away the hard wire- 
drawn effect of the mouldings, and formed openings of great variety ; 
in some of the windows of the Decorated period the ball flower and 
other foliage is introduced into the mouldings. In French work 
the geometrical style lasted till the I4th century, and then there 
was a lapse in building, so that the flamboyant style which followed, 
and from which at one time it was assumed that the English mason 
had derived the style, was apparently taken up by the French after 
its abandonment in England in favour of Perpendicular work. 
Germany and Spain have always followed in the wake of the French ; 
and in Italy, where architects preferred to decorate their walls with 
frescoes, the light from stained glass interfered with their effect, 
so that there was no demand for huge windows or their subdivision 
with mullions. At the same time there are many beautiful examples 
of tracery in Italy, generally in marble, such as those of Giotto's 
Campanile and the cathedral at Florence, in the Ducal and other 
palaces at Venice, and in the triforium arcades of Pisa and Siena 
cathedrals; but they destroyed its effect by the insertion of small 
capitals to the mullions, which gave horizontal lines where they 
were not wanted, virtually dividing the window into two parts 
instead of emphasizing, as was done in the Perpendicular period, 
the vertically of the mullions. 

Among the most glorious features in the Gothic architecture of 
France, England and Spain are the immense rose windows which were 
introduced, generally speaking, in the transepts of the cathedrals; 
the tracery of these follows on the lines of those of the windows, 
changing from geometrical to Decorated and afterwards to flam- 
boyant. In some respects perhaps the finest examples of plate- 
tracery were produced in the rose windows of the I3th century. 



n6 



TRACHELIUM TRACHYTE 



Thus in France in the rose window of Chartrcs in the west front 
(1225), and in England in those of Barfreston in Kent (1180) and 
Beverley Minster in Yorkshire (1220), plate-tracery of such great 
beauty is found that it is unfortunate it should have been entirely 
superseded by rib-tracery. The rose window of Lincoln Cathedral 
in the north transept is a compromise between the two, as all the 
lights are cut out independently and in one plane, but there are 
mouldings round each connected with flowers; in its design and 
effect this window is far superior to the flamboyant circular window 
in the south transept. Sometimes a rose window is arranged in the 
upper portion of an ordinary window, as in the west front of Lichfield 
Cathedral, and this is constantly found in those of the transepts 
of the French cathedrals. In the south of Italy, at Bari, Bitonto 
and Troja, and atOrvietoandAssisi.farthernorth, there are examples 
of rose windows, but inferior in design to French and English work, 
though elaborated with carving. The revival of the i6th century 
was fatal so far as tracery was concerned; in the place of the flam- 
boyant work of the last phase of Gothic in France semicircular and 
elliptical curves with poor mouldings were introduced, and the 
elaborate cusping which gave such interest to the light was omitted 
altogether, as in St Eustache, Paris. There is, however, one remark- 
able example in the church of Le Grand Andely, in Normandy, 
dating from the Henri II. period, in which a return was made to 
the tracery of the I3th century; but the introduction of Renaissance 
details in the place of the cusping is not altogether satisfactory, 
though the general design is fine. 

The tracery decorating the vault of Gothic work began on the 
introduction of the fan vault at Gloucester (see VAULT) ; it was only 
a surface decoration, both rib and web being cut out of the same 
block of stone, and it received further development in the various 
phases which followed. In the later Perpendicular work the walls 
and buttresses were all panelled with blank tracery, the most com- 
plete example of which is found in Henry VII. 's chapel, Westminster 
Abbey. 

In tabernacle work the tracery is purely of a decorative character, 
copied in miniature from the mullions, arch-moulds and crockets 
of Gothic work. 

Some of the most beautiful examples of tracery are those on the 
rood screens of churches, either in stone as in the Jub6 of the Made- 
leine at Troyes, or in wood as in the rood screens of the churches 
in East Anglia and in Somersetshire; and with this must be included 
that which was introduced into the panelling of church doors, choir 
stalls and other church fittings; this was continued, first in the early 
Renaissance of the l6th century, the finest examples being those 
of the stalls of King's College, Cambridge, and afterwards in the 
Jacobean style, in the church at Croxcombe near Shepton Mallet, 
and the church of St John at Leeds, the two latter ranking as the 
best work of that late period. (R. P. S. ) 

TRACHELIUM (Gr. T/oax'jXos, neck), the term in architecture 
given to the neck of the capital of the Doric and Ionic orders. 
In the Greek Doric capital it is the space between the annulets 
of the echinus and the grooves which marked the junction of 
the shaft and capital; in some early examples, as in the basilica 
and temple of Ceres at Paestum and the temple at Metapontum, 
it forms a sunk concave moulding, which by the French is 
called the gorge. In the Roman Doric and the Ionic orders 
the term is given by modern writers to the interval between 
the lowest moulding of the capital and the top of the astragal 
and fillet, which were termed the " hypotrachelium " (q.v.). 

TRACHEOTOMY, the operation of opening the trachea or 
windpipe (see RESPIRATORY SYSTEM) and inserting a tube 
(canula) to provide a means of breathing when the natural 
air-passage is obstructed. The operation is by no means easy 
when performed on a small child, for the wind-pipe is deeply 
placed amongst important structures. The chief anxiety is 
in connexion with haemorrhage, for the vessels are large and 
generally overfull on account of the impairment of the respira- 
tion. The higher the opening is made in the trachea the easier 
and safer is the operation. 

TRACHIS, a city of ancient Greece, situated at the head of 
the Malian Gulf in a small plain between the rivers Asopus and 
Melas, and enclosed by the mountain jvall of Oeta which here 
extended close to the sea and by means of the Trachinian 
Cliffs completely commanded the main road from Thessaly. 
The position was well adapted as an advanced post against 
invaders from the north, and furthermore guarded the road 
up the Asopus gorge into the Cephissus valley. Strangely 
enough, it is not recorded what part Trachis played in the 
defence of Thermopylae against Xerxes. Its military impor- 
tance was recognized in 427 B.C. by the Spartans, who sent a 
garrison to guard the Trachinian plain against the marauding 



highland tribes of Oeta and built a citadel close by the 
Asopus gorge with the new name of Heraclea. The Spartans 
failed to safeguard Heraclea against the Oetaeans and 
Thessalians, and for a short time were displaced by the 
Thebans (420). After a bloody defeat at the hands of the 
neighbouring mountaineers (409) the Spartan governor quar- 
relled with the native settlers, whom he expelled in 399. 
Four years later Thebes used her new predominance in central 
Greece to restore the Trachinians, who retained Heraclea until 
371, when Jason of Pherae seized and dismantled it. The 
fortress was rebuilt, and after 280 served the Aetolians as a 
bulwark against Celts and Macedonians. It was captured 
in 191 by the Romans, but restored to the Aetolian League 
until 146. Henceforth the place lost its importance; in 
Strabo's time the original site was apparently deserted, and 
the citadel alone remained inhabited. 

Strabo p. 428; Herodotus vii. 198-203; Thucydides iii. 92, 
v. 51-52; Diodorus xiv. 38, 82; Livy xxxvi. 22-24. W. Leake, 
Travels in Northern Greece, iii. 2431 (London, 1835) ; G. B. Grundy, 
Great Persian War, pp. 261-264 (London, 1901). (M. O. B. C.) 

TRACHOMA, the name given to a chronic destructive form 
of inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye (see EYE: Diseases) , 
or " granular conjunctivitis " (Egyptian ophthalmia). It is 
a contagious disease, associated with dirty conditions, and 
common in Egypt, Arabia and parts of Europe, especially 
among the lower class of Jews. Hence it has become important, 
in connexion with the alien immigration into the United King- 
dom and America, and the rejection of those who are afflicted 
with it. It is important that all cases should be isolated, and 
that the spread of the infection should be prevented. 

TRACHYTE (Gr. rpo.-x.rn, rough), in petrology, a group of 
volcanic rocks which consist mainly of sanidine (or glassy 
orthoclase) felspar. Very often they have minute irregular 
steam cavities which make the broken surfaces of specimens 
of these rocks rough and irregular, and from this character 
they have derived their name. It was first given by Haiiy 
to certain rocks of this class from Auvergne, and was long 
used in a much wider sense than that defined above, in fact 
it included quartz-trachytes (now known as liparites and 
rhyolites) and oligoclase-trachytes, which are now more properly 
assigned to andesites. The trachytes are often described as 
being the volcanic equivalents of the plutonic syenites. Their 
dominant mineral, sanidine felspar, very commonly occurs 
in two generations, i.e. both as large well-shaped porphyritic 
crystals and in smaller imperfect rods or laths forming a finely 
crystalline groundmass. With this there is practically always 
a smaller amount of plagioclase, usually oligoclase; but the 
potash felspar (sanidine) often contains a considerable pro- 
portion of the soda felspar, and has rather the characteristics 
of anorthoclase or cryptoperthite than of pure sanidine. 

Quartz is typically absent from the trachytes, but tridymite 
(which likewise consists of silica) is by no means uncommon 
in them. It is rarely in crystals large enough to be visible 
without the aid of the microscope, but in thin slides it may 
appear as small hexagonal plates, which overlap and form 
dense aggregates, like a mosaic or like the tiles on a roof. 
They often cover the surfaces of the larger felspars or line the 
steam cavities of the rock, where they may be mingled with 
amorphous opal or fibrous chalcedony. In the older trachytes 
secondary quartz is not rare, and probably sometimes results 
from the recrystallization of tridymite. 

Of the ferromagnesian minerals present augite is the most 
common. It is usually of pale green colour, and its small 
crystals are often very perfect in form. Brown hornblende 
and biotite occur also, and are usually surrounded by black 
corrosion borders composed of magnetite and pyroxene. Some- 
times the replacement is complete and no hornblende or biotite 
is left, though the outlines of the cluster of magnetite and 
augite may clearly indicate from which of these minerals it 
was derived. Olivine is unusual,. though found in some tra- 
chytes, like those of the Arso in Ischia. Basic varieties of 
plagioclase, such as labradorite, are known also as phenocrysts 



TRACT 



117 



in some Italian trachytes. Dark brown varieties of augite and 
rhombic pyroxene (hypersthene or bronzite) have been observed 
but are not common. Apatite, zircon and magnetite are prac- 
tically always present as unimportant accessory minerals. 

The trachytes being very rich in potash felspar, necessarily 
contain considerable amounts of alkalis; in this character they 
approach the phonolites. Occasionally minerals of the fels- 
pathoid group, such as nepheline, sodalite and leucite, occur, 
and rocks of this kind are known as phonolitic trachytes. The 
soda-bearing amphiboles and pyroxenes so characteristic of the 
phonolites may also be found in some trachytes; thus aegirine 
or aegironic augite forms outgrowths on diopside crystals, and 
riebeckite may be present in spongy growths among the felspars 
of the groundmass (as in the trachyte of Berkum on the Rhine) . 
Trachytic rocks are typically porphyritic, and some of the best- 
known examples, such as the trachyte of Drachenfels on the 
Rhine, show this character excellently, having large sanidine 
crystals of tabular form an inch or two in length scattered 
through their fine-grained groundmass. In many trachytes, 
however, the phenocrysts are few and small, and the ground- 
mass comparatively coarse. The ferromagnesian minerals 
rarely occur in large crystals, and are usually not conspicuous 
in hand specimens of these rocks. Two types of ground- 
mass are generally recognized: the trachytic, composed 
mainly of long, narrow, sub-parallel rods of sanidine, and 
the orthophyric, consisting of small, squarish or rectan- 
gular prisms of the same mineral. Sometimes granular 
augite or spongy riebeckite occurs in the groundmass, but 
as a rule this part of the rock is highly felspathic. Glassy 
forms of trachyte (obsidians) occur, as in Iceland, and 
pumiceous varieties are known (in Teneriffe and elsewhere), 
but these rocks as contrasted with the rhyolites have a remark- 
ably strong tendency to crystallize, and are rarely to any 
considerable extent vitreous. 

Trachytes are well represented among the Tertiary and Recent 
volcanic rocks of Europe. In Britain they occur in Skye as lava 
flows and as dikes or intrusions, but they are much more common 
on the continent of Europe, as in the Rhine district and the Eifel, 
also in Auvergne, Bohemia and the Euganean Hills. In the neigh- 
bourhood of Rome, Naples and the island of Ischia trachytic lavas 
and tuffs are of common occurrence. In America trachytes are 
less frequent, being known in S. Dakota (Black Hills). In Iceland, 
the Azores, Teneriffe and Ascension there are Recent trachytic 
lavas, and rocks of this kind occur also in New South Wales (Cambe- 
warra range), East Africa, Madagascar, Aden and in many other 
districts. 

Among the older volcanic rocks trachytes also are not 
scarce, though they have often been described under the 
names orthophyre and orthoclase-porphyry, while " trachyte " 
was reserved for Tertiary and Recent rocks of similar com- 
position. In England there are Permian trachytes in the Exeter 
district, and Carboniferous trachytes are found in many parts 
of the central valley of Scotland. The latter differ in no 
essential respect from their modern representatives in Italy 
and the Rhine valley, but their augite and biotite are often 
replaced by chlorite and other secondary products. Permian 
trachytes occur also in Thuringia and the Saar district in Germany. 

Closely allied to the trachytes are the Keratophyres, which occur 
mainly in Palaeozoic strata in the Harz (Germany) , in the Southern 
Uplands of Scotland, in Cornwall, &c. They are usually por- 
phyritic and fluidal ; and consist mainly of alkali felspar (anortho- 
clase principally, but also albite and orthoclase), with a small 
quantity of chlorite and iron oxides. Many of them are lavas, but 



for a lengthy monograph on a subject, dealing with it technically 
and authoritatively, whereas a tract is understood to be brief 
and rather argumentative than educational. There is, again, 
the rarer word tractate, which is not a tract, in the precise sense, 
so much as a short treatise. 

The word " tract " has come to be used for brief discourses 
of a moral and religious character only, and in modern practice 
it seems to be mainly confined to serious and hortatory themes. 
An essay on poetry, or the description of a passage of scenery, 
would not be styled a tract. In the Protestant world, the 
tract which Luther composed in 1520, on the Babylonish 
captivity, has been taken more or less as the type of this species 
of literature, which, however, existed long before his day, both 
in Latin and in the vernacular tongues of western Europe. 
It is difficult, if not impossible, in early history, to distinguish 
the tract from other cognate forms of moralizing literature, 
but it may perhaps be said that the homilies of ^Elfric (955- 
1025?) are the earliest specimens of this class in English litera- 
ture. Four centuries later Wyclif issued a series of tracts, 
which were remarkable for their vigour, and exercised a strong 
influence on medieval theology. Bishop Reginald Pecock 
published many controversial tracts between 1440 and 1460. 
Sir Thomas More, John Fisher (d. 1535) and William Tyndale 
were prominent writers of controversial treatises. It was the 
Martin Marprelate agitation, in the reign of Elizabeth, which 
led from 1588 to 1591 to the most copious production of tracts 
in English literature; of these nearly thirty survive. On the 
Puritan side the principal writers were John Udall (1560-1592), 
Henry Barrowe (d. 1593), John Penry (1550-1593) and Job 
Throckmorton (1545-1601), the tracts being printed in the 
house of the last-mentioned; on the side of the Established 
Church the principal authors were Bishop Thomas Cooper 
(1517-1594) and the poets Lyly and Nash. An enormous 
collection of tracts was published between 1717 and 1720 in 
elucidation of what is known as the Bangorian Controversy, 
set in motion by a sermon of Benjamin Hoadly, bishop of 
Bangor, on " The Nature of the Kingdom of Christ " (1717). 
Convocation considered this a treatise likely to impugn and 
impeach the royal supremacy in religious questions. A vast 
number of writers took part in the dispute, and Thomas Sherlock 
(1678-1761) fell into disgrace through the violence of his 
contributions to it. Convocation was finally obliged to 
give way. 

The most famous collection of tracts published in the course 
of the igth century was that produced from 1833 onwards by 
Newman, Keble and E. B. Pusey, under the title of " Tracts 
for the Times." Among these Pusey's "Tract on Baptism" 
(1835) and his " On the Holy Eucharist" (1836) had a profound 
effect in leading directly to the foundation of the High Church 
party, so much so that the epithet " Tractarian " was bar- 
barously coined to designate those who wished to oppose the 
spread of rationalism by a quickening of the Church of England. 
In 1841 Newman's " Tract No. XC." was condemned by the 
heads of houses in Oxford, and led to the definite organization 
of the High Church forces. (X.) 

Tract Societies are agencies for the production and distribution, 
or the distribution only, of Christian literature, more especially in 





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A1 2 O 3 


Fe 2 O 3 


FeO 


MgO 


CaO 


Na 2 O 


K 2 O 


H 2 


Riebeckite trachyte, Hohenberg, Berkum, Rhenish Prussia .... 
Keratophyre, Hamilton Hill, Peebles, Scotland 
Trachyte (Orthophyre) Garleton Hill, Haddington, Scotland. 
Trachyte, Monte Nuovo, Phlegraean Fields, near Naples, Italy . 
Trachyte, Algersdorf , Bohemia 


66-06 
64-38 
6i-35 
6o-33 
64. -60 


16-46 
16-98 
16-88 

18-74 
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2-25 
4-04 
0-41 
2-84 


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5-oi 
1-29 

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0-28 
0-44 
0-38 

O-4Q 


0-79 
i -08 
2-39 
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1-72 


6-81 

7-57 
5-26 

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4-61 


5-52 
4-30 

6-12 

7-30 
6-46 


0-62 
1-64 
1-70 
0-56 

O-2d 























others are probably dikes or thin intrusions. As the analyses given 
above will show, they differ from trachytes mainly in being richer 
in soda. (J. S. F.) 

TRACT (from Lat. tractare, to treat of a matter, through 
Provencal tr octal and Ital. trattato), in the literary signification, 
a work in which some particular subject, or aspect of a subject, 
is treated. As far as derivation is concerned, a tract is identical 
with a treatise, but by custom the latter word has come to be used 



tract form. They vary in importance from the Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge (London), the Religious Tract 
Society (London) and the American Tract Society (New York) 
all of which are publishing houses of recognized standing to 
small and purely local organizations for distributing evangelistic 
and pastoral literature. It was not until the Evangelical Revival 
that tract work began to develop along its modern lines. Start- 
ing from the provision of simple evangelistic literature for home 



n8 



TRACTION 



use, the enterprise grew into the provision of Christian literature, 
not only for home use, but also for the mission fields of the 
world. With this growth there proceeded another develop- 
ment, the production of books and magazines being added to 
that of tracts. The title " Tract Society " has, in fact, become 
misleading, as suggestive of limitations which had but a brief 
existence and are no longer recognized by the more important 
agencies. On the other hand it must not be supposed that 
because the work has gone beyond the provision of tracts, these 
are no longer widely employed. Probably their use in various 
forms at home was never wider than it is to-day; whilst in 
India, China and elsewhere the attack of the Christian tracts 
is being met by the circulation of vernacular tracts in defence 
of the non-Christian faiths. 

The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, founded in 1698, 
though most widely known as a publishing agency, assists in a wide 
variety of ways the work of the Church of England. On its publica- 
tion side, it is for its own Church both a Bible society and a tract 
society. Moreover, its publications include not only versions 
of the Holy Scriptures and of the Liturgy, but also theological and 
general literature in many forms. It has given much attention to 
providing good reading for children; whilst its tract catalogue is 
especially rich in works bearing on Christian evidences, Church 
seasons and the doctrines of the Anglican Church. .To the foreign 
missions of the Church the S.P.C.K. has been a helper of the utmost 
value, more especially in regard to their medical missions and their 
use of Christian literature. In the latter case the help is given by 
grants of works produced either at home or by mission presses in 
the field. As early as 1 720 it was using Arabic ; but it has from time 
to time been of especial value in helping to found a Christian 
literature in languages or dialects just reduced to writing. Thus 
whilst recent publications for the mission field include works in 
Arabic, Chinese and Urdu, they also include publications in Addo, 
Lunyoro and Sgau Karen. 

The Religious Tract Society, founded in 1 799, and thus contemporary 
with the great missionary agencies and the Bible Society, is, like the 
last-named, an interdenominational organization. Its earliest 
publications were in English and were tracts. But it speedily 
undertook book publications and extended its field of operations. 
It began to provide tracts for China in 1813, and as early as 1817 
an auxiliary tract society was founded at Bellary in India by some 
men of the 84th Regiment. In undertaking book publication, the 
society became one of the pioneers in the provision of sound and 
cheap literature; whilst by the