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to the Preven- 
tion of Disease. 

Three Splendid Aids 

To ensure Healthy, Disease-resisting Conditions, absolute Cleanliness 
is of course of primary importance. 

Select with greatest care 


Garstin's Tonic Dog 

Soap is a Perfect Cleanser. 

/^ Lathers freely^ Rinses out readily. 

Leaves no Residue. 


Has a Wonderful Toning Effect 
on the Skin. 

A rich gloss and an Improved Coat is quickly 


Sold in Art Metal Tins containing 

6 Tablets, 3s.; 3 Tablets, Is. 6cl.; 

per Tablet, 6ci. 

GOOD GROOMING is also a great importance 

Obtain a Brush which is penetrating 
but not severe. 

Garstin's Registered 
"Comfy" Dog Brush 

Is made 

Fibre. Whisk. Bristle. Whalebone. 

2/6 2/- 

r Fibre. Whisi 

:'"! 1/- 1/- 

The shape is specially designed to 
avoid Cramp. 


REG. No. 424251 



GUARD AGAINST INFECTION when taking dogs to 

and from shows, &c. 
There is nothing better than 

" Snuggery. 

It is Light, Airy, Unob- 

It is exactly like a Handbag 
in appearance. 

Made in Three Sizes. 

Brown Waterproof Canvas. 

14" 18/-. 16" 20/3. 18" 22/6. 

Solid Cowhide. 
14" 40/6. 16" 46/6. 18" 54/-. 

Makers and Patentees of the Kink Hook, Bench Chain, Agreeable Dog Comb, &c. 

Stocked by all Leaditig Saddlers, Stores, aiid Retailers of Dog Collars. 

whohsak only of \,{:y\Y&\m & CO.,Ltd.,159Aldersgate St,London,E.C. 

(District Agents' Name gladly sent on application.) 


Beware of Low-Priced Imitations! 



DOG [ 

CAUTION. Beware of 
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resembling in appearance, 
but worthless in results ; 
and see that all Bottles, 
Labels and Wrappers bear 
the name of "BENBOW," 
without which None are 



Thoroughly cleanses the 

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Price 6d. pep Tablet. 

The Old Established Remedy. 
Over 70 Years' Reputation. 
The Reliable Tonic 
and Original 

Medicine for the 



Infallible for producing 



Flattering Testimonials from owners of 
Dogs of every Description, and from over 

30 Winners of the Waterloo Cup. 

Sold in Bottles, 2/-, 5/-, and 10 - each ; and in 
1-g-al. Tins for the use of Kennels, 45/- each ; 
also in Capsules, in Boxes containing- 40 
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complete manual of the Horse, its Breeds, Anatomy, 
Physiology, Diseases, Breeding, Breaking, Training, 
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YARD. Fully Illustrated. 










New York: E. P. DUTTON & CO. 


^1 f IS 











The daily accessions to the ranks of dog owners 
which are taking place not only in this country but 
all over the world, may be regarded as a justification 
for the publication of a book dealing with the many 
intricacies of kennel management in an entirely new 
manner, which it is hoped may prove of assistance to 
the beginner as well as of service to more experienced 
owners in the management of their canine friends. 

So many persons possess neither the time nor the 
inclination to attempt to master the details of the 
successful management of dogs as laid down in the 
works of imposing proportions which have appeared 
upon the subject, that it is hoped that the EncyclopcBdia 
of the Kennel — which is intended to be a handy work 
of reference for use in cases of doubt — may succeed 
in smoothing the path of the amateur aspirant to 
honours as an owner, exhibitor, or breeder. 

A good, well-bred dog costs no more to keep than 
a mongrel, and it possesses the additional advantage 
of being admired by judges, and, if required, of repro- 
ducing its perfections in its offspring. But no dog, 



however perfect may be its points or how unstained 
its pedigree, is capable of doing justice to its merits 
if its few requirements are neglected or if it is im- 
properly fed. 

Perhaps I may be allowed to add that I have 
avoided the subject of dog-doctoring as much as 
possible, this subject being admirably dealt with by 
Mr. A. J. Sewell in the Dog's Medical Dictionary, a 
companion work to the Encyclopcsdia of the Kennel, 
and also published by Messrs. George Routledge & 
Sons, Ltd. 



B AS SETT HOUNDS Frontispiece 

AFGHAN HOUND Face page 8 


BORZOI ........ ,,32 







MASTIFF „ 120 


ST. BERNARD ,,152 






Aberdeen Terrier. — A name which is erroneously ap- 
plied to the hard-haired Scottish terrier. The mistake is 
probably due to the fact that when the variety, which is to 
be met with all over Scotland, first came into prominence 
in exhibition circles, several of the most successful exhibi- 
tors resided in Aberdeen. The Granite City, however, 
possesses no claim to a monopoly of the breed, which is 
distributed all over Scotland. (See Hard-haired Scottish 

Abortion. — There are few more vexatious annoyances 
to a dog-breeder than those which are associated with the 
losses incurred through a valuable brood bitch slipping her 
puppies. Such events are usually the result of some acci- 
dent, though there are many bitches which never seem able 
to go through the whole period of gestation, and this 
tendency to abort is to a certain extent hereditary. As a 
rule, however, the trouble is generally due to the bitch 
over-exerting herself or by her constantly leaping on and 
off her sleeping bench, and there is naturally an increased 
danger of such events occurring during the later stages of 
pregnancy. No doubt, too, the subject of feeding enters 
into the question, as an imperfectly nourished animal, or 
one which is given improper food, is not unlikely to slip 
her puppies, especially if there is a natural tendency to do 
so. There is always the chance, moreover, of a pregnant 



bitch picking up some food which may cause her to abort, 
and hence the extreme importance of always burning, or 
in some way entirely destroying, anything that may come 
away from a mare, cow, or other animal which has slipped 
her young. (See Breeding, Brood-Bitchy Sterility,) 

Abscesses comprise a form of trouble of which dogs 
are often the victims, as these swellings result from various 
causes, such as bites or injuries to internal organs through 
swallowing sharp-pointed bones, which are contributed to 
by the habits of the canine race. In all cases there is con- 
siderable tenderness whilst matter is forming, but relief can 
be obtained by applying poultices to the swelling if it is 
in an accessible position. When the abscess has become 
soft and "ripe" it should be opened, and after the pus has 
been gently squeezed out it ought to be cleansed with some 
antiseptic lotion. It is necessary that the wound should be 
kept covered if possible for a few days in order to keep it 
clean and wholesome, as if dirt or any foreign substance 
gets into it the consequences may be serious. (See Anti- 
septic Dressings y Poultices?) 

Accidents are very fruitful sources of trouble to dog- 
owners, as, independently of the evil effects of fighting, the 
animals are apt to meet with injuries through being run 
over, or from kicks, blows, tears, cuts, and other causes. 
Unfortunately, too, dogs are not as a rule at all good 
patients, as their natural desire to be on the move fre- 
quently retards a cure, whilst they are not easily prevented 
from licking wounds and thereby preventing them from 
healing, and they also possess a vexatious propensity for 
tearing off bandages. (See Bandaging^ Bites, Cuts, Fractures^ 

Administering Medicine. — Some dogs give no trouble 
at all when they are being physicked, whilst in the case of 
others it is just the contrary. When medicine has to be 



given and the operator is an amateur, it is always best 
and safest for the latter to avail himself of the services of 
an assistant, and even of two, if the patient is a powerful 
and untractable animal. At the same time the less fuss 
that is made over the matter the better, as a dog is an 
emotional creature and very easily upset and frightened, 
the natural tendency to struggle being intensified when he 
has unpleasant substances forced upon him. The best way 
to proceed in the case of a large or medium-sized dog is 
for the ow^ner to sit down and place the dog with its back 
towards him, and its head securely held between his knees, 
and the assistant close by to hold its feet, and, if necessary, 
its head. In administering liquid medicine there is no 
necessity at all for forcing open the mouth ; all that 
requires to be done is to pull out the lips with a finger 
at the back where the upper and lower ones join, and 
then to pour the liquid either from a spoon or bottle 
into the pouch or funnel which is thus made between 
the skin and the teeth. The head should be held a 
little upwards and the medicine poured in well at the 
back of the pouch, so that it can find its w^ay into the 
throat ; and if the dog's muzzle is released afterwards, so 
that he can move his tongue, he is sure to swallow the 
draught, provided he is unable to shake his head. When 
pills or boluses have to be administered, the mouth should 
be held open and the dose should be placed at the back of 
the tongue. The mouth may then be closed, and if the 
dog declines to swallow the pill or bolus the throat may be 
rubbed, w^hich will usually cause him to do so. Powders 
may often be simply placed upon the tongue, and even if 
mixed with water very seldom cause difficulty, as they are 
usually small things ; but many dogs possess a vexatious 
habit of retaining a dose in their mouths for quite a long 
time, and spitting them out when released. Others often 
return the medicine by vomiting, thereby causing them- 
selves and their ow^ners increased trouble ; hence the value 
of such preparations as Spratt's tasteless aperient biscuits, 



which can be most satisfactorily administered in cases of 

Afghan Hound. — This hound, which has been known 
as the Persian greyhound both in this country and on 
the Continent for many years, is a curious mixture of 
elegance, strength, and untidyness of appearance. The 
last-mentioned feature is due to the fact that although 
practically a smooth-coated variety, the Afghan hound 
usually carries a good deal of long hair of a silken 
texture upon his ears, tail, and legs, whilst the longer 
growth occasionally appears upon the belly as well. This 
gives him a very unkempt appearance, and suggests the 
idea that the long coat upon his head, neck, and body 
has come off — but this is not the case ; and it may be 
added that occasionally perfectly smooth-coated specimens 
are met with, but these are not valued as much as the 
others. The general shape of the breed resembles that 
of a large but delicately formed greyhound, to which 
family it undoubtedly belongs, but the long coat above 
referred to makes the parts on which it grows appear 
somewhat clumsy. The usual colours are fawn, black, 
and white ; the height varying from 24 to 29 inches, and 
the weight from 60 to 70 lbs. 

Age. — The age to which a dog lives depends a good 
deal upon the constitution of the individual animal, and 
the manner in which it has been brought up. They are 
not long-lived creatures, however, and generally begin to 
show signs of declining vigour at about six or seven 
years old, after which old age usually overtakes them 
rapidly, though some robust animals hang on in com- 
parative health for several years ; but these often grow 
very fat, their sight almost invariably becomes feeble, 
whilst they lose their teeth, and their breathing and 
digestion is impaired. The extreme limit of canine 
longevity is impossible to state, but a dog of twelve or 



fourteen years old may be regarded as a very old one, 
though cases of a still greater age having been reached 
have been recorded. 

Age for Breeding. — As a rule it is not desirable to 
breed from a dog before he is eighteen months old, or 
from a bitch until she has reached the age of two years ; 
that is to say, until the sexes have become matured. 
This custom does not, however, suggest the fact that 
members of the canine race are not capable of repro- 
ducing their species at far earlier ages, indeed there are 
known instances of puppies having been born to parents 
neither of which have reached the age of twelve months. 
There are occasions also when it is wise to breed from 
quite a young bitch, as some animals seem to shoot up, 
and not to furnish as they ought, and in such cases if 
they bear a litter of puppies they mature better. In the 
case of big-headed breeds, such as bulldogs and mastiffs, 
it is sometimes desirable not to defer breeding from the 
bitches for too long, as the bones and muscles of the 
parts which are associated wath the act of bringing forth 
puppies become set in the case of old dogs, and hence 
increased danger is attached to the first labour. (See 

Air. — The practice indulged in by some owners of 
denying to their dogs a sufficiency of fresh air is not 
one that can be approved of. Air, in fact, is most 
beneficial to all dogs, though of course some discretion 
must be displayed in providing them with it, and all 
draughts should be avoided. There is, however, nothing 
that is more calculated to engender delicacy amongst 
dogs, or to foster disease, than compelHng them to 
breathe an overheated or vitiated atmosphere, and it is 
consequently injurious to their health and development 
to deprive them of fresh air. (See Kennelsy Nursing, 



Airedale Terrier. — This old English breed is a native 
of the North Country, where he was originally known 
as the waterside dog, in consequence of his fondness for 
taking to the water in pursuit of vermin. It is indeed 
possible that the old name was more appropriate to the 
breed than the modern one, for the Airedale is rather a 
big dog to fulfil the functions of a terrier in the way of 
going to ground, as he stands well over 20 inches at the 
shoulder ; on the other hand, there can be no denying 
either his courage, his staying powers, or his hunting 
proclivities, all of which have combined to render him 
as popular as he is. His skull is long, flat, not too wide, 
and tapers somewhat towards the muzzle, which in turn 
should be powerful, well filled up in front of the eyes and 
of a good length, the teeth being large, regular, and very 
strong, the eyes dark and rather small, and the ears small, 
V-shaped, and carried flat to the sides of the head. There 
should be no stop or indentation between the eyes, nor 
any superfluous skin about any part of the head, which 
should be long and lean, with powerful-looking jaws. 
The neck is of good length and free from any approach 
to throatiness ; the shoulders long and sloping ; the chest 
inclined to be narrow but deep, so as to provide room 
for the heart and lungs ; the forelegs of fair length, quite 
straight, and heavy in bone ; and the feet small and round. 
The back should be both level and short, showing plenty 
of muscle ; the loins being powerful and the hind-quarters 
very muscular, the tail, which is usually docked, being set 
on high, the stifles being slightly bent and the hocks near 
to the ground. The coat, as in the case of all water-dogs, 
must be close and weather-resisting ; it is also very hard 
and wiry, lying close to the body, so that it does not 
appear to be so long as it really is. The prevailing colour 
is tan, of a rather darker shade on the ears, but the body is 
either a dark grizzle or black, and there are dark markings 
on each side of the head. The height is about 22 inches, 
and the weight from 35 to 50 lbs. 



Anaemia. — When a dog goes off his feed and becomes 
languid and Hstless, and appears weak, it is probable that 
he is suffering from anaemia. If when his eyelids are lifted 
up the membrane appears pale in colour and bloodless- 
looking, the suspicions of his condition will be usually well 
founded, and measures should at once be adopted to add 
tone to his system by administering tonics and encouraging 
him to feed. (See Feedings Tonics, ") 

Antimony or Tartar emetic is occasionally administered 
to dogs in the form of condition powders, but it is not a 
drug that can be recommended for general use, as it is 
poisonous in its effects. Antimony is not adapted to the 
uses of the amateur dog -keeper, and should not be 
included in his medicine-chest. If a dog is suffering from 
an overdose, some very strong tea should be administered 
at frequent intervals if the recognised antidote, tannic acid, 
is not at hand. (See Poisons.) 

Antiseptic Dressings.— In cases of wounds in which 
putrefaction either has or is likely to set in, and where 
matter has formed, it is desirable that an antiseptic dressing 
or lotion should be applied. Of these, Condy's fluid (one 
teaspoonful to half a pint of water), boric acid in solution, 
or idioform are the best adapted for the use of the amateur. 
(See Abscesses, Bites, Cuts.) 

Aperients are medicines which open the bowels, and no 
dog-owner should neglect to provide himself with some- 
thing of the kind for use in times of emergency, as dogs 
are extremely liable to suffer from constipation. (See 

Apoplexy is the result of pressure of blood on the 
brain, and usually attacks overfed and old animals. The 
symptoms are heavy breathing, fixed and bloodshot eyes, 
the dog lying perfectly still and not frothing at the mouth. 




In such cases professional assistance should be procured 
forthwith, but as time is a matter of the greatest import- 
ance, it may be stated that bleeding at the neck and rub- 
bing the gums with undiluted spirits may bring relief. 
The dog should also be placed in a position where the 
air can reach him, and if a powerful counter-irritant, such 
as turpentine, is at hand, it may be well rubbed along his 
spine. If there is nothing else at hand for the purpose, 
mixed mustard may be used instead. (See Fits.) 

Appetite. — The appetites of individual dogs differ amaz- 
ingly, some animals being willing, if not greedy, to eat 
large quantities of the plainest food, whilst others refuse to 
be tempted by delicacies. Much depends, too, upon the 
state of the health, as worms, for instance, usually promote 
a voracious appetite, and indigestion induces a repugnance 
for food. (See Feeding, Gross Feeders, Indigestion, Shy 
Feeder, Worms,) 

Applehead. — A term applied to a round head, especi- 
ally by bulldog breeders. 

Arsenic is a valuable drug for administration in cases 
of skin disease, but being a deadly poison, and cumulative 
in its effects, it must be used with extreme caution. 
Fowler's solution is a very convenient form, the dose 
being from two to six drops twice a day after feeding. 
(See Poisons,) 

Arteries are the blood-vessels which convey the blood 
from the heart to the different parts of the body. When 
an artery is severed the blood spurts from the wound 
instead of trickling, as it does in the case of a vein being 
cut through, and arterial blood is lighter in colour. (See 
Bleeding, Capillaries, Cuts, Veins.) 

Asphalt paving possesses many good points as a 


Ss-diZ^^^ ,-.< ^« c.^^" 

.%? Z 


flooring for kennels, as it is easily laid, not expensive, and 
is readily swilled over with water. It is not, however, so 
well adapted for outdoor yards, as it possesses a tendency 
to become soft in hot weather. In this respect it is inferior 
to cement, but it is warmer for the dogs to move about 
upon. (See Floors.) 

Asthma. — The presence of this may be detected by the 
troubled, wheezy breathing of the dog and t|ie crackling 
sound that is heard if the ear is placed to his chest. These 
symptoms are frequently associated with vomiting and 
constipation of the bowels. The treatment is to administer 
a mild purgative and to feed at frequent intervals on small 
quantities of underdone meat. For medicines, the pre- 
scriptions given by Mr. Sewell in ^'The Dogs' Medical 
Dictionary " are most efficacious. 

Astringents create a contraction of tissue. (See Medi- 

Atavism is the term applied to the tendency to " throw 
back" — that is, to show a resemblance to some more or 
less remote ancestor. (See Back Blood,) 

Australian Terrier. — The fact that all dogs entering 
this country are subjected to strict quarantine is no doubt 
responsible for so few Australian terriers being seen in 
England, as the specimens of the breed which have ap- 
peared have been a good deal admired. In general appear- 
ance the breed somewhat resembles the working type of 
Skye terrier, or possibly a cross between that dog and the 
hard-haired Scottish terrier, the shape of the head being 
of the shape of the latter, but it carries a soft top-knot. 
The ears if uncropped are small and carried erect, but the 
body is rather larger than that of the Scottish terrier. The 
legs, too, are somewhat longer, and the lower parts and 
feet are smooth, whilst the hocks are slightly bent. The 



tail is always docked, the coat being flat and of a wiry 
texture. The colour proves the existence of a Yorkshire 
terrier cross, as the face and legs are tan and the top-knot 
either blue or silver, the remainder of the coat being either 
blue or grey, the former for choice. The average height is 
about 10 inches, and the weight about 12 lbs. 


Back Blood is the term applied to the hereditary trait 
which exists in a family of dogs, and which is liable to 
influence the conformation, constitution, and temper of its 
members. (See Atavism, Cross-breeding.) 

Bad Breath is either caused by the stomach being out 
of order or by decayed teeth. In the latter case the 
sources of trouble should be extracted by a competent 
man ; in the former, a dose or two of aperient medicine 
should be given, to be followed by a course of Spratt's 
tonic condition pills, whilst the feeding should be plain and 
plenty of exercise given. (See Exercise y Feeding.) 

Bad Doer. (See Shy Feeder.) 

Badger Drawing. — Not many years ago the great test 
of a terrier's gameness was his ability to draw a badger, 
but of late the custom is honoured more in the breach 
than by the observance ; at all events, a dog's abilities in 
that direction are less discussed than they used to be. The 
test consisted of setting a terrier to drag a badger from the 
recesses of a barrel or artificial drain, a task which involved 
a good deal of pluck if the badger happened to be fresh 
caught and disposed to show fight ; but animals kept for 
the unpleasant duty of being drawn very often became 
cunning and would come out from their retreat on the 
slightest provocation, knowing full well that they would be 
allowed to return at once. 



Balloon Brush is a specially designed brush for use 
when grooming long-coated dogs. It is oval in form, with 
a handle like an ordinary hairbrush ; its peculiarity being 
that the bristles in the centre are the longest, the outer 
ones gradually becoming decreased in length as they 
approach the edges. (See Brushes ^ Groomijtg.) 

Bandaging. — In applying bandages to a fracture or 
wound it is in most cases best to use a strip of rolled linen, 
such as may be obtained of any chemist. The way to 
apply a bandage is io roll it up and then to wind it tightly 
round the part, fixing it either by means of a safety-pin or 
by splitting it down the last few inches and tying the 
divided ends securely. In cases of fracture the bandage 
may be soaked in starch before being applied. 

Bandogge. — An ancestor of the bulldog and mastiff, 
now extinct. (See Bulldog, Mastiff.) 

Basset Hound. — This is a most valuable breed of 
French sporting hound which has attained great popu- 
larity in this country since its introduction towards the 
end of the 'seventies. The chief peculiarity of the breed 
is its short legs, which are in the case of most basset 
hounds more or less crooked in front, though there 
are some perfectly straight-legged specimens of the breed, 
but these are not appreciated. The short, contorted legs, 
moreover, possess their advantages, as they prevent their 
possessors from travelling over the ground too fast when 
tracking a wounded animal, and consequently the hunters 
are better able to keep up with them. In this country 
there are people who are apt to associate the basset 
hound with the German Dachshund, probably because 
the forelegs of each variety are short and bent. The 
French variety, however, is totally distinct from the 
German one, being unquestionably a hound, whereas the 
latter is more closely allied to the terrier family, as 



will be seen by referring to the description of the breed 
upon another page. The scenting powers of the basset 
hound are extremely high, and his admirers in this 
country have succeeded in deriving some very good sport 
from the fact, as the pack of drag-hounds which was 
established some years ago fulfilled all expectations. 

The head of the basset hound resembles that of the 
English foxhound in many points, being long and narrow, 
with a somewhat lengthy and powerful muzzle, and well- 
developed flews. The occipital protuberance is strongly 
developed ; there is some wrinkling of the skin of the 
skull on the forehead, the eyes being of fair size, and 
the red inner lining or haw being displayed in the smooth- 
coated variety. The ears are very long and velvety in 
texture, the tips curling inwards a little ; the neck rather 
short, very powerful, and carrying a heavy dewlap ; 
the shoulders not very long, but sloping ; the chest 
exceptionally deep, with the chest-bone prominent in front ; 
the front legs extremely short, very muscular, not out 
at the elbows, but turning inwards at the pasterns ; the 
feet being large, splayed, and turned outwards, so as to 
give the desired crook of the limb. The body is of extreme 
length, but powerful and well ribbed up at the loin ; the 
tail or stern being of fair length and carried upwards, like 
that of a foxhound ; the hind legs short and bent at the 
stifles and hocks. The skin all over is inclined to be 
loose, the coat being short, fine, and glossy in the 
smooth-coated variety, and thick and harsh in the rough- 
coated breed, the forelegs of the latter being less crooked 
than those of the former. The average height is about 
12 inches, and the weight about 50 lbs. In colour the 
black white and tans are mostly favoured, but red and 
white is often seen, and any hound colour is allowable. 

Beagle. — This engaging little hound has attained a 
high popularity of late years, the result being that there 
are many more packs in existence than was formerly the 



case. It is indeed somewhat surprising that there are not 
even more of these now that the merits of the delightful 
little beagle have become better known, as the members 
of the hunt could easily divide the hounds between them 
and thereby save expense, whilst the enjoyment of the 
periodical runs and the value of the exercise derived from 
following a foot pack cannot be overestimated. 

The skull of a beagle is slightly domed, rather wide, 
the occipital protuberance, or peak, and the stop between 
the eyes being well defined. The muzzle should be of 
a good length, showing plenty of substance, and the flews 
must be deep, the eyes being dark in colour, rather large, 
but not obtruding, and intelligent in their expression ; 
the ears, which are set on low, being thin, long, and carried 
close to the sides of the head. The neck, which carries a 
slight dewlap, is fairly long and arched, the shoulders laid 
back, the chest being of moderate width and very deep, 
the body short, with nicely rounded ribs and strong loins ; 
whilst the forelegs are dead straight, heavy in bone, and 
set on well under the body, with round, compact feet, the 
knuckles being considerably arched. The hind legs are 
bent at the stifles and hocks, whilst the tail or stern is 
rather long and coarse, and should be carried upwards, 
though free from any tendency to curl. Both smooth and 
rough coats are to be found amongst beagles, but the 
former predominate. In either case they should be dense, 
close, and harsh, whilst any recognised hound colour is 
allowable. Average height about 15 inches ; average 
weight, 26 lbs. ; but " pocket beagles " should not exceed 
10 inches in height. 

Bedding. — Opinions differ a good deal on the subject 
of bedding, some people contending that, excepting during 
very cold weather, the larger varieties are better if they 
rest on bare boards, whilst others favour all sorts of 
material. Taken all round, however, there is nothing to 
be found that is better than clean straw spread upon a 



wooden bench. Hay is not good, as it is easily beaten 
down flat by the dogs lying on it, and the same observation 
applies to shavings. The latter, however, forma very good 
summer bedding, especially as the odour of pine, which 
is associated with those most usually available, discourages 
insects. Sawdust and peat-moss are not to be recom- 
mended, as they work their way into the coats, and often 
into the eyes, noses, and water-troughs as well ; but dried 
bracken is not at all a bad bed for the large breeds if it 
is spread thickly on the bench. (See Kenne/s.) 

Bedlin^on Terrier. — This is a most popular breed in 
Northumberland and other parts of the north, but it is 
not held in very high favour amongst exhibitors, owing 
to the majority of those who show Bedlingtons indulging 
freely in the objectionable practice of plucking the 
coats of their dogs and other forms of trimming. Hence 
classes provided for the breed at shows are rarely well 
filled, and are often omitted from the schedules of im- 
portant fixtures altogether. Consequently, the popularity 
enjoyed by the Bedlington terrier may be regarded as 
due to his courage, which is very great, and his ability 
for hunting vermin, especially in w^ater. He possesses, 
moreover, a strong individuality of his own, and even if 
his temper is at times uncertain, his merits so far out- 
number his tailings that he deserves mere support than 
he receives. 

In general appearance the Bedlington terrier is rather 
a leggy, lathy-built dog, a peculiarity about him which 
strikes the observer at once being his flat sides, as the ribs 
are not at all rounded. The head is domed at the top 
and narrow ; the muzzle is long and tapering, but well 
filled up under the eyes, and powerful ; the eyes are 
small, sunken, and set obliquely ; whilst the nose is large, 
its colour in the case of blues being black, and in the 
livers flesh-coloured. The ears are long and lie flat to 
the cheeks, the neck long and graceful, the shoulders 



laid well back, the chest narrow and deep, whilst the loins 
are powerful, and the back rather arched. The forelegs 
are rather long and quite straight, and the hind ones 
slightly bent at the stifles, the tail being about ten inches 
long and scimitar-shaped. The coat is a mixture of soft 
and hard hair, crisp to the touch and rough, whilst the 
best colours are blue and liver, or these mixed with tan. 
Average weight about 23 lbs. ; height, 16 inches. (See 

Beetroot is a very useful addition to a dog's food if 
well boiled, and forms an acceptable change, as it assists 
in keeping the bowels open and in adding flesh when an 
animal has lost condition. (See Feedifig.) 

Benches. — It is always a bad thing for dogs to have 
to lie on the floor of their kennels, and therefore, excepting 
in the case of young puppies and pregnant bitches, a 
raised wooden bench should always be provided for them 
to sleep upon. These should be about eighteen or twenty 
inches above the floor, but 
the height and width of 
the bench must of course 
depend upon the breed 
kept. It is desirable, how- 
ever, to have them high 
enough to prevent the 
dogs from wetting the bed- 
ding if they lift their legs 
against the front of the 

benches. The fronts of the latter should be boarded down 
to the ground, so that the animals cannot creep under 
them in order to conceal bones ; and there should be a 
strip of wood about four inches wide along the edge to keep 
the bedding from falling out. The benches should also be 
portable, so that they can be moved for cleansing purposes. 

The accompanying illustration shows a very well- 


Portable Bench. 


designed bench, with a hinged back to let down, if neces- 
sary, during the day. It is admirably adapted for puppies 
after weaning, but for adult dogs might be a little higher 
from the ground. (See Kennels.) 

Biscuits form an ideal food for dogs, but every care 
should be taken by owners to ensure their getting full 
value for their money. A badly baked biscuit, and still 
more so one that is composed of inferior materials, such 
as low-class meat and the sweepings out of granaries 
which have been ground up into meal, is not a proper 
food for any dog, and its use in a kennel is unprofitable 
in every way. On the other hand, a high-class biscuit 
made of the best materials, and containing a guaranteed 
percentage of sound flesh, is a most useful food, as it 
can be given both dry and soaked, and possesses the great 
advantage of being easily carried in an owner's pocket, 
so that dogs can be fed on journeys or when working 
away from home. It may be pointed out, too, that dry 
biscuits to a very great extent supply the place of bones, 
as if given in this form they require a good deal of gnaw- 
ing, and thereby not merely keep the dogs occupied, but 
promote the secretion of saliva, and thus assist digestion. 
Reports are occasionally heard that some dogs do not Hke 
biscuits and cannot be made to eat them, but such state- 
ments are nothing more nor less than reflections upon 
the strength of will of those who make them. A dog 
can be made to eat anything by the exercise of a certain 
amount of firmness, but he naturally will endeavour to 
hold out for delicacies if he thinks that his owner is weak 
enough to give him what he likes and not what is good 
for him. (See Feeding.) 

Bites. — As everybody must be aware, bites are a very 
common source of trouble to the owners of dogs, and the 
successful treatment of such injuries often causes a great 
deal of anxiety. Of course a great deal must depend upon 



the nature and seat of the wound; but, speaking generally, 
the first thing to do is to cleanse it thoroughly, and to 
stop the bleeding. When this has been accomplished the 
extent of the injury can be ascertained, and then the proper 
course of treatment can be decided upon. (See Bandaging, 

Black-and-Tan Terrier. — This very beautiful variety 
has unfortunately become almost extinct, owing to the 
lack of support it has received from dog-breeders, but 
happily a few enthusiastic admirers are attempting its 
resuscitation, and it is to be hoped that their efforts will 
be crowned with success. Lancashire was at one time 
a great stronghold of the breed, and hence some people 
are in the habit of referring to this dog as the Manchester 
terrier ; but this is an absurd misnomer, as the black-and- 
tan terrier is a national and not by any means a local 
variety, and is never referred to in Manchester as the 
Manchester terrier. There is very little doubt that sup- 
porters of this dog fell away when the practice of cropping 
the ears was pronounced illegal ; and it must be admitted 
also that the black-and-tan is not so thoroughly game as 
are some other members of the terrier family, which fact 
may have had something to do with his loss of popularity. 
On the other hand, he is a most beautiful and engaging 
dog, a first-rate companion, and an excellent indoor guard 
for a house, as he is alert, and disinclined as a rule to 
make friends with strangers. 

The head of the black-and-tan terrier is long, lean, 
flat, and narrow, the muzzle being also long and nicely 
filled in under the eyes, a snipey face being a nasty fault. 
The teeth must be white and regular, an undershot jaw 
being a disqualification ; the eyes small, almond-shaped, 
rather deeply and obliquely set, and very dark in colour ; 
the ears, which used formerly to be cropped, being small, 
and carried close to the sides of the head, with the tips 
slightly forward. The neck is rather long, and free from 

17 B 


all loose skin ; the shoulders sloping ; the chest rather 
narrow ; the ribs nicely rounded ; the back short, and 
the loins not too much tucked up. The forelegs, which 
are an important point, must not be out at the elbows, 
they should be dead straight and heavy in bone, the feet 
being long. The tail must be fine, rather short, and 
carried straight out, and the thighs should show plenty 
of muscle ; whilst the coat is short and close, and not too 
fine. Colour, however, is the most important point in 
connection with this breed, and should consist of a rich 
raven black relieved by rich, warm tan distributed as 
follows — under the lower jaw, along the throat, over each 
eye and upon each cheek, in the form of spots, with larger 
ones on the front of the breast. The legs are tanned up 
to just above the pasterns, but there are black lines, 
termed pencillings, running up the top of each toe, and 
a black spot called the thumb-mark on the forelegs above 
the pasterns. The insides of the thighs are also tanned, 
and so should be the hair at the vent, but the latter must 
not be profuse, as the tan should be hidden entirely if the 
tail is pressed down. Very frequently tan hairs appear 
behind the ears, or on the outside of the thighs — the dog 
is said to be breeched in the latter case — but if so, it is 
regarded as a serious fault, as the black hairs should be 
quite free of any tan at all. 

Black Field Spaniel. — The popularity of the black 
field spaniel has increased very much of late years, and 
certainly the breed is entitled to all the praises bestowed 
upon it by its admirers, as in addition to its being a very 
beautiful, it is a most valuable field dog. There can be 
no doubt that this variety of spaniel, which is compara- 
tively speaking a modern production, has been crossed 
with the Sussex by some breeders to the detriment of 
the latter's purity ; nor is there any difference as regards 
its shape and make from other varieties of field spaniels, 
from which it is divided only by colour. 



The head is long, rather narrow, with the occipital 
protuberance well developed and slightly rising at the 
eyebrows. The muzzle is also narrow, of good length, 
and square ; the nose large and black ; the eyes dark 
brown in colour, rather large, and neither too prominent 
or too deeply sunken ; whilst the ears, w^hich are set on 
low, are of fair length, nicely fringed with feather, and 
hang flat against the sides of the head. The neck is 
powerful and long ; the shoulders long and sloping ; the 
body long, well let down at the chest, and very powerful 
about the loins, the chest being wide and the forelegs 
short, which makes the body appear even longer than it 
really is, and extremely heavy in bone, wdth large round 
feet. The hind-quarters should be powerful, the stifles 
being well bent, and the hocks let down ; whilst the tail, 
w^hich is always docked, is set on low and carried straight. 
The coat, which must be absolutely free from curl, though 
a slight waviness is allowed, is of fair length, dense and 
soft, the backs of the legs and tail carrying a good amount 
of feather. The average weight is about 35 lbs., and height 
about 15 inches. (See Field Spaniel,) 

Blaze. — The term applied to the white streak, more or 
less wide, which runs up the faces of some dogs. 

Bleeding. — Dogs are liable to many accidents which 
cause hemorrhage, and in some cases, unless the injuries 
receive immediate attention, a valuable animal may bleed 
to death. In cases in which arteries are severed — these 
can be detected by the blood spurting and not trickling 
from the wound — professional advice should be secured 
at once, as it is usually beyond the power of the ordinary 
amateur in surgery to attend to such cases. The best way 
to check bleeding in the case of a simple wound is to 
apply either very hot or very cold water to it, remem- 
bering that lukewarm water is likely to increase the flow 
of blood. If this course does not succeed, and the neces- 



sary appliances are not at hand, an impromptu tourniquet 
may be fastened above and below the seat of injury, and 
this can be done by fastening bandages round the parts 
an inch or so from the wound, and twisting them tight 
with a piece of stick, which can be kept in its place by 
another bandage or piece of cord. Should the wound be 
situated in such a position that a tourniquet cannot be 
applied, or if it is not considered desirable to adopt the 
latter arrangement, the bleeding may be stopped by placing 
a flat piece of wood, cork, or even stone wrapped up in 
part of a handkerchief, which has been saturated in water, 
over the cut, and wrapping a bandage tightly round it to 
close the wound. Temporary bandages can be made by 
cutting a stocking (a cotton one preferably, as it does not 
stretch) lengthways into two strips, and if one is not long 
enough a second can be attached to its end by safety or 
other pins. This, of course, can only be regarded as 
emergency treatment ; but as it usually happens that 
serious cases occur when no proper appliances are avail- 
able, it is best to know how to act with promptitude. 
The bleeding, unless the injury is a severe one, in which 
case professional assistance had better be secured, will 
usually be stopped by such means as those suggested, 
but the bandages should not be removed for six hours, 
when the injury can be properly attended to. (See 
Bandaging, Stitching Wounds,) 

Blenheim Spaniel. — This is one of the most beautiful 
and engaging of all the toy varieties, and has been a 
favourite amongst the dog-owners of England for many 
years. In general shape it very closely resembles the 
King Charles, but it is of rather a more fragile and lathy 
build, and somewhat flatter ribbed. The main point of 
distinction between the two breeds lies, however, in their 
colours — that of the Blenheim being white, with markings 
of a lovely golden-lemon hue, neither too pale nor yet too 
dark in shade, and fairly distributed over the body, though 



'§?'*--;^'~'*>'«»~'^-^"~~ s--' 




Photo by Topical] 


[Face p. 20 


the white should preponderate. The ears should be of the 
golden-lemon colour, and there should be a spot of it on the 
centre of the forehead. This used to be regarded as a great 
point for breeders to secure, but it is difficult to produce, 
and hence modern admirers of the Blenheim Spaniel, who 
object to difficulties, profess to attach less importance to 
this spot than their predecessors did. As in the case of 
the King Charles, the Blenheim was not at one time so 
short in the face as he is now, and it may be added that 
specimens of the longer or so-called pleasant-faced family- 
are still to be found in the neighbourhood of the Duke of 
Marlborough's seat at Blenheim, from which the variety 
derives its name. (See King Charles Spaniel.) 

Blistering. — It is not often necessary to bHster a dog, 
and when it is, the operation is not by any means a simple 
one to perform — nor is it easy to find something that will 
act as desired. Mr. A. ]. Sewell, however, in his admirable 
work, ^^ The Dog's Medical Dictionary," published by 
Messrs. George Routledge & Sons, advocates the use of 
a liquid known as liquor epipasticus, which may be recom- 
mended with confidence when suggested by so eminent an 
authority as he. It may be mentioned, however, that this 
liquid is poisonous, and it must consequently be used with 
the greatest possible care. 

The way to blister a dog, be the selected agent what it 
may, is to clip the hair closely from the part, which should 
then be thoroughly washed with warm water and soap, 
and dried ; then the blistering liquid or ointment may be 
rubbed on with a brush or piece of stick, and afterwards 
a piece of grease-proof paper may be put over it, and the 
whole carefully bandaged, else the patient will get it off, 
and have his mouth blistered, or possibly poison himself. 
To prevent the latter danger, it is wise to keep a bucket- 
muzzle on the dog during the period (about two days) 
the blister is on him — excepting, of course, when he is 
being fed. When the blister is taken off, the place should 



be carefully washed and dried, after which it may be 
dressed with boracic ointment. (See Bandaging^ Bucket- 
muzzle, Muzzles^ 

Bloodhound. — It is greatly to be regretted that this 
picturesque variety of hound should be in so few hands, 
as were he to be better understood, his merits would be 
appreciated as they deserve, and absurdly exaggerated 
stories of his ferocity would not be circulated as they 
often are. No doubt the bloodhound is not exactly a 
dog for a child to play with in all instances, but his 
name is derived from his remarkable powers as a tracker, 
and not because of the savageness of his disposition. The 
bloodhound is practically identical with the St. Hubert 
hound of France, a breed which for centuries has been 
valued by the huntsmen of that country ; but English 
bloodhound owners do not use their hounds as the con- 
tinental sportsmen do, probably because the opportunities 
are not forthcoming. At the same time, it may be ob- 
served that there have been such things as bloodhound 
packs used in this country for hunting purposes within, 
comparatively speaking, recent years, and of these that 
hunted by the late Lord Wolverton was by far the most 

The head of the bloodhound is long and very narrow, 
heavily wrinkled, and tapering slightly from the strongly 
pronounced occipital protuberance, or peak, towards the 
muzzle, which is of considerable depth. The eyes are very 
deeply sunk and small ; they also show the red haw or 
inner membrane at the corners, and appear diamond- 
shaped — this in a great measure being due to the weight of 
the flews or skin of the lips, and they should be of a hazel 
colour, a yellow eye, though often seen, being objection- 
able. The ears, which are fine in texture, should be set on 
low. They are very long, so long indeed that the ends lap 
over if brought together in front of the animal's nose, and 
they should lie close to the sides of the head, with the 



ends turning slightly inwards. The neck is long and carries 
a heavy dewlap ; the shoulders are sloping and of a good 
length ; the chest fairly wide and very deep, with well- 
rounded ribs. The fore-legs are set on well under the 
body, and are straight and extremely heavy in bone ; the 
feet being large and round with thick soles, and the back 
short ; the loins being both deep and powerful. The stern, 
or tail, is long, not too fine, set on high and carried upwards, 
but not over the back ; the thighs being muscular, and the 
stifles well bent. The coat is short and hard, excepting on 
the head and ears, and there is a great deal of loose skin on 
all parts of the body. In colour the bloodhound is usually 
a rich, warm tan, with a black saddle on the back, and 
black sides and neck, there also being black on the top of 
the head. Occasionally the black markings are flecked with 
white, and white is also to be seen on the chest, the tip of 
the tail and toes, but though tolerated in these parts, it is 
not liked. Average height about 27 inches, and weight 
from 80 lbs. to no lbs. 

Blood Poisoning may result from various causes, such 
as a wound or bite, a dead puppy remaining in the womb 
of a brood bitch, or diseased kidneys — in fact, the sources 
from which it springs are so many that dog-owners may 
with justice be suspicious of its existence in cases where the 
preliminary symptoms of a dog's illness are not clearly 
defined. Symptoms. — Bad breath, frequent shivers, with a 
high temperature, accompanied by vomiting and occasion- 
ally by extreme thirst. This is not a form of canine ill that 
the average amateur is competent to deal with success- 
fully, and therefore professional advice should at once be 
obtained, but should the patient appear weak, restoratives 
in the form of spirits — brandy preferably — may be ad- 
ministered at frequent intervals. 

Blotch. — The term applied to a form of eczema, which 
causes nasty sores to break out on various parts of the dog. 



Treatment, a mild course of cooling medicine and the 
application of Spratt's eczema lotion, which usually proves 
efficacious in the most obstinate cases. 

Blue Eye. — When old age creeps over dogs their eyes 
frequently become obscured by a bluish film. For this 
there is no cure, but in the case of young animals the evil 
may arise from causes which are amenable to medical 
treatment if attended to at once. 

Blue Paul. — An old breed of blue-coloured dog of the 
bull-mastiff type which has become practically extinct. 
The last stronghold of the variety was the south-west of 
Scotland, the Blue Pauls being cultivated by the patrons 
of dog-fighting in that part of the world for gladiatorial 

Bob-tailed Sheep-dog, or old English sheep-dog, has 
of late established itself as a popular breed amongst those 
who take an interest in the exhibition of dogs. The actual 
origin of the variety is lost in obscurity, but there can be 
no denying the fact that the hardiness and intelligence of 
the dog, combined as they are with a perfect genius for 
herding sheep and cattle, have for many years rendered 
him a favourite amongst drovers in every part of the 

In addition to the claims upon the regard of the com- 
munity above referred to, the bob-tailed sheep-dog cannot 
fail to attract friends by the picturesqueness of his appear- 
ance, as he possesses attractions which are peculiarly his 
own. His head is large and rather square, arched over the 
eyes and profusely covered with hair, which in case of 
show specimens somewhat obscures his vision. The jaws 
are of fair length and very powerful, thus conveying the 
massive appearance to the head which is so much desired, 
and the nose is large and teeth very powerful. The eyes 
are usually dark hazel in colour, excepting in the case of 



the blue-coloured dogs, when one or both of them are 
usually ''china" or "wall" — i.e. blue in shade. The ears 
are small ; the neck fairly long, but very powerful ; the 
shoulders sloping and the body rather short, but very 
compact, and higher at the loins than at the shoulders, 
thus producing the roach or wheel-back formation, as in 
the greyhound and bulldog. The fore-legs are straight, 
big, and muscular ; the feet rather small, round, and com- 
pact ; and the coat profuse, hard, and rather shaggy, but 
quite free from curl, the underjacket being very dense and 
sealskin-like. All old English sheep-dogs are not born 
tailless, but the majority are, and those which are not 
usually have their caudal appendages removed in early 
puppyhood. The usual colours are blue, grey, and grizzled, 
either self-colour or mixed with white, the average weight 
being about 60 lbs., and height 22 to 24 inches. 

Bone. — Most dog-breeders seek for a liberal amount of 
bone in the fore-legs of their dogs, as a heavy-boned animal 
is naturally stronger in his limbs, and more calculated to 
get through hard work than one whose fore-legs are slender 
and weak. Hence the necessity for providing puppies with 
such food and exercise as will assist in the development of 
bone. (See Feedingy Rearing Puppies.^ 

Bones. — All dogs derive both pleasure and benefit from 
being given bones to gnaw ; but it should be a care of their 
owners to see that all the bones are of such a size and 
description as not to be injurious to them. Small, hard 
bones, such as those of poultry, game, or rabbits, are 
particularly dangerous, as if pieces with sharp edges are 
swallowed they are apt to cause internal injuries. On the 
other hand, large bones with not too much meat on them 
will amuse a dog for hours, and are useful in the way of 
promoting the secretion of saHva, and thereby assisting 
digestion. If more than one dog is in the kennel there is 
always a prospect over a fight when bones are served out, 



and therefore all the debris should be collected and taken 
away after a sufficient time has been allowed the dogs to 
enjoy them. It should be remembered, too, that dogs 
often hide a bone under the straw on their bench, and will 
fight for its possession if one of their companions go near 
it. (See Feeding.) 

Borzoi, or Russian wolf-hound, as he is also called, is 
beyond a doubt one of the most beautiful of all breeds, 
and certainly no variety of the canine race possesses 
more illustrious patrons, as he is a favourite of Queen 
Alexandra, of the imperial house of Russia, and of leading 
members of the aristocracy of both countries. In general 
appearance the borzoi somewhat resembles an elegantly 
built, silken-coated, light-coloured deerhound, but he is 
of an altogether more fragile formation, and his skull is 
much narrower than that of the Scottish hound. Though 
not by any means a brainy dog, the borzoi possesses plenty 
of courage, and has quite sense enough to perform all the 
work that is required of him. His duty is to follow 
wounded wolves as they break covert, and to hold them 
at bay until the hunters arrive upon the scene and 
administer the coup de grace. 

The head of the borzoi is long, narrow, and refined 
looking, flat on the top, the muzzle being long and tapering, 
which gives the dog the appearance of being Roman-nosed 
when he is regarded in profile. The eyes are dark, set 
rather close together, and possess an attractive languishing 
look, the ears being carried with the tips backwards, so as 
to show the inteiior. The neck is long and graceful; the 
shoulders laid well back ; the chest being narrow but excep- 
tionally deep ; and the back muscular, of considerable 
length, arched at the loins, which are powerful, though 
slender. The fore-legs are long and straight, but not very 
heavy in bone when the size of the dog is considered, the 
feet being long, the hind-legs being nicely bent at the 
hocks, but not so much so at the stifles as in the case of 



the Greyhound. The tail is long, well feathered, and 
carried rather low ; whilst the coat is long and rather wavy 
on the chest and body, with a kind of frill on the neck, but 
the head is smooth. The usual colour is white with fawn 
markings, the average height being about 28 inches and 
weight 90 lbs. 

Boston Terrier. — This is entirely an American breed, 
its origin no doubt being a cross of the terrier upon the 
bulldog. It may therefore be accepted as being practically 
a bull terrier of the old style, and in many respects similar 
to the bull and terrier which is to be still met with in some 
parts of the midland counties, and which is simply a thick- 
headed bull terrier. The Boston terrier is a most fashion- 
able and deservedly popular breed in America, but it is not 
commonly met with in this country ; its importation being 
doubtless restricted by the rigour with which the Quaran- 
tine Act is enforced. The colour most preferred is brindle 
with white markings, and the weight varying from 15 lbs. 
to 30 lbs., but 22 lbs. is about the average. 

Brace is the term used to denote two dogs of any 
variety, excepting hounds, which are referred to as 

Breaking". — Dog-breaking is an art which is not as 
much practised as it might be so far as non-sporting 
dogs are concerned, as the natural intelligence of the 
canine race renders it a comparatively easy matter to 
educate most varieties more highly than is usually the 
case. Of course some breeds are more easily broken 
than others, and individual animals differ widely in their 
possession of a capacity for imbibing instruction, but as 
general rule most dogs are capable of being taught to 
carry out their master's will. 

As a matter of course, the various varieties of field-dogs 
are those which mostly come under the control of the 



breaker, and it naturally follows that their education is con- 
ducted on more advanced principles than that of animals 
which are only taught to retrieve or to behave themselves 
in an obedient manner in the streets. At the same time, the 
preliminary principles are similar in all cases when a dog 
is being brought under proper control, the first step to be 
taken being to teach the puppy to come to heel when 
ordered to, and not to run riot. In order to accomplish 
this the best course to take is to take a long thin line of 
about ten or a dozen yards in length and to fasten one 
end in a running noose round the pupil's neck, the other 
end being secured to the owner's wrist, with the slack 
coiled up loosely and carried in his hand. Then if the 
dog bolts and pays no attention to the command to return, 
he is pulled up sharply when he gets to the end of the 
line, and the running noose tightening round his neck 
adds to the discomfort of the position, with the result that 
after a few lessons most dogs abandon the practice of 
bolting. The check line should not be stouter than is 
necessary, and its thickness must depend upon the size 
and strength of the dog ; but it may be pointed out that 
the thinner it is the more effectively the slip-knot w^ill run, 
and hence the severer the lesson it teaches. 

Thrashing a dog which possesses a disposition to bolt 
is a form of correction which is calculated to defeat its 
object, as the animal is likely to become afraid of his 
owner and to associate him with punishment ; whereas 
in the case of the check line being used, he will connect 
the discomfort he experiences with the offence of dis- 
obedience, and be rather inclined to regard his owner, 
who loosens the cord round his throat, in the light of a 
friend in need. 

When the pupil has been brought completely under 
control, and yet on friendly terms with his breaker, it will 
be time to instruct him in the art of finding birds. This, 
however, is best left to a professional breaker, as few 
amateurs are capable of the task. 



Breeching. — The term applied to the tan -coloured 
hairs which sometimes appear on the thighs of a black- 
and-tan terrier, and constitute a serious fault. (See Black- 
and-Tan Terrier.) 

Breeds. — It is unnecessary to give a detailed list of 
the various varieties of dogs here, as all of the important 
breeds are dealt with under their respective headings. It 
may be mentioned, however, that the canine race is 
divided for the purposes of classification into two cate- 
gories — the sporting and the non-sporting ; and speaking 
generally, there is not much objection to be taken to the 
arrangement, although in some instances the classification 
might be amended with advantage. 

Breeding. — Most dog-lovers at one time or another 
develop into breeders, as the temptation to raise a few 
puppies is too great for them to resist. It may be there- 
fore suggested, if it is possible so to arrange matters, that 
the spring is the best time of the year for the brood bitch 
to visit the stud dog, as the period of gestation being sixty- 
three days, the puppies then get all the summer to grow 
strong in ; whereas, if they come into the world in the 
autumn or winter, their health and development are liable 
to become affected by the cold. It must be borne in mind, 
however, that the bitch is not at all times willing to receive 
the dog, the periods of her doing so being usually at in- 
tervals of six or four months, but they are irregular. The 
preliminary symptoms are unmistakable, the organ of sex 
in the first instance becoming swollen, and this being 
followed by a discharge tinged with blood. At the end 
of three or four days the latter will gradually subside, 
and immediately the discharge ceases is the best time for 
mating. Of course the bitch is willing to receive the dog 
before this, but if the dog is kept away until the discharge 
has ceased better results are likely to be secured. 

As a general rule, it is unwise to mate two old animals ; 



there should be youth on the other side if a dog or bitch of 
four or five years old is being bred from ; but, on the other 
hand, two middle-aged animals may be put together with- 
out any harm coming of it. If this advice is not followed 
there is always a chance of the puppies being weak, and 
in the case of an old bitch, the yield of milk may be scanty 
or deficient in nutriment. In such a case the services 
of a foster-mother may be secured, and if so, it is neces- 
sary that she should have whelped at about the same date 
as the dam of the puppies, as the yield and quality of the 
milk becomes altered as time goes on. At all events, she 
should not have had her puppies a week or two before her 
foster-children are born. 

The puppies come into the world blind, and remain so 
for several days, and their noses are almost invariably pink, 
becoming spotted at first and finally black in most cases, 
but not always so. If the mother has plenty of milk for 
them, the owner can easily satisfy himself upon this point, 
and if the quality of it is good, as the condition of the 
puppies will soon show, they will not require any extra 
feeding at first, and the more quiet they get the better. If, 
on the other hand, it is obvious that they are not thriving, 
and a foster-mother cannot be procured, they may be fed 
from an ordinary feeding-bottle on Spratt's Patent Orphan 
Puppy Food, or Spratt's Malt Milk with excellent results. 
In the case of the larger varieties, the services of a goat 
may be found useful, the writer having employed these 
animals with most satisfactory results in the case of grey- 
hounds, by laying the goat on her side and holding her 
down while the youngsters sucked her, two at a time. 

As the puppies become older, it is necessary that they 
should be supplied with food by their attendant, in order 
that they may learn to feed by themselves before they are 
weaned, and to prevent their taxing the strength of their 
dam too much. The best food for them in this connec- 
tion is Spratt's puppy biscuits, given as directed, or Spratt's 
*' Ovals " mixed with gravy or broth ; but in any case the 



feeds should be small and frequent, the precaution being 
taken to leave nothing standing by them lest it should turn 
sour and upset their stomachs. 

No doubt many puppies suffer in their youth from being 
allowed to roam about on a cold floor, and in order to 
avoid trouble in this respect the low bench upon which 
their bed is placed should be of wood, and the floor of their 
shed should be covered with peat-moss or sawdust to keep 
them warm. It may here be observed that it is always 
best for the bitch to be confined in a warm and dry, but 
well-ventilated shed whilst she is devoting her attention 
to maternal duties ; and if the window is so placed that the 
sun can enter the place it will be all the better, as sunshine 
and fresh air are both great factors in the development of 
puppies. (See Brood-Bitchy In-breeding, Puppies, Selecting a 
Stud Dog.) 

Breeders' Societies. — Of late years most breeds of dogs 
are honoured by having a Society — some favoured varieties 
have two or more — devoted to their interests, and beyond all 
doubt these bodies work hard in favour of their protegees, 
who owe much of the popularity they enjoy to the good 
offices of their friends. Whether the best interests of the 
canine race are advanced by the existence of specialist 
clubs is, however, another matter, upon which opinions 
differ, and there is certainly justification for the belief that 
some of the good old English breeds have suffered severely 
from the support given to foreign varieties which have 
been favoured by the influence of powerful clubs. There 
is, moreover, always the prospect of a specialist society 
developing into a clique, and by its influence compelling 
breeders to accept their views regarding the alteration of 
the points of an old-established variety which had existed 
and flourished long before the would-be reformers ever 
owned a dog at all. 

Brick Paving. — This is a thoroughly bad form of paving 
for kennels, as not only does the porous nature of the 



bricks absorb the moisture, but unless they are very care- 
fully laid their surface soon becomes uneven, and thus 
allows the water to accumulate and not run off as it 
should. (See Floors.) 

Broken Colour. — A dog is said to be broken in colour 
when his otherwise dark coat is marked with white 

Broken Ribs are matters of not infrequent occurrence 
amongst dogs, and may be caused by a blow or kick. 
They should be attended to promptly, and pending the 
arrival of a veterinary surgeon may be treated by winding 
a wide linen bandage very tightly round the dog's body, 
and fastening it with safety-pins. (See Fractu7xs,) 

Bronchitis. — Many dogs which are confined in damp 
and draughty kennels lose their lives through an attack of 
bronchitis, the existence of which can be detected by a 
wheezy rattling in the throat and laboured breathing, 
accompanied by efforts to cough up phlegm. In such 
cases the patient should be removed to a warm — not hot — 
and airy shed or room, and if possible a kettle should be 
kept as long as possible on the boil in it, so that the atmos- 
phere will be rendered moist, as in cases in which human 
beings are the subject of attack. This disease is fully dealt 
with by Mr. Sewell in ''The Dog's Medical Dictionary." 
(See Hospital.) 

Bronzed when tan-coloured hairs appear amongst the 
black ones, as, for instance, they sometimes do behind the 
ears of a black-and-tan terrier, the dog is said to be 

Brood Bitch. — The selection of a brood bitch in cases 
where a person desires to make money out of her puppies 
is not so easy a task as the inexperienced may imagine. In 



the first place, her robustness of constitution, freedom from 
hereditary disease, present state of health and age, are all 
matters which have to be seriously considered, and when 
these are all satisfactory, her owner will have to exercise 
care in providing her with a mate whose blood will ''nick" 
with heVs. This is not always an easy matter, as it is well 
known to breeders that some families never cross well with 
each other, and it is far more important that the blood of 
the dog should suit the bitch, than that he should possess 
certain good points which she does not. Of course, 
assuming that the breeding of the dog is satisfactory, it is 
highly desirable that his perfections should be regarded 
from the' point of view of their being likely to correct the 
faults she may possess ; but it should always be remembered 
that an animal may not be a true representative of the 
family he belongs to, and if so, it is quite probable that 
certain characteristics of his strain, which he does not dis- 
play himself, may appear in his offspring, and hence the 
importance of ascertaining what the parents and other 
relations of the dog are like before deciding to breed from 

Assuming that the brood bitch is safe in pup, it is 
necessary to treat her carefully for the latter half of the 
nine weeks' period of gestation. At no part of it, however, 
ought she to have her energies overtaxed by too much 
hard work, but during the last few weeks she requires 
special attention. For instance, she ought not to be 
allowed to jump on and off a high bench, and therefore 
her bed should be made on the floor, care being taken to 
place some boards, nailed to a piece of quartering, under- 
neath the straw if the pavement is of any cold material, 
such as concrete, brick, or asphalt. It is desirable also 
that she should be placed in the kennel in w'hich it is 
intended that she shall have her pups, some time before 
the event is anticipated, as some animals take a long time 
in settling down in new quarters. The breeding kennel 
should be fairly roomy, w^ell lighted, and isolated, so that 

33 c 


the bitch will not be disturbed by other dogs, and if it 
opens on to a sunny yard where the puppies can be let 
run when they are strong enough so much the better. 
Previous to the time of whelping the bitch will be all the 
better for a little addition to her food, and she should be 
allowed a reasonable amount of exercise every day. 

The day before she is due to whelp a dose of sweet-oil 
or of glycerine may be given to the bitch, and a plentiful 
supply of clean straw may be placed on her bench on the 
floor, so that she can prepare the bed for the expected 
young. This she will do by turning round and round until 
a circular nest is formed, with all the straw removed from 
the bottom of it, so that the puppies actually lie on the 
boards, this being no doubt an arrangement of nature to 
facilitate cleansing operations. It moreover proves the 
necessity of having a wooden floor beneath the puppies, as 
stonework of any kind would be too cold for them. 

Provided that all is proceeding as it should, the less the 
bitch is interfered with at the time of labour the better ; but 
she must be watched in case complications occur, in which 
event professional assistance should be secured by the 
amateur. A clean trough of fresh cold water should be 
within easy reach of her, and when her troubles are over 
she should be supplied with properly cooked gruel at 
frequent intervals. If there are any dead puppies they 
should be removed, this being a task of some difficulty, as 
the mothers often resent the act, and there is always a 
chance of an irritable bitch destroying her young if she is 
not left quiet for a few days after they are born. 

The above suggestions as to the management of the 
brood bitch will meet any ordinary case, but it may be 
pointed out that there are always chances of complications 
arising which may lead to the loss of the bitch or her 
puppies. Therefore, if there are any signs of difficulty, the 
inexperienced owner should at once seek advice, profes- 
sional if possible, if not that of some practical person. 
(See Breedings Puppies^ Selecting a Stud Dog, Weaning.) 



Broth is a form of nourishment to which dogs are 
mostly very partial, and it possesses the additional advan- 
tage of being good for them. Bullocks and sheeps' heads 
are the best materials of which to make it. They should 
be cooked very slowly, and afterwards turned out with 
the broth into another vessel to cool, as if allowed to 
remain in the copper or saucepan in which they were 
boiled the whole mixture is likely to turn sour. (See 

Bruises constitute a common cause of trouble amongst 
dogs, and may be the result of intentional or accidental 
injuries. In some cases the skin is broken, in which event 
the part may be fomented to cleanse it and allay the 
inflammation, and then a soothing dressing may be applied, 
and if possible it should be bandaged. The treatment of 
a bruise when the skin is not broken consists of fomenta- 
tions, after which the swelling may be gently dried with a 
soft cloth. 

Brushes form a very important part of the requisites of 
a kennel which contains show dogs, as they assist the 
owner in keeping the coat in good order and the skin 
clean. Many persons, of course, use ordinary hairbrushes 
for the above purpose, but the following are better. For 
the large, smooth-coated varieties, a body brush, such as 
grooms use for dressing horses ; for rough-coated breeds, 
a dandy brush, this being a longer haired one ; for curly- 
coated dogs, a water-brush ; and for the toy varieties, a 
so-called balloon brush, which consists of an oval-shaped 
long bristled one, rather soft, and so made that the bristles 
in the centre are longer than those at the sides. These 
brushes are specialities of such firms as Spratt's Patent, 
who manufacture them in various sizes. Brushes with 
wire bristles are occasionally used w^hen obstinate patches 
of superfluous hair have to be removed. (See Brushing, 
Cleansing the Coat, Grooming, Preparing for Shows.) 



Brushing. — It is always better to brush a dog's coat 
than to comb it, as if the hair is matted the comb is Hable 
to pull it out in tufts, and its teeth sometimes irritate a 
delicate skin. Brushing, moreover, if thorough, will im- 
prove the appearance and condition of the coat, and 
generally conduces to the comfort of the animal. (See 
BrusheSy Combings Grooming^ Preparing for Shows.) 

Bucket Muzzle consists of a leather tube, with holes 
pierced in it to enable its wearer to breathe, which fits over 
the muzzle. It is chiefly worn by whippets in training, as 
it provides an absolute prevention against their picking up 
any undesirable food. (See Muzzling, Tape Muzzle^ 

Bull-baiting is a form of sport in which our ancestors 
ind'^lged, but is now unknown, though the stakes to which 
the bulls were fastened are still to be seen in some parts of 
the country. Contrary to general belief, the bull was not 
loose when the dogs were slipped at him, but fastened to a 
post by a strong line. The dogs were then encouraged to 
go for him and pin him by the nose, their object being 
to bring him on to his knees. (See Bulldog.) 

Bulldog. — The so-called national dog of England is a 
very different sort of animal to what he was in the old bull- 
baiting days, or even forty years ago, as he has lost much 
of his old activity, though happily his courage has not been 
generally or materially affected by the changes which have 
been effected in him. There is no reasonable ground for 
doubting that he and the mastiff are both descendants of 
the ancient mastiff or bandogge which was bred by our 
ancestors, and highly prized by them on account of its 
courage and ferocity. The bulldog of a hundred years ago 
was, moreover, a leggier and longer-faced dog than those 
which are now to be seen. He also weighed a good deal 
heavier, and was a far more active, able-bodied animal than 
many of the modern cracks, some of which have such mal- 



formed limbs as to be almost incapable of jumping on or 
off a bench. In fact, so far as any approach to utility is 
concerned, comparisons are all in favour of the bygone 
type, the latter-day development of which has produced 
little else but a clumsy lap-dog. 

Undoubtedly, however, the modern bulldog is more 
fortunate in his associations than his ancestors were, as his 
patrons of the past were certainly not of a very desirable 
type of humanity, and his connection with them brought 
the dog a bad name, which was not his fault. The bulldog, 
moreover, is regarded by many persons, who are incapable 
of discriminating between courage and ferocity, as a most 
dangerous and evil-dispositioned dog ; whereas he is 
nothing of the sort, though of course, as in the case of 
every breed, there are some bad-tempered specimens to be 
met with. As a matter of fact, the bulldog is very slow to 
anger, and a most safe companion for children ; but should 
his passions be aroused by teasing or an attack from some 
other dog, his immense courage renders him an extremely 
formidable opponent, especially as his intelligence is not 

The head of a bulldog should be large and square, 
wide between the ears, and flat at the top, the temples 
being prominent, and there being strongly developed 
bumps on the cheeks at the base of the jaws. The 
eyes should be rather full, round, and dark in colour, 
with an indentation between them known as the '' stop " ; 
whilst the nose, which must be black — a butterfly or 
Dudley nose being a very bad fault indeed — is large, 
with well-developed nostrils and laid well back, the 
muzzle being short, and well filled up under the eyes. 
The under jaw, which projects in front of the upper 
one, is very wide, and ought to turn rather upwards, 
and the lips, or " chop," should be heavy ; the skin on 
the skull and muzzle being heavily wrinkled ; whilst the 
ears, which should be small, are set on high and wide 
apart at the corners of the skull. The best shape of the 



ear is that known as the *^ rose," it being formed so that 
the tips turn backwards, and thus show the inside burr. 

The neck is short and massive, and carries a double 
dewlap, whilst the chest is wide and deep, the ribs well 
rounded, and the back short and ^^ wheel " or ^' roach" 
shaped, that is, higher at the loins — which are slender, 
though powerful — than it is at the shoulders, and grace- 
fully curved, not rising in a straight line. The fore-legs are 
short, straight, and very heavy in bone, the muscles on the 
outside being so strongly developed as to produce an 
appearance of crookedness, but crooked fore-legs or ankles 
are very bad points in connection with a bulldog, and 
should not be encouraged. The forefeet should be round, 
of good size, and compact, a splayed foot being a nasty 
fault ; the stifles and hocks of the hind-legs should be rather 
straight, and the latter slightly turned in ; whilst the tail, 
which ought to be set on low, is short and fine, and 
incapable of being carried over the back ; it is also more 
or less crooked as a rule. 

The coat is short and rather fine, but not silky, the 
best colours being brindle, fawn, red, and white, but 
brindle-pieds, fawn-pieds, and red-pieds all have their 
admirers. Black markings, excepting on the muzzle, in 
which case the dogs bearing them are referred to as smuts, 
should disqualify any bulldog, and so should a light- 
coloured eye, or deformed legs. The weight varies from 
22 lbs. to 60 lbs., but from 45 lbs. to 50 lbs. for a dog, and 
from 40 lbs. to 50 lbs. for a bitch are the best weights. 
(See Butterfly Nose^ Chop, Dudley Nose.) 

Bull Terrier. — This most symmetrically built, graceful- 
looking breed is a relic of the old dog-fighting days, when 
the votaries of that abominably cruel sport produced a 
canine gladiator which possessed the courage of the bull- 
dog combined with the activity of the terrier by crossing 
the two varieties together. The result was an animal which 
would face anything, and hold his own with most ; but 



he was altogether lacking the grace and symmetry of the 
modern bull terrier, as his head was shorter and thicker, 
and his body more cumbersome than those of the latter. 

The head of the bull terrier should be long, flat, and 
lean, very gradually tapering from the back of the skull 
and the cheeks to the nose, very powerful at the jaws, 
and well filled in under the eyes. There should be no 
approach to cheek bumps, as in the case of the bulldog ; 
the upper and lower jaw should be absolutely level, and 
the nose jet-black; whilst the lips should be tight, just 
covering the teeth, and without any approach to the heavy 
chop which distinguishes the bulldog. The ears are fine, 
and usually carried erect ; the eyes must be jet-black, 
small, almond-shaped, and set rather obliquely ; the neck 
being long and powerful, but quite free from loose skin 
or any approach to a dewlap. The shoulders slope nicely ; 
the chest is wide and deep ; the back being short and level ; 
and the body well ribbed up at the loins. The fore-legs 
should be dead straight, of a fair length, and set well on 
under the dog, the feet being round and compact, whilst 
the hind-legs are rather straight and well let down at the 
hocks ; the tail being fine, short, and carried straight out 
without any approach to a curl. The coat is short and 
inclined to be harsh, and the only recognised colour for 
exhibition purposes pure white ; whilst the weight varies 
from i6 lbs. to 60 lbs. 

Bullocks' Heads form a first-rate food for dogs. They 
should be gently simmered in a copper, and when cooked 
the meat may be cut off and mixed with the biscuits, meal, 
and vegetables upon which the dogs are fed. When cooked 
the heads and broth should be turned out into another 
vessel to cool, else they will turn sour. (See Feeding.) 

Bumpy. — A dog is said to be bumpy in his head when 
the protuberances on his cheeks are prominent, as in the 
case of the bulldog. (See Cheek Bmnps.) 



Burns. — When a dog is suffering from the effects of a 
burn, the object of those in charge of him should be to 
keep the air from the part and to reduce the inflammation ; 
this can be accomplished in simple cases by applying 
Hnseed-oil at frequent intervals. Severe burns should be 
attended to by a professional man. 

Butterfly Nose. — A nose which is not all black, but 
disfigured by pink specks or markings. (See Dudley Nose.) 

Button Ear. — An ear the tip of which points down- 
wards, so as to conceal the inner burr. (See Rose Ear^ 
Tulip Ear.) 

Buying a Dog. — The best advice that can be given to a 
would-be purchaser of a dog, who may not possess much 
experience of the canine race and their human friends, is to 
go to a respectable dealer, and never to buy a dog at a show. 
There are plenty of the former to be found who will serve 
a customer well, if only from the hope of favours to come ; 
but dogs which are exhibited are in so many cases shame- 
fully trimmed, that when their coats grow again they are 
scarcely recognisable. Many breeders decline to part with 
the dogs they do not require for exhibition purposes, lest 
they should fall into the hands of opponents who might 
breed from them ; but of course, if any of their superfluous 
stock can be purchased, a bargain may be secured, though 
as a rule show dogs are not worth much for working 

Buying a puppy is always a rather difficult task even 
for an expert, as dogs change so much after they have 
passed the earlier stages of their existence, and some 
breeds do not arrive at maturity until they are two years 
old. If the assistance of some one who understands the 
variety of which the novice is anxious to possess a speci- 
men can be secured, it will therefore be of use to the 
purchaser, who, however, should make it a rule to avoid 



the amateur dog-dealer as much as he can, and most 
particularly the person who always knows a man who 
happens to have for sale exactly the sort of animal his 
friends may require. (See Selling, Trimming.') 

Calculus. — Dogs often suffer a good deal from stone in 
the kidneys, the presence of which can be detected by the 
evident pain they are enduring and the mixture of blood 
in their urine. The best thing to do is to apply flannels 
wrung out in boiling water and sprinkled with turpentine 
to the loins, and to administer opening medicine ; but 
professional advice should be sought. 

Canker in the Ear produces considerable pain if 
neglected, as it is caused by inflammation of the internal 
passages, which frequently produces a very offensive dis- 
charge. The treatment is to syringe out the ear first with 
warm water, and then with a zinc or alum lotion. If there 
are ulcers, they may be lightly touched with caustic ; and 
in all cases a canvas cap should be worn over the head, 
and secured by tapes to prevent the dog from scratching 
the ears and increasing the inflammation thereby. 

Canker in the Mouth is usually a result of decayed 
teeth, and if not attended to is likely to affect the dog's 
health, as he becomes unable to masticate his food. The 
decayed teeth should be extracted, and the remaining ones 
freed from tartar, if any has accumulated on them ; but 
this is obviously the task of a professional man. A mild 
course of physic may also be given, and the food should 
be soft. 

Cantharides is a useful stimulant for the growth of 
hair and as an ingredient of a blister, but should on no 



account be administered internally by the amateur dog- 
owner unless under professional advice. 

Capillaries. — The small blood-vessels. (See Arte7'ieSy 

Capsules. — The administration of medicine to dogs, 
and particularly castor-oil, is made much easier by the 
use of capsules, which also are easily carried about when 
journeys are being made, and hence are available for use 
in times of emergency. It is essential, however, that their 
contents should be fresh, as some drugs lose their efficiency 
if kept too long. 

Carbolic Acid. — A most useful disinfectant for use in 
kennels. It is also a good lotion to apply to wounds 
which require cleansing, in the proportion of one part 
to twenty-five of ohve oil. 

Carlin. — The name by which the pug-dog was known 
in times gone by. 

Castor-oil. — A most valuable medicine for use in cases 
of stoppage of the bowels. It may not be generally known 
that if it is slightly heated castor-oil becomes much more 
liquid, and is therefore more easy to administer to the 
patient. (See Administering Medicine.^ 

Cataract. — A cataract is a speck which forms on the 
pupil of the eye, and sooner or later causes blindness, as 
in many instances the eye which is unaffected at first 
becomes attacked. The treatment of cataract is altogether 
beyond the scope of the amateur, and hence the best 
course for him to pursue is to at once obtain the services 
of a specialist in canine diseases, as delays are often the 
source of serious trouble. 



Catarrh, or cold, is a common source of trouble to the 
dog-owner, as an attack may arise from various causes. 
Although not by any means a matter for anxiety in the 
first instance, a cold may lead to serious complications if 
neglected, and therefore if a dog is seen to be ill at ease 
and suffering from a discharge at the nose, accompanied 
by shivering and a loss of appetite, it is as u'ell to move 
him into a warm kennel where he will be quite free from 
draughts and have a comfortable bed to lie upon. Keep 
him there upon a diet of hot slops, such as Spratt's 
biscuits, soaked in broth from bullock's or sheep's heads, 
or beef-tea, to which a little port wine may be added if 
he appears weak or refuses his food ; and watch him care- 
fully in case other symptoms develop. 

Cat-foot. — A round, compact foot. (See Hare-foot.) 

Cement Floors, though very good pavements for outside 
yards, are not nice things for dogs to lie upon — conse- 
quently, if they are in use inside, a plentiful supply of 
moss-litter or coarse sawdust should be spread over them ; 
whilst if the floor of the outside yard is cemented, there 
ought to be a low bench, made of some pieces of board 
nailed on strips of quartering, for the animals to rest on. 
(See Floors.) 

Chaining up Dogs. — If possible, a dog ought never 
to be chained up excepting for short periods, as if he 
is regularly subjected to this form of restraint he is apt 
to wring his shoulders out of shape in his struggles to 
get free, and especially so if he is a young animal. Exer- 
cise should always be given to a dog which is usually kept 
on the chain, it being the height of cruelty to keep him 
tied up all his time without an opportunity of stretching 
his legs. Consequently a fenced-in yard, however small, 
to keep him in is strongly recommended, especially as 
iron hurdles of various heights can be procured very 
cheaply. (See Fencing.) 



Chains should always be provided with swivels at each 
end, and one at least in the middle, in order to prevent 
them from becoming twisted, in which case the dog may 
be strangled. The condition of the spring hooks, by which 

Chain with three Swivels and a Spring Hook at each end. 

they are fastened to the collar and staple in the wall or 
kennel, should be regularly examined ; and in the case 
of savage yard-dogs each link should be tested every now 
and then, as a chain wears thin through friction with the 
ground, and if it breaks the consequences may be serious. 

Check Line. — A long line, with a running noose at 
one end, used by dog-breakers to teach their pupils to 
come to heel. (See Breaking.) 

Cheek Bumps. — The protuberances on the cheeks at 
the base of the jaw, which are desired to be present in 
some breeds, such as the bulldog. 

Chills. — As most dog-owners may be aware, the canine 
race is peculiarly susceptible to chills, which often lead 
to serious results. Hence if a dog is seen to be shivering 
and feverish, he may be moved to a warm but well- 
ventilated kennel and given a mild dose of opening 
medicine to keep his bowels in proper order. Should he 
appear to be very cold he may be clothed, and under any 
circumstances a good bed of clean straw should be given 
him to lie upon, and his diet may consist of gruel, or slops 
composed of broth slightly thickened with biscuit. As 
he may be feverish there should be a vessel of clean cold 
water within his reach, and his condition should be 
watched in case symptoms of serious illness may arise. 
(See Nursing.) 



China Eye. — A blue, opaque-looking eye, which is 
desired in certain breeds, such as the bob-tailed sheep- 
dog. The possessor of a china or *'waU" eye can see 
perfectly well out of it — a fact which may not be generally 

Chinese Dogs. — Of late years several breeds of Chinese 
dogs which were formerly unknown have become ac- 
climatised in England, the most common of which are 
the Chow-Chow and Pekinese spaniel (which see). A 
peculiarity of most of the breeds hailing from the Celestial 
Empire is that their tongues, roofs of their mouths, lips, 
and gums are of a dark purple colour. 

Choking". — In cases of choking, when the obstacle 
cannot be removed by one's fingers, the best course lo 
pm'sue is to send at once for a veterinary surgeon, who 
may get it away by the use of forceps. Sometimes, if the 
dog can be made to swallow a few small pieces of meat, 
they will force the obstacle down, or a piece of greased 
rope, the end of which has been wound round by twine, 
may be pushed down the throat, but this operation is 
neither an easy or a safe one for an amateur to at- 
tempt ; by far the best and most satisfactory results 
being obtained, if possible, by the use of the forceps. 

Chop. — The pendulous lip of the bulldog is known 
as the "chop." 

Chorea, or St. Vitus's Dance, often referred to as 
"Twitch," is a common result of distemper, and practically 
incurable. It consists of a peculiar twitching of the body 
and limbs, which is most usually apparent when the dog 
is asleep; but it does not seem to cause him discomfort 
or, excepting in severe cases, to affect his powers of 
movement ij any great extent. 



Chow-Chow. — The edible dog of China, which has 
become of recent years a great favourite in this country. 
The Chow-Chow belongs to the Pomeranian type of 
dog, but is of a more massive build, and his head is 
blunter. His skull is fairly large and heavily wrinkled, 
and the eyes rather sunken, which gives him a somewhat 
sullen expression ; but though indisposed to make friends 
with strangers he is not a bad-tempered dog, and usually 
devoted to his master. The muzzle is blunt and of fair 
length ; the nose large and black, excepting in the case of 
a light-coloured dog, where it is pink ; the tongue and 
lips black ; the eyes small and dark in colour ; and the ears 
small, erect, and carried rather forward. The neck is 
thick ; the shoulders fairly sloping ; and the chest both 
wide and deep, the body being short and very powerful 
at the loins. The fore-legs are straight and heavy in 
bone ; the feet small, round, and compact ; and the tail is 
carried in a tight curl over the back. The outer coat is 
of fair length, very dense and coarse to the touch, the 
under one being sealskin-like ; the most common colours 
being black and red, but whole-coloured blues, whites, 
and yellows are sometimes to be met with. 

Chunky Head. — A short, thick head. 

Clay Soil. — A clay soil is the worst that can be selected 
for the erection of a kennel, and it should therefore be 
avoided by dog-breeders who desire that their stock should 
thrive. (See Kenne/s, Soils.) 

Cleansing Coats. — Washing is of course the best and 
simplest method that can be adopted for cleansing a coat, 
but too much soap and water is apt to make the hair too 
soft, and besides this, there are sometimes reasons for not 
wishing to wet the dog's jacket. The coats of most dogs 
which are regularly and systematically groomed with 
proper brushes are generally clean, and in the case of 



these it is unnecessary to bathe the animal very often. 
Occasionally, however, it occurs that a dog which has 
just been thoroughly scrubbed succeeds in getting his coat 
discoloured, and if so, a very effective substitute for soap 
and water will be found in flour which has been thoroughly 
baked in the oven. This can be well rubbed into the coat 
whilst dry, and will usually succeed in removing the dirt 
from the dog's jacket. (See Grooming y Washing Dogs.) 

Clipping is an art which is quite beyond the capacity 
of an amateur, and therefore it is fortunate that, with the 
exception of poodles, no breed of dog is subjected to the 
practice in this country. It is of no use to attempt to 
describe the rnodus operandi on paper, and therefore if a 
dog-owner desires to imbibe knowledge in the matter, he 
had best engage a professional clipper to operate upon his 
dogs, and carefully watch the way he sets to work. 

Clothing is by no means a necessity in the case of all 
dogs — in fact, a rough-coated terrier, or a big, strong animal 
of any breed, looks ridiculous when enveloped in a rug. 
The more delicate 
varieties, however, 
derive much bene- 
fit and comfort 
from being clothed 
if they are exposed 
to cold or wet, and 
unquestionably the 
coats of the smooth- 
haired breeds, such Dog Clothing, 
as the black-and- 

tan terrier, are improved if the animals wear rugs in cold 
weather. It is the custom, too, of the trainers of grey- 
hounds and whippets to keep their charges constantly 
clothed and to supply them with waterproof sheets if the 
weather is wet when they go out for exercise. 




Clumber Spaniel. — This is a most important member 
of the springer family, and its chief peculiarity is that it 
hunts mute. The name by which the breed is known is 
taken from that of the seat of the Duke of Newcastle, 
which has always been a stronghold of the variety, but 
very fine specimens have been owned by the Duke of 
Portland, the Duke of Westminster, and other members 
of the aristocracy. Apart entirely from his attractive 
appearance, the Clumber spaniel is valuable as a fine 
worker, but he has never been known as a popular dog, 
as, though his merits are undeniably great, his breeders 
have for the most part been averse to selling puppies 
out of their kennels, the result being that the Clumber 
has not been in many hands. Still all who know him 
best unite in bearing testimony to his value as a field- 
dog, although the peculiarity of the Clumber spaniel — 
the fact that he hunts mute — is one which may not quite 
appeal to sportsmen who love to hear their dogs give 

In general appearance the Clumber is a big dog set on 
very short, substantial legs, but he is far more active than 
he appears, and a very reliable retriever of wounded game. 
His head is broad and massive, with the peak well pro- 
nounced, and a decided stop between the eyes and rather 
heavy brows. His muzzle is very square and powerful, 
his flews well developed, his nose flesh-colour, and his 
eyes a lightish brown — a yellow eye being considered most 
objectionable — fairly large and deeply set. The ears are 
long and carried a little forward, but flat to the cheeks ; 
the neck extremely powerful, as are the shoulders, which 
slope well. The body is very long and massive, broad and 
deep at the chest, with well-sprung ribs and powerful loins ; 
the fore-legs being short and very heavy in bone, and the 
feet large. The tail, which is always docked, is set on and 
carried level with the back ; and the coat is thick and 
soft, though dense enough to keep out the weather, and 
free from curl. The colour should be white with pale 



lemon markings ; the average weight being about 60 lbs. 
for dogs and 50 lbs. for bitches ; the height averaging 17 to 
t8 inches. 

Clydesdale Terrier. — This is one of the most beautiful 
breeds of dog in existence, and it is difficult to understand 
why its merits have not been far more generally recognised 
by dog-breeders than they have been. The Clydesdale 
may be described as a silky-haired, prick-eared Skye 
terrier, and probably the beauty of its glorious steel-grey 
jacket is attributable to a Yorkshire terrier cross. Owing 
to the profusion of his silken jacket the Clydesdale terrier 
is not adapted for rough work, but for those who desire a 
beautiful canine companion, and an active, good-constitu- 
tioned dog, he may be recommended for favourable con- 
sideration. (See Skye Terrier,) 

Clysters. (See Enemas.) 

Coats. — The coats of different varieties of dogs differ 
very greatly in length, density, and texture, although the 
canine race is divided by some people into only two classes 
— namely, the rough-coated and the smooth. All the 
latter, of course, have a great deal in common, in spite of 
the fact that some of the smooth jackets are much softer, 
silkier, and consequently less weather-resisting than others. 
In the case of the rough coats there is far more diversity, 
as some are long and others short, some curly, some flat, 
and others shaggy ; but almost all of them possess a second 
and short under-coat, in many cases as thick and close as 
sealskin, to protect their owners from the effects of cold 
and wet, for most rough coats are more or less open, and 
so let in the damp. 

The care of coats depends a good deal upon the purposes 
for which a dog is kept, as it stands to reason that a show 
animal requires a good deal more attention than the dog 
that is kept, for work and not for ornamental purposes. 

49 D 


At the same time, all dogs are benefited by periodical 
brushing, which removes the dead hair and assists in 
keeping the skin in good condition, thereby improving the 
animal's health. Combing, if it can be avoided, is not 
recommended, as it is liable to pull out the coat in patches 
if it is matted, and under no circumstances should a comb 
be used unless the jacket is quite dry. If the hair is matted 
the hard tufts should be manipulated by the fingers in 
order to reduce them, and it will often be necessary to 
comb them out, as, if it can possibly be avoided, the hair 
ought never to be cut, but the less combing the better. 
(See Brushing^ Faking^ Trimming^ 

Cobby. — A dog is described as being cobby when he is 
compactly built, with a short, well-ribbed-up body. 

Cocker Spaniel. — The smaller varieties of spaniels are 
known as cockers, to distinguish them from the springers, 
which are the larger breeds, the general appearance of all 
the cockers being similar so far as shape and make are 
concerned, though they differ widely in colour. They are, 
moreover, very useful little dogs, being merry workers 
which can be trusted to beat a hedgerow thoroughly ; 
though of course, if it comes to a matter of retrieving a 
hare, they are not the equal of a springer, for the simple 
reason that they have not as much strength. 

The skull is of fair length, and shows a rise at the 
temples, the muzzle being long and slightly pointed, with 
rather tight lips ; the nose being large, and varying in 
colour according to the colour of the dog, being either 
black or dark liver. The same thing applies to the colour 
of the eyes, which should not be sunken in the head, 
and which should possess a soft, intelligent expression. 
The ears should be set on rather low, fairly broad, carried 
flat to the sides of the head, and well covered with hair ; 
the neck is long and clean, and the shoulders sloping ; 
whilst the body is long and well ribbed up ; the legs short, 



heavy in bone and straight, with large, well-padded feet. 
The tail, which is docked, should be carried with the point 
a little below the level of the root ; whilst the coat must 
be dense, not too long, and preferably flat, though a slight 
wave in it is permissible. The colours chiefly met with 
are black, liver, black and tan, roan, liver and white, 
but occasionally lemons and reds are seen. The average 
weight is about 20 lbs., and height about 12 inches. 

Colic is a form of attack to which dogs are peculiarly 
susceptible, as when given their liberty even the most 
highly fed animals are fond of picking up and devouring 
garbage. The symptoms are great uneasiness, accom- 
panied by tenderness of the stomach when it is touched, 
which proves that the dog is suffering pain in that region ; 
and further evidence of discomfort is forthcoming by the 
moans and whines of the patient. Treatment. — A dose of 
castor-oil or some quickly operating aperient, and the 
application to the stomach of hot flannels upon which a 
few drops of turpentine have been sprinkled. 

Collars should never be buckled too tightly ; but, on 
the other hand, if they are too loose the dog will slip 
them and get away, hence the happy medium should be 
arrived at. In the case of some breeds, such as bulldogs, 
it is customary to use a very broad collar, but for the 
ordinary dog one of about an inch is wide enough for 
anything, and terriers require narrower ones. In order 
to avoid injuring the coats of long-haired varieties, such 
as collies, a round leather collar is usually worn, and these 
can strongly be recommended for the purpose. 

Collie. — For very many years past the collie dog has 
occupied the position of a high favourite in the canine 
world ; though it may be added that the patronage bestowed 
upon him by those who do not require dogs for work has 
not assisted in adding to the intelligence of the breed, but 



rather the reverse. This is because the object of breeders 
has been directed towards increasing the beauty of their 
dogs at the risk of lessening their working capacity, and 
hence when there arose a demand some years ago for 
deep-coloured *^ mahogany " tan markings a Gordon setter 
cross was introduced ; whilst in more recent times the 
borzoi has been crossed with the collie in order to increase 
the length of the latter's head. It is perhaps needless to 
add that both these crosses were prejudicial to the interests 
of the true collie, as the introduction of setter blood spoiled 
the carriage and shape of the ear, besides injuring the 
character of the coat and feather, whilst the association 
with the borzoi most seriously reduced the intelligence of 
the collie. 

On the other hand, there can be no gainsaying the 
fact that its connection with the exhibiting community has 
accomplished much towards popularising the collie, which 
thirty or forty years ago was almost exclusively utilised 
by shepherds and drovers. There can be no doubt, too, 
that the variety is a very ancient one, and that the collie 
is a Scottish breed, its intelligence and alertness having 
been highly prized by sheep-minders on the hills of North 
Britain for generations before such institutions as dog 
shows were even thought of. 

The head of a collie is long, flat on the top, fairly 
wide at the back, and gradually tapering towards the 
nose, but well filled up under the eyes. The jaws should 
be quite level, an undershot mouth being regarded as a 
serious fault, as it is suggestive of a bulldog cross, which 
if present would be liable to make the dog unnecessarily 
rough when holding on to a sheep. The nose should be 
of a good size and black in colour ; whilst the eyes are 
close and obliquely set, rather almond in shape and brown 
in colour, excepting in the case of the blue mirles, in which 
one or both of the eyes is ^* china" or *'wall." The ears 
must be small, and should be set on at the top of the 
head near enough together to make the skull appear to 



be narrower than it really is ; they should be carried semi- 
erect when the dog is excited, at other times backwards 
and almost buried in the coat. 

The neck is long and graceful ; the shoulders of good 
length, and well laid back to ensure activity; the chest 
being narrow, but very deep. The back is inclined to 
be long, but the body is powerful, being well ribbed up 
and strong at the loin ; and the back is muscular, with 
a slight rise at the loin. The fore-legs should be quite 
straight, good in bone, and set on right under the body — 
a collie which is out at elbow is an impossibility — the 
pasterns being long, and the feet oval and compact. The 
tail, which is well feathered, should be carried low, except- 
ing when the dog is excited ; whilst the coat, excepting on 
the head and the legs where it is smooth, should be pro- 
fuse, the outer coat being long, close, and harsh, and the 
under one soft and sealskin-like, so as to provide an ample 
protection from the weather. The feathering on the back 
of the fore-legs should not extend down to the ground, as 
in the case of the setter, but should cease a little above the 
pasterns, the hind ones being smooth ; whilst the exuber- 
ance of coat on the chest and neck is called the frill. The 
collie is met with in all colours, but when tan markings 
are present they should be of a light shade, the deep 
mahogany tan being suggestive of a setter cross. (See 
China Eye^ Mirle,) 

Comb. — The best combs to use for a dog are those 
made of metal, with teeth slightly blunted at the point. 
Bone or vulcanite combs are apt to break and become 
useless, and in many of them the teeth are far too close 

Combing. — It is never wise to comb a dog's coat unless 
there are tangles in it which renders the use of the comb 
imperative. The reason of this is that new hair is often 
pulled out or the skin of a delicate animal injured by the 



teeth of a comb, which under no conditions should be 
used when the coat is wet. If, however, there is a quantity 
of dead hair which has to be removed, it will often be 
found that a comb has to be used. (See Brushingy Cleansing 
the Coat, Trimming.) 

Condition. — The best way to get a dog into condition — 
in fact, it may be said to be the only one — is to provide him 
with a sufficiency of wholesome food, a good kennel, and 
plenty of exercise. On the other hand, neglect of the 
above advice will assuredly produce loss of condition 
sooner or later, and very probably a loss of health as well ; 
but it may be added that animals which are required for 
show purposes require different treatment to those which 
are w^anted for work ; and, of course, the toy varieties and 
delicate dogs will not be suited by a course of management 
which is beneficial to more robust members of the canine 
race. (See Exercise, Feeding, Kennels, Preparing for 

Constipation. — Many dogs appear peculiarly predis- 
posed to be constipated in their bowels, and as a con- 
sequence require very careful feeding, as though medicine 
will doubtless remove the trouble temporarily, it will arise 
again in chronic cases, and stronger doses will have to be 
administered. The addition of a reasonable proportion of 
green vegetable food to the dog's allowance at meal time, 
and compelling him to eat it, will materially assist in 
keeping his bowels in order, and if this fails a little flowers 
of sulphur may be given him in his food for a period, and 
will often be found more beneficial than powerful aperients. 
A periodical feed of liver will assist in keeping the bowels 

Contagious Diseases may be briefly described as those 
which are conveyed from one dog to another by personal 
contact, or by coming in contact with people or articles 



which have been touched by a diseased animal. (See 
Infectious Diseases^ 

Cooked Food is generally better for healthy dogs than 
raw flesh, though the latter, if sound and from a healthy 
animal, forms a very welcome change, and in the case of 
some weakly dogs is highly beneficial to their health. All 
meals and vegetables should be thoroughly boiled before 
being given to dogs, and it may be added that no food 
should be allowed to stand for long in the copper or vessel 
in which it is cooked, as it is liable to turn sour. (See 

Corrugated Iron, even when laid upon boards, is not 
a good roofing for a kennel, as, though it is perfectly water- 
tight, it is very cold in winter, and correspondingly warm 
in summer. Sheets of corrugated iron laid horizontally, 
with wirework or railings above, are, however, very useful 
if used as divisions between kennels, as they prevent dogs 
from fighting. 

Coughs, like colds, are very frequent sources of annoy- 
ance to dogs and their owners, but fortunately they are 
generally amenable to treatment, though, as in the case of 
distemper, a cough may be the precursor of something 
more serious. Some excellent advice on the treatment 
of coughs is given by Mr. Sewell in his '^ Dog's Medical 
Dictionary," published by George Routledge & Son. 

Counter Irritants, such as liniments or blisters, are 
used in cases of bruises, rheumatism, and inflammation, to 
draw the inflammation away from the affected part by 
setting up a greater or less degree of inflammation. They 
should be used with discretion, and not when the skin 
is broken ; and it should be borne in mind when they are 
applied that some injuries of the kind referred to require 



far less drastic treatment than others. (See Blisters, 

Couples. — (i) A term that is applied to pairs of hounds. 
(See Braces^ 

(2) The short length of chain, which should be pro- 
vided with a swivel in the middle and a spring hook at 
each end, for attaching two dogs to each other when they 
are being led. 

Couplings. — The term applied to the middle of the 
dog, which; as it were, couples the two ends together. 

Coursing, which has been very appropriately styled the 
king of sports, a few years ago appeared likely to languish 
into obscurity, owing to the, happily futile, attempt to 
establish enclosed gate-money meetings, in which captive 
hares were chased by greyhounds, and which were only 
a degree removed above rabbit coursing meetings so far as 
real sport was concerned. Happily, however, the good 
sense and sporting feelings of coursing men proved so 
averse to this burlesque of the genuine thing that the 
enclosed meetings were quickly abandoned as being un- 
profitable, and with their extinction a fine, manly pastime 
productive of good sport and plenty of healthy exercise, 
took a new lease of life. 

The popularity of coursing, in fact, is made apparent 
by the large number of small meetings which take place 
in every part of the country where hares are to be found 
in sufficient numbers to enable them to be held, and the 
important fixtures, such as the Waterloo Cup and the 
Border Union gathering, attract as many good greyhounds 
as they ever did. It is to be hoped, too, that it will be 
a long time before coursing ceases to exist as a great 
English sport, as it provides an ample fund of healthy 
recreation to thousands of people, and undoubtedly is the 



means of causing a good deal of money to circulate in the 
districts in which meetings are held. 

The technical terms applied to coursing are : — 

The lead, which includes speed, and is valued at 

from one to three points. 
The go-by, when a dog that is a length behind at 

the slip is a length in front at the hare. 
The turn is where the hare is turned at a right 

The wrench is where the hare is turned at less 

than a right angle. 
The kill. 
The trip, where the greyhound touches the hare 

in trying to kill, but fails to hold her. 

Cow Hocks. — Hocks which turn inwards, with the 
result that the stifles and feet are turned outwards. This is 
a source of w^eakness to their possessor, and in many 
instances is the result of bad rearing. The hocks of some 
breeds, however, such as bulldogs, are naturally turned 
inwards. (See Hocks, Stifles), 

Crooked Legs. — In the case of most breeds of dogs — 
Dachshunds, basset hounds being notable exceptions — 
crooked fore-legs are the result of constitutional weakness 
or bad rearing. Consequently, when the legs of a puppy 
display a tendency to become crooked, an attempt should 
be made to meet the danger by feeding the animal 
generously, and giving him a sufficiency of slow, healthy 
exercise. It is essential, too, that his kennel should be 
warm and absolutely dry, and a course of Parrish's food 
is likely to be accompanied by beneficial results. 

Cropping Ears. — This practice is now alike condemned 
by law and by the usages of the show ring, and conse- 
quently as all dogs whose ears are cropped are debarred 



from exhibition is both unnecessary and inexpedient to 
describe the operation. 

Cross Breeding, in the sense of mating two animals of 
different breeds, is productive of no good results in these 
modern days, though unquestionably many popular varieties 
have been manufactured by this means. The latest pro- 
duction of the kind is the so-called Irish wolf-hound, and the 
bull terrier is another case in point, so too is the dropper, 
which is a cross between the pointer and setter ; whilst 
beyond all doubt several other well-known varieties are 
indebted for some of their attractiveness to other breeds. 

Crosses are, however, imperatively necessary for a 
breeder to employ from time to time, as unless some 
desirable outside blood of the same breed is introduced 
into his strain it is certain that the constitutions and value 
of his dogs will suffer from the effects of inbreeding. The 
greatest care should, however, be taken in selecting such 
crosses, as the taint of an unworthy sire may appear in 
his descendants generations after his blood came into the 
strain, and hence not merely the appearance of a sire, but 
his breeding and the peculiar characteristics of the family 
he belongs to, must be the care of every careful breeder. 
(See Brood Bitchy Inbreeding.^ 

Curled Tail. — A curled tail is regarded as a great dis- 
figurement to most dogs, but of course there are notable 
exceptions, such as the pug, the Pomeranian, the Chow- 
Chow, and the Esquimaux. Very few breeds, however, 
possess absolutely straight tails, nor as a matter of fact 
should they do so ; but there is a very great deal of 
difference between the graceful, scimitar-shaped caudal 
appendages of such varieties as the setter, coUie, and many 
beautiful breeds and the frightful curled tails which dis- 
figure mongrels. 

Curly-coated Retriever. — This old breed of sporting 



dog is not by any means as popular amongst shooting 
men as he was some years ago, for the position he then held 
is now occupied by the flat-coated variety, which out- 
numbers the curly-coated dog in the proportion of about 
fifty to one. This is to a certain extent unfair on the 
latter, for even if the allegation brought against him by 
his opponents, who declare that he is hard-mouthed and 
so liable to mangle the game he retrieves, be correct, there 
can be no gainsaying the fact that he was very highly 
thought of by our fathers, or that he is a most handsome, 
intelligent, and sound-constitutioned dog. 

The origin of the curly-coated retriever is rather obscure, 
but undoubtedly the poodle had a good deal to do with it, 
and so also had the Irish water-spaniel. 

Generally speaking, the formation of the curly-coated 
retriever is similar to that of the flat-coated variety ; but 
the former, owing to the comparative shortness of his 
coat, conveys at a first glance the impression that he is a 
lighter-built and more active dog. The head, too, does 
not appear to be so massive, and the muzzle not so blunt ; 
the skull is also flatter than that of the flat-coated variety, 
and the eyes are smaller and darker in colour. Another 
point of distinction exists in connection with the shoulders, 
which as a rule are less sloping in the case of the curly- 
coated breed, not that they can be described as being 
straight, and the ribs are rounder and the chest broader 
by comparison. 

Of course, however, the great point of distinction 
between the two varieties lies in the coat, which in the 
curly breed consists of a mass of tight, crisp curls all over 
the body, the head and muzzle alone being covered with 
short hair of a rather crisp texture. The legs and tail 
are also covered with small curls, which like those on the 
body should be quite close together, so as to form a 
weather-resisting jacket. The prevailing colour is jet-black, 
but occasionally livers are met with, but not so frequently 
as used to be the case. (See Flat-coated Retriever.) 



Cuts may be either punctured, such as stabs : incised, 
which are the results of a clean wound : contused when 
they are associated with bruises, or lacerated when the 
flesh is torn. The first thing to do in either case is to 
stop the bleeding, which may usually be accomplished by 
applying either cold or very hot — not tepid — water to the 
wound either by gently dabbing it with a clean piece of 
soft linen or sponge, or else by allowing the water to 
trickle down on to it from above. This will also assist 
in cleansing the cut from any grit or other foreign sub- 
stance which may have got into it. In the case of a deep 
wound it may be necessary to use a syringe for the same 
purpose, and in a severe one stitches may have to be put 
in. When the bleeding ceases a bandage may be applied. 
(See Bandaging, Bleeding, Stitching Wounds.) 

Cutting Nails. — A dog which gets plenty of exercise, 
especially if it is taken on the road, will generally wear 
his nails as short as it is necessary to keep them. When, 
however, animals which enjoy very little running about are 
concerned, the best sort of scissors to use are the short, 
plier-like apparatus which are provided with a spring. If 
the dog is fidgety when his nails are being cut he should 
be held by an assistant, and in any case every care should 
be taken to avoid removing too much, as if the nail bleeds 
the consequences may be serious, for the wound may fester. 

Cutting" Teeth.: — Puppies as a rule do not suffer much 
from teething troubles, though unless care is taken to 
remove the first or milk teeth when they become loose 
they are liable to interfere with the second ones being cut 
properly, and so the latter may grow uneven, which will 
prejudice the value of the dog. The first set of teeth 
commence to appear when the puppies are a few weeks 
old, and generally commence to become loose and fall 
out when they are between six and seven months of age, 
but the times vary in the case of different animals, though 



most dogs get their full second mouth about the time they 
arrive at the end of their ninth month. (See Puppies^ 


Dachshund. — This breed is essentially a German pro- 
duction, its name signifying badger dog, and it may be 
regarded as being allied to the terrier family, as a good 
deal of its work is performed underground. At all events 
there is nothing of the hound about it, though its earlier 
English admirers appear to have regarded the affix " hund " 
as implying that there is ; for from the first they devoted 
their energies to developing a houndy type of head, with 
a high-domed skull and long ears, whereas the true type of 
German Dachshund represents a flat-skulled, short-eared 
dog. It may be added also that English breeders seek for 
a light-coloured nose in the red Dachshund, whereas in 
Germany a black one is the correct thing ; but beyond 
these points of difference the two breeds are of very 
similar appearance. 

That the Dachshund is a very game dog and a capital 
worker underground is a fact that admits of no doubt, and 
the British visitors to some continental shows at which 
Dachshund trials are held unanimously praise the pluck 
of the little dogs which they have seen tackle fresh-caught 
foxes and badgers in artificial earths which have been 
specially constructed with the view of testing their work- 
ing capacity and gameness. At the same time, his curi- 
ously contorted fore-legs must to some extent affect the 
activity of a Dachshund ; but of him it may be truthfully 
observed that he is both capable and willing to do all that 
the German sportsmen require of him. 

According to the English ideas of the breed, the head 
of a Dachshund should be long and narrow, with the peak' 
at the back well pronounced ; the muzzle long, strong, and 



square ; the nose being black in the case of black-and-tan 
specimens, and yellowish or liver in the case of red or 
liver-coloured dogs ; whilst the eyes follow the colour of 
the coat. The ears, which are long, wide, and soft, are set 
on low and carried close to the sides of the head ; the neck 
being of fair length ; the shoulders rather short ; the chest 
narrow but deep, with the bone very prominent, and the 
ribs well rounded in front and very short at the loins. 
The body is of great length, and the fore-legs proportion- 
ately short, heavy in bone, well clothed with muscle, and 
decidedly crooked at the pasterns, which causes the feet, 
which are of a large size, to turn outwards. The hind- 
legs are longer than the front ones, which causes the 
loins to be arched, and thick at the thighs ; whilst the 
tail, which is long and tapering, should be carried low, 
excepting when the dog is excited. The chief colours 
are red and black-and-tan, but livers, liver and tans, tri- 
colours and mirled-coloured Dachshunds are also to be 
seen, the latter often possessing a china eye. The average 
weight is about 20 lbs. (See Mir/e.) 

Dalmatian Dog, — No doubt a good many people regret 
the fact that fashionable people have for the most part 
ceased to make it a custom of having a Dalmatian dog 
in attendance upon their carriages, as there can be no 
denying the fact that he added considerably to the 
picturesqueness of the best turned-out equipages of a by- 
gone generation. It is remarkable, too, that more people 
who exhibit dogs have not devoted their attention to this 
variety, as a good Dalmatian is a marvel of symmetry 
and a most intelligent animal, whilst, though his spotted 
coat may appear a little singular, there must be very few 
who can deny that there is an attractiveness about it. The 
breed, as its name suggests, is of continental extraction, 
and in its native country the Dalmatian has been, and 
frequently still is, used for finding game, as the nose of 
a Dalmatian is naturally good, though his scenting powers 



have never been cultivated in this country, which is some- 
what remarkable, as the close resemblance which exists 
'between him and the pointer, so far as shape and make 
are concerned, is rather suggestive of a remote family 
relationship between the two breeds. At all events, the 
description given of the pointer on another page may be 
referred to as conveying an accurate idea of the shape 
and make of the Dalmatian dog, but the colours of the 
two breeds vary entirely. In the Dalmatian the ground- 
colour must be a pure white, relieved by round, black 
or liver-coloured spots, varying in size from a sixpence 
to a two-shilling piece. These spots ought not to run 
into each other, but be quite distinct, and should appear 
on the ears, tail, and legs, as well as upon the body; 
but it often happens that the ears are almost black and 
the legs almost white. It may be added that Dalmatian 
puppies are born white, the spots beginning to show when 
they are a few weeks old. (See Pointer.) 

Damp is extremely bad for dogs, and the precursor of 
many serious evils. Consequently the kennels must be 
made waterproof and the bedding kept dry, whilst the 
space outside the kennels should be paved. (See Kennels^ 

Damp Food. — It is desirable that dogs should be 
allowed a certain proportion of damp food, as when they 
are so fed they do not consume so much water, which 
is not good for them. Moreover, as most damp forms 
of food include amongst their ingredients broth, they 
provide an opportunity of supplying dogs with some of the 
strengthening properties of flesh, which if given them 
too liberally is apt in some cases to produce eczema or 
foul breath. (See Dry Foody Feeding?) 

Dandle Dinmont. — Although beyond all doubt Sir 
Walter Scott accomplished much in the way of popu- 
larising the Dandie Dinmont terrier by the references made 



to them in the pages of ^'Guy Mannering," the breed 
possesses so many admirable characteristics, conspicuous 
amongst which are courage and a deHght in hunting 
vermin, that it must always have been a favourite with 
all who love a good terrier. Hence the large number of 
friends and admirers the Dandie Dinmont possesses in 
this and his own country, though, as is only natural, he 
is in greater request north of the Tweed than he is in 

The head of the Dandie Dinmont seems rather large 
for the size of the dog ; it is wide and domed, of a good 
length, and gradually tapers towards the eyes, the muzzle 
being very powerful, and the teeth strong and regular. 
The eyes are set wide apart, and are rather inclined to 
be full, in colour they should be a dark brown, and the 
expression they convey very intelligent. The ears, which 
are long, lie fiat to the sides of the face and are rather 
thick ; they carry a short, velvety coating of hair, and 
occasionally a slight fringe of feather at the tips. The 
neck is short and muscular ; the chest wide and deep, 
and well let down between the fore-legs ; the back being 
rather long and well arched at the loins, from which point 
it falls towards the shoulders and tail. The fore-legs should 
be very short and heavy in bone, with a suspicion of turn- 
ing inwards at the pasterns ; and the feet of good size, with 
thickly padded soles. The hind-legs are longer than the 
front ones, very muscular about the thighs, and nicely 
bent at the hocks ; whilst the tail is of fair length, and 
carried gaily but not over the back. The coat is not very 
long, is thick, close, and pily in texture, and there is a top- 
knot of silky hair upon the head which adds considerably 
to the beauty of the dog. The colours are pepper, a sort 
of dark bluish-grey ; or mustard, a yellowish-red shade ; 
and the average weight is from 22 lbs. to 18 lbs., according 
to size. It may be added that Dandie puppies come into 
the world black-and-tan in colour, changing to the orthodox 
shade after a few weeks. 



Dandy Brush. — A long, bristled, rather hard brush, 
which is strongly recommended for grooming the coats 
of dogs. (See Brushing^ Cleansing Coats.) 

Dare-devils. — A title bestowed upon the Irish terrier 
by some of his admirers. (See Irish Terrier.) 

Deafness may be the result of varying causes, but if 
a dog is born deaf it is not likely that any treatment will 
relieve him of the infirmity. It may be observed that the 
belief exists amongst some people that white dogs are 
more often deaf than those of any other colour, but it 
is difficult to realise that there is any solid foundation for 
this superstition, although no doubt many bull terriers 
were so afflicted, but probably this was due to the practice 
of cropping. Any attempt to cure a dog that is born deaf 
is hopeless, but should the infirmity attack one in after 
life professional skill will in many cases alleviate the evil, if 
even it does not entirely remove it ; but the successful treat- 
ment of deafness is quite beyond the skill of the amateur 

Debility. — When a dog is run down, or is constitution- 
ally weak, it obviously becomes the duty of his owner to 
endeavour to set him up by the aid of good strengthenmg 
food and tonics. It does not at all follow, however, that the 
animal should be placed upon a rich or heating diet — 
rather the reverse — as if he is he may be incapable of 
digesting or retaining the food, which in consequence w^ill 
not nourish him. If the appetite remains fairly good the 
dog may be given Spratt's biscuits, or if he belongs to one 
of the larger breeds, Spratt's Rodnim soaked in strong 
broth made from sheep's heads, to which some of the meat 
may be added. An occasional change to raw, lean meat 
cut up small will be found beneficial, but the meals should 
be small and frequent, as well as varied, as it is a mistake 
to overload the stomach. In the case of small or very 

65 E 


delicate dogs, some lean, raw meat may be cut up small 
and left to soak in sufficient water to cover it for a few 
hours, after which the liquor may be given the patient, who 
will often be tempted by this when he will refuse other 
nourishment. In severe cases, when a dog seems to be on 
the point of collapse, a raw egg beaten up with a little port 
wine or brandy — the former is best — will often prove a 
valuable restorative, and it will always be necessary to 
place the dog which is suffering from debility upon a 
course of tonics. Spratt's Patent supply a most effective 
tonic preparation, which is alike beneficial to the very 
largest dogs and the toy varieties. 

Deerhound. — The origin of the Scottish deerhound is 
a question that has involved a good deal of argument, as 
some persons contend that it is a descendant of the Irish 
wolf-hound, whilst others believe that it is indigenous to 
Scotland, the balance of authority being rather in favour 
of the latter theory. The question, however, need not be 
entered into here, though the regret may be expressed that 
so picturesque and attractive a variety of dog should not 
possess more supporters than it does. Still its value as a 
sporting hound is appreciated as keenly as ever by those 
who enjoy the excitements of deer-stalking, provided the 
deerhounds are not of a too large size, as many show 
specimens undoubtedly are. 

The head is rather wide between the ears, gradually 
tapering towards the muzzle, which ought to be rather 
pointed. It is long and flat, showing a slight rise over the 
eves, and is covered by long silky hair, whilst there is a 
sort of beard under the muzzle. The eyes, either brown 
or a dark hazel in colour, are soft in expression ; the ears 
being set on high, and carried with the tips turned back- 
wards, so as to show the insides, and sometimes when the 
dog is excited they are raised far enough to be semi-erect. 
The neck is rather long, neatly set on to long, lean, sloping 
shoulders ; the chest very deep but rather narrow ; the body 



being slightly arched, with not too much roundness at the 
ribs, but powerful at the loins. Fore-legs rather long, dead 
straight, and heavy in bone, wdth round, compact feet, the 
knuckles of which are well developed. Hind-legs well 
bent at the stifles and hocks, with plenty of length from 
the latter upwards, the stern being scimitar-shaped and 
carried downwards. The coat is hard and wiry on the 
neck and back, but softer on the head and belly ; the 
favourite colour being blue-grey, but fawns are not un- 
common, and any white markings are faults. Average 
height about 28 to 30 inches ; weight about 90 lbs. The 
bitches being less in both instances. 

Dewclaws are the superfluous claws which appear on 
the legs of some dogs above the pastern. There is no use 
for these, and in fact they constitute an element of weak- 
ness, as they are apt to get torn, and so cause ugly wounds ; 
and should therefore be removed. The way to do so 
being to pull the skin as far back as possible from the 
roots and then to sever the ligature which connects the 
dewclaw wath the bone by the aid of a sharp pair of 
scissors. Very little blood is shed if the operation is 
carefully conducted, and the skin on being released will 
close up over the wound, which under ordinary conditions 
will heal rapidly. 

Dewlap. — The loose skin which adheres under the 
neck of some breeds of dogs. 

Diarrhoea is a common form of ailment amongst dogs, 
and a fruitful cause of death to puppies. In simple cases 
a little powdered chalk mixed with their food and rice- 
water to drink will put matters right, but when the 
diarrhoea continues long enough to cause weakness, and 
especially if blood appears in the motions, professional 
advice should be obtained. (See Rice Water.) 



Diehards. — A name applied to hard-haired Scottish 
terriers by their admirers. (See Hm'd- haired Scottish 

Dingo, or Warragal. — The indigenous wild dog of 
Australia, a few specimens of which have been seen in 
this country. There is not, however, much that is attractive 
about the dingo, which is usually of a more or less 
unsociable disposition, though he adapts himself fairly well 
to civilisation. In his wild state he does not bark as an 
ordinary dog does, but after he associates with human 
beings and other members of his species he frequently 
begins to imitate the voices of the latter. In shape the 
dingo somewhat resembles the wolf, but the colour of 
the former is red when he reaches the adult stage of his 
existence, though the puppies are born very dark in colour, 
in fact, almost black. 

Dish-face. — When the muzzle of a dog turns upwards 
at the nose, so as to leave the suggestion of a dip between 
that organ and the eyes, he is said to be dish-faced. (See 
Down-face^ Frog-face^ 

Disinfectants should be in use in every large; kennel, 
not merely in order that the atmosphere of the place should 
be kept sweet, but with the view of preventing infection 
spreading if disease should suddenly break out amongst 
the inmates. For general purposes there is nothing to 
beat carbolic acid, but many persons object to the odour 
of this fluid, and the same may be said of chloride of lime. 
If this is the case an efficient substitute will be found in 
permanganate of potash liberally diluted with water, and 
this will be found to be far cheaper than Condy's fluid, 
which it strongly resembles. Whatever form of disin- 
fectant is used it is always desirable that it should be kept 
in a vessel out of reach of the dogs, as some of the 
remedies employed are poisonous, and none of them are 
beneficial to the animals that drink them. 




Photo by Topical] 


[Face p. OS 


Dislocations are not matters that the amateur surgeon 
can attend to with any reasonable hope of success, and 
therefore in cases of this sort of injury the only course 
for him to adopt is to send at once for professional 
assistance and meantime do the best he can for the patient. 
This consists of keeping the dog as quiet as possible, as 
naturally if he moves about the pain and inflammation 
extend, and the labours of the surgeon are increased, 
with additional suffering to the animal. The part affected 
may be kept cool by the application of wool or soft cloths 
which have been soaked in cold water ; and pieces of fiat, 
thin wood may be collected in order that splints can be 
ready without any unnecessary delay should it be necessary 
to use them. For the same reason it is wise to have starch 
at hand, and bandages also, if there are any on the 
premises. (See Bandages.) 

Distemper. — This is undoubtedly a most fatal disease 
if' it is not taken in time, and many dogs which recover 
from it bear traces of its effects for the rest of their lives. 
It is both infectious and contagious, and hence very easily 
conveyed from an affected animal to a healthy one. As 
a consequence most dogs suffer from distemper. The 
disease usually attacks puppies ; but it is not correct to 
believe that all dogs must have it, and in, rare instances 
an animal has been known to suffer from it more than 

The first symptom of distemper to be detected by the 
dog-owner who is not familiar with the diagnosis of 
diseases is a peculiar husky cough, accompanied by a 
loss of appetite and retching. The temperature rises 
rapidly, indeed the dog has been feverish from the first, 
but the fact has probably not been noticed, and acute 
diarrhoea is usually present. The dog loses condition fast, 
and frequently the breathing becomes laboured. Occa- 
sionally fits occur, and if so the case at once becomes 
most serious, if not positively hopeless, and even if the 



patients recover they usually suffer from chorea in 
after life. 

A dog suffering from distemper should be kept in a 
warm — not hot — dry, and airy room or shed, the object 
of those in charge of him being to keep it as nearly as 
possible at one temperature, and their patient beyond 
the reach of draughts and damp, a stuffy, ill-ventilated 
place being very bad for him. He should stay in it ; 
his evacuations being cleared away as soon as possible, 
and either buried deeply or disinfected thoroughly. A 
nice warm bed should be given him to lie upon, and 
it is a wise thing to put some warm clothing on him, 
keeping it on day and night whilst he is ill, and destroying 
it when done with. 

The patient will lose flesh rapidly, and frequently 
becomes painfully weak, and if so, he may be given a 
little port wine or brandy to revive him. The appetite 
is usually bad, but under any circumstances solid food 
should not be given to a dog suffering from distemper. 
Broth made of heads, in which biscuits are soaked, is a 
good thing if he will take it, but some dogs prefer rice 
or pearl-barley as a thickening. A strengthening dish, 
and a very favourite one with some dogs, is made of fresh 
haddocks' heads, which can be obtained easily of any fish- 
monger, covered with water and gently simmered on the 
hob for some hours until they attain the consistency of 
a jelly when cold. If thoroughly cooked the bones will 
become quite soft and jellified, so as to cause the dog 
no inconvenience when swallowing ; and this food is quite 
easy to prepare, but it takes some time. When the patient 
declines to feed, he may be given strong beef-tea and port 
wine, or eggs beaten up with port wine, which may be 
poured into his mouth from a bottle in small quantities 
at frequent intervals. 

As regards medicine, there are many remedies for dis- 
temper, all more or less efficacious ; but there are few, if any, 
superior to those dispensed by Spratt's Patent, a supply of 



which should always be at hand for use in times of emer- 
gency, as the sooner a distemper patient is treated the 

Good nursing, a warm, dry place to rest in, proper 
ventilation and fresh air, strengthening food of the kinds 
recommended above in sufficient quantities, and plenty of 
fresh milk to drink, are all most important factors in the 
successful treatment of a disease which if neglected may 
cause the death or lifelong injury to a valuable dog. It 
may also be added that the patient should be fed and 
made comfortable the last thing at night and the first 
thing in the morning. (See Nursing.) 

Docking Tails. — A very great deal of well-intentioned 
nonsense has been spoken and written against the alleged 
pain that is produced through docking a dog's tail. 
Whether there is anything but custom that can be quoted 
in support of the practice is another matter, but certainly 
if conducted on intelligent principles, the operation is 
practically painless. The best age to dock the tail is 
when the puppies are about a month old, that is, before 
they are weaned, the way to proceed being to draw up 
the loose skin of the tail towards the body of the pup, 
to feel for a joint, and to cut through at that part with 
a sharp, strong pair of scissors. It is usually the custom 
to remove about two-thirds of the entire length, but this 
must be a matter for the operator to decide. After the 
scissors have done their work there will be very little 
bleeding, and the loose skin which has been drawn up 
will fall back and cover up the wound, which in the case 
of a healthy animal will heal very quickly. 

Dog Baskets should always be used when valuable 
dogs are travelling by rail, as they prevent injuries from 
articles falling on the canine traveller, and when they are 
used he cannot slip his collar and bolt. (See Dog Boxes^ 



Dog: Boxes are not so strongly to be recommended 
for the use of dogs on their travels as baskets, for they 
naturally do not admit so much air, besides which, should 
they unfortunately fall off a height, they are liable to break 
or come open. Some dogs, however, will eat their way 
out of any basket, and in their case boxes must be used. 
If so, there should be ventilators covered with perforated 
iron on the front, sides, and top ; and these should be 
protected by projecting iron guards, so as to prevent any 
other boxes or luggage from being packed close up against 
the dog boxes in the guard's van, as if this is done the 
animals stand a great chance of being suffocated. (See 

Dog Racing, which must not be confounded with that 
abomination rabbit coursing, is a form of sport which 
appeals far more to north countrymen than to resi- 
dents in the south of England. The method in vogue is 
to have each dog held on its mark (the competitors are 
handicapped according to their weights and perform- 
ances) by an attendant, whilst their trainers or owners 
proceed nearly to the end of the track and attract their 
attention by waving handkerchiefs, the wings of birds, 
or other objects which are likely to be easily seen. On 
the pistol being fired the attendants let their charges go, 
and the race proceeds. (See Whippet.) 

Dogue de Bordeaux.— This is a French breed of a 
decidedly bull-mastiff type which it was attempted to 
popularise in this country a few years ago, but without 
success, as the breed is neither attractive nor useful, whilst 
many dogues de Bordeaux possess most ferocious tempers, 
which in the case of dogs of their size renders them as 
dangerous as they are unattractive. 

Doors. — The doors of kennels should always be made 
to open outwards, as in event of a dog being ill and lying 



against the door it is not an easy matter to get to him ; 
and besides this, the opening of the door, if it comes close 
to the ground, as it should do, will disturb the lay of the 
sawdust or peat-moss which is on the floor of the kennel. 
Doors should be secured by two sliding bolts, one a few 
inches above the ground, and the other four feet from it. 
(See Kennels.) 

Down-faced is a term chiefly in use amongst the 
admirers of bulldogs and other breeds whose muzzles 
should be of the retrousse order, to describe an animal 
which fails to show the desired conformation. (See Dish- 
face y Frog-face, Lay Back.) 

Drains. — All kennels in which a large number of dogs 
are kept should be well drained, and if, as is usually the 
case, sawdust or peat-moss is spread on the floor, means 
should be taken to prevent the drains from getting choked 
up. It is most desirable, too, that the outside exercising 
yards should be drained, a gutter will do if it slopes, so that 
the water wall run off, as when the yard is swilled out the 
water is likely to remain in places unless it is removed by 
a broom, in which case the path outside the kennel will 
always be muddy if there is no drain to carry it away. 
The best arrangement is to have the inside drains con- 
nected by short pipes with a gutter running along the 
front of the kennel, which is an easy thing to arrange if 
the floor of the inside kennel is raised a little above the 
exercising yard, as it should be. The outside gutter can 
in turn be connected by pipes with the cesspool or drains 
of the establishment, but the pipes must be well trapped, 
and if a cesspool is used, it should be some distance from 
the kennels. 

Draughts are a most potential source of danger to 
dogs, as even the most hardy breeds, which can stand 
almost any amount of ordinary cold, are liable to suffer 



in their health if exposed to a cold current of air. As a 
consequence, the sides of the kennel should be rendered 
draught-proof, and the ventilators placed well above the 
dogs, in fact, as near the roof as possible. (See Kennels^ 

Dry Food is a very good thing as a change for dogs, 
especially if it takes the form of a big bone for him to 
gnaw. Spratt's biscuits given dry form an excellent sub- 
stitute for the latter, as by gnawing them the dog secretes 
a quantity of saliva which assists digestion, and bones also 
assist in cleansing the teeth. (See Damp Foody Feeding,) 

Dropper is the name by which a dog, the result of 
a cross between the pointer and setter, is known. (See 
Cross Breeding,) 

Dudley Nose. — A yellow or flesh-coloured nose. (See 
Butterfly Nose,) 

Dumb Madness. — A form of rabies in which the lower 
jaw becomes paralysed, so that the mouth remains open. 
(See Rabies,) 

Dyeing. — It is, of course, a most reprehensible action 
to dye a dog, but plenty of cases occur in which un- 
scrupulous persons conceal a faulty patch of colour by 
such methods. The most common offenders are perhaps 
a certain class of people who cultivate black-and-tan 
terriers, which often show tan-coloured hairs on the thighs 
and behind the ears. Intending purchasers of these dogs 
should therefore be careful when dealing with strangers. 
(See Trimming.) 

Dysentery may be briefly described as aggravated 
diarrhoea, in cases of which blood is mixed with the 
motions. (See Diarrhcea,) 



Ears. — The shape, carriage, and position of a dog's ears 
mean very much in the case of show animals, and hence 
the importance of only breeding from parents which are 
good in these points, as a faulty ear is frequently heredi- 
tary. Occasionally the edges and tips of the ear become 
thickened and scurfy, which is annoying to the dog, as he 
is perpetually shaking his head or attempting to scratch 
the places affected, from which the hair often comes off, 
leaving unsightly bare patches. The application of a dress- 
ing of oxide of zinc and glycerine will usually produce 
good results, and a course of cooling medicine will assist 
a cure. (See Button Ear^ Canker of the EaVy Rose Ear.) 

Eczema is a form of skin trouble which is frequently 
confounded with mange, but it is not the same disease. It 
consists of little patches of very small pimples, which set 
up great irritation and cause the dog to scratch himself 
until sore places are formed. The best treatment is to 
wash the dog thoroughly in warm water, using tar-soap, 
and then to apply a lotion of laudanum, 2 oz. ; glycerine 
and carbolic acid, i oz. each ; carbonate of potash 
2 drams; and water, i|^ pints. The dog should also be 
given a course of cooling medicine. 

Eczema, unlike mange, is not contagious. (See Mange.) 

Elbow. — The joint at the top of the fore-leg where it 
joins the shoulder. 

Elk Hound. — This Swedish variety is occasionally met 
with in England at shows, but the breed is in few hands, 
though it has both good looks and intelligence to recom- 
mend it. It is very like the Esquimaux dog in shape, but 
its ears are finer and more pointed ; and the coat lies 
flatter to the body. (See Esquimaux Dog.) 


Embrocations. (See Counter- Irritants^ 

Emetics. — As a general rule it is not a difficult matter 
to make a dog vomit, and this has been a fortunate thing 
for many an owner when his favourite has managed to pick 
up poison. Salt, about half a tablespoonful in a dessert- 
spoonful of tepid water, will generally accomplish what is 

Enemas should be more often used in kennels than 
they are, for they are much more speedy and effective in 
cases of stoppage of the bowels or constipation than doses 
of powerful medicine, which do not act so quickly and 
often cause severe straining, and so may cause internal 
injury. Warm soap-suds, or warm water mixed with some 
sweet-oil or glycerine, in the proportions of about six parts 
of the former to one of the latter, may be referred to as 
constituting useful enemas, the amount of the above vary- 
ing according to the size of the dog. The end of the 
instrument should be greased or smeared with oil before 
it is passed up the rectum, and care should be taken to 
see that the contents of the instrument pass out as soon 
as the bag is squeezed, else air will be forced into the 
bowels, which must be avoided if possible. 

English Setter. — Opinions differ a good deal as regards 
the origin of the setter, but it is to the highest degree 
probable that at one time spaniel blood was largely intro- 
duced into the race — indeed, some persons believe that to 
the spaniel the setter owes his existence. At the present 
time there are three distinct varieties of setter recognised, 
namely, the English, Irish, 'and Gordon ; but the latter 
has of recent years fallen behind the others in popular 
esteem, whilst the English is by far the most favoured by 
sportsmen. No doubt, however, the demand for all the 
breeds of gun-dogs has declined somewhat of late owing 
to the practice of driving game having become more 



generally practised ; but still the setter is in considerable 
request amongst sporting men, and it will be long before 
he ceases to be regarded as a leading British breed and 
a most valuable field-dog. At the same time, it may be 
observed that the constitutions of some English setters are 
inclined to be delicate, this being no doubt a result of the 
inbreeding to which certain strains have been subjected ; 
but the good sense of breeders renders it unlikely that such 
a system will be continued in the future. 

The head of this most beautiful and intelligent dog is 
of the most exquisite grace, the chiselling of the outline 
being a constant source of admiration to those who can 
appreciate the refinement of the model and the wealth of 
intelligence portrayed by the expression of a well-broken 
specimen of the breed. 

English Springer Spaniel. — At the time of writing the 
English springer is more popular amongst sportsmen than 
the exhibitors of dogs, and it is to be trusted, for the sake 
of the breed's working powers, that this may long continue 
to be the case, as it is a first-rate field-dog that has not had 
its abilities affected by the introduction of fancy points. 

The skull is long and broad, slightly domed, and fairly 
developed over the eyes ; the muzzle of a good length and 
breadth ; the eyes of a dark-brown colour and large, without 
being of the goggle order ; and the ears long, set on low, 
and carried flat to the sides of the head. The neck is of 
a good length, and the shoulders slope nicely, the chest 
being deep and fairly wide, the body short, well ribbed 
up, and strong about the loins. The fore-legs, which are 
moderately long, must be straight and heavy in bone, with 
big, round feet ; and the tail, which is usually docked, is 
carried low. The coat is not of great length, but there 
must be plenty of it, and a slight tendency to waviness 
is not seriously objected to, whilst there is feathering on 
the legs all the way down to the ground, and a slight fringe 
upon the dges of the ears ; the most usual colours being 



liver, black, or sandy, either marked with white or tan, 
or red. The average weight is about 35 lbs. (See Springe}'.) 

English Water Spaniel. — This breed is not by any 
means a common one, as most spaniels take well to water, 
and hence the merits of the ancient variety have been 
sadly neglected, though they were very highly esteemed 
by our fathers, who shot game under different principles 
to those now employed. 

The head of this dog as he at present exists is long, 
rather narrow, with a pointed muzzle. The eyes are dark 
in colour and inclined to be small ; the ears, which are 
of medium length, being well covered with hair and set 
rather forward. The neck is long ; the shoulders broad ; 
the chest wide and deep ; the body being round, well ribbed 
up, and compact ; the fore-legs of good length and heavy 
in bone, with big feet heavily supplied with hair ; the hind- 
legs a good deal bent at the stifles ; and the tail is carried 
rather high. The coat, excepting on the skull and muzzle, 
is covered by a series of thick curls of an oily texture, 
smaller curls being on the tail and ears, the favourite 
colours being liver and white, liver roan and white, or 
plain liver, and the average weight about 35 lbs. 

Entering Puppies. — All puppies should be taught what 
is expected of them in after life at an early age, and the 
rule specially applies to such varieties as terriers which 
are used for the purpose of destroying vermin, and this 
is what is known as entering a puppy. In the case of 
a terrier the practice is to commence when he is big 
enough to face a certain amount of punishment, but it 
is nevertheless most undesirable that he should be seriously 
hurt, as if he is it is quite likely that his courage may 
be affected for the rest of his life. At the same time there 
should be no idea of sparing him the consequences of 
any mistakes he may make ; but in order to avoid his 
incurring unnecessary risks through inexperience, it is a 


good plan to let the puppy first see some old dogs at work 
and then for him to accompany them when facing vermin, 
as this will teach him how to proceed, and give him 
courage to face and take his share of punishment. In 
short, it is necessary to proceed slowly at first with the 
work of entering a puppy ; for though some young dogs 
appear to know at once what they should do, others of 
undoubted gameness seem absolutely ignorant of all that 
is expected of them, and in some cases do not even think 
of attacking their opponents until the latter tackle them. 
Consequently no owner need despair of a puppy which at 
first appears to show the white feather or a disinclination 
to work, as many of such puppies prove to be the most 
plucky and determined of all when they once understand 
what they have to do and how to do it. (See Breaking^ 

Enteritis (or Inflammation of the Bowels) is most 
dangerous to dogs, and is usually the result of improper 
feeding. An attack usually comes on suddenly, and is 
attended by fever, shivering, and a very hot nose, whilst 
the stomach is swollen, hot, and hard, and tender if 
touched, and the urine very scant in quantity. The best 
thing for the amateur to do is to give the dog an enema 
in order to open the bowels, and to send at once for a 
veterinary surgeon. (See Enema,) 

Epilepsy. — When a dog is subject to epileptic fits, his 
value is considerably impaired, as he is always liable to 
renewed attacks, and under the best of conditions such 
seizures are dangerous, both to himself and not infrequently 
to those about him. The symptoms are as follows : the 
dog falls suddenly on his side, often at the same time 
giving a shriek of pain, his lower jaw works convulsively, 
the tongue being frequently bitten, and the animal foams 
at the mouth. The limbs twitch convulsively, and during 
the spasms water is sometimes passed and the bowels 
operate. Of course, professional advice should at once 



be sought for, but pending its arrival the treatment to 
pursue is to place the dog in the open air, dash cold water 
on his head, and hold a bottle of ammonia to his nostrils. 
The spine may also be rubbed with turpentine, mixed 
mustard, or some powerful counter irritant. When the 
fit is over the dog appears dazed, and occasionally en- 
deavours to break away or bite those around him, his 
behaviour during and after the attack sometimes causing 
people who do not recognise the symptoms to form the 
erroneous opinion that he is suffering from rabies. (See 
Fits, Rabies.) 

Ergot of Rye is fortunately not a form of vegetation 
that dogs are likely to eat, as partaking of it is likely 
to produce abortion in the case of a bitch in whelp. Still, 
animals w^hich enjoy their liberty encounter some risks, 
as ergot is a fungus which attacks grass, and therefore may 
be eaten by them. It is a poison which, if swallowed in 
large quantities, produces violent abdominal pains and 
purging, which frequently result in paralysis, so it may 
be regarded as a potential source of danger to all dogs. 

Esquimaux Dog. — Of recent years the Esquimaux dog 
has become familiar, as a breed, to many people, owing 
to the frequent references that have been made to him 
by the chiefs of exploring expeditions in Northern latitudes. 
His appearance, moreover, is pretty well known to visitors 
to dog shows, as numerous good specimens of the race 
have been imported into this country from time to time. 
It can scarcely be claimed for the Esquimaux dog, 
however, that his intelligence is great or his sociability 
conspicuous, and he may therefore be regarded more 
in the light of a curiosity here, and a very useful animal 
for draught purposes in his own country, than as a 
companionable animal. 

The general appearance of the Esquimaux dog is 
decidedly foxy, as his head, adorned as it is by prick ears, 



resembles that of the animal referred to. The dog is, 
however, the larger animal, and much more powerfully 
built, and he stands on longer legs. His body is compact 
and powerful, and his tail is carried in a curl over his 
back. As may be supposed in the case of an animal that 
is used for draught, his fore-legs must be straight and stout, 
with compact feet and thickly-padded soles ; whilst the 
hind-legs are muscular and well let down at the hocks. 
The outer coat is of fair length and very thick, the under 
one of the close, sealskin-like character which is carried 
by all dogs that are indigenous to cold climates. The 
colour of the Esquimaux is a sort of yellowish grey, and 
the average weight about 35 lbs. 

Evolution. — Many theories have been expressed re- 
garding the evolution of the canine species, but the 
consensus of opinion appears to be that the wolf, jackal, 
and dog have sprung from a common root, though some 
eminent authorities entertain the belief that the wolf is 
the direct ancestor of the dog. The fact that wolves, 
jackals, and wild dogs do not bark is held by some to 
suggest the probability that these races are not allied 
to the domestic dog ; but against this theory it can be 
argued that these animals frequently attempt to bark, and 
occasionally actually do so, after long association with 
ordinary members of the canine species. Other opponents 
of the suggestion that the wolf is the ancestor of the dog 
maintain that it is impossible that the dog in its almost 
infinite varieties could possibly have descended from an 
animal in which certain strongly defined characteristics 
have been developed for centuries ; but such a contention 
is surely negatived by the immense changes and in- 
numerable fancy points which have been introduced into 
the different varieties and sub-varieties of dogs by modern 
breeders who have devoted their energies to the production 
of show specimens. On one point, however, the authorities 
are unanimous, as they all agree that from time immemorial 

8i F 


the dog has been the constant and faithful companion 
of mankind, that he has proved himself to be the invaluable 
associate of the latter in the pursuit of game, and a most 
vigilant guardian of his home and property. In fact, all 
records tend to prove the estimation in which the canine 
race was held by the earliest races of humanity, strong 
evidence of this being forthcoming through the discovery 
of ancient graves containing the bones both of men and 
dogs. (See Dingo^ 

Exercise. — If more owners could realise the beneficial 
results of healthy exercise upon their pets, there would be 
far fewer unhealthy dogs. There can be no two opinions 
regarding the truth of this, but it unfortunately happens 
that many people who agree with it cannot, or at all events 
do not, give their dogs the proper amount of exercise the 
animals require. A very general impression appears to 
exist, moreover, that a dog should be given violent exercise 
in the form of long runs after vehicles if he is to derive 
any benefit from his outing, whereas the fact remains that 
there is nothing like long, slow walks along the road if it 
is desired to have the dog lay on muscle and keep himself 
in good health and condition. It should not be forgotten, 
moreover, that a dog that is taken for a constitutional by 
his owner travels over a far greater extent of ground than 
the latter does, as he is always tearing about and running 
backwards and forwards, the result being that he covers 
several miles to his owner's one. This, it may be repeated, 
is the kind of work which keeps him thoroughly fit, but he 
should be given an occasional gallop after a vehicle if it 
is desired that his speed should be increased. At the same 
time, few things are more cruel than to chain an unfortunate 
dog behind a dog-cart or carriage, thereby compelling him 
to keep on at a uniform pace in the cloud of dust that is 
raised by the horses and without having the opportunity to 
rest for a single instant. 

Of course it is not within the power of all dog-owners 



to give their animals as much exercise every day as they 
should have. But there are very few people who cannot 
spare a half-hour daily to indulge their favourites with 
runs after a ball, which the animals delight to do, and the 
habit of retrieving it for their owners to throw away again 
is generally acquired very soon. Another way of giving 
a dog exercise in a small space is to suspend a cat's skin, 
a rat in a trap, or some object that will attract him at the 
end of a pole just out of his reach, so that he may be 
induced to persist in jumping up at it. Some dogs will 
keep on trying to reach the object for hours at a time if 
allowed to do so, but of course the amount of this sort 
of exercise must be limited. Small toy dogs can always 
be exercised in a room by being encouraged to run after 
a ball, and certainly will be better for it, as no animal 
however delicate it may be can be kept in health if it 
passes its existence in a life of laziness. (See Preparing for 
Shoiu, Training Greyhounds.) 

Exhibiting. — Of late years the popularity of dog shows 
has increased so greatly that there is scarcely a town of 
any importance in the country which does not enjoy the 
privilege of having its annual show. Whether this is 
entirely for the welfare of the canine race is a matter of 
opinion, as the extension of the show system has unques- 
tionably led to increased attention being paid to fancy 
points and to the neglect of others which are associated 
with working ability. No doubt shooting men have to a 
considerable extent contributed to the decadence of many 
of the old sporting breeds, as the tendency of the times 
is to largely dispense with the services of dogs in the field, 
and hence exhibitors who breed for the purpose of winning 
prizes at shows cannot be blamed if they attach supreme 
importance to the improvement of the appearance of their 
dogs, without regard to their working capacities. On the 
other hand, it may be argued that the constant change that 
is going on in connection with the development of fancy 



points, and the abandonment of others' which used to be 
prized by breeders, is an unjustifiable usurpation of autho- 
rity on the part of those who tamper with old standards 
in their'desire to effect changes under the cloak of improve- 
ments. In one respect at all events those who support 
the modern view are entitled to plead justification for their 
actions, as dogs of most varieties which can win prizes 
have vastly increased in value. Whether this fact provides 
proof that they are better animals than those of a genera- 
tion or more ago, is a matter for doubt. They certainly 
possess many new properties as they have lost old ones, 
and as mediums for attracting the favourable notice of 
modern judges, many of whom possess no knowledge of 
what former breeders aimed at producing, they must be 
pronounced to be distinct successes. The only debatable 
question, in short, is, can the alterations which have been 
effected, and which in some instances have practically 
changed the whole character of a breed, be honestly 
regarded as improvements ? (See Faking^ Preparing for 
ShoWy Trimmmg.^ 

Eyes. — A great deal of difference exists in the colours 
and shapes of the eyes in dogs of different breeds, and also 
in the manner in which they are set in the head. These 
matters are, however, referred to in the descriptions of the 
various varieties ; but it may be laid down that, excepting in 
a very few instances, a yellow eye is a disfiguration which 
detracts considerably from the value of its possessor. 
(See China Eye.) 

Faking. — This expression is one that is generally 
adopted by exhibitors when alluding to certain dishonour- 
able practices which unprincipled persons resort to with 
the object of improving the appearance of their dogs or of 



concealing blemishes. As a matter of course, detection 
leads to disqualification and other penalties, but the fact 
remains that faking does exist, though possibly not to so 
great an extent as formerly. Amongst the practiced which 
constitute this offence against honesty are — severing the 
muscles of faultily carried ears to make them lie properly, 
manipulating badly carried tails, removing patches of 
objectionable colour and superfluous hair, filing teeth, 
dyeing coats, and applying resin or other such substances 
to soft coats in order that they may appear harsh. In 
former days the lip-strings of bulldogs used to be severed 
to encourage the lay back of the nose, but of late the 
practice has been discontinued. (See Trimming.) 

Fat. — A fat dog is never a healthy one, and a stud dog 
or a brood bitch v^hich bears the burden of adipose tissue 
to an abnormal extent is seldom likely to produce puppies. 
Some dogs, however, appear to lay on flesh in defiance of 
all the precautions their owners may adopt to prevent it ; 
but if they are given plenty of exercise, and fed sparingly 
but sufficiently on wholesome food, their bulk may be 
reduced. Raw flesh and dry biscuits are the best things to 
feed them on, and if the dog is in the habit of drinking a 
large quantity of water his allowance may be limited. (See 

Feather is the term applied to the fringe of hair which 
grows on the back of the legs, on the lower side of the 
tail, and on the edges of the ears of some breeds of dogs. 

Feeding. — Upon the question of feeding much of the 
success of the breeder depends, as from the first mouthful 
a dog eats to the end of his life his health, condition, 
activity, and general well-being will largely be affected by 
what he gets to eat. The puppy will not develop if he is 
improperly fed, the sporting dog or the terrier will not be 
capable of doing the work expected of him if he is in- 



sufficiently nourished, and the toy will become a trial 
and an eyesore to its owner if its diet is not based upon 
correct principles. Hence the importance of proper 

It is not by any means a difficult matter to attend 
to the subject properly if a little common sense and 
fairness is brought to bear upon it, and to commence 
with, two important facts ought always to be borne 
in mind — first, that all dogs do not require the same 
course of feeding ; and secondly, that a dog's diet 
should be regulated by the work he has to do and the 
amount of exercise he gets. There can be no doubt 
that, excepting the state of his health ordains it other- 
wise, all dogs are benefited by having meat to eat, but the 
quantity should be regulated judiciously, and the quality 
must be good. For instance, an animal which enjoys a 
great deal of exercise can consume more flesh with benefit 
to itself than one which lies all day long in front of a fire ; 
and it may here be added that a constant diet of flesh, 
especially if it is in the form of a stew and mixed with fat, 
is sure to be injurious to its consumer. 

Hence the necessity of providing a supply of farinaceous 
food for all dogs. This can be given to them in the form of 
meal well boiled in the broth of bullocks' or sheep's heads 
and mixed up with green vegetables (also boiled), and if 
desired, a portion of the meat from the heads chopped up 
small. The above is a very good food for the large breeds, 
and if variety is desired, bread, ship's biscuits, rice or 
pearl-barley may occasionally be substituted for the meal. 
There can, however, be little doubt that for most dogs 
Spratt's biscuits form an ideal form of food, as they con- 
tain meat in different guaranteed proportions, and hence the 
owner knows exactly how much flesh his dog is getting, 
and is able to regulate the quantity as occasion demands. 
These biscuits are equally nutritious if given soaked in 
broth or dry, and in the latter form if placed whole before 
the dogs they fulfil the purpose of a bone, as by gnawing 



them digestion is assisted by the secretion of additional 
sahva, and the teeth are cleansed by the removal of the 
tartar which may have collected on them. 

Horse-flesh, provided of course that it comes from a 
healthy animal, is appreciated as a change, especially by 
the larger breeds ; but there is a great deal of truth in the 
belief entertained by many persons that too much meat 
impairs the scenting powers of gun-dogs, such as pointers 
and setters. Boiled liver is excellent if given now and 


Drinking Trough, 


Feeding Tin. 

then, as it assists in keeping the bowels in proper order ; 
but though sheep's paunches and bullocks' tripes are liked 
by most dogs, they are not a very strengthening form of 
food, and when given they must be thoroughly cooked. If 
boiled up with Rodnim — a speciality of Spratt's Patent — 
however, they can be recommended, as rodnim is most 
nutritious, and especially adapted for the food of hounds 
and the larger breeds of dogs. Fish as an occasional 
change is very good, but it must be thoroughly boiled so 
that the bones will become soft, else there may be cases of 
choking in the kennel ; and bones, provided that they are 
large ones and precautions are taken to prevent fighting 
for the possession of them in cases where several dogs are 
kept together, also provide a welcome variety of diet. 

The feeding of toy dogs is an easy matter if owners 
would only temper common sense with their solicitude for 
the pleasure of their pets, and thereby deny the latter 
things which they know full well will make them ill. 



Scraps from the table, consisting of a little meat minced 
up with green vegetables and bread crumbs, will form an 
excellent dinner for the most delicate of toys, whilst a few 
of Spratt's ^' Ovals " — a form of biscuit specially prepared 
for the smaller breeds — either given dry or soaked in 
malt milk cannot be surpassed for the other meals of 
the day. 

In the case of most healthy dogs two meals a day is 
amply sufficient to keep them in health — in fact, many 
animals thrive better upon only one, but toys and invalids 
demand more. As regards quantity, it must be remembered 
that some dogs require more food than others, whilst there 
are greedy creatures which will always be ready to devour 
more than is good for them. The owner will therefore 
have to regulate the allowance made to each dog by what 
he sees is best for it ; but it may be added that when two 
meals a day are provided, the morning one should be light 
and the evening one the larger. (See Biscuits^ Bones, Prepar- 
ing for Show, Puppies, Shy Feeders ^ Training Greyhounds.) 

Feet. — The feet of a dog are an important point about 
him if he is expected to be active, as a weakness in this 
region naturally incapacitates him from getting about. A 
splay, open foot with thin soles and flat knuckles is 
usually a weak one ; a compact one with well-developed 
knuckles and a thick sole is always the reverse. If dogs 
are expected to work on stony ground a thick sole is 
indispensable, and if there is hair between the toes, the foot 
will be all the better able to stand the strain. (See Cat- foot. 

Fencing. — The fencing which encloses the exercising 
yard of a kennel should always be high enough to keep the 
dogs in ; six feet being quite low enough for the larger 
breeds. The top should be rounded off in order to prevent 
a dog wounding himself if he succeeds in getting his feet 
on it, and if there is a sheet of corrugated iron laid 



horizontally along the bottom, shelter from cold winds will 
be provident, and fights between the members of adjoining 
kennels will be prevented. (See Kejtnels.) 





i : ! ' 1 

. jj. 

J. J., i J, 


■■ "IT ■■ T 

h I .J 


Kennel Fencing, with Gate and' Water Trough. 

Fever. — The presence of fever is associated with a high 
temperature, loss of appetite, and shivering, all of which 
are usually to be regarded as signs of some approaching 
sickness, but it may also be the result of an accident, such 
as a severe wound, in which case there may be less anxiety 
as regards the cause. The reduction of the fever as quickly 
as possible should be attempted ; the most reliable agent 
being, in the opinion of Mr. Alfred J. Sew^ell in ''The Dog's 
Medical Dictionary," pubHshed by Messrs. Routledge and 
Sons, phenacetin, to be administered as directed by him in 
that work. (See Temperature.) 

Field Spaniels are divided into two groups, namely, 
the springers, which are the larger-sized varieties, and the 
cockers or small ones. The former category includes the 
clumber and Sussex, Norfolk and Welsh spaniels, and the 
members of the spaniel family of various colours which 
are of the larger size, and do not belong to one of the 
above four breeds. Hence it has become the custom to 
designate as a field spaniel a springer, which is not a 
Sussex, clumber, Welsh, or Norfolk. Various colours are 



met with in this variety, including black, roan, liver and 
white, black-white-and-tan, but their points are all the 
same. (See Black Field Spaniel^ 

Field Trials are the meetings held annually in different 
parts of the country for the purpose of testing the working 
abilities of gun-dogs over birds. They provide admirable 
tests of the merits of the competitors, and have contributed 
greatly towards sustaining the interest taken in training 
pointers, setters, retrievers, and field spaniels. The oldest 
established meeting is that held at Shrewsbury, it having 
been established over a generation ago, under the patronage 
of Lord Hill and Sir Vincent Corbett, with Mr. S. Ebrall as 
secretary. The popularity of the fixture quickly became 
established, with the result that the owners of the principal 
pointer and setter kennels all sent representatives to com- 
pete in the various stakes ; a wdn at Shrewsbury being 
regarded as the supreme test of a dog's merits in the field. 
Of more recent years many other fixtures have sprung 
up, including that of the Kennel Club and those devoted 
to spaniels and retrievers, all of which are movable 

Fighting. — When two dogs conceive an animosity for 
each other it often becomes a very difficult matter to 
prevent their fighting whenever they meet, and it is there- 
fore most unwise to leave them together in the same 
kennel. Bones left lying about are a very fruitful source 
of trouble amongst dogs, and especially in such cases 
as when one animal discovers the treasure which another 
has buried under the straw on the benches. In ordinary 
street fights the best way to separate the combatants is to 
drag them from off each other by their tails, but if one has 
got a firm hold of his opponent it may become necessary 
to choke him off. (See Bites.) 

Fistula is not an uncommon form of trouble amongst 
dogs, and especially if they are fed upon constipating 



foods. The services of a properly qualified veterinary 
surgeon should be obtained to treat cases of fistula. (See 

Fits are not at all uncommon sources of concern and loss 
to owners of dogs, as in one form or another they are liable to 
attack animals of all ages. Puppies, for instance, frequently 
suffer from them as a result of teething troubles or from 
the presence of worms ; whilst older dogs are liable to be 
attacked by epilepsy and apoplexy. The successful treat- 
ment of fits is, however, a subject which is far beyond the 
powers of the ordinary amateur practitioner to deal with, as 
much depends upon the constitution of the individual dog. 
It is best, therefore, to obtain the assistance of a qualified 
veterinary surgeon, or to peruse the pages of Mr. A. J. 
Sewell's admirable work, **The Dog's Medical Dictionary," 
in which much valuable advice is given. (See Apoplexy^ 

Flag. — A name given to the tail of some breeds, such 
as the setter. 

Flat-coated Retriever. — Of late years the flat-coated 
retriever has become by far the most popular member of 
the family, as he has completely ousted the curly-coated 
variety from the position he formerly enjoyed. The origin 
of the flat-coated dog was probably a Labrador or New- 
foundland and setter cross, and very possibly all the three 
varieties were concerned in his production. At first the 
coat was far denser and more wavy than it is now, and 
this is suggestive of a Newfoundland cross, which, however, 
is not at all noticeable in the modern and fashionable flat- 
coated dog. 

The head in this breed is long and wedge-shaped, flat on 
the top of the skull, and tapering gradually towards the nose; 
the muzzle being long, powerful, and fairly blunt. The eyes 
are of a go'^'^ size, but not too full, the correct colour 



being a dark brown, a yellow eye being a very bad fault ; 
and the ears, which should be V-shaped, lie close to the 
sides of the head. A long, powerful neck is a character- 
istic of the breed, and the shoulders should be long and 
well laid back, as the retriever must be an active dog, else 
he will be useless for work. The chest is deep, but not 
too wide ; the back very broad and muscular ; the ribs not 
being too much sprung ; but the loins, which are slightly 
arched, should be muscular. The fore-legs are set on well 
under the dog, of fair length and heavy in bone ; the feet 
being large and compact, with thick soles, and the hind- 
quarters extremely powerful, with very muscular thighs; 
whilst the tail, which is well feathered, is slightly arched 
near the root. The outer coat is moderately long, per- 
fectly flat and dense, with a close, sealskin-like jacket 
underneath to keep out the cold and damp. The prevailing 
colour is black, but light, golden-liver specimens are to be 
found. (See Cui'ly-coated Retriever?) 

Flatulence. — Dogs often suffer from this to a very ob- 
jectionable extent, the most usual cause being indigestion, 
the result of improper feeding and inadequate exercise. 
The remedy is to remove the cause. (See Indigestion.) 

Fleas are very troublesome to dogs which are not kept 
properly clean and have not their beds changed often 
enough. The best means of eradicating these pests is to 
wash the dogs with carbolic soap in water in which quassia 
chips have been soaked. A small handful of the chips, 
which may be obtained of any chemist, should be tied up 
in muslin and placed in a jug of boiling water until it is 
cold. The water may then be added to that in which the 
dog is washed. {^^^ Ticks y Washing Dogs.) 

Flesh.— Raw flesh is occasionally a very good change 
of food for dogs, provided that it is fresh and comes from 
a healthy animal. (See Feeding^ 



Flews. — The name given to the pendulous lips of 
bloodhounds and some other breeds. 

Flies often cause discomfort to a sick dog, and their 
presence in a kennel is always unwelcome. They can 
be kept away by placing a vessel containing a weak 
solution of carbolic acid in a position out of reach of the 

Floors. — Of whatever materials the floors and pave- 
ments of kennels are made, they must be perfectly smooth ; 
and it is as well for cleansing purposes if they gently slope, 
so that the water can run off. If made of boards or brick 
they are liable to absorb the moisture, which is a disadvan- 
tage ; but the former is the warmest of all floors, and the 
difficulty referred to can be got over by covering it with a 
layer of coarse sawdust or peat-moss. Concrete is a very 
cold flooring for a kennel, though it is an excellent paving 
for exercising yards, and asphalt is preferable, though if 
in use out of doors it is liable to become soft in hot 
weather. Flagstones are in use in many large kennels, 
though they are more costly and no better than concrete 
or asphalt ; but in the case of small breeds a wooden floor 
is by far the best. It may be added that it is desirable 
that peat-moss or coarse sawdust should be thickly spread 
on the floors in all cases. (See Kennels,) 

Flour. — Flour which has been well baked in an oven 
will be found very useful for cleansing the coats of dogs 
which it is not desired to wash. (See Preparing for ShoWy 
Washing Dogs.) 

Fore-arm. — The upper part of the fore-leg below the 

Foreign Dogs. — The rage for foreign dogs which has 



possessed the admirers of the canine race in this country 
for the last few years has undoubtedly been the cause of. 
injury to the interests of many a fine old English breed in 
which our fathers took delight. The increase in popularity 
of the former has, moreover, been coexistent with the 
change that has come over the usages of shooting men, 
who now support the practice of driving game more gene- 
rally than before, though it can scarcely be suggested that 
the appearance of hundreds of foreign dogs amongst us 
is wholly responsible for this ; but the fact is worthy of 
attention. It may also be pointed out that many a breed 
which is now claimed as an English one is of foreign 
extraction, and therefore the expression foreign dog is 
more generally applied to the more recently imported 
varieties, such as Chow-Chows, Japanese and Pekinese 
spaniels, Esquimaux, and other northern dogs. 

Fore-legs. — The fore-legs possess two joints — the elbow, 
or upper one, and the pastern, which is the lower. 

Foster-mother. — It is occasionally necessary to obtain 
the services of a foster-mother for puppies. When this is 
the case it is necessary that the foster-mother should have 
whelped as nearlyias possible on the same date as the dam 
of the puppies, and if she is of the same size so much the 
better. When a foster-mother is used she should be care- 
fully watched when the puppies are first placed with her, 
as some bitches do not take readily to their charges. As a 
rule, however, all danger is over after the puppies have 
been allowed to suckle. (See Breedingy Brood Bitchy 

Fotor, or Comforter. — The name applied to the smaller 
varieties of spaniel in bygone days. 

Founder. — (See Kennel Lameness^ 



Fractures can be detected by the sound of the grating 
of the edges of the bones when the part affected is moved. 
These injuries are of four kinds — namely, simple^ that is, 
when the bone is broken without piercing the skin ; com- 
pound J when the skin is pierced ; comminuted, when the 
skin is pierced in more than one place ; and co?np!tcatedy 
when the surrounding tissues are injured by the fracture. 
The setting of a fractured limb is quite beyond the powers 
of most dog-owners, and therefore surgical aid should be 
at once procured, whilst pending its arrival the injured 
animal should be made to keep as quiet as possible. The 
precaution of getting together bandages, cotton -wool, 
starch, and materials for splints for use later on will save 
time subsequently. 

French Bulldogs. — The attempts made to popularise 
this variety of dog in England have not been associated 
with success, which is not surprising, as the French bulldog 
is not particularly prepossessing in appearance. 

Frill. — The luxurious growth of hair on the neck and 
breast of some varieties is known as the frill. 

Frog-face. — A muzzle which turns downwards instead 
of upwards is thus described. (See Dowfi-facCy Lay 

Full Mouth, — A puppy is said to have got his full 
mouth when all his second teeth have been cut. This 
usually takes place when he is about nine months old. 
(See Puppies.) 

Furnished. — A dog is said to be well furnished when he 
is well filled out all round. (See Made Up.) 



Gall-stones. — Many dogs suffer greatly from the presence 
of gall-stones, which cause considerable pain and tenderness 
in the belly. Hot linseed poultices may give temporary 
relief, but the treatment of gall-stones is rather beyond the 
powers of an amateur practitioner, nor is it at all an easy 
matter for him to discriminate between them and colic. 
Mr. A. ]. Sewell's advice in '* The Dog's Medical Dictionary " 
will, however, be of much service to owners. 

Gastritis is a very common source of trouble to dogs 
and their owners, as in addition to its being the result 
of eating improper food or poison, it may be the result of 
a blow or kick. The chief symptoms are violent retching 
and diarrhoea, considerable fever, accompanied by rapid 
breathing, a weak, quick pulse, and sometimes considerable 
thirst. The dog should be made as comfortable and quiet 
as possible, and his bowels be given as much rest as 
possible, his diet being a Umited one of milk and beef-tea. 
This disease is treated of very fully in '*The Dog's Medical 
Dictionary " (George Routledge & Sons, Ltd.). 

German Boarhound.— A few years ago this dog was to 
be met with far more frequently than it is now, the reason 
for this being that it has been practically merged into the 
great Dane, which variety it resembles in many respects, 
though the boarhound is the far heavier headed, more 
massively built, and less active dog of the two. (See 
Great Dane.) 

Gestation. — The period of gestation in the bitch is 
sixty-three days. (See Breedings Brood Bitch.) 

Girth. — The girth of a dog's body is taken round the 
chest behind the forearm. 



Glassy Eye. — The eyes of many dogs when the animals 
grow old assume a bluish, glazed appearance, and the 
vision becomes impaired. There is nothing that can be 
done to remedy it, though in the case of younger animals 
similar trouble occasionally appears as the result of a cold, 
in which case professional advice should be sought. 

Gordon Setter. — To the infinite regret of many shooting 
men of the old school, the Gordon setter has of late years 
steadily lost ground in the estimation of the sportsman of 
the day. Forty or fifty years ago he occupied a very 
different position, and was in especial request amongst 
elderly sportsmen, as though his powers of scent are of the 
highest, and he is a paragon of staunchness, the Gordon 
lacks the pace of his English and Irish relatives, and there- 
fore is peculiarly adapted to shooting men whose forte 
is not activity. The breed derives its name from the 
Scottish seat of the Duke of Richmond, and a century ago 
no setter was more highly prized than one which came 
direct from Gordon Castle. The prevailing colours were 
black tan and white, and black-and-tan, though of late 
years only the latter are to be found ; and it may be added 
that a former Duke of Richmond, in the earlier part of the 
nineteenth century, introduced the blood of the collie into 
his strain through the medium of a remarkably clever 
bitch, whose intelligence attracted him. 

The head of the Gordon setter is heavier than that 
of either the English or Irish breeds, and rather broad 
between the ears, slightly rounded, and with the occipital 
bone well pronounced ; the muzzle being long and large. 
The eyes are very bright, and sometimes show the haw ; the 
correct ear being of fair length, covered with silky hair, 
and carried close to the sides of the head, but in some well- 
bred dogs they are, comparatively speaking, short. The 
neck is of fair length, and rather heavy looking ; the chest 
fairly wide and of good depth ; the body large and massive 
looking when compared with that of the English or Irish 

97 G . 


varieties ; the fore-legs straight, heavy in bone, and nicely 
feathered right down to the ground, and the feet large. 
The tail should be short, well feathered, and carried 
straight. The coat is long and silky, and the prevailing 
colour of late years a rich black and deep mahogany tan ; 
the latter appearing on the muzzle, on two spots over the 
eyes, on the points of the shoulder, on the fore-legs up to 
the knees, and on the inside of the hind ones. The 
average weight is about 65 lbs. 

Great Dane. — None of the breeds of big dogs has 
made such progress of late years as the great Dane, which 
is undoubtedly a descendant of the ancient Danish dog, 
a variety which was known to, and eulogised by, several of 
the most reliable writers of the past. Some thirty years 
ago a good deal of confusion existed in the minds of 
enthusiasts in dog flesh between the German boarhound, 
which was also an undoubted descendant of the Danish 
dog, and other varieties possessed of somewhat similar 
characteristics. The German breeders of these varieties, of 
which Germany was the acknowledged stronghold, how- 
ever, very wisely decided to unite them all so far as possible 
under one type and name, the result being the great Dane 
or German dog, as he is styled in the Fatherland, now one 
of the most popular breeds in existence, and rightly so, 
as a fine specimen of the variety is the beau-ideal of a 
combination of strength, grace, and activity. No doubt a 
certain amount of prejudice exists against the great Dane, 
which is believed by many people who do not know him 
to be by nature a savage and unreliable tempered dog. 
This is not the fact, but it was so in the case of the German 
boarhound. If, however, the great Dane is properly 
trained and disciplined when a puppy — this does not 
imply that he should be knocked about or ill-treated — 
he will in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred be found 
to be a most companionable dog and easy to keep under 
control. Perhaps the chief objection that can be brought 



against him is the tendency he possesses to become weak 
and crooked about the legs and joints, this being in the 
majority of cases the result of a want of proper food and 
exercise when he was young, as his limbs were not able to 
carry the great weight of his body. Hence the necessity 
that exists for bestowing much care upon a great Dane in 
the earlier stages of his existence. 

The head should be long and flat, with a rise at the 
eyebrows, and a slight groove between them ; the muzzle 
long and of uniform substance, well filled up under the 
eye, and yet free from any approach to coarseness ; the 
lips, though showing no deepness of flew, coming well 
down in front of the nose, so as to present a very square 
appearance. The teeth should be level, the nose large and 
dark, excepting in the case of the harlequin-coloured dogs, 
when they may be butterfly or flesh-coloured ; the ears 
are small, set on high, and carried with the tips forward. 
In Germany it is the practice to crop the ears of great 
Danes, but the custom is prohibited here. The neck must 
be long and gracefully arched, quite free from any approach 
to loose skin or dewlap, and neatly set on to the shoulders, 
which should be long, lean, and laid well back. The 
chest is rather narrow when compared with the size of the 
dog, but very deep ; the back being of fair length, but 
extremely muscular and powerful about the loins ; whilst 
the fore-legs, which should be set well on under the dog, 
are of medium length, very heavy in bone, and dead 
straight ; the pasterns being straight, and the feet large, 
round, and compact. The hind-quarters are powerful, 
showing plenty of muscle, and the hocks, which are let 
well down towards the ground, should not be at all turned 
inwards. The tail, which is rather thick at the root, tapers 
towards the tip, and should be carried almost in a line 
with the back, with a very slight curve towards the end. 
The coat is short and fine, though very thick, and the 
principal colours are brindle, blue, fawn, and harlequin, 
the latter consisting of black markings upon a white 



ground. (See Butterfly Nose^ Exercise^ Feedings Rearing 

Green Food is necessary to keep dogs in health, and 
if accustomed to eat it from their early puppyhood there is 
no dijEficulty in making them take it. The best form of 
vegetable food is cabbage, but some people give their dogs 
quantities of the heads and tender shoots of nettles when 
these can be obtained ; but whatever the green diet consists 
of, it must be thoroughly boiled and cut up before mixed 
with the other food. (See Feeding^ 

Greyhound. — In the opinion of many authorities well 
qualified to express their views the greyhound is the most 
ancient breed of dog in the world, and certainly there 
appear likenesses of a dog of very similar appearance on 
some of the old friezes which have been excavated in 
Eastern countries. There are undoubted proofs forth- 
coming, however, to show that the ancient Egyptians 
possessed a dog resembling the greyhound, which they 
used for hunting purposes, and the speed of which they 
highly prized. Arrian — the younger Zenophon — who wrote 
in the second century, moreover, referred to dogs which 
hunted by sight and not by scent, and it is certain that 
in his day a sport conducted on very similar lines to 
modern coursing was popular in the East. Referring to 
more modern times, it may be observed that Dame 
Juliana Berners of Sopwell Priory, St. Albans, in her "Booke 
of St. Albans," the earliest work of the kind published in 
English, gave expression to a description of the greyhound 
which has become historical. To quote a portion of that 
immortal standard of the breed : — 

" A grehounde should be heeded lyke a snak 
And neckyd lyke a drake. 
Footed lyke a catte, 
Tayllyd lyke a ratte, 
Syded lyke a teem, 
And chyned lyke a beem." 
&c. &c. &c. 



The above represents a very fair description of the 
modern greyhound, the head of which should be long, 
rather wide between the ears, and gently tapering towards 
the muzzle, which is powerful, though a little chiselled out 
under the eyes. The nose is large and fairly prominent ; 
the eyes bright and rather small ; and the ears fine, small, 
and carried with the tips turned backwards, so as to show 
the inner burr, but when the dog is excited they become 
semi-erect. The neck is long, light, and slightly arched ; 
the shoulders very clean, long, and sloping; the chest 
narrow, but very deep ; the body rather long, muscular, 
and arched at the loins, which are deep and powerful ; the 
fore-legs set on well under the dog, dead straight, and 
heavy in bone ; whilst the feet are round and compact, 
with the toes well arched. The quarters are very muscular, 
the hind-legs being bent at the stifles, the hocks being well 
let down. The tail is long, fine, slightly curved, and 
carried low ; whilst the coat, though short and fine, is 
thick and weather-resisting. Almost all colours are met 
with in the greyhound, the most common being black, 
fawn, blue, brindle, and red, either self-coloured or marked 
with white. Weights vary immensely, as first-rate speci- 
mens have been seen which only scaled a little over 40 lbs. 
— Coomassie, who won the Waterloo Cup twice, only scaled 
44 lbs. in training — up to 70 lbs., but about 60 lbs. for 
a dog and 55 lbs. for a bitch is a good w^eight. (See 
Training Greyhounds.) 

Grooming. — All dogs which are required for show pur- 
poses should be groomed regularly at least once a day, and 
even in the case of others the practice is most beneficial, 
as it assists in keeping the skin in good order and there- 
fore promotes health. In grooming, a liberal use of the 
brush is recommended, and the less of the comb the better. 
The faces may be sponged over, and subsequently care- 
fully dried, whilst after the brush has been well applied 
the coat may be well gone over with a hair glove, towel, 




Slanting Bristle Brush. 

An excellent brush for removing 
dead hair and cleansing the skin. 
It is most useful in the case of wire- 
haired varieties, the coats of which 
would be proof against the ordinary 

Steel-toothed Comb. 

This comb should only be used in 
cases where a dog's coat has become 
so hopelessly tangled that it is neces- 
sary to remove a considerable portion 
of it. 


Grooming Glove. 

The best design of glove for im- 
parting a gloss to the coats of 
smooth-haired dogs after'brushing. 


Dandy Brush. 

For general use when a short- 
bristled brush is not required. It 
is also made with whalebone bristles 
for the purpose of grooming the 
long-coated breeds. 


Toy Dog Brush. 

The long bristles of this brush 
assist in producing a brilliant lustre 
of the coat without injuring the 
delicate skin beneath it. 

Short-Bristled Brush. 

A capital brush for general use in 
the case of short-haired varieties. 



or chamois leather, rubbing the hair the right way. (See 
BrusheSy Cleansing the Coat, Combs, Preparing for Show.) 

Gross Feeders. — Many dogs are great gluttons, and 
will not only eat far more than is good for them, but w^ill 
pick up and devour any street garbage they come across 
if allowed to do so. In the latter case the propensity is 
often due to a disordered condition of the stomach, which 
can be cured by a course of medicine, such as Spratt's 
Alterative Powders ; in the former, the owner has it in his 
power to check the greediness by feeding the dog by 
itself and only providing it with a proper allowance of 
food. (See Feeding, Shy Feeder.) 

Gruel is one of the best diets for sick dogs which are 
suffering from diseases which engender a high tempera- 
ture, and a few basinsful should always be given to a 
brood bitch after she has whelped. It may be mentioned, 
however, that oatmeal possesses a tendency to relax the 
bowels or heat the blood of some dogs if given them 
regularly, but in most cases they become accustomed to it 
after a while, and this effect wears off. The gruel should 
be carefully made with fresh milk, as if it is lumpy or not 
sufficiently cooked the taste of the raw meal will cause a 
sick dog to refuse it. It must be given fresh and sweet, 
as if allowed to stand about too long it will turn sour and 
cause more harm than good. (See Brood Bitch, Nursing.) 

Gun Shy. — A term applied to a dog which bolts at the 
sound of a gun being fired. It is next to impossible to 
overcome this feeling of timidity, and a gun-shy dog being 
useless in the field he is best destroyed, or if good-looking, 
kept for show purposes. (See Breaking.) 




Haemorrhoids, which are often mistaken for piles, are 
not an uncommon form of trouble amongst dogs which 
suffer from constipation, and especially so in the case 
of old animals. To obtain relief the bowels should be 
kept relaxed by proper food, and if constipated an enema 
may be administered, whilst a soothing ointment should 
be applied. (See Enema, Piles, Suppositories.) 

Handler. — The description by which the professional 
keepers who take charge of exhibition dogs and show 
them for their owners are known. (See Exhibiting^ 

Hand-rubbing is very useful in assisting to impart 
polish to a dog's coat after grooming. It also is most 
efficacious in cases of rheumatism if applied carefully and 
in the direction the coat naturally lies. 

Hard-bitten. — A term used in describing a plucky dog 
who will accept punishment without flinching. 

Hard-haired Scottish Terrier or Diehard. — The above 
very cumbersome name is used to describe a most valuable 
breed of terrier, but its adoption has become necessary in 
order to avoid the absurd mistake into which some English 
people fall when they refer to this dog as the Aberdeen 
terrier. As a matter of fact the breed is distributed all 
over Scotland, and although the dog lovers of the Granite 
City have possessed some excellent specimens of it, they 
have never claimed the honour of being regarded as the 
originators of the variety. On behalf of the hard-haired 
Scottish terrier it may be claimed that there is no gamer, 
better-constitutioned, or more devoted companion in the 
canine world than he, and hence the popularity which 



he enjoys is thoroughly justified. Some thirty years ago, 
however, the breed was very Httle known in England, 
and the few specimens which appeared were extremely 
moderate in quality, and most had huge bat ears, which 
are (and were) regarded as serious faults by those who 
understand the points of a diehard. At that time, too, 
there was a good deal of feeling between the northern 
and southern breeders of Scotland, but Mr. Vero Shaw was 
fortunately able to effect a reconciliation by drawing up 
a scale of points which was acceptable to each party, and 
this led to the establishment of the Scottish Terrier Club, 
since which time the breed has never looked back. 

The head of the Scottish terrier should be fairly long, 
a little domed, with a slight drop between the eyes ; the 
powerful muzzle tapering gradually towards the nose, any 
signs of weakness being a serious fault. The teeth should 
be large and absolutely level ; the eyes small, dark hazel, 
and very bright ; the ears small, pricked, and sharp at the 
points ; the neck short and muscular, and the shoulders 
fairly sloping ; the chest not too wide but deep — if too wide 
the terrier cannot enter a narrow earth or drain ; the body 
only moderately long — some show specimens have far too 
much length of back — and well ribbed up at the loin, though 
the front ribs are not sprung. The fore-legs must be straight 
and short, very heavy in bone, and set on well under the 
dog, with fairly large, compact feet, which carry very thick 
soles ; the hind-legs moderately bent ; and the tail, which 
is rather thick and bushy, carried gaily but never curled. 
The coat should be as hard as pin wire, very dense, and 
not too long all over the body, excepting on the ears, which 
are velvety, and the head and muzzle, where the hair is 
short and close. The best colours are steel-grey and 
dark brindle, but lighter shades of these are permissible, 
wheaten, sandy, and black, but white markings should 
disqualify ; the average weight being i8 lbs. for a dog and 
i6 lbs. for a bitch, and specimens of 20 lbs. or over should 
be disqualified. 



Hardiness. — Some breeds are naturally more hardy 
than others, and the constitutions of the members of the 
same variety will always differ ; but the fact remains that 
as a rule the dog which is not pampered and improperly 
fed in its youth, and which gets plenty of fresh air, exer- 
cise, healthy food, and proper housing, is a far more hardy 
creature than the one which leads a life of luxury. (See 
Exercise, Feedmg^ Kennels.^ 

Hare Foot. — A long, narrow foot. (See Cat Foot.) 

Hare Lip. — An upper lip that is partially split is so 

Harrier. — Of late years the harrier has approached the 
foxhound far more closely in conformation than formerly 
and in fact in some cases it is a very difficult matter to 
distinguish the two breeds. In days gone by, however, 
there were special points of distinction between these two 
varieties of hound, the head of the harrier, as a case in 
point, being far heavier than that of the foxhound, whilst 
he was, comparatively speaking, a heavier-built dog and a 
much slower hunter. The old blue-mottle colour now 
so seldom seen was likewise a characteristic of the harrier ; 
but it may be added that the type of hound favoured in 
different countries varied a good deal, as, in fact, it does 
at the present day. One thing, however, may be claimed 
for the harrier of the past, and this is, that though he might 
not have the grace and the galloping powers of the harrier 
of the present day, he was a great hunter and possessed 
extraordinary scenting powers. 

Haw. — The red inner membrane of the eye, which is 
shown in the bloodhound, St. Bernard, and some other 
breeds. It is sometimes referred to as ^'sealing-wax," 
which it somewhat resembles. 



Hay is not an ideal form of bedding for dogs, as it 
soon becomes beaten down when they He upon it. 
Besides this, it gets brittle and dusty, and so works its 
way into the coats. (See Bedding^ 

Heat, or cestrum, is the name by which the period 
during which the bitch is in a condition for breeding 
purposes is known. (See Breedings Brood Bitchy Selection 
of Stud Dog) 

Height. — The height of a dog is measured from the 
top of the shoulders to the ground by means of a gradu- 
ated sliding standard, provided with a cross-piece, similar 
to that employed for measuring horses. It is not always 
an easy matter to get the animal to stand up properly, but 
in this matter, as in others, the exercise of patience accom- 
plishes much, and it may be added that the best way to 
proceed is to stand the dog on a flat surface against a 

Hemorrhage. (See Bleeding,) 

Heredity. — There is an undoubted tendency on the 
part of all varieties of animals to display the character- 
istics of some ancestor more or less remote, and hence 
the necessity of studying pedigrees carefully in thinking 
out crosses. 

Hocks. — The middle joint of the hind-legs, between 
the stifles and the pasterns. (See Cow Hocks.) 

Hollow Back, sometimes referred to as a dipped back, 
is one which drops sharply behind the shoulders and rises 
slightly at the loins. This formation is usually a sign of 
weakness, and must not be confounded with a roach or 
wheel back, which see. 



Horse-flesh is a good food for big dogs as a change, 
provided it is fresh and comes from a healthy animal. 
(See Feedmg^ 

Hospital. — All large kennels of dogs should have a 
well-ventilated but warm hospital attached, so that sick 
animals may be isolated from their companions, to the 
benefit of the latter, and enjoy the comfort of rest and 
quiet. When possible there should be two hospitals — 
one (well isolated) for the reception of infectious and con- 
tagious cases, the other for accidents and ordinary com- 
plaints. These should be divided into compartments and 
pens, so that each invalid should be by himself and loose, 
as a sick animal should never be fastened up if it can be 
avoided. The hospital should also possess means of being 
being kept warm and well lighted, and a supply of water 
should be at hand. If it is possible to arrange double 
doors, so that a current of cold air will not be brought 
into the place each time the attendant enters, it will be 
all for the best ; and if this can be done, the inner one 
should have a glass panel in it, so that he can see his 
patient without disturbing it. In kennels lighted by elec- 
tricity, if the switch for turning on the light is outside 
the inner door, the above arrangement will be still further 
facilitated. There should always be a thermometer in the 
hospital, so that the temperature can be properly regu- 
lated ; and all feeding vessels and other articles which are 
used in it should be kept away from healthy dogs. (See 

Housing. (See Kennels.) 

Humours are usually the result of improper feeding, 
and the best means of curing them is to give the dog plain 
food and a course of Spratt's Patent Alterative Powders, 
whilst a dressing of carbolic acid one part and glycerine 
twenty parts may be applied to the sore places. 



Husk. — A short, harsh cough, which frequently be- 
comes chronic unless attended to, as it should be. It 
usually is associated with distemper, worms, or indiges- 
tion. (See Cough, Distemper, Indigestiouy Wonns.) 

Hybrids. — Canine hybrids are not common, for the 
simple reason that when produced there is no use for 
them, and they are not usually prepossessing in appear- 
ance. The dog, however, will breed freely with the wolf 
or jackal, to which he is undoubtedly allied, but not with 
the fox, in spite of the stories received relating to the 
existence of such hybrids. The latter are doubtless the 
result of some impression being made on the imagination 
of a pregnant bitch by a fox, as no naturahst has been 
found to substantiate the existence of a dog and fox hybrid. 
All stories which refer to dog and fox hybrids should 
be accepted with the strongest suspicion. This hint is 
rendered necessary by the frequency with which alleged 
instances have been told of. (See Evolution,) 


In-breeding or Sibbing is a fruitful source of constitu- 
tional weakness and loss of size amongst dogs, and if 
carried on too far is therefore a practice to be deprecated. 
No doubt, however, some of the toy varieties owe their 
existence to a system of close in-breeding, and to this 
much of their delicacy is unquestionably due. At the 
same time in-breeding, if judiciously carried out, is most 
useful in assisting to fix certain characteristics which 
belong to a family and which it is desired to retain, and 
no doubt many strains have benefited by it, the Laverack 
setter being a case in point, but when it was carried 
too far the dogs became weaker and lost size. Still, 
in-breeding is to be recommended when out-crosses are 
being prepared; but once more the advice may be expressed 
that caution must be exercised. (See Breeding.) 



Incisors. — The middle front teeth situated between 
the canines. (See Teetk.) 

Indigestion is a trouble to which many dogs are 
subject, the chief causes being improper feeding, bad teeth, 
and want of exercise. It is usually associated with loss of 
appetite, considerable thirst, bad-smelling breath, and 
flatulency, and sometimes with a husky cough, vomiting, 
and looseness of the bowels. A dose of opening medicine 
to clear away intestinal obstructions may be given, and this 
should be followed by a light diet of digestible food, such 
as Spratt's biscuits, broken up very small and boiled in 
milk, whilst if there is much flatulency green vegetables 
should not be given for a week or so. A small quantity 
of charcoal in the food may also prove beneficial, and the 
dog should be left quiet if the attack is a severe one. (See 

Infectious Diseases are those which can be com- 
municated from one dog to another without the two 
animals coming into contact. (See Contagious Diseases.) 

Inflammation of the Bowels. (See Enteritis.) 

Inflammation of the Lungs. (See Pneumonia,) 

Inflammation of the Stomach, (See Gastritis.) 

Injections are frequently the means of saving a valuable 
dog's life in cases of severe obstruction of the bowels. (See 

Inoculation, — Opinions differ somewhat regarding the 
value of inoculation against distemper, but there can 
be little reason to doubt that the advocates of the practice 
are fewer than formerly, as the balance of the experiments 
which have been made has not been favourable. (See 



Insects. — The coats of dogs naturally provide attractive 
harbours for insects in general and fleas in particular. The 
latter form of pest is unavoidable, as a dog which is kept 
under the very best conditions as regards cleanliness is 
always liable to be attacked by them when out of doors. 
(See Fleas y Lice, Ticks ^ 

Irish Setter, — This very elegantly built, attractive 
member of the setter family has increased a good deal in 
popularity during the past few years, and it is quite safe to 
offer the opinion that there are now more good specimens 
of the breed to be found than was formerly the case. It 
is certainly a more recent production than either the 
English setter or the Gordon, but its origin is unascertain- 
able, and all that can be said about the Irish setter in that 
respect is that the breed was doubtless in existence some 
eighty years ago or thereabouts. Since that comparatively 
remote period the improvement of the Irish setter has been 
the object of many breeders, the result being that sortiness 
has increased. As a field-dog the Irish setter excels in 
pace and possesses a very good nose, but he is apt to 
be hot-headed and flush birds, so if not kept under con- 
trol he may upset the steadiness of other dogs working 
with him. Still, with all his faults, he is a wonderfully good 
dog on game, and perhaps no greater tribute to his worth 
has ever been paid than the statement made by the late 
Mr. Edmund Laverack to a friend, that he contemplated 
introducing a cross of Irish blood into the famous breed 
of English setter which bears his name. 

The head of the Irish setter is long and lean, rather 
domed at the top, the occipital protuberance being well 
developed, and showing a slight stop between the eyes. 
The muzzle is long and beautifully chiselled ; the nose, 
which is large, projecting somewhat, and being of a dark- 
brow^n colour ; whilst the eyes, which are rather inclined 
to be small, are a brownish-hazel ; and the ears, which 
are set on low, should be fine and hang close to the sides 



of the head. The neck is long, muscular, and very graceful, 
with no lumber about it ; it is slightly arched, and neatly 
set on to long, sloping shoulders. The chest is rather 
narrow, but very deep ; the body being of a good length, 
with nicely-sprung ribs and powerful loins, which are just 
a little arched. The fore-legs are of a good length, dead 
straight, well under the dog, and heavy in bone, the hind 
ones being well bent at the stifle and hocks, so as to ensure 
pace ; the tail being well feathered and carried almost 
straight. The coat is rather long, fine in texture, and flat ; 
it is shorter on the head, and there is a nice silky feather 
on the legs and ears. The accepted colour is a rich 
chestnut, a little white on the forehead, chest, or toes 
being permissible, though it is not liked. The average 
weight is about 65 lbs. 

Irish Terrier. — A generation or so ago the Irish terrier 
was often contemptuously referred to as the tinker's dog, 
now his admirers claim for him the sobriquet of dare- 
devil, and his popularity is scarcely inferior to that of 
the fox and Scottish terriers. Doubtless much of the 
success of the breed is due to the energy of his friends, 
conspicuous amongst whom was the late Mr. William 
Graham of Belfast ; but there was good material for them 
to work upon, as the Irish terrier is a game, companion- 
able, handsome dog, and those who once take up the breed 
very rarely transfer their patronage to other varieties. 

The head of the Irish terrier is long, rather narrow 
between the ears and flat, tapering gradually towards the 
nose ; the muzzle being very punishing, and the teeth quite 
level. The nose is black ; the eyes rather small, dark hazel, 
and bright ; and the ears small, V-shaped, and carried 
with the tips forward, but never cropped, as was formerly 
the custom. The neck is rather long, and quite free from 
any superfluous loose skin ; the shoulders long and sloping ; 
and the chest of moderate breadth, but deep. The body 
is of fair length, but not too long, the back straight, and 



the loins powerful ; the fore-legs being rather long, dead 
straight, and heavy in bone, with round, compact feet, the 
hind-legs being long from the stifles to the hocks ; whilst 
the tail, which is always docked, should be carried high. 
The coat must be hard, wiry, and flat, the best colours 
being bright red, red, wheaten, and yellow-red, a little white 
sometimes appearing on the chest or feet, but it is much 
disliked. The best weight for dogs is 24 lbs., and for 
bitches, 22 lbs. 

Irish Water Spaniel. — Thanks to the efforts of the 
members of the club which has been established in its 
interests, the position of the Irish water spaniel is far 
better than it was a few years ago. Still the breed, 
picturesque looking and valuable as a water dog though 
it be, is not widely bred ; and the future before it does 
not appear to be exceptionally bright, as for some un- 
ascertainable reason the dog-loving public do not seem 
to take very kindly to this most useful, engaging, and 
intelligent member of the canine race, which is an in- 
valuable field-dog and a very tender-mouthed retriever 
of wounded game. Very probably the poodle had a good 
deal to do with the production of the Irish spaniel, which 
in turn was doubtless concerned in the establishment of 
the curly-coated retriever ; but the precise sources from 
which it sprang cannot be traced, and it is therefore 
sufficient to say that the breed has existed for many years. 

The head is rather large and rounded, the forehead 
being prominent, and the muzzle long and square. The 
eyes are dark brown in colour ; the ears very long, set 
low, and carried against the sides of the head ; whilst the 
neck is long and muscular ; the shoulders long, sloping, 
and strong ; the chest not too wide, but deep ; the body 
powerful, with well-sprung ribs, and muscular, slightly 
arched loins. The fore-legs are long, straight, and very 
heavy in bone, the feet being large and thickly clothed 
with hair ; the hind-legs being rather bent at the stifles ; 

U3 H 


and the tail short, thick at the root, tapering, and covered 
with short hair. The coat is one series of short, crisp 
curls, varying in size on different parts of the body 
and limbs, the face being smooth ; whilst on the head 
there should be a characteristic top-knot. The only recog- 
nised colour is a rich, deep liver without any white, and 
the average weight is about 40 lbs. (See Curly -coated 

Irish Wolf-hound. — Beyond all doubt the genuine Irish 
wolf-hound is a thing of the past, as the modern dog which 
masquerades as such is admittedly a cross between the 
Scottish deer-hound and German great Dane, and it has 
been produced within the last thirty years or thereabouts. 
There can, however, be no doubt that the gigantic pro- 
portions and picturesque appearance of these dogs appeal 
very strongly to many persons, and provided that they do 
not take too much after their Teutonic progenitors about 
their heads, as some unfortunately do, they are very hand- 
some dogs ; though why they should be called Irish wolf- 
hounds is not very clear, as they certainly are not Irish, 
having been manufactured in England, nor have they ever 
been used for hunting wolves. 

The head of this dog is long, rather narrow for the size 
of the breed, slightly prominent at the brows, and tapering 
towards the nose, the muzzle being long and inclined to 
be pointed. The eyes are dark hazel in colour ; the ears 
small, and carried with the tips thrown backwards, so as to 
display the burr ; the neck being long, clean, muscular, 
and arched, whilst the shoulders are laid back. The chest 
is both wide and deep ; the back strong, and arched at the 
loins, which are muscular, though a little tucked up ; the 
fore-legs being of a good length, quite straight, and very 
heavy in bone, with moderately large feet, the hind-legs 
carrying a good deal of muscle on the thighs ; whilst the 
hocks are well let down and rather straight ; the tail being 
long, rather coarse, and carried in a slight curve. The 



coat is of a good length and hard, the chief colours being 
grey, brindle, and fawn, though reds, whites, and even 
blacks are to be met with. The minimum weight of a dog 
should not be less than 120 lbs., and of a bitch 90 lbs.; 
whilst the respective heights should be at least 31 and 28 
inches, {^tt Dee7'houndf Great Dane.) 

Italian Greyhound. — As its name suggests, this most 
elegant, though delicate, little dog is a native of Italy, but 
it has become well established in this country ; though its 
admirers are fewer in numbers than formerly, owing to many 
breeders of toy dogs having transferred their affections to 
foreign breeds. 

The head of the Italian greyhound is long, narrow, and 
flat on the top ; the muzzle being very delicate ; the eyes 
large, but not goggle, and usually of a hazel shade ; the 
ears set well back, and carried with the tips thrown back- 
wards ; the neck long and arched ; and the shoulders 
sloping. The chest is narrow^ but very deep ; the back 
arched ; the ribs nicely sprung, and the loins rather 
tucked up ; whilst the fore-legs are long and straight, with 
long feet, the hind ones being bent at the stifle, and well 
let down at the hocks ; and the tail long, fine, and carried 
low. The coat is short and line, all greyhound colours 
being recognised, though the most popular is a golden 
fawn ; whilst white markings are objected to, though 
permissible. The average weight is about 8 lbs. 

Jacks. — The instrument — a sort of vice — which was 
used in days gone by to hold in position the noses of bull- 
dogs which had been forced back after the lip-string had 
been severed. The object of all this was to develop an arti- 
ficial shortness of face, and it need scarcely be added that 
it was illegal as it was cruel. (See Fakingy Lay Back.) 



Japanese Spaniel. — The importation into this country 
of numbers of these engaging and attractive Httle dogs a 
few years ago was hailed with enthusiasm by the majority 
of those who are interested in the fortunes of the toy 
varieties. As a result, the Japanese spaniel has been largely 
bred in England, and possibly to its advantage, as the 
puppies reared here are for the most part less delicate than 
those which were imported. At the same time, the showy 
little Jap is not a dog of robust constitution, and he is 
somewhat liable to fits, as indeed are all toy spaniels after 
they attain a certain age. Perhaps the chief reason for 
regret that he has appeared amongst us in such large 
numbers is that some breeders, inspired by an insane 
thirst for what they term " improvement/' have been silly 
enough to perpetuate a cross of Japanese and the English 
varieties, to the detriment of both, as differences exist be- 
tween them, and very undesirable traces of the cross have 
developed in subsequent generations. 

The head of the Japanese spaniel is large, broad, and 
rounder in front than at the back ; the muzzle short, wide, 
and broad at the nose, which is black, excepting in the 
case of the red and white specimens, when it is sometimes 
of a dark liver shade. The eyes are not so full as those 
of the English varieties of toy spaniel, and darker in 
colour ; whilst the ears, which are set up wide apart on 
the corners of the head, are small, V-shaped, and carried 
with the tips pointing forward. The neck is short and 
thick, the chest wide, and the body short, square-looking, 
and compact ; whilst the fore-legs, which must be straight, 
appear to be shorter than they really are because of the 
wealth of feather they carry, as do the feet. The coat is 
profuse and flat, covering all the parts of the body, but 
on the head and muzzle it is short ; and the tail, which 
is curled over the back, is very heavily feathered. The 
recognised colours are black and white, and red and white, 
the former being the more common and the better liked ; 
and the average weight is about 7 lbs. 



Jaundice, or Yellows, is due to an accumulation of bile 
in the blood, which may be caused by a chill, improper 
feeding, or even by chronic constipation. The symptoms 
are unmistakable, as in addition to loss of appetite, a dis- 
inclination to move, and other common indications of 
liver trouble, there is a yellow appearance of the eyes and 
lips, and often a paleness of the motions to betoken the 
existence of jaundice. The patient should be kept warm 
and dry, and carefully dieted upon plain food. Calomel 
enters largely into the treatment of the disease, which is 
not an easy one to deal with, as cases differ widely. A 
reference is therefore recommended to Mr. A. ]. Sewell's 
work, ^'The Dog's Medical Dictionary," published by 
George Routledge & Sons. 

Joints. — The possession of a good set of joints is a 
matter of importance in the case of most breeds, as no 
matter how good-looking an animal may be he is useless 
— unless he be a Dandie Dinmont, Basset hound or Dachs- 
hund — if he has not got a straight set of legs to carry his 
head and body. As a rule the joints of the heavier breeds 
give far more trouble than those of the lighter ones, owing 
to the strain which is put upon the limbs of immature 
puppies by the weight of the body ; hence the larger 
proportion of cow-hocks, twisted pasterns, and cases of 
out-at-elbow which are found amongst big dogs. Good 
wholesome food and a sufficiency of slow exercise are the 
best safeguards against joint troubles, as weakness natu- 
rally disposes a dog to develop such. Parrishes' Food 
is often found a useful adjunct to the above, but mechanical 
appliances, such as irons or starch bandages, which have 
been resorted to by owners in sheer desperation, have 
not usually produced beneficial results. The best thing, 
therefore, to do is to bear in mind the old adage — 
** Prevention is better than cure," and to endeavour to 
provide against crooked joints by attending to the puppies 
carefully and managing the dogs properly all through their 



Careers. (See Cow-hocks^ Exercising, Feedings Pasterns^ 

Journeys. — A good deal might be written on the sub- 
ject of dogs on their journeys, as the absurd soHcitude 
displayed by some owners for the comfort of their pets 
is only equalled by the reckless carelessness on the part 
of others. Between these two extremes there is a great 
gulf fixed, and as in most other things in this world, the 
middle course is the best and wisest to adopt. Hence 
it may be briefly laid down that a dog which is being 
sent on a journey by rail is usually better off if con- 
veyed in a basket or box, if his size will permit of this, 
than if he is merely secured by a chain, and if the 
weather is cold he should be clothed. Under all circum- 
stances, however, he should have a chain attached to 
the collar, and the latter should be buckled tight enough 
to prevent his slipping it over his head, but not so tight 
as to cause him inconvenience. A chain is preferable 
to a leather lead, as the traveller cannot gnaw it through ; 
it should possess three swivels — one at each end and 
one in the middle — and when the dog is placed in 
the box the end not attached to the collar is best left 
loose, as if it is hooked on to the side of the basket 
the dog may possibly get hung up, through the straw 
which is given him to lie upon becoming twisted up in 
the chain. Under all circumstances a parchment luggage 
label with an eye at each end should be attached to the 
collar in such a way that the dog cannot get at it to 
gnaw ; and this should show the address to which the 
animal is being sent, and also the name and address of 
the owner on the reverse side, as dogs often succeed in 
escaping in spite of all precautions to the contrary. If 
the dog is not despatched in a basket, he should be 
given into the charge of the guard, and it may be added 
that a shilling bestowed upon the latter is usually money 
very well laid out. Some companies provide excellent 



dog boxes in the corners of their luggage vans for the 
accommodation of canine travellers, and these should 
always be utilised if possible ; for no matter how careful 
a guard may be, there is always a chance of luggage 
falling upon the dog if he is chained up in the van. 
Unless the journey is a very long one it is best, for 

Travelling Basket. 

obvious reasons, not to give the dog food or water just 
before he starts, and an opportunity should be given 
him to relieve himself at the last moment, and if possible 
at any stopping places on the road. The accompanying 
designs represent a thoroughly good basket and box for 
the use of dogs on their journeys. (See Dog-Basketf Dog- 
Box, Chains^ Clothing, Lead.) 


Kennel Lameness, or Founder, is the result of ex- 
posure to cold and wet, and is in reality a form of 
rheumatism which attacks the shoulders. At times it 
causes great pain, and when the attack is on the joints 
affected become stiff. The application of some counter- 
irritant in the form of a liniment will often bring relief, but 
if kennel lameness is permitted to become established it is 
incurable. (See Counter-irritants, Liniments.) 



Kennel Man. — A good kennel man is a most valuable 
person, a bad one is a constant source of embarrassment 
to his master and a danger to his charges. Unfortunately, 
however, many dog-owners are completely under the in- 
fluence of their servants, who affect airs, and act in a 
manner not at all in accordance with the positions they 
should hold. A hard-working, honest, sober man, even 
if he may not possess an extensive knowledge of the 
breed he is called upon to look after, is therefore far 
more valuable to his employer than one who deputes 
his duties to a subordinate and apes the manners of his 
superiors ; for the former is always willing to learn, whereas 
the latter, who is not infrequently as ignorant as a man 
can be, is perfectly hopeless in that respect, and cannot 
be relied upon to carry out the orders of his master. 
Above all things, the kennel man who possesses 2. penchant 
for dosing his charges is a man to be avoided. (See 
Breedings Exhibiting^ Preparing for Show.) 

Kennels. — Whatever breed of dog is kept one thing 
is absolutely necessary, and this is, that proper accom- 
modation is provided for sleeping purposes. Of course 
we all know that a dog can sleep anywhere — in fact 
many do — but if health, strength, condition, and a 
capacity for work are sought for in him, the owner 
who supplies him with a damp or draughty kennel will 
surely be disappointed in the long run. Kennels, of 
course, vary immensely in design, and many of such 
designs are admirably adapted to the purposes to which 
they are devoted ; but, on the contrary, some of them — 
and these are not necessarily the least expensive — are 
veritable death-traps for the dogs which inhabit them. 
It would, for instance, be hard to imagine a more in- 
appropriate shelter for a dog or any other animal than 
the old-fashioned kennel, with an aperture for ingress 
and egress which occupies almost the whole of the front. 
Such a den allows the cold winds and rain to beat upon 



Portable Kennel, with Covered-in Bench. 
A first-rate design for use in winter. 

fiPRATTS.PAT£»IT;LV. — =• 

Portable Kennel, with Bench. 


Span Roof Double Kennel, with Yard. 


Lean-to Kennel and Covered Yard. 


its inmate, and is practically no shelter at all ; whereas 
it would be quite a different affair were the entrance to 
be at one side near the end, so that the dog can escape 
the fury of the elements. The best sort of kennel for 
the average dog lover who keeps one or two animals 
is one or other of the portable designs, which are tenants' 
fixtures, and if purchased of a good firm, possessed of a 
reputation to lose, will often be worth as much as was 
originally given for them after being in use for years. 
A dry shed in the garden or yard is often capable of 
conversion into an excellent kennel ; but if it happens 
to be of the ^Mean-to" order, and a wall forms one side 
of it, it often happens that it is damp, as the brickwork 
holds the moisture, and therefore in such cases the wall 
part of the shed should be covered by match-boarding 
to keep the place dry. 

It is always desirable that there should be a yard 
attached to the kennel or shed, in which the dogs can 
obtain the fresh air and sunshine that is so essential to 
their health, as it is never good to keep them chained 
up for longer than is necessary. The questions of ventila- 
tion, draining, and suchlike matters, are all of the utmost 
importance, and therefore should be most carefully attended 
to, as it cannot be too strongly impressed upon the dog- 
lover that a dry, comfortable kennel which is free from 
draughts, though properly ventilated and capable of 
being kept clean, is absolutely necessary if the animal 
is to be kept in health. (See Benches^ Fencing, FloorSy 
Roofs, Ventilation.) 

King Charles Spaniel. — This breed is the oldest and, 
in the opinion of many people, the most delightful of all 
the varieties of toy spaniels. At all events the Merry 
Monarch has earned the gratitude of modern dog-lovers 
for having popularised so charming a breed, which has 
been eulogised by every writer upon canine subjects. As 
far back as the reign of Queen Elizabeth Dr. Caius referred 



in high terms to the variety of spaniel known as fotor or 
comforter, which was used by the medical men of the 
period for drawing the fever out of their patients by lying 
on the breasts of the latter ! Although the latter-day lovers 
of the King Charles claim no such ridiculous powers for 
their favourites, the fact remains that there is no more 
engaging or beautiful variety of dog in existence, and if 
not coddled up and overfed, the breed is a very hardy one — • 
in fact, cases have been known of King Charles having 
been employed in beating hedgerows for game with com- 
plete success. No doubt the original King Charles 
possessed white miarkings, as the first advertisement for 
the recovery of a lost dog, which dates back to the reign 
of the Merry Monarch, refers to a black and white spaniel, 
'^the property of His Majesty the King," which was lost 
in the Green Park. Hogarth's paintings also support 
the above statement as regards colour, but until some 
thirty years ago the vast majority of the King Charles 
spaniels which were met with were black-and-tans. The 
first really good specimen of the tricolour that was shown 
about that time was Conrad, the property of Miss Violet 
Cameron, and the same lady exhibited a red bitch named 
Clare with considerable success. Both these colours have 
always been recognised as belonging to the King Charles — 
indeed the reds were utilised many years ago for crossing 
with the black-and-tans, in order to improve the richness 
of their tan markings. Consequently, many old breeders 
deeply resented the action of some modern exhibitors of 
toy spaniels, who subdivided the breed now under con- 
sideration into King Charles, which were the black-and-tans; 
Prince Charles, which were the tricolours ; and Rubies, 
which were the reds. Of course this was an absolutely 
ridiculous and indefensible action, and therefore there is 
some satisfaction in adding that the name Prince Charles 
has been abandoned, but that of Ruby remains as a 
testimony to the folly of some modern breeders. 

The general appearance and shape of the King Charles 



spaniel is so similar to that of the Blenheim that the 
description given of the latter breed may be referred to 
as in the main applying to the former. The King Charles, 
however, is a more substantially built dog, and the hair 
on its ears is usually longer. (See Blenheim Spaniel.) 

Kissing Spots. — The name by which the bright tan 
spots on the cheeks of black-and-tan terriers are known. 
(See Black-and-Tan Terrier,) 

Labrador Dog. — It is surprising that this very valuable 
breed of sporting dog is not better known and appreciated 
than he is, for he has been bred in this country for nearly 
a hundred years ; and in addition to his exceptional merits 
as a retriever he is one of the very best water dogs in 
existence, and a most intelligent and valuable companion. 
Many people, however, confound him with the Newfound- 
land, and others with the flat-coated retriever ; but it is 
incorrect to do so, for the Labrador is a distinct breed, 
and what is more, a very valuable one indeed for all 
sportsmen who use the gun. 

The head is long and flat ; the muzzle being square and 
of a good length ; the eyes rather small, dark in colour, and 
set well apart ; whilst the ears, which are set on high, are 
of a good size, and carried flat to the sides of the head. 
The neck is longer than it appears to be, as its substance 
conveys an erroneous impression of shortness; the shoulders 
slope nicely, and the chest is fairly wide and deep. The 
back is rather long, the loins powerful, and the fore-legs 
straight and heavy in bone ; the feet being round, compact, 
and large. Powerful hind-quarters and muscular thighs are 
characteristics of this breed, the tail of which is stout, of 
good length, straight, free from feather, and carried low. 
The outer coat is short, flat, and dense, the under one soft 



and sealskin-like ; whilst the only recognised colour is a 
rich jet-black. The average height is about 21 inches, and 
the weight 60 lbs. 

Lameness attacks many dogs without any tangible reason 
being forthcoming for its appearance, and in such cases it 
is very often the result of rheumatism, the seat of which may 
be hard to locate. If the foot has been cut or pierced by 
a thorn, inflammation and lameness may supervene if the 
wound is not attended to in time ; hence it is a wise 
precaution to examine the feet and legs of dogs when they 
come in from exercise, and if a cut or thorn is discovered 
to thoroughly cleanse the place — after extracting the thorn 
with a pair of pincers — and then to apply some healing 
dressing of a non-poisonous nature. Locurium, a liquid 
only supplied by Spratt's Patent, being a first-rate thing to 
use. (See Rheumatism.) 

Landseer Newfoundland. (See Newfoundland,) 

Laryngitis, or inflammation of the larynx, is often a 
result of cold, the chief symptoms being a nasty dry 
cough, hoarseness if the dog barks, a difficulty in breathing, 
and frequent retching. If not attended to in time, laryngitis 
may develop serious symptoms and cause the patient its 
life, and as it is highly contagious the animal should be 
isolated. Should there be much pain in the region of the 
throat hot linseed poultices should be applied, and an 
emetic will often provide temporary relief. For sub- 
sequent treatment ^'The Dog's Medical Dictionary" 
(George Routledge & Sons) should be consulted. (See 

Laverack Setter. — A breed of English setter made 
famous some fifty years ago by the late Mr. Edward 
Laverack of Whitchurch, Salop, from whom it derives its 
name. (See English Setter.) 



Lay Back. — When the nose recedes and the lower jaw 
turns upwards, as in the case of the bulldog, the formation 
is referred to as lay back. 

Leading Dogs. — ^^More art is required to lead a dog in 
such a manner that he will show himself off to the best 
advantage than some people may imagine ; and it is always 
difficult to get a puppy to trot beside one when he is being 
led. Patience and the exercise of a little firmness are, 
however, sure to triumph in the end ; but it is the worst 
possible policy to hit or scold a dog that hangs behind 
when he is on the lead or slip. Coax him and he will 
soon understand what is required of him, and above all 
things be careful not to tread upon his foot, else he may 
be lamed for days to come. In very obstinate cases the 
experiment of coupling the offender to a dog that leads 
well may be attempted with satisfactory results. (See 

Leather. — The term applied to the solid flap of the ear 
to distinguish it from the hair or fringe upon the tip. 

Leathers. — Chamois leathers are useful in imparting 
the desired gloss and smoothness to the coats of short- 
haired dogs after they are brushed and dressed. (See 
Grooming y Preparing for Show.) 

Leads. (See Slips.) 

Lean Head. — A graceful, well-proportioned head which 
is free from coarseness is thus described. (See Chunky 

Leonberg Dog. — A variety somewhat of the St. Bernard 
type, but smaller and less majestic-looking, which has 
admirers in some parts of Germany. It is usually of a 
yellowish colour and free from white, and undoubtedly has 



been crossed by some breeders with the St. Bernard, to the 
detriment of the latter. 

Level Mouth. — A dog is said to have a level mouth 
when the upper and lower front teeth meet without one 
row projecting in front of the other. (See Overhung^ Under- 

Lice. — Sometimes dogs which are not kept clean, or 
which come into contact with affected animals, are attacked 
by these most offensive insects. If the dog is a strong 
animal, a dressing or two of paraffin will usually accom- 
plish their extermination. White precipitate powder dusted 
into the coats is a certain exterminator of lice, but it is 
a most dangerous remedy, being a deadly poison, whilst 
it is capable of being absorbed into the system if the coat 
becomes wet. Its use therefore is not recommended, 
excepting under very exceptional circumstances, when the 
utmost care must be taken. The dog should be effectively 
muzzled and kept absolutely dry for a few hours, after 
which the powder must be thoroughly brushed out of 
the coat with a dry brush and destroyed. On no account 
should the coat be wetted whilst any powder is on it. 

Licences. — All persons who keep dogs are required to 
take out a licence at the cost of ys. 6d. for each animal. 
Such licences are transferable from one animal to another, 
which means that if the owner sells his dog he can buy 
another one, and the licence may be used for it. It is 
a mistake, however, to imagine that the licence can be 
handed over to the purchaser of a dog with the animal, and 
that the possession of it will release him from the obligation 
of taking out a licence to keep a dog himself. Indeed, 
it has been decided that a professional handler who keeps 
dogs belonging to other persons on his premises as boarders 
is bound to take out a licence for each animal, and that the 
fact that the owner of the dog has sent him the licence 



he holds is not sufficient. Whether this is good enough 
law to run the gauntlet of the Court of Appeal is a matter 
of opinion, and happily the police in most districts are 
considerate enough not to prosecute a man who has 
another person's dogs under his care if the owner holds 
licences to keep them and has sent them with the dogs. 
On the other hand, it may be pointed out that the licence 
specifically states that the person named on it may keep 
a dog, and it may therefore be a question of opinion 
whether the privilege is extended to another person who 
may keep the animal. If so, there can be no doubt that 
there would be a good deal of trafficking in licences on the 
part of people who have taken them out and who could 
sell or lend them to others who own dogs, but had omitted 
to conform to the law. Licences, according to law, expire 
on December 31st in each year, but a month's latitude 
is usually allowed to renew them in. 

Light. — All sheds in which dogs are confined should be 
lighted, but if the windows are low enough dowm to enable 
the dogs to reach, the precaution should be taken to 
protect them with strong wire-netting. 

Liniments are a form of counter-irritant which is most 
useful in cases of rheumatism, bruises, or sprains, but 
reasonable care should be exercised in applying them, as 
the skins of some dogs are more sensitive than others ; and 
if the bruise happens to be broken, an application of a 
soothing nature and not a counter-irritant is required. 
The ordinary soap liniment and Elliman's Embrocation 
are both excellent things to keep ready at hand in the 
kennel. (See Comttei'-IrritantSy Rheu77iatisin^ Sprains.) 

Linseed is a very valuable constituent of poultices 
which are applied to reduce inflammation either in cases of 
bronchitis, pneumonia, and kindred attacks. It is not, 
however, a material that can be given to dogs as food, 



but in the form of oil it can be used as an enema. (See 
EneinaSy Poultices^ 

Losing Flesh. — When a dog is found to be losing 
flesh it is necessary to discover the cause without delay, 
as it is often the precursor of serious trouble. If it is 
proved to be simply due to debility, which causes a loss 
of appetite, the diet should be strengthened and food given 
to the dog daily in smaller quantities and more frequently ; 
indeed, it may be necessary to tempt him by offering him 
pieces from the hand. Of course tonics must be given to 
stimulate the appetite, and the advantages of fresh air 
and gentle exercise must not be forgotten. A tempting 
food which attracts many dogs consists of sheep's wind- 
pipes, slowly boiled until they are soft, chopped up very 
small, and mixed in a little pearl-barley which has been 
boiled with them, and some of the broth. To this a few 
currants can be added before placing it before the dog ; 
and it may be added that, unlikely as it may appear, a very 
small quantity of dry curry powder will attract some 
animals, but only a few grains should be given. (See 
Debility, Indigestion, Shy Feeder, Tonics. 


Made Up. — A dog is said to be ^^made up" when he is 
fully developed. (See Furnished.) 

Mahogany Tan. — The rich dark shade of tan, such as 
is characteristic of the markings of the Gordon setter and 
black-and-tan terrier. 

Maize in the form of meal is not a good food for dogs, 
even if they can be got to eat it, which is not always the 
case. It is both fattening and heating, and therefore should 
be avoided. 

129 I 


Maltese Dog. — For some reason best known to them- 
selves many people persist in calling the delicate little 
Maltese dog a terrier, whereas he is nothing of the kind, but 
a fragile member of the toy family, which would no more 
think of going to ground than a terrier does of flying. 
Whether the island of Malta is really entitled to the 
honour of being regarded as the birthplace of the breed 
is not certain, but there can be no doubt that the variety 
has enjoyed the prefix Maltese for very many years. 

The head of the Maltese dog is fairly wide, and the 
muzzle is rather short and substantial for the size of 
the dog. The eyes are almost black ; the ears fairly long 
and set on low ; the chest being narrow, the back short, 
and the body well ribbed up. The legs are short, and the 
bushy tail is carried well over the back ; the coat being 
long, silky, and quite free of curl, whilst the colour must 
be pure white. The average weight is about 7 lbs. 

Manchester Terrier. (See Black-and- Tan Terrier.) 

Mange. — It is the custom of many people to describe 
any breaking out of the skin of dogs as mange, but this 
is wholly incorrect, and as a matter of fact mange exists 
in more than one form, differing totally from each other. 

Common, or Sarcoptic, Mange is, comparatively speak- 
ing, an easy disease to cure ; but it is very contagious, and 
in addition to being carried from dog to dog is capable 
of being communicated to man, so persons having dogs 
afflicted by it should be extremely careful in handling 
them. It takes the form of a number of very small 
pimples, which discharge a fluid. Violent irritation fol- 
lows, and the dog scratches himself until he causes sores 
to form, which when they dry up leave bare places where 
they have been. The cause of this form of mange is an 
insect which forces its way under the skin, and the dog 
will not be cured until these insects are killed, the head, 
or the parts just inside the forearms, being the places 



usually first attacked. Spratt's Patent dispense a very 
effective cure for this form of mange, but if the owner 
desires to treat his dog himself, he may try the effects 
of a dressing of flowers of sulphur 8 ounces, oil of turpen- 
tine and oil of tar each J ounce, olive-oil 2 quarts, which 
will possibly lead to good results. 

Follicular Mange is most difficult to cure, as it con- 
tinues to break out long after it is believed to have been 
driven out of the dog, and in many cases the patient either 
dies or has to be destroyed. Its chief victims are young 
dogs, but adults are not exempt, and its existence can be 
detected by the hair coming off in patches, which leave the 
skin dark in colour and upon which pimples form, which 
if not promptly dealt with become very painful sores. 
These may be dressed with zinc ointment, but follicular 
mange is a disease which taxes the ability of even the 
most skilful veterinary surgeon, and hence owners who 
have dogs affected by it will do well to consult Mr. A. J. 
Sewell's '' Dog's Medical Dictionary " (George Routledge 
and Sons), in which the subject is very ably and exhaus- 
tively dealt with. (See Red Mange.) 

Mask. — A term applied to the muzzles of some breeds, 
such as the mastiff, when the colour is referred to. 

Mastiff. — Of late years this good old English breed, 
which doubtless shares a common ancestry with the bull- 
dog, and which was highly prized by our forefathers, has 
sadly fallen off in repute amongst dog-fanciers. That his 
loss of popularity is mainly due to the patronage that has 
been bestowed upon such foreign varieties as the St. Ber- 
nard and great Dane is a fact beyond contradiction. But 
in spite of the apathy of the public, the efforts of the few 
staunch supporters which still remain true to the mastiff 
have been successful in producing some very fine speci- 
mens in recent years ; so if Britons should ever return to 
their allegiance, the complete resuscitation of the mastiff 



would not be difficult to ensure. The breed, moreover, in 
addition to the possession of a most majestic appearance, 
is fully entitled to claim the distinction of being the best 
and most reliable watch-dog of all the large varieties, and 
as such is surely worth preserving. 

The head of the mastiff is broad, flat, of a good 
length, showing a stop, and rather raised at the brows ; 
the muzzle being short, powerful, and square. The jaws 
are not always level, but if they are, so much the better ; 
the eyes are small, set wide apart, and of a dark hazel 
colour ; the ears being set on high and wide apart, they 
are fine in texture, and hang flat to the sides of the head. 
The neck is long, rather arched, and carries a dewlap ; 
the shoulders are sloping and muscular ; whilst the chest 
is both wide and deep, and the ribs well sprung. The 
body is rather long, the back being extremely powerful 
and slightly arched in the case of dogs but flat in bitches ; 
whilst the loins are deep and powerful, a slack loin being 
a bad fault. The fore-legs are of fair length, quite straight, 
and very heavy in bone, with large round feet ; the hind 
ones being very muscular about the thighs, with hocks 
fairly bent, and neither turned in nor out ; whilst the tail is 
rather coarse and hangs downwards. The coat is short, 
thick, and inclined to be harsh to the touch ; the principal 
colours being brindle, or a clear fawn, with a black mask 
and ears. (See Afask, Stop.) 

Maturity. — Different breeds of dogs do not all mature 
at the same age, some taking longer than others, but from 
about eighteen months to two years is the usual average. 

Maw Worms. (See Worms.) 

Meal. — Oatmeal is the best of all meals for dogs if 
given them well boiled and mixed with broth and a little 
cooked flesh, as it unquestionably assists in the develop- 



ment of bone and muscle, and is most nutritious. It does 
not, however, suit all animals at first, as in some cases it is 
apt to produce looseness of the bowels and heat of the 
blood ; but after they have become accustomed to this 
food, such troubles usually wear off. (See Feeding^ 

Measuring Height. (See Height) 

Meat. (See Feedings Flesh.) 

Medicines. — Happily for the canine race the physicking 
of dogs is conducted upon far less barbarous principles 
than was the case in days gone by, when all sorts of 
most abominable concoctions were forced down unwill- 
ing throats by ignorant persons. In short, the science 
of veterinary surgery is far better understood than it 
used to be, and dogs as well as other animals have 
benefited thereby. Owners of kennels, and their ser- 
vants too, are displaying less inclination to follow out 
their own opinions in the treatment of canine diseases, 
and in cases where they do not seek professional advice 
direct, they procure the medicines they may require from 
firms such as Spratt's Patent, who make a speciality of 
dispensing reliable remedies in forms which enable them 
to be kept at hand for emergencies, and with full direc- 
tions attached to each. The custom of administering 
physic in the form of capsules is also one that is worthy 
of general support, provided, of course, that the drugs 
themselves are of kinds that can be contained in such 
coverings. (See Administering Medicine.) 

Membrane. — A thin but strong tissue which covers the 
cavities of the body. 

Milk. — Many experienced dog-breeders object to giving 
their animals cows' milk, and much prefer that of goats ; 



but if the latter is used, it should previously be boiled and 
have a little sugar added. Quite recently a most valuable 
preparation in the form of malt milk has been placed on 
the market by Spratt's Patent in the form of a powder. 
This forms not merely a very nourishing food for puppies 
and sick dogs, but is an excellent addition to the diet of all 
toys and delicate varieties, the digestions of which have to 
be studied, and therefore should be given to them with 
biscuits broken up in it. 

Milk Fever is a not im'requent result of pupping, and 
will cause much suffering to the brood bitch which is over- 
suppHed with milk, or when her puppies are taken from 
her. The teats in such cases will usually become inflamed 
and her belly extremely tender, but relief may be obtained 
by drawing off some of the milk and dressing the parts re- 
ferred to with camphorated oil. Sometimes the teats are 
so tender that they cannot be touched by the hand, and if so, 
a soda-water bottle may be filled with the steam from a kettle 
and the mouth placed over the teat and gently pressed. 
By this means the teat is softened, and it usually happens 
that some milk can be drawn off. It is necessary that milk 
fever should be taken in time to avoid complications, and 
therefore if it seems as though there is a superfluity of 
milk, some should be drawn off in order to prevent the 
tenderness of the teats which will otherwise ensue. The 
diet should be cooling, and she should be subjected to a 
gentle course of medicine, such as flowers of sulphur mixed 
in milk. 

Milk Teeth. — The name by which the first set of teeth 
the puppy cuts are known. These are usually shed at 
about eight months old. (See Teeth^ Teething?) 

Mirle. — The grey-bluish colour which appears in some 
breeds, and particularly collies. It is usually associated 
with a wall eye. (See China Eye,) 


Molars.— The back teeth. (See Teeth.) 

Molossus. — The molossus was an ancient breed of a 
powerful type which was highly valued by our forefathers 
many centuries ago as a guardian of their homes and pro- 
perty. No doubt the mastiff and bulldog are descended 
from it, and in appearance it somewhat resembled a 
gigantic bull-mastiff of the present day. (See Bulldogs 

Moss Litter is an excellent covering for the floors of 
kennels, as it absorbs moisture, and consequently renders 
it an easy matter to keep them clean and sweet. The chief 
objections to it are that it is difficult to break up fine, and 
that it is apt to become dusty and work its way into the 
eyes and coats of the dogs ; but its many excellent pro- 
perties render it a very valuable covering for the floors of 
kennels. (See Flooring.) 

Mouth. — The expression '* mouth" is frequently applied 
to the teeth of dogs. For instance, a dog is said to have 
his full mouth when he has got all his second teeth ; or a 
bad one or good one, as the case may be, when the teeth 
are bad or good. 

Muscle. — The production of muscle is the inevitable 
task of everybody who is entrusted with the care of a show 
or working dog. The only way to produce muscle is by 
providing the animal with proper food and exercise, as it is 
hopeless to expect that a dog which is neglected in such 
matters can attain the state of condition that a healthy 
animal should be in. (See Exercise^ Feedings Preparing for 
Show J Training Greyhounds,) 

Mutilation. — The question of mutilating dogs with the 
object of improving their appearance in accordance with 
the dictates of fashion is one upon which so much has 



been spoken and written, that it is unnecessary to devote 
much space to it here. That the practice is practically 
indefensible is undeniable ; but it is difficult to reconcile 
the professions expressed by those who have it in their power 
to put an end to the mutilation of dogs with their actions as 
societies and individuals who have adopted measures to 
put an end to the cropping of ears, continue to permit the 
docking of tails. Of course the former operation is the 
more serious one, but the principle involved is the same ; 
and hence the very natural surprise that many people 
experience when they see many breeds of terriers, spaniels, 
schipperkes, and other varieties which have their tails 
docked competing for prizes at shows under the rules of 
which cropped dogs are disqualified. (See Cropping EarSy 
Docking Tails.) 

Muzzling. — In spite of the strong objections which are 
entertained against the practice of muzzling dogs by many 
people, it is occasionally necessary to use such restrictions 
upon the absolute freedom of some dogs in order to pro- 
tect them from themselves. For instance, it occasionally 
occurs that a poisonous dressing has to be applied to the skin, 
or that a dog will persist in licking a sore which irritates 
him, with the result that it becomes worse. Sometimes, too, 
if there is a fear that poison has been laid in a district, it is 
only an act of common sense on the part of an owner to 
adopt measures to prevent his dogs picking it up when 
enjoying their daily exercise. It is, moreover, quite certain 
that the wearing of a well-fitting muzzle does not inflict as 
much discomfort upon a dog, after he has worn it a few 
times, as many people imagine — this fact being rendered 
obvious by the anxiety displayed by the dogs to have their 
muzzles put on them when they associate the action with 
a run out of doors. A good deal, of course, must depend 
upon the design and fit of the muzzle, the best being those 
made of wire, which effectively prevent the dog opening 
his mouth to feed or bite, whilst they allow him to drink. 



They are also light, and in every way superior to the 
arrangement of leather straps which were formerly in use. 
Another design is the " bucket muzzle," which consists of 
a round leather case, punctured by many holes for ventilat- 


Leather. Wire. 

Muzzles. — The above represent the most humane design of muzzle 
that is manufactured. 

ing purposes, which encloses the entire muzzle of the dog 
and places it absolutely beyond his power to eat or drink. 
This bucket muzzle is mostly used by trainers of grey- 
hounds and whippets, and cannot be recommended for 
general use. (See Training Greyhotmds.) 


Nervous System. — Nobody who has had much experi- 
ence of dogs will be disposed to dispute the statement that 
their nervous system is very highly strung, as their be- 
haviour when excited affords convincing evidence that it 
is. Of course some breeds are more phlegmatic in dis- 
position than others, the larger varieties being as a rule far 
less excitable than the small ones, which for the most part 
are less easy to control. 

Newfoundland. — The Newfoundland dog, as known 
in England, is a far larger and more imposing-looking 



animal than the dogs to be discovered in the country from 
which he takes his name, and he moreover differs from the 
majority of them in colour, as his coat is jet-black, or 
black and white, whereas theirs is usually of a rusty hue. 
This tinge, it has been suggested, is probably due in some 
measure to the fact that the native dogs spend a good deal 
of their time in the sea, and that the salt water has an effect 
upon the colour of their coats ; but whether this is the case 
or not, the fact remains that a rusty jacket is seldom seen 
in England. The black and white variety is of course a 
modern and British production, as it owes its origin to the 
great painter Sir Edwin Landseer, from whom it derives 
its name, who selected an imposing-looking mongrel of 
this colour for his famous painting, ^'A Distinguished 
Member of the Humane Society," which animal quite 
erroneously came to be described as a Newfoundland. 

The head in this breed is flat on the top, wide, and 
very massive, the occipital protuberance being well marked ; 
whilst the muzzle is rather short and moderately blunt. 
The eyes are small, deeply set, and dark in colour, a yellow 
eye being a most serious fault ; and the ears set well back, 
small, lying close to the sides of the head. The neck is 
longer than it appears to be, as it is very thick and well 
coated with hair, which makes it seem shorter than it 
actually is ; the shoulders rather sloping, and the chest 
very wide and deep ; w^hilst the body is rather long, with 
well-sprung ribs and very powerful loins ; the feet being 
large and compact. The hind - quarters are extremely 
powerful ; and the tail, which is of moderate length and 
thickness, is carried low, with a slight curve near the tip. 
The hair on the coat must be dense, flat, rather coarse, and 
like that of most water-dogs, inclined to be oily, the inner 
jacket being thick, soft, and sealskin - like. The most 
commonly found colours are black, and black and white ; 
but bronze, rusty, and even yellowish jackets are to be 
found, the latter occasionally occurring as sports in blacks 
of unimpeachable pedigrees. The average height is about 



27 inches, and weight 140 lbs. in dogs ; bitches being about 
a couple of inches smaller and 21 lbs. lighter. 

Nits are the eggs of lice, which the latter deposit on the 
coats of dogs. (See Lzce.) 

Norfolk Spaniel. (See Springer^ 

Nose. — A term applied to the scenting powers of a dog. 
Thus an animal well endowed in this respect is said to 
have a good nose. 

Nursing. — In canine, as in human diseases, good nurs- 
ing is the means of saving many a valuable life, and hence 
owners who may happen to be far removed from pro- 
fessional assistance should never despair — excepting, of 
course, in cases which from the first are obviously hope- 
less. A good nurse must in the first place possess a natural 
liking for the care of sick animals, else the duties in an 
obstinate case may prove intolerable, and unintentional 
neglect of details may cost the patient its life. A good 
nurse must also be patient and observant, gifted with a 
power of moving about quietly, so that the sick animal is 
not unnecessarily disturbed, and tactful. A bustling, loud- 
voiced person who hauls his patient about as if it had no 
sense of feeling is not qualified for a nurse, nor is he who 
is not capable of realising the importance of punctuality 
in feeding an invalid and administering medicine. Good 
nursing, combined with warm yet airy accommodation, is 
what is required when a dog is ill, in addition to proper 
medical treatment; and in the majority of canine ailments 
the nurse is quite as responsible for the recovery of the 
patient as the professional attendant. (See Hospital.^ 



Occipital Protuberance, or Peak. — The projection at 
the back of the head which is conspicuous in many breeds, 
notably the bloodhound and setter. 

CEstrum, or Heat. — The period during which the bitch 
is in a state to receive the male dog. It usually lasts for 
about three weeks, the middle one being the best for 
service, and appears for the first time at about ten or 
twelve months of age. (See Breedings Brood Bitch.) 

Oil in Coat. — The coats of most varieties which can 
claim to be included in the category of water-dogs shows 
more or less trace of oiliness, this being a provision of 
nature to render them impervious to water. 

Old English Sheep-dog. (See Bobtailed Sheep-dog.) 

Old Man. — A term applied principally by bulldog 
breeders, but by others also, to an animal that has matured. 
Thus a backward puppy is sometimes referred to as one 
that is likely to be all that is required when he has a little 
more of the old man about him. (See Furnish, Made Up.) 

Orphan Puppies. (See Breeding, Puppies.) 

Ophthalmia is an inflammation of the mucous membrane 
of the eye, and may be the result of a damp kennel, 
injuries from the effects of blows, or something having 
got into the eye, or from constitutional tendency. It can 
be detected by the presence of a nasty discharge from the 
eyes, which are a good deal inflamed, and extreme sensitive- 
ness to light. The disease is not one for an amateur to 
treat, but as a preliminary measure pending professional 
assistance the dog may be placed in a darkened room, 
fairly warmed and free from draughts, and the eyes may 



be bathed in warm water, the Hds being gently rubbed 
with vaseline or cold-cream afterwards, as the discharge 
becomes caked on them if this precaution is not taken. 

Otterhound. — It is unfortunately a fact that this most 
picturesque variety is not so much in favour amongst 
breeders as was the case a few years ago, as not only have 
the packs of otterhounds become fewer in number, but 
the masters of these are not so particular regarding the 
sort of hound they use so long as the animals can hunt, 
and consequently their packs are more or less of the 
nature of scratch ones. Still the slow, but none the less 
sure, extinction of the old breed must be a source of regret 
to many people, for it is an old English variety, though 
its origin is not precisely known, but probably the old 
southern hound and the water spaniel had a good deal to 
do with it. 

The head of the otterhound is long, domed, and 
broad, the forehead being raised, and the muzzle long and 
powerful, the eyes being dark and the ears long and thin, 
well fringed with hair, and lying close to the sides of the 
head. The neck is of fair length, the shoulders sloping 
and muscular, the body powerful and very strong at loins. 
The chest is rather wide, the legs straight, and the feet 
large ; the stern, which is of fair length, being carried 
gaily. The prevailing colour is grizzle, and the coat is 
very hard. Average weight, 75 lbs. 

Out-at-Elbow. — A dog is said to be out-at-elbow when 
his fore-legs are not set on straight under him, but turn 
outwards below the shoulder. 

Overhung. — The expression used to describe a dog's 
mouth when the upper front teeth project beyond the 
lower ones. Pincher, pig, and overshot jaws are synony- 
mous terms. (See Level Mouthy Teeth, Underhung^ 

Overshot. (See Overhung) 



Paving. — All outside yards in which dogs are confined 
should be paved in order to facilitate cleansing operations 
and to prevent sickness, owing to the absorption of their 
evacuations. The best form of paving for ordinary pur- 
poses is concrete, as asphalt is apt to become soft and 
boggy when exposed to a hot sun, and flagstones cost 
money and have to be very carefully laid, as otherwise the 
moisture will penetrate the cracks between them. Bricks 
are bad, as they are porous, even if set edgeways, and are 
liable to be scratched up by the dogs, the latter objection 
being also applicable to tiles. (See Floorings Kennels^ 

Paralysis is usually due to some affection of the brain, 
and occasionally is a result of distemper, sometimes the 
whole body being attacked by it, but usually it is confined 
to the limbs. In most cases the appetite is not affected, 
but the bowels are almost invariably very constipated. 
This disease, which is quite beyond the powers of the 
amateur, is exhaustively dealt with by Mr. A. J. Sewell in 
''The Dog's Medical Dictionary" (George Routledge and 
Sons), and a careful perusal of this work is therefore re- 
commended, as contrary to general belief paralysis in the 
dog is not always incurable. (See Cho7'ea, Distemper.) 

Parsnips are occasionally given to dogs boiled and 
mashed up in their food. They are not recommended for 
general use, however, as they are fattening, produce flatu- 
lency, and are not particularly nutritious. (See Feeding.) 

Pasterns or ankles are the lowest joints of the legs 
above the foot. (See Fore-legs.) 

Paunches. — Sheep's paunches and bullocks' tripes are 
a very good food for dogs if given them well boiled and 
mixed with meal, but they are better regarded as an occa- 



sional food ; for though they assist in keeping the blood cool 
and bowels nicely open they are not a very strengthening 
form of diet. If not well boiled, paunches are liable to 
introduce parasites, which have lodged in them, into the 
stomachs of the dogs. (See Feeding^ 

Peak. (See Occipital Protuberance^ 

Pekinese Spaniel. — This very quaint looking, but most 
attractive and intelligent little dog has achieved a remark- 
able popularity since its importation into this country ; so 
much so that it bids fair to usurp the position occupied 
by the native varieties of toy spaniels before very long. It 
is undoubtedly a very ancient Chinese breed — so ancient, in 
fact, that its origin is quite lost in obscurity ; and it, in 
addition to other merits, possesses the great one of being 
endowed by nature with a very robust constitution, though 
it is to be feared that the pampering it receives from some 
of its feminine admirers in this country will result in tjie 
Pekinese developing into a delicate breed. 

The head of this dog is broad, flat between the ears, 
and slightly domed in front, the muzzle being short and 
broad, the eyes large ; the ears, which are set on high, being 
V-shaped and rather small. The neck is rather short, as 
are the shoulders ; the body long, deep, and big in front, the 
sides being flat and the loins deep. The fore-legs turn out 
at elbow, and are short and big for the size of the dog, the 
hind ones being slightly longer than those in front, which 
makes a Pekinese higher at the quarters than at the 
shoulders ; but the back is not arched, and the bushy tail 
is carried in a curl over the back. The coat is soft, long, 
and free from curl, there being a well-defined frill on 
the chest ; whilst the ears are fringed with silky hair, and 
all the legs are well feathered, but the head and muzzle 
carry shorter hair. The favourite colour is red, but fawns 
and other colours are also found ; and the average weight 
is about 10 lbs. 



Pencilling. — The streaks of black which run up the 
toes of some breeds, such as black-and-tan terriers and 
some Gordon setters. 

Peritoneum. — The membrane which covers the ab- 
dominal cavity, and encloses the bowels and its other 
contents. (See Peritonitis.) 

Peritonitis, or inflammation of the peritoneum, usually 
results from a blow or kick, but a chill may cause it, and 
it is also by no means uncommon amongst bitches at 
whelping time. The symptoms are great tenderness of the 
belly, which causes the animal to lie on its side, quick 
breathing, and faint pulse, associated with high fever and 
a white, slimy tongue. Hot linseed poultices or warm 
fomentations should be applied to the belly, and doses of 
opium of from J to 2 grains, according to the size of the 
dog, may be given in water every six hours, the nourish- 
ment given being strong beef-tea if the patient will take 
anything. Absolute quiet, warmth, and good nursing are 
essential in cases of peritonitis. (See Hospitaly Nursing.) 

Pig Eye.— A small, sunken eye. 

Pig Jaw. — A jaw in which the upper front teeth project 
over the under ones. Also known as overhung, overshot, 
pincher jaw. 

Piles are not uncommon amongst dogs, and especially 
amongst those whose bowels are apt to be constipated, 
as the piles result from straining. Frequent diarrhoea 
may also produce them, and so will indigestion, as a result 
of improper food and insufficient exercise. The existence 
of piles may be detected from the swollen condition and 
heat of the anus, the appearance of blood in the motions, 
and the irritation of the part displayed by the animal 
dragging it along the ground. If an examination is made 



small red swellings will be found, and to these cold water 
may be applied to afford relief, and afterwards some 
soothing ointment. If the bowels are constipated, an 
enema may be given, and in some cases suppositories 
can be used with good results. The diet should be of a 
non-heating nature. (See EnemaSy Hcsinorrhoidsy Sup- 

Pily. — The term applied to a close, soft coat. 
Pincher Jaw. (See Overhungy Pig Jaw.) 

Pleasant Face. — An old-fashioned expression used to 
describe a dog belonging to a short-muzzled breed which 
possesses a long muzzle or face. 

Pleurisy, or inflammation of the pleura, which is the 
lining of the membrane of the chest, usually results from 
exposure to cold, but a blow or fracture may cause it. 
The symptoms resemble those of pneumonia, but in cases 
of pleurisy there is a characteristic heaving of the flanks. 
The treatment in the case of both diseases is practically 
the same, but pleurisy is not a thing that the amateur 
practitioner can deal with satisfactorily, and therefore 
professional assistance should be obtained without delay. 
(See Pneumonia.) 

Pneumonia, or inflammation of the lungs, is a result 
of exposure to damp or cold, the symptoms being a high 
pulse, quick breathing, shivering, and tenderness of the 
chest if it is pressed, whilst if the ear is placed to the latter 
a sort of murmuring sound is heard, which increases as the 
disease proceeds, and the dog often stands with his legs 
wide apart. For treatment the dog may be placed in an 
airy room, but out of the reach of draughts, and linseed 
poultices, to which a little mustard has been added, should 
be applied to the chest and sides behind the forearms. 

145 K 


The diet should be strengthening, such as strong beef tea 
with some port wine or brandy in it. Pneumonia is a 
disease which demands the best medical treatment, and if 
this cannot be at once procured, Mr. Sewell's "Dog's 
Medical Dictionary " should be consulted. (See Nursing; 

Pocket Beagle. (See Beagle,) 

Pointer. — Although he has been recognised as an 
English breed for generations there can be no disputing 
the fact that the pointer is of foreign extraction, and traces 
back to the cumbersome Spanish variety. Opinions, how- 
ever, differ as regards the breeds with which he was crossed, 
some authorities expressing the conviction that the French 
pointer, a much lighter variety, was used, whilst others 
believe in the existence of a foxhound cross. Probably both 
views are correct ; but be this as it may, the fact remains 
that the English pointer has existed for many years as an 
acknowledged distinct breed. As a gun-dog he knows no 
superior, his only rival being the setter, and between the 
two the rivalry has always been most keen. The pointer, 
however, is not as thirsty a dog as the setter, and therefore 
is capable of getting through a hard day in places where 
water is scarce better than the latter, which nevertheless 
is the better dog on stony ground, as the hair between his 
toes protects them from injury, and as in other respects the 
two breeds are equally reliable, honours may be regarded 
as being divided between them. 

The head of the pointer is wide and long, with a stop 
between the eyes, and a drop at the set on of the muzzle, 
which must be massive, truncated, and rather dished. It 
should, in fact, be powerful without being coarse, and well 
chiselled, the cheeks being flat, and the lips well developed 
but not pendulous. The nose is large, and either dark liver 
or yellow in colour, as depends on the colour of the dog, 
a black nose being disliked. The eyes are of moderate 



size, often inclined to be sunken, and of a light hazel 
colour ; the ears, which are set on high, being of medium 
length, fine in texture of the leather and hanging flat to 
the sides of the head. The neck, which must be clean and 
free from dewlap, is long and slightly arched ; the shoulders 
thin, long, and sloping ; the chest rather narrow but of con- 
siderable depth ; the back short and level, the ribs nicely 
sprung, and the loins deep and powerful. The fore-legs 
must be dead straight, heavy in bone, muscular, and of 
fair length, with large, round, compact feet. The hind- 
quarters should be very powerful ; the thighs well 
covered with muscle, and the hocks neither turned in nor 
out ; the tail being short, thick at the root, and fine at the 
point, set on high up, and carried straight. The coat is 
short and close, whilst the usual colours are liver and 
white, and lemon and white, the former having dark noses 
and the latter light ones ; black-ticked, black, liver, and 
self-coloured lemons also appear occasionally, but a tri- 
coloured one is objected to, as it suggests the foxhound 
cross. Weights vary from 35 lbs. to over 60 lbs. (See 
Dis/i Face, Leather, Stop.) 

Poisoning. — Dogs, unhappily for themselves and their 
owners, are so frequently the victims of poison that the 
subject of successful treatment in cases of such emergency 
is one of the highest importance. The great difficulty that 
besets the amateur practitioner in cases of poison is that the 
symptoms and the treatment vary, and so the remedy which 
may be efficacious in one instance may be absolutely useless, 
even if it is not injurious, in another. The best advice that 
can be given, therefore, is that owners who are suspicious 
that their dogs have picked up poison should at once repair to 
the nearest chemist and consult him, always provided that 
qualified veterinary assistance is not promptly available. 
A list of common poisons, their symptoms and antidotes, 
is given under a separate heading ; but the advice may be 
repeated, that in the absence of a veterinary surgeon that 



of a respectable chemist should be obtained without delay, 
and care must be taken to regulate the amount of the doses 
to the size of the dog. (See Poisons.) 

Poisons. — The following is a list of poisons which most 
commonly are fatal to dogs, together with their symptoms 
and antidotes for immediate use. 

Aconite is used in cases of lockjaw and as a sedative. 
Symptoms. — Continuous retching, extreme exhaustion, and 
a difficulty in moving the hind-legs. Antidote. — Emetics, 
and repeated doses of strong brandy and water. 

Antimony, or tartar emetic, used as a counter-irritant, 
an emetic, or by some people in small quantities to improve 
their dog's coat. Symptoms. — Violent sickness, diarrhoea, 
thirst, a difficulty in breathing, and coldness of the limbs 
and ears. Antidote. — Tannic acid, or if this is not at once 
available, repeated doses of the very strongest tea that 
can be made. 

Arsenic is frequently given to dogs as a tonic and in 
cases of skin trouble. Symptoms. — Diarrhoea and vomiting, 
the evacuations being usually tinged by blood, great 
thirst, difficult breathing, bloodshot eyes, and convulsions. 
Treatment. — An emetic of salt and water, from lo to 30 
grains of magnesia if it is at hand. Moist hydrated per- 
oxide of iron should at once be obtained for immediate 
administration. If the strength fails an ^gg beaten up in 
milk may be given at frequent intervals pending the arrival 
of professional advice. 

Belladonna is given as a sedative. Symptoms. — Dila- 
tion of the eyes, coma. Antidote. — Strong brandy and 
water, or ammonia in frequent doses ; a dog suffering from 
belladonna poisoning should be kept moving if possible, 
and may derive benefit from smelling-salts held under 
his nose. 

Carbolic Acid, when used for disinfecting purposes, 
is occasionally drunk by dogs, the flavour not being un- 
pleasant to some of them. Symptoms. — A feeble irregular 



pulse, difficult breathing, the lips hard and white, great 
prostration. Antidote. — A good dose of sweet-oil or Epsom 
salts, followed by the whites of eggs beaten up in sweet 
or salad oil at frequent intervals. 

Lead. — Many lotions containing lead are used in the 
treatment of canine diseases, and it occasionally happens 
that these are administered internally by mistake. Symp- 
toms. — Blueness of the gums, diarrhoea, evil -smelling 
breath, severe pains in the belly, and sometimes swelling 
of the joints, followed by paralysis. Antidotes. — Iodide of 
potassium, sulphuric acid. Whilst aid is being sent for, 
give the dog a strong dose of Epsom salts, or if none can 
be obtained at once the white of an ^gg beaten up in milk. 
Small doses of chlorodyne will alleviate the intestinal pains. 

Opium is in common use as a sedative, but if given in 
too large quantities it is a dangerous poison. Symptoms. — 
Great drowsiness, slow breathing and pulse, coma. Anti' 
dotes. — Strong tea at frequent intervals, the stomach having 
been previously emptied by a strong dose of Epsom 
salts. The dog should not be allow^ed to sleep, but should 
be encouraged to move about. 

Prussic Acid is not a poison that is commonly given 
to a dog in the form of a medicine, but occasional cases 
of animals picking it up occur. Symptoms. — Collapse, as 
the action of prussic acid paralyses the heart. Afitidotes. — 
Ammonia and brandy, cold w^ater should be dashed on 
the dog's head and spine ; he should also be given plenty 
of fresh air, and made to inhale ammonia. 

Strychnine, or nux vomica, is valuable in small doses 
as a nerve stimulant and tonic, but it is a deadly poison. 
Symptoms. — Severe muscular twitching, extreme stiffness 
of the limbs, and a difficulty in breathing. Antidotes. — 
Chloral hydrate, or very large doses of brandy or whisky 
if the former is not available for use at once. 

Zinc is contained in most cooling lotions which are 
recommended for use in kennels, and which are sometimes 
administered internally in error with disastrous results. 



Symptoms. — Falling away in condition, great thirst, loss of 
appetite, paleness of the lining of the eyes and lips, and 
loss of spirits. Antidotes. — Oil and chalk to follow a strong 
dose of opening medicine. 

It may be repeated that the above suggestions as to treat- 
ment are only to be regarded as offering assistance in times of 
emergency, pending professional advice. (See Poisoning^ 

Pomeranian. — The advance made by the Pomeranian 
in popularity of late years has been so great that the variety 
which a generation ago was in very few hands is now one 
of the most admired and sought after of all the fancy 
varieties. This, no doubt, is due to the production of the 
toy pomeranian, which is the result of a steady course of 
persistent in-breeding, and has brought into existence a 
most exquisite, alert little dog, but unfortunately a very 
delicate one. On the other hand, the larger-sized speci- 
mens of the breed, which is undoubtedly of German 
origin, though there is a handsome Italian offshoot of 
the family, usually of a golden-lemon colour and not so 
dense in coat, are quite hardy animals, and being ex- 
tremely sharp of hearing, acute on the approach of 
strangers, and given to barking when alarmed, they may 
be regarded as exceptionally good watch-dogs for indoor 

The head of the pomeranian is sharp and foxy-looking, 
the skull being flat — though in the case of the toys it is 
somewhat rounded — and the muzzle rather fine and tapering 
at the nose, which is black or brown in colour, as depends 
upon the shade of the coat. The eyes are of medium 
size, set obliquely in the head, dark in colour and very 
bright ; the ears small, pointed, and carried erect. The neck 
is short, and appears to be very thick, as it should carry 
an immense frill ; the shoulders are rather straight ; the 
back short and cobby-looking, the chest being deep and 
the loins strong. The fore-legs should be straight and not 
too long, and like the thighs must be heavily feathered ; 



whilst the tail, which is very bushy, is carried over the back 
in a curl. The outer coat, excepting on the head and face, 
is very long, flat, and profuse, especially on the neck and at 
the back of the thighs, the under one being soft and thick. 
The best colours are black, sable, brown, blue, or white ; 
parti-colours, although allowed, not being liked. Weights 
vary from 6 lbs. to 14 lbs. (See Cobbyy Frill.) 

Poodle. — Owing possibly to the practice which prevails 
of clipping the poodle's coat in the region of the loins and 
hind-quarters, the breed is not infrequently the subject of 
ridicule amongst people who do not appreciate his won- 
derful intelligence and adaptability for useful purposes. 
Such persons may be surprised to learn that he is capable 
of being broken to the gun, and when this is so, that he is 
a capital field-dog ; whilst it may be added that he unques- 
tionably is a past ancestor of the Irish water spaniel and 
the curly-coated retriever. For a great many years the 
poodle has been a most valued variety on the Continent, 
especially in Russia, France, and Germany, and as his 
merits have become more widely recognised in England 
his popularity has increased, but as really first-rate speci- 
mens are most difBcult to procure, the breed is not in 
many hands. This is particularly the case in connection 
with the corded variety, whose coat consists of a series 
of long rope-like tresses, which sometimes are of such 
length as to trail upon the ground from the body, and 
almost from the ears as well. The curly-coated variety, 
however, is more easy to obtain, and of late recognition 
to some extent has been bestowed upon a fluffy sort of 
coat, which, however, is neither typical of the poodle nor 
attractive in appearance. 

The head of this dog is long and beautifully chiselled, 
having no approach to coarseness. There is a peak at the 
back, and the head tapers gradually towards the nose ; the 
muzzle being strong, but not coarse or clumsy. The eyes 
are dark brown in colour, and of medium size ; the ears 



long, wide, and lying close to the head ; the neck long 
and muscular, and the shoulders powerful and sloping, the 
poodle being a very active dog. The back is short, the 
loins powerful and slightly arched, and the ribs nicely 
sprung. The fore-legs are rather long, quite straight, and 
heavy in bone ; the feet small and compact, and the hind- 
legs bent at stifles and hocks ; the tail, which is usually 
docked, being carried gaily. The question of coat has been 
alluded to above, but it may be added that it should be 
harsh in texture, the most common colours being black 
and white, but brown, grey, red, and blue are also seen, 
parti-coloured specimens not being liked, though they are 
not liable to disqualification. Average weight, 45 lbs. 
(See Occipital Protuberance,) 

Potatoes are frequently given to dogs, and if they are 
thoroughly well boiled and mashed up they form a use- 
ful change when mixed with broth and a little meat or 
paunches, but as a staple food they are not to be recom- 
mended. (See Feeding?) 

Poultices, as in the case of human beings, are often 
very useful in reducing pain in cases of inflammation. 
The most serviceable is a poultice made of linseed in 
the following way : Take a sufficiency of linseed meal, 
place it in a basin, cover it with boiling water, and stir 
with a table-knife until it is thoroughly mixed, when it 
may be applied. Of course it must not be put on if it is 
so hot that the dog will be scalded, but it ought to be quite 
warm. It is best to enclose the poultice in a piece of linen 
or muslin, in order to keep the meal from clinging to the 
hair of the dog ; and if the poultice is applied for the pur- 
pose of drawing the matter out of a wound, a little oil may 
be smeared on the cloth beforehand to prevent it sticking. 
Mustard poultices are useful in cases of bronchitis, pneu- 
monia, and the like, but it is best to add a little linseed 
meal to them. (See Nursing^ 





Poverty of Blood may be a result of constitutional 
weakness or bad feeding, and the only course to pursue 
in such cases is to provide the dog with a sufficiency of 
strengthening nourishment, such as beef-tea and boiled 
mutton mixed with pearl-barley, plenty of fresh air, gentle 
exercise, and a tonic. For the latter purpose Spratt's 
Patent Tonic Condition Pills will be found most efficacious. 
(See Debility.) 

Preparing for Show. — There is not very much art 
required to bring a dog into the show-ring in good con- 
dition, provided that the person entrusted with the duty 
has good material and a healthy animal to work upon, 
and that proper attention is paid by him to the questions 
of feeding, exercising, kennelling, and grooming. A dog 
that is intelligently cared for under normal conditions will 
not require much tuning up for exhibition, but his owner 
will naturally be anxious that he should look smart and 
hard, that his muscles should show up w^ell, and that his 
coat should be at its best. Under such circumstances the 
importance of plenty of exercise, not necessarily of a violent 
nature, but long and slow, cannot be overestimated, as 
this is the sort of thing to lay on muscle and promote a 
healthy appetite, and when the dog feeds well he usually 
looks well. It may here be pointed out once and for all, 
that a quantity of stimulating, fattening food is bad for a 
show dog, as it renders him soft and flabby and liable to 
breakings out of the skin, which may ruin his coat ; con- 
sequently, though an additional allowance of flesh may be 
given him, the extra quantity to be regulated by the amount 
of exercise he gets, all heating foods should be taboo. 
On coming in from exercise his legs and feet should be 
carefully examined in case they have been cut, or that 
thorns or splinters may have run into them, as it would be 
awkward if he was lame on the eventful day. If necessary, 
they should be washed and dried, and his coat should be 
gone over with a brush and linen cloth before he is allowed 



into his kennel. Of course, too, the daily routine of groom- 
ing should not be relaxed, in fact a little extra time may be 
devoted to his toilet ; for grooming not merely stimulates 
the growth of hair, but adds to its brilliancy, and therefore 
suggests good health. It should also be remembered that 
the dog should rest well, and therefore his bed should be a 
good one, and his kennel ought to be kept clean ; and an 
occasional dose of mild medicine may be necessary if the 
bowels appear constipated, as some dogs are constitution- 
ally disposed to suffer in that way. This may take the 
form of a little flowers of sulphur given in milk, this being 
a mild aperient and a capital purifier of the blood. An 
occasional bone to gnaw is very good for dogs which are 
being prepared for show, provided always that there are no 
kennel companions to fight for possession of it ; and if 
there are any signs of loss of appetite a few doses of 
Spratt's Tonic Condition Pills will usually put matters right 
very quickly. Of course toy dogs will not require so much 
exercise as animals of more robust constitution, but air 
and exercise will benefit them as well. They should not, 
however, be overfed and stuffed with delicacies and a 
superabundance of rich food. If they are, a catastrophe 
is very likely to occur in the form of a breaking out of the 
skin or disarrangement of the bowels. Spratt's malt milk 
and oval biscuits soaked in it is an excellent food for toy 
dogs when being prepared for show, and the value of con- 
stant attention to the coats of the long-haired breeds must 
not be overlooked. The question of washing is one that 
causes many exhibitors a good deal of anxiety, as soap and 
water is liable to make the coat soft, and therefore it is not 
wise to make the dog undergo his ablutions just before he 
has to leave home. On the other hand, he is apt to get his 
coat dirty if he is washed too long before he does so ; but 
the best thing to do is to wash him the morning before he 
has to start, and to give him a clean bed to lie upon. If he 
soils his coat in the interim the application of baked flour, 
well rubbed in and then brushed out, will usually remove 



the stains, but if it does not, he must of course be washed 
over again. (See Cleansing the Coat^ Exercising^ Feeding, 
Grooming, Kennels, Washing^ 

Prick Ear. — An erect ear, such as that of the Scottish 
terrier or pomeranian. (See Tulip Ear.) 

Prince Charles Spaniel. — The name which was given to 
the black white-and-tan, or tricolour King Charles spaniel 
a few years ago. It has now been abandoned, and wisely 
so, as there never was the slightest justification for calling 
two dogs of the same breed by different names simply 
because they differed in colours, and it was impossible to 
discover the reason for the breeders of the King Charles 
spaniel acting so foolishly as to suggest such a course. 
(See King Charles Spaniel^ 

Pug. — The pug-dog no doubt is a native of Holland, 
but the breed has been established in this country for so 
long a time that it has become a recognised British breed. 
It has always been most popular, too, amongst dog lovers 
here, and in spite of its asthmatic gruntings, the result of 
its shortness of face, can rank amongst its supporters some 
of the leading members of the aristocracy. A generation 
or so ago, when there were fewer varieties of toy dogs in 
England to divide the affections of the community, there 
were two distinct families of pug that were recognised, 
namely, the Willoughby and the Morrison, each of which 
was jealously protected by a strong following of dog- 
fanciers, who religiously refrained from crossing the two 
varieties. Of late years, however, the barrier that formerly 
existed has been broken down, and one rarely hears the 
expression Morrison or Willoughby used in describing a 
pug ; nor does there seem to have been any valid reason 
for keeping them distinct, as the main difference betw^een 
them was one of colour, the Willoughbys being of a pale 
fawn and the Morrisons of a richer or apricot-coloured 



fawn, whilst the coveted dark trace down the back was not 
as sharply defined in the latter variety. Some twenty 
years ago, or rather more, the late Lady Brassey established 
a breed of black pugs in this country, and these have 
achieved considerable popularity, though as a rule they 
are inclined to be higher in the leg and less massive and 
compact in body than the fawns. 

The head of the pug should be large and inclined to be 
round, somewhat resembling a man's fist in shape, and 
hence probably the name he bears, as suggestions have 
been made that it is derived from the Latin wovd pugnus^ 
which signifies a fist. The muzzle is short and blunt ; 
the eyes large, round, and prominent ; the ears small 
and fine, carried close to the head, with the tips down. 
The neck is short and thick, the shoulders rather inclined 
to be straight, the chest wide, the body very short and 
compact, with well-sprung ribs and strong loins. The 
fore-legs should be of fair length, quite straight, set well 
under the dog's body, and heavy in bone, with fairly round 
feet having black toe-nails, the latter being a point which 
some modern judges appear to be ignorant of. The hind- 
legs are strong, the hocks being straight, whilst the tail is 
carried in a tight curl over the back. The coat is short, 
close, and of moderate hardness, the colours being either 
fawn or black, the former having black markings dis- 
tributed as follows — the muzzle, a mole on each cheek ; 
ears, a thumb-mark on the forehead, and in the form of 
a trace, as clearly defined as possible all down the back. 
The forehead should show a good deal of wrinkling ; and 
the average weight is about 14 lbs. 

Pulse. — The pulse of a fully-grown dog varies from 90 
to 100 beats a minute, but it becomes considerably slower 
in old and feeble animals, sometimes falling as low as 65. 
The best place to take it is inside the thigh. 

Puppies. — The successful rearing of his puppies is a 



source of considerable anxiety to the dog-owner who is in 
possession of a well-bred litter, and undoubtedly many a 
valuable life is lost from causes which are no fault of his. 
An irritable, nervous bitch may destroy her young ; the 
dam may have an insufficiency of milk, or if the supply is 
plentiful it may be of poor quality, and so the puppies 
may starve, even though their stomachs are full ; one or 
other of them may get out of the nest and die of cold — 
in fact, there are many things which may happen to cause 
the loss of, or injury to, the helpless puppies. Assuming, 
however, that all has gone on well with the litter, the 
owner will not have much to do until the puppies open 
their eyes on the ninth day, by which time they will have 
become strong enough to begin to try and crawl out of the 
nest. He will be able then to ascertain whether they are 
getting sufficient nourishment from the dam, as some 
bitches' milk begins to give out or become inferior in 
quality after the puppies have been on her for a while ; 
and if this is the case, means will have to be adopted 
to meet the difficulty. Under any circumstances, it is 
desirable that the puppies should be given some extra 
nourishment when they are about a fortnight or three 
weeks old, so the question of additional food is only 
anticipated by a few days. The best thing to commence 
on is Spratt's Malt Milk, prepared as directed, and in this 
some small pieces of puppy biscuits may be soaked. Later 
on, when the youngsters are about a month old, gravy may 
be substituted for the malt milk for some of the daily meals, 
which should be frequent ; and still later some tiny pieces 
of well-minced meat may be added if the puppies appear 
to require additional nourishment, but this is rarely 
necessary before they are weaned, which will be when they 
are six weeks old. At first their food may be given them 
in shallow saucers, so that they can get at it easily, as 
there is sometimes a difficulty in getting them to feed until 
they understand how to proceed, but when once they do 
so a litter of healthy puppies will cause no further trouble 



in that respect. The food should be suppUed to them at 
frequent intervals in small quantities, and the saucer 
should be removed when they have finished, as if it is left 
beside the puppies the contents may become sour or 
contaminated by dirt getting into it. The owner need not 
trouble himself as regards keeping the nest and the puppies 
clean at first, for the dam will see to all that for him ; but 
when they begin to move about the shed it will be 
advisable to attend to the matter carefully, and to assist 
matters the floor had better be thickly covered with coarse 
sawdust. It may be necessary to change or renew the bed 
from time to time ; but at first most bitches are very jealous 
of having their puppies interfered with, and if so, unless 
the bed is very badly soiled, it had better be left alone. In 
the case of breeds the tails of which it is customary to 
dock, the operation had better be performed whilst the 
puppies are about two weeks old. (See Brood Bitchy Dock- 
ing Tails y Rearing Puppies, Weaning.) 

Pupping. (See Brood Bitch.) 

Quality of Food. — No dogs can be expected to thrive 
upon food of an inferior quality, and therefore meal which 
is all husks, weevily, or badly baked biscuits, and, in fact, 
cheap food generally, is usually found to be by far the 
dearest in the end. In short, the best food is invariably 
the best, as it goes further and nourishes the dogs, which 
eat it far better than that of an indifferent quality. (See 
Biscuits, Feeding.) 

Quantity of Food. — Some dogs are extremely greedy, 
and if given as much as they will eat soon suffer in health. 
The owner should therefore endeavour to ascertain how 
much each animal requires to keep it in health, and regulate 
its allowance accordingly. (See Feeding.) 



Quarantine. — In compliance with a possibly wise, but 
undoubtedly extremely irritating, order of the Board of 
Agriculture, all dogs coming into this country from foreign 
parts are compelled to be kept in quarantine for a fixed 
period. They are placed under the care of veterinary 
inspectors during such period, and all expenses have to be 
paid by their owners. 

Quarrelling. — Some dogs are by nature so quarrelsome 
that it is impossible to keep them in the kennels with 
others, in which case isolation is absolutely necessary. 
A very fruitful source of quarrels amongst most peaceable 
dogs is, however, a bone or bones, and therefore if there 
are two or more animals in the kennel it will be necessary 
for someone to be at hand if bones have been served out 
to them. If so, a search should be made in the bed and 
in the corners of the kennel to see if any bones have been 
hidden by the dogs, as if so a free fight will very likely 
take place when the owner's back is turned unless he has 
collected all the bones the dogs have done w^ith. 


Rabies is unquestionably the most serious danger to 
which the canine race is exposed, and as it is easily com- 
municated to mankind it is naturally a constant source of 
terror to timid people who entertain a dislike to dogs. It 
is extraordinary, therefore, that the public know so little 
regarding the symptoms of rabies, which are popularly 
believed to consist of violent struggles accompanied by 
profuse frothing at the mouth. These, it may be said, are 
characteristic of the attacks which from time to time take 
possession of a rabid dog, though they are not by any 
means symptoms of the disease, but rather a result of it. 
The primary symptoms are restlessness, a wild look, a 
desire to creep into dark corners, and a morbid appetite, 



which causes the dog to swallow coals, pieces of stick, hair, 
and other substances which he would otherwise decline 
to eat. Although he seeks quiet he is usually as affec- 
tionate as ever to those he loves, in fact, often more 
demonstrative than is his wont, and in this there is an 
additional source of danger to those about him; for the 
saliva of a dog which is in a rabid state is capable of com- 
municating the disease to other animals and to men for 
many days before the acute symptoms appear if it comes 
into contact with a cut or scratch, and hence the danger 
of a lick from the tongue of a dog which is suffering from 
rabies. When the acute stage is reached the dog turns 
from sullenness to ferocity, and will often attack strangers 
and other dogs though his ordinary nature is quite gentle ; 
but it may be added that he is usually affectionate to his 
owner and those he knows. His bark changes into a sort 
of snappish howl, and the restlessness increases to such an 
extent that in some instances he will endeavour to gnaw 
his w^ay out of his kennel and stray away for miles, return- 
ing to his home if he can find his way back, quite exhausted 
by his tramp. In the course of his march he usually takes 
little notice of people he may meet, but will readily attack 
dogs, which of course may become affected by rabies, 
though the danger may be quite unsuspected by their 
owners. He does not rush wildly about, as many people 
imagine, but proceeds at a slouching gait, with his head 
and tail hanging down, the very picture of extreme dejec- 
tion. In due course paralysis sets in ; but in most instances 
the sufferer endures paroxysms of violence, in which he 
will endeavour to tear to pieces all the things about him. 
He is also consumed by thirst but cannot swallow, which 
fact is doubtless responsible for the popular fallacy that a 
rabid dog has a hatred of water. There being no cure for 
rabies, a dog which is known to be suffering from it should 
be promptly destroyed, as he is a source of serious danger 
to all about him. At the same time if a doubt exists, and 
especially if he has bitten anybody or another dog, it is 

1 60 


)est to secure him in a place from which escape is im- 
possible, as the period during which the disease lies latent 
arely extends beyond six weeks, and certainly not for 
onger than twice that period, so that if acute symptoms 
io not appear before that time has expired persons who 
lave been bitten may congratulate themselves upon being 
)erfectly safe. Dumb madness is a form of rabies in which 
he lower jaw becomes paralysed, so that the animal can- 
lot close its mouth, but the acuter form of rabies is soon 
eached, and the danger of being affected by the dog's 
aliva is not reduced. 

Rampur Hound. — This is an Eastern breed which in 
hape and make resembles the greyhound, but he is built 
)n more substantial lines. He is, moreover, a hairless dog 
)y nature, but specimens kept in this country usually 
levelop a soft fluffy coat, owing doubtless to the coldness 
>f our climate. Some excellent specimens of this breed 
^ere brought home by his Majesty King Edward on his 
eturn from his tour of India in 1876. 

Raw Meat. (See Feeding, Flesh.) 

Rearing Puppies. — After puppies are weaned there is 
ittle to be done beyond providing them with plenty of 
xercise and good food. It frequently occurs, however, 
hat they develop worms at a very tender age, the presence 
>f these pests being indicated by the swelling and hardness 
>f the stomachs. It is therefore a wise precaution to take 
o dose the puppies when they arrive at the age of a 
ouple of months with worm powder, and if this is done, 
a the majority of cases the results will be satisfactory. 
Vorms not only affect the growth of a puppy, but are 
iable to cause fits, and hence the wisdom of acting upon 
his advice. Puppies usually get their complete set of 
econd teeth at about nine months old, and consequently 
heir troubles commence before they arrive at that age. 

161 L 


It is always best to remove the first set one by one as they 
become loose, else they are liable to interfere with the 
later ones as they come through the gum, and thereby 
cause them to be irregular. (See Puppies ^ Teeth ^ Weanmgy 

Red Mange is a non-contagious form of mange which 
commences in the form of red patches on the body, these 
in time discharge and form scabs, and when these fall off 
the skin is very red and inflamed, hence the name red 
mange. The bowels should be kept well open with Epsom 
salts, and a dressing of some cooling lotion should be 
applied. (See Mange.) 

Respiration. — In a healthy dog the respirations range 
from 15 to 20 per minute. Quick, short breathing usually 
points to inflammation in the region of the bowels ; short, 
difficult breathing to pneumonia ; fast, difficult breathing 
to bronchitis ; and thick, difficult breathing to asthma ; all 
of which see. 

Restoratives. — The best restoratives that can be given 
to a dog in a state of collapse are spirits, brandy prefer- 
ably ; and if he can be got to swallow an tgg beaten up 
in brandy or port wine, will be found to be most effective. 
He may also be given ammonia to smell. 

Retriever. (See Curly - coated Retrievery Flat - coated 

Rheumatism is, unfortunately, by no means uncommon 
amongst dogs, the shoulders being more often attacked 
than the other parts of the body, but the loins and legs 
often suffer. It is not always an easy matter to detect the 
locality where it exists, but there is usually great tenderness 
if it is touched, and a considerable amount of heat. The 
best treatment to adopt is to place the dog in a warm 
kennel, and, as a preliminary measure, to administer a 



dose of opening medicine, after which the part affected 
should be well rubbed with Eliiman's Embrocation ; and 
the food should be of a non-heating character, and 
include plenty of boiled green vegetables. 

Ribbed Up. — A dog is said to be well ribbed up when 
his back ribs are long and his loins powerful and deep. 

Ribs. — A dog possesses thirteen ribs on each side, nine 
of these being connected with the breastbone. 

Ribs, Fracture of. — Dogs frequently have their ribs 
broken by blows, kicks, and other injuries, the result 
being great tenderness, and occasionally, but not always, 
a swelling over the seat of the fracture. If such signs 
appear the hand may be gently — very gently — passed 
over the swelling, or if this is not present, over the side 
of the dog to locate the pain, and if there is a fracture 
it will be felt ; but should there be any doubt upon the 
subject, the dog may be held by an assistant and the ear 
placed against the place, when the two broken ends will 
be heard ^ratin^ against each other when the ribs are 
moved, and sometimes as the dog breathes. The course 
to pursue, then, is to wrap a broad bandage (a linen one 
preferable, as this substance will not stretch) tightly round 
the body, and if a front rib is broken, round the chest as 
well, but not so tight as to interfere with the animal 
breathing. This bandage should be secured by large 
safety-pins, and it may be left on until the fracture 
unites, which will probably be in about three weeks or 
a month, if the dog is kept quite quiet and on cooling 
food. (See Fractures.) 

Rice Water. — The water in which rice has been boiled 
will be found a very useful drink for a dog suffering from 
looseness of the bowels. (See Diarrhoea.) 



Rickets consists of diseased bones of the legs, and 
is usually the result of puppies being improperly reared, 
though the offspring of aged or unhealthy parents may 
suffer from it. The joints swell and the legs become 
crooked, the appearance of the dog being generally emaci- 
ated. Good feeding and fresh air, combined with a course 
of Parrishes' Food and Spratt's Patent Cod Liver Oil 
Biscuits, may possibly accomplish a cure ; but this is 
doubtful, as when once limbs become twisted or out of 
shape, they very rarely ever come right. 

Ringworm, fortunately for owners, does not often 
attack dogs, as it is most contagious ; and if a case occurs 
in a large kennel, and its presence is not detected in time, 
every animal may become affected. It takes the form of 
a round patch, or patches, which form scabs. The latter 
in turn peel off, and leave unsightly bare spots. The 
treatment is to wash the dog well, and paint the patches 
twice a day with tincture of iodine. Care should be taken 
to thoroughly disinfect the kennel and every article which 
the dog has touched, and its bed should be burned. (See 
Contagious Diseases ^ Disinfectants.^ 

Roach Back. — An arched back which drops behind 
the shoulders and rises in the form of a curve to the top 
of the loins. It is also known as Wheel Back. 

Roofs. — The best roofing for kennels are slates and 
tiles, the latter being excellent if well pointed and laid 
on boards as slates are, as they are very cool in summer 
and warm in winter. It is just the reverse with corrugated 
iron, which is the very worst of all roofs, even if laid on 
boards. Thatch possesses many admirable properties, but 
it harbours insects, and few district surveyors, excepting 
in remote rural places, would tolerate its use. The latter 
objection applies to felt laid on match-boarding and after- 
wards covered with pitch, and a roof of weather boarding 



might also be objected to by local authorities, though if 
carefully laid it answers its purpose well, in spite of its not 
being so warm as tiles or slates. (See Kennels.) 

Rose Ear. — An ear which folds backwards so that the 
inner parts are exposed. This ear is a characteristic of the 

Roseneath Terrier. (See West Highland Terrier^ 

Round Worm. (See Worms,) 

Rounding Ears. — The operation performed on fox- 
hounds in order to reduce the side of their ears, so as to 
prevent their being wounded by thorns. 

Ruby Spaniel. (See Ktrig Charles Spaniel.) 

Rupture. — Occasionally, but not often, puppies are 
ruptured from birth ; but a rupture in the form of a 
swelling in the groin and other parts may appear in 
older dogs, either as the effects of an injury, as from a 
kick, or from severe constipation. In the case of the 
puppies the rupture sometimes disappears, but an opera- 
tion provides the only possible cure when old animals are 

St. Bernard. — Unquestionably the St. Bernard owes 
much of his popularity to the sentimental reverence that 
is attached to the undoubtedly truthful tales that are 
told of his services to benighted travellers on the Alps. 
There is no doubt, moreover, that his immense size and 
dignified and majestic appearance would alone have fully 
justified the encomiums of his admirers; but it may be 



added that the modern St. Bernard as bred in England 
is a vast improvement upon the dogs of the famous 
hospice. No doubt some forty years ago, when the late 
Mr. ]. Cumijiing Macdona and Mr. ]. H. Murchison intro- 
duced their magnificent imported specimens of the breed 
into this country, the St. Bernard created a huge sensa- 
tion, but British enterprise has accomplished much in 
the way of increasing size ; and it is therefore not too 
much to say that such great heroes of the past as Tell, 
Thor, and Monarque would have great difficulty in 
holding their own with the champions of the present 
day if they revisited the scenes of their early triumphs. 
The monks of the hospice, however, have, through no 
fault of their own, been unlucky enough to lose their 
old blood, as their best animals were all wiped out in 
the discharge of their duties by a terrible storm on the 
Alps some years ago, and the breed of the hospice had 
to be resuscitated by blood from the plains below, which 
was of a very inferior quality. 

The head of the St. Bernard is large, massive, broad, 
deep, and slightly rounded on the top ; the muzzle being 
short, flat, square, of considerable substance, and well 
filled in under the eyes, which are dark in colour, small, 
rather sunken, and show the haw ; the ears being rather 
small, set on high, and carried close to the sides of the 
head. The neck, which is of a good length, very powerful, 
and gracefully arched, carries a dewlap ; the shoulders lay 
back well, and the chest is both wide and deep. The back 
is rather long, but very wide and muscular ; the ribs being 
fairly rounded, and the loins deep and powerful. The 
fore-legs should be well set on under the dog, dead straight, 
muscular, and heavy in bone, with large compact feet; 
and the hind-legs very muscular at the thighs, and well 
bent at the hocks, which ought not to turn in, this being 
a point upon which modern breeders differ from many of 
the old ones. The tail is set on high, long, and carried 
low; the coat in the long-haired dogs being flat, rather 



thicker at the neck than elsewhere, whilst there is a feather- 
ing on the back of the fore-legs, thighs, and the tail ; whilst 
in the smooths it is short and hound-like. The colours are 
orange and brindle mixed with white, great importance 
being attached to the markings, the white being distributed 
as follows — muzzle, blaze up face, broad white collar on 
neck, chest, fore-legs, feet, and tip of tail, whilst black 
shadings on the face and ears are much admired. As 
regards height, a dog should not stand less than 30 inches 
or a bitch less than 27. (See Feather, Haw,) 

St. Hubert Hound. — A French breed, which is practi- 
cally identical with the bloodhound, with which it has 
been frequently crossed. (See Bloodhound.) 

St. Vitus's Dance. (See Chorea.) 

Samoyede Dog. — The home of this variety is in the 
Siberian district of Russia, where he is used as a draught 
dog, as the Esquimaux is in Arctic circles. The head of 
this breed resembles that of the Esquimaux, but it is rather 
less massive, and the Samoyede is of a lighter build and 
more racy-looking than the latter, whilst his back is 
shorter, his loins more tucked up, and he is feathered a 
part of the way down on the back of the fore-legs. His 
height is also a little less than that of the Esquimaux, 
but he is a most active, willing worker, and has rendered 
excellent service to explorers in the North. (See Esquimaux 
Dogy Feather.) 

Sand is occasionally used as a covering for the floors 
of indoor kennels ; but even if it is spread thickly it is not 
recommended, as it is apt to get into the eyes, ears, and 
coats of the dogs. 

Sarcoptic Mange. (See Mange.) 



Saturation. — The theory propounded by Mr. Bruce 
Lowe in connection with horse-breeding, to the effect 
that if a male and a female are constantly bred together, 
the latter in the course of time becomes so saturated with 
the blood of the former, through the medium of successive 
offspring, that the younger animals become more like the 
male parent at each successive birth, is no doubt believed 
in by some dog-breeders. At the same time, more will 
have to be known of the theory before it is generally 
accepted, but it unquestionably is subscribed to by many 
horse-breeders who have studied its possibilities, and if it 
is correct in the case of horses it is difficult to see why 
it should not apply to dogs. (See Back Blood.) 

Savageness. — Undoubtedly some breeds are more pug- 
nacious than others, and the different members of each 
breed, and often of the same litter, possess very different 
tempers. Many dogs become more or less quarrelsome 
and unreliable in disposition as they grow old, and there- 
fore develop into dangerous companions for children ; 
but a dog which is savage by nature is one which should 
not be allowed to live, as he is a perpetual source of 
danger to the public, and usually worthless for sporting 
purposes. If, however, he happens to be a particularly 
handsome specimen of his breed, he may be of some use 
for exhibition, but he should always be muzzled when taken 
out, even if led on a chain. 

Sawdust. — Coarse sawdust is very useful as a covering 
for the floors of kennels if spread thickly on them. If not, 
it is liable to get blown about when the door is open and 
to get into the eyes, coats, and drinking vessels of the dogs. 

Scalds, even if not of a serious nature, usually cause 
a great deal of pain, and are likely to leave unsightly scars 
behind them. The first thing to do is to exclude the air 
from the wound by covering it with oil and limewater in 



the proportion of two parts to one, to be followed by the 
application of a cooling ointment, such as zinc or boracic 
spread on lint, and kept in its place by bandages. Mild 
opening medicine may be given, and the dog should be 
allowed to rest quietly, no heating food being allowed him. 
(See Burns,) 

Schipperke. — This intelligent, bright, and companion- 
able little tailless variety of dog is a Belgian breed, and 
is largely used by the bargemen of Holland to protect 
the cargoes of their craft when they are navigating the 
canals. It goes without saying, therefore, that the Schip- 
perke is a useful watch-dog ; but as his size is small, his 
value lies more in his capacity for giving warning of the 
approach of strangers rather than in his ability to defend 
his master's property by force. In addition to his value as 
a guardian of his master's home and property, the Schip- 
perke is a most companionable, good-tempered, and 
vivacious little dog, whilst the fact that he is indisposed 
to make friends with strangers endears him to many 
people \vho like to keep their dogs to themselves. With 
regard to the reference made above to the Schipperke 
as being a tailless breed, it may be observed that, as in 
the case of the bobtailed sheep-dog, many very good 
specimens of the variety came into the world with their 
caudal appendages fully developed. In such instances, 
again, as in the case of the bobtailed sheep-dog, breeders 
are permitted by the custom of the exhibiting community 
to remove the tails. The operation in the case of some 
Schipperkes is a very barbarous one, certain owners 
literally scooping out the root of the tail, so as to leave 
as little trace as possible of its having ever existed. It is 
not easy, moreover, to justify the encouragement of this 
form of mutilation in connection with fancy dogs, as 
either they should have tails or they should not. If they 
should, it appears to be an encouragement to fraud to 
permit a fancy point to be artificially produced in one 



breed and not in another, and therefore the position as 
it stands is far from satisfactory. 

The head of the Schipperke closely resembles that of a 
fox, the muzzle being finer than that of a Pomeranian, to 
which it also bears a resemblance ; the eyes should be a 
dark brown, round in shape, and very sharp looking ; the 
ears being set on high, pointed at the tips, small in size, 
and carried perfectly erect. The neck is of fair length, 
but rather thick ; the shoulders long and sloping ; the 
chest wide and deep ; the body short, broad, and deep 
at the brisket, and slightly tucked up, the fore-legs 
straight, the feet round and thick in the soles, the thighs 
very muscular. The coat is short and hard on the body, 
and still shorter on the head, but under the neck it is 
longer, forming a sort of mane, whilst on the chest there 
is a frill of longer hair, and the backs of the legs carry 
some feather. The recognised colour is black, but choco- 
late Schipperkes are also to be found, though they are not 
liked ; the weight ranges from lo lbs. to 20 lbs. (See 
Docking Tails, Mutilation.) 

Scurf rarely appears on the coats of healthy dogs if 
they are well groomed, and when it does it is usually the 
result of some skin trouble, which emanates from heat of 
the blood. A course of cooling medicine and plain food, 
combined with careful grooming, will remove the trouble. 
(See Brushing^ Grooming.) 

Sealing-wax. (See Haw.) 

Second Mouth. — The term applied to the full second 
set of teeth which a dog usually possesses at the age of 
about nine months. (See Rearing Puppies, Teeth.) 

Selection of Brood Bitch. — Most of what has been 
written below concerning the choice of a Stud-dog applies 
to the selection of a brood bitch ; but it may be added 
that in the case of most breeds a bitch that is fairly long 



in the body is better for breeding from than a short-backed 
one, even though the latter property is a characteristic of 
the breed to which they belong. An old bitch, as a rule, 
should be mated with a young dog, and vice versa, whilst 
middle-aged animals may be bred together ; but though 
this is the usual and, generally speaking, wisest practice, 
there are exceptions to every rule. (See Brood Bitchy 
Selecting a Stud-dog, Sterility^ 

Selecting a Stud-dog. — In selecting a dog to breed 
from, care should be exercised in deciding upon a healthy 
animal which is in full possession of all his faculties. An 
old or decrepit animal is rarely a successful sire, as his 
puppies, if they come, which is not always the case, are 
generally weakly, whilst any constitutional infirmities the 
parent may possess are liable to be inherited by them. It 
should be remembered, too, that there is always a liability 
of a throw-back to some remote ancestor, and this 
accounts for the disappointments experienced by many 
owners who breed puppies which do not resemble their 
parents at all. In short, the successful breeder should 
study pedigrees and carefully note the main characteristics 
which dominate each family before deciding upon a mate 
for each animal. Of course, a dog whose blood has crossed 
well with that of the bitch in other instances may be 
expected to suit her ; but it is marvellous how often it 
occurs that one member of a litter is a most successful 
sire, whilst another one is absolutely valueless. On this 
ground it is safest to rely upon the services of the sire of a 
successful show-dog rather than upon those of the animal 
himself until the latter has proved his merits as a sire ; and 
it may be added that, in the case of the sporting breeds, 
the offspring of parents which have been broken, and still 
more so if their forefathers have been broken as well, are 
more valuable for field purposes and easier trained than 
those which have never been broken. (See Back Bloody 
Brood Bitchy Sterility!) 



Selling. — It very often is a far harder matter to sell 
a good dog than people may believe when they hear of 
the prices which are alleged to have been paid for speci- 
mens of different breeds. Of course many — very many — of 
the transactions referred to are simply bogus, it being a 
case of A purchasing a dog from B, and the two parlies to 
the deal agreeing to state that a very much larger sum 
was paid than that which actually changed hands. Indeed, 
it often occurs that a cheque for a large amount is shown 
about, the amount stated thereon being supposed to re- 
present what was paid for the dog, whereas the vendor 
agrees to return a considerable portion of the sum. Such 
transactions are merely regarded as tricks of the trade, as 
not merely do they gratify the vanity of the buyer and 
seller, but they serve to keep up the price of the variety 
the dog disposed of belongs to, as credulous reporters of 
newspapers contrive to get the sale published in their 
journals as news. The fancy prices put upon many show- 
dogs by their owners and published in the catalogues are 
of course meant to be prohibitive, and are not taken 
seriously by practical men ; but they, too, are often of use 
to a breeder in puffing his strain, as they are frequently 
the cause of a dog's likeness appearing in the illustrated 
papers, accompanied by the assurance that he is "valued" 
at a thousand pounds or more, whereas he would probably 
be dear at twenty. It is therefore necessary for a person 
with a dog for sale to disabuse his mind of the probability 
that he will be paid a long price for his animal. If the 
latter is well-bred, healthy, and good-looking, the best 
course for any one outside the dog world to take is to 
advertise it in such papers as T/ie Field or Our Dogs, which 
enjoy wide circulations, and which occupy such high 
positions in canine circles that buyers and sellers may 
be reasonably certain that they will be protected against 
fraudulent persons. No owner of a good, well-bred dog, 
unless under very exceptional circumstances, need despair 
of disposing of his animal through such channels ; and if 



he goes cautiously to work, and is not in too much of a 
hurry to accept the first offer he receives, he is Hkely to 
receive the fair market value of it. Another method of 
disposing of a dog is to enter it for a good show, and if it 
is a typical specimen of its breed it will possibly find a new 
owner ; in fact, some of the great prize-winners have been 
thus purchased by experts, but it is unsafe for the amateur 
to trust to his own judgment at a show. (See Buying a 

Setter. (See English Setter, Gordon Setter^ Irish Setter,) 

Shavings are a good bed for dogs in hot weather, as 
they are cool, and the smell of turpentine in them, if they 
come from pinewood, assists in keeping insects away. 
The objection to the use of them is that, unless the bed is 
frequently renewed, they break up and become dusty. 
(See Bedding.) 

Shedding Coat. — Dogs, like other animals, shed their 
coats at intervals, to the despair of their owners, if there 
is a show at hand at which it is desired that they should be 
exhibited. In the case of the long-coated breeds, the dead 
hair may be gently combed out in order to facilitate the 
growth of the new, whilst the jackets of the short-haired 
varieties a hard brush may be used. Wire brushes are 
often utilised for the purposes aforesaid with satisfactory 
results, but care must be taken to avoid injuring the new 
hair and skin. In cases where the coat comes off and 
leaves the dog practically bare, Spratt's Hair Stimulant may 
be used with advantage. (See Brushes, Combs, Grooming, 
Preparing for Show.) 

Sheep-dog. (See Bobtailed Sheep-dog, Collie^ 

Sheep-dog trials are held in many parts of the country, 
and invariably prove great attractions to the public. Their 


sheep's heads — SHOWS 

object is to test the working capacity of the dogs engaged, 
and the usual practice is to work each dog separately upon 
three strange sheep, and to decide the question of supremacy 
by the time he takes in fulfilling the conditions of the trial. 
These usually consist in driving the sheep round certain 
obstacles, between gaps in a short row of hurdles, and 
finally penning them in a small enclosure made of 
hurdles and provided with a very narrow entrance. The 
shepherd is allowed to accompany his dog and direct his 
movements — in short, to give him every assistance, but 
he may not touch the sheep, though he may help the 
dog by moving his arms when they are being driven into 
the pen. 

Sheep's heads well boiled form a very excellent food 
for dogs, the broth being a welcome addition to the meal 
which is so much used in many kennels. (See Feeding^ 

Showing Dogs. (See Exhibiting.) 

Shows. — The rage for dog-shows has extended during 
the past few years all over the country, with the result that 
almost every town enjoys an annual exhibition. No doubt 
these institutions bring a good deal of money into the 
district, but it is a matter of considerable doubt whether 
a multiplicity of shows is actually beneficial to the canine 
race. They certainly inflict a considerable hardship upon 
dogs which are hurried from town to town all through 
the summer months, and they have unquestionably been 
the means of producing the professional exhibitor, whose 
existence is a very doubtful blessing to the community and 
of more than questionable benefit to dog flesh. When 
shows were first established they were the mediums for 
attracting sportsmen who were genuinely desirous of com- 
paring the merits of their respective animals, but now that 
they have become a business it can scarcely be denied 
that the commercial aspect is of paramount importance — 



indeed, it could not possibly be otherwise, when there are 
scores of people who earn their livelihood by exhibiting 
their dogs and the pecuniary increments derived therefrom. 
(See Exhibiting^ Preparing for Show.) 

Shy Breeders. — A stud-dog or brood bitch may easily 
acquire a reputation for being an unreliable breeder with- 
out being absolutely sterile, as health and condition have 
often a great deal to do with such matters. For instance, 
an animal which is very fat often fails to either beget or 
produce puppies, and it is just the same in the case of 
one which is in a debilitated state of health. It may be 
remarked, however, that many years ago The Field pub- 
lished a series of communications from a correspondent 
who endeavoured, by quoting instances in support of this 
theory, to show that some bitches which prove barren 
time after time can be got to breed if they are bled directly 
before the dog approaches them. The contention of the 
gentleman who wrote was, that if a bitch which is a shy 
breeder is suddenly rendered very weak before being 
served she will be likely to conceive, and he gave instances 
of several greyhounds which he had owned in order to 
support his statement. Whether his belief in the sound- 
ness of his views was justified, is a matter which those who 
care to make the experiment can decide for themselves. 
(See Sterility.) 

Shy Feeder. — A dog is referred to as a shy feeder when 
either through ill-health or daintiness he refuses to eat. 
In such cases a tonic should be given, and he should be 
indulged by plenty of exercise and fresh air. (See Appetite^ 
Feeding y Tonics.) 

Sibbing. — Another term for In-breeding; which see. 

Sight. — Some breeds, such as greyhounds, hunt their 



game by sight and not by scent, but they are the excep- 
tions. (See Ej/es, Greyhounds, Training Greyhounds?) 

Sinews or Tendons are the bands which connect muscles 
with bones. They are extremely strong, but inelastic. 

Size. — The size of dogs is ascertained both by taking 
their height or weight, sometimes by both, and in the 
latter case the results must obviously provide a better idea 
of the dog's bulk to a person who has never seen the animal 
than if only his height or weight are given ; for a tall dog 
may be very deficient in substance and so weigh light, 
whilst a short one might weigh heavy if strongly built, 
thus giving a false impression of the symmetry and general 
appearance of the animal. Of course, in the case of toy 
dogs the question of weight is the most important point 
to study. (See Height) 

Skin Diseases. (See Eczema, Mange.) 

Skye Terrier. — This is a most attractive member of the 
canine family, and certainly is deserving of more support 
than it receives ; but no doubt its popularity has suffered 
from the attention bestowed upon the two other breeds 
of Scottish terriers, namely, the Dandie Dinmont and the 
hard-haired Scottish. There also remains the fact that 
the admirers of the Skye have incurred a certain amount 
of blame in the matter, as the majority of them appear to 
have only valued the dog because of his fancy points, and 
have in consequence devoted more attention to his coat 
than to his other merits. As a matter of fact, however, 
there is a working and most useful type of Skye well known 
in his native Scotland, of a similar shape to the show 
animals, which only differ from him in the matter of coat. 
There is no gamer or better vermin terrier than these 
Skyes of the working type, and this statement casts no 
reflection upon the show specimens, which are often plucky 
enough for anything ; but the immense coats they carry 



render it impossible for them to do full merits to their 
hunting powers. 

The head of the Skye terrier is long and flat, and it 
possesses the peculiarity of being narrower at the back 
than it is at the front. This is a point that is insisted upon 
by breeders, but it is not always an easy matter to see the 
formation, owing to the wealth of hair. On this account 
some people insist upon having the head thoroughly wetted 
before deciding as regards the merits of a Skye, as the hair 
will then cling to the skull and show its shape. There is 
a slight ridge between the eyes, and the muzzle, which is 
strong and well filled in beneath them, tapers gradually 
from this point to the nose. The teeth must be level ; the 
eyes dark hazel in colour, set rather close together and of 
medium size, the working type showing very well-defined 
bristly eyebrows. The ears are of two kinds — namely, prick, 
which are carried erect, rather small in size, turned rather 
inwards at the tips, and showing plenty of hair ; or drop, 
in which case they are somewhat larger and lie flat to the 
sides of the head. The neck is gracefully arched and of 
fair length, but looks shorter than it really is on account 
of the coat it carries ; the shoulders moderately sloping ; 
the chest deep, but not too wide ; the body very long 
indeed, with well-sprung ribs and powerful loins ; whilst 
the back is slightly arched towards them. The fore-legs 
should be short, straight, and heavy in bone ; the feet large, 
with thickly-padded soles, and the hind-legs very muscular 
at the thighs. The tail is of fair length, it is carried rather 
low and well feathered. The outer coat in the case of 
the show variety is long, free from curl, and harsh on 
the body, rather shorter on the head, but still long enough 
in the case of many dogs to quite conceal the eyes ; 
whilst the under coat is short, close, and sealskin-like. 
In the working type the coat is short, very hard and 
close. The recognised colours are blue, grey, and fawn ; 
the average weight being about i8 lbs. in dogs and i6 lbs. 
in bitches. 

177 M 


Slab-sided. — A dog is thus described when his sides 
are flat, owing to his ribs not being sufficiently rounded. 
(See Sprung Ribs.) 

Slack Loins. — A dog is said to be slack-loined when 
this part of his body is long and weak, which often causes 
him to move as though there were a joint at this point 
connecting his two ends. 

Slate Roofs are expensive, but, with the possible 
exception of tiles, the best of all for kennels. (See 

Slips. — {a) The name by which the leather strap used 
for leading dogs is known. (See Exercising.) 

Double Lead. 

{b) The leather couple used in coursing for keeping 
greyhounds under control before they are let go after 
their hare, which is known as "slipping" them. There 
is a cord running up the line, which is held in the slipper's 
hands, and when this is pulled by him it causes the collars 
round the greyhounds' necks to come open, so that they 
are free to commence coursing their hare. 

Snap Dog. (See Whippet.) 

Snipey Face. — A weak face which is not sufficiently 
developed to conform with the standard of the breed to 
which its possessor belongs. 

Soap. — There are of course many sorts of dog soaps 



in existence, but for ordinary purposes the old-fashioned 
blue curd is one of the best of all, if it can be procured. 
Wright's Coal-Tar Soap is also excellent, but a cake does 
not go very far when a big dog has to be washed ; and 
carbolic soap is useful when there is a suspicion of skin 
trouble, but it is not good for the hair of delicate breeds, 
and leaves an unpleasant smell behind it. When the 
presence of fleas is suspected there is nothing to equal 
Spratt's Patent Dog Soap, which in addition to destroying 
the insects, effectually cleanses the skin. (See Washing 

Soil. — A good deal more depends upon the nature of 
the soil upon which his kennel is erected than many 
breeders appear to imagine. It may therefore be pointed 
out that a heavy, damp, clay soil is very bad for dogs, 
whilst a chalky or sandy one is excellent. Of course it is 
not within the power of most people to select their resi- 
dences so as to suit their dogs — although by doing so they 
will probably be benefiting themselves as well — but never- 
theless, if they give the matter their consideration, they 
may avoid incurring unnecessary risks by selecting a 
hardy breed, if the soil is not well adapted for their 

Sore Feet. — Dogs frequently get sore or raw places 
on their feet or between their toes, these being usually 
the result of some skin trouble which is affecting, or 
about to affect, other parts of their bodies. In such 
cases some cooling medicine and plain non-heating food 
should be given, whilst a washing or two in warm water, 
using tar or carbolic soaps, may do good in slight cases. 
(See Eczema, Mange, Soap.) 

Sortiness. (See Sorty,) 

Sorty. — A term applied to two or more dogs which are 



of identically the same type and appearance, in fact, well 

Soundness. — The question of a dog's soundness must 
depend in a measure upon the purposes to which he 
will be put ; but of course this statement must not be 
taken as implying that an animal is absolutely sound if 
he happens to be suffering from some minor or obscure 
infirmity, which though it might be serious in the case 
of a field-dog, would be a matter of no importance in a 
domestic pet. Possibly, therefore, it would have been 
better to have adopted the expression ''practically sound," 
for, as in the case of human beings, there must be very 
few dogs which would pass the scrutiny of a keen examina- 
tion by a professional man without a slight weakness being 
detected somewhere. It may however be suggested that 
impaired vision or hearing, decayed teeth, chronic lame- 
ness or rheumatism, chorea, indigestion, a weak heart, 
phthisis, diseased bones, contorted limbs, a tendency to 
epilepsy, chronic skin disease, sterility, *and imperfect 
formation of the generative organs, all constitute un- 
soundness, and should deter any one from knowingly 
purchasing an animal afflicted by any of them. Of course 
a weak heart, a crooked limb, chorea, or sterility, might 
not be a serious objection against a dog which has only 
to be kept as a pet about the house, but it is always wiser 
to avoid an animal with an '' if " about it when possible ; 
but naturally in the case of an old favourite which is 
attacked by disease or misfortune the case is different. 
On the other hand, there are hundreds of sound, or prac- 
tically sound, healthy dogs which labour under a dis- 
ability to do the work which some owners require of 
them, and yet be quite well adapted for the purposes of 
others. Thus a gun-dog which is deficient in scenting 
powers or gun shy, a greyhound or whippet which is 
troubled with the slows, a terrier which is deficient in 
courage, or an animal with a slight deformity, might be 



readily purchased by some people though useless for 
others. Moreover, some of the above defects cannot 
strictly be included in the category of either soundness 
or unsoundness, but as they affect the working capacity 
of a dog, it may be permissible to refer to them here. 
It may be added that no dog which is suffering from 
any temporary disease or illness can be regarded as sound, 
even though he be on the high road to recovery, as re- 
lapses may occur, or convalescence be retarded, by a 
change of food or kennel. 

Spaniels. — The spaniel family is a very large one, and 
consists of four divisions — namely, the Springers, by which 
name the larger-sized field spaniels, including the Clumber, 
Sussex, Field, Norfolk, and Welsh, are known ; the 
Cockers, or smaller-sized field varieties ; the water-spaniels, 
English and Irish ; and toy spaniels. The above breeds 
are referred to under their respective headings. 

Spanish Bulldog. — A big, coarse dog, somewhat of the 
bull-mastift' type, and possessing few points in common 
with the show bulldog of the present day. An ineffectual 
attempt was made to popularise the variety in this country 
some forty years ago. 

Spanish Fly. (See Cantharides.) 

Spitz Dog. — The German name for the Pomeranian. 

Splay Feet. — Open, flat feet. 

Splints. — {a) The narrow, flat pieces of thin board, 
or possibly stout cardboard, which are used in cases 
of fractured limbs, to keep them in position after being 

(<^) Small bony lumps which occasionally, but infre- 



quently, appear on the fore-legs of dogs, such as grey- 
hounds, which undergo much hard work. They create 
inflammation of the sinews and Hgaments, and lameness 
usually follows. Rest, cooling medicine, and food, and 
painting with iodine twice a day, usually causes them to 
disappear ; if not, professional advice should be obtained. 

Sports. — In breeding there is always a chance, more or 
less remote, of a puppy displaying some peculiarity, such 
as a lemon-coloured retriever being born of black parents. 
This does not necessarily betoken any impurity of blood, 
though it may possibly be due to the impressiveness of 
an ancestor, and as a rule the sports are fairly safe to 
breed from, as their offspring usually revert to the type 
of the parents of the sports, though there are instances 
of their peculiarities being perpetuated in their puppies. 
(See Back Blood.) 

Sprains, which consist of the straining of a muscle 
or tendon, are by no means uncommon amongst dogs, and 
in some cases are apt to be mistaken for rheumatism, as the 
symptoms, which consist of tenderness and fever, occa- 
sionally accompanied by lameness, are somewhat similar. 
Hot fomentations often bring temporary relief, and the 
part affected may subsequently be gently rubbed with 
Elliman's Embrocation, soap liniment, or some stimulating 
lotion. Absolute rest should also be allow^ed the dog. 
(See Counter-irritants.) 

Springer. — The name given to the larger varieties of 
field spaniels. (See Spaniels^ 

Spring Hooks. — There should be a strong spring hook 
at the end of every chain or lead, and a swivel which works 
easily should be attached to it, lest the chain gets twisted 
up and the animal strangled. Show chains possess two 
spring hooks, one at each end — this being an admirable 



arrangement, as it enables the chain to be easily shortened. 
(See CJiamsy Leads, Szvivels.) 

Sprung Ribs. — Ribs are said to be sprung when they 
are nicely rounded. (See Slab-sided.) 

Sterility. — Occasional instances are known of dogs and 
bitches being absolutely sterile, but they are not common ; 
and it is a fact well within the knowledge of most breeders 
that a dog or a bitch may produce puppies by one animal 
and not by another. (See Selecting a Brood Bitch, Shy 
Breeder, Selecting a Stud- dog.) 

Stern. — A name by which the tail is often referred to. 
It is generally applied in referring to hounds. 

Stifle. — The upper joint of the hind-leg. 

Stitching Wounds. — A little nerve is required in stitching 
up a wound, but the operation is not a particularly difficult 
one as a rule. The needle to be used should be slightly 
bent, and it is best to thread it with a thin silver wire. 
The point of the needle should be inserted a little way from 
the side of the w^ound, and passed along so as to come out 
on the other side of it in such a manner that the two sides 
can be drawn together. The wire can then be secured so 
as to prevent them coming apart, and may be left in for a 
few days until the healing process has well advanced. It 
is necessary to examine the stitches at least once a day in 
case inflamrfiation sets in, as if it does the stitches must be 
temporarily removed. The number of stitches will depend 
upon the nature of the wound, but each one must be made 
separately and independently of its neighbour, at intervals 
of about one inch according to circumstances. 

Stone. — Dogs sometimes, but not very often, suffer 
from stone in the bladder, the symptoms of which are 



frequent attempts to pass water with small results, the 
urine being almost black when it does appear. If the 
stones are small they may be passed, but usually an opera- 
tion is necessary, and hence the advice of an experienced 
veterinary surgeon should be obtained with as little delay 
as possible, as the presence of the stones inflicts consider- 
able suffering upon the dog. (See Calculus.) 

Stop. — The indentation in the skull between the eyes of 
some breeds, notably the bulldog. 

Stoves. — Speaking generally, stoves are not only un- 
necessary but injurious adjuncts to a kennel, besides 
which they are a constant source of danger, owing to the 
possibihty of their setting fire to the place. Very few 
healthy dogs, unless under very exceptional circumstances, 
are benefited by being kept in an artificially warmed atmos- 
phere, but in the case of delicate toys and sick animals it 
is different. (See Hospital.) 

Strains. (See Sprains.) 

Straw is the best bedding that a dog can have, and 
wheaten straw is preferable to either barley or oat. (See 

Stud-dog. (See Selection of Stud-dog^ 

Sulphur, in the form of flowers or milk of sulphur, is 
a most excellent medicine for use when the blood is heated, 
and may be given internally in milk, the dose being about 
a teaspoonful for a large dog. Sulphur is also used success- 
fully as an ointment when mixed with lard, and often with 
other materials, in cases of eczema and mange ; which see. 

Suppositories are cone-shaped mixtures of cocoa-butter 
and oil mixed with drugs, and made sufficiently hard to 



enable them to be forced up the rectum in cases where it 
is necessary to adopt the method of administering medicine 
by the bowel. They are also used in cases of inflammation 
of the rectum, piles, and haemorrhoids ; which see. 

Surfeit is the result of injudicious feeding and the want 
of proper exercise, which combine in upsetting the stomach 
and heating the blood, with the result that inflamed patches 
break out all over the body, and from these a disagreeable, 
sticky discharge appears. Subsequently scabs form, and 
when these come off bare patches are left. The treatment 
is similar to red mange; which see. 

Sussex Spaniel. — This variety is no doubt one of the 
most ancient of the British breeds, and in the opinion of 
several writers of authority the taproot from which the 
setter originated. For many years the Rosehill strain was 
the source from which the finest Sussex spaniels of the 
day had sprung, but the fortunes of the breed began to 
decline more than a generation ago, with the result that 
few really typical specimens of the old type, and still fewer 
pure-bred Sussex spaniels, can be found. This is greatly 
to be regretted, as they were first-rate working, intelligent, 
and keen-nosed dogs, and hence the practical extinction 
of the race leaves the canine world distinctly poorer. 

The head of the Sussex spaniel is rather heavy, and 
the forehead somewhat projecting ; the muzzle being long 
and square, the nose liver-coloured, the eyes soft and hazel- 
coloured ; the ears, which are low set, being long, narrower 
at the setting on than at the tips, and well fringed with 
hair. The neck is slightly arched and very strong-looking ; 
the shoulders sloping, the chest deep, and the body long, 
with well-sprung ribs and powerful loins. The fore-legs 
are short, straight, and well-feathered down to the ground ; 
the feet being large and carrying plenty of hair, and the 
hind-legs being very muscular about the thighs. The tail, 
which is docked, is feathered and carried low ; the coat being 



thick and soft, but weather-resisting, and for preference it 
should be quite flat, but a slight wave is permissible. The 
colour is a rich golden liver, any approach to a puce or 
muddy shade being a bad fault, and the average weight is 
about 40 lbs. 

Sutures. (See Stitching-up Wounds^ 

Swivels. — Every chain or lead used for dogs should 
have a swivel which works easily close to the spring hook 
which is attached to the collar, and the addition of one 
at the middle and a third one at the other end, if that has 
a sprink hook on it, is a very wise arrangement, which is 
cordially recommended to the consideration of dog-owners. 
All properly constructed show chains are thus designed, 
as a protection against the dog being strangled on the 
bench or whilst travelling. (See Chains, Slips, Spring 

Table Scraps form an excellent food for dogs, and 
especially those of the toy varieties, provided that the green 
vegetables are not omitted and that the amount of meat 
fat and greasy substances is strictly limited, as too much 
stimulating food is certain to heat the blood of animals 
which do not get much exercise. (See Feeding.) 

Tailless Dogs. — It is rather a moot question whether 
there are any varieties of dogs in existence which are 
naturally tailless, but certainly there are some breeds, many 
representatives of which are born with no tails or else 
very short ones. Probably this may be the result of a 
long-continued custom of removing the caudal appendages 
of the breeds in question, and if so it is an illustration of 
heredity. On the other hand, if it were so, there would be 



surely many cases occurring of fox-terriers or spaniels 
coming into the world with abbreviated tails, but such 
are very rare. It may be remarked, too, that there is an 
Oriental breed of tailless dogs. 

Tan is sometimes used as a covering for the floors of 
kennels, but is not by any means an ideal substance for 
the purpose, as though to a certain extent it may be a 
disinfectant, it soon becomes dry and dusty ; whilst if 
it is kept damp, it obviously is calculated to produce 
rheumatism amongst the dogs, which constantly move 
about and lie upon it. 

Tape Muzzle. — A serviceable emergency muzzle can 
be made out of strong, wide tape, or even thick string, by 
doubling the tape and then by placing one end of the loop 
so formed just behind the dog's ears and passing the tape 
along the top of the skull and muzzle to about half-way 
along the latter, so as to get the length from that point to 
the back of the ears. A knot is then made at that point, 
and the two loose ends of the tape are allowed to hang 
down, one on each side of the muzzle. They are next 
knotted again below it in such a manner that the loop thus 
formed will fit tightly enough round the muzzle to prevent 
the dog from opening his jaws further than is desired. 
The ends are then passed backwards under his head until 
they come to the part of the neck under the ears, where a 
third knot is made, and the ends being then passed up 
each side of the neck to meet the other end of the loop to 
which they are fixed. (See Muzzles?) 

Tape-worm. (See Worms,) 

Tar in one form or another is valuable in treating cases 
of skin diseases, and it is also a very good dressing for the 
outsides of wooden kennels, as it is disliked by insects. If 



by any accident it should get on the coats of dogs, tar can 
be removed by rubbing grease or butter on the place. 

Tartar Emetic. (See Antimony,) 

Tartar on Teeth is a frequent cause of suffering to dogs 
which are constantly fed on soft food, as this sort of diet 
provides no means for cleansing the teeth, and therefore 
the tartar accumulates, and in the end produces inflamma- 
tion of the gums. If large bones or Spratt's biscuits, given 
whole and dry, are occasionally provided the animals to 
gnaw, the growth of tartar will be checked ; but when it 
once has formed it will be necessary to have the teeth 
scraped by a professional man. A course of cooling 
medicine should be administered if there is inflammation 
of the gums. (See Teeth,) 

Technical Terms. — The following are the technical 
terms most in use amongst dog-breeders : — 

Apple-head. — A round head. This appearance is 

sometimes produced by the ears being set on low, 

and not by the roundness of the skull. 
Beefy, — The term applied to heavy quarters. 
Brush, — The tail ; generally applied to that of the 

Business-dog. — A fighting dog. 
Butterfly Nose. — A parti-coloured nose. 
Button Ears. — Ears, the flap of which hang downwards, 

so as to conceal the interior. 
Cat-foot, — A round foot. 
China Eye. — A wall eye. 
Cloddy. — Thickly built. 
Cobby. — Compactly built. 
Couplings, — The body and loins which couple the 

fore-end and hind-quarters. 
Cow Hocks. — Hocks which turn inwards, so that the 

stifles and feet turn out. 



Dish-faced, — A dog is said to be dish-faced when the 

end of his muzzle turns up higher than the part of 

it nearest to the eyes. 
Down-face, — A face which does not turn upwards, as 

it should do in some breeds. 
Dudley Nose. — A Hght-coloured nose. 
Face. — The muzzle. 
Feather, — The hair which runs down the back of the 

legs and below the tails of some breeds. 
Flag, — The tail, usually applied to that of the setter. 
Frill, — The growth of hair on the chest. 
Frog-face. — A long, down-face in a short-faced breed. 
Furnished, — A dog is said to be furnished when he 

has matured. 
Hare foot. — A long foot. 
Haw. — The red inner membrane of the eye. 
Lay-back is formed by the upper jaw and nose 

Leather. — The fleshy part of the ear. 
Made Up. (See Furnished.) 
Old Man. — A matured dog. 
Overshot. — The formation caused by the upper teeth 

projecting beyond the lower ones. 
Pig Eyes, — Small, deeply-set eyes. 
Pig f aw. — An upper jaw which projects in front of 

the lower one. 
Pine her Jaw. (See Pig Jaw.) 
Reachy. — A lathily built, long-framed dog is thus 

Roach Back. — A back which is arched from the 

shoulders to the top of the loins. 
Rose Ears. — Ears, the tips of which lay back, so as to 

show the interior. 
Slab Sides. — Flat sides. ' 

Sorty. — A term applied to two or more dogs of 

exactly similar appearance. 
Splay Feet. — Flat, open feet. 



Stern. — The tail, usually applied to hounds. 

Stop. — The indentation in the skull between the eyes 

of some breeds. 
Thumb Maj'ks. — The dark patch on the head of a 

pug, and the legs of black-and-tan terriers. 
Ttilip Ears. — Upright ears. 
Undershot. — A dog is said to be undershot when his 

lower teeth project in front of the upper ones. 
Up-face, — A term applied to a nose and upper jaw 

which recede. 
Wheel-back. — Another term for a roach-back. 

Teeth. — A dog possesses forty-two teeth — namely, twelve 
incisors or front-teeth, four canines or eye-teeth, and 
twenty-six molars or back-teeth. By the time the puppy 
has arrived at the age of about nine months he will 
usually have got his second or permanent set, which under 
ordinary conditions should last him until he is six years 
old, when they begin to become loose and fall out. Much, 
however, will depend upon the manner in which a dog 
has been treated, as injudicious feeding will undoubtedly 
affect his teeth ; and if he is allowed to carry stones in his 
mouth and encouraged to gnaw hard sticks they are sure 
to suffer. Occasionally dogs lose their teeth at quite an 
early age through the effects of canker and other causes, 
in which event their digestions become impaired. One 
case at least, however, of a dog wearing a complete set of 
false teeth with evident satisfaction has been known, the 
animal in question being a schipperke, the property of an 
enterprising West-end dentist, who exhibited him at a 
show held at the Westminster Aquarium some twenty years 
ago. (See Canker in the Mouthy Rearing Puppies^ Teething.) 

Teething. — Many puppies suffer a good deal from the 
effects of teething, and in severe cases fits may be the 
result of their doing so. The first milk-teeth usually ap- 
pear through the gum when the pups are about three weeks 



or a month old, and if there is at this or any future time 
a difficulty in cutting them, which will be found by a 
swelling and redness of the gums and evident pain in 
sucking and eating, it may be necessary to use a lancet 
or very sharp penknife, which must be absolutely clean. 
The second teeth are generally in their places when the 
dog arrives at about the age of nine months ; and whilst 
the milk-teeth are being shed and the later ones cut, it is 
necessary to inspect the condition of the mouth pretty fre- 
quently, so that loose teeth may be extracted if necessary, 
as if they remain in for too long they are very likely to 
affect the regularity of the second set, and thereby ruin 
the appearance of the dog's mouth. (See Fits, Full-inoiithy 
Rearing Puppies.) 

Telegony. (See Back Blood.) 

Temperature. — The temperature of a dog varies slightly 
according to where it is taken, but the usual and best course 
to pursue is to place the thermometer in the rectum, where 
the normal temperature is ioi° to 104°. Under the fore- 
arm it is practically the same, but it is not so easy to 
keep the thermometer in its place. (See Thermometer.) 

Tendons. (See Sinews.) 

Terrier. — The expression terrier is unquestionably de- 
rived from the Latin word terra, which signifies ^' earth," and 
consequently is applied to such varieties of dogs as are 
used for going to ground after vermin. Apart from that 
absolutely indispensable characteristic — gameness, a terrier 
must be structurally fitted for this sort of work, and he 
must not therefore be of too large a size or too wide in 
the chest, else he could never enter some drains or narrow 
earths. His height at shoulder is not so much a matter of 
importance — although of course there must be some limit 
imposed upon it — as narrowness of chest, as the terrier 



enters the earth with his front legs in front of him, and 
therefore a taller dog with a narrow chest can do so far 
easier than a shorter one with a broad chest. 

Thatched Roof. — This sort of roof is warm in winter, 
cool in summer, and attractive in appearance ; but it is 
apt to harbour insects, and its use is prohibited by most 
local authorities. (See Roofs.) 

Thermometer. — A clinical thermometer should be in- 
cluded in the medical stores of every kennel, as its use 
is a sure guide in cases of fever. It is quite easy to read, 
and when properly used will often be of great assistance 
to an owner when attempting to ascertain what ails his 
dog. (See Temperature.) 

Thibet Mastiff. — These dogs are largely used in their 
native country for the purposes to which mastiffs were 
devoted by our forefathers, and prove themselves most 
reliable guardians of life and property. In disposition 
they are unreliable, and certainly the majority of the few 
specimens seen in this country have been more or less 
dangerous animals for strangers to approach. The Thibet 
mastiff is, however, a most handsome, imposing-looking 
dog, his size being rather less than that of the mastiff. 

The head in this breed is rather narrow in comparison 
to the size of the dog, domed on the top, of moderate 
length, and carries some heavy wrinkling of skin on the 
forehead, which, combined with the small sunken eyes 
and the display of some haw in the corners of these, 
gives the animal a very ferocious expression. The ears 
are of medium size, and set low ; the neck, body, and 
legs resemble those of the mastiff ; but the tail, which is 
very bushy, is carried high ; and the coat is very much 
longer. The recognised colour is black, with a tan muzzle 
and tan spots over the eyes. 



Thick Head. — A coarse, heavy head. 

Thorns, if they penetrate a sensitive part, are liable to 
cause lameness, and possibly abscesses to form. The only 
precaution that can be taken against such occurrences is 
to examine the feet and legs of any dogs which have 
been running amongst bushes when they come in from 
exercise, and to remove the thorns, if any are found, 
with a pair of pincers. (See Abscess y Exercise^ Lameness,) 

Throaty. — A dog is described as such when he has a 
superfluity of loose skin on his throat. 

Throw Back. (See Back Blood,) 

Thumb-mark. — The dark patch on the head of a pug, 
and the marks above the pasterns on the legs of black-and- 
tan terriers are referred to as thumb-marks. (See Black- 
and- Tan Terrier y Pug.) 

Ticks are the objectionable, bluish-coloured parasites 
which attach themselves to the skin of dogs. A good 
dressing of paraffin, if the dog belongs to one of the 
larger varieties, but not if he is a toy as it is too strong 
for them, will usually clear the ticks away, unless they 
have established themselves securely and in numbers. If 
so, they will have to be cut in halves with sharp scissors. 
Dogs which have gone over land over which sheep have 
been are especially liable to be attacked by ticks. (See 
Fleas, Lice.) 

Tile Roofs form a very good covering for kennels, 
provided they are well pointed and laid on boards, as 
they are warm in winter and cool in summer. (See 


Tongfue. — As in the human being, so it is in the case 
of dogs which are sick — the tongue usually supplies some 

193 N 


indications of the nature of the ailment. Thus a hot, dry, 
and very red tongue is associated with inflammation of 
the stomach ; a white, dry tongue with poverty of the 
blood ; a furred, yellowish tongue with liver troubles ; a 
furred, white one with indigestion ; and a dark-brown, 
swollen tongue with rabies. Paralysis of the tongue 
occurs when the muscles become affected, so that the 
dog is unable to draw it back, and it therefore hangs 
out of the mouth at one corner, and usually becomes 
dry and hard. There is no cure for a paralysed tongue, 
which is usually met with amongst the short-faced varieties 
of toy dogs. 

Tonics are useful in building up dogs which have got 
run down through the effects of an illness or constitutional 


Tourniquet. — In cases of severe wounds which cause 
much bleeding it is sometimes necessary to apply a 
tourniquet, if the injury is in such a position that one 
can be used. A tourniquet consists of a bandage, which 
in cases of emergency may be a pocket-handkerchief, 
wrapped very tightly either above or below the wound 
— sometimes it is necessary to fix one in both positions. 
In cases of an artery being severed it should be above 
the wound, but when veins are cut it should be below 
it. (See Arteries f Bleeding y Vei?is.) 

Toy Bulldogs. — The rehabilitation of the toy bulldog 
in this country has been accomplished within the past 
few years. Half a century ago and less he was well 
known in England; but his admirers fell off, and the 
best specimens found their way to France, where they 
became great favourites. French breeders, however, began 
to introduce points of their own, and the result was that un- 
sightly bat-ears and frog-faces became the fashion amongst 
them, These hideous properties, however, have now been 



pretty well bred out by English breeders, and in conse- 
quence some very good specimens of the bulldog, weighing 
about 22 lbs., are now to be seen. (See Bulldogy Frog-face.) 

Toy Dogs. — The expression toy dog is rather an 
one, as for all practical purposes some of the 
varieties are to all intents and 
purposes toys. Still, properly 
speaking, the toy breeds may 
be summed up as being King 
Charles, Blenheim, Japanese, 
and Pekinese spaniels, black- 
and-tan and bull terriers under 
lo lbs. weight, Italian grey- 
hounds, Maltese, pugs, and 
Yorkshire terriers. The accom- 
panying illustration shows an 
admirably designed basket for 
the use of toy dogs. Not merely does it serve as a 
ling basket, if necessary, but it will be found most 
for shutting the little dogs in during cold weather. 


6PH4TI5 P«IENt *." 


Toy Terrier is the name usually applied to the dwarf 
black-and-tan terrier of from 5 lbs. to 10 lbs. weight, which 
has been produced by a course of in-breeding from the 
larger-sized dogs of the same variety. The toys are de- 
sired to resemble the heavier dogs as closely as possible 
in appearance, but they are usually much rounder in their 
skulls, larger in the eye, and not so good in colour and 
markings. (See In-breeding.) 

Trace. — The black line which runs down the backs of 
pug dogs is called the trace. (See Pug.) 

Training Greyhounds. — There is not much difficulty in 
getting a greyhound into condition if the time can be 
spared to do so, and the animal is properly fed ; but both 


experience and good judgment are of course necessary 
when a high-class greyhound is being trained for an im- 
portant stake. It is, however, quite within the power of 
most people who are fond of sport to get their dogs fit 
enough to run at any local private meeting, and many 
winners at these most enjoyable little fixtures are trained 
by their owners. As is the case in almost everything that 
is connected with the health and well-being of dogs, the 
questions of food and exercise are matters of paramount 
importance in connection with the preparation of a grey- 
hound, as there is no chance whatsoever of his laying on 
muscle and getting into proper condition unless he has 
good food and possesses a good appetite to eat it. The 
exercise should mainly consist of daily long, slow walks — 
it being the custom for a trainer to take his dogs out well 
clothed, in leather leads, in batches of five or six, each 
batch being entrusted to the care of a separate attendant, 
as no man can look after more than the above number 
at most ; and besides this, different animals may require 
different exercise, so each batch has its own daily course 
of work, and it is possible to keep apart any members of 
the kennel which may bear animosity towards each other. 
The daily exercise should take the form of long walks, 
in the course of which the greyhounds may be loosed 
from their leads and allowed a gallop in a meadow or 
on a common, but they should not be encouraged to 
cover long distances at top speed, but merely to frolic 

In the case of an owner who is only training one or 
two dogs, and who cannot personally superintend all their 
requirements, the question of proper exercise is not an 
easy one, as the animals have to be entrusted to the charge 
of a man who may not care to walk the distances along 
the road which are regarded as necessary for their well- 
being. This difficulty can, however, be surmounted by 
giving the man a letter to deliver to a friend of the owner's 
who lives some miles away, and if a reply is sent stating 



the time at which the man arrived and left, a check upon 
shirking the walk will have been arrived at. 

Of course greyhounds in training require a certain 
amount of fast work to clear their wind ; but it need not 
be given them too frequently else they may grow stale, 
and on no account should they see a hare too often, else 
they are certain to get cunning sooner or later and begin 
to cut corners when slipped instead of keeping as close 
to the scut of their hare as they can. The best way to 
indulge them with the necessary fast gallop is for the 
trainer, or somebody the dogs are fond of, to leave them in 
charge of another man whilst he proceeds the required 
distance away, and then calls to them. On being released 
the greyhounds will always make the best way they can 
to their trainer, and hence the gallop will come off all 
right. It may be added that it is necessary to strip the dogs 
of the clothing they usually wear when taking walking 
exercise before they are galloped ; and with reference to 
this clothing, it may be added that it is customary to protect 
them with a waterproof sheet if the weather is wet. 

As regards feeding arrangements, it may be observed 
that Spratt's greyhound biscuits, or Rodnim soaked in the 
broth of bullocks' or sheep's heads, is a very excellent 
staple food if some of the meat from the heads is cut up 
small and mixed with the stew, and a few green vegetables 
which have been boiled separately can also be added. 
Oatmeal, treated similarly to the biscuits, may be given as 
an alternative ; but it heats the blood of some dogs and 
causes looseness in the bowels of others when first given 
them, and therefore it is not wise to commence feeding 
greyhounds in training upon oatmeal just before they are 
expected to run. As the eventful day approaches a larger 
allowance of meat should be given them, lean mutton being 
the best, as it is both nutritious and easy of digestion, two 
feeds a day being amply sufBcient in the case of healthy 
animals ; but bad doers which require to be coaxed may be 
fed oftener and in smaller quantities. 



Sloppy food, provided that it is made so by good strong 
broth, is preferable to dry, as it tends to reduce the dog's 
thirst, and the less water they get the better, as it is bad 
for the wind of a dog in training. It may here be observed 
that many greyhomids which are regularly fed on sloppy 
food will drink next to no water, and sometimes none 
at all. 

On coming in from exercise the feet of the dogs should 
be carefully examined, lest they should have been cut, and 
then washed. It is also most essential that a dog in training 
should be well groomed each day to keep his skin in good 
condition. In conclusion, it may be pointed out that there 
is no unvarying rule for regulating the amount of food and 
exercise which each animal should be allowed, as individual 
dogs differ very widely in appetite and constitution ; so that 
food and exercise which would be far too much for one 
dog would not nearly suffice for another. (See Clothingy 
Exercising y Feeding y Grooming.) 

Travelling. (See Journeys^ 

Trimming is so nearly allied to the nefarious practice 
of faking, that it may honestly be said that there is very 
little distinction that can be drawn between the two. 
Trimming, however, has more by custom than by right 
come to be regarded as a minor form of faking, which is 
winked at by persons who would throw up their hands 
in horror at the bare idea of an exhibitor dying his dog's 
coat, though they themselves do not scruple to employ a 
professional ^^ handler " to pluck the coats of their long 
or wire-haired dogs if they should be too profuse, and 
their own servants are not proficient in the art. It 
is, in fact, safe to assert that the coats of almost half of 
the wire-haired fox terriers and Irish terriers which are 
exhibited are more or less plucked and trimmed before 
they are shown, and in the case of Bedlington terriers 
matters are even worse ; yet exhibitors of the latter are 



often disqualified, whilst owners of the former go free, for 
the simple reason that they may not require so much 
doing to them. If the statement as regards the trimming 
of the breeds mentioned, and of other varieties also, is 
doubted, let any of those who are disposed to do so endea- 
vour to get a quiet look at a few of the crack prize dogs 
a few weeks before the show season commences and a 
similar time after it concludes, and they will scarcely be 
able to recognise some of the animals, as many persons 
who have purchased a dog at a show has discovered to 
his cost. (See Exhibiting Dogs, Faking.) 

Tripe. (See Paunches.) 

Truffle Dog. — This breed of dog, if it really is a dis- 
tinct breed, as it doubtless originated in a cross between 
the poodle and the terrier, which appears to have been 
very carelessly kept up, is rarely seen in this country ; 
but in parts of the Continent it is used for the purposes of 
locating truffles, which it accomplishes by its powers of 

Tucked Up. — When a dog's back ribs are short, so that 
his loins are slender, or when he is temporarily drawn up 
at this point through illness or cold, he is described as 
being tucked up. 

Tulip Ear. — An erect ear. The term is usually applied 
to bulldogs whose ears stand up straight. (See Bulldogs.) 

Tumours are slow-growing growths which attack old 
dogs as a rule, but are also not infrequently the result of 
a blow. They appear on different parts of the body, and 
if taken in time are sometimes amenable to treatment ; 
but as a rule a surgical operation is the only remedy that 
is likely to prove efficacious. Hence the advice of a 



veterinary surgeon should be obtained. Tumours are of 
various sorts — viz. fatty tumours, which usually attack old 
dogs ; fibrous tumours, generally to be seen on the limbs 
and jaws as a result of some injury ; fibro-cystic tumours, 
which are mostly situated on the elbows, and are caused 
by the dog lying on a hard bed ; and osseous tumours 
which are hard, bony growths on the hocks and fore- 

Twitch. (See C/iorea, Distemper.) 


Underhung. — When the lower row of front teeth 
project in front of the upper ones the dog is said to be 

Undershot. (See Underhung^ 

Unsoundness. (See Soundness.) 

Up-face. — The formation which results from the nose 
receding, as in the case of the bulldog. (See Lay-back^ 

Urinary Troubles occasionally affect the dog, the most 
common being an inability to hold water. This is occa- 
sionally due to timidity, but may be caused by a weakness 
of the bladder, in which case a reference to ^^ The Dog's 
Medical Dictionary " (Routledge & Sons) will provide some 
very useful information. It may also be a symptom of 
stone, in which case it must be regarded as serious. 

If there is a difficulty in passing water, and this in- 
creases, it may be necessary to pass a catheter up the 
penis in order to allow it to escape, and for this pro- 
fessional advice should be secured without delay. When 



there is much pain in the region of the top of the loins and 
stomach, and especially if the urine which passes is tinged 
with blood, the presence of a stone may be suspected ; 
but under any circumstances the bowels should be well 
opened by a dose of castor oil, and opium should be 
administered every six hours in doses of from J grain to 
2 grains, according to the size of the dog. Linseed 
poultices on the parts where the pain exists will also 
bring relief. 

Inflammation of the kidneys, or nephritis, also creates 
a difficulty in passing water. It may be the result of cold, 
a stone, or some direct injury. The symptoms are : great 
pain at the loins, an arched back, and a difficulty in 
walking, whilst the urine is generally bloody. Hot 
fomentations will relieve the pain ; but this is both a 
dangerous and a painful disease, so a veterinary surgeon 
should be called in. (See Linseed, Nursing; Stone.) 


Vagina. — The organ of sex in the bitch. 

Value of Dogs. — As a rule the value of a dog is what 
he will fetch, but of course some quite fancy prices are 
occasionally paid. (See Buying a Dog, Selling) 

Vegetables. — Green vegetables, such as cabbages, are 
necessary for the well-being of dogs, which should be 
taught to eat them from puppyhood ; and of course they 
should always be well boiled, but not in the water in which 
meat is being cooked. A very excellent green food consists 
of the shoots of nettles well boiled, and spinach is also 
good ; but as a rule roots are not to be recommended, 
though potatoes, if mashed up, form an agreeable change 
when mixed with broth and a little flesh, but they should 
not be given too often. (Se^ Feeding,) 

20 1 


Veins are the blood-vessels which carry the blood back 
to the heart after it has passed through the arteries. The 
blood which comes from a severed vein trickles out, and is 
darker in colour than that which spurts from the arteries 
if they are cut. (See Arteries, Bleeding, Capillaries y Stitch- 
ing-up Wounds) 

Ventilation. — All kennels should be well ventilated if 
the dogs inhabiting them are expected to thrive ; but 
adequate ventilation and draughts are two very different 
things, and hence the ventilators should be placed up 
high over the heads of the dogs at the top of the kennel. 
A very good ventilator is formed by a piece of bent iron 
piping, so arranged that the water cannot enter it, which 
can easily be effected by fitting it with a cowl. By such 
means the impure air will be able to escape and the 
kennels kept sweet. Another good arrangement is a 
sliding panel at the top of each of the sides of the kennel, 
something after the design of the ventilators in railway 
carriages. By this the amount of ventilation can be 
regulated, as it will not be necessary to open more than 
one ventilator in bad weather, and that only at the side 
away from the direction of the wind ; whilst in hot weather 
they can all be pushed as far back as possible, thus allowing 
a current of cool air to pass over the heads of the dogs. 
(See Hospital^ Kennels.^ 

Vermin. (See Fleas, Lice, Ticks.) 

Veterinary Surgeons. — Both dogs and their owners 
have every cause to feel thankful that the health of the 
one and the property of the other are now in the hands 
of a very different class of practitioner to many of the 
illiterate, ignorant men who used to pose as dog doctors in 
the past. The modern canine specialist is a gentleman who 
has studied his subject, and is not merely guided by the 
principles of rule of thumb and a smattering of a know- 



ledge of dogs' diseases, associated with an acquaintance 
with the ailments of cows. Hence the extraordinary 
cures which have been effected, and the immense value 
of the works which have been published on the subject 
of canine diseases and their successful treatment, con- 
spicuous amongst the series being ''The Dog's Medical 
Dictionary/' by Mr. A. J. Sewell, and published by George 
Routledge & Sons, Ltd. 

Vomiting. — Owing to the fact that dogs frequently 
vomit from very trivial causes, the possibility that the act 
may be a symptom of serious disease is apt to be over- 
looked. It is therefore an act of wisdom on the part of 
an owner to endeavour when his dog vomits to ascertain 
whether the act is accompanied by further symptoms of 
diseases described on other pages of this work. 


Wall Eye. (See Ckina Eye.) 

Warm Tan. — A deep, rich coloured shade of tan. 

Warragal. (See Dingo.) 

Warts are rather common amongst dogs, and appear 
on all parts of their bodies, but most frequently on the 
mouth and lips. There are three ways of dealing with 
them — namely, by cutting them out, by applying caustic, 
or, if their shape and position will permit it to be done, 
by tying a piece of silk thread tightly round the necks 
of the warts, and allowing it to remain on until they 
drop off. 

Washing Dogs, — The right way to wash a dog is to 
place him in a tub that is large enough to accommodate 
him comfortably, and if this is made of wood, and there 



is a hole at the bottom which can be stopped by a cork, 
it will save a good deal of trouble and mess by standing it 
on trestles over a drain or gutter, so that it can be emptied 
easily. Fill the bath full enough to reach almost up to 
the dog's belly, with water hot enough to let the hand 
be put into it comfortably, having previously placed at 
hand a piece of soap, a sponge, or washing glove, a couple 
of towels, and a can of cold, or in the winter tepid, water, 
whilst a little common soda may be placed in the bath. 
Then lift the dog in gently, having first removed his 

Washing Glove. 

collar, supplying its place with a piece of clean cord if 
he tries to escape. First thoroughly soak his head and 
face with water by the assistance of the sponge or glove ; 
then apply the soap and wash it off, rinsing with a little 
cold or tepid water out of the can at hand. Then deal 
with all the other parts of his legs and body in turn in 
a similar manner, taking care to sluice the soap well out 
of his coat by means of the sponge or glove ; the last 
stage being to douche him with the clean water out of the 
can, as this will assist the former operation, and also reduce 
the chances of his taking cold. Then squeeze the water 
out of his coat and feet, and rub him dry in the towels. 
He should not be allowed to run loose directly after a 
bath, as he is sure to roll on the ground and soil his coat, 
but should be tied up near a fire if delicate, or else put 
back in his kennel on a clean bed. 

It may be added that the washing glove, if used, should 
be specially designed for the purpose, else it will be useless. 
(See Soap.) 



Watch-dogs. — Of late years the large-sized watch-dog, 
such as our forefathers used to rely upon for the guardian- 
ship of their lives and property, has fallen out of fashion, 
the result being that such varieties as the mastiff have 
found their occupation gone. No doubt this in a great 
measure is due to the methods of housebreakers having 
undergone a change, but be this as it may the watch-dog 
of the period is one of the smaller breeds, which is kept 
indoors in order to arouse the household by his barking 
should intruders appear upon the scene. For this purpose 
there are no better breeds than the Pomeranian or the 
Schipperke, but most of the terrier varieties are alert and 
reliable ; whilst for outdoor work of the kind a retriever 
will usually be found to be very useful. A good deal will, 
however, depend upon how an animal is brought up and 
managed ; as a dog which is pampered and coddled cannot 
reasonably be expected to have his wits about him, and 
will possibly be lying fast asleep on his luxurious bed 
whilst burglars are rifling his master's house. In short, it 
is a very bad plan to make a watch-dog too comfortable or 
to feed him too late of a night. A hearty morning meal may 
be given him, and of course a run, and then he should be 
shut up in a quiet kennel to sleep for the rest of the day, and 
be brought indoors at night. The best place to locate him 
is in the passage, and he should be chained up, as if he is 
allowed to run loose he may select more comfortable sleeping 
quarters, far removed from the part of the house at which 
burglars may enter. It is always a great mistake to allow 
your watch-dog, whatever his breed may be, to be made a 
fuss of by strangers, and care should be taken to keep him 
during the day out of the way of tramps, who may lay 
pieces of poisoned meat about the premises in the interests 
of their accomplices, the housebreakers. 

Water. — Most dogs drink far more water than is good 
for them, and the habit is one that increases unless the 
propensity is controlled. It is noticeable, too, that dogs 



which get a good deal of sloppy food care very little for 
water, which rather goes to prove that excessive drinking 
is an acquired habit. Of course it is not suggested that 
dogs should be kept short of water, but it is recommended 
that when puppies they should only have it placed before 
them at intervals, and if this rule is carried out they will 
not drink much when they grow up. (See Training Grey- 

Water-dogs. — Apart from the water-spaniels, which take 
to water like ducks, the best water-dogs are the Labrador, 
the field-spaniels, the retriever, the Newfoundland, and 
most breeds of terrier. Some of these animals, however, 
possess a great dislike to entering a stream or pond, and 
these rarely, if ever, can be made to conquer this aversion. 
On the other hand, there are many representatives of other 
varieties which take water well. 

Water Troughs should always be kept clean, and out 
of the rays of the sun in summer. They are best made of 
enamelled iron of a pattern that cannot be overturned, and 
their contents should be frequently changed. 

Waterside Dog. (See Airedale Terrier.) 

Wavy-coated Retriever. — This variety is not encour- 
aged nowadays, though he was in favour some years ago. 
(See Flat-coated Retriever.) 

Weaning Puppies. — Puppies should be weaned gradu- 
ally, their dam being taken away from them for an hour or 
two a day when they are a little over a month old, by which 
time they should have been taught to feed a little by them- 
selves. The period of separation should be gradually ex- 
tended during the daytime, the dam being left with them 
of a night until they arrive at the age of six weeks, when 
she may be finally removed from them. Of course there 
are exceptional circumstances which may render it desir- 



able to keep the puppies longer with their dam, such as if 
they are weakly, or if the weather is very cold. (See Breedingy 
Brood Bitch, Ptippies^ Rearing Puppies, Teething^ 

Welsh Heeler. — A title by which mirled collies are 
sometimes described, but the derivation of the expression 
is unascertainable. (See Colliey Mirle.) 

Welsh Hound. — This is a wire-haired variety of the 
foxhound, which was used promiscuously for hunting the 
fox, the otter, and the hare in Wales. His merits as a 
hunter were undoubtedly high, but the breed has almost 
died out. 

Welsh Spaniels. — The Welsh springer has of late 
years been resuscitated, to the satisfaction of sportsmen 
in different parts of the country who desire to possess a 
working spaniel which stands on higher legs than the 
modern show springers ; and of him it may be said that 
no member of the family is a better and more reliable 

The head in this variety is only of moderate length and 
width ; there should be a stop between the eyes, and a 
distinct drop at the setting on of the muzzle, which is of 
fair length, neither too long or too short, and rather 
narrow. The, eyes are dark hazel in colour, and not 
too sunken ; the ears smaller than those of the English 
springers, set on low, fairly feathered, and lie close to 
the sides of the head. The neck is powerful, and shows 
no superabundance of loose skin, it is nicely set on long, 
sloping shoulders ; the body being of moderate length, 
with well-sprung ribs and powerful loins. The fore-legs 
are longer than those of the English springers, quite 
straight, and carry a fair amount of feather, and round 
feet, whilst the hind-legs, which are feathered down to the 
hocks, must not be too much bent at the stifles ; and 
the tail, which is carried straight, is nicely feathered, The 



coat is very thick and flat, the accepted colours being red 
and white, or orange and white, the former for choice ; 
and the average weight about 36 lbs. (See Feather^ 
Spaniels, Stop.) 

Welsh Terrier. — This breed has sprung into favour 
during the last twenty years, but previous to its merits 
being recognised in England it was well known and a 
general favourite in Wales. There can be no doubt that 
on its first appearance this breed was a good deal hampered 
in the course of its struggle for popularity by the disposition 
to confound it with another rough-coated dog, which was 
styled by its admirers '^the Old English terrier," and 
which it was attempted to push to the front at the expense 
of the Welsh one. That there was a certain similarity of 
appearance between the two cannot be denied — indeed, 
a judge has been known to award honours at the same 
show to a dog which was entered both as an Old English 
and Welsh terrier ; but an expert on the subject of terriers 
could never have made such a mistake, as the former 
variety was clearly mongrel, and of late has disappeared. 
The Welsh terrier, however, has become very popular, 
and fully deserves all the support he receives, as he is an 
active, intelligent, game, and companionable dog ; and 
since the variety has been taken seriously in hand by 
scientific breeders there is much more sortiness observable 
amongst its members. 

The head of the Welsh terrier is flat and moderately 
wide between the ears, with a slight stop between the eyes, 
and a long, powerful muzzle, set on a lower level than the 
skull. The eyes, which are rather small, must not be too 
deeply set, and are of a dark hazel colour ; the ears being 
V-shaped, set on fairly high, moderately thick in leather, 
and carried close to the sides of the head. The neck is 
rather long and slightly arched ; the shoulders well laid 
back ; the back short and flat, rounded at the ribs, and 
powerful at the loins. The fore-legs are fairly long, set on 



right under the dog, quite straight, and should show good 
bone, the hind ones being strong and muscular, and 
not too much bent at the stifles ; the tail, which it is the 
custom to dock, being set on high. The coat is very close 
and wiry, the colours being black-and-tan, or grizzle and 
tan ; whilst the average weight is about 20 lbs. (See 
Docking Tails?) 

West Highland Terrier. — This breed is to all intents 
and purposes a white-coloured, hard-haired Scottish terrier ; 
which see. 

Wheel Back. (See Roach Back) 

Whippet. — The whippet, or snap-dog, is used for dog- 
racing purposes, and is in great request in many parts of 
the country where this sport is popular. In appearance 
he is simply a miniature greyhound, the popular weight 
being about 20 lbs. ; but some well-known performers — the 
famous Cowboy, for instance, who ran at about 40 lbs. — 
are considerably heavier. (See Dog Racingj Greyhouridy 
Training Greyhounds.^ 

Whips. — If it is necessary to correct a dog, the 
chastisement should always be administered with a whip, 
and a short-handled one with a fairly stout thong is the 
best to use for the purpose. A stick should never be 
applied to a dog, as it is apt to cause serious, and possibly 
permanent, injuries to bones. 

White English Terrier. — It is a subject of regret to 
many dog-lovers of the old school that this most beautiful 
and engaging breed of dog should have been allowed to 
become practically extinct. This, however, is the case, 
and it is almost to be feared that a similar fate will 
overtake the black-and-tan terrier — of which he is an 
exact replica in white — if more patronage is not bestowed 
upon him. (See Black-and-Tan Terrier,) 

209 O 


Windows. — When dogs are confined in large kennels 
the latter should always be fitted with windows, so as to 
admit light and air. It is necessary, however, that they 
should be well protected by wire on both sides, unless they 
are situated very high up, in order to prevent the dogs 
breaking the glass and thereby cutting themselves. (See 

Wire Brushes are used for the purpose of removing 
the dead hair when dogs are changing their coats. Their 
use is, however, often abused by people who are desirous 
of reducing a superabundance of coat in their show 
dogs. (See Brushes, Faking^ Groomirtgy Preparing for Show^ 

Worms are terrible pests to many dogs, and in addi- 
tion to causing them a good deal of suffering at times, the 
presence of these parasites invariably affects their health, 
coat, and general condition. There are three varieties of 
worms — the maw-worm, which is to be found in the rectum, 
the round-worm, and the tape-w^orm, which inhabit the 
bowels. The maw-worms resemble grains of rice, and 
are in reality particles of a tape-worm, which create great 
irritation of the part ; whilst the round-worms are about 
four inches long and of a pinkish colour. The worst of 
all is the tape-worm, which resembles a long piece of 
whitish-coloured tape, with a diamond-shaped head, and 
until the latter is got away the dog will not be freed from 
the objectionable presence of this loathsome creature. 
Unfortunately it is by no means easy to remove the head, 
as the body breaks up in pieces and comes away, leaving 
the head behind it to create trouble inside the dog. Con- 
sequently, however large the pieces that are passed may 
be, the tape-worm remains unless the head comes with 
them, and hence it is always desirable to give at least two 
doses of medicine at intervals of about a week. Unless 
the dog is very delicate or quite young, if so the period 



must be reduced, he should be fasted for twenty-four 
hours before being given his medicine, and during this 
fast not a grain of food or drop of water should be given 
him. An hour afterwards, if the medicine has not w^orked, 
he may be given a dose of castor oil ; but if it has, a basin 
of hot broth will do him good, and this should be allowed 
him the same time after the oil if he has to take the latter. 
A run, too, will expedite his motions, which should be 
inspected, if it is a case of a tape-worm, to ascertain if the 
head has been passed. The most common and one of 
the most efficacious remedies for worms is freshly grated 
areca-nut, the dose of which is two grains for every pound 
the dog weighs, the maximum dose being two drams for 
such breeds as the mastiff or St. Bernard, according to 
the weight and age of the dog. Santonine, in doses from 
one-eighth to one-half a grain, is also an efficacious remedy, 
and so too are oil of male-fern, turpentine, and Indian pink ; 
but the two last named are most dangerous, and their use 
should be avoided. Favourable reference may also be 
made to Spratt's Worm Powders, which have succeeded 
in cases where other remedies have failed, and which 
contain nothing that can prove injurious to the dogs. 
The presence of worms can be detected by loss of flesh 
or skin troubles, a staring coat, and a general air of languor 
and discomfort about the dog. In the case of small puppies 
the bellies are hard and distended, and sometimes the pre- 
sence of the pests is associated with fits. (See Puppies.) 

Wounds. (See Bites ^ Bleedings Cuts^ Stitching - up 


Yellows. {'$>QQ Jaundice.) 

Yorkshire Terrier. — There is no such beautiful dog in 
the world as a really fine specimen of this breed in first- 
rate condition, but unfortunately good specimens are not 



easy to find, and when they are their coats are most diffi- 
cult to keep in order. Indeed, no variety requires more 
assiduous attention, and many are the devices resorted to 
and prescriptions used to accomphsh that result. Cocoa- 
oil is a very good thing for the long, silken jackets of these 
little dogs, which are usually kept shut up in glass-fronted 
boxes, as their constitutions are so delicate ; whilst soft 
wash leather coverings are kept upon their feet to prevent 
them scratching and tearing the hair. It is usual also to 
keep the luxurious hair which grows upon their heads tied 
back, in order that they can see, and their jackets, which 
should be of exuberant length, require frequent attention 
from a long but soft-bristled brush, else they will become 
matted and the dog's beauty will be lost. 

The head is small and fiat, the muzzle delicate and not 
too long ; the eyes rather small and deeply set, dark in 
colour and sparkling ; the ears small, and carried semi-erect, 
the hair on them being short and of a very deep tan 
colour. The neck is fairly long, the shoulders sloping, 
and the body moderately long and level, the ribs being 
flat and loins strong. The fore-legs must be quite straight, 
and they are covered with short hair of a deep tan shade, 
the feet being round, and the tail docked. The coat is 
a great point, as it must be long on the body, almost 
reaching to the ground and perfectly fiat, whilst on the 
head it is also of considerable length. The colour is a 
lovely steel-blue of a dark shade on the body, whilst the 
long hair on the head, and also on the chest, is of a rich, 
deep tan hue, but on the neck it is the same colour as on 
the body, all the tan hair being darkest at the roots. 
Weights vary considerably, being from 5 lbs. to 12 lbs. 
(See Brushes,) 

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same Author. With Introductory Note by Captain E. Pennell 
Elmhirst, Ex-Master of the Woodland Pytchley and " Brooksby " 
of The Field. I2S. 6d. net. 

Illustrated Prospectus of above, free on request. 




Frederic M. Halford, " Detached Badger " of The Field. With 
9 Coloured Plates of Flies, 17 Photogravure Plates, and 18 Colour- 
standards. Medium 8vo, buckram, 15s. net. 

Manual, including the Fisherman's Entomology and the Making and 
Management of a Fishery. By the same Author. With 43 Plates 
and numerous Illustrations in the Text. Uniform with above. 
2IS. net. 
"Nothing has done more to revolutionise our trout fishing than the modern develop- 
ment of the dry-fly. And just as no other fashion in fishing has been productive of more 
far-reaching changes, so no other man has done so much to advance this highest expres- 
sion of the angler's art as Mr. Halford, whose beautiful books, at once practical and 
poetic, have made known its possibilities and its practice to so many grateful epigoni." — 
Morning Post. 


/Vsbster Family Library of Veterinary Medicine 
Jammings Schooi of Veterinary Medicine at 
rutts University 
JOO WestboiT) Road