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6. Still man Berry 

1145 W. Highland Ave 

Redlands. California 

Smithsonian Institution 

Bequest of 
S. Stillman Berry 





S.OrbfuU- dtl. 

' o//.r//frfr'y /^. — 



































JVbn auMendi sunt homines imperiti, qui humano ingenio mojorem, vel inutilem, et rebus gerendis adverfam,diiar 
criminantur. EJl scilicet quicdam Scientiarum cognalio et conciliatio ; undo et 'Eyx.vy>.ovra.iih\a\i vacant Crtcci ; ut in und 
perfeSus diet nequeut, qui csieras non attigerit. — Morhofi Polyliistor, 1. i. c. i. s. i. 

Those inexperienced perfons, who make it a charge of accufation againil variety and extenfive learning, that it exceeds 
the compafs of human ability, or is ufelefs, or that it is an impediment to tranfafting bulinefs, deferve no attention. 
For there is between the Sciences a degree of natural and clofe connexion; from which the Greeks ufe the term 
"Encyclopsdia;" so that no one can be perfe£t in anyone Science, who has not attained to fome knowledge of ths 




No. 717. 


rfireftion, having numerous hays on the weft fide, on 
which are two i'ettlements, Carboniere and Havre de 
Grace. Settkmcnts were made here in 1610, by about 
forty planters, under governor John Guy, to whom king 
James had srranttd a patent of incorporation. 

CONCEPTION, by the Indians called Peiico, a city in 
Chili, South America, belonging to (he Spaniards, fitu- 
ated on the edge of the fea, at tlie mouth of a river, and 
at the bottom of a b.ay of its own name. It was feveral. 
times deftroyeJ by the powerful confederacy of the In- 
dians, and as olten repaired. In 1751 it was dellroycd 
by an earthquake, or rather fwallowcd up by the fea, and 
fince that rebuilt, at three leagues diltance from the old 
city. It is within the audience and jurifdiif ion of S;. 
Jago, and is governed by a correlndor. The Spanilh in- 
habitants here, are the molt and hardy of any in 
South America; they are all trained to arms from their 
childhood, to be ready to refill the attacks of the Chilefe 
Indians, whom, according to Perouze, who vifited Chili 
in 1781'), they have realon to confider as a formidable ene- 
my.. The native inhabitants, and even the women, excel 
in horfemanlhip ; they are very dextrous in managing 
the lance or noole ; and it is v#ry rare to fee them mils 
their aim, though at full fjSeed, with the noole, which 
they throw forty or fifty yards, and fo halter the object of 
their diverfion or revenge. This noofe is made of thongs 
of cow hide; thele they twift with oil, till rendered fup- 
ple and pliant to command; and lb ftrong that, when 
twilted, they will, it is faid, hold a wild bull, which would 
break 3 halter of hemp of twice the thicknefs. The foil 
here is fruitful, abounding with coin and excellent wine. 
The fruit trees bear fo luxuriantly iiere, that they are 
forced to thin the fruit, otherwife the branches would 
break, nor could the fruit come to maturity. This city 
has a church, and fix very famous monalteries ; but the 
dwelling houl'es make no great appearance. Here the 
women go out in the night to the (hops, to buy fuch ne- 
celfaries as they want for their families, it being contrary 
to the cuitoni of this country for women of any charafler 
to go abroad in the day-time on fuch affairs. It is an 
'Open town ; and the few batteries it has, are kept in very 
indirt'erent order. Lat. 36. 35. S. Ion. 55. 10. \V. Ferro. 

CONCEP'TiON, a river of America, on the ilthmus 
of Darien, which runs into the Spanilh main. Lat. 9. 4. N. 
Ion. 78. ij. W. Greenwich. 

CONCKP'lION, or Conception de los Pampas, a 
town of South America, in Paraguay, on the fouth fide of 
the river Plata. Lat. 36. 30. S. Ion. 39. 15. W. Ferro. 

CONCEP'TiON (La), a feaport town of America, in 
the province of Veragua, on the Spanilh main, with a har- 
bour, formed by the river Veragua : ninety miles well of 
Panama. Lat. S. 52. N. Ion. 6+. ■;. W. Ferro. 

CONCEPTION OF SALAVE, a fmall town of North 
America, in the province of Mechoacan, in Mexico, built 
by the Spaniards, as well as the Itations of St. Michael 
and St. Philip, to fecure the road from Mechoacan to 
the filver mines of Zacatea. They have alio given this 
name to feveral towns of America ; as to that in Hifpa- 
niola ifland, and to a leaport of California, &c. 

CONCEP'TION DE LA VEGA (La), a town of the 
ifland of St. Domingo. 

CONCEP'TIOUS, adj. [coiiceptum, Lat.] Apt to con- 
ceive ; fruitful; pregnant: 

Common mother, 
Enfear thy fertile and conceptions womb; 
Let it no more bring out to ingrateful man. Shakefpeare. 

CONCEP'TIVE, adj. {conceptii-n, Lat.] Capable to con- 
ccive.— In hot climates, and where the uterine parts ex- 
ceed in lieat, by the coldnefs of this fimple they may be 
reduced into a co?icepti've conititution, Broivn. 

To CONCE'R.N, 'Tj. a. [coiscerner, Fr. concemo, low Lat.] 
To relate, to; to belong to. — This place concerns not at ■ 
all the dominion of one brotjier over the other. Locke, 

Vol. V. No, 250. 



Gracious things 
Thou haft reveal'd ; thole chiefly which concern 
Jult Abraham, and his feed. Milton. 

To affeft with fome paflion ; to touch nearly; to be of 
importance to. — Our wars with France have atftfted us 
in our moll tender intercfl:s, and concerned us rao^■e than, 
thole with any other nation. Addifon. 

I would not 
The caufe were known to them it molt concerns. Skakef. 

To interelt ; to engage by interelt. — Proviilence, where it 
loves a nation, concerns iticMio own and alVeit the interelt' 
of religion, by blalling the fpoilers of religious perfonj 
and places. South. 

Above the reft two goddeffes appear. 

Concern d for each ; here Venus, Juno there. Drydeiu 

To difturb ; to make uneafy. — In one comprefTIng engine 
I (hut a I'panow, without forcing any air in j and in an. 
hour the bird began to panf, and be concerned^anA in lefs 
than an hour and a half to be fick. Oenbam. — To concern 

hjmfelf. To intermeddle; to be bufv Being a hynian, I 

ought not to have concerned wyjilf with fpecuiations which 
belong to the profeflion. Drydeiu 

CONCE'RN,/ Bulinel's; affair: confidered as relating^ 
to Ibme. — Religion is no trifling concern, to be performed 
in any carelels and fuperficial manner. Rogers. 
Let early care thy main concerns fecure. 
Things of lefs moment may delays endure. Dcnham. 
Intereft ; engagement. — When we fpeak of the conflagra- 
tion of the world, thefe have no concctK in the queitioji. 

No plots th' alarm to his retirements give; 1 
'Tis all mankind's concern that he iliould live. Drjdeu. 
Importance; moment. — The mind is Ituniied and daz- 
zled amidil that variety of objctHs : flie cannot apply her- 
felf to thofe things which are of the utniolt concern\o\\tr. 

Myllerious fecrets of a high concern, 
And weiglity truths, folid convincing fcnfe. 
Explain'd by unaffccjled eloquence. Rofcommon. 

Palhon; affeilion ; regard. — Why all this fO/vc^r/; for the 
poor.' Where the plough has no work, one family can do 
the bufinefs of fifty. S-ujilt. 

Ah, what concerns did both your fouls divide ! 

Your honour gave us what your love deny'd. Dryden. 

CONCERNANCY, /. [a word coined by Shakefpeare, 
and put into Hamlet's mouth when ridiculing aifc6led 
phraleolo^v-] Concernment. — The concernancy, lirr Sihakf. 

CONCERN'EDLY, ad-v With affeClion ; with interelt. 
— They had more pofitivelv and concernedly wedded his 
caufe, than they were before underitood to have done. 
Clarendon. > 

CONCERN'ING, prep, [this word, originally a parti- 
ciple, has before a noun the force of a prepofition.] Re- 
lating to; with relation to. — The ancients had nohiglier 
recourfp than to nature, as may appear by a difcourie 
concerning this point in Strabo. 

CONCERN'MENT, /. The thing in which we are 
concerned or interelted; affair; bufiuefs; interell. — Our 
Ipiritual interells, and the great concernments oi -^ future 
flate, (hould doulitlels recur often. Atterbury. 

Yet when we're fick, the doctor's fetch'd in hafte, 
Leaving our great concernment, to the lalt. Denham, 

Relation ; influence : 

He jullly fears a peace with me would prove 

Of ill concernment to his haughty love. Dryden, 

Intercourfe; bufinefs. — The great concernment of men is 

with men, one amongfl: another, Locke. — Importance ; mo- 

meiiti — I look upon experimental truths as matters of great 

E. concernment. 



concernment to mankind. Boyle. — tnterpofition ; regard; 
mectilling. — He married a daughter to the earl, without 
any other approbation of her tather, or concernment in it, 
than J'ufi'erine; him and her to come into his prefence. 
Clarendon. — Palhon ; emotion of mind. — While they are 
lb eager to deftroy the fame of others, their ambition is 
rhajiifeil in their concernment. Drjdai. 

To C'ONCE'RT, i>. a. [conarter, Fr. from concertare, 
Lat. to prepare themit;K-es for fome public exhibition, or 
perfoniinnce, by private encounters among theuifelves.] 
To fettle any thing in private by mutual communication, 
To Ibttle; to contrive; to adjull: 
Mark how, already, in his working brain, 
Ke forms the wcW-concerttd Icheme of milchief. Ronve. 

CON'CERT,/. Communication of defigns ; eftablifli- 
ment of mealures among thoi'e who are engaged in the 
i'lnie affair. — All thole dil'contents, how ruinous foever, 
have arifen from the want of a due communication and 
concert. Sivift. — A iyniphony ; many performers joining 
ill the fame tune. 

CONCERTA'TION,/ [^Mcm-.-?//!;, Lat.] Strife; con- 

CONCCR'TATIVE, arij. \_concertati-vt'.s, Lat.] Con- 
tentious i quarrellbnie ; recriminative. 

CONCERTO,/ [Ital.] A piece of mufic compofed for 
a concert. It is now generally ufed for a piece intended 
to difplay the powers of one particular inftrument or 
performer, the rell of the band joining occaiionally in 

CONCES'SrON,/ [conceJio,L?it.'] The aft of granting 
cr yielding. — The concejfion of thele charters was in a par- 
Iramcntary way. Hale. — A grant; the thing yielded. — 
I Itill counted myfelf nndiniiniihed by my largeft conccf- 
Jions, if by them I might gain the love of my people. 
Ki.'ig Charles. 

CONCES'SIONARY, aJj. Given by indulgence or .il- 
■ CONCES'SIVE, aiij. Implying conceflion. — Hypothe- 
tical, conditional, concej/lve, and exceptive, conjuntfions, 
I'eem in general to require a fubjunftive mood after them. 

CONCES'SIVELY, adi<. By way of concedlon ; as, 
yielding; not controverting by affumption. — Some have 
written rhetorically and concrjfi-velj ; not controverting, 
but affuming the queftion, which, taken as granted, ad- 
vantaged the illation. Broivn. 

CONCETTO,/. [Ital. and keeps its plural] Falle 
conceit. — There is a kind of counter-talle, founded on 
furprife and curiolity, which maintains a fort of rivalfliip 
with the true, and may he exprelTed by the word concetto. 

■ShenJIone The fliepherds have their concetti and thsjir an- 

tithefes. Chejlc'-Jield. 

CONCE'ZE, a town of France, in'the department of 
the Correze, and diitrift of Brive: fix leagues north-welt 

CONCH,/ [concha, Lat.] A (lielf; a fea-fliell : 

He furnidies her clofet firft, and fills 

The crowded (lielves with rarities of fliells: 

Adds orient pearls, which from the conchs he drew, 

And all the fparkling llones of various hue. Drydai. 

CON'CHE, a fmall village in Maritime Auftria, half in 
the territory of Padua, and half in that of Venice. 


the nature and properties of (liells. This is a very plesf- 
ing and curious depiirtment of natural hiltory ; for, in. 
the infinite variety of fliells difperftd over the univerfe, 
the hand of the Supreme Artill has difplayed every gra- 
dation of beauty v.'hich can exill in a permanent I'orm-. 
Fi'om the moll rude and nitfliapen oylter, fcarcely to be 
diltinguillied from its native rock, the fcale regularly' 
afcendsj till it arrives at perfeftiop in the elegant naatile, 
or fupei'ior fjmmetry of the fpiral fnail ; whofe convolu- 
tions commencing in a point, and winding with the eafy 
flow of the m.oft beautiful undulating wreath, infeniibly 
dilate themfelves as they advance, till the whole aifumes 
the elegant taper of the cone. From this admired ftruc- 
ture, it is imagined, the Greeks prefervfd it in one of 
their temples coniecrated to Venus, as the emblem of 
that goddefs ; for we find united in this iliell all thofe 
lines or figures, which mathematicians pronoutice to be 
the mod: bjautiful. 

Da Cofta dates the definition of a {hell as follows : A 
kind of ftone-like calcareous covering or h.abitation, in 
which the whole animal, otherwife quite nal.ed or flelhy, 
lives included as in a houfe ; whereas the crullaceolis ani- 
mals, as lobfters, crabs. Sec. are not naked, but have every 
particular limb or part feparately cpvered with the cruft, 
w-hich confequently is formed into many joints, infomuch 
that the whole animal feems as it were loricated, or in a 
coat of mail. All (hell animals are exanguious, that is, 
have no blood fimilar to that of quadrupeds, birds, tidies, 
or reptiles ; and therefore properly appertain to Lm nanus's 
fixth clafs of animals, or vermes. They are alio defti- 
tHie of any bones; thofe fulcra or props to the mufcles 
of the animal ftrufture, being exterior in thele creatures, 
in their fliells ; and not interior, as all bones of other 
animals are placed. However, they are endowed with 
the principal parts, as the mouth, lungs, heart, &c. be- 
fides other parts fuitable to their mode of life. 

It has been a fubjeft of fome debate among naturalills, 
Whether the methodical fyltem or arrangement of telhi- 
cf.ous animals fliould be formed from the li''iiig animals 
themfelves, or from their habitations or fliells .' The. for- 
mer method feems moft fcientifical ; but the latter, from 
the fliells, is univerfally followed for the purpofes of con- 
chology ; and for many realbns. The vaft number of I'pe- 
cies hitherto difcovered, and the numerous colleilions 
made, exhibit only the fliells or habitations, the animals 
themfelves being fcarcely known or detcribtd. Of the 

fliells we daily difcover, few are fifticd up living; the 
greater number are found on fliores, dead and empty. 
Accurate defcriptions of animals, whofe parts are not 
eafily feen or obvious, and anatomical relearches, are not 
in the capacity of every one to make; nor are the parti- 
cular parts and their refpctlive funftions lb ealily cogni- 
zable to any but expej't, aHiduous, and philoibphical, en- 
quirers. How is it poflible, then, to arrange a numerous 
fet of the fliells of animals, by charaiSlers or pa;ts we can 
with difliculty, if ever, get acquainted with, in the far 
greater number of the fpecies we coUeft or difcover ? 

All other ranks of animals are arranged into fyflems 
by obvious and external, not by fcientifical, characters. 
Quadrupeds are methodized by their teeth, horns, hoofs, 
and hides, or coverings; birds by their plumage, be.^ks, 
and claws; reptiles and infefts by like particulars; the 
very fiflies, though of a different element, undergo ar- 
rangements by their fins; and the vcg'.tablcs are diltin- 

CON'CHES, a town of France, in the department of guJlhcd by their flowers and fruits. All thele arrange 

the Lower Pyrenees, and chief place of a canton, in the 
dillrict of Paa : fix leagues north-north-calt of Pau. 

CON'CHES, a town of France, in the department of 
the Eure, and chief place of a canton, in the dillrift of 
Evreux: three leagues (buth-we!t of Evreux. 

CON'CHOID,7". orCoNCHiLES, the name of a curve in- 
vented by Niconudes. It was much ufed by the ancients 
in the conftruition of folid problem.s. See Fluxions. 

CONCHO'LOGY,/ [from xcyxi. a fliell, and ?,oyi^, a 
xlifcourle.] The fcienec which teaches an inveltigation of 

nients are on the principles of external and obvious cha- 
ratlcrs. Why then (hould it be requiied to arr-.nge by 
fcientifical or difliciilt charafters, the fliells of animals 
who chieHy live in the depths of the Ufa, that have hardly 
a progrefhve motion, and are, for the greater part, tlilfi- 
cultly, if ever, within our reach ? Why fliould naturalills 
demand of fiich animals only, a fyfteni or arrangement, 
the moll difficult to attain, while all the other orders of 
animals, whofe arrangements by fucli methods are more 
eafily attainable, are methodized only, and with univerliil 




confeiU, by the obvious charafters of teeth, plumage, and 
iins i cliaia-itcrs that cannot be held in any other light, 
than as analogous to the external charafters, or the (hells 
of teftaceous annnaU ? Such an abllrule method, were it 
even attainable, is the lels necellary, becaule every ac- 
curate and judicious naturalilt may always be capable of 
dilHnguilhing the fpecies by the (li'ells alotie, though he 
has many of the fame kind, and of very difl'erent appear- 
ances, before him ; for every fpecies of (liell has one or 
more particular ("pecilic charafter, either in worh, colour, 
or fubJtance, which it retains through all its various ftages 
and forms, and is therefore always to be dU'iinguifliedand 
known by it., 

Mr. Adanfon drew a conclufion of the different (hells 
he pj-opofes for the fpecies of the black limpet, from the 
iituation of its eye or beak being at two-thirds ot the 
length of the Hiell. This fituation of the eye, he, for 
want ot accuracy, thought to be a particular charaiter of 
the black limpet; but he- overlooked that the eyes or 
beaks of many other fpecies of limpets are placed m like 
manner, or at two-thirds the length of the (lie)!. He 
therefore ericd as much in making that particular the 
criterion of the (hell, as in making the fi(h only, the cri- 
terion of the whole animal, or fiih and (liell. But there 
are, on the contrary, many infallible charailers upon 
fljeils, by which the lamily or genera may be dlllinguifhed 
fioin all others. The goat's-eye limpet wears, perhaps, 
as many different appearances as any fpecies of (hell, and 
even often greatl)' refembles others; but look only on its 
ridges, the charader of which is to be three-edged, like a 
triple-edged fpear or fwoid, and it is immediately recog- 
nized through all its different appearances. The garnet 
limpet has, ni like manner, many different appearances ; 
neverthelefs its elegant garnet-like femi-tranlparent eye 
or top always charaflerizes it through all its colours and 
forms. The fmall blue-rayed limpet of our own coaft is, 
when young, thin, horny, and very conical ; when old, 
thick, flattilli, and nusfhapen j yet its few blue ftreaks 
always charatterize it. The bloody-tooth nerit is known 
through all appearances, by the blood-like ipots on its 
teeth. Each volute has Ibme particular ftreak, band, 
fpot, or colour, which it uniformly preferves through all 
its ftages. Even the rocks or murices, the fpiders, and 
-the winged ibells, wholie appearances in their feveral 
growths, above all other iliells, are lb extremely different, 
that w'hen young ihey have narrow, (harp, even, thin, 
and fmooth, lips, and the opening is pretty clear or free; 
when old, this lip is greatly extended, very thick, pronged, 
or let with large fpikes, and almoft clofes their mouth or 
opening. Yet even all thcle fiiells, either in the turban, 
body, tip, work, or colour, have conitant and fixed cha- 
r.adlers, which diilinguifti them throughout all thefe ex- 
tremely different appearances. But it has been objeiSed, 
that the Ihells alter in every llage of the animal's growth; 
and that hence enlues a very confiderable change in the 
forms and colours of the (liells. If lb, it evidently fol- 
lows, that the animals themlelves mult undergo as ma- 
terial changes in their forms. It cannot be othervvifc; 
for the fliell mult always anfwer to the animal, and its 
mode of life J therefore, if great changes happen to the 
animal as well as to the fiiell, we remain in equal un- 
certainty as to an arrangement by the fifli, as by the (hells; 
but as tile (liells have the moll obvious and eligible cha- 
{afters, and are more eafily attainable, the methodical ar- 
rangement of the (ubjeiis in conchology (liould be made 
from the (liell. The inveliigation of the included living 
- animals, forms a branch of Ichthyology, and will accord- 
ingly be found under their generic names in this work, 
taken from the Linnxan clalhfication. 


P. Wolfgang Knorr, in his Delices de la Nature, has 
given the following account of this department of animal 
phyliology. Every fliell animal, like the other vermes, 

is at firft very minute, and fprings from little eggs or 
fpawn formed in a kind of froth, which is expelled by 
the parent animal. This frotli conlilfs of a great many 
cells or cavities, refembling the honeycomb of bees, and 
is called nulicera. The largenefs of tl)e fpawn is pro- 
portioned to the natural fize of the Ihell ; and it is tak'en 
for granted that the fpawn of a hrge buccinum, ought to 
be larger than that of a little nsrite, for the fame reafon 
that the egg of an oftrich differs in fize from that of .i 
goldfinch. But the fubjeft haa not yet been futiicientiy 
examined to make this part of conchology clear and ob- 
vious. What we have liotic-ed on this head, is neverthe- 
lel's worthy of confideration and regard. 

The fmalleft (nails are formed with their (hell, but which 
atfirfl is fo fine and brittle, as not to bear the flighteft 
touch of the linger. The animal alio is delicately fa- 
(hioned. The manner of the procefs is certainly enve- 
loped in darknefs, and we yet want many experimental 
obfervationsoh the formation and growth of fhells. Every 
fliell-animal fcems to be the archifeft of its own habita- 
tion ; and, although this may appear doubtful with re- 
gard to the paper nautilus, yet there is a mode in whicii 
we may (hew, as far as obfervation goes, the conforma- 
tion and growth of that (liell. The anifnal is obvioudr 
compoled of dilferent fibrous, mufcular, and membranous, 
parts ; it has many feparate organical refervoirs, humours, 
and pores, and alio a clammy I'ubllance, which covers the 
whole fleHi, and makes it (lippery and tenacious. This is 
nothing but the nioilirure that flows continually from the 
whole body, perhaps from millions of pores, and is found 
all over the lurface of the animal ; and being of a calca- 
reous nature, it in time gets hard ; and, in proportion as 
it is forced out fucceffively by the humid liquor, it at 
length detaches itfelf entirely from the body, and thui 
becomes as it were a diltinft covering. It is probable- that 
the (hell is not folid throughout, but that it contains a 
number of minute fpaces, anfwering to the pores of the 
animal, from whence flow the matter which forms the 
fliell ; conveying a portion of juice fucceflively to the in- 
ner lurface of the ftiell, penetrating through thefe fpaces 
to the upper or external furface, and thus making it both 
harder and firmer. 

The conftruffion of the (hell muft necelTarily follow the 
natural conformation, and hence it will be fmooth, tu- 
berculated, ftriated, curled, rough, or wrinkled, accord- 
ing as the animal is to be in time evolved. As foon as 
the creature has taken fo much growth that it can no 
longer lodge in the fhell, the increafe is faid to be made 
after the following manner: It thrufts from the orifice 
that part of the body which it can no longer contain in 
the fhell. That furface being naked, continues to dif- 
charge the fame moilture, which hardens, and, uniting 
with the edge of the orifice, forms a new portion of fliell, 
which prefently becomes exaiSfly fitted to that piece of the 
body, which, from the place being too narrow, it obliged 
him to expole. When the animal is attached to the inner 
part of the fhell, the moifture difiblves in the former tu- 
bercles, and makes that firm. From thence arife the fpires 
in fnail fliells, and the rings in the helices ; the mark of 
.addition to which we may always fee, although the beil 
■ for the new moifture, which is depollted on the edge, be- 
ing hardened afterwards, is very narrow and fine. In 
fome of thefe animals, when they arrive at a certain age, 
the ftrudture at the extremity is changed by the addition 
of new lobes, as it happens in many other parts which 
do not grow but in a certain age ; as the horns, the teeth, 
&c. fo the mouth of the fliell neceffarily takes a different 
form thereby. This may be obferved in fome fpecies of 
the buccinum, which have at firlt the mouth united, but 
afterwards forms a prcjefting lobe, and are wry-mouthed, 
wrinkled, or broad, lb as to be taken by fome naturalifts 
for a different genus ; on the lame ground of error, which 
led fome of the early naturalills to rank a flag with horns 
under a diilinft fpecies, in order. to diitinguifli it from a 
fawn, whole horns had not begun to (hoot. forth. 




According to tliis opinion of Knorr, the (liell increafes 
by addition oi- aggregation ; but it is more conlonant to 
the finiple operations of nature to fuppol'e, that it is by 
ejttenlion that the Ihell tal<es the fize adapted to the fpe- 
cies, as well as to the growth of the animal. There is 
certainly a fyllem of aiterics, as in all folid parts and 
bonfs of animals, conjoined in the ihell, by_ which the 
nouriOiing moiHure palTes to or from the inhabitant ; and, 
according to this generital formation, every lyfteni of ar- 
teries, with its particular organs, conforms to the llruc- 
ture and wants of the included animal. 

As to the beautiful defigns and colours of fnells, Knorr 
proceeds to explain them on the principles of animal 
fluids. He fays that a matter flows from the animal into 
the fliell, of a confillency like foam i different, at times, 
in tlie fame aniinal, according to the difference of the 
particular humours, and organical refervoirs ; jull as in 
other creatures, where the blood is red, the liile green, 
the urine yellow, the chyle white, Sec. Now, iftheoi- 
ganiciil refervoirs, and the fmall veins, which ramify 
thence near to the furface of the fliell, are difpofcd in cir- 
cles, lines, or figures, the moifture being of another co- 
Jotii-, cannot piefent itfelf on the furface but in the fame 
colour. This moillure being Jiardened and .^ugmented 
by continual addition through the fpaces of the fliell, 
and thus more ditiolved, and as it were brought to per- 
feflion, it muft be that the fl;etch or outline of the fliell 
will (hew the true difpofition of the fibres, veins. Sec. 
though only of a hair's breadth, and alfo the pores. It 
cannot appear improbable that this fliould be the true 
conftruttion of thefe creatures, becaufe we fee different: 
ftriated and fpecklcd fnails, with and without fliells ; and 
alfo fimilar lines and decorations in a great many Ipecies 
of caterpillars. Hence, as the colours fpring from the 
refleftion of the rays of light, perpetually made on the 
plates of the furface, and which arife from the different 
diffolutlons of the fmaUeft particles, this author does not 
hefitate to attribute the colours of (hells to the llrufture 
of their organical fecretories. And as every animal is , 
fubjcfl' to certain difeafes, which can change and alter 
the colour of their humours, and alfo by the funffions of 
tiigeflion, dilTolution, fecretion, &c. io without doubt 
fea animals are fubjeft to the fame mutabilities of nature, 
ivhich thus become the caufes of their great variety of 
colours. Thofe who, in order to explain the formation 
and growth of fliell-tifli, fuppofe a fyliera of arteries, (ay 
that the liquors which flow from the animal into the fliell, 
although of one and the fame colour, can, by the petri- 
fication that takes fucceluvely in the extremities 
of the fmalleft veins towards the exterior furface, take 
different colours ; jutt as the fame nourifliing juices of the 
human body can be differently coloured by the mixture? 
and fecretions. The above reafoning is no lefs applica- 
ble to figures and paintings, or to fmall variations of 
ffru(5lure; (or the body or fibres of an animal may be 
badly formed; it may have the pores Ifraight and large, 
fo that it cannot ("ail to produce a dift'erence in the exter- 
nal appearance of the fliell, which mull not on that ac- 
count be taken for a different or (ubordinate fpecies. 
This remark I'eems the more necefl'ary, in order that fuch 
tilings might not contribute to increafe the genera and 
fpecies of (hells unncccffarily, in a (yftematlcal divifion. 
From a bare calculation made by Knorr, the data of 
which he formed from the diverfnies of the colours of 
ttioli fliells he had only in his own polTeffion, he makes it 
yppear that there would be two thouland different fliells, 
without counting the (pecies which muft be buried in the 
bottom ot the lea, and which we know nothing of but 
by tlic petrifications, which prove to us their exiltence. ~ 

JVI. de Reaumur appears to have given a fatisfaftory 
account of the formation of the fliell of the garden fnaif, 
founded oti a courii; of very ingenious experiments, re- 
lated in the Pans Memoirs. He there fupports the theory 
«f Knorr, by endeavouring to fliow, that this fubllance 
is produced merely by the perfpirable matter of the ani- 

mal condenfitig and afterwards liardening on Its frnfict;. 
and accordmgiy taking the figure of its body, which his- 
performed the office of a mould to it; in (hort, that the 
(hell of a fnail, and, as he (uppofes, of all other animals 
pofl'cfTed of (hells, was only the product of a vifcous tr.iuf- 
mlation from the body of the animal, containing earthy 
particles united by mere juxtapufition. 

But it was M. Heiiflimt, in the M-moirsoS the Academy 
of Sciences for 17166, who firfl difcovered the fliructure of 
fliells to be organical. In the numerous experiments that he 
made on an immenfe number, and a very great variety, of 
animal (hells, he coiillantly found that they were conipoled 
of two difliniSf (ubitances j one of which is a cretaceous 
or earthy matter, and the other appeared,- from many ex- 
periments made upon it by burning, diftillation, or other- 
wife, to be evidently of an aniinal nature. Thefe two 
(ubitances he dexteroufly feparated from each other by .^ 
very eafy chemical analyfis ; by the gentle operation of. 
which they were exhibited diftincSly to view, without any 
material alteration from the aftion of the folvent, or in» 
ftrumcnt employed for that purpofe. On an entire fliell,- 
or a fragment of one, contained in a glal's veliel, he 
poured a futlicient quantity of the nitrous acid, confide- 
rably diluted either with water or I'pirit of wine. After 
the liquor has diifolved all the earthy part of the fliell, 
which may be coUefled after precipitation by a fixed or 
volatile alkali, there remains floa'.ing in it a foft Cub- 
ftance, confilting of innumerable membranes of a retifonn 
appearance, and difpofed, in diffecent fliells, in a variety- 
of pofitious, which conftitutes the p.irtof it. This, 
as it has not been atfecled by the (blvent, retains ths 
exaft figure of the fliell; and, on being viewed throug!* 
a microlcope, exlilbits fatisf.ictory proofs of a vafcular 
and organical ftrufture. He (hows that this membranous 
fubltance is an appendix to the body of the animal, or a- 
contiiiu.ition of the tendinous fibres ,that compofe the li- 
gamenls by whicli it is fixed to its fliell ; and that this 
la(t owes its hardnefs to the earthy particles conveyed 
through the veffels pf the animal, which fix thenifelves- 
into, and intrult, as it were, the meflies formed by the 
reticular filaments of which this membranous luhltance 
is coiupofed. In the {l\s\lxMed foreelain, in particular, 
the delicacy of thefe membranes was fo great, that he was 
obliged to put it into fpifit of wine, to which he had the 
patience to add a Angle drop of fpirit of nitre day by day, 
for the (pace of two months ; left the air generated, or 
let loofe by the ailion of the acid on the earthy (ubitance,. 
(hould tear the compages of its fine membranous (Iruc- 
ture, which,, it certiinly would have done, in a mora 
hafty or lefs gentle diil'olution. The delicate retitulated 
film, left after this operation, h,ad all the tenuity of a I'pi- 
der's web ; and accordingly he does not attempt to deli- 
neate its organization. In other fliells he employed even 
five or fix months in demonffrating the complicated mem- 
branous ftruiSlure of this animil iubftance by this kind of 
chemical anatomy. In general, however, the pioccis does, 
not require much time. 

Of the many Angular configurations and appearances of 
the membranous pan of different flitUs, which are defcri- 
bed in tliis memoir, we Ihail meiitiun only, as a ipeciuien, 
the curious membranous ftruitureoblerved in the laminaj 
of mother-of-pearl, and other fliells of the fame kind, af- 
ter having been expofed to the operation of the author's 
folvent. Belides the great variety of fixed or permanent 
colours with wJiicli he (bund the animal filaments of tliel'e 
flijlls to be adornedOt is known, that the fliell itfelf pre- 
(ents to the view a fuccefhon of rich and cliangeable co- 
lours, the produdion of which he eafily explains from the 
configurations of their membranes. Nature, he obferves, 
always magnificent in her defigns, but fiugularly frugal 
in the execution of them, produces thefe brilliant decora- 
tions at a very fmall expence. The membranous fubftance 
above-mentioned is plaited and rumpled, as it were, in 
fuch a manner, that its exterior lamina:, incrulted with 
their eartliy and l'emi-tran(parent matter, form an infinite 
4: number 



numVr of little prifms, placed in all kinds of dire6lions, the rudiments of a proper apparatus for making t!ie epi 

which refrart tb'e rays of light, and produce all the 
changes of colonr obfetvable in thefe (liells. 

VVrth refpeft to the figures and colouis of (hells, it is 
■obferved, that river (hells have not fo agreeable or diver- 
fified a colour as the land and lea fhelis ; but rhe vai ieiy 
in the figures, colours, and other characters, of ie.i flseils, 
is almolf infinite. The number of diltinft Ipecies we find 
in the cabinets of the curious is very great; and doubt- 
lefs the deep bottoms of the lea, and the iliores yet un- 

dermis, as well as the fiiell. ' The itruif ure of the epider- 
mis is very different in different genera. In feme it is 
lanr.nated, in others fibrous and brufh-like. It delerves 
to be more minutely examined, and it feenis not impro- 
bable but among the iiveral ufes of this covering, the 
two following may delerve confideration: i. To prevent 
the fait water from corrodingthelhell; forall (liells thathave 
an epidermis have a I'cabrous furface. 2. To prevent other 
lliell-fifh or marine inleits from fixing their habitations 

explored, contain multitudes ftill unknown to us. Even on thefe (liells, as they do upon all bodies in the fea. 

the fame Ipecies differ in foiiie degree in almoft every in 
dividual i (b that it is rare to find any two (liells which 
are ftriflly alikfrin all refpefts. This wonderful variety, 
however, is not all the produce of one fea, or of one 
country; the different parts of the world afford us their 
different beauties. Bonani obferves, that the moft beau- 

where there is not a power of defence. And this renders 
it very probable, that all fiQies inhabiting naturally fraooth 
(liells, are capable of not only adding to the extent and 
growth of their (hells, but can likewile, from time to time, 
add a frelli poliflied covering to the whole (hell ; at lead 
their organs (eem to extend to fuch a length, as to clear 

tiful fliells we are acquainted with, come from the Eaft away all impurities from their (hells. We (eldora find any 
Indies and from the Red. Sea. This is in fome degree cowries with coral, or extraneous bqdies adhering to any 
countenanced by what is found to this day; and, from part of them. 

the general obleivations of the curious, it litems, that the 
fun, by the great heat that it gives to the countries near 
the line, exalts the colours of the (hells produced there, 
as it does the rich plumage of birds, and the more ele- 
gant decorations of ferpents ; and hence gives them a 
luft'-e and brilliancy that thofe of colder climates always 
■want : and it may be, that the waters of thole valt feas, 
which are not (ubjedf to be weakened by frc(h rivers, give 
a nourifliment to the fifh, that may add to the brilliancy 
of their (hells. 

In every fylfem of conchology, it is neceflary to fix 

The head, (apex,) of an univalve, is the part julf over 
the mouth or aperture. The bale, end, or tip, (bajln,feit 
acumen,) is that part of the other end oppofite to it, or 
the end of the turban; though fome authors have given 
them quite contrary names, by calling the tip or turban 
the part over the mouth. In (peaking of (hells it may be 
underftood, that when the upper or under (ide, or ends, 
are mentioned, it is fuppofed that the (hell lies on its 
mouth upon a table, with the head towards the right 
hand, and the end or tip towards the left. 

The body of the (liell, (corpus,) is that part which runs 
from the top to the extreme limits of the aperture, and 
occupies the fpace between tlie bafe or turban, a.-id the 

fome ftandiird or elTential cliaraflers to all (hells, by which apex. A whirl, turn, fpire, or wreath, (j'pha, anjyatlus,) 
they may be divided into families or clalfes, genera and denotes each (ingle or (eparate turning or circumvolution; 

J'pecies. Thefe charafters mult always be formed from 
the chief parts of the (hells, the differences of which, in 
(hape, fize, fituation, or other marks or particularities, 
enable us to form refpeftive families or clalfes, and to re- 
Iblve thole families into genera, and afterwards into (pe- 
des, by other fubordinate charaflers. Thus iu univalves 
there are five llandard or clVciitlal churaA^rs for the clalfes 
or families: thefe are, i. Simple or not turbinated. 2. 
Turbinated, witlr a fingle continued cavity. 3. Turbi- 
nated and chambered, or with many compartments or 
cavities. 4. The peculiar (hape. 5. The aperture, mouth, 
or opening of the (hell. The fubordinate cbarailers for 
genera and fpecies in univalves, are, i. The number of 
fpires, convolutions, rounds, or wreaths. 2. Whether 
operculated, or covered with a lid, or not operculated. 
3. The (lielly fubrtance, whether opake, horny, pearly, 
&c. 4. The epidermis. 5. The head, beak, or tip. As 
thefe charafters include the principal parts of all uni- 
valves, they of courfe conftitute the rudiments of the fyf- 
tem; which rud i ments ought to be well inveftigated by every 
col leif or of (hells. It is laudable to coUeft ; but when a 
colleflor alfo makes it his (tiidy to contemplate fcientifi- 
cally the natural curiofities he acquires, he then claims 
the'ielpefl of mankind, in addition to the praife already 
gained by his aHiduity. 

The particular parts which enter into the conftruflion 
of a (hell, are as follow : i. The epidermis, or periolfeum. 
This part is common to bivalves as well as univalves. It 
is a rough covering or (kin, which raolf, but not all, (hells 
have ; and only on the outfide, never withinfide, the (hell. 
The epidermis, perhaps, is a periofte or membrane, that 
c6vers the (liells to defend them from exterior accidents, 
to prelerve them, and aid their growth. In that it does 
the f'sme office as the periolte or membrane which covers 

as in the turban of the whelk, or common (hail. The 
difpofition of the fpires, fays Mr. Adanlbn, is not the 
fame in all (hells; it varies according to the diflerent 
plans they turn on, and they can turn on four different 
plans, which are; i, the horizontal; a, the cylindric, 
or (preading on a cylinder; 3, the conic; and, 4, the 
ovoid plan. From thefe four difpofitions of the (pires, 
all tiie different forms or figures of (liells pioceed. The(e 
are the principal difpofitions of the fpires ; but there are 
many intermediate ones, which proceed from different 
degrees and combinations of thefe four. The number 
and forms of the fpires vary in the fame fpecies, either in 
their different growths or. fexes. Young (liells have al- 
ways a lefs number than the old ones ; the realbn is, be- 
caufe all turbinated or fpiral (hells take their growth from 
the tip or end, to the mouth or upwards. Some diells 
though of the fame age, foinetimes have not the fame 
number of fpires: this is to be .attributed to difeafe; or 
perhaps, it may be an effeft of fex. Thus, in the pur- 
purs, the buccma, and in fome other kinds, it is com- 
mon for the males to have their fpires lefs numerous 
more ilender and lengthened, or lefs fwelled; and the 
whole (hell fraaller than in the females. This obfervation 
is always found to be conllant. 

The turban, or clavicle, ( clci'-viaila,) is the asjgreeate 
or whole fet of the whirls, and always forms the 
part ot the fliell. A flat tut bail, or helix, (cla-juula helix.) 
IS fo (lightly prominent, as to be nearly on a level with 
the bale of the (hell. There are likewii'e (i;veral ether 
degrees of them, as the Qiort turban, (claiiicula dcprelfa ■) 
the produced turban, (clamicula lengiorc;) the ion" tur- 
ban, (cUfuicula longiffma ;) all which are explained br 
the very names they bear. 

The pillar, (columella,) is the middle part, or axis 

^ 1- I 1 11 C f 1\ t"/-lll .-vll f'i-l.J 'lli.Il ^m- X*.. ». _ . . . 1_ . _ 

the bones of other animals ; for the (liells of thefe filhes which runs through the ihell, or from top to bottom, and 

m.iy be confidered, and indeed are, quite analogous to 
the bones of other animals. The epidermis feems as much 
a genuine covering of the (lic;ll formed by the fifh, as the 
ftiell itfelf. And, could we (ise the recent fifli, and ex- 
amine its organs, there is no doubt but wfrlhouldlind 
Vol. V. .No. 250, 

from which all the fpires commence and turn round, and 
which forms the fupport or balis of them. It always lies 
afide the mouth, and though not feen in all the (lulls, yet 
in many it is the raoft obvious part of the mouth next the 
lip. The mouth or aperture, (apertura,) needs no ex- 
f plauatioii. 



plan.itian. The \\i->,.(!nb!um,) (Imply, is the mere outer 
contour of the mouth or ;ipemire ; but tne inner, or co- 
lumella lip, (labium iiiterius -vel columella,) is the polilhed 
or (niooth part oppofite to the lip, and is always Ipreacl on 
the coiumt-lla. , j /• j 

The beak, (rojlruin,) is that prolonged and furrowed 
part, extended Itraight upwards from tl.e top of the aper- 
ture like a horn, moreorlcfs in the difterent families. It 
is by feme authors called the tongue or bore, cfpecially 
when fpoken of the pnrpurae; as it is imagined they bore 
through the ftiells of the fi(h they feed on, with this ap- 
tiendajre. , ,., 

The fcoon, (fmit!,) is the hollowed or gutter- like pro- 
cefs placed tideways of the beak, and lower down on the 
very lip: which is peculiar to the fj.iders, &:c. buch 
(hells have been called, from thefe two-fold pioceffes, the 
beak and fcoop, biicdna biiinguia. 

1 lie claws or prongs, (-/isit', daByh, unguh, or apfen- 
AUcs,) are the jjrocefTes that illue from the contour of the 
lip, as in thefpider-fhells. 

Umbilicated Ihells, (cocklea umbilicata,) are tJiole that 
have a navel or hollow on the liill or body whirl, or in 
the center, which penetrates tlie (liell deeply, or its length. 
This is moltly fern in cochlea, trochi, and forae buccina. 

The helix, or helices, are thole (hells thai; have their 
whirls or turnings King, as it were, between two flats or 
levels, as fome river Aiails, poft-horn fnails, ammunits, 

and others. , ■ , ■ . 

Revolved fhells, (uni'vaMa turbinata, davicula mlus re- 
c^i'dita, 'Vtl ita infe contort a, ut eonim circum'volutwnc! nulla 
ex parte fnmineanl,) are thole that turn or revolve with- 
indde, or whofe whirls or turnings are hidden orablorhed 
within the body of the Qiell, fo that only the outer whirl 
is fetn, and they have no clavicle: luch are the nautili 
and the cowries. 

Winged ihells, (alatit,) are tliofe whofe lips expand 
greatly outwards, and form large flaps or wings ; as the 
plough, the duck's wing, the fpiders, and many others. 

Right-handed fliells, (heterojlropha,) are inch whole 
whirls, or convolutions, turn from right to left, or con- 
trary to the molt general manner of turbinated univalves. 
Operculated lliells, (cckhsoperculata:,) are fuch as have 
a loole piece, which Ihuts up or covers the aperture or 
mouth of the fhell, like a lid. So that the fhell really 
contiUs of two feparate and very unequal pieces ; viz. one 
piece fiat and fmall, the other large :md Ipiral; the for- 
mer being the lid, the latter the fhell itfelf. None but 
turbinated univalves have opercula or lids. Thefe oper- 
tula are fmall, in companion to the fhells; and of dif- 
ferent fubftances, as fhelly, leathery, or horny. This tex- 
ture may be illulhatcd by the operculum, or lid, which 
js conftantly found to iiiclofe the common perriwinkle. 
They are alio of diftVrent forms, as peifeaiy round, fimi- 
lunar, elliptical, oval, or very lengthened; and they are 
generally wrought with a fpiral work, or with concentric 
circles. The operculum, or lid, is always fixed on the 
upper part of the pedeltal of the fifh. In fome at the 
outer end or extremity, l"o that it retires confiderably 
from the fliell when the animal moves. In others it is 
placed at the inner extremity or root. The operculum 
exaaiy covers or doles the fliell in thofe whole mouths 
are round, fcmicircular, or oval, as the nerits, turbines, 
purpura:, &c. but in thofe rtiells that have very lengthened 
or narrow mouths, as the volutes, it is not eafy to con- 
' ccive what uie the opercula are of; for they feem not to 
fhut or cover much above the fifth part of the mouth. 
Yet furely all the opercula; ftrve as covers, and entirely 
fliut up the filh; th.refore, though they do not feem to 
fit the outer mouths or apertures of the Ihells, yet the 
fifh retires within the fhells, fo far as to make it fit, or 
clofe exa6fly to where he retires. The above applies only 
to fea univalves, whofe opercula are a part of tiie animal, 
and brought forth with it. The operculated land uni- 
valves are very different; they form a new lid, or oper- 
cuJam, every year, or oftener; aod that is only at luch 

times that the animals require fo (Vietter tliemfelves fron* 
the injuries of the weather. It is c<;mpoled of a vilcous 
matter, which ill'ues from the body of the animal, which 
condenfes into a kind of toughifh coriaceous or leather- 
like lubllance, and is pretty thick. This lid, or crulf, is 
never attached to the body of the animal, as in the fea 
univalves, but merely covers the mouth; nor is it ever 
wrought with a Ipiral or with concentric circles, or, in- 
deed, any other regular work. All fliell-like opercula 
are of a calcareous nature, and difiblve in acids. It is 
therefore that, when put in vinegar or other acids, they 
move brifkly to and fro for fome time, by the ebullition ; 
from which particular, among the common people fond 
of curiofities, they have obtained the name of creeping 
Jlones. The horny and leathery opercula rejet't acids. 
They have a kind of greafmefs or unttuofit)', which, 
when they are burnt, exhales a ftrong fniell, loinetinies 
agreeable, but molt generally fcetid. The blatta byzan- 
tia, conchylium, or unguis aromaticus of the ancients, 
and greatly valued, till of late, in the Materia Meilica, 
was cf this latter kind. It was called unguis, becaufe 
imagined to refemble the talons of a bird of prey. Diof- 
corides mentions two kinds; one from the Red Sea, white 
and greafy, which was the luoll elteemed ; the pther black 
and not ia large, which came from Babylon. Of later 
times they have ufed indifferently the iinall round oper- 
cula of purpurae, &c. by the name of blatta bvzantia. 
When burnt they exhale a fmell Ibmewhat like that of 
caltoreum, and their fmoke was held good for vapours 
and the epilepiy, and in decoflions they were reckoned 
laxatives; but at preicnt thefe medicines are defervedly 

The mod general ftruiture of teftaceous animals is to 
be attached to their fliells, and to be always fixed in them 
by one or moi-e ligaments or mulcles. This fixation cer- 
tainly aiifwers to reafon 5 for thele cieatures can never 
be imagined to form their fhells, and augment them when 
neceflary, had not the animal itielf a fixed and common 
communication with its fliell, to tranfmit the proper 
juices for the iucreale of it. Yet, however, it is averred, 
that the fifli of three families are not always affixed by 
mufcles to their (hells, anJ tholt .^ic the veiiiiiculi or fer- 
pula, the dentalia, and the paper nautili. The paper nau- 
tilus certainly appears not to be fixed by any one part to 
its fnell, and is very frequently feen without it. The 
filhermen mult be very expert to catch the fifh in its fliell, 
becauli; they quit their fliells with fuch facility. The 
dentalia are found floating, as it were, in their Ih.lls, no 
ways fixed, but quite loole and free, like any thing in a 
flieath. However, to reconcile this difi'erence, and, per- 
haps, it is the real Hate of the cafe, it is reafonable to fup- 
pofe that thefe animals are not abfolutely Icole from their 
(hells, but rather that they are very flightly connected to 
it ; and, perhaps, when the flielf is complete or full grown, 
they detach themfelves from the mulcles. Analogous to 
what loblters and other crultaLCous filh do when they calt 
their yearly crulls ; that is, they detach the mulcles of the 
old crulls, to affix them en their new ones. 

There is another oblervation to be made with regard to 
vermiculi, or ferpulae, viz. that thefe teltaceous animals 
border on, or conneiil fo clol'ely to, the corals, that it was 
long before conchologifls could fix their limits, fb as to 
pronounce definitively whether corals fhculd be ranked 
as teltaceous animals, as Martini has done in fome parti- 
culars ; or, whether the ferpula fhould be rather ranked as 
corals, and expunged the teltacea. Linnasus has thought 
it right to feparate them, and make the fijrpula and den- 
talia teftaceous animals, and the corals a feparate and dif- 
tinfit order. Another difpute remained long unltttled ia 
regarded to the echini. The echini were very indefinitely 
placed by naturalilts ; many ranking them as crultaceous, 
many as teltaceous, and others as animals of an order 
diltinft from either. Thus Lilter and Adanion take no 
notice of tliem among the teltacea. Rumphius and Se. a^ 
place them with the lea itars and cruftdcea. Linnaeus 




«Ia(res th?m under mollufca, diftinft from flulls ; wliile, 
on tlie other li.ind, Buoiunni and Grew, who lajik tlierii 
■with the teftace.i, place them as univalves ; and Wood- 
ward, Argenville,Gualtieri,Breynnius,Daviia,and Mciif- 
chen, rank, them as multivalves. This latter diADolition 
is certainly very erroneous i for, though they define the 
many futures feen in echini as lb many valves, yet they 
cannot in anywife be reckoned as fuel), for they have no 
play or motion whatever, as valves, but are mere joinings 
of (everal pieces, always permanent and fixed. Neither, 
indeed, would the name of multivalves ani'wer to all echi- 
ni, could the futures be termed valves; as only Ibnie ge- 
nera, not ail echini, are compofed of fuch futures. 

It was a long time before any regular or (yftcmatic ar- 
rangement of (hells took piace. The molt general m inner 
of the old authors-has been to divide all Ihclls into fimple, 
turbinated, and bivalve : but it is evident that this divi- 
iion was very erroneous, becaufe it excluded the multi- 
valves. Succeeding natuialifts, inltead of this arrange- 
ment, fubltituted three other divifions, viz. univalves, in 
which they comprehend both the non-turbinated and tur- 
binated i bivalves, or double (liells j and multivalves, con- 
fifting of muiy parts. This being now the generally-re- 
ceived divifion, on which cuftom and philolbphy have 
ftampt an authority, we fhall adhere to it in this treatife. 

Each of the above three general divifions contains many 
families, genera, and fpecies. Mr. Tournefort obferves, 
that there ought to be certain principles or char.ifters in 
every fvrtem or methodiwhichprinnplesorcharaiievslhould 
always be taken from the chief part of the objeiils, and not 
from feveral parts. This charaiier (hould alfo be the con- 
ilant one through the whole fyftem, to preferve a perfeft 
regularity. Thus all bodies which agree in one fixed 
charafler form the clafs, and the affinities or differences 
of thofe bodies to each other in the lels principal parts, 
create the fubordinate genera and fpecies. On this maxim 
Da Colla has founded his fylteni ; for all the turbinated 
univalves, he has fixed on the aperture or mouth of the 
fliell as its ell'ential chara(Ster. For the bivalves, on the 
hinges ; and for the multivalves, on the number of valves. 
The fimple figure, the chambered Itru^Uire, and the latent 
whirls of the revolved Ihells, which are the only remain- 
ing univalves not charailerized by the mouth, fuch as 
the limpets, ammonia, and cowries; thofe are the eii'en- 
tial charafters for fuch families. In the fubordinate di- 
vifions of genera or i'pecies, the following charailers are 
lufncient: i. The figure or (hape. z. The turban or cla- 
vicle. 3. The work on the (hell. 4. The other lefs eften- 
tial particularities; as, thicknefs or thinnefs of the Ihell, 
the epicLermis, and the fubftance, whether pearly, horny, 
or opake. 


Writers on conchology have laid down one natural me- 
thod for the arrangement of univalve (liells, which ought 
to be adhered to as fcrupuloufly as poOible; that is, to 
begin with the limplell forms, and proceed upwards to 
thofe which are the moft complex. According to this 
method, the vermiculi, or worm-diclls, which include the 
ferp'ida, toredo, and fabella, undoubtedly Itand firlt ; then 
the dentalia, or tu(k-l)ke ihells ; next follows the patella, 
or limpet; and then the aure^-maril1a3, haiiotis, or lea- 
ears. Thel'e conltitute four families, and form the firft 
general divifion, cMcA fmple univalves. 

The fliclls of the next fimplell configuration are clalTed, 
by Da Colla, under one famiiy, and divided into fix ge- 
nera, viz. the orthoceratites ; the lituitae, or croziers; the 
turbines polythalmi; ammonia; amnionoids; and the 
nautilus, or nautile. Thefe being all of them chambered 
(liells, form the next general divifion, which is called con- 
camtrated univalves. 

Next follows the fi.ith family of fiiells, which is divided 
into three genera, viz. bullx, called pewit's eggs, or dip- 
pers ; fcmiporcellana;, which are alio the bul.a kind, but 
greatly refembling the porcelains 5 cypres, the porcelain 

(hells, or cowries. This family conftitutes the third gene- 
ral divifion, calltd rfi'DZ-i^fi/ univalves. 

The next arrangement of (liells Dx Coda farms into ten 
dilliniSf families, making in the whole fixteen families of 
univalves. In this arrangement he places firft, the argo- 
naut, or paper n.iuiilus; lecond, theaures-cochles, or 
eared fnails ; third, the olives, a fpecies of volutes, call- 
ed cylindars; fourth, the volutae, or cones", called ad- 
mirals, &c. filth, globofa;, or globofe, fnells, fuch as the 
tuns, melons, Peifian crowns, &c. fixth, caflides, or hel- 
mets, which are a fpecies of buccinnni ; fevenrh, trochi, or 
tops, fliells of a top-like or pyramidal (hape; eighth, coth- 
lea;, or ear- Ibrnicd fnails ; ninth, buccina, or whelks ; and, 
tenth, inurices, or rock-lice ihells. Thefe families are 
iubdivided into many genera, and conftitnte the fourth 
and bd general divifion of the firft order of ilie'is, called 
turbiiitited or fpiral univalves. We now proceed to explain 
thefe divifions in their natural order. 

The moft fimple (hells are certainly thofe that envelope 
the vermiculi or lea-wonns, which, in their generic cha- 
raffer, are called lerebella, the piercer or borer; and they 
are, in many refpedls, very deftruflive creatures. The 
ell'ential charaifer of this family is thus defined by Da 
Cofta : tubular cylindric (hells, (ingle, often in mall'es to- 
gether, or adhering to othtv extianeous bodies ; varioudy 
finuous, by winding or twilling to and fro, in various 
contortions ; whence they are'of no determinate or regu- 
lar fhape; or they are rather of divers (li.cpes and forms. 
Dr. Gmelin divides them into the three following genera : 


The firft genera of thefe cruftaceous worms produce 
their (hells in very great variety; and in their windings 
and convolutions are fbmetimes fo regularly fpiral, as al- 
mofl to emulate the moll perfetl turbinated lliells ; but 
this is, perhaps, quite accidental. The moil: general form 
in which theie (hells are found, is fimply tubular, and in 
cluilers; varioudy coloured, and of different fizes, which 
indicate tliejr progredive ttate of growth. They are found 
from the fize of a ftalk of grafs, to that of a iwan-quili ; 
and ibmetimes as large as a man's finger. Some are of a 
dull white, others grey, yellowiih, and brown. As they 
are often found in Urge lumps, attached to other bodies 
in a ipiral form, and other (hells as frequently attached 
to them, they were long millaken by the earlier naturalifts 
for a i'pecies of coral. They inhabit various parts of the 
European fea ; and thofe defcribed by Davila are natives 
of the Mediterranean and the Venetian gulf. They are 
alio found on the coalls of C'oromandel and Malabar, in. 
the Indian ocean, and in the African, Afiatic, and Ame- 
rican l(;as. There are thirty-eight fpecies of them. 

The Teredo is that pernicious animal i'o deftruiSlive 
to the bottoms of (hips. The dielt is tapering, flexile, and 
capable of penetrating wood. There are only three fpe- 
cies known, the na'valis, ulriculus, and clanja- The na- 
valis is the diip-worm ; whence it takes its fpecific name. 
It is an inhabitant of the Indian teas ; and from thence 
it was firft imported into Europe. It penetrates eafily 
into the ilonteft oak-planks, and produces dreadful de- 
ftruftion to the diips by the holes it makes in their (ides; 
and it is to avoid the cft'ccts of this creature that ved'els 
require dieathing. The head is well prepared by nature 
for the hard offices which it has to undergo, being coated 
With a Itrong armour, and furnifiicd with a mouth like 
that of the leech ; by which it pierces wood, as that ani- 
mal does the dcin; a little above this it has two horns 
which feeni a kind of continuation of the fiiell j the neck 
is as ftrongly provided for the fervice of the crcaiure as 
the head, being i'urni(hed with feveial ftrong mui'cies ; the 
reil of the body is only covered by a very tliin and traiii- 
parenv (kin, through which the motion of the inteltiiics is 
plainly (ten by the naked eye; and by means of the mi- 
croitope ieveral other very remarkable particulars become 
4- \ilible 



vifib'e there. This creature h wonderfully minute when 
newly excluded from the egg ; but it grows to the length 
of four or fix inches, and fometimcs more. Wlien the 
bottom of a I'cifel, or any piece of wood which is con- 
ftantly underwater, is inhabited by thefe worms, it is full 
of fmall holes ; but no damage appears till the ouier parts 
are cut a.w?.y : tlun their (lielly habitations come into view ; 
in which there is a large fpace for inclofing the animal, and 
furrounding it with water. Tliere is an evident care in 
thcfe creatures never to injuie one another's habitations ; 
by this means each cafe or ihell is preferved entire ; and 
in (iicb pieces of wood as have been found eaten by them 
into a fort of honeycomb, there never is feen a palVage or 
communication between any two of the (hells, though the 
•woody matter between them often is not thicker than a 
piece of writing-paper. They penetrate fome kinds of 
wood much more eafilv than others. They make their 
way moft quickly into fir and alder, and there grew to 
the greateft fize. In the oak they make lefs progrels, and 
appear fmall and feeble, and their ihells are much difco- 
loured. Since each of thefe animals is lodged in a foli- 
tary cell, and has noaccef's to thofe of its own fpecies, it 
has been matter of furprifc how they fhould increafe tofo 
vafl a multitude. Upon diffeiiling them, it appears that 
every individual has the parts of both fexes, and is there- 
fore fuppofed to propagate by itfelf. Thefe lea- worms 
appear to have the fame office allotted them in the w.y 
ters, which the termites have on the land. They will 
appear, on a very little confideration, notwithftanding 
they are fo pernicious tofliipping, to be -molt important 
beings in the great chain of creation, and plealingly de- 
luonllrate tliat infinitely wife and gracious Power which 
formed, and ftill preferves, the whole in fuch wonderful 
Older and beauty; for, if it was not for the rapacity of 
thefe and fuch animals, tropical rivers, and, indeed, the 
ocean itfelf, would be choked with the bodies of trees 
whicli are annually carried down by the rapid torrents, 
as many of them would lad for ages, and probably be pro- 
ihiflive of evils, of which, happily, we cannot in the pre- 
fent harmonious ftate of things form any idea; whereas 
now, beine; conl'umed by tliele animals, they arc more 
eafily broken in pieces by the waves; and the fragments 
■which are not devoured become fpecifically lighter, and 
are confequenlly more readily and more effedually thrown 
on lliore, where the fun, wind, infers, and various other 
inftruments, fpcedily promote their entire difTolution. 

The Sabella is a fimilar creature, the (hell of which 
is tubulous, and formed of grains of fand cemented to- 
■gether and hardened invo a cruftaceous covering, bythe 
mucous matter which ifiues from the included inhabitant. 
There are twenty-five fpecies, of various fizes, from half 
an' inch to nine inches long. Some of them inhabit the 
Britith f.-as, the coalts of Norway and Greenland, and the 
Cape of Good Hope ; others, of the larger fize, are found 
in the Indian ocean, and in the South Sea; on the coalls 
of America, and in the fait lakes of Thuringia. 

Gualtieri ranks the famous (hcU the wentleirap, or ftair- 
cafe, with vermiculi : he gives for reaibn, that the fpires 
of this (hell are mere loofe ones, not produced from, or 
anyway connefled or fupported by, a pillar or columella, 
running through the middle of the (hell its whoie length, 
as is the conltant and true (hufiure of all turbinated 
fliells. Davila places it among his vermiculares, without 
giving any reafbn for fo doing. There are alio vermiculi 
which hav/; concamerstions, or .arc divided into chambers 
by a few or many tranfverie plates running acrols the 
tiibe; but they arc feldoni regular, or fet at equidillant 
intervals and are not pierced by a pipe or liphunculus, 
that conmninicates from chamber to chambtr, fb as to 
peiinit the fifli to penetrate more than one chamber or 
inclolure at a time, in which particulars they eilentially 
differ from the concamerateJ (liells. Belides, thcfe con- 
cameralions do not feein conlfant to any particular fpe- 
cies, and appear rather the clofing up, and delerting the 
old phice of habitation of the iidi, when it augments its 

(hell; juft like the bottotn fpire* of a turbinated (hell, 
which the anima. fills up as it grows bigger, and e.ilarges 
it liabita on. The v r;i;icuii ar. freqi.:entiy foan.i \a 
the foUil (tite; but we do not recoUeil any Ipecics, but 
wiiat is known in a living (tate recent from the lea. 


This family of fimple (hells is likewife of the terebellj 
or piercer fpecies; but is (eparated from the preceding 
genera, on account of the difference in its conformation. 
The efTeutial charatter of this (hell is, that it is iiuiple, 
tubular; of a regular, determinate, curved, conical, (li.spej 
and open at both ends. This (hell is found from one to 
four or five inches long. There ai-e twenty-one Ipecies, 
which are natives of the Indian ocean, tlie Mediterra- 
nean fea, the Englifh channel, and molt of the lea coafts 
in different parts of the world. 

The Concliology-Plate I. exhibits different figures of 
the vermiculi, or lea- worm (hells. Fig. i. A clufterof the 
ferpula contO'tupUcata, from Knorr. Fig. 2. The large 
green-furrowed dentale of the Eaft Indies. Fig. 3. Tha 
Imooth yellowilh dentale of the Englilh fea. 

The patella, or LIMPET. 

This family derives its generic name from its refem- 
blance to a little plate; like this utenfii, the limpets arc 
for the moft part round, or oval, or approaching tnereto; 
the part that contains the fifh is concave, fmooth, and 
often finely waflied with colours. The fliell is more or 
lefs conical; it has no contour, but the'rock or other 
hard body to which it adheres, lerves as a kind of fecund 
or under (hell, to preferve it from injury. On this ac- 
count Aldrovandus and Rondeletius claffcd the limpets 
among the bivalves; but in this error they have not been 
followed by any other writer. The apex, or eye ot the 
limpet, is either whole or perforated, and is feldom placed 
exacSly in the middle of tlie (hell, but molt commonly in- 
clines towards one end ; that is, taking it in its longeft 
dimenfions. The rim of the (hell, which forms its bafe, 
is likewile various, Ibmetimes without any proujinencies 
or fmootb, fometimes \xjlth large ones or jagged, and 
fbmetimes with (lits only, or crenated. Their external 
furface is often rough and fcabrous, and their apices of- 
ten impcrieff; for, moft of this family .adhering to the 
rocks, they are much expofed to the fun during ebb, and 
to all the violences that render dead fhells unacceptable 
to the curious. Though it commonly happens, that the 
fhells molt remarkable for the brilliancy of their colours 
are of the fimpleft form, as the nerits, olives, volutes, &c. 
yet this tribe feems an exception. It is true there are 
confiderahle numbers that have very lively colours; yet, 
in general, they abound with lefs variety than moft otiicr 
(liells. In fome parts of England the limpets have ob- 
tained the name oi nipple-fhelts ; becaufe its convexity ter- 
minates in a kind of papilla near the center. 

The limpets are very numerous, confifting of no lefs 
than 238 fpecies, which Da Cofta divides into three ge- 
nera of (hells, viz. I. Whole or entire limpets, (patella 
•vertice inlegro,) or that are not perforated or open at the 
top. 2. Chambered limpets, (patella- c-jncanurata- J':-ve 
cnvitate fiylo interna doiiaia.) 3. Pierced or perforated 
limpets or mafks, fpatelt,^ ivertice pcrfarato,) that have* 
their tops perforated with a hois pierced quite through 
the Ihc-ll. The firft genus, or whole liiiii st, is very nume- 
rous. The iecond, or chambered liin pi: t, has many fpe- 
cies : but the third genus, or perforated limpet, or mafks, 
has but few fpecies. Europe, however, affords butveryfew. 
The finelt and largelt are from the Eaft Indies and Africa, 
efpecially from the Cape of Good Hope. America has 
many of the chambered and fmaller kinds : and late dit- 
coveries have brought Ibme large and fine limpets from 
the Streights of Magellan and the South Sea. 

Thefe are all the notices that occur relative to the re- 
cent limpets, or thofe known from fe.i. But there are 
m.-»i>y (ollil (liells which are not yet diicovered ot known 



F/cW: 1. 

G.WKnorr dt2. 

X'ltJcii J^thfishui ita t/it Jt-t Jjrrvta Jitnr 9ff,tS,i2 if I.Ji'il/,v^ 

CO XCll C)]. () GY. 

l'/,ii, J] 

/f/f /////.J. 6 ■\"/ 

■ irjOi.'rr ,1,1 



>!) a living ftate. For no{ only /ingle fpecies of foiTil 
il.clls yet remain undifcovered in their living Itate ; but 
gcntra, and even whole tainilies, (till exill in the Teas, 
which are not yet known to ns, othervwle than in the (oikl 
ftp.te. Foffil limpets are very rarely met with ; however, 
there are two kinds, which delerve particular notice. 
The iirll is a fmall I'pecies called the fool's cap. It (eenis 
different from the Weft Indian kind, but approaches it 
nearly. This is not unfrequently found in the calca- 
jenus foils of France. The lecond is a very curious and 
remarkable Ihell, and the fragments of it, called by foflilo- 
gifts tiichites, are found in great abundance in the Eng- 
iiih chalk-pits ; ytt the Ihells are fo rarely to be met with 
entire, that we have heard of only four, which were found 
ill the cliffs near Dcfver. Thele limpets are very large, 
:uk1 nearly refemble a fmgle fliell of- a bivalve. They 
feem to be of two kinds, and are more irregular than that 
fiiell ; and, inftead of being fulcated lengthwife, they are 
circularly wrought, or in a tranfverfe manner, with very 
high irregular ridges, n t thickly, but rather thinly, (et. 
Thefe flieils are very thick. One fort is high, or coped, 
the other is broad or flattiHi. The infideis quite fmooth, 
the edges turn outwards, and, under the beak, or that 
part which anfWers to the hinge in bivalves, they ftretch 
out, towards the fame fide, into a broad flat ledge, the 
perpendicular lide of which is curiouOy worked with 
itraight and parallel furrows, like the hinge of a multar- 
ticulate bivalve. On the top or beak it has a large, wide, 
roundifh opening, which, from its remarkable thinncfs, 
makes it difhcult to determine whether it be a natural 
jierforation, or an accidental fraiSIure j though, by its re- 
gular edge, and being quite alike in all the four fpecimens, 
one would incline in favour of the former. Figures of 
tlie limpet are exhibited in the engraving. 


The effential charafler of this family is as follows: 
fhells of an ear-like form, flattifh, almoft wide open, or 
iioUow, for, from the apex or head, all along one fide, it 
lias only a broad ledge or margin. The apex has alfo a 
fingle perfeft whirl ; and a curved row of holes, or per- 
forations, runs its length, from the head to the oppofite 
=cnd. Thefe Ihells, in appearance and nature, approach 
very nearly to the limpets, and, in like manner, afK.K 
themlelves to rocks. However, they cannot truly be 
called limple, or Iliells that are no way fpiralj becaufe at 
their head they have as perfeft and fine a whirl as any tur- 
binated fliell : but, as nature in her works has made fuch 
flight tranfilions from one link to another, it is almoft 
impoflible to fix them by human definitions. Thus, fe- 
veral of the chambered limpets have only fuch fingle 
whirls; and the trocho patella, and cochlea patella, are 
often fo greatly fpiral, as exteriorily to refemble a trochus 
or a (hail ; yet they are true limpets. It is therefore im- 
puliible to regulate natural objefts to a perfeftprecifion, by 
the moft elaborate and minute definitions. 

The fpiral iiead of the haliotis has induced many au- 
thors not only to feparate them from the limpets, but 
alfo to rejeft them from the fimple Iliells. Thus Lifl:er 
places them in his Hiftoria Cmichyliorum among the tur- 
binated Ihells, after the nautiii, the fnails, and the uerits, 
and preceding the trochi. He does the fame in his work 
de Animalibus Anglis, wherein he fays, it is fpiral at the 
•clavicle in the fame manner as other turbinated fliells, and 
therefore by fome is wrongly placed among the fimple 
Ihells. Gualtieri ranks them among the fnails with de- 
prefi'ed or flatted clavicles; and Adanfon arid Meufchen 
take them from the fimple fliells, and place thcra as the 
firlt family of the fpiral fliells: Dr. Graclin has placed 
them the iaft of the fpiral fliells. Linnaeus allows no fliell 
to he of the haliotis family, without having the row of 
perforations; which is an eflential charafter. Thus the 
Venus ear, ranked by Ibme as a haliotis. Da Colta and 
LinniEusfeparate from them. But there isalfo another ch.i- 
raiter, which feems to belong to this family ; that is, 

Vol. V. No. 150. 

their infide is alw.iy3 of the fineft or moft orient pearl; 
and even pearls are often bred in them. This is another 
reafon why the Venus ear belongs not to this family, for it 
vijnts the pearly infide, as weTl as the perforations. In 
the row of holes which confl:itute thefe perforationr, 
there are generally fix or feven quite perforated, or very 
open ; the reft are clofed, and appear rather like tubercles 
than holes ; for it is laid the fifli alw-ays clofes one towards 
the end, as he increales in fize; and by thele holes he 
calls forth his excrements. 

There are but few fpecies of this family. It is even 
doubted, whether fonie of thole propofed by dilferent 
authors, are not rather varieties: but they are found ia 
great abundance in moilpaits of the world, in their ufual 
and cuflromary kind. Dr. Ginelin enumerates nineteen 
fpecies. There is no inllance on record of a haliotis 
being found foffil. A figure of the haliotis is given ia 
the engraving. 


The fccond divifion of univalves, contains the conca- 
merated or chambered fliells, that have many regular and 
nearly equidillant cells or chambers, and a pipe or fi- 
phunculus, that opens into, and comm.niicatcs from, 
chamber to chamber. This liruflure forms the elTcntial 
and fpecific charaftcr of the fliells of this divifion ; for 
there occur among them not only revolved and turbi- 
nated fliells, but even quite fimple, or no-wife turbinated 
ones. The Ihells of this conformation conltitute the fifth 
family of univalves, and is divided by Da Cofta into fix 
genera, one genus whereof, viz. the orthoceratites, is of 
a fimple figure ; four genera, as the lituits, or croziers, 
polythalami, turbines ammonia and amir.onoides, araall 
turbinated; and the other genus, or nautilus, is revolved. 

For the arrangement of thefe chambered Ihells, we are 
obliged to have recourfe to the foffil kingdom; Cnce 
there are only two genera out of the fix, viz. the lituitrs 
and the nautilus, that aie known recent from the fej. 

Yet it is furprizing, that thefe genera, which are found 
foflil in fuch amazing abundance all over the globe, and 
form numerous families, have to this hour efcaped the en- 
deavours of mankind to obtain them living. Befides 
other reafons that have been given, their being pelagian 
Ihells, or fliells that inhabit the very deepelt recefles of 
the fea, feems one principal caufe; as thofe fituations arc 
not fubjeft to the agitations of the great tempefts, and 
other violent ragings of that immenfe mafs of waters; 
and therefore thele Ihells feem conftantly to remain uh- 
dillurbed in thofe imraenfe deeps. 


Thefe are fimple ftraight conical fliells, no-wife turbi- 
nated ; and gradually tapering from a broad end to a. 
Iliarp-pointed top, like a ftraight horn, whence their name. 
They ai-e chambered fr^om bottom to top, and have a fi- 
phunculus, or pipe of communication, from chamber to 
chamber. Planchus, in his book de Conchis minus no- 
tis littoris Ariminenfis, defcribes fome recent minute 
kinds of this genus, which he found in great quantities 
in the fea lediment, at Rimini, in Italy. The orthoceroles 
he difcovered were fpecies fo very minute, lefs than one 
quarter of an inch, and not thicker than a pin, that they 
demanded the aid of the microfcope to afccrtain their 
ftrufture. Linnaeus, in his order of fliell-fifli, ranks them 
as the nautilus orthocera. 

How difterent thefe living fpecies are from thofe found 
foflil, is extremely ftriking ; the recent fpecies are fo ve- 
ry minute, as to demand the microkope to examine them ; 
the foflil ones, on the contrary, are moftly very large, 
frequently above a foot in length, and above an inch and 
a half over; even the fmalleft kinds, as the alveoli, are 
feldom lei's than an inch long, and a quarter of an inch 
over : and befides their great difference in, fize, they no 
wife correfpond in other particulars with the larger, fo as 
to be imagined young ones of the lame fpecies. Brey- 
G nius. 


ni'us.'wRo firft formed this genus in his work, dePolytha- 
laiiiiis, propolis nine kinds; thefe are divided into two 
leflions, viz. ift, thofc that liave the iiphiuiculus placed 
on or near the edge ; and 2diy, tholl- that have it central, 
tjr near the center. It is proper to oblcrve, that thefe 
fofTils are almolt always calts of ftonc, or replacements 
of fparry matter. For a view of the orthoceros, fee the 
Conchology-Plate II. inhere fig. i reprefer.ts the recent 
Ihell, cut open, to (hew the concamerations or chambers : 
this (liell is greatly magnified ; but a figure nearly of its 
natural fize is placed by its fide. Fig. 2, a fragment of 
a fo(Hl orthoceros, (hewing- its fiphunculus or pipe of 
communication, which in both thefe figures is in the cen- 
ter. This- fragment belongs to a very large fpecies, 
though it is here (hewn on a linall fcale. 

This (hell much refembles a bi(hop's crozier in (liapei 
having a long cylindric item, one end wliereof turns in a 
ipiral manner; but the fpires are few, feparated, and re- 
cede from each other. Breynius defcribes and figures a 
fnigle fpecies, fo that it is an extremely rare foffil. But 
there is a fniull recent (hell, commonly called the ram's 
torn, or nautilus Ipirula of Linnreus, found in great 
abundance both in the Halt and Welt Indies, which is 
raniced by mO(t authors as a nautilus or ammonis, and is 
the identical fpecies with the follll kind. We only fee 
the fpiral end of this recent Ihell in our colleiHons, and 
never with its Item. However, the view alone of it 
evinces its analogy; for as the fpires are few, and greatly 
recede from each other, it mult follow that the outer 
fpire will at ialt infenfibly fall into a ftraight line or a 
ftem : and the reafon we never find it with the fteni, pro- 
bably, is owing to the thinnefs and brittlenefs of the 
fliell ; fo that the agitation of the waves, for it is only 
found cafr up on the Ihores, eafily breaks o(f this Item or 
cylindric part. Fig. 3, in the engraving, (liews the entire 
fliell ; and fig. 4., is the fame cut open, to fliew its cham- 
bered Itruilure. 


This genus was founded by Da Cofta. It is only found 
folTd i and even in that (tate but one fpecies is known. 
It is a turbinated or fpiral (hell, of a produced or length- 
ened fliape, exai5tly like a buccinum in appeaiance, but is 
cor.camerated or chambered, and the diaphragms or par- 
titions are cut and jagged, like the foliaceous futures of 
the ammonia. Calts of llone of this kind are found in 
Dorletfhirc, France, and Swilferland, but never in any 
great degree of perfeiiiion. Fig. 5, in the engraving 
fliews a turbo polytlialamus, of the lize ufually found in 


The (hells of this genus are perfeit helices, the fpires 
ufually lying between two flats or levels. The fpires are 
cylindric, and connefted to each other. They gradually 
diminilh or taper, on both levels equally alike, from the 
circumference to the center; lb that by the gradual ta- 
pering of the fpires to the center, the centers of- both 
flats are concaves. The inner (lru6ture is chambered ; 
but the diaphragms, or partitions of the cells or cliam- 
bers, are not roundiOi and with an even edge, as thofe of 
the orthoceros and nautilus, but are flalhed, or jagged, 
into procelfes or appendages, which laid together tally 
and ciofe into one another lb itrongly and cunoufly, that, 
when joined, the flats or furfaces of the whole ammonis 
are embelliftied with a beautiful leaved work, exai^ily fi- 
milarto that on the fcuils of animals : and this by fodilo- 
gilts is called tlic foliaceous futures ot the ammonites. 
But this (oliaceous work does not (eem to be a particular 
cliarafter of the ammonia, for the turbines concamcrati, 
or preceding genus, have it; and there are fpecies of Of* 
thocerutitic utid foilll nautili witli. tiie iame work. 

The fiphunculus, or pipe of communication from cham- 
ber to cliamber in the ammonia, leems to be placed oa 
the back of the fpires, and not near the edges, or in th« 
center of them ; but, as this conclulion is drawn from 
fo(ril rtiells, which are very rarely (o perfeel as to (hew the 
pipe diftinflly, we mult yet remain uncertain in regard to 
ioine of their particular charadters. It is however, * 
matter of allonilhment, thatin this and other families of 
teltacea, in general the mott common folTil fliells are the 
Icarcelt in the recent ftate, and vic-e werfa. It could be 
readily explained, were all the iolTil kinds, not known re- 
cent, reckoned pelagian (hells, as the ammonia certainly 
are: but then what reafon can be given for the limpets, 
fea ears, volutes, cowries, &c. which, though in extreme 
plenty recent, are very rarely found fofiil, with many 
other parallel inltances. The foifil ammonia, or ammo- 
nitx, are found in great abundance, and of many fpecies, 
in moll parts of the world ; from the (Vnall fize of a pea, 
through all the gradations of fizes, to above a yard in di- 
ameter, and proportionably thick. Thefe are not objefts 
that efcape the eye by their minutenels ; yet, neverthelefs, 
all the living fpecies of them Hill remain to be difcover- 
ed, except one very minute kind. This living fpecies of 
ammonis is (o very minute, as hardly to exceed the big- 
nefs of a turnip feed, and does not weigh the hundredth 
part of a grain ; therefore demands the aid of the mi- 
crofcope to examine it. It was found by Plancus with 
the recent orthocerofes above-mentioned in the fea-fedi- 
nient at Rimini ; he has defcribed and figured it in his 
work. l.innEEUs ranks it among the nautili. It is very 
remarkable, that this recent fpecies is a diliin£l kind fronv 
any of the folhl ones known. It not only differs in par- 
ticular circumltances, but even in an efltmtial chara6ter ^ 
which is, that as all the folfii ones, or ammonit:£, have .1 
concave center, this recent kind has a very prominent or 
projefting one. 

Da Colta has fixed the fpecific iharafters of the foffi! 
ammonitse, to be taken from the work on the back of 
their Ipires ; as being the molt obvious, conltant, regular, 
and certain dillinilion. On this charafter be divides the 
ammonia into eight claiTes, viz. i. Ammonia whole 
backs are quite fmooth and plain : ammonia doi fo Uevi. 2. 
Ammonia whofe backs are llriated, fulcated, or ribbed: 
ammonia dorib Itriato, (ulcato, vel collato. 3. Ammo- 
nia that have a plain prominent ridge along the back : 
ammonia limbo prominulo per totum dorlum duiito. 4. 
Ammonia with a plain prominent ridge between two fur- 
rows : ammonia limbo prominulo inter duos fulcos eredto. 
5. Ammonia with a prominent ridge, not plain, but 
wreathed or twilled like a rope: ammonia limbo taenio- 
latu. 6. Ammonia with a plain furrow or channel along 
the back: ammonia fulco unico per dorfum dufto. 7. 
Ammonia whofe backs are lludded or fpiked : ammonia 
dorfo tuberculato vel aculeato. 8. Ammonia whofe 
backs are deeply notched or toothed like a faw : ammonia 
dorlb dentato. Thei'e include all the lofllil kinds hithertsx 
difcovered. Fig. 6, in the copper-plate, reprefents the 
cornu ammonis, in its entire foHil (late, as found at Diay- 
cot, ill Wiltfhire. Fig. 7, is the fame fliell, cut open to 
Ihew its chambered ftrufture. 


The definition of this genus is, that, in all other re- 
fpe6ls except (liape, it relembles the ammonitse ; tor thefe 
bodies are quite globofe like nautili, and not fl it like am- 
nionitx. 1'he outer fpire alone makes above one half of 
the body ; and all the other fpires are very (mail, and ta- 
per into a concavity, fo that the center is deeply hollow- 
ed or umbilicated. Liniijeus dalles thefe among his nau- 
tili. Thefe elegant fuflils are found with the preceding, 
at Draycot In Wiltfliire, and in Swilferland. Fig. 8, in 
the engraving, is an exacl delineation of this curious fliell. 

The nautilus. 

The nautili are defined to be (hells, whofe fpires never 



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appear externally, but lie latent or quite hidden within 
tlie body of the fliell : Turbinata, volulse apice non emi- 
iiente, vel clavicula intus rei;ondita. The nautiii aie of 
a ch inibered ftiu<.'>ure ; the partitions uf the cells or 
chambers being coiicave-tronvex roundifli plates. How- 
ever, there are foflll kinds with foliaceoiis futures like the 
ammonitse; which implies, that all the fpecies have-not 
fucn regularly round partitions : and, indeed, Breynius, 
on this account, divides the nautili into two orders ; thole 
with concave-convex femilunar diaphragms, and thole 
with jagged or finuated diaphragms. 

TJie paper nautile, though claiVtd by moft aiithors as 
a nautilus, is of a different genus, as not being of a cham- 
bered ftiutlure. Authors make two varieties of the Eall 
Indian or pearly kind, viz. the umbilicated and the iion- 
limbilicated ; but Gmelin confiders them as the hme ani- 
mal, and places them both under the fpecific name of 
ftiiuttlas ponipilius. This is by feveral authors erroneoully 
called nautilus Gracoriim: whereas the nautilus of the 
Greeks was the paper nautilus, or argonaut. 

The animal belonging to this fliell is laid to inhabit 
only the uppermolt or open chamber, which is nuich 
larger than the reft. The others remain empty, except 
that the pipe, or fiphnnculus, which communicates from 
chamber to chamber,' is filled with an appendage or tail 
of the animal, like a gnt or firing. Tlie fiphnnculus is a 
dilatable tube under the command of the animal. When 
it is dilated," like the fwimming-bladder of a fiih, it ren- 
deis the nautilus buoyant. When it is contrafted, the 
fifli and fliell fmk, and jull to fuch a degree as the prefent 
occafions of the animal require. 

Thtieare two remarkable foifil kinds of nautili yet un- 
difcovered in a living ftate, viz. One about the fize of a 
pippin, quite pyritical, without the flighted veiliges of 
the natural fliell. It is deeply umbilicated, has fine folia- 
ceous futures in feveral parts, and is thickly and finely 
ridged acrofs from fide to fide ; the ridges not Itraight, 
but curved, the curvature tending downwards, or from 
the mouth. The other, a i'mail kind, with undulated fu- 
tures, found in the liineftone of Derbyfliire, and in Ger- 

The nautilus has been always efteemed, as well for the 
elegance of its Iheil, as for the beautiful mother of pearl 
V'bich it produces. Fig. 9, in the fecond plate of con- 
chology, exhibits Knorr's correijt drawing of this fliell, in 
its natural Itate. The ground-colour is a yellowifli-white, 
appioaching, at the extremities to a light orange. In 
the center it is radiated with flame-colour, from whence 
proceed ftriated irregular bands of deep red in all direc- 
tions. The infide is lined with moft beautiful pearl. 
The black which rifes over the fpiral concamerations is 
perfeftly natural, and is occafiotied by a mucous matter 
which the animal throws out, fimilar to tlie cuttle-fifti. 
The bottom of the fliell is rounded in a beautiful foim, 
and mealiires about a foot and a half in diameter; and is 
of the thicknefsofa half-crown piece. It inhabits the 
Indian ocean, and is found on the iliores of Africa, parti- 
cularly near the Cape of Good Hope, where, quickly af- 
ter a ilorm, they are feen to fwim about in conliderable 
numbers, and are then taken only by the molt expert 

The fuperb cordated ftru6f ure of the interior part, with 
its materials of orient pearl, has induced us to give the 
Conchology-Piate HI. for the more perfeit illuftration of 
this celebrated fliell. Fig. i, rtprefents the fliell with its 
exterior lamina or covering taken off, to ftiew the beauti- 
ful pearl of which the interior fubllance is compofed. A 
filvery luftre, with undulating waves, on which a pale de- 
licate red exjiands iifelf, and at every movement changes 
to a ditTerent colour, gives this fliell a magnificent ap- 
pearance. Formerly artills fpent much time in woiking 
tliefe fliells, to increale their beauty, either by decora- 
tions in bafs-relief; or by fimply^engraving lines, which 
they rubbed over with various tints. Hence we often 
find thel'e Ihells ornamented with emblematical figures, 

fuch .IS the bacchanals, hunting, fiflling, foliage, fymbols, 
arms, crefts, and other decorations. Sometimes they are 
mounted with gold or filver, and converted into drinking 
velfels; for tiiey will hold more than a quart. In the fi- 
gure there is a large biown fpot in the middle of the 
fliell, which it is neceflary to explain, becaufe it lurijilhes 
a charafter, by which the nautile is diitinguiflied froin 
the cornu amnaonia. In all the latter, the circles are ap- 
parent in the fame place near the center of the firff 
whirl; but the nautile has the (hell clofed. Fig. 2, re- 
prefents an infide view of the fanie fliell, whereby the cor- 
dated work, and ail the partitions, may be feen, even to 
the fmallelt, which is in tlie center. It is' to that only 
that the animal is faflentd by a tendon. This tendon 
pafl'.'s through all the divifions, in a liphon, fallrened in 
the middle of the partitions, quite to the principal one, 
which is the largelf, and properly the animars abode. 
The other partitions do not appear to be of much real 
ufe to the fifti ; for it has never been found in any of 
them. The flefliy pait, or'body of the animal, fills up 
all the interior of the largeft chamber; but at the ap- 
proach of danger, or when it perceives an enemy, it con- 
tracts itfelf into a very fmall fold, and lies hid below the 
ftiell. There may be fome doubt uhether the tendon 
which palfes thrpugh the partitions, does not receive a 
great part of tlie animal's interior fubftaiice on thefe oc- 
cafions; which circuiirftance ieems necefiaiily to follow, 
from the diminution of the body. 


Revolved fliells are thofe whofe fpires are latent, or hid- 
den within the body, and do not in any manner appear 
externally ; fo that they have no clavicle or turban. The 
nautilus pompilius is alfo a revolved Ihell ; but, being 
more remarkable for its chambered ftru6ture, it is ar- 
ranged in the preceding clafs. This divifion contains the 
fixth family of the univalves, which Da Cofta forms into 
three genera, viz. nuces or buUje, the pewit's eggs, or 
dipping fnails; feniiporcellana;, or ftiells nearly relembling 
the porcellains ; cyprese or poroellan<e, the cowries. 


The firft genus, or bullae, befides their common names 
of pewit's eggs, and dippers, are alfo c:\\\iiAfe.a-niits. The_ 
definition of this genus is as follows : they are moltly of 
an oval fliape, and umbilicated at the bottom. The mouth 
is veiy patulous, efpecially at tlie top.-for it narrows 
greatly downwards. The lip is thin, fliarp, and naked, 
or without any border or other work; and with a finall 
facing or colamella lip on. the upper part ot the mouth. 
The anangement of this genus is much coni'ufed in au- 
thors, by their Iceining connexion with the two follow- 
ing genera of femiporcellanje and cypreas. Lilter makes 
them a genus of cowry, and calls it concka 'veneris haft 
umbilicata. Grew and Buoiianni place it with the fnails. 
Rumphius, v.ith his cochlea: glohofie ; Argenville, Da- 
vila, and Meufchen, do the fame ; and, indeed, Linnsus's 
genus of bulla includes the figs, turnips, & well as 
the dippers. Gualtieri makes it a genus preceding the 
cowries, and following the paper nautilus.. 

The arrangement that Rumphius, Argenville, Li:i- 
iia:us, Davila, and Meufchen, give them as cochle<e glo- 
boCa;, or tuns, is very furpriling, and extremely errone- 
ous; fince they have a very diifrrent efl'ential character, 
though all have p.itulous or very large mouths. For the 
nuces, o^ bullae, like the cowries, have no clavicle or tur- 
ban, becaule their fpirts lie within their bodies ; whereas 
the conchje globcfe, as the partridges, tuns, &c. are re- 
ally turbinated fliells, and have a very fair and Hrong ex- 
ternal clavicle ; but it is generally flattilh, or not mucii. 
produced. Though there is a valt difference oi colourinsf 
in the dippers, it feems, nrverthclefs, that they are only 
varieties, and that this genus is not numerous. Tive 
Conchology-Plate IV. exhibits IpeLimens of thcfe dip- 
ping-fiiells, or pewit's eggs, from Seba. 

C O N C H O L O G Y 

The feconJ genus in this family is the femiporcella:i:c, 
or lliclls greatly releiubiing the cyprere or cowries in their 
r.ppearance. Their aperture, however, is not lb narrow, 
but more open, neither are the lips toothcil or dentated ; 
which are the differential chara6ters ertibliflied between 
the two genera. We have (ben that Grew, Rnmphius, 
Stba, Argenville, Gualtieri, and others, have ranked them 
as cowiics. Lilter calls them concha 'Vtnerts apertitra non 
denlald. Linna:us ranks them under bulla, with thenuces 
or dippers above dtfcribed. Davila, refining on Argen- 
ville, divides the cowries into two genera, of toothed and 
not toothed ; which latter is this kind ; and Meufchen, 
in like manner, makes them a divifion of cowries, by the 
name i>f lemiporcellaniE. The fpecies of this genus are 
not very numerous; but among them Da Colfa reckons 
the poached egg, the weaver's flnittle, and a few other 
rare and curious ftells; fome of which are delineated in 
the engraving, 


The porcellain or cowry (hells are generally femi-oval, 
whofe flat part is the mouth. The fpires of the cowries 
in no wife appear externally, but make their revolutions 
•quite latent, or within the body of the ftiell. The aper- 
ture is on the flat (ide; it is a narrow opening, or vent, 
the length of the iliell. The lips are near together, broad, 
turning inwards, and toothed ; the two ends, or extremes 
on thc\ipper part, are very bumped and prominent. At 
one extreme it has a wry gutter, or opening, like the 
mouth of a foal or other flat tifli ; the other extreme has 
alfo a gutter, but it i^ rtraight or peipendicular ; and be- 
fide it, in fome kinds, there is another protuberance like 
a linall rude clavicle or turban. 

The particular charafter of this genus is_ the deep 
toothing on the inner edges of the lips, which diliin- 
guifiies it from the foregoing genus of femiporcellans. 
Linnaeus has adopted this charafter; but Grew, Lifter, 
Argenville, Gualtieri, and others, not regarding it, have 
confounded them all together. The cowries are ex- 
tremely numerous; and molt of the fpecies very beauti- 
ful in colour, and high in polifh, whence they got the 
name of porcellain, or China (hells. They have this ele- 
gant polilh naturally from the fea, entirely without the 
aid of art; and were they not common (liells, they would, 
perhaps, be as highly valued as the volutes, or others of 
the curious or fcarcer kind. They appear to be litoral 
(hells, and chitfiy inhabit the feas round iflands; for the 
greateft number of them are found at the Moluccas, the 
Maldives, Madagafcar, the Eaft and Weft-India iflands, 
and on the (hores of South America, Afia, and Africa. 

Though the cowries are found in immenfe abundaiice 
in the living Hate, they are very rarely feen foflil ; and, as 
tiiey lo(e their colours when in the foflil ftate, it is im- 
poflible to determine whether any of them are fpecies yet 
undifcovered alive. However, the kinds found foflil near 
Turin, and in France, fcem to be well known in the liv- 
ing ftate. 

Thcfe fliells being found fo plentifully on all the coafl:s 
of the Indian countries, became very early a fubftitute for 
inoney j and are Itill uled in traffic among tlie people of 
Ilindo.uian, of Perfia, China, &.-C. In South America, and 
in Africa, they are not only ufed as a circulating me- 
dium ; but their beautiful polifh, variety in fize, and di- 
verfity of gloiying colours, have induced the natives to 
ule them as ornaments, appended either to the nofe or 
ears, or (hung as beads, ancl worn round the neck, arms, 
body, and legs. Specimens of this Ihell are exhibited in 
the Conchology-PLate IV. 


The turbinated (hells, properly fo called, are thofe whofe 
fpires are external, contrary to the preceding divilion, 
and which (hew thcmfelves on the outer part of the (hell, 
in what is called the clavicle or^turban ; which is either 
produced (hort oi flat, according to the feveral genera or 

fpecies. Thefe turbinated univalves arethe mofl: difficult 
to arrange, and therefore authors, in their diiierent fyf- 
tems, have difplayed different methods. No wonder, (lace 
they only contain myriads of fpecies more 'than all the 
other three divifions put together; but befides the charac- 
ters of them are fraught v*i thin numerable diiiicul ties, chit fly 
owing to the ccntradiftory opinions -of (o many different 
writers. Conchologifts have nioftly formed their methods 
from one (ingle, or from a combination, of chai afters ; 
but Da Colla has fixed on the aperture, or mouth of the 
(lieil, for the efleutial charafter, in his arrangement of 
turbinated univalves. The aperture or mouth is there- 
fore the dittinguilliing mark of the families j and the 
(hapes, clavicles, colours, and works, of the (lie'ls, are 
ufed only as fubordinate charaflers. 

The families which fonftitute this divifion of univalves, 
are, i, the argonauts ; 2, the aures-cochlcas, or ear-form 
(hails; 3, the cylindars, or olives; 4, the volures and 
cones; 5, the globofae, or rounded (lielis ; 6, the caflides, 
or helmets ; 7, the trochi, or tops; 8, tha cochlea:, or 
fnails; 9, the buccina, or whelks; 10, the murices, or 
rock-like flicUs ; all of which we (hall explain in their 


This family has no external fpires, nor indeed is it, 
ftriflly fpeaking, a turbinated (hell, except at the vej-y 
head, which turns in one fpire only; but, the (hell being 
quite open, this fpire is e;Cpofed fo view; for it is evi- 
dent, if the .liell w.-.s not open, or vafcular, but, on the 
contrary, was cloftd or (luit up, it would come imder the 
clafs of revolved univalves; becaule the Ipires, like as in 
the common or pearly nautilus, would be latent, or turn 
within the body of the (hell. But though it is lb unlike 
the nautilus in not being chambered, yet, in foim and 
other particulars, it much agrees with that genus of fliells. 
The definition of the argonaut, or cymbium family, is 
ftated thus: they are (hells, in their external fhape re- 
fembling a boat, whofe upper part or head is narrow, 
turns Ipirally, and is like the ftern ; the reft of it widens 
to the other end, is quite hollow, forms a horizontal aper- 
ture, and lies lower than the ftern or fpiral end. The 
fpecies of this family amount only to iive, of a brownifli 
or whitilh (lone-colour, and thin almoft as paper, whence 
they obtained the name of paper nautili. Thefe (hells 
are by moit authors ranked with the common nautilus- 
fi(h, by the name of nautili nfacui, on account of their 
failing ; but it is evident, that in ftruflure they have not 
the leaft affinity to one another. 

Gualtieri firft made them a feparate genus, under the 1 
name of cymbium, and LinnjEus alio makes it a diftinct 
genus, and calls it argonauta. It is this fifti that is the 
true (ailor, the nautilus of the Greeks and Latins, and 
v.'hich our celebrated Englifli poet refers to when he fays, 
" Learn of the little nautilus to fail :" for it does not ap- 
pear in any Ibtisfaiitory manner, that the other kind, or 
pearly nautilus, ever fails, or navigates his (Irell. Pliny 
gives a concife and elegant recital of its mode of naviga- 
tion. It fails, fays he, after having difcharged or pumped 
out the water from its (hell, aloft on the fea, extending a 
membrane of an admirable thlnnefs, and cafting backwards 
two of his tentacula or arms ; for he rows with the 
others ; he fteers his courfe, till, refilling his (hell with 
water, he choofes to fink himfelf to the bottom. 

Thefe (hells are found in many parts of the Mediterra- 
nean, and alio in the Eaft-Iiidian feas. Argenville, in 
his Zoomorphofe, gives a recital of the l.iteft oblt?rvations 
lelative to the animal and its failing. The fi(h is of the 
fepia kind ; its head is pretty big,, with two large eyes ; it 
has eight arms or tentacula;, of a loft (lefliy (ublfance.; 
they are thicker towards the body, and are conneited or 
webbed together by a flight membrane. They are of a 
filvery colour, fet with dickers or knobs on the fides, flat- 
ted like oars, which lerve him to fwim ; and with thete he 
fecms to row and fteer his velfel. The lix foremoft arj 


cox Clio LOGY. 

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C ON (^11 O LOGY 

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C O N C H O L O G Y. 

fltort, and he balances liimfelf and extends them as he 
Iwims. The two hinder ones, longer than the others, he 
plunges in the iea, to ferve as a rudder; and thele up- 
hold the ikin, or membrane, which he ules for a lail to 
catch the wind. Thus equipped, he navigates in cala 
weather; wiien feait'ul of danger, he retires within the 
(hell, by which action it gains water, and fniks. He of- 
ten pumps the water out, and alio quits the fliell, which, 
floating cmptj', is carried by the waves, and either thrown 
on (lioi e, or dalhed to pieces on the rocks. 

The fi(h can quit the fliell at pleafure, for he appears 
not to be attached to it by any part of its bod)'. Fre- 
quently he turns himfelf and Ihcll topfy-turvy, and rifes 
with his head downwards from tl.e bottom of the fea ; 
and, when he has gained the furfice of the water, he 
turns his fliell very nimbly, empties tlie water, extends 
his arms, and fets fail. They are frequently taken with- 
out their ihells ; and the fidiermen niuft be extremely ex- 
pert to catch them in it. This account, however, fetms 
Ibmewliat doubtful, becaufe we know not of any animals 
that have proper domicilia, who quit them voluntarily. 
Fear or necefiity may polTibly caufe this feparation fome- 
times. Belidcs, as this animal may be fuppofed to frame 
its own habitation, like others of the teftaceous kind, it 
ieems necefTary to have ah attachment, however flight, to 
fome one point, as that fiom which it uniformly extends 
kfelf for the formation of its fliell ; if this were not the 
cale, is it poflible to conceive, that a fliell fo delicate, fo 
regular in every refpeft, could be fabricated ? Knorr en- 
deavours to account for this phenomenon, by fuppoflng 
that the tentacula or arms of thefe animals, and even 
their fibres, art as fuckers, and that they thus keep thera- 
felves attached to their fliell. For it is well known, that 
in this manner, if two linooth adhefive bodies touch one 
another in many places, they make a cohefion nearly as 
ftrong as though they were united together : and who 
can decide whether tlie inhabitant of this fliell does not 
ftick by fibres infinitely fmall in the cavities of the 
ferratures which are found on the keel ? and whether thefe 
fibres do not confdt of a vifcous liquor, which prel'ently 
diflTolves ; and for that reafon cannot fo readily be ob- 
served ? The uncertainty, however, of the mode of con- 
taft between this animal and its fliell, rendered the 
manner in which it conftiufts its abode very queltiona- 
tle; for there are fome naturalilts who icarcely conceive, 
by the formation of the fliell, that a cohefion of any part 
of the animal's body therewith can be at all neceflarj' ; 
for in that cafe, fay they, it would contradl the growth of 
that part of the fliell which adheres to the animal: yet they 
cannot explain how the part which is free from the fliell 
can increaJe itfelf, though theie are fimilar procefles ob- 
ferved in nature. As when, for inftance, a filk-worni is 
changed into the trvf.alis or aurelia, it conftruCls its fliell 
from its external Jkin ; and taking the form of a butter- 
fly, it keeps itl'elf during the lail period in this fliell, with- 
out being attached, and afterwards freely comes out at 
its own pleafure. Now, might not the paper nautilus 
conftruft abb a covering round its body from its own 
vifcons moifture, which, afterwards growing hard, would 
come off from the minimal entirely, and leave him a free 
habitation ? This might really be the ca/e, though it is 
.offered as a mere fuggellion. The animal being now dif- 
engaged, the fliell becomes thicker by the vifcous matter, 
which runs through the pores of the animal, or which it 
receives from the orifice of the new additions or folds, as 
the fize of the fifli increafes. There is no foundation to 
fuppofe that the polype, ibmetimes taken in ihis fliell, is 
its natural inhabitant. And although we all agree that 
this creature is faftened lefs firmly to its fliell than other 
tellaceous animals, yet we cannot but fuppofe that it is 
united, and has coniaft by fome effeLtual means, though 
4S yet undilcovered, and unafcertained by man. How 
ell'e are we to explain the increafe of its elevated fides ; 
the growth of the blunt teeth fymmetrically ranged ; and 
theorganicalftrui'turedjlcovered by Mr. Hu:tfiant,without 

Vo,i.. V. No. 751.. 

a fuppofition of there being a fyftem of veins or arteries 
within the fliell, efpecially fince the animal has a form I'o 
totally different from that of its abode ? 

For a corredl view of this fliell, which is the argonauta 
argo of Linnasus, fee the Conchology -Plate V. 


The eighth family is formed of the ear fnails, or auris- 
cochlea, a combination of two names, which exprefles 
the affinity thele ftiells have to the fea ears, while, at the 
fame time, they are truly a kind of cochlea or fnails. To 
this clafs belongs the Venus ear. Their ftiape fo much rc- 
fembles the fea ears, that molt authors have ranked them 
in that family, and call them non-perforated fea ears. 
Lifter and Gualtieri rank them as coUileae, and Linnsus 
places them in his genus helix. 0a Coita defines the 
auris -cochleae as follows : fliells (b wide and open as to re- 
femble fea ears, but are not perforated or fet with a row of 
holes. They have a broad ledge along one fide, which 
projedts over the cavity, and turbinates into one (ingle 
flat fpire, quite even or level with the bottom of the fliell. 
This fpire is alio very wide ; and extends to near the 
middle of the bottom or under part : fo that this family 
abfokitely participates of the charafters and fliapts of 
the fea ears, and of the fnails, and is, as it were, a com- 
bination of thole two families, as alio one of the innume- 
rable inftances of the infenfible progieflions nature takes 
from one family to another ; which progrelTions baffle hu. 
man abilities to limit, or the refined definitions of the 
molt accurate naturalifts. Though there are great num- 
bers of thefe fliells, yet there are not many diflerent fpe- 
cies of them. They are figured in the engraving as the 
next in order to the argonaut, or paper nautilus. 


Thefe fliells are a fpecies of voluta, and conftitute Da 
Cofta's ninth family. They are of a cylindric form, and 
pointed at the lower end ; the mouth is long, narrow, and 
notched on the top; the notch turning backwards, is 
large and fomewhat awry, like the mouth of a flat fifti; 
the pillar is faced halfway down, and is greatly wrinkled 
or plaited ; the turban is generally fliort, very pointed, 
with the whirls or fpires nearly level, or merely promi- 
nent one fi'om the other ; and the turban itlelf is divided 
from the body by only a mere prominent line. 

This family, in moft authors, is clalTed nearly in the 
fame manner. Lifter calls them, rhombi five ftrombi cy- 
lindracei. Rumphius forms a genus of them which he 
calls cylindri. Argenville makes them his eleventh fa- 
mily, and names them rhombus, cylindrus, or olea. Da- 
vila places them as two genera of volutes, viz. as the ie- 
cond genus or cylindrical volutes or rouleaux, and as the 
third genus or dentated volutes or olives ; and Meulchen, 
whofe feventeenth genus they are, alio calls them cylin- 
dri five daCtili. Gualtieri names them cochleae cylindroi- 
dese, and places them the next genus after the volutes; 
and Linnseus ranks them in his genus of voluta, by ilie 
name of cylindroidere. 

This family admits of being divided into two genera, 
riz. I. Cylindri emarginati, or fuch ivhofe edge is quit* 
even and fliarp. And, 2. Cylindri marginati, or luch 
whofe edge is not fliarp and fmooth, but has a very thicjt 
border, which turns over into a very prominent ledge on 
the back like the helmets. The fpecies of this family 
are numerous, and are very beautiful fticlls. Specimens 
of them are given ill the copper-plate. 


The tenth family of this divifion of univalves is the 
volutes and cones. It is very numerous in its fpecies, 
and is the family wjiich, for richneis and beauty of co- 
louring, furpafi'es alraoft all the other univalves, and is 
reckoned the great ornament or capital obieft of collec- 
tions. The far greater number of cones always bear 3 

H value; 


C O N C H O L O G Y. 

value ; fome kinds, as the admir.ils, &c. have borne afto- 
iiilhing prices when perfect; and Hie cedo iniUi is lb ex- 
tremely rare and beautiful, that this (hell alone has been 
rated at the prodigious Cum of one hundred guineas ! See 
Conchology-I'late VI. for this great curiofity. 

The volutes are fliells of a pyramidal or conic fliape ; 
the bafe is fiat and wide, and the body rifes gradually 
into a fliarp point at the top. The turban is tiie bale, 
and all the whirls are dilfinguiflicd by flight linear pro- 
minences : fome kinds have this bafe quite flat, or a per- 
fefl helix; in others it prolongs into a (harp clavicle, as 
in the imperial crown, and many other fimilar fpecies. 
However, theii; differences of the turban, or clavicle, are 
not effential enough to caufe a fubdivifion into differ- 
ent genera ; though Davila's fecond genus of vo- 
lutes which he calls I'oulraux, is formed on thefe differ- 
ences. The aperture of the volutes runs the whole length 
of the flieil ; it is fo extremely narrow as to he linear, be- 
ing all slong of an equal breadth. The volutes have no 
inner lip. 

Dr. Litter calls the volutes rhonibi, or ftrombi cylin- 
dro-jiyramidales. Linnieus makes the volutes and cones 
two diltinfl: genera. In the genus conus he places the 
ino(f convoluted and turbinated of thefe (liells ; and adapts 
the name of voluta to the mitres, cylindars, and other 
fpirai univalves, that have their pillar plaited or wrinkled. 
Gualtieri calls them cochleae conoidere, or cochleje loii^ 
ga?j and moft other authors, as Rumphius, Argenville, 
&c. make a diltind: genus of them, by the e(tab!i(hed 
name of voluta. Correft figures of tbefe (hells are exhi- 
bited in the annexed engravings. 


The eleventh family conlifts of (liells of a fomewhat 
globofe iTiape; the bcdy being greatly fvveiled, or round- 
ed, from whence they acquire the name of globofe, or 
tuns. They )iave fliort turbans ; the mouth is extremely 
patulous or wiile, and very large; the upper part of it 
«nds in a wry channel, like a foal's mouth, which is very 
fiiort, and turns backwards. None have a pillar or colu- 
mella lip ; though in fome, as the Perfian crowns and 
melons, the columella or pillar itfelf is wrinkled or 

The .'pecies which comprife this family, .are the tuns, 
Jmrtridge?, ligs, harps, Peilian crowns, and melons. The 
rank of this family, in fyWematical authors, is, that Li(fer 
J>laces thofe with a wrinkled or plaited pi'dar, as the Per- 
iian crowns, &r.. among his whelks of the fanieltrufture; 
the tuns and figs aTicag his buccina ampuUaccre; and 
the partridges, in a leparate clafs. Linuasus likewile 
places thole with a wrinkled or plaited pillar, on account 
of that (trufture, in the genus voluta ; and the partridges, 
Inns, harps, &c. among his buccina. Ruuiphius calls 
?:hem cochlese globoliej as does Arf;enville, who makes 
them his fourteenth family ; -Davila his ninth family, 
and divides them into three genera ; Gualtieri has placed 
the figs as cochlese pyriformes ; and the tuns he calls coch- 
ieje cafTidiformes, and caflida. This family is not very 
numerous; but contains many extremely beautiful and 
curious (liells; fome of which are correctly figured in 'the 


The twelfth family is the cafiidcs, or helmets. Thefe 
are ihells femi-giobo(e, the back being very convex or 
round, the under, or mouth part, flat. They have either flat 
or very (liort clavicles or turbans. The mouth is long, ra- 
ther narrow, and ends at the top in a gutter, which turns 
very large, Itrong, and wry on the back; the lip is always 
ftnongl.y and thickly toothed, and rifes into a high thick 
border, or ledge, on the upper part oi back ; and the pil- 
lar is moll .geueraliy Itrongly toothed, ridged, or let with 
fuiall humps or afperities. 

Some fyitematical authors have agreed with Da Ccfta 
in making a dilbnit or particular family of thtlc Ihelh, 

and call them callidcs. Such are Rumphius, Meufche.i,, 
and Gualtieri. Linnaeus ranks tliem as buccina; Ar- 
genville and Davila as murices ; and Liller among hiii 
buccina, by the name of bellied or fwelled whelks, with, 
a wry mouth. This genus is not numerous; but IbmR 
of the fpecies are extremely large ;uid heavy. See the 
annexed engraving. 


The thirteenth family is the tiochi or tops. Thefe 
are (heiis of a conic or pyramidal (hape, the top being 
broad and fl.ittilh, and gradually tapering thence to a 
very (harp point. The aperture, or mouth, is nioft gene- 
rally angular, low, and narrow. It is remarkable, that 
all the authors who have written on conchology agree in 
this genus, and in its charadfers ; lb that few trochi are 
found milphiced. It is a very numerous family, and., 
abounds with curJiTus and elegant (litlh. 

There is a folfil fpecies of trochus, which feems yet 
undifcovered in a recent Itate. It is a large kind, flat- 
tifh, and like a cochlea helix, generally about two inches 
in diameter, and (trougly and thickly wrinkled, with 
(harp prominent ridges like plates, which are fp ked at 
regular diftances; thefe run acrofs the I'pires; but the 
whole (hell is likewife llightlv Itriated. This trochus is 
found in the limellone of Co.albrookdale, in Shropfliire ; 
and Dudley, in Staffordfliire. Figures of ditferent fpecies. 
of the trochus are delineated in the annexed engraving. 


The fourteerrth family confifts of the cochlese, or fnails ; 
the character of which is a round mouth, or approaching- 
theixto, perfectly bordered, circumfcribed, or defined, 
(ore itilegro.) This family is divided into five genera;. 
viz. I. Nerits, or fnails with femicircular mouths. 2. He- 
lices, or fnails that are flattifli, and whofe fpires lie, as it 
were, between two plains or levels. 3. Snails with a fliort 
or flat turban. 4.. Turbo, or fnails with a produced or 
lengthened turban ; hence called tarbiiies. 5. Cochlese 
ftrombiformes, or fnails whofe turbans are extremely long 
and fleuder. All thefe we (hall (cparately- defcribe. 


The nerits are (hells wTicfe mouths are a half circle,, 
the columella or inner lip running diametrically acrofs 
it in a ftr?.ight line. This lip is very broad or faced, and 
extends greatly on the columella. They are very full- 
bodied (hells, nearly globofe; and the turban is never 
much produced, but lies flat or level with the bottom. 
The nerits are generally toothed on both lips. 

The a.Tangetncnt of this genus iu all authors is near to • 
or with the fnails ; and they are muft generally called ne- 
rits. Rumpliius calls them cochlere valvals, and by many 
they are called fcmilunares. The fpecies of this genus- 
are very numerous, admit of great v.ariety, and are gene- 
rally beautiful (hells. 

There is found, in a calcareous fnbftance in France, a 
large kind of folTil nerit, called limpet-Iike neriis. It is a 
very thick (hell, flze of an apricot, and rather flattifh. 
The upper fide is a fine chefnut brown, fomewhat con- 
vex, and tAi to a knob or point which is not central, 
but placed fideways. It is this upper fide that refembles 
a limpet. The under part is milk white, fiatlifh, and 
round ; the mouth femicircular, the inner lip rifes or 
fwells, expands or faces quite to the upper fide, and is 
armed with two ftrong teeth. It is a very curious fpe- 
cies, and is fiill undilcovered in a recent Hate from the 
fea. Several fcarce and beautiful fpecies of the nerit are 
given in the annexed copper-plate, from Albertus Seba. 


The eflisntial character of this genus is, that they are 
molt generally round-mouthed fnails, whofe fpirts lie ho- 
rizontal, or between two levels. IVIoll of them, being 
land or frelh-water (hells, are placed by Lifter among, the 



I'/a/r 17/. 

.iit,ri,„ .<;/,„ ,1,1. 

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l,;,./,-n J-tihh^/.'.r ,f M, ./.•/- ./„■.;■/* .i„,ll,ir .-.•'. lA-.: . I: .1 . H ,/A:j 

c (>-\ t'lio i.(>(;^ 

Fhtt^ I in. 

JilnftlM .t'-/j(t fM 

^ CTte^fnan ,9ctt^. 

f ^ ^ ^ — J 

Londf'ii /'ti b //■'■/" .^ e*,v f/if . /t 

■/ ({itfc^ji i'ct'.'^'f Jeff'i.i'^' >7JI?lAt.v . 


»«Te(lrial and fluviatil fnails j and the delphinus, a fea 
kiiiil, he has placed among the fea fnails. Gualtieri, like 
Lifter, places many among the land and river fliells ; and 
the lea fpecies he ranks as cochleae deprella:. Argcnville 
and Davil.i place them with the cochlex ore depreflb, or 
troclii ; and the other authors rank them indifcriminately 
v»ith iiiails, by the names of polt-horns and lamps. Dr. 
Gmtiin has arranged them in a dillinil genus. There 
are many curious ipecies of them, fome of which are ex- 
hibited in the annMed engniving. 

The third genus of fnails has a very fliort, or but little 
produced, turbau ; and that is their only charadler, as 
they agree in the mouth and other particulars uith the 
rclt. Indeed this genus was formed by Da Cofta more 
for regularity and clearnels in the method, tliau on ac- 
count of its having any ellential diltimit ciiarafter; and 
in nurt authors they are indjfcriminateiy intermixed with 
all the fiiail kind. This genus is very fertile in fpecies, 
as it comprehends the land fnails, and many others. 


Ths fnails with a produced or lengthened clavicle or 
turban, called turbo, form the fourth genus. Thefe have 
generally a perfect round mouth ; the columella, or inner 
iip, is not much faced outwards, and the body-ipire is 
very rotund, fo that the turban is not infenfibly, but fud- 
denly or difpropoitionately, produced froin it, as in the 
buccina. The arrangement and names this genus bears 
ivith lyftematifti are as follow : Lifter places them as a fec- 
tion of the fnails ; Gualtieri calls them cochleae niarinse 
terreltrifonnes ; Rumphius, Argenville, Davila, and Meuf- 
cheii, cochleae lunares, or round-mouthed thails ; and Lin- 
nxus places them under a dillinft genus of llitll-filh he 
calls turbo. 

There is a vaft number of fpecies of this genus, and 
jnollly very fine (liells. Among them is the gold mouth, 
tlie filver mouth, the ferpents llcin, the Midas ear, Sec. 
And that valuable ihcll the wentletrap is ranked by Lin- 
nsus in this genus, under the name turbo fcalar'is. It is 
an anecdote oi the wentletrap worthy to be tranfmitted, 
as it fliews the value of particular fpecies at times, that, 
ia J7j3, at the fale of commodore Lille's (liells at Lang- 
foid's, four wentletraps were fold for fevenvy-five pounds 
twelve ftiiilings. Elegant fpecimens of the turbinated (hells 
are given in the copper- plates, from Seba and Knorr. 


The fifth and laft genus of fnails is called cochlea ftrom- 
biformcs. They are very long and (lender, tapering to a 
fharp point, refembiing the ftrombi, or needles j whence 
thty :i\tiyAVC\tt.\ flromb^Jcrmes. Thefe fnails have a perfcft. 
round mouth, well defined or bordered, by which parti- 
cular .-.lone they are immediately dillingiiilhed frorn the 
iirombi, or needles, which is a Ipecies (till more (lender 
and dellcatt ; but the -mouths of the ttrombi are long, 
and have a very thick columella belide them, ere£t, and 
fomewliat twirled ; and many kinds are prolonged into a 
wry gutter, turning backwards, like the mouth of a (baj, 
cr other flat. fi(h The firlt, or body-whirl or fpire, is 
not more than proportionably fuelled, lb that the whole 
fr.ell gradually tapers to a iharp point. Lifter, who is 
critically nietiiodical, ha<; arranged this genus as fnails 
with a very long and (lender turban. Rumphius inter- 
mixes them, as does Argenville, Gualtieri, and Davila, 
who call them turbo or iliombus. Da Colta places i!ie 
Itrombi amongft the buccina. Meufchen intermixes them ; 
and Linnjeus ranks them in his genus turbo. Seba di- 
vides them into two beautiful dalles, as (hewn in the an- 
nexed engraving. 

A foff.l kind is found in t!ie fand-pits at Woolwich, in 
Kent, in immenie quantities, which leems to be a ipecies 
yet Uhdlicovered in a living or recent (late from the iea. 
i)a Colta calls it cochleas llrombiformis, clavata, from 
one inch and a half to two inches long, wriivkled, or llri- 

ated the whole run of the fpii-es ; and each fnij'e is^ aiCo 
circularly let with a row of deprelfions, like the t:iaik» &f 
heads of nails. 


The fifteenth family of univalves is the b;;ccina ot- 
vvhelks. It is chiefly this family that has created fo many 
diil'tiences among writers on conchology. The immenie 
quantity of fpecies it contains, and the m-iny fubordin::re 
charadters of them ; which fubcrdinate chnraclers nioft 
authors having attended to, and made theiv. efi'ential'in- 
ftead of fuborclinate, has produced all the perplexity and 
confufion we meet with relative to this family. The er- 
ror of authors in fetting afide the figure of the mouth, 
and framing their genera from fuhordinate charajSers,.!? 
not more vifible in any family of the teitaceous animals, 
than in this. For the (hells called buccina by th^ feveral 
conchologifts, inftead of being (iiuilar mout'ied (lisHs, is a 
jumble of feveral families phctd confufediy together : and 
Lilter, though erroneous in (bme particulars, by ranging 
many kinds not truly buccina, feeras, with Davila, to be 
the only authors who have arranged this family with any 
propriety or order. 

Argenville, after criticifing Lifter, makes the elTential 
character of buccina to be a broad and very lengthened 
mouth ; but he nowhere dirtinguiflies the feveral genera, 
and therefore it becomes a fcene of confufion. Davila, 
wlio (ollows and corrects his method, defines them to have 
a large oblong aperture, and divides them into four ge- 
nera ; but the firlt genus which he calls whole-mouthed, 
without a tail or gutter, are not buccina, for their mouth 
is perfectly circunifcribed or bordered : fuch are the Mi- 
das's ear, and others ; for thefe (liells, though in fliape 
and appearance refembiing buccina, yet their mouth be- 
ing perfedlly circumfcrilied or bordered, and devoid of 
glitter or beak, ftrongly feparates them. Linna;us defines 
the buccina extremely well by an oval aperture ending in 
a gutter; but his lelettions of them are rather perplexed. 
1 he other authors, as Buonanni, Rumphius, &c. give no 
charafter for buccina, but range fliells asfuch, only as., 
their fancy furmifes. 

Da Cofta defines ail buccina to be (hells vphbfe mouths 
are an oblong or very lengthened oval, the upper part 
whereof is produced or lengthened into a gutter or fiigi-.t 
beak : all other chara6ters are fubordinate, and ferve 
only to conftitute the different tribes cf the fame family. 
He therefore divides them into fix genera, viz. i. Buccina 
canaliculata, or guttered whelks; fo called, becaufe the 
top of t'>e mouth prolongs itfelf into a nearly flrait cy- 
lindric gutter, and the inner or columella lip is always 
extremely fmooth. The fpecies of this genus are very 
numerous. Tlie varieties of work and (hape, which are 
only fubordinate characters, are amazing. The ran.k 
the(e guttered buccina hold in fyliematical authors, is as 
follows : Lifter's (edlion xiv. of his fourth book, is, for the 
greater part, of this genus. Gualtieri places thofe with 
(hort clavicles or turbans, among what he calls cochleae 
pyriformes ; and thofe with produced turbans l>e calls 
buccina. Davila makes them tiie third genus of buccina, 
which he calls buccina whofe mouths terminate in'ajiiort 
tail. Linnaeus intermixes them among his feveral ti;C'1ions';' 
and the other authors place them inditrcrently, and only 
as buccina. . ■ 

2. Buccina recuri'irqfira f.-ve plaglofiama, buccina hh 
afice qtiiifi abfcijfo, rojfro •vel canaliciilo part'ulo recmva, & 
exlrorjio/i forreSlo: Wry-inouthed whelks. The top of 
the mc uth ot this genus is not (>ro!onged or extended for- 
waid, but has a notch or crocked gutter, which turns 
outwards on the back, and exa6tly lelirmbles the mouth 
of a fole or other flat fi(h. The fpecies of this genus are 
very numerous ; and the varieties of their fhapes and 
works art vaftly diverfified. Lifter and Davila have made 
a feparate gciius of thefe whelks, (oiely on account of this 
charaiSier. Lifter calls them wlielks whofe tops are ftiorr, 
or do not extend beyond the mouth. Davila makes thc-m 



his fe:ond genus, which he calls whelks with a notched 
mouth without any beak. 

3. Buccina longiroltra, fuch as the purpura, tower of 
Babel, crane, thorny woodcock, and others having a ve- 
ry long and extended beak. Da Cofta fays he does not 
riieet with any author except Davila, who agrees with him 
in this genus; and he makes tliem his fourth genus, 
■whi^h he calls buccina whole mouths are furniflied with 
a very long tail or beak. The purpurse are properly to 
be placed with thcfe buccina longiroltra, and not form a 
dillinft genus, for the diftinttions between them are not 
built on real or decilive charaflers. Thtpuipura: prey on 
other (hell- h(h, and for that purpofe bore a round hole in 
the (hells of the (ilh they feed upon, by palTmg their 
tongue, which is hard, bony, long, and (liarp, through 
the hole it bores. This praftice of the animal was ob- 
ferved by the antient naturalifts ; Ariftotle Je part mtimal. 
and Plinii hijh nat. The latter fays, the tongue of the 
purpura is a finger's length, by which it preys in boring 
or perforating other (liells, it is of I'uch hardnels. Some 
authors conchide that it performs this aifion of perforat- 
ing other (liells, by virtue of fome menftruum it emits 
through the tongue, whereby it foftens or corrodes the 
other (hell, and then digs out the corroded fubftance 
with the beak, and all this without any verfatile or other 
Itrong motion. Others contend, that to make this hole 
it is not necelfary that the fifli (hould have a rotatory mo- 
rtonj. or that, Ijke a wheel, the tongue (liould always 
move circularly the fame way. II is fuflicient that it 
turns brilkly backwards and foi wards. And, if the 
lioles, which are moll commonly found in fome fpecies 
of the chamae, and the fcrew Oiells particularly, are ex- 
amined with a glals, they will be found to be lb finely 
circular, that it is impoflible to conceive any menftruum 
(hould art upon it in fo regular a manner. Further, it 
does not feem conclufive that the purpura extracts its food 
by this hole. It is rather done with a view, either to 
force the animal out of its (liell, or to kill it, that it may 
devour it at leifure. There feems to be a wife ciioice in 
that part fixed upon. It is in fuch a part of the fcrew 
(liell that the animal cannot crowd itlelf below the perfo- 
ration, and efcape the piercer : (o likewife in the chamae 
and other (IkUs there is not the leaft reafon to apprehend 
a menftruum. 

Lifter has feveral (hells he calls purpurx, but thefe 
more efpecially are his buccina ampuUacea, Kumphius and 
Linna:us place them among the murices. Guaitieri calls 
thempurpuis. Argenville makes his thirteenth family 
purpurie, but gives no definition for them : and Davila 
follows him, except that it is his eighth family, and that 
be forms two genera of them. The purpuras obtained 
tlveir name I'rom the purple juice or dye the fifli yields, 
which is lb famous in hillory, by the name of the tyrian 
purple; becauf'e it is imagined that a (Iiell of this kind 
was firll dii'covered to aftordit: but indeed moft turbi- 
nated (liells yield a purple liquor. This genus of buccina 
longiroftra contains many fpecies very rare and curious. 

4.. Buccina umbilicata ; umbilicatcd whelks, or thofe 
that have a perpendicular hollow or navel alide the colu- 
mella or pillar-lip, on the firft or body whirl. This is 
the ^jofitive charafter of the gejius; and all buccina or 
whelks tliat have a hollow or navel, rank under it, whe- 
ther guttered, wry-mouthed, or beaked. Sec. No author 
belides Da Cofta has formed a genus from this lecond cha- 
radler, (b that the (I'ells herein ranked are generally dif- 
perled among the other buccina. 

5. Buccina columella dtntata vel plicata ; whelks 
with a wrinkled or jilaited pillar. The fliells of this ge- 
jius have the inneror pillar-lip wrought with one or more 
bigh or prominent tranfverfe ridges or plaits. Thefe 
tranfverltr prominent ridges on the inner or pillar-lip, 
are the ftandard charaiSer of this genus ; for all whelks, 
whether beaked, guttered, &c. if the pillar is thus plait- 
ed, range herein; and there are of all kinds with this 
charafter. However, it is very proper to obferve, that it 


is only the whelks whofe pillars are plaited, that are to 
be arranged in this genus ; for there are other families of 
(liells, as the Perlian crowns, the murices or rocks. Sec. 
which have their inner or pillar-lip wrinkled or plaited in 
the lame manner. Thofe are to be placed in their re- 
fpeitive families, and not here, folely on that account. 
Lifter and Linnseus are the only authors who have agreed 
with Da Cofta in ranging (iiells by this fubordinate cha- 
railer. It is Lifter's buccina columella dentata : but he 
has not only arranged the buccina therein, but likewife 
all other (hells whofe pillars are plaited. Linnasus has 
done the fame; and from this (ingle charaflerof columella 
plicata, he has fonned his genus voluta; in which n(;t 
only buccina are included, but alio olives, fome murices 
or rocks, the Perfian crowns, Midas's ear, and other (hell- 
fifti of diftisrent families. 

6. Strombi, or buccina with an exceeding long and ve- 
ry taper clavicle or turban. They have a wry-mouth ex- 
aftly the fame as the lecond genus, which fometimes ex- 
tends or turns fo far on the back, as to be like a fpur. 
All (liells lb prodigioufly tapering and long have been ge- 
nerally held as a pai ticular family, by the name of ftrombi, 
or needles, only on account of their taper ftiape, and with- 
out regard to the contour of their mouth. How^ever, 
Da Colta has only placed thofe fliells here, which have a. 
wry-mouth like the fecond genus ; all thofe that have a 
perfeft round mouth, he has ranked among the liiails, by 
the name of cochlea flrombiformes. Lifter calls them 
whelks with an extreme lengthened and tapering turban : 
however, he has erroneoully placed them among the 
whelks with a plaited pillar. Guaitieri and Seba have ar- 
ranged all the taper (hells together, and calls them turbo, 
or cochlea; with a fniall mouth, and remarkable length- 
ened or taper body. The French authors Argenville and 
Davila call them all, turboand ftrombus (la -vis, otfcre'wj.,) 
and Rumphius likewife calls them ftrombus. Lifter has 
called the olives rhombi or ftrombi; but Linnaeus hat 
changed the old name of ftrombus, always ufed for thefe ta- 
per fliells, to others of a quite difterent form ; his ftrombi, 
except fome iaw, being winged (hells, or alatse. 

The elder conchologifts ranked in this genus the 
chank fliells, or tritonis of Rumphius, fo much revered in 
Hindooltan, and'other pnrts of Afia. They are called 
fiiankos, or oblation fliells ; and are in great requeft with 
the Mahometans, for making bracelets and thumb-rings, 
which are made ufe of in drawing the bows. The Hin- 
doos employ them to hold oil, to illuminate their pago- 
das. Linna;us, in his fliell-(i(h, has clalled it under niu- 
rex. It was ulcd by the Romans in their earlier days, as 
a trumpet of war : 

Buccina jam prifcos cogebat ad arma Siuirites. 

This (hell is very common in India, Africa, and on the 
fliores of the Mediterranean fea ; where it is ftiil ufed as 
a trumpet for founding alarms, and giving fignals. It 
fends forth a hullow, deep, ungrateful (bund. 

There are fome folhl kinds of the buccina, hitherto un- 
difcovered in their living ftate. Firft, the buccinum he- 
teroftrophum, or other handed whelk; becaule the whirls 
and mouth lie to the right-hand inftead of the left; 
which is the moft ufual manner of turbinated fliells. 
This fpecies belongs to the firft genus, and is found in 
great plenty, in the foftil ftate, in the counties of Efli^x 
and Suftiolk. Another foftil buccinum from France, and 
Hampfnire, is a fpecies of the fifth genus, or with 4 
wrinkled or plaited pillar, but hitherto unknown recent. 
It is in Brander's Foif Hanton. The annexed engravings 
exhibit an alVemblage of difterent fpecies of buccina. 


The murices conftitute the (ixteenth andJaft family of 
univalves, according to Da Cofta's claflification. As 
they conlilt of many (hells that have very different fubor- 
dinate charatltrs. Da Cofta forms difterent genera of 
them J but the iiied or efleiiUai charatter is an oblong 



ri,ii, jx 


^/'/wAf , /»/• */ffA ^j//////f//' /Af//.f. 

/.••n'lon J-i,i./.'*/,t./ .,, ihr J.r .iirr^tt O.f.'it-.'J'-J '■'■ JMiU; I. 

Tlate X 

jtUatit^ S(iu Mi 

Ch.i^m.m if 

L.iulm TiMihi.! Drrru jSm tr J.Wilhx 



and equally narrow mouth lengthways, which runs into a 
ftiort gutter at the top. Molt authors have added ano- 
ther charafter, that is, of always being thorny or I'piked, 
bumped, orotherwife rough all over the I'urface, like the 
ipikes or aCperities of rugged rocks, from which it oh- 
tained the Latin name of miirex, the Englifh one oi rocks, 
and the French n:\me of rochers; but this charaii^er does 
not hold throughout the genus. 

The nnirices are divided into four genera, viz. i. Mu-- 
rex, or rock-fliells, whofe mouth is oblong, narrow, and 
ends in a gutter at the top ; the clavicle or turban being 
generally fhort or nearly flat, and the pillar wrinkled or 
plaited. They are molt commonly very thick (liells, and 
extremely rugged on the outfid-, from being wrought 
fcith humps, prongs, foliations, and other fimilar works. 
This genus is very numerous, and Ibme of the fpecies 
are vaftly large and heavy. 

2. Rhombi, or (hells wJiofe fubordinatc charaffer is to 
have always a rhombic fliape or contour, from which par- 
ticular alone, as it carries an idea of the fubjeiSs pro- 
pofed, they have the name of rhombi. In the elder au- 
thors we find (liells called rhombi, but which appears to 
be a mere name without meaning or application. Thus 
Columna makes rhombus, tuibo, ftrombus, and trochus, 
all fynonymous. ..Liller calls the volutes and olives, 
rhombi, or llrombi ; and Sibbald, Woodward, &c. do the 
fame; but in the modern authors, we feldom fee the 
name of rhombus ufed. This confufion apparently arifcs 
fror.) the double meaning of the Latin word rhombus, 
vhich not only Ognifies a lozenge or rhombic figure, but 
alfoa reel, a fpinning-whecl, a whirl, or other rolling in- 
ftrument; and it is from tiiis lalt funilitude the olives 
and fuch like fliells have been called rhombi, by the elder 
authors, and not from a lozenge or rhombic figure, as 
ibme have erroneoufiy imagined. This genus is not fo 
numerous as the preceding, but contains many beautiful 
Ihelis ; and ionie very large and heavy. There is an ele- 
gant fodil fpecies of rhombus, not yet difcovered in a 
living Rate, found in France, and in Hordell clitfs near 
Chiirtchurch, in Hampfliire. It is curioufly figured in 
Brander's Folfilia Hantonienlia. 

The third genus is the alatse, or winged rocks; fo named 
by moll authors from their lip being greatly extended, or 
expanded outwards, like a fl.ip or wing. Some few kinds 
have the wing quite fimple, or with the edges even ; but 
the greater part of thefe, as alfo of the pporrhais, have 
aUb near the top of the mouth a broad hollowed finus, 
called the/rrc/, from which appendage Lifter names them 
purpura feu buccbia bit:nguij. Rumphius and Meufchen 
make a diftinc't genus of them, which they call alatje. 
Davila ranks tiiefe by themfelves in the third genus of 
his murices, by the name of fimple v/inged Ihells; and 
Linnaeus ranks all the winged (liells together in bis genus 
Urombus. This genus is very numerous, and contains 
many beautiful and coftly (hells. - An elegant and large 
folfd kind of this (hell, not yet difcovered living, is alfo 
found in Hordell clifts in H.impfliire, and figured in Bran- 
der's FolTilia Hantouienfia. 

The fourth genus of murices is the aporrhais, or fpider- 
fhells, whofe edges are fet with ftrong and large prongs 
or fingers ; hence they are called fpider-lhells, aevil's- 
cla.vs, Sec. Davila makes thele his fourth genus of mu- 
rices, which he calls winged murices with prongs or fin- 
gers ; but all the other authors have intermixed them 
with the alatse. The (pecies are few, but they are elegant 
Ihells. — See fpecimens of them in the annexed copper- 
plates. A fpecies of raurex has been found on the coafts 
of Guayaquil and Guatimala in South America, which is 
faid to produce a purple colour fuperior to the famed Ty- 
rian dye. Tae abb^Raynal fays of it, that no colour yet 
knov;n can be compared with this, either as to lultre, live- 
Jinefs, or duration. The progrefs cl modern cliemiltry, 
however, in the art of dying, has fuperceded all thele 
far-fetched encomiums. Thefe terminate all the families 
and gcr,cra of univalve fnells. They are certainly the 
Vol. V. No. 151. 

moft numerous of the tedaceous animals, and greatly ex- 
ceed the two general divifions of bivalves and niultivalves 
joined together. In tliis afi'emblage of univalves the (tu- 
pendous works of the creation are fingularly manltelted, 
by the immenfity of beauties in their colours and ftruc- 
tuies. On this account it is that univalves are in general 
the choiceft objeits of colleftors, and bear more value 
than bivalves or niultivalves. 


Thefe are compofed of two pieces, or parts, which, by 
means of a connexion by hinges, play on each other, fo as 
to open or (hut, and perform all other f unftions nt cefl'ary to 
the economy or way of life of the animal mcluded in them. 
In relation to tlie filhes which inhabit them, they are de- 
fcribed under their generic names, fioni the lylfeniof 
Linnaeus ; it being the bufinefs of conchology to defcrtbe 
the (hells, and not the animals, or any of their parts. 

This divifion of bivalves may be arranged under three 
general heads, viz. (hells that have unequal valves, and 
(hut clofe ; as the efcallops, oyfters, dnomise, &c. fhells 
that have egual valves and (hut clofe; as the cockles, tel- 
Icns, rnufclcs, &c. and (hells with valves that ne'ver Jhut 
clofe, but are arlways open or gaping in fome part; as the 
tridacna;, bafon-lhells, or bears paws, thechamw, pinna-, 
(blenes, &c. Under thele thiee arrangements all the bi- 
valves yet known may be ranked. Thefe three arrange- 
ments are alio, general ones; but the chief or effential 
charafler of bivalves is their cardo, or hinge ; and there- 
fore by that charaifter alone the families are diftir.guilhed. 

Lifter begins his hiftory of Ihells with the bivalves, 
which he divides into two parts, and into twelve (ami- 
lies. In his arrangement he has great regard to the cha- 
r.after of the hinge, though he does not entirely build 
upon it. His method, however, wants correflion in his 
third family, or margaritifera; ; in his fevenih family, his 
placing the Noah's arks or boats, as mulcles; in his ninth 
family of tellens, which is not truly defined; and, laUly, 
in his making two families of the chama and chama plio- 
las, which in reality have no pofitive character to diltin- 
guifli them. Dr. Grew, in his Mufeum Regalis Societatis, 
gives, as his feventh Icheme of (hells, that of the bivalves 
and multivalves ; but it is (b confided as to be_ ufelefs as 
a fyftematic work ; however, his two chief divifions ot 
bivalves are into inarticulate, and articulate, hinges. 
Breynius's Icheme of bivalves is very jejune and ufelels. 
Argenviile divides all his bivalves into fix families, viz. 
oylters; chamje ; mufcles, tellens, and pinnae"', coidi- 
formes, or cockles; efcallops; and lolens. This author s 
method is entirely arbitrary; nor does he charaAerize a 
fingle family by the cardo or hinge. 

Gualtieii forms his- method from thofe whofe valves 
and fides are equal or fimilar, which is his firft clals ; his 
fecond clafs coiifills of thofe whole valves are equal, and 
their fides unequal or diflimilar; and his third clafs is ol 
(hells with unequal valves. By this ariangeinent he re- 
jefts the hinges as characters, and mixes all the families 
together, folely on account of their fimilar or di(iiniil.*r 
fides; lb that it is impo(rible to collate his method in 
fuch a manner as to be of much utility to the learner of 
conchology. The method of Mr. Tournefort divides all 
bivalves into two parts : firit, fuch as fliut dole all round ; 
and, fecond, fuch as are alwa) s open or gaping in (onie 
part. This divifion, though good, is incomplete, and his 
families and genera are very arbitrary. Linnseus, in de- 
fcribing the included animals or filh, divides all bivalves 
into fourteen genera, which he charailerifes by tiieir 
hinges in a very accurate manner; and his method feeir.s 
to be the moft perfeft of any yet publithed. His arrange- 
ment is as foilows: Mya, the pearl-oytter j folen, the 
knife-handle; telllna, the tellen ; cardium, the cockle; 
mattra, the pellucid oyller; donax, truncated or (int- 
fided cockle; Venus, or concha-venerea, gaping ihtils, 
fo named from their refemblance to the pudenda of wo- 
men; fpondylus, the thorny oyfter j chaiiia, Ihells of the 
t cockle 


cotkle form, but im'menfely large; area, fliells formed 
Jike an ark; ollrea, the eicallop, common oyfter, &c. 
aiiomia, the beaked cockle; mytilus, the mufcle ; pinna, 
the fea-wiiig or ham. He alfo very accurately delcribcs 
the Angular habits- and curious economy of many of thefe 
(hcll-tilli, whicli iee under their refpeiftivc names in this 

Dr. Woodward, in his catalogue of foffils, has given a 
very good method of bivalves, on the charafler of the 
hinges, and alio on the form ; but his fyftem of univalves 
is very faulty and imperfefl. The technical terms com- 
monly ufed for defcribing the parts of bivalves, and 
wliich are requifite for making their defcriptions intelli- 
gible, are as follow : The (ummit, (apex,) r-. the part 
whereon the teeth, joints, or properly the hinges, are 
placed. The beaks, (umbones,) are the peaked ends of 
the (hell, which nioft generally ftand behind the fummit, 
or that part which anfwers to it. The margins, or bor- 
ders, (iiuii-giiies,) are the edges or contour of the ihell, 
produced from the beak or hinge on either fide. The 
lurfaces, (fuperficks,) concavitas & convexitas concha- 
rum ; the convex exprtffes the exteiior-or convex liile of 
the (hells, ami the concave, the infide. The Uugtb of a 
bivalve is from the beak or hinge to the very oppofite 
extreme. The breadth is from fide to fide. The margins 
or borders are faid to he Jmilar, if equally juoduced or 
extended from the fumniit, or of equal length ; and itijji- 
milar, if unequal or rnore extended on one fide than on 
the other. The hinge, (cardo,) is the part that connefts 
the two valves together, that is to fay, thejoints on wdiich 
they play in the aiilions of opening and (liutting. A hinge 
is (aid to be inarticulate, when not fet with any vifible 
joints or teeth ; articulate, when fet with fome few; mult- 
articulate, wlien fet with many, or a large number. The 
furrow, (/ulcus canaliculus,) is the gutter or furrow, when 
the (hells are^ doled, that is extended, or runs along paral- 
lel to the hinge. The (lopes, (ctecU'vitas,) are the places 
which dope or flant from the beak down the fides, and 
generally are fiightly flatted, fliallow, or concave. The 
vent, (ri»ia,) is the opening of the (hells on the flopes. 
The cartilage, (cartilago,) joins the valves together at 
the furrow and at the (lopes. The flat, (pleiiiities, latus 
. complanatum,) is that fide of thofe (hells that is flat; as 
the flats of the heart cockles, bears paws, &.'C. 


Thefe confift of fliells that have irregular valves, and 
• fliut clofe. The firft family confifts of the peftens, or 
efcallops. Though fome fpecies of them have equal 
valves, yet, as the far. greater number have unequal 
■valves, viz. a flat and a concave fide, they are ranged un- 
der this genera! head. The fame particular likewife occurs 
in the families of the fpondyles and ovlters. 

ESCALLOP.— The ellential charaiUr of the efcallop 
family, is a trigonal finu,s, and an claftic cartilage for its 
hinge in the very center of the top of the (liell. The fub- 
crdinate charafters of efcallops are their being eared ; in- 
deed mofl: authors have injudicioufiy made it the chief 
tharaiiter, wdiereas there are other eared fliells befides 
efcallops, as the fpondyles, raargaritiferse, &c. and, -vice 
ijer/a, there may be efcallops without tars. The other 
Jubordinate character is to have the top run into a per- 
feel (trait line, and thence gradually widen to a round 
bottom. The fpecies are numerous, foine whereof are 
very curious, and of great beauty, as the ducal mantle, 
the com pals or fole, the duck's foot or coral-efcallop, &.'c. 

It is worthy of remark, that the colours of the under 
fliells of efcallops are always fainter than the colouis of 
the upper fliells, and fometinies the valves are diflerently 
coloured, as the compafs or (ble, which has one valve of 
a chefnut brown, the other valve inilk white. Moll au- 
thors rank thefe fliells as apaiticular family, and call 
them pefte'ns. Gualteri makes dlflisrent genera of thofe 
with equal, an<l thofe with unequal, valves ; the former 
J'.e calls peclen, the latter concha peiSlinata; and the elcal- 


lops with unequal or (ingle cars, he calls pefluncuH. Liii- 
na;us makes them a genus of oyllers, and has accordingly 
arranged them under the generic name Ostrea. It is 
faid, that efcallops will move fo ftrongly as fometimes 
to leap out of the balket wherein they are placed when 
taken: their mode of leaping, or raifmg themfelves up, 
is by forcing their under valve againlt the body wdiereon 
they lie. 

The chief kinds of folTiI efcallops yet in an undifco- 
vered (Kate, are as follow : The firli is about the fize of 
the common oylter, with large but unequal ears, of, a 
perfei^^ly round contour ; the furface tranfverfely thick 
let with prominent fliarp thin ridges, like plates. The 
valves are equal. Thele are found very frequently in the 
quarries at Thame in Oxfordlhire. A fecond kind, very 
elegant, is about double the fize of a cockle, the valves 
unequal, one being quite flat, the other exceedingly con- 
cave. It is thickly ridged lengthways, with many com- 
mon ridges and intermediate ones, that are very promi- 
nent or high, and the furrows are broad and deep. It is 
found in the quarries of Dorfetfliire, Wiltlhire, and the 
adjacent counties; and Ibmetimes in the chalk-pits of 
Kent and Surrey. 

SPONDYLE. — The fecond family in this divifion is 
the fpondyli. The fpondyles are mofl: generally eared 
(hells with unequal valves, rude or uncouth in fliape, par- 
taking of the ruggednefs of the oyfi;er, with fomewhat of 
the efcallop form, (b as to produce a medium between 
the two families. However, the fpondyles, like the efcal- 
lops, have (bme fpecies with equal valves, and without 
ears. The efl'ential charadler is the hinge, which in the 
upper fiiell confills of a triangular hollow and cartilage, 
like the efcallop, in the very center; on each fide of 
wdiich is a large deep cavity, and a very large thick and 
prominent tooth or joint lies on each fide of the cavity. 
The (limmit and beak of the under valve is alfo extremely 
thick and (frong, and extends from the hinge outwards 
into a broad triangular flope or flat. 

Some kinds of fpondyles are thickly and curioufly fet 
with long thorns or (pikes; thefe are generally called 
thorny oyjlers, and, wdien perfeft, are greatly valued. This 
family is not very numerous in its fpecies. Lilter, Wood- 
ward, Gualtieri, Linnaeus, and Meufchen, all rank them 
as a particular genus, by the name of fpondylus ; but 
Rumphius, Argenville, and Davila, rank them very er- 
roneoufly as oyfters. 

OYSTER. — The third family in this divifion is the of- 
treum, or oyfter. The oyfters have unequal valves, though 
there are fome fpecies that have equal valves, but none are 
eared. The hinge of this family has not any teeth, but 
confiifs of one large inarticulate gutter running the length 
of the top of the fliell, in both fliells alike, and is covered 
and filled with a llrong cartil.age. The fpecies are very 
numerous; (bme of which are curious, though not beau- 
tiful, and bear a large price, as the hammer oyfter, the 
cockfcombs, &c. This family is ranked as a diilindl one 
by all authors, but with many additions or omiflions : as 
for example, Linnaeus ranks the efcallops with them, and 
Argenville and others the fpondyles, while Lilter ranks 
the hammer oyflier, and (bme others, as efcallops. 

It is not uncommon to fee on oyfter-fhells, when in a 
dark place, a fliining matter or bluifti light like phofpho- 
rus, which (ticks to the fingers when touched, and conti- 
nues fliining and giving light far a confiderable time, 
though without any fenfible heat. This (billing matter 
being fubje6led to the microfcope, is found to confilt of 
three kinds of animalcules ; the firft whitifh, and having 
twenty-four or twenty-five legs on a fide, forked, and a 
black I'peck on the head, the back like an eel with its (kin 
(tripped oft'. The fecond Ibrt is red, refembling the com- 
mon glow-worm, with folds on its back, and legs like 
the former, a nofe like a dog, and one eye in front of 
the head. The third kind is fpeckled, with a head like a 
(ble, with many tufts of whitifli hairs on the fides of it. 
The foflil oylters yet undilcovercd in a recejit or living 



Plate XT 

Jthrrlu* Jft^ 4tl. 

^^ifrAo^ie//fAemt^. i^Aem^^ .>r,t7r, ,///<■ /t,iaA/,(/ o/ //,,■ ,/af/f/nfA(' . ///,//j ■■ 


fuNltlirJ Jmt ftS.i.f-i A. JMiH-,, 


riatc xa 

^lertiij -S'tia •fri. 

.A, Ch<tJ>'H.ui ^c 

C O N C H O L O G Y. 

ftate, are very many ; the chief of them are the gryphytae 
jOl" the foflilogills, of which theie are feveral fpecies : and 
a very large flat kind with equal valves, found in Shot- 
over and Heddington quarries, in Oxfordfliire. But the 
largefl: bed that is known of fofli! oylters, is that near 
Reading, in Berkdiire. They are entirely fhaped, and 


) et, fince the oldell hiitories that rnention the place, give 
an account of them', we mull fuppoi'e they have lain there 
in the iame liate for a long. time. They extend over no 
Jefs than iix acres of ground ; and juft above them is a 
lar'je ifratum of a greenifh loam, which fome writers call 
a green earth, and others a green fand. It is conipofed 
of a crumbly marie, and a large portion of fand. Under 
them is a thick (tratwm of chalk. Tliey all lie in a level 
bed ; and the Itrata above the fiiells are natural, and ap- 
pear never to have been dug through till the time of find- 
ing the fliells. The oyfterfhells and green earth united 
make a Itratum of about two feet thick ; and over tliis 
there is a much thicker ftratum of a bluilh and very brittle 
clay J but neither lias this ever been dug through, except 
■where the ihells are found. This is vulgarly denominated 
f'lercj-clay, and is elteemed ufelefs. This clay-bed is about 
a yard deep, and above it is a ttratum of fuller's earth, 
about two feet and a half deep ; it is extremely good, 
and is ufed by the clothiers. Over this there lies a ftra- 
tum of a fine white land, unmixed either with the clay or 
fuller's earth : this is near feven feet deep, and above it 
is a ftratum of a itiff red clay, of which tiles are made. 
This is again covered with a little vegetable mould j the 
depth, however, of this llratum of tile-clay cannot be af- 
certained, on account of the unevennefs of the hill. Thefe 


recent with the foflil kinds, and defines them to be fliells 
with unequal valves, one valve being flattilh, the other 
convex, the beak peiforated, and tlie hinge inarticuhitc 
or toothlets. However, he miltook fome fpecies ; for he 
propofed the gryphites, which, by all its charaflers, is a 
true oylter, and the pellucid or glafs Chinefe oyfter, im- 

e the fame fubllance with the recent oyfter-thells; and properly fo called, as fpecies of anomia;. Davila treats 

,-^..., ij.,1 i_-,i. ._• ._ ^u_. _- :._ .1 1 _:..- this clafs fyftematically, and as a gciius of his firll family 

of oylters. He detines them as fliells whole beak or top 
of the under valve is perforated, and riles curved up on 
the upper valve. He does not, however, particularize 
any charadters of the hinge, though he gives an excellent 
figure of the inner ftructure, or appendices. Ke defcribes 
them in the following manner: the hinge of the under 
valve is compoled of two liiiall hooks, which are taken in 
or hinged into the linufes or cavities of the upper valve ; 
and it has two interior appendages fixed towards the top 
of the upper valve : this ltru.iture he obferved ip two fpe- 
cies. In another fpecies, the hinge was nearly the fame, 
but had two long and narrow fide appendages proceed- 
ing from the lop of the upper valve, which extend them- 
felves to the middle of it, where they are bound or flopped 
by two fni^U ligaments, and then return again towards 
the top, in a very remarkable and curious manner. And 
a third fort, (which is that of Gualtieri,) has an interior 
appeiid.ige, lomewhat like a perpendicular gutter or pipe, 
fixed at the top, and running down to the middle of the 
upper valve. 

Da Cofta defines the anomise as follows, bival"es with 
unequal valves and never eared, the beak of the largtft 
or under valve is greatly produced, and rifes or curves 
over the beak of the fmaller or upper valve, and is perfo- 

oylters are occafionally found whole, but moil frequently rated or pierced through li-ke a tube, from which particu 

in fingle (hells. When they are in pairs, there is gene 
rally fome of the green fand found within them : they 
feldom flick very faft; together ; ib that, unlefs very care- 
fully taken up, it is not eafy to preisrve them in pairs. 

ANOMIA. — The fourth and lafl family in the divilion 
of fhells with unequal valves, and that (hut clofe, is the 
anomias. This faihily has long been known follil, and 
contains a great number of fpecies, all oi which, except 
three or four, remain yet undifcovered in a living (late ; 
and even the few known are difcoveries made within the 
lall forty years. Columna firll mentioned fome foilil fpe- 
cies, and he being convinced that all folfil (hells were real 
exuvia; or fpoils of animals, and not finding thefe de- 
fcribed or noticed by conchologilts as fliells, called them 
conclias rariores anomia;; which word anomia has fince 
been fo generally ufed for them, that it is now become 
the univerfal and eflablillied name of the family. 

Columna defcribed and figured fome foffil kinds. Lifter 
lias alfD figured feveral in his Appendix de Conchitis to 
Jiis Hilloria Conchyliorum ; but no recent kind being 
dilcovered fo early, is the reafon that neither he, Buo- 
nanni, Rumphius, nor other early authors, h.ave taken 
any notice ot them. Dr. Woodward was the firll who ar- 
ranged the anoniice from the foftil fhells. He kept the 
eltablifhed name, and ranked them with fliells of unequal 
valves, and not eared; and fuither defined them to have 
both valves conve.x, and one of them beaked. He then 

lar they have all'o obtained the name of terebroiulce. The 
hinge is inarticulate or toothlef*, and they have always a 
remarkable interior llruiluie. Yet, by what obfei vations 
can be made, fome of the foflil kinds have an evident 
multarticulate or many-toothed hinge. It feems there- 
fore, that the valves of the anomia; are conneiled together 
in two ways, indead of being only inarticulate, viz. i. 
By an inarticulate hinge ; and, i. By a multarticulate 
hinge. The firll fet have no teeth or joints on the hinge ; 
but the fjnaller or upper valve is always indented intj a 
wide finus, or opening of the larger or under valve, \\\ 
which it plays like a joint, when the exigencies of the 
animal require opening or fliutting. The fecond fet 
have a vilible and regular multarticulate hinge ; exaflly 
like thatof the Noah's arks, or the multarticulate cockles. 
On a due confideration of the deep grooves, the in- 
dentings, the undulated margins, and other dillortions, of 
thefe fliells, more than in any other genera, and by the 
beak, which is perforated or tubular quite within, it 
would appear that thele animals feldom open their fliells, 
as moft others do, to take their food ; but noiirilh theni- 
felves tiirough the tube or perforated beak only. By ob- 
feivadons made on the few livifig fpecies lately difcover- 
ed, this opinion Hands in fome meafure confirmed; as 
the living anomix have all been found lurking in the 
nonks between the branchings of corals, or cavities of 
rocks. They lie therein lifted upon their flat furfaces 

arranged them into fmooth, flriated, and fulcated, each of horizontally, without any prop or folid body to reft on. 

which articles has feveral neceflary fubdivifions. Wood- 
ward had only fothl fliells to infpefl:, confequently lie 
could not accurately define their peculiar interior ftruc- 
ture, or their hinge : his definition, however, is very jiiil, 
except that he makes both fliells convex, which is nut ib 
in feveral fpecies. 

but are upheld or fuftained only by a llrong atlhefion of 
their tubes or perforated beaks to the fides of the cavi- 
ties, as it in tne a£lion of lucking ; and this pofition is 
the general one of the recent kinds. It appears likewife 
that the hole in the beak of the conchas anomise is for the 
purpofe of tranlmitting a llrong ligament or grillly fuh- 

Gualtieri, who figures three recent kinds, has made a fiance, by which they adhere firmly to the rocks, cor il 

particular genus for them, and calls it terehraiula. He &c. in the fame manner as that clafs of fliells commonly 

defines them, very erroneoully, as fliells with equal valves, called bears paws ; at leaft fome fpecies of them have an 

and diffimiiar fules, of a peculiar flrudlure, for inliead of opening between the two valves on one fide the hinge, 

a beak it has a perforation, and alio has a very fingular through which pafles, from the infide ofthe fhells, a. 

articulation or conne6lion within-fide. Linnasus, to efta- llrong ligament, whereby the rilh adheres firmly to any 

biilh his uf'ual precihon, poffefied fbnie of the living ihells, 
and made them his genus 314 anomia, He has mixed the 

contiguous body. The interior llrucHure of one of the 
living kinds feeins alio not at all particularly adapted 



C O N C H O L O G Y. 

to the efpecial ufe of opening the tliells. It confilh or a 
griiily or bony thin Itring, whicli twilts in and out to 
above h.ilf-ivay within the fliells, )ike the twillings of 
ribbantis, vulgarly called true lovers kmts. This is tlie 
fecond fort mentioned by Davila. The other ftniiilurc, 
•which is Davila's third fort, is a guttered triangular ap- 
pendage, with a cut cr vent half-way down it, fixed per- 
penditiilariy on the upper valve, from the top or beak, to 1 
the middle of the fhell. 

A very furprifmg and unaccountable circumftance, re- 
lative to the fofii! and recent teftaceous animals, already 
noted, is, that all thofe found in iniiiienfe quantities in 
the foflll Itate, are hardly known recent ; and 'vtce verfa. 
This is inftanced in the ammonia, which are found in 
incredible quantities fodil all over the world, though 
none are yet dilcovtred recent or living; and this family 
of anomia, though alfo found foflil in an allonilhing 
abundance, has very few living fpecies yet diicovered. 
See the article Anomia, vol. i. p. 741. 

Da Co(h* divides this family of aiiomiae into two ge- 
nera, viz. I. Inarticulate anomiac, or thofe in which the 
liinge of the under valve is of a large finus or cavity, the 
eorners whereof form two prominencies or joints; and 
the upper valve is indented into it by a corre<pondent 
prominency to the cavity, and by two fmall hollows, 
anfwerable to the two prominencies or joints. 2. Mult- 
articulate anomia;, or thofe whofe hinge lies on a long 
Itraiglit line, and is fet with many teeth, exadUy like 
the Noah's aiks. — See figures of this divifion of bivalves, 
in the annexed engravings. 

The'e confift of (hells that have equal fides, and (hut 
clofe ; fuch as the cockles, teliens, nuilcles, &c. Thefe 
again admit of three divifions, viz. i. Multarticulate, or 
with a great number of teeth or articulations on the 
binges. 2. Articulate, or with few teeth ; and, 3. Inar- 
ticulate, or without any teeth. The multarticulate (hells 
are called leptopolyginglymi, and 'confift of the three fol- 
lowing families. 

PECTINOID^.— Thefe are fliells with equal valves, 
generally very flat; the hinge lies on a (fraight line like 
the efcailop, but is let with feveral parallel and ttraight 
ridges and intermediate furrows, and the fides are difli- 
milar. There are but few fpecies of them. Lifter ranks 
the two kinds he figures by the name of peclines marga- 
ritifcias polyginglymi. Woodward, among his peclunculi 
leptopolyginglymi figura oblonga. Gualtieri figurts a kind, 
and calls it concha longa brachiata ; and Seba figures 
f^me among the pinnae, and calls them volfella : but they 
are not methodized in any other writer on conchology. 
There is a very large and extremely thick fpecies of this 
family not yet known in a living (late, found foflil at 
Eononia in Italy, which is fully del'cribed and figured in 
the memoirs of the Bononian Inltlfute. 

this family refemble the cockle in all refpeifs except the 
hinge ; which in thefe is multarticulate, or furnirtied with 
a great number of teeth, but in the cockles there are only 
a few. The rank theie (hells hold in Lifter, is peftuncuU 
leptopolyginglymi margine rotunda. Woodward places 
them in his clafs 3, on account of their being of a round- 
irti fliape, (figura fubrolunJa.) Linnaeus ranks them 
among his arcs; and the other authors have mixed them 
iudikriminately with the common articulate cockles. 

AKCA. — This family contains Linnasus's genera of 
arks 01 boats, which are fuch fliells as have their hinges 
on a perfect Itraight line, and are of a fomewhat fquarifli 
figure, or oblong ; as the Noah's aik, fquare cockle. Sec. 
Lifter puts forae of this kind among the multarticuhate 
cockles- ; and the Noah's arks he places among the muf- 
cles, by the name of many-toothed mufcles. Woodward 
ranks them among his polyginglymi forma, oblonga. Ar- 
geuville places them in his fourth family of heart-fliaped 
cocklejj but Davila makes them a diltintf genus of his 

fourth family, and calls them atks. Gualtieri forms a 
genus of them by the name of concha rhomboi'dalis ; and 
Meulchen alio ranks them as a dillinft genus of arks. 
Dr. Ginelin enumerates forty-three fpecies, fome of which 
are very curious and valuable (hells. To this family of 
arks Da Cofta imagines the foflil hippocephaloidas be- 
longs, and that they aie a fpecies of it yet undilcovered 
ving from the (ea: his reafon for ranking them with the 
at ks, and not the cunei, is, that they appear to be multar- 
ticulate fliells. 

COCKLE — The elTential charafler of thefe fliells is, 
a curved or (emilunar hinge, fet with from two to four 
ftrong teeth. This family is fo extremely numerous, and 
has befides fuch ftriking or remarkable lubordinate cha- 
raflers, that it is with great propriety divided into three 
genera, viz. i. The cardiimi, or common cockle. i.The 
peiSlunculus, or Venus-(hell. 3. The donax, or truncated 
cockle. Thele are as follow -. 

CARDIUM. — The common cockle. This genus is 
every where known, and efteemed as food, being found 
on the loofe iiindy coalh of molt countries. The fliells 
are equally railed, dentated, and concave, and Ibme are 
extremely haudfome. Dr. Gmelin, in his new edition of 
the Syftema N iturse, defcribes fixty-feven I'pecies. 

VENUS. — Concha veneris, peftunculus, cordiform~ 
cockle, or Vcnus-fliell ; fo called, from, the Angular con- 
formation of its aperture, and refemblance of the fexual 
parts of females. The fliells are moftly of a cordiform or 
oblong fliape, and with fimilar and diflimilar fides, whofe- 
beaks are not very peaked or prominent. Lifter inter- 
mixes them with the two following genera, all by the 
name of peftiinculi, and he has alfo placed feveral among, 
his teliens. Argenville, Davila, and Meufchen, call them 
canies ; and Davila divides them into four genera. Of 
this genus there are one hundred and fifty-four Ipecies, 
Ibme of which, as the Venus, Dione, &c. are very curious 
and valuable (hells, 

DONAX. — The truncati, or flat-fidcd cockles. Thefe 
are fuch as are tiuncated, or have one fide flat, and, as- 
it were, cut off. Thefe (hells rank in raoft authors with 
the cockles in general. Davila and Linn-ceus only, have 
made a diftiniil genus of them. There are, according t<J 
Gmelin, nineteen (pecies. 

TELLENS. — The teliinre, or teliens, are fliells more 
broad than long, rather flat, and the hinge has two teeth 
let clofe together. This family is divided into two ge- 
nera, viz. i. TelliuES with fimilar fides, whofe beak and 
hinge are central. 2. Cunei, or wedge-fliaped fliells, hav- 
ing diflimilar or unequal fides, whole beak and hinge are 
placed near to, or quite at one end : but thefe genera are 
by mcjit authors promifcuoufly mingled togetlier. Lifter 
places them after the pinna;; and defines them to be fliells 
fhapcd like weilges. Woodward makes a genus of them, 
and fays thty have few teeth on the hinge, and are ob- 
long (hells, or with lengthened fides. Rumphius, Gual- 
tieri, Linnxus, and Meufchen, have all a genus they call 
tellina; Davila alfo, but he defines them very inaccurate- 
ly, and includes the folens as a fpecies of them. Argen- 
ville ranks them among the muicles. There are feveral 
kinds of foflil cunei, which remain yet undifcovered in a 
recent or living ftate ; Hud fome are very elegant and cu- 
rious, particularly the ftudded kind. There are ninety 
fpecies of them defcribed by Gmelin, 

MACTRA.— The placenta, or palhicid oyfter. Thefe 
are (hells with equal valves, whofe hinge or cardo lies, 
quite within the iliell, and on one valve tonfifts two ftraif 
linear ridges, pretty prominent, and laid obliquely to 
each other, I'o as to meet at one end in a very acute an- 
gle; and the other valve has tv^o correfpondent iurrows. 
There are twenty-feven fpecies now known, one of which 
is found in the river Tees, in England. The next in 
order are thofe bivalves that are inarticulate, or have no. 
teeth on their hinge ; as the m.irgarititer;e, mufcles, &c. 

MYA, the PEAR.L OvsTER. — The niargaritifera', or 

pearl oyfters, are eared fiw:lls with equal valves, and tbeir 

a. hing* 


Tlatf Xni 

I. i^Jut/in 

l->nd,ii\..2'ulfiihe^l oji tlt^ Acr ,itn*:t£ OetT ^o, fSoi.hv LJnUics. 



^/ier/ut Sfia Jrf. 

•T.r/t/ym^t/i .Setif/>. 


iiuige IS merelj' a gutter or flight furrow without a fingle 
tooth. The Ipecies of this family are, the mother of 
pearl (hells or pearl oyfters, the fwallow, &c. Da Cofta 
and Linna?js make a diftinft genus of them ; but Lifter 
calls them pearly eCcallops. Rumphius, Davila, and 
Meufchen, raivk them as common oyfters. Woodward 
forms a genus he calls margaritifsrse; and defines it as 
eared (hells with a fmooth Jiiiige j and Gualtieri defines 
them by placing the pearl (hells in one genus, by the 
name of conchs insequilaters j and the fwallow in ano- 
ther genus, he calls conchae aliformes. 

The mya raargaritifera is the filh that produces the 
Britilh pearls. It has a very thick, coarfe, opaque (hell, 
often much decorticated, oblong, bending inward on one 
fide, or arcuated, black on tlie outfide ; ufnal breadth fiom 
five to fix inches ; length two and a quarter. It inhabits 
feveral of the principal rivers of Great Britain, and is 
noted for producing quantities of pearl. There have been 
regular fi(heries for the lake of this precious article; and 
(ixteen have been found within one (hell. They are the 
difcale of the fifli, analogous to the (tone in the human 
body. On being fqucezed, they will ejeft the pearl, and 
often cad it fpontaneoully in the land of the liream. The 
river Conway was noted for them in thedays of Cambden. 
Anotion a!fo prevails, that fir Richard Wynne of Gwydir, 
chamberlain to Catharine queen to Charles II. prefented 
her niajefty with a pearl (taken in this river) which is to 
this day honoured with a placein the regal crown. They 
are called by the Welfli crcgin dilunv, or " deluge fliells," 
as if left there by the flood. The Irt in Cumberland was 
alfo prodoitive of them. The famous circumnavigator, 
iir John Ha«kins, had a patent for filhing in that river. 
He had obferved pearls plentiful in the Straits of Magel- 
lan, and flattered himklf with being enriched by procur- 
ing them within his own illand. In the feventeenth cen^ 
tury, feveral of great fize were got in the rivers of the 
counties of Tyrone and Donegal, in Ireland. One that 
■weighed thirty-fix carats was valued at forty pounds, but 
being foul, loft much of its worth. Other fingle pearls 
vere fold for ten pounds each. One was fold to lady 
Gienlealy, who put it into a necklace, and refufed eighty 
pounds for it from the duchel's of Ormond. Suetonius 
reports, that Casfar was induced to undertake his Britifh 
expedition for the 1-ike of our pcarh ; and that they were 
fo large, that it was nccellary to u(e the hand to try the 
weight of a fingle one. Mr. Pennant imagines thatCa;lar 
only heard this by report ; and ti.3t the cryllalline balls 
called mineral pearl, were miftaken for them. We believe 
that C3?Iar was difappointed of his hope: yet he carried 
home a buckler made with Britiflr pearls, which he dedi- 
cated to, and hung up in, the temple of Venus Genetrix : 
a proper offering to the goddefs of beauty, who (prang 
from the fea. This is fuppofed to have been rather a 
contrivance, to imprel's the minds of the Roman citizens 
wish the importance of his conquefts in Britain. It may 
•not be inTj^roper to mention, that notwithftanding the 
clafTiC authors honour our Britilh pearls with their no- 
tice, yet they report them to have been (mall and ill-co- 
loured, an imputation that in general they are (till liable 
to. Pliny (;iys, that a retf (mall kind was found about 
the Thracian Bofphorus, in a (hell called mya-y but does 
not give it any mark to alcert.iin the ipecies. 

Linnaus made a remarkable difcovery relating to the 
generation of pearls in this fidi. It will bear removal re- 
markably wcil ; and it is faid, that in fome places they 
form refervoirs for the piirpole of keeping it, and taking 
out the pearl, which, in a certain period of time, will be 
again renewed. From obfervations on the growth of their 
(hells, and the number of their annular laminse or (calcs, 
it is fuppofed the fi(h will attain a very great age ; fifty 
or fixty years are imagined to be a moderate computation. 
The difcovery turned on a method which Linnsus found, 
of putting thefe (hell-filh into a l\ate of producing pearls 
at pleafure, though the final e(fe<5t would not take place 
for feveral years. He (ays, that in (ive or ixy, years after 

Vol. V. No, 151, 

the operation, the pearl will have acquired the fize of a 
vetch. We are unacquainted with tiie means by which 
he accomplillicd this extraordinary orfieration ; but it was 
probably publiflied at the time, and confidered as im- 
portant, fince it is certain that the author was rewarded 
with a munificent premium from the ftates of Sweden on 
this account. It is faid that the method confilled in in- 
juring the (hell externally by a perforation ; and it has 
been obferved, that thtle concretions in (liell-filh are found 
on the infide, exactly oppofite to perforations and inju- 
ries made from without, by ferpulK and other animals. 
Gmelin enumerates twentv-four fpecies of mya. 

MYTILUS, the Muscle — ^This conftitutes the laft 
family of bivalves with equal valves ; they are not eared ; 
are mo(f generally very convex, of a long .^nd narrow (hape, 
and the hinge is a mere (light furrow witliout any tooth, 
and is fituated not at the top of the (hell, but a little way- 
down one of the fides. All conchologifts agree in the 
clafli/ication of this family of (hells ; and Dr. Gmelin 
enumerates fifty-eight fpecies. Several of them are re- 
markable for the beauty of their internal (lieil, and for 
the pearls which are fometimes found in them. 

The edulis, or eatable mulcle, is plentiful in England, 
the beft of which are thole called hookers, found in im- 
menfe beds on the coaft of Cumberland. They are taken 
out of the fea, and placed in the river Were, within reach 
of the tide, where they grow very fat and delicious. This 
fpecies is alfo found in all the European and Indian feas. 
The moft valuable of thefe fl-.ells is Xht mater perlarutn, or 
mother-of-pearl fhell, defcribed by Rumphius. It is nearly 
orbicular, comprelTed, and fl^t, the bafe tranfverfe, and 
imbricated with dentated coats. On the infide it is ex- 
(juifitely poliflied, and of the wliitenels and water of pearl 
itfclf. It has alfo the lame luftre on the outfide, after the 
external laminae have been taken o(f by aquafortis and 
the Lapidary's mill. 


Thefe are termed conchx hianfes, or bivalves whofe (hells 
never (hut quite i.loie, but are open or gaping in (ome 
part. This family confifts of three genera, viz. i. Cha- 
mae, the gapers or bafon-(hells. i. Solens, the flieaths or 
knife-handles. 3. Pinna:, the fea-wings or hams. 

CHAMA. — The gaper, or balbn-(hell. Thefe are of 
equal valves and diHimilar fides, in hinge and appearance 
like the cordiform cockles, but on the longeft fide, from 
the beak to near the extreme mar;; in, the two (hells do 
not clofe, but leave an oval opening or gap, the lips 
whereof are very broad, and turn up on the edges. This 
hiatus, or gap, is ufed by the animal to put forth or pro- 
trude its tentacuise or feelers, in (tjarch of food ; and alfo 
to faften itfelf upon any piece of rock or (olid body, (b as 
to counteraft the impuife of the waves. There are rwenly- 
fix fpecies, fome of which are nearly in the (hape of efcai- 
lops, and immenfeiy hrge; others are of an oblong form, 
very thick and rotund, fo that, when opeMe<l, the (hells 
form large capacious bafons. Others reiemhle the rocky 
murices, or thorny oyfters ; only that the fpiracles or 
fangs are much harder, finner, and of a (tone-like con- 
filteiice. The chama gigas, found in the of Afia, are 
more than four (ect over, and weigh from three hundred 
and a half to i\-:i or feven hundred weight. Tlveir capa- 
city renders them extremely valuable to the Afiatics, wha 
ufe them as watering-troughs for their cattle; and they 
almolt lupply the place of tanks, on the fhores of thole 
dry and thirlty regions. Thele (hell-fifli, wlien arrived at 
mature age, are capable of pinching off a (hip's cable as 
large as a man's arm. The chama trapezia is alfo a verv 
large and curious (hell, of great weight, and eaJily form.ed 
into capacious batons. The chama. cor is a rare and cu- 
rious (heli ; the beak is hooded, and curvated like the 
bill of a parrot. The lazarus is rocky and full of prickles ; 
the barbator is beautifully (friated and fringed. 

SOLEN, the Knife-handle. — Tbt(e are alfo called 

flieaths and razor-handles. Thele flielis open at both 

K «r.d3: 



ends; tlieliuigehns a tooth {hnped like an awl, bent back, 
often double, and not inlerted, into the oppoiite (hell : 
the rim at the fides appears fomewhat worn away, and 
lias a horny cartilaginous articulation. Three of them, 
the liliqua, vagina, and crifpus, are found among the fand 
on the Britidi coalt, and generally in an ereft or perpen- 
dicular dirciStion. Tlie filh has two pipes, each compofed 
of four or five rings or portions of a hollow cylinder, of 
unequal lengths, joined one to another; and the places 
where they join are marked by fine Itreaks or rays. Of 
this genus there are twenty-three fpecies, the moft prized 
of wliich is the radiatus. This (liell is of a light violet 
ground, with filvery white rays, diverging from the hinge 
to each extremity, fomewhat refembling the fun when 
.ftiining through the clouds, and, what is vulgarly called, 
drawing water. This knife-handle is very rare, and found 
only ill the Indian ocean. 

PiNNA, or Se A-wi NO. — The pinnas, fea- wings or hams, 
are fliells of a fomewhat triangular ihape, widening from 
a pointed or narrow top to. a very broad end, which broad 
end is always open. The hinge is inra'ticulatp, or hinge 
without a tooth. The animal this fliell indoles is a kind 
of Aug-. The fliell is fragile, and furnilhed with a beard. 
Thefe are fo'jnd on fome parts of the coalts of Fr.ince, 
Italy, and the Indian ocean. The largell and moft re- 
markable are found in the Mediterranean. The animal 
is blind, as are all of the genus ; which confifts of eighteen 
ipecies. It is furniflied with very ftrong calcareous valves ; 
and they have the faculty of attaching themfelves firmly 
to the rocks. Thefe fhells are often valuable, on account 
of producing many beautiful pearls. Thofe moft prizeci 
by conchologifts are the pinna muricata, rotundata, and 


The third general divifion of teftaceous animals is into 
nuiltivalvts, or thoie Ihells that are made up of many 
diltinit pieces. There are three families in this divifion, 
viz. I. Pholas, the piddock. 2. Lepas, the barnacle and 
acorn fliell. 3. Chiton, the ofcabrion. 

PHOLAS, the piddcck.— Thefe fliells are trivalves, 
^laving two large valves, with a imall valve placed be- 
tween them, near to the hinge. The hinge turns up on 
the outer pait of the ihell, and under it, within the Ihell, 
is a long curved tooth or Ipur. The word pbolas is de- 
rived from the Greek, and fignifies fomething which lies 
hid. This name they dtnve from their property of 
making themfelves holes in the eaith, fand, wood, or 
(tone, and living in them. The means of their getting 
there, however, are as yet entirely unknown. All that 
we can with certainty luppofe, is, that they muft have 
penetrated thefe fubllances when very fmall ; becaufe the 
entrance of the hole in which the pholas lodges, is always 
much lefs than the interior part of it, and, indeed, than 
the fliell itfelf. Hence Ibme have fuppofed that they were 
hatched in holes accidentally formed in ftoneSj and that 
they naturally grew of ftich a ihape as was necefiary to fill 
up the cavity. 

I he holes in which the pholades lodge, are ufually 
twice as deep as the fhells are long; the figure of the 
holes is that of a truncated cone, excepting that they are 
terminated at the bottom by a rounded cavity, and their 
pofition is ufually fon:ewhat oblique to the horizon. The 
openings of thele holes aie what betray the pholas being 
in the (tone; but they are always very fmall in propor- 
tion to the fize of the thell. There feems to be no pro- 
grelhve motion of any animal in nature lb flow as that of 
the phol.-\s ; it is immerfed in the hole, and has no move- 
ment, except a linall one downwards, and this is only pro- 
portioned to the growth of the animal. Its work is very 
difiicult in its motion j but it has great time to peitorm 
it in, as it only finks itfelf deeper in the ftone as it in- 
creafes in btilk. That part by means of which it performs 
this operation, is a flelhy iiibftance placed at the lower 
extremity ol the Ihell 5 it is oi the fti-ipe of two points or 

claws turned towards eacli other, and is confiderably large 
in proportion to the fize of the auiiual ; and though it be 
of a loft fubltance, it is not to be wondered that in fo lonsT 
a time it is able, by conftant work, to burrow into a hard 
ftone. The manner of their performing this may be icen 
by taking one of them out of the ftone, and placing it 
U])on Ibnie loft clay ; for they will immediately go to 
work in bending and extending that part allotted to dig 
for them ; and in a few hours they will bury tlienilelves 
in the mud in as large a hole as they had taken many 
years to make in the ftone. They find little refiftance iii 
fo foft a fubltance; and the iieceifity they feel for hiding 
themfelves evidently makes them haiien tiieir work. The 
body of the animal is lodged in the lower half of the hole 
in the ftone, and the upper half is occupied by a trunk of 
a flefliy fubltance and conical figure ; this they ufually 
extend to the orifice of the hole, which doles or cruftj 
over, lb as to leave the point or top of this inttrument 
naked or bare. This trunk, though it appears fingle, 
is, in reality, compoled of two tubes, or at leaft it is com- 
pofed of two p.irts fepar.ated by a membrane. The arti, 
fice of this double inftrument is fimilar to that in many 
other (hell-fifli, namely, to take in lea-water by one tube, 
and, when digelted, to rejeft it by the other. This trun^ 
cated fleiliy inftrument is ukially about five inches long, 
and from the firailaiity of its appearance, has acquired 
to this fifli the trivial name of the J'ea-peiiis. In the mid- 
dle of their bodies they have a fmall green veficle, the ufe 
of which has not yet been difcovered. Thi.s, when plunged 
ill fpirit of wine,'' becomes ot a purple colour : but its co- 
lour on linen will not become purple in the fun like thas 
of the murex ; and even if it would, its quantity is toO' 
Jinall to make it worth preferving. 

The pholas fliell, as well as the included animal, is re- 
markable for its luminous quality. That the fifli is lu- 
minous, was noticed by Pliny, who obferves that it fliines 
in the mouth of the perlon who eats it; and if it touch 
his hands of clothes, it makes them luminous. He alfo 
fays that the light depends upon its moifture. The light 
of this filh has furniflied natter for various obfei vations 
and experiments to M. Reaumur and the Bolognian aca- 
demicians, efpecially Beccarius, who took fo much pains 
with the fubjeft of phofphoreal light. M. Reaumur ob- 
ferves, that whereas other fiflies give light when they 
tend to putrefcence, this is more luminous in proportion 
to its being freih ; that when they are dried, their light 
will revive if they be inoiftened either with freih or liilt 
water, but that brandy iiiiniediately extinguiflies it. He 
endeavoured to make this light permanent, but none of 
his labours fucceeded. 

The attention of the Bolognian academicians was en- 
gaged to this fubject by M. F. Marfilius, in 1724, who 
brought a number of thefe fliell-fiflies, and the ftones in 
which they were inclofed, to Bologna, on purpofe for 
their examination. Beccarius obleived, that though this 
fifli ceafed to fliiiie vi'hen it became putrid, yet that in its 
moft putrid ftate it would (hine, and make the water in 
which it was immerfed luminous, when it was agitated. 
Galeatius and Montius found that wine or vintgar ex- 
tinguiflied this light ; that in common oil it continued 
fome days ; but, in reiSified fpirit of wine or urine, it ex- 
ifted hardly a minute. In order to obferve in what man- 
ner this light was aftefted by different degrees of heat, 
they made ufe of a Reaumur's thermometer, and found 
that water rendered luminous by thefe fiflies increafed in 
light till the heat arrived to forty-five degrees; but that 
it then became fuddenly extinel, and could not be re- 
vived again. In thele experiments of Beccarius, a folu- 
tion of li;a-falt increafed the light of the luminous water ; 
a folution of nitre did not incrcafeit quite fo much. Sal- 
ammoniac diminilhed it a little, oil ot tartar/fr detiquiuni 
nearly extinguiflied it, and the acids entirely. This water 
poured upon frefli calcined gypfuiii, rock cryftal, ctrufe, 
or fugar, became more luminous. Hi alio tried tlie ef- 
feils of it when poured upon various other fubttances ; 



Flat.- jy 

ffJH'.JOtfrr </e/ 

i/r/^n . o. i//if l<n/ff>/ft) ./()/!r// . ^". /r/)//j£/^/f,„^ .pf^y?/, f/r//4;r/,,- /or//, . rl'. I or//.'., -/i/.,). //,r ,/„.'/'/„,,/ ,>r, /)', 

L,'itJ.'a Tuififf„i> Hi^Cii.t^iot ii-J.XTl,^ 



Alba-luM J^.. .M. 


L.'uA.^t j;,hU*htJ .r.xn^.Vi^i^oa ^ J.^m-tt. 



feot there was notlihig very remarkable in them. After- 
wanls, ufmg luminous milk, he found that oil of vitriol 
extinguiflied the light, but that of tartar increafed it. 

Tnis gentleman had the curiofity to try how diftarently 
coloured lubllunces were atFefted by this kind of ligli! j 
and having, for this purpofe, dipped feveral ribljons in it, 
the white came out the brigbteft, next to this was the 
yellow, and then the green ; the other colours could 
hardly be perceived. It was not, however, any particu- 
lar colour, but only liglit, that was perceived in this cafe. 
He then di^iped boards painted with the dirferent colours, 
and alio glals tubes filled with fubftanccs of different co- 
lours, in water rendered luminous by the pholades. In 
both thefe cafes the red was hardly vilible, the yellow was 
the brightelf, and the violet the dullell. But, on the 
boards, the blue was nearly equal to the yellow, and the 
green more languid ; whereas in the glaffes, the blue was 
inferior to the green. 

Of all the liquors to which he put the pholades, milk 
■was rendered the moll luminous. A fingle pholas made 
fcven ounces of milk fb luminous, that the faces of per- 
fons might be diltinguilhfd by it, and it looked as if it 
was tranfpareiit. Air appeare;! to be necelVaiy to this 
light; for, when Beccarius put the luminous milk into 
glafs tubes, no agitation would make it fhine, unlcl's bub- 
bles of air were mixed with it. Alfo Montius and Ga- 
leatius found, that, in an exhaufted receiver, the pholas 
loft its light, but the water was lometimes made more lu- 
minous ; which they alcribed to the rifmg of bubbles of 
air through it. Beccarius, as well as Reaumur, had many 
i'chemes to render the light of thefe pholades permanent. 
For this puipofe he kneaded the juice into a kind of palle 
with flour, and found that it would give light when it was 
immerled in warm water; but it aniwered bed to pre- 
lerve the (liell and fifli in honey. In any other method of 
prefervation, the property of becoming luminous would 
not continue longer than fix months, but in honey it 
had lalled above a-year; and then it would, when plun'^ed 
in warm water, give as much light as ever it had done. 
Twelve Ipecies of the pholas are now afcertained by Dr. 

LEP.-^S, the acorn and barnacle fhells. — Thefe (liells 
are moftly quinqiie-valvcs, and are made up of two large 
valves with two hnall ontrs beneath them, and a long nar- 
row fpur-like valve which conneth them together, and 
runs lengthwife. The Latin name anatij'era, was given to 
fome of this fpecies from the fabulous Itory of their be- 
cominsj geefe ; as was alfo the Englilh name bani.tcle, 
from the fame origin; becaule the birds they were lup- 
poled to produce were the barnacles or brent geele. 

The balani are made up of many valves lying parallel 
to each other, and in a perpendicular pofition, contrary 
to the pofition of all other valves, which lie horizontally. 
The top is open, and the filh performs its neceliary func- 
tions by that aperture ; for the valves never open or fe- 
parate, as they have no hinges. The bottom is the part 
by which they affix themfelves to other bodies; for the 
balani are never found loofe, but affixed to large fliells, 
ftones, or other folid bodies. There are twenty-eight fpe- 
cies of thefe fliells ; of which the diodema, and anatifera, 
are thought the moft curious. 

CHITON, the olcabiion. This fliell confills of many 
parts, loricRted, and tied together by articulations, ib 
that the valves fold over each other tranfverfely, like a 
coat of mail. Thefe (hells have till lately been rejetled 
by conchologifts, as approaching too nearly to the cru- 
ftaceous animals ; but Linnaeus and Dr. Gmelin have fi- 
nally decided their Urufture to be clearly that of multi- 
valve fliells. There are twenty eight fpedes, fome of 
which are found near Scarborough, and on otiier parts of 
the Britifh coaft. They appertain noj only to the Euro- 
pean leas, but are found on the coafls of Africa and Ame- 
rica, and in the Indian ocean. The moll valued (hells 
are the acule.ited or prickly chiton ; the ofcabrion pro- 
perly lb called j the magellanic, and ferpeatine di.idem. 

Thefe clofe the divifion of multi valves, which terminates 
our enumeration of all the fliells at prefent known in the 

The reader will have noticed what has already been ob- 
ferved with relpeft to crullaceous animals, viz. that 
though they are very nearly allied to the tedaccous tribes, 
and in their gradation form fo clofe an afiinity with each 
other, yet the great dilference in their exterior coverings, 
and the want of thole dilUn6live charatlers in the crulla- 
ceous families, which peculiarly appertain to fliell?, have 
induced all the modern naturalilts to rejeft them hom . 
every fvllem of conchology. There are fome, however, 
who dill infill, that the alterias, or lea liars ; the meduca, 
echinus, &c. are real fliells, and (hould, in Ipite of fyfte- 
matic arrangements, be included as fuch in all our collec- 
tions. This opinion may in fome mealure be deemed ar- 
bitrary, and therefore every naturalill will decide for 
himfelf. It is our province to foilovv lliiiSiiy fyllematic 
writers, efpecially when arrived at fo much accuracy and 
precifion, that diftinftive rules and cflential charailers are 
eftabliflied, whereby the mofl: minute objefts in the crea- 
tion are afligned their proper fcale in the order of nature, 
and whereby the mind is enableil to comprehend and ap- 
preciate the different clafles of animated beings, and fur- 
vey without dilbrder or confufion the boundiefs works 
of the Creator; who, in the methanifm of the fmallefr 
animalcule, has evinced the fmie inimitable contrivance, 
that we find in the Itrno^ure of the mofl: perfeil animals. 
We neverthelels p.ay due attention to an illullration of 
the crullaceous tribes, as arranged in the Linnjean fyfteni 
by Dr. Gmelin ; in proof of which we beg to refer the 
reader to the articles Asterias, Cancer, Echinus, &c. 
In the prefent treatife we have principally followed Da 
Coda, in the great view of enabling the young concholci- 
gift to didinguifli readilv, and with precifion, the vary- 
ing names, and difcordant methods, of all the principal 
writers on (hells. At the fame time we have dire<Jted a 
clear and obvious reference to the terms of the Linnsean 
fyltem, now univerfaily received ; and where the reader 
will find, under their refpertive titles in this work, the 
natural hidory and habitudes of thofe numerous animals, 
which are the humble architecls of thefe curious and 
beautiful fuperftruilures. 

The trivial or technical names of fliells, fo long in ufe 
among conchologills, have arilen from their fancied re- 
femblance to other objeils, or from the marks and colours 
of their external coverings. Thus the Panama camp has 
marks upon the fliell formed like the tents of common fol- 
diers ; the pewit's egg, fpeckled exaflly like the eggs of the 
plover ; the goat's eye, the garnet. Sec. limpets, from the fi- 
milarity of the apices of thofe (hells to a garnet or a goat's 
eye; fo of the fliield, and Turk's-cap, limpets, Venus'sear, 
Midas's ear, and the fea cars, are fo called from their re- 
femblance to the helix of the ear; pod-horns, from their 
fimilitude to a French horn; elephant's tooth, from its. 
cylindric tapering form and curvature; the ram's-horn, 
is a name for the lituus, on account of its convoluted 
fliape; the name of gaiitry, from its chambered llruiture, 
is given to the nautilus; the gondola, and failer, are 
names for the argonaut, or paper nautilus. Cowries or 
money (hells, and porcelains, from having the polilh 
and beauty of china, are names for (hells of the cypress 
genus. The weaver's fliuttle is formed much like that 
indrument; the fea-nuts, the tops, the drawberry, and 
onyxes, from an external afiinity to thofe objedls ; the 
fnake, the magpye, the painted cockle, Sec. from their 
pied or party-coloured fpots ; the ray and the tulip, are 
names for ipecies of teilens, from a likenefs to tftat 
fiovi-er, and to the broken rays of the fun. Partridges, 
are fliells Ib called, having a beak or mouth curioufly 
turned like the beak of thofe birds; literals, are fliells lo 
named, becaule their fpots or marks refemble the letters 
of (ome alphabets. The ducal mantle, is a fpecies of efcal- 
lo;), fo named from the richnefs of its colours; the glafs- 
oylier, from the traiifparency of its v.ilves ; Venus's, imply 
- ftells 



IhtUs which have the appearance of a vulva ; crolieis, mi- 
ti es, papal crouns, and Ethiopian crowns, tower of 
Eabel,&c. are very beautifu! and coltlydiells, be:iriiii;fninii- 
t^ide to the orders from whence they take their name. The 
tiger, the bear's paw, the crane, the duck's foot, the fpur, 
the fpoon-hinge, the tun, the bafon, the acorn, green 
peas, the barnacle, the knife-handle, the gaper, the 
plough, the cock's-comb, the fwallow, the melon, the 
helmet, the cylinder, the needle, the ribbon, the furbe- 
low, the grimace, the mafk, the olive, the cone, the poach- 
ed egg, the fig, the turnip, the harp, the gold-moutli, the 
filver-mouth, the dolphin, are all (hells merely defjgna- 
tjve ot the things after which they are named, and where- 
in are formed Jbme kind of relcmblance. Tlie buccina 
and murices are many of them fliells of fnch ifrange fi- 
gures, that thtry have given rife to appellatives equally 
Itrange and vulgar; fuch as devils, fpideis, hump-backs, 
devil's-claws, prongs, fkeletons, the grubs, the thorny 
woodcock, ijc. Hence it is evident that trivial names 
may be applied to (hells as far as the fptcies go, or as that 
the fanciful imagination and invention of man can polii- 
bly extend. 

The aflimilation of the names of (hells to fo many com- 
mon objetts, is fuppofed to have firft introduced to the in- 
genuity of man, the notion of (liell-work ; many elegant 
Specimens of which are to be feen in the colleftions of 
toLichologills ; in ornamental devices in noblemen's feats j 
in hermitages, and in grottos. One of the moll magni- 
iicent decorations of this kind in England, is the grotto 
at Goodwood Park in Su(fex, called C.irneus feat, or grove 
of Apollo, executed with iuptrior judgment and talte by 
the delicate hand of the late duchefj of Richmond. 

Of collecting, CLEANING, and PRESERVING, 

Conchologifts who are judicious in the choice of (liells, 
and who value them in proportion to their fiiranefs and 
elegance of decoration, always endeavour to obtain luch 
as have been filhcd up alive ; for it is found that live (iiells 
only bear the full glow of their natural colours. All 
Ipecies of (liell filh, like other animals, have their parti- 
cular retorts ; Ibme are pelagian, or inhabit only the deeps 
of the fea ; others keep in le(s depths; ibme in (hallows 
and in bays ; and fome are littoral, or inhabit the very 
lliores. However, let their reforts be where they may, 
all (hells (liould be procured from the deepell parts of 
thofe reforts, and immediately after (forms on the fea 
beaches and (hores ; bceaule, if much expoled to the fun, 
their colours fade, and they are liable to other accidents 
that injure them. In order to kill the filh, without in- 
jury to the (hell. Da Cofta advifes to give them .-^ quick 
dip in boiling water, and when they are cooled, to lay 
them in cold water till they are cleaned; and in this 
operation they (hould not be touched svith aquafortis, or 
any other acid, nor ex|)ofed to the heat of the fire and lun. 

'J~he art of polifhlng ihells has but lately arrived at its 
prefent high Itate of perfeilion ; and as the tafte for col- 
lecling fea-(hells is become fo general, it may not l)e dil- 
agreeable to the reader to find lome inllru^itions in exe- 
cuting fo pleating a method of adding to their natural 
beauty, the rules for which arc at prelent little kuowu, 
though the etfed be lb much elleemed. Among the im- 
menle variety of lltells which prefent themfelves to our 
relearch, fome are fiken out of the fea, or found on its 
fhores, in all their native perfeflion and beauty; their 
colours being all fpread upon thefurface, and their natu- 
ral polidi luperior to any thiifg that art could give. Where 
nature in hcrftlf is thus perfeft, it were madnefs to at- 
tempt to add any thing to her charms ; but in cafes where 
the beauties are latent and covered with a coarler (kin, 
art is to be called in, and the outer veil removed, that all 
the internal beauties may appear. 

Among the lliells which are found naturiilly poliflied 
are the porcelains, or cowries ; thecaihdes; the conchae 
globol'sc, or tuns; lome buccina, the volutes, and the cy- 

linders, or olives, or, as they are often, though impro- 
peily, called the rke//il>i; excepting only two or three, as 
the liaia, the plum, and tne butter-tub rhombus, where 
there is an unpromiling film on the, hiding a great 
(hare of be.uity within. Though the fiiells of tht(e ge- 
nera are t ikcn out of the fea in all their beauty, and in 
their utmoft n.iiural poli(h, yet there are feverai other ge- 
nera, in which all or mrit of the Ipecies are taken up na- 
turally toul, and covered with an epidermis, or coarfe 
outer (kin, which is in many very opaque and rough. 
The tellinae, the mulcles, the cochleae, and many others, 
are of this kind. Rigid naturaiills intift upon having all 
(liells in their native and genuine appearance, as they are 
found when living in the lea; but the judicious concho- 
logill contrives to have the fame (hells in different fpeci- 
mens both rough and poliflied ; becaufe, by this means, 
befides knowing the outfide of the (hell, he becomes bet- 
ter acquainted with its internal iiruflure, and has the 
additional pleafure of comparing the beauties of the (hell, 
in its wrought ftate, to the coarfe appearance nature has 
given it. How many elegancies in this part of the crea- 
tion would be wholly lolt to us, if it were not for the 
alliltance of an art of this kind ! Many fliells in their 
native liate are like rough diamonds ; and we can form 
no ju!t idea of their beauties, till they have been polilhed 
and wrought into form. 

Though the art of poli(hing (hells is evidently a valu- 
able one, yet it is very dangerous to the (liells ; for with- 
out the utmoft care, the method uted to polifh and beau- 
tify a (hell, often deliroys it. When a (hell is to be poliflied, 
the firlt thing to be examined is, whether it have natu- 
rally a (mooth furface, or be covered with tubercles or 
prominences. A fhell which has a fmooth lurface, and a 
natural dull polilh, need only be rubbed with the hand, 
or with a piece of chamois leather, with fome tripoli, or 
fine rotten (tone, and it will become perfectly bright and o( 
a fine polilli. Emery is not to be trulled on this occafion, 
becauie it wears away too much of the (hell. This oper.a- 
tion requires the hand of an experienced perfon, that 
knows how delicate the work mull be, and where he is 
to (lop ; tor ill many of thefe (hells the lines are only on 
the (urtace, and the wearing away ever fo little of the 
fliell defaces them. A fliell that is rough, foul, and crul- 
ty, or covered with a tartareous coat, mult: be left a con- 
hderable time (teeping in hot water ; when it has imbibed 
a large quantity of this, it is to be rublied with rough 
emery on a Hick, or iiiraped with a knife, in order to get 
o(f the coat. After this, it may be dipped in diluted aqua- 
fortis, Ipirit of (alt, or any other acid ; and after reu.ain- 
iiig a few moments in it, be again plunged into common 
water. This will add greatly to tlie Ipeed of the work. 
After this it is to be well rubbed with linen cloths, im- 
pregnati-d with common (oap ; and, when by thcle means 
it is made perfcilly clean, the polKhing is to be finiihed 
with fine emery and a hair-brulh. If after this the fliell, 
when dry, appears not to have lo good a poli(h as it ought, 
it mull be rubbed over with a (olution ot gum arable ; 
and this will add greatly to its glofs, without doing it the 
(malltft injury. The gum-water mud not be too thick, 
and then it gives no fenfible coat, onlylieightening the 
colours. The white of an egg anfwers this purpoic alio 
very well; but it is fubjeel to turn yellow. If the (hell 
has an epidermis which will by no means admit the po- 
lifli, it is to be dipped leveral times in diluted aquafortis, 
that it may be eaten off; and then the (licU is to be ))0- 
lilhed in the ufual way with putty, fine emery, or tripoli, 
on the hair of a fine brufli. When it is only a pellicle that 
hides the colours, the (hells mull be (tetped in hot water, 
and after that the (kin worked off by drgrces with a Imooih 
file. This is often the cafe with I'evcral of the cylinders, 
which 'liavt: not the natural polilh of the reft. 

V/hen a Ihell is covered with a thick and fatty epider- 
mis, as in feverai of the mulclcs and telliiia; j in this cale 
aquafortis will do no iervice,as it will not touch the ikin ; 
then a rough brulh and coarfe emery are to be uled ; and 
^ if 



if this does not fucceed, feal-fkin, or fifh-flcin, and pu- 
mice-ftoiie, are to be employed. When a fiiell has a thick 
cru!t, which will not give way to any of thefe means, the 
only mode left is to plunge ir ieveial times into itrong 
aquafortis, till the ftubborn cruft is wholly eroded. The 
limpets, aurts marine, helmet-flielh, and feveral oiher 
fpecies of this kind, nuift have this fort of management ; 
but as (he delign is to (how the hidden beauties under 
the criift, andnot to deftroy the natural beauty and po- 
lifli of the infide of th'fe (liell, the aquafortis fliould be ufed 
in the following manner : A long piece of wax mud be 
provided, and one end of it made perfectly to cover the 
whole mouth of the fliell ; the other end ferves as a han- 
dle, and the mouth being Hopped by the wax, the liquor 
cannot get in to the infide to fpoil it ; then there muft be 
placed on a table a vtli'el full of aquafortis, and another 
full of common water. The fliell is (o be plunged into 
the aquafortis, and after ren\aiuiiig a few minutes in it, 
is to bd taken out, and plunged into the common watei'. 
The progrefs the aquafortis makes in eroding the fiirface 
is thus to be carefully obferved every time it is taken 
out : the point of the (liell, and any other tender parts, 
are to be covered with wax, to prevent the aquafortis 
from eating them away; and if there be any worm-holes, 
they alio mult be flopped up with wax,otherwife the aqua- 
fortis will quickly eat through in thofe places. When 
the repeated dippings into the aquafortis fiiow that the 
coat is fufiiciently eaten away, then the (hell is to be 
wrought carefully with fine emery and a brufli ; and when 
it is poliflied as high as it will bear, it muft be wiped 
clean, and rubbed over with gum-water, or the white of 
an egg. In this fort of work the operator (hould wear 
gloves, otherwife the lealt touch of the aquafortis will 
burn the fingers, and often, if not regarded, eat away 
the fkin and the nails. 

Thefe are the methods to be taken with fliells which 
require only a moderate quantity of the furface to be 
eaten off; but there are others which require to have a 
larger quantity taken off, and to be uncovered deeper : 
this is called entirely fcaling a (liell. This is done by means 
of a horizontal wheel of lead or tin, im.pregnated with 
rough emery; and the (liell is worked down in the fame 
aiianner in which (tones are wrought by the lapidary: 
both figures of the nautilus-(hell given in the Ccnchology- 
Plate III. were worked down in this manner. Nothing 
is more difficult, however, than the performing this viork 
with nicety ; very often (hells are cut down too far by it, 
and wholly fpoikd : and to avoid this, a coarfe vein muft 
be often lett ttanding in fome place, and taken down af- 
terwards with th'e file, when the cutting it down at the 
wheel woidd have defaced the adjacent parts. 

After the fliell is thus cut down to a proper degree, it 
is to be polifiied with fine emery, tripoli, or rotten (tone, 
with a wooden wheel turned by the fame machine as the 
leaden one, or by the common method of working with 
the hand with the l.ime ingredients. When a fliell is full 
of tubercles, or protuberances, which are to be prefervtd, 
it is then impoflible to uie the wheel ; and if the common 
way of dipping into aquafortis be attempted, the tuber- 
cles being harder than the reft of the (hell, will be eaten 
through before the reft is fufficiently (caled, and the (hell 
will be Ipoiled. In this cafe, indultry and patience are 
the only means of effecting a polifti. A camel's-hair pen- 
cil mult be dipped in aquafortis, and with this the inter- 
mediate parts of the (hell muft be wetted, leaving the pro- 
luberances dry ; this is to be often repeated, and altera 
few moments the fliell is ;dways to be plunged into wa- 
ter, to ftop the too great erofion of the acid, which would 
otherwile penetrate too deep, and deftroy the beauty of 
the fliell. When this has fufiiciently taken o(F the foul- 
, nefs of the fliell, it is to be polilhed with emery of the 
fineft kind, or with tripoli, by means of a fmall ftick, or 
the common polifhing-lloiie uled by the goldfmiths. This 
is a very tedious and troublefome operation, efpecially 
when the echinated oyfters and raurices, and other limihu- 
Vol. V. No. 152. 

(hells are to be wrought; and what is worft of all, is, tha' 
when this labour has been employed, the bufinefs is not 
fufiiciently done; for there ftill remain feverai places which 
could not be reached by any inftrument, fo that the (IkU 
muft be rubbed over with gum-water or the white of sn 
egg, in order to bring out the colours, and give a glof; ; 
in fome cafes it is even necefi'avy to add a coat of varnifli. 

Thefe are the means ufed by artifts to brighten the co- 
lours and add to the beauty of (hells ; and the changes 
produced by poliftiing in this manner are ib great, that 
the fiiell can fcarcely be known afterwards to be the iame; 
and lience we fometimes hear of new (licHs in the cabinets 
of colleitors, which have no real exiftence as feparate 
fpecies, but are (hells difguifed by polifhing, and are thus 
fraudulently impofed upon the hafty and unwary collec- 
tor. To caution the young conchologlft againft errors 
of this kind, it may be proper to mention the moft re- 
markable fpecies thus ufually altered. The onyx-(heil or 
volute, called the purfi'e or 'viokt-tip, which in its natural 
ftate is of a fimple pale brown, when it is wrought flightly, 
or polifiied with only the fuperhcies taken off, is of a fine 
bright yellow ; but when it is eaten away deeper, it ap- 
pears of a fine milk white, with the lower part bluifli : it 
is in this ftate called the oiiyxjlell ; and it is preferved in 
many cabinets in its rough ftate, and in its yellow appear- 
ance, as different Ipecies of (hells. 

The violet (hells, lb common among the curious, is s. 
fpecies of porcelain, or common cowry, which does not 
appear in that elegance till it has been polifiied ; and the 
common auris marina (hows itfelf in two or three diffe- 
rent forms, as it is more or lefs deeply wrought. In its 
rough ftate it is dulky and coarfe, of a pale brown on the 
outfide, and pearly within ; when it is eaten down a little 
way below the furface, it (hows variations of black and 
green ; and when ftill farther eroded, it appears of a fine 
pearly hue within and without. The nautilus, when it is 
poiiftied down, appears all over of a fine pearly colour; 
but when it is eatenaway but to a fmall depth, it appears 
of a fine yellow i(li colour with dulky hairs. The buigau, 
when entirely cleared of its coat, is of the moft beautiful 
pearl-colour ; but when flightly eroded, it appears of a 
variegated mixture of green and red, whence it has been 
called the parroquet. The common helmet-lhell, when 
wrought, is of the colour of the fineft agate; and the 
raufcles, in general, though very plain (hells in their com- 
mon appearance, become beautiful .when polifiied, and 
(how large veins of the moft elegant colours. The Perfiaii 
fliell, in its natural Itate, is all over white, and covered 
with tubercles; but when it has been ground down on a 
wheel, and polifiied, it appears of a grey colour, with 
fpots and veins of a bright and highly polifiied white. 
The limpets, in general, become very different when po- 
lifiied, moft of them (hewmg bright and elegant colours; 
among thefe the tortoile-fiiell limpet is the principal ; it 
does not appear at all of that colour or tranfpaience till it 
has been wrought. , 

That elegant fpecies of (hell called the jcnquil-chnnia, 
which has deceived (o many into an opinion of its being 
a new fpecies, is only a white chami with a reticulated 
furface ; but when this is polilhed, it loles at once its reti- 
cular work and its colour, and becomes perfcflly fmooih, 
and of a fine bright yellow. The violet-coloured chama 
of New England, when worked down and polifiied, is of 
a fine milk white, with a great number of blue veins, dif- 
pofed like the variegations in agates. The afi'es-ear (hell, 
when p'.'ilhed after working it down with the file, be- 
comes extremely glofi)', and obtains a fine rofe-colour all 
about the rnouch. ^ Thefe are fume of the moft frequent 
among an endlefs variety of changes wrought on (hells 
bypoli(hing; and we find there are n>any of the very 
greatelt beauties of this part of the creation which mult 
have been loft but for this method of fearching deep into 
the fubltance of the fliell for them. 

The Dutch aie very fend of fliells, and are very nice 

in thtjr manner of working them : they are under no rc- 

L Itraint, 



ftr.,int. however, in their worVs ; but ufe the mod violent 
iiiethoiis, ib as often to dellroy all the beauty of the (liell. 
T!ey tile tb.eni down on all fides, and often take them to 
thj wheel, when it mull deltioy the very charai>eis of the 
fpt-cies. Nor do they Hop at this: but, determined to 
have beauty at any rate, they are for improving upon na- 
ture, and frequently add fome lines and colours with a 
pencil, afterwards covering them with a fine coat of vnr- 
nilh, fo that they ieemthe natural lineations of the fliell : 
the Dutch cabinets are by thefe means made very beauti- 
ful, but they are by no means to be regarded as iiiftruc- 
tors iji natural hiitorv. There are fome artificers of this 
nation who have a w.iy of covering lliells all over- with a 
difierent tinge from that which nature gives them; and 
the curious are often enticed by this artifice, to purchafe 
them as great curiofities. There is another kind of work 
beltowed on certain fpccies of fliell?, particularly the nau- 
tilus ; namely, the engraving on it lines and circles, and 
groups of figures, Itais, and other things. This is too 
obvious a woik of ait to luiTer any one to fuppoii; it na- 
tural, Buonani and Seba have figuied feveral of thefe 
wrought ihells ; but they are now principally done in the 
Eall Indies. 

thicker and larger bivalves; and the ifle of Cyprus is 
famous above all other parts of the world for the beauty 
and variety of the patella or limpets. 

America affords many very elegant fliclls, but neither 
in fo great abundance nor beauty as the Ihores of Alia. 
Panama is famous for the cylinders or rhombi, and we 
have befide, from the fame place, fome good porcelains, 
and a very fine fpec4es of dolium, or comha globo/'a, called 
from this place the Pn}m!!:n furptc Jhell. One of the luolfc 
beautiful of the cylinders is alio known among our natu- 
ralirts under the name of the Panama cnmp. About Bralll, 
and in the gulf of Mexico, there are found murices and 
Venus fliells of extreme beauty ; and alfo a great variety 
of porcelains, purptiras, peiStens, neritie, bucardi^or heart- 
ftiaped fliells, and elegant limpets. The ifle of Cayenne 
affords one of the molt beautiful of the buccinum kind, 
and the ear is found principally about this place. 
Jamaica and the illand of Barbadoes have their ihorts 
covered with porcelains, chaniK, and buccina j and at 
St. Domingo there are found almofl ail the lame Ipecies 
of fliells that we have from the Ealt Indies ; only they are 
lefs beautiful, and the colours more pale and dull. The 
pearl-oylter is found alio on this coalt, but Imaller than 

Shells are fubieS to feveral impeifeftions ; fome of in the Pcrfian gulf. At Mirtinico there are found in 

■ ■ ' ■ general the fame Ihells as at St. Domingo, but yet lefs 

beautiful. About Canada are found the violet chatuas, 
and the lakes of that country abouml with niufcles of a 
very elegan.t pale blue and pale red or pink colour. Some 
fpecies of thel'e are remarkably light and thin, others are 
very thick ami heavy. Tlie great bank of Newfoundland is 
barren in llielh : the principal kind found there are muf- 
cles of feveral fpecies, ol which are of confi-.lerable 
beauty. About Carthagena there are many mother-of- 
pearl fliells, but they are not of fo brilli.iiit colours as 
thofe of the Perfian gulf. The ifland of Magellan, at the 
fouthcrn point of America, furniflics us with a very re- 
markable fpecies of mulclc called by its name; and feve- 
ral very elegant fpecies of limpets are found there, parti- 
cularly the pyramidal. 

In Africa, on the coafl of Guinea, there is a prodigious 
quantity of that fmall fpecies ot porcelain or cowry which is 
uled there as money ; and there is another Ipecies of porce- 
lain on the fame cojlt which is all over white ; the wo- 
men make bracelets of thefe, and the people of the Levant 
adorn their hair with them. The coalt of Zanguebar is 
very rich in fliells : we find there a valt variety of the 
large porcelains, many of them of great beauty j and the 
nux maris, or fea-nut, is very frequent there. Befldcs 
thefe, and m.iny other fliells, there are found on this coaft 
all the ipccies of nautili, many of which are very elegant. 
The Canary ifles abound with a vail variety of the mu- 
rices, and fome other good fliells j and we have from Ma- 
deira great variety of the echini, or fea-eggs, difl'crent 
from thofe of the European feas. Several fpecies of muf- 
cles are alfo common there; and the auris marina is no- 
where more nburuiant. The Red Sea is beyond ail other 
parts of the world abundant in Ihelis, fcarcely any kind is 
wanting there; but what we principally have from thence 
are the purpuix, porcelains, and echini marini. 

The Mediterranean and Northern Ocean contain a great 
variety of fhells, and many of very remarkable elegance 
and beauty ; they are upon the whole, however, inferior 
to thole of the Eafl Indies. The Mediterranean abounds 
much more in Ihells tlun the Ocean. The guif of Tarcn- 
tum affords great variety of purpur3E, of porcelains, nau- 
tili, and elegant oyfters ; the coalt of Na))les and Sardinia 
afi'urd alio the fame, and with them a valt number of the 
folens of all the known fpecies. The ifland of Sicily is 
famous for a very elegant kind of oyller, which is white 
all over; pinna? manna' and porcelains are alfo found in 
great plenty there, with tellinae and cliama: of many fpe- 
cies, and a great variety of other beautiful fliells. Coilica 
is famous, beyond all other places, for valt quantities of the 
pinns mannas; and many other very beautiful Ihells are 
found there. About Syracufe are found the gondola fliell 


which are natural, and others accidental. The natural 
dcfefls are the c(l\6l of age, or difeafe in the fifli. The 
greatelt mifchief happens to fliells by the fifli dying in 
them. The curious in thefe things pretend to be always 
able to dillinguifli a fhell taken up with the fifli alive from 
one found on the fho es ; they call the tirll a If-viiig, the 
fctond a t/eaJ, Ihcll ; and find thai the colours are always 
much fainter in the dead Ihells. When the Ihells have 
lain long dead on the fliores, they are Uibjei5t to many 
injuries, of which the being eaten by fca-wurms is not 
the leall : age renders the fineft Ihells livid or dead in 
their colouis. 

Bcfides the imperfertions arifing from age and ficknefs 
in tlie fifli, (hells are fubjcfl: to other deformities, liich as 
morbid cavities, or protuberances, in parts where there 
fliould be none. When the fliell is valuable, thefe faults 
may be in fome degree removed, and much added to the 
beauty of the Ipecimen, without at all injuring it as an 
objeft of natural hiltoiy, which fliould always be the great 
end of collecting tliele articles. The cavities may be 
filled up with niaftic, diflolved in fpirit of wine, or with 
jfinghils: thel'e fubflanccs mult be either coloured to the 
tinge of the fliell, or elfe a pencil dipped in water-colours 
mull finifh them up to the rtlcmblance of the rell ; and 
then the whole fhell being rubbed over with gum-water, 
or with the white of an egg, fcarcely any eye tan perceive 
the artifice : the fame iubltances may alfo be ufed to re- 
pair the battered edges of a fliell, provided the pieces 
chipped oft" be not too large. And when the excrefcences 
of a fliell are faulty, they are to be taken down with a 
fine rile. If the lip of a fliell be fb battered that it will 
rot admit of repairing by any cement, the whole mult be 
filed down, or ground on the wheel till it becomes even. 

It is important'o to thofe who ftudy conchology, to 
know in what countries the fineft fliells are produced. 
The fliores of Afia furnifli us with the pearl-oyiler and 
efcallops, in the greatelt perfeftion. About Auiboyna 
are found fome beautiful fpeciinens of the Venus fliell, 
the ducal mantle, and the coral oyfters. Here alio are 
found a great variety of extremely beautiful niufcles, 
tellinx, and volulEe; many fine buccina, and the Ethio- 
pian crown. The dolia, or tuns, the munces, and the 
caflides, are likewile found on this coaft in great beauty. 
Many elegant cochleae and fcrew-fliells are alio brought 
from thence, and among them the wentletrap and I'pider 
fliells. The M ildive and Philippine IflanJs, Bengal, and 
the toalt of Malab.u', abound with the moft elegant of all 
the fpecies of fnails, and furnilh many other kinds of 
Ihells in great abundance and ptrfeiilion. China abounds 
in the nneft fpecies of poicelain (hells, and has alfo a 
great variety of beautiful fnails. Japan furnifhes all the 



or argonauf, tlie slated miircx, and a great variety of 
elegant fnails, vvitli foiiie of the dolia or tuns, and ueiits. 
The '^(hintic lea, or gulf of Venice, is lefs furniflied with 
fiielis than alinolt any of the feas thereabout. Mufcles 
and oyllcrs of feveral fpecies sre however found there, 
and fonie of the corditorra (hells; there are alfo Ibnie 
telllnrC. About Ancona there are found vail numbers of 
the pholades buiied in (tone; and the nures marina: are 
pjrticularly frequent about Puzzoli. The ports of Mar- 
feiiles, Toulon, and Antibes, are full of pinnx marina?, 
mufcles, tellinas, and charaae. Tlie coalts of Bretagne 
afford great numbers of the conchse Lujatifera: and acorns; 
they are found on old rotten boards, on fea Ivibftances, 
and among clutters of fpouges. The other ports of France," 
as Rochelle, Dunkirk, Brelt, St. Maloes, and others, fur. 
nifii oylfers excellent for the table, but of the common 
kind, and of no beauty in their Iliells ; great numbers of 
mufcles are alfo found there ; and the common telling, 
the onion-peel oylters, the (olens, and conchas anatifera;, 
are alfo frequent there. At Granville there are found 
very beautiful peilens, and lome of the heart-fhaped fhells 
cal led firaivhtrrles. 

Our own Englifli coafts are not the leaft fruitful in 
fhells, though they do not produce Inch elegantly painted 
ones as the Indies. About Plymouth are found oylters, 
lliulcles, and folens, in great abundance ; and there, and 
on molt of our other (hores, are numbers of the aures ma- 
rinas and dentalia, with peftens, which are excellent food; 
and many elegant fpecies of the chamas and tellinss are 
filhed up in the lea about Si.aiDorough and other places. 
Ireland affords us great numbcis of mufcles, and fonie 
very eiegant ckallop (hslls in great abundance, and the 
pholadjs are frequent on moll of our fliores. We have 
alfo great varuty of the buccina and cochlese, lome vo- 
lutas, and, on the Guernley coall, a peculiarly beautiful 
fnail, called thence the Guernfey-j'nail. The coalts of 
Spain and Portugal afford mugh the fame fpecies of fliells 
•with the Ealt Indies, but they arc of much fainter colours, 
and greatly inferior in beauty. There are, accordins to 
Tavtrnier and others, (ome rivers in Bavaria in 'vhich 
theie are found pearls of a fine water. About Cad z there 
are found very large pinnx marinjc, and fonie fine luc- 
cina. The ides of Majorca and Minorca aftonl a great 
variety of extremely ekgant Ihells. The pinna? marinas 
are alio very numerous there, and theii lilk or beards is 
wrought into gloves, (lockings, and other things. The 
Bailee affonls a gr:at many beautiful Ipecies, but pai ticu- 
larly an orange-coloured pc6ten, or elcallop-lhell", which 
is not found in any other part of the world. 

The frelh-water (hells are alfo found in great plenty ; 
there is fcarctly a nond, a ditch, or a river of fredi water, 
in any part of the world, in wnich there are not found vail 
numbers of Ihells, with the fi(h living in them. All thefe 
Iheils are iiuall, and they are of very little beauty, being 
uliially of a plain greyi(h or brownilh colour. Our ditches 
afford us chama;, buccina, neritse, and fome patellx ; but 
the Nile, and lome other rivers, furnilhed the ancients 
■with a fpecies of tellina which was large and eatable, and 
io much (uperior to the common lea tellina in flavour, 
that it is commonly known by ihc name oi tellina regia, 
" the royal teilina." We have a (inall Ipecies of buccinum 
common in our freili waters, which is very elegant, and 
alwais has its operculum in the manner of the larger 
buccina ; a fmall kind of mufcle is alio very common, 
which is fo extremely thin and tender, that it can hardly 
be handled without breaking to pieces. The large fielh- 
water mul'ce, commonly called in England the horje- 
muj'ck, is t o well known to need a delcription ; and 
the (ize lufficiently diltinguilhes at from all other frefh- 
water fliells. 

Of fossil shells. 

FolTil fliells are found buried at great depths in the 
earth. Of thele fome are found remaining almoll entirely 
in their native ftate, but others are v.ariouily altered by 

being impregnated with particles of (Ions and of other 
follilsj in the place of others there is found mere ftone 
or fpar, or fome other native mineral body, expreiiing all 
their lineaments in the moll exaift manner, as having been 
formed wholly fiom them, the Ihell having been firlt de- 
polited in fome folid matrix, and thence di'llblved by very 
flow degrees, and this matter left in its place, on the ca- 
vities of Hone and other folid fubllances, out of which 
fhells had been dillbived and walTied away, being after- 
wards filled up lels (lowly with thefe different fubitances, 
whether fpar or v/hatever elfe; thefe lubilances, Co filling 
the cavities, can nectffarily be of no other form than that 
of the fliell, to the abfence of which the cavity was ow- 
ing, though all the nicer lineaments may not be fo exafilly 
exprelfed. Befides thefe, we have alio in many places 
niafies of ftone formed within various (hells; and thefe 
having been received into the cavities of the fliells while 
they were perfec=tly fluid, and having therefore nicely filled 
all their cavities, mull retain the perfeiSl figures of the in- 
ternal part of the fliell, when the fliell itfeirihould be worn 
away or perifiied from their outfide. The various fpecies 
we find ot thefe are, in many genera, as numerous as the 
known recent ones ; and as we have in our own ifland 
not only the fliells of our own fliores, but thole of many 
other very dillant ones, lb we have alio many fpecies, and 
thole in great numbers, wdiich are in their recent ftate, 
the inhabitants of other yet unknown or unfearched leas 
and fliores. The cockles, mufcles, oyllers, and the other 
common bivalves of our own leas, are very abundant : 
but we have alio an amazing number of the nautilus 
kind, particularly of the nautilus grscorum, which though 
a fliell not found living in our own or any neighbouring 
feas, yet is found buried in all our clay-pits about Lon- 
don and ellewhere; and the iiiuft frequent of all follil 
fliells in fome of our counties are the concha; anomias, 
which yet we know not of in any part of the world in 
their recent ftate. Of this fort alio are the cornua ani- 
monis and the gryphita;, with feveral of the echinitx and 

The exaft fiinilitude of the known fliells, recent and 
foflll. in their feieral kinds, will by no means I'ufter us to 
believe that thefe, though not yet known to us in their 
living rtate, are, as fome have idly thought, a (brt of lu/us 
iialura: It is certain, that of the many known fliores, 
very few, not even thole of our own ifland, have been yet 
carefully fcarched for the fliell-fifli that inhabit them ; 
and as we lee in the nautilus gr.Tecorum an inll.ince of 
fliells being brought from very dinant parts of the world 
to be buried here, we cannot wonder that yet unknown 
fliores, or the unknown bottoms of deep leas, fUould have 
furnilhed us with many unknown fhell fiih, nhich may 
have been brought with the relt; whether they were at 
the time of the general deluge, or the effetl of any other 
cataftrophe of a like kind, or by whatever other means, 
to be left .in the yet tjnhardencd matter of our Honey and 
cl.aj-ey Itrata. 

Or all the foflil fhells, the cornua ammonis, vulgarly 
cMed fcr/>e/il-Jlo>ies, ov fnah fones, is decidedly the ,-iolt 
elegant and curious. They are found of all fizes, as no- 
ticed in p. 22 i Ibiiie of them rounded, oth-rs greatly 
comprtllcd, and lodged in different Itrata of itones and 
clays, even in the molt elevated fituations. Some of thele 
fliells are fmooth, and otheis ridged in different direc- 
tions; their llriEe and ridges being either ftraight, irre- 
gularly crooked, or undulated. So tew of this family 
liaving been yet found in their recent or living itate, 
makes it leem wonderful whence fo valt a number and 
variety of them fliould be brought into our lubterrancan 
regions. They fcem indeed diiperfed in gieat plenty 
throughout the world, but no where found in greater 
numbers, beauty, and variety, than in oui ifl.iul. Mr. 
Harenberg tbund prodigious numbers ot them on the 
banks of a river in Germany. He traced this river through 
its feveral windings for ni.iny nines; auu among a great 
variety of belemiiitje, cochlttaf, &.'c. lie Ibuud more thaa 
4- thirty 



tliiny different fvecies of the cornua amnionis. They lie 
immeri'ed iu a bluidi foflil ftone, of a foft texture and 
fatty appearance, in prodigious numbers, and of a great 
variety of (izes, from the larger forts down to fuch as 
coiiid not be feen without very accurate infpedtion. Such 
as lie in the fofteft of thefe ftones are foft like their ma- 
trix, and eafily crumble to pieces ; others are harder. In 
a piece of this ftone, of the bignefs of a finger, it is com- 
mon to find thirty or more of thefe follils ; and often they 
are (("en only in form of white fpecks, fo minute that their 
figure cannot be diftingui(hed till examined by the micro- 
fcope. They all confift of feveral fpirals, which are dif- 
ferent in number in the different fpecies, and their ftrise 
alfo are extremely various ; fome very deep with high 
ridges between them, others very flight ; fome ftraight, 
others crooked; others undulated, and fome terminating 
in dots, tubercles, or cavities, towards the back, and 
others havijig tubercles in two or three places. They are 
all compofed of a great number of chambers or cells, in 
,t!)e manner of the nautilus pompilius, each having a 
communication with the others, by means of a pipe or 
fiphunculus. A fsw of the Imall fpecies have been fiihed 
up alive; but the large and beautifully maiked ones are 
found only follil. They are compofed of various foflil 
bodies, often of quarry ftone, fometimes of the matter of 
the common pyrites, and of a great variety of other fub- 
Itances ; and though they appear ufually mere ftones, yet 
in fome the pearly part of the original Ihell is preferved 
in all its beauty. Sometimes alfo, while the outer fub- 
ftance is of the matter of the pyrites, or other coarfe, 
itony, or mineral, matter, the inner cavity is filled with a 
pure white fparofthe common plated texture. This gives 
a great beauty to the (pecimens, many of which are dug 
cur of the aluin rocks in Yorkdiire. 

M. de Lanunon, a French naturalift, who accompa- 
nied La Peroule in his late voyages of difcovery, feems 
tu agree with moft conchologifts, that the larger cornua 
anunonis may rtill exift in the fea; but he thinks they are 
in very fm.ili number, and materially different from the 
greater part of the follil (lieils above defcribed. He con- 
tends that thofe ought to be confidered as a race, for- 
merly the moft numerous of all, of which, either there 
are no defcdndants, or thofe defcendants are reduced to 
a very few degenerate individuals. That there are no 
living animals with fliells of the -very fame kind with fome 
of the foflil cornua ammonis, the following obfervations 
he confiders as a fufficient demonftration : — " The foflil 
fiiells are very light and thin, whereas the ftiells of thofe 
animals that live in very deep water aie always thick and 
ponderous; b.liiles, the form of the foflil cornua ammo- 
nis points out to us, in fome meafure, the organization 
of the animal which inhabited it. The celebrated Juflieu 
proved, in lyii, that there exifted a very clofe analogy 
between the ammonite and nautilus. It is well known 
that the nautilus, by filling or emptying a part of its fhell, 
has the power of remaining ftationary in any depth it 
pleafes : the fame was doubtlefs the cafe with the ammo- 
nite ; and if this fpecies ftill abounds in the fea, it would 
furely be occafionally discovered by failors. The waves 
alio would throw fragments of it on the fliore ; fiftiermen 
might fum-times entangle it in their nets; or, at leaft, 
there would be fragments fticking to the lead ot the 
founding-line when aicertaining great depths. It may 
alfo be ailded, that if the ammonites never quitted the 
ahyfs of the fea, tholi: which are found petrified would 
iio't be conlbantly met with on the lame level, and in the 
lame bed, as thofe ftiell-filh that only inhabit the ftiallows. 
Yet there are found, in a multitude of places, ammonites 
mixed with turbines, buccina, and other littoral (hells. 
They are found, belides, at every degree of elevation 
from below -the level of the fea to the fummits of the 
higheft mountains. Analogy alfo leads us to fuppole, nature, who has given eyes to the nautilus, has not 
rel uled them to the ammonite : now what ule could thefe 
be of if they remained confined to thofe depths which the 

light is unable to penetrate. The extinction of the an- 
cient race of ammonites is therefore a faft, which no ra- 
tional i'uppofition can deftroy ; and this fait is undoubt- 
edly the moft furpriiing of 'any that is prefented to us in 
the hiftory of aquatic animals. The dilcovery of a few 
living fpecies of cornua ammonis does not deftroy the 
truth of this, for thefe ammonites are very different from 
thofe which are found petrified. They are extremely rare, 
and cannot be looked up to as the reprefentativcs of the 
old ammonites, (b varied in their fpecies, and the number 
of which in the .incient ocean was probably far more con- 
fiderable than that of all the other ftiells befides." 

To every univalve (hell, rolled in a fpiral, fo as that 
a horizontal plane will divide it into two equal parts, 
fortned of united fpirals, and hearing a certain proportion 
to each other, this author gives the name of an ammonite. 
" I thought it abfoluttly neceflary," fays he, " to afcer- 
tain the precife meaning of the term ammanite, previous to 
defcribing that which I found during our voyage round 
the world. The form of this is almoi't orbicular, the long 
diameter being to the (hort one as three lines to two lines 
and three quarters. A line is the twelfth part of an inch. 
The firft fpire is by far the largeft, occupying nearly half 
of the longitudinal diameter. The fummit is placed at 
the diftance of about two-thirds of this diameter; it is 
terminated on the right fide by a very fmall knob, vifible 
only through a magnifier, rhns diftering from the ammo- 
nite of Rimini, (mentioned in p. 22,) which befides is 
microfeopical and celled, the inlide of this which we are 
now fpcaking of being entirely plain. The number of 
fpiral circumvolutions is four and a half; they are equally 
convex on both fides, and are fixed on a plane, dividing 
the (hell into two equal parts ; there is on each fide a kind 
of bofs formed by the increafe of the perpendicular dia- 
meter of the fpires, in proportion as they recede from the 
center. The fuiface is linooth ; the back is armed with 
a flat, even, brittle crelt, as thin as paper, furrounding it 
on every fide like a ruft': it is about half a line bioad, 
extends over the fummit of the i'pires, and ferves to join 
them together. The mouth of the (hell is nearly trian- 
gular; its edges projeft in the form of lips, and are rounded 
at the border. I have often found this ammonite enclofed 
in the ftomach of the (comber pelamis, or bonetta, caught 
in the South Sea, between the tropics, where no bottom 
was found with a line of more than two hundred fathoms. 
Thele (hells were covered with a black clayey mud. Their 
fize varies from one to four lines acrols; they are con- 
fequently the largeft living ammonites that have yet been 

The above reafoning, however, in fupport of the ex- 
tindlion of the foflil ammonia, feems far from concluflve, 
and by no means eftablifties the fa61 in quefhon. How 
many fpecies of teftaceous animals have been lately difco- 
vered, that have eluded the refearches of mankind for 
thouliinds of years before ? and how many may yet re- 
main in the depths of the ocean, totally unknown to man, 
dwelling perhaps in a tranquil Itate, with the maturer 
cornua ammonis ? That no fragments of thefe fliells in a 
recent ftate are now ever found upon the fea-coafts of any 
country, is no good argument to prove their non-exift- 
ence; becaufe nothing lefs than a convulfion of the globe, 
fufliciently powerful to overturn the bottom of the fea, 
can call on fliore thefe pelagian fhells; for the fame parity 
of re.rlbn that no convulfion of nature, lefs univerfal than 
the general deluge, could have heaped up, promili:uoufly 
together, the foflil fhells we now find on the moft elevated 
fummits, and in fituations far removed from the places 
of their natural and primeval abode. M. de Lamanon 
feems anxious to prove, that the ancient ammonites did 
not inhabit great depths of the fea; and that Linnaeus 
was deceived when he fuppofed that in great depths they 
may ftill be found. But this naturalift contradifts him- 
fclf, and entirely does away his own argument, when he 
tells us, that he could never find the recent ammonites 
but in the South Sea, where no bottom was to be found 



^■ith a line of more than two hundred fathoms j and to 
put it beyond a doubt that the animals had been at that 
Isottom, he nforms us, that their (liells were covered with 
a black cLiyey mud. It is true theCe ammonites were but 
Tmail ; while of three hundred varieties of fofiil amnio- 
jiites which he mentions, Ibme, he fays, have been found 
ten feet in circiiinference ! 

In tieaiingof this fubjeft we have been the more elabo- 
rate in our explanations and extenfive in our engravings, 
not only becauie it forms an interetting and elegant depart- 
ment of natural hiftory, but becaufe the article Concho- 
LOGY has never before appeared in any Cyclopsedia, En- 
cyclopaedia, or other Dldtionary, in the Englifli language. 

CONCHU'COS, a jurifdiftion in the empire of Peru, 
in South America, under the archbifhop of Lima ; it be- 
gins forty leagues north-north-eaft of the metropolis, 
and runs along the center of the Cordilleras. It produces 
fruits, grain, (Sec. and affords extenfive pafture for cattle- 
of all kinds. Several branches of the woollen manufaftory 
are carried on here, which conftitute its greatell com- 
merce with the other provinces. 

CONCHY'LIA,/. A general name for all forts of pe- 
trifiid (hells. 

CONCI'LIAR, aJj. Icoiidlutm, Lat.] Relating to a 
council. — Having been framed by men of primitive (im- 
plicity, in free and coiiciliar debates, without any ambi- 
tious regards. Baker. 

To CONCI'LIATE, v. a. Icondlio, Lat.] To gain ; to 
procure good will; to reconcile. — It was accounted a 
philtre, or plants that conciliate affeilion. Bro-ivti. 

CONCILIA'TION,/ The aa of gaining or reconciling. 

CONCILIA'TOR, /. One that makes peace between 
others. . 

CONCI'LIATORY, adj. Relating to reconciliation. 

CONCI'NI, better known by the name of the marlhal 
d'Ancre, was born at Florence, where his father was raifed 
from a notary, to be fecretary of ftate. He came into France 
at the beginning of the feventeenth century with Mary 
de Medicis, wife of Henry the Great, and was then only 
gentleman in ordinary to that princefs; but he was after- 
wards made her mafter of the horl'e, bought the marqui- 
fate of Ancre, enjoyed many confiderable poftsj and was 
firftgentlemanof the bed-chamber, and marlhal of France, 
by the influence his wife, Eleonora Galigay, had over the 
queen : but he abufed all this confidence ; he difpofed of 
the finances and employments, filled the army and cities 
with his creatures, and endeavoured to make himfelf maf- 
ter of the government. This created great troubles in 
the ftate. De Luines perfuaded Louis XIII. that the only 
method to ftop his ambition, and put a period to the dif- 
orders, was to finiih his exiltcnce. Accordingly a com- 
mifllon was given to Vitry, one of the captains of the 
life-guard, who executed it on the draw-bridge of the 
Louvre, April 14, 16 17, with feveral piftol-lhots. His 
body was afterwards abufed by the populace j the parlia- 
ment declared him guilty of treafon, fentenced his wife 
to lofe her head, and declared their fon ignoble, and in- 
cap.".ble of holding any office in France. 

CONCIN'MTY, / [from conciiiiiitas, Lat.] Decency, 
fitnefs ; a jingling of words. — The cottcinnitj, I i'uppofe, 
muft have confifttd in the rime. Tyrn.vhitt on Chaucer. 

CONCIN'NOUS, adj, Iconciniius, Lat.] Becoming; 
pleafant; agreeable. 

CON'CIONATORY, adj. [concionatorius, concio, Lat.] 
Ufed at preachings or public afiemblies. — Their conieli- 
nefs unbeguiled the vulgar of the old opinion the loyalilis 
had formerly infufed into them by i\wr concionatory m- 
veflives. Hovjtll. 

CONCl'SE, adj. Iconcifus, cut, Lat.] Brief; fliort ; 
broken into ihort periods. — The coiicij'e ilile, which ex- 
prefTeth not enough, but leaves fomewhat to be undcr- 
ftood. Ben Joufon. — Where the author is obfcure, en- 
lighten him ; where he is too brief and concife, amplify a 
little, and fet his notions in a fairer view. JValls. 

CONCI'SELY, ^./t?. Briefly ; Shortly ; in few words; in 
Vol. V. No,-252. 

C O .N 


ftort fentences. — tTlyfTes here fpeaks very concifely, and he 
may feem to break abi-uptly into the fubjed. Broome. 

CONCI'SENESS,/ Brevity ; fhortnefs.— Giving more 
ftope to Mezentius and Laufus, that verfion, which hus 
more of the majefty of Virgil, has lefs of his concifencj's. 
Dry den. 

CONCrSION, / [f(!;;r;>f«, Lat.] Cutting off; excir 
fion ; deftru<Sion. 
. CONCITA'TION,/ [coKcitatlo, Lat.] The aft of ftir- 
ring up, orputting in motion — The revelations of heaven 
are conceived by immediate illuminations of the foul ;. 
whereas the deceiving fpirit, by concitaticn of humours, 
produces conceited phaiitafmes. Broivn. 

CONCLAMA'TION;/. lconclama!:o, Lat.] An outcry 
or iliout of many together. 

CON'CLAVE,/ [co/:c/ave, Lat.] A private apartment.. 
The room in which the cardinals meet ; or, the afiembly 
of the cardinals at Rome, fimilar to the convocation of 
archbifliops and bilhops in England. — It was faid of a 
cardinal, by reafon of his apparent likelihood to ftep in'.o 
St. Peter's chair, that in two concla-ves he went in pope, 
and came out again cardinal. South. — A clofe alTeinbly : 
Forthwith a concla-ve of the godhead meets. 
Where Juno in the fliining (enate fits. Carlh. 

To CONCLU'DE, 'v.a. [conclndo, Lat.] To Hiut,— Thsf- 
very perfon of Chrift, therefore, for ever and the felf- 
f.mie, was only, tpuching bodily fubftance, concluded wkhm 
the grave. Honker. — To include; to comprehend. — God 
h.ath concluded them all in unbelief, that he might have 
mercy upon all. Romans, yi\. ^i. — To coUeft by ratioci- 
nation. — The providences of God are promifcuoufly ad- 
miniftered in this world ; fo that no man can conclude 
God's love or hatred to any perfon, by anv thing that 
befals him. Tillotfon. — To decide j to determine : that is, 
tojliut or clofe the difpute : 

Youth, ere it fees the world, here ftudies reft; 

And age, returning tlience, concludes it beft. Drydcii. 

To end ; to finifh. — I will conclude this part with the 

fpeech of a counfellor of ftate. Bacon. 

Thefe are my theme, and how the war began. 

And how concluded by the godlike man. Dryden. 

To oblige, as by the final determination. — If therefore 
they will appeal to revelation for their creation, they muft 
be concluded by it. Hale. 

To CONCLU'DE, "j. n. To perform the laft aft of ra- 
tiocination ; to colleft the confequence ; to determine : 

For why ftiould we the bufy foul believe. 
When -boldly ftie concludes of that and this ; 

When of herfelf ftie can no judgment give. 
Nor how, nor whence, nor where, nor what (he is.' Davies. 

To fettle opinion. — I queftion not but your tranflation 
will do honour to our country ; for I conclude of it already 
from thofe performances. Addifan. — Finally to determine: 

They humbly fue unto your excellence. 

To have a goodly peace concluded oi 

Between the realms of England and of France. Shaket^. 

To end : 

We'll tell when 'tis enough". 
Or if it wants the nice concluding bout. King. 

CONCLU'DENCY, / Confequence ; regular proof; 
logical deduftion of real on. — Judgment coiiceiiiiiig thinos 
to be known, 01 the negleil and coKcludency of them, ends 
in decifion. Hale. 

CONCLU'DENT, adj. Deciflve; ending in juft and 
undeniable confequences. — ThoiK^h thefe.kind of argu- 
ments m:iy feem more obfcure, yet, upon a due confidera- 
tion of them, they are highly confequential and conclu- 
dent to my purpol'e. Hale. 

CONCLU'DINGLY, ad-v. With uncontrovertible evl- 
M dence. 



dence. — Examine whether the opinion you meet with, 
repiigiKint to what you were formerly embued with, be 
co»chiJi>ig/jx\smoni\['iited or not. Dighy. 

CONCLU'SIBLE, /■•(/;. Determinable j certain by regu- 
lar proof. — 'Tis as certainly conchifihle from God's preTci- 
ence, that they will voluntarily do this, as that they will 
do it at all. Hammond. 

CONCLU'SION, / Deterniinafion ; final decifion.— 
Ways of peaceable ccnciiifion there' ai-e but thefe two cer- 
tain ; the one a fentence of judicial decifion, given by 
authority thereto appointed within ourfelves ; the other, 
the like kind of fentence given by a more univerfal au- 
thority, liooher. — The colledHon from propofitions pre. 

iniied; the- confetjuence The coiiclu/ion of experience, 

from tlie time part to the time prefent, will not be Ibuntl 
and perfeiSl, IVarivith Spain, 

Then doth the wit 
Build fond concJuJians on thofe idle grounds; 
Then doth it fly the'good, and ill purfue. Daines. 

The clofe; the laft refult of argumentative deduftion.^ 
Let us hear the ccndufion of the whole matter : Fear God, 
and keep his commandments; for this is the whole duty 
of man. Ecclef. xii. i 3. — The event of experiments ; ex- 
pEriment. — We prattife likewife all conclufions of graft- 
ing and inoculating, as well of wild trees as fruit trees. 

Bacon. — The end 5 the latt part I can fpeak no longer! 

Jet I will itrain mylelf to breathe out this one invocation, 
which (iiall be .my conclufion. Haivel. — In Shukefpeare it 
feems to fignify filence ; confinement of the thoughts : 

Your wife Oftavia, with her modeft eyes 
And Hill condufion, fiiall acquire no honour. 
Demurring upon me. Shakcfpeare. 

CONCLU'SIVE, adj. Decifive; giving the laft deter- 
mination to the opinion.^^The agreeing votes of both 
houles were not by any law or reafon condtifi've to my 
judgment. A'. Charles. — Regularly confequential. — Thoie 
that are not men of art, not knowing the true forms of 
iyllogifni, cannot know whether they are made in right 
and condufi've modes and figures. Locke. 

CONCLU'SIVELY, adii. Decifively ; with final t^eter- 
mination. — This I fpeak only to dciire Eupolis not to 
fpeak peremptorily, or coiidufi'vely, touching the point of 
po.Tibility, till they have heard me deduce the means of 
the execution. Baton. 

CCNCLU'SIVHNESS, /. Power of determining the 
opinion; regular conleciuence. — Confideration of things 
to be known, of their feveral weights, concliifi-venefs, or 
evidence. Hale. 

To CONCO.VGULATE, o). a. To curdle or congeal 
one thing with another. — The faline parts of thofe, upon 
tlieir folution by the i-ain, may work upon thofe other 
fubftances, formerly coiicoagidaied with them. Bojle. 

CONCOAGUL.VTION.y. A coagulation by whicb 
different bodies are joined in one niaCs. 

To GONCO'CT, 'V. a. [conco-pio, Lat.] To digeft by the 
ftomach, fo as to turn food to nutriment. — The vital func- 
tions are performed by general and conlL-wit laws; the 
food is concoBed, the heart beats, the blood circulates, the 
lungs play. Cheyne. — To purify or fublime by heatj to 
heighten to perfedlion: 

The fmall clofe-iiirking minifter of fate, 

Whofe high concoiled venom through the veins 

A rapid lightning darts. Tliomfon. 

To ripe.n. — The root which continueth ever in the earth, 
is (hll concocted by the earth; and fruits and grains are 
half a year in co/ico^ing, whereas leaves are out and per- 
fect in a month. Bacon. 

CONCOCTION,/ Digeftion in the ftomach ; matu- 
ration by heat; the acceleration of any thmg towards 
purity and perfection — The conltantclt notion oi concoc- 
tion is, that it ftiould lignify the degrees of alteration of 
»ne body into another, Irora crudity to psrfeiit concoilion, 


which is the ultimity of that action or proceft. Bacon. 

Thus concoclion is uled for the fame as digeftion, thjugh 
digeftion is more generally confined to what pafles in the 
ftomach; whereas conco6tion is applied to what altera- 
tions are made in the blood veffels, which may be called 
the fecond concoSion ; and that in the nerves, f.:>res, and 
niinuteft veffels, the third and laft concoffion. 

CON'COLIN, a town of France, in the department of 
the Here : four leagues and a half norfh-eatt of Gienuble. 

CONCO'LOUR, adj. [.'-osco/or, Lnt.] Of one colour,- 
without variety. — In concolour animals, and fucli as are 
confined unto the fame colour, we meafure not their beauty 
thereby ; for if a crow or blackbird grow white, we ac- 
count it more pretty. Brouun. 

CONCO'MITANCE, or Concomitancy, /. [from 
ccncumilor, Lat.] Subfdlencc together with another thing. 
— The fecondary attion fubfifteth not alone, but in con- 
comitcmcy with the other f fo the noftrils are ufcful for re- 
fpiration and fmelling, but the principal ufe is fmelling. 

CONCO'MITANT, adj. Iconcomitans, Lat.] Con'oined 
with; concurrent with ; coming and going with, as col- 
lateial, not caufitive or confequential. — The fpirit that 
furthereth the extenfion or dilatation of bodies, and is 
ever concomitant with porofity and drynefs. Bacon. — It has 
pleafed our wife Creator to annex to feveral obiefls, as 
alfo to feveral of our thoughts, a fo«(row/Vrt?;< pleafure; and 
that in feveral objcfls, to feveinl degrees. Locke. 

CONCO'MITANT, /. Companion; perfon or thing 
collaterally connefted. — In confumptiojis, the preterna- 
tural concomitants, an univerfal heat of the body, a tormi- 
nous diarrhoea, and hot diftillations, have all a corrolive 
quality. Hafvey. — The other co7iconnt ant of ingratitude \i- 
hard-heartednef's, or w.iUt of compaifion. South. 

Horror Italks around. 
Wild flaring, and his fad concomitant 
Defpair, of abjefl look. Philips, 

And for tobacco, who could bear it ? 
Filthy concomitant of claret ! Prior, 

CONCO'MITANTLY, ad'v. In company with others. 

To CONCO'MITATE, 'V. a. [concomilatus, Lat.] To 
be collaterally connefted with any thing ; to come and 
go with another. — This fimple bloody fpeftation of tils' 
lungs, is differenced from that which concomitates a pleu- 
rify. Hartley. 

CON'CORD, f. [concordia, Ltit.] Agreement between 
perfons or things; fuitablenefs of one to another; peace; 
union; mutual kindnel's : 

Kind concord, heavenly born ! whofe blifsful reign 
Holds this vaft globe in one furrounding chain ; 
Soul of the world ! Tickle. 

A compait. — It appeareth by the concord made betw^jen 
Henry and Roderick the Irifli king. Davies. — Harmony ; 
confent of founds : 

The man who hath not mufic in himfelf. 

Nor is not mov'd with concord of fweet founds. 

Is fit for treafbns, ftratagems, and fpoils ! Shakejpeare. 

Principal grammatical relation of one word to another, 
diftinft from regimen. — Have thofe who have writ about 
declenfions, concords, and fyntaxes, loft their labour ? 

CON'CORD, in law, an agreement made between two 
or more, upon a trefpafs cbmmitted; and is divided into 
concord executory, and concord executed, fhivd. 5, 6. 
Thefe concords and agreements are by way of f'atisfadtion 
for trefpafs, &c. Concord is alfb an agreement between 
parties, who intend the levying of a fine of finds one to 
the other, how and in what manner the lands fliall pafs : 
it is the foundation and fubft.^nce of the fine, taken and 
acknowledged by the party before one of the judges of 
the court of common, or by commilfioners in the