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AN ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGIONS 



An Encyclopsedia of Religions 



By 

MAURICE A. CANNEY 



LONDON : 

GEORGE ROUTLEDGE & SONS, LTD. 

NEW YORK : E. P. BUTTON & CO. 

1921 



PREFACE 

The science of Comparative Religion is still so young that information on many matters embraced by it 
has not found its way as yet into ordinary encyclopsedias ; and of special encyclopaedias or dictionaries 
very few have been published. The great Encydojxedia of Religion and Ethics, edited by Dr. James 
Hastings, is a storehouse of learned discussion and information, but its size places it as a household work 
of reference beyond the reach of many readers. A felt gap is filled very usefully by the handy Dictionary 
of Non-Classical Mythology, compiled by Marian Edwardes and Lewis Spence; but, as its title indicates, 
much of the new material that belongs in a special sense to the domain of religion is excluded necessarily 
from such a work. 

It may seem a bold undertaking to seek, as the present writer has done, to present in a volume of 
moderate size information about most of the ancient and modern religions, ethnic and historical. His 
excuse must be that certain cravings of his own impelled him many years ago to set out upon a journey 
along paths which at that time had not been trodden much, and to read more widely than is perhaps 
usual; that invitations since 1898 to contribute articles to four voluminous encyclopaedias have formed 
an A B C habit which he finds it difficult to throw off; and that a work such as he has attempted here is 
as a matter of fact really needed. In any cjise, a woi'k is provided which covers much of the ground 
claimed by Comparative Religion and is capable of subsequent expansion. If what is offered proves 
acceptable, new material may be added, particularly as the Science develops. 

While it is true that much of the new material in this field has not been incorporated as yet in 
ordinary encyclopsedias, it is true also that to matters of religion with which, by name at least, readers 
have become very familiar, a good deal of space has been given already in such works. In a field which 
is so vast, therefore, the present writer has preferred often to concentrate particularly on matters which 
are unfamiliar and on headings which are not to be found in ordinary encyclopsedias. Many of the 
headings, here to be found, have never found a place as yet, he believes, in any other encyclopsedia. 
These headings, with the mattei- included under them, it is hoped will not only interest the general 
reader, but also suggest to students, as they have suggested to the writer, subjects for special research. 

The writer is well aware that there is much more to be said about many of the subjects treated, and 
in fact has himself dealt with some of them in much greater detail elsewhere. For example, with 
NAME, CHANGE OF, may be compared his article on " The Significance of Names" in the Journal of the 
Manchester Egyptian and Oriental Society (No. ix., 1921, pp. 21-37), and with ashes and oath his articles 
in Hastings' Enryclopcedia of Religion and Ethics (vol. ii., 1909, pp. 112-114; vol. ix., 1917, pp. 436-438). 

MAURICE A. CANNEY. 
Knutsford. 



CHIEF AUTHORITIES 



[In the articles, books are referred to sometimes either by obvious abbreviations of the titles or by the names of the authors followed 
by the initial letters of the titles. E.g.. The Dictionary of^ National Biography is referred to as D.N.B., S. Reinach's Orpheus as 
S. Reinach. O.] 



W. E. ADDIS and T. ARNOLD. -4 Catholic Dictionanj. Tth ed.. 

1905. 
W. R. ALGER, A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life, 

loth ed., 1878. 
T. W. ALLIES, The Monastic Life. 1896. 
RICHARD ANDREE. Ethnnqraphische Parallelen tind Vergleiche. 

1878: lYeue Folae, 1889. 

E. ANWYL, Celtic Religion, 1906. 

T. W. ARNOLD, The Preaching of Islam, 1896. 

H. H. BANCROFT, The Native Races of the Pacific Coast. 1875-76. 

L. D. HARNETT. Hinduism. 1906. 

L. D. B.\RNETT. .Intigtiities of India. 1913. 

G. A. BARTON. A Sketch of Semitic Origins, Social and Religioua, 

1903. 
G. A. BARTON. The Religions nf the World. 1917. 
W. BENHAM. Dictionnrii of Religion. 1887. 

F. J. BLISS. The Relijions of Modern Syria and Palestine, 1918. 
J. H. BLUNT. Dictinnarti of Sects, etc., 1903. 

F. BOND, Dedications and Patron Saints of English Churches. 1914. 
E. S. BOUCHIER. Syria as a Roman Province, 1916. 

W. BOUSSET, The .intichrist Legend, 1896. 
W. BOUSSET, What is Religionf 1907. 

G. H. BOX, Short /n<roduction to the Literature of the Old Testa- 

ment. 1909. 
.1. H. BREASTED. Dcveiopincnt of Religion and Thought in Ancient 

Egypt, mi. 
C. A. BR IOCS, The Higher Criticism of the Hexateuch, 1897. 

C. A. BRIGGS, General Introduction to the Study of Holy Scrip- 

ture, 1906. 

D. G. BRINTON, The Myths of the New World. 1868. 
D G. BRINTON. Bciifiions of Primitive Peoples. 1897. 
BROCKH.\US' Zonuersafioiis— Lcxifcoii. 

E. G. BROWNE. Literary History of Persia, 1906. 

E. A. \V. BUDGE, The Gods of the Egyptians, 1904. 

F. BUHL, Knnon und Text des Alten Tesfamentes. 1891. E.T. 1893. 

F. W. BUSSELL, Religious Thought and Heresy in the Middle 

Ages. 1918. 
A BUTLER, Dictionary of Philosophical Terms. 

CALWER. JTirchcn/exifcon, ed. P Zeller, 1889, etc. 

J. E. CARPENTER and G. HARFORD-BATTERSBY, The Hexa 

teuch, 1900. 
R. H. CHARLES, Religious Development between the Old and the 

New Testaments. 
T. K. CHEYNE and .1. S. BLACK, Encyclopsedia Biblica, 1899-1903. 
E. CLODD, Myths and Dreams (=). 1891. 
E. CLODD, .4nimi»m. 1905. 

G. A. COBBOLD, Religion in .ropun, 1894. 

C. M. COBERN, The Neiv Archeological Discoveries, 1917. 

T. C. CONYBEARE, Myth, Magic, and Morals. 1909. 

S. A. COOK. The Study of Religions. 1914. 

R. S. COPLESTON, Buddhism Primitive and Present. 

C. CORNILL, Introduction to the Canonical Books of the Old 

Testament. 1907. 
S. COULING, The Encyclop:Fd:a Sinica. 1917. 
G. W. COX. Mythology of the Aryan Nations. 1R70. 



F. CUMONT, The Mysteries of Mithra. 1903. 

F. CUMONT, The Orienta! Religions in Roman Paganism. 1911. 

W. A. CURTIS, History of Creeds and Confessions of Faith, 1911, 

S. I. CURTISS, Primifii!c Semitic Rcliaion To-day, 1903. 

E. L. CUTTS, Dicfionara of the Church of England. 

T. W. RHYS DAVIDS, Hibheri Lectures, 1881. 

VV. L. DAVIDSON. The Stoic Creed, 1907. 

C. J. DETER, .4briss der Geschichte der Philnsophie. 1906. 

The Dictionary of National Biography. 

J. DOWSON, A Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology and 

Religion, 1879. 
S. R. DRIVER, ZntrodMCtion to the Literature of the Old Testament. 
J. A. DUBOIS and H. K. BEAUCHAMP, Hindu Manners, Customs, 

and Ceremonies, 1897. 
L. DUCHESNE, Christian H'orship, 1904. 

L. DUCHESNE. Early History of the Christian Church. 1909. 
EMILE DURKHEIM, The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. 

J. EDKINS, Religion in China. 

M. EDWARDES and L. SPENCE, A Dictionary of Non-Classical 

Mythology. 
J. E. ERDMANN, History of Philosophy, 1890. 
A. ERM.\N, .4 Handbook of Egyptian Religion, 1907. 

L. R. FARNELL, The Cults of the Greek States, 1896. 

L. R. F-\RNELL, Greece imd Babylon, 1911. 

L R. FARNELL. The Higher Aspects of Greek Religion. 1912. 

J. N. FARQUH.4R, Modern Religious Movements in India, 1919. 

A. S. FARRAR. Crificai History of Free Thought, 1862. 

W. WARDE FOWLER. The Religious Experience of the Roman 

People, 1911. 
.1. G. FRAZER. The Golden Bough, 3rd ed., 1911 B. 
J. G. FRAZER, Totemism and Exogamy. 1910. 
J. G. FR.\ZER, Folk-lore in the Old Testament, 1918. 

.T. GARDNER, The Faiths of the World, 1858-00. 
L. M. J. GARNETT. Ifysticisin and Moffic in Turkey, 1913. 
A. S. GEDEN, Introduction to the Hebrew Bible, 1909. 
A. S. GEDEN, Studies in the Religions of the East, 1913. 
H. A. GILES, Heltgions of .Ancient China, 1905. 

T. R. GLOVER, The Conflict of Religions in the Early Roman 
Empire, 7th ed., 1918. 

F. J. GOULD, A Concise History of Religion, 1907. 
H. GRAETZ, History of the Jews, 1893. 

G. B. GRAY, .4 Critical Introduction to the Old Testament. 
Great Religions of the R'orid, 1903. 

C R. GREGORY, Canon and Text nf the New Testament, 1907. 
J. .1. M. de GROOT, The Religious System of China. 1893, etc. 
.T. J. M. de GROOT, The Religion of the Chinese, 1910. 
H. GUTHE, Kurzes Bibelworterbuch. 1903. 

H. HACKMANN, Buddhism as a Religion, 1910. 

A. C. HADDON, Magic and Fetishism. 1906. 

K. R. HAGENBACH, History of Christian Doctrines, 1880. 

H. R. HALL, jEgean Archeology, 1915. 

PETER HALL, Fragmenta Litnrgka. 1848. 



Tin 



CHIEF AUTHORITIES 



p. S. p. HANDCOCK, The Archxology of the Holy Land. 1818. 

A. HARNACK, History of Dogma. 1896, etc. 

J. E. HARRISON, Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Beligion (2). 

1908. 
J. E. HARRISON, Themis, A Study of the Social Onrjins of Greek 

Religion, 1912. 
E. S. HARTLAND, The Legend of Perseus, 1894-96. 
E. S. HARTLAND, Primitive Paternity, 1910. 
E. S. HARTLAND, Hitual and Belief, 1914. 
.1. HASTINGS, Encyclopa-dia of Religion and Ethics. 1908 ff. 
J. HASTINGS, Dictionary of the Bible, in one volume, 1909. 
M. HAUG, The Sacred Language, Writings, ayid Religion of the 

Parsis, 2nd ed., 1878. 
W. CAREW HAZLITT. Dictionary of Faiths and Folklore, 1905. 
S. HEATH, The Romance of Symbolism, 1909 
E. HERMANN. The Meaning and Value of Mysticism, 1916. 
OSCAR HOLTZMANN, The Life of .Jesus. 1904. 

E. W. HOPKINS, The Religions of India. 1895. 

J. A. HOULDER, Short History of the Free Churches, 1899. 

MARK HOVELL. The Chartist Movement, 1918. 

C. HUART, A History of Arabic Literature, 1903. 

T. .1. HUDSON, The Law of Psychic Phenomena, 1907. 

F. VON HOGEL, The Mystical Element of Religion, 1908. 
F. VON HOGEL, Eternal Life, 1912. 

T. P. HUGHES. Dictionary of Islam, 1885. 

J. HUNT. Religious Thought in England, 1870-73. 

I. HUSIK, History of Mediscval Jeu-isk Philosophy, 1918. 

International Critical Commentary. 

A. V. WILLIAMS JACKSON. Persia. Past and Present, 1906. 
WILLIAM JAMES, Varieties of Religious Experience. 1906. 
WILLIAM JAMES. The Will to Believe, 1908. 
MORRIS JASTROW, Jr.. The Religion of Babylonia and Assyria. 

1898. 
MORRIS JASTROW. Jr.. Religion Babylonicns und Assyriens, 2 

vols.. 1905, 1912. 
MORRIS JASTROW, Jr., The Civilization of Babylonia and Assyria. 

1915. 
A. JEREMIAS, The Old Testament in the Light of the .4ncieiif 

East. 1911. 
The .lewish Encyclopedia. 
T. A. JOYCE. Mexican Archeology. 1914. 

T. A. JOYCE. Central .American and West Indian Archaeology, I'.ilO. 
C. G. JUNG, Psychology of the Unconscious, E.T., 1915. 

L. W. KING, Babylonian Religion and Mythology, 1899. 
L. W. KING, Legends of Babylon and Egypt in relation to Hebrew 
Tradition, 1918. 

C. F. KENT, The Student's Old Testament, 1910-14. 
T. A. KLEIN, The Religion of IsUm. 1906. 

K. J. KNOWLING, The Witness of the Epistles. 1892. 
K. KOHLER, -Jeivish Theology, 1918. 

ANDREW LANG. Custom and Myth, 1893. 
ANDREW LANG. Myth, Ritual, and Religion, 1899. 
ANDREW LANG, The Making of Religion, 1900. 
ANDREW LANG, Socio! Origins. 1903. 
J. LEGGE. The Religions of China. 1880. 
ARTHUR LLOYD, The Creed of Half .Japan. 1911. 
LUCIAN. The Syrian Goddess, translated by H. A. Strong, and 
edited by J. Garstang, 1913. 

D. B. MACDONALD, Development of Muslim Theology, etc., 1903. 
D. B. MACDONALD, The Religious Attitude and Life in Islam, 1909. 
A. C. M'GIFFERT, Protestant Thought before Kant, 1911. 

D. A. MACKENZIE, Teutonic Myth and Legend, 1912. 

D. A. MACKENZIE, Egyptian Myth and Legend. 1913. 

D. A. MACKENZIE, Indian Myth and Legend, 1913. 

D. A. MACKENZIE. Myths of Babylonia and Assyria. 1915. 

D. A. MACKENZIE, Myths of Crete ond Pre-Heiientc Europe, 1917. 



J. A. M'CLYMONT, The New Testament and Its Writers, 1904. 
R. R. MARETT, The Threshold of Religion, 1909. 
D. S. MARGOLIOUTH, Mohammedanism, 1911. 

D. S. MARGOLIOUTH, The Early Development of Mohammedanism. 

1914. 
K. MARTI. The Religion of the Old Testament. 1907. 
G. CURRIE MARTIN, The Books of the New Testament, 1909. 
W. G. WOOD-MARTIN. Troces of the Elder Faiths of Ireland. 1902. 
R. M. MEYER, /iitEfcrmanische Rp(itiions[icscfeic?ite. 1910. 
J. MOFF.ATT, Zntrodiiction to the Literature of the New Testament. 

1911. 
A. R. HOPE MONCRIEFF, Classic Myth and Legend. 
G. F. MOORE, The History of Religions. 1913. 
J H. MOULTON, The Treasure of the Magi, 1917. 

F. MAX MOLLER, The Sacred Books of the East. 

E. NAVILLE, The Old Egyptian Faith, 1909. 
ARNO NEUMANN, Jesws, 1906. 

R. A. NICHOLSON. Literary History of the Arabs. 1907. 

W. O. E. OESTERLEY and G. H. BOX, The Religion and Worship 

of the Synagogue, 1911. 
H. OLDENBERG, Die Religion des Veda, 1894. 
H. OLDENBERG, .4ncicnt India. 1898. 

J. C. OMAN, The Mystics, Ascetics, and Saints of India, 1905. 
J. C. OMAN, The Brahmans, Theists and Muslims of India, 1907. 
J. C. OMAN. Cults, Customs and Superstitions of India, 1908. 
MALACHIA ORMANIAN, The Church of Armc7ua. 1912. 

E. H. PARKER. Studies in Chinese Beligion. 1910. 

G. T. W. PATRICK, The Psychology of Relaxation. 1916. 

M. W. PATTER.SON. History of the CJiurch of England, 1909. 

A. S. PEAKE, Critical Introduction to the New Testament, 1909. 
W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE. The Religion of Ancient Egypt. 1905. 
OTTO PFLEIDERER. The Development of Theology in Germany 

since Kant, 1890. 

B. PONJER, History of the Christian Philosophy of Religion, 1887. 

S. REINACH. Orpfteus, 1910. 

S. REINACH, Cults, Myths and Religions. 1912. 

W. RIDGEWAY'. The Origin and Influence of the Thoroughbred 

Horse, 1915. 
Religious Systems of the World, 1908. 
J. M. ROBERTSON, Christianifi/ and Mythology. 1910. 
J. M. ROBERTSON. Pagan Christs, 1911. 
R. V. RUSSELL and R. B. HIRA LAL, The Tribes and Castes of 

the Central Provinces of India, 1916. 
H. E. RYLE, The Canon of the Old Testauient. 2nd ed., 1895. 

W S.\NDAY', 7nspira(ion, 1903. 

P. D. CHANTEPIE DE LA SAUSSAYE, T!ie i?e(ii7ion of the Teutons. 

1902. 
P. D. CHANTEPIE DE LA SAUSSAYE. Lelirbuch der Religions 

geschichte, 3rd ed.. 1905. 
SCHAFF-HERZOG, Religious Encyclopeedia. 1883-4. 
O. SEY"FFERT. Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, 10th ed.. 1908. 
W. SIMPSON. The Buddhist Praying-wheel, 1896. 
H. S. SKEATS and C. S. MIALL, History of the Free Churches of 

England. 1891. 
SMITH and CHEETHAM, Dictionary of Christian .Antiquities. 
G. ELLIOT SMITH, The Ancient Egyptians. 
0. ELLIOT SMITH, Migrations of Peoples, 1915. 
G. ELLIOT SMITH. The Influence of Ancient Egyptian Civilizntion in 

the East and in .America, 1916. 
G. ELLIOT SMITH. The Evolution of the Dragon, 1919. 
W. ROBERTSON SMITH, The Old Testament in the .Jewish Church. 

1892. 
W. ROBERTSON SMITH, The Religion of the Semites. 1894. 
W. ROBERTSON SMITH, Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia. 

1003. 
LEWIS SPENCE, The Mythologies of .Ancient Mexico and Peru, 1007. 



CHIEF AUTHORITIES 



IX 



W. B. SPENCER and F. J. GILLEN. The Northern Tribes of Central 
AuHralia. 1904. 

C SQUIRE. The Mythology of Ancient Britain and Ireland, IQOfi. 

C. SQUIRE. Celtic Myth and Legend. 

E. SQUIRE. The Mythology of the British Islands, 1910. 

G. STEINDORFF, Religion of the Ancient Egyptians, 1905. 

E. THURSTON' and K. R.\NG.\CH.\RI, Castes and Tribes of Southern 

India. 1909. 
E. B. TYLOR. Primitive Culture. 4th ed., 190S. 

EVELYN UNDERHILL. Mysticism. 4th ed., 1912. 
EVELYN UNDERHILL. The Mystic Way, 1913. 

M. R. VINCENT. .1 History of the Textual Criticism of the New 
Testament. 1903. 



H. WACE and W. C. PIERCY. Dictionary of Christian Biography 

and Literature, 1911. 
L. A. WADDELL. The Buddhism of Tibet, 1895. 
HUTTON WEBSTER. Rest Days, 1916. 

MAX B. WEINSTEIN. Welt- und Lehen-Anschanungen. 1910. 
E. WESTERM\RCK, The Origin and Development of the Moral 

Ideas, 19008. 
E. M. WHERRY, The Mohammadan World of To-day, 1906. 
O. C. WHITEHOUSE, The Books of the Old Testament, 1910. 
A. WIEDEM.\NN. BWigion of the .Ancient Egyptians, 1897. 
G. WILDEBOER. The Origin of the Canon of the Old Testament. 

1895. 
W. J. WII.KINS. Hindu Mythoh.gy, 1901. 
SIR MONIER MONIER-WILLIAMS, Buddhism. 1890. 
SIR MONIER MONIER-WILLIAMS, Brnhmanism and Hinduism. 4th 

ed.. 1891. 
H. B. WORKMAN. Christian Thought to the Reformation, 1911. 
C. H. H. WRIGHT and C. NEIL, A Protestant Dictionary. 1904, 



ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGIONS 



A 



Abbot 



A. The name of a goddess in Babylonian- Assyrian 
religion. She is a eonsort, the " beloved one," of the 
gun-deity, Shamash (q.v.). The name seems to mean 
" lady " or " queen." See Morris Jastrow, Rel. 

A. God A. is a designation used by anthropologists 
for a deity depicted in the JISS. of the Mayan Indians of 
Central America. His frequent appearance in the 
Dresden Oodex and in the Codex Tro-cortesianus suggests 
that he was a god of great importance. He was clearly 
a god of death and hell, corresponding to the Aztec god 
Mictlan. His insignia include bells and a pair of cross- 
bones, and his symbolical bird is the owl. 

AAH. An ancient Egyptian moon-god, who in course 
of time was merged with the lunar deity Thoth. His 
importance is proved by such names as Ah-mes (" born 
of Ah "; ep. Thoth-mes, " born of Thoth"). 

AB. The fifth month of the Jewish sacred year. The 
fifth month of the Babylonian calendar has the same 
name. It is sacred to the solar deity, Nin-gishzida. See 
Morris Jastrow, Rel. 

AB, NINTH DAY OF. A Jewish fast-day (cp. 
Zeohariah 8, 19), intended to commemorate the destruc- 
tion of the two Temples (First, 586 B.C.: Second, A.D. 
70). It falls about the beginning of August. The fa«t 
has been observed, with varying degrees of strictness, as 
a day of deep gloom. In early times no enjoyment what- 
ever was permitted for twenty-four hours, from evening 
to evening. No work was allowed, only sad parts of the 
Law might be studied, and people went about without 
shoes or sandals. Bathing and anointing were of course 
forbidden. See the Jeuixh Encycl.. i., 1901; W. O. E. 
Oesterlev and G. H. Bos. 

AB, FIFTEENTH DAY OF. A .Tewi.sh fe.^itival in the 
time of the Second Temple. It fell about the 15th of 
August. On this da.v the rich and poor maidens of 
Jerusalem, robed in white, are said to have repaired to 
the vineyards to dance with the young men and to give 
them an opportunity of choosing a bride. The Talmud 
gives various reasons for celebrating the day. One of 
them is that on this day wood was collected by priests 
and people for s;icriflcial use throughout the year. 
Josephus mentions (B. J. ii. 17, ti) a Feast of Xylophory 
(•• Wood-bearing"), placing it on the 14th Ab. See the 
Jewish Encycl., i., 1901. 

ABACUS. A designation in architecture of the upper- 
most division of the capital of a column. It is variousl.v 
formed or moulded in the different orders or styles of 
architecture. See J. H. Parker, Gloss. 

ABADDON. Literally " (place of) destruction." A 
term used in the Wisdom-Literature of the Old Testa- 
ment (Job 20, 0; Prov. 15, 11, etc.) as the equivalent of 
Sheol, the under-world of the Hebrews. The same 



word means " perdition " and " hell " in later Hebrew. 
The term occurs also in the New Testament (Rev. 9, 11), 
but in this case it is a proi^er name, a personification, 
Abaddon being a king or angel of the abyss, whose Greek 
name is Aiwllyon (" Destroyer "). See Encycl. Bibl. 

ABBA. An Aramaic word meaning " father." It was 
used by Jesus and in his time as a title of God (so in 
Mark 14, .";<))■ 

ABBACOMITBS. The Abbacomites or Abbates milites, 
count abbots, were laymen to whom abbacies were 
assigned for pecuniary profit. See Catli. Diet. 

ABBATE. A Roman Catholic clergyman who has not 
taken full orders, but has received the tonsure. 

ABBATES MILITES. Lay abbots of the 10th century, 
who appointed deans or priors to administer their abbeys 
and perform the spiritual duties. They were also called 
Abba-eomit^s. 

ABBE. The French name for an Abbot (q.v.). It is 
often used in France and Italy in a more general way as 
the title of an unt)enifloed priest. 

ABBES COMMENDATAIRES. Abbots who were 
appointed by the king of France, and received one-third 
of the revenue of their convents. They were often lay- 
men, noblemen's sons or literary men, and their oflSce 
was a sinecure. 

ABBESS. A designation of the superior of a com- 
munity of nuns. The Abbess corresponds to the Abbot 
{(j.v.), but the office is not so ancient. It was probably 
instituted in the time of Pope Gregory the Great (c. 591). 
Generally, only a professed nun couJd be elected, and the 
Council of Trent fixed the age at not less than forty 
years, at least eight years of which must have been spent 
in a convent. Like the Abbot, she has the ring, staff, 
and abbatial cross. Sometimes she commands the 
obedience of the monks of a related monastery (e.g. in 
the order of the Brigittines and of Fontevrault). She 
often possessed, under the ordinary, ecclesiastical 
patronage; but she could not choose confessors, dismiss 
a nun, etc. See Cath. Diet. 

AB BETH DIN. Literally " father of the house of 
.iustice." This, according to tradition, was a title of 
the vice-president of the Jewish Sanhedrin, the Pre- 
sident of which was called Nasi (" prince "). It seems 
more likely, however, that it was the title of the spiritual 
head of the people and so of the Sanhedrin, and that 
Nasi was the designation of the more secular head of 
the people (the High-priest). See the Jeu-ish Encycl., 
ix., 1905, under " Nasi"; W. O. E. Oesterley and G. H. 
Box. 

ABBEY. A monastic community governed by an 
Abbot. See ABBOT. 

ABBOT. The name means literally " father," and is 



Abbot of Unreason 



Abhidharma Sect 



the designation of the head of a religions community of 
men. Another name for the same oflScial is Prior, Rector, 
or Guardian. The office is as old as the third century. 
In the fourth century a number of monasteries, with 
abbots at their head, sprang up in Egypt. At first the 
abbots were laymen, but ordination soon became the rule, 
though it was not always strictly observed. They were 
required lo be not less than twenty-five yeurs old. The 
monks were allowed originally to elect tbeir own abbot. 
The right, however, in the West was often exercised by 
temporal princes and lords. It is the duty of an abbot to 
govern the community, maintain discipline, and exercise 
the priestly office. A distinction has been drawn between 
these " abbates regulares " and other abbots, " abbates 
seculares." whose office is of the nature of an ordinary 
benefice. The Benedictine abbots have been allowed a 
large measure of freedom in the organisation of their 
convents. And abbots in general obtained special 
r)rivileges, the heads of great monasteries being allowed 
to use tile mitre, crosier, and ring (" abbates infulati "), 
and to perform some of the episcopal functions (e.g., 
minor orders). Formerly abbots of such distinction might 
sit in the English Parliament. See Cath. Diet.; P. Zeller, 
Calwer Kirohenlexikon, 1889 etc. 

ABBOT OF UNREASON. The Scottish name for one 
who took the i>rincipal part in Christmas revelries before 
the Reformation. The character is better known as the 
Ix)rd of Misrule (q.v.). In Scotland he was suppressed 
by Act of Parliament in 1555. See W. C. Hazlitt. 

ABBOTS IN COMMENDAM. Abbots commended to 
take charge of an abbey, until a regular abbot had been 
appointed. 

ABBREVIATIONS. Words, titles, phrases, etc., in 
common use are often abridged. For example, 
" Reverend " as the title of a clergyman is usually 
written "Rev." The following are some of the most 
common abbreviations : 

Abp. : Archbishop. 

A.B.S. : American Bible Society. 

A.D. : Anno Domini, in the year of Our Ijord. 

A.F.B.S. : American and Foreign Bible Society. 

A.H. : Anno Hegirse, in the year of the Hegira (622 .\.d.). 

D.O.M. : Deo optimo maximo, to God, best and greatest. 

D.V. : Deo Volente, God willing. 

F.C. : Free Church (of Scotland). 

F.D. : Fidei Defensor, Defender of the Faith. 

I.H.S. : The first three letters of the Greek word 

IHS0Y2. Jesus. 

: Jesus hominum Salvator. 

'A.M. : Anno Mundi, in the .year of the world. 

A.V. : Authorise<l Version of the Bible. 

B.C. : Before Christ. 

B.D. : Bachelor of Divinity. 

Bp. : Bishop. 

B.V.M. : Blessed Virgin Mary. 

C.M.S. : Church Missionary Society. 

D.D. : Doctor of Divinity. 

D.G. : Dei Grati;!, by the grace of God. 

I. N.R.I. : Jesus Nazarenus, Rex ludjeorum, Jesus of 
Nazareth, king of the Jews. 

I.O.G.T. : Independent Order of Good Templars. 

J.U.D. : Juris Utriusque Doctor, Doctor of Civil and 
Canon Law. 

LXX. : Septuagent Version of the Old Testa&ent. 

M.E. : Methodist Episcopal. 

N.T. : New Testament. 

O.S.B. : Order of St. Benedict. 

P.E. : Protestant Episcopal. 

P.P. : Parish priest. 

R.I. P. : Requieseat in pace, May he rest in peace. 



R.V. : Revised Version of the Bible. 

S.J. : Society of Jesus (Jesuits). 

S.P.C.K. : Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 

S.P.G. : Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. 

S.T.P. : Sacrre Theologi;^ Professor, Professor of 
Theology. 

U.P. : United Presbyterian. 

V.D.M. : Verbi Dei Minister, Minister of the Word of 
God. 

Xmas : Christmas. 

Xtian : Christian. 

T.M.C.A. : Young Men's Christian Association. 

Y.W.C.A. : Young Women's Christian Association. 

ABBREVIATORS. A designation, first used about the 
beginning of the fourteenth century, of secretaries 
employed in the Papal Chancery. They were so called 
because they made short notes of decisions or replies 
made bv the Pope, which they afterwards expanded. 
See Cath. Diet. 

ABECEDARIAN HYMNS. Hymns in which each stanza 
or line begins with a letter of the alphabet. See 
ACROSTIC. 

ABECEDARIANS. A German Anabaptist sect of the 
10th century. They claimed to be directly inspired by 
God. Consequently they had nothing to learn from the 
Scriptures. Profane literature being equally useless to 
them, it was not necessary or desirable to learn to read. 
Divine truth, directly imparted, could best be learned 
from the most ignorant of men. The sect was founded 
by Nicholas Stork, a weaver, of Zwickau, and the Abece- 
darians are also known as " the Zwickau Prophets." 
See J. H. Blunt. 

ABELITES. A religious sect in N. Africa in the 4th 
century. They are also called Abelians, Abeloites, and 
Abelonians. They objected to ordinary marriage, and 
contracted spiritual unions, taking their name from Abel, 
because they assumed that he had a wife, but never 
-sought to procreate children. They adopted children in 
order to perjietuate the sect. These al.so had to abstain 
from sexual intercourse. The sect became extinct in the 
reign of Theodosius the Younger (408-450). See J. H. 
Blunt. 

ABERDEEN, USE OF. Various places had liturgies 
of their own in the early days of the Church in Britain. 
These liturgies, which represented somewhat different 
modes of celebrating Mass, were called " Uses." Aber- 
deen was one of the places which had a use of its own. 

ABERDEEN SERVICE. Forms of Divine Service oom- 
l)osed by Henry Soougal (1G50-I(i78), precentor in the 
Cathedral of Aberdeen, and professor of Divinity at 
King's College. They were prepared for the morning 
and evening service of the Cathedral Church of Aber- 
deen. They were in use until the Revolution, when the 
Presbyterians deemed written prayers unsuitable. See 
Peter Hall. 

ABGARUS LETTERS, THE. Some correspondence 
purporting to have passed between Abgar Uchama 
(1.5 — 50 A.D.), King of Edessa, and Jesus. Jesus is 
besought by Abgar to visit Edessa. The letters are given 
by Busebius {Church Eiatory, I, 13). 

ABHIDHAMMA. The name of one of the three divi- 
s-ions ("the three baskets") in the final collection of 
Buddhist sacred books. The contents are partly meta- 
physical. See E. W. Hopkins. 

ABHIDHAMMAPITAKA. The third division of the 
Buddhist Canon. See CANON, BUDDHIST. 

ABHIDHARMA SECT. An early Buddhist sect in 
India of the School of the Hinayana. The teaching was 
based upon the Commentary which Katyayaniputra 
wrote on the Abhidharma treatises. The sect was intro- 



Abib 



Abrahamites 



duce<] into China about 394 A.D., and flourished until 
about 440 A.D. A. Lloyd finds no traces of it In Japan. 

ABIB. The fir.st month of the Jewish sacred year. 
Literally the month of " young ears of barley." 

ABJURATIOX. OATH OF. An Act of 1701 required 
all clergy, members of the Universities, lawyers, and 
other persons who held public offices to abjure by oath 
the exiled House of Stewart. In the Roman Catholic 
Church a convert was formerly required to malce a solemn 
abjuration of his former faith. In the Ritual of Stras- 
burg (1742) he is asl^ed : " Is it your firm purpose to 
renounce in heart and mind all the errors which it [the 
Catholic Church] condemns? " The modem convert in 
England is required to read and ac-cept the Creed of Pope 
Pius IV. which denounces all doctrines which are con- 
sidered erroneous. See Catli. Diet. 

ABLUTION, ROMAN CATHOLIC. Ablution is the 
name applied to the water and wine used by a priest in 
the celebration of the Mass to wash his thumb and index- 
finger. " When he has consumed the Precious Blood, 
the priest purifies the chalice: he then, saying in a low 
voice a short prayer prescribed by the Church, holds his 
thumb and index-finger, which have touched the Blessed 
Sacrament and may have some particle of it adhering to 
them, over the chalice, while the server pours wine and 
water upon them. He then drinks the ablution and dries 
his lips and the chalioe with the mundatory." (Cath. 
Diet.). 

ABLUTIONS. Bathing the whole or parts of the body, 
as a religious practice, has been widely practised. It is 
well known that man in a primitive state regards rivers, 
springs, and wells as being often the abodes of deities. 
Water seemed to be a holy element. To bathe oneself 
in it meant to impart to oneself something of its divine 
life and power. This seems to have been the original 
idea in religious bathing. In course of time, however, 
the idea of purification came to prevail, and the washing 
away of external impurities bec-ame symbolical of the 
cleansing of the heart. Sin is, perhaps, regarded too as 
a real contagion, a disease, a kind of substance which 
may be washed away by bathing. The Incas of ancient 
Peru, after confe-ssing their guilt, bathed in a river. It 
is a Vedic belief that sin may be removed by invoking 
the gods of water. The water-gods Varuna and Trita 
have power to wash it away. The later Brahmans 
regarded water as the " essence (sap) of immortality," 
and in modem India the waters of the Ganges have 
power, it is thought, to cleaiise the blackest sinner. The 
Hindus .shave their heads, and plunge into sacred 
streams. The Hebrews used consecrated water for the 
cleansing of impurities, and the modem Jews in Morocco 
preserve a reminiscence of the practice by throwing stones 
into the sea on New Year's Day. The Moors think that 
misfortune can be removed by ablutions. Ablutions are 
also practised to purify persons before they perform a 
sacred rite or come into contact with holy things 
(sacrifices, etc.). The Lapp wizard washes his body 
before sacrificing, as did also the ancient Egyptians, the 
Shinto prie.sts of Japan, the ancient Greeks and Romam?. 
Zoroastrianism regards impurity as a physical evil to be 
removed as quickly as possible. Brahmans and Hindus 
make daily bathing an important part of their religious 
exercises. In Lamaism the tips of the fingers are dipped 
in water before sacrifice. Jewish Rabbis wash the hands 
before praying. Mohammedans are commanded in the 
Koran to wash their faces and their hands up to the 
elbows, and to wipe their heads and their feet to the 
ankles, when they prepare for prayer (Sur. V., 8). Before 
reciting the liturgical form of prayer, therefore, they 
perform an elaborate ablution in which the acts are 
repeated three timers. Where water is scarce, dust or 



sand serves as a substitute. In all such cases the idea 
is that any impurity might hurt the holiness of the deity 
and bring curses instead of blessings. Per.sons have been 
accustomed to bathe also after coming in contact with a 
corpse. The ablution removes the contagion of death. 
Sexual intercourse, again, has often (e.g. among the 
Babylonians, Hebrews, Arabs, Greeks) been regarded as 
defiling, and the defilement has been removed by bathing. 
Ablutions are necessary, again, after touching anything 
unclean (e.g. an unclean animal). Hindus and Brahmans 
live in constant fear of this defilement. The Hebrews 
dared not touch the dead carcase of a dog. If a living 
dog touches a Brahman, he plunges at once into water 
with his clothes on. It should be added that in ancient 
times ablutions have formed part of marriage cere- 
monials. Even deities, when they were united, bathed 
or were bathed. Thus the figure of Attis was bathed to 
represent her union with Cybele. Aphrodite bathed after 
her union with Adonis, and Hera after her marriage with 
Zeus. See E. We.stermarck : J. G. Frazer, G.B.; Adonis 
Attis Osiris. 190*!: W. R. Smith, R.S., 1S94: Monier- 
Williams, Brahmcnism; J. A. Dubois and H. K. Beau- 
champ, Hindu Manners, etc. 

ABODA ZARA. One of the treatises of the Mishnah 
i'l-i:). 

ABODE OF LOVE. See AGAPEMONITES. 

ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION. A phrase occur- 
ring in the New Testament (Mt. 24, 1.5 = Mk. 1.'?, 14) in a 
passage in which Jesus is represented as speaking of his 
second coming. The " abomination of desolation " has 
been identified with the '• man of sin " referred to in 
another apocalyptic passage, 2 Thess. 2, 1-12. The statue 
of an idol or false god seems to be meant, which causes 
desolation by being set up in opposition to the true God 
(so T. K. Cheyne). Another suggestion is that a statue 
of Caligula is intended (so Fr. Spitta). A third is that 
the " abomination " has reference to the Roman armies 
(so B. Weiss). See Encycl. Bibl. 

ABORTION. Cases of miscarriage or abortion have 
sometimes received a religious significance. The Green- 
landers thought an abortion l>ecame an evil spirit intent 
on avenging the crime. Artificial abortion is strongly 
condemned in the Christian religion (Tertullian, Augus- 
tine, etc.). It is also condemned by the sacred law of 
Zoroastrianism. See Edward Westermarck. 

ABOTH. One of the treatises of the Mishnah (q.v.). 

ABOTH DE-RABBI NATHAN. A JewLsh treatise, 
being an exposition of the Mishnah treatise Pirqe Aboth 
(q.v.). Of the two recensions which have been preserved, 
one is usually appended to the Babylonian Talmud (see 
TALMUD). Both have been published together by S. 
Schechter. The treatise is the work of a school (Tan- 
naite), rather than of an individual author. An English 
version is included in M. L. Rodkinson's translation of 
the Babylonian Talmud, New York, 1900. See the .Jewish 
Encycl., i., 1901: W. O. E. Oesterley and G. H. Box. 

ABRACADABRA. A mystic word or magical formula, 
used for the cure of fevers and agues. The letters were 
arranged in the form of a triangle, so that it was pos- 
sible to read them in many different ways. The square 
piece of paper on which they were written was folded 
in the form of a cross. This was then worn as an 
amulet. 

ABRAHAMITES. 1. A religious sect of the ninth 
century. They re^-ived the teaching of the Paulianlsts, 
and denied the divinity of Christ. Their name was 
taken from Abraham or Ibrahim of Antloch. 2. A Bo- 
hemian religious sect, known also as Bohemian Deists. 
They appeared in 17S2. and were so called because they 
claimed to represent the religion professed by Abraham 
before his circumcision. They were suppressed by force. 



Abraiiam-Men 



Accaophori 



ABRAHAM-MEN. Beggars wlio wandered about the 
country seeking alms after the Dissolution of the 
Monasteries. 

ABRAXAS STONES. Stones or gems having the word 
Abraxas or Abrasax engraved on them in Greek letters. 
Though of various shapes, the figure on them usually 
has a human trunk and arms, a cock's head, and two 
serpents' tails. They were used by the Gnostics, first 
by the Basilidians (q.v.), then by the Priscillians (q.v.), 
and afterwards generally. They were adopted by ma- 
gicians and alchemists. They seem to have been used 
as talismans. Magicians in Egypt used them in the 
Hellenistic period. See Adolf Erman, Handbook. 

ABRECH. A term occurring in the Old Testament 
(Genesis 41, 43). It is said that when Joseph was made 
grand-vizier of Egypt, the people " cried before him 
Ahrech." The English version translates " bow the 
knee." This is unsuitiible, because the form of the word 
is Causative (" make to kneel "). We should expect, 
moreover, an official title. This cannot be found in 
Egyptian. It has therefore been suggested that Abrech 
is a loan-word, being the equivalent of the Assyrian- 
Babylonian abarakkii, a title of one of the five principal 
dignitaries of the empire. See Encycl. Bibl. 

ABSOIjT'TION. To absolve is " to set free from " or 
" to acquit." Absolution is the act of pronouncing a 
person friK^ from sin or penalty. According to the 
Christian idea of God, God Himself is strictly the only 
one who can do this. The Church, however, has taught 
that God deputed ministers, in the first instance the 
Apostles, to act for him. The crucial passage in the 
Bible is John xx., 23, " Whosesoever sins ye remit, they 
are remitted unto them, and whosesoever sins ye retain, 
they are retained." The origin and precise meaning of 
these words have been disputed. But in any case cer- 
tain Church practices and doctrines have been connected 
with them. In the early days of the Christian Church 
anyone who had incurred its censure was required to 
do public i)enance involving exclusion from the Lord's 
Table. This having been duly performed, he was ab- 
solved publicly by Bishop and clergy, and re-admitted to 
Communion. In course of time and by slow degrees it 
came about that the sinner confessed privately to a priest 
and received from him alone the requisite absolution. 
At the Reformation the Church of England is commonly 
supposed to have renounced this practice. It cannot Y>e 
denied, however, that there are passages in the Book of 
Common Prayer (the Holy Communion and Ordination 
Services) which do not altogether favour this view. In 
the Roman Catholic Church the practice has been main- 
tained and elaborated. It has had, at least from 1215 
(Innocent III.), a Tribunal of Penance, and has made 
the Sacrament of Penance consist of (1) Contrition or 
Attrition, (2) Confession, (3) Satisfaction, (4) Absolution. 
Confession is made in sec-ret to the priest. The absolu- 
tion afterwards pronounced by a duly authorised or 
delegated priest is a judicial act or sentence. There is 
a prescribed form of absolution in the Roman Ritual : 
" T absolve thee from thy sins, in the name of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." See 
Prot. Diet.; Oath. Diet. 

ABSTINENCE. See ASCETICISM. 

ABSTINENTES. The name of a sect in Gaul and 
Spain at the end of the third century. Its members 
held that only by avoiding marriage could true holiness 
be attained. They found support in such New Testa- 
ment passages as Matthew xix., 12, Hebrews xii,, 14. 
The Christian life is that life of chastity which .Jesus 
Himself \e<\. The Abstinentes also ob.iected to the use 
of meat. See J. H. Blunt. 



ABUNDIA. The name of a goddess in German 
mythology who blesses marriage, brings good- or bad 
luck to spinners, etc. See P. D. Chantepie de La 
Saussaj'e, Rel. of the Teutons, 1902. 

ABYSS, THE. In the Gnostic system of Valentinus 
" the Abyss " is the name of tlie unbegotten, invisible, 
ineffable Supreme Being, to whom the aeons owe their 
generation. The term is used in another sense in the 
New Testament (Revised Version). In Romans x., 7, it 
denotes Sheol, the Hebrew underworld (Authorised 
Version " the deep "). In Revelation ix., 1, 11, xi., 7, 
xvli., S, XX., 1, 3 (Authorised Version " the bottomless 
pit ") it is the abode of " the beast " and " the dragon," 
a place which seems to have been thought of as a lake 
of fire (cp Enoch x., 13). 

ABYSSINIAN or ETHIOPIAN CHURCH. The early 
Church is said to have been founded, as a branch of the 
Christian Church, in A.D. 330 by Frumentius of Egypt 
or Phoenicia. In any case, a form of Christianity 
(Monophysite), in connection with Alexandria, was es- 
tablished in Abyssinia by the end of the sixth century. 
In the seventh century the country was practically 
isolated through the Mohammedan conquest of Egypt. 
Partly in consequence of this isolation, the Church has 
preserved a number of peculiar obsen'ances. The Jewish 
Sabbath is observed as well as the Chrislian Sunday. 
(Circumcision is practised (though perhaps only for 
sanitary reasons), and certain foods are abstained from. 
The Books of Enoch and Jubilees (see APOCALYPTIC 
LITERATURE) are included in the sacred writings. 
The Virgin is worshipped, prayer is made to the saints, 
and great merit is attached to asceticism and monas- 
ticism. Some of these practices and observances seem 
to be due partly to Jewish influence, partly to an early 
connection with or migration from South Arabia. In 
1540 the Abyssinians sought the help of the Portuguese 
against a threatened invasion by Mohammedans. Troops 
were sent, and the invaders were routed. The Pope 
then sought to convert the Abyssinians, and to effect 
this Jesuit missionaries laboured amongst the people. 
At length, after rebellion and bloodshed, proclamation 
of the Roman Catholic religion was made (1603). In 
1632, however, perhaps in consequence of an attempt to 
abolish circumcision, the Jesuits were expelled, and the 
old Church was re-established. Since 1838 Roman 
Catholic missionaries have again worked In the country. 
Protestant missions have also been tried. Clerics are 
ordained by the Ahoun (or Abouna), the head of the 
Church, an Egyptian monk nominated by the Alexan- 
drian patriarch. His see, the centre of tbe Abyssinian 
Church, is at Axum. There are also such officials as a 
temporal head (Etchiffeh), a head of the priesthood 
(Nebriil), and an ecclesiastical .iudge (Lij Kaneat). The 
clergy are divided into priests, monks, and unordained 
clerks (defteras). The latter dance and sing in pro- 
cessions. There are a great many feast-days and fast- 
days. Paintings are hung in the Churches, and the 
cross is venerated. See Prot. Diet.; Cath. Diet. 

ACACIANS. A school of Arians, followers of Acacius. 
See ARIANISM. 

ACCA LARENTIA. A Roman goddess of the earth. 
She was worshipped as the protectress of the seed-com. 
the guardian of the crops. It is siiid that she had 
twelve sons, and that she observed an annual sacrifice 
with them. The idea of the sacrifice having been to 
make the fields (arva) fertile, her sons were called Arval 
Brothers. The priestliood of that name is suppose<l to 
have been founded by Romulus who took the place of 
one of the brothers on his death. See O. Seyffert, Diet. 

ACCAOPHORI. The name of a sect the members of 
which discarded the use of wine in the Holy Eucharist 



Acceptants 



Acts of the Saints or Martyrs 



and substituted water. It le said that they were also 
called Hydroparastatae. 

ACCEPTANTS. A name given to those theologians 
who accepted the papal Bull " Unigenitus " (1713) which 
condemned the views of the Jansenlst leader Pasquier 
Quesnel (1634-1719). See JANSENISTS. 

ACCEPTILATION. A word derived from Roman Law, 
and applied in theology to the doctrine of Duns Scotus, 
according to which the satisfaction rendered to God by 
Christ was not a full equivalent for the sins of man- 
kind, but was graciously accepted by God as sufficient. 

ACCOMMODATION. A term used in theology of a 
method of interpreting Scripture by which the words 
are accommodated or adapted to the needs of a discourse. 
Jesus himself, it is claimed, accommodated his teaching 
to his hearers by seeking to convey spiritual truths to 
them in a homely way. 

ACELDAMA. A name compounded of two Aramaic 
words, and occurring in the New Testament as a desig- 
nation of the held bought by Judas Iscariot, the disciple 
who betrayed Jesus, for some unknown pun'ose with 
the reward for his betrayal (Acts i., 19), or purchased 
by the priests as a place to bury strangers in. The 
Revised Version has Akeldama. The word is said to 
have been interpreted " the field of blood." But the 
best supported Greek reading is Acheldamach, which 
would give the unsuitable meaning " field of thy blood." 
On the other hand, assuming that Acheldamach is the 
correct form of the name, the second part of the word 
may be identified with another root. The name will 
then mean " field of sleep," i.e., the sleep of death. See 
Encycl. Bibl. 

ACEPHALI. A name applied to sects which had no 
recognised leader (the Monophysite Acephali), or who 
refused to follow their leader (the Nestorian Acephali) ; 
or to priests who refused allegiance to their diocesans 
and to suffragan bishops who would not obey their 
metropolitans. E. B. Tylor {Primitive Culture, i., 390) 
suggests that the term may well be used of those 
monsters who are reported by travellers to have existed 
without heads to their bodies. 

ACHERON. In Homer several great rivers are repre- 
sented as flowing through the world of the dead. One 
of these bears the name Acheron (river of woe). Later 
Legend imagines that the infernal regions are surrounded 
by these rivers. See O. Seyffert, Diet. 

ACHIROPOETOS. Literally " made without hands." 
An expression used of pictures of Christ and the Virgin, 
which were supposed to have been executed miraculously, 
without human hands. There is one of these at Rome 
in the church of St. John of Lateran. St. Luke and 
angels are reputed to have been the artists. 

ACCEMETAE. Literally " sleepless ones," an order 
of monks founded near Constantinople during the Patri- 
archate (A.D. 428-430) of Gennadius. They did not 
abstain from sleep altogether, but, in order that worship 
in their monastery should go on uninterruptedly, divided 
themselves into three " watches," each being of eight 
hours. A later name of the order was Studites, because 
during the episcopate of Gennadius a rich Roman consul, 
Studius by name, built a cloister for them in Constan- 
tinople. See J. H. Blunt. 

ACOLYTE. Literally " one who follows." and so a 
ministrant or server. It is the highest of the four 
minor orders in the Church of Rome. The acolyte 
hands the priest wine and water at the Mass and carries 
the light.s. He is now usually a layman. 

ACOSMISM. A term used by Dr." Inge to denote the 
denial of reality to the visible world and the assertion 
that the only existence is " the intelligible world of 
Ideas " in the mind of God. Examples of this attitude 



are the Neoplatonists, the mystic Eckhart, and the 
philosopher Spinoza. 

ACROSTIC. A peculiar kind of verse-composition. 
The initial letters of the lines are made to form to- 
gether a word or sentence. Religious psalms or hymns 
are sometimes composed in this way. There are examples 
in the Psalms of the Old Testament {e.g., Ps. 119). In 
the 119th Psalm the stanzas run through the letters of 
the Hebrew alphabet. In Rabbinic literature this method 
of composition became very common. Sometimes the 
order of the alphabet was reversed, the hymn beginning 
with the last letter and ending with the first. See J 
W. Etherldge, Intr. to Hcb. Lit., 1856 

ACT FOR UNIFORMITY. An act passed in 1549 for 
the purpose of introducing " uniformity of public wor- 
ship." It required the new Liturgy of Edward VI. to 
be adopted throughout the kingdom. Refusal to comply 
with this command was punished by imprisonment or 
loss of benefice. There were other Acts of Uniformity 
in the reigns of Edward VI., Elizabeth, and Charles II 

ACT OF FAITH. See AUTO DA FE. 

ACT OF SEPARATION. In 1843 a number of Scotch 
Presbyterian ministers and professors (470) signed a 
document by which they resigned their livings and in 
which they protested against attempts to interfere with 
tjhe right of a congregation to choose its own minister 

ACT OF UNIFORMITY. An Act passed in the reign 
of Charles II. (1661). It required all clergymen of the 
Church of England to accept the Thirty-Nine Articles 
as the basis of nniforuiity in religion. Many clergymen 
were deprived of their livings for refusing to subscribe. 

ACTA FRATRUM UNITATIS IN ANGLIA. An im- 
portant folio work published (1749) by Count Nicolaus 
von Zinzendorf to explain the methods and principles 
of the Moravian Brethren {q.v.). John Wesley sum- 
marized the contents in a pamphlet (1750), " ConU^nts 
of a Folio History," in which he fiercely attacked the 
Brethren as hypocrits and heretics. See J. E. Hutton, 
History of the J/orawoM Church, 1909. 

ACTISTETES. A name derived from the Greek word 
aktistos, " uncreated." The sect of the Aetistetes were 
so called because they claimed that Christ ought not to 
be called a created Being after his Incarnation, and 
therefore denied that lie became truly man. 

ACTS OF PAUL AND THECLA. See APOCRYPHAL 
BOOKS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT. 

ACTS OF PILATE. Acta Pilati or Anaphora Pilati, 
a work which professes to give a record of the trial 
and death of Jesus, made for the Emperor Tiberius by 
Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judaea at the time of 
Jesus' death. The work is not genuine. See R. A. 
Lipsius, Die Pilatus-Ahten, new ed., 1886. Cp. APOC- 
RYPHAL BOOKS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT 

ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. One of the books of the 
New Testament which continues the Gospel story and 
gives in particular an account of the acts of the apostles 
Peter and Paul. Part of it reproduces the diarv of a 
companion of Paul (the " we " sections). It is com- 
monly considered to be the work of Luke, the reputed 
author of the third Gospel. Luke was a physician, and 
Adolf Harnack has recently sought to show that medical 
terms are common in both works. Harnack thinks 
Luke's material was in existence about SO A.D. B. W. 
Bacon gives 85-90 as the approximate date. Other critics, 
however, deny the Lucan authorship and place the work 
as late as 120-130 A.D. P. W. Schmiedel places it be- 
tween 105 and 130 A.D. See Adolf Harnack, Luke the 
Physician, 1907; W. C. Selleck, New Appreciation of the 
BiUe, 1907; Encycl. Bibl. 

ACTS OF THE SAINTS or MARTYRS. These are 
collections of stories about the Christian saints and 



Acuanites 



Adessenarians 



raartyrs. The most celebrated collection is tliat begun 
in the 17th c-entiiry by the Jesuits and continued by the 
BoUandists (q.v.). Eusebius of Caesarea made two col- 
lections, one of which is still to be found at the end of 
Book vili. of his Church History. Simeon Metaphrastes 
compiled another about 900 A.D., probably making use 
of a collection (12 vols.) current in the Church of Con- 
stantinople. The West had its collection, " Legenda 
Aurea," made by Jacobus de Voragine (ob. 129S). Much 
of the material incorporated in the early collections is 
of doubtful value. Attempts have been made to sift it, 
however. In 16S9 a Benedictine monk, Kuinart, 
published a folio volume, " Pure Acts of the Martyrs," 
and in 174S Stephen Assemani published in two folio 
volumes, " Acts of the Holy Martyrs of the East and 
of the West." See Cath. Diet. 

ACUANITES. Followers of Acuan, who was a leading 
Manichaean in Mesopotamia in the time of Epiphanius. 

ADAD. A Babylonian deity. He was the god of 
storms and thunder. He is referred tx) in the Ham- 
murabi (2150 B.C.) Code as oue who might flood a man's 
field and destroy his harvest (§§45, 48). Another name 
for the same deity was Ramman (q.v.). See Morris 
Jastrow, Kel. 

ADAD. The name, according to Macrobius, of the 
chief god of the Syrians, the name of his consort being 
Adargatis. He is the same as Hadad (cp. the Assyrian 
storm-god " Adad "), and is identified by Garstang with 
the chief god of the Hittites. 

ADAMITES. A Gnostic sect which appeared in 
Africa in the second c-entury. They were so called no 
doubt because they thought to live in a state of Inno- 
cence, like Adam before the fall, though the name has 
also been connected with another Adam who is supposed 
to have founded the sect. They renounced marriage, 
and worshipped in nude condition, holding their meet- 
ings underground. Another sect holding some of their 
tenets appeared in Bohemia in 1421. They were a 
branch of the Beghards or Brethren of the Free Spirit 
(q.v.), and were called Picards (q.v.). Zisca slew a 
great many of them. See J. H. Blunt. 

ADAM'S PEAK. A mountain summit in the South 
of Cej'lon. Euroi)eans have adopted the name from the 
Mohammedans. On the summit there is a hollow place 
which was supposed to resemble a footprint. Moham- 
medans said that it was made by All or Adam. Budd- 
hists claim that it is the impress of the Buddha's foot. 
Hindus have claimed it for the god Siva, Portuguese 
Christians for St. Thomas. Many monasteries in Ceylon 
contain representations of this footprint made of wood. 
See further H. Hackmann. 

ADAPA LEGEND. A legend in the Babylonian- 
Assyrian religion. It was found on the El-Amama 
tablets (15th cent., B.C.). Adapa, a fisherman, son of 
Ea, is fishing in " the sea," when a storm arises. 
Though only a mortal, swept into the waters by the 
South Wind, he subdues the element, since it is under 
the control of his father, and breaks the wings of the 
storm-bird. Ami, God of Heaven, surprised at the dis- 
appearance of the south wind, a.sks the god Ilabrat, his 
messenger, the reason. He is informed, and thereupon 
requests Ea to send Adapa to him for trial. He does 
so, but advises his son to seek the protection of Tammuz 
and Gishzida, gods who guard the approach to the gate 
of heaven. Accordingly Adapa goes in mourning, ex- 
plaining that he does so because " two gods have dis- 
appeared from the earth." This conciliates the two 
gods. They are prepared to plead his cause before Anu. 
The god's wrath is appeased. He is alarmed, however, 
that Adapa should have penetrated to heaven and seen 
its secrets. The only thing to do now is for the gods 



to make him one of themselves. He is therefore offered 
the food of life to eat and the waters of life, to drink. 
But Ea had warned him not to eat or drink. He there- 
fore refuses them and returns to earth. The lesson 
conveyed by the story seems to be that it is not good 
for man to live for ever. Ea, in his wisdom, prevents 
it. The legend is based upon " the nature-myth of the 
annual fight of the sun with the violent elements of 
nature." Gishzida and Tammuz are both solar deities, 
and Adapa seems to be identical with Marduk, a third 
solar deity. But the story has become more than a 
nature-myth. It is now a legend containing a moral 
or lesson. See Morris Jastrow, R(^l. 

ADAR. The twelfth month of the Jewish sacred 
year. The twelfth month of the Babylonian calendar 
has the same name. It was sacred to the seven evil 
spirits. The loth day of the month was sacred to 
Shamash, Malkatu, and Bunene. An intercalated month 
is also called Adar, Second Adar. This is sacred to 
Ashur. See Morris Jastrow, Rel. 

ADARGATIS. The name, according to Macrobius, of 
the chief goddess of the Syrians. It is equivalent to 
Atargatis (q.v.), who is identified by Garstang with the 
chief goddess of the Hittites. 

' ADAWIYYA. An Arabian religious order. It was 
founded by Sheikh ' Adl ibn Musafir al-Hakkari, who 
took up his abode in the ruins of a Christian convent 
to the west of Mosul. After his death he became the 
patron saint of the Yazldls. See Clement Huart, Arabic 
Lit., 1903. 

ADDAI, TEACHING OP. An apocryphal book which 
was probably written about the middle of the third 
century, perhaps in or near Edessa. In this book it is 
said that in Edessa the early Christians heard the Old 
Testament read, and also " the New [Testament] of the 
Diatessaron." See C. R. Gregory, Canon. 

ADECERDITAE. A name given to those who be- 
lieved that Christ by descending into Hell was able to 
save many who were found there. 

ADELOPHAGI. A name given to a sect, perhaps 
belonging to the end of the fourth century, the members 
of which would not eat in the presence of others. That 
is implied in their name which is derived from Greek 
words. But what precisely is meant is not clear. It 
may only mean that they would not eat with members 
of another sect. The Adelophagi seem to have denied 
the divinity of the Holy Spirit. 

ADELPHIANS. One of the names given to the 
Euchites (q.v.). They were so called after one of their 
leaders, Adelphius of Mesopotamia. Treacherously en- 
ticed to disclose his views by Flavian, Bishop of Antioch, 
Adelphius was excommunicated and banished. 

ADELPHOPOIIA. Literally " the making of (into) a 
brother." A religious rite which finds a place in old 
Greek prayer-books. It is similar to a rite which still 
survives in South Italy. In order to establish a blood- 
covenant between two persons, their blood is mingled. 
See F. C. Convbeare, M.M.M., 1909, pp. 258f., and cp. 
BLOOD, COVENANT. 

ADEPTS. A term used in Theosophy (q.v.). The 
adepts are tho.se persons, members of a great Brother- 
hood, who possess the Secret Wisdom of Theosophy. 
They are living men whose evolution has reached a 
higher stage than that of ordinary humanity. See 
Annie Besant, " Theosophy," in R.S.W. 

ADESSENARIANS. A name formed from the Latin 
word adesse, " to be present," and applied in the six- 
teenth century to Lutherans who held that in the Holy 
Eucharist Christ is really, and not merely figuratively, 
present, but who would not accept the Roman Catholic 
doctrine of transubstantiation. 



Adiaphorists 



Adoption 



ADIAPHORISTS. From the Greek term adia'phora, 
" things indifferent." The Leipzig interim of 1548 during 
the Protestant controversy in Germany used the term 
adia'phora of matters which Melanchthon and his party 
declared to be indifferent. Such matters were, e.g., the 
use of pictures, candles, surplices, Latin hymns and 
vespers in the Roman Catholic Church, which the 
Lutherans, on the other hand, regarded as subversive 
of the faith. 

ADIAPHORITES. An early religious sect, the mem- 
bers of which refused to recognise any distinction be- 
tween the divine and human natures of Christ. See A. 
Harnack, History of Doyma, iv., 189S. 

ADI BRAHMA SAMAJ. See BRAHMA SAMAJ. 

ADI BUDDHA. The name in Lamaism for the one 
supreme Buddha from whom are ultimately derived the 
five celestial prototypes of the historical Buddhas. See 
H. Hackmann. 

ADIGRANTH. The sacred book or bible of the Sikhs, 
compiled by Arjun in the sixteenth century. It was 
originally called the '" Granth." The term Adigranth, 
First Book, was applied to it afterwards to distinguish 
It from a later collection of books. See E. W. Hopkins. 

ADITI. An Indian goddess. Aditi (" Boundlessness ") 
is the mother of Varuna (q.v.) and the " mother of 
kings." All gods, men. and things are, in fact, identified 
with her. She has seven or eight children, of whom 
the chief, the Aditya (son of Aditi) is Varuna (q.v.). 

ADITYAS. See ADITI and VARUNA. 

ADMONITIONISTS. A name given to the Puritans 
who supported the " Admonition to the Parliament," a 
manifesto printed in 1.572. The "Admonition" demanded 
extreme puritanical changes in the constitution of the 
Church. The principal authors were John Field (d. 
1588) and Thomas Wilcox {d. 1608), and they were both 
imi>risoned for libel in Newgate. The Admonitionists 
set up a secret conventicle at Wandsworth. 

ADMONITION TO THE PARLIAMENT. A document 
drawn up by Puritans (1571) in the reign of Queen 
Elisabeth. It was Calvinistic, claiming that all rites 
and ceremonies in the Church of England should accord 
with the institutions of Apostolic times and with the 
teaching of Holy Scripture. All Roman Catholic prac- 
tices, it contended further, should be abolished. 

ADONAI. Literally " my Lord." A Hebrew name for 
the supreme deity. It is really a plural form (the 
so-ealU'<J '• plural of majesty "), the singular being adOn, 
" lord." The Jews have a name for God which was 
considered too sacred to be pronounced. This consisted 
of the consonants JHVH. Where it occurs in the sac-red 
texts, thev pronounce in reading " Adonai " as a sub- 
stitute for it. See JEHOVAH. 

ADONIS. A deity of Semitic origin (Adonis = a(?(5n 
= lord), the personification of vegetation which dies 
yearly and revives as often. Legend represented that 
Adonis died while hunting from a wound inflicted by 
a boar, and that out of his blood Aphrodite (q.v.) made 
the anemone grow. Loved by both Aphrodite and Per- 
sephone, it was decided by Zeus that he should pass 
half the .year with each goddess. In the Adonis-cult 
there was a yearly Festival of Adonis, observed by 
women. This spread from Phoenicia to Cyprus, Greece, 
Egypt and ultimately to Rome. First a figure supposed 
to represent Adonis' eorjise received sad and solemn 
funeral rites : then its resurrection was celebrated with 
wild re.loicinss. " Adonis-gardens " were a feature of 
the celebration. These were baskets or pots of earth 
sown with plants of various kinds that sprang up 
quickly and as quickly faded. The plants were after- 
wards thrown into the water. There is an allusion to 
them in the Old Testament (Isaiah xvii., 10, Revised 



Version margin, " plantings of Adonis "). It has been 
suggested that Adonis is another form of the Babylonian 
deity Tammuz (q.v.) who seems to have been honoured 
with a similar festival. See O. Seyffert, Diet.; 3. G. 
Frazer, Adonis Attis O.iiris, 1906. 

ADONIS, RIVER. Lucian (§8) speaks of a marvellous 
portent in the region of the Byblians. " A river, flow- 
ing from Mount Libanus, discharges itself into the sea : 
this river bears the name of Adonis. Every year regu- 
larly it is tinged with blood, and loses its proper colour 
before it falls into the sea : it dyes the sea, to a large 
space, red : and this announces their time of mourning 
to the Byblians. Their story is that during these days 
Adonis is wounded, and that the river's nature is 
changed by the blood which flows into its waters; and 
that it takes its name from this blood " (transl. by H. 
A. Strong). 

ADOPTION. The taking of a child into a family or 
clan to be treated as one of its born members often 
has a religious significance. In Athens and Rome sons 
were adopted, when necessary, not merely to perpetuate 
the race, but also to continue its religious rites. In 
China the eldest son of the principal wife occupies an 
important position, as the continuator of the ancestral 
line and the person upon whom devolves the charge of 
worshipping the ancestors. If the principal wife has no 
son, she adopts one. When adoption takes place, it is 
naturally celebrated by a more or less elaborate cere- 
mony. Where importance is attached to the feeling of 
kinship, it has sometimes been the custom to make in- 
cisions and mingle the blood of adopters and adopted 
(cp. BLOOD). Mr. E. S. Hartland thinks that in the 
blood-covenant (see COVENANT), we have a survival 
of a rite of adoption into the clan. Such a practice is 
not merely a formality. The thought that the blood 
has been mingled acts as a powerful suggestion of kin- 
ship. Another practice is for the new mother, when 
a child is to be adopted, to pretend to give birth to 
him. Thus, when the goddess Hera adopted Hercules, 
she imitated a real birth. The same thing is done in 
Bulgaria, as well as among the Bosnian Turks and the 
Berawans of Sarawak. An example of a more elaborate 
and religious ceremony may be taken from India. Among 
the Brahuians, when a child is to be adopted, an aus- 
picious day is first chosen. The portals of the house 
are decorated with garlands of leaves (toranams), and 
a pavilion (pandal) is erected. Then, when the cere- 
monies are to begin, sacrifice is made to Vigueshwara 
(the god of obstacles) and the nine planets. The new 
father and mother sit on a small dais in the middle of 
the pavilion. The real mother is given a new garment, 
and a sum of money as " nursing wages." Carrying 
her son to the adoptive father, she is asked by him 
whether she hands over her child to be brought up. 
The answer is in the afiirmative. Then a dish cf water 
with powdered saffron in it is brought in. Next the 
priest (purohita) blesses it, mutters some prayers or 
formulas (mantrams), and ix-rforms some ceremonies. 
After this the real mother hands the dish to the new 
father, invokes fire as a witness, and says, " I give up 
this child to you; I have no more right over him." The 
new father takes the child on his knees and solemnly 
and ceremonially promises to bring it up as his own 
child. He and his wife next take a little saffron water 
in their right hands and drink it. Then they pour some 
into the hand of the child who has to drink it. They 
conclude the ceremony by saying : " We have admitted 
this child into our gothram, and we incorporate him 
into it." Other festivities follow. The ceremony among 
the Sudras and the Brahmans is almost identical; the 
only difference being that among the Sudras the new 

2 



Adoptionism 



Adultery 



father and mother pour the saffron water on the feet 
of the child with one hand, while with the other they 
catch and drink it. See J. A. Dubois and H. K. Beau- 
champ, Hindu Manners, etc., 1897; J. J. M. de Groot, 
If el. Hystem of China, 1S94, etc.; E. S. Hartland, Legend 
of Perseus, 1894-96; J. G. Frazer, O.B.; E. Westermarck. 

ADOPTIONISM. The doctrine according to which 
Jesus, as regards his human nature, was Son of God 
only by adoption. In the eighth century we hear of 
a special sect, the Adoptianl, which avowed this doc- 
trine. The idea, however, was no new one. It was 
held by early Christian writers of Africa and Italy and 
was prevalent among Syriac and Armenian Christians. 
Elipandus, Archbishop of Toledo, and Felix, Bishop of 
Urgel. in Spain, held the doctrine at the beginning of 
the ninth centurj', and were eondennied as heretics at 
the Council of Ratisbon. The doctrine was condemned 
again at Frankfort, Rome, and Aix la Chaiielle. 

ADORATION OP RELICS. The relics of departed 
saints and martyrs have been objects of worship in the 
Christian Church, and are still venerated by Roman 
Catholics. Such relics include their bodies, " fragments 
of their bodies, articles or portions of articles which 
they have used, such as clothes, vestments, rosaries, 
and the like": in the case of Jesus, "the holy nails, 
lance, spear, or fragments of the True Cross "; and, 
in the case of Mary, " the girdle, veil, etc." (Addis and 
Arnold). The explanation given of this veneration is 
(1) that the saints were living members of Christ and 
their bodies the temples of the Holy Ghost; and (2) 
that God sometimes makes their relics instruments of 
healing and other miracles, and bestows " spiritual 
graces on those who with pure hearts keep and honour 
them." See Cath. Diet. 

ADORATION OF THE CROSS. A ceremony observed 
In the Church of Rome on Good Friday. St. Thomas 
said that the cross was to be adored with supreme 
worship (latria). and Benedict XIV. quotes a verse of 
Lactantius which speaks of " adoring the cross." On 
Good Friday a crucifix being unveiled, priest and people 
kiss it and adore it on their knees. It is explained 
that the cross may be adored as representing something 
else. In this way " we may give to the cross relatively 
— i.e., to the cross as carrying on our mind to Christ— 
the same honour which we give to Christ absolutely, 
i.e., in himself. See Cath. Diet.; Prot. Diet. 

ADRAMMELECH. According to a passage in the 
Old Testament, this was the name of a Babylonian deity. 
In II Kings xvli., 31, it is said that the Sephan-ites 
whom the King of Assyria (Sargon) placed in the cities 
of Samaria " burnt their children in the lire to Adram- 
melech and Anammelech, the gods of Sepharvaim." It 
Is difficult to Identify the deity or to understand the 
allusion. Mr. L. W. King tells us (Encyel. Bibl.) that 
throughout the cuneiform inscriptions, " there is no 
allusion to human sacrifice, and In the sculptures and 
reliefs no representation of the rite has been discovered." 
The name used to be explained as equivalent to Adar- 
malik, " Adar the prince." This was supposed to be 
another name for the god Ninlb (q.v.). But the sup- 
position was a mere conjecture. On the other hand, If, 
as some scholars think, Sepharvaim is to be identified 
with Sippar, Adrammelech may have been a subsidiary 
name or title of Shamash the Sun-god, for the worship 
of this god was specially associated with Sippar. See 
Eneijcl. Bit)l. 

ADRANUS. A Sicilian god to whom dogs seem to 
have l)een sacred. Reference is made to his sacred dogs 
by Aellan (Nat. An., xi., 20). Adranus was perhaps of 
Semitic orisnn. See W. R. Smith, R.S. 

ADRASTEIA. A Greek goddess. Dr. L. R. Famell 



{Cults, vol. ii., 1896) thinks that originally the name 
was a local title of Cybele. The cult of Adrasteia was 
established near Priapus, Cyzieus, and In tbe Troad, 
and it was in these localities in particular that Cybele 
was worshipped. In the later period she came to be 
regarded as a kind of twin-sister of Nemesis and was 
connected sometimes with Artemis. A plausible ex- 
planation of this development is offered by Famell. 
" Cybele 'ASpia-reia meant the goddess of the city or 
locality in Phrygia that took its name from the Phrygian 
hero Adrastus. Then when the title was detached, it 
came to be interpreted as " the goddess from whom one 
cannot run away"; and this meaning may have been 
assisted by the confusion between the Phrygian Adrastus 
and the Argive hero, whose legend was a picture of 
inevitable fate. AVhen afterwards this new sense of 
'ASpaa-reM came into vogue, she naturally became con- 
nected with Nemesis, and so accidentally with Artemis." 

ADRIANISTS. The followers of a Dutch Anabaptist, 
Adrian Hamsted, who was for a time a minister in 
London. Edmund Grlndal (d. 1583), Bishop of London 
and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, having de- 
posed him early in the year 1561, he returned to Hol- 
land. The Adrianists would not accept the doctrine of 
the miraculous birth of Jesus. 

ADRIATIC, MARRIAGE OP THE. An annual cere- 
mony of early origin celebrated on Ascension Day at 
Venice. The Doge was rowed to the sea in his state 
barge, and threw a consecrated ring into the water. 
Pope Alexander III. originated the ceremony in 1174. 
From this custom Venice received the name " Bride of 
the Sea." 

ADSALLtJTA. The name of a goddess worshipped by 
the ancient Celts. AdsaHQta was paired with a god 
Savus. 

ADSMERIUS. Adsmerius or Atesmerius was one of 
the names given by the ancient Celts to a god who 
corresponded to the Roman Mercury. 

ADULTERY. According to Hebrew law an adulterer 
must be put to death. In the ancient Egyptian religion 
It is an offence which excludes the guilty persons when 
they die from the kingdom of Osiris. The Babylonian 
Code of Khammurabi decrees that if the wife of a man 
be found committing adultery with another male, " they 
shall be bound and thrown into the water, unless the 
husband lets his wife live; and the king lets his servant 
live " (Chilperic Edwards, The Oldest Lares in the 
World, § 129). Brahmanic religion regards adultery as 
one of the worst sins, a sin against Varuna. A woman 
must beware of sacrificing with this guilt on her soul; 
but if confessed, '• the guilt becomes less." Christianity 
condemns adultery equally in the case of husband or 
wife. Adultery is also condemned by primitive folk, 
though not by all. The god called Batara or Petara 
among the Sea Dyaks of Borneo punishes cases of 
adultery. So do Puluga, the supreme being of the 
Andaman Islanders; Leza, the supreme being of the 
Bantu people living Iwtween Lakes Tanganyika and 
Bangweolo, and of the Awemba. Elephant-hunters in 
East Africa think that if, during their absence, their 
wives are unfaithful, they themselves will be killed or 
wounded by the elephant. An Aleutian hunter of sea- 
otters believes that the same thing will prevent him 
from killing a single animal. Again it is thought by 
many of the indigenous tribes of Sarawak that " were 
the wives to commit adultery while their husbands are 
searching for camphor in the jungle, the camphor ob- 
tained by the men would evaporate " fj. G. Frazer). 
The Karens of Burma believe that the crops are blighted 
and the harvests spoiled by adultery or fornication. 
The same idea prevails among the Battas of Sumatra 



Advent 



^sir 



and the Dyaks of Borneo. See E. Westermarck ; J. G. 
Frazer, G.B.; E. W. Hopkins, The Religions of India, 
1S95. 

ADVENT. Literally " the coming," Latin adventus, 
the beginning of the ecclesiastical year, a season of 
preparation for the coming of Christ. It was first ob- 
served in the Western Church and thence was introduced 
into the Eastern Church as a period of penitence and 
fasting preliminary to the celebration of the Festival 
of Christmas or of the Nativity of Jesus. In the Greek 
Church it lasts forty days : and similarly in the Galilean 
Church of the sixth century it extended from the feast 
of St. Martin (Martinmas, November 11) to the Nativity, 
and was called " Quadragesima S. Martini." In the 
Church of England and of Rome the season has been 
restricted since the time of Gregory the Great to the 
four Sundays of Advent, the previous Sunday serving 
as a kind of introduction. During this season the 
Church " desires that her children should practise fast- 
ing, works of penance, meditation, and prayer, in order 
to prepare themselves for celebrating worthily the 
coming ^adventum) of the Son of God in the flesh, to 
promote His spiritual advent within their own souls, 
and to school themselves to look forward with hope and 
joy to His second advent, when He shall come again to 
judge mankind " (Addis and Arnold). See A. Barry, 
Teacher's Prayer Book: Cath. Diet. 

ADVENTISTS, SECOND. A religious body in America, 
the members of which believe that the second coming of 
Christ is to take place soon. The sect was founded by 
William Miller (17S1-1S49). The time of the second com- 
ing was definitely fixed, but has had to be altered from 
time to time. The Adventists observe various kinds of 
abstinence. There are various branches of the sect. 
One of them, the Seventh Day Adventists, fixes no 
definite date for the second coming. The members are 
80 called because they regard the Sabbath as being still 
the seventh day. 

ADVOCATUS DIABOLI. When a person is proposed 
for canonisation in the Roman Catholic Church someone 
is appointed as the " advocatus dlaboli " to bring for- 
ward any objections to the proposal. On the other side, 
there Is an " advocatus Dei," appointed to defend the 
person in question. 

ADVOCATUS ECCLESIiE. The " advocati eccle- 
slarum " were " advocate-protectors, princes or barons, 
or other powerful laymen, who, for a consideration, 
undertook to protect the property of a church or monas- 
tery, as well as the lives of the inmates " (Addis and 
Arnold). The Lateran Council (A.D. 1215) had to decree 
that they must be restrained from encroaching on the 
property entrusted to them. See Cath. Diet. 

ADVOWSON. A term in Church of England Law, 
denoting the right of presentation to a vacant eccle- 
siastical benefice. The right belongs to the successor of 
the founder of the benefice who is commonly called the 
Patron. See Prat. Diet. 

ADWAITA. The name of a sect among the Brahmans. 
Its adherents hold that the universe, with all its phen- 
omena, has no real existence. The phenomena comprised 
in the universe are the result of illusion. " All animate 
and inanimate things are but parts of the Deity," the 
one eternal essence. See J. A. Dubois and H. K. Beau- 
champ. 

ADYTUM. The most sacred part (" the holy of 
holies ") of an ancient temple accessible only to priests. 
In Greek temples It was sometimes underground. 

^GIR. A name occurring in Teutonic mythology. 
.33gir is the chief of sea-giants, and is commonly a per- 
sonification of the calm oiien sea. He has a wife. Ran 
(q.v.), and nine daughters who represent together the 



sea's surf and rough waves. See P. D. Chantepie de la 
Saussaye, Rel. of the Teutons, 1902. 

AEGIS. A name for the shield of Zeus. Homer 
imagines it to have been forged by Hephaestus. When 
Zeus shakes it, there is thunder and lightning It is 
thus a storm and thunder-cloud figured as a shield. It 
is also borne by Athene, daughter of Zeus. See O. 
Seyffert, Diet. 

.ilOLUS. A figure in Greek mythology. Homer 
imagines him to have been made keeper of* the winds 
by Zeus. Later legend represents him as dwelling in one 
of the ^olian isles north of Sicily, Lipara or Strongyle, 
where he kept the winds imprisoned in a cave under- 
neath a mountain. See O. Seyffert, Diet. 

^ON. Literally an " age " or " eternity." A term 
used by the Gnostics to denote an emanation from God. 
See Louis Duchesne, Hist. 

^•^QUIPROBABILISM. One of the different forms or 
schools of Probabilism. It is the doctrine that the 
less certain opinion may be followed when it is as pro- 
bable as the more certain. See A. Hamack, Hist, of 
Dogma, vli., 1899. 

AERIANS. The followers of an Arian monk. Aerius. 
He was exiled from Sebaste in Armenia. He recognised 
no difference between a bishop and a presbyter, protested 
against prayers and offerings for the dead, and protested 
against the sacrifice of a paschal lamb in Christian 
worship. He also disapproved of fasting. The sect 
which he founded soon died out. 

JSSCULAPIUS. Asclepios (Latin ^sculapius) was 
worshipped by the Greeks as the god of Medicine. He 
is reputed to have been the son of Apollo (q.v.), the 
god of healing, by Coronis. One of the legends narrates 
that Coronis was secretly delivered of her child on a 
journey to the Peloponnesus. She exposed him on a 
mountain, but he was suckled by a she-goat. According 
to another legend the boy was snatched by Apollo from 
the pyre on which his mother was about to be burnt, 
and was committed to the charge of a centaur, Chiron, 
who reared him and taught him how to cure all diseases. 
Homer and Pindar represent him as a hero endowed with 
the skill of a successful leech. He then appears as the 
god of healing worshipped throughout Greece in groves, 
on mountains, and by medicinal springs. He was able 
even to bring the dead to life. '• Often the cure was 
effected by the dreams of the patients, who were required 
to sleep in the sacred building, In which there sometimes 
stood, as might be expected, a statue of Sleep or Dream- 
ing " (O. Seyffert). The introduction of the worship of 
^^Csculapius among the Romans is supposed to have been 
enjoined by the Sibylline Books. It took place about 
290 B.C. It is said that the god used to reveal himself 
in the form of a snake. A colled serpent and a staff 
are represented on his statues, and snakes were kept in 
his temples. J. M. Robertson points out that the title 
Saviour was given by the Greeks to Zeus, Helios, Artemis, 
Dionysos, Heracles, the Dioscuri, Cybele, and Jilscul- 
apius. There is nothing suriJrising in this. Anyone may 
be called a saviour (cp., in the Old Testament, Judges 
iii., 9, II Kings xili., 5). See O. Sevffert, Diet.; Reinach, 
0.; J. M. Robert-son, CM.; P.O.; J. G. Frazer, O.B. 

AESHMA DAEVA. An evil demon in the ancient 
Persian religion. In Yasna Ivii. of the Zend-avesta he 
is described as " the cruel demon A&shem6." The word 
means " rapine " or " attack." In the Vendidad (Fargard 
xix), he is called " the impetuous rusher." The As- 
modeus of the book of Tobit (ill., S: see APOCRYPHA 
OF THE OLD TESTAMENT) has been identified with 
the Aeshma Daeva of Zoroastrlanism. See Martin Haug. 

^ESIR. The name of some Teutonic deities. The Irish 
form of the name is ESIR. The Msir have been 



^ternales 



10 



Agni 



identified by some with the Indian Asnras (g.v.). The 
gods figure in Danish mythology which tells of a conflict 
between the ^sir and the Vanir. See P. D. Chantepie 
de La Saussaye, Bel. of the Teutons, 1902. 

.ETEKNALES. A sect mentioned by Danieus. The 
members believed that the present condition of the world 
will remain unchanged. It will not be altered even after 
the Second Coming of Jesus. 

JSTIANS. The followers of Aetius. Ordained deacon 
at Antioch A.D. 350, he was expelled on account of his 
Arian views. He returned in 358, but in 360 the Emperor 
Constantius summoned him to Constantinople and then 
banished him to Phrygia. He denied the doctrine of 
the Nicene Creed and agreed with the Homoiousians (q.v.) 
that the Son is like the Father. See ARIANISM. 

AFFIRMATION. Persons (Quakers, etc.) who have 
conscientious scruples against taking an oath in a court 
of justice have been allowed since 1833 to make, instead, 
a solemn declaration. The permission has been extended 
gradually, a new Oaths Act having been passed as re- 
cently as 1888. In Scotland a person under age is 
required to make a " declaration." 

AFFUSION. A term applied to the pouring of water 
on persons in Christian baptism (Q-v.). 

AFRING.IN CEREMONY. A Parsee ceremony per- 
formed in honour of a deceased person or of an angel. 
In front of the fire, which bums in a vaselike vessel at 
the southern end of the ceremonial area, is placed a 
tray of wine and fruits, and on the left of the tray 
flowers are put. The chief officiating priest then pro- 
nounces a numl)er of formuhe. After this the consecrated 
fruit and wine are partaken of by the priests and the 
other ijersons present, this being accompanied by solemn 
recitations. See Martin Haug. 

AFRINGANS. A term used in the Zoroastrian re- 
ligion of the " blessings which are to be recited over a 
meal consisting of wine, milk, bread, and fruits, to which 
an angel or the spirit of a deceased person is invited, 
and in whose honour the meal is prepared. After the 
consecration (which only a priest can perform) is over, 
the meal is eaten by those who are present " (Haug). 
There are special Afringans for different occasions. See 
Martin Haug. 

AFRIT. The name of a powerful demon in Moham- 
medan mythology. 

AGAPJi). This was a love- or charity-feast cele- 
brated among the early Christians, in imitation, it is 
thought of common meals held among the Greeks 
(o-vo-o-iT-ia). It is mentioned in the New Testament. In 
the Epistle of Jude (vs. 12) it Is said : " These are they 
who are hidden rocks (or spots) in your love-feasts when 
they feast with you, shepherds that without fear feed 
themselves." And it is referred to in I Corinthians xi. 
Rich and poor shared equally in the feast, the materials 
being supplied by those who could afford to contribute. 
" The Eucharist was always the chief act of worship. 
In the beginning it was celebrated at the end of a cor- 
porate meal. This is what we call the Agap^. In the 
second century the Agap4 was already distinct from the 
Eucharist. It took place in the evening, while the 
Eucharist was celebrated at the morning meeting. A 
corporate meal, however frugal, was only suitable for 
restricted groups : as soon as the churches became 
crowded assemblies, it would be diflicult to organize 
such banquets so as to secure order and decorum. The 
Agape was still kept up, but less as an expression of a 
real corporate life than as a memory of the past, and 
also as a work of charity; but soon no one went to it 
except the poor and the clergy, and the latter took part 
in it rather as part of their duty than for their own 
benefit. Its recurrence did not coincide with that of the 



ordinary liturgical service. The Agap4 became more and 
more rare, and finally fell into disuse " (Mgr. Cuchesne). 
According to Duchesne, this must be distinguished from 
another kind of Agapa? of remote origin. This was a 
banquet in commemoration of deceased persona. It was 
still observed in the third and fourth centuries. See 
Louis Duchesne, Hist.; W. Soltau, Das Fortleben des 
Heidentums in der altchristlichen Kirohe, 1906; Cath. 
Diet.; Prot. Diet. 

AGAPEMONITES. The members of a conventual es- 
tablishment called " Agapemone," " abode of love." The 
establishment was founded (1859) at Charlinch, near 
Bridgewater, Somerset, by Henry James Prince, a clergy- 
man of the Church of England. It is now at Spaxton. 
The Agapemonites profess to devote themselves to 
spiritual contemplation, and to live in spiritual wedlock. 
See Hepworth Dixon, Spiritual Wives, 1868. 

AGAPETAI and AGAPETOI. The words mean liter- 
ally " beloved women " and " beloved men." They were 
men and women (spiritual wives) who lived together as 
" brothers and sisters " in the early Christian Church. 
The custom is eulogised in the " Sliepherd of Hennas " 
dating from the end of the first or beginning of 
the second century. Tertullian however denounced it, 
and about the middle of the third century Cyprian, 
Bishop of Carthage, disallowed it. They are still re- 
ferred to by Gregory of Nyssa in the fourth century. 
See F. C. Conybeare, M.M.M., pp. 217 f. 

AGAPETOS. There is reason to think that in the 
times when the Gospels of the New Testament were 
composed the Greek expression 6 dyan-ijTo? " the Be- 
loved One " was a standing Messianic title. In this 
sense it seems to be used sometimes in the Gospels (e.g., 
Mark i., 11; ix., 7). See J. Armitage Robinson, Ephe- 
sians, 1904; Allan Menzies, The Earliest Oospel, 1901. 

AGDISTIS. A nature-goddess worshipped by a tribe 
of the Phrygians, equivalent to Atargatis. 

AGGADA. See HAGGADAH. 

AGHORIS. The Aghoris or Aghorpanthis are a class 
of Saiva mendicants in India, found now chiefly at 
Benares and at Girnar near Mount Abu. They used to 
practise cannibalism, and still feed on human corpses 
and excrement. " The Aghoris now represent their filthy 
habits as merely giving practical expression to the 
abstract doctrine that the whole universe is full of 
Brahma, and consequently that one thins is as pure as 
another. By eating the most horrible food they utterly 
subdue their natural appetites, and hence acquire great 
power over themselves and over the forces of nature. 
It is believed that an Aghori can at will assume the 
shapes of a bird, an animal or a fish, and that he can 
bring back to life a corpse of which he has eaten a 
part " (R. V. Russell). 

AGIONITES. One of the sects condemned by the 
Council of Gangra (between A.D. 360 and 380). The 
name may have been formed from the Greek word hagios, 
" pure." 

AGIOSEMANDRUM. Literally " the holy caller " 
from two Greek words. In Turkey, where the use of 
bells is forbidden, this is a wooden instrument used 
instead of a bell in Christian churches. 

AGLIBOL. A solar deity, worshipped by the Pal- 
myrenes. 

AGNI. An Indian deity. Agni, originally fire and 
then altar-fire, is one of the two greatest gods in the 
Rig Veda (q.v.), the other being Soma. Agni. in whom 
are the other gods, is regarded as a trinity (fire, 
lightning, sun; earth, atmosphere, heavenj, and Hindu 
ritual prescribes the keeping up of " three fires." In 
the tirst hymn in the Rig Veda, Agni is described as 
" house-priest," " priest divine of sacrifice," " oblation 



Agnibotris 



U 



Ahsonnutii 



priest," " lord of sacrifice and shining guardian of the 
rite." The DabistAn refers to " Agni-worshippers '' as 
a sect existing In the seventeenth century. It is said 
that there are still in India " Agnihotri," fire priests 
who perform the Vedic sacrifices which entitle tie 
worshippers to heavenlv life. See E. W. Hopkins, and 
cp. E. B. Tylor. ii.. 281, 386. 

AGXIHOTRIS. A term used in Brahmanism of those 
Brahmans who duly perform all the sacrifices prescribed 
for those who hope to go to heaven. 

AGNOIT^. Literally " the Ignorant." A sect founded 
by Theophronius of Cappadocia in the fourth century. 
They were so called because they professed to have no 
knowledge regarding the omniscience of God. The fol- 
lowers of Themistius of Alexandria (c. 560) were also 
called Asnoitae because they professed no knowledge of 
the divinitv of Christ. 

AGNOSTICS. A term introduced by Prof. T. H. 
Huxley flS2o-1895) as a convenient designation of those 
who refuse to claim any knowledge of supernatural 
beings and events or of a future life. Agnostics are 
not to be confused with Atheists (q.v^. 

AGNUS DEI. The words mean " Lamb of God." It 
is a title of Christ in the First Epistle of John f29). 
It is also the name of a prayer, beginning with these 
words, in the Roman Catholic Service of the Mass. It 
is, further, the designation of medals of wax. silver, or 
gold, consecrated by the popes from time to time since 
the fourteenth century, and having stamped upon them 
the figure of a lamb bearing a cross. These medals were 
worn as amulets iq.v.). 

AGONALIA. The word is derived from Agonius, a 
Roman god (Ovid, Fasti, i.. 331). It is the name of a 
Roman festival in honour of the deities who guarded 
the State. 

AGONICLITES. As the word suggests, this was the 
name of a sect which disapproved of kneeling in divine 
worship. The sect belonged to the seventh and eighth 
centuries, and was condemned in 726 by a Synod held at 
Jerusalem. 

AGONISTICI. Literally " contenders." a name given 
to parties of Donatists (fi.v.) who went about Africa 
trying to win converts. They seem to have been in 
existence in A.D. 317. They are also known by other 
names, such as Cireuiti, Circumcellions (q.v.). 

AGRAPHA. A name given to certain sayings which 
are supposed to have been uttered by Jesus, but have 
not been incorporated in the canonical Gospels. Ac- 
cording to Papias. for instance. Jesus delivered a dis- 
coursi,' on the Kingdom of God, in the course of which 
he said : " The days will come in which every vine shall 
produce ten thousand stems, and every stem shall give 
ten thousand branches, and every branch shall have ten 
thousand twigs, and on every twig shall be ten thousand 
grapes, and every grape when pressed shall yield twenty- 
five measures. And when a saint shall take a grape, 
another shall cry, ' Lo. I am a better grape, take me, 
and through me bless the Lord 1 ' And in like manner 
a grata of wheat shall produce ten thousand ears, and 
each grain shall yield five ' double pounds ' of pure white 
flour: and so on. with all the other fruits and seeds 
and vegetables in like manner. And all the creatures 
that eat of the things which are thus brought forth by 
the earth shall become gentle and peaceful one towards 
another, and be obedient unto man in every respect " 
fcp. the Apocalypse of Banieh, eh. xxviii.). Another 
supposed saying of Jesus about the Kingdom of God 
seems to have been current among the Eneratites (g.v.) 
in the second century. One, Salome, asked the Lord how 
long death would continue to hold sway. The Lord 
answered, saying, " As long as ye women bear children; 



for I came to abolish the functions of woman." Salome 
said unto him, " Then have I done well in that I have 
not borne children." The Lord answered and said. " Eat 
of every plant save those which are bitter! " Salome 
then inquired when that which she asked should be 
revealed. The Lord said, " When ye tread down the 
garment of shame, when the two become one, the male 
with the female, neither male nor female." The same 
utterance, though in a rather different version, occurs 
in the Second Epistle of Clement (xii., 2-6). The Second 
Epistle of Clement (v. 2-4) gives another supposed saying 
of Jesus. " For the Lord said. ' Ye shall be like lambs 
in the midst of wolves.* But Peter answered and said, 
' But what if the wolves should tear the sheep? ' Jesus 
said to Peter, ' Let not the lambs, after they are dead, 
fear the wolves. And ye, in like manner, fear not ye 
those that kill you, and can do you no further hurt; 
fear rather him who after death has power over soul 
and body to cast them into the Gehenna of fire." 
Another short saying which is frequently quoted (Clem. 
Alex., Strom., i., 28, 177, etc.) is: " Be ye skilful money- 
changers." Another saying given by Clement of Alexan- 
dria is : " Ask for great things, and at the same time 
small things shall also be given unto you; ask for 
heavenly things, and earthly things shall also be given 
unto vou." See Oscar Holtzmann. The Life of Jesus, 
1904. 

AGRICULTURE. Primitive folk look with a feeling 
of awe and worship on the fertility of the earth. 
Originally Baal (g.v.) of the Canaanites and Astarte 
(q.v.) of the Phoenicians were gofls of fertility and of 
the earth. Zoroastrianism recommends the diligent 
tilling of the soil. " What is the food that fills the 
Religion of Mazda? " asks Zoroaster. And the answer 
of Ahura Mazda is: "It is sowing com again and 
again, O Spitama Zarathustra '. He who sows com, sows 
righteousness" (VencJidad, iii.. 23 ff.). Plato praises 
agriculture as providing, amongst other things, first- 
fruits for the gods and rich banquets for festivals. The 
deities, festivals, etc., connected with agriculture are 
dealt with under separate headings. See E. Wester- 
ma rck. 

AGUD. A term used among the islanders of the 
Torres Straits to denote a mystic potency in things. 
Agnd seems to be a force, and not a i)ersonal being, 
and corresponds to the Melanesian mana. 

AGYNIANS. A sect belonging to about A.D. 694. 
They held that marriage was not a divine institution, 
and therefore would hold no intercourse with women. 

AHAU CHAMAHEZ. A tribal deity, god of medicine, 
in the religion of the Mavan Indians. 

AHMADITTAH. A Muhammadan sect founded in 
North India in recent years by Mirza Ghulam Ahmed 
of Qadian in the Punjab. According to E. JI. Wherry, 
the sect really seems to be allied to that of the Babis 
in Persia (see BABISM). " The founder styles himself 
as the Mahdi-Messiah of the twentieth century. He 
claims to be a prophet and the Messiah of the last 
times." Many educated men have been influenced by 
the movement; " but perhaps this may be accounted for 
by its offering a refuge for men who can no longer 
continue with the orthodox schools." Orthodox Muham- 
madans regard the sect as heretical. See E. M. Wherry. 

AHRIMAN. The personification of Evil in the dualistic 
religion of Zarathustra, Zoroastrianism. The Vendidad 
tells (Fargard. xix.) how Ahriman deputed one of the 
evil spirits who served him to destroy Zarathustra him- 
self, and how Zarathustra defeated him by repeating 
a sacred formula. See Martin Haug. 

AHSONNUTLI. The chief deity, creator of the hea- 
vens and earth, among the Navaho Indians of New 



Ahuna-Vairya 



12 



Alaesiagae Bede et Fimmilene 



Mexico. Having the attributes of both sexes, he is 
called The Turquoise Hermaphrodite. 

AHUNA-VAIRYA. The name of the oldest known 
creed or formula of the Zoroastrians. Martin Haug 
translates: " As a heavenly lord is to be chosen, so is 
an earthly master (spiritual guide), for the sake of 
righteousness, (to be) the giver of the good thoughts, 
of the actions of life, towards Mazda ; and the dominion 
is for the lord (Ahura) whom he (Mazda) has given as 
a protector for the poor." Wilhelm Bousset gives as 
the translation {What is Religion* 1907, p. 159 /.) : " The 
will of the Lord is the law of justice. The reward of 
heaven is for those who have worked in the world for 
Mazda. Ahura grants the kingdom to those who have 
helped the poor." In I'asno xis. of the Zend-avesta, 
Ahura-mazda is represented as saying : " These my parts 
of the Ahuna-vairya, when recited without mistake (and) 
without mispronunciation, are equal, O Spitama Zara- 
thushtra ! to a hundred of the other principal stanzas 
(Gathas) recited without mistake (and) without mispro- 
nunciation. Even recited with mistakes (and) mispro- 
nunciation (they are) equal to ten other principals. 
And whoever, in this my world supplied with creatures, 
O Spitama Zarathushtra ! shall recall (mentally) one 
part of the Ahuna-vairya, or in the course of recalling 
shall mutter it, or in the course of muttering shall 
chant it, or in the course of chanting prays to it, his 
soul will I, who am Ahuramazda, carry all three times 
over the bridge to paradise." See Martin Haug. 

AHURA. A term used frequently in the Zoroastrian 
religion. It means " lord," and can be applied to men 
as well as to the Supreme Being. Commonly, however, 
it is used of the latter. Mazda is repeatedly addressed 
as " Ahura," or as Ahura-mazda iq.v.). A common 
expression is " the religion of Ahura." In Yasna xxxvii. 
of the Zend-avesta it is said : " Thus we worship 
Ahuramazda. . . . We worship him in calling him 
by the Ahura names which were chosen by Mazda him- 
self, and which are the most beneficent." See Martin 
Haug. 

AHURAMAZDA. The Supreme Being In the Zoroast- 
rian religion. He is called by Zarathushtra " the 
Creator of the earthly and spiritual life, the Lord of 
the whole universe, in whose hands are all the crea- 
tures." He is said to be Light, and the source of light: 
wisdom and the intellect. The possessor of all .such good 
things as the good mind, immortality, health the best 
truth, devotion and piety, and abundance of all earthly 
blessings, he is ready to bestow these on the righteous 
man. At the same time he will punish the wicked. 
In Ahuramazda himself were united two principles or 
creative spirits, spent6 mainiinnh, " the beneficient 
spirit," and angrfi mainyush, " the hurtful spirit." In 
course of time SpentO-mainyush was identified exclu- 
sively with Ahura-mazda, and AngrO-mainyush was 
regarded as an independent being, the organiser of the 
powers of evil. See Martin Haug. 

AIRU. The second month of the Babylonian calen- 
dar. It was sacred to Ea. It seems to have been a 
particularly sacred month. The tenth day was sacred 
to Shamash, Malkatu, and Bunene. See Morris Jastrow, 
Rel. 

AIRTAMAN. The chief god of healing in the Iranian 
pantheon. He is the equivalent of the Indian Aryaman, 
the good companion of Mitra and Varuna, that is to 
say, the third member of the great triad of the Adityas. 
A. Carnoy (" The Iranian Gods of Healing," Journal 
of the American Oriental Society, vol. 3S) thinks that 
" the various Indications which we possess about his 
character coincide in presenting him as a god of rain 
and of fertility who is essentially helpful to man. It 



is only reasonable to regard his functions of healer in 
Iran as a secondary but very natural development out 
of these elements." In the Pahlavi Vendidad (xx.) 
it is said : " The longing for Airman (Airyaman) de- 
stroys every disease and death, every sorcerer and witch, 
and every wicked courtezan." See Martin Haug. 

AISLE. From Latin ala, " a wing," the wings of a 
Church or its lateral division. Churches in England 
have usually two aisles, one on each side of the nave 
or choir. Many churches, however, have only one. In 
continental churches there are commonly two, but in 
some cases three, aisles. " In many cases the aisles 
have had their origin in chantry chaijels " (J. H. Parker, 
Oloss.). 

AITKENITES. The followers of Robert Aitken (1800- 
1873), a clergyman of the Church of England, ordained 
in 1823. Leaving the Church of England, he became 
for a time a Wesleyan preacher. In 1840, however, he 
returned, and in 1849 he became Vicar of Pendeen in 
Cornwall. Aitken's experience of two types of Chris- 
tianity led him to attempt to combine certain features 
of Methodism (e.g., the ecstatic prayer-meetings) with 
the ritual and teaching of the High Church Party. See 
the D.N.B., and J. H. Blunt. 

AIZEN MTO-0. Japanese god of love. 

AKA-KANET. A harvest-god worshipped by the 
Araucanian Indians of Chili. 

AKALIS. A fanatical order of Sikh ascetics. The 
name Akali means '" immortal." After the death of 
Guru Govind, Balragi Banda introduced innovations 
which were resisted stoutly by some of the Sikhs. This 
section became the Akalis. " They constituted at once 
the most unruly and the bravest portion of the very 
unruly and brave Sikh army. Their headquarters were 
at Amritsar, where they constituted themselves the 
guardians of the faith and assumed the right to con- 
voke synods. They levied offerings by force and were 
the terror of the Sikh chiefs. Their good qualiltes 
were, however, well appreciated by the Maharaja, and 
when there were specially fierce foes to meet, such as 
the Pathans beyond the Indus, the Akalis were always 
to the front " (Sir E. Maclagan, quoted by Russell and 
HIra Lai). See R. V. Russell. 

AKASAMUKHAS. Literally " Sky-facers." An order 
of Hindu ascetics, worshippers of Siva (q.v.). They are 
so called because with necks bent back they gaze at the 
sky. They spend their lives in this attitude. See 
Monier-Wiiliama; E. W. Hopkins. 

'AKIIKA. Literally "the cutting off of the hair," an 
Arabian ceremony in the time of Mohammed performed 
on the birth of a child. The infant's head was shewed, 
and tie scalp daubed with the blood of a sacrificed 
sheep. The ceremony was supposed to " avert evil from 
the child " and seemingly to place it under the pro- 
tection of the community's god. Prof. Robertson Smith 
infers, however, from early references to an Arabian 
and Syrian practice that the oldest Semitic usage in 
Arabia and Syria was to sacrifice the hair of childhood, 
not In infancy, but on " admission to the religious and 
social status of manhood." See W. R. Smith, R.S. 

AKITU FESTIVAL. The name in Babylonian- 
Assyrian religion of a festival in honour of Marduk 
(q.v.). Originally it was called Zagmuku (q.v-), New 
Year's Day, a festival belonging to anotJier god. Akitu 
seems to have been a general name for festival, which 
in course of time was specially applied to Marduk's 
festival as the festival par excellence. See Morris 
Jastrow, Rel. 

AL^SIAGAE BEDE ET FIMMILENE. The names 
of two goddesses worshipped by some of the Ancient 
Teutons. In 1883 an altar erected by Frisian soldiers 



Alagarswami 



13 



was found at Honsesteads in the north of England. It 
tears two inscriptions, one of which runs : " J^o the god 
Mars Thingsus, and the two Alsesiagce, Bede and Fim- 
mllene." On the sides of the altar is depicted tie 
"figure of a hovering female, with a sword (or staff) 
in the one hand and a wreath in the other " (Chantepie 

*^ ALAlTRfwAxfl.^A deity to whom special veneration 
la paid by the Kalians, a tribe or caste of the Madura 
disuict in Southern India. At the car festival he is 
represented as a long-eared Kalian carrying the boom- 
ing and club, the favourite weapons of tlie caste^ 
AlthSugh the Kalians sacrifice sheep to other dwt^^s JQO 
blood ^crifice is offered to Alagarswami (the Ix^autiful 
god) The essence of their religious behef is said to 
be devil-worship. See E. Thurston. 

ALAGHOM NAOM. A goddess worshipped by the 
Tzental Indians of Mesico as the creator of mind and 
thought. She is called also Iztat Is. ... 

ALALA The name of a deity in Babylonian-Assynan 
religion. Consort of Belili, he is mentioned on a cunei- 
form tablet as one of the ancestors of the well-know_n 
deities The name is found m incantations. He is 
pirhaps to be connected with the bird Alallu. mentioned 
in the Gilgamesh epic (g.r.). , „ ^ , . 

AlIllu. The iame of a bird in the Babylonian 
Gilgamesh Epic iq.v.). Addressing Ishtar (f.''-). ^»- 
gamesh says : " The bright-coloured alallu bird thou 
S love; thou didst crush him and break his pmions 
S the woods he stands and laments, ' O my pmions! 
There was originally perhaps some connection between 
Alallu and Alala (q.v.) who is "•'^ferred to as one of the 
early ancestors of the gods. See Moms Jastrow, Rel. 
ALAMOTH UPON. A phrase occurring in the Old 
Testament (Psalm 46, title, etc.1 as a musical expression 
or direction. It perhaps means " for sopranos,' since 
?he word -Airirndth in Hebrew commonly means 
" maidens." See Encycl. BtU. 

ALASCANS. The Protestant party in the reign oi 
Edward VI.. which was led by the Polish refugee, John 
kI.aseo Laseo was much interested in the theology of 
Zwingli. Before coming to England he was .Superin- 
tendent of the Reformed Churches at Emden in Fnes- 
land Cranmer, who is said to have invited bum to 
England is thought to have been much influenced by 
hU Aews. In London Lasco was made Supenntendent 
of the Foreign Protestants. He worked in the interest 
of Puritanism, being opposed to the pracUee of kneeling 
at the Holy Communion, to the use of the surplice, etc. 

See M. W. Patterson, Hist. ^ 

ALB An ecclesiastical vestment made of white Imen. 
It was worn formerly in the Church of England, and is 
still worn in the Roman Catholic Church. It is a tunic 
witH sleeves, and reached sometimes from head to foot 
Other names for it were •' camisia," " Poderes, and 
" linea " Its use was perhaps suggested by the under- 
garment or tunic worn by Greeks and Romans. A canon 
of the Fourth Council of Carthage (398) refers to its use 
by deacons; the Council of Narbonne (589) to its u^Jaj 
deacons, subdeacons, and lectores. Isidore says (59o) . 
" The poderes is a linen tunic worn by priests, httmg 
closely to the body and coming down to the feet; this 
is commonlv called camisia " (quoted by Tyaek). in 
later times the albs worn by English bishops were some- 
times made of silk and coloured and embroidered. At 
the Reformation the use of the alb was regarded by the 
reformers as savouring of superstition. In lo'l Edmuna 
Grindal (1519?-1!')S3), then Archbishop of York, enjoined 
the churchwardens of his diocese to see that they were 
disused and destroyed. In the First Prayer Book of 
Edward VI. (1549) their use had been preec-nbed; but 



Al-Burak 

in the Second Prayer Book (1552) it was forbidden In 
the Roman Catholic Church the priest still puts it on 
before saving Mass. See G. S. Tyack, Htstorxo Dress 
of the Clergy, 1897; Cath. Diet. , . ^ ^ . , .. 

4X,BANENSES. A medieval sect which derived its 
name from the diocese of Albi in Piedmont. It was a 
subdivision of the Catharl. The Albanenses had 
Manichaean leanings. They recognized two First Causes, 
a God of Light and a Prince of Darkness. Believing 
that God had not destined any creature to destruction, 
they held it sinful to take the life of animals. There 
were different parties in the sect, headed respectively 
by Balazinansa, Bishop of Verona, and John de Lugio, 
Bishop of Bergamo. See J. H. Blunt. 
ALBATI. See WHITE BRETHREN. 
ALBIGENSES. A general name given to sectaries 
who were found in great numbers in the district of 
Provence in Southern France at the beginning of the 
thirteenth centurv. One of the districts of Languedoc, 
\lbigeois, of which Albi was the capital, seems to have 
Kiven th^m their name. They were regarded as a 
Manich*an body and seem to have included adherents 
of the Cathari, the Waldenses, and the Paulicians, 
who had congregated in one district_from various 
ouarters What their doctrines were, and to whit extent 
they were heretical, it is difficult to say, since we have 
for the most part only the statements of their opponents 
to guide us. But in any case they were such as to 
bring them into collision with the Church of Rome; and 
fronT this and the further fact that they were nick- 
named "the good people " we may infer that they were 
opposed to pontifical government and sought to live the 
simple lite of the Apostles. They were condemned by 
Pot^ Calixtus II. in 1119 at Toulouse, and by Pope 
LX^nt II in 1139. In 1209 Simon de Montfort was 
.oSsioned by Pope Innocent III to conduct a crusade 
against them. He was killed at the siege of Tou ouse 
fn ms, but the crusade continued. The war itself 
changed its character, and peace was made in 1229 by 
which Louis IX. of France added to his possessions. 
Sul there was no pea«. for the Albigenses^ ZatlmJn 
handed over to the tender mercies of the Inquisition, 
anfl^ter^ffering cruel torture and Pe-ecution were 
liractically exterminated by A.D. 1244. See J. H. Biuni, 

IlBINOS From the Latin word for "white," a 
desigmition of persons having an irregularity in the 
skfn This irregularity (leucosis) affects the colour of 
the hair (white) and the eyes (the iris appearing re^). 
The phenomenon appears also in animals. S nee any- 
thing mvsterlous, startling, or . uncanny sometimes en- 
genders awe Albinos have received religious veneration 
Imong certain races. Sometimes they bave been mad^ 
DriestI On the other hand, they are sometimes looked 
K with horror and disgust. The Hindus call them 
Knkrelaks a name for loathsome insects. They win 
notafl^w'theVdeeent burial, but cast them into dUches. 
See Edward Westermarck; J. A. Dubois and H. ».. 
Beauchamp, Hindu Mannrrs. etc. 

ALBIORIX. Albiorix. " king of the worid was one 
of the names given by the ancient Celts to the war-god, 

^'If ^.KhtTrI^S'r^n' ^^T^hf Toflow^ ^of Jacob 
AltS'^'fL™ Lutheran who fo-ded ^^^-^^ in 
Pennsylvania. See EVANGELICAL ASSOCIATION. 

AL-BURAK . Literally " the bright one. This is the 
name given to the animal on which Mohammed made 



Alcantara, Knights of 



14 



AUatu 



was Buraq. Then I mounted the animal, and ascended 
until we arrived at the lowest heaven, and Gabriel 
demanded that the door should be opened " (Mishkutu 
'I- Mambih, quoted in T. P. Hughes, Diet, of Islam, 1885). 

ALCANTARA, KNIGHTS OF. An order of knights 
established in Spain in 1177 in opposition to the Moham- 
medans. 

ALCHEMY. Originally the art of transmuting base 
metals into gold and silver by a secret chemical process. 
Alchemy became associated with magic when alchemists 
thought to discover a solvent containing the original 
principle of all matter. This solvent was to prove a 
remedy for all diseases and a means of renewing youth 
and preserving life. A Chinese alchemist of the fourth 
century, Koh Hung, says that grease of jade mi.xed 
with the juice of herbs, will, if drunk, make one live 
a thousand years. " He who swallows gold will exist 
as long as gold." The efBcacy ascribed by the Chinese 
to jade and gold is seen In the fact that they put them 
in the mouth of the dead to jirotect the body against 
putrefaction (see J. J. M. de Groot, R.S.C). Some of 
the Hindus, again, have believed that they could attain 
" salvation during life " or present immortality by 
swallowing elixirs compounded of mercury and mica, 
the one being supposed to contain the essence of Siva, 
the other the essence of his wife Gauri. The elixir, it 
was thought, repairs and rejuvenates the decaying par- 
ticles of the body (see Monler-Williams). Alchemy was 
introduced into Egypt, and flourished there, in the 
Hellenistic period. The solvent of the alchemists was 
known in England as the " philosopher's stone," and 
those who possessed the secret were called " adepts." 
The adepts were taught the doctrines in mystical and 
symbolical language. In the Middle Ages the monks 
occupied themselves with alchemy. 

ALCORAN. See KORAN. 

ALDOBRANDINI, THE. The name of a Florentine 
family to which Pope Clement VIII. (1592) and other 
ecclesiastical dignitaries belonged. 

ALEXANDRIAN CANON. The Bible of Greek-speaking 
Jews, the Septuagint (q.v.), includes, in addition to 
our canonical books of the Old Testament, the books 
commonly known to us as the Apocrypha. It has been 
customary therefore to speak of an Alexandrian Canon 
in distinction from the Palestinian Canon. This, as C. 
H. Cornill points out (Intr.), is hardly correct. " In 
strict correctness an Alexandrian ' Canon ' should not 
be spoken of at all; for neither the number of the books 
admited nor their order is in agreement in the Greek 
Bible MSS. It is clear that the Greeks have allowed 
themselves to be guided simply by the principle of 
oLKoiofir) (' edification ') : all writings of a religious 
character which they found edifying they read and held 
in high esteem. But such a proceeding would have been 
quite inconceivable if at the time of the birth of Christ 
there already existed in Palestine an official canon, and 
if the books had already at that time been separated 
into such as defile the hands [i.e., are canonical!, and 
such as do not." See further CANON, OLD TESTA- 
MENT. 

ALEXANDRIAN CODEX. The Codex Aloxandrinus 
(designated by the letter A) is a Greek manuscript 
translation of the Bible, belonging probably to the last 
half of the fifth century. It was so called from having 
been presented in 1098 to the patriarch of Alexandria. 
It was believed in Egypt to have been written by Saint 
Thecla : and a note in Arabic in the first of the four 
volumes says that she wTote it. But such traditions are 
not uncommon. Writing in 1907 Dr. Gregory says : 
" It is not a year since I visited a women's monastery 
in the East in which the abbess assured me that their 



beautiful manuscript had been written by an ancient 
saintly woman, whereas I found in it the name, and 
I think the date of the man who wrote it." In 1628 
the Codex Alexandrinus was sent to King Charles I. as 
a present. It is now presented in the British Museum. 
The first three volumes contain (with some gaps) the 
Septuagint Version of the Old Testament. The fourth 
volume contains the New Testament. But there are 
missing : Matthew i. to xxv. 6, John vi. 50-viii. 52, and 
II. Corinthians iv. 13-xii. 6. It also contains the genuine 
first Epistle of Clement of Rome and the homily known 
as Second Clement. See C. R. Gregory, Canon; M. R. 
Vincent, Teirt. Crit. of the N.T. 

ALEXANDRIAN SCHOOL. When Alexandria became 
the centre of learning (second period 30 B.C. to A.D. 
640), an effort was made to blend the wisdom or philo- 
sophy of the East and the West. Thus arose the Neo- 
Platonists (q.v.). The movement suggested a new style 
of treating theology, and gave rise to what is known 
as the Alexandrian or Alexandrine School. The chief 
representatives of this School were Clement of Alexan- 
dria and Origen. The Alexandrian School resolved to 
fight the Gnostic here.sy with its own weapons, and 
developed a system of " Christian " Gnosis. See C. 
Bigg, Christian Platonists of Alexandria, 1886; Neo- 
platonism, 1895. 

ALEXANDRIANS, EPISTLE TO THE. A work al- 
luded to in the fragment of Muratori, the Italian 
historian and librarian. The Epistle was forged in 
Paul's name in support of the heresy of Mareion. 

ALEXIANS. The name of a religious fraternity of 
laymen founded on the Lower Rhine in the fifteenth 
century. The name was suggested by that of St. Alexius, 
who devoted himself to a life of poverty in the time of 
Pope Innocent I. (402-417 A.D.). The Alexians devoted 
themselves to the work of tending the sick. They were 
known also as Nollards or Nollbrueder. 

ALFHEIM. Alfheim would seem to have been one of 
the nine worlds in the cosmogony of the Ancient Teutons. 

ALI, SECT OF. A Mohammedan sect. See SHI'AH. 

'ALI-ILAHIS. A sect In Persia having many 
adherents. They regard ' AH, the cousin of Mohammed 
and husband of his daughter, as " neither more nor less 
than an Incarnation or ' Manifestation ' of Grod " (Allah). 
See E. G. Browne, Lit. Hi.it. of Persia, 1906. 

AL-KITAB. Literally " the Book," another name for 
the Qur'an (g.v.). " The book " of course means the 
book par excellence, the sacred book. Another name for 
the Qur'Sn is Al-Furq9n (see FURQAN). 

ALKORAN. See KORAN. 

ALLAH. The Arabic name for God (the God). It is 
cognate with the Hebrew Eloah. 

ALLAH. Allah, the father of the Djinns, was a 
North Arabian deity. He appears sometimes as the 
consort of Allath (q.v.). 

ALLATH. An Arabian goddess, identified with Athena. 
She was adopted by the Syrian Arabs. Her consort was 
Dusares (Dionysus). At Palmyra .she was associated 
with the solar god Malakhbel. Herodotus calls her 
Alilat or Urania. 

ALLATII. The name of a goddess in Babylonian- 
Assyrian religion. Originally a consort of Bel Iq.v.) of 
Nippur, .she was afterwards associated in turn with Nin- 
azu and Nergal (qq.v.). She is the chief goddess of the 
subterranean cave in which the dead dwell, and seems 
sometimes, like Nergal, to have been depicted as a lion. 
As mistress of the underworld, she is regarded sometimes 
as the authoress of evil, though as a personification of 
the " earth " she seems also to have been considered a 
goddess of fertility. The El-Amama tablets seek to 
explain Nergal's position in the world of the dead by 



Allegory 



15 



Altar 



the legend of a conflict between Nergal and Allatu. In 
the end she offers to marry him, and he spares her life. 
The legend seems to have been framed in imitation of 
the Marduk-Tiamat story, Nergal corresponding to Mar- 
duk, and Allatu to Tiamat. See Morris Jastrow, Rel. 

ALLEGORY. A figurative manner of speaking in 
which the words are symbols, and are not to be under- 
stood in their literal meaning. The early Jewish rabbi 
Philo, a contemporary of Jesus, is noted for his 
allegorical interpretation of the Old Testament. Early 
Christian Fathers, such as Clement of Alexandria, Origen. 
Eusebius, Ambrose of Milan, followed his example. The 
ancient Stoics in like manner allegorised the poems of 
Homer, thereby explaining away many objectionable 
features in Greek mythology. The allegory in the 
"Arabian Nights" in which three rings represent the 
Mahommedan, Jewish, and Christian religions, has been 
repeated by Lessing in Sathan the Wise. 

ALLELUIA. The Greek form of the Hebrew HALLE- 
LUJAH. 

ALL-FOOLS' DAT. See APRIL FOOL'S DAT. 

ALL-SAINTS' DAT. A Christian festival now held on 
the 1st of November. It took the place (A.D. 607) in the 
West of a pagan festival " To all the Gods." Among the 
Greeks the festival of all martyrs and saints seems to 
have been ob.'^rved in the fourth century. It was Pope 
Gregory III. who fixed the day (about 731) as the 1st of 
November. Before this it had been the 13th of May. 
See Cath. Diet. 

ALL SAINTS' SISTERHOOD. MARGARET STREET. 
A Church of England Sisterhood founded in 1851. The 
Sisters, whose headquarters are now All Saints' Con- 
vent, Colney Chapel, St. Albans, work as Hospital Nurses 
and District Visitors. They al.so work ecclesiastical 
embroidery and bake wafers for the Holy Eucharist. See 
Walter Walsh, " Sisterhoods, Ritualistic," in the Prot. 
Diet. 

ALL SOULS DAT. Also called " Festa Animarum," 
" Animarum Commemoratlo," " Omnium Fidelium Com- 
memoratio." November the 2nd is observed as a day of 
commemoration of all the dead. Odilon, Abbot of 
Clugny, inaugurated the custom in A.D. 998. 

ALMANACS. Registers of the days, weeks, months of 
the year, etc. The Hindu Almanac (panchangam) is 
compiled by learned priests (purohitas) Every priest 
must possess a copy, because it supplies information about 
auspicious and inauspicious days, propitious hours, lucky 
and unlucky constellations, etc. By studying it, he can 
give advice on the most varied matters. In China 
almanacs circulate freely. Here also they supply in- 
formation as to favourable or unfavourable days. One 
of these popular almanacs gives details concerning 
" things to be avoided with regard to coffining." If the 
almanac does not suffice, a " day-professor " is consulted. 
See J. J. M. de Groot, R.S.O. 

ALMEH. A name for certain singing girls in Egypt 
who attended festivals. 

ALMOHADES. Originally the name of an Arabian 
religious sect founded in 1146 in the Atlas mountains by 
' Abd al-Mu'min. a pupil of Abfl ' Abdallah Muhammad 
Ibn Tflmart. The sect became militant and superseded 
that of the Almoravides (9.1;.). 

ALMONER. An ecclesiastical official attached to a 
royal court or a noble mansion with the duty of dis- 
tributing alms. Before the French Revolution (17S9) the 
Grand Almoner (Grand AiimOnier) in France, who was 
usually a cardinal, was a very important dignitary. In 
England, there is a Lord High Almoner, an Anglican 
bishop or dean, who distributes the royal bounty. The 
Hereditary Grand Almoner is now hardly more than a 



name. In France the name Almoner is given to any 
kind of Chaplain. 

ALMORAVIDES. Originally the name of an Arabian 
religious sect founded about the middle of the eleventh 
century by Abdallah-ben-Tasin. The sect became 
militant and gave its name to a dynasty which ruled in 
the eleventh and twelfth centuries in AJfrica and Spain. 
The prefix Al- is the Arabic definite article. Con- 
sequently, the name often appears as Moravids. See 
Chambers' Encycl. 

ALMS. Relief given to the poor out of compassion. 
There seems to be a connection between sacrifice and the 
giving of alms. The deity enjoys only the spiritual part 
of the food offered ; the poor receive often tbe substance. 
Sacrificial food is distributed among the poor. The 
goddess Artemis (q.v.), the god Mazda (Yasna, xxxiv., 
5) benefited them in this way. The pcoT of ancient 
Arabia partook of meal-offerings made to the god 
UqaiQir. Sometimes the almsgiving itself is a form of 
sacrifice. In the sacred books of India sacrifice and 
almsgiving are often mentioned. In the Egyptian " Book 
of the Dead " (g.v.), in the Zoroastrian prayer Ahuna- 
Vairya (q.v.), in the Koran, almsgiving occupies an 
equally important place as a part of religion. It is well 
known that the Jews associated almsgiving and sacrifice. 
"He that giveth alms sacrificeth praise" we are told 
(Ecclesiasticus, xxxv., 2). In the Mishnah it is said : 
" Through alms a man jmrtakes of eternal life " (Rosh 
hash-shanuh 3): and : " As sin-offering makes atonement 
for Israel, so alms for the Gentiles " (Baba Bathra 10b). 
In the Jewish synagogues and at the services of the early 
Christian Church alms were regularly collected. It has 
been .said, too, that whereas in heathen guilds or clubs 
"charity was an accident, in Christian associations it 
was of the essence " (E. Hatch, Organisation of the Earlv 
Christian Church, 1881). Almsgiving is also closely con- 
nected with fasting. In Brahmanism sacrifice, fasting, 
and the giving of gifts are often spoken of together. In 
Mohammedanism almsgiving is enjoined after a fast, and 
in some cases (e.g., of old people) it is a substitute for 
fasting. The Christian Fathers (e.g.. Augustine) say 
that what is saved by fasting should be given to the poor. 
See E. Westermarck; Encycl. Bibl. 

ALOGI. A name used by Epiphanius and Augustine to 
describe those who did not accept St. John's doctrine of 
the Logos and who denied the authority of St. John's 
writings. The Montanist prophets based their claims 
on these writings. The Alogi, called into existence in 
Asia in the second century to combat Montanism, attacked 
the enemy by denouncing their sacred books. They 
rejected all the Johannine writings without distinction, 
ascribing the authorship to Cerinthus. See Ix>uis 
Duchesne, Hist. 

ALPHA AND OMEGA. The first and the last letter 
of the Greek alphabet. The expression is used in the 
New Testament to denote the eternity of .Tesus. " I am 
the Alpha and the Omega, said the Lord God, which is 
and which was and which is to come, the Almighty " 
(Revelation, i.. 8: cp. vs. 11 and xxi. fi. xxii. 13). 

ALTAR. The I.,atin word is altare from altus " high." 
The Hebrew word mizbeah means " a place of slaughter 
or sacrifice." It is represented closely by the Greek word 
thusiasterion. Sometimes, however, the word bomos is 
given as the equivalent, which means literally " any 
raised place." This is the more primitive meaning of an 
altar. The altar was a place set apart for a holy pur- 
pose, that of sacrifice. As such it was natural to 
separate it from the ordinary soil on which men trod. 
This was done by raising it. Originally it was enough 
to pile up some of the earth, and earth altars were still 
in use among the Hetorews (Exodus xx., 24-26), Car- 



Al-Taschith 



16 



Ambarvalia 



thaginians, Romans, Greeks, and others. Afterwards a 
stone (ep. Judges vi., 11 ff.) or a heap of stones was used : 
and then a kind of table. When a stone has been con- 
secrated to this use, it becomes holy, because the god is 
supjx>sed to enter into it and make it his dwelling. The 
Old Testament contains many references to altars, those 
of later date relating to altars of rather elaborate con- 
struction (cp. I Kings ix., 25; II Chronicles iv., 1). The 
earlier Babylonian altar was of sun-dried brick. Stone 
was used later, and in Assyria altars of limestone and 
alabaster were common. At Nippur an altar twelve feet 
long and six wide was found. The height appears to 
have been from two to three feet. Like Hebrew and 
Phoenician altars, Assyrian altars had at the corners of 
the rim some kind of decoration resembling horns. The 
table rested on a solid piece of stone or on a tripod. 
When the Hebrews fled to the altar as a place of refuge, 
they caught hold of its horns (I Kings i. 50, ii. 28; cp. 
I Maccabees x. 43, Cicero, De Natnra Deoruin iii. 10). 
Besides the altars in temples and other sacred places, it 
has been the custom to have small household altars. 
Thus the Greeks and Romans had them in the courts of 
their houses. The Chinese may be said to have two 
kinds of domestic altar. In the house is an altar for 
sacrifice to the tutelar deities. While the coffin of a 
deceased relative is still in the house, the mourners offer 
the soul every evening burning candles and incense-sticks. 
Besides this, at a Chinese burial a table is placed in front 
of the soul-tablet and the coffin, and on it is set a sacri- 
ficial meal for the soul of the dead person. On it are 
placed also a censer or incense-sticks and candles. The 
" grave table " is •• a square slab of granite, either placed 
on the ground, or upon a massive table-shaped pile of 
masonry; sometimes it is entirely of granite, and carved 
in front with characters or emblematic figures " (De 
Groot). At the left-hand side of the coffin is a small altar 
for sacrifices to the god of earth. This altar "consists 
of a rectangular slab of granite, seldom higher than one 
or two feet, fixed perpendicularly in the ground." The 
front of the slab bears such inscriptions as : " Ruler of 
the Earth," " God or Spirit of the Earth," " Active 
Animus of the Ground," " Spirit of the Felicitating 
Agencies." In the Christian Churches for some centuries 
the altars were usually of wood. In the fifth century 
altars of stone became common. This seems to have been 
suggested by the use of the tombs of martyrs in the 
Catacombs as substitutes for altars, the marble slab 
serving as a table. Stone altars were ordered in England 
in 705 by Egbert (d. 7G0>. Archbishop of York. They had 
already been ordered in France in 509. On Novemt>er 
12, 1550, as a result of an Order in Council, it was com- 
manded to " pluck down the altars." Matthew Parker 
(1504-1575), Archbishop of Canterbury, and Edmund 
Grindal (15197-1583) were anxious to assure themselves 
that this order had been carried out. In 1857 it was 
decided that a stone altar may not be erected in churches. 
In the Church of Rome the altar " must consist of stone, 
or at least must contain an altar-stone large enough to 
hold the Host and the greater part of the chalice; and 
this altar, or the altar-stone, must have been consecrated 
by a bishop, or by an abbot who has received the requisite 
faculties from the Holy See " (Addis and Arnold). 
William Laud (1573-1045), Archbishop of Canterbury, gave 
offence to the Puritans by ordering the communion table 
or altar to be moved from the body of the church to the 
east end and to be placed altar-wise (see M. W. Patter- 
son. Hist.; W. L. Mackintosh, Life o/ William Laud. 
1907). See W. R. Smith, R.S., 1894; Morris .lastrow, 
Rel. of Babylonia and Assiiria, 1898; J. .T. M. de Groot, 
R.S.C.. 1892, etc.; Encycl. BiU.; Prat. Diet.; Cath. Diet. 
AL-TASCHITH Or Al-Tashheth. A phrase occurring 



in the Old Testament (Psalm 75, 1 etc.) as a musical 
expression or direction. It seems to designate the tune 
(" Destroy not ") to which a psalm is to be sting. 

ALTRUISM. The word means literally " of or to 
others." It was first used by Auguste Oomte (1798-1857) 
and his followers as a designation of unselfishness and 
interest in others as distinguished from selfishness and 
egoism. 

ALUMBRADOS. A sect of Spanish mystics founded 
about 1520, and suppressed by the Inquisition. The 
Illuminati of a later date in Germany held similar 
principles. 

ALVISS. A figure in Teutonic mythology. Alviss is a 
wise dwarf who presents himself before Thor (g.v.) and 
asks for his daughter in marriage. He is detained until 
the dawn of day which proves fatal to him. See Chante- 
pie de La Saussaye, Rel. of the Teutons, 1902. 

AMADHLOZI. A name given by the Zulus to their 
ancestral spirits who revisit them in the form of snakes. 
They may be distinguished from ordinary snakes by their 
frequenting huts, by their not eating mice, and by their 
not being afraid of people. " Common folk become harm- 
less .snakes with green and white bellies and very small 
heads; but kings become boa-constrictors or the large and 
deadly black Mamba " (Frazer). See J. G. Frazer, O.B. 

AMAETHON. One of the deities worshipped by the 
ancient Celts. The name appears in late Welsh legend. 
Amaethon was the patron god of farmers. 

AMALRICIANS. The followers of Amalric of Bena or 
Amaury of Ben6, a Paris theologian at the end of the 
twelfth century, who taught Pantheism and held, 
amongst other things, that in Abraham was incarnate 
the Father, in the Blessed Virgin the Son, and in our- 
.selves the Holy Ghost. His teaching was condemned by 
the University of Paris in A.D. 1204, by Pope Innocent 
III. in A.D. 1207, and by the Fourth Lateran (Council in 
A.D. 1215. Amalric died in 1209. Several of his 
followers were burned as heretics. 

AMARAPURA. The name of a sect (monks) in Singha- 
lese Buddhism. The Amarapura Society arose at the 
beginning of the nineteenth century in opposition to the 
Siamese Society. The latter admitted only one special 
caste to the monkhood. The Amarapura Society gave 
entrance to three more. See H. Hackmann. 

AMATERASU. One of the deities of the ancient 
religion of Japan known as Shintoism (q.v.). Amaterasu, 
the sun-goddess, is supposed to have been born from the 
left eye of Izanagi, the Creator. From her was 
descended Jimmu Tenno, the first human ruler of Japan, 
according to the Japanese, who ascended the throne on 
the seventh of April, 660 B.C. She is really a personifi- 
cation of the sun, which is symbolized by the mirror 
which figures as one of the chief emblems of Shintoism. 
Her shrine in Ise to which pilgrimages are made is called 
the Mecca of Japan. See G. A. Coblx)ld, Religion in 
Japan, 1894; D. Goh and Isabella Bishop, " Shintoism," 
in R.S.W. 

AMATONGO. The term is used of the spirits of their 
ancestors by the Zulus. The "amatongo," particularly 
the heads of families, are worshipped. See ANCESTOR 
WORSHIP. The " amatongo " or ancestral spirits some- 
times take possession of persons. Those who are thus 
possessed are stricken with a kind of disease (hysteria, 
convulsions). In some cases disease-possession becomes 
oracle-possession, and the possessed become professional 
diviners. See Tylor li., 131 f. 

AMBAGARHIA DEO. A Hindu deity, worshipped in 
Bhand.^ra by the Koshtis, the Maratha and Telugu caste 
of weavers of silk and fine cotton cloth in India. The 
original was one Kadu, headman of a village. 

AMBARVALIA. A Roman festival during which 



Ambisagnis 

prayer was made to the deities of agriculture tliat the 
fields (ana) might be fertile and the harvest abundant. 
It was kept on the 29th of May. There was a solemn 
procession round the fields, in which the country people 
took part; and a hog, a ram, and a bull were sacrificed. 

AMBISAGRUS. Ambisagrus, " the persistent," was 
one of the names given by the ancient Celts to a god 
who corresponded to the Roman Jupiter. 

AMBO. Perhaps from the Greek anaheinein " to 
ascend," a platform in early Christian churches used as 
a pulpit. St. Chrysostom is said to have preached from 
an " Ambo." It stood in the nave of the church, and 
was used especially as a reading-desk. The Ambo is to 
be seen in churches in Rome. The earliest example is 
in the church of San Clemente. and belongs to about 
A.D. UIO. The Ambo was used for other purposes. 
"All church notices were read from it; here edicts and 
excommunications were given out ; hither came heretics 
to make their recantation" (Addis and Arnold). See J. 
H. Parker, Gloss., 18S8; Cath. Diet. 

AMBROSIA. A term derived from the Greek word 
ambrOtos, " immortal." It is a name for the food of the 
gods in Greek Mythology. Human beings who were 
favourites of the gods were sometimes allowed to partake 
of it, and were supposed thereby to attain immortal youth 
and beauty. It was also a fragrant salve used by 
goddesses, "and even by .lupiter. The drink of the gods 
was called nectar. In Hindu mythology the special 
beverage of the gods is called amrita. 

AMBROSIAN CHANT. A hymu -so called (Ambro- 
sianum), because it was supposed to have been composed 
by St. Ambrose. It is now commonly known as the " Te 
Deum laudamus." It was used in the fourth century by 
the Church in Milan. 

AMBROSIAN LITURGY. Also called " Ambrosian 
Office." or " Ambrosian Missal." One of the most ancient 
liturgies, associated with the name of St. Ambrose, 
Bishop of Milan, because he adopted and adapted it. 

AMBROSIAXS. The followers of one Ambrose, a 
French Anabaptist. He claimed (c. A.D. 1559) to have 
received a divine revelation superior to that of Holy 
Scripture. His followers called themselves also 
Spirituals or " Pneumatiques." 

AMELUNGEN SAGA. A Gothic heroic saga, a glorifi- 
cation of fidelity. 

AMEN. A Hebrew word meaning literally " Yea," 
" Truly," or " Verily." Used first in ordinary speech, it 
was at an early date introduced into liturgies (see, e.g., 
in the Old Testament, I. Chronicles xvi., 3<) = Ps. cvi., 48). 
The Jews in their synagogues pronounce it at the close 
of the parting benediction. The early Christians said it 
at the close of the prayer offered by the presbyter (I. 
Corinthians xiv., Ifi). 

AMEN CORNER. This spot in London is so called on 
account of a proces.sion of clergymen to St. Paul's 
Cathedral which used to take place annually on Corpus 
Christi Day. In the street called Pater-noster Row they 
chanted the " Pater-noster," and at the spot called Amen 
Comer said the " Amen." Ave Maria Lane com- 
memorates the saying of the " Ave Maria," and Creed 
liane the chanting of the " Credo." 

AMENT. An Egyptian .deity. She was a goddess of 
Thebes, though not one of the original deities. She is 
represented with the head of a sheep. See Alfred Wiede- 
mann. 

AMENTI. The region of the departed in the old 
Egyptian religion, the west-land, the underworld, in its 
Greek form written Amenthes. See Alfred Wiedemann. 

AMERET.^D. Literally " immortality." One of the 
seven Ameshaspentas (g.r.), or celestial councillors, in the 
Zoroastrian religion. Ameretad is usually mentioned 



17 Amitabha Sutra 

together with Haurvatad. Together they preside over 
vegetation, and preserve the good creation in its original 
uncorrupted state. See Martin Haug. 

AMERICANISM. A name given by theologians to "an 
attenuated form of Catholicism which was propagated 
mainly in the United States by Father Isaac Hecker of 
the Paulist Order (d. 1S8S). Afterwards Archbishop 
Ireland, of St. Paul, Minnesota, became the accepted high 
priest of the movement. Americanism was introduced 
into Euroix; about 1890. " Its distinguishing doctrine 
was the characteri-stieally American exaltation of good 
works over faith." Archbi.shop Ireland submitted to the 
Pope in 1899, after Leo XIII. had addressed a letter to 
Cardinal Gibbons of Baltimore. See S. Reinach, O. 

AMESHASPENTAS. The designation of the seven 
archangels or celestial councillors in the Zoroastrian 
religion. In an old prayer found in the Yasna haptan- 
haiti we read : " We worship Ahuramazda, the righteous 
master of righteousness. We worship the Amesha- 
spentas, the possessors of good, the givers of good. We 
worship the whole creation of the righteous spirit, both 
the spiritual and earthly, all that supports (raises) the 
welfare of the good creation, and the spread of the good 
Mazda vasnian religion." Elsewhere they are described 
as " the immortal benefactors." They are now called 
Amshaspends. See Martin Haug. 

AMIATA MANUSCRIPT. A manuscript of the Vul- 
gate, named after Amiata, Codex Amiatinus. It was 
written bv order of Ceolfrid (d. 71i>), abbot of Yarrow, 
shortly before A.D. 716, and is now presen-ed at Florence. 
The manuscript contains many Anglo-Saxon and Irish 
readings. See C. R. Gregory. 

AMICE. An ecclesiastical vestment. The word 
(amictus) means "a wrap." It was also called "ana- 
boladium " or " anabolagium " from the Greek anabal- 
lein; and " humerale " or " superhumerale," because it 
partly covered the shoulders. In an ancient missal at 
Narbonne it is referred to as galea or a helmet. In the 
Roman Catholic Church it is now " a piece of fine linen, 
oblong in shape, which the priest who is to say Mass 
rests for a moment on his head and then spreads on his 
shoulder," and is caUed the " helmet of salvation " 
(Addis and Arnold). The vestment is referred to fre- 
quently after the beginning of the ninth century. 
Originally it seems to have been a head-covering. This 
accounts "for the Roman Catholic priest resting it on his 
head for a moment before he puts it on. Franciscan and 
Dominican friars, in fact, still wear it as a covering for 
the head. In course of time it was regarded as a decora- 
tion, and was often richly embroidered. Now. however, 
its only adornment is a cross. The origin of the clerical 
collar has been found in the Amice. It became " first a 
white collar with a necktie, and then the clerical collar 
as now usually worn, or the band or strip of linen 
stretched over a black stock " (Tyack). See G. S. Tyack, 
Historic Dress of the Ckrgy. 1897; Cath. Diet. 

AMIDA. In Japanese Buddhism an abridged form of 
Amitabha (q.v.). the name of one of the celestial 
Buddhas. See H. Hackmann. 

AMITABHA. In Laniaism the chief figure among the 
five celestial prototypes of the historical Buddhas. The 
different heavens of the Buddhist system are here 
commonly represented as the " Paradise of Amitabha. 
There is wonderful virtue and efficacy in the repetition 
of the name of Amitabha. The priests repeat it 
thousands of times to save the soul of a dead person. 
See H. Haekman; J. J. M. de Groot. R.S.C. 

AMIT.^BHA SCTRA. A sacred hook among the 
Chinese Buddhists, the chief authority for the Chinese 
doctrine of the Western Paradise. See J. J. M. de 
Groot, R.S.C. 



'Amm-Anas 



18 



Amulets 



' AMM-ANAS. A South Arabian god for whom whole 
hecatombg of animals are said to have been slaughtered. 
See W. R. Smith, R.S. 

AMMONIAN SECTIONS. The name usually given to 
the sections or divisions into which Eusebius divided the 
te.xt of each of the four Gospels for the purpose of con- 
structing a Harmony of the Gospels. Cp. CANONS OF 
EUSEP.ITTS. and .see HARMONIES OF THE GOSPELS. 

AMMONIANS. The followers of Ammonius Saccas, 
who founded a school of Neo-Platonism (g.v.) in the 
second century. 

AMON. One of the principal Egyptian deities. Also 
called Amon Ra, he became prominent from the time of 
the eleventh dynasty as the deity of Thel)es, where a 
magnificent temple was built for him. With him are 
associated the goddess Mut ("mother," a symbol of the 
.iky) and the lunar deity KTions. As Amon represents 
the productive power of generation, he is sometimes re- 
referred to as the husband of his mother. He is 
frequently depicted as a man with a sceptre in his hands 
and two high feathers, ro.val emblems, on his head. 
Sometimes, however, since the ram was sacred to him, he 
is represented as a ram with great curving horns. Hymns 
to and decrees of Amon have come down to us. See 
Naville, The Old Egyptian Faith. 1909. 

AMORAIM. A Rabbinic term. When the Jewish 
legal system was committed to writing a body of learned 
men were required to expound it. These were called 
Amoraim, the word being derived from the common 
Hebrew root amar, " to spealv." The I-aw had to be 
interpreted in the vernacular siieech. In doing this, a 
duly qualified expounder might lay down new principles. 
These new principles, or additions to the Mishnah, were 
embodied in a collection of writings called the Tosefta. 
There was a Palestinian and a Babylonian School 
of Amoraim. See J. W. Etheridge, Intr. to Heb. Lit., 
185fi. 

AMOS, BOOK OF. One of the Minor Prophets of the 
Old Testament. Amos was a shepherd of Tekoa near 
Jerusalem, and preached about SOO B.C., extolling the 
practice of justice and condemning the superficial piety 
which thinks to please God by making frequent offerings. 
The book seems to have been edited and interpolated. 
See Encycl. Bibl. 

AMOSITES. A small sect, an off-shoot of the 
Bohemian Brethren, followers of a farmer named Amos. 
In 1.50S they sent word to the King and informed against 
the Brethren, saying that they were about to use the 
sword in defence of their cause. The King summoned a 
Diet, which issued on St. James's Day (July 2.5) the Edict 
of St. James which prohibited meetings of the Brethren 
and ordered their boolvs to be burned. See .1. E. Hulton, 
History of the Moravian Church, 1909. 

AMPHICTYONIC LEAGUE. A union of twelve popu- 
lations of Northern Greece, "which at stated times met 
at the .same sanctuary to keep a festival in common, and 
to transact common business " (Seyffert). The league, 
which was supposed to have been founded by Amphictyon. 
met either at Delphi or near Pylae or Thermopylae, and 
protected the sanctuaries there. Each people sent two 
deputies (" pylagorae ") and two "wardens of holy 
things" (" hieromnemones "). " When violations of the 
sanctuaries or of popular right took place, the assembly 
could inflict fines or even expulsion: and a state that 
would not submit to the punishment had a ' hoiy war' 
declared against it." The league is not heard of after 
the second century A.D. See O. Se.vffert, Diet. 

AMPHIDROMIA. A Greek Fe.stival at which a child 
received its name. The child was first carried round the 
hearth by the nurse, after the friends of the parents had 
washed their hands. 



AMPHITRITB. A goddess of the sea in Greek 
mythology. 

AMRITA. The Indian equivalent of amhrosia, the 
gods' food of immortality. According to the Hindu epics, 
the gods required amrita \t> give them power to overcome 
the demons. A well-known legend relates that, by com- 
mand of Vishnu, this amrita was obtained by churning 
the ocean. The juice called Soma was also the nect.ar 
of the gods. It was " the blood of trees" vitalized by 
the god Soma, for, as Professor Elliot Smith says (Dr., 
1919), in India the amrita was sometimes regarded as 
the sap exuded from the sacred trees of paradise. 
Amrita corresponds to the Persian Haoma, and to the 
mead of the gods in Teutonic mythology. 

AMRITSAR. The sacred town of the Sikhs in India 
and the metropolis of their religion. It was so called, 
according to tradition, from the " Pool of Immortality " 
{Amritsar) which was said to have existed there from a 
remote i)eriod, some of the nectar of immortality 
(Amrita^ having been spilt on the spot. The sacredness 
of the spot, however, is associated by the Sikhs with an 
event which is supposed to have happened in the time of 
Guru Ram-das (A.D. 1574-1.")R1), the fourth Guru of their 
sect. It is said that an angry father married his beauti- 
ful and pious daughter to a cripple. She had to support 
herself and him by begging, and she carried her husband 
on her head in a basket. One day she left the basket 
for a little while near a pool. A lame crow came and 
went into the water, whereupon its lameness was cured. 
Observing this, the cripple followed its example, and he 
too was restored to health. Guru Ram-das therefore 
had a tank excavated, and laid here the foundations of 
the lake-temple, or Golden Temple, of the Sikhs. " To 
form an idea of the unique spectacle presented by this 
sacred locality," says Monier-Williams, "one must 
picture to one's self a large square sheet of water, 
bordered by a marble pavement, in the centre of a 
picturesque Indian town Around the margin of this 
artificial lake are clustered many fine mansions, most of 
them once the property of Sikh chiefs who assembled 
here every year, and spent vast sums on the endowment 
of the central shrine. ... In the centre of the water 
rises the beautiful temple with its gilded dome and 
cupolas, approached by a marble causeway. It is quite 
unlike any other place of worship to be seen throughout 
India, and in structure and appearance may be regarded 
as a kind of compromise between a Hindu temple and a 
Muhammadan mosque. . . ." See J. C. Oman, 
Brahmans ; Monier-Williams, B.B. 

AMSDORPIANS. The followers of Nicolas Amsdorf 
(14S3-1565). Lutheran Bishop of Naumburg. and friend of 
Luther. He was the opponent of George Major of 
Wittenberg in a dispute about the saving efficacy of good 
works (A.D. l.>")2-54), which became known as the 
" Majoristic O)ntroversy." The dispute was settled by 
the " Formula of Concord " (A.D. 1577). 

AMSHASPENDS. See AMESHASPBNTAS. 

AMULETS. Objects supposed to possess magic power, 
and worn by people as a protection against evil. The 
wearing of amulets has been a common practice. The 
Babylonians seem to have used rings, seal cylinders, clay 
figurines, metallic statuettes, inscribed tablets, discs, etc. 
(Morris Jastrow. Rel. Assyria. 1898.) Egyptian mummies 
in the period of the New Kingdom were covered with 
amulets, which took the form of an eye. a heart, a 
sceptre, a crown, a beetle, etc. (Adolf Erman, Hand- 
book.) Mohammedans not only wear such objects as a 
miniature cop.v of the Koran, chapters or verses of the 
Koran written on paper and folded, the Mohammedan 
creed on stone or silver, etc., but they also attach them 



Amyraldists 



19 



Anammeiech 



to houses, animals, etc. (T. P. Hughes.) The Chinese 
place amulets over the grave or in the house of a dead 
person to remove evil influences in the calculation of an 
auspicious day for burial. These consist of small strips 
of yellow paper, on which are inscribed such words as, 
" The virgins of the dark spheres of the nine heavens 
are here present with imperial orders from Heaven to 
subdue unlucky influences." They also hang amulets on 
the walls of houses to purify them after a death, or on 
coffins to counteract bad influences. (J. J. M. de Groot, 
R.S.C.). Hindus value such objects as a jewel, a stone, 
a piece of paper or metal, a leaf inscribed with mystic 
words and formulae, as charms against evils of various 
kinds. Hindu women wear them as a protection against 
sterility. (Sir Monier Monier-Williams, Brahmanism 
and Hinduism (4), 1891.) For the same purpose, Kaffir 
women wear amulets made from the tail-hairs of a heifer 
and supplied by medicine-men, and Moorish women 
of Morocco carry a porcupine's foot. The women of 
Mecca wear a magic girdle, the women of Persia a man- 
drake. In other such cases, the object worn seems to 
be a talisman to bring good luck rather than an amulet 
to ward oft" evil. Thus, negresses in the interior of 
Western Africa have been known to carry small ivory 
figures of the two sexes, and among the Bechuana, 
Basuto, and Agni women dolls have been carried. (E. 
S. Hartland, Perseus, vol. I., 1894.) In England the 
practice of carrying amulets was common in the Middle 
Ages. These were often gems or coins having on them a 
figure of some religious hero or saint. (Brand's Popular 
Antiquities, ed. C. Hazlitt, 1905.) In Southern Germany 
the Alemanni as late as the end of the sixth century used 
herbs and amber as amulets. (P. D. Chantepie de La 
Saussave, Rel. of the Teutons, 1902.) See also 
ABRAXAS STONES, CHARMS; J, M. Wheeler, Foot- 
steps of the Past, 1895; A. C. Haddon, Magic and 
Fetishism, 1906. 

AMYRALDISTS. The followers of Moses Amyraut, a 
French Protestant divine. Professor at Saumur (A.D. 
I(i33-1664). Amyraut was a Calvinist, specially interested 
in the doctrines of Predestination and Grace. He held 
that the salvation of all men is desired by God, but can 
only be attained through faith in Christ, which is by 
God's grace possible for all men. Amyraut's teaching 
led to the formation of a school, especially amongst 
French and Swiss Protestants, of so-called " Hypothetical 
Universalists." 

AN. The name borne by small monasteries or convents 
in Chinese Buddhism. See H. Hackmann. 

ANA. Ana or Anu is mentioned as the name of an 
ancient Celtic godde.ss who was wor.shipped in Ireland. 
She was a goddess of abxindance and prosperity, and is 
described as the mother of the gods. She would seem 
to have corresponded to Danu or D6n (q.v.). See C. 
Squire, Myth. 

ANABAPTISTS. Tlie term is derived from a Greek 
word meaning " to baptise again," and was applied to a 
body of anti-sacerdotali.sts who came into prominence 
early in the sixteenth century. They were so called 
because, amongst other things, they disapproved of infant 
baptism, and required the members of their sect who had 
been baptised only as infants to be rebaptised. The 
movement began to develop under the influence of the 
" prophets of Zwickau," who became active in the year 
1521. These were the followers of Thomas Miinzer 
(14^5-1525), Lutheran preacher at Zwickau in Saxony, 
who had absorbed the teaching of the mystic J. Tauler 
(1300-1361). Leaving Zwickau, Miinzer went to AUstedt, 
and preached there for two years, calling for radical 
reforms in Church and State. He claimed that he had 
received a new revelation, and taught that in the king- 



dom of heaven now to be established on earth, all 
Christians must be equal and all goods be shared in 
common. Princes were summoned to join the new league 
started by Miinzer, In 1524 he had to withdraw to Walds- 
hut, on the borders of Switzerland, from which place as 
a centre the movement spread over the whole of Switzer- 
land. The next year the " Peasant War " broke out, 
and found a supporter in Miinzer. He moved in the same 
year to Miihlhausen, where he re-established his 
theocracy, gathering about him the discontented peasants 
and hiUfolk. The result was a rebellion headed by 
" Miinzer, with the sword of Gideon," The prophet was 
defeated at Frankenhausen on the 15th of May, 1525, and 
on the 30th of May was executed at Miihlhausen. Nine 
years later we find the theocracy re-established at 
MUnster in Westphalia, under the guidance of a Pro- 
testant minister, Bernard Rothmann, and the burghers 
Knipperdolling and Krechting. These had joined John 
Matthieson and were reinforced by John Bockhold, a 
tailor from Leiden, who now became the leader of the 
militant Anabaptists. Gaining ix)ssession of MUnster, 
they allowed Matthieson to proclaim himself a prophet. 
But his reign was short, for in a sortie against Count 
Waldeck, who was besieging the town of which he was 
bishop, he was killed. JBockhold succeeded him (1534), 
and was crowned king of the " New Jerusalem " or " New 
Zion" with the title John of Leyden. Churches were 
then destroyed, and lawlessness prevailed for a year. In 
15.35, however, the city was taken, and its king tortured 
and executed. The principles, however, lived on and 
were propagated in the Netherlands. Even before 
Miinzer's death England seems to have been infected with 
the teaching, for in 1534 a royal proclamation was issued 
against persons holding similar views. In 1.539 the 
opinions of the Anabaptists were condemned in a set of 
Injunctions. But the movement was everywhere chang- 
ing its tone, and losing its revolutionary character, so 
that the followers of Menno Simonis (A.D. 1505-15t;i) in 
Germany, and of the mystic David Joris (ISOl-l.'wC)). of 
Delft, whose " Wunderbuch " (" Book of Miracles ") was 
much studied, can hardly be called Anabaptists. Yet, 
harmless as the new l)ody were compared with their fore- 
runners, they were doomed to suft'er cruel persecution. 
Further details will be found under BAPTISTS. See 
J. H. Blunt; Prot. Diet.; Brockhaus. 

ANADYOMENE. A designation of Aphrodite as the 
goddess " rising out of" the sea. 

ANAHITA. Another form of the name of the goddess 
Anaitis (q.v.), who was worshipped by the ancient 
Persians. She represents the celestial waters. 

ANAITIS. The name of a goddess worshipped in 
Armenia. She was a goddess of fertility, and in her 
temple at Acilisena prostitution was practised even by 
daughters of the noblest families. This was an act of 
religion which did not prevent them from marrying 
afterwards. She seems to be a variant of Tauith and 
Athene (q.v.). Her worship was afterwards displaced 
by that of the Virgin (Mary). Another form of her name 
is Anahita. See J. G. Frazer, Adonis Attis Osiris, 1906; 
J. M. Robertson, P.O. 

ANAMMELBCH. The name, according to a pa.ssage 
in the Old Testament, of a Babylonian deity worshipped 
by the Sepharvites whom the king of Assyria (Sargon) 
placed in the cities of Samaria. We are told (II. Kings 
xvii., 31) that " the Sepharvites burnt their children in 
the fire to Adrammelech and Anammeiech, the gods of 
Sepharvaim." On the reference to human sacrifice see 
ADRAMMELECH. Anammeiech seems to be for Anu- 
malik, " Anu is the decider or prince." There is no 
evidence, however, that Anu (q.v.), the god of Heaven, 



Anant 



20 



Angelic Doctor 



was specially associated with Sippar. The Hebrew text 
is perhaps corrupt. Another suggestion is that Anam- 
melech is a doublet, " a faulty variant of Adrammeleeh." 
See Enciicl. Bibl. 

ANANT. The infinite or eternal, one of the names of 
the Hindu god Vishnu. 

ANANTA. Tlie most powerful of the seven snakes 
worshipped by the Hindus. The earth is supposed to be 
supported on its head. 

ANATHEMA. A word used in the Bible in the sense 
of " something devoted to destruction" (cp. BAN). It 
occurs, for example, in Romans ix. 3, Galatians i. 8, 9, I. 
Corinthian xvi. 22 (Revised Version). " Anathema sit " 
is equivalent to " let him be accursed." The expression 
was used in the early Christian Church, and has been 
retained in the Roman Catholic Church. The Council of 
Elvira (300) anathematized those who placed in the 
cliurch libellous writings. " The Church has used the 
phrase ' anathema sit ' from the earliest times with 
reference to those whom she excludes from her com- 
munion either because of moral offences or because they 
persist in heresy " (Addis and Arnold). 

ANATHEMA MARANATHA. An expression occurring 
in a passage in the New Testament (I. Corinthians xvi., 
22). The Authorised Version translates : " If any man 
love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be Anathema 
Maranatha." The Revised Version rightly places a stop 
after Anathema, and renders " let him be anathema . 
Maran atha." It explains Maran atha in the margin as 
meaning " Our Lord cometh." " Let him be anathema " 
means " let him be accursed " (see ANATHEMA). A 
better division of Maranatha, which is made up of two 
Aramaic words, is perhaps Marana/tha, " Our Lord, 
come! " This seems to have been an exclamation in use 
in the early Church. 

ANCESTOR-WORSHIP. Though a person may be 
dead, his spirit, it has been widely held, is still active. 
And since the spirits of the dead may be harmful or 
helpful. It is important to make sure of their friendship, 
and if necessary to propitiate them by offerings, etc. 
Moreover, a proper treatment of ancestral spirits is a 
filial duty to one who still protects his family. In China, 
for instance, ancestor-worship plays a dominating rOle 
in religion. Ancestors are worshipped even in their life- 
time. On their death, when they are regarded as pro- 
tectors of their family or tutelary deities, there is 
naturally no abatement in this worship. The soul of an 
ancestor, which still lives in the grave or in ancestral 
tablet.8. has to be propitiated. The Hindu seeks happiness 
in a similar way: he is careful to make offerings to the 
fathers ("pitaras"). The Romans worshipped their 
ancestors as household patrons. The worship of ancestors 
was common among the ancient Teutons. The Swedes 
are said also to have worshipped men. King Ericus. for 
instance, was made one of the company of the gods. 
The worship of ancestors has been found also in North 
and South America, in Tanna, Tasmania, Tonga, New 
Zealand, the Malay Islands, Africa. Ceylon, Japan, etc. 
When a Zulu .sneezes, he believes the sneezing is caused 
by the presence of the ancestral spirit. Sneezing is a 
good and healthy sign. He therefore praises the spirit, 
and asks various blessings. Some of the dark-skinned 
races, when white men have visited them, have thought 
that they were their own deceased kindred come back 
to them in a new form. The Divine Ancestor or First 
Man is naturally regarded as chief of the other ancestors, 
and so as a superior deity. He is then either closely 
connected with the Creator, as in the mythology of Kam- 
chatka, or identified with him, as among the Zulus. 
though here his remoteness has lost him the respect of 
the wor.shippers. The Hindu Yama appears as First 



Man, solar God of Hades, and Judge of the Dead. See 
E. B. Tylor, P.V.; J. J. M. de Groot, R.8.C:; P. D. 
Chantepie de La .Saussaye, Rel. of the Teutons, 1902; 
Monier-Williams, Brahmanism, 1891. 

ANCESTRAL TABLETS. In China the Buddhists 
have adopted Chinese ancestor-worship. There is a 
special room in the monasteries containing tablets to the 
souls of cremated members of the communities. Offerings 
are made to the deceased persons on special days, and 
the sacred writings are read in front of the ancestral 
tablets. See H. Hackmann. 

ANCHORITES. A class of HERMITS. 

ANCIENT OP THE MOUNTAINS, THE. A .supposed 
designation of the Chief of the ASSASSINS (7.1'.), a 
Persian secret sect re-organised by Hasan-i-Sabbi5h (d. 
A.D. 1123-24). He is also referred to as the' " Old' Man 
of the Mountain." The real meaning of the popular 
Persian expression is " the Mountain Chief." See E. G. 
Browne, Literary Hist, of Persia, 1906. 

ANCIENT LITURGY OF THE CHURCH OP JERU- 
SALEM. A Liturgy prepared by Thomas Rattray (lfi84- 
1743), nonjuring bishop of Dunkeld in Scotland. It is 
described as "The Ancient Liturgy of the Church of 
Jerusalem, being the Liturgy of St. James," restored to 
its original purity, with the Clementine Liturgy, and 
parts of the Liturgies of St. Mark, St. Chrysostom, and 
St. Basil, exhibited in parallel columns. It was published 
in 1744. See Peter Hall: and the D.N.B. 

ANCIENT MERCHANTS' LECTURE. A theological 
lectureship founded in 1(172. The lectures are delivered 
from October to May at the Memorial Hall. Farringdon- 
street, London. The object of the foundation is " to 
uphold the doctrines of the Reformation against the 
errors of Popery, Socinianism, and Infidelity " (Oongre- 
gational Year Book). The lectures were founded by a 
wealthy Ixvndon tradesman, and the lecturers were to be 
"the most eminent of the Dissenting ministers of the 
metropolis " (H. S. Skeats and C. S. Miall, Hist.). 

ANCYRA, SEVEN MARTYRS OF. The Seven 
Martyrs of Ancyra were, according to the tradition, seven 
Christian virgins of great piety who suffered in Diocle- 
tian's persecution of 304 A.D, They were each about 
seventy years old. Commanded to act as priestesses of 
Diana and Minerva and to wash their statues, they 
refused. Thereupon they were taken naked to a lake 
and drowned in it, heavy stones being tied round their 
necks. Their " Acts " are supposed to have been written 
by an eye-witness named Nilus. See Wace and Plercy. 

ANDRIAMANITRA. A name given by the Malagasy 
to a power which is supernatural, supernormal, or awe- 
inspiring. 

ANELING. Another name for Extreme Unction (q.v.). 

ANGELIACAE. The name of an order of nuns (also 
" Angelieals"), founded by Luigia di Torelli, Countess 
of GuastAlIa, at Milan, about A.D. 15,30. They followed 
the rule of St. Augustine. See Oath. Diet. 

ANGELIC BROTHERS. A community of Mystics or 
theosophic Pieti.sts founded by J. G. Gichtel (1038-1710). 
He was banished from Regensburg. his native place, as 
an Anabaptist, and went to Amsterdam in 1008. The 
Giclitelians. as they were akso called, neither married 
nor were given in marriage, and believed they had 
attained the state of angels. There are still adherents 
of the sect in Holland and Germany. Gichtel's letters, 
with a biography, were published in 1722 in seven volumes 
under the title " Theosophia Practica." 

ANGELIC DOCTOR. Uitin " Doctor Angelicus." a 
name given to Thomas Aquinas (1227-1274), whom Pope 
Pius V. in 1.507 designated the " Fifth Doctor of the 
Church." He is said to have been so called from the 
part which he took in a controversy as to : " Utrum 



Angelici 



21 



Angelus Bell 



Angelas possit mover! de extreme ad ertremum non 
transeundo per medium." 

ANGELICI. A sect referred to by Epiphanius (Bcrr. 
li.) and Augustine {Hwr. xxxis.). Why they were so 
called is matter of conjecture. The most likely reason 
is, as Augustine suggests, that they were worshippers of 
angels (cp. Colossians ii. 18 and the 35th Canon of the 
Council of Laodic;iea). But it is possible also that they 
were so called either because they believed that the world 
was created by angels, or because they thought that they 
themselves had already attained the state of angels. 

ANGELICI, THE. An order of monks founded by the 
Emperor Angelus Comnenus in 1191. 

ANGELICS. A name taken by an Anabaptist sect in 
Silesia and Bohemia (c. A.D. 1596). 

ANGELITAE. A name taken by the Jacobites or 
Monophysites (Q-v.) of Alexandria, and suggested by the 
name of their first church, which was called the Angellum 
(A.D. 540). 

ANGEL OF DESTRUCTION. Reference is made in 
the Old Testament to a destroying angel or angel of 
destruction (ii. Samuel sxiv., 16; ii. Kings xix., 35). The 
same idea is found elsewhere. Hadrian's castle was re- 
named the Castle of St. Angelo, because when Rome was 
smitten by a plague, the archangel Michael is said to have 
appeared on the castle holding a bloody sword. Slavonic 
folklore also knows of a Pest-maiden who visits countries 
and everywhere turns joy into sadness. More often these 
visitors, though they are believed to be at work, are 
invisible to man. See E. B. Tylor, P.C. 

ANGELS. From a Greek word meaning " mea'tenger." 
The Hebrew word mal'dkh has the same meaning. In 
English the word denotes messengers of God, superhuman 
beings. Angels are mentioned frequently in the Bible 
(Old and New Testament), but the idea of them developed 
gradually. In the earliest portions of the Old Testament, 
though mention is often made of superhuman beings with 
whom Jehovah took counsel, they are very rarely called 
"angels." The expression "angel of Jehovah" is 
common, but this means Jehovah himself in his human 
manifestation. In course of time, however, when it was 
no longer believed that Jehovah himself visited the earth 
in human form, the "angel of Jehovah " came to be re- 
garded as an intermediary between God and men. a 
messenger sent by God to men (cp. Zechariah i. 11 /.). 
In the New Testament we hear of angels visiting men 
and women and bringing them divine messages (Matthew 
i. 20, ii. 13; Luke i. 19; Acts x. 3, 30). With this 
development came the idea of an inner circle of angels. 
Certain special messengers of Jehovah are distinguished 
from the general host of angels as chiefs, and are called 
"archangels" (cp. Daniel x. 13, xii. 1; Tobit xii. 15; 
Enoch xl.; and see I. Thessalonians iv. 16: Jude ix.). 
The number of these is sometimes given as seven. In 
Tobit xii. 15 one of these " chief princes" (Daniel x. 13) 
says : " I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels, which 
present the prayers of the saints, and go in before the 
glory of the Holy One." In Revelation viii. 2 it i.s said : 
" And I saw the seven angels which stand before God; 
and there were given unto them seven trumpets." In 
Enoch (viii. 2) the seven angels " which stand before 
God " are said to be Michael. Gabriel. Raphael. Uriel. 
Chamuel. Jophiel. and Zadkiel. Seven, of course, is a 
.sacred number, and the growth of an angelic hierarchy 
is a natural one. At the same time it is not unlikely 
that later Hebrew ideas of angelology and demonology 
were influenced by Persian ideas. Prof. Cheyne thinks 
that " manifestly this highest class of angels was sug- 
gested by the Zoroastrian Amesha Spentas or Am- 
shaspands (' immortal holy ones '). who (like the coun- 
sellors of the king of Persia, Ezra 7, 14) are seven ; and 



this seems to be confirmed by the reference to the arch- 
angels in the Book of Tobit. which also mentions the 
Zend name of the chief demon" (see AMESHA- 
SPBNTAS; ASMODEUS). The tendency to distinguish 
between beneficent and maleficent angels might also be 
due to outside influence; but, as Prof. G. B. Gray says, 
" the Old Testament nowhere lays stress on the moral 
character of angels, or knows anji:hing of their ' fall ' ; 
consequently, angels were divided, not into good and bad. 
but into those who worked wholly, and tliose who worked 
only partly, in obedience to God " (cp. Romans viii. 38; 
I. d'orinthians xv. 24 /.). The idea of fallen angels first 
becomes prominent in the Apocryphal Book of Enoch (cp. 
xiv. 4-7, XV. 2). In the Gosi>els and in the Epiistles of 
St. Paul, angels begin to lose their importance as inter- 
mediaries of revelation. While Jesus himself is with 
his disciples, he reveals to them the Father; and before 
leaving them he promises to send the Holy Spirit to guide 
and comfort them. St. Paul condemns the worship of 
angels; and it was one of the peculiarities of the Sad- 
ducees that they disbelieved entirely in the existence of 
angels. The exi.stence of what are called " guardian 
angels" has been widely believed in, and the idea has 
been used by poets and painters. God, it is supposed, 
has appointed a special angel to take care of every 
believer. In support of this idea appeal has been made 
to Matthew xviii. 10 and Acts xii. 15. In Alatthew xviii. 
10 it is said : " See tiat ye despise not one of these little 
ones; for I .say unto you that in heaven their angels do 
alwa.vs behold the face of my Father which is in heaven." 
Another passage which is referred to sometimes is Luke 
xv. 10 : " Even so, I say unto you, there is joy in the 
presence of the angels of God over one sinner that 
repenteth." According to the Protestant Dictionary, the 
invocation of angels " detracts from the unique glory of 
our ascended liOrd, who is the alone Mediator between 
God and men; and sends the suppliant to seek other inter- 
cession than His." But there is, of course — ^without 
regarding the matter from the point of view of a High 
Churchman — something to be said on the other side. The 
Roman Catholic Church, we are told for instance. " shows 
to the angels that veneration or inferior honour which 
is their due, and, knowing from Chrisfs words that they 
are acquainted with things which pass on earth, she 
begs their prayers and their kind oflSce.s. It is true that 
St. Paul condemns the Qprja-Kela, or religion of angels, 
in writing to the Colossians (i. 16), but every scholar is 
aware that he is warning them against the Gnostic error 
which regarded angels as the creators of the world ; and 
with equal reason, the same passage might be alleged as 
in condemnation of humility " (Oath. Diet.). See Encyol. 
Bihl.; Prot. Diet.; Oath. Diet. 

ANGELS OF THE SEVEN CHURCHES. An expres- 
sion occurring in the New Testament (Revelation i., 20). 
In Rev. i. 19 /. we read : " Write therefore tie things 
which thou .sawest. and the things which are, and the 
things which .shall come to pass hereafter; the mystery 
of the .seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, 
and the seven golden candlesticks. The seven stars are 
the angels of the seven churches; and the seven candle- 
sticks are seven churches." Angels here might mean 
" mes.sengers " (cp. Matthew xi.. 10; Luke vii.. 24. etc.). 
delegates from the Asiatic Churches sent to Patmos. Or, 
it has been .suggested, the reference might be to pres- 
byteral colleges. It is more likely, however, that 
" angel " is n.sed in its ordinary sense. Either angels 
were thought of as presiding over the Churches, or 
"angel of the Church" meant the prevailing spirit of 
the Church. See H. B. Swete, Apocalypse of St. John 
(2), 1907. 

ANGELUS BELL. A bell which is rung morning, 



Anglican 



22 



Animal Worship 



noon, and night in Roman Catholic communities to 
summon the devout to the recitation of the Angelic Salu- 
tation, which is also called AVE MARIA (g.v.)- 

ANGLICAN. A designation of things and persons 
belonging to the Church of England. It is sometimes 
used particularly of the High Church Party. 

ANGLICAN ORDERS. Roman Catholics have ques- 
tioned the validity of Anglican Orders. " For us 
Catholics," say Addis and Arnold, " the question was 
decided by the Bull Apostolicce Curw (Sept. 13, 1890), 
which declared Anglican orders to be ' absolutely null 
and utterly void,' on the ground of defect of form in the 
rite, and defect of intention in the minister." The Hon. 
James Adderley says : " We are told that our Ordination 
Service is invalid (1) because there is no delivery of the 
Chalice to one who is to be ordained Priest, (2) because 
there are said to be no words to denote that the Priest 
is a Sacrificing Priest, (3) because tiere is no expressed 
'intention ' to malie a Catholic Bishop or Priest." His 
reply to this is (1) that the delivery of the Chalice is a 
custom which VN-as not in vogue until the eleventh century, 
and therefore can hardly be said to be essential, (2) tliat 
there can be no necessity to use the term ' Sacrificing 
Priest," provided that we do really claim to ordain 
Priests, (3) that the intention of our Ordination Service 
is quite sulBciently expressed in the Preface, as follows : 
' It is evident unto all men diligently reading Holy 
Scripture and ancient Authors, that from the Apostles' 
time there have been these Orders of Ministers in Christ's 
Church : Bishops, Priests, and Deacons. Which offices 
were ever more had in such reverent estimation, that no 
man might presume to execute any of them except he 
were first called, tried, examined, and known to have 
such qualities as are requisite for the same; and also by 
public prayer, with imiwsition of hands, were approved 
and admitted thereunto by lawful Authority. And there- 
fore to the intent that these orders may be continued 
and reverently used and' esteemed in the Church of Eng- 
land; no man shall be accounted or taken to be a lawful 
Bishop, Priest, or Deacon in the Church of England, or 
suffered to execute any of the said functions, except he 
be called, tried, examined, and admitted thereunto 
according to the Form hereafter following or hath had 
formerly Episcopal Consecration or Ordination.' " The 
Bull of Pope Leo XIII. was officially answered by the 
Archbishops of Canterbury and York. See Cafh. Diet.; 
James Adderley, The Catholicism of the Church of Eng- 
land, 190S; M. W. Patterson, Hist. 

ANGLO-CALVINISTS. A Romanist designation of the 
Church of England on the ground that its principles and 
formularies are Calvinistie. 

ANGLO-CATHOLIC. A term which has become 
common in recent years as a designation of the Church of 
England. Those who belong to the High Church Party 
like to call themselves Anglo-Catholics. The claim is 
that the Church of England is as much a part or the 
original Catholic Church as the Church of Rome. The 
old Catholic Church existed in Britain before tjie mission 
of St. Augustine. This claim is well supported by 
history. For a ixjpular presentation of the facts, see 
James Adderley, The Catholicism of the Church of Eng- 
land, 1908. 

ANGLO-ISRAELITE THEORY. A theory, held by 
many people in Great Britain and America, that the Eng- 
lish race is descended from one of the " lost tribes of 
Israel." It is said that the Israelites who were trans- 
ported to Media became known as Sacae or Scythians. 
These Sacae afterwards overran Northern Europe and 
became known as the Saxons. The contention has no sup- 
port in science or history. The attempt to show a 
relationship between the English and Hebrew language 



has resulted in endless misrepresentations and 
absurdities. The search for the " lost tribes " )ias, as a 
matter of fact, been carried on in nearly everj' part of 
the world. It has been fruitless as far as the original 
quest is concerned, but has brought to light much 
interesting knowledge. 

ANGRO-MAINYUSH. In Zoroastrian religion, one of 
the two principles or creative spirits (" the hurtful 
spirit ") which originally were thought of as united in 
Ahuramazda. The other spirit was called spentO main- 
yush, " the beneficent spirit." In course of time AngrO- 
mainyush came to be regarded as a separate independent 
being opposed to Ahuramazda. As such he was the 
organiser of the forces of evil. He is described as " the 
deadly, the demon of demons," the "creator of evils." 
It was he who created the darkness of night. Having 
associated with him six councillors, he is himself called 
archdemon. See Martin Haug. 

ANGUS. Angus, one of the sons of Dagda (g.v.), was 
a deity or divine hero revered by the ancient Celts in 
Ireland. He was a god of music and love, and seems 
to have resembled the British goddess of love, Dwynwen 
or Dwyn (g.v.). See Charles Squire, Myth. 

ANGUTTARANIKAYA. One of the Buddhist sacred 
boolis in the second division of the Canon. See CANON, 
BUDDHIST. 

ANIMA MUNDI. Literally " soul of the world." A 
name given by early philosophers to a vital, immaterial, 
non-intelligential force. To Plato the anima mundi was 
an intermediate agency between pure spirit and matter. 
The Stoics spoke of the Deity as the soul of the world. 
" Nothing that is itself destitute of life and reason can 
generate a being possessed of life and reason. But the 
world generates beings possessed of life and reason. 
Therefore, the world is Itself possessed of life and reason" 
(Zeno in Cicero, i)e Nat. Deor. ii. 8). See William L. 
Davidson, The Stoic Creed, 1907. 

ANIMAL MAGNETISM. The modern theory of 
animal magnetism is closely associated with the name of 
Anton Mesmer (MESMERISM), a Viennese physician, 
who came into prominence in 1780. Mesmer performed 
wonderful cures. His use of artificial magnets led him 
in time to believe in a magnetic fluid which, without the 
use of magnets, he could conduct to the bodies of his 
patients by movements of his own hands. " The 
Magnetic i)ower was therefore evidently in man himself. 
It was an animal magnetism in opposition to the mineral 
one which belonged to the magnet and to the stars " 
(Mijnsterberg). See Hugo Miinsterberg, Psychotherapy, 
1909, and cp. HYPNOTISM, etc. 

ANIMAL WORSHIP. Ancient or primitive peoples 
have regarded animals with awe and veneration, and 
attributed to them souls which survive like those of men 
and have power to bring good or evil. They have wor- 
shipped them in fear as possessing such qualities as 
strength and cunning in a high degree, or they have 
venerated them in gratitude as providing food. Thus, 
worship has been paid to whales (by the Kamchadahs), 
bears (ibid.), wolves (ibid.), fish (Tribes of Peru), 
monkeys (ibid.), sparrow-hawks (ibid.), tigers (ibid.), 
alligators (Philippine islanders). When the Aiuos (of 
Yesso) slay a bear, they, as it were, apologise for doing 
so, doing obeisance and making fair speeches. Yet some- 
times an animal when dead is treated with a kind of 
mockery (North American Indians, Ostyaks of Siberia). 
The Yakuts of Siberia wor-ship the bear as their " beloved 
uncle." In many cases deities are .supposed to be 
embodied in animals. The animals therefore are pro- 
pitiated with food and fed on sacrifices. Serpents, for 
instance, have been special objects of veneration (e.g., 
in Phoenicia, Babylonia, Egypt, Greece, Persia, India, 



Animatism 



23 



Anointing 



China, Tibet, Ceylon, etc.)- In other cases animals have 
been worshipped as representatives of tribal ancestors, 
or as totems. Of course, where a transmigration of 
aonls is believed in, the animal may be thought to be a 
reincarnation of an ancestor, and may be worshipped as 
such. The worship of such animals as the bull Apis, 
the bird Ibis, the hawk, the crocodile, etc., by the ancient 
Egyptians is familiar to everyone. The sacred cow is 
stiil worshipped by the Hindus. They worship also the 
monkey (Hanuman), the bull (Basava). the kite (the bird 
Garuda), snakes, fish, etc. (J. A. Dubois and H. K. Beau- 
champ: Monier-WUliams). See E. B. Tylor. P.O.. vol. 
li.; J. M. Wheeler, Footsteps of the Past, 1S9.5: E. Clodd, 
Animism, 1905; F. J. Gould, Concise Hist, of Religion, 
1907. 

ANIMATISM. In reference to Hellenic worship, L. R. 
Famell (G-reek Religion, 1912) thinks that " where we 
find the object worshipr)€d in and for itself as sentient 
and animate, a thunder-stone, moving water, a blazing 
hearth, we should describe the religious consciousness 
as animatism rather than animism, which implies the 
definite conception of souls or spirits." The use of the 
term animatism was suggested originally by R. R. Marett 
(1909) to describe, in distinction from Animism, a simple 
straightforward act of personification. It is an attitude 
which " is not Animism in the strict scientific sense that 
implies the attribution, not merely of personality and 
will, but of ' soul ' or ' .spirit.' " One of the examples 
given is that of the members of a Kaffir village who when 
a thunderstorm approaches, " rush to the nearest village 
and yell at the hurricane to divert it from its course." 

ANIMISM. Originally the explanation of all natural 
phenomena by the theory of an immaterial soul (anima) 
as the principle of life. G. E. Stahl, the German 
physician (lGfiO-1734), even maintained, like .some of our 
modem mental healers, that the state of the body is 
dependent on the state of the mind, that, in fact, disease 
has its origin in the mind or soul. In modem usage the 
term animism is applied by E. B. Tylor and others to 
'• the doctrine of .«»uls and other spiritual beings in 
general." It therefore embraces the conception of the 
soul as an explanation of human and natural phenomena, 
or as a philasophy of religion. Primitive folk, we are 
told, have formed a conception of a world of spirits from 
their observation of dreams, shadows, reflections, echoes, 
and the phenomena associated with nervous disorders. 
Figures and scenes seen in dreams are believed really to 
exist. During sleep, something, the spirit, leaves the 
body to visit familiar or new friends and places, and if 
the sleeper be suddenly awakened, the spirit may not 
return. The spirit is conceived as a kind of shadowy 
breath or vapour. It is not found in man alone. Since 
plants, animals, and even inanimate objects also appear 
in dreams, a spirit is assigned to these as well. See H. 
Spencer, Principles of Sociology; E. B. Tylor, P.C.; E. 
Clodd, Animism, 1905. 

ANIMISTS. The followers of the German physician G. 
E. Stahl. See ANIMISM. 

ANNA KUARI. Anna Kuan or Mahadhanl is a Hindu 
deity, a fertility goddess, worshipped by the Oraons, an 
important Dravidian tribe in India, the members of which 
work as farm servants and labourers. Human sacrifices 
are offered to her. 

ANNA PURNA. An Indian deity, the Cora-giving 
goddess of Madras. She corresponds to Durga or Devi. 

ANNA-PRASANA CEREMONY. A Hindu ceremony 
which takes place as soon as a child is weaned. It is 
preliminary to the change of diet. An auspicious day 
having been chosen, a i)avilion (pandal) is erected and 
decorated with wreaths (toranams) of mango leaves. The 
father, with a cup of akshatas (rice coloured with 



.saffron), then invites his relations and friends to come to 
the feast, which they do, having first bathed. The 
mother, holding the child, sits by the side of her husband 
on a platform of earth in the centre of the pavilion. The 
priest approaches them and performs certain ceremonies 
(sacriflc-e to fire, etc.). After this the women sing verses 
wishing the child happiness, and perform the aratti cere- 
mony (see ARATTI CEREMONY) over him. Next the 
father offers to his household gods, and has part of the 
banquet .set aside for them. The married women, walk- 
ing in procession and singing, bring a new dish of silver- 
plated copper, given by the maternal uncle, a cord of 
cotton thread, worn by Hindus round their loins to 
suspend the small piece of calico which covers their 
private parts. Having touched the child with these two 
articles, they pour a mixture (paramannu) into the dish. 
Then singing again tiey take the dish and place it before 
the household gods. It is then designated the " dish 
god." They carry it back, singing, to the child, and 
fasten the cord round its loins. Three of them then 
I)our some of the mixture down its throat. The aratti 
((/.v.) concludes the ceremony. See J. A. Dubois and H. 
K. Beauchamp. 

ANNAT. A term (also written ANN) used in Scots 
law. An Act passed by the Scottish Parliament in 1672 
provided that on the death of a clergyman, the next half- 
year's stipend should be iMiid to his next-of-kin. This 
sum was called " Annat." 

ANNATES. The income of a spiritual benefice for 
one year (annus), claimed by the Pope as First Fruits. 
At first the tax was levied only on bishoprics, but after- 
wards on abbeys, rectories, etc. They were withheld in 
1.^34 in England, and appropriated by the crown to be 
devoted ostensibly to the Church of England. Queen 
Anne restored them to the Church, and the fund became 
known as Queen Anne's Bounty. 

ANNIHILATION. The theory that the soul ceases to 
exist at death. Even those who believe in its survival 
sometimes think that there are exceptions. The Omahas 
think that a self-murderer is annihilated. The Thompson 
Indians (British Columbia) hold the same belief. It is 
said that some savages disbelieve entirely in the survival 
of the soul, but the ca.ses cited are open to question. 
Some of the wild tribes of India (e.g., the Bengale.se 
Oraons and the Burmese Mishmis), for instance, are said 
to have no idea of a future life, though they believe that 
in the case of some persons a reincarnation takes place 
on earth (see E. W. Hopkins). To the primitive mind, 
the best way to annihilate an individual, or even an 
insect, is to eat him. This is one rea.son for cannibalism. 
To punish the wicked, the supreme deity of the Pawnees 
annihilates them. See B. Westermarek. 

ANNIHILATIONISTS. A designation of those who 
believe that after death the wicked will be entirely 
annihilated. 

ANNUNCIATION. A theological term for the tidings 
brought by the angel Gabriel to Mary when she was about 
to become " mother of the Lord " (see Lk. i.). The 
festival of the Annunciation is observed by the Church 
on the 25th of March. It is first referred to in the acts 
of the Tenth Ouncil of Toledo (fSO) and of the Tmllan 
Council ((192). In England the festival is more commonly 
known as Lady Day (.q.v.). 

ANOINTING. The Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and 
other ancient peoples were accu.stomed to anoint the body 
or parts of it with oil as part of their toilet. Among the 
Hebrews anointing with oil was combined with washing 
or bathing in water (Ruth iii., .3: Esther ii., 12: Ezekiel 
xvi., 9; .Judith x., 3). Olive oil is frequently mentioned 
in this connection (Amos vi., fi: Micah vi., 15: Luke vii., 
46). Even this ordinary anointing has become among 

i 



Anomians 



24 



Antichrist 



some peoples a kind of religious duty. Brahmans anoint 
themselves with oil of sesamum or castor oil from head 
to foot, then rub themselves with herbs and finally bathe 
the body. On grand ceremonial occasions their guests 
are provided with some kind of ointment that they may 
anoint themselves in the same way. Another kind of 
anointing, practised by primitive folk, has a different 
significance. In this case, as in that of swallowing or 
inoculation, the idea is to get certain virtues imparted 
to one. The Australian Blacks used to cut out the caul- 
fat of a slain man and rub themselves with it in the 
belief that they would thus acquire his distinguishing 
qualities. The negroes of Southern Guinea hang up the 
head of a dead man that the drippings of his brain may 
fall on to a lump of chalk, which they afterwards use as 
a kind of ointment for the forehead. The Andaman 
Islanders rub the melted fat of a boar into the body of a 
young man when he is initiated into manhood. The Arabs 
of Eastern Africa anoint themselves with lion's fat, and 
the Central Australian tribes use the fat of the kangaroo, 
their totem. Such customs seem to throw light on the 
practice (e.g. among the Hebrews) of anointing kings, 
priests, and prophets with oil. By this action (now 
become symbolical) it was supposed that the good 
qualities of their predecessors were imparted to ttiem. 
Another practice has been to anoint sacred pillars or 
stones with oil. This seems to have been a form of 
sacrifice, the oil being a substitute for the fat of an 
animal. The practice among the Arabs of smearing 
pillars with fat seems to prove this (see Robertson 
Smith). This kind of anointing was not confined to 
Hebrews (Genesis xxvili., 18) and Arabs. The image of 
Aphrodite was a white cone or pyramid. A cone was 
also in certain places the emblem of Artemis and Astarte. 
This cone was anointed with olive oil at a special festival. 
In the sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi, too, a sacred stone 
was anointed. Another idea Is at work in anointing 
when it is practised in sympathetic magic. In Suffolk 
when a man cuts himself with a scythe, he " oils it to 
prevent the wound from festering." He does the same 
with a thorn which has run into his hand. In the Harz 
mountains people say that " if you cut yourself, you 
ought to smear the knife or the scissors with fat and put 
the in.strument away in a dry place in the name of the 
Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. As the knife 
dries, the wound heals." Among the aborigines of 
Central Australia, when a boy has been circumcised, his 
mother rubs grease all over her body every day until the 
wound is healed. Cp., further, CHRISM and EXTREME 
UNCTION. See J. G. Frazer, G.B.; Adonis Attis Osiris, 
inO(5; W. R. Smith, R.S.; J. A. Dubois and H. K. Beau- 
champ, Hindu Manners, etc.; Encycl. liibl. 

ANOMIANS. Another designation of the ANTI- 
NOMIANS (g.v.). 

ANOMCEANS. A name given to the strict Arians. See 
ARIANISM. 

ANRA-MAINYU. The personification of Darkness in 
the dualistic religion of Zarathustra. 

ANSARS. An Arabian sect, more correctly called 
Nossairians (Nuseirtyeh, q.v.). 

ANSHAR. The name of a deity in Babylonian- 
Assyrian religion. He is mentioned on a cuneiform 
tablet as one of the early ancestors of the gods. Anshar, 
perhaps another form of Ashur (q.v.), plays a part in the 
cosmology. He sends Anu, Ea, and Bel-Marduk (qq.v.) 
to destroy the monster Ti9mat. See Morris Jastrow, 
Rel. 

ANTEDILUVIAN. Literally " before the deluge," the 
deluge referred to being that described in the Old Testa- 
ment and commonly known as the Flood. The term is 
often used of anything antiquated or old-fashioned. 



ANTHEMS. An abridged form of Antiphon, a piece 
sung in alternate parts. The words are verses from the 
Bible (Psalms, etc.), and are sung as solos or in chorus. 
In the reign of Elizabeth they were appointed to be sung 
at the morning and evening service of the Church of 
England. A similar part of the Roman Catholic Service 
is the Motet. 

ANTHESTBRIA. An Athenian festival, on which the 
souls of the departed were supposed to return from the 
nether world. Earthenware pots seem to have been filled 
with boiled food and placed in the streets for their enter- 
tainment. To prevent the ghosts from entering their 
houses, the people smeared the doors with pitch. They 
also fastened ropes round the temples " to keep out the 
wandering ghosts." See J. G. Frazer, O.B. 

ANTHROPOLATRY. The worship of men. See 
ANCESTOR WORSHIP. 

ANTHROPOMORPHISM. The style of thought and 
language that ascribes to the Deity human form and 
attributes. 

ANTHROPOMORPHITES. Another name for the 
Syrian sect Audiani (q.v.). 

ANTHROPOPHAGOI. Another name for CANNI- 
BALS. 

ANTI-ADIAPHORISTS. A name for the strict 
Lutherans as distinguished from the party of Melanch- 
tlion, the Adiaphorists (q.v.). 

ANTIBURGHERS. A name taken by one of the divi- 
sions into which the Associate Synod or Secession Church 
of Scotland split up in 1747. The trouble arose over the 
burgess-oath which burgesses were required to take in 
certain corporate towns. One party maintained that it 
could not be taken by consistent Seceders. The other 
party, though they thought it inexpedient for Seceders to 
take the oath, would not refuse to do so. Those who 
refused to take the oath formed themselves into the 
" General Associate Synod " or " Anti-burgher Synod." 
Those who would not take it became the " Associate " 
or " Burgher Synod." Later on another split occurred 
owing to differences of opinion about the powers of the 
civil magistrate in matters of religion. It was felt by 
many that the views of the old Covenant required to be 
modified. In 1804 therefore a new Declaration of 
Principles or " Testimony " was put forth. Thomas 
McCrie (1772-1835), Archibald Bruce (1746-1816), James 
Aitken, and James Hog, however, professed to adhere 
" to the true constitution of the Reformed Church of 
Scotland," and in 1806 started the " Constitutional Asso- 
ciate Presbytery," the members of which were called also 
" Old Light Anti-burghers." Another division had in 
1799 formed themselves into the " Original Burgher 
Presbytery " or " Old Light Burghers." In 1820 the 
" New Light " sections of the Burghers and Anti-burghers 
were re-united as the " United Secession." In 1827 the 
" Old Light Anti-burghers " united with the " Associate 
Synod of Protesters " (formed in 1820 in opposition to 
the " United Secession "), and the two bodies 
became the " Associate Synod of Original Seceders." 
Cp. BURGHERS. See J. H. Blunt. 

ANTI-CALVINISTS. A designation of the Arminians 
(q.v.). 

ANTICHRIST. The word is first found in the New 
Testament (I. John ii. 18, 22, iv. 3: II. John 7). In I. 
John ii. 18 we read : " Little children, it is the last hour, 
and as .ve heard that antichrist oometh, even now have 
there ari.sen many antichrists, whereby we know that it 
is the last hour." In vs. 22 it is said : " Who is the liar 
but he that denieth that Jesus is the Christ? This is the 
antichri.st, even he that denieth the Father and the Son." 
In I. John iv. 3 the words are : " And every spirit which 
oonfesseth not Jesus is not of Gtod, and this is the spirit 



Anticonstitutionists 



25 



Anti- Popes 



of tile antichrist, whereof ye have heard that it cometh ; 
and now it is in the world already." In II. John vs. 7 
we read : " For many deceivers are gone forth into the 
world, even they that confess not that Jesus Christ 
cometh in the flesh. This is the deceiver and the anti- 
christ." These are the only passages in which the term 
occurs. It means " one who opposes the Messiah 
(Christos) " and although the word only appears in the 
late Johannine passages, the idea itself is present else- 
where. In II. Thess. ii. 1-12 it is said that before the 
Second Coming of the Lord Jesus Christ there will be a 
falling away and " the man of sin (or lawlessness) " will 
be revealed. " the son of perdition, he that opposeth and 
exalteth himself against all that is called God or that is 
worshipped; so that he sitteth in the temple of God, 
setting himself forth as God." It is said also vs. 7 /.) : 
" For the mystery of lawlessness doth already work ; only 
there is one that restraineth now, until he he taken out 
of the way. And then shall be revealed the lawless one, 
whom the Lord Jesus shall slay with the breath of his 
mouth and bring to nought by the manifestation of his 
coming; even he, whose coming is according to the work- 
ing of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders, 
and with all deceit of unrighteousness for them that are 
perishing." Ideas belonging to the same world of 
thought are referred to in the Book of Kevelation (xi. ; 
xiii., 11 //.). Outside the New Testament, moreover, 
there are many references (e.g. in Apocalyptic Literature 
and in the Early Fathers) to Antichrist which point to 
a body of tradition of which the New Testament state- 
ments are only fragments. The origin of these traditions 
is to be found partly in Jewish haggada, that method of 
exposition which consisted in " the working up of the 
historic and didactic parts of Scripture, an elaboration of 
them by the free use of the legendary element, suitable 
to the views and requirements of the age " (W. Fair- 
weather, The Background of the Gospels, 1908). The 
starting-point for this may have been Daniel xl. 7 /. It 
should be noticed also that in Apocalyptic Literature 
(e.g., Siiyll. iii. 63 //.) Belial or Beliar, ruler of the evil 
spirits, " is already presented in an aspect closely 
resembling that of Anti-Christ " (W. Bousset). If we 
wish to trace these ideas farther back, much of the 
imagery may be reproduced from the conception of the 
dragon in the Babylonian creation-myth. The idea of 
Nero returning as a spirit from the underworld perhaps 
belonged originally to another tradition, but both tradi- 
tions are combined in the Book of Revelation (xiii. and 
xvii.). The number of the Beast (()66, Revelation xiii.) 
represented in Hebrew letters gives the name of Nero (see 
P. W. Sehmiedel, Johannine Writings, 1908). Of course, 
the references to Antichrist have been regarded as pro- 
phecies, and some historical person has been looked for 
who seemed to fulfil the requirements. Other identifica- 
tions (i.e., besides Nero) have been : Mohammed, the 
Grand Turk, Napoleon I., Napoleon III., the Pope. See 
Encycl. BiU.; W. Bousset, The Antichrist Legend, 1896. 

ANTICONSTITUTIONISTS. A name given to those 
theologians who rejected the papal Bull " Unigenitus " 
(1713) which condemned the views of the Jansenist leader 
Pasquier Quesnel (1634-1719). See JANSENISTS. 

ANTIDICOMARIANITES. Literally " opponents of 
Mary." A religious sect in Arabia, referred to by 
Epiphanius. They held that after the birth of Jesus, 
Mary and Joseph became the parents of other children. 

ANTILEGOMENA. Literally " spoken against." A 
general designation of those books of the New Testa- 
ment the authenticity of which was disputed in the 
fourth century. They were for a time regarded as un- 
canonical (see CANON). The Books in question are : 
Second Epistle of Peter, Ep. of James, Ep. of Jude, Ep. 



to the Hebrews, Second and Third Ep. of John, and the 
Book of Revelation. The term homologoumeiia was 
applied to the other books. 

ANTINICAENS. Opponents of the Creed of Nicaea. 
See ARIANISM. 

ANTINOMIANISM. Antinomian has been defined as 
"one who holds that the law is not a rule of life under 
the Grospel." The idea that to one who had become a 
true follower of Christ conscience was the only law 
might easily arise. Luke xvi. 16, " the law and the 
prophets were until John"; Romans vii. 6, "But now 
we have been discharged from the law, having died to 
that wherein we were holden, so that we serve in 
newness of the spirit, and not in oldness of the letter " ; 
Galatians ii. 16, " knowing that a man is not justified by 
the works of the law, but only through faith in Jesus 
Christ, even we believed on Christ Jesus, that we might 
be justified by faith in Christ, and not by the works of 
the law "; and other passages would be appealed to in 
support of such a view. And the idea would soon be 
exaggerated and carried to extremes. This seems 
actually to have happened among certain sections of the 
Gnostics, and later among some of the religious sects in 
the Middle Ages. In such cases Antinomianism, from 
being a kind of superiority to law, degenerates into 
rejection and violation of the moral law. The term was 
first used, however, by Luther in reference to the views 
of John Agricola (1492-1566), called " Magister Islebius," 
from the name of his birth-place, Eisleben. In 1527 he 
maintained in opposition to Philipp Melanchthon (1497- 
1560) " that the law of God was not to be used to bring 
men to repentance, and that the preaching of the law was 
no work for a gospel minister " (J. H. Blunt). In 1538 
he was bold enough to " declaim against the law, main- 
taining that it was neither fit to be proposed to the 
people as a rule of manners, nor to be used in the Church 
as a means of instruction; and that the gospel alone was 
to be inculcated and explained both in the churches and 
in the schools of learning." His followers were called 
Antinomians. His controversy with Luther, which 
ended in a recantation (1540), was called the " Anti- 
nomian Controversy." Since that time Antinomianism, 
in one form or another, has had its representatives in 
England. Amongst the troublesome parties with which 
Cromwell had to deal were " the violent fanatics and 
Antinomians who desired an immediate ' rule of the 
-saints ' " (M. W. Patterson, Hist.). In 1691 the republi- 
cation of the works of Tobias Crisp (1600-1643) produced 
another " Antinomian Controversy " between Oongrega- 
tionalists and Presbyterians, the latter accusing the 
former of Antinomianism (see H. S. Skeats and C. S. 
Miall, Hist.). See J. H. Blunt; Brockhaus. 

ANTIPABDOBAPTIST. A designation, derived from 
the Greek, of one who objects to infant-baptism. See 
BAPTISTS. 

ANTIPHONER. A name given to one of the four parts 
of the Medieval Service-book of the Christian Church, 
the Missal (g.v.). It contained the antiphons sung by the 
choir and deacons at the celebration of High Mass. It 
was called also Grail or Gradual. 

ANTIPHONY. A method of chanting in which two 
choirs sing in turn, responding as it were to each other. 
Some of the Old Testament Psalms are admirably adapted 
for this kind of singing. Ignatius is said to have intro- 
duced antiphony at Antioch in the second century. 
Ambrose is supposed to have used it at Milan in the fourth 
century, and thus to have introduced it into the Western 
or Latin Church. 

ANTI-POPES. A designation of opposition popes, that 
is to say, of popes who have claimed the Papal Chair 
and set themselves in opposition to the canonically-elected 



Anti-Remonstrants 



26 



Anunnaki 



occupant. There have been at least twenty-nine such 
popes. 1. Hippolytus (?), third century. 2. Novatian, 
A.D. 251. 3. Felix II., A.D. 355-365. 4. Ursicinus, A.D. 
366-367. 5. Eutalius, A.D. 418-419. 6. Laurentius, A.D. 
498-501. 7. Constantine II., A.D. 767. 8. Philip, eighth 
century. 9. Anasta.sius, A.D. 855. 10. Leo VIII., A.D. 
956-963. 11. Boniface VII., A.D. 974. 12. John XVI., 
tenth oenturv. 13. Gregory, A.D. 1012. 14. Sylvester 
III., A.D. 1044. 15. Benedict X., A.D. 1058. 16. 
Honorius II., A.D. 1061-1072. 17. Guibert, or Clement 
III., A.D. 1080-1100. 18. Theodorie, A.D. 1100. 19. 
Aleric, A.D. U02. 20. Maginulf. A.D. 1105. 21. Burdin 
(Gregory VIII.), A.D. 1118. 22. Anacletus II., A.D. 
1130-38. 23. Victor IV., A.D. 1159-64. 24. Pascal III., 
A.D. 1164-1168. 25. Calixtus III., A.D. 1168-77. 26. 
Innocent III., A.D. 1178-80. 27. Nicholas V., A.D. 1328- 
1330. 28. Robert of Geneva (Clement VII), September 
20, A.D. 1378, to September 16, A.D. 1394. 29. Amadeus 
of Savoy (Felix V.), November, 1439, to April, 1449. See 
the Catholic Enoycl. 

ANTI-REMONSTRANTS. When Peter Walsh drew 
up the Petition of Remonstrance in 1666 which protested 
against the notion that if Catholicism were tolerated the 
eafety of the State would be endangered, some of the 
Irish Catholics refused to sign it and were called Anti- 
Eemoustrants. 

ANTI-SCRIPTURALISTS. Richard Baxter (1615- 
1691), writing in 1650, refers to a sect of Puritans with 
this name. They were closely related to, or perhai)s 
identical with, the Seekers (q.v.). With the latter they 
would seem to have attached more value to the present 
illumination of the Spirit than to the past revelation of 
the Scripture. See John Hunt. 

ANTISTES. A title which has «>metimes been applied 
to a Christian prelate or bishop. 

ANTITACTICS. A term used by Clement of Alex- 
andria in reference to " opponents " who held a dualistic 
philosophy and distinguished between (3od, the Father of 
all things who made all things good, and an Adversary, 
a rebel creature, who originated evil (Olem. Alex., 
Strom, iii., 4). 

ANTITRINITARIANS. A designation of those who 
deny the doctrine of the Trinity. See TRINITY, 
UNITARIANS, and CHRISTADELPHIANS. 

ANTITYPE. Literally, something which corresponds 
to, or is prefigured by, the type. But in theology the 
person who fulfils the idea of some prophetic tjT)e. 
Christ, e.g., is the antityi)e of the paschal lamib. 

ANTO. One of the gods of the Todas. Perhaps he is 
the same as On (Anto=Onteu). He seems to have been 
a giant. According to a legend, he rolled a large stone 
to the top of a hill with his hair. 

ANTONINES. An order of monks founded towards the 
close of the eleventh century by (Jaston, a gentleman of 
Dauphin^. Many people were suffering from a disease 
called St. Anthony's fire. Gaston's son became one of 
the afflicted. His father, praying before some relics of 
St. Anthony, vowed that if his son recovered he would 
found a hospital (1095). On the recovery of his son, he 
founded an order of monks, and established a hospital 
for the treatment of persons afflicted with St. Anthony's 
fire. The order flourished until the Revolution. " Bene- 
dict VIII. in 1297 ordained that the Antoninea should 
live as canons-regular under the rule of St. Austin." 
See Oath. Diet. 

ANTONY'S FIRE, ST. The name given to an epidemic 
which raged in France especially in 1089. It was so 
called be«iuse many of those who were attacked by it 
are supposed, on praying before the relics of St. Antony, 
to have been healed. St. Antony (A.D. 251-356) of Thebes 



had a great reputation as the father of monasticism and 
the ideal hermit. 

ANTOSIANDRIANS. Opponents of the party of the 
German Protestant Andreas Osiander (1498-1552). See 
OSIANDRIANS. 

ANTRIM, PRESBYTERY OP. An off-shoot of the 
Irish Presbyterians. They refused to subscribe to the 
Westminster Confession (q.v.), and formed themselves 
into an independent body in 1750. 

ANTS. The Apalai Indians of South America drive 
away any demon of disease which may cling to their 
persons by allowing themselves to be .stung by large ants. 
Certain Indians of Guiana, when a girl first shows signs 
of puberty, keep her for a month " in her hammock at 
the top of the hut," and expose her to the painful bites 
of large ants. This is said to be to strengthen her to 
bear the burden of motherhood. See J. G. Frazer, O.B. 

ANTWERP POLYGLOT. An early printed edition of 
the New Testament in several languages. It was brought 
out at Antwerp under the auspices of Philip II., was 
edited by Benedict Arias Montanus, and was printed by 
Christopher Plantin. It is called also the Plantin poly- 
glot after its printer. It contains the Greek text, the 
Syriac text both in Syriac and Hebrew letters, a Latin 
translation of the Syriac text and another of the Greek 
text, and the Latin Vulgate. The Greek text " agrees 
in the main with Robert Estienne's edition of the year 
1550." See C. R. Gregory. 

ANU. A Babylonian deity. He is described on an 
ancient Babylonian seal-cylinder as " Ann, the supreme, 
king of the Anunnaki " (spirits of the heavens). See Fr. 
Delitzseh, Babel and Bible, 1903, p. 74. The name seems 
to be found in inscriptions prior to the year 2300 B.C. 
Ann Is the god of heaven. In the early religion, Ann Bel 
(g.v.), and Ea {q.v.) are the three great gods. Ann's 
consort is Anatum. According to one version of the great 
battle of the gods with the monster Tiamat, Anu is sent 
to slay the monster. Anu also plays a part in the Adapa 
I.«gend (q.v.). He is brought into association with several 
other gods (e.g., Ramman, Dagan), and in course of time 
is rather overshadowed by Ashur (q.v.). The sun's 
ecliptic is described as the " way of Anu," and the pole 
star of the ecliptic was specially identified with him. See 
Morris Jastrow, Rel. 

ANUBIS. An Egyptian deity. Son of Osiris (q.v.), he 
is represented as having the head of a jackal or dog-ai)e. 
When the Greeks and Romans took over the worship 
they represented him as a dog. Like Hermes, with 
whom the Greeks identified him, he conducted the dead 
to the underworld (Amenthes), where with Horus (q.v.) 
he weighed their deeds in the balance before Osiris. In 
a tomb of the Old Empire has been found a slab of stone 
containing an invocation to Anubis. Anubis is entreated 
that the dead person may have a good tomb in the West, 
and may receive a plentiful supply of offerings on special 
feast-days. See E. Naville, The Old Egyptian Faith, 
1909, p. 71. 

ANUNIT. A Babylonian goddess. She is described 
(cylinder inscription of Nabonldus) as " the mistress of 
battle, bearer of the bow and quiver." Anunit is a 
feminine form corresponding to the masculine Anu (q.v.). 
She seems to be mentioned in inscriptions prior to the 
year 2300 B.C., but in course of time the name became 
another designation of Ishtar (q.v.). See Morris Jastrow, 
Rel. 

ANUNNAKI. A term occurring in Babylonian- 
Assyrian religion. The derivation of the word is doubt- 
ful. It has been interpreted (Hommel) " gods of the 
watery habitation." In any case, the Anunnaki are a 
group of gods or spirits employed in the service of other 
gods. They are spirits of earth, while the spirits of 



A pad ana 



27 



Apocalyptic Number 



heaven receive the name Igigi (gv.). They figure in the 
Babylonian Creation and Deluge stories. See Morris 
Jastrow, Rel. 

APADAXA. A Buddhist sacred book, a book of stories 
of the saints, included in the collection appended to the 
eeoond division of the Canon. See CANON, BUDDHIST. 

APELLIANISTS. A Gnostic sect of the second 
century named after Apelles, who was for a time the 
disciple of Marcion (taught about A.D. 350). They were 
also called Apelleians or Apellites. Apelles seems to 
have held that matter was created by an inferior deity, 
hostile to God though created by Him; and that Jesus 
descended mysteriously from heaven and took a body 
composed of earth, air, fire, and water, which elements 
were dispersed again before his ascension to heaven. He 
criticised the prophets of the Old Testament and the Law 
of Moses, on the ground that they were often inspired, 
not by God the Creator, but by the inferior deity, the 
author of evil. He seems to have taught also that salva- 
tion depended upon being true to one's own faith, what- 
ever it might be. See J. H. Blunt. 

APHACA, POOL OF. A sacred pool among the 
Phoenicians. Once a year the heaven goddess is said to 
have come down into the waters " in the shape of a 
falling star." The worshippers of the goddess were 
accustomed to cast gifts into the sacred ixx>l. If a gift 
was not accepted, the eddies cast it up. See W. R. 
Smith, R.S. 

AP-HI. Ap-hi is worshipped by the Abchases of the 
Caucasus as the god of thunder and lightning. In time 
of drought an ox is sacrificed to him, and he is implored 
to send rain to revive the crops. He is one of the 
examples of a god of thunder being regarded as a god 
of fertility also. See J. G. Frazer, The Magic Art, 19U. 

APHORISM. A short pithy saying expressing a 
general truth. The Hindus are fond of employing 
aphorisms (slokas), and many of these are of a moral or 
religious nature. The children learn them by heart in 
the schools. See .1. A. Dubois and H. K. Beauchamp. 

APHRODITE. The goddess of love in Greek religion. 
She appears under several aspects, some of them 
oriental. Other Greek names for her are : Aphro-geneia, 
the " foam-bom ": Anadyomene, " she who rises " from 
the sea; Kypris, the Cyprian: Aphrodite Tranla, "the 
heavenly"; Pandemos, "all the people's." Thus she 
was goddess of the .sea, especially the calm sea, and as 
such was worshipped by fishermen and sailors; she was 
goddess of the sky with its gales and storms. She was 
also goddess of the earth with its gardens and groves, 
its plants and flowers. As the goddess of love in a more 
and more refined sense, she became a goddess of mar- 
nage and married life, the goddess beloved by all. Early 
Greek legend represented that she was the daughter of 
Zeus and Dione. Aphrodite, however, was not always 
worshipped as the goddess of a purer love. At Paphos, 
the great and ancient seat of her wor.ship, she seems to 
liave shared, as a goddess of fertility, the licentious rites 
of other Asiatic deities, one of these being female prosti- 
tution. For her association with Adonis, see the article 
under that heading. In later Greek times the immoral 
form of her worship prevailed in Greece also. Aphrodite 
corresponds to the Roman Venus (q.v.). Her symbol or 
image was a white cone or pyramid. Minoan discoveries 
have thrown doubt on the theory that Aphrodite was 
originally a Semitic deity brought to Greece from 
Phoenicia or Cyprus. A Minoan Aphrodite is represented 
on monuments of the First Late Minoan period (c. 1000- 
1.500 B.C.). H. R. Hall (A. A.) points out that " it is 
evident now that she was not only a Canaanitish-Syrian 
goddess, but was common to all the peoples of the Levant. 
She is Aphrodite-Paphia in Cyprus, Ashtaroth-Astarte in 



Canaan, Atargatls in Syria, Derketo in Philistia, Hathor 
in Egypt; what the Minoans called her we do not know, 
unless she is Britomartis. She must take her place by 
the side of Rhea-Diktynna in the Minoan pantheon." 
I'rofessor G. Elliot Smith contends (Dr.) that this list 
of homologues can be extended to Mesopotamia, Iran, 
and India, to Europe and Further Asia, to America, and, 
in fact, to everj' part of the world that harbours god- 
desses. See O. Seyffert, Diet.; J. G. Frazer, Adonis, 
Attin, Osiris. 

APHTHARTODOCET-^. A general name for the 
Julianists of Armenia and the (iaianitip of Egypt, the 
two divisions of the Monophysites (g.v.). They were so 
called because they attributed to Jesus' body aphtJiarsia, 
" incorruptibility." " The human nature they considered 
to have been so essentially united with the Divine nature 
of the Logos as to have become merged or absorbed in it, 
and therefore to have become possessed of the inherent 
and indestructible life of the Logos " (J. H. Blunt). 

API. An Egyptian goddess. She is represented as 
having the body of a hippopotamus. 

APIS. An Egyptian deity. At first a sacred bull in 
the temple of Ptah, he then became a god represented 
as a bull, and later still was regarded as an incarnation 
of Osiris (g.v.), and ranked next to Ra (g.v.). See Adolf 
Erman. 

APITO. An earth-goddess worshipped in the West 
Indies (Antilles). 

APOCALYPSE. The Greek name of the last book of 
the New Testament, more commonly known as the 
Revelation of St. John the Divine (q.r.)- 

APOCALYPSE OP BARUCH. See APOCALYPTIC 
LITERATURE. 

APOCALYPSE OF PETER. See APOCRYPHAL 
BOOKS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT. 

APOCALYPTIC LITERATURE. A general term for a 
collection of Jewish writings called " Apocalypses," i.e., 
prophetic revelations of the future. An early example 
is found in the Old Testament in the book of Daniel (167- 
104 B.C.). The last book of the New Testament bears the 
Greek title " Apocalypse of S. John the Divine " (see 
REVELATION, BOOK OF), and some scholars think that 
a little Apocalypse has been incorporated in the Gospels 
(Matthew xxiv. 6-8, 15-22, 29-31, 34-35 = Mark xiii. 7-9 a, 
14-20, 24-27, 30; see Arno Neumann, Jesus, 1906, p. 148) 
and in 2 Thes.salonians (2, 1-12). Other Apocalyptic 
writings are : the " Apocalypse of Baruch," preserved in 
Syriac, written by Pharisees (e. A.D. 50-90); the "Book 
of Enoch," preserved in Ethiopic, composite, the earliest 
iwrtion having been written perhaps c. 200 B.C., the 
latest c. 04 B.C.; another " Book of Enoch " or "Book 
of the Secrets of Enoch," preserved in Slavonic, written 
about A.D. 1-50; the " Ascension of Isaiah," preserved in 
Ethiopic and partly in Latin, composite, written about 
A.D. 1-100; the " Book of Jubilees," preserved in Ethiopic 
and partly in Hebrew, Syriac, Greek, Latin, Slavonic, 
written about 40-10 B.C.; the "Assumption of Moses," 
preserved in Latin, written about 7-30 A.D. ; the " Testa- 
ment of the XII. Patriarchs," preser\-ed in Greek, 
Armenian, and Slavonic, written about 130 B.C. - 10 A.D. ; 
the " Psalms of Solomon," composite, written about 70-40 
B.C.; the "Sibylline Oracles," written in Greek, com- 
posite, the earliest portions dating from the second 
century B.C., the latest from the third century A.D. See 
EncycJ. Bibl.; W. Fairweather, Background of the 
Gospels, 1908. For New Testament Apocalypses, see 
APOCRYPHAL BOOKS OF THE N.T. 

APOCALYPTIC NUMBER. In the New Testament 
Book of Revelation we read (xiii. 18) : " He that hath 
understanding, let him count the number of the l)east; 
for it is the number of a man; and his number is six 



Apocarites 



28 



Apocryphal Books of the New Testament 



hundred and sixty and six." This is vrhat is meant by 
the Apocalyptic Number. It is supposed to indicate some 
name, since Greek and Hebrew letters were used to repre- 
sent numbers. Prof. Schmiedel (The Johanmne 
Writings, 190S) points out that in many copies of the 
Booli of Revelation before the time of Irenaeus, that is 
to say, before A.D. 185, the number is given as 616. He 
therefore suggests that a name must be found the letters 
of which might in some way or other produce either of 
the numbers 666 or 616. He thinks that the name of the 
Emperor Nero meets the requirements, since it might be 
written N(e)ron K(€)s(a)r or N(e)ro K(e)s(a)r. The 
vowels e and a would not be expressed in Hebrew. The 
identifications are as follows : 

N R O N K S R 
50-I-200+6+50-I-100+60-I-200 = 666 
N R O K S R 

50+200+6 +100+60+200 = 616 
Prof. Schmiedel points out that the number 666 alone has 
produced more than a hundred other solutions. 

APOCARITES. A sect which appeared in the reign of 
the Roman Emperor Marcus Claudius Tacitus (A.D. 
275-6). Its tenets were largely Gnostic and Manichtpan. 
The Apocarites held also that the human soul is eternal 
and uncreated. 

APOCATASTASIS. A Greek word meaning " restitu- 
tion," and occurring in the New Testament. In Acts iii. 
21 it is said that the heaven must receive Jesus " until 
the times of restoration of all things, whereof God spake 
by the mouth of his holy prophets which have been since 
the world began." Apocatastasis became a theological 
term denoting the doctrine, taught by Origen and others, 
that all men would be converted and admitted to ever- 
lasting happiness. 

APOCATEQUIL. A deity in the mythology of the 
ancient Peruvians. He was connected with the night, 
and was called therefore by the Inean Peruvians " Prince 
of Evil." His name is said to mean " Chief of the 
followers of the moon." 

APOCRISIARIUS. From the Greek apokrinesthai " to 
answer." A name given from the fourth to the ninth 
century to ecclesiastical or Papal emissaries to the Court 
of the Emperor. Their task was to bring important 
questions, civil and ecclesiastical, to the notice of the 
civil authority and to obtain answers to them. The same 
duty was performed at a later date by the Nuncio or 
Legate a latere. See Cath. Diet. 

APOCRYPHA. INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF THE. 
A Society the object of which " is to make more widely 
known the theological, ecclesiastical, and literary value 
of the ' Books which the Church doth read for example 
of life and instruction of manners,' and to promote their 
more general study among the clergy and laity " {Official 
Year-Book of the Church of England). The Society 
publishes a Quarterly Journal. 

APOCRYPHA OF THE OLD TESTAMENT. The 
word Apocrypha means literaUy "hidden," and, like the 
corresponding Hebrew word, denotes boolvs which were 
withdrawn from public use as being unfit for public 
reading. Sometimes there is associated also with the 
word the idea that certain books are not suitable for the 
general public because they contain mysterious truths or 
esoteric doctrines. The early fathers applied the word 
"apocryphal" both to heretical works and to works 
which were not accepted as canonical or included in 
Sacred Scripture. Old Testament and New Testament 
Apocrypha, however, have been placed upon a very 
different level. While the New Testament Apocrypha 
(7>roperly speaking) have been regarded as possessing 
very slight value, to some of the Old Testament 



Apocrypha has been ascribed a value almost, if not quite, 
as great as that of some of the canonical books. The 
Old Testament Apocrypha (proper) " the Church [of Eng- 
land] doth read for example of life and instruction of 
manners, but yet doth it not apply them to establish any 
doctrine " (Article vi.). The Roman Catholic edition of 
the Bible, the Douay Version, includes the Apocrypha 
(proper) with the exception of the " Prayer of Manasseh," 
" Third Esdras," and " Fourth Esdras," which were 
rejected by the Council of Trent as uncanonical. The 
books of the Apocrypha are as follows : 1. The Third 
Book of Esdras. This is the title in the Vulgate (g.t'.). 
In the original Greek version, in the Septuagint (q.v.), 
and in the English Version, it is called " I. Esdras." 
The book is partly a compilation from the canonical Book 
of Ezra (g.v.). It perhaps belongs to the first century 
B.C. 2. The Fourth Book of Esdras. In the English 
Version it is called " II. Esdras." The Greek original 
has disappeared, and there are omissions in the Vulgate. 
The work is composite. It belongs perhaps to the firsit 
oenturv after Chri.st. Sometimes it is called the 
"Apocalypse of Ezra." 3. The Book of Tohit. Pre- 
served in Greek, Latin, Hebrew and Aramaic. It was 
written perhaps not later than the first century A.D. It 
is a romance of the Captivity, and is interesting on 
account of its angelology and demonology. 4. The Book 
of Judith. Preserved in Greek. It belong perhaps to 
the first century B.C. It is a romance, and perhaps to 
some extent an allegory. It describes how Judith, a 
noble Hebrew widow, delivers the city Bethulia from 
Holofernes, its besieger, by assassinating him. 5. The 
Rest of the Book of Esther. Additions to the Book of 
Esther {q.v.). In the Greek, Vulgate, and Douay Ver- 
sions it is not a separate title. 6. The Book of Wisdom. 
Written in Greek under the assumed name of Solomon. 
It was perhaps written in the first century B.C. It is 
not all of equal merit, but there are many remarkable 
passages in the book. 7. Jesus the son of Sirach. Pre- 
served in Greek, but a translation from Hebrew, much of 
a (perhaps original) Hebrew version having been recently 
discovered. It is better known as the Book of Eccle- 
siasticus. It probably belongs to the second century 
B.C. The book contains many remarkable passages, and 
is well worthy of study. 8. Baruch the Prophet. Pre- 
served in Greek. It is composite. Part of it (the end) 
may have been written after 70 A.D. The Baruch meant 
is Jeremiah's amanuensis, the son of Neriah. Appended 
to it is a letter known as the Epistle of Jeremy (or Jere- 
miah), which belongs probably to the first century A.D. 
9 The Song of the Three Children. Preserved in Greek. 
An addition to the Book of Daniel (g.v.), and not treated 
as a separate title in the Septuagint, Vulgate, and Douay 
Versions. 10. The Star;/ of Susanna. In exactly the 
same category as No. 9. 11. Of Bel and the Dragon. In 
exactly the same category as Nos. 9 and 10. 12. The 
Prat/er of Afanas.^es. Preserved in Greek and Latin. It 
purports to have been written in prison by Manasseh, 
king of Judah. 13. The First Book of Maccabees. Pre- 
served in Greek, but a translation from Hebrew. Written 
about 105 B.C. It is a historical work of great value, 
recording the history of the Jews in Palestine from 175 
to 135 B.C. 14. The Second Book of Maccabees. Pre- 
served in Greek. Of very much less value. The work 
is composite. The first part purports to give two letters 
written by the Jews of Jerusalem to the Jews of Egypt. 
The second part professes to be an abridgment of a lost 
work in five books by Jason of Cyrene. The above are 
the works which are commonly known as " the 
Apocrypha." Cp.. further, PSEUDEPIGRAPHA. See 
Encucl. BiM.: Prot. Diet.; Cath. Diet. 
APOCRYPHAL BOOKS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT. 



Apocryphans 



29 



Apologetics 



A large number of writings, purporting to have been 
written by apostles and designed to supplement the his- 
tory contained in the New Testament. They group them- 
selves for the most part under the headings Gospels, 
Acts, Epistles, Apocalypses. 1. Gospels. a) Gospel 
according to the Hebrews. It was originally in Aramaic. 
Only fragments have been preserved and not in the 
original langruage. These are found in the works of 
Jerome, Origen, Eusebius, and in Codex Tischendorf III. 
6) Gospel of the EUonites or Gosppl of the Twelve. Frag- 
ments are given by Epiphanius (adv. Haer. 30). c) Gospel 
according to the Egyptians. Quoted once by Clement of 
Alexandria. d) Gospel according to Peter. Referred 
to by Origen (In Matth. torn. 17, 10). A long fragment 
was discovered at Akhmim in 1S.S5 (see the French 
Archaeological Mission's iltfmoires, 1S92). Another frag- 
ment is given by Serapion, Bishop of Antioch (A.D. 190- 
203). e) The Logia. Sayings of Jesus contained on a 
papyrus discovered by Grenfell and Hunt. /) Prot- 
evangelium of James or Book of James. This story of 
early events in the life of Jesus has been preserved in 
several languages, Syriae, Coptic, etc. The James is 
James the Just, and the book perhaps belongs to the first 
century. Mary's parents are said to have been Joachim 
and Anne. Published by K. v. Tischendorf, Evangelia 
Apocrypha. g) Gospel of Nicodemus or Acts of Pilate. 
Preserved in several languages, Coptic, Greek, Latin, etc. 
It treats of the Passion, Resurrection, and Descent to Hell 
of Jesus. It belongs perhaps to the early jwirt of the 
second century. Published by K. v. Tischendorf (op. 
cit.). There is another work with the same title (see 
ACTS OF PILATE). 2. Acts. The chief work is the 
Acts of Paul and Thecla. It has been preserved in 
Syriae, Greek, etc. It is a romance, the earliest of its 
kind, recounting the story of a virgin, Thecla of Iconium, 
converted by Paul. Published by R. A. Lipsius, .icta 
Petri et Paiili. There are also in existence fragmentary 
Acts of Paul, Peter, John, Thomas, Andrew and Philip. 
3. Epistles, a) Epistle of Paul to the Laodiceans. A 
short document, preserved in Latin. 6) Epistle of Paul 
to the Alexandrines. Mentioned in the Muratorian 
Canon (q.v.). c) Third Epistle of Paul to the Corin- 
thians. Preserved in Armenian, Latin, and Coptic. 4. 
Apocalypses, a) Apocalyse of Peter. Preserved, in large 
part, in Greek. It contains part of a prophecy of Jesus 
about the last things and a description of the bliss of the 
blessed and the tortures of the damned. The work per- 
haps belongs to the early part of the second century. 
6) Prophecy of Hy.'^taspes. It has not been preserved, 
but ie quoted by Justin Martyr (Apol. I., 20, 44) and 
Lactantius (Div. Inst. vii. 15, 18), and is associated with 
the Sibylline Oracles. 5. Pre.\ching. a) Teaching of 
the Apostles or the Didach^. Preserved in Greek. It 
was first printed in 18S3. having been recently discovered. 
It is partly a manual of ethics, partly a collection of 
rules and formulae. 6) Preach ing of Peter. Fragments 
are given by Heracleon and Clement of Alexandria. It 
contains warnings against Judaism, a lament of Peter, 
ethical maxims, and words of Jesus. See in Clark's 
" Ante-Nicene Library " the volume entitled The Apocry- 
phal Gospels, Acts, and Revelation; A. Hilgenfeld. Novum 
Testamentum extra canonem receptum (2), 1S7C-84; and 
M. R. James in the Encycl. Bibl. 

APOCRYPHANS. A general designation of religious 
sects which appealed for authority to apocryphal or 
Ijrivate writings (e.g., the Manichaeans and Gnostics). 

APOLLINARIANS. The followers of Apollinaris (d. 
A.D. 390), Bishop of Laodicea. As against Arius. Apol- 
linaris was anxious to maintain the Divinity of Christ. 
This led him to represent the human nature of Jesus in 
a way that was considered unorthodox. Making a dis- 



tinction between nous, the rational soul, and psyche, the 
animal soul, Apollinaris argued that in Christ the divine 
Logos took the place of the human nous. In this way 
he thought the sinlessness of Christ was assured, since it 
is the human mows which is the seat of sin. He there- 
fore virtually denied the perfect manhood of Christ. 
ApoUinarianism was condemned by several synods from 
tlie year 362, particularlv bv the Council of Constan- 
tinople in A.D. 381. See J. "H. Blunt. 

APOLLO. A Greek deity, one of the most ideal figures 
in Greek mythology. According to legend, he was the 
son of Zeus by Leto (Latona), had as his twin-sister 
Artemis (Diana), and was bom at the foot of Mount 
Cynthus in Delos. He seems to have been originally a 
god of light in general. Thus, having withdrawn in 
winter, he comes back in Spring to gladden the land with 
his brightness: he calms the wintry sea after the 
equinoctial gales; he protects the ripening crops, and 
receives in Autumn the first-fruits of the harvest: he is 
the patron of flocks and pastures, and slays rapacious 
beasts that come to do them harm. He is also a god of 
health and of prolific power, and gives help in war. As a 
god of streets and highways, his " rude symbol, a conical 
\K)st with a pointed ending, stood by street-doors and in 
courtyards, to watch men's exit and entrance, to let in 
good and keep out evil, and was loaded by the inmates 
with gifts of honour, such as ribbons, wreaths of myrtle 
or bay, and the like" (O. Seyffert). Apollo is also a 
guardian and guide on the sea. As a god of health and 
averter of ills, he is one of the chief gods of healing. 
His son Asclepios (^sculapius) is famous for his 
possession of the same power. Health and holiness, light 
and purity being closely allied, Apollo became a god of 
moral purity and civic righteousness. As such he is able 
to purify the penitent suppliant who is eager to make 
atonement for sin. Finally, he is a god of divination 
or prophecy and of music. With Zeus and Atiene, Apollo 
forms a kind of divine triad. The worship of Apollo 
became naturalized among the Romans, and in B.C. 431 
he was honoured with a temple as god of healing. In 
212 B.C. the " Ludi AiX)Uinares " were established. The 
symbols of Apollo include the bow and quiver, the lyre, 
the tripod, the bay, the dolphin, the snake. See O. 
Seyffert, Diet.; Chambers' Encycl. 

APOLLYON.The Greek equivalent of the Hebrew name, 
Abaddon (q.v.). 

APOLOGETICAL SOCIETY OF THE HAGUE, THE. 
Another name for The Haag Association for the Defence 
of the Christian Religion (q.v.). 

APOLOGETICS. That branch of theology which is 
occupied specially with the defence of Christianity as a 
divinely-revealed system of religion. The term is still 
commonly used in Germany. In England the designation 
"Christian Evidences" seems to be preferred as a modern 
description. In the early days of the Church, Christian 
writers wrote "Apologies" in reply to charges brought 
against the " brethren," and in order to remove occasion 
of persecution. Thus one Quadratus addressed an 
Apology to the Emperor Hadrian (A.D. 117-138), which 
is referred to by Eusebius (Church History, iv. 3), Aris- 
tides and Justin addressed one to the Emperor Antoninus 
(A.D. l.'58-l()l). Justin, also famous for his dialogue (c. 
A.D. 1.35) with the learned Jew Trypho, wrote this 
Apology c. A.D. 1.52. In it he refutes the charges brought 
against the Christians and explains their meetings and 
religious practices. The e.ssay is not free from in- 
accuracies. Later two Asiatic bishops, Melito, Bishop 
of Sardis, and Apollinaris, Bishop of HierapoUs, 
addres.«ed Apologies to the Emperor Marcus Aurelius 
(A.D. 169-177). Of the former only fragments have been 
preserved by Eusebius (Church HiMory, iv. 26). The 



Apologue 



30 



Apostles' Creed 



latter bas been lost, as has that also of Miltiades (Eus. 
C.H., V. 17). Another Apology was that of Athenagoras, 
another Athenian philosopher. It was addressed to the 
Roman Emperors Marcus Aurelius and Commodus (A.D. 
177-180). This has been preserved. AU these apologies 
were followed by a number of Orations and Addresses to 
the Greeks. See Louis Duchesne. Hist. 

APOLOGUE. A fable or parable with a moral. It is 
often a story in which animals or inanimate things figure. 
Aesop's fables are a classical example. There is also a 
good example in the Old Testament, in the aiX)logue of 
Jotham (Judges ix. 7-15), which was iwrhaps drawn from 
a collection of popular aiX)logues (see G. F. Moore, 
Judges, 1895). Mention may also be made of the fables 
of Bidpai or Pilpay, of which the oldest version that has 
been preserved is in Arabic, and dates from about A.D. 
750 (Kallluh vn Dirnimh}. 

APOLOGY OF ARISTIDBS. An apology of, or defence 
of, Christianity addressed to the Roman Emperor 
Antoninus (A.D. 138-161). Aristides, an Athenian 
philosopher, eulogises the morals, practices and beliefs 
of the Christians as compared with those of barbarians, 
Greeks, and Jews. The work was published by Rendel 
Harris and Armitage Robinson in 1891 (The Apology of 
Aristides, Cambridge " Texts and Studies," vol. i.). 

APOLOGY OF ATHENAGORAS. See APOLO- 
GETICS. 

APOPHIS-SERPENT. A monster often depicted on 
Egyptian mummy-cases. 

APOSTATE. The word has been commonly used of one 
who abandons or renounces the Christian faith. In the 
early days of Christianity persecution led many to do 
this. The Emperor Julian was called the Apostate 
because he would not accept Christianity and wished to 
revive paganism. In England apostasy was formerly 
punished by civil penalties. An apostate can still be 
excommunieate<l. Addis and Arnold distinguish three 
kinds of apostasy. There is apostasy from the Chri.stiau 
faith when one " wholly abandons the faith of Christ, 
and joins himself to some other law, such as Judaism, 
Islam, Paganism, etc." There is apostasy from eccle- 
siastical obedience " when a Catholic wilfully and con- 
tumaciously sets at nought the authority of the Church." 
There is apostasy from a religious profession or from 
holy orders. The latter happens when one, " after having 
received major orders, renounces his clerical profession, 
and returns to the dress and customs of the world " (W. 
E. Addis and T. Arnold). 

APOSTLE OF THE NORTH. A name given to John 
Macdonald (1779-1849), the missionary preacher. 

APOSTLE SPOONS. Children at Baptism usetl to be 
presented with gilt gi>oons. These were called Apostle 
Spoons, because figures of the twelve Apostles were 
carved on the handles. Sometimes as many as twelve 
spoons were given. See Brand's Popular Antiquities, 
ed. C. Hazlitt, 1905. 

APOSTLES. The Greek term apostolos means a " mes- 
senger " or a " delegate." In the Greek translation of 
the Old Testament it is given by Aquila (II. Kings xiv. 
0) and by Symmachns (Isaiah xviii. 2) as the equivalent 
of the Hebrew word shfiUali . " one sent." After the 
destruction of Jerusalem the Hebrew term was used of 
those oflScials who collected from the dispersed the taxes 
due to the Jewish Patriarch (see Emil Schiirer, Gesch. 
des Jiid. Volkes, ii. 532, 548). The Greek term is used 
especially of the twelve disciples chosen by Jesus as his 
constant disciples and deputed by him to preach the glad 
tidings of the Kingdom of God (Mark iii. 14, Luke vi. 13; 
Mark vi. 30, Luke ix. 10). The number twelve seems to 
have been suggested by the number of the tribes of Israel. 
The original apostles, ae given in Matthew (x. 2), Mark 



(iii. 16), Luke (vi. 14), and Acts (i. 13) were : Simon, 
surnamed Peter ; James of Zebedee, and John, the brother 
of James, surnamed Boanerges (q.v.); Andrew; Philip; 
Bartholomew; Matthew; Thomas; James of Alphseus; 
ThaddsBus; Simon the Zealot; and Judas Iscariot. After 
the betrayal by Judas Iscariot, or Judas the man of 
Kerioth, Matthias was elected to fill his place. After- 
wards Paul claimed equality with these apostles on the 
ground that he had received a direct revelation and com- 
mission from Christ. He describes himself (Galatians 
i. 1) as " Paul an Apostle, not of men, neither by man, 
but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him 
from the dead." Of the (iospel he says, " neither did I 
receive it from man, nor was I taught it, but (it came to 
me) through revelation of Jesus Christ " (Galatians i. 12; 
cp. ii. 8, I. C^orinthians i. 17, ix. 1, II. (Dorinthians iii. 2, 
etc.). Paul's claims were recognised, and the original 
inner circle seems to have been enlarged so as to include 
the " Apostle of the Gentiles " (Romans xi. 13). But the 
title seems in a restricted sense to have been conferred 
on a small outer circle including Barnabas (Acts xiv. 14), 
Silvanus (I. Thessalonians ii. G), Andronicus and Junias 
(Romans xvi. 7). In a still more restricted sense 
reference is made to apostles in Luke xi. 49, Ephesians 
iii. 5, Revelation xviii. 20. The early work known as 
" The Teaching " shows in fact that in the sub-apostolic 
age there were a number of "apostles" who travelled 
about from one place to another as itinerant teachers or 
missionaries. The original ai>ostles, however, had the 
unique advantage of being personally associated with 
•Tesus, and, it is claimed, that they were witnesses of his 
resurrection (Acts i. 21 /.). They were in a sense his 
representatives (cp. Acts iii. 16, ix. 34). When new 
officers were cliosen for the early Christian community 
we are told that these " they set before the apostles, and 
when they had prayed, they laid their hands on them " 
(Acts vi. 6). See Encucl. Bibl.; Grimm-Thayer, Oreek- 
English Lex. of the N.T., 1896; Prot. Diet. 

APOSTLES' CREED. One of the principal creeds of 
the Christian Church. It does not belong to the apostoUc 
age, but seems to have been called " The Apostles' Creed " 
becau.se it w-is cx)nsidered to embody aix>stolic teaching. 
It seems to have developed out of early baptismal 
formulas; and it is claimed that there are traces of a 
.similar creed in the writings of Irenaeus (c. A.D. 115- 
202), Tertullian (born about A.D. 150), and Cyprian (bom 
about A.D. 200). But Rufinus (d. A.D. 410) is the first to 
give a form of it which approximates to that which is 
now known as " The AiKkstles' Creed." His form of the 
Roman creed or " symbolum " reads : " I believe in God 
the Father Almighty: and in Jesus Christ, his only Son, 
our Lord, who was born of (de) the Holy Ghost of (ex) 
the Virgin Mary, was crucified under Pontius Pilate and 
was buried, rose again from the dead the third day, 
ascended into heaven, sitteth on the right hand of the 
Father, from thence he shall come to judge the quick 
and the dead ; and in the Holy Ghost, the Holy Church, 
the Forgiveness of Sins, the Resurrection of the Flesh " 
(C. A. Heurtley, De Fide et Siimttols. English edition, 
1889). This is a shorter form than that in present u-se. 
The present Creed has in addition : " he descended into 
hell "; (I believe in) "the communion of saints ": "and 
the life everlasting." Marcellus, Bishop of Ancyra in 
Galatia (A.D. 336-341) gives in Greek a creed resembling 
that of Rufinus. The slightly longer form was no doubt 
in use in the Gallican and Italian Churches in the fifth 
or sixth century. Legend has it that the twelve articles 
of the Apostles' Creed were composed by the twelve 
Apostles, each of them contributing one article. The 
exact words of our Apostles' Creed are given (c. A.D. 
730) by Pirminius, a Bishop in Gaul. See W. R. W. 



Apostles, Teaching of the 



31 



Apostolic Succession 



Stephens, Book of Common Prayer, 1901; Prot. Diet.; 
Cath. Diet. 

APOSTLES, TEACHING OF THE. See APOCRT- 
PHAL BOOKS OF THE NEW TESTAMENT. 

APOSTOLIC. A name applied to things relating to, 
derived from, or characteristic of the Christian Apostles 
(9.r.). 

APOSTOLIC BRETHREN. 1. A Gnostic sect of the 
third century. 2. and 3. Another name for the APOS- 
TOLICALS iq.v.). 

APOSTOLIC CANONS and CONSTITUTIONS. The 
" Canones Apo.stoliei " are eighty-five canons or precepts 
which purport to have apostolic authority and are sup- 
posed to have been communicated to the Church by 
Clement of Rome. They are first heard of in A.D. 494, 
■when they were declared by Pope Gelasius and seventy 
bishops to be apocryphal. John Scholasticus, however, 
who afterwards lyecame Bishop of Constantinople (A.D. 
565), decided that they were of apostolic origin, and his 
decision was supported by the Trullan Council at Con- 
stantinople in A.D. 692 and by the second Nicene Synod 
in A.D. 787. They were therefore accepted in the Eastern 
Church. The verdict of the Western Church, on the other 
hand, has continued to be against them. In 1562 the 
Magdeburg Centuriators argued powerfully against the 
apostolic origin, and it would seem that in their present 
form they are not older than the fourth century. Some 
of them, it is now thought, belong to the sixth century. 
It has been suggested that the .sources of sixty of the 
e'ghty-five canons may be found in the " Apostolic Con- 
stitutions " and the Canons of Nicaea (A.D. 325), Antioch 
(A.D. 341), and Ephesus (A.D. 431). The editor seems 
also to have had before him the " Teaching of the Twelve 
Apo.stles." It has also been pointed out that in many 
places the teaching is not apostolic, and things are men- 
tioned which were of post-apostolic date and origin. The 
Canons are given in C. J. Hefele's History of the Councils 
(2nd German edition, 1873-1890), J. Mansi's Collection of 
the Acts of the Councils (1759-1781). and W. Beveridge's 
Codex Canonum Ecclesiae Primitivae Yindicatus (1678). 
The " Ck)n.stitutiones Apostolicae " purport to have been 
dictated by the twelve Apostles in the fir.st per.son to 
Clement of Rome. They are in eight books, and deal 
with the ctustoms, homiletic teaching, liturgical forms. 
and otBcial titles in the Eastern Church. William 
Whiston (1667-1752) translated them, and believed that he 
had discovered in them the true " primitive Christianity," 
which happened to be Arian. But the post-apostolic 
origin of the (Constitutions is proved by absurd 
anachronisms, and in 1S83 it was seen that a large part 
of one of the books was a reproduction of the '" Teaching 
of the Twelve Apostles." C. J. Hefele assigns the work 
to the second half of the third century. The whole work 
is a compilation. It was perhaps put together by a 
Syrian l)etween A.D. 364 and 37S. The "Constitutions" 
will be found in J. P. Migne, Patrolof/ia Grwca. quarto, 
vol. i., 1857, and Pitra, Jiiri^i Ecelesiastici Grwcoriim 
Historia et Monnmenta. vol. i.. 1864. See F. von Funk, 
Die Apostoliscken Eonstitiitionen, 1891; Prot. Diet. 

APOSTOLIC FATHERS. Fathers of the Christian 
Church who lived in the period succeeding that of the 
Apostles. Their writings are commonly called patristic. 
The following are some of them : ri) The Epistle of 
Barnabas. Not written by Barnabas. Paul's feUow- 
traveller, however. It was probably composed between 
A.D. 70 and 137. The language is sometimes mystical. 
(2) The Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians. Written 
by Clement of Rome to the Church of Corinth. (3) The 
Second Letter of Clement to the Corinthians. The real 
author is unknown. It is part of an ancient homily 
belonging perhaps to the middle of the second century. 



(4) The Epistles of Ignatius. Bishop of Antioch. Seven 
letters of which there is a longer and shorter form. In 
their shorter and purer form they belong to the early 
l>art of the second century A.D. " The C:atholic Church " 
is spoken of for the first time. (5) The Epiitle of Poly- 
carp, Bishop of Smyrna. A letter addressed to the 
Church of God at Philippi. It was probably written 
between A.D. 107 and 155. (6) The Martyrdom of St. 
Polycarp. Written soon after Polyearp's death (A.D. 
1.55). (7) Papias' Treatise on the Words of the Lord. 
Only fragments have been preserved. Written A.D. 130. 
(8) The Epistle to DiogneUis. The author is unknown, 
but it probably belongs to the second century A.D. It 
describes the manners of the early Christians. (9) The 
Pastor or Shepherd of Hernms. The work, which is 
allegorical, consists of Visions, Commandments, and 
Similitudes. It is referred to by Irenaeus and Clement 
of Alexandria. If the Hermas was the brother of Pope 
Pius (.so Muratori), tJie work is to be dated between A.D. 
140 and 156. See Lightfoot's editions of Clement (1869; 
new ed. 1890), Ignatius (1885), and Polycarp (1889); 
Funk's edition of the Apostolic Fathers; Prot. Diet.; 
Cath. Diet.; H. B. Swete, Patristic Study. 1902. 

APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION. In a sense all ministers 
of the Christian Church who carry on the teaching of 
the Aix)stles .share in the Apostolic Succession. 'They 
are doing the same work on the same authority. It may 
be claimed however, with reason, that the vitality of the 
Christian Church can be.st be explained on the supposition 
that a personal force or influence has since the days of 
.Tesus, its founder, been transmitted from one person to 
another. The Apostles were the first agents; and there 
is therefore a deeper .sense in the apostolic succession than 
is implied in a mere preaching of the Gospel. The power 
or influence of the Apostles may have been imparted to 
any person who came in contact with them, and may in 
this way have been disseminated widely. When there- 
fore a person receives " a call " he may have come under 
thus ix>wer or influence. In the Church of England the 
nest step required is ordination, firi?t as deacon, then 
as priest ; but the Church of England " does not deny 
that men cho.sen in other ways are lawfully called to the 
ministry, and, in fact, from 1.559 to 1662, presbyterian 
ministers often oflSeiated and held dignities in the 
Church " (B. Whitehead. Church Law). The Church 
of England maintains that " episcopacy is necessary to 
the 'well-being,' but not to the ' being ' of a Church, in 
other words, that it is the best form of ecclesiastical 
polity." If, however, it could be shown that the apos- 
tolic power or influence was directly and deliberately 
transferred to certain i)ers)ons. and that through them it 
has been transferred uninterruptedly to others, apostolic 
succession will have a .still deeper meaning than those 
already mentioned. This kind of aiwstolie succes.sion is, 
as a matter of fact, claime<l for the bishops of Rome, of 
the Greek Church, and of the Church of England. The 
P.ishop of Rome claims to be the successor of the Apostle 
Peter. As regards the Church of England, the Catholic 
Church existed in Britain (Wales) before the Roman 
mission. The first Welsh bishop is supposed to have l)een 
ArLstobulus, who is .said to have died in A.D. 67. The 
claim is l)est supported in the case of the Greek Church 
(Antioch and Alexandria). The Church of Rome claims, 
in addition, a peculiar universal jurisdiction in virtue of 
its relationship to Peter, to whom .Tesus is said to have 
addressed the words : " Thou art Peter, and upon this 
rock I will build my church ... I will give unto thee 
the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whatsoever thou 
shalt bind on earth .shall be bound in heaven, and what- 
-soever thou shalt loo.«e on earth, shall be loosed in 
heaven" (Matthew xvi. IS /.). We are told that " it is 



ApostoHcals 



32 



Apse 



Peter only, who had any individual successor in his 
primacy and his universal jurisdiction " (Addis and 
Arnold). See Prot. Diet.; Oath. Diet. 

APOSTOLICALS. 1. A twelfth century sect founded 
near Cologne and referred to by Evervinus (Jean Mabil- 
lon, Veter. Analec.t. Hi. 152) and St. Bernard (Serm. Ixv., 
Ixvi., in Cantica). The members of the sect favoured 
celibacy, but were allowed to have .spiritual sisters. They 
would not eat flesh, and regarded every meal as a 
Eucharist. They denied that there is an intermediate 
state after death, and disapproved of prayers for the 
dead, the invocation of saints, and infant baptism. 
2. A mediaeval sect, founded towards the close of the 
thirteenth century by Gerard Sagarelli of Parma. Saga- 
relli's followers, who belonged mo.stly to Lombardy and 
the Tyrol, were mendicants who went about bareheaded, 
unshorn, clothed in white, and accompanied often by 
" sisters," as they were not permitted to marry. They 
lived in expectation of the fulfilment of the prophecies of 
Joachim, Abbot of Flora, that is to say, in expectation 
of the rise of a new and purer Church. Coming into 
conflict with the civil power and the Church, the latter 
tried to suppress them by means of the Inquisition. 
Sagarelli .suffered death by burning A.D. 1300. He was 
succeeded by Doleino of Novara, who not only inveighed 
against the Pope, Bonifact viii., but put himself at the 
head of an army and fought against the papal troops. 
He was ultimatelv captured, and was executed in 1307 at 
Vercelli. See J. H. Blunt. 

APOSTOLICI. Another name for the APOTACTICS 
(q.v.). 

APOSTOLICON. In the Canon of Marcion (c. 144 
A.D.) the New Te.stament consists of two jrarts : the 
Gospel and the " Apostle " or Apostolicon. 

APOSTOLICUS. A title used at tirst generally of 
Christian bishops. Later it was used only of metro- 
politans or primates (.so Pope Siricius. about A.D. .390). 
Later still (ninth century) it came to lx» used only of the 
Popes. See Cath. Diet. 

APOSTOLOS. This name was given to a lectionary 
containing passages from the Acts of the Apostles in the 
early Christian Church. See LBCTIONARIES. 

APOSTOOLIANS. The followers of Samuel Apostool, 
a Baptist preacher at Amsterdam (A.D. 1664). The sect 
was an off-shoot of the Waterlanders. Dutch Baptists. 
The other division of the Waterlanders received the 
name Galenists from their leader, Galen Abraham 
de Haan. 

APOTACTICS. A sect which seems to have advocated 
the renunciation of private property. Epiphanius and 
Augustine identify them with a sect having the name 
Apostolici. They took this name no doubt because they 
believed they were following the apostolic mode of life. 

APOTHEOSIS. The deification of kings and heroes. 
This might take place during their life or on their death. 
The Roman Emperors sometimes claimed or were 
assigned divine honours in their life-time (e.g., Julius, 
Augustus, Domitian, and Commodus). The Ancient 
Egyptians deified their kings in the same way. The 
deification and worship of ancestors has been widespread. 
See ANCESTOR- WORSHIP. 

APOTTATOU. The name of one of the deities in the 
early Egyptian religion. The meaning of the name is 
" he who opens the ways," and the ways referred to are 
the paths of unexplored regions. So, when the kings 
went to war, Apouatou was borne before them to show 
them the way. The deity was carried, in the form of a 
jacical or dog, on a kind of perch. At a later date 
he became merged in Osiris (g.v.). See Naville, The Old 
Egyptian Faith, 1909. p. 46. 

APPARITIONS. Primitive folk believe that during 



sleep the soul leaves the body and makes journeys, some- 
times of great di.stance. It may (.so think, e.g., the New 
Zealanders) on these journeys go to visit distant friends, 
even penetrating to the region of the dead. In like 
manner, the souls of the dead revisit the living. 
The reality of Apparitions has been contended for 
in modem times. It has been claimed, on the one 
hand, that the dead .-^metimes appear to the living, 
and on the other hand, that living people some- 
times appear to others at a distance. The evidence for 
the theory of phantasms of the living seems to be in- 
creasing. We can hardly speak of " evidence " for 
phantasms of the dead. In any case, it is possible to 
explain most cases of apparition by Telepathy (q.v.). 
Cp. Brand's Popular Antiquities, ed. C. Hazlitt, 1905. 

APPEALS, ACT OF. An Act of Parliament passed in 
the reign of Henrj' viii. (1533). It declared that the 
Church of England was empowered to deal with spiritual 
questions affecting it, and that appeals should l)e made 
to no higher authority than the Archbishop. 

APPELLANTS. A name given to those theologians 
who rejected the papal Bull " Unigenitus " (1713) which 
condemned the views of the Jansenist leader Pasquier 
Quesnel (16.34-1719). They were so called because they 
desired that the matter should be referred to a General 
Council. See JANSENISTS. 

APPLES. In the Old Testament book, the Song of 
Songs, the apple (or the quince) is associated with love 
and marriage (ii. 3 and 4, viii. 5). A Hebrew Midrash 
states that in Egypt before the days of Moses the Hebrew 
women were delivered of children under the apple-trees. 
Among the Ottoman Jews it is the custom for a mother 
who is about to bear a child to put an apple on her head. 
Arab women eat fruit in order to make themselves fertile. 
Hartland notes that " among the Southern Slavs the 
bride is unveiled beneath an apple-tree and the veil is 
sometimes hung on the tree." Tu.scan women, when 
they want children, get a priest to bless an apple. Then 
ihey pronounce over it an invocation to Saint Anne. In 
King-yang-fu in China the women resort to a goddess of 
fertility. Appearing in a dream, the goddess " gives fruit 
to the pilgrim, an apple or a peach if she is to have a 
bov, plums or pears if a girl." See E. S. Hartland, P.P. 

APPLE-HOWLING. A name given to an old religious 
custom in England. It was observed at least in Devon- 
.«hire and Cornwall. On Christmas Eve the parishioners 
walked in procession to the apple orchards, where, 
standing around a particular tree, they sprinkled it with 
cider, placed cakes of toast and sugar in its branches, 
and prayed for its fruitfulness. See W. Carew Hazlitt, 
and Sidney Heath. 

APPROBATION. As a technical Roman Otholic term, 
this means " the formal judgment of a prelate, that a 
prie.st is fit to hear confessions." The approbation given 
" by the bishop, or one who has quasi-episcopal jurisdic- 
tion, is needed for the validity of absolution given by a 
.secular priest, unless the said priest has a parochial 
benefice." See Cath. Diet. 

APRIL FOOLS' DAT. A name for the 1st of April, 
which was ob.served in ancient Britain as a general 
festival. It was really the old Feast of the Vernal 
Equinox. It was called April Fools' Day on account of 
the playful revelry with which the festival was associated, 
as the l)eginning of the joys of Spring-time. The 
Spaniards and Swedes have ob.served the same custom. 
One of the customs at the Hindu Holi Festival is said to 
be " an exact reproduction of April Fools' Day." People 
are made " Holi fools " hy being .sent on useless errands, 
etc. See W. C. Hazlitt: E. W. Hopkins, Religions of 
India, 1895. 

APSE. From a Greek word meaning " a wheel " or 



Apsu 



33 



Archontics 



" an arch." The apse was an architectural feature in 
the basilicas or halls of justice which were used by the 
Christians as places of worship in the early days of the 
Church. It was a " semi-circular or polygonal termina- 
tion " to the aisles of a Basilica, in which the judges 
sat. The apse was retained in the Byzantine style of 
Church architecture, as may be seeji in the Church of 
St. Sophia at Constantinople (sixth century). The semi- 
circular ap.se also became a feature in some of the 
churches in England built in the Norman style. Norwich 
Cathedral is a good example. " On the Continent the 
apse continued in use much later tlian in England, where 
the practice of making the east end of the churches square 
began early in the Norman period " (J. H. Parker). See 
J. H. Parker, Gloss.; Oath. Diet. 

APSU. A name occurring in Babylonian-Assyrian 
religion. It is a personification of the "watery deep " 
and synonymous with Tiamat. In course of time, 
it was represented that the gods were bom of a union 
between Apsu and TiSmat. a union, that is to say, between 
water, the first element, and chaos. See Morris Jastrow, 
Rel. 

AQU^I. A sect mentioned by St. Augustine, and pro- 
bably to be identified with the Hydrotheitae. 

AQUARIANS. THE. An early Church sect the 
members of which, instead of using wine in the Lord's 
Supper, used consecrated water. 

AQUAVITA FATHERS. A name given to the Jesuats 
{q.v.). 

ARABES, or ARABICI. An Arabian sect of the third 
century, the adherents of which believed that soul and 
body died together, only to be re-united and revived at 
the last day. They were converted by Origen at a 
council of Bishops held about A.D. 2.50. 

'ARAFAH, THE MOUNT OF. See SERMON ON 
THE MOUNT, MUHAMMADAN. 

ARAKHIN. One of the treatises of the Mishnah 
(q.v.). 

ARAKH-SHAMNA. The name of the eighth month in 
the Babylonian calendar. It was sacred to Marduk 
iq.v.). The 15th day of the month was sacred to 
Shamash, Malkatu, and Bunene {qq.v.). See Morris 
Jastrow, Rel. 

ARALC. A name for the nether-world In Babylonian- 
Assyrian religion. It is supposed to be a cave under- 
neath the earth to which all the dead went. It seems 
also to be called "house of AralQ." In later usage it 
is also the name of the mountain within which the nether- 
world (AralQ itself) lay. See Morris Jastrow, Rel. 

ARAMO. Aramo, " the gentle," was one of the names 
given by the ancient Celts to a god who corresponded 
to the Roman Jupiter. 

ARATTI CEREMONY. A Hindu ceremony (also called 
ARTI) which only married women (not widows) and 
courtesans may perform. It is thus described by Dubois 
(ed. Beauchamp). " A lamp made of kneaded rice-flour 
is placed on a metal dish or plate. It is then filled with 
oil or liquefied butter and lighted. The women each take 
hold of the plate in turn and raise it to the level of the 
I>erson's head for whom the ceremony is being performed, 
describing a .specified number of circles with it. Instead 
of using a lighted lamp they sometimes content them- 
.selves with filling a vessel with water coloured with 
saffron, vermilion, and other ingredients. The object of 
this ceremony is to counteract the influence of the evil 
eye and any ill-effects which, according to Hindu belief, 
may arise from the jealous and spiteful looks of ill- 
intentioned per.sons." The ceremony is practised fre- 
quently, even daily, on behalf of distinguished persons, 
by courtesans or dancing-girls. The dancing-girls of the 
temples perform it twice daily over the images of the 



gods whom they serve. It is even performed over 
elephants, horses, etc. See J. A. Dubois and H. K. 
Beauchamp. 

ARCHANGELS. See ANGELS. 

ARCHBISHOP. An ecclesiastical title, first used in 
the fourth century A.D. Athanasius (e. 29.5-37.3) styled 
himself Archbishop. Originally bishops of the Christian 
Church in charge of a province and having suffragan 
bishops under them were called metropolitans. When 
in course of time the bishops of the greater cities them- 
selves had suffragan bishops to assi.st them, these became 
metropolitans, and a new title " primate," "exarch," or 
" archbishop " was given to the old metropolitans. The 
only difference now between the terms " archbishop " and 
" metropolitan " is that a metropolitan always has 
suffragans. There seem to have been three archbishoprics 
in Roman times. These were London, York, and Caer- 
leon. Menevia or St. David's afterwards took the place 
of Caerleon. In the sixth and seventh centuries Canter- 
bury and York were the recognized archbishoprics. St. 
David's remained as before until it was amalgamated 
with Canterbury (c. A.D. 1147). In the eighth century 
Lichfield also was an archbishopric for a short time. This 
also was amalgamated with Canterbury. Ireland 
originally had four archbishoprics, Armagh, Dublin, 
Cashel, and Tuam, which have been retained by the 
Roman Catholics. The Protestants have now only two, 
Armagh and Dublin. There are now a number of 
colonial archbishops (Cape Town, Ottawa, Rupert's 
Land, Jamaica, Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane). The 
Archbishop of Canterbury is " Primate of All England," 
and crowns the sovereigns of England. The Archbishop 
of York is called " Primate of England." The two 
Archbishops are independent; their authority is co- 
ordinate. Since 1850 the Roman Catholics have had an 
Archbishop of Westminster. The first holder of the oflBee 
was Nicholas Wiseman. The .superior dignity of an 
archbishop in the Roman Catholic Church is still marked 
by two insignia—" the pallium with which he is invested 
by the Holy See, and the donble cross borne on his 
' stemma ' over his arms." He " has the right of 
carrying his cross throughout his province, except in the 
presence of the Pope or a Cardinal I^egate " (Addis and 
Arnold). See Prot. Diet.; Cath. Diet. 

ARCHDEACON. Originally an ordinary deacon (q.v.) 
chosen by a bishop to assist him. In course of time he 
acquired great power, and became almost equal to a 
bishop. It became necessary in the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries to restrict his power and jurisdiction. 
In the Roman Catholic Church the office has now been 
entirely, and in the Greek Church almost entirely, 
abolished. In the Church of England the office is stiU 
an important one, but the dignity is inferior to that of 
a Dean (q.v.), and an archdeacon's powers and duties 
in no way compete with those of a bishop. He is the 
bishop's Vicegerent in administrative matters, being in 
most cases appointed by the bishop himself. See Prot. 
Diet.; Cath. Diet. 

ARCHES, COURT OF. An ecclesiastical court of the 
Church of England, so called because it us«d to be held 
by the Dean of Arches at the church in London called 
St. Mary le Bow (" Sancta Maria de Arcubus "). It is 
the Court of Appeal from all Diocesan Courts in the 
province of Canterbury. See, further, Prot. Diet. 

ARCHIMANDRITE. A designation in the Greek 
Church of the dignitary who is placed at the head of a 
number of abbeys and convents. 

ARCHONTICS. A second century sect named after an 
anchorite Archon, or after the angels or arch-spirits (Gk. 
arehontes). who presided over seven of the worlds into 
which they divided the Universe. The sect originated 



Archpriest 



34 



Arianism 



in Palestine and spread to Armenia. The eighth world 
in their system of the Universe was a higher world ruled 
by the iiarent power. They are said to have denied the 
resurrection; and they did not recognise Baptism or the 
Holy Eucharist. They had their own apocryphal books. 
These, and not Holy Scripture, were their inspired and 
sacred works. They did not marry, regarding woman as 
a creation of the devil. See J. H. Blunt. 

ARCHPRIEST. This was formerly the title of an 
officer in the Roman Catholic Church, and is said to date 
from the fourth century. He was at first attached to a 
cathedral as chief of the presbyters. Afterwards arch- 
priests were appointed in the larger towns. In 1598, the 
missionary priests in England having no recognised head. 
Pope Clement VIII. appointed George Blackwell (1545?- 
1013) their superior as " Archpriest." Twelve priests 
were also nominated as his assistants. Blackwell was 
deprived of office in 1608 for talking an oath of civil alle- 
giance which Pope Urban V. had condemned. He was 
succeeded by George Birket or Birkhead. On his death 
in 1014, William Harrison (1553-1021) was appointed. He 
was the last archpriest. After his death William Bishop 
(1554-1024) was made Bishop of Chaleedon and the first 
vicar-apostolic of England and Scotland. See Cath. 
Diet.; the D.N.B. 

ARDIBAHISHT. The name of one of the archangels 
in the Zoroastrian religion. He was originally called 
nshavahishta, " the best righteousness." Ardlbahisht 
represents " the blazing flame of fire, the light in 
luminaries, and brightness and .splendour of any kind 
whatever, wherever it may exist " (Haug). 

ARDI-BA. A figure in Babylonian mythology. In the 
Gilgamesh Epic (Q.f.) Ardi-Ea is the ferryman who takes 
Gilgamesh across the waters of death to the fountain of 
life. 

ARES. The Greek name for the god of war, Mars 
(q.v.). 

AREVURDIS. An Armenian .sect. 

ARGENTEUS CODEX. A fragmentary manuscript of 
the Gothic translation of the Gosi)els. It is written in 
silver letters on purple parchment, dates from the sixth 
century, and is preserved in the University Library at 
Upsala. See C. R. Gregory. 

ARGONAUTS. An ancient Greek legend, already well 
known in the time of Homer. A number of heroes sailed 
under .Jason, .son of .aSson, in a fifty-oared ves.sel called 
the " Argo," to Colchis on the Black Sea to fetch the 
golden fleece of the ram on which Phrixus had fled. The 
fleece was held by .aretes, a magician. .aSetes sets Jason 
a task, which seems impossible, and promises on its 
successful performance to hand over the fleece. Medea, 
.35etes' daughter, falls in love with .Tason, and helps 
him by her witchcraft to overcome his difficulties. They 
then escape together. Seyffert points out that " as the 
story spread, all the Greek heroes tliat could have been 
living at the time were included among the number of 
the Argonauts " (Diet.). 

ARHAT. In Buddhism " the Holy One," tie ideal 
ancient monk, one who had gained entrance to Nirvana 
by strictly obeying the teaching of the Buddha. In 
Lamaism sixteen of the chief apostles of the Buddha are 
called " Arhats." See H. Hackmann. 

ARIANISM. The doctrines of Arius, a native of Libya, 
who was borne soon after the middle of the third century, 
and became a presbyter in Alexandria in A.D. .313. The 
Arian Controversy started from a criticism by Arius of 
a discourse on the Trinity delivered by Alexander his 
bishop. The Bishop having explained that the unity in 
the Trinity consisted in an indivisible unity of substance 
or essence, " a certain one of the presbyters under his 



jurisdiction, whose name was Arius, possessed of no in- 
considerable logical acumen, imagining that the bishop 
entertained the same view of this subject as Sal)ellius 
the Libyan [see SABELLIANISM], controverted his 
statements with excessive pertinacity, advancing another 
error which was directly opposed indeed to that which 
he suppo.sed him.self called upon to refute. ' If,' he said, 
' the Father begat the Son, he that was begotten had a 
beginning of existence : and from this it is evident that 
there was a time when the Son was not in being. It 
therefore necessarily follows that he had his existence 
(hnpostasis) from nothing' " (Socrates, Eccles. Hist.). 
Alexander excommunicated Arius. and those who sympa- 
thised with him, who took a further step, denied the co- 
eternity and co-equality of the Son with the Father, and 
maintained that he differed from other beings in being 
created out of nothing as the first and highest of God's 
creatures. Arius was dei)osed at Alexandria in 321. In 
323 a synod at P.ithynia pronounced in his favour. But 
at the famous Council of Nicaea in Bithynia, convoked 
by the Emperor Constantine in 325, the doctrine of the 
Trinity was carefuU.v defined in a way unfavourable to 
Arius, who was at the same time banished to Illyricum. 
The Nicene Creed declared that the Son was "begotten, 
not made, being of one essence (homoousion) with the 
Father," and anathematized those who say that " there 
was once when he was not," and " before he was begotten 
he was not," and " he was made of things that were 
not," or maintain that the Son of God is of a different 
essence (hupostasis or ousia) or created or subject to 
moral change or alteration." The great champion of 
orthodoxy was Athanasius (the " Father of orthodoxy "), 
who was born about A.D. 295, and became Bishop of 
Alexandria in 328. In the course of his struggles with 
the Arians, he suffered banishment five times, his 
opponents t;emporarily getting the upper hand. There 
was a re-action against the Nicene Formula after Con- 
stantine's death (337). Athanasius could be said at times 
to stand against the world (" Athanasius contra mun- 
dum "), and there was a period (A.D. 359 esi)ecially) of 
which it could be said that " the whole world groaned, 
and was astounded to find itself Arian " (Jerome). But 
a counter-reaction set in after the death of the Emperor 
Constantius (A.D. 301), and in A.D. .381 at the Council 
of Constantinople the Creed of Nicaea was re-affirmed. 
Arius, of course, was not the only leader, and Arianism 
had a number of able exponents. One of his earliest 
friends and sympathisers was Eusebius, Bishop of Nioo- 
media (d. 342), who became head of a party, the Euse- 
bians. Another Eusebius (bom about A.D. 270), Bishop 
of Caesarea and famous as a historian, also took part in 
the controversy. His followers also were called Euse- 
bians as well as Semi-Arians. They maintained that the 
Son was " like in .substance to the Father." Their 
teaciing was therefore Homoiousian not Homooiisian. 
Strict Arianism was represented by Aetius and his 
disciple Eunomius, whence they were called Aetians or 
Eunomians. They were also known as Anomoeans or 
Heterousians, because they said that the substance of the 
.Son was unlike (anomoios) that of the Father; or as 
Exucontians because they maintained that he was created 
from nothing (ex ouk onton). Another leader was 
Aeacius, who contended simply that the Son is " like " 
the Father, and refused to use the phrase " like in sub- 
stance or essence." His followers have been called 
Acaciana or Homoeans (from homoios "like"). The 
heterodox parties have also been called Antinicaans or 
Antinicenes as compared with the orthodox Athanasians 
or Nicenes. In the fifth century A.D. Arianism was ex- 
pelled from the Roman Empire, but obtained a hold 
among the Vandals, Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Burgundians, 



Ariaarod 



35 



Armeno- Protestants 



Suevi, and Lombards. It was through Arianism that 
these Teutonic tribes were introduced to Christianity. 
By the year 662, however, they had all passed over to 
the orthodox faith. See J. H. Newman, The Avians of 
the Fourth Century, new ed., 1S91: H. M. Gwatkin, The 
Arian Controversy, 18S9; J. H. Blunt, Heresies, etc.. 1903; 
Cath. Didt.; Chambers' Encyclop.; and Brockhaus. 

ARIANROD. Arianrod appears as the name of a 
goddess revered by the ancient Celts in Britain and asso- 
ciated with the god Gwydion (q.v.). The name was 
popularly understood to mean Silver Wheel. Arianrod 
is said to have been the mother of Lieu (q.r.). See 
Squire, Myth. 

ARICOUTE. A deity in the mj-thology of the Tupi 
tribe of Brazil. He is the god of darkness who is van- 
quished daily by his brother Timondonar, the god of light. 

ARIEL. A name applied to Jerusalem in an Old Testa- 
ment prophecy. Ariel (Arial) seems to mean " altar- 
hearth." When the city is besieged the slaughter in its 
streets will make it like an altar-hearth. The name has 
also been explained as meaning " lion of God " or 
" hearth of God." See Encycl. Bibl. 

ARISTO. DIALOGUE OF. Eusebius refers (Church 
Hist., iv. 6) to a Dialogue between Papiscus and Jason 
written by Ari.sto of Pella. The work, which was of an 
apologetic nature, has been lost. See A. Hamack, 
Oesch. der altchristl. Lit. Ms Eusebius (1893 and 1897); 
Louis Duchesne, Hist. 

ARK. For the ark of Noah, see DELUGE. 

ARK OF THE COVENANT. A sacred chest among 
the Hebrews. It contained some sacred objects, but what 
tiese were originally is not stated. They were probably 
sacred stones, perhaps stones used in seeking oracles. It 
was not at first call€KJ the Ark of the Covenant. It was 
known at one time as the Ark of the Testimony (Exodus 
XXV. 22), and was .supposed to have been so called because 
it contained the two stones on which were inscribed the 
ten commandments. It was an early belief that in some 
way or other the ark represented the presence of Jehovah. 
It was taken into battle that Jehovah Zehaoth, the god 
of war, might lead Israel's hosts to victory (I. Samuel 
iv. 3-8: cp. I. Sam. xvii. 4.5). According to later writers, 
those who had charge of it were themselves required to 
be priests or Levites (Joshua iv., 9, Priestly Code; I. 
Chronicles xv., 15). David transported it to Zion, his 
own city (2 Samuel vi. 7 /.), and Solomon set it in the 
most sacred part of his temple (I. Kings vi. 19). It 
came in course of time to be known as the Ark of the 
Covenant (Joshua ill. 6), because Jehovah was supposed 
to have made a covenant with his people. It was then 
thought to contain the documents relating to this cove- 
nant (I. Kings viii. 9). According to Exodus xxv. 10-22, 
xxxvii. 6-9 (Prie.stly Code), a magnificent golden cover 
was made for it. The Ark disappeared before the 
destruction of the temple. See H. Guthe, Kurzes Bihel- 
wiirterbuch; Encycl. Bibl. 

ARMAGEDDON. In the New Testament (Revelation 
16, 16 ; RV Har-Magedon) represented as tine scene of the 
last great battle when the kings of the whole world shall 
be gathered together " for the war of the great day of 
God the Almighty." The writer seems to have had in 
mind " the mountain district (Hebrew ftar=mountain) 
of Megiddo." Assuming, however, that the writer was 
drawing upon a little apocalypse written in Hebrew, it 
has l)een -suggested that he misinterpreted the second 
word of the expression. A ver.y similar word would 
give the meaning " his fruitful mountain." This would 
mean " the mountain-land of Israel." H. Gunkel's idea 
that the name of a Babylonian goddess of the underworld 
(Migadon) forms the second part of the expressions seems 
rather fanciful. See Encycl. Bihl. 



ARMAITI. The name of a goddess or archangel in tie 
Zoroastrian religion. She is the angel of the earth, 
personifies prayer, and is described as " the bountiful." 
Armaiti belongs to the number of the seven Amesha- 
spentas or archangels. The name originally means 
" devotion, obedience." She al.so appears as Spenta- 
Armaiti (Spendarmad), " tie bountiful Armaiti." See 
Martin Haug. 

ARMASITES. A .seventh century sect founded by 
Harmasius, an Egyptian. 

ARMENIAN CHURCH. The Armenian Church was 
firmly established as a branch of the Christian Church 
in A.D. 300 by Gregory the Illuminator (A.D. 257-325), 
who was supported by King Tiridates III. Gregory 
became its head or Catholicos (A.D. 302-318), the office 
for some centuries being made hereditary, and fixed the 
chief see at Etchmiazin near Mount Ararat. He con- 
ciliated the pagan priests by allowing the continuance of 
.sacrifices for the dead, etc., but the formulae were 
christianized and the chief priests were made bishops. 
At first the Catholicos was ordained at Caesarea in 
Cappadocia. Mona.srticism was introduced in the fourth 
century by Basil (A.D. 330-379). In the fifth century 
Mesrop and Isaac the Great translated the Old Testa- 
ment into Armenian and revised an already existing 
translation of the New Testament. They also translated 
Greek liturgies and homilies. This made the Armenians 
more independent. After the Persian conquest, the con- 
nection with Caesarea was broken (c. A.D. 370), and 
towards the end of the fifth century the Armenians 
declined to accept the decrees of the Council of Chalcedon 
(A.D. 451). The Church then became Monophvsite (see 
JIONOPHYSITES). Some of the members took up an 
extreme position, and in the seventh centui-y existed as 
a sect called Paulicians. Since the time of the Cru- 
sades, some of the Armenians {e.g., in Cilicia, Poland, 
and Russia), the Uniats, have recognised the Pope. In 
Turkey many of the clergy and laity amongst the 
" United Armenians " went over to Rome altogether in 
1879. There has been change and development in 
Armenian wor.ship. The Armenians used not to observe 
the Christmas Festival. They commemorated the 
Baptism of Jesus, the spiritual birth, and introduced a 
commemoration of the human birth later (c. A.D. 500). 
They observed the Jewish Sabbath as well as the 
Christian Sunday. Originally they praetLsed Adult 
baptism, but they added Infant baptism later (eighth 
century). The Feast of the Annunciation was established 
in the ninth century. Protestant missionaries have had 
some success in Turkey. See F. C. Convbeare in Prot. 
Diet., 1904, and in R.8.W., 1908; Cath. Diet.; M 
Ormanian, The Church of Armenia, 1912. 

ARMENO-CATHOLICS. A sect in Turkey and else- 
where, an off-shoot of the Armenian Church. In Turkey 
the.v form a nationality (millet) of their own with a 
special hierarch.v. " In Russia the Armeno-Catholics 
have formed a community of their own, but it is subject 
to the control of the Roman Catholic bishop of Saratoff 
There are also to be reckoned a certain number in Galicia 
and in Hungary ; these, however, have no relations with 
their oo-religioni.sts in the East " (Malachia Ormanian). 

ARMENO-GREEKS. A body in the Ottoman empire 
which separated from the Armenian Church during the 
period of Byzantine rule. The sect was at one time very 
numerous, but its membership has now dwindled to a few 
thousands. 

j\JlMENO-PROTESTANTS. A sect in Turkey, an off- 
.shoot of the Armenian Church, due to the zeal of 
American missionaries. The Armeno-Protestants have 
endeavoured to form a special nationality (millet). 
" Their profession of faith is based on the principles of 



Armeno-Russians 



36 



Artemonites 



the Evangelical Church; a few of their number belong 
to the Episcopal and Baptist persuasions" (Malachia 
Ormanian). 

AKMENO-RUSSIANS. A small sect in the Caucasus, 
an offshoot of the Armenian Church. 

ARMINIAN BAPTISTS. See BAPTISTS. 

ARMINIANS. The followers of Jakobus Arminius 
(1500-lCOS), who in 1603 was made professor at Leiden. 
Having engaged in a controversy on Predestination in 
which he championed the views of Calvin, he became 
himself in course of time a convert to Universalism, and 
was accused of Pelagianism. He met with determined 
opposition from his colleague at Leiden, Franz Gomarus 
(15(;3-lfi41), whose followers became known as Gomarists. 
After the death of Arminius (1609), the battle between 
his supporters and opjionents continued. In 1610 the 
Arminians were so fiercely attacked that they drew up 
a remonstrance, which led to their being called Remon- 
strants. The remonstrance contained five articles. It 
claimed (1) that for Christ's sake all who believe in him 
and persevere in this belief to the end are saved by the 
grace of God; (2) that Christ died for all who by faith 
make his merit their own; (3) and (4) that a man can 
only have faith through Grace, but Grace is not irre- 
sistible ; and (5) that those who believe can by the Spirit 
overcome sin, the world, the flesh, and the devil, but 
Scripture must decide whether those who have been bom 
again can lapse. The Calvinistic party, or the Gomarists, 
became known as the Counter-remonstrants. Con- 
ferences were held at the Hague (1610) and at Delft (1613), 
but no reconciliation was effected. At the Synod of 
Dort (Nov. 13, 1618, to the end of April, 1619), to which 
representatives were sent from England, the Arminians, 
under Simon Episeopius, also called Bishop or Biscop 
(1583-1643), a Professor of Leiden, could not obtain a fair 
hearing. They therefore retired and were condemned 
and excommunicated in their absence. Hugo Grotius or 
de Groot (1583-1645), one of their leading men, was 
sentenced to life-long imprisonment, but escaped after 
two years. In 1630 some toleration was extended to 
them in Holland, and in 1634 an edict of toleration was 
passed. In the same year Episeopius opened a Seminary 
for Remonstrants in Amsterdam. Here he developed 
the ideas of Arminius and made them more universalistie. 
Henceforth Arminianism in Holland became more and 
more free in its interpretion of Scripture, the creeds, 
and ecclesiastical government. A certain kind of 
Arminianism has been represented in the Church of Eng- 
land from time to time. But compared with the later 
Dutch school, it has been of a moderate kind. In the 
reign of Charles I. those who were opposed to Calvinism 
were called Arminians, and in the time of Laud the Lati- 
tudinarians were described in the same way. See P. 
Zeller, Calwer Eirchenlexikon, 1889, etc.; J. H. Blunt; 
Chambers' Encycl. 

ARNOLDISTS. The followers of Arnold of Brescia, a 
reformer and an opponent of the Papacy in the twelfth 
century. Arnold was a disciple of Abelard (A.D. 1079- 
1164). He preached in Brescia against the worldliness 
of the clergy and excited the people, whereupon he was 
cited before the Second Lateran Council (A.D. 1139), held 
under Pope Innocent II., which banished him from Italy. 
He removed to France, but the hostility of St. Bernard 
drove him to Ziirich. In Ziirieh he stayed about five 
years. A rising against the papal government having 
broken out in Rome in A.D. 1143, Arnold repaired thither 
and preached against the secular rule of the Papacy and 
in favour of the revival of the ancient Roman republic. 
The insurrection continued for some years, and in the 
course of it Pope Lucius II. was killed (A.D. 1145). 
At the end of 1154 it was subdued by Pope Adrian IV. 



(Nicholas Breakspear). whereupon Arnold fled to Cam- 
pania. Soon afterwards (A.D. 11.55) the Emperor 
Frederick I. had him arrested and handed over to the 
Pope at Rome, where he was hanged and his body burned. 
He was afterwards held in great reverence by the 
Italians. The Amoldists lived on into the thirteenth 
century. See Adolf Hausrath, Arnold von Brescia, 1891; 
Die Artioldisten, 1895. 

ARRHABONARII. A name formed from the Greek 
word arrhabon, " a pledge," and given to a Polish sect 
or party, because its members held that in the Holy 
Eucharist the worshipper receives a pledge (not a present 
gift) of a gift to be enjoyed in heaven. 

ARROWS, MAGIC. In the North American Indian 
myth of the Red Swan, the hunter O.libwa makes use of 
three magic arrows. ■ Among the Hindus the god of 
love (Kama-deva) is represented as having five arrows, 
the arrow that puts to flight, the arrow that enchants, 
the arrow that fascinates, the love-kindling arrow, and 
the love-inflaming arrow. See Monier-Williams. 

ARSUS. An Arabian deity, one of the heavenly twins, 
the evening star. Adopted by the Palmyrenes. Called 
also Monimus. 

ARTAIOS. A god, perhaps of agriculture, worshipped 
by the continental Celts. Inscriptions to him have been 
found in France. The King Arthur of British legend 
was probably evolved out of an old hero-god worshipped 
by British Celts. 

ARTEMIS. The Greek goddess corresponding to the 
Roman goddess Diana. She is said to have been 
daughter of Zeus and Leto and twin-sister of Apollo, 
Delos having been the place of her birth, and she was 
worshipped in his shrines. Like Apollo, she carried bow 
and arrows. She was goddess of Light by night, of 
Nature, and of the Chase. As the latter, her favourite 
animal was the hind, and cakes made in the shape of 
this animal were offered at her festival (Elaphebolla). 
As goddess of Light, she became goddess of the Moon, 
and in Attica at full moon roiind cakes were offered to 
her. Reverence was also paid her by girls and boys as 
the Guardian of youth. There were several Asiatic 
goddesses who bore the same name. Thus there was a 
Tauric Artemis, a Scythian deity, to whom human 
sacrifices were burnt and offered. There was a Perasian 
Artemis at Castabala in southern Cappadocia, whose 
priestesses walked over a charcoal fire, this being 
apparently a substitute for a human sacrifice by burning. 
A native goddess at Perga in Pamphylia, whose symbol 
was also a cone, was called Artemis by the Greeks; and 
the Sarpedonian Artemis of south-eastern Cilieia was 
probably another native goddess. See O. Seyffert, Diet.; 
J. G. Frazer, Adonis Attis Osiris, 1906. 

ARTEMONITES. The followers of Artemon or 
Artemas who taught early in the third century and denied 
the Divinity of the Second and Third Persons in the 
Trinity. He held that Christ after his incarnation re- 
ceived a certain portion of the Divine Nature. We learn 
from a quotation in the Eccelsiastical History of Euse- 
bius (v. 28) that the Artemonites tried to find support 
for their system in geometry and philosophy. " The 
sacred Scriptures have been boldly perverted by them; the 
rule of the ancient faith they have set aside, Christ they 
have renounced, not inquiring what the holy Scriptures 
declared, but zealously labouring what form of reasoning 
may be devised to establish their impiety. And should 
any one present a passage of divine truth, they examined 
first whether a connected or disjoined form of syllogism 
can be formed from it. But they abandon the holy 
Scriptures for the study of geometry ; as being of the 
earth, they talk of the earth, and know not him that 



Articles of the Church of England 



37 



Asceticism 



oometh from above. Euclid, therefore, is industriously 
measured by them. Aristotle and Theophrastus are also 
admired, and a.s to Galen, he is even perhaps worshipped 
by some." 

ARTICLES OP THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. 
Doctrinal statements put forth in the sixteenth century. 
There were a series of such Articles culminating in The 
xxxix. Articles, as finally revised and synodically sanc- 
tioned in 1571, which are now, reasonably interpreted, 
authoritative for the Church. The earlier series were : 
(1) The X. Articles of 1536. These rejected or ignored 
some of the seven Roman Catholic Sacraments, explain- 
ing only those of Baptism, Penance, and the Sacrament 
of the Altar. (2) The xiii. Articles of 1538. Influenced 
by the Confession of Augsburg, they bear the marks of 
an attempt to come to terms with the Lutherans. The 
xiii. Articles of 1538 found among Cranmer's papers were 
not put forth authoritatively. (3) The vi. Articles of 
1539. These were reactionary, for they favoured Com- 
munion in one kind, clerical celibacy, vows of chastity, 
private masses, and auricular confession. (4) The xiii. 
Articles of 1553. To some extent influenced by the Con- 
fession of Augsburg, and largely the work of Cranmer 
and Ridley, these indicate a reassertion of the reforming 
spirit. (5) The xi. Articles of 1561. Put forth by Arch- 
bishop Parker on his own authority, these disallow 
private Masses and worship of images and relies, and re- 
admit Communion in both kinds. (6) The xxxix. Articles 
ot 1563. These owed much to Archbishop Parker, and 
were based upon the xiii. Articles and the Wiirtemburg 
Confession of 15.52. See Prot. Diet.; B. J. Kidd, The 
Thirty-nine Articles, 1908. 

ARTICLES OF PRAGUE. The confession of faith of 
the Hussites. John Zisca issued it in the year 1420. 

ARTIO. Artio was the name of a goddess worshipped 
by the ancient Celts. The name means " she-bear." On 
a bronze bas-relief discovered at Muri near Berne the 
goddess is represented as sitting with a huge bear in 
front of her. Originally, it would seem, the goddess 
herself was represented as a bear. Then she assumed 
a human form, but had a bear as her companion. Reinach 
points out tliat " the memory of the worship of the bear 
has persisted in the city of the bear (Berne) throughout 
the ages." See Anwvl: Reinach, O. 

ARTOTTRITAE. A division of the later Montanists 
(q.v.) of Phrygia, who partook of bread (Gk. artos) and 
cheeee (Gk. turos) at the celebration of tie Lord's Supper. 
The cheese represented the fruit of the flock, as the 
bread did that of the ground. 

ARUNDHATI MARRIAGE-VOW. A Hindu marriage 
custom. After the marriage-feast the couple go outside, 
accompanied by singing women, the guests, and the priest 
(purohita), and preceded by musicians. The priest calls 
their attention to a star, Arundhati, the chaste wife of 
Vasishta Rishi. The couple look at the star with due 
solemnity and vow to live together like Vasishta and 
Arundhati. See J. A. Dubois and H. K. Beauehamp. 

ARUNGQUILTHA. Also written Aninkulta, a term 
u.sed among the Arunta of Central Australia to denote a 
mystic potentiality. The term seems to denote a force, 
and not a personal being. According to Strehlow, it is 
"a force which suddenly stops life and brings death to 
all who come in contact with it." According to Spencer 
and Gillen, "the name is applied indiscriminately to the 
evil influence or to the object in which it is, for the time 
being, or permanently, resident." 

ARURU. The name of a goddess in Babylonian- 
Assyrian religion. In a Babylonian .story of creation it 
is said that she, with Marduk, created mankind : " The 
Goddess Araru created the seed of men together with 
him." She figures also in the Gilgamesh Epic {q.v.). 



Here she creates a human being out of a lump of clay, 
having already created Gilgamesh himself. See Morris 
Jastrow, Rel. 

ARUSPICES, THE. Etruscan priests or diviners who 
predicted the future from an inspection of the entrails 
of sacrificial victims. They were introduced among the 
Romans. 

ARVAL BROTHERS. An early Roman brotherhood 
(Fratres Arvales, " brothers of the fields ") of twelve 
priests devoted to the worship of a goddess of cornfields, 
Dea Dia, who seems to have been identical with Acca 
Larentia. The brothers were life-members, and new 
brethren were co-opted. Under the Empire even the 
Emperors belonged to the Brotherhood. At their chief 
festival (1st, 2nd, and 3rd of Mayj a feature of the cere- 
monial in the temple of the goddess was a dance with the 
singing of the " Arval Hymn," which has been preserved 
and is one of the oldest I^atin texts we possess. Part of 
the festival took place in a grove in which expiatory 
sacrifices were made for any damage done to the trees 
by lightning, etc. See O. Sevffert, Diet. 

ARVAL HYMN. See ARVAL BROTHERS. 

ARVEL BREAD. The name (also written Arvil and 
Arval) of loaves distributed among the poor at funerals 
in the North of England. See W. C. Hazlitt. 

ARYA SAMAJ. A modem theistic church or society 
among the Hindus. It was founded by the reformer 
Dayananda Sarasvati, and to some extent in opposition 
to the Brahma Samaj, since Sarasvati still sought 
authority for his teaching in the hymns of the Veda. 
According to him, the only true non-human revelation 
is to be found in the four collections of Vedic hymns, 
and Agni, Indra, and SGrj'a are merely different names 
for tie One (Jod. Sir Monier Williams received from 
him this definition : " Religion is a true and just view, 
and the abandonment of all prejudice and partiality — 
that is to say, it is an impartial inquiry into the truth 
by means of the senses and the two other Instruments of 
knowledge, reason and revelation." In his will he 
appointed a Committee which was charged, amongst 
other things, to educate the poor in the principles of the 
Arya Samaj. Though Dayananda profess«l a pure 
monotheism, he added to it the doctrine of metem- 
psychosis. He denied that anyone, whether Christ or 
Krishna, could be an incarnation of the Deity, or that 
God, being absolutely just, could forgive sins. Thus he 
was equally free in his criticii3m of orthodox Brah- 
manism, Mohammedani-sm, and Christianity. See Monier- 
Williams, B.H.: J. C. Oman, OuUs; R. V. Russell. 

ASCENSION-DAY. One of the festivals of the 
Christian Church, also called Holy Thursday. It is kept 
on the fortieth day after Eai-rter, and therefore was called 
Quadragesima, Tessarocostes or Tetracostes. The obser- 
vance can be traced back to the fourth century, but is 
clearly of much earlier origin. Bishop Barry says that 
the comparative neglect of the festival in the Church of 
England, " which is now being partially corrected," is 
•' entirely at variance with the intention of the Prayer 
Book " (Teacher's Prayer Book). In the Church of 
Rome, " in 1607 the CV>ngregation of Rites ordered that 
the paschal candle should be lighted when Mass is sung 
and in vespers, on Easter Sunday, Easter Monday, Easter 
Tuesday, on Saturday in Low Week, and on Sundays till 
Ascension Day, when it is extinguished after the (Jospel. 
The rite symbolises Christ's departure from the 
Apostles" (W. E. Addis and T. Arnold). 

ASCENSION OF ISAIAH. See APOCALYPTIC 
LITERATURE. 

ASCETICISM. The cultivation of the spiritual life by 
means of self-denial and severe religious exercises. 
Ascetics think to please (Jod by imposing upon themselves 



Aschaffenburg, Concordat of 



38 



Ashes 



suffering. A common form of such self-denial and 
self-torture is abstention from food (or fasting). " The 
ascetic element was not strongly marked in the Hebrew 
religion " (S. 6. Smith, Religion in the Making, 1910) ; 
and asceticism is condemned in the Koran (Siir. Ivii. 27). 
But, whether officially condemned or approved, the 
impulse to it has always been very strong (see WJUiam 
James, Varieties of Religious Experience, 190(5). 
Christian ascetics have subjected themselves to all kinds 
of deprivation, living in caves, dens, or pits, going about 
like animals without clothes, eating rotten corn, etc. 
Hindus have exposed themselves naked to the violence of 
the weather, cut themselves with knives, eaten offal, etc. 
Monier-Williams tells of a Brahman who tortured him- 
self by lying on a bed of arrows (as a substitute for a 
"bed of thorns ") " He was seated in the usual way 
on the ground, but close to him on his right hand was his 
only bed — an iron framework resting on four short legs, 
and unprovided with mattress or coverlet, but studded 
instead with rows of iron spikes, somewhat blunted at 
the points, while at the pillow-end there was a spiky 
head-rest." Mohammedans have dragged al)out heavy 
chains or cannon balls, have lain on iron spikes, etc. 
Adherents of Zoroastrianism, the ancient Egyptians, and 
modern Jews have submitted to flagellation. Ancient 
Mexicans, as a preparation for festivals or as an expia- 
tion for sin, lacerated themselves and let the blood flow 
freely. Such beating is also connected with purification. 
As a preparation for the Jewish fast of atonement, for 
instance, some of the Jews purify themselves by ablu- 
tions, while others allow themselves to be scourged. 
Christians have in all ages suffered pain in order to atone 
for their sins; and the belief that atonement is possible 
in this way has prevailed among Mohammedans, 
adherents of Zoroastrianism, Hindus, and others. The 
Brahmans believe further that asceticism can produce 
superhuman power. Another idea which sometimes 
operates in asceticism is that the suffering will excite 
the compassion of the deity. A Fijian priest, after 
praying in vain for rain, is reported to have slept several 
nights on the top of a bare rock in the hope that the 
deity would take pity on him and send a shower. Another 
aim in asceticism is the mortification of the lusts of the 
flesh to such an extent that the proneness to sin may be 
reduced, and communion with God be rendered possible. 
Associated with this is the idea that matter and material 
things are evil by nature. This influenced the Essenes 
{q.v.) and the Therapeutae {q.v.) in their renunciation 
of the life of the world. A strict form of asceticism, 
apart from a simple monastic life, is foreign to the nature 
of Buddhism, though there are instances of it among 
Chinese Buddhists. Some of the latter not only brand 
themselves, but also burn off their fingers or give their 
whole body to the flames. Others incarcerate them- 
selves. Another form of asceticism is celibacy. Cp. 
MYSTICISM. See E. Westermarck; Monier-Williams, 
Brahmanism; J. C. Oman, M.A.S.I.; H. Hackmann, 
Buddhism. 

ASCHAFFBNBURG, CONCORDAT OF. An agree- 
ment as to Papal rights made in 1448 between the 
Emperor Ferdinand III. of Grermany and Pope Nicholas 
V. 

ASCITJ5. A division of the Montanists at the end of 
the second century A.D. They took their name from 
the Greek word (askos) for a skin or bottle. Matthew 
ix. 17 ("Neither do men put new wine into old bottles: 
else the bottles break, and the wine runneth out, and the 
bottles perish : but they put new wine Jnto new bottles. 
and both are preserved.") seems to have suggested to 
them the observance of festivals in which they danced on 
wine-skins. Cp. ASCODRUGIT,^. 



ASCLBPIODOTIANS. The followers of Asclepiodotus, 
a disciple of Theodotus of Byzantium. He iield that 
Jesus was no more than a man. 

ASCODRUGITAE. A division of Montanists (g.v.) in 
Galatia at the end of the second century A.D. One of 
their practices was to put an inflated wine-skin (askos) 
on an altar and to dance round it. They held Montanus 
to be the Paraclete, who at times inspired them. The 
initiated were introduced to mysteries similar to those 
of the Gnostics (q.v.). 

ASCODRUPIT^, or ASCODRUTI. A division of the 
Marcosian Gnostics. They disapproved of externalities, 
outward signs, in religion, including the Sacraments, and 
attached all importance to purely spiritual knowledge. 

ASCOPHITBS. A sect which appeared about the 
year A.D. 173 and is referred to by Theodoret (Hwr. fab. 
i. 10). They objected strongly to the Holy Eucharist, 
and seem to have refused to recognise the Old Testa- 
ment. 

ASGARDH. In the cosmogony of the Ancient Teutons, 
Asgardh was one of the nine worlds. It is said to have 
been on the Black Sea, and to have been the original 
home of the god Odhin (WODAN). See P. D. Chantepie 
de la Saussaye, Rel. of the Ancient Teutons, 1902. 

ASGAYA GIGAGEI. A thunder-god in the mythology 
of the Cherokee Indians. 

ASHEM-VOHU. An early .sacred formula or creed in 
the Zoroastrian religion. In the HddOkht Nask of the 
Zend-avesta we read : " Zarathushtra asked Ahuramazda, 
O Ahuramazda ! most munificent spirit, creator of the 
settlements supplied with creatures, righteous one! in 
whom alone is thy word, the enunciation of all good, of 
all that is of rightful origin? Ahuramazda answered 
him. In the Ashem-reciter, O Zarathushtra!" Haug 
translates the formula : " Righteousness is the best good, 
a blessing it is; a blessing be to that which is righteous- 
ness towards Asha-vahishta (perfect righteousness)." 
See Martin Haug. 

ASHERAH. An object of worship referred to fre- 
quently in the Old Testament. A plural form, Asherim, 
also occurs (II. Chronicles xxiv. 18). The Authorised 
Version wrongly translates " grove " or " groves." The 
use of Asherim is forbidden in Deuteronomy xvi. 21, and 
they are to be destroyed (Deut. vii. 5, xii. 3). " They 
were wooden poles set up like the stone pillars at sanc- 
tuaries. Their meaning is obscure, scarcely a phallic 
emblem, possibly a substitute for a tree as a residence 
of deity, or possibly originally boundary posts, regarded 
later as sacred. It has also been thought that there was 
a Canaanite goddess Asherah, equivalent to the great 
Semitic goddess Astarte, whose symbol or idol was the 
Asherah post (cp. xv. 16). But on this scholars are not 
agreed " (E. L. Curtis and A. A. Madsen, The Books of 
Chronicles, 1910). See Encycl. Bibl. 

ASHES. The use of ashes in mourning customs is very 
familiar. The Hebrews and Greeks, for instance, 
.strewed themselves with ashes or sat in them, as a sign 
of humiliation. Out of this practice developed the 
simpler one, that of a mere sprinkling. But the use of 
ashes as a sign of humiliation is not confined to mourning 
customs. Monier-Williams describes a Hindu ascetic 
who sat " perfectly motionless and impassive, with naked 
body smeared all over with white ashes, matted hair, and 
the forefinger of the upraised hand pointing to the heaven 
to which in imagination he seemed to be already trans- 
porting himself." In other ceremonies the ashes have a 
different significance : they are sacred. This can easily 
be understood in cases in which Fire is worshipped. For 
instance, the devout Brahman performs a religious cere- 
mony before taking his mid-day meal, and consecrates 
his food by offering small portions to all the deities who 



Ashi 



39 



Assassins, The 



have ministered to his wants, especially to Fire. In the 
course of this ceremony he takes up ashes from the fire 
and applies them to his forehead, neck, navel, shoulders, 
and head. It is natural also that the ashes of an ancestor 
or a hero should be regarded as sacred. Amongst 
Chinese Buddhists, for instance, the ashes of a monk -who 
in his devotion to asceticism has immolated himself are 
treasured as those of a saint. Other uses of ashes are 
found amongst the Chinese. When a person dies sud- 
denly in his sleep, they believe that he has been struck 
by a malicious agency. They exorcise this evil spirit 
by a ceremony in which a circle of ashes is made round 
the dead man. Again, they strew ashes in the bottom of 
the coffin of a deceased person. This is done by tie 
sons, but they are unable to provide the ashes them- 
selves because no fire is allowed in the dwelling of the 
dead person for some days after the decease. When 
therefore the corpse has been washed, they go round, 
dressed in sackcloth, to their neighbours to collect ashes. 
This is called the " begging for ashes." It is the custom 
to offer gifts for the dead. These often take the form 
of paper money, which is burned and placed in a paper 
wrapper in the coffin. See Monier-Williams, Brah- 
manism; 3. 3. M. de Groot, R.S.C., 1892, etc.: and, for a 
number of other customs, Maurice Canney in Hastings' 
E.R.E. 

ASHI. The name of a female angel in the 
Zoroastrian religion. The full form of the name is 
Ashish vanuhi (modernised into Ashishang), and means 
" the good truth." She is referred to as a daughter of 
Ahuramazda and a sister of the Ameshaspentas, as the 
inspirer of prophets and the giver of wealth. See Martin 
Haug. 

ASHKENAZIM. A mediaeval Jewish name for the 
Jews of German- and Slavonic-speaking countries, as dis- 
tinguished from the Spanish and Portuguese Jews who 
were called Sefardim. See W. O. E. Oesterley and G. H. 
Box. 

ASHTAROTH. See ASTARTB. 

ASHTA-TOGA. A form of penance among the Hindus 
for obtaining forgiveness of sins. After a three days' 
fast the penitent goes to a temple of Siva, a cemetery, or 
a special kind of tree. Here he goes through a ceremony 
and paints a small circular mark (tilaka) on his forehead. 
Then he clears a clean space on the ground and .stands 
on his head on it with his feet in the air. He performs 
six times, while in this position, a ceremony of inhaling 
and exhaling through the nostrils, thereby expelling from 
the body a nerve in which resides the Man of Sin. When 
the nerve has been expelled, he washes it and makes an 
offering to it. Then, by inhalation, he restores it to its 
original place. See J. A. Dubois and H. K. Beauchamp. 

ASHTORETH. The name given in the Old Testament 
to a goddess of the Canaanites and Phoenicians (I. 
Kings xi. 5; II. Kings xxiii. 13). The correct form of 
the name is ' Ashtart, corresponding to the Greek Astarte 
[g.v.). The plural of the Hebrew, 'Ashtdroth, is used 
in a general sense of heathen goddesses. In Deuteronomy 
vii. 13 occurs the peculiar expression " the ' Ashtoreths 
of thy flock," which, it has been suggested " appears to 
show that this deity, under one of her types, had the 
form of a sheep " (S. R. Driver, Deuteronomy, 1895). See 
Encycl. Bibl. 

ASHUKU. One of the five celestial Buddhas in 
Japanese Buddhism. The Indian name is Aksobya. See 
H. Hackmann. 

ASHUR. An Assyrian deity. The name means the "good 
one." Belit (q.v.) is sometimes represented as his consort. 
Ashur came to be placed at the head of the Assyrian 
pantheon. Great gods are associated with him, but he 
towers high above them all. He was first the patron 



god of the city of Ashur, to which he gave his name, 
and then extended his sway over the whole of Assyria. 
Wherever the kings fixed their official residence, the place 
became a centre for his worship. He had as his chief 
symbol a standard which could be carried into battle or 
moved about from place to place. It is possible that he 
was originally a solar deity. This is perhaps suggested 
by the standard which "consisted of a pole surrounded 
by a disc enclosed within two wings, while above the 
disc stood the figure of a warrior in the act of shooting 
an arrow " (Jastrow). Samsi-Ramman (c. 1850 B.C.) in 
an inscription describes himself as •' the builder of the 
temple of Ashur." The Assyrian rulers, since they owed 
everything to this all-powerful god, the " king of gods " 
or " the guide of the gods," described themselves poeti- 
cally as his offspring. Among other things, they owed 
to him their successes in war, and so in course of time 
he became purely a god of war. See Morris Jastrow, 
Rel. 

ASH-WEDNESDAY. The name of the first day of 
Lent, the Christian penitential season which now lasts 
forty days. In early times it lasted thirty-six days, or 
six weeks, excluding Sundays. Addis and Arnold point 
out that this was nearly a tenth part of the year, so that 
" Christians were tiought to render a penitential tithe 
of their lives to God." At the end of the fifth and in the 
sixth century the season extended from the first Sunday 
in Lent to Easter Day. Subsequently Ash Wednesday 
and the three following days were added. There is 
evidence that this must have happened before A.D. 714. 
The number of fast days then became forty, corresponding 
to the number of days Jesus is said to have fasted in the 
wilderness. The day was called " Ash Wednesday," 
" Caput jejunii," or " Dies Cinerum," because on the 
first day of Lent, penitents came to the church door 
clothed In sackcloth, to have penances imposed upon 
them. They then had to appear before the Bishop, and 
ashes were sprinkled on their heads. It became 
customary for the friends of the penitents to accompany 
them and to receive the ashes as well. Consequently in 
course of time the whole congregation came to share in 
this form of the penance. See Cath. met.; Prot. Diet. 

ASMODEUS. An evil demon mentioned in the Book 
of Tobit (iii. 8), one of the apocryphal books of the 
Old Testament. The demon killed the seven husbands 
of Sara, daughter of Raguel, at Rages. Asmodeus may 
be the Aeshma Daeva (g.v.) of the ancient Persian 
religion. 

ASPERGES. The first word of Psalm li., 7, in the 
Latin Version (in English " sprinkle [me] "). In the 
Roman Catholic Church it is used as a designation of 
the practice of sprinkling the altar, clergy, and people 
with holy water before the celebration of High Mass. 
See Cath. Diet. 

ASPERSION. Literally " sprinkling." A designation 
of that mode of baptism (g.v.) in which an infant is 
sprinkled with water instead of being dipped in water 
or having water poured upon it. 

ASSASSINS. In a passage in the New Testament 
(Acts xxi. 38) " Assassins " is given in the Revised 
Version as a rendering of the Greek word sikarioi. The 
Authorised Version translates " murderers." Sikarioi is 
formed from the Latin sica, a short sword which " cut- 
throats " (Grimm-Thayer, Lexieon, 1896) carried under 
their clothing (ep. Josephus, Wars ii 17, 6; Antiguities 
XX. 8, 10). The term seems to have been applied to 
some of the Jewish Zealots (g.v.). 

ASSASSINS, THE. A sect which arose in Persia after 
the death of al-Mustan.sir (A.D. 1094), the supreme head 
of the Isma'ilis (g.v.), through the rivalry of his two 
sons, Musta'li and Nazir. Al-Mustan.sir is said to have 

i 



Assembly Catechism 



40 



Astrology 



been asked by Hasan-i-Sabbah in whose name the 
Isma'ili propaganda should be conducted after his 
death, and to have received the reply, " In the name 
of my elder son, Nizar." He therefore carried on his 
propaganda in favour of this son, and his followers 
became known as " Assassins." The Crusaders called 
them Assassinl, Assessini, Assissini, or Heissessini. It 
was once thought that the name was a corruption of 
Hasaniyyln, " followers of Hasan." Sylvestre de Sacy, 
however, has shown tiat the Greek chroniclers and 
Eabbi Benjamin of Tudela have preserved a form of 
the name (Xao-itrioi; Hashishni) more nearly resembling 
the original. Benjamin of Tudela's designation, 
Hashishin represents, it is thought, the Arabic 
Hashishiyyun, a name which would have been given to 
the sect " because of the use which they made of the 
drug Hashish, otherwise known to us as ' Indian hemp.' " 
At this period the properties of the drug seem to have 
been known to only a few people in Persia. Its use by 
the Assassins seems to have been confined to one of the 
Degrees or Grades of Initiation Into which the Order 
was divided. The head of the order was called the 
Chief-Propagandist or Grand Master (knovra in popular 
speech as " the Mountain Chief "). Immediately under 
him were the Grand Priors or Superior Propagandists. 
Then came the ordinary propagandists. The lower 
grades who received a lesser and varying kind of initia- 
tion, comprised Companions, Adherents, and Self-devoted 
Ones. The latter were the " ministers of vengeance of 
the Order " (the " Destroying Angels "), and were 
trained not only in the use of arms, but sometimes also 
in the use of foreign languages. To die on one of the 
Grand Master's errands of assassination was considei-ed 
by them an honour and a sure way to future happiness. 
See E. G. Browne, Literary Hist, of Persia, 1906. 

ASSEMBLY CATECHISM. A catechism or confession 
compiled by the Assembly of Divines in 1648 

ASSEMBLY, GENERAL. The supreme ecclesiastical 
court of the Presbyterians in Scotland, Ireland, and the 
United States. In the Presbyterian State Church of 
Scotland, the General Assembly includes clerical and 
lay representatives from all the presbyteries, as well as 
representatives from the Universities and the royal 
burghs. At the annual meeting, which takes place at 
Edinburgh in May and is presided over by a Moderator, 
who is now always a clergyman, the King is represented 
by the Lord High Commissioner. The General Assem- 
blies of the Free Church of Scotland and of the Pres- 
byterian Church of Ireland are constituted in a similar 
way, but of course there is no royal commissioner.' 

ASSEMBLY OP DIVINES. See WESTMINSTER 
ASSEMBLY. 

ASSERTION OF THE SEVEN SACRAMENTS. A 
reply to Luther written by King Henry VIII. Pope Leo 
X. on account of this book gave him the title of De- 
fender of the Faith. 
ASSOCIATE SYNOD. See BURGHERS. 
ASSOCIATE PRESBYTERY. See ANTI-BURGHERS. 
ASSUMPTION OP THE BLESSED VIRGIN. A 
Christian festival which is said to have been observed 
In the East and West before the sixth century. It is 
not observed in the Church of England, but in the Church 
of Rome is celebrated on the fifteenth of Augiist. It is 
called in Greek koimesis or metastasis; and in Latin 
dormitio, pausatio, transitus, or assumptio. The festival 
commemorates the taking up of Mary's body into heaven. 
There was a Gnostic or Collyridian tradition (see 
COLLYRIDIANS) that Michael brought back the soul 
of the Virgin Mary from Paradise to be reunited to her 
body, which was then carried by angels to heaven. See 
Prot. Diet.; Cath. Diet. 



ASSUMPTION OP MOSES. See APOCALYPTIC 
LITERATURE. 

ASSURANCE, THE. An oath which all persons who 
held positions of trust in Scotland were required to take 
on the accession of William III. Declaration had to be 
made that William was King de jure as well as de 
facto. The Episcopalian clergy who took the oath were 
allowed to retain possession of their benefices. 

ASSURITANS. A sect, mentioned by St. Augustine, 
which arose in the time of Pope Liberius (c. A.D. 358). 
It was condemned by the Council of Bagai or Vaga in 
Numidia (A.D. 394). 

ASTARTB. A goddess worshipped by the Canaanites 
and Phoenicians. The name appears in the Old Testa- 
ment (I Kings xi. 5) as Ashtoreth, and a plural of this 
word (Ashtaruth) denotes heathen goddesses in general 
(Judges ii. 13, etc.). Other forms of tlie name are : 
' Ashtart (Phoenicia), Ishtar (Babylonia and Assyria), 
' Athtar (South Arabia), ' Astar (Abyssinia), ' Atar or 
' Athar (Syria). Astarte was worshipped under ditlerent 
aspects in difterent places. It is clear that she played 
an Important r61e as a goddess of fertility and genera- 
tion. There was a great sanctuary of Astarte at Kyblus, 
where her worship was associated with that of Adonis 
(q.v.), and another with a grove at Aphaca in Syria. 
Female prostitution was a prominent feature in her 
worship, as in that of Aphrodite iq.v.) to whom she 
corresponds. See Encycl. Bibl.; 3. G. Prazer, Adonis 
Attis Osiris, 1906. 

ASTATHIANS. A Greek designation corresponding to 
the Latin " Instabiles." The sect arose in Phrygia In 
the ninth century under the leadership of one Surgius, 
and was suppressed by the Emperor Michael Rhangabes 
(A.D. 811-813). The Astathians were perhaps a viander- 
ing body like the " Bohemians " and " Egyptians " of 
Prance In the Middle Ages. 

ASTRJiIA. Literally the " star-maiden." Daughter of 
Astraeus and Eos, or of Zeus and Themis. In the 
golden age she lived on earth as a goddess. She was 
the last of the gods to retire to the sky in the brazen 
age. She is represented in the Zodiac by the constellation 
Virgo. 

ASTRAL BODY. An expression used in Spiritualism. 
It is claimed that " the power resides in the subjective 
mind of man to create phantasms percejitiple to the 
objective senses of others." Some persons, it would 
seem, can not only create such phantasms, but also give 
them a certain amount of intelligence and power. An 
image can be thus created in sleep and even projected 
to a great distance, becoming visible and sometimes even 
tangible. The phenomenon is called by Orientalists the 
" projection of the astral body." See T. .1. Hudson. 

ASTRAL SPIRITS. Among the Greeks and Romans 
the heavenly bodies were supposed to have each a spirit 
or soul. In the Middle Ages deceased persons or fallen 
angels were sometimes thought of as astral spirits. 

ASTROLOGY. The study of the stars. Astrology 
has played an important part in religion and magic as 
one of the occult sciences. It had a strong hold over 
the Babylonians. Babylonian astrologers carefully 
studied the stars and planets, and were enabled thereby 
— or so it was thought — to answer all kinds of questions 
about auspicious days, etc. Cuneiform texts show that 
there was an important official called the " court as- 
trologer." The Hebrew writings have presen'ed few 
traces of the practice of the art, but this is no doubt 
due to the work of editors. On the other hand, it is 
forbidden by Mohammed, except as a help to travellers 
on the sea or through forests. Ancient and m-diaeval 
astrologers undertook to calculate nativities, and to 
foretell a child's future from a study of the stars at 



Asura 



41 



Athanasian Creed 



the time of its birth. Mediaeval astrology also tells of 
star-souls and star-angels. The Hindus have family 
astrologers who draw up a horoscope or birth-record 
'■ of the exact time of the child's nativity, the constel- 
lation under which it was born, with a prophecy of the 
duration of its life, and the circumstances, good or evil, 
of its probable career " (Monier-Williams). In the vil- 
lages the Brahman priest acts as astrologer, and the 
peasants consult him about every conceivable matter — 
about sowing and reaping, sneezing, the cries of animals, 
etc. The Chinese astrologers combine with the study of 
astrology the study of geomancy, in the belief that hills, 
mountains, etc., powerfully influence by their outlines 
the destiny of man. They have a Bureau of Astrology 
which selects auspicious days for important events, and 
to this are attached eighteen geomancers. See T. P. 
Hughes, 1S85; Monier-Williams, Brahmanism; J. J. M. 
de Groot. R.S.C.; Morris .Tastrow, Rel. of Babylonia and 
Assyria, 1898. 

ASURA. A term in Indian religion. At first it meant 
the great and good spirit. The term is applied to Varuna 
(Q.v.). but not to Varuna alone. Later it came to 
designate an evil spirit, or demon. See E. W. Hopkins. 

ASVA';EDHA. The name of a horse-sacrifice among 
the Brahmans. It was the principal animal sacrifice, 
and there are special hymns for the occasion in the 
Rig-veda. " A horse was selected by a prince who 
aimed at supremacy and was let loose to roam at large 
for a year. Those who disputed his claim tried to 
capture the roving horse and to hold it against the 
original owner and all comers. If no one succeeded, 
the horse was brought back and sacrificed with long 
ceremonies, and the prince who held it was acknowledged 
as paramount sovereign." (Mouier- Williams). 

ASWATTA. A fig-tree regarded with great awe by 
the Hindiis. Its large thin leaves, fanned by the wind, 
produce a refreshing coolness so that health-giving 
prorierties have been attributed to the tree. It is ren- 
dered sacred by the tradition that Vishnu (q.v.) was 
bom under It. The tree even becomes an embodiment 
of Vlshn-',. It may not be cut down, its branches may 
not be lopped off. nor may its leaves be plucked (except 
In worship). The tree is sometimes ceremonially con- 
secrated at great cost as the abode or embodiment of 
Vishnu. See J. A. Dubois and H. K. Beauchamp. 

ASYLUM. A sanctuary or sacred spot. " within whose 
precincts those who take refuge may not be harmed 
without sacrilege " (" Encyclopaedia Bibllca "). Among 
the Hfbrpws the asvlum was at first the altar (I. Kings 
1. 50-5.S: I. Kings ii. 28-.'?4). The Greeks fled to sanc- 
tuaries. V.'e read in the Apocrypha of the Jewish high- 
priest Onlas taking refuge in the famous sanctuary of 
Apollo and Artemis at Daphne near Antioch (11. Mac- 
cabees iv. 33 ff). The Romans adopted the practice, 
and took refuge in sacred places (temples). Among the 
Central Australian Arunta a man, and even an animal, 
is safe in the immediate neighbourhood of an 
ertnatiiluntja. the sacred spot in a local totem centre. 
In T'poln fSamoan Islands) the asylum was found to 
be a sacred tree. At Maiva (South Eastern part of 
New Guinea), the temple (dubu) serves as an asylum. 
Amon? the Gallas it is a hut near the burial-place of 
the king: in Fetu on the Gold Coast it Is the hut of 
the high-priest. In the Caucasus criminals, and even 
animals, take refuge in sacred groves. Among the 
Hebrews, when the old holy places were abolished, " six 
cities of refuge " Core miklat) were appointed as 
asylums 'Deuteronomy iv. 41-43; xix. 2 /.. 8-10). Amongst 
other r)eoples cities or villages have sen-ed the same 
purpose. In the island of Hawaii there were cities of 
refuge for non-combatants during a war. Among North 



American tribes the place of refuge is sometimes a whole 
village, sometimes a place of worship. Among the 
Soutb-Central African Barotse it is a city of refuge 
or the tomb of a chief. Dr. Wescermarck thinks that 
the right of sanctuary is explained, partly by the fear 
of shedding blood and disturbing the peace in a holy 
place, partly by the idea that a criminal, unless he is 
made friendly, might bring a curse on the deity. Chris- 
tian churches became places of refuge, and long remained 
so; but something had to be done to check abuses. 
Consequently, " by the legislation of Justinian those 
guilty of certain specified crimes were to find no right 
of asylum in the churches " (Addis and Arnold). See 
E. Westermarck, vol. ii., 1908; Encycl. Bibl. 

ATABEI. An earth-goddess worshipped in the West 
Indies (Antilles). 

ATAGO. A Shinto god of Japan. 

ATAGUCHU. The creative deity in the mythology 
of the Peruvians. 

ATAHENTSIO. The name given to the moon by the 
Hurons. They regarded tlie moon as maker of the 
earth and man. Among the Northern Indians Atahentsic 
is the Death-goddess. 

ATAHOCAN. The supreme deity of the Algonquin 
Indians. When in the seventeenth century they heard 
of the white man's Creator of heaven and earth, they 
identified him with Atahocan. It has been suggested 
that louskeha, the Sun, of the Hurons is identical with 
Atahocan. 

ATARGATIS. A Syrian goddess. In one of the 
Apocrypha (q.v.) of the Old Testament (II. Maccabees 
12, 26) we read that when Judas Maccabaeus defeated 
the Ammonites and Arabians, they took refuge in the 
Temple of Atargatis. Her worship is associated with 
that of sacred waters. At Ascalon there was a pool 
near her temple in which were sacred fish. One legend 
relates that she and her son plunged Into the water 
and were changed into flsh. Another represents that 
she " was bom of an egg which the sacred fishes found 
in the Euphrates and pushed ashore " (Robertson 
Smithy Compare further ' ATHEH; and see W. Robert- 
son Smith, iS.fe'.; Encycl. Bibl. 

ATAVISM. A scientific term denoting the reversion 
of an animal to its ancestral type. To the mind of 
primitive folk the phenomenon is explained by the 
doctrine of Transmigration of Souls (q.v.). See also 
METEMPSYCHOSIS. 

ATEN. The name of a deity in the old Egyptian 
religion. Aten was the solar disc, and was regarded as 
a form in which Ra manifested himself. In the 
eighteenth dynasty Amenhotep IV. wished to raise the 
cult of the gods of Heliopolis above that of all the other 
gods. He assigned the first place to Aten, who became 
practically his sole god. He also changed his own name 
to Khuen-aten (" the splendour of the solar disc "). 
Naville tbinks he was incensed against the college of 
the priests attached to the service of Amon at Thebes. 
Aten is always depicted as the disc of the sun with rays. 
See Naville, The Old Egyptian Faith, 1909. 

ATHANASIAN CREED. One of the creeds or con- 
fessions of the Christian Church. It is also called 
" Quieunque vult " from its first words. It is printed 
in the Roman Catholic breviary and in the Book of 
Common Prayer of the Church of England. The latter 
speaks of it as " commonly called the creed of St. 
Athanasius." It Is now widely recognised that it can 
be so called not as having been written by Athanasius, 
but at most merely as embodying his teaching. The 
style is Latin rather than Greek. The creed is not 
mentioned by Cyril of Alexandria, Pope I.;eo, the Council 
of Ephesus, or the Council of Chalcedon; and it is 



Athanasians 



42 



Atonement, The 



wanting in nearly all the MSS. of Athanasius' works. 
It has been suggested that it may have been composed 
by Bishop Vigilius of Thapsus (end of fifth century, 
A.D.), since for literary purposes he sometimes assumed 
the name of Athanasius. Other authors who have been 
suggested are : Victrieius, Bishop of Rouen (c. A.D. 400) ; 
Hilary, Abbot of Lerins, afterwards Bishop of Aries 
(ob. A.D. 449); St. Vincent, a Galilean monk (earlier 
than A.D. 450) ; Venantius Fortunatus, Bishop of Poitiers 
(sixth century). A number of modem scholars have 
contended however that the creed was not the work of 
a single author and did not assume its present form 
until the ninth century. The creed has given rise to 
much controversy, many members of the Church of 
England objecting to its use on account of the damnatory 
clauses, or because it is not adapted to liturgical use. 
It is used in the French Protestant Church, but only 
as a hymn in the Church of Ireland. In the Protestant 
Episcopal Church of the United States it is not recog- 
nised in the Articles or Prayer Book. See Prot. Diet..; 
Oath. Diet. 

ATHANASIANS. Followers of Athanasius the Great 
(c. 295-373). See ARIANISM. 

ATHANASIUS CONTRA MUNDUM. See ARIANISM. 

'ATHAR. A Syrian nature-goddess, equivalent to 
the Phoenician Astarte. 

ATHARVA-VBDA. One of the four Vedas in Indian 
literature, the other three being the Rig-Veda, the Sdma- 
Veda, and the Yajur-Veda. Each Veda has three sub- 
divisions, the Samhitd, Brahmana, and Stitra (qq.v.). 
The Atharva is the latest collection made from the first 
collection, the Rig-veda. The text and formulae of the 
Atharva-veda came to be used and are still used as 
charms and spells " to prevent or to cure diseases, to 
drive away demons, to frustrate sorcerers and enemies, 
to ensure victory in battle, to promote virility, to obtain 
a husband or wife, to arouse the passionate love of a 
man or a woman, to guarantee safety at an assignation, 
to allay jealousy, to stimulate the growth of the hair, 
and to secure a hundred other advantages both trivial 
and important" (Oman). See Monier-Williams; J. C. 
Oman, " Brahmans." 

'ATHEH. A goddess worshipped at Tarsus as a 
partner of Baal (q.v.). The name occurs in combination 
with another in a Palmyrene inscription ('Athar-'atheh), 
the compound being apparently the equivalent of the 
Syrian Atargatis (q.w). On coins 'Atheh is represented 
seated on a lion. At Hierapolls-Bambyce near the 
Euphrates the image of Atargatis was seated on a lion 
while it was worshipped. Hommel thinks that the East 
of Asia Minor was tie oldest centre of 'Atheh's worship, 
and that it spread to Western Asia and North Syria. 
See Encj/cl. Bibl. under "Atargatis"; J. G. Frazer, 
Adonis Attis Osiris, 1906. 

ATHEIST. One who does not believe in the existence 
of God. The Greeks called the early Christians "atheists" 
because they did not believe in the classic gods. 

ATHENE. One of the three principal Greek deities. 
Also called Pallas Athene. 

ATHINGANI. The name of a division of the Pauli- 
cians {c/.v.) in Asia Minor. They were called " At- 
tingians " or " Separates " in the days of the Empress 
Irene (A.D. 797-802) because they separated themselves 
from the dominant party, and refused to worship images, 
the cross, and relics. See J. H. Blunt. 

'ATHTAR. A South Arabian god. The name cor- 
responds to the Babylonian Ishtar (q.v.), and the 
Phoenician Astarte iq.v.), but in South Arribia the deity 
appears as masculine. 'Athtar is one o, the gods of 
irrigation. Stags and gazelles seam to 1 ive been sacred 
to him. See W. R. Smith, R.S. 



ATIUS TIRAWA. The chief deity, a creator-god, in 
the mythology of the Pawnees. 

ATMA. A term used in Theosophy (q.v.). It is the 
name given to the Spirit in man. The vehicle of the 
Spirit is called Buddhi, the Spiritual Soul. Mrs. Besant 
explains that Atma and Buddhi " are the reflexions in 
man of the highest planes in the universe." See Annie 
Besant, " Theosophy," in R.H.W. 

aTMAN. a common term in Br.ahmanism. Atman is 
spirit. It then l)ecomes the Spirit, that mysterious 
Power which vivifies the body and is the Breath of 
Life, that divine afllatus which fills and inspires the 
sacred writers, that force which manifests itself in men, 
gods, and all material things, the primal and eternal 
essence, the Universal Soul. See Monier-Williams. 

ATMARAM. Soul of Rama (King of Ayodhia, a great 
incarnation of Vishnu), one of the names of the Hindu 
god Rama. 

ATMIYA SABHA. Literally " Spiritual Society," a 
modem Hindu sect or church founded in 1816 by the 
reformer, Rammohun Roy (1772-183."?). It met with 
great opposition from the orthodox priests which it did 
not survive, but it prepared tbe way for the foundation 
of a similar movement, the Brahma Samaj (q.v.). 

ATOMS. The atomic theory of the universe was 
originat«d by Democritus, the Greek philosopher, who 
was bom at Abdera In Thrace about 460 B.C. Demo- 
critus was a disciple of Leuclppus. whose teaching he 
developed. " According to this theory there are in the 
universe two fundamental principles, the Full and the 
Void. The Full is formed by the atoms, which are 
primitive bodies of like quality but different form, in- 
numerable, indivisible, indestructible. Falling for ever 
through the infinite void, the large and heavier atoms 
overtake and strike upon the smaller ones, and the 
oblique and circular motions thence arising are the be- 
ginning of the formation of the world. The difference 
of things arises from the fact that atoms differ in 
number, size, form and arrangement. The soul consists 
of smooth round atoms resembling those of fire; these 
are the nimblest, and in their motion, penetrating the 
whole body, produce the phenomena of life. The im- 
pressions on the senses arise from the effect produced 
in our senses by the fine atoms which detach themselves 
from the surface of things. Change is in all cases 
nothing but the union or separation of atoms " (O. Sey- 
ffert. Diet., s.v. " Democritus"). Epicurus ih. ."42 B.C.) 
accepted the atomic theory, but in his teaching it as- 
sumed, in several respects, a different form. He gave 
it a more ethical and religious bearing. " It seemed to 
him to be most consonant with the theory of pleasure 
as the summum ionum, which was the ruling feature 
in Epicurus' philosophy, and it struck at the root of 
religious superstition by excluding the gods from ar- 
bitrary and capricious interference with the government 
of the world " (W. L. Davidson, The l^toie Creed, 1907). 
According to Epicurus, however, the soul is composed 
of no less than four elements — heat, air, vapour, and 
another unnamed ; and while Democritus found no place 
for free will, Epicurus regarded it as a fact of ex- 
perience, and attached great importance to it as a 
fundamental principle in ethics. 

ATONEMENT. The act or practice of atoning or 
making expiation. See ATONEMENT, THE. The idea 
of atonement is dealt with further under ASCETICISM 
and SACRIFICE. 

ATONEMENT, THE. " The Atonement " is the 
designation of one of the chief doctrines of the Chris- 
tian religion. To atone means in English to give satis- 
faction, to set at one, to reconcile. The corresponding 
word in Hebrew is used in the sense of " to cover." 



Atonement, The 



43 



Atonement, Day of 



In Genesis xxxil. 20 Jacob says of Esau : " I will cover 
his face (Authorised Version ' appease him ') with the 
present that goeth before me, and afterward I will see 
his face; perad venture he will accept me (Hebrew ' my 
face ')." But there is reason for thinking that prim- 
arily the word meant " to wipe out." The word used 
In the New Testament (katallaye) and translated "atone- 
ment" in the Authorised Version (Rom. v. 11) means 
really " reconciliation " (so the Revised Version). In 
the ritual religion of the Old Testament guilt is re- 
moved by the offering of sacrifice. But an enlightened 
psalmist exclaims : " The sacrifices of God are a brolien 
spirit; a broken and a contrite heart, O God, thou wilt 
not despise." Christian theories of the Atonement may 
be said to have arisen in answer to the question : " Why 
was Jesus destined to suffer a cruel death upon the 
cross? " The sudden termination of Jesus' career in 
a manner that seemed humiliating came as a shock and 
surprise to his disciples and followers. The ApostJe 
Paul is the first to offer an explanation. In Romans 
ill. 25 we are told that God set forth (or purposed) 
Jesus " to be a propitiation, through faith in his blood, 
to shew his righteousness, because of the passing over 
of the sins done aforetime, in the forbearance of God." 
In Rom. iv. 25 it is said that Jesus " was delivered up 
for our trespasses, and was raised for our justification " 
(cp. viii. 3; II. Corinthians v. 21); in Rom. v. 10 and 11 
that " if, while we were enemies, we were reconciled 
to God through the death of his Son, much more, being 
reconciled, shall we be saved by his life, and not only 
so, but we also rejoice in God through our Lord Jesus 
Christ, through whom we have now received the recon- 
ciliation " (cp. II. Corinthians v. 19). In Rom. v. 19 
we read : " For as through the one man's disobedience 
the many were made sinners, even so through the 
obedience of the one shall the many be made righteous " 
(cp. X. 4; Galatians Iv. 4). The conception of another 
writer is seen in St. John i. 29, " Behold, the Lamb of 
God, which taketh away the sin of the world," and x. 
11, " I am the good shepherd, the good shepherd layeth 
down his life for the sheep " (cp. Rom. v. 6-8; I. Peter 
ill. 18). It is clear from such passages as these that 
the death of Christ was already explained in several 
ways. It was connected with the Old Testament idea 
of the fall of man and the atoning (appeasing) power 
of sacrifice, and with the prophetic and evangelic beUef 
that God is propitiated by a life of penitence, obedience, 
and self-sacrifice. These ideas were afterwards de- 
veloped in various ways. Athanasius (295-373), the 
" Father of Orthodoxy," explains that Jesus by paying 
the penalty incurred by all men satisfied God and de- 
livered mankind from death. He offered up his sacrifice 
on behalf of all, " yielding his Temple to death in the 
stead of all, in order firstly to make men qnit and free 
of their old trespass, and further to show himself more 
powerful even than death, displaying his own body in- 
corruptible, as first-fruits of the resurrection of all " 
(De Incarnatione, xx., translated by Archibald Robert- 
son). As to the cross, " if he came himself to bear the 
curse laid upon us, how else could he have ' become a 
curse,' save he received the death set for a curse? and 
that is the Cross. For this is exactly what is written : 
' Cursed is he that hangeth on a tree ' " (xxv.). Again, 
" as death must needs come to pass, he did not himself 
take, but received at others' hands, the occasion of per- 
fecting his sacrifice. Since it was not fit, either, that 
the Lord should fall .sick, who healed the diseases of 
others: nor again was it right for that body to lose its 
strength, in which he gives strength to the weaknesses of 
others also " (xxi.). Anselm (1033-1109), however, the 
founder of Scholastic Theology, is considered to have 



defined the doctrine more clearly and consistently (Our 
Deus Homo). " In various ways Anselm seeks to illus- 
trate and establish the truth of the objective necessity 
of the Atonement. The necessity is not found in the 
claims of Satan, nor in the character of man, but in the 
character of God and the claims of righteousness. But 
though there was a moral necessity for the death of 
Christ, His sufferings and death were perfectly voluntary. 
This is vindicated with great clearness against objections. 
And as it is shown that neither a sinless man nor an 
angel could have given the satisfaction which justice 
required, the necessity for a Redeemer who was both 
God and man is proved, and the connection is established 
between the two cardinal doctrines of the Deity of 
Christ and His atonement for sin. The voluntary death 
of such a person must have an incomparable value, and 
may well be accepted by God as a reason for righteously 
remitting the sins of even the vilest of men. It thus 
illustrates the love of the Father as well as of the Son. 
Mercy triumphs over guilt, while the claims of Justice 
are fully met " (E. S. Prout, Introduction to Cnr Deus 
Homol). The idea of a vicarious satisfaction is now 
generally accepted by orthodox Churchmen, and the 
atonement is regarded as complete and sufficient for all 
men. It may be said that on the whole the main stress 
is laid now on Jesus' self-sacrificing ol)edienoe unto death. 
Jesus effected the reconciliation not so much by his death 
as by his life. The " Mystical " theory also refuses to 
lay too much stress on his death. According to this 
Jesus made it possible for man and God to be at-one by 
his incarnation. Before this man could not enter into 
intimate relations with (Sod. See Prot. Diet.; Cath. 
Diet.; Chambers' Encycl.; Brockhaus; A. Kitschl, Die 
christUche Lehre von der Rechtfertigung und der 
Versohnung, 3 vols., 3rd ed. 1888-89, 4th ed. of vol. iii. 
1895. 

ATONEMENT, DAY OF. A Jewish festival, called in 
the Talmud " the great day," " the day," or " the great 
fast." The chapter in the Old Testament (Leviticus 
xvi.) which treats of its observance is composite, and 
there is no evidence that such a day was observed before 
the Exile. But In course of time it became the most 
important day In the ecclesiastical year. The Day of 
Atonement was instituted " that the Israelites might 
annually make a complete atonement for all sin, and that 
the sanctuary might be cleansed (Lev. xvi. 33). The 
leading idea of the entire Priestly Law found here its 
best expression " (I. Benzinger). Prof. Cheyne points 
out that the ritual of New Year's Day {Rosh hash- 
Shanah) had the same propitiatory character. It waa 
believed " that the fate of man was decreed on New 
Year's Day (the festival of Creation), and that on the 
Day of Atonement the decree was ' sealed.' No wonder 
that the nine days which intervened between the first 
day of the seventh month (New Year's Day) and the 
tenth (the Day of Atonement) were regarded by the Jews 
as penitential days." On this day " the High Priest 
does not wear his gorgeous official dress, but the white 
robes of purity and consecration. The blood that is to 
expiate the people's sin must be brought directly into the 
presence of God, because the fullest expression must be 
given to the thought of atonement, because the innermost 
sanctuary must be cleansed from the stains with which it 
is defiled by the presence of a sinful people. He first 
offers a sin-offering for himself and the people. Enveloped 
in incense, he carries the blood before the holy mercy- 
seat, and be-sprinkles it therewith. Thus atonement is 
made for Israel, and its sin is taken away. Its holy 
things are consecrated; it stands there as a holy com- 
munity in which God can dwell. His gracious presence 
in Israel is once more undisturbed. The second goat. 



Attis 



44 



Augury 



which has been presented by the people for an expiatory 
purpose, but is not used as a sacrifice, can now be dedi- 
cated in order to carry the burden of the people's sins, 
laid upon it by confession, as being now forgiven and 
forgotten, away into the wilderness, beyond the conse- 
crated circle of the camp, into a land where there is 
neither salvation nor mercy. The feeling of horror at 
the Impurity of sin is so strongly expressed by this cere- 
mony that the persons who have bo do with the burning 
of the animal sacrificed, and with the driving away of the 
living one, are regarded as polluted, and have to be 
washed before they regain the holiness necessary for 
fellowship with Israel " (H. Schultz, O.T. Theology, vol. 
i., 1895). Cp. AZAZEL. See Encycl. BiU. 

ATTIS. A god worshipped in Phrygia and corres- 
iwnding to the Syrian Adonis (7. v.). He is another per- 
sonification of vegetation which dies yearly and yearly 
revives. He was bom of a virgin. Nana, who conceived 
after eating an almond or placing it in her bosom. 
According to one account of his death he was killed by 
a boar. According to another he destroyed his man- 
hood under a pine-tree, which became the embodiment 
of his spirit. From his blood grew violets. Attis is said 
to have l)een beloved by Cybele {q.v.), the Phrygian 
Mother of the Gods. The worship of Attis seems to 
have spread to Rome with that of Cybele (204 B.C.). 
Attis, in the form of a pine-log, decked with violets, was 
annually mourned at a Spring festival, part of the 
mourning consisting in self-mutilation. Afterwards he 
was sought for on the mountains, and was found on the 
third day. This resurrection was celebrated in a Festival 
of Joy '(Hilaria), at which people, going about in dis- 
guise, made merry without restraint. There were also 
secret or mystic ceremonies connected with the worship 
of Attis. The god seems to have been originally a god 
of vegetation. See J. Q. Frazer, Adonis Attis Osiris, 
190fi: O. Seyffert, Diet. 

ATTRITION. In the Roman Catholic Church a dis- 
tinction is drawn between Attrition and Contrition. The 
latter " is that sorrow for sin which has for its motive 
the love of God whom the sinner has offended." 
Attrition, on the other hand, is prompted by a lower 
motive, such, for instance, as " the fear of hell, the loss 
of heaven, the turpitude of sin " (Addis and Arnold). 

AUDHUMLA. The name of a cow which figures in 
Teutonic cosmogony. It is regarded by some as 
symbolical of the clouds. See P. D. Chantepie de La 
^ussaye, Rel. of the Teutons, 1902. 

AUDIANI. A sect founded by Audaeus of Mesopo- 
tamia in 338. He was a bishop of the Syrian Church, 
but was exi)elled for condemning the vices of the clergy. 

AUFKLABRUNG, ZBITALTER DBR. The period 
(eighteenth century) known in Germany as the "Period of 
Enlightenment." See ENLIGHTENMENT, PERIOD OF. 

AUGEAN CODEX. The Codex Augiensis Is a manu- 
script of part of the New Testament belonging to the end 
of lie ninth century. It was so called from a mona.stery 
Augia Major or Dives on an island in Lake Constance. 
Dr. C. R. Gregory describes it as " a beautiful book." 
The manuscript, which is now preserved in Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge, England, contains the Epistles of Paul, 
with a few gaps. See C. R. Gregory. 

AUGSBURG. CONFESSION OF. The most important 
confession of faith in the Lutheran Church, called in 
Latin " Confessio Augustana." In order to compose 
religious differences, Charles V. summoned a Diet of the 
States of the German Empire to meet at Augsburg in 
1530. The Elector, John of Saxony, in view of this 
meeting, commissioned the Wittenberg theologians to 
draft articles of faith and present them to him at Torgau. 
In the execution of their task, these made use of articles 



which had been drawn up in Latin and German at 
Swabach and Marburg shortly l)efore. The articles laid 
l)efore the Elector at Torgau were in turn used by Philipp 
Melanchthon (A.D. 1497-1500), when, with the help of 
other theologians, he framed the Confession of Augsburg, 
which in Latin and German was presented to the Emperor 
on the 25th of June, 1530. It was intended to be a con- 
ciliatory statement of the beliefs of the Lutheran Pro- 
testants drawn up in such a way as to show as little 
divergence as possible from Catholic views. The Con- 
fession consists of two divisions. The first contains 
twenty-one articles of faith; the second consists of seven 
declarations or protests against abuses In the Roman 
Catholic Church. The twenty-one articles deal with the 
following matters: 1. God and the Trinity; 2. Original 
Sin: 3. The Son of God, the Incarnation, the Atonement, 
the Descent to Hell, the Ascension, the Second Coming; 
4. Justification by Faith; 5. The Ministration of the Word 
and the Sacraments: 6. Obedience to God; 7. The One 
Church, its unity of doctrine and sacraments: 8. The 
Church, its Sacraments effective, even when administered 
by evil persons; 9. Baptism and the need of Infant 
Baptism; 10. The Lord's Supper, and the real presence 
of the Body and Blood of Christ; 11. Confession, its 
private use allowed; 12. Penance, contrition to be accom- 
panied by good works; 13. The Use of the Sacraments, 
need of faith in their promises; 14. Church Government, 
duly appointed ministers; 15. Church Order, universal 
observance of Church Ceremonies; 16. Secular Govern- 
ment, legitimate authority of civil magistrates; 17. 
Christ's Second Coming to judgment; 18. Free-will and 
the Holy Spirit; 19. The cause of Sin, not in God; 20. 
Faith and Good Works, and the merit of Christ's 
sacrifice; 21. The Merits of the Saints as objects of 
imitation. The declarations against abuses deal with 
the following matters : 1. Withholding the Cup from the 
laity; 2. Compulsory Celibacy of the Clergy: 3. The Say- 
ing of Masses for money; 4. The Enumeration of sins 
in Auricular C-onfession ; 5. Distinctions of Meat in 
Fasting; 6. Irrevocable Conventual Vows; 7. The 
Authority of Bishops, its growth and secular use. The 
Confession was too Protestant to please the Catholics, 
and too Catholic to please the Anabaptists and Swiss 
Reformers; but it was accepted by the Lutherans. 
Melanchthon afterwards thought himself at liberty to 
make certain changes, and in 1540, with the idea of re- 
conciling Calvinisrts and Lutherans, he published a new 
edition in Latin (Confessio Variata). The Orthodox 
Lutherans would not accept these alterations, and the 
" Confessio invariata " became their standard. Both 
forms of the Confession, however, came to be recognised 
by the Reformed Churches of Germany. See the edition 
of the Confession by Th. Kolde (1896); also Brockhaus; 
J. H. Blunt; Chambers' Encycl. 

AUGSBTTRG. DIET OF. See the preceding article. 

AUGSBURG, INTERIM OF. Interim was a name 
given In Reformation times to edits given forth by the 
German Em7>eror pending the decision of religious dis- 
putes by a general council. The Augsburg Interim was 
made at a Diet of Augsberg In A.D. 1548. It provided 
that the Cup should not be withheld from the laity at 
the Lord's Supper, and allowed the clergy to marry. 

AUGURY. The prediction of future events l)ased on 
the close observation of the flight of birds, the state of 
the sky, etc.. and the examination of the entrails of 
animals. Among the Romans there was a priesthood of 
Augurs or diviners, who were consulted about all kinds 
of matters, public affairs and private concerns. The 
predictions from the observation of birds received the 
special designation Auspices. The practice of augury 
has been noted among savages such as the Tupis of 



Augustines 



45 



Avenger of Blood, The 



Brazil, the Dayaks of Borneo, the Maoris, etc., as well 
as among representatives of ancient civilization. 

AUGUSTINES. An order of nuns who claimed that 
their Order originated in a convent founded by St. 
Angu-stine at Hippo. The claim was no doubt suggested 
by a letter (no. 109) he wrote " in which he laid down 
a rule of life for the religious women under his direction, 
not binding them to strict enclosure, but requiring them 
to renounce all individual property " (Addis and T. 
Arnold). The Augustines devoted themselves to good 
works, especiallv among the sick. 

AUGUSTINIANS. It has been claimed that the order 
of the Canons Regular of St. Augustine was founded by 
St. Augustine of Hippo (A.D. 354-430.) It is difficult, 
however, to prove that he composed any formal rule. 
All that can be said is that some of his writings (e.g., 
De Morihus Clericorum) may have suggested one. Addis 
and Arnold mention the argument that " if St. Augustine 
promulgated a rule and founded congregations which 
have had perpetual succession ever since, it seems impos- 
sible to explain how St. Benedict should have been 
universally regarded for centuries as the founder of 
Western monachism." The Augustinian Canons do not 
seem to be earlier than A.D. Slfi. In that year a rule 
was drawn up at Aix-la-Chapelle for observance among 
the canons of various Cathedrals. This rule did not for- 
bid the holding of private property. In 1059 and 10<"i3, 
however, at councils held in Rome, the rule was 
amended. Private property had to be renounced, and 
those who belonged to the Order had to live together. 
Those who conformed to this rale were called regular 
canons. It became known as the rule of St. Augustine. 
There were soon (12th century) many independent (that 
is to say, as regards Cathedrals) bodies of Canons Regular 
of St. Augustine or St. Austin in Europe. In England, 
where they were called Black Canons from their black 
cloaks, they had many houses. At the Reformation there 
were about 170. There were also Augustinian Hermits: 
otherwise known as Hermits of St. Augu.stine, Austin 
Friars, or Begging Hermits. The (Drder did not 
arise until A.D. 1265 when Pope Alexander IV. united 
several congregations. Pope Pius V. decided definitely 
that they were friars and not monks (15fi7). They gave 
up all property, and lived on alms. At the Dissolution 
they are said to have had thirty-two houses in England. 
There are now two houses in England, the one at Hoxton, 
London, the other at Hythe in Kent ; and twelve houses 
in Ireland. Martin Luther was a member of the house 
of the Augu.stinian Hermits at Wittenberg. See Cath. 
Diet.; Chambers' Encycl. 

AULD LICHTS. The United Pre.'sbyterian Church was 
formed in 1^47 by the amalgamation of the Associate 
Presbytery or Secession Kirk and the Relief Church. But 
when this union took place, a few congregations stood 
aloof, and claimed to be the Old Seceders (that is to say, 
the original secession) or the Auld Lichts. 

AUM. A sacred, mystic word in Brahmanism. It is 
pronounced with i)eculiar reverence, and its meaning is 
kept secret. The three letters may represent the three 
deities, Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva. See .T. A. Dubois 
and H. K. Beauchamp. 

AUREOLE. From the Latin aureolus " golden." In 
Christian Art the figure of a holy person is surrounded 
with gold. This is the Aureole as di-stinguished from 
the nimbus which covers only the head. " In theology 
it is defined as a certain accidental reward added to the 
essential bliss of heaven, because of the excellent victory 
which the person who receives it has attained during his 
warfare upon earth." See Cath. Diet. 

AURICULAR CONFESSION. See CONFESSION. 

AUSPICES. Properly, the special designation of pre- 



dictions founded on the observation of birds in divina- 
tion. See AUGURY. 

AUSTIN FRIARS. See AUGUSTINIANS. 

AUTGA. A Hindu deity, worshipped as the god of 
hunting by the Mais, a tribe of the Rajmahal hills in 
India. 

AUTHORISED VERSION. Usually contracted and 
referred to as AV (margin of Authorised Version = AVmg). 
The English Version of the Bible published A.D. Kill. 
See BIBLE. The two versions of the Bible, Authorised 
and Revised, are often referred to together as E.V. 

AUTOCEPHALI. Metropolitans, such as those of 
Cyprus or the Archbishops of Bulgaria, who were not sub- 
ject to a patriarch. 

AUTO DA FE. The Act of Faith was a name given to 
the public trial of tiose who were supposed to be heretics 
in the Roman Catholic Church. A special day was fixed 
from time to time by the Inquisition in Spain and 
Portugal for the examination of tho.se who were accused 
of heresy. If the accused i)erson was found guilty, he 
was handed over to the magistrate to be put to death, 
either by burning at the stake or by strangling. In 
Portugal the ceremony was held in a large theatre which 
could accommodate 3,000 spectators. 

AUTOMATISM. A name given by F. W. H. Myers 
(1843-1901) to certain mental phenomena produced by an 
impulsive working of what is known as the subliminal 
self, the sub-consciousness, or the sub-conscious mind. 
Uprushes of sub-conscious knowledge into the ordinary 
consciousness, may and do produce, it is claimed, such 
phenomena as automatic speech or writing. Such Auto- 
matism often takes a religious turn. See William James, 
Varieties of Religious Experience, 1906. 

AUTO-SUGGESTION. A hypnotized person is very 
su.sceptible to suggestion, so much so tiat the subject can 
be cured by suggestion of certain nervous diseases or 
of vices and bad habits. It is well known, moreover, 
that suggestion is, and has been, a great power in our 
daily life in the form both of heterosuggestion. suggestion 
coming from others, and auto-sugge.stion, suggestion made 
to ourselves. This has led to the discovery, it is claimed, 
that, without the u.se of hypnotism, a person can suggest 
to himself or herself the cure of diseases and bad habits. 
See T. J. Hudson: E. Worcester, S. McComb and I. H. 
Coriat, Religion and Medicine, 190S. 

AVALIKITESVARA. The Indian name of the Chinese 
and .Japanese Buddhist deity, Kwan Tin (Kwannon). In 
Lamaism the name appears as Avalokita. The deity is 
continually reincarnate in the Dalai Lama of Lhassa. 
See H. Hackmann, 

AVATARS. A term used in Hindu mythology for in- 
carnations of the Deity. Vishnu (q.v.). e.g., is supposed 
to have appeared in ten different incarnations. In the 
later writings called Purfinas the number was increased 
to eleven (Varaha Piirnna) and even to twenty or twenty- 
two (Bhagavat Purana). See E. W. Hopkins. 

AVE MARIA. A prayer, also called the Angelical 
Salutation (Hail. Mary!) repeated daily by Roman 
Catholics before the canonical hours and after Compline. 
It consists of the words of the angel Gabriel ('" Ave 
[Maria! gratia plena, Dominus tecum: benedicta tu in 
mulieribus "), those of Elisabeth to Mary (" et benedictus 
fructus ventris tui "), and a late addition (" Sancta 
Maria, Mater Dei, ora pro nobis peccatorihus nunc et in 
hora mortis nostrae "). The use of the whole prayer 
was enjoined by Pope Pius V. in 1568. The first two 
parts came into use towards the close of the twelfth 
century. 

AVENGER OF BLOOD. THE. This is the English 
translation of a Hebrew expression occurring in the Old 
Testament. The Hebrew expression is go'el had-ddm. 



Avernus, Lake 



46 



Azymites 



and the word go'el means more properly " the reclaimer " 
or " the redeemer." When a person's blood had been 
unjustly shed, it was the duty of a member of his family 
or elan, especially of his nearest kinsman, to vindicate 
the rights of the dead person (II. Samuel xiv. 7, 11; 
Deuteronomy xix. 12; Numbers xsxv. 19, 21, 27). This 
vindicator was called the <j6'el had-ddtn. See Encycl. 
Bibl. 

AVERNDS, LAKE. A lake in Naples between the 
ancient Cumae and Puteoli. The hills which surrounded 
it were thickly wooded. This made the place dark and 
gloomy, and Homer and Virgil in their mythology have 
represented the place as the entrance to hell. Real places 
have often been so conceived. The Hebrews have their 
Gehinnom (Valley of Hinnom). The Baperi of South 
Africa think of a cavern, Marimatl(5, in the same way. 
The North German peasants have connected the banks 
of the swampy Dromling, and the Irish the place Lough 
Derg, with the same idea. 

AVERRHOISM. The teaching of an Arabian philoso- 
pher who became known as Averroes (112G-1198). His 
real name was Abfl'l-Walld Ibn Rushd. He was born 
at Cordova. He was suspected of heresy towards the 
end of his life, and was exiled. In his book " Decisive 
Discourse " he attempts to reconcile Moslem law and 
Science. See Clement Huart, Hist, of Arabic Lie, 1903. 

AVESTA, THE. The collection of the sacred books of 
the old Persians (see ZOROASTRIANISM). These 
sacred writings were collected and edited in the third 
century A.D. The text together with the commentaries 
which were added is known as the Zend-Avesta. 

AVIGNON CAPTIVITY. A name given to the period 
(1305-1377) during which the Popes, from Clement V. to 
Gregory XI., resided at Avignon and were almost vassals 
of France. It is sometimes called the " Babylonish 
Captivity." 

AWAKENING OF HERCULES. A Greek festival held 
about the month of .lanuary. In it were represented 
dramatically the burning of the god Hercules and his 
resurrection. See J. G. Frazer, Adonis Attis Osiris, 
1906. 

AWALOKITEQWARA. In Chinese religion, one of the 
chiefs of the Western Paradise, the other being Amitabha. 
The Chinese Buddhists say that AwalSkitegwara con- 
veys departed souls to Paradise in a ship (" the barge of 
mercy "). See J. J. M. de Groot, R.S.C. 

AWONAWILONA. The creative deity in the 
mythology of the Zufii of New Mexico. 

AXE, DOUBLE-HEADED. The double-headed axe 
figures as a symbol or emblem of deities. It was borne 
for in.'itance by the Asiatic deity Sandan of Tarsus, who 
corresponded to Hercules; by some of the Hittite deities 
of Boghaz-Keui ; by Sandon of Lydia. another deity cor- 
responding to Hercules. Sandon and Sandan are, no 
doubt, identical, and the deity in each case is Hittite. 
In Mycenaean and Minoan worship, again, the double 
axe appears frequently as a sacred emblem. In Crete it 
was associated with the sacred bull. See .1. G. Frazer, 
Adonis Attis Osiris, 1006. 

AXINOMANCY. A term eompo.sed of two Greek words 
and meaning " divination by an axe." The ancient 
Greeks practised this kind of divination, and believed 
that by means of it they could detect those who had 
been guilty of crime. The practice was to balance an 
axe upon a stake in such a way that it would turn or 
move. 

AYNIA. Aynia or Alne was an ancient Irish deity. 



The goddess is associated principally with the North of 
Ireland. Popular legend suggests that at one .time she 
was the moon-godde!?s. Near Dunany there is an 
immense stone, which is called " the chair of Aynia " or 
" the chair of the lunatics." It was believed that lunatics 
were drawn irresistibly to this chair. Sitting upon it 
three times, they became incurable. Even sane persons 
might lose their reason by sitting upon it. The influence 
of the godde.ss was felt particularly on the Friday, 
Saturday, and Sunday immediately following Lammas 
Day. Aynia seems to have been also a patroness of 
medicine and literature. According to W. G. Wood- 
Martin, h^rb and charm-mongers regarded her as equiva- 
lent to what they called the " vital spark." As 
patroness of literature, she rewarded the learned by 
leading them when they died into fairy realms. She 
came in fact to be regarded as the Queen of Fairies. One 
of her fairy haunts survives at Knocknanny, in the 
county Tyrone, in a rude stone monument which the 
peasants call "Aynia's Cove." Aynia seems to have 
been equivalent to the god who was worshipped as 
Minerva by the natives of Gaul. See W. G. Wood-Martin. 

AYUNGANG. A deity (also known as Dharma Boja 
or Lankan), the sun, worshipped by the Savaras (also 
known as Sawaras or Saoras), an important hill-tribe in 
Southern India. The deity is supposed to live in big 
trees. 

AZAZBL. In the Hebrew ritual of the Day of Atone- 
ment the high-priest had to cast lots upon two goats. 
The one goat was to be a sin-offering for Jehovah, the 
other was to " be presented alive before the Lord, to 
make an atonement with him, and to let him go for a 
scapegoat into the wilderness " (Leviticus xvi. 8-10). The 
idea seems to have been that the goat which was sent 
into the wilderness bore away the sins of the people. The 
meaning of the word, however, has been disputed. Jewish 
interpreters thought Azazel was a place in the wilderness; 
others have taken it to be a designation of the goat itself, 
or even of the act of ritual (" complete dismissal "). But 
it seems clear that Azazel is a personal being contrasted 
with Jehovah. Azazel therefore was probably one of the 
demons to whom in post-exilic times sacrifices were made, 
or a kind of personal angel (so T. K. Cheyne). though 
" the first clear mention of a personal devil (Beliar= 
Satan, Sammfel, Mastema, Azazel) occurs in The Testa- 
ments of the Twelve Patriarchs, dating probably from 
the MaccabfBan age " (W. Fairweather, The Background 
of the Gospels, 1908). Prof. Cheyne thinks that the 
author of the scape-goat ritual substituted this personal 
angel, " a fallen angel, evil no doubt, yet not altogether 
unfriendly to man," for the crowd of earth-demons to 
whom the rieople were accustomed to offer sacrifice. 
"This was obviously an offering to the devil," says Dr. 
Samuel G. Smith, " perhaps not seriously but rather as 
.sending to him the sins of the people, a gift of his own 
come home " (Religion in the Making, 1910). See Encycl. 
Bibl. 

AZIZUS. An Arabian deity, one of the heavenly twins, 
the morning star. Adopted by the Palmyrenes. 

AZRAEL. In the Mohammedan religion this is the 
name of one of the four members of the highest group 
of angels, the others being Gabriel, Michael, and Israfil. 
Azrael is the " Angel of Death." 

AZYMITES. From a Greek word meaning " without 
leaven." A name applied by Greek schismatics to the 
Christians of the I>atin Church because they used 
unleavened bread in the Lord's Supper. 



B 



47 



Baalzebub 



B 



B. God B. is a designation used by anthropologists for 
a deity depicted in the MSS. of the Mayan Indians of 
Central America. He is represented as having a long 
truncated nose, and is described by Stempell as " the 
elephant-headed god B standing uiton the head of a 
serpent " (Maya Codex Troano: see G. Elliot Smith, Dr., 
p. S4). " Many authorities consider god B to represent 
Kukulkan, the Feathered Serpent, whose Aztec equiva- 
lent is Quetzalcoatl. Others identify him with Itzamna, 
the Serpent God of the East, or with Chac, the Rain 
God of the four quarters and the equivalent of Tlaloc of 
the Mexicans" (Herbert J. Spinden, Maya Art, p. 62). 
Prof. Elliot Smith identifies him with Chac, and con- 
tends that Chac ( = Tlaloc) is simply an American form 
of the Indian rain-god Indra. " One and the same funda- 
mental idea, such as the attributes of the serpent as a 
water-god, reached America in an infinite variety of 
guises, Egyptian, Babylonian, Indian, Indonesian, 
Chinese and Japanese, and from this amazing jumble of 
confusion the local priesthood of Central America built 
up a system of beliefs which is distinctively American, 
though most of the ingredients and the principles of 
synthetic composition were borrowed from the Old 
World." 

BAAL. A Semitic word meaning " owner, proprietor, 
or possessor," it is used as the title of gods regarded as 
the owners or inhabitants of places or districts. Thus 
there was a Baal of Tyre, a Baal of Sidon, a Baal of the 
Lebanon, a Baal of Mt. Hermon, etc. In the Old Testa- 
ment, the local deities are spoken of collectively as the 
Baalim or the Baals. As gods of fertility (Hosea ii. 5, 
12), agricultural festivals were a feature of their worship 
(Hosea ii. 8, 13). One of the Baals who assumed a 
leading position in later times was called Baal-shamem, 
" the owner of the heavens." When the Israelites settled 
among the Canaanites they seem to have worshipped the 
Canaanite Baalim side by side with their own god 
Jehovah. Later on, however, they regarded Jehovah 
himself as the Baal of the land, though the rites of the 
old Baal cult survived even among the Israelites. The 
prophets of the eighth century denounced this idolatrous 
worship. See Encycl. Bibl. 

BAAL BERITH. See BERITH MILAH. 

BAAL-BERITH. A local Baal (q.v.) referred to in the 
Old Testament (Judges ix. 4). also called " El-berith " 
(" God of the covenant," Judges ix. 4fi). This was a 
Canaanite Baal who was worshipped at Shechem. In 
ordinary Hebrew baol-berlth means " covenant ally," 
literally " possessor of covenant." Here, however, the 
god seems to be so called as " the Baal who presides over 
covenants, or rather over the special covenant by which 
the neighbouring Israelites were bound to the Canaanite 
inhabitants of the oity " (W. R. Smith, R.S.). Or the 
covenant may have been between Shechem and neigh- 
bouring Canaanite towns. Another view is that the 
Baal was possessor of a covenant between himself and 
his worshippers. There was a temple of Baal-berith 
which is a.<!Sociated with several episodes in Hebrew 
history (Judges ix. 4, 27, 46). See Encycl. Bibl. 



BAAL-HAMMON. A god who is often mentioned in 
Punic inscriptions. In the Old Testament (Ezekiel vi. 
4, 6, and other passages) reference is made to hanimdnim 
as places of idolatrous worship. This word has been 
connected with hammCi, a late Hebrew word for " sun," 
and interpreted " sun images " or " sun pillars." Baal- 
hammon might therefore mean " the deity which dwells 
in the sun-pillars." In " El-hammon," however, which 
occurs in another inscription, liammon seems to be the 
name of a place. See Encycl. Bibl.; W. R. Smith. R.S. 

BAAL-MARCOD. The name of a god worshipped near 
Bairut and referred to in inscriptions. The Semitic form 
of the name would mean " lord of dancing," or a god 
who required homage to be paid him in dances. See W. 
R. Smith, R.S. 

BAAL-MARRIAGE. In marriages under the system 
of male kinship in Arabia, the wife — whether obtained 
by capture or by contract — " who follows her husband 
and bears children who are of his blood has lost the right 
freely to dispose of her person ; her husl)and has authority 
over her and he alone has the right of divorce." Among 
the Arabians, Hebrews, and Aramaeans the husband in 
this kind of marriage was called ba'al, "lord" or 
" owner." Rol)ertson Smith therefore describes it as 
Baal-marriage (cp. the term be'fdah of a subject wife, 
Lsaiah Ixii. 4). In this way such a marriage is distin- 
guished from a Beena-marriage (q.v.). Rotiertson Smith 
contends that before the separation of the tribes Beena- 
marriage or matriarchy was the universal practice 
among the Semites. But Prof. Wellhausen has proved 
that Baal-marriage or patriarchy can be traced back to 
primitive Semitic times. Dr. I. Benzinger thinks it 
"best to abandon all attempts to make out a genetic 
connection or evolutionary relation between the various 
kinds of marriage." One tril)e " might count kin from 
the mother, being endogamous, or else marrying its young 
women to men of alien tribe only when the men consented 
to join the tribe of the wife and the children remained 
with the mother. Another tribe counted kin from the 
father and therefore sought for its wives, so far as these 
could not be found within the tribe, by capture of such 
welcome additions from other trityes " (Encycl. Bibl.). 
See W. Robertson Smith, Kinship and Marriage in Early 
Arabia, 1903. 

BAAL-PBOR. The Baal of Peor, a Moabite god re- 
ferred to in the Old Testament (Numbers xxv. 3; 
Deuteronomy iv. 3; Psalm 106, 29). The Israelites 
adopted the worship in Shittim. " And Israel yoked 
himself nnto the Baal of Peor. and the anger of the Ix)rd 
was kindled against Israel " (Numbers xxv. 3). It has 
been suggested (G. B. Gray) that the worship was pos- 
sibly a local cult of Chemosh (g.v.). See Encycl. Bibl. 

BAALSAMIN. A deity worshipped by the Phoenicians, 
Nabataeans, and Palmyrenes. The name means " the 
lord of heaven." 

BAALZEBUB. The name of a local baal (see BAAL), 
a god of Ekron. Ahaziah, king of Israel, when he was 
ill sent messengers to consult the god's oracle (II. Kings 
i. 2, 3, 6, 16). The word has been commonly explained 



Baal-zephon 



48 



Babism 



as " god of flies," that is to say, " a god who sends as 
well as removes a plague of flies " ; but this is not very 
suitable. God of Zebub would be more suitable, but no 
such place is known. Prof. Cheyne would read Baal- 
zebul, " lord of the high house," a title such as any god 
with a fine temple might bear. He thinks that in con- 
tempt the late Hebrew narrator altered this to " god of 
flies." See Enci/cl. Bibl. 

BAAL-ZEPSON. The name of a Phoenician god. The 
word idphon means " north " in Hebrew, whence Baal- 
zephon seems to mean " Baal of the North," or " the Baal 
whose throne is on the sacred mountain of the gods in 
the north " (Baethgen). The god is also referred to in 
Assyrian inscriptions (Baal-.«apunu). Prof. Che.vne 
identifies Baal-zephon with Baal-Lebanon, " the Baal of 
Lebanon." See Encycl. Bibl. 

BAANITBS. Followers of Baanes, a disciple of 
Josephus Epaphroditus, who formed a sect of tie 
Pauliclans in Armenia (c. A.D. 810). 

BABA. Literally " father," a title of honour in Persia 
and Turkey borne by distinguished ecclesiastics. 

BABA BATHRA". One of the Jewi.sh treatises or 
tractates which reproduce the oral tradition or unwritten 
law as developed by the second century A.D. and are 
included in the Mishnah (g.v.), a collection and compila- 
tion completed by Rabbi Judah the Holy, or the Patriarch, 
about 200 A.D. The sixty-three tractaetes of the Mishnah 
are divided Into six groups or orders (sedarim). Babfi 
Bathr,T is the third tractate of the fourth group, which 
is called Ne~ikin (" Damages "). 

BABA KAMMA. The name of one of the Jewish 
treatises or tractates which reproduce the oral tradition 
or unwritten law as developed by the second century A.D. 
and are incorporated in the Mishnah (g.v.), a collection 
and compilation completed by Rabbi Judah the Holy, or 
the Patriarch, about 200 A.D. The sixty-three tractates 
of the Mishnah are divided into six groups or orders 
(sedarim). Baba Kamma is the first tractate of the 
fourth group, which is called Nezikin (" Damages "). 

BABAKIYAH. The followers of Babek, upon whom is 
supposed to have fallen the mantle of the Persian Mazdak 
(founder of a Religious Communism). Babek claimed to 
be God incarnate. His followers are said to have prac- 
tised the " extinction of the lamp " at their nightly 
festivals. According to Isfaraini, they assembled by 
night in the mountains and agreed upon all kinds of 
depravity with women and fluteplaying; they put out 
lamps and fires and each rises up to seize the female who 
sits nearest. But, as P. W. Bussell says, such charges 
are frequently levelled against all secret meetings of a 
suspected sect. 

BABA MESI'A. The title of one of the Jewish 
tractates or treatises which represent the unwritten law 
or oral tradition as developed by the second century A.D. 
and are included in the Mishnah (g.v.). a collection and 
compilation completed by Rabbi Judah the Holy, or the 
Patriardi, about 200 A.D. The sixty-three tractates of 
the Mishnah are divided into six groups or orders 
(sedarim). Bfibfi MesT'a is the second tractate of the 
fourth group, which is called Nezikin (" Damages "). 

BABBAR. The name of a deity in the old Babylonian 
inscriptions. It means literally the " brilliantly shining 
one," and seems to have been another name for the sun, 
Shamash (g.v.). See Morris Jastrow, Rel. 

BABEL, TOWER OP. A story in the Old Testament 
(Genesis xi.) the purpose of which was to account for a 
variety of languages amongst men and the dispersion of 
mankind. The story may have been suggested partly 
by the spectacle of a ruined temple-tower of Babylon. 
Babel is, as a matter of fact, the Hebrew form of the 
native name Bab-ili, "gate of God"; but the Hebrew 



narrator tries to connect it with a Hebrew word meaning 
" to confuse." The story, which is very anthropo- 
morphic, is to this effect. The whole earth had originally 
one language. Mankind .iourneyed and found a place suit- 
able to settle in, the plain of Shinar. They then pro- 
ceeded to make bricks with clay and bitumen. They 
would build a city and also a tower reaching unto heaven. 
These would prevent them from being disi>ersed. But 
Jehovah, becoming alarmed, " came down to see the city 
and the tower." Having seen them he returns and takes 
counsel with the sons of God. If they do this, he says, 
" nothing will be withholden from them which they pur- 
pose to do." Then he adds, " Come, let us go down, 
and bring their speech into confusion." Thus, in the 
words of Dr. Samuel G. Smith, " to save the sanctity of 
the divine abode, the common langiiage was confounded, 
the men were scattered abroad, the city building was 
abandoned, and a primitive explanation of the race 
question was left on record (Religion in the Making, 
1910). See Encycl. Bibl. 

BABISM. A religious movement in modern Persia. 
Babism is an olTshoot of Shiism (g.v.), the Persian state- 
religion. The Shiites recognised, after Mohammed, 
twelve Imams or vicars of God on earth. The last of 
these. Imam Mahdi, disappeared mysteriously A.D. 940. 
He communicated with the faithful, however, through 
privileged persons, each of whom was called Bab or Gate. 
There were four of these in succession, and their period 
was called the " Lesser Occnltation." The succeeding 
period was called the " Gireater Occnltation." The 
Shiite school known as Shaykhism maintained that 
between the Hidden Imam and his followers there must 
always be a " perfect man " to act as a channel of grace. 
Sayyid Kazim, one of these perfect men, died with- 
out naming a successor. Thereupon Mirza All Moham- 
mad declared that he was the new Bab or Gate, 
and Mulla Husayn soon became his devoted disciple 
(May 23. 1844). They were joined by followers of Sayyid 
Kazim and others, to whom the Bab inveighed against 
the worldliness of the Mohammedan clergy and the in- 
justice of the government. On a pilgrimage to Mecca he 
seems to have broken definitely with the faith of 
Mohammed, and In consequence his followers were soon 
made to .suffer. He himself was next arrested, taken 
to Shlraz, and found guilty of heresy. In 184fi he made 
his escape to Ispahan, whence he was afterwards 
banished, first to Maku, and then to Chihrik, where he 
was closely confined, though he still contrived to send 
messages to his disciples. After this he gave out that 
he was the Imam Mahdi himself, and prophesied that 
there should come after him " He whom God .shall mani- 
fest," one greater than himself. In his teaching he 
attached a peculiar sanctity to the number 19. He chose 
18 disciples as " I/etters of the Living," and called him- 
self, as the nineteenth person, the " Point of Unity." 
His chief work, which became the Bible of Babism, was 
called the " Bayan." His disciple Mulla Husayn was 
very active In spreading the faith, but was killed In 1S49 
while fighting with his co-religlonlsts against the royal 
troops. There were several such Babi ri.sings in which 
the Bab's followers were mercilessly dealt with. The 
authorities now turned their attention once more to the 
Bab himself. After a mock trial at Tabriz he was con- 
demned to death, and died a martyr at the age of twenty- 
seven. Other martyrdoms fallowed, especially in the 
year IS.'JO. The movement tended to become more 
ixtlitieal. This, and an attempt on the life of the Shah, 
led to voluntary exile in Bagdad. In 1864 another move- 
ment had to be made first to Constantinople, and then 
to Adrianople. From 1850 until this time Subh-i-Eze! 
had been head of the Babis. In 1866-67 an elder half- 



Babylonian Psalms 



49 



Bahaism 



brother Beha gave out that he was " He whom God shall 
manifest." Subh-i-Ezel would not allow this. Thus a 
schism was caused, and the Behais, whose headquarters 
were moved in ISfiS to Acre, became the more numerous 
and more powerful division. Amongst his other works, 
Beha produced one, the Kitab-i-Akdas, which became a 
new Bible and took the place of the Bayan. Beha, who 
came to be reverenced as God Almighty, died in 1892, and 
was succeeded by his eldest son. Abbas Efendi. The 
Bfibis, who are said to numl)er now one million, " have 
no places of worship of their own, but hold their meetings, 
generally after sundown, in the houses of various 
members of the community " (E. Denison Ross). The 
movement has spread to America. See B. Denison Ross 
in a.R.W.; E. G. Browne, Hew History of the Bab, 1893 

BABYLONIAN PSALMS. A number of Babylonian 
hymns and songs have been preserved, and are interesting 
as bearing some resemblance to the psalms of the Old 
Testament. The German scholar H. Zimmern has made 
a collection of the psalms of penance under the heading 
" Babylonian Penitential Psalms " (Babylonische Buss- 
psalmen). He thinks that the impetus was given to this 
class of composition by national calamities rather than 
by personal grievances. The hymns often contain his- 
torical allusions, and sometimes include a prayer for the 
king. For specimens of these psalms, see Morris 
Jastrow, Rel.; W. Bousset. 

BABY-TOWERS. In China it has been the practice 
to throw away the corpses of infants. In some parts of 
the Empire they have been left in urns or wooden boxes 
in the open country. In other parts structures called 
baby-towers have been built to receive them. These are 
round, polygonal, or square, and are constructed of stone 
blocks or of bricks. They have an aperture like a window 
into which the infants are dropped. Sometimes there are 
two apertures, one labelled " male infants." the other 
inscribed " female babies." On a slab of stone in front 
of such a tower may be found the inscription, " Pagoda 
or Tower for hoarding up bones " or " Place of Resort 
for Infants." See J. J. M. de Groot, R.S.O. 

BACABS. A name given to four beings, upholders of 
the firmament, in the mythology of the Mayan Indians 
of Yucatan. Their names were Kan, Muluc, Ix, and 
Cauae. They represented the ea.st, north, west, and 
south ; and had as their symbolic colours yellow, white, 
black, and red. 

BACCANARISTS. A religious order (also called 
" Paccanarists "), founded by one Baecanari or Pacca- 
nari of Trentino in 1798. Their proper title was Regular 
Clerks of the Faith of Jesus. Baecanari 6.stablished his 
monastery in a country house near Spoleto with the idea 
of reviving the Jesuit Society of Jesus. The movement 
spread to France and Holland : but in 1804, when the 
Society of Jesus was re-established in Naples, it neces- 
sarily lost ground, and in 1814, on the restoration of the 
Jesuits, it ceased to exist. See Cath. Diet. 

BACCHUS. One of the Greek names and the oommon 
Roman name for Dionysus, the god of wine. 

BACULARII. An Anabaptist sect the members of 
which believed that Christians are forbidden an the 
Scriptures to carry any weapon but a staff. 

BADI. A Malay term denoting something half- 
material, half-personal. 

BADUHENNA, GROVE OF. A eacred grove where the 
Romans were defeated A.D. 28 (Tacitus, Anjuils, iv., 
73). 

BAELDAEG. The Anglo-Saxon form of Balder (g.v.), 
one of the gods of the Ancient Teutons. 

BAETYLS. Since these objects are referred to as 
" bsetyls, animated stones " (Sanchonlathon, BoiriiAio, 



Xieov; efi^ivxovi), the Original meaning seems to be 
meteorites or supposed thunderbolts (see E. B. Tylor, 
P.O.). But the term is applied to small portable stones 
which were supposed to possess magic virtues. 

BAGDAD, JEWS IN. The Bagdad Jew is described 
by E. J. Banks (Bismya, or The Lost City of Adab, 
1912) as very superstitious. The following are examples 
of some of their superstitions. A wife may not look into 
a mirror, or sweep the floor of her house, or bring a 
saucepan into the house after sunset. " When her child 
die«, she forgets the old Hebrew Law, and takes a pig 
into the house to protect the other children from the 
evil eye; if the pig should die, a coat for the child is 
made from its skin." A large tomb in the desert to the 
East of Bagdad, which, though modern, is said to be the 
tomb of Joshua (Son of Nun), is a sacred place of 
pilgrimage for the Jewesi^es of the city. They gather 
also about a large English gun in a public square. 
Stroking it, they whisper their prayers, their troubles, and 
their hopes into its mouth. " They place lighted candles 
in tiny paper boats in the river, and, as the current bears 
them away, they read in the flickering flame whatever 
fate has in store for them." 

BAGHARRA DEO. A Hindu deity, the tiger, wor- 
shipped as the protector of cattle against wild animals 
by the Kawars, a primitive tribe living in the hills of the 
Chhattisgarh Districts north of the Mahanadi in India. 

BAGHESHWAR. An Indian deity, the tiger god, wor- 
shipped by the Bharias. 

BAGNOLENSES. A branch of the Cathari in the 
thirteenth century. They were also called Baiolenses, 
being named after Bagnolo or Baiolo, a town of Provence. 
They had much in oommon with the Albanenses (Q.v.), 
and were perhaps forerunners of the Albigenses (q.v.). 
They held that matter was created by God alone, but 
that' out of it an evil spirit made the four elements, earth, 
air, fire, and vrater, and so formed the world. See J. H. 
Blunt. 

BAHAISM. A religion of Persian origin, a develop- 
ment of Babism (q.v.). At the end of the year 1852 many 
of the Babis were exiled to Bagdad by the Persian and 
Ottoman governments. One of the exiles was Baha'u'llah, 
an early disciple of the Bab. His real name was Mirza 
Husain 'Ali Nuri, and he belonged to a powerful and 
lioble family. He was born on the 12th of November, 
1817. When he was nearly thirty he determined to con- 
secrate all his energies to the cause of Babism. He did 
not meet the Bfib, but he corresponded with him regu- 
larly. At Bagdad he l)ecame leader and organiser of 
the exiles. In the cour.se of this work he became con- 
vinced that he was the Supreme Manifestation heralded 
by the Bab. but he kept the conviction a secret from all 
but his most intimate friends. The party that gathered 
round Baha'u'llah grew to such an extent that in course 
of time it came to be considered dangerous. The leader 
was summoned to Constantinople. Before he left his 
movement underwent a new development. He declared 
himself to be the Supreme Manifestation of (iod 
prophesied by the Bftb. His followers were to be hence- 
forth not Babis but Bahais. And he made the startling 
pronouncement that foreign peoples, infidels, were no 
longer to be considered unclean. " The times were dis- 
tant since Moses. Jesus or Muhammad had brought them 
special laws. God would speak again, and this time, 
through His Supreme Manifestation, he would lead recon- 
ciled men toward progress, and regenerate them by love. 
Disdainful of the comforts of this world, they ought only 
to strive to develop their spirituality. Thus, the work 
begun by the Bab would find in him its accomplishment 
and its end in the renovation and unification of all 
religions! " (H. Dreyfus). Baha'u'llah was four months 



Bahman 



50 



B&laji 



in Constantinople. He was then sent to Adrianople 
(1804). Here he addressed letters to the ruJers in Europe 
and America urging tiem to assist him in introducing 
universal fraternity and peace. In 1868 the Sultan 
banished him to 'Alika, whither he was accompanied by 
his faithful disciples. They were at first imprisoned in 
the fortress and were treated rather harshly. After a 
time, however, they were released, and new-comers joined 
their colony, Buddhists, Parsees, Musulmans, and 
others. " One has not often, I think," writes H. Dreyfu.s. 
" had the opportunity of observing an ec-onomic and social 
phenomenon such as this little community composed as it 
was of individuals belonging to the most diverse and 
equally fanatical religions, having up to this time lived 
in the most diCferent surroundings, accustomed to con- 
ceptions of existence often contradictory: and who had 
now come to carry into action the principles of detach- 
ment and of human fraternity, around the Prophet him- 
.self, which until then they had been powerless to realise 
in their native land. Their conduct was so perfect, their 
morality so high, their harmony so complete, that, 
although they have been there for forty years, no judge 
has had yet to intervene for them in any legal disputes." 
Prom 18«;9 to 1892 the leader dictated to some of his 
disciples a number of treatises. These included " The 
IVIost Holy Book " and " The Book of the Testament." 
When Baha'u'lliih died at the end of May, 1892, his son 
'Abdu'1-Baha (b. May, 1844), who had been a tower of 
strength to his father, assumed the leadership. His 
opinions and advice have been sought on all hands by the 
Bahais. "Thus he is effectively the centre of this great 
movement, which having started from the Persian moun- 
tains, to-day re-unites people from all corners of the 
earth in one unique aim— that of the progress of 
humanity." Baha'u'llah exhorted the ministers of State 
to make some one language universal, and to institute 
tribunals of arbitration. He insists " that all nations 
should become one in faith and all men as brothers; that 
the bonds of affection and unity between the .sons of men 
should be strengthened." The Bahais are required to 
live a spiritual life, but not a life of austerity and soli- 
tude. 'Abdu'l-Bahfi says : " We were made to be happy 
and not ead; for joy, not for sorrow. Happiness is life; 
sadness is death; spiritual happiness is eternal life. It 
is a light that tie night does not extingruish ; it is an 
honour that shame does not follow, an existence which 
is not resolved into annihilation ! For happiness the 
worlds and contingent beings have been created." See H. 
Dreyfus, The Universal Religion: Bahaism, 1909. 

BAHMAN. Originally called Vohu-manO, "good 
mind," the name of a Zoroastrian god. Plutarch (" On 
Isis and Osiris," xlvi. and xlvii.) describes the deity as 
"the god of benevolence." Bahman "pervades the 
whole living good creation, and all the good thoughts, 
words, and deeds of men are wrought by him " (Haug). 

BAHEAM. According to R. V. Russell and R. B. Hlra 
Ja\\, Bahr.im of Nachangaon near Pulgaon is the tutelary 
deity of the Wardha Dhangars. The Dhangars are the 
Maratha caste of shepherds and blanket-weavers in India. 

BAIRAGIS. A general term for Hindu ascetics of any 
Vishnuite sect who are accustomed to go about naked, 
and pride themselves on having destroyed the power of 
sexual passion. This latter they are supposed to do 
either by practising great abstemiousness in eating and 
drinking, or by the use of drugs, or even by means of 
some such mechanical contrivance as a heavy weight 
fastened to the generative organs. Russell and Hira Lai 
note that usually the term Bairagi is not applied to the 
Kabirpanthi. the Swaml-Narayan, the Satnami, the Sikh 
religious orders, or to the Chaitanya sect of Bengal. See 
J. A. Dubois and H. K. Beauchamp. 



BAIRAM. The Persian and Turkish name for one of 
the two great Mohammedan festivals. It follows the 
fast called Ramadan, and lasts three days or more. There 
is a second Bairam seventy days after the first. This 
last four days. 

BAKHTASHIYKH. The Bakhtashlyeh or Bagh- 
dashlyeh are an order of Dervishes which was founded 
by Haji Bakhtash (d. 1357). 

BALA GOPaLA. a name for the child-god Krisihna, a 
form of Krishna worshipi>ed by modem Hindus. See B. 
W. Hopkins. 

BALAAM'S ASS. Reinach remarks that one of the 
mo.st curious epl.^^des in the book of Numbers (see 
NUMBERS, BOOK OF) " is tiat of Balaam the prophet, 
whose ass seems to have been an echo of the worship 
of the ass, considered as an oracular animal." He com- 
pares the story (Numbers xxii.) with those animal-fables 
which were widely prevalent in ancient times (cp. the 
Encycl. Bibl., s.v. " Balaam," where Addis compares the 
Babylonian beast-stories, and the si)eaking horse in 
Homer's Iliad, xix. 404), and thinks that " the primitive 
stories which were combined and revised to form the 
Bible must have bristled with tales of animals." But he 
is obliged to admit that in the Bible as preserved to us 
animals only speak on rare occasions. There are only 
two instances — that of the serpent in the Book of Genesis 
and that of Balaam's ass in the Book of Numbers. Why 
are there not more? The truth may be that the Hebrew 
stories are not on a level with ordinary animal-fables, 
but were suggested by real psychical or spiritual 
oxpyeriences which seem to have been granted in un- 
usually rich measure to the Hebrews. Balaam was 
requested by Balak, king of Moab, to go and curse the 
Israelites, that is to say, to bring them under the baneful 
influence of a powerful spell. Balaam at first refused 
to do this. He realized intuitively that this people was 
under the protection of the Divine Power. When at 
length he did consent to go, it was with great reluctance 
and hesitation. Now it has often been remarked that 
the mental state of a rider influences the animal which 
he rides. Balaam's uncertainty communicated itself to 
his ass, and the animal tried several times to turn back. 
The master beat the animal, and at length, we are told, 
the ass spoke and rebuked him. Of course animals do 
not speak. But it is nevertheless possible that Balaam 
heard a voice, and that he or his reporter ttelieved that 
the voice proceeded from the animal. The words spoken 
have been altered in accordance with this idea. We now 
know that the hearing of a voice is a not uncommon 
p.s.ychical experience (cp. BURNING BUSH). And 
Balaam was just the kind of man to have had the 
kind of experience denoted by clairaudience (g.v.) and 
elain'oyance (g.v.). " Among the various nations of the 
world we find instances in which we are able to observe 
how certain persons, popularly regarded as a special type 
of men, distinct from their fellows, pass into ecstatic 
slates, and in them make peculiar observations. Gener- 
ally these experiences come to them during worship, or 
whilst they offer fervent prayer, or during some other 
powerful religious occupation of the mind. 'They get into 
a condition in which they are in a peculiar sense cut off 
from the world, but in which their souls are all the more 
active, and respond readily to influences which have no 
effect upon a man in his ordinary waking life. In this 
condition they see visions and hear voices and words, the 
significance of which is unknown to the ordinary man " 
(R. Kittel, Scientific Study of the O.T., 1910). For the 
story of Balaam, see Enoycl. Bibl.; G. B. Gray, Numbers, 
in the I.C.O., 1903; A. R. S. Kennedy, Leviticus and 
'Numbers, in the " Oentory Bible." 

BALAJI. Baiaji is the name of one of the modem gods 



Balance of Osiris, The 



51 



Bana 



of the Hindus, an dncamation of the Supreme Triad 
(Brahma-Vishnu-Siva). Sir Alfred C. Lyall states 
(Asiatic Studies) that he is one of the four most popular 
gods in the province of Berar in Central India. He 
thinks that not so very long ago he must have been a 
notable living man. Bai9ji is worshipped on Fridays as 
the younger brother of Rama by the Dhangars. the 
Maratha caste of shepherds and blanket-weavers. 

BALANCE OF OSIRIS, THE. A familiar repre- 
sentation in the religion of ancient Egypt. In the under- 
world, in the judgment-hall of Osiris (q-v-), the heart of 
a deceased person is weighed by Horus (q.v.) and Anubis 
(g.v.) to see whether it is lighter than truth. In a 
magical text of the Hellenistic period it is said : " he 
whose evil deeds are more in number than the good, is 
given to the Devourer of the underworld ; his soul and 
his body are destroyed and he shall live no longer. He 
whose good deeds are more in number than the evil, he 
is received among the divine counsellors of the Lord of 
the underworld, while his soul goes with the glorious 
justified ones to heaven." See A. Erman. 

BALDACCHINO. An Italian word for a canopy. It 
is supposed to be derived from Baaldak, the name by 
which Bagdad was known at the time of the Crusades. 
The Baldacchino is used in the Roman Catholic Church. 
The canopy placed over the high-altar hangs from the 
roof of the church or is supported on four pillars. 
Canopies may also be erected over a pulpit or above a 
bishop's throne, etc. Since the time of Constantine 
canopies resembling in shape the bowl of a cup have been 
suspended over the altar-table. Inside this canopy was 
hung a vessel containing the Holy Sacrament. This 
canopy was called ciborium. Its use in the Church of 
England has been declared Illegal (Dec. 15, 1873). 
Baldacchino is al.so the name of a canopy held over the 
Roman Catholic priest as he carries the Host in pro- 
cession on Holy Thursday, etc. See Oath. Diet. 

BALDER. Also written Baldr, the name of a god in 
Teutonic religion (cp. Anglo-Saxon bealdor "prince"). 
He is a god of light. His original home was perhaps in 
Denmark, for he figures most frequently in Danish 
legends. In Denmark too are Baldersbrond where he 
quenched the thir.=it of warriors by making water .spring 
from the ground, and Baldrshoje where he is buried. 
Balder is said to have been wounded in a fierce struggle 
with Hotherus, son of a Swedish king, the two antagonists 
being rivals for the love of Nanna. the beautiful 
daughter of the Norwegian king Gevarus. Balder could 
only be wounded by Miming's .sword, of which Hotherus 
had contrived to obtain iwssession. There are variations 
of the legend. According to another account, he was 
killed with mistletoe. All things had been put under oath 
not to harm him, except the mistletoe, which had been 
overlooked. In Norse mythology Balder has become more 
human: he is "the beaming hero, beloved of all " (C. de 
I.^ Saussaye). Scenes from the legend of Balder seem 
to have been depicted on the two golden horns, dating 
from the fifth or beginning of the six-th centurv, found 
in Southern .Jutland in 1(!39 and 17.34. There is also 
reference to the legend in a magic formula (perhaps of 
the eighth century) found at Merseburg in 1841. See P. 
D. Chantepie de La Saussaye, Rrl. of the Teutons, 1902. 

BALKISHEN. The boy Krishna, one of the names of 
the Hindu god Krishna, 

BALMARCODES. A shrine of the Punic or Phoenician 
god Baal Marcod, " the lord of dances," has been found 
not far from Bexytus. In inscxiptions of the Roman 
age this god is called Balmarcodes. His worship was 
introduced into Syria by the Phoenicians. 

BALMIK. A saint (also known as Balnek) worshipi)ed 
by the Mehtars, the caste of sweepers and scavengers in 



India. According to R. V. Russell and R. B. Hira Lai, 
he is really the huntsman Valmiki, the reputed author of 
the Ramayana, who in turn was originally a hunter called 
Ratnakar. 

BALOR. A deity with an evil eye, one of the gods of 
the Irish Celts of the Pomorian cult. 

BAMACHARI. A sub-division of the Hindu sect 
known as Saktas (q.v.). The Bamachari are left-handed 
Saktas, i.e., worshippers of Sakti, the female force in 
Nature, per-souified as a goddess. They are so called as 
distinguished from the right-handed Saktas and the 
extreme Saktas. See J. C. Oman, B.T.M.I. 

BAMBINO. An Italian word, meaning literally 
" babe." The term is used in art of the swaddled figure 
of the infant Jesus. The figure, carved in wood, in the 
church of the Ara Cceli at Rome {Santissimo Bambino) 
is supposed to possess the power of miraculously healing 
the sick. 

BAMPTON LECTURES. A Church of England course 
of Lectures on Divinity delivered at Oxford, and named 
after their founder, the Rev. John Bampton. Bampton 
was a Prebendary of Salisbury Cathedral. He died in 
1751, leaving a legacy of £120 per annum for the endow- 
ment of eight lectures. The lectures are delivered as 
sermons at Great St. Mary's, and are afterwards 
published. The object of the lectures is " to confirm and 
establish the Christian faith, and to confute all heretics 
and schismatics, upon the divine authority of the holy 
Scriptures, upon the authority of the writings of the 
primitive Fathers as to the faith and practice of the 
primitive Church, upon the divinity of our Lord and 
Saviour Je.sus Christ, upon the divinity of the Holy 
Ghost, uix)n the articles of the Christian Faith as com- 
prehended in the Apostles' and Nicene Creeds." 

BAN. In the Old Testament we often read of things or 
persons being put under a ban, that is to say, being 
devoted to Jehovah by destruction. The term use (hrm, 
Greek iviBe/ia; Authorised Version "accursed thing"; 
Revised Version "devoted thing") is derived from a 
common Semitic root. It is the root from which harem 
(a place con.secrated or set apart) comes. Amongst the 
things devote<l to Jehovah were : idols (Deuteronomy vii. 
25), Cauaanite cities (Deut. xx. 16-18), enemies (I. Samuel 
XV.: cp. the Moabite Stone 1. 16 /.), property (Micah iv. 
13), and guilty persons (Joshua vii.). Sometimes the 
devoted thing .seems to have been a kind of free-will 
offering or sacrifice to Jehovah. Leviticus xxvii. 28 says 
that " no devoted thing, that a man shall devote unto 
the Lord of all that he hath, whether of man or beast, 
or of the field of his possession, shall be sold or redeemed : 
every devoted thing is most holy unto the Lord. None 
devoted, which shall be devoted of men, shall be ran- 
somed; he shall surely be put to death." Apparently 
the idea in such cases was to purchase by a vow the 
friendly aid of the deity. See Encycl. BiU. 

BANA. A term used in Singhalese Buddhism. Bana 
is a recitation which, even though the hearer does not 
understand the words, is supposed to act as a charm, 
averting illnesses and exorcising evil spirits. In con- 
nection with its use there is a custom called pirit (Paii 
pdritta). Laymen are accustomed to hire monks to read 
bana day and night without interruption. The ceremony 
usually lasts seven days, and is performed in the 
preaching-hall of a monastery or in some other suitable 
building. " The monks relieve one another in such a 
way that no .smallest pause occurs to break the charm. 
A Buddhist relic lies on the platform where the monk is 
reciting, and a sacred cord encircles the whole building, 
beginning at the place of recitation and leading back to it 
again, so that by Its means the working of the incanta- 



Banat Su'ad 



52 



Baptism, Christian 



tion may be substantially held together. Besides the 
two monks who read the bana simultaneously, there are 
usually others assembled in the building, who murmur 
with them and lieep hold of the cord which encircles 
the sacred area. The festival ends with a procession 
and a mythological performance, which is often the cause 
of lavish expenditure. Thus the word of the Buddha's 
doctrine is perverted into a magic formula." See H. 
Haclimann. 

BANAT SU'AD. An Arabic poem in praise of 
Mohammed. See BURDA. 

BANBURY MAN. A name given to Puritans in the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 

BAND OF HOPE. A name given (1855) to children's 
Societies the members of which have promised to abstain 
from intoxicants. The name is due to Jabez Tunnicliffe, 
of Leeds. One of the chief leaders in the movement was 
Stephen Shirley. 

BANDA. A deified man, the principal deity of the 
Kharias, a primitive Kolarian tribe in India. 

BANDANA. An annual festival, preliminary to mar- 
riage, among the Sunthals. a wild tribe of India. The 
unmarried men and women " indulge together in an in- 
describable orgie, at the end of which each man selects 
the woman he prefers " (Hopkins). 

BANDE NOIRE. When the French Revolution was 
supposed to have rendered useless many such buildings 
as castles, monasteries, churches, chapels, abbeys, 
societies were formed (tande noire) for the purpose of 
purchasing them, pulling them down, and selling the 
materials. 

BANDS, CLERICAL. A kind of neckcloth or collar 
formerly worn by clergymen. They are mentioned as 
early as 15U6 as part of the dress of the English clergy 
which was worn out of doors. They consist of two 
strips of linen which hang like a necktie. Barristers in 
England still wear something similar. Graduates at 
the Universities used to have them, and scholars at 
Christ's Hospital and Winchester School still have them. 
In the Church of England they have survived as part 
of the clerical Court dress. In France and Germany 
they are still worn. Their origin has been found in the 
broad collars generally worn in the Tudor period or in 
the ecclesiatical vestment known as the Amice (q.v.). 
See G. S. Tyack, Historic Dress of the Clergy, 1897. 

BANGOR, USB OF. In the early days of the Church 
In Britain various places had liturgies of their own repre- 
senting somewhat different modes of celebrating Mass. 
These were called " Uses," and Bangor was one of the 
places which had a use of its own. 

BANGORIAN CONTROVERSY. A controversy in the 
■Church of England (1717-1720) caused by a sermon 
preached by Dr. B. Hoadly (1076-1761), Bishop of Bangor, 
before King George I. on the text, " My kingdom is not 
of this world." In this sermon, which was published 
by Royal request, the Bishop laid stress on the fact that 
the Kingdom of God was spiritual and not temporal. Dr. 
Hoadly was censured by Convocation for denying the 
royal supremacy in ecclesiastical matters and for trying 
to subvert the discipline and government of the Church. 
The King, however, prorogued Convocation (1717). A 
great many pamphlets were written on one side or the 
other. See J. H. Blunt. 

BANJARAS. An Indian caste of carriers and drivers 
of pack-bullocks, also known as Wanjriris. Labhanas, or 
Mukeris. 'Their favourite deities are Banjfiri Devi, 
whose shrine in the forest is often a heap of stones; 
Mithu Bhiikia, who was originally a freebooter; and Siva 
Bhnia, the great brother to all women, who was wooed 
in vain by Mfiri Mata, the goddess of cholera. The Ban- 



jiiras worship also their pack-cattle, practise witchcraft, 
and are said to offer human sacrifices. See R. V. Russell. 

BANNERS. In the Roman Catholic Church banners 
are used in processions and services. Inside the church 
they are hung round or near the altar. " As the soldier 
in battle looks to the colours of his regiment, and while 
they float aloft, knows that the day may still be won, 
and is animated to do valiantly, so should Christians, as 
the Church by her sanction of banners reminds us, fix 
their gaze on that Cross of Christ which is the standard 
of their warfare, and be continually animated by the 
thought to fresh courage " (Addis and Arnold). 

BANNS. A solemn proclamation of intended marriage 
made in Christiian churches or in licensed public chapels. 
The proclamation is now ordered by Act of Parliament. 
In 1215 it had been made a general ecclesiastical law by 
the Fourth Lateran Council. See Prot. Diet.; Cath. 
Diet. 

BANSHEE. The banshee is a female sprite or fairy 
in Irish folklore. Originally every family would seem 
to have possessed a banshee of its own, that is to say, 
" the spirit of one of its ancestors who always appeared 
to announce by its weird warning the approaching decease 
of any member of the family" (W. G. Wood- Martin) ; 
but she came to be identified with one of the ancient 
goddesses and to be associated particularly with aristo- 
cratic families. Often, too, she is the ghost of someone 
who has suffered violence at the hands of a progenitor 
of the family. W. G. Wood-Martin iioints out that the 
banshee resembles the guardian angel or saint of the 
Christian. She warned mortals of impending danger, 
and pointed out to them the right line of conduct to 
pursue. The moan of the wind in crevices of the rocks 
before a storm was supposed to be the wail of the banshee, 
and other strange noises (e.g., in old houses) were 
explained in the same way. See W. G. Wood-Martin. 

BAPHOMET. A name associated with the Templars. 
It has been explained as a cabalistic formation, an abbre- 
viation, written backwards, of " templi omnium hominum 
pacis abbas," which means " abbot (or father) of the 
temple of peace of all men." An earlier explanation, 
however, is that the word is a corruption of Mahomet, 
and that the Templars venerated the prophet. What- 
ever Baphomet was, it seems to have been represented 
or svmbolized bv a small two-headed human figure. 

BAPTISM, CHRISTIAN. A word formed from a 
Greek root meaning " to dip," and used as a special 
designation of one of the rites of the Christian Church. 
The practice seems to have been suggested by the Jews, 
who removed ceremonial uncleanness by bathing the body 
in water and required Gentiles to be baptised on becoming 
Jewish proselytes. But the rite, it is claimed, assumed 
a new significance. WTiereas Jewish baptism was thought 
of only as a means of getting rid of ceremonial unclean- 
ness. Christian baptism was regarded as " a baptism of 
repentance for the remission of sins." Jesus allowed 
himself to be baptised by John the Baptist. He did not 
himself baptise, however, and it has been questioned 
whether he himself instituted the rite. True, he is repre- 
sented as having done so. In Matthew xxvili. 19, he is 
represented as saying to his disciples when he appeared 
to them after his crucifixion : " Go ye, therefore, and 
make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them into the 
name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy 
Ghost." In Mark xvi. 16 we are told that he said : " He 
that believeth and is baptized shall be saved ; but he that 
di.sbelieveth shall be damned." But there is evidence that 
the passage in Matthew's Gospel has been edited, and the 
passage in Mark's Gospel belongs to the last twelve verses 
which are widely recognised now to be a later addition. 
At any rate, the Christian community adopted the rite at 



Baptism, Christian 

an early date. When Peter appealed to the multitude 
on the day of Pentecost, saying, " Kepent ye, and be 
baptized, each one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ 
for the remission of your sins, and ye shall receive the 
gift of the Holy Spirit " (Acts ii. 38), about three 
thousand persons are said to have l)een baptisied. We 
need not suppose that people were required always to 
Immerse themselves. The jwuring of water on the head 
would no doubt often suffice. The Greek word for " to 
baptize " (BairW^etv) could be used in a wide sense. It 
sometimes meant simply " to wash " (cp. Luke xi. 38; 
Mark vii. 4; Hebrews ix. 10). Persons were baptized at 
first " in the name of Jesus Christ " (Acts ii. 38, x. 48) 
or " in the name of the Lord Jesus " (Acts viii. Ifi, xix. 5). 
Afterwards, with the development of the doctrine of the 
Trinity, they were baptized "' in the name of the Father 
and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost " (cp. Justin 
Martyr, Apol. i. 61). In Colossians ii. 11 /. St. Paul 
seems to compare baptism with circumcision. Since Jewish 
boys were circumcised on the eighth day after birth, this 
seems to suggest that infants were baptised in the early 
Christian community (cp. the references to " house- 
holds " in Acts svi. 15, 31-33, I. Corinthians i. 16). 
Towards the end of the second century we hear almost 
everywhere of " Catechumens." This was the name 
given to adult converts who were being prepared for 
baptism. The rite of initiation from the time of the 
ai)ostles "included two principal parts: the bath, or 
baptism with water, and the laying on of hands. The 
fir.<?t rite conveyed the special gift of remission of sin; it 
was the symbol of the purification of the soul, by con- 
version and grafting into Jesus; the second rite carried 
with it sanctification by the descent of the Holy Ghost 
upon the soul of the neophyte. As time went on, other 
ceremonies were introduced. Tertullian speaks not only 
of baptism and the laying on of hands, but also mentions 
unction, the consignation or imjwsition of the sign of the 
cross, and lastly, a mixture of milk and honey given the 
newly initiated to drink. And as he adds that all these 
ceremonies were practised by the Marcionites. they must 
date back at least to the first half of the second century " 
(Louis Duchesne). At baptism the catechumens " were 
required to renounce publicly, before the whole Christian 
assembly, Satan, his pomps, and his works, which meant, 
in fact, paganism, its worship and its lax morality. Then 
they declared their faith in Jesus Christ, and in token 
thereof they recited a profession of faith." This pro- 
fession of faith was a form of the Apostles' Creed. The 
ancient ceremonial is largely retained in the Roman 
Catholic Church. " The priest meets the child at the 
door of the church; drives the devil from him; breathes 
thrice upon his face, to signify the new spiritual life 
which is to be breathed into his soul : puts salt into hia 
mouth, as a sign that he is to be freed from the corruption 
of sin; signs him on the forehead and breast with the 
sign of the cross, and leads him into the temple of (5od. 
The recipient then, through his sponsors, professes his 
faith by reciting the Creed and the Our Father. Then 
the priest exorcises the child; anoints his ears and 
nostrils with spittle — after our Lord's example, who thus 
cured the deaf and dumb man — ^and asks him in three 
separate interrogations whether he renounces Satan, all 
his works, and all his pomps. He next anoints him 
with the oil of catechumens on the breast and between 
the shoulders. The ancient athletes were anointed before 
their contests in the arena, and in tie same way the 
young Christian is prepared for the ' good fight ' which 
lies before him. The priest pours water three times on 
his head, in the form of a cross, at the same time pro- 
nouncing the words ' I baptise thee.' etc. After baptism, 
chrism is put on the top of his head, to signify his union 



53 



Baptists 



with Christ, the head of his Church ; he receives a white 
garment, and a burning light in his hands, svmbols of 
innocence and of the light of faith and charity " (Addis 
and Arnold). In the Church of England there are three 
forms of Service : one for the public baptism of infants, 
a second for Uie private baptism of children in houses, 
and a third for the baptism of those of riper years. In 
the public baptism of infants, the priest requests the 
sfjonsors to name the child, " and then naming it after 
them (if they shall certify him that the child may well 
endure it) he shall dip it in the water discreetlv and 
wanly, saying " the formula of baptism. " But if they 
certify that the child is weak, it shall suffice to pour water 
uf)on it." In practice, whether a child is weak or not, 
the latter method is now generally followed. After this 
'■ the priest shall make a cross upon the child's fore- 
head " saying : " We receive this child into the congrega- 
tion of Christ's flock, and do sign him with the sign of 
the cross," etc. In the baptism of those of riper years, 
the priest requests the godfather and godmother to name 
the person to be baptised, " and then shall dip him in 
the water, or pour water upon him." The controversies 
about baptism which have arisen from time to time are 
dealt with under separate headings. Cp. ABLUTIONS 
See Uncycl. Hibl: Cath. Diet.; Prot. Diet.; Louis 
Duchesne, Bist.; Chambers' Encycl. 

BAPTISM OF BLOOD. A baptism of blood seems to 
have figured in the worship of Attis (g.v.). The wor- 
shipper stood in a pit while the blood of a bull which had 
been stabbed to death poured through a grating above 
his head. In this baptism he was born again to eternal 
life, and for a time he was dieted as a new-t)orn child. 
The ancient Greeks purged a manslayer by smearing him 
with pig's blood, the idea perhaps being that the blood is 
accepted by the ofiended spirit " as a substitute for the 
blood of the guilty person " (J. G. Frazer, Adonis Attis 
Osiris, 1906). Sometimes a child receives a baptism of 
blood (e.g., among the Gipsies of northern Hungary), the 
object being " to unite the child in the closest bond with 
the person whose blood is shed." See further E. S. Hart- 
land, Perseus, 1894-1896. 

BAPTISTERY. The name of a place or building 
specially set apart for the performance of Christian bap- 
tism. In ancient times it was a separate building attached 
to Cathedral churches. The baptisterv was circular or 
polygonal with a bath in the middle, which in the West 
was called " piscina." There is a specimen at Ravenna in 
Italy belonging to about A.D. 430. The baptistery is now 
only a name for part of a church. " According to the 
Roman Rituale, it should be railed off. it should have a 
gate fastened by a lock, and be adorned, if possible, with 
a picture of Christ's baptism by St. John " (Addis and 
Arnold). See W. R. W. Stephens. Common Prayer, 1901 

BAPTISTS. A large body of Christians who object to 
infant baptism, and claim that, in the light of Scripture 
and of the original Greek term (baptizein). baptism is 
efficacious only when persons are baptized by immersion 
at an age at which they are able fullv to understand the 
meaning of the rite. Baptism is a new birth (•' Except 
a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God ") 
of which the recipient must be fullv conscious, having 
been taught the truths of Christianity. Appeal is made 
to Romans vi. 4 : " We were buried therefore with him 
through baptism into death, that like as Christ was raised 
from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we also 
might walk in newTiess of life "; and Colossians ii. 12: 
" having been buried with him in baptism, wherein ye 
were al.so rai.sed with him through faith in the working 
of God, who raised him from the dead." The Baptists 
do not care to be identified with the Anabaptists of the 
sixteenth century, whose principles were certainly in some 



Baraitha 



54 



respects very diJferent. Apparently they claim a kind 
of apostolic succession for their practices Some of their 
principles, however, they find represented aniong suci 
sects as the Cathari and Albigenses of the Middle Ages. 
In the twelfth century there were numbers of baptists 
among the Waldenses. Two leading opponents of infant 
baptism, Peter de Brueys and Arnold of Brescia, vfere 
condemned bv the Lateran Council in U39. Arnold of 
Brescia and Henry of Lausanne gathered around them 
manv followers and organised a kind of Baptist Churcn 
at Toulouse in the south of France. Their followers 
were called Petrobrusiaus or Henricians. Coming down 
to later times, a connection is suggested with the Men- 
nonites ("Dutch Baptists") of the sixteenth century, 
and more especially with the Brownists {q.v.) of the early 
part of the seventeenth century. A Baptist Church is 
.said indeed to have existed in England in 1417. At any 
rate we are told that " there were certainly Baptist 
' churches ' in England as early as 15S9, and there could 
scarcely have been several organised communities without 
the corresponding opinions having been held by indi- 
viduals and some churches established for years previous 
to this date " (H. S. Skeats and C. S. Miall). But Robert 
Browne and his successors seem to have been the founders 
of new denominations. Henry Jacob (1503-1024) is said 
to have changed the name " Brownists " into Inde- 
pendents," and in 1616 to have established at Blackfriars, 
London a community which claimed to be '"The first Inde- 
pendent or Congregational Church in England." As far 
as this particular claim is concerned, " it is now clearly 
established that an Independent church, of which Richard 
Fitz was pastor, existed in 1568 " (Skeats and Miall). But 
the importance of Henry Jacob's church remains. In 
course of time certain members of this congregation, 
having convinced themselves that baptism ought not to be 
administered to infants, separated, and in 1033 established 
a distinct church of which the minister was John Spils- 
bury In 1639 there was anotier congregation which met 
in Crutched Friars. In the same year Roger Williams 
(]004''-1683) founded the first Baptist Church in North 
America at Providence. The spread of the movement 
in England after this was so rapid that in 1646 there are 
believed to have been forty-six congregations in and 
around London. In the reigns of Henry VIII. and of 
Elizabeth, the Baptists were numerous and important 
enough to attract the notice of the authorities and to 
suffer persecution. Since the reign of William III., in 
which they obtained a full measure of religious liberty, 
their progress has been unchecked. In 1908 there were 
424 DOS members of the Baptist Union (formed in 1813) in 
the British Isles; and in the United States the members 
numbered over 6,000.000. The Bapti.st.s have excellent 
Colleges, and send their missionaries to India, Ceylon, 
China, Palestine, the West Indies, Africa, Brittany, and 
Italy. Their church-government is congregational. The 
body has a number of sub-divisions. There are : 
General Baptists or Arminian Baptists (American Free- 
will Baptists) who believe that Christ died to save all 
men: and Particular Baptists who believe that he died 
to save only an elect number of persons. There are 
also Free-will Baptists, Old School Baptists, Six-Principle 
Baptists, Seventh-day Baptists, Se-Baptists, Scottish 
Baptists, Tunkers, Campbellites, and Hard-Shell Baptists. 
See John Hunt: J. H. Blunt; Piot. Diet.; Chambers' 
Encncl. : the D.y.B. 

BARAITHA. A name given to additions to the Jewish 
Mishnah (q.v.). The term means literally " external," 
and its use corresponds to some extent to that of the 
term " apocrypha." The Baraithas are Tannaite tradi- 
tions (see TANNAIM) which have not been incorporated 
in the Mishnah. See W. O. E. Oesterley and G. H. Box. 



Barnabites 

BARASHNOM OF NINE NIGHTS. A Parsee. ceremony 
of purification, practised mostly by priests and lasting 
nine nights. "The ceremony is described in the Vendidad 
(Fargard ix.). " The person who has to undergo the 
ceremony must drink the urine of a cow, sit on stones 
within the compass of certain magic circles, and while 
moving from one heap of stones to another he must rub 
his body with cow's urine, then with sand, and lastly 
wash it with water. This custom has descended from 
the most ancient times, when a purifying and healing 
influence was ascribed to the urine proceeding from so 
sacred an animal as the cow was to the ancient Aryans " 
(Haug). See Martin Haug. 

BARBELIOTES. The Gnostic sect in Iberia referred 
to by Irenaeus, Augustine, and Epiphanius. It was 
named after Barbelos or Barbelo, a name which was 
perhaps framed out of two Hebrew words, har baalah, 
" son of the Lady," or bar baal, " son of the Lord." The 
Barbeliotes claimed that Barbelo was the son of the 
Father by a mother named Jaldabaoth or Sabaoth. From 
him came JAght who was anointed by the Father and 
became Christ. The sect received the name Borborians 
from the Greek word borboros, " filth " or " mud," pro- 
bablv on account of .some of their secret practices. See 
J. H. Blunt. 

BARCELONA, TREATY OF. A treaty made between 
Charles V. and Pope Clement VII. in 1529. The Emperor 
consented to receive his crown from the Pope's hands at 
Rome, and undertook as far as possible to prevent the 
reformed religion from spreading. 

BARDESANISTS. The followers of Bardesanes (A.D. 
154-222), a Syrian, who was bom at Edessa in Mesopo- 
tamia. It has been thought that he was the tutor of 
Clement of Alexandria. He was the " last of the 
Gnostics," but developed a system of his own. He tried 
to explain the origin of evil by assuming two supreme 
principles, the one good, the other evil, which are co- 
equal. He asserted that the body of Christ was not real, 
but celestial, and he would not accept the doctrine of the 
resurrection of the body. He wrote many hymns which 
proved a successful means of spreading his teaching. See 
A. Hilgenfeld, Bardesanes, 1864. 

BAREFOOTED FRIARS. There has been no distinct 
order of friars who have made it a practice to go bare- 
foot; but a certain number of mendicant friars belonging 
to various orders (e.g., Carmelites, Franciscans) have 
done so. 

BARLAAMITES. The followers of Barlaam, a Cala- 
brian abbot. He was an opponent of the Hesychasts, 
mystics aniong the monks of Mount Athos, who 
believed that by bringing the body into a state of perfect 
repose and fixing their gaze steadily on their own navels, 
they were able to cultivate the " inner light." Barlaam 
called them " omphalopsychi," and accused them of 
believing in two Gods, a God invisible, and a God visible. 
A Council held at Constantinople A.D. 1340 supported the 
Hesvchasts and condemned Barlaam. 

BAR-MITZVAH. Literally " Son of the Command- 
ment," a Jewish designation given to a boy when he 
reaches his religious maturity, j.e., when he is thirteen 
years of age. From this time he has to observe the 
whole Law. The occasion is marked by a special cere- 
mony in the Synagogue at which the boy is called upon 
to read aloud or chant a portion of the Law, and by a 
festival in the home. See W. O. B. Oesterley and G. H. 
Box. 

BARNABAS, EPISTLE OF. See APOSTOLIC 
FATHERS. 

BARNABITES. The popular designation of the 
" Regular Clerks of the Congregation of St. Paul." They 
are called Barnabites because in the sixteenth century 



Barrowists 



55 



Basilidians 



they preached In a church of St. Barnabas in Milan. The 
order was founded by St. Antonio Maria Zaccaria (in 
particular), Bartolommeo Ferrari, and Giacomo Antonio 
Morigena, and the foundation was sanctioned by Clement 
VII. in 1533. In 1579 St. Charles Borromeo, Archbishop 
of Milan, examined their constitutions, and 13nally 
approved and confirmed them. The Barnabites are a 
body of secular clergy who live in the world but devote 
their lives to the work of caring for the sicli, instructing 
the young, preaching repentance, and sanctifying them- 
selves. " Besides the three usual vows they talie a 
fourth, never to seek any office or ecclesiastical dignity, 
and to accept no post outside of their order without the 
permission of the Pope. The habit is merely the black 
soutane worn by secular priests in Lombardy at the time 
of their foundation " (Addis and Arnold). They have 
now about twenty colleges in Italy, Austria, and France, 
their chief establishment being at Rome, where their 
General resides. 

BARROWISTS. The followers of Henry Barrow (d. 
1593). See BKOWNISTS. 

BARSANIANS. An ofTshoot of the Acephali (g.v.) in 
the second half of the fifth century A.D. They are said 
to have been followers of Barsanius. and have been 
identified with the Semidalites. 

BARSANUPHITES. An ofTshoot of the Acephali (q.v.) 
at the end of the fifth century A.D. They took their 
name from one Barsanuphius. 

BARSOM. In the Old Testament there is a reference 
(Bzekiel viii. IG, 17) to a practice of holding twigs towards 
the face in worship. The prophet reproves some of the 
Jews for doing this as well as for worshipping the sun. 
The Parsees have such a custom, and the bundle of twigs 
which they use is called Barsom. In Yasna Ivii. of the 
Zend-avesta the angel Sraosha (Srosh) is worsiiipped as 
" he who of Ahuramazda's creatures first worshipped 
Ahuramazda by means of arranging the sacred twigs 
(Barsom) " and as " he who first arranged the bundle of 
sacred twigs (Barsom), that with three, that with five, 
that with seven, and that with nine stalks, those which 
were as long as to go up to the knees, and those which 
went as far as the middle of the breast (he arranged 
them) to worship, to praise, to satisfy, and to extol the 
archangels." In one form of the ceremony with this 
bundle of sacred twigs, the twigs had to be arranged in 
a certain prescribed order while portions of a sacred book 
were being chanted. Thin metal wires are now generally 
used instead of twigs. See Martin Hang. 

BARTHOLOMEW, MASSACRE OF ST. The name 
given to the well-known massacre of the Huguenots, 
because it took place on St. Bartholomew's Day, the 24th 
of August. Catharine de Medici, regent of France, 
planned that the Huguenots in Paris should be fallen 
upon and slaughtered on St. Bartholomew's Day, 1572. 
The signal was given by the ringing of a bell in the tower 
of the royal palace, and it is calculate<i that the number 
of persons who were killed exceeded 4,000. The provinces 
followed the example of Paris, continuing the slaughter 
for some weeks. 

BARULI. A branch of the Albanenses in the twelfth 
century A.D. They maintained that Christ took a 
celestial kind of body and was not truly incarnate. 

BASILIANS. A monastic order founded by St. Basil 
(d. .S79), Bi.shop of Caesarea in Cappadocia. His mother 
Emelia and his sister Macrina had already founded 
monasteries in a desert region of Pontus when Basil, on 
his return from a visit to monasteries in Egypt. Palestine 
and Mesopotamia, established a monastic order of his 
own. Of his two rules, the Great and the Little, the 
Great comprised fifty-five articles, the Little three 
hundred and thirteen. These monastic rules now prevail 



in the Greek Church. St. Benedict himself seems to 
have taken hints from them. The Basilians have 
flourished in Southern Italy, Spain, Russia, Austrian 
Poland and Hungary. There is now a Basilian establish- 
ment at Plymouth, the College of St. Mary Immaculate. 
In Austrian Poland and Hungary these monks are called 
Ruthenians. See Cath. Diet. 

BASILICA. A name applied to Christian churches 
about the beginning of the fourth century. In Rome 
before the time of Constant ine the Christians seem to 
have used as places of worship the private basilicas of 
Roman palaces and sepulcliral buildings (sometimes cata- 
combs). In the age of Constantine they built basilicas 
of their own with distinctive features. In Syria many 
Chriirtian basilicas have been unearthed in recent years, 
dating from the fourth century. The earliest of these 
are not characterised by distinctive features. " It is 
often only by the inscriptions that certain basilicas can 
be known as churches, since these are made in exact 
imitation of the public buildings of the Romans of the 
previous period " (Camden M. Cobern). " Between the 
fourth and fifth centuries there was some development 
in architecture, so that strange styles of capitals and a 
new and rich Christian symbolism appear. In the fifth 
century classic models of ornamentation are less and less 
used. The churches of this era. instead of the nine 
arches on either side of the nave as in the fourth century, 
now have seven and sometimes five arches, and the 
central nave becomes much wider and the apse arch much 
broader, while bands of chain and basket work orna- 
ment the mouldings. The churches are large and 
magnificent, often having splendid baptistries in con- 
nection with them, and va.st inns for the accommodation 
of pilgrims: they often stand inside of strong forts, whose 
towers occasionally, as at Kasrll-Benat, rise to six 
.stories in height." The sixth century " saw the elabora- 
tion and perfection of all the architectural motifs that 
had been initiated and developed in the two centuries 
preceding." To this eenturj' belongs the church of St. 
Simeon Stylites at Kal'at Similn, described by H. C. 
Butler as the " most magnificent ruin of early Christian 
architecture in the world." One church, dated A.D 
582, "very nearly anticipates by 500 years the Lombard 
and French Romanesque system, which has vaults con- 
structed above the nave and side aisles." Cobern's 
account is based on Howard Crosby Butler's Ancient 
Architecture in l<yria. 1910. See also the Cath. Diet. 

BASILIDIANS. The followers of Basilides (d. about 
A.D. 1.39), one of the earliest of the great Alexandrian 
Gnostics (see GNOSTICS). He seems previously to 
have spent some time in Syria. Menander was one of 
his teaeher.s. According to his own account, these also 
included St. Matthias and one Glaucias (otherwise 
unknown), who is supposed to have been a.ssociated 
closely with St. Peter. Basilides recognised one Supreme 
Being or Fir.st Cause, and called Him Abraxas. The 
letters of this name are supposed to give the number 305, 
like the name of the Persian sun-god Mithras. Abraxas 
has been explained as a Coptic word meaning " Hallowed 
by the Name." Basilides taught that from Abra.vas 
snrang the Understanding or Nous, from the Fnder- 
standing the Word or Logos, from the Word Providence, 
from Providence Power, from Power Wisdom, from 
Wisdom Righteousness, from Righteousness Peace. From 
these again sprang the higher angels, principalities, and 
]x>wers: and from these the lower angels. The God of 
the Jews wa.s only one of those angels of the lowest kind 
who created the world. Christ, the Son (nous) of the 
Supreme Being, was sent down to bring to man, who 
had become corrupt, heavenly knowledge. He joined 
himself to the man Je.sus, and it was this man, not the 



Basle, Confession of 



56 



Bav 



€hrist, who was crucified. Regardinjt matter as evil, 
Basilides did not believe in the resurrection of the body. 
But he believed in a kind of metempsychosis or trans- 
migration of souls. Saints and martyrs, he held, suffered 
because they had sinned in a previous stage of existence. 
Everyone had to atone for his sins in this way, by living 
again in a different body. But in some people faith 
and godline-ss, are inborn. The Holy Spirit descended 
upon Jesus at his Baptism, and left him before his 
death. Basilides wrote some Commentaries. He did 
not recognise the Old Testament as authoritative, and 
rejected the Epistle to the Hebrews and the Epistles to 
Timothy and Titus. His followers seem to have developed 
and corrupted his teaching. See J. U. Blunt, and the 
literature under GNOSTICISM. 

BASLE, CONFESSION OF. One of the most imjiortant 
of the Protestant confessions of faith drawn up in the 
sixteenth century (A.D. 1532-36). The Confession of Augs- 
burg being eonsiderd still too Catholic, the Confession of 
Basle was framed by Protestant ministers of Basle to 
repair these defects. It was reconstructed (A.D. 1536) 
by Bucer, Capito, and the theologians of Wurtemberg, 
renamed the Helvetic Confession, and accepted for all 
the Swiss churches at the Synod of Smalkalden. Another 
revision, made bv Bullinger and published in Latin soon 
after 1560, was subscribed by all the Protestant Evangeli- 
cal communities, having been first accepted by the 
magistrates of Mulhausen. Thus arose the name 
Mylhusian Confession. It was accepted by all the 
" ministers of the Church of Christ " in Switzerland " as 
a testimony to all the faithful that they remain in the 
unity of the true and ancient Church of Christ, teaching 
no new or erroneous doctrines, and having no connection 
with any sects or heresies; a fact of which all pious 
persons are invited to assure themselves by its perusal " 
(Preface). The Confession was accepted also by all the 
Reformed non-Lutheran communities in France and 
Flanders. See J. H. Blunt. 

BASLE, COUNCIL OF. In accordance with decrees 
of the Council of Constance (A.D. 1414-1418) which recom- 
mended the convening of a general council every five 
years. Pope Martin V. summoned one to meet at Pavia 
in 1423. Difliculties having arisen with regard to this 
plan, the place was altered to Basle, and the date to 
July, 1431. Cardinal Julian Ce.sarini was nominated as 
papal legate and president. Many French and German 
bishops assembled at Basle: but in the meantime, Martin 
V. having died and his successor Pope Eugenius IV. 
having decided that there were objections to the suit- 
ability of Basle, the place of meeting was altered to 
Bologua. The bishops assembled at Basle under Cesarini 
opposed the transfer, and continued. The representa- 
tives from France and Germany had been joined by a few 
from Italy, Spain, and England. In 1432 the Pope sent 
a legate, Christopher. Bishop of Cervia, to confer with 
them, and in 14.33 delegated other legates to be present, 
who were not well received. The next year a letter from 
the Pope seemed to have arranged matters, and the papal 
legates were admitted. In June 1435, however, the 
Council passed a decree for the reform of the Roman 
Chancery which the Pope would not sanction. A 
difference next arose among the members of the Council 
themselves on the question of removing the Council to 
Avignon or Ferrara, the majority deciding in favour of 
Avignon. The Pope, however, in October. 1437, formally 
transferred the Council to Ferrara. In May, 1439 those 
who remained at Basle under the Cardinal of Aries pro- 
ceeded to depose Eugenius and to elect in his place 
Amadeus of Savoy, who became known as Felix V. In 
April, 1445, he abdicated, and the Council of Basle, now 
at Lausanne, recognised Nicholas V. See Cath. Diet. 



BASMOTHBANS. A sect referred to in the Apostolic 
Constitutions (vi. 6), persons " who deny Providence, and 
say that the world is made by spontaneous motion, and 
take away the immortality of the soul." The name seems 
to be a variation or corruption of Masbotheans. 

BASSINAM. A kind of ornament which plays a part 
in one of the ceremonies of a Hindu marriage. The 
ornament, decked with gold leaf or gold paper, and 
entwined with flowers, is placed on the foreheads of 
husband and wife as a protection against the evil eye of 
ill-disposed persons. See J. A. Dubois and H. K. Beau- 
champ. 

BAST. The name of a goddess in the early religion of 
the ancient Egyptians. The Greek name is Bubastis. 
Bast delighted in music and dancing, and is commonly 
represented as holding in her hand the sistrum used by 
dancing-women, and on her arm a basket. As regards 
form, she is represented with the head of a cat. When 
later (c. 950 B.C.) Bubastis in the Delta became tlie 
capital of the Libyan ruler Sheshonk, Bast was made 
the official deity of his kingdom. A great festival was 
held in the town, a feature of which was the dancing 
and the playing of ca.s-tanets. Erman reproduces a figure 
of Bast in the Berlin Museum in which she appears with 
a human head, but may be recognized by the basket on 
her right arm and by two cats which she holds one in 
each hand. See A. Erman. 

BATH-KOL. Literally " daughter of a voice," a term 
occurring in Hebrew religion. It is a divine or heavenly 
voice, and, though the ordinary word for voice (kol) is 
sometimes used alone in the same sense, it was called 
" daughter of a voice" for the sake of distinction. It 
was not thought of as an echo, but as a real voice which 
could be distinctly heard, though the author could not 
be seen. Sometimes it would roar like a lion, at other 
times murmur like a dove. A distinction is often made 
between the Bath-kol and the Holy Spirit. The Holy 
Spirit entered into a close relationship with the prophets 
and possessed them. The Bath-kol was something 
external. They could not possess it. The idea of the 
Bath-kol was no doubt suggested by certain psychological 
phenomena which are not uncommon even at the present 
day. Compare the experience of Saint Augustine 
(William James, Varieties of Religious Experience, 1906, 
p. 171). See the Jeicish Encycl., ii., 1902; and cp. W. O. 
E. Oesterley and G. H. Box. 

BAU. The name of a goddess in the early religion of 
Babylonia (referred to before 2300 B.C.). A ruler of 
Lagash who added her name to his own and called him- 
self Ur-Bau, built her a temple at Um-azaga (" brilliant 
town "). She was the consort of Nin-girsu, the god of 
Girsu, another district of Lagash, and on New Tear's 
Day, Zag-muk, called the Festival of Ban, bridegrooms 
were accustomed to offer presents to their chosen ones. 
There does not seem to be any connection between Ban 
and the Hebrew Bohu. Old inscriptions speak of her 
as the chief daughter of Ann (r/.v.), the god of heaven. 
In incantation texts she is the great mother, the begetter 
and also the healer of mankind, in other words, the 
goddess of abundance and fertility. In processions the 
deities were carried in ships, and Ban's ship bore the 
name " the ship of the brilliant oOspring." See Morris 
Jastrow, Bel. 

BAV. An ancient Irish deity, the goddess of war. The 
name signifies rage, fury, or violence, and " ultimately 
came to be applied to a witch, fairy, or goddess, repre- 
sented by the scarescald- or royston-crow " (W. G. Wooil- 
Martin). Bav is represented in Irish tales of war and 
battle as a scald-crow screaming in anticipation of wide- 
spread carnage. In the South of Ireland it is said that 
the term is applied now to a scolding woman or virago. 



Baxterians 



57 



Beena-Marriage 



BAXTERIANS. The followers of Richard Baxter 
(1615-1691). Baxter was the son of a well-to-do person, 
but his father being a gambler, the early years of his 
life were spent with his grandfather. He was mainly 
self-educated. In 1638, after trying a court-life, he was 
ordained and was appointed Head-master of a school at 
Dudley. He soon left this post to take up ministerial 
work. On the outbreak of the civil war in 1642 he sided 
with the Parliament, and retired to Coventry, where he 
became chaplain to the garrison. He afterwards acted 
as chaplain to Colonel Whalley's regiment, and was pre- 
sent at several sieges. Then, his health failing, he left 
the army, and quietly awaited his end. Meantime, he 
began to write his book "The Saints' Everlasting Rest " 
(published in 1650). He had formerly been preacher at 
Kidderminster (1641). His old parishioners now invited 
him to return, which he did. In 1660 he went to London 
and became one of the King's chaplains. Here he 
took an Important part In preparing the " Reformed 
Liturgy." When the Act of Uniformity was passed, he 
left the Church of England (1662). In 1663 he went to 
live at Acton, and was occupied with literary work there 
until 1672, when the Act of Indulgence gave him an 
opportunity of returning to London. In 1685 he was 
brought before the brutal Judge Jeffreys and charged 
w'th libelling the Church in his " Paraphrase of the New 
Testament " (1685). He was condemned, fined, and 
imprisoned for nearly eighteen months. He died on the 
8th of December, 1691. Baxter was remarkably catholic 
and tolerant for his period. He was viewed in one 
quarter as an Arminian, and in another as a Calvinist. 
See the Reli^iuuie Baxterianae, 1696; John Hunt; the 
D.N.B. 

BAYAN, THE. The sacred book or Bible of Babism 
{q.v.), the most important of the works written by Mirza 
AJi Mohammad. 

BEADS. In the Roman Catholic Church, beads made 
of glass or other sub-stances are used by worshippers to 
help them to remember a set number of prayers. A 
string of these beads is called a Rosary. 

BEARD. We learn from the Old Testament that 
amongst the Hebrews the beard was shaved as a sign 
of mourning (Isaiah xv. 2; Jeremiah xli. 5, xlviii. 37). 
The Arabs touch the beard, or swear by it, as a token 
of good faith (Doughty, Arahia Deserta i. 250). The 
Hebrew priests were forbidden to shavf off " the comer 
of their beard " (Leviticus xxi. 5), but Egyptian priests 
were accustomed to shave. On the other hand, the 
Egyptian god is represented as wearing a long beard. 
See Encyol. Bibl. 

BECKMANITES. A religious sect founded by Mrs. 
Dora Beckman (d. 1883), of Alpena, Michigan. She 
claimed that in her person Christ was incarnate and had 
become " the bride of the Church." 

BEDS, SACRED. It has been pointed out by Professor 
Elliot Smith (Mi.) that it is a familiar scene in ancient 
Egyptian pictures to find the mummy l)orne upon a bed, 
and that in a proto-dynastic cemetery, on a site excavated 
by FKnders Petrie at Tarkhan, corpses have been found 
lying upon beds. It may well be assumed that such beds, 
or some of them, came to be regarded as sacred. In the 
sanctuary of Men, the chief god of Antioch in Pisidia, 
Sir William Ramsay in his excavations found " three of 
the feet of the ' holy bed ' used for the my.stic marriage 
ceremony between the god and his godde.ss — in which ser- 
vice, according to immemorial tradition, Anatolian ladies, 
even those of highest rank, were expected to take part " 
(Cobem). In Ireland, as noted by W. G. Wood-Martin, 
there are a number of sacred spots known as Saints' Beds 
or Priests' Beds, to which devout persons, especially 



women, used to resort. St. Molaise's bed is near his 
house in the Island of Devenish. It is " a stone trough 
(coffin) sunk level with the surface of the ground, six 
feet in length and fifteen inches wide, in which people 
lie down and repeat some prayers, in hope of relief from 
any pains with which they may be affected." According 
to Lady Wilde, there is a stone receptacle called " The 
Bed of the Holy Ghost " in one of the wild desolate 
islands off the Western coast of Ireland. If one passed 
a night in it, it would heal all diseases, and to a woman 
would bring the blessing of children. In a depression 
or cavity of a slab of rock on Inishmore, now called 
Church Island, in Lough Gill, county Sligo, was a bed 
called " Our Lady's Bed." Women who desired children 
lay in it, turned thrice round, and repeated certain 
prayers. It is said that to '■ St. Patrick's Bed " on 
Croagh Patrick only barren women resorted. Here, after 
going round the bed seven times, they lay in it and turned 
round seven times. 

BEDAWIYEH. An order of Dervishes, founded by 
Ahmed el-Bedawy (d. 1276). The Bedawtyeh, according 
to F. J. Bliss, follow ecstatic principles similar to those 
of the mother order, the Qadirlveh (q.v.). 

BEDIKATH CHAMETS. Literally "the search for 
leaven," a Jewish ceremony on the evening of the 13th 
Nisan, when, in preparation for the celebration of the 
Passover, the master of a house searches the house 
for leaven in order to remove or destroy it. See the 
Jpicish Encyol.; W. O. E. Oesterley and G. H. Box. 

BEELZEBUB. A name occurring in the New Testa- 
ment (Matthew x. 25, xii. 24, 27, Mark iii. 22, Luke xi. 
15, 18 f.). This is the reading of the Authorised and 
Revised Versions; but the margin of the Revised Version, 
following a better attested Greek reading i BeeA^e/3ouA) 
has " Beelzebul." Beelzebul is the Aramaic form of 
Baalzebul, " lord of the mansion," which was altered in 
contempt to Baalzebub, " lord of flies " (Aramaic form, 
Beelzebub). The Jews of New Testament times seem to 
have interpreted " lord of the mansion " as " lord of the 
nether world." When Jesus healed one possessed with, 
a devil, the Pharisees are said to have remarked : " This 
man doth not cast out devils, but by Beelzebub, the prince 
of the devils" (Matthew xii. 24). An older view (Light- 
foot) was that Beelzebul was intended by the Pharisees 
to he understood " lord of dung," zehul being equivalent 
to the Hebrew word zebel, " dung." See Encycl. Bibl. 

BEENA-MARRIAGE. A form of marriage which 
seems to have l)een common among the Semites in the 
r>eriod before the tribes separated. Robertson Smith 
brings forward evidence to show that " there was a well- 
established custom of marriage in Arabia in which the 
woman remained with her kin and chose and dismissed 
her partner at will, the children belonging to the mother's 
kin and growing up under their protection." J. F. 
McLennan has given the name beena marriages to mar- 
riages of this kind, because in Ceylon '• unions in which 
the hu.sband goes to settle in his wife's village " are so 
called. Robertson Smith accepts the term as applied to 
" regulated unions which really deserve the name of mar- 
riage." In the beena system of marriage it was the 
custom for the wife to receive her husband in her own 
tent; and a trace of this custom is found in Arabic, Syriac 
and Hebrew linguistic usage when the husband is said 
to " go in " (to the tent) to the bride (see Genesis xxxviii. 
S; Deuteronomy xxii. 13; Judges xv. 1), whereas, as a 
matter of fact, the bride was brought in to the husband. 
There are other traces of fiepna-marriage or matriarchy 
in the Old Testament (e.g.. Genesis xxiv. 67; cp. the 
feminine tribal names : Keturah, Leah. BiUiah, Zilpah). 
In the case of Samson's marriage (Judges xiv.) the wife 
continued to belong to her own tribe. Cp. BAAL- 



Bees 



58 



Bekhorotb 



MARRIAGE. See W. Robertson Smith, Kinship; the 
Enoycl. Bibl., s.v. " Kinship." 

BEES. The cufitom of '■ telling the bees " has been 
observed in this country. In Germany, on the death of 
the master or mistress of a house, it has been the practice 
to give the message to every bee-hive in the garden and 
to every beast in the stall. In addition to this, " every 
sack of com must be touched and everything in the house 
shaken, that they may know the master is gone." See 
E. B. Tylor, P.O. 

BEETLE. The Egyptian god Rft Is sometimes repre- 
sented aa a glittering beetle, and the beetle was the special 
emblem of the god Khepera. The scarahmus or model 
of a beetle was one of the most popular talismans. 
According to the River Chaco Indians, the universe was 
created by a gigantic beetle. 

BBPANA. An Italian word, a corruption of Epiphania, 
Epiphany. Befana is a figure in Italian folklore. She 
Is a female spirit or fairy who is suppo-ssed to visit children 
on Twelfth Night and to put presents in the stockings 
which they have hung up before the fire. But she metes 
out punishment as well as reward. If a child has been 
naughty, she fills the stocking with ashes. Formerly it 
was the custom on Twelfth Night for a procession to pass 
through the streets carrying a figure called the Befana. 

BEGGING HERMITS. See AUGUSTINIANS. 

BEGHARDS. Associations of laymen modelled on 
those of the Beguines {q.v.). They are first heard of in 
the early part of the thirteenth century in Germany, the 
Netherlands, and the South of France. Later they 
became known in France as " bons gargons " or " boni 
pueri " and as " bons valets " or " boni valeti." They 
became vagrants and mendicants, and quickly 
degenerated. Having allied themselves with the Frati- 
celll and the Brethren and Sisters of the Free Spirit, 
and having given themselves up to Antinomianism, severe 
measures were taken against them. Called upon to 
suffer persecution after 1367, many of them preferred to 
join the third orders of the Mendicant fraternities. They 
were suppressed by Pope Innocent X. in 1650. See J. H. 
Blunt; Cath. Diet. 

BEGOONI. Begooni or " the Runners " is another 
name for the Stranniki (q.v.). a Russian sect. 

BEGUINES. A Roman Catholic sisterhood. The 
founder is supposed to have been St. Begga (A.D. 700) or 
(more likely) Lambert le B&gues or le B^ghe who about 
the year 11S4 establi.ihed in Li&ge an institution for pious 
widows and single women. These women lived under a 
superior in an establishment consisting of a number of 
cottages, a chapel, a hospital, etc. The establishment 
was called a B^guinage or a Beginagium, and the sisters 
were known as B^ghines or Beguines (also Beguinsp, 
Beguttfp). The only vow which they took was one of 
obedience and chastity while they remained in the 
B4guinage. They were free to leave when they liked. 
They devoted themselves to good works, including educa- 
tion. In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries they 
were active in France, Germany, and the Netherlands. 
In the fourteenth century many of them became 
associated with the Fraticelli and the Brethren and 
Sisters of the Free Spirit. They were suspected of 
immoral practices, and were condemned by the Council 
of Vienne (1311). B^gninages are still to be found in 
Belgium. The B^guinage of St. Elizabeth at Ghent 
forms in itself a little town within a town, like the 
Francke Institutes at Halle. There are also " Beguinen- 
haflser " in Germany, but these are almshouses and have 
ceased to be real B^guinages. See Cath. Diet.; J. H. 
Blunt: Chambers' Enoycl. 

BEHEMOTH. An animal referred to in the Old Testa- 
ment (Job xl. 15-24). The term is the plural form of a 



Hebrew word which is common in the singular in the 
.sense of " cattle." It seems to be an intensive plural 
meaning " colossal beast." The margin of the Revised 
Version gives " hippopotamus." This seems to be based 
on a supposed connection with an Egyptian word (p-ehe- 
moii), but it is doubtful whether there was such a word. 
Prof. T. K. Cheyne regards Behemoth as a mythological 
monster, lord of the dry land, the other monster referred 
to in Job (xli.). Leviathan, being lord of the ocean. He 
thinks that the Hebrew notion of Behemoth was bor- 
rowed from the Egyptians, that of Leviathan from the 
Babylonians. The two monsters are referred to again 
in two apocryphal iMSsages (Enoch Ix. 7-9: 4 Esdras vi. 
49-52). The passage in Enoch seems to lend strong sup- 
port to the view that Leviathan is lord of the sea, and 
Behemoth lord of the dry land. See Enoycl. Biil. 

BEHMENISTS. The followers of Jacob Behmen, 
Boehme, or Bohm (1575-1624), a German theosophist and 
mystic, born in Altseidenberg near Gorlitz. Even as a 
boy, Boehme had strange religious experiences. Once he 
" was for seven days surrounded with a divine light, and 
stood in the highest contemplation, and in the kingdom 
of joys." In 1004 he became a master-shoemaker in 
Gorlitz. In 1616 he published his " Aurora, or the 
Morning Redness," having written it some years earlier. 
This was the first of a number of books which brought 
him into conflict with the authorities. After a time he 
was summoned before the Elector of Saxony, and 
examined by six Doctors of Divinity. The court treated 
him favourably. On his return to Gorlitz he died in 1624, 
after having gained many disciples. His works reveal a 
thorough knowledge of the Bible and a familiarity with 
the language of the mystlco-philosophic alchemists of his 
time. His object was to explain the origin of things, 
the nature of (Jod. and the existence of evil in the terms 
of a mystical philo.sophy. He has been studied with 
much sympathy and appreciation in Germany, Holland, 
and England. John Pordage (lf;07-1681), rector of Brad- 
field. Berkshire, wrote a commentary on his works. .lane 
I^eade (162.3-1704), an enthusiastic disciple, founded a sect, 
the Philadelphists, for the study of his philosophy. 
William Law (16S6-1761), author of the " Serious Call," 
translated his writings. Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) 
took a great interest in them. See the biography of 
Boehme by Paul Deussen (1S97) ; J. H. Blunt. 

BEHR.^M. The name of one of the angels in the 
Zoroastrian religion. He was originally called Vereth- 
raghna, " killer of enemies." Behr9m is the giver of 
victory. He manifests himself under various forms to 
his worshippers (e.g., as a wind, a cow, a horse, a camel, 
a boar, a boy of fifteen, a warrior). Zarathustra him- 
self was one of his worshippers, and the angel rewarded 
him with strength of arm and general vigour of body. 
He was specially worshipped in a meal in which water 
was consecrated, the sacred twigs, Barsom (q.v.), were 
solemnly arranged, and an animal of reddish or yellowish 
colour was slain and cooked. No courtezan, criminal, 
or opponent of the Zoroastrian religion was allowed to 
take part in it. See Martin Haug. 

BEIROBA. One of the modern gods of the Hindus, 
an incarnation of the Supreme Triad (Brahma-Vishnu- 
Siva). According to Sir Alfred C. Lyall, Kandoba, Vit- 
toba. Beiroba and Bai9ji are the four most popular gods 
in the province of Berar in Central India (Asiatic 
Studies). He thinks that not so very long ago they 
must have been notable living men. 

BBITULLAH. An Arabic expression meaning literally 
" the house of Grod." It is a name given to the temple 
of Mecca or the Great Mosque in which the Kaaba (q.v.) 
stands. 

BEKHOROTH. The name of one of the Jewish 



Bel 



59 



Belit 



treatises or tractates which reproduce the oral tradition 
or unwritten law as developed by the second century A.D. 
and are included in the Mish'nah (q.v.), a collection and 
compilation completed by Rabbi Judah the Holy, or the 
Patriarch, about 200 A.D. The sixty-three tractates of 
the Mishnah are divided into six groups or orders 
(sedarim). Bekhoroth is the fourth tractate of the fifth 
group, which is called Kodnshim (•■ Holy Things "). 

BEL. The name of a Babylonian deity. He appears 
on the oldest monuments as En-lil, which means the 
"chief demon." He is "the lord of the lower world," 
the lower as comimred with the upper or heavenly world. 
Becoming the great deity of Nippur, in course of time he 
" is released from the limitations due to his local origin 
and rises to the still higher dignity of a great ix>wer 
whose domain is the entire habitable universe " (M. 
Jastrow). He then became known as Bel, " the lord " 
par excellencp, and was venerated in north and south 
alike. Nippur, however, remained his most important 
place of worship. It was called the " land of Bel." The 
great temple there called E-Kur or " mountain house " 
was continually repaired and added to by the kings of 
Nippur, each of whom wished to be known as " builder 
of the Temple of Bel at Nippur." Even the patron deity 
of the city of Babylon, Marduk, is sometimes honoured 
by having the name of Bel combined with his own. In 
the days of Khammurabi when Bel's powers were trans- 
ferred to Marduk. the name was transferred as well. 
From about the twelfth century Marduk is referred to 
repeatedly as Bel. When Tiglathpileser I. wishes to 
announce that he rebuilt a temple to Bel he adds the 
word " old " to avoid confusion. The honour bestowed 
upon Marduk is referred to in a " Marduk hymn " in the 
Babylonian story of Creation : " Because he created the 
heavens and formed the earth, ' Lord of Lands ' father 
Bel called his name." Bel figures in the eleventh tablet 
of the Gilgame.sh Epic as the rival of Ea (q.v.) and as 
wishing to destroy mankind. Bel is mentioned in the 
Bible in Isaiah xlvi. 1 : " Bel has bowed down, Nebo has 
crouched " (Cheyne). See Morris Jastrow, Rel. of Baby- 
lonia and insyria, 1898; H. Winckler, History of Babyl. 
and Ass., 1907. 

BEL AND THE DRAGON. An apocryphal addition to 
the Book of Daniel in which in the Greek, Latin and 
Douay Versions the fragment is actually Included. See 
APOCRYPHA OF THE OLD TESTAMENT. 

BELATUCADRUS. Bel.ltucadrus, " the brilliant in 
war," was one of the names given by the ancient Celts 
to the god of war, the deity corresponding to the Roman 
Mars. Beiatucadrus was held in high honour in ancient 
Britain. The name occurs in a number of inscrip- 
tions. 

BELENUS. One of the gods worshipped by the ancient 
Celts. The name is rather like tliat of the Phoenician 
term Baal and of the Babylonian god Bel: but it is doubt- 
ful whether there was any connection between them. 
Reinach declares that " the Celtic divinity Belenus 
(Apollo) had nothing in common with a Baal." Ausonius 
states that Belenus was held in reverence by the Druids 
(g.v.) as a sun-god. In any case the name Belenus sur- 
vived in Belinus. a mythical king of Britain, and in the 
Balin who figures in the Morte D' Arthur. See Anwyl; 
Squire, Myth.; Reinach, 0. 

BELFRIES. It has been held that the Irish round 
towers, which evidently once served a religious purpose, 
were watch-towers or belfries or both. Another sug- 
gestion is that they were pillars used for keeping alive 
the sacred fire of Bfll. In this connection Sidney Heath 
points out that " the early Irish colonists were wor- 
ahippers of Bai, and that the constant recurrence of the 



word Bai in Irish place-names seems to indicate some 
connection with the earlv pagan settlements." 

BELGIUM. CONFESSION OF. A Confession drawn 
up in A.D. 1561 by Belgian Proteertants, who previously 
had called themselves " Associates of the Conference of 
Augsburg." Published in French in A.D. 1562, after 
having been framed in the Walloon language by Guy de 
Bres, it was approved by the Svnod of Flanders (A.D. 
1579), and confirmed by the Synod of Dort (A.D. 1619) and 
at the Hague (A.D. 1651). See J. H. Blunt. 

BELL Arianrod, who figures as a daughter of D6n 
(Q.v.) in the British mythology, is referred to also as the 
daughter of Beli. Beli, therefore, would seem to have 
been the father of the gods and the consort of DOn, the 
mother of the gods. The Gaelic Bil6 perhaps represents 
the same deity. Beli survived as the name of a legendary 
king of the Brythons. Bil6 appears as the name of the 
ancestor of the first Celts who settled in Ireland. See 
Squire, Myth. 

BELIAL. In the Old Testament " sons (or men) of 
Belial " is a familiar phrase for " good-for-nothing 
fellows," or, as the margin of the Revised Version trans- 
lates it. " base fellows." The common explanation is 
that Belial (Heb. Beliyya'al) is composed of two Hebrew 
words, beli " not " and ya'al " profit " and means literally 
" profitless." Another explanation is that it is a proper 
name, equivalent to Beliar. In that case, it w>uld be a 
-synonym for Satan. In 2 Corinthians vi. 14 /. it is said : 
•' What fellowship have righteousness and iniquity? or 
what communion hath light with darkness? And "what 
concord hath Christ with Beliar? " Prof. Cheyne con- 
nects the word Belial with Belili, the name of a Baby- 
lonian goddess of vegetation, " and hence of the under- 
world." He thinks that the Canaanftes and Israelites 
probably regarded the name as a synonym for the abyss 
of Sheol. It then came to be a symbol of insatiable 
destructiveness. See Encycl. Bibl. 

BELIAR. A name for Satan in some of the apocrvphal 
books (Test of the Ttrelve Patriarchs; the Book of 
Jubilees; the Sibylline Oracles). 

BELIEVERS. A name given to those who believed 
in the claims of Joanna Southcott (1750-1814), the 
prophetess of Exeter. She was the daughter of a 
farmer, and for some years was in domestic service. She 
began to make converts in ISOl. See the D.N.B. 

BELILI. One of the deities in the old Babylonian 
pantheon. She seems to be referred to as the sister of 
Tammuz (q.v.). which suggests that she was one of the 
deities of vegetation. Her consort is Alala, and the two 
deities both belonged to the court of Allatu (q.v.). 

BELISAMA. Belisama, one of the deities worshipped 
by the ancient Celts, corresix)nded to the Roman deity 
Minerva. The name means " the most warlike goddess." 
The British Celts regarded her as the tutelar deity of the 
River Ribble. 

BELIT. One of the Babylonian deities, a goddess, 
mentioned in inscriptions prior to 2300 B.C. The name 
means " the lady " par excellence. Another form of it 
was Nin-Lil. Belit is the " mistress of the lower world." 
She received the title Nin-khar-sag. " lady of the high 
or great mountain," that is to say, the mountain on 
which the gods were thought to dwell. When in the 
days of Khammurabi Bel became Marduk, Belit did not 
at the same time l)ecome Marduk's consort. But Belit 
did apparently come to be applied in its general sense of 
" mistress " to the consort of the chief god. Thus 
Tiglathpileser I. speaks (c. 1140 B.C.) of Belit, "the 
lofty consort and beloved of Ashur " : and Nabopolassar, 
referring to the consort of Shamash at Sippar, speaks of 
" Belit of Sippar." As a general title, " mistress," the 
term is also applied to Ishtar (q.v.), Ashurbanipal 



Bell, Book, and Candle 



60 



apparently referring to lier as " Belit mati " or the 
lady of the land." This would involve in course of time 
the transference of the qualities of Belit, the consort of 
Bel, to other consorts, just as the qualities of Bel were 
transferred to Marduk. From the names of the eight 
gates of Sargon's palace, it appears that Belit was a 
goddess of fertility. See Morris Jastrow, Rel. 

BELL, BOOK, AND CANDLE. The expression has 
reference to a custom in the Roman Catholic Church. 
Since the eighth century, when a person has been con- 
demned to suffer the greater excommunication, after the 
sentence has been read, a bell is rung, the book is closed, 
and a candle is put out. 

BELLA PENNU. See BORA PENNU. 

BELLONA. Two goddesses with this name were wor- 
shipped by the Romans. (1) One was the goddess of 
war, and seems to have been of Sabine origin. She is 
reputed to have been the sister or wife of Mars. The 
senate sometimes met in her temple in the Campus 
Martins. (2) The other goddess belonged originally to 
Comana in Cappadocia. Her worship was introduced 
among the Romans towards the beginning of the first 
century B.C. The priests and priestesses, who were 
Cappadocians and were called Bellonarii, at her festivals 
gashed their arms and loins with a two-edged axe and 
prophesied to the sound of drums and trumpets. Similar 
practices elsewhere suggest that this was regarded as a 
means of renewing a blood covenant. Robertson Smith 
points out (R.S.) that in the account of the worship given 
by Tibullus the blood is sprinkled on the idol; and that 
according to the Church Fathers " those who shared in 
the rite drank one another's blood " (on this practice cp. 
BLOOD). See O. Seyffert, Diet. 

BELLONARII. See BELLONA. 

BELLS. Bells have been used in religious worship 
from a remote period. They have been found among 
Buddhists and Brahmans and in the Shintoo temples of 
the Sun goddess in Japan. Bells are mentioned in the 
English translation of the Bible, but the words so trans- 
lated do not seem to denote bells in our sense of the 
word. The Mohammedans object to the use of bells. 
In front of the porch before the door of a temple dedi- 
cated to Siva (rj-v.). Monier-Williams noticed three long 
rows of bells. Whenever a worshipper entered the shrine, 
he rang one of the t)ells. In the shrine itself " there 
was a constant ringing of small portable bells and 
clapping of hands, as if to draw the attention of the deity 
worshipped to the prayers muttered by his worshippers." 
In the Hindu ceremony called Pafic'ayatana one of the 
sacred objects of worship is a small bell. At the adora- 
tion of the bell, the worshipper says : " O bell, make a 
sound for the approach of the gods, and for the departure 
of the demons. Homage to the goddess Ghanta (bell). 
I offer perfumes, grains of rice, and flowers, in token of 
rendering all due homage to the bell." Among the 
Lfimas of Tibet a bell forms part of the sorcerer's equip- 
ment (see L. A. Waddell). The bells already referred 
to were hand-bells. It is not known when exactly the 
large church-bells in Christian churches were introduced. 
It is possible that when in the early days of the Church 
basilicas or halls of justice were used as places of wor- 
ship, the bells belonging to them were rung to call the 
I)eople to divine worship. Panlinus, Bishop of Nola in 
Campania, however, is reputed to have introduced their 
use. In France they seem to have been used before the 
seventh century; and they were in use elsewhere in the 
ninth century (e.g., in the Greek Church). In Germany 
and Switzerland they came into use in the eleventh cen- 
tury. In the tenth century the custom arose of giving 
them names. In the eleventh century we begin to hear 
of " the baptism of a bell." This i.s a popular expression 



Benedictines 

for the ceremony of consecration, which Is still observed 
in the Roman Catholic Church. " The bishop washes the 
bell with blessed water, signs it with the oil of the sick 
outside, and with chrism inside, and lastly places under 
it the thurible with burning incense. He prays 
repeatedly that the sound of the bell may avail to summon 
the faithful, to excite their devotion, to dr-ive away 
storms, and to terrify evil spirits." It is explained 
that " this power of course is due to the blessings and 
prayers of the Church, not to any efficacy snperstitiously 
attributed to the bell itself. Thus consecrated, bells 
become spiritual things, and cannot be rung without the 
consent of the ecclesiastical authorities " (Addis and 
Arnold). Small bells are also in use in the Roman 
Catholic Church. A bell is rung during Mass at the 
Sanctus and at the Elevation of the Host. See Oath. 
Diet.; Chambers' Encycl.; Monier-Williams, Brahmunism. 

BELTANE FIRES. The so-called Beltane Fires were 
lit in honour of the sun-god Bai on the three great Druid 
festivals on May-day Eve, Midsummer Eve, and AH 
Hallow-e'en. The custom is said to have survived until 
recently in Ireland, Scotland, and Cornwall. It was 
christianised by the Church, which made the fires 
symbolical of the shining light of John the Baptist (John 
the Baptist's Day = Midsummer Day). See Sidney Heath. 

BEMIDBAR RABBAH. Bemidbar " in the wilder- 
ness " is the Hebrew name for the Old Testament Book 
of Numbers. Bemidbar Rabbah is the name of the Rab- 
binic commentary (midrash) on this book contained in 
the Midrash Rabbah. The work is composite, the 
second part being largely derived from another Midrash, 
Midrash Tanchuma. It seems to belong to the twelfth 
century. See the Jewish Eneycl.; W. O. B. Oesterley 
and G. H. Box. 

BENDIDEIA. An Athenian festival in honour of 
BENDIS iq.v.). 

BBNDIS. A Thracian goddess of the moon. The 
Greeks identified her with Artemis, Hecate, and Perse- 
phone. A public festival was held in her honour at 
Athens, which was called Bendldeia. 

BENEDICITE. One of the canticles in the Order for 
Morning Prayer in the Prayer-book of the Chnrch of 
England. Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-nego, who figure 
in the Book of Daniel, are supposed to have sung it in 
" the burning fiery furnace." It is included in the Old 
Testament Apocrypha under the title " The Song of the 
Three Holy Children." In the Septuagint translation 
of the Bible it is inserted in the third chapter of Daniel 
(between verses 23 and 24). It was in use in the time of 
Chrysostom (A.D. 347-407) in the services of the Church. 

BENEDICTINES. Orders of monks and nuns founded 
by St. Benedict (A.D. 480-543). Starting at Snbiaoo, 
near Rome, in A.D. 529, he removed his order to Monte 
(3assino, near Naples. While Benedict was still living, 
his disciple St. Maur founded a Benedictine monastery 
at Glanfeuil, near Angers, in France. In Spain others 
were founded about A.D. fi.33: and St. Placid, another 
disciple of St. Benedict, introduced them into Sicily. 
St. Augustine, when he came on his mission to England, 
having been abbot of a Benedictine monastery at Rome, 
brought the rule of St. Benedict with him. The English 
Benedictines became great missionaries. St. Willibrord 
(658-739), bom in Northumberland, worked among the 
Frisians and the Dutch. St. Boniface or Winfried (A.D. 
r>80-755), bom at Crediton in Devonshire, laboured 
amongst the Germans and earned the title of " the Apostle 
of Germany." The rule of St. Benedict binds a monk 
to remain permanently in a monastery; to endeavour to 
live the perfect life; to observe chastity; to celebrate 
daily the divine office at the canonical hours; to live 
simply and labour devotedly. As copyists, students, and 



Benedictus 



61 



Berretta 



educationalists, the Benedictines have done a great work. 
Their clothing has long been black, whe-nee they have 
been called " black monks." They were required to 
abstain from meat. Persons who were quite young 
could be admitted to the order. They were then educated 
in a monastery. This gave rise to monastic schools. 
The Venerable Bede or Bseda (ft. about A.D. 673) is said 
to have entered the Benedictine abbey at Monkwear- 
mouth when he was only seven years old. The order 
degenerated in course of time, but from time to time 
reformers arose such as Benedict of Aniane (A.D. 750- 
821), Peter the Venerable (6. A.D 1094), Abbot of Cluny 
(1122), and St. Dunstan (A.D. 924-988). At a later date 
certain abuses led to the formation in France of the 
reformed congregation of St. Vanne (A.D. 1550) and of 
St. Maur (A.D. KilS). At the Revolution (A.D. 1792) the 
order was suppressed in France, but in the nineteenth 
century new foundations arose. In Germany, after being 
suppressed, the order has reappeared. At the Dissolu- 
tion, the abbeys, priories, and nunneries were suppressed. 
The Benedictines, however, have reappeared in England 
al.so, and now have a number of houses. There is an 
English Benedictine monastery at Douai, and the Bene- 
dictines have done good work in Western Australia and 
New Zealand. There are also a number of abbeys in 
the United States. See Abbot Gasciuet, Henry VIII. and 
the English Monasteries; Cath. Diet. 

BENEDICTUS. The name of one of the canticles, the 
song of Zacharias (Luke i. (')8-79), included in the Order 
for Morning Prayer in the Prayer-book of the Church of 
England. It is so called because the first word in the 
Latin version is " Benedictus." Formerly in the ser- 
vices known as the Canonical Hours (g.v.) it was sung 
at Lauds. 

BENEFIT OF CLERGY. In Latin " privilegium 
clericale," originally the privilege allowed to clergy who 
were charged with felony (other than high treason or 
arson) of being tried only in ecclesiastical courts. Henry 
II. was anxious to abolish the privilege. So far from 
being abolished, however, in course of time it was 
extended, so that it was enjoyed not only by those who 
wore " habitum et tonsuram clericalem," but also by any- 
one who could read, except women and " bigami." It 
was afterwards extended to " bigami " (1547), then even 
to Peers who were unable to read, and early in the 
eighteenth century to others who were unable to read 
and to women. But a statute of 1487 had already pro- 
vided that the privilege could not be claimed by a lay- 
man more than once, and to insure this he must be burned 
with a hot iron. When the privilege was extended to 
women they had to be burned and to spend less than a 
year in prison. The " privilegium clericale " was finally 
abolished in 1827. See Prot. Diet.; Cath. Diet. 

BENI-ISRAEL. Literally " sons of Israel." the 
designation of a community of persons of Jewi-sh origin 
settled in Bombay and other parts of western India. 
They keep the Sabbath strictly, observe the great feasts, 
and are careful to abstain from such fle.sh or fish as is 
regarded as unclean. They seem to have called them- 
selves Beni-Israel because the Mussulmans could not bear 
to hear the name Jews (Yehudim). 

BENSHEE. Another form of the word Banshee (q.v.). 

BENTHEIM CONFESSION, THE. A German Con- 
fession of Faith in twelve articles drawn up by the 
authority of the ruling Count, who is said to have been 
a convinced Presbyterian. It is still authoritative. " No 
(Confession in the long series is less controversial and 
partisan, more simple and charitable " (William A. 
Curtis)^ 

BERaKHOTH. The title of one of the Jewish treatises 
or tractates which reproduce the oral tradition or un- 



written law as developed by the sec-ond century A.D., 
and are included in the Mishnah (g.v.), a collection and 
compilation completed by Rabbi Judah the Holy, or the 
Patriarch, about 200 A.D. The sixty-three tractates of 
the Mishnah are divided into six groups or orders 
(seda-rim). Berakhrith is the first tractate of the first 
group, which is called Zerd'lm (" Seeds"). 

BERCHTA. Another form of the name Perehta 
(q.v.). 

BEREANS. A name taken by the disciples of John 
Barclay (1734-1798). The name is supposed to have been 
suggested by Acts xvii. 11, where the people of Berea 
are said to have " received the word with all readiness 
of mind, examining the scriptures daily." Barclay was 
originally assistant minister at Brrol. Here he gave 
offence by his teaching, and was dismissed. He then 
became (1763) assistant minister at Pettercaim, Kincar- 
dineshire. Here again in 1772 he was inhibited from 
preaching. His next step was to found independent con- 
gregations at Sauchybum and Edinburgh. At a later 
date he founded another in London. The views held by 
the Bereans were largely Calvini.stic. They also attached 
supreme importance to the Bible as a revelation of God's 
being and character, and as the only revelation. See 
the D.N.B. 

BERECTNTIA. A goddess referred to by Gregory of 
Tours. She was perhaps identical witli Brigindu (q.v.). 

BBRITH MILAH. Literally " Covenant of Circum- 
cision," the Jewish ceremony at which a boy is initiated 
into the covenant of Abraham. The godfather (Sandek), 
who took the child on his knees in the course of the 
ceremony, is sometimes spoken of as " Master of the 
Covenant " (Baal Berith). See W. O. E. Oesterley and 
G. H. Box. 

BERKELETISM. The philosophy of George Berkeley 
(1684-1753), Bishop of Cloyne, the Idealist. In 1709 
Berkeley published an " Es.say towards a New Theory 
of Vision." This was followed in 1710 by his " Treatise 
concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge," and 
in 1713 by his " Three Dialogues between Hylas and 
Philonous." The two latter are his chief works. The 
difference between a thing and an idea, according to 
Berkeley, " does not consist in the former being real and 
the latter notional, but in the former being complex and 
the latter simple; both are " notional beings." Instead 
of the world of Leibnitz, which consisted of quasi-spirits, 
we have one which consists solely of spirits and of their 
images or ideas. The principle which Leibnitz applies 
to some substances — that they have the power of thought 
and of will — is in this case applied to all alike. Instead 
of Ijeibnitz's Semi-idealism, we have here a consistent 
form of Idealism. Berkeley himself does not employ this 
name for his system. If he had wished to give it a 
distinctive title, he would probably have called it 
" spiritualism," possibly " notionalism," or " pheno- 
menalism." Suffice it to say, that he takes up a position 
directly antagonistic to what he called, as we do, 
materialism, and that he is never tired of arguing 
against the mistaken notion involved in the " supposition 
of external objects," which really " subsist not by them- 
selves, but exist in minds " (Erdmann). See J. B. Erd- 
mann, vol. ii., 1892; and the D.N.B. 

BERNARDINES. The followers of Bernard of Clair- 
vaux; another name for the Cistercians (q.v.). 

BERRETTA. A term formed from the Latin birrus, 
a mantle with a hood, and applied to a special kind of 
headgear worn by Roman Catholic priests and other 
ecclesiastics. Its use has been introduced into the 
Church of England by the ritualistic party. The Beretta 
is " a square cap with three or sometimes four 
prominences or projecting comers rising from its crown " 



Bes 



62 



Bharata 



(Addis and Arnold). It often has a tassel on the top. 
The berretta of an ordinary cleric is black, of a bishop 
purple, of a cardinal red, of the Pope white. See Oath. 
Diet. 

P.ES. An Egyptian deity who became popular in the 
period of the New Empire. He was regarded by the 
priests as an inferior kind of deity, as a demon in fact. 
I.,ike a Greek satyr he was represented as half-animal 
half-human. He belonged to a class of grotesque beings 
who amused the great godi? with music and dancing, 
and fought against adversaries of various kinds. His 
ligure was used as a magical protection against evil 
creatures. In the Hellenistic Period Bes was esteemed 
highly as a protecting warrior, and he was represented 
as holding a shield in one hand and brandishing a sword 
with the other. See A. Erman. 

BES A. The title of one of the Jewish treatises or 
tractates which reproduce the oral tradition or unwritten 
law as developed by the second century A.D. and are 
included in the Mishnah (g.v.), a collection and compila- 
tion completed by Rabbi Judah the Holy, or the 
Patriarch, alK)ut 200 A.D. The si.xty-three tractates of 
the Mishnah are divided into six groups or orders 
(sedarim). Be.sa is the seventh tractate of the second 
group, whch is called Mo'ed (" Festival "). 

BETHESDA, POOL OF. In the New Te.stament re- 
ference is made (John v.) to a pool, Bethesda (or Beth- 
saida, or Bethzatha), the waters of which possessed 
healing virtues. " Now there is in Jerusalem by the 
sheep gate a pool, which is called in Hebrew Bethesda, 
having five porches. In these lay a multitude of them 
that were sick, blind, halt, withered, waiting for the 
moving of the water : for an angel of the I^ord went down 
at certain seasons into the pool, and troubled tie water: 
whosoever then first after the troubling of the water 
stepped in was made whole, with whatsoever disease he 
was holden." Bethesda seems to be for the Aramaic 
Ueth-hesda, " house of mercy." But the best authorities 
read Bethsaida or Bethzatha. Bethsaida would be 
equivalent to the Aramaic Beih-tsaidd, " place of 
fishing" or "fish-pool." Bethzatha is apparently for 
the Aramaic Beth-zaithd, " place of the olive." It has 
been a common practice to bathe in sacred pools, and 
where the bather has had great faith in the healing pro- 
perties of the waters, diseases of a nervous nature, 
(paraly.sis, etc.) have been cured. In modem times this 
has happened at Lourdes. for instance. 

BETH HA-KENESETH. Literally " House of Assem- 
bly," the Hebrew name for a Synagogue (g.v.). 

BETH HA-MIDRASH. Literally " House of Study," 
the Jewish name for a college in which higher iastruetion 
in the Jewish Law and Religion is given. 

BETHLEHEMITES. 1. An order of monks who are 
said to have had a monastery at Cambridge in 12.57. 
Matthew Paris (d. 1259) calls them " fratres Beth- 
leemitae " and says that they wore a habit like that of 
the Friars Preachers, except that they had also on their 
breast a red and blue stiir. 2. A military order founded 
by Pope Pius II. in 14.59 in opposition to the Turks. 3. 
.\n order founded about IfiOO in Guatemala by the 
Spaniard Peter of B^tencourt. His foundation included 
a school, ho.spital, and convent. The Bethlehemites in 
10S7 were placed by Innocent XI. under the rule of St. 
Augustine. 4. The same name was applied to the 
Hussites (q.x\). 

BBZPOPOFTSCHINS. A name for Russian dissenters 
who have abolished the office of pope or priest. They 
are sub-divided into a considerable number of sects. 

BEZSLOVESTNI. Literally " the dumb," a name 
given to a Russian sect of the eighteenth century. On 
joining the sect, a member became speechless, conse- 



quently nothing, not even torture, has availed to gain 
information about the religious temets of the Bezslovesrtni. 
BHADRA-KALI. The deity of the Mukkuvans, the 
caste of sea fishermen on the Malabar coast of India. 
A goddess, she is represented by a log of wood kept in a 
hut which is called a temple. The Mukkuvans assemble 
four times a year, offer fruit to the log of wood, and 
sacrifice a cock. 

BHAGA. A name, occurring in the Rig Veda, for the 
sun-god in Hindu religion. The word seems to have 
meant first "giver" and then "god." There is one 
hymn addressed to Bhaga which begins: "The early- 
conquering mighty Bhaga call we, the son of Boundless- 
ness, the gift-bestower." See B. W. Hopkins. 

BHAGAVAD GITA. One of the sacred wr tings, the 
Divine Song, of the Hindus. It is described as " the 
wonderful song, which causes the hair to stand on end." 
It is a revision (Krishnaite) of an earlier Vishnuite 
poem, and is treated with great reverence by the Vish- 
nuites. " It is a medley of beliefs as to the relation of 
spirit and matter, and other secondarj' matters : it 
is uncertain in its tone in regard to the comparative 
eflBcacy of action and inaction, and in regard to the 
practical man's means of salvation; but it is at one 
with itself in its fundamental thesis, that all things are 
each a part of One Lord, that men and gods are but 
manifestations of the One Divine Spirit, which, or rather 
whom, tlie Vishnuite re-writer identifies with Krishna, 
as Vishnu's present form " (E. W. Hopkins). See B. 
W. Hopkins. 

BHAGA VAT. A Buddhist title, meaning " the Blessed 
one. It is one of the titles of Gautama. 

BHaGAVATAS. An early Hindu sect the members 
of which worshipped Vishnu (g.v.) as Bhagavat. They 
held in reverence the holy-stone, and were guided by the 
Upanlshads (g.v.) and the Divine Song or Bhagavad Gita 
(g.v.). See B. W. Hopkins. 

BHAGWAN. The fortunate or illustrious, one of the 
names of the Hindu god Vishnu. 

BHAINSASUR. A figure in Hindu mythology, the 
buffalo demon, invoked by the Jubbuljjore Kols, a large 
tribe in India. Pigs are sacrificed to the deity for the 
protection of the crops. As R. V. Russell and R. B. 
Hira Lai suggest, the pig itself was no doubt worshipped 
at one time by the Hindus. It seems possible " that 
the Hindus reverenced the wild boar in the past as one 
of the strongest and fiercest animals of the forest and also 
as a destroyer of tie crops. And they still make sacri- 
fices of the pig to guard their fields from his ravages. 
These sacrifices, however, are not offered to any deity 
who can represent a deified pig, but to Bhainsasur, the 
deified buffalo. The explanation seems to be that in 
former times, when forests extended over most of the 
country, the cultivator had in the wild buffalo a direr 
foe than the wild pig." The breeding of pigs for sacri- 
fices is made a special business by some of the Kumhars, 
the caste of potters in India. 

BHAIRON. A figure in Hindu mythology, the watch- 
man of the temples of Mahadeo. He is represented 
riding on a black dog. 

BHAKTAS. An early Hindu sect the members of 
which worshipped Vishnu (g.v.) as Vilsudeva. It is also 
the name of a modern order of mystics which was 
founded in 1876. These Bhaktas seek to attain " in- 
ebriation in God." 

BHANDARIN. An Indian deity, worshipped as tie 
goddess of agriculture by the Gadbas, a primitive tribe 
belonging to the Vizagapatam District of Madras. 

BHARATA. One of the two sacred epics of early 
Hinduism, the other being the Ramayana (g.v.). The 
Bharata (tale) is also called Maha-Bharata or Great 



Bhars 



63 



Bible 



Bharata. It was recognised as sacred by all sects. The 
work, which contains legends, myths, history, etc., is 
<!omposite. Characters in the story were familiar to 
Panini (probably of the fourth century B.C.), and the 
work was complete at the end of the sixth century A.D. 
The Bharata reveals a great growth in an asceticism 
which is not of an exalted nature. See E. W. Hopkins. 

BHARS. One of the wild tribes of Bengal. Another 
form of the name is Bharats, which suggests a con- 
nection between the Bhars and the great tribe known as 
Bharata. The Bhars hold in honour as sacred things, 
and perhaps as totems, the bamboo, the bel-tree, the tor- 
toise, and the peacock. See E. W. Hopkins. 

BHARWAN. An Indian deity, the protector of cattle, 
worshipijed by the Gadbas, a primitive tribe belonging to 
the Vizagapatam District of Madras. 

BHATS. An Indian caste, the caste of bards and 
ffG'H^fl. los i st s . 

BHAVANA RISHI. The caste deity of the Padma 
Sales, a Telugu-speaking caste of weavers in the Madras 
Presidency of India. " A festival in honour of this 
deity is celebrated annually, during which the god and 
goddess are represented by two decorated pots placed on 
a model of a tiger (vyagra vfilianam), to which, on the 
last day of the ceremonial, large quantities of rice and 
vegetables are offered, which are distributed among the 
loom-owners, pujari, headman, fasting celebrants, etc." 
(E. Thurston). 

BHEARTHA. An ancient Irish deity. In English the 
name of the goddess appears as Vera, Verah, Berab^ 
Berri, Dirra. and Dhirra. She is conceived ix)pular'y 
as a being of great stature and forbidding mien. In the 
county Sligo there is a popular tradition that she was 
able to wade all the Irish rivers and lakes except Loch- 
da-ghedh, in which she was drowned. There still exists 
on the mountain near the lake a ruin called Cailleach-a- 
Vera's House. In the county Louth also there survives 
a sepulchral chamber called Cailleach Dirra's House. 
According to W. G. Wood-Martin, " in some parts of 
Ireland she is now looked upon as a banshee, and makes 
her appearance before the death of a member of -some 
well-known families." See W. G. Wood-Martin. 

BHIMSEN. An Indian deity, worshipped as the god 
of rainfall by the Baigas, who inhabit the eastern Sat- 
pQra hills in the Mandla, Balaghat and Bilagpur 
Districts. 

BHUJARIYA. The name of a barley feast observed 
in the Central Provinces of India. Grains of barley are 
planted in a pot of manure on the seventh day of the 
month Sftwan. These grow very quickly into long stalks, 
and on the first day of Bhadon, the next month, the 
women and girls present the plants to their male friends 
to be placed in their turbans, throwing the manure into 
water. J. G. Frazer compares these plantings with the 
Gardens of Adonis (see ADONIS), which " are essenti.illy 
charms to promote the growth of vegetation." See .1. 
G. Frazer, Adonis Attis Osiris, 1906. 

BHUMI DEVATA. A Hindu deity, worshipped once 
in three years as the earth goddess by the Jhodia, Pengu, 
and Kondhi divisions of the Porojas, a class of cultivators 
in India. 

BHTITAS. The Bhijtas are demons worshipped by 
certain Hindu castes (e.g., the Nalkes). The demon 
temple is called Bhutasthanam. Usually it contains a 
number of images. " All castes in South Canara have 
great faith in Bhutas, and, when any calamity or mis- 
fortune overtakes a family, the Bhutas must be pro- 
piated. The worship of Bhutas is a mixture of ancestor 
and devil propitiation. In the Bhuta cult, the most 
Important per.sonage is Brahmeru, to whom the other 
Bhutas are subordinate. Owing to the influence of 



Brahman Tautris. Brahmeru is regarded as another name 
for Brahma, and the various Bhiitas are regarded as 
ganas on attendants on Siva. Brahmanieal influence is 
clearly to be traced in the various Bhtita songs, and all 
Bhiitas are in some manner connected with Siva and 
Parvati " (E. Thurston and K. Rangachari). Among 
the many Bhutas there are only two females, Ukkatiri 
and Kallurti. 

BIANCHI. A fanatical sect found in Italy in 1399. lbs 
members subsisted on bread and water, and always wore 
long white garments. 

BIAS. In a very helpful work, Herbert Spencer has 
explained the influence of a number of different kinds 
of bias, educational, patriotic, social, political, theologi- 
cal. It is a common charge against theologians that 
they are biased. It is not sufliciently realized, on the 
otier hand, by their opix>nents that men's views are 
distorted equally by an anti-theological bias. The 
theological bias cannot, of course, be denied. " Under 
its special forms, as well as under its general form, the 
theological bias brings errors into the estimates meJi 
make of societies and institutions. Sectarian antipathies, 
growing out of differences of doctrine, disable the 
members of each religious community from fairly judg- 
ing other religious communities. It is always diflicult, 
and often impossible, for the zealot to conceive that his 
own religious system and his own zeal on its behalf may 
have but a relative truth and a relative value; or to con- 
ceive that there may be relative truths and relative 
values in alien beliefs and the fanaticisms which main- 
tain them. Though the adherent of each creed daily has 
thrust on his attention the fact that adherents of other 
creeds are no less confident than he is — though he can 
scarcely fail sometimes to reflect that these adherents of 
other creeds have, In nearly all cases, simply accepted 
the dogmas current in the places and families they were 
bom in, and that he has done the like; yet the special 
theological bias which his education and surroundings 
have given him, makes it almost beyond imagination that 
these other creeds may, some of them, have justifications 
as good as, if not better than, his own, and that the rest, 
along with certain amounts of absolute worth, may have 
their special fitnesses to the i>eople holding them." But 
the anti-theological bias also leads to serious errors, 
" both whea it ignores the essential share hitherto taken 
by religious systems in giving force to certain principles 
of action, in part absolutely good and in part good rela- 
tively to the needs of the time, and again when it prompts 
the notion that these principles might now be so estab- 
lished on rational bases as to rule men effectually through 
their enlightened intellects. ... It generates an un- 
willingness to see that a religious system is a normal 
and essential factor in every evolving society; that the 
specialities of it have certain fitnesses to the social con- 
ditions; and that while its form is temporary, its sub- 
stance is permanent. In so far as the anti-theological 
bias causes an ignoring of these truths, or an inadequate 
appreciation of them, it causes misinterpretations." See 
Herbert Spencer, The Study of Sociology, ISth ed., 1897. 

BIBLE. In Greek Ta Biblia is a plural expression 
meaning " The Books," just as we speak of " the Scrip- 
tures," meaning the Scriptures par excellence. In Low 
Latin the word Biblia came to be used as a singular, and 
this usage has been adopted in modern languages. The 
English Bible is a collection of books regarded as sacred 
and received as canonical. It includes books of the Old 
and New Covenants. See OLD TESTAMENT. The 
Roman Catholics accept also as canonical certain books 
which the English Churches regard as apocryphal. These 
are included In their Bible (see CANON OF THE OLD 
TESTAMENT). The ordinary English Bible, how- 



Bible 



64 



Bible Societies 



ever, contains only the Old and New Testaments. 
The Apocryphal additions to the Old Testament 
(see APOCRYPHA OF THE OLD TESTAMENT) are 
only found in si)ecial editions of the whole Bible or 
in separate editions of the Apocrypha. In the English 
Versions, the Old Testament is translated from the 
Hebrew, the New Testament from the Greek. John 
Wyclifte (d. 1384) was the first to concern himself about 
a translation of the whole Bible into English. He him- 
self seems to have translated the whole of the New 
Testament and part of the Old Testament. The whole 
worii was completed and edited by John Purvey (1353?- 
1428?) before 1400. Nicholas de Hereford (fi. 1390), one 
of the leaders of the Lollards in Oxford, seems to have 
been resi)onsible for the tran-slation of a large part of the 
Old Te.stament. There are no verse-divisions in 
Wycliffe's Bible, but the matter is roughly divided into 
chapters. There are about 170 manuscripts of this Bible 
in existence. The first printed edition of the New Testa- 
ment in English (152()) was the worli of William Tyndale 
(d. 1536), who went direct to the original Greelc. After- 
wards he translated the Pentateuch (c. 1530), tie follow- 
ing boolis of the old Testament as far as II. Chronicles, 
and the Book of Jonah (1531). Large use of this version 
was made when the Authorised Version was prepared, 
and Tyndale is considered to have set a standard of 
biblical translation. Tyndale's New Testament was 
printed and published at Worms. It was not yet possible 
to print a translation in England. The first English 
Bible which the Government allowed to be sold in Eng- 
land was the Bible of Miles Coverdale (1488-1568). His 
translation seems to have been first printed by Christo- 
pher Froschouer of Zflrich in 1535. It was introduced 
into England in the same year by James Nicolson of 
Southwark. The work was not original, the translation 
being based upon the Bibles of Luther and Zwingli, with 
the help of Latin versions (e.specially the Vulgate) and 
of Tyndale's New Testament. In 1537 Coverdale revised 
and modified his version, which was then authorised by 
the King. In the same year Matthews' Bible was 
published. Thomas Matthews was a name assumed by 
John Rogers (15007-1555), who was afterwards burnt at 
Smithfield in the Marian persecution. This was really 
a new edition of Tyndale's translation, which was com- 
pleted by the addition of the Old Testament books after 
II. Chronicles from Coverdale's version. Next appeared 
Tavemer's Bible (15.39), which was no more than a 
revised edition of Matthews' Bible by Richard Tavemer 
(15057-1575), who wrote works in support of the Reforma- 
tion. This was followed by the Great Bible or Cranmer's 
Bible (1539). another revision of Matthews' Bible. The 
printing of it in Paris was superintended by Miles Cover- 
dale. It was, in fact, a revision of Matthews' Bible by 
Coverdale. From this Bible was taken the English 
version of the Psalms in the Prayer Book of the Church 
of England. Cromwell enjoined the use of the Great 
Bible in every parish church. Some years later some 
of the reformers who had fled to Geneva brought back 
the Geneva Bible (1557-1500), popularly called the 
" Breeches Bible," a version made by Protestant 
refugees. It was called tie Breeches Bible because in 
Genesis iii. 7 in one edition it is said that Adam and 
Eve " sewed fig-tree leaves together, and made them- 
selves breeches." This was for many years the most 
popular Bible in English homes. It was of a convenient 
size, and was supplied with notes. Another Bible of a 
later date (1568) was known as the Bishops' Bible. Mat- 
thew Parker (1504-1575), Archbishop of (Canterbury, was 
occupied in the publication of this, a revision of the Great 
Bible, for some years (1563-68). Another version of the 
New Testament appeared in 1582. It was made at the 



College of Douay to meet the needs of English-speaking 
Roman Catholics, and was published at Rheims. The 
Old Testament was published at Douay, but not until 
1609-10. This version is commonly known as the Douay 
Bible. The next version of the Bible was the famous 
one undertaken in tie reign of James I. It became known 
as the Authorised Version, not because it was directly 
and officially autiorised by King, Parliament, or Con- 
vocation, but because through its own merits it came to 
be regarded as authoritative. It was the work of six 
companies sitting at Westminster, Oxford, and Cam- 
bridge, and was based upon the Bishops' Bible with the 
help of the Genevan and Douay versions. The under- 
taking was di-scussod in 1604, seriously taken in haad in 
1607, and completed in 1611. As Mr. Patterson truly 
says, it " has become a classic wherever the English 
tongue is spoken." He adds that " by the providence 
of God, it was written when the English language was 
in its simplest and most majestic form." But, beautiful 
and excellent as the Authorised Version is, yet another 
English version has been made nec-essary in recent years 
by the progress of .scientific study. Since the time when 
the Authorisetl Version was made, much of its 
phraseology has become obsolete or even changed its 
meaning; scholars have a more thorough and accurate 
knowledge of the original and cognate languages of the 
Bible; new discoveries of ancient manuscripts, versions, 
and quotations have been made: and textual criticism 
has become a science. In June, 1S70, therefore, an 
assembly of distinguished divines met in the Jerusalem 
Chamber in Westminster Abbey to start work upon a 
new version of the Bible. IThe New Testament was 
published in 1881, and the Revised Version of the whole 
Bible in 1885. In 1895 was published a Revised Version 
of the Apocrypha (Old Testament), " being the version 
siet forth A.D. ICll compared with the most ancient 
authorities and revised A.D. 1894." The work was done 
by three Committees, which were called the London, 
Westminster, and Cambridge Committees. See J. Pater- 
son Smvth, HoiP we got our Bible, 1889; M. W. Patter- 
son, Hist.; the D.N.B. 

BIBLE CHRISTIANS. See METHODISTS. 

BIBLE COMMUNISTS. Anotier name for the PER- 
FECTIONISTS (g.v.). 

BIBLE SOCIETIES. Societies formed for the pur- 
pose of circulating copies of the Old and New Testaments. 
The First Bible Society seems to ha^e been founded in 
Germany in 1712 bv Baron Hildebrand von Canstein 
(1667-17i9), the friend of the pietists P. J. Spener (1635- 
1705) and A. H. Franeke (1663-1727). Called the " Can- 
steinsche Bil)elanstalt," it was afterwards combined with 
the Franeke Institutes at Halle. In 1780 a society called 
" The Bible Society " was formed in England with the 
object of supplying Bibles to soldiers and sailors. This 
afterwards became known as the " Naval and Military 
Bible Society." In 1792 a " French Bible Society " wa« 
formed for the purpo.se of circulating Bibles in Frenci. 
In 1802 Thomas Charles (1755-1814) went to London to 
call the attention of religious people to the scarcity of 
Welsh Bibles in Wales. " Having been introduced to 
the committee of the Religious Tract Society, it was sug- 
gested by the Rev. Joseph Hughes, a Baptist minister, 
who was pre.sent, that there might be a similar dearth 
not only in Wales, but in other parts of the country, 
and tiat it would be desirable to form a society for the 
express purpose of circulating the Scriptures." On 
inquiry it was found that there was such a dearth, and 
" The British and Foreign Bible Society " was founded 
(1804). The Society " was founded on unsectarian prin- 
ciples, it being resolved tiat one-ialf of its committee 
siould be elected from amongst Cburcimen, and one-ialf 



Biblia Pauperum 



65 



BilocatioD 



from amongst Dissenters (H. S. Skeats and C. S. 
Miall). This is now the greatest society of the kind, and 
has branches in all parts of the British Empire. There 
is also a " National Bible Society of Scotland," which 
was formed in ISfil. The Society next in importance to 
tlie British and Foreign Bible Society is the " American 
Bible Society," which was founded in 1816 at New York. 
There are similar societies in Germany and Russia. The 
income of the " British and Foreign Bible Society " is 
about a quarter of a million, and about five millions and 
a half of Bibles, Testaments, and portions of Holy Scrip- 
ture are annually circulated in 409 languages and 
dialects " London 'Diocese Book, 1910). See Chambers' 
Encycl; Brockhaus; Prot. Diet. 

BIBLIA PAUPERUM. Literally the "Bible of the 
Poor." The famous book with this title was a work 
giving pictures of the chief events recounted in the Old 
and New Testaments, to which were added short illustra- 
tive notes or tests in Latin or German. The book was 
treasured by the laity and used as a textbook by mendi- 
cant preachers in the Middle Ages. It was so called 
either because these mendicant preachers were known 
as Pauperes Christi, " Christ's Poor," or because it was 
intended for the " poor In spirit." The pictures were 
copied in sculptures, and on walls, glass, altar-pieces, 
etc. In Vienna are preserved an altar-piece of the 
twelfth century with a painting from the '" Biblia 
Pauperum," and two copies of the book dated 1430. The 
book fell into disuse early in the sixteenth century. 
Ther« was another book with the same title, " Biblia 
Paupemm." or " Poor Man's Bible," compiled by Bona- 
ventura (A.D. 1221-1274). This book explains the con- 
tents of the Bible on mystical and allegorical lines. 

BIBLICAL ARCHEOLOGY, SOCIETY OF. A society 
founded in December, 1870. The special object of the 
Society was the collection of illustrations of archseology, 
history, arts, and chronology from the monuments of 
Ancient and Modem Assyria, Palestine, Egypt, and 
other Biblical Lands. Papers were read, and published 
in the " Proceedings " of the Society, which were issued 
monthly during the session. 

BIBLIOMANCY. A term composed of two Greek 
words and meaning " divination by the Bible." The 
practice was to open the Bible haphazard, and to regard 
the first passage on which the eye fell as a special 
message or pronouncement. Or the first words of the 
Bible heard after entering a place of worship might be 
similarly regarded. Another form of bibliomaney is the 
ordeal of the Bible and the key. The way to detect a 
thief is to read to the apparatus Psalm 50. At the 
words "When thou sawe-st a thief, then thou con.sentedat 
with him," it will turn to the guilty person (see E. B. 
Tylor, P.O. 

BIBLIOTHECA. A term which has sometimes been 
used as a designation of the Bible. It came into use 
towards the end of the fourth century A.D. 

BICORNI. Literally " idiots," a contemptuous deaig- 
nation of the Beghards iq.v.), used by mediaeval writers. 

BIDDELIANS. Followers of John Biddle (161.5-1662). 
In 1641 Biddle was made master of the free school of 
St. Mary-le-Crypt, Gloucester. In 1645 he was impri- 
soned on account of his religious opinions, but was soon 
released on bail. He was next summoned before a par- 
liamentary commission at Westminster, and in 1647 was 
sent back to prison. In the same year, a work which 
he had published on the Holy Spirit, and in which he 
argued against the Godhead, was burnt as blasphemous 
by the hangman. Afterwards he was again released on 
bail, and then again imprisoned, this time in Newgate. 
In 1652 he was set free once more, in virtue of Crom- 
well's Act of Oblivion. By this time he had gained a 



number of followers. In 1654, however, he was impri- 
soned in Gatehouse, and in 1655 he l)ecame involved in 
a theological dispute and was banished to the Scilly 
I.slands. He was allowed to return to London in 1058, 
and preached there until 1602. He was then arrested 
again, and, being unable to pay his fine, went to prison. 
Here he died. Biddle has sometimes been regarded as 
the founder of Unitarianism (q.v.) in England. See the 
D.Ji.B. 

BIDDING PRAYER. A form of Christian prayer in 
which the people are " bidden " to prayer for certain 
persons. It is no longer in common use; but may be 
heard sometimes in Cathedrals. Inns of Court, and the 
Universities. Canon 55 of 1003 orders that " before all 
sermons, lectures, and homilies, the preachers and 
ministers shall move the people to join with them in 
prayer, in tiiis form or to this effect as briefly as con- 
veniently they may." The form then in use ran : "Ye 
shall pray for Christ's holy Catholic Church, that is, for 
the whoie congregation of Christian people disi^ersed 
throughout the whole world, and especially for the 
Churches of England, Scotland, and Ireland : and herein 
I require you most especially to pray for the King's 
most excellent Majesty our Sovereign Lord Jamem, King 
of England. Scotland, France, and Ireland, Defender of 
the Faith and Supreme (Jovemor in these his realms, 
and all other his dominions and countries, over all 
persons, in all causes, as well Ecclesiastical as Tem- 
poral : ye shall also pray for our gracious Queen Anne, 
the noble Prince Henry, and the rest of the King and 
Queen's royal issue : ye shall also pray for the Ministers 
of God's holy Word and Sacraments, as well Archbishops 
and Bishops, as otiier Pastors and Curates : ye shall 
also pray for the King's most honourable Council, and 
for all the Nobility and Magistrates of this realm ; that 
all and every of these, in their several callings, may 
serve truly and painfully to the glory of God, and the 
edifying and well governing of his people, remembering 
the account that they must make : also ye shall pray 
for the whole Commons of this realm, that they may 
live in the true faith and fear of God in humble obedience 
to the King and brotherly charity one to another. 
Finally, let us praise God for all tho.se which are departed 
out of this life in the faith of Christ, and pray unto 
God that we may have grace to direct our lives after 
their good example; that, this life ended, we may be 
made partakers with them of the glorious resurrection 
in the life everlasting; always concluding with the Lord's 
Prayer." See Prot. Diet. 

BIJAS. A term employed in Hinduism. Mantras 
(q.v.) are in.spired Vedic texts which are supposed to 
ix)ssess great power as occult forces. Bijas are the 
radical letters or syllables of Mantras, the essential parte 
of them, or letters or syllables which represent the name 
of the deity to whom the Mantra is addressed, or letters 
or syllables which denote parts of the body over which 
the deity is supposed to preside. See Monier-Williams. 

BIKKURIM. The name of one of the Jewish treatises 
or tractates which reproduce the oral tradition or un- 
written law as developed by the second century A.D. 
and are included in the Mishnah (g.v.), a collection and 
compilation completed by Rabbi Judah the Holy, or the 
Patriarch, about 200 A.D. The sixty-three tractates of 
the Mishnah are divided into six groups or orders 
(sedarim). Bikkurim is the eleventh tractate of the first 
group, which is called Zerd'im (" Seeds "). 

BILOCATION. The expression denotes the power of 
being in two places at the same time. Certain persons 
are supposed to have pos.sessed or to possess this power. 
In a biographv of St. Alfonso di Liguori, translated by 
Cardinal Wiseman, the saint is said one day to have been 



Bimbo-Gatni 



66 



Bishop 



in his own house and at the same time in church preaching 
a sermon. The writer of the biography of Apollonius 
of Tyana reports that his hero transported himself 
quicljly and mysteriously from one place to anotlier. 
Pythagoras is said to have had the same power. In 
modern times spiritualists liave claimed that the same 
thing still happens. In 1905 Italian newspa7>ers reported 
strange happenings in a family named Pansini. Two 
twys are said to have had a number of strange 
experiences. " The boys were at Ruvo one morning at 
9 o'clock, and at 9.30, without knowing how or why, they 
found themselves at Molfetta, before the c-onvent of the 
Capuchins." Again we are told that " one day the two 
boys were in the Piazza di Ruvo at 1.35 o'clock, and at 
1.45, about ten minutes afterwards, were at Trani, before 
the door of the house of one of their uncles, Signor Giro- 
lamo Maggiore " (Joseph Ijapiioni, Hypnotism and 
Spiritism, 1907). 

BIMBO-GAMI. A god of poverty in Japanese 
mythology. 

BINDING AND LOOSING. Expressions occurring in 
the New Testament (Matthew xvi. 19, xviii. IS). In 
Matthew xvi. IS, Jesus is represented as saying to his 
disciple, Simon Peter : " And I also say unto thee, that 
thou art Peter (Petros), and upon this rock (petra) I 
will build my church; and the gates of Hades shall not 
prevail against it. I will give unto thee the keys of the 
kingdom of heaven : and whatsoever thou shall bind on 
earth shall be bound in heaven : and whatsoever thou 
ehait loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven." On this 
passage the Church of Rome, of which Peter is supposed 
to have been the first bishop, bases its claim to 
supremacy. In Matthew xviii. 18, Je.sus, addressing the 
disciples collectively, says : " Verily, I say unto you, 
what things soever ye shall bind on earth shall be bound 
in heaven : and what things soever ye shall loose on earth 
ehall be loosed in heaven." The expressions were com- 
monly used of decisions given by the Jewish rabbis. To 
bind was to forbid ; to loose was to allow. See Encycl. 
BiU. 

BINZURU. Binzuru is one of the deities most widely 
revered in Japan in connection with the ancient national 
religion known as Shintoism (f/.t'.). The god of 
medicine, he " is usually a red lacquer figure of a man 
seated, and much defaced by the rubbings of centuries " 
(I. Bishop). Persons afflicted with disease make 
pilgrimages to celebrated images of the god. To cure 
the disease they rub that part of the god which cor- 
responds to the afflicted part of their own persons. Then 
they rub themselves again. See " ShintOism " in R.S.W. 

BIRADEVARU. Biradevaru or BTrappa is the patron 
saint of the Kurubas, a caste of hunters in Southern 
India. Horses and ponies being vehicles of the god, the 
Kurubas will not ride upon them. The Kurubas are 
ancestor worshippers, and treasure golden discs stamped 
with the figures of human beings. Their temples are 
dolmen-like structures. " In the open country near 
Kadur in Mysore is a shrine of Biradevaru, which con- 
sists of four stone pillars .several feet in height, sur- 
mounted by flat slabs as a cap-stone, within which the 
deity is represented by round stones, and stones with 
snakes carved on them are deposited. Within the 
Kuruba quarter of the town, the shrine of Anthar- 
gattamma is a regular dolmen beneath a margosa 
{Melia Azadirachta) tree, in which the goddess is repre- 
sented by rounded stones imbedded in a mound of eartJi. 
Just outside the same town, close to a pipal tree (Ficus 
relifjiosa) are two smaller dolmen-like structures con- 
taining .stones representing two Kuniba Da saris, one a 
centenarian, who are buried there " (E. Thurston and K. 
Rangachari). 



BIRBTTA. See BERRETTA. 

BIRKATH ERUSIN. Literally the " Blessing of 
Betrothal," a feature in the Jewish marriage-service. 
God is blessed for having instituted marriage. "Blessed 
are Thou, O Lord, Who sanetiflest Thy people Israel by 
the rite of the canopy and the sacred covenant of wed- 
lock." See W. O. E. Oesterley and G. H. Box. 

BIRTH CEREMONIES. In Arabia soon after a child 
was born a sheep was sacrificed, and the infant's head 
was shaved and daubed with the sheep's blood. The 
sacrifice was meant " to avert evil from the child by 
shedding blood on his behalf," apparently to establish 
a kind of blood-brotherhood between the protector and 
the protected (see BLOOD). This ceremony was called 
"AKIKA (q.v.). Another custom among some sections of 
primitive folk has been to spit on a child after its birth 
(e.g., in Oonnemara) or at its naming (e.g., among the 
Mandingos and among the Bambaras of Western Africa). 
The reason for this is that sometimes a person's saliva ia 
supposed to possess the element of life. In order, 
apparently, to place a child under the deity's protection, 
the Arabs also hid it, as soon as it was born, under a 
cauldron, where it remained until dawn. Sometimes on 
the morning after birth a child's gums were rubbed with 
masticated dates and a name was given it. Robertson 
Smith thinks that " in general, the sacrifice, the naming, 
and the symbolical application of the most important 
article of food to the child's mouth all fell together, and 
marked his reception into partnership in the sacra and 
means of life of his father's group " (Kinship). See W. 
R. Smith, Kinship; E. S. Hartland, Perseus. 

BISHNOIS. A Hindu sect, founded in the Punjab by 
a Panwar Rajput named Jhambaji (6. A.D. 1451). 
Jhambaji is supposed at an early age to have given 
evidence of a miraculous origin, and during a famine in 
1485 he is said to have won a great reputation by pro- 
viding food for all who had faith in him. He seems to 
have been a religious reformer, " who attempted to 
break loose from the debased Hindu polytheism and 
arrogant supremacy of the Brilhmans by choosing one 
god, Vishnu, out of the Hindu pantheon, and exalting 
him into the sole and supreme deity " (R. V. Russell). 
Some of his doctrines, as given by Russell and Hlra Lai, 
are as follows: Bathe in the morning; Commit no 
adultery; Be content; Be abstemious and pure; Strain 
your drinking-water; Be careful of your speech; E.vamine 
your fuel in case any living creature be burnt with it; 
Show pity to living creatures; Do not steal; Do not 
speak evil of others; Do not tell lies; Never quarrel; 
Avoid opium, tobacco, bhang and blue clothing; Do not 
cut green trees; Sacrifice with fire; Say pra.vers : medi- 
tate; Perform worship and attain heaven; Baptise your 
children if you would be called a true Bishnoi. 

BISHOP. The word is given in the English Version 
of the Bible as a translation of the Greek word episkopos 
(Philippians i. 1; I. Timothy iii. 2; I. Peter il. 25). In 
Acts i. 20 episkope is translated " bishopric," but not, 
of course, in a technical sense. It has long been a 
matter of controversy whether " bishop " Is used in the 
New Testament in the sense in which it was used later 
in the Christian Church. The word episkopos was taken 
over from the Greeks, among whom it denoted an " over- 
seer " or a " superintendent " (cp. episkope, visitation, 
oversight; and then office or charge generally). It seems 
to have been used particularly of the finance officers of 
Greek guilds. And it was just this kind of duty that 
the Christian episkopos was called upon to perform— the 
administration of the common fund of a kind of benevo- 
lent society. On the other hand, the word had already 
been adopted in the Greek translation of the Old Teerta- 



Bishop 



67 



Blavatsky Institute, The 



ment to represent the Hebrew pdk id, which denotes an 
"overseer" in a more general sense (Judges is. 28; 
Nehemiah xi. 9, 14, 22; II. Kings xi. 15). An earlier title 
for the officials of the early Christian Church was 
preshyteros. Presbyter or Elder (Acts xi. 30; xr.); and 
when episkopos first came into use the two terms seem 
to have been regarded as equivalent (Acts xx. 28; Philip- 
pians i. 1; I. Timothy v. 17; Titus i. 5, 7; I. Peter v. 1, 
2). Moreover, these two terms seem to have other 
equivalents, such as proistdmenoi, " presidents " (I. 
Thessalonians v. 12; Romans xii. 8), hegoiimenoi, 
" rulers " (Hebrews xiii. 7, 17), and poim^nes, " shep- 
herds " (Ephesians iv. 11), The question is : Did one of 
the Presbyters of a collegium come gradually in New 
Testament times to be elevated above the rest. It has 
been ably contended that this did happen, and that the 
government of the apostolic Church l)ecame monarehial. 
The power exercised by Diotrephes (III. John i. 9), it has 
been pointed out, seems to have exceeded that of ordinary 
presbyters. But Diotrephes is rebuked for desiring to 
exercise this power, so that it seems to have been a kind 
of usurpation; and in the time of Hermas and Irenaeus, 
bishops and elders or presbyters seem still to be placed 
upon the same level (Hermas. Vision ii. 4, iii. 9; Simili- 
tudes iii. 27; Irenaeus, Adt\ Haeres. iii. 3). Local con- 
ditions were not, however, the same everywhere. By 
the middle of the second century the monarchical episco- 
pate was well established; and in Rome and elsewhere 
the development may have been more rapid than in other 
places (cp. Ignatius, Epintle to the Romans, ii.. ix. ; 
Epistle to Poll/carp iv., vi.). In any case, it is difficult 
to prove that the monarchical episcopate is of apostolic 
origin. That it was. on the other hand, a natural and 
pre-ordained development is a legitimate contention. 
The Roman (Catholic Church, however, insists on the 
apostolic origin of episcopacy. The Council of Trent 
says : "If anyone deny that there is in the Church a 
hierarchy instituted by divine ordinance, which consists 
of bishoi)s, presbyters, and ministers, let him be ana- 
thema"; and "if anyone affirm that bishops are not 
superior to presbyters, or that they have not the power 
of confirming or ordaining, or that the power which they 
have is common to presbyters also, let him be anathema." 
It is claimed by Roman Catholics (though not by them 
alone) that " St. James the Less was beyond reasonable 
doubt bishop of Jerusalem " ; that St. Paul having given 
Titus power to ordain presb.vters, and Timothy directions 
as to receiving accusations against presbyter.s, these two 
were clearly " ecclesia.stical officers superior to the clergy 
of the second order " ; and that the Angels of the 
Churches mentioned in the Book of Revelation (i. 20) 
" answer to the idea of diocesan bishops and to nothing 
else." In the third century, according to Cyprian (Bp. 
Ix-viii.), bishops were chosen " by the vote of all the 
faithful and by the judgment of the bishops." and they 
were so elected in the West until the eleventh century. 
Bi.shops were then elected by the cathedral chapter. At 
first the election had to be confirmed by the metropolitan. 
The right of confirmation afterwards pas,sed to the Pope, 
and in course of time in some cases the election itself. 
In Catholic Germany and Switzerland the right of elec- 
tion now l)elongs to the cathedral chapters; in France, 
Portugal. Spain, Naples and Sicily, Sardinia, Austria, 
and Bavaria to the Sovereign. in England the Pope 
chooses the Roman Catholic bishops. In the Church of 
England royal letters patent are sent to the Dean and 
Chapter of the Cathedral telling them to make a certain 
choice. In Protestant Germany the title Bishop has 
been dropped in favour of General-Superintendent. See 
D. Schenkel, Bibel-Lexikon: Encycl. Bihl.; Chambers' 
Encycl.; Cath. Diet.; Prot. Diet. 



BISHOPS' BIBLE. An English version of the Bible, 
published in 1568. See BIBLE. 

BISHOPS' BOOK, THE. A name given to " The 
Institution of a Christian Man," a manuel which was 
published in 1.537. It was composed by a committee of 
bishops on the lines of and sometimes in the language 
of the Ten Articles, and its use was authorised for three 
years by Henry VIII. The book expounded the Apostles' 
Creed, the Sacraments, the Ten Commandments, the 
Lord's Prayer, the Ave Maria, Justification, and Pur- 
gatory. " It represented neither doctrinal advance nor 
doctrinal reaction " (M. W. Patterson, Hist.). 

BISHRIYYA. An Arabian sect, regarded by the 
Sunnis (q.v.) as heretics. They hold that " the Will of 
God was one of His works, that since God is omniscient 
and knows what is profitable for man, it is impossible 
to suppose that He does not will it." See F. A. Klein. 

BISMILLAH. An Arabic expression meaning " in the 
name of God (Allah)." The bismillah means the formula 
in which the name of God is mentioned. 

BIZOCHI. A name used by Pope John XXII. for the 
Fraticelli In his Bull of A.D. 1317. 

BLACK BARTHOLOMEW. A name given to St. 
Bartholomew's Day in 1002, because on that day all bene- 
ficed clergy had to comply with the provisions of the Act 
of Uniformity and accept the Book of Common Praver. 

BLACK BOOK. The report of the committee which 
King Henry VIII. nominated in 1535 to inquire into the 
condition and administration of the monasteries became 
known as the " Black Book." 

BLACK CANONS. See AUGUSTINIANS. 

BLACK FRIARS. See DOMINICANS. 

BLACK-LETTER DAYS. These are the minor Holy 
Days noted in the Calendar of the Christian Church. 
They are so called in distinction from the major Holy 
Days, Red-letter Festivals, which were distinguished 
originally by red letters. See W. R. W. Stephens, 
Common Prayer, 1901. 

BLACK MONKS. See BENEDICTINES. 

BLACK POPES. A name given to the leaders of the 
Jesuit Society of Jesus in the time of Pope Pius IX. 
because of the influence which thev exercised at Rome. 

BLACK STONE. THE. A sacred stone in one of the 
corners of the Ka'ba, the square stone building at Mecca. 
See KA'BA and HAJJ, THE. 

BLASPHEMY. In the Old Testament the word is 
equivalent to scorn or rejection of God. The Hebrews 
made such treatment of God a capital offence (Leviticus 
xxiv. 15). The people were forbidden lightly to use the 
name of (Jod, and in course of time even to pronounce 
his true name was a profane act (Leviticus xxiv. 11). 
Jesus was accused of blasphemy when he claimed to be 
the Son of God (Mark xiv. 61-(!4; Matthew xxvi. 65), and 
Stephen was stoned because he was considered to have 
used " blasphemous words against Mo.ses, and against 
God " (Acts vi. 13, vii. Sfi ff-f 

BLAVATSKY INSTITUTE, THE, The Blavatsky 
Institute was organized by a small group of disciples 
of H, P. Blavatsky. It is an activity within the 
Theosophical Society founded in 1875 by H. P. Blavat- 
sky. H. S. Olcott, and W. Q. Judge. The promoters 
of the Institute believe in the teachings of Theosophy, 
and wish to eive to those who desire it an oppor- 
tunity to study them. The study of H. P. Blavat- 
sky's works, and the application of her statements to the 
various problems, social, ethnical, philo.sophical and re- 
ligious, which confront us in our complex civilization, 
constitute the main work. Intellectual and spiritual 
development receive equal attention. The fundamental 
laws of the Universe are learnt, and at the .same time 
man is taught to obtain mastery over himself. It is 



Blessed Sacrament, Confraternity of the 



68 



Bodhisattvas 



stated that " it is not the object of this enterprise to 
furnish a retreat for misantliropes and hypochondriacs. 
Neither is it an infirmary for ghost-seers, visionaries, or 
dreamers, where they may revel to their hearts' content 
among the creations of their own fancy; nor is it to be 
a school for occultism, where magic arts are taught to 
the fool ; but it Is intended to be a place where those who 
earnestly aspire to spirituality may find the External 
conditions necessary to cultivate it, and to acquire the 
true ' magic staff' that will securely support them on 
their journey through Eternity." The Blavatsliy In- 
stitute publishes a monthly journal called The Path. 

BLESSED SACRAMENT, CONFRATERNITY OP 
THE. A Society founded in 1862 in the Church of Eng- 
land. With it was amalgamated in 1807 " The Society 
of the Blessed Sacrament." The Associates are priests 
and laymen. Grants of money are made to poor parishes 
for Altar linen and Eucharistic vestments. The 
Associates are asked to pray for the re-union of Christen- 
dom, the restoration of the Reserved Sacrament, " Sacra- 
mental Confession," and for the faitiiful Departed. 
Members of the Confraternity receive a medal. See 
Walter Walsh, " Ritualistic Secret Societies," in Prot. 
Diet. 

BLESSINGS AND CURSINGS. In primitive times 
there was supposed to be a great power in a blessing or 
a curse. To have the blessing of a deity was to enjoy 
his friendly aid and protection; to have the curse was 
to encounter his disfavour and active hostility. A 
blessing or a curse was thus a liind of spell. Amongst 
the Hebrews it was an ancient practice to involie a curse 
upon the enemy before commencing hostilities. Balak, 
King of Moab, summoned Balaam the prophet to come 
and curse the Israelites before he attempted to over- 
throw them (Numbers xxli.); and Goliath "cursed David 
by his gods" before advancing to battle againjst him (I. 
Samuel xvii. 43). Curses were added also to legal 
formulae to malte them more impressive. Blessings 
might be used on the same occasions as cursings. Moses 
powerfully blessed his own people and effectively cursed 
their enemies (cp. Leviticus ix. 22, Numbers vi. 23-27). 
Fathers on their death-bed pronounced valued blessings 
on their children. There can be no doubt that, given a 
strong belief in the power of the god, the effect of a 
blessing or curse on the mind, and so on the life, of a 
person, migiit be very powerful. This, of course, is not 
the primitive, but the true psychological explanation. 
In the storj- an the New Testament known as the 
"Cursing of the Fig-tree (Matthew xxi. 19 /. ; Mark xi. 
13, 21 /.), the curse is so potent that it withers up the 
tree. Here we have not merely a mental effect, but one 
that is regarded as directly material. Jesus pronounced 
blessings in his discourses, as well as denunciations which 
might be called curses. See Encycl. Bibl. 

BLOOD. Robertson Smith (Religion of the Semites, 
1894, p. 233) notes that among the Semites the sacrificial 
use of blood " is connected with a series of very 
important ritual ideas, turning on the conception that the 
blood is a special seat of the life. But primarily, when 
the blood Js offered at the altar, it is conceived to be 
drunk by the deity." He compares cases of the drinking 
of blood among other peoples. In Africa fresh blood is 
drunk by all the negroes of the White Nile. It is imbibed 
by Masai warriors, by the Gallas, and, as far as the men 
are concerned, by the Hottentots. Durkheim (p. 137) 
notes that in the tribes of Central Australia human blood 
is so holy a thing that it serves frequently to consecrate 
the most respected instruments of the cult. " For 
example, in certain cases, the nurtunja is regularly 
anointed from top to bottom with the blood of a man. 
•It is upon ground all saturated with blood that the 



men of the Emu, among the Arunta, trace their sacred 
images. There is no religious ceremony where blood 
does not have some part to play. During the initiation, 
the adults open their veins and sprinkle the novice with 
tlieir blood; and this blood is so sacred a thing that 
women may not be present while it is flowing; the sight 
of it is forbidden them, just as the sight of a. churinga 
is. The blood lost by a young initiate during the very 
violent operations he must undergo has very particular 
virtues : it is used in various ceremonies. That which 
flows during the sub-incision is piously kept by the 
Arunta and buried in a place upon which they put a 
piece of wood warning passers-by of the sacredness of 
the spot; no woman should approach it. The religious 
nature of blood also explains the equal importance, re- 
ligiously, of the red ochre, which is very frequently 
employed an ceremonies; they rub the churinga with it 
and use it in ritual decorations. This is due to the fact 
that, because of its colour, it is regarded as something 
kindred to blood. Many deposits of red ochre which are 
found in the Arunta territory are even supposed to be 
the coagulated blood which certain heroines of the 
mythical period shed on the soil." Elliot Smith has 
ix>inted out that blood was regarded as an elixir of life 
(g.v.), and that red ochre came to be used as a sub- 
stitute for it. It was an Aztec belief that the sun was 
an animal, which was originally a man. The man had 
become transformed, and "had received the intense 
vitality necessary for the performance of his functions 
from the blood of the gods, voluntarily shed for that 
purpose " (Edwardes and Spence, p. 4S). In the Central 
American system the sun is often represented as "a 
deity whose sole sustenance is human blood, and who 
must be well supplied with this gruesome pabulum or 
perish " (iMd.. p. 72). The Scandinavian god Heim- 
dallr Is nourished by the blood of sacrifices. 

BLOOD, FIELD OF. See ACELDAMA. 

BLOOD-BURIAL. An expression used in Chinese re- 
ligion. It is a mark of filial devotion to allow a few 
days (sometimes seven) to elapse before a deceased parent 
is buried. When this Is not done, the burial is called 
a " blood-burial," because the corpse is supposed still 
to have blood in it (J. Doolittle, Social Life of the 
Chinese, 1867, quoted by J. J. M. de Groot in R.S.C.). 

BLOOD-LICKBRS. See BLOOD. 

BOANERGES. We read in the New Testament that 
Jesus gave this name to two of his disciples, James and 
John, the sons of Zebedee (Mark iii. 17). The name is 
interpreted by the Gospel writer " Sons of Thunder." 
The first half of the word might be a corrupt form of 
the Hebrew b'ne " eons of." The second jmrt of the 
word is more difficult to explain. The most plausible 
suggestion is that the Hebrew or rather Aramaic word 
intended is regaz " anger." Regaz might be used of 
thunder, though " sons of anger " in the sense of " soon 
angered " seems more suitable. See Encycl. Bibl. 

BOCHICA. A deity in the mythology of the Muyscas 
of Bogota. He is represented as a culture-hero, the 
teacher of building, agriculture, and laws; and as god 
of the dawn. 

BODHISATTVAS. Literally " he whose essence is 
becoming enlightenment," a term used in Buddhism. A 
term applied to a Buddha at a certain stage in his 
development. Thus, when Gautama became incarnate 
and was born of Maya, he was a Bodhisattva. Now 
" when a Bodhisattva undertakes the task of a Buddha, 
then his goal is Nirvana : with that, naturally, all earthly 
relation comes to an end." But, " many of tho.se lofty 
beings, who are in a position to tread the last way of 
life, are possessed by a strong craving to aid their fellow- 



Boedromia 



69 



Bollandists 



beings around them, to lead them into the true way of 
knowledge, and this craving determines them to 
willingly forego the Buddhaship which they might attain, 
in order to live for countless years in the state of a 
Bodhisattva engaged in taslis of ministry to lower things. 
The Bodhisattva meanwhile exists in one of the many 
heavens, possesses divine powers, is filled with kindly 
intentions towards the suffering world below him, and is 
ready to help those who appeal to him." The Bod- 
hisattva Avalokita is considered to be reincarnate regu- 
larly in the Dalai Lama of Lhassa. In Tibetan temples 
are to be seen on wall-paintings representations of 
Buddhas, Bodhisattvas, and saints. The Bodhisattva 
" is sumptuously adorned after the manner of an Indian 
Prince. The head is covered with a crown, the orna- 
ments coming down over the ears; he wears bracelets, 
and has chains on his breast; precious stones, either real 
or imitation, are worn in profusion. The hair is not 
shaved off, but bound in a knot on the top of the head. 
Some Bodhisattvas show .several heads or arms. Avalo- 
kita especially is often represented with eleven heads, 
with four or many more (" thousand ") arms. The 
eaints, on the other hand, generally wear the normal 
monk's habit and a monk's cap." See H. Hackmann. 

BOBDROMIA. An Athenian festival held in honour 
of Apollo (q.v.) in his character of a god of battle (Boe- 
dromios). One of the months (September-October) was 
named after the god Boedromion. The festival took 
place on the sixth day of this month. 

BOGOMILES. Literally " lovers of God " (from the 
Slavonic), a sect which appeared in Thrace and BiUgaria 
in the twelfth century. 'They are also called Bogarmitae, 
Massilians, and by orthodox members of the Greek 
Church Phundaites, " wearers of the girdle." The sect 
was founded by a monk named Basil, whose system of 
theology was dualistic like that of the Paulicians and 
Oathari. His followers had to live a life of poverty 
and asceticism. They did not accept all the books of 
the Bible, but only the Psalms, the Prophets, the Gospels, 
the Acts, tie Epistles, and the Apocalypse; and they 
applied the allegorical key to the interpretation of Scrip- 
ture. The world of matter and human beings was 
created, they held, by Satanael, who sprang from the 
Divine Being but rebelled against Him and opposed Him. 
The Logos, who also sprang from the Divine Being, took 
a phantom body and came down to earth to undo the 
work of the wicked Satanael. Alexius Comnenus (1048- 
1118) undertook to exterminate the heresj-. In 1118 he 
invited Basil to a banquet, had him seized, and after- 
wards caused him to be burned at Constantinople. But 
the sect was not suppressed. In A.D. 1140 we find a 
Council of Constantinople anathematizing the followers 
of Basil, and in 132.5 Bosnia was overrun with them. 
In this year Pope John xxii. wrote to the King of Bosnia 
inveighing against them. In the fifteenth century they 
appealed to the Turks to protect them against the King 
of Bosnia and the priests who were persecuting them. 
Soon after the invasion of Bosnia by Muhammad II. 
(14fi3), they seem to have gone over to Islam in large 
numbers. This, as Mr. T. W. Arnold says, in view of 
" the numerous points of likeness between their peculiar 
beliefs and the tenets of Islam," is quite intelligible. 
" They rejected the worship of the Virgin Mary, the in- 
stitution of Baptism, and every form of priesthood. They 
abominated the cross as a religious symbol, and con- 
sidered it idolatry to bow down before religious pictures 
and the images and relics of the saints. Their houses 
of prayer were very simple and unadorned, in contrast 
to the gaudily-decorated Roman Catholic churches, and 
they shared the Muhammadan dislike of bells, which they 
styled ' the devil's trumpets.' They believed that Christ 



was not himself crucified, but that some phantom was 
substituted in his place : in this respect agreeing par- 
tially with the teaching of the Qur'an. Their condemna- 
tion of wine and the general austerity of their mode of 
life and the stern severity of their outward demeanour 
would serve as further links to bind them to Islam. . . 
They prayed five times a day and five times a night, 
repeating the Lord's Prayer with frequent kneelings, and 
would thus find it very little cliange to join in the ser- 
vices of the mosque." See J. H. Blunt; T. W. Arnold, 
The Preaching of Islam, 1896. 

BOHEMIA, CONFESSION OF. A Bohemian con- 
fession approved by Luther, Melanchthon, and the 
Academv of Wurtemburg, and published in A.D. 1532. 

BOHEMIAN BRETHREN. The Bohemian Brethren 
were de.scendants of the Hussites (q.v.). When the 
Taborites (q-v.), the extreme section of the Hussites, 
were finally conquered and disi>ersed, a remnant of them 
settled at Lititz on the borders of Moravia and Silesia. 
This remnant united with a remnant of the Calixtines 
(g.v.) in 1457 to form a religious body of Bohemian (and 
Moravian) Brethren, which took the name " Unitas 
Fratrum " or " The Unity of the Brethren." The unity 
they desired was that of a brotherhood of Christians (of 
every denomination) united on a broad basis of scrip- 
tural doctrine, practice, and worship. In 1467 The 
Brethren decided to organize a ministry of their own. 
Stephen, a Waldensian bishop, who claimed descent from 
the bishops of the early Church, consented to consecrate 
as their first bi.shop Michael Bradacius. Under George 
Podiebrad (d. 1471) the Brethren were persecuted. Under 
Luke of Prague (1497-1528) the Holy Scriptures became 
their only rule of faith and practice. In 1500 their 
churches in Bohemia and Moravia already numbered two 
hundred. In the time of John Augusta (15.31-72) they 
issued " Confessions." In 1505 they published a Hymn 
Book, and in 1593 a Bohemian version of the Bible, the 
Kralitz Bible. The Bohemian Brethren, in fact, made 
great progress and became prosperous. But in course 
of time prosperity brought relaxation of discipline and 
excess of ambition. They had supported the Bohemian 
Protestants in their rising against Ferdinand II. These 
were routed at the Battle of the White Mountain in 1620, 
and the consequences were serious for the Bohemian 
Brethren. In 1621 their leading men were beheaded. 
Thousands of them afterwards fled, or were expelled, 
from Bohemia. A century later, when the remnant 
also left their native country, the refugees became 
known as Hermhuters or Moravians (see MORAVIANS). 
The members of the Unitas Fratrum were divided into 
three classes : the Beginners (Ineipientes), the Pro- 
ficient (Proficienten), and the Perfect (Perfecti). The 
ministers also, who were chosen from the Perfect, were 
of three kinds : Acolytes or Deacons, Pastors or Priest.s, 
and Bishops or Presidents. At the head of the Unitas 
Fratrum was a Council of Elders. See J. H. Blunt; 
Prot. Diet.: Oath. Diet.; Brockhaus. 

BOHRAS. The Bohras or Bohoras (probably 
" traders ") of India are a caste of traders, whose 
original home was Gujarnt. The sect is said to have 
grown up here through the activity of a missionary, 
Abdulla, who came from Yemen to Cambay in A.D. 1067. 
In 1539 the Bohras of India were joined by the Bohras 
of Arabia, and Surat became the headquarters of the 
.sect. The Bohras are Muhammadans. and for the most 
part Shias of the Ismailia sect of Egypt. With a few 
exceptions (e.g., the special importance attached to 
circumcision), the customs of the Bohras do not differ 
much from those of ordinary Muhammadans. See R. V. 
Russell. 

BOLLANDISTS. The great Jesuit work "Acta Sanct- 



Bona Dea 



70 



Book of Dimma 



orum " or Lives of the Saints was planned by Rosweid 
(d. 1629), a Flemish Jesuit. But John Holland (159(i- 
1665), who worked at Antwerp, was the first to make a 
real beginning with the undertaking. From 1635 George 
Heuschen (KiOO-lCSl) collaborated with him, and by the 
year 1658 five folios had appeared. In 1660 Daniel Pape- 
broek (1628-1714) also became a collaborator. After the 
death of Holland there was a succession of Jesuit 
workers; but in 1794, by which time fifty-three volumes 
had been published, the undertaking was interrupted by 
the French Revolution. It was not possible to resume 
the work until 1837, when the Society of Jesus was com- 
missioned to do so, and issued a prospectus " De Prosecu- 
tione Operis Bollandianl." In 1845 a new volume 
appeared. It has been followed by many more. The 
collaborators have been called HoUaudists after John 
Holland. See Oath. Diet. 

HONA DBA. Literally " the good goddess," an 
Italian goddess of fertility. She was a patron goddess 
of women, and was worshipjied in Rome only by women 
(and amongst them by the Vestal Virgins). Men were 
not allowed to enter her temple. She was evidently a 
goddess of healing, since healing plants, as well as t.ame 
seri^ents, were kept In her temple. Her symbol was a 
consecrated serpent. " She is represented in works of 
art with a sceptre in her left hand, a wreath of vine 
leaves on her head, and a jar of wine at her side." See 
O. Seyffert, Diet. 

BONE-GATHERING CEREMONY. WTien a deceased 
person has been burnt, it has been the custom among 
some peoples to gather the bones and ashes together with 
great solemnity. Monler-Williams gives several descrip- 
tions of this ceremony as he saw it performed in India. 
One of them is as follows : " A Brahman and five women 
were seated in a semi-circle round the ashes and bones of 
a young married girl of low caste, whose body had 
recently been burnt. Before them was an earthenware 
vase, and around it were flowers, fruits, and betel- 
leaves. The Brahman had a metal vase shaped some- 
thing like a tumbler in his hand containing consecrated 
or holy water. With a small round spoon or ladle he 
took out a small portion of the water and poured it into 
the hands of the woman, at the same time muttering 
tests and prayers. Then he poured water into the vase, 
and on the top of the water placed the fruit, flowers, 
and leaves. Next, he collected the half-calcined bones, 
and having put them carefully and reverentially into the 
vase, he made a hole in the ground a few yards off and 
buried it. I was told that the vase would be left there 
for ten days, when a Sraddha (offering to deceased 
ancesitors) would be performed in the same place." After- 
wards the ashes and bones are thrown into a sacred river, 
preferably the Ganges. See Monier-Williams. 

BONI HOMINES. Another name of the Perfect!. 

BONI PUERI. Another name of the BEGHARDS 
(q.v.). 

BONI VALETI. Another name of the BEGHARDS 
(q.v.). 

BON RELIGION. A primitive form of religion in 
Tibet, which preceded Lamaism. It " recognised nature 
spirits, which were worshipped by all sorts of powerful 
and terrible offerings; and it also paid reverence to the 
spirits of the dead. The religious functions were per- 
formed by priests, and there were the elements of a 
magic cult, the knowledge of which was a secret con- 
fined to the Bon priests. Sacrifices — especially human 
sacrifices — were obligatory." In eour.se of time this 
religion, which did not disappear altogether, was com- 
pletely mingled with Tantrie Buddhism. See H. Hack- 
mann. 



HOOK OF " AM DtTAT." Literally the book " of that 
which is in the underworld," a sacred hook, in the religion 
of ancient Egypt. It wa.8 inscribed on sarcophagi, or 
written on papyri which were placed in graves. There 
is a fuller form of the text reserved for royal use and 
an abridged form. The Dflat has twelve divisions, 
through each of which the Sun made an hour's journey 
at night. These divisions represent fields, cities, or 
dwellings through which runs a river. The Sun-god, 
journeying in his bark from West to East, meets every 
conceivable kind of spirit and demon, and encounters 
enemies whom he punishes, and faithful ones whom he 
rewards. The underworld received in different places a 
rather different colouring. The book which gives the 
Theban representation was the work of the priests of 
Amon, and the sun is identified with this god. We have 
in the Book of "Am Dftat," says Prof. Naville, "one 
of the best examples of the incoherences which reign in 
the religious idea.s of the old Egyptians. It would 
indeed be difficult to disentangle from the midst of the 
fantastic scenes which pass before our eyes any unity 
of conception, beyond the fact that the subject Is the 
course of the sun during the night, or rather of the king 
who has become that great god. If we would look for 
a key to the fantastic symbolism of the book, we should 
continually run against contradictions, and against con- 
ceptions which are in complete antagonism to one 
another." See A. Wiedemann; A. Erman, Handbook; 
E. Naville, The Old Egyptian Faith, 1909. 

BOOK OF ARMAGH. A manuscript translation of the 
New Testament " in the emendated Irish text," written 
in A.D. 812, and now preserved in Trinity College, Dublin. 
See 0. R. Gregory. 

BOOK OF BEN SIRA, THE. Jesus the son of (Ben) 
Sira or Sirach is the reputed author of the Ar>ocryphal 
book Ecclesiastieus. The work is also known as the 
Book of Ben Sira or The Wisdom of Jesus the son of 
Sirach. 

BOOK OF CHAD. A manuscript translation of the 
Gospels, belonging to the seventJi or eighth century. It 
contains the emendated Irish text of Matthew, Mark, 
and the beginning of Luke. The manuscript is preserved 
in Lichfield Cathedral. See C. R. Gregory. 

BOOK OF CHANGES. The Yih, " Book of Changes," 
or Yih-king, " Classical Book of Changes," is one of the 
ancient books treasured by the Chinese. It gives the 
ancient ix>litical cosmogony. A very ancient work. It 
was remodelled and expanded by the founder (1122 B.C.) 
of the Imperial dynasty that niled in the time of Con- 
fucius (551-479 B.C.). Confucius himself added appen- 
dices to the Tih. He said he would gladly give fifty 
years to the study of it. The book has been described 
as " the most ancient of the Chinese writings." And 
this would seem to be a true description, though Prof. 
Legge assexts that not a single character in the book is 
older than the twelfth century B.C. The Yih-king was 
one of five books that received the title of the " Five 
Classics." See James Legge, Religions of China, 1880; 
A. Terrien De Lacouperie, The Oldest Book o/ the 
Chinese, 1892; H. J. Allen, Early Chinese Hist., 1906; E. 
H. Parker, Studies, 1910. 

BOOK OF DEER. A manuscript translation, an emen- 
dated Irish text, of the Go.spels, belonging to the eighth 
or ninth century. It is so called because formerly it 
was in the monastery of Deer or Delr in Aberdeen.shlre. 
It is now preserved in the Library of the University of 
Cambridge, England. See C. R. Gregory. 

BOOK OF DIMMA. An Irish manuscript translation 
of the Gospels belonging to the ninth century. It is 
preserved in Trinity (College, Dublin. 



Book of D arrow 



71 



Book of Rites 



BOOK OF DURROW. An Irish manaacript transla- 
tion of the GospeLs belonging to the eighth century. It 
is preserved in Trinity College, Dublin. 

BOOK OF HISTORY. The Shu, " Book of History " 
or " Book of Annals," or Shu-king, " Classical Book of 
History," is one of the five ancient books accepted by 
the Chinese as Classics. The Book of History deals 
with the patriarchal period and ends with the year 721 
B.C. According to Prof. Legge (The Religions 0/ China, 
18S0), this compilation is the oldest of Chinese books (see, 
however, BOOK OF CHANGES). See H. J. Allen, Early 
Chinese Hist., 1906: E. H. Parker, Studies, 1910. 

BOOK OF JASHER. The Book of Jasher (Revised 
Version, Ja.shar) is an ancient Hebrew song-book from 
which quotations are given in the Old Testament (Josh. 
X. 13; 2 Sam. i. 18). The Hebrew expression is sepher 
hayyashar, which is most naturally translated " the book 
of the righteous (or upright)." Yashar can hardly be 
a proper name here. According to the Greek Version 
of the Old Testament (the Septuagint), the words of 
Solomon in I. Kings viii. 12 /. were to be found in the 
" Book of Songs." This in Hebrew would be sepher 
hashshir. Very likely in every case this was the original 
expression. Sepher hashshir (s-ph-r h-sh-y-r) was mis- 
read Sepher hayyashar (s-ph-r h-y-sh-r). The book was 
a collection of poems and perhaps also of narratives, 
which seems to have been made about 930 B.C., that is to 
say, soon after the time of Solomon. See Encycl. Bibl. 

BOOK OP KELLS. An Irish manuscript translation 
of the Gospels, belonging to the seventh or eighth cen- 
turv. It is preserved in Trin'ty College, Dublin. 

BOOK OF MOLING OR MULLING. An Irish manu- 
script translation of the Gospels belonging to the ninth 
century. It is preserved in Trinity College. Dublin. 

BOOK OF ODES. The Shi, " Book of Odes," or Shi- 
king, " Clas.sical Book of Odes," is one of the Chinese 
Classics. It contains " the popular songs of China, in 
which the people of the various states expressed their 
political and social emotions " (E. H. Parker). The odes 
were collected and edited by Confucius (5.51-479 B.C.). 
Prof. Giles quotes one as follows : 

Do not say. This place is not public; 

So one can see me here. 

The approaches of spiritual Beings 

Cannot be calculated beforehand ; 

But on no account should they be ignored. 

Prof. Legge quotes another ode, dating from the twelfth 
century B.C., and gives it in rhyme thus : 

With reverence I will go 

Where duty's path is plain. 
Heaven's will I clearly know; 

It's favour to retain 
Is hard;— let me not say 

' Heaven is remote on high. 
Nor notices men's way.' 

There in the starlit sky 
It round about us moves. 

Inspecting all we do. 
And daily disapproves 

What is not just and true. 

Prof. Giles thinks it is clear from the Odes " that the 
Chinese people continued to hold, more clearly and more 
firmly than ever, a deep-seated belief in the existence of 
an anthropomorphic and personal God, whose one care 
was the welfare of the human race." See James Legge, 
Religions of China, 1880: H. J. Allen, Early Chinese 
Hist., 1906: H. A. Giles, Religions of Ancient China, 1905; 
E. H. Parker, Studies, 1910. 

BOOK OF ORIGINS. The name given by H. Ewald 
to the Elohistic narrative which runs through the Hexa- 
tench. It was so called because it seemed to form the 
framework or groundwork (German " Grundschrift "). 
See SUPPLEMENTARY HYPOTHESIS. 



BOOK OF REWARDS AND PUNISHMENTS. The 
" Book of Rewards and Punishments " is said to be the 
most popular exposition in its modem form of the 
Chinese religion or system of ethics known as Taoism 
(y.v.). It does indeed claim to be the production of the 
reputed founder of Taoism, Lao-tsze himself (sixth cen- 
tury B.C.) ; but, according to Prof. Douglas, it can hardly 
have been published earlier than the fifteenth or six- 
teenth century A.D., that is to say, many centuries after 
Buddhism became known in China (A.D. 62). Some of 
the maxims of the book, as given by Douglas, are as 
follows: "Practise righteousness and filial piety, be 
affectionate towards your younger brothers and respect- 
ful towards your elder brothers. . . . Do no injury, 
either to insects, plants, or trees. . . . Rejoice at the 
success of others, and sympathise with their reverses, 
even as though you were in their place. . . . Bestow 
favours without expecting recompense. . . . Do not 
introduce vexatious reforms into the administration of 
the empire. . . . Don't shoot at birds, nor hunt 
animals. . . . Don't drive insects from their holes, 
nor frighten roosting birds. . . . Don't seek your own 
advantage at the expense of others. . . . Don't suck 
other men's brains. . . . Don't break asunder mar- 
riages. . . . Don't decry the excellences of others, nor 
conceal your own imperfections. . . . Don't put 
obstacles in the way of the promotion of men who are 
endowed with talents or worthy of praise. . . . Don't 
delight in picking and stealing. . . . Don't murmur 
against Heaven at your lot, nor accuse men. Don't 
scold the wind, nor abuse the rain. . . . Never say 
anything you don't mean. . . . Don't employ aU your 
strength to accomplish your aims. . . . Live in har- 
mony with your wife. Wives, respect your husbands. 
. . . Don't do anything which is not useful. . . . 
Don't leap over a well or a hearth. . . . Don't shout 
or get angry on the first day of the month, or in the 
morning. . . . Don't point rudely at the sun, moon, 
and stars. . . . Don't needlessly kill tortoises and 
serpents." Douglas's translation is based upon the 
French translation of Stanislas Julien. See Robert K. 
Douglas. Confucianism and Taouism; Frederic H. Bal- 
four, " Taoism," in R.S.W. 

BOOK OF RITES. The Li, " Book of Rites." or Li- 
king, " Classical Book of Rites," is one of the ancient 
books accepted by the Chinese as Classics. The Rites 
are those of the Imi>erial dynasty that was reigning in 
the time of (Confucius (5.51-479 B.C.), and was founded ia 
1122 B.C. Prof. Parker states that the Book of Rites 
or Book of Abstract Principles has never been changed 
organically. And he quotes Confucius as saying : " The 
dj-nasty (1756-1122 B.C.) preceding that under which we 
live (1122-255 B.C.) continued the abstract principles of 
that before it (2205-1766 B.C.), and handed over the same 
principles to the dynasty now reigning." The Book of 
Rites was only in part.s- edited by Confucius and his di.s- 
ciples. A few quotations will give some idea of the 
nature of the work. " Every tree has its appointed time 
to perish, and every beast its appointed time to die, and 
h'3 who cuts down a tree or kills an animal before their 
time is guilty of unfilial conduct (Douglas). ... A 
woman is unable to stand alone, and therefore when 
young depends on her father and brothers, when married, 
on her husband, and after his death, on her sons 
(Dougla.s). . . . Sacrifice is not a thing coming to a 
man from without; it issues from within him, and has 
its birth in his heart. When the heart is deeply moved, 
expression is given to it by ceremonies; and hence, only 
men of ability and virtue can give complete exhibition 
to the idea of sacrifice " (Legge's translation of the 
"Book of Rites"). See R. K. Douglas, Confucianism 

« 



Book of Secret Blessings 



72 



Book of the Dead 



and Taouism; H. A. Giles, Religions of Ancient China, 
1905; H. J. AUen, Early Chinese Hist., 1906; E. H. 
Parker, Studies, 1910. 

BOOK OP SECRET BLESSINGS. The " Book of 
Secret Blessings " is an exposition in its modem form 
of the Chinese religion or system of ethics known as 
Taoism (g.v.). Next to the " Book of Rewards and 
Punishments " (g.v.), which it resembles, it is said to 
be the most popular religious work in China, being wel- 
comed by Buddhists, Oonfucianists, and Taoists alike. 
" It has gone through many thousand editions, and has 
become a household word throughout the empire" 
(Douglas). Amongst its maxims, as summarized by 
Prof. Douglas, are these : " Publish abroad lessons for 
the improvement of mankind, and devote your wealth to 
the good of your fellow-men. In all your actions follow 
the principles of Heaven, and in all your words follow the 
purified heart of man. Have all the Sages of antiquity 
before your eyes, and examine carefully your conscience." 
See R. K. Douglas, Confucianism and Taouism. 

BOOK OF THE ACTS OF SOLOMON. An old Hebrew 
record referred to in the Old Testament. In I. Kings 
xi. 41 we read : " Now the rest of the acts (or " words " 
or " matters ") of Solomon, and all that he did, and his 
wisdom, are they not written in the book of the acts of 
Solomon? " It seems to have been a work based upon 
the annals of the reign of Solomon. It would appear to 
have included also narratives partly historical and partly 
biographical, which were intended to illustrate the 
wisdom and greatness of Solomon. The work was one 
of the sources used by the compiler of the Books of 
Kings. See Skinner, Kings, in " The Century Bible." 

BOOK OF THE COVENANT. The name of several 
documents referred to in the Old Testament. (1) We 
read : " And Moses came and told the people all the 
words of Jehovah, and all the judgments : and all the 
people answered with one voice and said. All the words 
which Jehovah hath six>ken will we do. And Moses 
wrote all the words of Jehovah, and rose up early in the 
morning, and builded an altar under the mount, and 
twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel. 
. . . And he took the book of the covenant, and read 
in the audience of the people : and they said, All that 
Jehovah hath spoken will we do, and be obedient " 
(Exodus xxiv. 3, 4, 7). The document intended here is 
no doubt the section of the Hexateuch comprised in 
Exodus XX. 22-xxiii. 3.3, which is also known to scholars 
as the code of the covenant or the Greater Book of the 
Covenant (to distinguish it from No. 2 following). The 
code is part of the Ephraimitic narrative incorporated 
in the Hexateuch (see PKNTATEtTCH). " It contains 
several pentades of Words, a number of detached 
statutes, a few laws of a mixed type (probably red- 
BCtional); but the main body of the code is made up of 
a series of pentades of judgments, which seem to be 
judicial decisions of cases arising in an agricultural com- 
munity. These are not such as would arise among the 
nomads whom Moses led out of Egj'pt to Horeb " (C. A. 
Briggs). G. Wildeboer (Canon of the O.T., 1S95> points 
out that we have no certain knowledge alout the promul- 
gation of this book, and that since Deuteronomy, though 
often following its prescriptions closely, never mentions 
it, it must have had a private character. He adds that 
it' could not have been a book for the people like 
Deuteronomy, but must have been a book for legal use. 
(2) In another passage we read : " And Jehovah said 
unto Moses, Write thou thase words : for after the tenor 
of these words I have made a covenant with thee and 
with Israel " (Exodus xxxiv. 27). Here a " Book of the 
Covenant " is not actually mentioned, but is implied. 
It evidently conaiats of the preceding section, Eiodus 



xxxiv. 11-28, the work of the Judaic writer. To dis- 
tinguish it from book no. 1 (above), it has been desig- 
nated by scholars the Little Book of the Covenant. It 
really represents another decalogue in addition to that 
of Exodus XX. 1-17 (see DECALOGUE). (3) Another 
book is referred to in II. King's xxii.-xxiii. and II. 
Chronicles xxxiv. -v. It is first spoken of as " the book 
of the law " (II. Kings xxii. 8, 11; II. Chronicles xxxiv. 
15) or " the book of the law of Jehovah " (II. Chronicles 
xxxiv. 14) or simply "the words of the law" (II. 
Chronicles xxxiv. 19), and then as the " book of the 
covenant" (II. Kings xxiii. 2, 21; II. Chronicles xxxiv. 
30) or " the law of Moses " (II. Kings xxiii. 25) or " the 
word of Jehovah by the hand of Moses " (II. Chronicles 
XXXV. (i). This " book of the covenant " is the book 
which was brought to light and introduced to the people 
in the eighteenth year of King Josiah (621 B.C.). It 
used to be thought that it was identical with the whole 
of our Pentateuch or of the Jewish " Torah." That view 
is no longer held by critical scholars. It has been 
demonstrated that " the Book of the Covenant," other- 
wise called '• the Book of the Law," comprised " either 
a portion of our Deuteronomy or a collection of laws, 
Deuteronomie in tone, and, in range of contents, having 
a close resemblance to our Book of Deuteronomy " (H. 
E. Ryle). There are two lines of evidence. (1) It is 
clear from the description of the book that " in its most 
characteristic features, it approximated more closely to 
portions of Deuteronomy than to any other section of the 
Pentateuch." (2) ^Tien the historian speaks of "the 
law," he appears " to have in view the Deuteronomie 
section, and scarcely to be acquainted with any other." 
The arguments are summarized very lucidly by H. B. 
Ryle. The public recognition and acceptance of this 
deuteronomie work marks the beginning of the process 
of canonization. See H. E. Ryle, Canon; W. R. Smith, 
O.T.J.C. (2); C. A. Briggs, Eex. 

BOOK OF THE DEAD. A book, that is to say, 
intended for the dead, the most important of the religious 
writings of tlie ancient Egyptians. Parts of it may 
belong to the remote period of the first Memphite 
dynasties. The Book contains prayers or addresses, 
hymns, and formulae for the use of a deceased person 
in the underworld. It was in use in the Middle King- 
dom, but more so in the New Kingdom, and, later, por- 
tions were written on the walls of the tombs, the sides 
of the sarcophagi, the linen bandages, and on papyri 
folded within the body-cloths. Different portions or 
chapters were thought to be adapted to different tastes, 
emergencies, or means. With the magic help of the Book 
of the Dead, a soul on its journey through the under- 
world could overcome the evil spirits and win over the 
good ones. Prof. Naville gives this rubric from later 
papyri : " He who knows this book on earth, or on whose 
coffin it has been written, may come out from the day 
when he pleases, and again enter his dwelling, without 
anyone repulsing him. And there shall be given to him 
bread, beer, much flesh meat, upon the altar-table of 
Ra ; he shall receive allotment of land in the garden of 
Aalu, and there shall be given to him grain, and he shall 
grow green (flourish) again, like what he was upon 
earth." A very interesting chapter or section has 
reference to the testing of the soul in the underworld. 
Arrived at the Hall of the Two Truths or Two Justices, 
the deceased person had to stand before the judgment- 
throne of Osiris, with whom sat the forty-two judges of 
the dead. The deceased had to justify himself, to make 
a confession, and to show that he had not been guilty 
of any of the forty-two sins. To test him, his heart was 
weighed in the scales by Horns (q.v.) and Anubis (q.v.). 
If he came through this ordeal satisfactorily, he received 



Book of the Kings of Israel 



73 



Bourigoonists 



back his heart and in his old form became a nerv and 
eternal being. Other books based upon the Book of the 
Dead, supplementing it or reproducing the most import- 
ant formulae, had a wide circulation. These included 
such works as : " The Book of the Breath," " The Second 
Book of the Breath," " The Book of Journeying in 
Eternity," " The Book of ' May my Name flourish '." 
It should be added that much of the matter in the Book 
of the Dead reveals a well-developed moral sense. See 
A. Wiedemaim: A. Erman, Handbook; B. Naville, The 
Old Egyptian Faith, 1909. 

BOOK OF THE KINGS OF ISRAEL. An old Hebrew 
record referred to in I. Chronicles i.x. 1. It was one 
of the sources used by the compiler of the Books of 
Chronicles. The full title of the work seems to have 
been "The Book of the Kings of Israel and Judah." 
" This work, which is cited as an authority for reigns 
as early as that of Asa and as late as that of Jehoiakim, 
was clearly a comprehensive one, but not the canonical 
Books of Kings, because it is cited for matters not in 
those books — i.e., genealogies (I. Ch. ix. 1), the wars of 
Jotham (II. Ch. xxvii. 7), and the prayer of Manasseh 
(II. Ch. xxxlii. 18) and the abominations of Jehoiakim 
(II. Ch. xxxvi. 8). Neither was it the sources men- 
tioned in I. and II. Kings for the jwlitical history of 
Israel and Judah, since they were two distinct works." 
But it may have been dependent upon those sources, " or 
since the real historical material derived from this book 
apart from that in the canonical books is extremely 
meagre, it may have been dependent upon those books, 
a Midxash or commentary on them (Kuenen, Einl. p. 
ICO). In their earliest form I. and II. Kings may have 
contained fuller information than in their present Mas- 
soretic form " (E. L. Curtis and A. A. Madsen). See E. 
L. Curtis and A. A. Madsen. Book of Chronicles, 1910. 

BOOK OF THE LAW. THE. A document referred to 
in the Old Testament (II. Kings xxii. 8. 11) in connection 
with the reforms of King Josiah. In II. Kings xxiii. 
2, 21, and II. Chronicles xxxiv. 30 it is called the Book 
of the Covenant (q.v.). 

BOOK OF THE RESURRECTION. A N.T. apocry- 
phal work. A Coptic version, found in Egypt, has been 
printed In recent years by the trustees of tie British 
Mu.seum. The work exhibits marked Egyptian (Gnostic) 
influence. " It describes the descent of Jesus into hell; 
the conquest of death : the defeat of the devil : the 
destruction of the gates, bolts, and bars of hell; the 
extinction of its fires; the overthrow of its blazing 
cauldrons: the liberation of Adam and Eve and all the 
children of men; the final condemnation of Judas Iscariot; 
the ascent from hell of the Lord Jesus; his resurrection; 
his enthronement at the right hand of the Father in his 
tabernacle of light in the seventh heaven; and the recon- 
ciliation of God with Adam and his eons " (Cobem). 

BOOK OF THE WARS OF THE LORD. An ancient 
Hebrew book referred to in the Old Testament (Numbers 
xxi. 14 /.). The reference is as follows : " Wherefore 
it is said in the book of the Wars of the Lord, Vaheb 
in Suphah, and the valleys of Amon. and the slope of 
the valleys that inclineth toward the dwelling of Ar, 
and leaneth upon the border of Moab." The book, it has 
been thought, was a collection of songs referring to 
Israel's wars against its neighbours, and it has been sug- 
gested that other passages in the O.T. <e.(i.. Exodus xv. 
1-19) were derived from it. Thus it may be supposed to 
have been a book like the Book of Jashar (q.v.). It was 
perhaps compiled about 900 B.C. Prof. Cheyne observes, 
however, with good reason, that the contents of the 
quotation hardly suggest a history or a collection of his- 
torical songs or ballads. The quotation suggests that 
the book " had reference to geography." There is per- 



haps some corruption in the text, though it is difficult to 
emend it satisfactorily. See Encycl. Bihl. 

BOOK OF TORGAU. A confessional formula drawn 
up mainly by James Andreas and Martin Chemnitz. It 
was designed as the basis on which the Lutherans might 
agree, and sui)erseded the Swabian and Saxon Formula 
of Concord (q.v.) and the Maulbronn Formula. The 
Book of Torgau consisted of twelve articles. In 1577 
A.D. Andrea and Chemnitz, with the assistance of Sel- 
necker, Musculus, Komer, and Chytraus, recast it at 
Bergen near Magdeburg as the Formula of Concord (q.v.). 
See William A. Curtis. 

BOONBOLONG. A magic word among the natives of 
New South Wales. If it is uttered on the approach of 
the evil spirit which in the form of " a dwarf with mon- 
strous head roams the woods at night and devours those 
whom he meets," the dwarf will pass by and do no harm. 
See D. G. Brinfon, Rel. 

BORBELITES. Another name of the BAEBELIOTES 
(q.v.). 

BORBORIANS. A name applied by way of reproach 
to the Barbeliotes (q.v.). 

BORRELISTS. A division of the Dutch Baptists or 
Mennonites. The sect was founded by Adam Borrel in 
the second half of the seventeenth century. They cor- 
respond very largely to the English Quakers. 

BORVO. Borvo, or Bormo, or Bormanus was one of 
the names of a god of the ancient Celts who corresponded 
to Apollo (q.v.). The name means " the boiling," and 
Borvo was the deity of thermal springs. The ancient 
Celts often associated a god with a goddess, but it is 
tmcertain what relationship they had in mind. In any 
case, the god Borvo is paired with the goddess Damona 
(q.v.). See Anwyl, Celtic Religion, 1906: Reinach, O. 

BOSTON DECLARATION, THE. The " Boston 
Declaration " is a Confession of Faith which was 
approved by the Synod of the New England Churches in 
KiSO A.D. It " is simply the Savov Confession with the 
Cambridge Platform " (William A. Curtis). Cp. SAVOY 
DECLARATION and CAMBRIDGE PLATFORM. 

BOTANOMANCy. Divination by means of plants. It 
was once a custom to write words and questions on 
leaves. When the leaves were blown about by the wind, 
some of them were supposed to come together in such a 
way as to answer questions. 

BO-TREE. The name given in Buddhism to the tree 
under which Gautama received the revelation which 
changed his outlook on life. The Buddhist monks plant 
such a tree (Ficus religiosa) within the precincts of every 
monastery. Asoka sent one to Ceylon, which " still 
survives as a two-thousand-year-old rarity in the remark- 
able ruins of Anuradhapura." In Japan a substitute 
is found in an aniseed (Illioium religiosum) or in a 
Chinese juniper. See H. Hackmann. 

BOCCHERA. A goddess worshipped by the Hijras 
(also called Khasuas), the community of eunuchs In 
India. The name appears also as Behechra. 

BOURIGNONISTS. The followers of Madame Antoin- 
ette Bourignon de la Porte (1616-1680), a m.vstic and 
visionary. She was born at Lille. Madame Bourignon 
believed that she saw visions and was directly inspired 
by God to revive Christianity in its pure evangelic form. 
Admitted to a convent by the Archbishop of Cambray, 
she succeeded in making disciples of some of the nuns. 
She was afterwards head of a hospital, first in Lille, and 
then in East Friesland. She died at Franeker in Friee- 
land. Her religion was a pietistlc mysticism in which 
more importance was attached to emotion and inner 
feeling than to knowledge and practice. Madame 
Bourignon was an accomplished conversationalist and a 
prolific writer. Her principal toUowers have Included 



Bourneans 



74 



Brahmanas 



Bartholomew de Cordt, a Jansenlst priest, and Peter 
Poiret, a Calvinistic minister, the editor of her works 
(25 volumes, 1676-S4). The movement spread from 
Holland to Germany, France, Switjserland, and England. 
See J. H. Blunt. 

BOURNEANS. The followers of one Bounie, a Bir- 
mingham preacher, who maintained that at the final 
punishment Impenitent sinners would be totally an- 
nihilated. 

BOWLS, MAGICAL. Morris Jastrow (Civ.) notes that 
at Nippur " hundreds of clay bowls, containing magical 
inscriptions in Aramaic and Syriac as a protection of the 
dead against evil demons, and dating from about the 
sixth century of our era, were found in graves of the 
uppermost layens in certain sections of the mound, as a 
proof that Nippur continued to be a sacred necropolis for 
Jews and Christians many centuries after it had ceased to 
be occupied, and at a time when all traces and even the 
recollection of its one-time grandeur had disappeared." 

BOXERS. A secret society in China, one of the objects 
of which was to expel European missionaries from China. 
In 1900 the European Powers united to suppress them, 
and the expedition was successful. 

BOY-BISHOP. In the Middle Ages it was a custom 
to elect one of the boys of the church or cathedral clJOir 
or of the grammar-school to act as boy-bishop from the 
fith of December (St. Nicholas' Day) to the 2Sth of 
December (Holy Innocents' Day). The custom was 
perhaps intended as a commemoration of Jesus' act in 
setting a child in the midst of his disciples as a pattern 
of humility (Matthew xviii. 2-6). The boy-bishop was 
allowed to wear the episcopal dress, and to have a number 
of attendants who wore the priestly dress. With the.se 
he performed ceremonies (except Mass) in the church, 
and, going from house to house, blessed the people. The 
custom was discontinued in England by Henry VIII. 
(1542), but was revived by Queen Mary (1554). It was 
abolishe<l, gradnailly, in the reign of Elizabeth. The 
Council of Basle condemned the practice (1431). 

BOYLE LECTURES. A Church of England course of 
Ijectures on Divinity founded by the Hon. Robert Boyle 
(1627-1091), one of the founders of the Royal Society. By 
his will he left £50 a year for eight sermons to be 
preached by " some preaching minister," the purpose of 
the lectures being to defend the Christian religion 
against notorious Infidels, Atheists, Deists, Pagans, Jews 
and Mohammedans. The lectureship may be held by the 
(ame preacher for three years. He must be " resident 
within the City of London or Circuit of Bills of 
Mortality," and deliver the lectures between Christmas 
and Midsummer of each year in some London Church. 
See the London Diocese Book. 

BRACHITAE. A branch of the Manichaeans (q.v.), 
which seems to have belonged to the end of the third 
century A.D. 

BRAGI. God of poetry in the religion of the ancient 
Teutons. Mention is made of Bragi's cup which every 
new Ising had to drain on ascending the throne of his 
father and by which he had to pledge himself. This 
Bnagi must, be distinguished from Bragi the Old or Bnagi 
Boddason who seems to have been a historical person of 
the ninth century. See P. D. Chantepie de La Saussaye. 

BRAHMA. The Indian deity from whom Brahmanism 
tAkes its name. Brahma is the Creator, but not 
in the sense of being the original source of everything. 
He is the ijersonal (mase.) manifestation of the one 
impersonal Essence or Being, Brahma (neuter). With 
him are associated, and often identified, Vishnu (q.v.) 
and Siva {g.v.). The two latter can, in fact, be wor- 
shipped as Brahma, since the functions of the three gods 
are interchangeable. This is thought to account for the 



fact that there are not many temples to Brahma him- 
self. There is a temple to him near Idar or Edar, and 
another at Pushkara, and a legend associates him with 
the temple at Kalighat near Calcutta, one of the 
shrines of Siva's wiife. Kali (Alexander Duff, India and 
Indian Missions. 1S.39, quoted by Oman). Brahma is 
said to have performed a sacrifice at Pushka«a which 
made the lal^e there sacred, so that to bathe in it is to 
be cleansed of all sin and to be made fit to enter 
Brahma's heaven. Monier-Williams describes a visit to 
the temple at Pushkara. He found the actual shrine 
of Brahma in the centre of a quadrangle. " In front 
of the entrance was the inevitable bell. I was allowed 
to look through the well-carved wooden gates at the 
image which was clearly visible in its sanctuary at the 
end of the vista of open columns. I observed that it had 
four black faces, each one of which was supposed to 
be directed towards one of the four quarters of the com- 
pass. In point of flaet, however, three of the faces 
were made to look at the observer, each face having two 
great staring glass eyes. Covering the four-faced head 
was a broad red turban, and over that were hanging 
five umbrella-shaped ornaments. I noticed that the 
image was dressed in red clothes with flaps of coloured 
cloth hanging round the waist. On one side of the god's 
image was that of his wife worshipped here as Gayatri 
or Savitrl, and behind both was the image of Kama- 
dhenu — the sacred cow granting all desires. On the 
maxble floor in front of the shrine was the carved repre- 
sentation of a tortoise — significant, no doubt, of Brahma's 
connection with Vishnu (p. 108), out of whose navel he 
is fabled to have sprung, seated on a lotus." See 
Monier-Williams; E. W. Hopkins; J. C. Oman, B. T.M.I. 

BRAHMACHARI. A name given to the young Brahman 
after he has obtained the right to wear the triple cord. 
He is invested with this cord at a special ceremony called 
the Upanayana. " It is well known that all Brahmins 
wear a thin cord, hung from the left shoulder and 
falling on to the right hip. It is composed of three 
strands of cotton, each strand formed by nine threads. 
The cotton with which it is made must be gathered from 
the plant by the hand of a pure Brahmin, and carded 
and spun by persons of the same caste, so as to avoid 
the possibility of its being defiled by passing through 
unclean hands. After a Brahmin is married his cord 
must have nine and not three strands " (Dubois and 
Beauchamp). 

BRAHMAMAHA. A sectarian festival among the 
early Hindus in honour of Brahma, a festival in which 
all the castes took part. It was a kind of harvest festival 
accompanied by athletic contests. See E. W. Hopkins. 

BRAHMANAS. Each of the four Vedas in Indian 
Literature, the Rig-Veda, the Sdma-Veda, the Yajur- 
Veda, and the Atharva-Veda, has three sub-divisions, 
the Samhitii, Brdhmana, and Siitra. The majority 
of the Brdhmanas were written before 480 B.C. 
They deal with prayer, ritual, dogma, sacrifice, and are 
much later than the Vedic hymns. " Their object is 
to connect the sacrificial songs and formulas with the 
.sacrificial rite, by iwinting out, on the one hand, their 
direct mutual relation; and, on the other, their sym- 
bolical connection with each other. In setting forth the 
former, they give the particular ritual in its details : in 
illustrating the latter, they are either directly explana- 
tory and analytic, dividing each formula into its con- 
stituent parts, or else they establish that connection 
dogmatically by the aid of tradition or speculation. We 
thus find in them the oldest rituals we have, the oldest 
linguistic explanations, the oldest traditional narratives, 
and the oldest philosophical speculations. This peculiar 
character is common generally to all works of this class, 



Brahma Samaj 



75 



Brasen Serpent 



yet they differ widely in details, according to their indi- 
vidual tendency, and according as they belong to this or 
that particular Veda " (A. Weber). Appended to the two 
Brahman as of the Rig- Veda is an Aran-yaka, a Forest- 
Book, and in the Forest-Book an Upaniahad (a-i')- See 
A. Weber, Hist, of Indian Lit. (2) 1878; B. W. Hopkins. 

BRAHMA SAMAJ. Literally " the Congregation of 
God," a modern theistic church founded at Calcutta in 
1828 by the Hindu reformer, Rammohun Roy (1772-1833). 
After the death of Rammohun Roy, hia successor, 
Debendranath Tagore (6. 1818), founded another church, 
" the Truth-teaching Society " (1839-1859), which was 
afterwards united with the Brahma Samaj. In 1844 
the latter was re-organised as the Adi Brahma Samaj, 
the First Congregation. The members of this took an 
oath, and were guided by a president and minister. A 
schism was nearly caused in the Church by a difference 
of opinion regarding the infallibility and authority of tlie 
Vedas. The movement, however, spread, and in 1850 
Samajas were in existence in other provinces. In 18.58 
Keshub Chunder Sen joined the Brahma Samaj, and 
soon began to advocate far-reaching reforms, such as the 
abolition of ca.srte, child-marriages, and polyandry. 
Failing in his purpose here, in 186G he founded a new 
church, the Brahma Samaj of India as distinguished 
from the Adi Samaj of Calcutta. In this church caste- 
restrictions and Brahmanism were abolished, but the 
religion was characterised by much emotionalism and 
ecstatic fervour. Sen, himself, though he denied that he 
made any claim to divine honours, came to receive divine 
honours. He certainly claimed to be divinely inspired, 
and assumed the power of a pope among his followers. 
His glory suffered an eclipse when jn 1877 his young 
daughter (10) was engaged to a boy-prince (IG). In 1880 
he proclaimed Christianity to be the only true religion; 
but the Christianity he had in mind was hardly that of 
the Christian Churches, for he afterwards professed to 
find the true religion in an amalgamation of Christianity, 
Hinduism, and Mohammedanism. In 1878 Sen's 
opponents started another new church or society, and 
now there are said to be many such congregations in 
India. Cp. ABYA SAMAJ, and see E. W. Hopkins: 
Monier-Williams; J. C. Oman, B.T.M.I.; and R. V. 

BRAHMANASPATI. Also called Brihaspati, one of the 
more recent of the Vedic gods, a personification of Prayer. 
In some texts he is identified with Agni or with Soma. 

BRAHMANS. The priestly caste of India. The caste 
seems to have originated in the bards, ministers and 
family priests attached to the king's household in Vedic 
times. " Gradually then from the household priests 
and those who made it their business to commit to 
memory and recite the sacred hymns and verses handed 
down orally from generation to generation through this 
agency, an occupational caste emerged, which arrogated 
to itself the monopoly of these functions, and the doc- 
trine developed that nobody could perform them who 
was not qualified by birth, that is, nobody could be a 
Brahman who was not the son of a Brahman " (Russell 
and Hira Liil). When the Sanskrit language ceased to 
be the language spoken by ordinary people, the Brah- 
mans alone held the key to the sacred l)ooks, and for 
a long time they enjoyed a monopoly of literacy and 
education. This made their intellectual, religious, and 
even administrative leadership secure. A change, how- 
ever is taking place now through the action of the British 
Government, which has made education available to all. 
It is no longer possible for a Brahman to learn all the 
Vedas and their commentaries. Hence the ordinary 
Bnihman devotes himself to one of the branches (or 
Shakhas) into which each Veda has been divided, and 



only to one Veda. This has given rise to a kind of 
sectarian division. In the Central Provinces most 
Brahmans are either Rlgvedis or Yajurvedis, who usually 
marry only followers of their own Veda. " Formerly 
the Brahman considered himself as a part of Brahma, 
and hence a god. This belief has decayed, but the gods 
are still held to reside in the body : Siva in the crown 
of the head, Vishnu in the chest, Brahma in the navel, 
Indra in the genitals and Ganesh in the rectum. Most 
Brahmans belong to a sect worshipping especially Siva 
or Vishnu, or Rama and Krishna, the incarnations of the 
latter god, or Sakti, the female principle of energy of 
Siva. But as a rule Brahmans, whether of the Sivite 
or Vishnuite sects, abstain from flesh meat and are 
averse to the killing of any living thing " (Russell and 
Hira Lai). See R. V. Russell, and cp. J. Dowson. 

BRAIDISM. A name given to the hypnotic system 
used by the Scotch surgeon James Braid. Braid proved 
that the hypnotic state can be brought upon oneself by 
staring at a shining object, and is not dependent upon 
external energies such as mesmerism (q.v.) or animal 
magnetism (q.v.). He made his patients stare at a 
shining object, and produced hypnotism in this way. 
Braid was the first writer who employed the terms 
" hypnotism " and " nervous sleep " in this science. See 
.J. Lapiwni, Hypnotism and Spiritism, 1907; H. Miinster- 
berg. Psychotherapy, 1909.. 

BRAN. The Gaelic Bron or British Brfln was one of 
tie deities revered by the ancient Celts in Britain. He 
is said to have been the son of Llyr (q.v.). He is repre- 
.sented as the king of the Underworld, and the patron of 
bards and minstrels, and as being of immense size. See 
Squire, Myth. 

BRANDING. The chiefs (a(5arj'as) of the two Hindu 
sects of Ramanuja make a periodical visit of their 
dioceses, and in every large town hold a kind of con- 
firmation. They confirm every child or young person 
who has been initiated by branding or stamping him as 
a true follower of Vishnu. " Boys may be branded at 
the age of seven or upwards; girls only after their mar- 
riage. A sacred fire is kindled, two golden instruments 
are heated, and the symbols of the wheel-shaped discus 
and conch-shell of Vishnu are impressed on the breast, 
arms, or other parts of the body." The same practice is 
observed by the M.idhva sect. " When I was at Tan- 
jore," says Monier-Williams, " I found that one of the 
successors of Madhva had recently arrived on hia 
branding visitation. He was engaged throughout the 
entire day in stamping his disciples and receiving fees 
from all according to their means." The worshippers 
of Siva are branded and stami)ed with the weapons and 
symbols of Siva (e.g., the trident and the linga). See 
Monier-Williams. 

BRASEN SEA. When Nebuchadrezzar, King of Baby- 
lon, sacked Jerusalem, his soldiers are said to have 
broken in pieces " the pillars of brass that were in the 
house of the Ix>rd, and the bases and the brasen sea that 
were in the hou.se of the Lord," and to have carried the 
brass to Babylon (2 Kings xxv. 13). The Brasen Sea 
was a laver. 

BRASEN SERPENT. An object of veneration among 
the ancient Hebrews. According to the story in the Old 
Testament (Numbers xxi.), when the people were bitten 
by fiery serpents in the wilderness, the Lord said unto 
Moses (vs. 8) : " Make thee a fiery serpent, and set 
it upon a standard ; and it shall come to pass, that every 
one that is bitten, when he seeth it, shall live." Moses 
did so, making the serpent of brass: "and it came to 
pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he 
looked unto the serpent of brass, he lived " (vs. 9). The 
idea of this story seems to be to account for the worship 



Breastplate of Judgment 



76 



Briginda 



of serpents by the Hebrews. The worship has, as a 
matter of f^ct, been widespread, and " in some form or 
other the serpent had been worshipped ages before in 
Egypt " (Samuel G. Smith, Religion in the Making, 1910). 
It has been looked upon with fear and awe, because, 
amongst other things, to use the words of Genesis (iii. 
1), the seri)ent is " more subtil than any beast of the 
field which the Lord God had made." When King 
Hezekiah proceeded to introduce extensive reforms, it is 
said that he " brake in pieces the brasen serpent that 
Moses had made, for unto those days the children of 
Israel did burn incense to it, and he called it a piece of 
brass " (2 Kings xviii. 4). 

BREASTPLATE OF JUDGMENT. In the Old Testa- 
ment the High Priest is said to have worn on the ephod 
a Breastplate (khoshen, Exodus xxviil. 4) or Breast- 
plate of Judgment (khOshen mishpdt, Exodus xxviii. 
15). This seems to have been a square kind of pocket 
fastened at each comer to the shoulder-straps of the 
ephod. The outer part was ornamented with precions 
stones. 

BREECHES BIBLE. A popular name for the English 
version of the Bible (1557-1560) brought from Geneva. It 
was so called because in one edition it is said in Genesis 
iii. 7 that Adam and Eve " sewed fig-tree leaves together 
and made themselves breeches." See BIBLE. 

BRETHREN OF CHELCIC. Peter of Chelcie was one 
of the spiritual descendants of John Hus (c. 1369-1415). 
He appeared in Bohemia some tinie after the final defeat 
and dispersion of the Taborites (g.v.), the extreme 
section of the Hussites, and by his pamphlets prepared 
the way for the foundation of the " Unitas Fratrum " 
(see BOHEMIAN BRETHREN). Peter of Chelcie 
described the Pope as Anti-Christ, attacked the morals of 
the priests in Bohemia, and contended that men could be 
saved solely by their own faith. Further, *' he inter- 
preted the Sermon on the Mount literally, denounced 
war as murder, opposed the union of Church and State, 
and objec-ted to oaths and litigation. He declared that 
Clhrist's example and law were guide sufficient for any 
man." See C. H. H. Wright and C. Neil, Prot. Diet., 
s.v. " Moravian Church." 

BRETHREN OP JESUS. Reference is made in the 
New Testament to " brethren of Jesus." In Mark iii. 
32 (Matthew xii. 47; Luke vlii. 20) it is said that mes- 
sengers came to Jesus and said : " Behold, thy mother 
and thy brethren without seek for thee." It is not abso- 
lutely necessary here to take brethren in its literal sense : 
" brethren " might mean kinsfolk. In Mark vi. 3, how- 
ever, when Jesus began to teach in the Synagogue, we 
are told that the people exclaimed : " Is not this the 
carpenter, the son of Mary, and brother of James, and 
Joses, and Judas, and Simon? and are not his sisters 
here with us? " In this case real brothers and sisters 
seem to be meant. Again in Galatians i. 19 the writer 
says : " Then after three years I went up to Jeru.salem 
to visit Cephas, and tarried with him fifteen days. But 
other of the apostles saw I none, save James the Lord's 
brother." In the interest of the perpetual virginity of 
Mary, the Mother of the Lord, it has been denied that 
the " brethren of Jesus " were literal brethren, and has 
been maintained that here the Greek adelpJioi stands for 
anepsioi, children of two brothers or two sisters. But 
the expression used of .lesus in Luke ii. 7. prototokon, 
" first-born," clearly denotes that Mary had other 
children after the birth of Jesus. 

BRETHREN OF MONTE SENARIO. Another name 
for the Servites (g.v.). 

BRETHREN OF PURITY. A Muhammadan secret 
order of the tenth century. The Brethren composed 
an encyelopsedla in fifty-one treatises which combined 



Aristotelian logic and physics with Neo-Platonic meta- 
physics and theology, and to which Jewish writers (such 
as Ibn Gabirol, Judah Halevi, Moses and Abraham Ibn 
Ezra) were much Indebted. See Isaac Husik. 

BRETHREN OP THE COMMON LIFE. A Dutch 
branch of the " Friends of God " {g.v.). 

BRETHREN OF THE CROSS. A body which arose 
in Thuringia in 1414 under the leadership of Conrad 
Schmidt, who regarded himself as a reincarnation of 
Enoch. Schmidt '• prophesied the downfall of Rome 
and the sacramental system, the imminent recognition 
by all mankind that salvation could only be attained by 
the whip. Joined by many of the vagrant Beghards, 
the united society suffered grievous persecution at the 
hands of Eylard Schoneveld and became nearly extinct " 
(P. W. Bussell). The Brethren lashed themselves in 
public twice a day, believing that the blood which they 
shed would mingle with the blood of the Saviour and 
wash away all sin. 

BRETHREN OF THE FREE SPIRIT. The name of 
a sect which was originally called Ortlibenses (g.v.). 
The name and tenets seem to have been suggested by 
Romans vlii., 2 and 14 : " For the law of tie Spirit 
of life in Christ Jesus hath made me free from the law 
of sin and death. . . . For as many as are led by 
the Spirit of God, they are the Sons of God." The 
Brethren claimed to be free from external ordinances 
and from the law of sin. 

BRIDE OF THE NILE. A truncated cone of earth 
called tie " bride " figures in a rite of irrigation per- 
formed at Cairo about the middle of August. The 
ceremony seems to be a charm to ensure a rich fer- 
tilisation of the land by water when the dam of earth 
across the canal of Cairo is cut. The " bride," set up 
in front of the dam at the river's side is washed down 
before the cutting of the dam. According to tradition, 
the bride was originally a young virgin who was thrown 
into the river as a sacrifice. Dr. Frazer thinks that 
the ceremony represents the marriage of the river as 
a male power to the comland as his bride. See J. G. 
Frazer, Adonis Attis Osiris, 1906; E. W. Lane, Modem 
Egyptians. 

BRIDGEWATER TREATISES. The Bridgewater 
Treatises " On the Power, Wisdom, and Goodness of 
God, as manifested in the Creation " were so called, 
because they were paid for from a fund left for the 
purpose by Francis Henry, Earl of Bridgewater, who 
died in 1829. Eight treatises were published, the authors 
being Thomas Chalmers, John Kidd, William Whewell, 
Charles Bell, Peter Mark Roget, William Buckland, 
William Kirby, and William Prout. 

BRIEF. A Papal Brief or Breve is a letter written 
in modem characters on thin white parchment and 
issued from the Court of Rome. It is subscribed by the 
Secretary of Briefs, stamped in red wax with the Pope's 
signet-ring which bears a figure of St. Peter hauling 
in his fishing-net, and dat«d " a die Nativitatis." Be- 
fore the date come the words " given at Rome at St. 
Peter's under the ring of the fisherman." 

BRIGANTIA. It api>ears from several inscriptions 
found in the North of England that Brigantia was a 
goddess worshipped by the ancient Celts. 

BRIGINDU. One of the goddesses worshipped by the 
ancient Celts. The name appears on an Inscription 
found at Volnay near Beaune in Gaul. C. Squire con- 
nects her with the Brigit who was worshipped in Ire- 
land as a kind of Minerva or Vesta. E. AJnwyl thinks 
that she is perhaps to be identified with a goddess 
Berecyntla, who is referred to by Gregory of Tours. 
The goddess mentioned by Gregory would seem to have 
been a corn-spirit, for we are told that her image was 



Brigit 



77 



Broad Church 



borne on a wagon to the fields and vineyards to protect 
them. See Anwjl, Celtic Rel., 1906; Squire, Myth. 

BRIGIT. A goddess worshipped by the Irish Celts 
as the patroness of knowledge. She seems to have been 
also a goddess of fertility. When the Irish Celts were 
converted to Christianity, Brigit was transformed into 
Saint Brigit. 

BRIGITTINES. An order founded in 1344 by St. 
Brigit (Brigitta) or Bridget (1302 or 1303—1373), a 
Roman Catholic saint, in Sweden. The community 
consisted of sixty nuns, thirteen priests, four deacons, 
and eight lay-brothers. It was thus a double establish- 
ment. The rule adopted was that of St. Austin. The 
order was called the Order of St. Salvator or the Order 
of the Saviour. It is also known as the Order of St.. 
Brigit. It is claimed that the constitutions were divinely 
revealed to her. In Sweden the community was sup- 
pressed in 1595. There was a Briglttine house, Sion 
Convent, near Brentford, which was restored by Queen 
Mary, but suppressed in the reign of Elizabeth. In 
1861 the convent of Sion House, Spettisbury, Dorset- 
shire, was founded by Brigittines from Portugal. In 
1887 it was transferred to Chudlelgh, Devonshire. A 
book which gives the confessions of St. Brigit, " Revela- 
tiones St. Brigittae " has been much read. See Cath. 
Diet.; Chambers' Encych 

BRITINIANS. The name of a colony of Augustinian 
monks settled at Britini, Ancona. 

BRITISH AND FOREIGN SCHOOL SOCIETY. 
Originally (1808) the Royal Lancasterian Society, 
founded in the interests of the Lancasterian System of 
Education (g.v.). 

BRITOMARTIS. Literally " sweet maid," a Cretan 
goddess. She was identified sometimes with Artemis 
(q.v.). A goddess of Nature, of birth, and of health, 
she was supposed to protect sailors, fishermen, and 
hunters. As a goddess of the sea, she was called 
Dictynna, apparently from the Greek word diktyon, " a 
net." According to legend, to escape the attentions of 
Minos, her suitor, she leapt into the sea, fell into some 
nets, and was made a goddess by Artemis. Seyffert 
thinks that " she would seem originally to have been 
a goddess of the moon, her flight symbolizing the 
revolution of the moon round the earth, and her leap 
into the sea its disappearance." See O. Seyffert, Diet. 

BRIZO. A goddess of Delos. worshipped particularly 
by women as one who protected mariners. Offerings 
were brought to her in small boats. 

BROAD CHURCH. A Liberal party in the Church 
of England. There have always been Churchmen who 
have adopted a broad or liberal attitude in matters of 
doctrine fcp LATITUDINARIANS). Dr. Rashdall is 
certainly right when he claims : " It may safely be said 
that there has been no period in the history of the 
Church of England up to the days of the Oxford Move- 
ment at which there have not been thousands of the 
clergy who could only justify their position in its ranks 
by taking in a verj- loose and liberal sense some part 
or side of the authorised formulae " (" Clerical 
Liberalism " in the work Anglican Liberalism, 1908). 
But the particular attitude characterised as Broad 
Church may be said to have found one of its first 
representatives in John Colet (14677-1519). Dean of St. 
Paul's (1504-1519), who was accused of heresy (1513-14) 
by Richard Fitz.iames (d. 1522), Bishop of London. In 
the seventeenth century the movement made great head- 
way. It ma.v be said to have been represented by such 
men as Jeremy Taylor (1613-1667), Bishop of Down and 
Connor, the famous author, whose writings include the 
"Liberty of Prophesying" (1646); John Hales (3584- 
1656), Fellow of Eton (1613-49) and Canon of Windsor, 



who wrote a tract, on " Schism and Schismaticks " 
(1642); William Chillingworth (1602-1644), who turned 
Roman Catholic for a time (1630), but afterwards re- 
pented (1G34) and wrote a book " The Religion of 
Protestants a safe Way of Salvation " (1638) ; Thomas 
Tenison (1636-1715), Archbishop of Canterbury, who was 
noted for his " moderation towards dissenters"; Ralph 
Cudworth (1617-1688), Regius Professor of Hebrew at 
Cambridge (1645-88), who wrote " The True Intellectual 
System of the Universe" (1678): and the Cambridge 
Platonists : John Tlllotson (1630-1694), Archbishop of 
Canterbury, who had to defend his orthodoxy in a 
course of lectures on the Socinian Controversy (1679- 
80); Edward Stillingfleet (1635-1699), Bishop of Wor- 
cester, who offered an olive-branch to the Presbyterians 
in his work " The Irenicum " (1059): John Hoadly (1678- 
1746), Archbishop of Armagh, one of whose friends was 
Thomas Chubb, the deist; and Gilbert Burnet (1643- 
1715), Bishop of Salisbury, who in 1699 published an 
" Exposition of the XXXIX Articles." Naturally the 
Broad Church attitude was well represented among the 
divines of the " rationalistic " eighteenth century. We 
may regard as members of the school such men as : 
Conyers Middleton (1683-1750), Fellow of Trinity Col- 
lege, Cambridge (1706), whose works on " Miracles " 
(1747 and 1748) caused a considerable stir; Arthur Ashley 
Sykes (16847-1756), who published in 1742 " A Brief 
Discourse concerning the Credibility of Miracles and 
Revelation"; Francis Blackburne (1705-1787), Prebend- 
ary of York, who wrote an " Apology for the Authors 
of the Free and Candid Disquisitions " : John Hey (1734- 
1815), Norrisian Professor of Divinity (1780-95) at 
Cambridge, whose " Divinity Lectures " (1796) are re- 
markable for their candour and freedom ; and Richard 
Watson (1737-1816), Bishop of Llandaff, who undertook 
to controvert Edward Gibbon (1776) and Thomas Paine 
(1796). The Broad Church attitude, however, has been 
identified more particularly with a school of theologians 
belonging to the nineteenth century who were influenced 
by a more scientific criticism of the Bible and by its 
representatives in Germany. In this school we may 
include : Sydney Smith (1771-184.5), Prebendar>- of St. 
Paul's, the famous author of the " Plymley Letters " 
(1807); Richard Whately (1787-18G3), Archbishop of 
Dublin, who chose as the subject of his Bampton 
Ivectures (1822) " Party Feeling in Matters of Reliaion "; 
Thomas Arnold (1795-1842), tie renowned Headmaster 
of Rugbv School, author of " Principles of Church 
Reform"" (1833); Julius Charles Hare (1795-18551, Arch- 
deacon of Lewes, who translated German works and 
defended Niebuhr and Luther; Henry Bristow Wilson 
(1803-1888), Vicar of Great Staughton, Huntingdonshire 
(1850-1S88). who was prosecuted for heterodoxy on ac- 
count of views expressed in a contribution to " Essays 
and Reviews" (1860); Frederick Denison Maurice (1805- 
18721, Professor at King's College, London, who was 
chareed with heterodoxy in 18,51, and in 1853, after the 
publication of his " Theological Essays," was requested 
bv the Council of Kind's College to resign; Mark Pat- 
tison (1813-1884). Rector of Lincoln College. Oxford 
(1861), who contributed an article to Essays and Re- 
views; John William Colenso (1814-188.3), Bishop of 
Natal, who was deposed and excommunicated in 1863 
by the Bishop of Cape Town on account of his critical 
works on the Pentateuch; Arthur Penrhyn Stanley 
(1815-1881), Dean of Westminster, who defended Bishop 
Hampden (1850), Bishop Colenso (1861). and the writers 
of " Essavs and Reviews " (1861) ; Frederick William 
Robertson (1816-1853), Vicar of Trinity Chapel, Brighton, 
whose liberal sermons have been widely read in Ger- 
many as well as in England; Rowland Williams (1817- 



Bross Foundation, The 



78 



Brothers and Sisters of Penance 



1870), Professor of Hebrew at St. David's College, 
Lampeter (1850-62), who was prosecuted for heterodoxy 
on account of views expressed In a contribution to 
"Essays and Reviews" (1860); Benjamin Jowett (1817- 
1893), Master of Balliol College, Oxford (1870-93), who 
contributed an essay on the " Interpretation of Scrip- 
ture " to "Essays and Reviews" (1860); Charles 
Kingsley (1819-1875), Canon of Westminster, the dis- 
tinguished author; and Edwin Hatch (1835-1889), who 
chose as the subject of his Hlbbert Lectures (1888) 
" Greek Influence on Christianity." See John Hunt; 
Leslie Stephen, Hist, of English Thought in the 
Eighteenth Gentury; A. I. Fitzroy, Dogma and the 
Church of England, 1891; Anqlican Liberalism by Twelve 
Churchmen, 1908; the D.N.B. 

BROSS FOUNDATION, THE. In 1879 William Bross, 
who was Lieutenant-Governor of Illinois from 1866 to 
1870, transferred to the " Trustees of Lake Forest 
University " the sum of forty thousand dollars to found 
a memorial to his son Nathaniel Bross (d. 1856). When 
the income accumulated it was to be devoted to the 
purpose of stimulating the best books or treatises " on 
the connection, relation and mutual bearing of any 
practical science, the history of our race, or the facts 
in any department of knowIe<lge, with and upon the 
Christian Religion." The donor wished " to call out 
the best efiforts of the highest talent and the ripest 
scholarship of the world to illustrate from science, or 
from any department of knowledge, and to demonstrate 
the divine origin and the authority of the Christian 
Scriptures; and, further, to show how both science and 
revelation coincide and )irove the existence, the provid- 
ence, or any or all of the attributes of the only living 
and true God, ' infinite, eternal and unchangeable in His 
being, wisdom, power, holine.ss, justice, goodness, and 
truth.' " In 1900 the Trustees began to carry out the 
provisions of the trust. They decided to purchase and 
publish a series of books under the general title " The 
Bross Library." The first volume in this series was 
the " Evidences of Christianity " by William Bross's 
" verj' dear friend and teacher, Mark Hopkins, D.D." 
A prize, open to " the scientific ccen, the Christian 
philosophers and historians of all nations," was offered 
in 1902, and was awarded in 1905 to James Orr, D.D., 
Professor of Apologetics and Systematic Theology in 
the United Free Church College, Glasgow. His treatise, 
" The Problem of the Old Testament " (1906) was 
Volume III. of the " Bross Library." The Trustees 
have also invited eminent scholars to deliver courses of 
lectures before Lake Forest College. The first course, 
on " Obligatory Morality," was given in 1903 by Francis 
Landey Patton, D.D., LL.D., President of Princeton 
Theological Seminary. The second course, on " The 
Bible : Its Origin and Nature," was given in 1904 by 
Marcus Dods, D.D., Professor of Exegetical Theology 
in New College, Edinburgh. The third course, on " The 
Bible of Nature," was given in 1907 by Mr. J. Arthur 
Thomson, M.A., Regius Professor of Natural History in 
the University of Aberdeen. 

BROTHERHOOD OF AS- SANUSI. An Arabian re- 
ligious movement founded by Muhammad ibn All as- 
Sanusi in 1837. The Brotherhood is an order of Der- 
vishes of a puritanical and reforming character. Its 
principles are strictly monotheistic. The original home 
of the order was at Jarabub in the eastern Sahara, 
but houses have been established throughout North 
Africa and Morocco. The head of the order, who re- 
sides in the African desert, claims that he is the Mahdi. 
See D. B. Macdonald, Development. 

BROTHERHOOD OP ST. ANDREW, THE. A Church 
of England Brotherhood for laymen of all classes. "The 



rules binding on members are two : (1) The Rule of 
Prayer, to pray daily for the spread of Christ's King- 
dom among men, especially young men, and for God's 
blessing upon the labours of the Brotherhood; (2) the 
Rule of Service, to make at least one earnest effort 
each week to lead some man nearer to Christ through 
His Church." There is a Junior Department attached 
to the Brotherhood. See the Official Year-Book of the 
Church of England. 

BROTHERHOOD OF THE KOSMON DAWN. A 
religious brotherhood founded in 1918 by members of 
the so-called ICaithist Churches as nearly as possible 
on the lines Indicated in their sacred book, the Kosmon 
Bible Oahspe. The home of the Brotherhood, for the 
time being, is at " Rock," Crown Hill, South Devon. 
The objects are : (a) to found the Father's Kingdom 
on Earth through orphan babes, castaway infants, and 
foundlings under 3 years of age; (ft) to provide a new 
way of living, and opportunities for a higher and holier 
development, whilst living upon and cultivating the 
land, thus providing for the spiritual as well as the 
corporeal man. All members work, sleep, and dine in 
the open as much as possible, and lead a simple life. 
In accordance with the teaching of the book Oahspe 
as to the desirability of purity and health, the children 
are encouraged to take sun, light and air batlis. Vege- 
tarianism is practised, as well as non-resistanoe to 
persecution and abuse. One of the conditions of life 
for the brethren is that " they shall abjure war, even, 
if necessary, by submitting to death rather than take 
part therein." See further Kosmon Ray, No. 1, 1919. 

BROTHERHOODS, MODERN ANGLICAN. There 
are three well-known Brotherhoods. (1) " The Com- 
munity of the Resurrection." This was founded at 
Pusey House, Oxford, in 1892. Since 1898 its centre 
has been the House of the Resurrection, Mirfield, to 
which was added in 1903 a College for training CJan- 
didates for the ministrj-. The Community itself con- 
sists of celibate Clergy who live under a Rule and 
share a common purse. " Each priest who joins the 
Community does so after a period of probation, and 
with the intention of remaining permanently in it, and 
is bound to it by simple vows." (2) " Society of St. 
John the Evangelist." This is a Society of Mission 
Priests of St. John the Evangelist who are commonly 
called the Cowley Fathers (Cowley St. John, Oxford). 
It was founded in 1865 by the Rev. R. M. Benson " for 
the cultivation of a life dedicated to God according to 
the principles of Poverty, Chastity, and Obedience, and 
is engaged in works both Missionary and Educational, 
at home and abroad, for the advancement of the King- 
dom of Christ. Lay Brothers are united with the 
Clergy in Dedication to the Religious Life, who assist 
so far as they can in the works of the Society." (3) 
" Society of the Sacred Mission," Kelham, Newark-on- 
Trent. This is " an association of men bound together 
for the ser\-ice of the Church." Its objects are : " 1. 
By its rule and discipline to maintain the spirit of 
devotion and self-forgetfulness in the members; 2. To 
render such devotion effective by an organisation which 
allows of the concentration of many gifts upon a com- 
mon plan." The House of the Sacred Mission is a 
recognised Theological College. See the Official Year- 
Boole of the Church of England. 

BROTHERS. In theosophy (g.v.) those who possess 
the Secret Wisdom form a great Brotherhood and are 
called Brothers. They are also called Adepts, Masters, 
Mahatmas (g.v.). 

BROTHERS AND SISTERS OF PENANCE. The 
third Franciscan order, otherwise called Tertlaries 
(g.v.). 



Brothers and Sisters of St. Alexins 



79 



Buchanites 



BROTHERS AND SISTERS OF ST. ALEXIUS. A 
more correct designation of the fraternity commonly 
known as Lullards (g.v.). 

BROTHERS OF THE HOSPITAL OF ST. JOHN 
THE BAPTIST. Another name for the Knights of the 
Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. See HOSPITAL- 
LERS. 

BROTHERS OF VICTORY. A name by which the 
Minims (q.r.) were known in Spain. 

BROWNIE. A kind of domestic fairy. Early refer- 
ences are found to it in Scotch writers. The brownie 
was supposed to visit houses and to help in the domestic 
work. It was " a very obliging spirit, who used to 
come into houses by night, and for a dish of cream to 
perform lustily any piece of work that might remain to 
be done : sometimes he would work, and sometimes eat 
till he bursted : if old clothes were laid for him, he 
took them in great distress, and never more returned " 
(Pinkerton quoted in Brand). Offerings of various kinds 
were made to the si)irit. See Brand's Popular Antiquities 
of Great Britain, ed. W. C. Hazlitt, 1905. The Brownie 
corresponds to the German Kobold (Kabouter). " The 
Kobold, as a rule, likes to lend a helping hand in the field 
and stable: he feeds the cattle and threshes the grain, 
fetches water, and performs all manner of domestic 
duties. At the same time he is also capable of teasing, 
but, as a rule, only those who have deser^'ed punish- 
men " (de La Saussaye). See P. D. Chantepie de La 
Saussaye, Rel. of the Teutons, 1902. 

BROWNISTS. The forerunners in England of the 
Independents or Congregationalists, followers of Robert 
Browne (1550?-lfi33). After graduating at Corpus Christi 
College, Cambridge, Browne seems to have been or- 
dained about 1573. After this he became Master of the 
Free School of St. Olave's, Southwark. At the same 
time he preached in the open air at Islington without 
a licence from the bishop. About the year 1578, preach- 
ing at Cambridge and in the neighbouring villages, he 
began to attack the parochial system, and to denounce 
ordination by bishops or by the presbytery. His brother 
obtained him a licence to preach from the Bishop of 
Ely, but he destroyed it. For this he was inhibited. 
He proceeded to Nom^ich about the year 15S0, and 
formed an independent congregation, " the church," 
there, his assistant being Robert Harrison (d. 1.585?). 
In 1581 the Bishop of Norwich was induced to take 
action against him, and he was imprisoned for " de- 
livering unto the people corrupt and contentious doc- 
trine." But through the influence of Cecil, Lord Bur- 
leigh, he was released. He then left England with his 
followers and settled at Middleburg in Holland. Here 
he wrote and issued books, which in England were not 
allowed to be circulated. One of these, published in 
1582. was " A book which sheweth the life and manners 
of all true Christians, and how unlike they are to 
Turks and Papists and Heathen folk. Also, the points 
and parts of all Divinity, that is of the revealed will 
and word of God, are declared by their several defini- 
tions and divisions." In 1583 he quarrelled with Robert 
Harrison, and in 1584 he left Holland for Scotland. 
Having spent a few days in prison there, he returned 
to England. In England he was again imprisoned. His 
next field of action was Northampton where we find 
him preaching in 1586. In the same year he was ex- 
communicated by the Bishop of Peterborough. After 
this he " submitted himself to the order and govern- 
ment of the Church." Thereupon he was made master 
of Stamford Grammar-school. From 1591 to 16.31 he was 
Rector of Thorpe-Achurch in Northamptonshire. Before 
his death he was again imprisoned, this time for as- 
saulting a constable. He died in Northampton gaol 



about the year 1633. Henry Barrow or Barrowe (d. 
1593) succeeded Browne as leader of the Brownists. In 
consequence they became known also as " Barrowists." 
He was a Cambridge graduate and a barrister of Gray's 
Inn. In his advocacy of Brownist principles he was 
assisted by John Greenwood (d. 1593), a young clergy- 
man. In 1586 they were both summoned to api)ear for 
examination before the Court of High Commission. 
From this examination it was clear that Barrow set 
himself in uncompromising opposition to the ecclesias- 
tical government. He was, moreover, bitterly opposed 
to the use of fixed prayers and the taking of an oath. 
Greenwood's principles were found to agree closely with 
tho.se of Barrow. They published an account of their 
examination and other works, and paid the penalty by 
going to prison. Subsequently (1593) they were hanged 
at Tyburn " for writing and publishing sundry seditious 
books and pamphlets, tending to the slander of the 
Queen and Government." In the same year another 
Brownist, John Penry (1559-1593), who wrote pamphlets 
under the pseudonym " Martin Mar-Prelate," was 
hanged in Southwark on the charge of exciting to re- 
bellion. Henry Barrow was succeeded by Francis 
Johnson (1562-1618), who had been a Fellow of Christ's 
College, Cambridge, but was expelled in 1.589 for preach- 
ing a '• seditious " sermon. He went to Middleburg In 
Holland and was preacher to the English merchants 
there from 1589 to 1592. In 1592 he formed an inde- 
pendent church in London. In 1596, after being im- 
prisoned several times, he went to Amsterdam, where 
he acted as Independent pastor and published works 
explaining Independent principles. Henry Jacob (1563- 
1624), precentor of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, 
joined the Brownists in Holland in 1593. In 1598, after 
a return to England, he was again in Holland, and in 
1.599 he entered into a controversy with Francis John- 
son. He seems to have been convinced by a pamphlet 
which Johnson wrote the next year. Later on Jacob 
was associated with John Robinson (1576-1625), who 
emigrated to Amsterdam in 1608. In 1016, having re- 
turned to England, he established in Southwark " the 
first Independent or Congregational Church in Eng- 
land." Jacob regarded each congregation as " an en- 
tire and independent body-politic, endued with power 
immediately under, and from, Christ, as every proper 
Church is and ought to be " (Declaration and Plainer 
Opening of Certain Points, 1611). In 1622 he emigrated 
to Virginia. Returning to London, he died there in 
1624. He was succeeded in London by John I.athrop, 
Lothrop, or Lothropp (d. 1653), who emigrated to Boston 
in 1634. See John Hunt: D. Neal, History of the 
Puritans. 1732-1738: J. H. Blunt; the D.A'.B. 

BRUGGLENIANS. The followers of two brothers, 
Christian and Jerome Rohler, belonging to the Swiss 
canton of P.rugglen. They gave out (A.D. 1746) that 
they were the two witnesses referred to In the Book 
of Revelation (Rev. XI. 3 ff.). Christian Rohler said 
he would ascend to heaven on a certain day and take 
his followers with him. The two brothers were executed 
in 1753. 

BRUGPA SECT. A sect among the Tibetan Budd- 
hists. Brugpa is another form of Dugpa. See DDGPA 
SECT. 

BRTiSIANS. The followers of Peter de Bruys, a 
religious sect of the twelfth century. 

BRYANITES. A sect of the Methodists. 

BUCHANITES. The followers of a Scotch lady, Mrs. 
Elspeth Buchan (1738-1791). She was the daughter of 
an innkeeper, John Simpson, near Bannf. Originally 
an Episcopalian, about 1760 she married a potter, Robert 



Buddhasasana Samagama 



SO 



Buddhism 



Buchan, and adopted his religion, that of the Bnrgher 
Secession. She separated from him in 1781. Shortly 
l)efore this she began to prophesy the speedy coming 
of the millennium and promised that those who became 
her disciples would not die, but would witness the 
Second Coming of the Lord and with Him possess the 
earth for a thousand years. In 1783 Hugh White, 
minister of the Relief Church at Irvine, was persuaded 
that she was inspired. He became a follower, and his 
presbytery deposed him. Other followers joined them. 
They lived together, having renounced mai-riage and the 
ordinary duties of life, and awaited the Second Coming. 
In 1784, being expelled from Irvine, they moved into 
a farmhouse in Closebum near Thornhill, Dumfries- 
shire. There were forty-six members of the com- 
munity. They were supported mainly by the contribu- 
tions of the wealthier disciples. In 17SC some of her 
followers left her and complained of trickery and ex- 
tortion. Mrs. Buchan died in 1791, declaring on her 
death-bed that she was the Blessed Virgin and the 
woman referred to in the Book of Revelation (xii.). See 
Joseph Train, The Buchanites from First to Last, 1846; 
J. H. Blunt: the D.N.B. 

BUDDHASASANA SAMAGAMA. A modem reform 
party among the Buddhists. The movement originated 
in Burma in 1902, and was reorganized in 1903. The 
leader now is a European, Mr. Allan B. MacGregor, 
who was formerly a Roman Catholic. The aim of the 
society is to bring Buddhism " into close contact with 
Europe and its culture, for the needs of which this 
religion is held to be all-sufficing." There is a branch 
of the society in Ceylon. Here the members " have 
built a preaching-hall, in which on Sunday ( !) evening 
there is usually a Singhalese sermon on Buddhist ques- 
tions, at which the audience — mostly attired in European 
clothes — sit on benches as in a Christian church, the 
monk preaching from a kind of platform. They do not 
sing, but a creed is recited in unison at the close. In 
the background of the hall— somewhat in the position 
of a Christian altar— is a statue of the Buddha." See 
H. Hackmann. 

BUDDBLAVAMSA. A Buddhist sacred book included 
in the collection appended to the second division of the 
Canon. See CANON, BUDDHIST. 

BUDDHI. A term used in Theosophy (q.v.). It is 
the name given to the Spiritual Soul in man, which is 
the vehicle of the Spirit or Atma (g.v.). 

BUDDHISM. The religion founded by Gautama, 
afterwards called the Buddha, who seems to have l)e€n 
born about 567 B.C. Gauta-ma's father was Suddhodana. 
a prince of the royal family of the Sfikyas, a Rajput 
clan, which lived and ruled in the valley of the Ganges 
about 130 miles N. of Benares. The son was bom under 
some tall trees in the Lambini Grove by the town of 
Kapilavastu, and lost his mother Mfiya or Mahfi- 
Maya a week later. When he grew up he married his 
cousin, the daughter of the raja of Koli. At the age 
of twenty-nine, soon after the birth of a son, he was 
impelled to renounce the world in order to devote him- 
self to the study of religion. Before doing so he visited 
his wife and child as they lay asleep and took a last 
look at them. This parting is called by Buddhists the 
" Great Renunciation." According to legend it was 
accompanied, like his birth, by miraculous signs. Mara, 
the prince of evil, tried to turn him back, but without 
success. He went first to the kingdom of Magadha on 
the south of the Ganges, where he studied the philosophy 
of the Brahmans. Then, in company with five ascetics, 
he withdrew into the jungle and entered upon a course 
of austerities, which lasted six years. This period is 
called the " Great Struggle." At the end of it he 



abandoned the practice of austerities, and was aban- 
doned by the five ascetics. Having bathed and eaten, 
he sat down under a banyan tree, and suffered again 
the onslaught of Mara. Mara was again defeated, and 
new light came to Gautama. From being a Bodhisattva. 
one who was destined to attain supreme wisdom, he 
became a Buddha or "enlightened one"; and the tree 
came to be known as the Bo-tree or " tree of enlighten- 
ment." The five ascetics had gone to Benares. Thither 
Gautama went, sought them out, converted them, and 
admitted them to the order of monks which he estab- 
lished. After thus " setting in motion the wheel of the 
law," the Masfer went about from place to place preach- 
ing. He also sent forth many disciples as missionaries. 
According to tradition, he was eighty years old when 
he died. Immediately after his death a Council is said 
to have been held at Rajagriha which established a 
fixed and authorised version of the sayings of the 
Master. The Vinaya and the Dharma were rehearsed, 
but no mention is made of the Abhidharma, the third 
division of the Buddhist Canon. About a hundred years 
later a second Council was held at Vaisali to consider 
certain relaxations asked for by a section of the Budd- 
hist monks. When these relaxations (or ten indulgences) 
were rejected by the Council, a schism took place. After 
atiout another century a third is said to have heeu 
held at Piitaliputra or Patna under the presidency of 
king Asoka (d. about 230 B.C.), which condemned all 
innovations and heresies. Asoka's work was of such 
importance that he has been c-alled the " Buddhist 
Constantine." In some ways he did much more for 
Buddhism than Constantine is supposed to have done 
for Christianity. " Until his reign Buddhism was ap- 
parently confined to a comparatively restricted area in 
and about Magadha, and was perhaps little more than 
one of many sects of an all-embracing Hinduism. He 
gave it predominant influence and prestige. And by 
his zealous missionary endeavours, his direct Inculcation 
of its principles, and by the example of his own life 
and practice, won respect and adherence to Buddhist 
teaching not only throughout the Indian i)enlnsula from 
the north almost to the extreme south, but beyond its 
borders. As far as the available evidence enables us 
to form a judgement, it was Asoka who raised Buddhism 
from a narrow local sectarian faith to the position of 
a world-wide religion " (A. S. Geden, Studies). The 
tlioughts and teachings of Asoka have been preserved 
in numerous edicts which he caused to be engraved on 
rocks and pillars throughout his empire. From these 
edicts it appears that he enjoined kindness and gentle- 
ness to animals as well as men, and toleration of other 
religions; that he appointed overseers or censors of 
public morals: and that he established hospitals for the 
care of men and animals. About three hundred years 
after the third Council, a fourth Buddhist Council met 
under the Indo-Seythian king Kanishka, who did for 
Northern what Asoka had done for Southern Buddhism. 
The purpose seems to have been to compose differences 
of opinion and to lay down rules for future guidance. 
Buddhism was introduced into Ceylon as the result of 
a mission sent there by Asoka. It has flourished in 
Ceylon with particular vigour. Indeed, the famous 
Buddhist monk and commentator P.uddhaghosa, who 
lived tliere in the fifth century A.D., has been called 
the .second founder of Buddhism. From Ceylon Buddh- 
ism spread to Burma, and then to the Malay peninsula, 
to Sumatra and Java, and to other islands of the Eastern 
Archipelago. In Kashmir and Nepal it appeared at an 
early date. It was carried to China in 62 A.D., and 
thence to Korea in 372 A.D., and to Japan in 552 A.D. 
It reached Tibet during the years 638-40 A.D., probably 



Buddhism 



81 



Bulgarians 



by way of Nepal. Here it was developed about a century 
later by the Indian monk and saint Padma-Sambhava, 
the founder of Liimaism. At about the close of the 
sixteenth century Tibetan Lamaism seems to have been 
introduced into Mongolia. From the sixth century 
Buddhism steadily declined in the land of its origin, 
and at the opening of the nineteenth century, although 
it was still supreme on the Himalayas, in Burma and 
in Ceylon, it had practically disappeared from India 
proper. It is said to have at the present time about 
500,000.000 adherents in the world, and thus to be the 
religion of about one-third of the human race. The first 
and fundamental truth that the Buddha proclaimed 
was that existence it.self is an evil, a source of pain 
and unhappiness. The desire for continuance of exist- 
ence baa, like other desires, to be suppressed. The 
second fundamental truth is an attempt to explain the 
origin of evil. Human life is linked to its beginnings 
by a chain of cause and effect. The first link of causa- 
tion and the primary root of all evil is ignorance. With 
knowledge of the truth, false notions disappear. The 
formula known as the Buddhist confession of faith, 
though independent, gives expression to a thought simi- 
lar to that of the Chain of Causation. To get rid of 
the evils of life, the causes of life itself must be sup- 
pressed or destroyed. The Buddha denied the existence 
of a soul In the sense of an individual and i)ersonal 
identity. There are five groups of elements (skandhas). 
These, when a person is bom, unite together In various 
proportions (hence differences in character, disposition, 
etc) to form the living sentient creature; and when he 
dies, they are dissolved again and perish. Apart from 
them no existence is possible. " The great aim of 
Buddhist teaching therefore is to show by what means 
the reoonstitution of the skandhas may be prevented, 
and thus release obtained from existence with its weari- 
ness and sorrow " (Geden). When at death the skandhas 
are reconstituted and recomblned a new individual arises 
in this or in some other world, and the link between 
the old and new existences is what is called karma or 
action. It is karma, and not the individual, that lives 
on. In the new existence (except for the Buddhas), the 
memory of the events of previous lives is lost, but penalty 
is paid for wrong-doing or reward is received for good 
deeds In a previous existence. This Is what is meant 
by re-birth in Buddhism. The great aim of Buddhism 
is to break the chain of karma, and to extricate oneself 
from the mechanical round of re-births. To do this 
and to enter into the rest which is called Nirvana, one 
must become enlightened by treading in the Noble Bight- 
fold Path. Nirvana is explained by E. Lehmann in 
Chantepie de la Saussaye's Lehriuch. " The Nirvana is 
the condition in which the suffering life's endless re- 
incarnations are abolished. It is declared to involve 
the extinction of Desire and of Cognition; and though 
we are not told that it also includes the extinction of 
Life, such an extinction would be in the logical conse- 
quence of Buddhism, since the evil from which man 
is to save himself, namely, suffering, consists precisely 
in existence." But " the Nirvana can only be defined 
n^atively : not Desire, and not Consciousness, not Life, 
yet also not Death. Only this can be said positively 
concerning it, — that it is the condition in which the 
soul is freed from transmigration; only from the point 
of view of the endless births, with their life and death 
and death and life, is it possible to attach any con- 
ception whatsoever to the term Nirvana " (quoted by 
F. von Hfigel). The two chief schools of thought and 
practice in Buddhism are called the Mahayana or the 
" Great Vehicle " and the HTnayana or the " Little 
Vehicle." They are also described, rather inexactly, as 



Northern Buddhism and Southern Buddhism. " The 
Mahdi/ana system taught a kind of speculative theism, 
with which were united especially in Tibet elements of 
mysticism and fable, derived in large part from the 
ancient popular religions of the country. This system 
was moreover tolerant, gentler and more human than 
its rival, the Hinayana ; and permitted greater freedom 
to the individnal, both in action and belief, than did 
the simpler agnosticism and stem but unattractive 
morality which claimed to represent primitive Budd- 
hism " (Geden). The Mahayana is often ascribed to 
Nagarjuna, the thirteenth or fourteenth in succession of 
the Buddhist patriarchs. He is said also to have taught 
a " middle way " between the doctrines of the reality 
and of the deceptiveness of existence (the Middle 
Vehicle). This system is known in Tibet as the 
Madhyamayana. In Tibet the religion of the Buddha 
has been changed and modified by nature and devil 
worship; and the ritual, with its altars, processions, 
and incense resembles strikingly that of the Roman 
Catholic and Greek Churches. Buddhism in fact pre- 
sents various types. " The Buddhism of Nepal and 
Tibet differs from the Buddhism of Ceylon as much as 
the Christianity of Rome or of Moscow differs from that 
of Scotland or Wales. The Buddhism of Mongolia and 
China is far removed from either of these, and the 
Buddhism of Japan has peculiarities all its own " (T. 
W. Rhys Davids, Hibhert Lectures, 1881). An interest- 
ing problem is raised by the resemblance of some of 
the stories and parables which were in course of time 
attributed to Gautama and incorporated in the Buddhist 
scriptures, to passages in the New Testament Gospels. 
It has been maintained by some that Christianity bor- 
rowed from Buddhism, and by others that Buddhism 
borrowed from Christianity. " Albert J. Edmunds and 
Garbe earnestly advocate the indebtedness of Christ- 
ianity to Buddhism. Such borrowing has not yet been 
fully proved, though shown to have been possible " (G. 
A. Barton. Religions of the World, 191"). See, in addi- 
tion to works already mentioned : W. Bousset, H. Hack- 
mann, Arthur Lloyd, P. W. Bussell. 

BUDDHIST SACRED WRITINGS. See CANON, 
BUDDHIST. 

BUDDHIST SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN AND 
IRELAND. A Society founded in London in 1907. Its 
aim is to promote a better knowledge of Buddhism and 
to encourage the study of Pali and Sanskrit literature. 

BUDNAEANS. The followers of Simon Budna'aus. 
They were drawn from the Antitrinitarians of Poland 
and Transylvania soon after 156.5. In 1584 Simon 
Eudn,T?us and his followers were excommunicated. They 
would not accept the doctrine of Jesus' miraculous birth. 

BUFFALO, SACRED. The buffalo is worshipped by 
the Todas of South India as affording the main source 
of subsistence. They eat the male only once a year. 
A young bull calf is killed with special ceremonies by 
all the grown-up males of the village, and roasted by 
a sacred fire. " There is good reason for believing the 
Todas' assertion that they have never at any time eaten 
the flesh of the female buffalo " (Marshall. Travels 
among the Todas, 1873, quoted by W'. R. Smith). At 
a funeral, when they kill a buffalo, the men. women, 
and children bewail its death. See W. R. Smith, R.8. 

BUG BIBLE, THE. A popular designation of Mat- 
thew's Bible (1551). It was so called because in Psalm 
xci., 5, the passage, "Thou shalt not be afraid of the 
terror by night," is rendered " Thou shalt not be afraid 
of the bugges by night." 

BULGARIANS. A name for the Catharists or Al- 
bigenses of mediseval times. They seem to have been 
so called because they came from, or were connected 



Bulla 



83 



Burnett Lectures 



with, Bulgaria. Other forma of the name are: Bnlgri, 
Bogri, Boulgares, Boulgres. 

BULLA. An ornament worn by free-bom Roman 
children. It was a round or heart-shaped box with an 
amulet inside it. In the case of patricians it might be 
golden, in tiat of poor families it was of leather. Boys 
discarded it when they were privileged to wear the toga 
virllis. Adults, however, occasionally wore it as a 
protection against the evil eye. See O. Seyffert, Diet. 

BULL-ROARER. A convenient description of a sacred 
instrument, a kind of rattle (Australian titmdun) used 
in religious mysteries in New Mexico, Australia, Africa, 
and even in ancient Greece. F. Gushing {Adoentures 
in Zuni) describes its sound as " a deep whirring noise." 
The Kurnai of Australia make boys listen to the din 
of the bull-roarer when they go through their mystic 
ceremony of initiation. The American Indians of Zuni 
use it to summon men to the mysteries. In South 
Africa it has also, besides this use, magic power to 
raise a wind. It is noteworthy that among the Aus- 
tralian Kurnai women are strictly forbidden to look 
upon the turndun. As Spencer and Gillen have shown, 
the same prohibition extends to the chnringa, a similar 
instrument with the same ritual significance, employed 
by the tribes of Central Australia. An identical instru- 
ment, it should be added, was used by palieollthic man 
in Euroije. The identification with the Greek kiuvos 
(ep. p6/il3oq) is due to Andrew Lang. He notes that an 
ancient scholiast on Clemens of Alexandria writes : 
'■ the Kujvos is a little piece of wood, to which a string 
is fastened, and in the mysteries it was whirled round 
to make a roaring noise." The bull-roarer has survived 
as a toy; and in Scotland also as a thunder-spell. 

BUNENE. One of the deities in Babylonian-Assyrian 
religion. In the great temple E-babbara at Sippar in 
the time of Nabubaliddin (c. 850 B.C.) Shamash, Malik, 
and Bunene form a triad. In a design added to the 
inscription of Nabubaliddin the two deities Malik and 
Bunene seem to be represented as attendants on the 
sun-god, " who drive the fiery chariot that symbolized 
the great orb." Bunene, though a male deity, l)ecomes 
in time the consort of Malik. See Morris Jastrow, Rel. 

BUPHONIA. This was in Athens another name for 
the Diipolia, a festival at which a bull was sacri- 
ficed. The term means " ox-murder." Robertson Smith 
points out (U.S.) that originally the term was a general 
one for the slaying of oxen for sacrificial feasts. 

BCRA PENNU. Among the Khonds of Orissa, Bura 
Pennu or Bella Pennu is the supreme creative deity, the 
Light-god or Sun-god. He is the good deity to whom is 
opposed as the deity of evil his consort Tari Pennu the 
Earth-goddess. Biira Pennu created the world a happy 
Paradise. Tari Pennu rebelled and introduced disease, 
poison, and every kind of disorder. The Khonds are 
divided into two sects. The Bura sect believe that 
Bura prevaile<i in the conflict; the Tari sect hold that 
the battle still continues. See E. B. Tylor, P.O. 

BURDA. The Arabic word for " mantle." Moham- 
med presented his own biirda to the poet Ka'b ibn 
Zuhair in recognition of some flattering verses which 
he had written. The poet showed his gratitude by 
writing another poem known as " BSnat Su'ad " from 
its opening words. In imitation of this panegyric, a 
later poet, Sharaf al-din Muhammad al-BOstrJ (A.D. 
1211-1294) wrote another famous ode to the Prophet's 
mantle called " Qasldat al-Burda," which has been 
translated Into French, German, and English. See 
Clement Huart, Hist, of Arabic Literature, 1903. 

BURDEN. Sometimes in the Old Testament this 
word stands at the head of prophecies CIsalah xiii. 1, 
sv. 1, xix 1, xxi. 1, etc.). In such cases the Hebrew 



word is massd from a root meaning " to lift up " (In 
this connection " tJie voice "), and the correct transla- 
tion is " oracle " (so margin of the Revised Version, 
2 Kings ix. 25). 

BURGHERS. A name taken by one of the divisions 
into which the Associate Synod or Secession Church of 
Scotland split up in 1747. The division was due to 
difference of opinion regarding the religious clause of 
the burgess-oath which burgesses were required to take 
in certain corporate towns. This clause read : "I iiro- 
fess and allow with all my heart the true religion 
presently professed within this realm, and authorized 
by the the laws thereof; I shall abide at and defend 
the same to my life's end, renouncing the Roman re- 
ligion called Papistry." The Burghers were not pre- 
pared to refuse to tak"e this oath. The other division, 
however, the Anti-burghers, refused to do so. In course 
of time other divisions took place. In 1799 the Burghers 
separated into " Old Light Burghers " and " New Light 
Burghers." In 1820 the "New Light" sections of the 
Burghers and Anti-burghers joined forces as the " United 
Secession." In 1847 this joined itself to the " Relief 
Secession," a body which had seceded on the question 
of patronage and had formed itself in 1760 " into a 
Presbytery for the relief of Christians oppressed in 
their Christian privileges," and the two together became 
the " United Presbyterian Synod." The " Old Light 
Burghers " returned in 1839 to the Established Church. 
Cp. ANTI-BURGHERS. See J. H. Eluut. 

BURHI MaTA. An Indian deity, also called Thakurani 
Mata, the goddess of smallpox and rinderpest, wor- 
shipped by the Gadbas, a primitive tribe belonging to 
the Vizagapatam District of Madras. 

BURIAL CLUBS, EARLY CHRISTIAN. Burial 
guilds are referred to in a number of early Christian 
inscriptions discovered in recent years. By the will of 
Aristeas (Central Phrjgia), for example, a sum of money 
is bequeathed to the " Society of Neighbours " to enable 
it every year to " cause the grave of my wife Aurelia 
to bloom with roses." Camden M. Cobem thinks " the 
burial club was almost certainly the first official society 
established under the auspices of Christianity. It was 
common among the pagans and the Jews, though not 
conducted probably on the same wide lines of charity 
and brotherhood as among the early Christians." Only 
by joining one of these clubs could even a hard-working 
labourer be sure of a decent burial in the first century. 

BURIAL HILL DECLARATION, THE. The Burial 
Hill (Boston) Declaration of Faith was drawn up in 
1865 A.D. by the National Council of Congr^atlonal 
Churches of the United States. It " impressively af- 
firms the Synod's adherence to the faith and order of 
the Apostolic and Primitive Churches held by their 
fathers, and substantially as embodied in the Confes- 
sions and Platforms which the Synods of 1648 and 1680 
set forth or re-affirmed " (William A. Curtis). 

BURNETT LECTURES. A course of lectures so 
named after John Burnett (1729-84), an Aberdeen 
merchant. Originally the sum of money bequeathed 
by Burnett was to be applfed to the foundation of two 
prizes to be awarded for the two best treatises on " The 
evidence that there is a Being all-powerful, wise, and 
good, by whom everything exists; and particularly to 
obviate difficulties regarding the wisdom and goodness 
of the Deity; and this independent of written revelation, 
and of the revelation of the Lord Jesus; and from the 
whole to point out the inferences most necessary and 
useful to mankind." Under a new scheme the prizes 
have since 1883 been converted into a lectureship on 
some subject illustrating natural theology. In 1887, 
for instance. Prof. W. Robertson Smith was invited to 



Burning Bush, Tbe 



Caitanya Sect 



give three courses of lectures from October, 1888, to 
October, 1S91, on " The primitive religions of the 
Semitic peoples, viewed in relation to other ancient 
religions, and to the spiritual religion of the Old 
Testament and of Christianity." 

BURNING BUSH. THE. A phenomenon mentioned 
in the Old Testament (Exodus iii. 2-4^ The vision is 
said to have been seen by Moses while he was tending 
the flock of Jethro, his father-in-law. " And the angel 
of the Lord appeared unto him in a flame of fire out of 
the midst of a bush: and he looked, and behold, the 
bush burned with fire, and the bush was not consumed. 
And Moses said, ' I will turn aside now, and see this 
great sight, why the bush is not burnt.' " Verse 5 
continues : '"And when the Lord saw that he turned 
aside to see, God calletl unto him out of the midst of 
the bush, and said ' Moses, Moses.' And he said, ■ Here 
am I.' " The word used for bush here, seneh, seems 
to occur again in Deuteronomy xxxiji. 16, where Je- 
hovah is referred to as '" He that dwelt in the bush," 
shokeni seneh. This would suggest that Jehovah, like 
the deities of other primitive folk, was sometimes 
thought of as making his abode in trees. But Renan 
was no doubt right in thinking that the original reading 
in Deuteronomy was shokeni sinai, " he who dwells in 
Sinai." There is no reason to doubt that the Hebrews 
regarded fire as being sometimes a manifestation of the 
divine presence, or that they believed certain trees to 
be the abodes of deities. But this particular story 
need not be based upon such beliefs (cp., however, 
Encycl. Bihl.). Nor is it necessary to think, with 
Robertson Smith (R.S.), that " the original seat of a 
conception like the burning bush, which must have its 
physical basis in electrical phenomena, must probably 
be sought in the clear dry air of tbe desert or of lofty 
mountains." The story describes the kind of subjective 
vision which a prophet may well have seen. The seeing 



of a bright light and the hearing of a voice belong to 
psychic phenomena or experiences. See Encycl. Bibl. 

BURNING OF THE GOD. In ancient times it was 
the practice in some countries (e.g. in Asia Minor) 
solemnly to burn a god either in efligy or in the form 
of a human representative. The idea of the rite seems 
to have been that in this way the incorruptible and 
Immortal part of him was set free from the corruptible 
and perishable elements of human existence. The repre- 
sentative of the god was sometimes a king. Mel- 
carth, the great god of Tyre, whom the Greeks 
identified with Hercules, seems to have been burnt in 
effigy in Gades (mod. Cadiz), an early Tyrian colony. 
It is said of Hercules himself that he burned himself 
to death and afterwards ascended to heaven. J. G. 
Frazer thinks this is a Greek imitation of the burning 
of Melcarth. The Cappadocian god Sandan, who also 
corresponds to the Greek Hercules, seems to have been 
burned in efflgy at a periodical festival in Tarsus. The 
Assyrian king Sardanapalus, who is said to have founded 
the city of Tarsus, is also said to have burned himself 
on a great pyre. The story is not true of the Sardan- 
apalus who is otherwise known as Ashurbanipal; but it 
is perhaps reminiscent of the practice of burning a king 
as a representative of the god. See J. G. Frazer, Adonis 
Attis Osiris, 1906. 

BURNT OFFERING. See ALTAR. SACRIFICE. 

BUSSUMARUS. Bussumarus, " the large-lipped," 
was one of the names given by the ancient Celts to 
a god who corresponded to the Roman Jupiter. 

BUTO. The name of a goddess in the religion of the 
ancient Egyptians. She was the protecting goddess of 
Buto, the lower capital of Egypt, and took the form 
of a serpent. Her original name was Uto. In the re- 
ligion of the late period Buto became the most im- 
portant of the seven gods who spoke by oracles. See 
A. Erman. 



C. God C. is a designation used by anthropologists 
for a deity depicted in the MSS. of the Mayan Indians 
of Central Amerca. Since in one place he is repre- 
sented as surrounded by a nimbus of rays, and in the 
Codex Tro-cortesianus is encircled by planetary signs, 
he would seem to have been a deity of astronomic 
significance; but his identification is very uncertain. 

CABAI^A. A popularized form of the Hebrew term 
Kabbalah (q.v.). 

CAINITES. A sect of the second century, the mem- 
bers of which placed Cain above Abel, and in fact, as 
F. W. Bussell says, converted the sinners of Scripture 
(Esau, Korah, the men of Sodom, Judas Iscariot) into 
saints. For them Abel represented the lower powers, 
while Cain was the messenger endowed with power from 
the higher regions. 



CAITANYA SECT. A Hindu sect in Bengal, tie fol- 
lowers of Caitanya. Caitanya was bom in the year 
A.D. 1485. He came to be regarded as an incarnation 
of Krishna, which accounts for marvellous stories about 
his early years. Thus it is said that soon after his 
birth holy men visited his parents to pay homage to 
their new-bom child and to offer him a present of rice, 
fruits, gold and silver. He is said also to have made 
himself master of Sanscrit grammar and literature with 
great rapidity. After spending some years in making re- 
ligious pilgrimages he began to preach and to propagate 
his own view of Vaishnavism or the worship of Vishnu in 
Bengal. " His success as a preacher was remarkable. 
Even his enemies were attracted by the persuasiveness 
of his manner and the magnetic power of his eloquence. 
The lower classes flocked to him by thousands." Leav- 



Caityas 84 

ing his two disciples, Advalta and Nltyananda to 
continue his work in Bengal, he himself settled at 
Katali in Orissa not far from the temple of Jagan-nath. 
" The first principle he inculcated was that all the 
faithful worshippers of Krishna ( = Vishnu) were to 
be treated as equals. Caste was to be subordinated to 
faith in Krishna." And " the devotion of the human 
soul to Vishnu was to be symbolized under the figure 
of human love." This devotion, similar to the tender 
affection of a girl for her lover, should be so intense 
that the worshipper loses " all individuality and self- 
consciousness in ecstatic union with his god." Such a 
state may be produced by constant repetition of the 
name of the deity, by singing, music, dancing or similar 
movements of the body. It is not known how or when 
Caitanya died. He disappeared in a mysterious way 
when he was forty-two years of age (o. A.D. 1527). After 
this ho was deified and worshipped. The only question 
was " whether he was a full manifestation of the Su- 
preme Being (Krishna) or only a descent of a portion 
(anSa) of his essence." It was decided that he was 
the ven' Krishna incarnate, and that " his two principal 
disciples, Advaita and Nityfinanda, were manifestations 
of portions of the same deity." Another disciple, Hari- 
das, was deified in Bengal as a separate divinity. See 
Monier-Williams. 

CAITYAS. Originally the word Caitya meant the 
heap or mound under which the Buddhists placed the 
relics of their great saints. Then it came to denote a 
relic-structure within an assembly-hall, whereas a 
Stupa meant a relic-structure outside in the open air. 
See STrPAS. 

CAJETANI. Another name for the Order of Theatines 
{g.v.). 

CALEDONIAN ASYLUM, ROYAL. An institution 
founded by the " Highland Society of London " in 1814, 
and incorporated by Act of Parliament on June 14, 1815. 
See IRVINGITES. 

CALF, GOLDEN. Reference is made in the Old 
Testament to worship of a golden calf by Israelites of 
the Northern kingdom. These images are said to have 
been set up in Dan and Bethel (I. Kings xii. 28 ff.; II. 
Kings, X. 29; Hosea x. 5), and in Samaria (Hosea viii. 
5 /.). Reference is perhaps made also to their worship 
in Gilgal (Amos v. 4 /.; Hosea iv. 15, ix. 15, xii. 11). 
Apparently, however, they were not worshipped in the 
temple of Jerusalem or in the other sanctuaries of 
Judah. Aaron is said to have made a golden calf in 
the wilderness; but it is strange that nomads wandering 
In a wilderness should have tiiought of worshipping 
a golden calf. Some scholars have thought that the 
Israelites followed the example of the Egyptians in 
worshipping the bull. But Dr. Benzinger points out 
(Encycl. Bibl.) that the Israelites were not much in- 
fluenced by the Egyptians, and as a matter of fact it 
was living animals that were worshipped by the 
Egyptians. The Israelites seem to have learned the 
worship from the Canaanites amongst whom the bull 
was the symbol of Baal. The prophetic writers condemn 
the worship as idolatry (Hosea viii. 5, x. 5; cp. the 
Deuteronomist in I. Kings xiv. W, xv. 26, xvi. 26; II. 
Kings X. 29). See Eno/clop. Bibl. 

CALIXTINES. One of the sections into which the 
followers of John Hus (1369-1415; see HUSSITES) were 
divided. The name is derived from the Latin calix 
"cup" or "chalice"; and the Calixtines, "men of 
the Cup," were so called because they insisted on 
Communion in both kinds (sub utraque specie; bread 
and wine). They were called also Utraquists. This 
point, Communion in both kinds, was not one to which 
Has himself attached importance. It was made im- 



Camaldules 



portant by one of his followers Jacobellus de Misa " the 
first to begin the practice of Communion in both kinds 
in Bohemia," and was adopted unanimously by the 
Hussites. While, however, the Calixtines were disposed 
to cherish and defend the practice peacefully, the other 
section of the Hussites, the Taborites proceeded under 
the guidance of John Ziska (1360-1424) to defend it by 
force of arms. In 1421 the Calixtines expressed their 
wishes in four articles (" Articles of Prague "). 1. 
" That the Word of God should be preached freely and 
without impediment throughout the kingdom of Bo- 
hemia." 2. " That the Sacrament of the Divine 
Eucharist should be freely administered m both kinds, 
that is, under the species of bread and of wine, to all 
Christians not disqualified by mortal sin, according to 
the command and institution of the Saviour." 3. " That 
any clergyman engaged in the pursuit of secular power, 
or of wealth and temporal goods, contrary to the pre- 
cept of Christ, to the prejudice of his office, and to 
the injury of the State, should be forbidden such pur- 
suits and made to live according to the Evangelical rule 
and Apostolic life which Christ lived with his Apostles." 
4. " That all mortal sins, and particularly public ones, 
should be properly punished by those to whom the 
duty of suppressing them belongs, and by reason of the 
law of God." These articles were ratified and confirmed 
by the Council of Basle (1433) in the Compact of 
Prague. Eventually some of the Calixtines conformed 
to the Roman usage, while others joined the Taborites. 
See Blunt; Prot. Diet.; Cath. Diet.; Brockhaus. 

CALVARIANS. A monastic association of priests 
founded on Mont Val^rien near the Bois de Boulogne 
about 1635 by a pr'est named Hubert Charpentier. It 
was founded in honour of the Passion of Jesus Christ, 
and witii the object of promoting Catholicism. Mont 
Valerien afterwards became known as CoUine de Gal- 
vaire. In 1617 one Pfere Joseph founded a congregation 
of Calvarian nuns at Poitiers. In 1619 Virginia Braceelli 
established a congregation of Calvarian sisters at 
Genoa. See Schaff-Herzog ; the Oath. Diet. 

CALVARY. In the Gospel of Luke (xxiii. 33) it is 
said in the Authorised Version that Jesus was crucified 
at a " place which is called Calvary." The Revised 
Version has a " place which is called The Skull." The 
Greek word is kranion, which the Revised Version 
translates. The Authorised Version keeps the Latin 
word Oalvaria. The parallel passages in the other 
Gosjiels preserve the Semitic word Golgotha. 

CAMALDULES. An Order founded by Romualdua 
of Ravenna (950-1027). After establishing a number of 
monastic communities in different places, he established 
one at Campus Maldoli (Camaldoli) In the Apennines. 
This establishment, the Hermitage of Camaldoli, be- 
came the centre of his movement. In 1072 " there 
existed an order of Camaldules, not as a reformed 
branch of the order of the Benedictines, but as an 
independent association of anchorets. The prior was 
called ' major.' The members lived in separate huts, 
where they slept and ate. At certain hours they met 
in the prayer-house, and recited (not sang) the liturgy. 
They fasted often. Bread and water was their common 
diet : meat was not allowed. But tlie principal com- 
mand was silence " (Schaff-Herzog). In course of time 
a monastery was built at Fontebuono in the neighbour- 
hood of the Hermitage, and other monasteries arose In 
various places (in Venice, for instance) in place of 
hermitages. The severity of the original rule had been 
somewhat mitigated by Rudolph, the fourth major, in 
1102, who introduced a common table and other changes. 
The Camaldules were abolished in Austria in 1782, and 
afterwards in France and Italy. In Naples, howeyer, 



CamaxtU 



85 



Campbellites 



they were restored in 1822. See Schaff-Herzog ; the 
Cath. Diet. 

CAMAXTLI. A god of war among the Tlascaltecs or 
Tlascalans of Mexico. 

CAMAZOTZ. A god of bats in the mythology of the 
Quiche of Guatemala. 

CAMBRIDGE CAMDEN SOCIETY. A Society founded 
in 1839 " to promote the study of ecclesiastical archi- 
tecture and antiquities, and the restoration of mutilated 
architectural remains." W. Walsh (Prot. Diet., s.v. 
'' Oxford Movement ") quotes Francis Close (1797-1882), 
afterwards Dean of Carlisle, as saying in 1844 in a 
sermon that " as Romanism is taught AnaU/tically at 
Oxford, it is taught Artistically at Cambridge — it is 
Inculcated theoretically, in tracts, at one University, and 
it is sculptured, painted, and graven at the other. The 
Cambridge Camdenians bnild churches and furnish 
symbolic vessels, by which the Oxford Tractarians may 
carry out their principles." 

CAMBRIDGE PLATFORM OF CHURCH DIS- 
CIPLINE. The Cambridge (New England) Platform 
of Church Discipline was drawn up by the Cambridge 
Synod in 1648 A.D. as a supplement to the Westminster 
Confession (q.v.) of 1646 A.D. The new Platform takes 
the place of the doctrine of Church government and 
discipline in chapters xxv., xxx., and xxxi. of the 
Westminster Confession. W. A. Curtis speaks of it as 
" a careful and minute application of Congregational 
principles to the details of the Puritan doctrine of the 
Church." See William A. Curtis. 

CAMBRIDGE PLATONISTS, THE. A party of re- 
ligious thinkers at Cambridge who were opposed to the 
party of William Laud at Oxford. Its chief representa- 
tives were Benjamin Whichcote (1609-1683), provost of 
King's College (1644-60), Ralph Cudworth (1617-1688), 
Regius Professor of Hebrew (1645-88), Henry More 
(1614-1687) of Christ's College, Nathanael Culverwel (d. 
16-51?), Fellow of Emmanuel College, and George Rust 
(d. 1670), Fellow of Christ's College (1649-59). 

CAMEL, THE. Camels were used as food and offer- 
ings by the Arabs, but not by the Israelites. According 
to Nilus, among the Saracens, " the camel was not al- 
lowed to be killed and eaten except in a public rite, 
at which all the kinsmen assisted " (Robertson Smith). 
It was devoured by the Arabs in a sacramental meal 
while its blood and flesh were still warm. In the oldest 
known form of Arabian sacrifice, as described by Nilus, 
" the camel chosen as the victim is bound upon a rude 
altar of stones piled together, and when the leader of 
the band has thrice led the worshippers round the altar 
In a solemn procession accompanied vrith chants, he 
inflicts the first wound, while the last words of the 
hymn are still upon the lips of tlie congregation, and 
in all haste drinks of the blood that gushes forth. 
Forthwith the whole company fall on the victim with 
their swords, hacking off pieces of the quivering flesh 
and devouring them raw with .such wild haste, that in 
the short Interval between the rise of the day star which 
marked the hour for the service to begin, and the dis- 
appearance of its rays before the rising sun, the entire 
camel, body and bones, skin, blood and entrails, is wholly 
devoured " (iJ.S.). We read too of consecrated camels 
among the Arabs, which they released from service and 
allowed to roam at large. These might not be ridden, 
except in an emergency. But, though they seem some- 
times to be spoken of as the property of the deity, they 
were not used for his service. At Riimallah in Palestine 
there are two springs, one of which is supposed to be 
Inhabited by a camel. 

CAMEBONIANS. The name given to a body of Scotch 



Covenanters in the reign of Charles II. They were so 
named because one of their leaders was Richard Cam- 
eron. They claimed to be the true representatives of 
the principles of those who framed the original Coven- 
ant. Cameron was one of those responsible for the 
anti-monarchical Declaration which was read at San- 
quhar in 1680. He was killed in the battle of Airdmoss 
in the same year. The Cameronians were organised 
in " societies," and were also called Society People. 
On the death of Cameron, James Renwick succeeded to 
the leadership. Renwick boldly disowned " the usurpa- 
tion and tyranny " of James, Duke of York, and in 
16SS was executed. In 1706 John Maemillan became 
leader of the Societies. In conjunction with Thomas 
Nairn, in 1743 he founded and organised a new body, 
" the Reformed Presbytery." Originally the Reformed 
Presbyterians were forbidden by a formal Act of Testi- 
mony to exercise the franchise or to take the oath of 
allegiance. In 1863, however, the Scotch synod decided 
that " while recommending the members of the Church 
to abstain from the use of the franchise and from taking 
the oath of allegiance, discipline to the effect of sns- 
Ijension and expulsion from the Church shall cease." A 
minority of tlie Reformed Presbyterians refused to 
accept this decision, and formed a new body with the 
same name. In 1876 the older and larger body of 
Reformed Presbyterians united with the Free Church 
of Scotland. See Schaff-Herzog ; J. H. Blunt. 

CAMERONITES. A School of theology founded by 
John Cameron (15797-1625). Cameron was bom and 
educated at Glasgow. In 1600 he went to France and 
taught Greek and Latin at Bordeaux. In lt;02 he re- 
ceived an appointment at Sedan. After studying divinity 
at Paris, Geneva and Heidelberg for about three years, 
he went back to Bordeaux as protestant minister (1608- 
1617). In 1018 he removed to Saumur as professor of 
divinity. Here he put forward views which were similar 
to those afterwards adopted by Moses Amvraut (see 
AMYRALDISTS). " The substance of these opinions 
was that God wills the salvation of all men, and not 
of the elect only, that none are excluded from the 
possibility of salvation, and that those are saved who 
co-operate with God by using the power of judgment 
between good and evil which He infuses Into their 
understanding for the choice of good " (Blunt) In 1620 
Cameron returned to London, and in 1622 he became Prin- 
cipal of Glasgow University. He soon abandoned this 
position (1623) and went back to Saumur. The next year 
he removed to Montauban as professor of divinity. Here 
in 1625 he was stabbed by one of his opponents and 
died from the wound. His works were published in 
I^tin and French in ten volumes (1616-42). See J. H. 
Blunt; the D.N.B.: and Chambers' Encycl. 

CAMPBELLITES. The followers of Alexander Camp- 
bell (1786-1866). Bom in Ireland, Campbell went to the 
United States in 1809. Here he became pastor of a 
Presbyterian church in Washington county. Pa. In 
1827 he founded an independent sect which he called 
" The Disciples of Christ." The members of this sect 
are now knovm as the Campbellites. In 1840-41 he 
founded an institution called Bethany College and be- 
came its first president. The Disciples of Christ held 
that the Church of Christ was intended to be one and 
undivided; that its lost unity might be regained by a 
return to the Gospel in its original purity; that all the 
theological terms and doctrines of the schools must be 
abandoned and replaced by the original words, phrases, 
and ordinances of Holy Scripture; and that baptism 
should be by immersion. The officers of the local 
churches are elders and deacons. See Harper's Encycl. 
of U.S. Hist., 1902. 



Campbeliites, American 



86 



Canon, Buddhist 



CAMPBELLITES, A5IERICAN. The followers of 
Thomas Campbell, who went from Ireland to America 
in 1807. They called the)nselve8 Reformed Baptists. 

CAMULUS. Camulus, it would seem, was one of the 
deities worshipped by the ancient Celts. As a war-jrod, 
he would correspond to the Roman Mars; but he 
seems also in some respects to have resembled Jupiter 
as well. The name survived in Camulodunum i Col- 
chester), and perhaps in the Irish Cumhal who appears 
as father of Finn. See Anwyl: C. Squire, Myth. 

CANDLEMAS. An ecclesiastical festival, so called 
on account of the candles which in the Roman Catholic 
Church are carried in procession. The festival is also 
called the " Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary." 
It is observed on the 2nd of February In commemoration 
of the presentation of Christ in the Temple. In the 
Prayer Book of the Church of England it is described 
as ''' The Presentation of Christ In the Temple, com- 
monly called the Purification of Saint Mary the Virgin." 
The purification thought of originally was that of the 
Levitieal law (Lev. 12, 2), but two other events are 
now more prominent in the Roman Mass and office. 
" Candles are blessed and carried in procession to re- 
mind us how the holy old man Simeon met our Lord, 
took Him in his arms, and declared Him the light of 
the Gentiles and the glory of Israel. Next, in the col- 
lect, epistle, and the gospel there are marked references 
to the fact that our Lord was at the same time pre- 
sented in the temple before God and redeemed with five 
holy shekels " (Lk. xil. 22: cp. Exod. xiii. 2, Num. viii. Ifi, 
xviii. 1.5 — Oath. Diet.). The festival is said to have been 
kept at Antioch in 526 under the Emperor Justin, and 
was known in the West before 735. Baronius suggests 
that Pope Gelasius substituted it for the pagan Luper- 
calia which was kept in February (15) and was also a 
festival of purification and expiation. The lights were 
forbidden in the Church of England in 1548 by an order 
of the Privy Council. See Prot. Diet.; Cath. Diet. 

CANDLES. The Chinese burn candles on their 
domestic altars. At sunset they place a burning candle 
in the " lantern of Heaven " which is suspended near 
the doorposts of the house. Candles are burned in front 
of the ancestral soul-tablets. Every evening, as long 
as the coffin of a deceased person is in the house, these 
candles are offered to the soul. In the funeral procession 
lighted candles are carried in lanterns hanging from 
curved poles. The lanterns bear inscriptions. " Their 
use in broad daylight shows decidedly that they are 
designed to pilot the soul, which lives in complete dark- 
ness, along the right path to the burial ground," and 
perhaps the inscriptions " are intended to prevent the 
soul from being led astray by other lanterns, which 
it may happen to see along the road " (de Groot). A 
peculiar kind of candle stands on the altar or in front 
of the altar in the temples of Tibetan Buddhists or 
Lamas. This temple-lamp is " a short pedestalled bowl. 
Into a socket in the centre of which is thrust a cotton 
wick, and it is fed by melted butter. As the great 
mass of butter solidifies and remains mostly in this 
state, the lamp is practically a candle. The size varies 
according to the means and the number of the temple 
votaries, as it is an act of piety to add butter to this 
lamp. One is necessary, but two or more are desirable, 
and on special occasions 108 or 1.000 small lamps are 
offered upon the altar. Sometimes a cluster of several 
lamps form a small candelabrum of the branching lotus- 
flower pattern " (Waddell). See L. A. Waddell; J. 
J. M. de Groot, /?.S. 

CANNON, WORSHIP OF. An example of the wor- 
ship of a cannon is noted by E. S. Hartland (P.P.). "A 
cannon, old and useless and neglected, belonging to the 



Dutch Government, lay in a field at Batavia, on the 
island of Java. It was taken by the native women for 
a linga. Dressed in their best, and adorned with flowers, 
they used to worship this piece of senseless iron, pre- 
sented it with offerings of rice and fruits, miniature 
sunshades, and coppers, and completed the performance 
by sitting astride upon it as a certain method of win- 
ning children " (I, 123). A similar superstition has 
been noted by E. J. Banks (Bismya, or The Lost Citv 
of Adah, 1912) among Jewish women in Bagdad. These 
gather about a large English gun in a public suuare, 
and stroking it, whisper into its mouth their prayers, 
their troubles, and their hopes. 

CANON. The term Canon is commonly used (1) of a 
law or rule, (2) of a collection of sacred writings, es- 
pecially of the Sacred Scriptures accepted by Christians, 
and (3) of a dignitary of the Church of England. The 
word is of course the same as the Greek kovoiv. It 
meant originally a reed or rod. It then came to mean 
a measuring rod, and was next " used for a plumbline 
or for a level, or a ruler, for .inything that was a 
measure or a rule for other things " (0. R. Gregory). 
Then in the intellectual sphere it denoted a rule " that 
told a man what wag right or what he had to do." The 
grammarians in Alexandria called the ancient Greek 
writers the canon, because they were regarded as pat- 
terns or models. They also called their rules for 
declensions, conjugations, and syntax " canons." In 
common usage canon denoted " a measure, a definition, 
an order, a command, a law." Joshua, as an ideal 
leader, is calle<l by Philo (c. 20 B.C. -45 A.D.) a canon. 
The word is found in the New Testament. In Galatlans 
vi. 16 it is said : " And as many as shall walk by this 
rule (to kanoni touto), peace be upon them and mercy." 
In II. Corinthians x. 13 (Authorised Version) it is said : 
" But we will not boast of things without our measure, 
but according to the measure of the rule (Revised Ver- 
sion "province"; Revised Version margin "limit"; 
Gk. toil kanonos) which God hath distributed to us, a 
measure to reach even unto you." In course of time 
the word came to be used in the Christian Church for 
a definite and certain decision, an ecclesiastical determ- 
ination. At a synod at Antioch held in A.D. 266 one 
of Paul of Samosata's doctrines was said to be " foreign 
to the ecclesiastical canon." After this the ecclesiastical 
canon became a set phrase for the rule or custom of 
the Church. From A.D. 341 (Council at Antioch) the 
term " canons " was applied to the decisions of eccles- 
iastical councils. The term " canon " as applied to 
Holy Scripture was first used by the Greek Fathers of 
the fourth century. Cp. further CANON, OLD TESTA- 
MENT. In the other sense of the term, a (^anon is a 
residentiary member of a cathedral chapter. He is 
appointed by the Bishop or nominated by the Crown. 
There are also Honorary Canons who receive no emolu- 
ment. They are appointed by the Bishop or Archbishop, 
and rank next after the residentiary Canons. Finally 
there are Minor Canons. These have to intone part of 
the Service. A good voice is therefore a necessary 
qualification for appointment. They are appointed by 
the Cathedral chapter. In some cases a professorship 
carries with it a canonry (e.g.. at Oxford, Cambridge, 
and Durham). " The clergy of every large church in 
ancient times were termed canoniei, as being entered on 
the list (for this is one of the meanings of Kovrav) of 
ecclesiastics serving the church " (Addis and Arnold). 
See C. R. Gregory: Cath. Diet. 

CANON, BUDDHIST. There are three collections of 
Buddhist sacred writings. We find (1) a Canon of the 
Southern Buddhists comprising books written in the 
Pflll language; (2) a Canon of the Northern Buddhists, 



Canon, Bnddhist 



87 



Canon of the New Testament 



comprising books written in Sanscrit; and (3> a Canon 
of the Chinese Buddhists, comprising boots written in 
Chinese. As regards the fundamental features, the 
main divisions, and the most important Ixwks, the Canon 
is much the same everywhere; but there are great 
differences in details, and in the Canons of the Northern 
and Chinese Buddhists many later texts and comment- 
aries have been introduced. In any case, there is not 
the same unity among the Northern Buddhists as there 
is among the Southern. " It is incorrect to speak, as 
is so often done, of Northern and Southern Buddhism 
as the only two great divisions into which Buddhism 
had been divided. There was a unity in Southern 
Buddhism ; but there has been no such unity in Northern 
Buddhism. We may talk, indeed, of Northern Buddh- 
isms; but it would be better to keep the Buddhism of 
each of the northern countries in which it has been 
adopted separate and distinct, both in our thoughts and 
our language " (T. W. Rhys Davids). Of the later books 
admitted into the Northern Canon (e.g. by the Buddhists 
of Nepaul), one is called " The Lotus of the true Law " 
and is a kind of mystery play (Sacred Books of the 
East, xxi.); the other is called " Lallta-Vistara '' and 
is an account of the birth and trials of the Buddha. 
The sacred collection of the Sikhs is called the " Adi- 
Granth " {g.v.). That of the Jains includes the " Gaina 
Sntras "' (Sacred Books of the East, x.\ii.). The 
Southern Canon, however, must be taken as the original 
model. " Scholars generally agree that the canon of 
the so-called Southern Buddhism (prevailing in Ceylon, 
Burma, Siam), on the whole, presents the most original 
aspect of the sacred books " (H. Haekmann). In this 
Canon there are three principal divisions. It is there- 
fore called the "Tipitaka" (Sanscrit. Tripitaka) or 
" The Three Baskets."' (1) The first division is called 
the Vinayapitaka. It deals with the organization of 
the monastic life. There are three works in this 
division, (a) Snttavibhanga. This gives the precepts con- 
oeming monastic penances. (6) The Khandhakas. There 
are two books : the Mah^vagga and the Cullavagga. 
These give rules as to admission into the Order (Pati- 
mokkha), and as to dress, dwelling, etc. (c) Parivftra. 
This is a kind of appendix of later date giving details 
about the life of the community. (2) The second division 
is called the Suttapitaka. It deals with the Buddha's 
doctrine of salvation. There are four works in this 
division, (a) Dtghanikaya. Longer discourses of the 
master, (b) Majjhimanikaya. Discourses of medium 
length. (c) Anguttaranikaya. Discourses " arranged 
after numbers " (Haekmann). (d) Samyuttanikaya. 
Discourses arranged in groups. There is an appendix 
to this division called Khuddakanikflya, '• a collection 
of different materials, .sayings of the Buddha, songs, 
tales, legends, and the like." There are fifteen books, 
" some of which belong to the best -known and most 
impressive works of the Buddhist literature. They in- 
clude the Dhammapada. a kind of hvmn-book, which 
has been considered perhaps the most sacred and popular 
book of the Buddhist Bible (see Sacred Books of the 
East, X.) ; the jataka which gives legends concerning 
five hundred and fifty previous existences of the 
Buddha ; the Apadana which gives stories of the saints : 
the Buddhavamsa which deals with twenty-four previons 
Buddhas: and the CariySpitaka which treats of thirty- 
four previous incarnations of the Bnddha." (.3) The 
third division is called the Abhidhammanitaka. It 
discusses " the psychological prolegomena of the 
Buddhist ethical system " (Haekmann). There are 
seven works in this division. (a) Dhammasamgani. 
This describes states or phenomena. (6) Vibhanga. 
This is a continuation, (c) Kathavatthn. This refutes 



two hundred and fifty-two heresies, (d) Puggalapannatti. 
This divides men into classes from the ethical stand- 
point, (e) Dhatukatha, (/) Yamaka, and (g) Patthana 
are smaller txeatises. The books included in the 
Southern Canon seem to have been committed to writing 
by about the beginning of the first century B.C. Earlier 
collections were recognised as authoritative in the time 
of Asoka (c. 250 B.C.j. See H. Haekmann ; Max MOller, 
Sacred Books of the East; T. \V. Rlivs Davids. 

CANONICAL HOURS. Hours or "times of prayer, 
which were prescribed by rule or canon. They were 
observed by the early Christians. In the days "of per- 
secution, there were Noctums or Vigils, prayers at 
night. The early mom'ng prayers were called" Lauds. 
The following are the names of the canonical hours. 1. 
Matins, in Old English ■■ Uhtsang," at break of day. 
2. Prime, or " Primesang," at the first hour of the day, 
() a.m. :;. Tierce, or " rndersang," at 9 a.m. 4. Sext, 
or " Midday Sang." at 12. 5. Nones, or " Noon-Sang," 
at 3 p.m. 6. Vespers, or " Evensang," public evening 
service. 7. CompHne, or " Night-sang," the closing 
sen-ice (Latin complere, to finish) of the day. See W. 
R. W. Stephens, Common Prauer, 19()1; Prot. Diet. 

CANON OF THE NEW TESTAMENT. The sacred 
writings of the earliest Christians were the canonical 
writings of the Old Testament. The authoritative words 
of their own Christian prophets at first circulated orally. 
The earliest written documents were letters written by 
the Apostle Paul to Churches which he had founded 
and which were in need of guidance. As in the case 
of the Old Testament the need for a sharply defined 
collection of sacred writings did not arise until other 
writings began to compete with those of the Church. 
This would not happen for some time. As Gregory says, 
at least in many districts, well on into the second 
century the word was still preached by wandering 
preachers, the Apostles. " Little by little it will have 
become known that the Gospels had been written. These 
Gospels will at first have been circulated in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of the place in which each was 
written, and then have soon struck the great lines, if 
they were not already on one of them, and have reached 
Rome and .Jerusalem and Alexandria. Wherever a 
Gospel was rec-eived. Christians will have compared its: 
tenor with that which they had heard by word of mouth. 
But for a while the living voice of the evangelisinjr 
preacher will have been preferre<] to the dead letter in 
the book. Many Churches will for a long while have 
had no Gospel or only one Gospel, and only after much 
waiting have gotten more. Church after Church, group 
after group of Christians had then a Gospel and an 
Epistle or two. a few Epistles. The tendency of the 
intercourse between the Churches was towards an in- 
crease in the collection of books: now one now another 
new one was added by friends to the old and treasured 
store of rolls." In course of time a fairly large number 
of books would be known to all the Churches alike, 
though some of them might not be held in equal esteem 
everywhere. Clement of Rome, writing in the post- 
Apostolic age, seems to be acquainted with nearly all 
of the books of our New Testament. We know that 
some of these books were already being made use of 
by unorthodox teachers (e.g.. Simon Magns, Cerinthus, 
Basilides). Basilides himself wrote twenty-four books 
on the Gospel. The Church Father Polvcani, according 
to Gregory, had in his hands all the Epistles of Paul, 
the First Epistle of Peter, the First Epistle of John, 
the Gospel of Matthew, and probablv all the four Gos- 
pels. The Gnostic Valentinus (first half of .second cen- 
tury) seems to have been acquainted with most of the 
books of the New Testament. The Gnostics had al80 

7 



Canon of the New Testament 



88 



Canon of the New Testament 



books of their own, auch as the Gospel of Truth, the 
Gospel of Perfection, the Gospel of Eve. Marcion, who 
left the Church and about the year 144 founded a Church 
of his own, set up his own canon of New Testament 
writings. He accepted only the Gospel of Luke, and ten 
Epistles of Paul (Galatians, Corinthians, Romans, Thes- 
salonians, Ephesians [Laodieeans], Colossians, Philip- 
plans, Philemon). Melito, Bishop at Sardes (fl. 176 
A.D.), seems to quote all the books of the New Testa- 
ment, except the Epistle of James, the Epistle of Jude, 
the Second and the Third Epistle of John. Tatian, who 
severed his more direct connection with the Church 
about 172 or 173, in compiling his Diatessaron made 
use of the four Gospels. He seems also to have known 
most of the books of the New Testament. The Mura- 
torian fragment belongs ac-cording to Gregory to about 
170 A.D. It contains (as far as it has been preserved) 
a list of the books of the New Testament. " We have 
the four Gospels, Acts, the Epistles of Paul, the Epistles 
of John. Jude, the Revelation. So far as the fragment 
goes, it brings neither James nor the Epistles of Peter 
nor Hebrews. Of course, in the case of a copyist who 
was so extremely careless, there remains the possibility 
that in some place a line or several lines have been 
omitte<l. These Epistles are, however, Epistles that 
would be likely at first to be read more in the East 
than in the West." The Epistle to the Hebrews seems, 
however, to have been known at Rome as early as about 
95 A.D. •• There may have been some special reason 
for its omission in this fragment. Perhaps the author 
of the fragment thought, as Tertullian did. that Hebrews 
was written by Barnabas, and he may not have been 
inclined to put it into the list on that account" (Gregory). 
Irenaeus, in his great work on the Heresies, written 
between about the years 181 and 189, made use of the 
four Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, the First Epistle 
of Peter, the First Epistle of John, the Book of Revela- 
tion, and all the Epistles of Paul except Philemon. He 
speaks of the Scriptures as having been handed down 
without corruption. Clement of Alexandria, according 
to Eusebius {B.E. vl. 14) made c-omments on all the 
Scriptures, including the books spoken against (Antileff- 
omena), the Epistle of Jude and the rest of the Catholic 
Epistles. The Eijistle to the Hebrews he regarded as 
the work of Paul. Tertullian does not seem to know 
anything of the Epistle of James, the Second Epistle 
Of Peter, the Second and the Third Epistle of John. 
He knows of the Book of Revelation, and ascribes it 
to the Apostle John. He knows also of the Epistle to 
the Hebrews. This he ascribes to Barnabas. Origen 
accepts most of the books of the New Testament, in- 
cluding the Epistle of Jude, the Epistle to the Hebrews, 
and the Book of Revelation. His testimony as to the 
Epistle of James, the Second Epistle of Peter, the 
Second and the Third Epistle of John is somewhat 
uncertain. Dionysius of Alexandria (died about 265 
A.D.) accepts the Epistle of James, the Second and 
the Third Epistle of John, and the Epistle to the 
Hebrews. The Book of Revelation he ascribes to an 
unknown John. The only books of the New Testament 
that he does not seem to accept are the Epistle of Jude 
and the Second Epistle of Peter. Cyprian of Carthage 
(died 258 A.D.) does not seem to have known of the 
Epistle of James, the Second Epistle of Peter, the 
Second and the Third Epistle of John, the Epistle of 
Jude, and the Epistle to the Hebrews. In the third 
century A.D., therefore, it cannot be said that our books 
of the New Testament were canonized, that is to say 
recognized as a whole as canonical. It is even possible 
that other works were considered of equal authority. 
Oscar Holtzmann {Life of Jesus) thinks that the Gospel 



of the Hebrews was assigned a rank equal to that of 
the Gospels of Luke and John. We next come to 
Eusebius, who wrote his Church History between about 
the years 305 and 325 A.D. He divides the writings of 
the three first centuries into three classes (B.E. iii. 25). 
These are : (1) the acknoirlcdged books, the four Gos- 
pels, the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles of Paul, the 
First Epistle of John, the Epistle of Peter, and perhaps 
(" if that appears perhaps just ") the Revelation of 
John: (2) the disputed books, the Epistle of James, 
the Epistle of Jude, the Second Epistle of Peter, the 
Second Epistle of John, the Third Epistle of John, and 
the spurious books, the Acts of Paul, the Shepherd, 
the Apocalypse of Peter, the Epistle of Barnabas, the 
Teachings of the Apostles, and perhaps the Revelation 
of John and the Gospel according to the Hebrews; 
heretical books, the Gospel of Peter, Thomas. Matbias 
and others, the Acts of Andrew, John, and others. The 
Epistle to the Hebrews is included among the Epistles 
of Paul. Cyril of Jerusalem, in his Catechetical Lect- 
ures, written about 346 A.D., recommends a study of 
the four Gosi)els, the Acts of the Twelve Apostles, the 
Seven Catholic Epistles of James and Peter, John and 
Jude, and the fourteen Epistles of Paul. The Book of 
Revelation is not recommended. The next landmark in 
the history of the Canon is supposed to be the Council 
of Laodicea held in 3()3 A.D. The last canon gives a 
list of " canonized " books which includes all the books 
of our New Testament except the Book of Revelation. 
But the list seems to have been a later addition. The 
first complete list of New Testament books regarded as 
inspired scripture is given by Athanasius of Alexandria 
(.367 A.D.). Later, we find Amphilochius. Bishop of 
Iconium in Lycaonia, re.lecting the Book of Revelation 
and doubting the Second Epistle of Peter, the Second 
E|)istle of John, the Third Epistle of John, and the 
Epistle of Jude. At the third Council of Carthage, held 
397 A,D. a list of canonical books was drawn up cor- 
responding to our list, and it was settled that " apart 
from the Canonical Scriptures nothing is to be read in 
Church under the name of Divine Scriptures." But the 
books were still far from being accepted universally. 
It is doubtful whether John Chrysostom (.347-407 A.D.), 
Bishop of Constantinople, accepted all of them. Junilius 
(died after 550 A.D.) states that the Book of Revelation 
was questioned among Orientals. He himself does not 
seem to have accepted all the Catholic Epistles. August- 
ine, who became assistant Bishop of Hippo in 395 A.D., 
says that the Christian reader should place in the front 
rank those Canonical Scriptures which are received by 
all Catholic Churches, in preference to those which 
some do not receive. " Among those, moreover, which 
are not received by all, let him prefer those which more 
and more important Churches accept to those which 
fewer and less authoritative Churches hold. Should he, 
however, find some to be held by very many and otbers 
by very weighty Churches, although this cannot easily 
happen, yet I think that they are to be regarded as of 
equal authority " (after Gregory). On April S, 1546, 
the Council of Trent recited a " catalogue of the sacred 
books," including those of the Apocrypha, and decreed 
that " if any one receive not, as sacred and canonical, 
these same books entire with all their parts, as they 
have been used to be read in the Catholic Church, and 
as they are contained in the old Ijitin Vulgat* Edition," 
he should he anathema. The sixth article of the Thirty- 
Nine Articles of the Church of England says : " In the 
name of Holy Scripture, we do understand those 
Canonical books of the Old and New Testament, of 
whose authority was never any doubt in the Church." 
It then gives a list of the Old Testament books. There 



Canon of the Old Testament 



89 



Canon of the Old Testament 



is no list of the New Testament books. In place of it 
we read : " All the hooks of the New Testament, as 
tiiey are commonly received, we do receive and accoimt 
them Canonical." It is then stated that the other books 
(the Old Testament Apocrj'phaj are read simply for 
example of life and instruction of manners, and a list 
is added. It has been suggested that a distinction is 
here drawn between the " Canonical " books and such 
" Canonical books as have never been doubted in the 
Church," and that the framers of the Article on a point 
on which scholars were greatly divided wished to leave 
the judgment free. See the separate articles on the 
books of the New Testament; articles on Canon and 
Bible in the Dictionaries and Encyclopaedias; C. R. 
Gregory; J. Mollatt, Introd. 

CANON OF THK OLD TESTAMENT. The Jews 
divided their canonical writings into three groups : (1) 
The Torah or Law; (2) The Nebiim or Prophets; (3) The 
Kethubim or Writings (Hagiographa). The first group, 
the Torah, c-omprises the five books of the Pentateuch, 
called by the Jews " the five fifths of the law " 
(chami^lishah chumshe ha-tordh). The Hebrew name of 
each of the five books is derived from the initial word 
or words of the book. The second group, the Nebiim, 
is sub-divided into two main divisions : (o) The Nebiim 
rishonim or Former Prophets comprising Joshua, Judges, 
I. and II. Samuel, and I. and II. Kings; (6) The Nebiim 
akharonim or Latter Prophets, comprising Isaiah, Jere- 
miah, Ezekiel. and the twelve Prophets. The Latter 
Prophets are further sutHdivided sometimes into (i.) The 
Major Prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel) and (ii.) 
The Minor Prophets. The Minor Prophets were regarded 
as forming together a single book, and as such received 
the title "The Twelve" (Heb. shenem 'asar; Aramaic 
teresar; Greek to dodekapropheton). The third group, 
the Kethubim, is subdivided into three divisions : (1.) 
The Kethubim rishonim or Former Writings, Psalms, 
Proverbs, Job; (ii.) The Megilloth (.g.v.) or the Five Rolls. 
Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes. and 
Esther; (iii.) The Kethubim akharOnim or Latter 
Writings, Daniel, Ezra. Nehemiah, I. and II. Chronicles. 
It seems strange that Joshua, Judges, I. and II. Samuel, 
and I. and II. Kings should be regarded as prophetical. 
But Samuel, of course, was a prophet; and Jewish trad- 
ition regarded him as the author of the Book of Judges 
as well as of the two Books of Samuel. Tradition also 
ascribed the Books of Kings to the prophet Jeremiah. As 
regards the Book of Joshua, Numbers xxvii. 18 speaks 
of Joshua as " a man in whom is the spirit," and Eccles- 
iasticus xlvi. 1 refers to him as " the successor of Moses 
in prophecies." As Prof. Sanday says (/., 190.3). " the 
idea was that the history of each successive generation 
was written by a contemporary prophet ; and as the pro- 
phetic literature in the narrower sense does not begin 
until the reign of Jeroboam II. in Israel and Uzziah in 
Judah. the narratives of whose reigns fall in the second 
half of the Second Book of Kings, it was natural that the 
great bulk of the historical writings (Joshua — II. Kings) 
should be roughly described as the work of the older 
prophets" (p. 15.5). This was only a tradition; but as 
a matter of fact there was an element of truth in it, 
insofar as the books in their present form were put into 
shape by a prophetic school. The order of the Books 
of the Old Testament given above is that which is com- 
monly followed in printed editions of the Hebrew Bible. 
In the Talmud (Bdba bdthra 146), however, the order of 
the Latter Prophets is given as: Jeremiah, Ezekiel, 
Isaiah, the Twelve. The explanation of this remarkable 
order is fancifully explained as follows. " Since Isaiah 
lived before Jeremiah and Ezekiel, ought he not to have 
been put before them? [No.] Beoauae Kings closes 



with destruction, Jeremiah is entirely occupied with it, 
Ezekiel begins with it, but ends with consolation, while 
Isaiah is all consolation : hence we connect destruction 
with destruction, and consolation with consolation." The 
same order is commonly followed in German and French 
manuscripts. The Massoretic scholars (7th-9th cent.), 
however, assigned Isaiah the first place, and this is the 
position of the book in Spanish manuscripts and in our 
printed Hebrew Bibles. The order of the Kethubim in 
the Talmud Is ; Ruth, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Eccles- 
iastes, Song of Songs, Lamentations, Daniel, Esther, 
Ezra (—Nehemiah), Chronicles. Here Ruth is placed 
first as giving the ancestry of David, whose writings, the 
Psalm.s. come second. The other books are supposed to 
be in chronological order. The Massoretic scholars and 
u.sually the Spanish manuscripts arrange the books : 
Chronicles, Psalms, Job, Proverbs, Ruth. Song of Songs, 
Ecclesiastes, Lamentations. Esther. Daniel. Ezra. Thus 
they keep the five rolls or Megilloth together. German 
manuscripts generally follow the order found in our 
printed Hebrew Bibles. The three groups of canonical 
writings correspond to three stages in the growth of the 
Canon. The books were accepted only gradually. The 
terms " canon " and " canonical " are of course Christ- 
ian. The Jews expressed the idea in a different way. 
Books which we call canonical are said by them to be 
books '• that defile the hands " (metamme'im eth hay- 
i/adai/im). The meaning of this expression seems un- 
doubtedly to be that contact with the sacred writings 
involves a ceremonial washing of the hands. " The 
Pharisees." says Budde " (under protest from the Sad- 
ducees; cp. Yad. iv. 6) attributed to the sacred writings 
a sanctity of such a sort that whosoever touched them 
was not allowed to touch aught else, until he had under- 
gone the same ritual ablution as if he had touched some- 
thing unclean " (EncycL Jiibl.). According to a trad- 
ition preserved in Second Esdras Ezra was inspired to 
dictate ninety-four books, of which seventy were to be 
delivered only to the wise, while the other twenty-four 
were to be published. As far as Ezra himself is con- 
cerned, the legendary nature of the tradition is clear: but 
it seems to be no less evident, as Wildeboer says, "that 
toward the end of the first century ot our era in Jewish 
circles a Canon of twenty-four books was recognized, and 
that gradually the part which Ezra had in the canoniza- 
tion of the Old Testament, viz.. giving binding force to 
the Tora, was being extended to the entire Old Testa- 
ment." The New Testament, it has been thought, may 
supply evidence that even in the New Testament period 
the Book of Chronicles was the last work in a Canon of 
twenty-four books. In Matthew xxiii. 35 we read : 
" that upon you may come all the righteous blood shed 
on the earth, from the blood of Abel the righteous unto 
the blood of Zachariah son of Barachiah, whom ye slew 
between the sanctuary and the altar " (cp. Lukexi. 51). 
The idea, it is supposed, was to refer to the first (Genesis 
iv.) and last book (II. Chronicles xxiv. 20-22) of the Old 
Testament. Since, however, it is uncertain which 
Zachariah is really referred to. it is not safe to attach 
much importance to the passage. The tradition as to 
Ezra and his companions was revived bv David Kimchi 
(d. 1240) and Elias T^vita (1472-1549). who stated that 
Ezra and his associates, the Men of the Gr*!at Syna- 
gogue, fixed the whole canon (Levita, ilassoreth ha-Mas- 
■wreth. p. 120, ed. Ginsburg). But the only Talmudic 
passage in which any support for this statement can be 
found is in Baba bathra 14&, and there is no satisfactory 
evidence of the existence of the Great Synagogue (g.v.). 
Moreover, as a matter of fact, some of the books of the 
third group (e.g.. Daniel) were clearly later than the 
time of Ezra. Daniel can hardly have been added to 



Canon of the Old Testament 



90 



the Kethubim (Hapiographa) before the time of the Mac- 
cabees And, assuming that the whole Canon was fixed 
at one time, it would in any case be very strange that 
Daniel should have been placed among the Kethubim 
instead of among the Prophets. It is useless to contend 
that he was not a prophet in the same sense as the 
others He is recognized as a prophet in the New Testa- 
ment (Matthew sxiv. 15; Mark siii.). The Jewish tradi- 
tion cannot be relied upon. Some of the bool^s included 
among the Kethubim are found there, instead of among 
the r^biim, because they were of late origin and were 
added to the Canon after the Prophetic group had been 
closed. The process of collection and canonisation was 
a gradual one. It is clear that an original collection, the 
Boolis of the Law, was gradually supplemented and 
enlarged. The division known as the Torah has a dis- 
tinctive character: but, as Wildeboer says, •' no one has 
succeeded in satisfactorily defining the specific difference 
between the Nebiim and Kethubim." It is noteworthy 
too that the Septuagint makes no distinction between the 
two groups (see ALEXANDRIAN CANON). 

The process of growth and development can be seen 
from the very beginning. The Law itself grew. There 
was first the Ten Words inscribed on two tables of stone. 
Prof. Briggs (Intr.) thinks that, " if any docnmeut 
fulfils all the tests of canonieity, the Tables of the Law 
certainly do." There vras next the Book of the Covenant 
(Exodus sxxiv.. Judaic narrative: Exodus xx. 22-xxiii., 
Ephraimitic narrative), which Moses " read in the 
audience of the people " when God made a covenant with 
them (see BOOK OF THE COVENANT). After this 
came the promulgation of the Deuteronomic Code, which 
was found in the Temple in the reign of Josiah (021 B.C.). 
The event is recorded in II. Kings xxii.-xxiii. = II. 
Chronicles xxxiv.-xxxv. The book is described as " the 
book of the law " (II. Kings xxii. S, 11) or " the book 
of the covenant" (II. Kings xxiii. 2, 21; II. Chronicles 
xxxiv. 30), or " the book of the law of Yahweh " (II. 
Chron. xxxiv. 14). Modem scholarship seems to have 
demonstrated that this book was nothing more than the 
Deuteronomic Code. The next stage brings us to the 
riublic recognition, through the influence of Ezra and 
Nehemiah, of the first division of the present Hebrew 
Canon, The Law. The account of this event is given 
in Nehemiah viii.-x. The Pentateuch, as promulgated by 
Ezra and Nehemi.ih in 444 B.C., was practically the Law 
as we have it. But only the Law was made authorita- 
tive by Ezra. Nehemiah viii.-x. speaks of nothing else. 
The Samaritans, moreover, adopted as their sacred book 
only the Pentateuch. This may be taken to prove that 
at late as ?,?& B.C. (according to Jo.«ephus' dating) or at 
any rat« as late as about 410 B.C. ^according to the 
calculation of manv modern scholars) the Law stood 
alone (see SAMARITAN PENTATEUCH). It is true 
that in later times the Samaritans possessed a Book of 
•Joshua. But it resembles the canonical book very little. 
As Wildeboer says, " it is really the beginning of a 
chronicle relating the history down to the time of the 
Roman emperors. Besides, the close connection of 
.Joshua with the Pentateuch, taken together with the fact 
that Joshua is peculiarly the tril)al hero of Ephraim. 
makes this exception quite explicable." In the case of 
the second group of writings, the Prophets, we have no 
historical accounts of a kind of public recognition or 
canonisation. But here again the process was gradual. 
The ultimate recognition of an atithoritative group of 
prophetical writings was the result of a national crisis. 
The prophets were naturally speakers rather than 
writers, but at a comparatively early date they found it 
convenient to commit their words to writing. Thus a 

prophetic literature began to arise in the 8th century 



Canon of the Old Testament 

B.C. This was read even before the Exile, and during 
and after the Exile, was much studied. There is evidence 
of this in the books of Deuteronomy, Isaiah, Ezekiel, 
and Jeremiah. It is not difficult to account for the 
veneration with which this literature came to be re- 
garded. The situation is well described by Robertson 
Smith (O.T.J.C). " When the national existence with 
which the ancient religion of Israel was so closely inter- 
twined was hopelessly shattered, when the voice of the 
prophets was stilled, and the public services of the sanct- 
uary no longer called the devout together, the whole 
continuance of the spiritual faith rested upon the remem- 
brance that the prophets of the Lord had foreseen the 
catastrophe, and had shown how to reconcile it with the 
undiminished trust in Jehovah, the God of Israel. The 
written word acquired a fresh significance for the relig- 
ious life, and the books of the prophets, with those 
records of the ancient history which were either already 
framed in the mould of prophetic thought, or were cast 
in that mould by editors of the time of the Exile, became 
the main support of the faithful, who felt as they had 
never felt before, that the words of Jehovah were pure 
words, silver sevenfold tried, a sure treasure in every 
time of need." The prophetic writings gradually took 
firm hold of the hearts of the godly in Israel. Con- 
sequently, " these books had no need to be brought from 
Babylon with the approval of a ro.val rescript, or laid 
before the nation by the authority of a Tirshatha. The 
only form of public recognition which was wanting, and 
which followed in due course, was the practice of reading 
from the Prophets in the public worship of the synagogue. 
It required no more formal process than the natural use 
made of this ancient literature, to bring it little by little 
into the shape of a fixed collection." The collection was 
not at once formally fixed, because for Ezra's purpose, 
that of establishing a theocracy, the Priestly Law was of 
primary importance. When, and for what reasons, was 
it formally fixed? The strictly historical books known 
as " the former prophets " (Joshua, Judges, Samuel, 
Kings) immediately continue the narrative part of the 
Pentateuch, and are connected organically with it. It 
is reasonable therefore to suppose that these formed an 
early appendix, as it were, to the I>aw. " It is quite 
ix>ssible," .says Wildeboer, " that the memory of the 
interval between the canonization of the historical books 
and of the prophetic writings proper is perpetuated by 
the order of the two groups of books and by the appella- 
tion based upon it, NeMim Rishonim and Aharonim." 
Wildeboer thinks that there is an element of truth in II. 
Maccabees ii. 13 which says that Nehemiah, " founding 
a library, gathered together the books about the kings 
and prophets and the books of David, and letters of 
kings about sacred gifts." Nehemiah collected a number 
of books: and this collection, which was held in high 
esteem, became the basis of the second and third parts 
of the Canon. At the same time he had no intention of 
ascribing canonical authority to this collection. A pre- 
eminent place in it was taken by the books of Joshua, 
Judges. Samuel, and Kings. These formed the founda- 
tion of the second division of the Canon, and in later 
times were rightly called Nebiim Rishonim. To this 
early collection was added in course of time the Nebiim 
Aeharonim. It, has already been mentioned that the 
Book of Daniel is not included in the second division of 
the Canon. The true explanation of this seems to be 
that it did not gain canonical recognition until after the 
division had been closed. It has been thought, moreover, 
that the Book of Daniel itself in ix. 2. where it speaks 
of " the books " (ha-sephdrim) assumps as well known 
a collection of prophetic writings. There are excellent 
reasons for concluding that the Book of Daniel was cam- 



Canon of the Old Testament 



91 



Canticles 



posed between the years 168 and 165 B.C. (eee DANIEL, 
BOOK OF). Another clue may perhaps be found in the 
fact tliat Isaiiah xxlv.-xxvi., which probably belongs to 
about 332 B.C., is included in the collection. This would 
suggest that the prophetico-historical and the other pro- 
phetic writings were canonized some time after 332 B.C. 
and before 165 B.C. Wildeboer thinks that the date will 
probably have been about 20O B.C. Jesus ben Sira is 
thought to lend support to this view (xliv.-l.). When he 
mentions " the Twelve." it is supposed that he had in 
mind the technical name for the Twelve Minor Prophets. 
The Greek Ecelesiasticus may be placed between the 
years 130 and 120 B.C. The Hebrew original falls 
between the years 190 and 170 B.C. In the Prologue to 
Ecelesiasticus the grandson of Jesus ben Sira speaks of 
his grandfather as having " giving himself to the reading 
of the Law and the Prophets and other books of our 
fathers." Speaking of his own time, he says that " many 
and great things have been delivered unto us by the Law 
and the Prophets, and by others that have followed their 
steps." Such language has been taken to indicate that 
for some time the Law and the Prophets had been recog- 
nized as clearly defined groups. After the time of Ezra, 
it was apparently the scribes of Jerusalem who determ- 
ined what books should be regarded as sacred. In the 
case of the third division of the Canon, the Kethubim, 
historical statements as to the canonization are again 
wanting. But clearly here, as in the other groups, tie 
collection was formed gradually. The beginning seems 
to have been made with the Book of Psalms. In the Xew 
Testatment we actually find a reference (Luke xxiv. 44) 
to "the Law and the Prophets and the Psalms." The 
third group may be supposed to have existed for a time 
as an undefined collection. But. as Wildeboer says, it 
was not every book that could gain admission to this 
indefinite group. " There were admitted to it only books 
written in Hebrew or Aramaic, which treated of the 
ancient history (Rnth, Chronicles), or gave information 
about the establishment of the new order of things (Ezra- 
Nehemiah), or which were supposed to have been written 
by some famous person of ancient times (Proverbs, Eeeles- 
iast«8, Canticles, I-amentations. Daniel, perhaps Job 
also): while E.sther obtained admission (after much con- 
troversy, as was the case with Eeclesiast-es) because it 
was in complete harmony with the national sentiment of 
people and scribes alike." The Old Testament Canon 
seems to have been closed in the course of the second 
century, and not before. As Comill says : " it was not 
Israel, not the Judaism of Ezra or of the Maccabees, that 
definitely fixed and established the Old Testament Canon, 
but only Talmudlcal Judaism at its early stages for the 
purposes of self-presen-ation." H<;ischer thinks that there 
was pressing need for the Pharisees and Rabbis to assert 
the antiquity and authority of the classical writings. 
There had arisen a new literature which gave voice to 
the thoughts and hopes of the time, a literature such as 
had not previously existed, the Apocalyptic Literature 
(7.t'.). It was eagerly accepted by the devout souls 
among the people, for it spoke of the realization of hopes 
in days not far distant, but within the reach of living 
men. And though it was really new, it professed to be 
old. It was received with such enthusiasm that, though 
it never really disputed the authority of the Torah and 
the other scriptures, it did as a matter of fact tend to 
overshadow the ancient literature. The books were put 
forward under the names and authority of the patriarchs. 
And, compared with the definite and detailed predictions 
of the Apocalyptic writers, what were the vague and 
general utterances of the prophets? What was the age of 
the Torah which Moses received compared to the revela- 
tions which Noah, Enoch, and even Adam received in the 



earliest days? The Apocalyptic literature in fact 
assumed an air of superiority. Thus the position of the 
really ancient literature seemed to he threatened. Some- 
thing had to be done to defend it. The final fixing of 
the Canon was a blow aimed at the apocalyptic literature. 
The Rabbis had come to look upon the apocalyptic wisdom 
and tiie apocalyptic writings with anxiety and even to 
show pronounced hostility towards them. And the oppos- 
ition was most bitter and pronounced just at that time 
when the principle of the Canon was established. See 
F. Buhl: H. E. Ryle: W. Sanday, /. ; G. Wildeboer; W. 
H. Green, Introd. to the O.T., 1899: G. Holscher, 
Kaiwnisch und Apolcryph, 1905; C. Cornill, Intr. 

CANONS OF EUSEBIUS. Eusebius, in constructing 
his Harmony of the Gospels, divided the text of each 
Gospel into sections or small chapters. The indices or 
rabies of these sections he called " canons " (Gk. 
kanone.s). See HARMONIES OF THE GOSPELS. 

CANOPY. Above the altar in the temples of Tibetan 
Buddhists or L.amas " is suspended a large silken 
parasol, the oriental symbol of ro.valty, which slightly 
revolves in one or other direction by the ascending cur- 
rents of the warm air from the lamps. And over all is 
stretched a canopy, called the ' sky ' on which are 
depicted the thunder dragons of the sky " (L. A. 
Waddell). 

CANTICLES. One of the books of the Bible. It is 
included in the tiird division of the Canon (q.v.). that is 
to say among the Kethubim or Hagiographa. It is also 
one of the five books belonging to the sub-division Megil- 
loth or ■■ Rolls." Other names of the book are the 
" Song of Solomon " and the " Song of Songs " (i.e., the 
choicest of all songs). The theme of the Song of Songs 
is love. Older scholars (following Herder) regarded the 
book as a collection of independent love-songs. It is 
now held by many (following Ewald) to be a kind of 
drama. Whereas the older scholars recognised only two 
characters — King Solomon and a Shulammite (or 
Shunammite) maiden — later scholars have discovered 
three principal characters — King Solomon, a Shulam- 
mite (or Shunammite) maiden, and a young shepherd to 
whom she is betrothed — and a kind of chorus consisting 
of the •• daughters of Jerusalem." King Solomon tries 
to win the affections of the maiden, but she remains true 
to her shepherd-lover, and true love triumphs (chap. 
viii. 5-7). Another explanation of the poem connects it 
with marriage customs which still prevail among the 
peasants of Syria. The customs have been described by 
.1. G. Wetzstein. The substance of his descriptions is 
given in the Eiici/cl. Bibl. (s.v. " Canticles "). " During 
the seven days after a wedding, high festivity, with 
scarcely interrupted singing and dancing, prevails. The 
bridegroom and the bride play the part of king and 
queen (hence the week is called the ' king's week '), and 
receive the homage of their neighbours: the crown, how- 
ever, is at present in Syria (as in Greece) confined to the 
bride (contrast Song iii. 11). The bridegroom has his 
train of companions (to borrow the ancient term, Judg. 
xiv. 11). and the grander the wedding the more of these 
there are. The bride too has her friends (cp. ' daughters 
of Jerusalem,' Song i. 5, etc.), the maidens of the place, 
who take an important part in the reception of the bride- 
groom (cp. Ps. xlv. 14. Mt. XXV. 1-13)." This would 
suggest tiat in Canticles the " king " (King Solomon) 
represents the young husband, while the Shulammite (or 
Shunammite) maiden is his young wife. In any case, 
the poem is of a .secular nature, however good the moral 
may be. and it is rather surprising that it should have 
gained admittance into the Canon. The explanation is 
that, owing to the mention of Solomon, it was believed 
to be of Solomonic authorship, and that it was inter- 



Capuchins 



92 



Carmelites 



preted as a spiritual allegory (so in the Fourth Book of 
Esdras). But the canonical authority of the book was 
certainly for a time a matter of controversy among Jewish 
scholars (see the passage from the Mishnah quoted under 
BCCLBSIASTES). It is clear " that in the second cen- 
tury A.D. there was still vigorous dispute about some 
books of the Kethubim, viz.. Proverbs, Ecelesiastes, 
Canticles, and Esther " (G. Wildeboer). As regards the 
date of Canticles, certain peculiarities in the language 
(Persian and Greek loan-words, etc.) seem to require a 
time not earlier than 300 B.C. See C. H. Comill. hitr.; 
G. Currie Martin, Proverbs, Ecelesiastes, and Song of 
Solomon in the "Century Bible"; G. Wildeboer. 

CAPUCHINS. An off-shoot of the Franciscans (g.v.). 
or rather of a branch of the Franciscans, the Observant- 
ines (g.v.). The Observatines adhered to the strict rule 
of Francis of Assisi. Matteo di Bassi of Urbino was one 
of them, being a member of the Observantine fraternity 
at Monte Falco. He came to the conclusion, however, 
that the hood (capuche) used by St. Francis was different 
from that adopted afterwards by the Franciscan monks. 
In 1520, therefore, he went to Pope Clement VII., and 
obtained permission " to put on a pyramidal capuche, to 
wear a long beard, to live as a hermit, and to preach 
wherever he liked, on the condition that he should report 
once every year at the provincial chapter of the 
Observants [Observantines] " (Schaff-Herzog). But the 
Observantines regarded him as an apostate. He was 
joined by others, and the new body was befriended by the 
Conventuals. In 1528 the Capuchins or Fratres Minores 
Capuzini were confirmed by Pope Clement VII. as a 
separate congregation, but were placed under the 
authority of the Conventuals. It was agreed that they 
should be allowed to live the hermit life, to wear beards, 
and to use the pyramidal capuche. " They should have 
only a vicar-general, and he should be confirmed by the 
general of the (Conventuals; they should be subject to 
visitations from the chapter of the Conventuals; when 
walking in a procession, they should walk under the cross 
of the Conventuals, and not under a cross of their own, 
etc." (Schaff-Herzog). In IfilO they obtained more inde- 
pendence, when they were allowed to walk in procession 
under a cross of their own, and to have their own general. 
Before this the Order had spread from Italy to France. 
(Jermany, and Spain. In France and Germany the Order 
was abolished in the eighteenth century: but in Austria, 
Switzerland, and the British Isles it .still flourishes. In 
1534 an Order of Capuchin nuns was founded in Italy. 
See Schaff-Herzog; the Oath. Encycl. 

CAPUTIATI. The followers of one Durand. a car- 
penter, a sect which appeared in Auvergne in 11S2. They 
were so called from the caps or hoods which they wore. 
They proclaimed universal liberty and equality; and 
Durand professed to have received revelations from the 
Virgin Mary in the light of which he hoped to establish 
peace in the Church. They were suppressed by Bishop 
Hugo of Aux-erre, who marched against them with troops. 
See Schaff-Herzog; J. H. Blunt. 

CARBONARI. The word means literally " charcoal- 
burners " or " colliers." It was adopted as the name of 
a secret society, which was founded in the Abruzzi in 
ISOS. the name being due to the fact that there were many 
charcoal-burners in that part of Italy. In organising 
the society, and arranging its ceremonial, the founders 
seem to have taken .sugge.'stions from freemasonry and 
Christianity. It had lodges, mystic rites of initiation. 
and four grades of members. In 1815 the Carbonari 
were a political force of considerable power and 
significance. Its members afterwards included the 
Italian poet Silvio Pellico (1788-1 8.')4). Lord Bvron (1788- 
1824), and Guiseppe (Joseph) Mazzini (1805-1872). Maz- 



zini. however, from the first seems to have shown dis- 
satisfaction with the organisation of the Carbonari. He 
was amused at their ceremonies of affiliation, and " re- 
flected with surprise and distrust that the oath which 
had been administered to him was a mere formula of 
obedience, containing nothing as to the aim to be reached 
. . . it was war to the Government, nothing more." 
The association which he himself founded later seems 
to have been intended to be an improvement upon that of 
the Carbonari. This new association was called " Toung 
Italy." It was followed by another called "Young 
Europe." Cp. PACT OF FRATERNITY. See C. W. 
Heckethom. Secret Societies of All Ages, 1874; and 
Chamhers' Encyc. 

CARDINAL. The term is explained as follows in C. 
H. Bowden's Simple Dictionary for Catholics. " A name 
first given (in the fourth century) to the priests having 
charge of the Roman parish churches or ' titles,* and 
now to the immediate counsellors and assistants of the 
Sovereign Pontiff, whose elect.ion rests with them. The 
college of Cardinals consists of six bishops, fifty priests, 
and fourteen deacons; but the number is seldom com- 
plete." 

CARDINAL VIRTUES. According to Plato, the chief 
or cardinal virtues are four: Wisdom, Fortitude, Tem- 
perance and Justice. St. Ambrose suggested the addi- 
tion of the three Christian virtues : Faith, Hope, and 
Love. 

CAR FESTIVALS. Tliese festivals are now char- 
acteristic of Hinduism. They are processions In con- 
nection with the more important temples. That in con- 
nection with the Temple of Jagan-nath is famous. On 
these occasions " the Idols are placed on huge massive 
cars supported on four large solid wheels, not made, like 
our wheels, with spokes and felloes. A big beam serves 
as the axle, and supports the car proper, which is some- 
times fifty feet in height." The thick blocks forming 
the base have figures of men and women carv'ed on them. 
" Several stages of carved planking are raised upon this 
basement, gradually diminishing in width until the whole 
fabric has the form of a pyramid." The car is decorated 
witli garlands, etc., and the idol richly apparelled and 
bedecked with jewels is placed in the middle of it under 
a canopy. The car is drawn by thick cables, more than 
a thousand i)ersons ssometimes being harnessed to it. 
Seated on the car, around the idol, are dancing-girls w!ho 
fan the idol, and many other persons who guide the car 
and spur on those who are dragging it. "The proces- 
sion advances .slowly. From time to time a halt is made, 
during which a most frightful uproar of shouts and cries 
.and whistlings is kept up." The courtesans perform 
dances; and "as long as the procession continues, the 
drums, trumpets, and all .sorts of musical instruments 
give forth their discordant sounds." And " finally, a 
great number of devotees crawl slowly before the car on 
hands and knees. Those who have nothing else to do 
shriek and shout so that even the thunder of the great 
Indra striking the giants would not be heard by them." 
See J. A. Dubois and H. K. Beauchamp. 

CARIY.^PITAKA. A Buddhist .sacred book included 
an the collection appended to the .second division of the 
Canon. See CANON. BUDDHIST. 

CARMELITES. An order of monks founded about 
1150 A.D. at the Well of Elijah on Mount Carmel by a 
crusader named Berthold. There seem to have been 
hermits there already. The community established by 
Berthold received in 1209 a rule in sixteen articles from 
Albert, Patriarch of Jerusalem. By this the monks were 
required to live in separate cells, to renounce the posses- 
sion of property, to abstain from meat, and to observe 
a strict fast for a certain period. They were recom- 



Carnival 



93 



Cat, The 



mended also to work with their hands and to observe 
silence The rule was confirmed by Pope Hononus III. 
an 1224 In 1238 the Muhammadan danger made it neces- 
sary for them to leave Mount Carmel and establish them- 
eelves in Europe. The change required them also to 
abandon the life of hermits. In 1247, therefore^ their 
rule was changed with the approval of Innocent IV., and 
thev were confirmed under the title of Friars of Our Lady 
of Mount Carmel. They now became a mendicant order, 
and adopted a brown habit with white cloak and scapular. 
In England thev became known as the White Friars. 
The scapular " consists of two stripes of gray cloth, worn 
on the breast and on the back, and connecting with each 
other on the shoulders " (SchafT-Herzog). It was 
believed that the pattern of this piece of dress was re- 
vealeil to St. Simon Stock, general of the order (1245), 
by Our Lady herself. In 1431 the rule of the order was 
further relaxed bv Poih? Eugenius IV. This led to divis- 
ions There arose Observantines or Discalced Car- 
melites who followed the stricter rule, and Conventuals 
or Caleed Carmelites who followed the milder rule. In- 
dependent congregations were founded for the observance 
of the strict rule, such as the Congregation of Mantua, 
which owed its origin to Thomas Connecte. In 14.52 an 
order of Carmelite Nuns was founded in France, but in 
course of time the strict rule was relaxed. St. Teresa, 
desiring a return to the strict rule, founded the Dis- 
calced Carmelite Nuns in Spain. With the help of St. 
Peter of Alcantara ahe founded there also reformed con- 
vents for men. In England there were at one time fifty- 
two Carmelite houses. See Schaff-Herzog; the Cath. 
Diet. 

CARNIVAL. A word composed of two Ijatin terms 
and denoting either a farewell to flesh-meat or a solace 
of the flesh. It is an institution in Roman Catholic 
countries. A carnival is held on the three days pre- 
ceding Lent. It " is a special season for feasting, danc- 
ing, masquerading, and mirth of all sorts," and is 
observed in Rome as well as in other places. " In itself 
this custom is innocent, although the Church from 
Septuagesima onwards assumes the garb of penance, and 
prepares her children, by tie saddened tone of her oflBce, 
for the I>enten season " (Addis and Arnold). See Cath. 
Diet. 

CARPOCRATIANS. The followers of Carpocrates of 
Alexandria. Carpocrates (bom in the first half of the 
second century) was a Platonist and a kind of Gnostic. 
His son Epiphanes, who was only seventeen years old 
when he died, was worshipped as a god at Cephalonia, 
where a temple and museum -stood in his honour. Car- 
pocrates " believed in one God, from whom emanated a 
whole hierarchy of angels. The visible world is their 
work. The souls of men first moved around the Father- 
God ; then they fell into the power of matter, from which 
they have to lie released to go back to their original state. 
Jesus, the son of Joseph, naturally bom like other men, 
and subiect as they are to metempsychosis was able, by 
a remembrance of what he had known in his first exist- 
ence, and by power sent from above, to obtain dominion 
over the rulers of this world, and to re-ascend to the 
Father. It is in the power of all men by following his 
example, and by the method he usmI, to despise the 
creators of this world and to escape from them. They 
can achieve this equally well, or even better, than he 
did. This scheme of deliverance is consistent with all 
conditions of life, and with every kind of act " 
(Duchesne). Jerome charges the Carpocratians with 
mutilating the Gospels; Irenaeus accuses them of dealing 
in magic. The Carpocratians paid reverence not only to 
images of Jesns Christ, but also to those of Pythagoras, 
Plato, Aristotle, and other sages. They believed that 



Jesus imparted secret teaching to his disciples. The CJar- 
pocratian heresy was introduced into Rome by Marcel- 
lina (see MARCELLINIANS). See J. H. Blunt; Louis 
Duchesne, Hist. 

CARTHUSIANS. An order of monks founded in the 
eleventh century by St. Bruno. Bruno went from 
Cologne, his birthplace, to Rheims, and there as "scholast- 
icus " made a reputation as a teacher. Before long, 
however, he decided to retire from the life of the world. 
He left Rheims, went to Hugh, Bishop of Grenoble, and 
unburdened his soul to him, telling him that, with certain 
companions, he wished to live a life of severe au.sterity 
and self-discipline. Bishop Hugh pointed out to him a 
site in La Chartreuse (whence the name Carthusian) near 
Grenoble, a spot accessible only by a difficult and gloomy 
path, and here in 1086 with his followers he erected an 
oratory and small separate cells around it, as in the 
Lauras (q.v.) of Palestine. A few years later Bmno 
was .summoned to Rome by his old pupil, now the Pope, 
Urban II., never to return to La Chartreuse. Later he 
founded convents at Squillace and Ija. Torre in Calabria, 
and he retired to La Torre to end his days there (t 1101). 
The Carthusians wore very rough and scanty dress, which 
included nex-t to the skin coarse hair-shirts. They fasted 
almost without interruption. Sick or well, they would 
never touch flesh. But they ate fish when it was given 
to them as alms. On Sundays and Thursdays they ate 
eggs and cheese; on Tuesdays and Saturdays boiled pulse 
or herbs; on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays they 
took only bread and water. They ate only bran bread. 
Except on special occasions, they had only one meal a 
day. They devoted themselves to .some manual work, 
chiefly the "transcribing of books, and to constant prayer 
and worship, alone and in common. For some time they 
seem to have had no written rale. The rales were first 
written down by Guigo, fifth prior of La Chartreuse 
(1228). In 1259 a collection of all the decisions of the 
chapter-general since 1141 was made by Bernard de la 
Tour. In 1581 a fourth compilation appeared (Nova 
Collectio Htatuorum Ordinis Cartusiensis). In 1688 this 
was approved of by Pope Innocent XI. The name Char- 
treuse, which in England became Charterhouse, was given 
to all the monasteries of the order. In France at the 
beginning of the eighteenth century there were seventy- 
five monasteries. These were all swept away during the 
Revolution. There were nearly a hundred monasteries 
elsewhere. In England there were nine at the time of 
the dissolution. The Carthusian nunneries seem to have 
been founded in the thirteenth or fourteenth century. 
London still has its " Charterhouse," though it now 
serves a new purpose. The site, near Smithfield. with 
the surrounding land was purchased in 1.349 by Sir Walter 
de Manny (t 1.372) as a burial-place for those wlio died 
from the" Black Death." In 1.371 on the same land he 
founded a house of Carthusian monks. At the dissolu- 
tion the prior was hanged for refusing to renounce the 
Pope's supremacy, and the monastery passed into the 
hands of the Speaker of the House of Commons. Sir 
Thomas Audlev (1488-1.544). In course of time it was 
purchased bv Thomas Sutton (1532-1611), who founded a 
hospital and school, the hospital (home) for eighty men, 
by preference military men, the school for forty boys. 
The school was in course of time removed to Godalming. 
The Hospital remains, and now accommodates eighty 
Poor Brothers or pensioners. See Schaff-Herzog; W. 
Benham; the Cath. Did.; Chamhers'-t Encncl. 

CASWALLAWN. A war-god worshipped by the British 
Celts. Probably the British warrior Cassivellaunus owes 
his name to him. 

CAT, THE. In ancient Egypt the cat was regarded as 
a sacred animal, " especially in the nome of Buhastis, 



Catacombs 



91 



Catholic Epistles 



where cat-mummies may be counted by tens of tbou- 
aands " (S. Reinach, Cults). The goddess Bast is figured 
with the head of a cat. It was a crime to kill cats; 
and it was forbidden in early times to export them from 
Egypt. Among the Greeks and Romans they were practi- 
cally unknown. Not until the fourth century, when 
Christianity triumphed in Egypt, did the domestic cat 
begin to travel. The Greek monks when they left Egypt 
to preach in Europe took the cat with them. " Thus," 
says Reinach, " the cat. a local totem in Egypt, tamed 
and domesticated in that country only, spread over 
Europe when Egyptian paganism had vanished and all 
the barriers reared by the old cult had been levelled 
with the ground." In Scandinavian mythology the 
chariot of Freyja, a goddess of fertility, was drawn by 
cats. The Mangs, a low caste of the Maratha Districts 
in India, regard the cat as a sacred animal. Their most 
solemn oath is sworn on a cat. 

CATACOMBS. Recent archaeological discoveries have 
thrown new light on the Roman catacombs, underground 
passages and chambers, which were used by the early 
Christians for concealment from their persecutors, for 
burial, and for worship. " The catacombs represent the 
most notable monuments of primitive Christianity which 
have come down to us. They are entirely of Christian 
construction, and did not originate, as was formerly sup- 
posed, out of ancient stone quarries, but are hewn out 
of the tufa rock. The vastness of these labyrinths 
awakens astonishment when we consider the poverty of 
the early Christians " (Camden M. Cobem). The eata- 
combe were dug along several of the principal streets 
leading out from Rome. " They are narrow passages 
with graves on the right and left, the number of which 
has been estimated at nearly two miUions. They were 
evidently built on Jewish models, tie Jews having made 
such underground cemeteries near Rome in pre-Christian 
time. Several of these Jewish catacombs remain, con- 
taining pictures which represent the olive branch, the 
dove, the palm, the seven-branched candlestick, and a 
number of inscriptions, prominent among which may 
be seen the Hebrew word ci''-" " Peace." Up to A.D. 
70 the early Christians were legally regarded as Jews 
by the Roman Government, and could doubtless be buried 
in Jewish catacombs or in graves of their own without 
fear. Burial places, even of criminals, were sacredlv 
re-speeted by the Roman Empire, so that for severa'l 
generations Christian cemeteries were not disturbed." 
The earliest of the catacombs, such as those of Domitilla. 
Priscilla, Commodilla. and the crypt of Lucina, date back 
to the first century: but the majority of those dug up 
(more than .50) during something over 300 years belong 
to the fourth century. Even after churches and ceme- 
teries were built above ground, the catacombs continued 
in use. By the eighth century, however, they had been 
deserted, and from the tenth to the sixteenth" they were 
almost entirely forgotten. In tie catacombs have been 
found many beautiful inscriptions and paintings. 
Through the munificence of the Holy See. " there has 
been dug up a treasure of early Christian epitaphs and 
paintings, valuable beyond all expectations, which has 
given much unlooked-for information concerning the faith 
of the early Christians, their concepts of life, hopes of 
eternity, family relations, etc." (Anton de Waal. Cath. 
Encyclopwdia). See A. P. Stanley, Chr. Institution/i. 
1882: and the Cath. Diet. 

CATAFALQUE. The name given to a structure. 
usually empty, like a bier, placed in the centre or other 
suitable part of a Roman Catholic church while Masses 
are said for the dead. The term also includes the tapers, 
ornaments, etc., with which the structure is surrounded. 
Another name for the structure with all the decorations 



is caatrum doloria or " castle of grief." The French 
name is chapeUe ardente. 

CATASTERISM. Translation into the stars. " The 
heroes of mythology, or even those of human society, 
continued to live in the sky in the form of brilliant stars. 
Ther« Perseus again met Andromeda, and the Centaur 
Chiron, who is none other than Sagittarius, was' on terms 
of good fellowship with the Dioscuri." To some extent 
the good or bad qualities of such heroes were then 
ascribed to the constellations. " For instance, the ser- 
pent, wiich shines near the northern pole, was the author 
of medical cures, because it was the animal sacred to 
Aesculapius " (Franz Cumont, O.R.). 

CATECHISM. Catechism means properly teaching by 
word of mouth or oral instruction, but the term has come 
to denote a summary of Christian doctrine, usually in 
the form of question and answer. As a result of delibera- 
tions at the Council of Trent. Pope Pius IV. was com- 
missioned to arrange for the drawing up of a Catechism 
for the Roman Catholic Church. This appeared towards 
the close of 1566 under the title " Catechismus Romanus. 
ex Decreto Concilii Tridentini, Pii V. Pont. Max. jussu 
editus." Since that time other Catechisms of various 
sizes have been prepared by Bishops. The Catechism 
incorporated in the Prayer Book of the Church of Eng- 
land (as far as the end of the explanation of the Lord's 
Prayer) was composed in 1.549 : but the latter irnrt on the 
Sacraments was added, after the Hampton Court Con- 
ference, in 1604. 

CATECHUMENS. A name formerly given to those 
who were being prepared for Christian baptism. The 
instruction often lasted for two or three years, and 
the catechumens were divided into classes. See Cath. 
Diet. 

CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE. An expression used 
by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) to 
describe the fundamental law of the practical reason and 
the highest universal principle of morality. The prin- 
ciple is this : " So act that the maxim of your Will (or 
the subjective principle of your willing) can always stand 
at the same time as the principle of a universal law." 
As compared with the Categorical Imperative, the Hypo- 
thetical Imperative denotes mere rules of convenience for 
particular cases and definite circumstances. " To .speak 
the truth is a Categorical Imperative. To take due exer- 
cise every day is a hypothetical imperative whose neces- 
sity depends on the hypothesis that I wish to keep well " 
(Butler). See C. J. Deter, 1906: Arthur Butler. 

C.\TEQUIL. Catequil was one of the deities wor- 
-shipped by the ancient Peruvians. He was the god of 
thunder, and as such was greatly feared. To propitiate 
him children were sacrificed. He was armed with a 
club and sling. See Lewis Spence. 

CATHEDRAL. The church which contains the 
cathedra or seat of the bishop of a diocese and in which 
he performs the chief episcopal functions of the year. In 
the Roman basilicas the bishop's seat was a marble chair 
behind the altar. " This marble chair is often called 
tie Cardinal's chair, because when the church was 
served by a Cardinal it was his seat " (.1. H. Parker, 
Gloss.). The best example of the survi\-al of the Bishop's 
chair in England is .said to be that behind the altar in 
Norwich Cathedral. A few examples are to be seen on 
tie Continent. 

CATHOLIC APOSTOLIC CHURCH. HOLY. The title 
assumed in 1832 bv tie followers of Edward Irving (1792- 
1834). See IRVINGITES. 

CATHOLIC EPISTLES. A name given from early 
times to certain of the New Testament Epistles, because 
they seemed to have been addressed to the whole 
(catholic) Church. The group originally was considered 



Catholic Truth Society, The 



95 



Centeoti 



to include the Firat. Epistle of John and the First Epistle 
of Peter. Afterwards it was extended (from the third 
century), and was made to comprise also the Epistles of 
James" and Jude, the Second Epistle of Peter, and the 
Second and Third Epistles of John. These epistles were 
quite small books. They could easily be circulated. As 
Dr. C. R. Gregory says, James, the longest of the 
Epistles, would fillonly about ten pages. To copy and 
distribute it widely will have been a simple matter. 

CATHOLIC TRUTH SOCIETY, THE. The beginnings of 
a movement in the direction of the work of the Catholic 
Truth Society were suggested by the Anglican movement 
which began with the " Tracts for the Times." About a 
dozen persons, Roman Catholic priests and others, recog- 
nising the importance of cheap but attractive publications 
in support or in the service of the Faith, decided to con- 
tribute a pound each for this purpose. Three booklets 
were published, which not only excited interest but even 
realized a small profit. Dr. Coffin, Bishop of Southwark, 
when his attention was directed to the work, became an 
active sympathiser and patron. Early in 1884 a meeting 
was held at Messrs. Burns and Gates, the publishers, to 
consider the further development of the work, but no 
practical decision was arrived at. On November 5. 1884, 
a meeting was held at Herbert House, at which Bishop 
Vanghan presided. The Bishop had been approached by 
James Britten, had consented to become President of a 
new society, and had suggested that this new society 
should take up the name and work of " The Catholic 
Truth Society." The society was therefore formally re- 
established, with Gteorge Whitlaw as Trea-surer, and 
Father Cologan and James Britten as Honorary Secre- 
taries. The earlier Catholic Truth Society had been 
established in 1868 by Dr. Vaughan. Rector of St. 
Joseph's Missionary College, Mill Hill, Lady Herbert, 
and Father Bamfield. It had not been a great success. 
Its precursors had been a " Catholic Society for the Dis- 
tribution of Prayer-Books, Catechisms, etc." (1832); and 
a '• Catholic Tract Society " (1834), which had been 
amalgamated in 18.38 with the " Catholic Institute," an 
organization for the printing and distribution of litera- 
ture. In connection with the re-established " Catholic 
Truth Society," in 1888 an Annual Conference, somewhat 
similar to the Anglican Church Congress, was held. "Since 
then the Conferences have l)een an annual event in the 
Catholic life of England, and have afforded a platform 
for the delivery, by suc-cessive Archbishops, of important 
pronouncements affecting the action of English Catho- 
lics " (James Britten). In February 18S7 the work of 
the '■ Catholic Truth Society " had grown to such an 
extent that special premises were taken. The Society 
now had important branches in Ireland, Scotland, Aus- 
tralia. New York, and other plac-es. Off-shoots are the 
'• Catholic Needlework Guild " and the " Catholic 
Guardians' Association." The aims of the Society have 
been condensed into four sentences. 1. To di.sseminate 
among Catholics small and cheap devotional works. 2. 
To assist the uneducated poor to a better knowledge of 
their religion. 3. To spread among Protestants informa- 
tion about Catholic Truth. 4. To promote the circula- 
tion of good, cheap, and popular Catholic works. The 
pamphlets written to spread among Protestants informa- 
tion regarding Catholic Truth " are unfortunately largely 
controversial, for in stating Catholic truth it is too often 
necessary to expose Protestant falsehood." In addition 
to pamphlets, the Catholic Truth Society publishes a 
number of larger works. Cardinal Newman, who had 
looked forward to .seeing the establishment of a Catholic 
Society on the lines of the Anglican " Society for the 
Promotion of Christian Knowledge," is said to have found 
the realization of hi-s dream in the Catholic Truth 



Society. Abbot Gasquet emphasises the great importance 
and absolute necessity of the work of the Catholic Truth 
Society. " There is hardly a paper, magazine, or book 
— that is perhaps too wide — so let me say there are few 
publications by non-Catholic writers which do not display 
an ignorance about Catholic matters which is simply 
amazing. Statements are made in such works which are 
wholly or partly fal.se. Sometimes this is obviously 
intentional, but let us hope generally that it is done in 
ignorance." See Abbot Gasquet and James Britten, 
The Catholic Truth Society. 

CAUSAL NEXUS. THE. The Causal Nexus (Pratitya 
Samutpada) is a formula in Buddhism held in high 
esteem by all Buddhists. It is as follows : 

Ignorance produces the syntheses; 
The syntheses produce cognition; 
Cognition produces name and form ; 
Name and form produce the sixfold sphere 

(sense surfaces and understanding); 
The sixfold sphere produces contact ; 
Contact produces feeling: 
Feeling produces craving; 
Craving produces grasping; 
Grasping produces renewed existence; 
Renewed existence produces birth ; 
Birth produces old age and death, grief, lamenta- 
tion, distress, melancholy and despair. 

The nexus forms a chain with twelve links. And 
•' though the ideas underlying the connection of these 
twelve links are much disputed, it is clear that some sort 
of natural law is maintained, resulting in a new existence, 
and that in the series of causes craving and grasping are 
those which immediately produce this new existence " 
(H. Hackmann). See C. A. F. Rhys Davids, A Buddhist 
ilanual of Psychological Ethics, 1909: H. Hackmann. 

CAVES, SACRED. In Aegean religion there seems 
to have been nothing resembling a special religious 
building. Houses and palaces had small chambers or 
shrines. Apart from these, the worship of the gods on 
a large scale seems to have been pur.sued in the open air, 
or in graves, or in caves. To such places pilgrimages 
were made. See H. R. Hall, A. A. 

CELE.STINIAN HERMITS. A branch of the Fran- 
ciscans (g.r.). The institution, which was named after 
Pope C-elestine V. who authorised it, grew out of a desire 
to practise with greater strictness the rule of St. Francis. 

CELESTINIANS. An order of monks founded about 
1254 by the hermit Peter of Morone. In 1294 Peter of 
Morone became the "hermit Pope" Celestine V. His 
hermits then called themselves Celestinians or Celestines. 
They devoted tiemselves entirely to a contemplative life. 
They rose at 2 a.m. to say matins: " abstained perpetu- 
ally from meat unless in case of illness, and fasted every 
da.v from the Exaltation of the Cross to Easter, and twice 
a week for the rest of the year" (Cath. Diet.). The 
Cele.stinians spread through France, Italy, and (jermany, 
but the order has now almost disappeared. 

CELLITE BROTHERS AND SISTERS. A more cor- 
rect designation of the fraternity commonly known as 
LuUards (q.v.). 

CENTEOTL. Centeoti was one of the deities wor- 
shipped by the ancient Mexicans. The name was that 
of a goddess, and means Maize-goddess. Onteotl was 
represented as bearing in her arms a child (the young 
maize), or as a frog with many udders. One of her 
descriptions is " the nourisher of men." Just as a young 
male was sacrificed to Tezcatlipoca (i.v.). a maiden, who 
personated Centeoti, was sacrificed to the goddess with 
other victims. " Before her death she took part in 
several symbolic representations which were expressions 



Cerdonians 



96 



Ch'an Tsung 



of the various processes in tin? growth of the harvest. 
The (lay before her sacrifice she sov?ed maize in the 
streets and on the arrival of midnight she was decapi- 
tated and flayed " (Lewis Spence). A priest then donned 
her skin. J. M. Robertson comi)ares the practice of the 
Babylonian priests who identified themselves with the 
Fish-god by wearing artificial fish-skins. See Lewis 
Spen^' J M. Robertson, "The Religions of Ancient 
America," in B.S.W.; P.G., 19U. 

CERDONIANS. A sect named after the Syrian Cerdo, 
who appeared in Rome in 138 A.D. A body of ascetics, 
they declined to marry, to drink wine, or to eat meat. 
They held that the birth and sufferings of Jesus were 
mere appearance. 

CERINTHIANS. The followers of Cerinthus, who 
seems to have flourished about the end of the first 
century A.D., and to have been a contemporary of John 
of Asia. The principal authority for his teaching is 
Irenaeus. According to a story told Irenaeus by Poly- 
carp, John of Asia actually met Cerinthus in Ephesus. 
On entering the baths at Ephesus one day he saw Cerin- 
thus there, and left Immediately saying: " Let us flee; 
the house may fall in, for it shelters Cerinthus, the 
enemy of the truth " (Hwr. iii. 3). The doctrine of 
Cerinthus is stated by Irenaeus in the following passage 
{Hwr. i. 2t)) : " A certain Cerinthus in Asia taught that 
the world was not made by the Supreme God, but by a 
certain power entirely separate and distinct from that 
authority which is above the universe, and ignorant of 
that God who is over all things. He submitted that 
Jesus was not bom of a virgin (for this seemed to him 
impossible), but wa8 the son of Joseph and Mary, born 
as all other men, yet excelling all mankind in righteous- 
ness, prudence, and wisdom. And that after His baptism 
there had descended on Him, from that authority which 
is above all things, Christ in the form of a dove; and 
that then He had announced the unknown Father and 
had worked miracles; but that at the end Christ had 
flown back again from Jesus, and that Jesus suffered 
and rose again, but that Christ remained impassible, 
since He was a spiritual being " (as quoted by A. S. 
Peake). Hippolytus adds that Cerinthus taught that 
the world was made by an angel, and that the Law was 
given to the Jews by another angel, who was the God 
of the Jews. These angels were far below the Supreme 
Being. The teaching of Cerinthus lias often t)een re- 
garded as a mixture of Judaism and Gnosticism. J. M. 
Fuller more correctly speaks of it (Diet, o/ Christ. 
Biogr.) as a link connecting Judaism and Gnosticism. 
A. S. Peake agrees with Th. Zahn in regarding the 
Judaism of Cerinthus as only a learned myth. He points 
out that the representation of Cerinthus as a Judaizing 
Gnostic is due to Epiphanius and Philaster. " It is 
quite likely that what has given rise to it is the way 
in which Irenaeus connects Cerinthus with Carpocrates 
and the Ebionites." Irenaeus speaks of the Ebionites 
as holding views similar to those of Cerinthus and Car- 
pocrates, and as using only the Gospel according to 
Matthew. " The point of contact between the Ebionites 
and Cerinthus lay in their denial of the supernatural 
origin of the humanity of Jesus; and this was extended 
by Epiphanius and Philaster to an acceptance of a 
mutilated Gospel of Matthew and a Judaizing legalism " 
(A. S. Peake). Epiphanius speaks of the Merinthians, 
and connects Merinthus with Cerinthus. Merinthus may 
be another form of the name Cerinthus, or it may be 
a nickname ("noose"). See Louis Duchesne, Hist.; 
Arthur S. Peake in Hastings' E.R.E.; Waee and Piercy. 

CESSAIR. An ancient tribal deity in Ireland. She 
was worshipped there in pre-Celtie times. Later legend 
represents her as the first inhabitant of the island. 



CHAC. A god of rain, thunder, and agriculture in the 
religion of the Mayan Indians. He was worshipped in 
Yucatan. With him were connected a number of sub- 
sidiary deities called the Chac. These were associated 
with the snake, the symbol of rain. 

CHAGIGa. The title of one of the Jewish tractatee 
or treatises which reproduce the oral tradition or un- 
written law as developed by the second century A.D. 
and are included in the Mishnah (q.v.), a collection and 
compilation completed by Rabbi Judah the Holy, or the 
Patriarch, about 200 A.D. The sixty-three tractates of 
the Mishnah are divided into six groups or orders 
(sedarim). Chagigfi is the twelfth tractate of tiie second 
group, which is called Mo'ed (" Festival "). 

CHALCHIHUITLIOUE. One of the deities worshipped 
by the ancient Mexicans. She was the goddess of Water, 
wife of Tlaloc, the god of Rain. See TLALOC. 

CHALDEAN RITE, CHRISTIANS OF. In ecclesias- 
tical usage, according to the Cath. Diet., the name 
Chaldeans denotes the Catholics who belong to the 
Church formed by conversions from Nestorianism. But 
it seems that the Christians of Persia, who claimed that 
Nestorius followed them, called themselves the Chaldean 
Church (F. W. Bussell, p. 152). The Chaldean Catholics 
are now distinguished from the Nestorians properly so- 
called by the name Meshihaya, which means " followers 
of the Messiah." The term Chaldean is not used in a 
linguistic sense. " The Catholics of the Syrian and 
Chaldean rites agree in the use of the Syriac tongue 
in the liturgy; the former, however, using the Western 
or Jacobite, the latter the Eastern or Nestorian, dialect " 
(Cath. Diet.). 

CHALLA. The name of one of the Jewish treatises 
or tractates which reproduce the oral tradition or un- 
written law as developed by the second century A.D. 
and are included in the Mishnah (q.i\), a collection and 
compilation completed by Rabbi Judah the Holy, or the 
Patriarch, about 200 A.D. The sixty-three tractates of 
the Mishnah are divided into six groups or orders 
(sedarim). Challa is the ninth tractate of the first 
group, which is called Zerd'im (" Seeds "). 

CHAMON. A Syrian deity, dedications to whom have 
been found at Ham near Heliopolis, and in Dacia. 
Probably he is to be identified with Hermes (so E. S. 
Bouchier). 

CHAMUNDI. A figure in Hindu mythology, the queen 
of the demons. She plays an important part in the 
devil-charming or devil-driving of the Vannans, a washer- 
men caste in the Tamil and Malayalam countries of 
India. 

CH'AN TSUNG. The name of one of the principal 
schools of thought in Chinese Buddhism. Ch'an means 
Buddhistic meditation, and tsung denotes School. The 
school was founded by Bodhidharma, the Patriarch of 
Indian Buddhism, who settled in China in A.D. 526. 
He urged the true disciples to cultivate the inner being, 
the heart, the nature, of Buddha, and not to concern 
themselves about externalities such as writings and 
ritual. The disciples must receive oral instruction, and 
must practise the " inward look " or deep abstraction. 
" The philosophy based upon this was the ' emptying of 
consciousness ' — that is to say, the complete subjectivity 
of our human conceptions and impressions." Bodhi- 
dharma became known popularly as the Wallgazer. 
" Every outward manifestation was indeed superfluous 
as far as Bodhidharma's contemplative aim was con- 
cerned—whether worship, image, or recitation; and it 
may be that in those early times his school had really 
discarded these things, although, naturally, such is no 
longer the case." In course of time the school split up 
into five subdivisions, which all attached importance to 



Chapter, Cathedral 



97 



Chaula Ceremony 



objeotivism and ext<?mals. and opposed the absolute 
subjectivism of the Ch'an school. See H. Hackmann. 

CHAPTER, CATHEDRAL. An ecclesiastical body 
composed in the Church of England of the prebendaries, 
canons, and dean (who acts as president). In former 
times it goveme<l the diocese whenever the see was 
vacant. Since the thirteenth century this is the case 
" only with regard to an archiepiscopal see " {Prot. 
Diet.). While the Dean and Chapter advise the bishop, 
they enjoy rights and privileges of their own, and often 
act independently. In the Roman Catholic Church 
'• everywhere harmony and co-operation reign between 
the bishops and the cathedral chapters " (Cath. Diet.). 
In England every Catholic diocese has its chapter, con- 
sisting usually of ten canons and a provost. 

CHAPTER. CONVENTUAL. An expression used in 
connection with the monastic Ufe. Monks have long 
been accustomed to meet together every morning to hear 
a chapter (capitulum) of their rule read, and for other 
purposes. The term Capitulum or Chapter came in 
course of time to be applied both to the assembly and 
to the place of meeting. See the Cath. Diet. 

CHAPTER-HOUSE. A Chapter-house may be either 
the room or hall in which the dean and chapter (canons) 
meet to transact business, or the meeting-place of the 
religious of a monastery. Before the thirteenth century 
Chapter-houses were usually rectangular. Now they are 
of various shapes (circle, parallelogram, octagon, etc.). 

CHARCOT SCHOOL. A school of hypnotism founded 
by Professor Charcot of the Paris Salpetri^re. It is 
also called the Paris School, or School of the Salpetrifere. 
It " holds that hypnotism is the result of an abnormal 
or diseased condition of the nerves : that a great number 
of the phenomena can be produced independently of 
suggestion in any form; that the true hypnotic condi- 
tion can be produced only in persons whose nerves are 
diseased ; and that the whole subject is explicable on 
the basis of cerebral anatomy or physiology " (Hudson). 
A person must be in the condition which Charcot calls 
" neuromuscular hyperexcitability." See T. J. Hud.son, 
Psychic Phenomena, 1907; Joseph Lapponi, Hypnotism 
and Spiritism, 1907. 

CHARMS. The use of charms, like tliat of amulets 
(Q.V.), has been common in all religions, and their nature 
has been very varied. It has been found that " in the 
hills of Northern India and as far as Madras, an ap- 
proved charm for getting rid of a disease of demoniacal 
origin is to plant a stake where four roads meet, and 
to bury grains underneath, which crows disinter and 
eat " (Westemjarck). In Morocco, it is said, the cross 
serves as a charm against the evil eye. Dr. Westermarck 
thinks that the chief reason for this is that the cross 
" is regarded as a conductor of the baneful energy 
emanating from the eye, disjiersing it in all the quarters 
of the wind and thus preventing it from injuring the 
person or object looked at." Among the Tibetan Buddh- 
ists or Lamas great virtue is a.scribed to the use of 
charms as a protection against evil spirits. One of the 
commonest charms is the repetition by monks of por- 
tions of the sacred writings. One of the best known of 
the sacred formulae is "Cm! man! padme, hOm ! " or 
" Om ! the jewel in the lotos, hQm ! " It is reputed to 
contain all happiness, knowledge, and capacity. " It is 
adorned with all sorts of mystic additions and inter- 
pretations: the six syllables represent the six divisions 
of the world, and each has its si)ecial appointed colour, 
etc." Many written charms, mantras or dhflrants are 
also in use. The words need not be intelligible to the 
common people. " Such sayings are attached to walls 
or are carried on the person. In case of illness the 
person swallows such a charm, either by itself or mixed 



with some other ingredients. They have them reflected 
In a sacred mirror, which is commonly to be found in 
a temple; then the mirror is diligently washed, and the 
patient drinks the water which has been used for the 
purpose, and which is supposed to have absorbed the 
spirit of the formula " (Hackmann). Or the sacred 
words are written on rags, which are then hung up as 
flags. These prayer-flags are to be seen everywhere. A 
still more mechanical device is the prayer-cylinder. "The 
sacred formula (or a number of them) is printed on a 
long strip of paper rolled round the cylinder, which is 
enclosed in a box, and by means of a stick, which is 
the axle on which it revolves, it is fastened to a handle 
or in a case. Every turn of the cylinder sets the word 
in motion, and makes its wholesome influence ojieratlve." 
Sometimes wind or water is used to set the cylinder in 
motion. See H. Hackmann; E. Westermarck. 

CHARTERHOUSE, THE. See CARTHUSIANS. 

CHARTISM, CHRISTIAN. In connection with the 
Chartist political movement, a serious effort, was made 
to form so-called Chartist churches. The best known 
church was at Birmingham, and was conducted by 
Arthur O'Neill and John Collins. The former definitely 
proclaimed himself a Christian Chartist. The principles 
of his movement are explained in the report of a sermon 
by him (Parliamentary Papers, 1843, p. cxxxiii., quoted 
by Mark Hovell). " The necessity of their new Church 
was evident, for the true Church of Christ ought not 
to be split up into opposing sects : all men ought to be 
united in one Universal Church. Christianity should 
prevail in everyday life, commerce should be conducted 
on Christian principles, and not on those of Mammon, 
and every other institution ought to be based on the 
doctrines of Christianity. Hence the Chartist Church 
felt it their duty to go out and move amongst the masses 
of the people to guide and direct them by the principles 
of Christianity. They felt it incumbent upon them to 
go out into the world, to be the light of the world and 
the salt of the earth. The true Christian Church could 
not remain aloof but must enter into the struggles of 
the people and guide them. The characteristic of mem- 
bers of a real Church was on the first day of the week 
to worship at their altar, on the next to go out and 
mingle with the masses, on the third to stand at. the 
bar of judgment, and on the fourth perhaps to be in 
a dungeon. This was the case in the primitive Church 
and so it ought to be now." There was a similar church 
at Bath, conducted by Henry Vincent; and there were 
Christian Chartist churches in Scotland, especially at 
Paislev and Partick. 

CHARTOPHYLAX. In the Eastern Church the 
Chartophylax, literally " keeper of records," originally 
corresponded to the Bibliothecarins of the Latins. In 
course of time, however, he assumed other duties. In 
Constantinople, and eventually, in other parts of the 
East he came to represent the bishop and to act like 
the archdeacon in the Western Church. The Uniate 
Greeks of the Austrian Empire still have their Charto- 
phylax or Carthophylax, who directs the business of 
the episcopal chancery. See the Cath. Diet. 

CHASCA. One of the gods worshipped by the ancient 
Peruvians. Chasca corresponded to Venus (Q-v.). 

CHAULA CEREMONY. A Hindu ceremony. Chaula 
means " tonsure," and this is made for the first time 
three years after the birth of a male child. The child 
is seated between his father and mother on a little 
earthen platform. Married women first anoint him with 
oil and bathe him in warm water. They then powder 
his forehead and other parts of his body, and init orna- 
ments on him, " a long necklace of coral beads round 
his neck and two bracelets to match on his wrists." 



Chaurasi Devi 



98 



Christian Quakers 



The priest then draws near and, after performing some 
other priestly ceremonies, " traces on the floor in front 
of the child a square patch with red earth, which they 
cover with rice that has the husk on." On one side is 
now placed the idol Vigneshwara, and sacrifice and of- 
ferings are made to it. " The child is made to sit near 
the squai-e patch, and the barber, after offering worship 
to his razor, proceeds to shave the child's head, leaving 
one lock at the top, which is never cut. While the barber 
is performing his part of the ceremony, the women sing, 
musical instruments are played, and all the Brahmins 
present remain standing in perfect silence. As soon as 
the barber has finished, they throw him the money due 
to him. This he picks up, and before retiring he also 
carries off the rice that has been scattered over the 
square patch." The child is then bathed again " to 
purify him from the defiling touch of the barber." After 
the women have again attended to his toilette, and the 
priest has performed some other ceremonies, the occasion 
is celebrated by a feast and the distribution of presents. 
See J. A. Dubois and H. K. Beauchamp. 

CHAURASI DEVI. A goddess worshipped by the 
Kewats, a caste of fishermen and boatmen found chiefly 
in the Chhattisgarh Districts of Drug, Eaipur, and 
Bilfispnr in India. The goddess is painted on their boats, 
and is supposed to dwell in them and to keep them from 
sinking. 

CHERUBIM. A class of angels often referred to in 
the Old Testament. In Genesis iii. 24 it is said that 
God " placed at the east of the garden of Eden the 
Cherubim, and the flame of a sword which turned every 
way, to keep the way of the tree of life." According to 
primitive Hebrew myth, therefore, they were powerful 
superhuman creatures who guarded the entrance to the 
earthly abode of the god or gods. Prof. Cheyne points 
out that " when the range of the supreme god's power 
became wider, when from an earth-god he became also 
a heaven-god, the cherub too passed into a new phase; 
he became the divine chariot " (Encijcl. Bibl.). In I. 
Kings vi. 2.3 ff. there are said to have been huge figures 
of Cherubim in Solomon's temple, and according to 
Exodus xxv. IS ft', there were small golden Cherubim on 
the lid of the ark in the Tabernacle. The derivation of 
the word is doubtful. It has been connected with the 
Greek wor-d gryps " griflin." Lenormant thought he had 
found the word kirubu on a Babylonian amulet used as 
a synonym for s-idu which denotes the winged bull of 
Assyrian palaces and temples. His theory has not been 
confirmed. But, whatever the etymology of the word, 
the Cheinibim seem to resemble the winged genii which 
are often represented in Babylonian Art by the side of 
the tree of life. " These figures are usually human in 
form with human heads, but sometimes combine the 
human form with an eagle's head, and occasionally the 
human head with an animal body. They are shovm in 
the act of fecundating the date-palm by transferring 
the pollen of the male tree to the flower of the female; 
and hence it has been conjectured that they are per- 
sonifications of the winds, by whose agency the fertilisa- 
tion of the palm is effected in nature (Tylor, PSBA, xii. 
SSSff.)." The quotation is from Skinner. See D. 
Schenke\, Bibel-Lexikon, 1869; Encycl. Bibl.; J. Skinner, 
Genesis, 1910. 

CHICOME COATL. A Mexican deity, a maize-goddess, 
sister of the great rain-god Tlaloc. 

CHIETINI. Another name for the Order of Theatines 
ig-v.). 

CHILDREN, SONG OF THE THREE. An apocryphal 
addition to the Book of Daniel. See APOCRYPHA OF 
THE OLD TESTAMENT and BENEDICITE. 

CHILDREN'S CRUSADE, THE. See CRUSADES. 



CHILIASM. The belief in and doctrines eonoeming 
a Millennium, or in a glorious and happy existence 
upon earth which was to last a thousand years. The 
Jews believed that this happy rule was to be Introduced 
by the expected Messiah ((j.v.). In its early form the 
doctrine was of a spiritual nature. Chiliasm, however, 
came in time to mean the expectation of a .glorious 
Jewish or Jewish-Christian kingdom of a worldly char- 
acter. This expectation was common in the days of 
Jesus, and was shared even by his most intimate dis- 
ciples. Believers in the millennium are called Chlliasts 
or Millennarians. 

CHIN. A moon-goddess in the mythology of the 
Muysca Indians of Bogota. She is associated with 
water, and is said on one occasion to have flooded the 
whole earth. 

CHINAX. A tribal deity, god of war, in the religion 
of the Mayan Indians. 

CHIROMANCY. Literally " divination by the hands," 
another name for palmistry, which has flourished in 
ancient Greece and Italy, and in modem India. " Chiro- 
mancy traces in the markings of the palm a line of 
fortune and a line of life, finds proof of melancholy in 
the intersections on the saturnine mount, presages sor- 
row and death from black spots in the finger-nails, and 
at last, having exhausted the powers of this childish 
symbolism, it completes its system by details of which 
the absurdity is no longer relieved by even an ideal 
sense " (E. B. Tj'lor). 

CHITRAGUPTA. A god worshipped, as their divine 
ancestor, by the Kayasths, the cast« of writere and vil- 
lage accountants in India. On special occasions the 
Kayasths worship also pen and ink. 

CHITRAKATHIS. The Chitrakathis (also known as 
Hardas) are quit« a small caste of religious mendicants 
and picture showmen found in the Maratha Districts of 
India. " The men sometimes paint their own pictures, 
and in Bombay they liave a caste rule that every Chitra- 
kathi must have in his house a complete set of sacred 
pictures; this usually includes forty representations of 
llama's life, thirty-five of that of the sons of Arjun, 
forty of the PHndavas, forty of Sita and Rawan, and 
forty of Harishchandra. The men also have sets of 
pupi)ets representing the above and other deities, and 
enact scenes with them like a Punch and Judy show, 
sometimes aided by ventriloquism " (R. V. Russell). 
Their special god is Hari Vithal. 

CHOLA PaCHO. a Hindu deity, the lady of the 
sacred grove, worshipped by the Oraons, an important 
Dra vidian tribe in India, the members of which work 
as farmservants and labourers. The goddess is supposed 
to give the rain which causes good crops. 

CHRIST, THE. The Greek equivalent (Ohristos, " the 
one anointed ") of the Hebrew Messiah, a designation of 
Jesus. There is a tendency in modem thought to dis- 
tinguish between the Jesus of history and the Christ of 
religious experience. The idea is expressed in Science 
and Health (p. 334). " The invisible Christ was Imper- 
ceptible to the so-called personal senses, whereas Jesus 
appeare<l as a bodily existence. This dual personality 
of the unseen and the seen, the spiritual and material, 
the eternal Christ and the corporeal Jesus manifest in 
flesh, continued until the Master's ascension, when the 
human, material concept, or Jesus, disappeared, while 
the spiritual self, or Christ, continues to exist in the 
eternal order of divine Science, taking away tlie sins 
of the world, as the Christ has always done, even before 
the human Jesus was incarnate to mortal eyes." 

CHRISTENING. Initiation into the Christian re- 
ligion, a popular designation of baptism (q.v.). 

CHRISTIAN QUAKERS. Another name for the 



Christianity 



Keithians (g.r.), the followers of George Keith (1639?- 
1716). 

CHRISTIANITY. Christianity claims to be based 
ux>on the teaching of Jesus of Nazareti (6. shortly before 
the year 1 of our era), who seems to have come to regard 
himself as the Messiah (Christ) eageriy expected by the 
Jews, while interpreting the Messiahship in a new way. 
To Jesus the Kingdom of God meant a divine rule under 
the guidance of a spiritual Messiah, not in a national 
and political realm, but in the hearts and minds of men. 
The Kingdom was in the worid, but not of the worid. 
In the worid in a real sense: not of the world in being 
raised above the world. Jesus was not the tirst to speak 
of God as a Father. But here again he brought a new 
interpretation. The sense in which he uses Father is 
not that of the stem (if just) master and ruler of the 
household, but that of the loving head and friend of the 
family. God as the Father Is just but not stem, re- 
morseful but not revengeful, reproachful but not vindic- 
tive. Full of kindness and love, on the first sign of 
penitence, he is ever ready to forgive. All are the child- 
ren of God. Consequently all are brothers and sisters. 
who. being equally loved, should love one another 
equally. ■' Jesus had realized the life of God in the 
soul of man and the life of man in the love of God. 
That was the real secret of his life, the well-spring of 
his purity, his eompas,sion, his unwearied courase, his 
unquenchable idealism : he knew the Father. But if he 
had that greatest of all possessions, the real key to the 
secret of life, it was his highest social duty to share 
it and help others to gain what he had. He had to 
teach men to live as children in the presence of their 
Father, and no longer as slaves cringing before a despot. 
He had to show them that the ordinary life of selfish- 
ness and hate and anxiety and chafing ambition and 
covetousness is no life at all, and that they must enter 
into a new world of love and solidarity and inward 
contentment " (W. Rauschenbush, Christianiti/ and the 
Social Crisis. 1907). The kernel of Jesus' message or 
Gospel {evangelinm) was not so much the preaching of 
the coming of the kingdom of God as this doctrine of 
the fatherhood of God. The model prayer which he gave 
to his disciples, and which even to-day is the real con- 
fession of faith that unites all Christendom (Amo Neu- 
mann, Jesus. l!K)(i) begins with the words •' Our Father." 
In his determination to carry out the will of the Father, 
he rejected the ordinances of the orthodox leaders of 
the people, and elected to pay the penalty of dath upon 
the cross. He was the Redeemer, though " not in the 
sense that his death was a propitiatory sacrifice, without 
which the God of love would not have been able to 
forgive us our sins." It was " his special work to 
re<leem by guiding us from the letter to the spirit, from 
the feeling of a slave to the love of a child, from self- 
seeking to brotherly love, from the dominion of the 
visible to that of the invisible, and his death showed 
that he was ready and determined to offer, in order to 
procure these benefits, not his labour only, but also his 
life " (Neumann). He was the Saviour and Deliverer. 
" .lesus delivered religion from all national claims, from 
all national fetters, from ceremonial, from the letter of 
the law, and from the domination of erudition " (W. 
Eousset). The religion of Jesus was simple. In order 
to adapt it to the Graeco-Roman world, the Apostle Paul 
to some extent elaborated and transformed it. A com- 
munity of disciples became a Church. The divine aspect 
of Christ was emphasized. Jesus became a Redeemer 
sent from heaven to deliver mankind from sin and 
death, and his death a vicarious sacrifice of atonement. 
The sacred acts of Christianity — such as Baptism and 
the Lord's Supper — began to receive a sacramental in- 



99 Christianity 

terpretation. Whether, and to what extent .Tesus him- 
self was a mystic is an open question. But in any case 
Paul and John (or the Johannine writers) found mys- 
ticism in the Gospel and developed the teaching along 
these lines. According to Evelyn Underbill (J/.TF,), 
Paul IS in fact " the supreme example of the Christian 
mystic : of a " change of mind " resulting in an enor- 
mous dower of vitality : of a career of impassioned 
activity, of " divine fecundity " second only to that of 
Jesus Himself. In him, the new life breaks out, shows 
itself Ln its dual aspect; the deep consciousness of 
Spiritual Reality which is characteristic of the contem- 
plative nature, supporting a practical genius for concrete 
things." When the Gospel of John was written (c. 100 
A.D.), the Gnostic heresy, which was beginning to ger- 
minate in the time of Paul, had made considerable 
progress. The writer therefore opposes to it tJie true 
Christian gnosis. To the Johannine writers we owe 
the exposition of God as Spirit (John iv. 24), Light 
(I. John i. 5), Love (I. John iv. 8, 16). In the 
Apostolic Age Churches began to be organised on 
very much the same lines as Jewish Synagogues. 
There was of course a Chri.stian community at Rome 
in the days of Paul, to which he addressed his 
Epistle to the Romans. It has been conjectured that 
this was founded by the Apostle Peter. At any rate, 
Peter, to whom (according to Matthew xvi. 18-19) the 
keys of the kingdom of heaven were committed, is re- 
garded by Roman Catholics as its chief foundation, and 
the Pope as his successor is held to be " the vicar of 
Christ, the visible head of the Church, the doctor and 
teacher of all the faithful " (Cath. Diet.). In the second 
century the powerful appeal made by various types of 
Gnosticism led to the development in Christianity of its 
episcopal form of government and of a tendency "to rely 
upon written creeds. The latter tendency was accentu- 
ated by the menace of a new heresy, that of Arius, who 
began to teach in Alexandria about .SIS A.D. At the 
Council of Nicaea in 325 A.D. the so-called Nieene Creed 
was formulated. At the First Council of Constantinople 
in .>S1 A.D. it was reaffirmed and slightly supplemented. 
In the next century a great controversy arose between 
two schools of Christian thought — the school of Antioch 
and the school of Alexandria— which had developed 
during the third century about the two natures in Christ. 
In 4.51 A.D. the Council of Chalcedon sought to settle 
the matter, but neither of the extremes was satisfied. 
" The Monophysites, who believed in one nature, 
separated from the church. These form the Egyptian 
(or Coptic), the Abyssinian, and the Armenian churches 
to the present time. The radical Dyophysites, who be- 
lieved in two natures, also separated and formed what 
is known as the Nestorian church. For some centuries 
they flourished, spreading eastward to Turkestan and 
China, but have now dwindled to a small remnant in 
Persia " (G. A. Barton, Rel.). The division of the early 
Church into the Eastern Church and the Western Church 
began when the Roman Empire was divided into an 
Eastern and a Western empire, and was completed in 
the Middle Ages. A marked difference between the two 
was that the Eastern Church was given to speculation 
and definition, while the Western f'hurch concerned 
itself more with organization and administration. 
Monasticism took root and flourished in the East and 
West alike, but it assumed a rather different r61e. " In 
the East monasticism preserved its ascetic, quietistic 
character, but in the more vigorous West it developed 
into a civilising power of the highest importance " 
(Bousset). Bousset describes Christianity in the Eastern 
Church — the Greek Catholic Church — as sinking on the 
whole to a lower stage of religions life, through its 



Christianity 



100 



Christiaiiity 



attachment to fixed dogmas and self-sufficing acts and 
ceremonies. "Religion became entirely custom, usage 
as it had been when it was at the national stage of 
religious life; and from the time when the Byzantine 
Empire was subdued by advancing Islam the Onental 
Church was split up into a number of insignificant, de- 
generate Churches closely united to the smaller Christian 
nations which were now arising in the East." In the 
West on the other hand, the Roman Catholic Church 
did not lose its spiritual generating power. It developed 
the old traditional ecclesiastical features, drew to itself 
the spirit of Roman law and Roman world-empire, and 
assumed a political character. Its development owed 
much to the genius of St. Augustine and later of St. 
Francis of Assisi. The Middle Ages, after a period of 
darkness, produced a series of intellectual leaders who 
are known as the Schoolmen, such as Anselm (1038-1109 
A.D.), Abelard, and Thomas Aquineas (1227-74). These 
expounded the doctrines of the Church (c.jf., the Atone- 
ment) in such ways as to commend them to the reason. 
Then other divines, seeking more direct knowledge of 
God and the Bible, interested themselves in a presenta- 
tion of the Scriptures in the vernacular, and in mys- 
ticism. In the 14th century appeared the translation of 
the Bible by Wyclifife (1324-84) and the writings of 
Meister Heinrich Eckhart (d. 1329), John Ruysbroek 
(1293-1381), and John Tauler (1300-1361). On the one 
hand, it was felt that with the Holy Scriptures to guide 
him the meanest peasant might know the truth ; and, 
on the other hand, that " the soul finds God in its own 
depths" (Ruysbroek). In the fifteenth century mys- 
ticism in a developed form passed into common life. 
" It was a mysticism which abandoned speculation for 
practice. Its keynote was the positive ' imitation ' of 
Christ, and the reality of inward religion " (H. B. 
Workman). The outcome of this new movement on its 
intellectual side is seen in the Imitation of Christ of 
Thomas h Kempis (1380-1471), which Dr. Workman de- 
scribes as " the most Influential mystic writing the world 
has ever known." If the Protestant Reformation was 
not the result of the work of such men as Wycliffe, 
Huss (d. as a martyr in 1415), and Eckhart, they as- 
sisted humanists like Erasmus to prepare the way for 
it. The Reformation itself, as A. C. M'Giffert points 
out, was not exclusively nor even chiefly a religious 
movement. " It involved a break with the historical 
ecclesiastical institution and the organisation of new 
churches independent of Rome, but the break itself was 
as much political as religious both in its causes and in 
its results. Dissatisfaction with the existing order of 
things was widespread in Western Europe, and was 
coming to ever more active expression. It was not con- 
fined to one class of society, nor limited to one set of 
conditions. The period was marked by discontent and 
unrest, moral, religious, social, economical, and political. 
The conviction was growing that traditional customs 
and institutions needed adjustment to the new needs of 
a new age, and on every hand criticisms of the old were 
rife and programmes of reform were multiplying. For 
centuries the Church had been the most imposing in- 
stitution in Europe, and the most influential factor in 
its life. Rightly or wrongly it was widely held re- 
sponsible for current evils in every line, and every 
project for the betterment of society concerned itself in 
one or another way with the ecclesiastical establish- 
ment." The Reformation is closely associated with the 
name of Martin Luther (1483-154G), in whose teaching 
the most modern element was the idea of Christian 
liberty. He laid great stress on the doctrine of just- 
ification by faith. Another of the fathers of Protest- 
antism was the great Swiss reformer, Huldreich Zwlngll 



(1484-1531), though the differences between him and 
Luther were considerable. In his teaching the con- 
trolling place in Christian thought was given not to a 
personal religious experience, but to the absolute and 
unconditioned will of God. It was he rather than Luther 
that guided the reformed wing of Protestantism. The 
task of formulating and systematizing the teachings of 
Luther and Zwingli was undertaken chiefly by Philip 
Melanchthon (1497-1560) in the Lutheran camp, and by 
John Calvin (1509-64) in the Reformed. There was much 
in common between Melanchthon and Zwingli. " Both 
had the same conception of the authority of the Bible, 
of the relation of natural and revealed theology, of the 
oneness of law and gospel, and of the nature of faith " 
(M'Gififert). The theology of Calvin, however, who re- 
garded man as a totally depraved being, and taught 
that his sins were borne vicariously by Christ, was the 
most widely accepted. The sixteenth century gave birth 
to many radical sects, which were not all the fruit of 
the Protestant Reformation. These included the Ana- 
baptists and the Soeinlans. In England the break with 
Rome came in the reign of Henry VIII. In the reign 
of Edward VI. by the first Act of Uniformity (1549) the 
Book of Commou Prayer was made the only lawful 
service book in the English Church. The second Act 
of Uniformity (1552) substituted a revised edition. In 
the reign of IDlizabeth certain reformers who were called 
Puritans came into prominence. Many of the Puritans 
aimed simply at purifying and reforming the English 
Church from within. But some of them refused to be- 
long to a national church, and formed independent 
churches of their own (e.g., the Independents or Con- 
gregationalists). Thus arose the Separatists or Noncon- 
formists. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, 
through the influenc-e especially of Philip Jacob Spener 
(representative of Pietism) in Germany, and of George 
Fox (d. 1690, representing (he Friends) and John Wesley 
(representative of Evangelicalism) in England, mystical 
piety again asserted itself. Wesley, who came under 
the influence of the Moravians, and with whom was 
associated George Whitefield, sought to promote an 
evangelical revival in the Church, and ended by found- 
ing (1739) a new denomination (Methodism). In America 
a movement closely related to the evangelicalism of 
Wesley appeared in the New England theology of Jona- 
than Edwards and his school. At the same time the 
philosophical speculations of men like Descartes, Spinoza, 
Hobbes and Locke, and the scientific discoveries of men 
like Bruno, Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Gassendi, Bacon 
and Newton promoted rationalism in all spheres of 
thought. In England theology sought refuge to some 
extent in the Neo-Platonism of the Cambridge school, 
as represented by such men as Benjamin Whichcote, 
Henry More, Ralph Cudworth aud John Smith (Cam- 
bridge Platonists), who laid " emphasis UTion reason as 
a faculty by which we may enjoy a direct vision of 
spiritual realities hidden from the senses and inaccess- 
ible by the ordinary processes of discursive reason " 
(M'Giffert); but to a greater extent in the rational super- 
naturalism of theologians like John Tillotson and Samuel 
Clarke. The Deists (such as Tindal, Chubb, and Mor- 
gan) held that religion is primarily a means to virtue, 
and even opposed the divine claims of Christianity; but 
some of them at least regarded them.selves as defenders 
of the true faith. In France Deism found wide accept- 
ance, and in the writings of Voltaire and Rousseau was 
developed on more radical lines. In Germany rationalism 
in religion was promoted by the philosophy of Leibnitz 
and Kant. In America by the early Unitarians. In the 
nineteenth century a profound impression was made 
upon Christian thought by the philosophy of Kant and 



Chorepiscopus 



101 



Christadelphians 



Hegel, by the development of historical and literary 
criticism of the Old and New Testaments, by the spread 
of various types of Socialism (the Chartist Movement, 
etc.), and by the publication of Darwin's Origin of 
Species (18591. Christianity struggled to readjust itself, 
either by abandoning non-essentials (the Broad Church 
Movement in the Church of England; Modernism In the 
Church of Rome; various tyiies of New Theology in the 
Free Churches), or by going back to traditions of 
Authority (proclamation of Papal Infallibility, 1S70: the 
Oxford or Tractarian Movement in the Church of Eng- 
land). Turning to more recent times, the Roman Church 
seems to have taken its stand definitely for the mediaeval 
form of Christianity. In Protestantism modem Chris- 
tian thought " is still endeavouring to adjust itself to 
the new intellectual universe called into being by modem 
science. The adjustment is not fully accomplished and 
there is consequently, much variety " (G. A. Barton). 
But the tendency seems to be to lay increasing stress 
upon a Christian life rather than upon Chri.stian 
dogmas: and to regard religion as a system of living 
emotions rather than of dead intellectual errors. Mys- 
ticism, if of a rather new kind, is again making a strong 
and successful appeal (see Jane E. Harrison, Rationalisvi 
and Reliiioiis Reaction, 1919). 

CHOREPISCOPUS. Chorepiscopus (Greek chorepis- 
kopos) means literally " country-bishop." The word is 
first found in a canon belonging to a period late in the 
third century, and the office seems to have arisen in 
Asia Minor. " The chorepiscopus was appointed by the 
bishop of a large diocese to take charge of and ad- 
minister the more remote districts and was empowered 
to confer minor orders. Fifteen chorepiscopi are found 
among those who subscribed the Nicene canons. This 
has suggested that they were true bishops, " as far as 
order went, on a level with others, though they were 
sometimes consecrated by one bishop only " (Benham). 
The Catholic Dictionary thinks the better opinion is 
that, " notwithstanding the name, they were neither 
true bishops nor an order of clergy interposed between 
bishops and priests, but simply priests, invested with 
a jurisdiction smaller than the episcopal, but larger 
than the sacerdotal." The Council of Laodicea describes 
them as '" circuit officers." In the Western Church 
frequent reference is made to them after the year .500 
A.D. It appears that in course of time they were often 
not properly consecrated. After the middle of the 
eleventh century they disappeared. See Benham: Smith 
and Cheetham: the Cath. Diet. 

CHOREUTAE. A name given to the Euchites (g.f.). 
They were so called because they danced. They trampled 
in this way on demons which they believed they could 
see. According to the teaching of the Euchites, everyone 
is l)om with a demon, which has to be expelled. 

CH'ORTENS. A term used in Tibetan Buddhism or 
I>amaism. It means literally " receptacle for offerings." 
Intended originally as relic-holders, the Ch'ortena cor- 
respond to the Caityas and Stupas or " Topes " of 
Indian Buddhism. They " are now mostly erected as 
cenotaphs in memory of Buddha or of canonized saints." 
The Lamaist Ch'ortens " cenerally adhere to the Indian 
131)6, but differ most conspicuously in that the dome in 
the commonest, form is inverted. Both have more or 
less elaborate plinths, and on the sides of the capital 
are often figured a pair of eyes, like the sacred eyes met 
with in ancient Egyptian. Greek, and Roman vases, etc., 
and believed to be connected with sun-worship. Above 
the toran [square capital] is a bluntly conical or pyra- 
midal spire, Cuddmani, of thirteen steplike segments, 
typical of the thirteen Bodhisat heavens of the Buddh- 
ists. This is surmounted by a bell-shaped symbol 



(usually copper-gilt) called the kalsa, the handle of which 
forms a tapering pinnacle sometimes modelled after a 
small Caitya, but often moulded in the form of one or 
two or all of the following objects : a lotus-flower, a 
crescent moon, a globular sun, a triple canopy, which 
are finally surmounted by a tongue-shaped spike, repre- 
senting the jijoti or sacred light of Buddha. And some- 
times round the base of the kalsa is a gilt canopy or 
umbrella (cat)-a)." See L. A. Waddell. 

CHREMATHEISM. A term coined by E. W. Hopkins 
to denote a kind of worship which pervades the Rig 
Veda (QA-.). It is " the worship of more or less per- 
sonified things, differing from pantheism in this, that 
whereas pantheism assumes a like divinity in all things, 
this kind of theism assumes that everything (or any- 
thing) has a separate divinity, usually that which "is 
useful to the worshipper, as the plough, the furrow, 
etc." Chrematheism is not to be confused with Fetichism 
iq.v.). See E. W. Hopkins. 

CHRISM. What is known as Chrism is still in use 
in the Greek and Roman Church. It was used also in, 
or soon after, the time of Tertullian. in the ancient 
Christian Church : and in the English Church until 
about 1.552. Originally persons were anointed with 
simple olive oil. Chrism denotes in the Roman Church, 
as it did in the English Church, a compound of oil and 
balsam. In the Greek Church it denotes a compound 
of oil and forty different spices. The Maronites iq.v.), 
before their union with the Roman Church, mingled 
with the oil. saffron, cinnamon, essence of roses, white 
inc-ense. and other spices. It appears that in England 
the parish priests obtained the chrism from the bishop, 
who consecrated it every year on Maundy Thursday. 
Chrism was used, as it is still in the Roman Church, 
in baptism, confirmation, ordination: the consecration 
of altar-stones, chalices, churches: the blessing of bap- 
tismal water; and also at royal coronations. It used to 
be the custom in England to anoint a king first with 
oil, and tJien with chrism. The chrism is now dispensed 
with. See P.enham: the Cath. Did. 

CHRISTADELPHIANS. The small sect known as the 
Christadelphians arose during the American civil war. 
The founder was John Thomas, who was at one time 
one of the Disciples of Christ (g.v.). The Christadel- 
phians (''Brethren of Christ") adopted this name be- 
cause they claimed that being in Christ they were his 
brethren, and that they were the true representatives of 
the faith and practice of Apostolic times. Their c-on- 
gregations they called " ecclesias " to distinguish them 
from other churches which they regarded as " churches 
of the apostasy." Christadelphians do not accept the 
Trinity. " They l)elieve in one supreme God. who dwells 
in unapproachable light: in Jesus Christ, in whom was 
manifest the eternal spirit of God, and who died for 
the offences of sinners, and rose for the justification of 
believing men and women : in one baptism only, — im- 
mersion, the ' burial with Christ in water into death to 
sin.' which is essential to salvation: in immortality 
only in Christ: in eternal punishment of the wicked, 
but not in eternal torment: in hell, not as a place of 
torment, but as the grave: in the resurrection of the 
just and unjust; in the utter annihilation of the wicked, 
and in the non-resurrection of those who have never 
heard the gospel, lack in intelligence (as infants), or 
are sunk in ignorance or brutality; in a second coming 
of Christ to establish his kingdom on earth, which is 
to be fitted for the everlasting abode of the saints; in 
the proximity of this second coming; in Satan as a 
scriptural personification of sin; in the millennial reign 
of Christ on earth over the nations, during which sin 
and death will continue in a milder degree, and after 



Christian Brothers 



102 



Christian Israelites 



which Christ will surrender his position of 8upreinac> 
and God will reveal himself, and become Father and 
Governor of a complete family; in salvation only for 
those who can understand the faith as taught by the 
Christadelphians, and become obedient to it /Schaff- 
Herzog) They profess in their Services to proclaim the 
Truth as set forth by Moses and the Prophets, Christ 
and the Apostles, in contradiction to " the writings and 
teachings of the Clergy of the Church of Rome and her 
Harlot Daughters the Church of England and Protestant 
Dissenters." See Schaflf-Herzog ; Chambers's Encycl.; J. 

CHRISTIAN BROTHERS. The Christian Brothers or 
more correctly the Brothers of Ihe Christian Schools 
was an association which was founded in 16S4 by the 
Abb6 J. B. de la Salle (1651-1719) and elevated to the 
rank of a religious congregation by Pope Benedict XIII. 
in 1725. The object was to promote the Christian edu- 
cation of the people. The Brothers " bound themselves 
by vow to devote tbeir lives to teaching in the schools, 
and wore the religious habit " (Cath. Diet.). They were 
required to " be and remain laymen, equally with the 
professors and assistant teachers who were employed 
under them. And this has continued to be the practice 
of the congregation ever since." It has been claimed 
that J. B. de la Salle was the originator of primary 
schools, and that he founded a Sunday School at St. 
Sulpice (1099) before such institutions were thought of 
in England. See the Cath. Diet. 

CHRISTIAN BROTHERS, IRISH. A religious con- 
gregation founded in Ireland in 1802 by Edmund Igna- 
tius Rice (1702-1844), and modelled on the foundation of 
J. B. de la Salle (see preceding article). The efforts 
of Rice met with great success, and In 1,S20 the order 
of Christian Brothers, who devoted themselves to the 
work of educating poor children, was confirmed by Pope 
Pius VII. " The Brothers, after the establishment of 
the Irish system of national education in 18.S1, placed 
their schoois for a time in connection with the Board, 
and accepted the grant; but finding that the rules of the 
Board as to the absolute division of secular from re- 
ligious t.eaching were gradually leading them into eon- 
cessions alien from the spirit of their founder and the 
Church, they withdrew from all connection with the 
Government, and have since carried on their schools 
independently " (Cath. Diet.). In 1890 the schools are 
said to have numbered three hundred. See the Cath. 
Diet.; the D.N.B. 

CHRISTIAN COMMONWEALTH, THE. One of the 
publications which have been closely identified with a 
new development in religion and theology (cp. ESSAYS 
AND REVIEWS, LUX MUNDI, etc.) was the weekly 
journal which bore the name " The Christian Common- 
wealth." When Mr. R. J. Campbell was bitterly attacked 
as the apostle of the " New Theology " (Q.v-), this 
journal boldly supported and defended him. Its alleg- 
iance never wavered, and the journal was recognised 
as the organ of that progressive movement in religion 
and social ethics which was associated with the name 
of Mr. R. .1. Campbell. The adoption of the " New 
Theology " was commonly supposed to mark a great 
change in policy, but those who knew " The Christian 
Commonwealth " best claim that the development was 
a natural one, and that in all essential particulars 
the principles and policy of the paper had remained 
unchanged. The journal was founded in 1881 by Dr. 
W. T. Moore, Dr. John Kirton, and Mr. Henry Varley. 
Dr. Moore, an ardent follower of the Scottish American 
Alexander Campbell (see CAMPBBLLITES), had come 
to England from Cincinnati, U.S.A., where he was 
minister of a large church, to carry on an evangelistic 



campaign in this country. In 1879 he founded witJi Mr. 
Timothy Coop in the North of England a paper called 
" The Evangelist." On moving to London, he produced 
with his coadjutors a new newspaper unlike any other 
religious journal published, and to this was given the 
name " The Christian Commonwealth." As explained 
in the first number, the editors aimed '" to be liberal 
without being lawless: to be motlern in our sympathies, 
thoughts and expressions, without being guilty of that 
popular spiritual vandalism which, whilst bearing the 
Christian name, attempts to destroy the whole Divine 
literature, and aims to remove the ancient monuments 
and landmarks. Our politics are not necessarily either 
Liberal or Conservative." They proclaimed that " Christ- 
ianity comprehends true politics, which is another name 
for national righteousness, and we shall ardently co- 
operate with all those who labour for this result, by 
whatever name they may be called." One more state- 
ment is worth quoting. " We intend fearlessly to resist 
all attempted divorce between Commerce and Christ- 
ianity, between wise legislation and national morality, 
between Law and its power and function to repress 
lawlessness. Wholesome laws are moral agencies, and 
sound legislation must stand on the side of truth and 
righteousness." In course of time Dr. Moore became 
sole editor. The " Christian Commonwealth " was the 
originator, it is said, of what was known as the Christian 
Unity Movement. It persistently attacked the evils 
of sectarianism and denominationalism. For four or five 
years it enjoyed the exclusive rights for the weekly 
serial publications of the sermons of Dr. Joseph Parker 
of the City Temple. Ultimately Dr. Parker's paper, 
•' The Christian Chronicle " was absorbed by " The 
Christian Commonwealth." From 1901 the i)aper was 
edited by Mr. Albert Dawson. 

CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE, FATHERS AND CON- 
FRATERNITY OF THE. A Society of priests and lay- 
men formed about 1560, under the leadership of one 
Marco Cusani of Milan, with the object of teaching 
children the Catechism on Sundays and countryfolk on 
Church holidays. Pope Pius V. in 1571 ordered a more 
general adoption of this kind of Society; and the Fathers 
and Confraternity of the Christian Doctrine received a 
fine church from Pope Clement VIII. in 1596. The Con- 
fraternity was raised by Pope Paul V. to the rank of an 
archconfraternity. See the Cath. Diet. 

CHRISTIAN EVIDENCE SOCIETY. The Christian 
Evidence Society wajs instituted A.D. 1870. Its objects 
are : to declare and defend Christianity as a Divine 
Revelation; to controvert the errors of atheists, pan- 
theists, secularists, and other opponents of Christianity: 
to counteract the energetic propagandism of Infidelity, 
especially among the uneducated: to meet the difficulties 
and strengthen the faith of the doubting and perplexed; 
and to instruct the young in the evidences of Christianity. 
It .seeks to attain these objects by means of sermons and 
lectures, popular controversial addres.ses and discussions 
in halls and in the open air, classes and examinations, 
interviews and correspondence, and the distribution of 
tracts. 

CHRISTIAN ISRAELITES. The followers of John 
Wroe (1782-1863). Wroe came under the influence of 
George Turner (d. 1821), of Leeds, who was a leader of 
the followers of Joanna Southcott (see SOUTHCOTT- 
lANS) : and when Turner died, he claimed to succeed 
him. Wroe went to Australia, New Zealand, and 
America, and gained many adherents. He professed to 
be a ijrophet, and announced that the Second Advent was 
close at hand. When it took place, Israel would be 
restored, as God had promised. " To this end it was 
necessary that there ^ould be a great in-gathering of 



Christian Quakers 



303 



Christian Scientists 



Israel, that is of tihe lost tribes, which was to take place 
under the leadership of the Christian Israelites, divinely 
inspired for the worli " (J. H. Blunt). See the D.N.B.; 
and J. H. Blunt. 

CHRISTIAN QUAKERS. A name assumed by the 
followers of George Keith (16397-1716). See KEITHIANS 
CHRISTIANS OF ST. JOHN. Another name for the 
Mandaeans (g.v.). 

CHRISTIAN SABBATH-KEEPERS' UNION. The 
objects of this Union are five. 1. To form a special bond 
of union between '• immersed " Christians, irrespective 
of denomination, who observe the Seventh day of the 
week. 2. To spread the linowledge of the Sabbath of 
the Lord. 3. To help its members to obtain employment, 
also to look after their general welfare. 4. To cultivate 
a more intimate sociability and genuine sympathy 
between Sabbath-keepers. 5. To inculcate a spirit of 
mutual encouragement, support, and friendship among 
its members. 

CHRISTIAN SCIENCE. The principles known as 
"Christian Science" were formulated and developed by 
Mary Baker G. Eddy. She was led to the discovery of 
her system in 18(;(i, but her first pamphlet on Christian 
Science did not appear in print until 187(1, though it had 
been copyrighted in 1870. She says she " had learned 
that this Science must be demonstrated by healing, before 
a work on the subject could be profitably studied." The 
text-book of Christian Science is called '• Science and 
Health," and the first edition was published in 1875. The 
founder of Christian Science started the first school of 
Christian Science Mind-healing in Massachusetts about 
the year 1867 with only one student. In 1881 she opened 
the Massachusetts Metaphysical College in Boston, under 
the seal of the Commonwealth. She also acted as Pastor 
of the first established Church of Christ, Scientist; as 
President of the first Christian Scientist As.sociation;'and 
as sole editor and publisher of " The Christian Science 
Journal." During seven years over four thousand 
persons studied under her in her College. On October 
1889 she closed her College in order to devote all her 
energies for a time to the revision of the book " Science 
and Health." The new edition was published in 1891 
and the College was re-opened in 1899. A great number 
of people state that by reading Mary Baker G. Eddy's 
book they have not only been wnvinced of the truth of 
Christian Science, but have also been reformed and 
healed of various diseases. It is stated (in the form of 
testimonies) that these diseases have included cancer 
fibroid tumor, epilepsy, cataract, heart disease, gastric 
catarrh, sciatic rheumatism, Bright's disease, deafness 
consumption, insanity, etc. Such cures have been 
effected, it is claimed, not by ordinary mental science 
but by Divine Science. " If God, the All-in- All. be the 
creator of the spiritual universe, including man then 
everything entitled to a classification as truth, or science 
must be comprised in a knowledge or understanding of 
<jOd, for there can be nothing beyond illimitable divinity " 
The author of " Science and Health" uses the terms 
Divine Science. Spiritual Science. Christ Science. 
Christian Science, or Science alone, interchangeably 
These synonymous terms stand for everything relating 
to God, the infinite, supreme, eternal Mind. It may be 
said, however, that the term Christian Science reveals 
God, not as the author of sin, sickness, and death, but as 
Divine Principle, Supreme Being, Mind, exempt from all 
evil. It teaches that matter is the falsity, not the fact 
of existence; that nerves, brain, stomach. lungs, and so 
forth, hav^as matter— no intelligence, life, nor sensa- 
tion Disease and evil are the off-spring of mortal 
mind. Science [Christian Science] not only reveals 
the origin of aU disease as mental, but it also declares 



that all disease is cured by divine Mind. There can be 
no healing except by this Mind, however much we trust 
a drug or any other means towards which human faith 
or endeavour is directed. It is mortal mind, not matter, 
whjch brings to the sick whatever good thev may seem 
to receive from drugs. But the sick are never really 
healed except by means of the divine power. Only the 
action ot Truth, Life, and Love can give harmony." 
There is one basis for all sickness. " Human mind pro- 
duces what is termed organic disease as certainly as it 
produces hysteria, and it must relinquish aU its errors, 
sicknesses, and sins. I have demonstrated this beyond 
all cavil. The evidejice of divine Mind's healing power 
and absolute control is to me as certain as the evidence of 
my own existence." There is really no pain in matter 
'• Be farm m your understanding that the divine Mind 
governs, and that in Science [Christian Science] man 
reflects God's government. Have no fear that matter 
can ache, swell, and be inflamed as the result of a law 
of any kind, when it is self-evident that matter can have 
no pain nor inflammation. Your body would suffer no 
more from tension or wounds than the trunk of a tree 
which you gash or the electric wire which you stretch 
were it not for mortal mind." As regards surgery Mrs' 
Eddy writes as foUows : " Until the advancing age admits 
the efficacy and supremacy of Mind, it is better for 
Christian Scientists to leave surgery and the adjustment 
of broken bones and dislocations to the fingers of a 
.-surgeon, while the mental healer confines himself chiefly 
to mental reconstruction and to the prevention of in- 
flammation. Christian Science is always the most skil- 
ful surgeon, but surgery is the branch of its healing 
which will be last acknowledged. However, it is but 
just to say that the author has already in her possession 
well-authenticated records of the cure, by herself and 
her students through mental surgery alone, of broken 
bones, dislocated joints and spinal vertebrae." The 
Christian Science form of Service is simple but impres- 
sive. There is no sermon or address. Passages from 
the Bible with corresponding sections in " Science and 
Health " are read, and are allowed to speak for them- 
selves. See Mary Baker G. Eddy, Science and Health, 
With Key to the Scriptures, 1907. 

CHRISTIAN SCIENTISTS. The name given to those 
who accept tlie teaching of Mary Baker Eddy (see article 
above). Mrs. Eddy was the daughter of Mark and Mary 
Baker, and was bom at Bow, New Hampshire, on July 
the 16th, 1821. In 1843 she married George Washington 
Glover, who had been associated with her brother, 
Samuel Baker, in Boston as a contractor and builder, and 
at this time had a good business in Charleston, South 
Carolina. He was a Mason, a member of Saint Andrew's 
Ijodge. No. 10, and of Union Chapter, No. 3, of Royal 
Arch Masons. His married life was short, for within a 
year he became ill and died. Mrs. Glover returned to 
her parents. A son was bom to her, whom she named 
after his father, but she was too ill to nurse him. On 
her recovery she was employed in writing political 
articles for the New Hampshire " Patriot," and in 
teaching occasionally at the New Hampshire Conference 
Seminary. After the death of her mother she became 
an invalid. She lived with her sister Abigail, and often 
for long periods was confined to her bed. In 1853 she 
contracted a second marriage with Daniel Patterson, a 
dentist. She had been separated from her child, and 
believed that in thus marrying again, she would be able 
to get him back. After a time they went to live at North 
Groton, New Hampshire. We are told that " she was 
bedridden most of the time they lived here." The next 
move was to a cottage in Rumney village. Here, in 
spite of a most careful observance of the laws of hygiene. 



Christian Scientists 



104 



Christmas Day 



and of homeopathic treatment from her husband, Mrs. 
Patterson's " spinal weakness was not overcome and the 
nervous seizures continued to occur with increasing 
violence." She " was wasting to a shadow under the 
most careful nursing, and her life was being consumed 
in ineffectual efforts to appease the ravishment of pain." 
At the same time she read the Bible daily, and, as iier 
biographer says, " she more than ever pondered the cures 
of the early ciiurch." In 18()2 she wrote to Phineas P. 
Quimby, of Portland, Maine, who had a reputation as a 
healer." She said she wished to come to him for study 
and healing. Her sister described Quimby as a char- 
latan, and tried to dissuade her from going. But Mrs. 
Patterson was determined to know whether he had dis- 
covered a truth which she had long been seeking. '• I 
certainly do not want mesmerLsm or spiritualism, but I 
somehow believe that I must see what this man has or 
has not. I am impelled with an unquenchable thirst for 
God that will not let me rest. Abigail, there is a science 
beyond all sciences we have ever studied. It is Christ's 
Science. There is a fundamental doctrine, a Grod's truth 
tJiat will restore me to health, and if me, then countless 
thousands. Has this man Quimby discovered the great 
truth or is he a blunderer, perhaps a charlatan as you 
say? I must know." In October, 1802, she arrived at 
the International Hotel, Portland, where Dr. Quimby had 
his offices. Dr. Quimby succeeded in giving her relief. 
Her biographer writes thus : " Gradually he wrought the 
spell of hypnotism, and under tiat suggestion she let go 
the burden of pain just as she would have done had mor- 
phine been administered. The relief was no doubt tre- 
mendous. Her gratitude certainly was unbounded. She 
was set free from the excruciating pain of years." But 
her interi)retation of Quimby's success was different from 
his own. She imputed to him " a knowledge of God's 
law," an " understanding of the tnith which Christ 
brought into the world and which had been lost for ages." 
She believed that he had a philosophy which could be 
reduced to philosoi)lvic arguments, and she tried to help 
him to put this into shape in writing. Mrs. Patterson 
was certainly for a long time under the influence of 
Quimby. On the strength of this fact extravagant 
claims have been made for h.im. They are: "that 
Quimby cured Mary Baker of her invalidism, that he 
gave her the germ ideas of her philosophy, that he pre- 
sented her with manuscripts which she afterwards 
claimed as her own, that he focussed her mind, that he 
was the imi)etus of all her subsequent momentum." In 
the light, however, of her earlier history, and of the 
general character of the book which she afterwards 
published, as compared with the personal history of 
Quimby and with what is known of his efforts of com- 
position, it seems pretty clear that in reality " she heard 
and saw only what was in her own mind and experience, 
and continued to identify publicly and privately her faith 
with Quimby's in the face of all the evidence to the con- 
trary and his own occasional expo.stulation." In 1S04 
Mrs. Patterson went to live in Lynn, Massachusetts. 
On February the 3rd, lS6fi, she met with an acci- 
dent, which was referred to in the Lynn " Reix>rter " as 
follows : '■ Mrs. Mary Patterson, of Swampscott, fell 
upon the ice near the corner of Market and Oxford 
streets on Thursday evening and was severely injured. 
She was taken up in an insensible condition and carrie<l 
into the residence of S. M. Bubier, Esq.. near by, where 
she was kindly cared for during the night. Dr. Cushing, 
who was called, found her injuries to be internal and of 
a severe nature, inducing spasms and internal suffering. 
She was removed to her home in Swampscott yesterday 
afternoon, though in a very critical condition." The 
next morning she was still semi-conscious, but was 



removed to her .suburban residence. " On the third 
day, which was Sunday, she sent those who were in her 
room away, and taking her Bible, opened it. Her eyes 
fell upon the account of the healing of the palsied man 
by Jesus." Thereupon, we are told, she had a mar- 
vellous spiritual experience, which healed her. " Mrs. 
Patterson arose from her bed, dressed and walked into 
the iiarlor where a clergyman and a few friends had 
gathered, thinking it might be for the last words on earth 
with the sufferer who, they believed, was dying. They 
arose in consternation at her appearance, almo.st believing 
they beheld an apparition. She quietly reassured them 
and explained the manner of her recovery, calling upon 
them to witness it." Soon after this her husband 
deserted her. In 1873 she was divorced fix)m him. In 
1S77 she married Asa Gilbert Eddy, an agent for a sewing- 
machine business, who had come to her for healing. He 
died in 1.882. In 1883 Mrs. Eddy published the first 
number of the " Journal of Christian Science," now 
called the " Christian Science Journal." By the year 
1888 thirty Christian Science academies were in existence. 
In 1889 Mrs. Eddy withdrew from the world, and retired 
to Concord. In 1894 was completed at Boston the original 
Mother Church of Christ, Scientist. In 1908 Mrs. Eddy 
removed to Che.stnut Hill in the suburbs of Boston. She 
died in 1910. Cp. CHRISTIAN SCIENCE. See Sibyl 
Wilbur, The Life of Mary Baker Eddy, 1907. 

CHRISTIAN SOCIALISM. See SOCIALISM, 

CHRISTIAN. 

CHRISTIAN SOCIAL UNION, THE. A Society com- 
I)osed of Members of the Church of England and founded 
at Oxford as a result of the teaching of Charles Kingslev 
(1819-187.5), Frederick Denison Maurice (180.")-]872), and 
others. 'The Guild of S. Matthew ((/.i'.) had already 
been established in 187r) with ratlier similar aims. The 
objects with which the Chri.stian Social Union was 
started, put in simple form, were thr(>e. 1. To claim 
for the Christian law the ultimate authority to rule social 
practice. 2. To study in common how to apply the moral 
truths and principles of Christianity to the social and 
economic difficulties of the present time. 3. To present 
Christ in practical life as the Living Master and King, 
tlie enemy of wrong and .selfishness, the power of 
righteousness and love. The Union has now a numl)er 
of Settlement Houses called " Maurice Hostels." The 
objects set before residents are : to share in the work 
of charitable agencies in the district, to take part in local 
government, to work clubs at the Settlement Houses, to 
aid in parochial work, and to .study social problems in 
the district. See C. W. Stubbs, Charlen Kingsley and the 
Christian Social Movement , 1899. 

CHRISTLICH-SOCIALE PARTEI. A political rwrty 
in Germany founded in Berlin in 1878 by the Court 
Preacher, Adolf Stoecker (183.5-1909). It seeks to improve 
the condition of the working classes by working along the 
lines of a monarchical Christian Socialism. But the good 
.seed of Christian Socialism is mingled with the poison 
of antisemitisra. 

CHRISTMAS DAY. The precise date on which the 
founder of the Christian religion was bom is doubtful. 
The festival known as Christmas was a pagan festival 
adopted by the Christians and adapted to Christian use. 
As Amo Newmann says, it is not the day that matters, 
but the idea associated with it; and the birth of Jesus 
remains the most important event in the whole of history. 
" The celebration of the birthday of .Tesus is not met 
with at all until after the beginning of the third century. 
Down to that time it was the day of His death that was 
observed, as being the birthday of the higher life. Even 
then the celebration is first found among heretical sects, 
and its adoption by the Church does not come until a 



Christo Sacrum 



105 



Chrysanthemum, The Sixteen-Petal 



later date, when its power had grown. The day was 
originally fixed as the 6th (at first also by acfx>mmoda- 
fion the 10th) of January, now tie feast of the Epiphany. 
Day of birth and day of baptism were regarded as 
identical, becaii.se in the baptism the ' Son of God ' 
seemed to be bom. We find this usage prevailing 
down to the end of the fourth century, particularly 
in the Eastern Churcli. Soon, however, religious 
policy, having the heathen in view, dictated the separa- 
tion of the Birth from the Baptism. The 25th of Dec-em- 
ber is first found as a real feast-day in Rome in ^^4 A.D. 
at tie earliest. . . Under Bishop Liberius she [Rome] 
took the date as a substitute for the heatien solstice 
festival, calculating it from the spring equinox of the 
old calendar (25th of March). regarde<l as tie date of the 
Annunciation. In place of the birthday of the invincible 
Sun-god (Helios=Sol = Mitira), she put that of .Tesus 
Christ, the sun in men's hearts (cp. Malachi iii. 20). An 
official command was then sent to all places to observe 
the new festival. So, gradually, by the year 4.50 A.D. 
the 25th of December came to be observed throughout 
the Church except in Armenia " (Amo Neumann). See 
J. M. Wheeler, Footsteps of the Past, 1895; Oscar Holtz- 
mann. The Life of Jesus. 1904; Amo Neumann, Jesus, 
1906; J. G. Frazer, G.B., Pt. iv., 2nd ed. 1907. 

CHRISTO SACRUM. A society or a^jsociation founded 
by Onder de Wijngaart Canzius, burgomaster of Delft, in 
Holland (1797-1801 A.D.). The idea was to unite in one 
body all Christians, whatever their denomination, who 
believed in the divine nature of Christ and in the redeem- 
ing i)ower of his Passion. For a time the association 
met with some sniccess, but in 1838 it had to be dissolved. 
See Schaff-Herzog. 

CHRIST SCIENCE. Another designation of Christiau 
Science (q.v.). 

CHRIST SCIENTIST. Another designation of 
Christian Scientist (q.v.). A place of worship is ealled 
" Church of Christ Scientist." 

CHRONICLES, BOOKS OF. In Hebrew the Books 
of the Chronicles are called Dibhre hniz-i/Omlm. " affairs 
of the days " or events of the times. In the Septuagint 
the title is Paraleipomena, " things omitte<l " (in the 
older historical books). The Engli.sh title was .suggested 
by the name (Chronicon) which .Jerome gave to the books. 
It would seem that originally the books of Chronicles, 
Ezra and Nehemiah were one work. They all liave tie 
same peculiarities of language and thought." The narra- 
tive which elOvSe-s abmptly in Chronicles is resumed and 
continued in the Book of Ezra fsee CANON OF THE 
OLD TESTAMENT). The Chronicler rewritevs the his- 
tory contained in the other books of the Old Testament 
from Genesis to II. Kings from a new standpoint, and 
takes hardly any account of the history of the Northern 
Kingdom. In I. Chronicles i.-ix. he gives the history 
from Adam to the end of the reign of Saul in the fonii 
of genealogies and stati.stics. In I. Chronicles x. to II. 
Chronicles xxx^^■. the history mns parallel to that which 
is given in the books of Samuel and Kings from I. .Sam. 
xxxi. to II. Kings xxv. 21. From the point at which 
David ascends the throne the historv becomes more 
elaborate. The treatment of the Northern Kingdom 
snggest-s that it " had long ceased to possess any living 
interest." There are other indications, in addition to 
the Aramaic colouring of the books, that the Chronicles 
were separated from the fall of the Northern Kingdom 
by a long Interval. In II. Chron. xxxvi. 2.3 Cyrus is 
given the title King of Persia. But the titles given to 
the Persian kings at the time were as a matter of fact 
" the King," the " Great King," tie " King of Kings," 
the " King of the Lands." This s\igge,sts that the 
Chronicler wrote much later than the period of the Per- 



sian Empire. Again, in I. Chron. xxix. 7, in reference 
to the time of David, a sum of money is reckoned in 
darics, whereas this Persian coin was not introduced until 

n V^oV^ ?**'''"^ ^- '^-^' ^■'^■^- r^astly, in I. Chron. 
111. iJ-24, SIX generations seem to be assigned to the 
descendants of Zembbabel (c. 520 B.C.) in the Hebrew 
^1* ^",'1/'*'^*'° '° the Septuagint. This would give us 
f,'^r l?^*^'" f^ ^;C. A num^ber of scholars fa vfuV the 
Utt^r date for the compilation of Chronicles. The 
Chronicler seems to have made use of the earlier his- 
tori«il b(x>ks. On his own admission he also used a 
number of works not included in the Canon of the Old 
Testament. Such works were : the " Words of Nathan, 
the prophet " (I. Chron. xxix. 29), tlie " Pronhecv of 
Ahijah, the Shilonite" (II. Chron. ix. 29), the '' \asions 

iJ^"^?;. ^^"^ ^,?'';' ("^^^'^ron- i-^- 29), the '"Words of 
Iddo, the seer" II. Chron. xii. 15), the " Midrash of 
tlie prophet Iddo " (II. Chron. xiii. 22), the " Words of 
Shemaiah, the prophet " (II. Chron. xii. 15), the " Words 
of Jehu, the .son of Hanani " (II. Chron. xx 34) the 
■• Rest of the acts of Uzziah, first and last " (written bv 
Isaiah the prophet, the son of Aiiioz; II. Chron xxvi 2') 
the '•Vision of Isaiah, the prophet, the son of Amoz"'' 
(II. Chron. xxxii. 32), the " Words of Hozai " (II Chron 
xxxiu. 19), the " Words of Samuel, the .seer " (I Chron 
?m"';,^^\*i'' " '^^^'^^ <>^ C^ad, tie seer " (I. Chron. xxix'. 
-9), the Book of the Kings of Judah and Israel " (II 
tiron. xvi. 11 etc.), the " Acts (or affairs) of the Kings 
?. \*^™f' . ^^^- Cbron. xxxiii. 18), the " Midrash of the 
Look of Kings ' (II. Chron. xxiv. 27). All this material 
Jias been treated m such a way as to enforce and illus- 
1rate a special point of view. " The Chronicler's survey 
IS rather in the nature of a church history of Israel from 
the point of view of post-Exilic Jewish orthodoxy, than 
a mere narrative of events " (G. H. Box). He is parti- 
cularly interested in the worship and music of the Temple 
Wlien material found in the books of Samuel and Kino-s 
IS not cjilcnlate<l to further his purjiose, he rejects it 
Again, " there are many ca.ses in which the chronicler 
modifies tie material in Samuel and Kings in some 
degree, sometimes condensing a Jiarrative greatly, some- 
times expanding; at other times changing the .sigiiiflcance 
of an event, or magnifying the size of an armv, or dis- 
regarding historical fact " (W. R. Harper). The matter 
which IS added to supplement that of the other canonicar 
books IS for the mo.st part of the nature of moralising 
romance: but occa.sionally it seems to be ba.sed urioa 
historical facts. For instance, in II. Kings there son^v 
a brief account of the very prosperous reign of Uzz^ali 
II. Chronicles xxvi. 6-15 .supplements this bv givin- In: 
formation about this pro.sperity, and Curtis and Madsen 
contend that this information is in sub-stance histoHcal 

O C. Whitehouse; E. L. Curtis and A. A. Madsen 
Chronicles in the I.a.O . 1910 ^^auseu, 

VV^^^T^'Yf ^'^ J"? '^^^^'^S OF MEDIA AND 
nSr ; 9^ document referred to in the Old Testament 
(Esther X. 2) as one of the .sources of the Book of Esther. 
The reference is as follows : '• And all the acts of his 
IKvwer and of his might, and the full account of the 
greatness of Mordecai, whereunto the king advanced him 
are they not written in the book of the (jhronicles of the 
kings of Media and Persia'" 

CHRYSANTHEMUM. THE SIXTEEN-PETAL The 
sixti'en-petal Chrysanthemum of Japan is said to be a 
Buddhist emblem. But it has been found also on a 
tomb m Egypt by Dr. N. G. Munro, of Yokohama " It 
IS also given In the newly-discovered hook of Jao as a 
' seal,' with its appropriate though meaningless mantra • 
it comes to Japan viA China and appears at Kyoto as the 



Chuila-^Gandi 



106 



Church Associatioa, The 



' seal ' of the god of Peace. In the twelfth century it 
appears as the mon or crest of the Emperor Toba, who 
wasa religious-minded person, much devoted to the wor- 
ship of the ' god of Peace.' It is to-day the Imperial 
Crest sacred to the uses of the Imperial House. ISo 
suWect may have it on anything that belongs to him ; 
and yet for the modest outlay of a halfpenny, he can 
procure 'at the (modern) Heian-Jingu, or Temple of the 
G<>d of Peace, at Kyoto, amulets and charms, protective 
against evil, which bear the Imperial Chrysanthemum 
Crest " (A. Lloyd). See Arthur Lloyd. 

CHULLA-GANDI. A reform iMirty among the Buddhist 
monJis of Burma. " The adherents of this party try to 
enforce a stricter observance of the monastic rules, as, 
for instance, that no luxurious gowns should be worn, 
even going so far as to prohibit the use of umbrellas and 
sandals, and to require that they should live on the food 
obtained by begging, that no one should accept money or 
gifts to himself personally, and that he should take no 
part in dances or popular festivals." See H. Hack- 
mann. 

CHULLIN. The title of one of the Jewish treatises 
or tractates which reproduce the oral tradition or un- 
written law as developed by the second century A.D. and 
are included in the Mishnah {q.v.}. a collection and com- 
pilation completed by Rabbi Judah the Holy, or the 
Patriarch, about 200 A.D. The sixty-three tractates of 
the Mishnah are divided into six groups or orders 
(sedarim). Chullin is the third tractate of the fifth 
group, which is called Koddshim (" Holy Things "). 

CHURCH. The Greek and Latin name for *' church " 
is ecclcsia, which meant originally " a legislative 
assembly of citizens " (cp. Acts xix. 32, 39, 41). The 
old English word " church " is derived from the Greek 
kuriakos (oikos), the " Lord's House." " It is used to 
designate alike a material fabric used for worship, a 
particular body of Christians, the whole body of baptized 
professing Christians, and the inner circle of true 
believers, whether now living or departed in the faith of 
Christ " (Prot. Diet.). The earliest well-preserved 
Christian churches in Syria date from the fourth century. 
See BASILICA. 

CHURCH AND MEDICAL UNION. A Church of Eng- 
land Union or Society founded in 1908. The founda- 
tion seems to have been suggested by the work of healing 
carried on at Emmanuel Church, Boston, U.S.A. (see 
EMMANUEL CHURCH MOVEMENT). The object of the 
Union was to promote co-operation between the medical 
profession and the Church in the healing of tie sick. A 
Committee, before the formal constitution of the Society, 
had undertaken " to collect as much evidence as possible 
in regard to the various healing movements both within 
and without the orthodox Christian Churches, and to 
endeavour to discover what was good in them and what 
was not." The principles of the Union as formally con- 
stituted were embodied in certain paragraphs in the Lam- 
beth Report of 1908. They are these : (1) " The Com- 
mittee believes that Christ still fulfils in Christian 
experience His power to give life, and to give it more 
abundantly; and that the faith, which realises His Pre- 
sence, is capable of creating a heightened vitality of 
spirit, which strengthens and sustains the health of the 
body. The Committee believes that sickness and disease 
are in one aspect a breach in the harmony of the Divine 
purpose, not only analogous to, but sometimes at least 
caused by, want of moral harmony with the Divine Will ; 
and that this restoration of harmony in mind and will 
often brings with it the restoration of the harmony of the 
body." (2) " The Committee believes that medical 
science is the handmaid of God and His Church, and 
should be fully recognised as the ordinary means 



appointed by Almighty God for the care and healing of 
the human body. The Committee believes that dis- 
coveries in the region of medicine and surgery oome to 
man through Him who is the Light and the Life, the 
Divine Word." The work of the Union seems to have 
met with some success. See Psychic Healing: An 
Account of the Work of the Church and Medical Onion, 
1910. 

CHURCH ARMY, THE. The Church Army was 
founded in 1882 by W. Carlile, Rector of S. Mary-at-HiU, 
and now Prebendary also of S. Paul's Cathedral. It is 
a Church of England Institution modelled in some re- 
spects on the Salvation Army (g.v.). As the designa- 
tion Army implies, it enlists officers and soldiers, and 
does not disdain the use of brass bands. It has a Train- 
ing Home in which working men and women are trained 
as '■ Church of England Evangelists " for mission work 
amongst their own people. The women act as Mission 
Nurses; the men as Reformatory Missioners, Mission 
Van Captains, Colporteurs, etc. Before they are com- 
missioned they must now pass an examination. On 
doing so, the men are admitted by the Bishop of London 
as Lay Evangeli-sts in the Church. In 18S8 Mr. Carlile 
started Labour Homes in London and elsewhere to give 
a " fresh start in life to the outcast and destitute." In 
connection with the Church Army there are also such 
philanthropic agencies as cheap lodging-houses, an 
employment bureau, a cheap food depot, an old clothes 
department, and a dispensary. A few years ago the 
Army was presented with the Hempstead Hall Estate, 
near Haverhill, in Essex, comprising about 740 acres of 
mixed arable, pasture, and wood land, in order that it 
might be converted into a training test colony. There 
were included some farmhouses, and an old mansion 
which was converted into a labour home. "It is 
intended that the estate shall afford employment, at once 
healthy and instructive, for about fifty men at a time. 
These will be selected from the Army's London and pro- 
vincial labour homes, and they will be kept at work 
hedging, ditching, digging, tending livestock, ploughing, 
and all the manifold occupations attendant upon a large 
mixed farm; and, provided they go through the period 
of training and testing satisfeictorily, they will from time 
to time be drafted out to Canada, well equipped with a 
practical knowledge of the work which will probably 
form their lot in future years " (" The Daily Tele- 
graph "). The men work in return for board. If 
they earn anything beyond this, it is placed to their 
credit and paid to them or used for them when they 
leave. 

CHURCH ASSOCIATION, THE. The Church Asso- 
ciation was instituted in 1865 " to uphold the doctrines, 
principles, and order of the United Church of England 
and Ireland, and to counteract the efforts now being 
made to pervert her teaching on essential points of the 
Christian faith, or assimilate her services to tiose of the 
Church of Rome, and further to encourage concerted 
action for the advancement and progress of Spiritual 
Religion." The As-sociation seeks to resist what it 
believes to be Innovations in the order of the Service 
as prescribed by the joint authority of the Church and 
State — whether in vestments, ornaments, gestures, or 
practices similar to those of the Church of Rome — and 
especially to prevent the adoration of the elements in 
the Lord's Supper, which, it contends, is contrary to the 
order of the Communion Service and the terms both of 
the Liturgy and Articles. " It seeks to resist all 
attempts to restore the use of the Confessional, and 
every exercise of that Priestly authority which was put 
down at the Reformation, and also to oppose the intro- 
duction of doctrines contrary to the teaching of the 



Churchmen's Union, The 



107 



Churinga 



Church, as set forth in her Liturgy and Articles." It 
seeks to attain these objects by means of public lectures 
and meetings, the use of the Press, Colporteurs, Lay 
Evangelists, Protestant Vans. Protestant Lay Missions; 
and through Appeals to Parliament to pass such 
measures as may be needed to restrain clergymen " from 
violating the order of their Church, and obtruding on 
their parishioners practices and doctrines repugnant to 
the Formularies and Articles of our Reformed Church." 
CHURCHMEN'S UNION, THE. A Society in the 
Church of England. It was inaugurated at the Church 
House, Westminster, in 1898 for the advancement of 
liberal religious thought. The objects of the Union are 
stated to be five. (1) To maintain the right and duty 
of the Church to restate her belief from time to time as 
required by the progressive revelation of the Holy 
Spirit. (2) To uphold the historic comprehensiveness 
and corporate life of the Church of England, and her 
Christian spirit of tolerance in all things non-essential. 
(3) To give all support in their power to those who are 
honestly and io.vally endeavouring to vindicate the truths 
of Christianity by the light of scholarship and research : 
and while paying due regard to continuity, to work for 
euch changes in the formularies and practices in the 
Church of England as from time to time are made neces- 
sary by the needs and knowledge of the dav. (4) To 
assert the rights and duties of the laitv as "constituent 
members of the Body of Christ. (5) To encourage 
friendly relations between the Church of England and 
all other Christian bodies. " Is the continuance of the 
Churchmen's Union necessary or useful? This question 
has been raised during the past year [1908-09] : but the 
Council feel that only one answer is possible. We 
gratefully acknowledge that real progress has been made 
in toleration for liberal religious views, and that open 
persecution of clergymen who hold them is now rare. 
But we cannot forget that the forces of reaction are 
strong, persevering and determined. Thev have captured 
to a large extent the machinery of the Church— Con- 
vocations, Diocesan Conferences, the so-called ' Repre- 
sentative ' Church Council, and Training Colleges for 
clergy; and though the Episcopal Bench is now more 
liberal-minded than it was, this advance has not vet been 
followed by the majority of the clergy. There" is, and 
there will be for many years to come, great need for 
euch a body as ours to vindicate the value of liberal 
principles within our Church " (Annual Report, 1908- 
1909). 

CHURCH OF THE DISCIPLES. A Church founded 
in lS2f; by Alexander Campbell (178S-180G). His fol- 
lowers were also called Campbellites (q.v.). 

CHURCH REFORM LEAGUE. The Church Reform 
League concerns itself solely with Church Reform. It 
is a non-party and non-political association, and does not 
deal with questions of doct,rine. It advocates five 
principles of Reform. 1. That, saving the supremacy 
of the Crown according to law, and, in respect to legisla- 
tion, subject to the veto of Parliament, the Church 
should have freedom for self-government, bv means of 
reformed Houses of Convocation rwhich" shall be 
thoroughly representative, with power for the Canter- 
bury and York Convocations to sit together if desired), 
together with a repre.sentative body or bodies of the 
Laity. 2. That the Laity should have the principal 
share in the administration of Finance, and. within the 
fixed limits of Church order, a real control in the 
appointing of their Pastors, and in all matters of eccles- 
iastical organization and administration, a concurrent 
voice with the Clergy. That the Communicants of every 
Parish should have a recognized power to prevent th"e 
arbitrary alteration of lawful customs in ritual. 3. 



That all Ministers and Church Officers should be re- 
movable by disciplinary process, benefices being made 
tenable only during the adequate performance of the 
duties, and that a " Godly discipline " for the Laity 
should be established. 4. That all transfers by sale of 
next presentations and advowsons should be made 
illegal, but that where patronage is transferred to a 
Diocesan Trust reasonable compensation may be given. 
o. That in each Diocese a Diocesan Trust be" formed to 
receive and administer Diocesan and Parochial Endow- 
ments on lines similar to those on which the Ecclesiasti- 
cal Commissioners administer their Trust. As an 
example of the spirit which animates the Church Reform 
League, its suggestions with regard to the election, 
number, and income of Bishops are significant and worth 
quoting. " Compared with freedom for legislation aU 
else seems to us at present secondary. None the less, it 
is obvious that a better method for the nomination of 
our Bishops should be found than the choice of names 
by a Premier of any views or creed for approval by the 
King. It is notorious that within the lifetime of many 
of us such powers have been used for party purposes. 
Throughout the last century it was commonly so, and 
especially in the case of the Church in Wal"es. The 
appointments made by the Crown ruined the Church in 
Wales and paralysed the Church in England." Again, 
" surely it is time to do away with the income limit of 
£3,000 per annum that so seriously thwarts the founding 
of new sees. The work of the Church calls for a large 
episcopate; it in no way calls for a rich episcopate. On 
the contrary so large an increase of income is a draw- 
back. The old sees have, indeed, heavy obligations 
attacheil to them that it may not be easy or wi.^e to 
sever from them. No such obligations need attach to 
new sees. Hence to cripple our progress with such a 
condition, in itself a very doubtful blessing, is a spiritual 
folly. It only points a contrast that alienates the artisan, 
while it weakens a standard of living that is be.st and 
most effective when entirely simple and apostolic." See 
the Leaflets of the Church Reform League. 

CHURINGA. Ritual instruments used by the tribes 
of Central Australia, especially the Arunta, the Loritja, 
the Kaitish, the Unmatjera, and the Ilpirra. "They 
are pieces of wood or bits of polished stone, of a great 
variety of forms, but generally oval or oblong. Each 
totem ic group has a more or less important collection 
of these. Upon each of these is engraved a design repre- 
senting the totem of this same group " (Emile Durk- 
heim). Some of them have a hole at one end, through 
which a thread is passed. These serve as real bull- 
roarers. " By means of the thread bv which thev are 
suspended, they are whirled rapidly in the air in such a 
way as to produce a sort of humming identical with that 
made by the toys of this name still used by our children; 
this deafening noise has a ritual significance and accom- 
panies all ceremonies of any importance." But not aU 
churinga are bull-roarers. In any case, they are 
eminently sacred. They may not be touched or even 
seen at close quarters by women or by young men who 
have not l)een initiated into the religions life. They 
are kept in a special place, a kind of cave, called by the 
Arunta ertnatulunga, which they render so sacred that 
it is regarded as a sanctuary of the totemic group and as 
a place of asylum. Their properties are such that they 
can heal wounds, make the beard grow, and give men 
force, courage, and perseverance. They may be lent to 
another group, but when this happens, the original 
possessors weep and lament for two weeks. " They are 
taken care of, they are greased, rubbed, polished, and 
when they are moved from one locality to another, it is 
in the midst of ceremonies which bear witness to the 



Ciagat 



108 



Circumcision 



fact that this displacement is regarded as an act of the 
highest importance." According to Spencer and Gillen. 
the ehuringa owe their power and sanctity to the fact 
that they serve as the residence of an ancestor's soul: 
according to Strehlow, to the fact that they are re- 
garded as the image of the ancestor's body or as the 
body itself. Durkheim holds that their religious nature 
is due to the totemic stamp which they bear. It is the 
emblem tliat is sacred. See fimile Durkheim. 

CIAGAT. A god worshipped by the Nicarao (of 
Nicaragua) He is probably identical with the Mexican 
Quetzalcoatl. 

CICOLLUIS. Cicolluis was one of the names given 
by the ancient Celts to a god who corresponded to the 
Roman Mars. He was pairetl with the goddess Litavis 
(.Q-v.). 

CIOACOATL. Cioaooatl or Chalehihuitlicue was the 
name of a goddess worshipped by the ancient Mexicans, 
the goddess of Water. She w^as the wife of Tlaloe 
(Q-v.). 

CIPALTONAL. The chief goddess of the Nicarao (of 
Nicaragua). She was equivalent to the Mexican Cipac- 
tonal. With the help of the god Tamagostad. she 
created the earth and mankind. 

CIRCELLIONS. Another name for the CIRCUM- 
CELLIONS (q.v.). 

CIRCLE, THE. In the 13th century the circle was 
used in Christian art as a symbol of (5od. Three 
entwined circles, denoting the indissoluble union of the 
three persons, " were used as an abstract or geometric 
symbol of the Trinity " (Sidney Heath). The circle 
also symbolises eternity. 

CIRCUITORES. Another name for the Oircumcel- 
Jions (Q.V.). 

CIRCUMAMBULATION. A mode of worship prac- 
tised by the Hindus and other primitive folk. The wor- 
shipper must always keep his right side towards the 
object worshipped, following the course of the sun. 
Monier-Williams .saw poor women who were probably 
not able to have a sacred Tulasi plant in their own 
homes. He noticed in one village, especially, " a woman 
who was in the act of walking 108 times round the 
eacred plant with her right shoulder always turned 
towards it. Her simple object, no doubt, was to pro- 
pitiate the goddess with a view to securing long life for 
her hu.sband and gaining a large family of sons for her- 
self." Even sacred rivers are circumambulated. In 
the ca.se of the Ganges, this takes .six years (see Monier- 
Williams). Amongst the Lamas of Tibet, it is the custom 
to proceed with the right hand to the wall in approaching 
the door of a temple. The Romans observed a similar 
practice in circumambulating temples. The Druids, on 
the other hand, kept the sacred structure to the left of 
them. Mr. Waddell points out that in the Scotch high- 
lands "to make the deaxil " is to " walk thrice in the 
direction of the sun's course around those" whom one 
wishes well. See L. A. Waddell. 

CIRCrMCELLIONS. The Cireumcellions were re- 
ligious fanatics who took advantage of the strife between 
the Donatists (see DONATISM) and their opponents. 
They are commonly regarded as a section of the Dona- 
tists; but they were not desirable allies, and the Dona- 
tists themselves suffered by rea.son of their excesses. 
" It was a period of much social distress and disturbance 
Sn Africa. The Donatists, as ecclesiastical rebels, pro- 
vided a rallying-point for all the discontented and 
seditious elements in the population. There was a break- 
down of social order. Bands of disix)ssessed peasants 
and escaped slaves infested the country, committing 
abominable outrages and exposing themselves to death 
with fanatical enthusiasm. Thev sought to make 



common cause with the Donatists, and called themselves 
milites Christ! agonistici, but are better known as cir- 
cumcelliones, ' hut-haunters.' The Donatists were dis- 
credited by these excesses, and suffered in their sup- 
pression " (Hastings' Encyclopaedia). In A.D. 411, when 
Marcellinus, proconsul of Africa under the Emperor 
Honorius, pronounced sentence against the Donatists, 
he commanded that " if they have Cireumcellions about 
them, and do not restrain and repress the excesses of 
these men, they shall be deprived of their places In the 
state." They were not totally suppressed until after 
A.D. 429, for they rendered assistance to (Jenseric, king 
of the Vandals, in his expeditions through Africa. See 
Schaff-Herzog, KeJlgions Encyclopaedia; 3. H. Blunt; 
Wace and Piercy; Hastings' E.R.E., vol. iv., 1911. 

CIRCUMCISION. Circumcision, the cutting away of 
the foreskin, was a rite common to a number of Semitic 
peoples in ancient times. It was practised by the ancient 
Arabs, and by the Edomites, Ammonites, and Moabites, 
as ■well as by the Hebrews. It was practised also by 
non-Semitic races. According to Herodotus and Philo, 
all Egyptians were circumcised; and according to other 
ancient writers the rite originated in Egypt and thence 
spread to the other peoples of Africa and to the Semites 
of Asia. In any ca.se, as L. H. Gray say? (Hastings' 
E.R.E.). the operation was practised almost everywhere 
except in Europe and non-Semitic Asia. " The Indo- 
Germanic peoples, the Mongols, and the Finno-Ugric 
races (except where they have been influenced by 
Muhammadanism) alone are entirely unacquainted with 
it. It can scarcely have been praeti.sed in pre-Aryan 
India (obviously we have no data regarding pre-Indo- 
Germanie Europe), for there is no allusion to it in Sans- 
krit literature, and no trace of it in modem India, 
even among peoples untouched by Hindu civilization." 
The real reasons for the operation are diflBcult to deter- 
mine. Benzinger (Encycl. Bibl.) thinks that, in general, 
circumcision is to be regarded as a ritual tribal mark. 
It marked the initiation of the full-grown man into full 
membership of his clan. This involved something 
more. " Like all other initiation ceremonies of the kind 
in the Semitic religions, circumcism had attributed to 
it also the effect, of accomplishing a sacramental com- 
munion, bringing about a union with the godhead." It 
should be noted, however, that among many peoples 
(including the ancient Arabs) the operation has been 
performed uix>n women as well as upon men. G. A. 
Barton is perhaps right in saying (Hastings) that in the 
beginning Semitic circumcision would .seem to have been 
a sacrifice to the goddess of fertility. " Whether it was 
intended to ensure the blessing of the goddess, and so 
to secure more abundant offspring, or whether it was 
considered as the .sacrifice of a part instead of the whole 
of the person, we may not clearly determine, though 
the writer regards the former alternative as the more 
probable." The idea of a sacrifice seems to be pre- 
sent in a custom found among the Borans. " The Borans, 
on the southern borders of Abyssinia, propitiate a sky- 
spirit called Wak by sacrificing their children and cattle 
to him. Among them when a man of any standing 
marries, he becomes a Raba, as it is called, and for a 
certain period after marriage, probably four to eight 
years, he must leave any children that are bom to him 
to die in the bush. No Boran cares to contemplate the 
fearful calamities with which Wak would visit him if 
he failed to discharge this duty. After he ceases to be 
a Raba, a man is circumcised and becomes a Gudda. 
The sky-spirit has no claim on the children bom after 
their father's circumcision, but they are sent away at a 
very early age to be reared by the Wata, a low caste of 
hunters. They remain with these people till they are 



Circumcision, Feast of 



109 



Clairaudience 



grown up, and then return to their families " (J. G. 
Frazer). Frazer tiinks that here the circumcision of 
the father seems to be regarded as " an atoning sacrifice 
which redeems the rest of his children from the spirit to 
whom thev would otherwise belong." He thinks that 
the story told by the Israelites (Exodus iv. 24-26) to 
account "for the origin of circumcision " seems also to 
suggest that the custom was supposed to save the life 
of the child by giving the deity a substitute for it." In 
the early days of Christianity the Judaeo-Christians 
wi.shed to retain the rite of circumcision, but the Apostle 
Paul was instrumental in abolishing it. The Christian 
rite of baptism came to be substituted for it. The .Tews 
circumcise ciildren on the eighth day after birth (Geu. 
xvii. 12; Luke i. 59. ii. 21), and, as in Christian l>aptism. 
the name is given at the same time. But originally iu 
both cases the rites may be supposed to have been cele- 
brated at a later date, when the children attained 
pubertv. See Schaff-Herzog ; Encycl. Bibl.; Cliamhem' 
Encucf.; Hastings' E.R.E.: 3. G. Frazer, G.B., Pt. iii., 
1912. 

CIRCUMCISION, FEAST OF. In Judaism a father 
is required by the Mosaic Code to have his son circum- 
cised on the eighth day after birth as a " sign " of the 
covenant with Abraham. The father in his benediction 
terms this act " admission into the covenant of Abra- 
ham "; but K. Kohler emphasises the fact that Cireum- 
ci.sion is not a sacrament among the Jews, and does not 
determine membership in the Jewish community. Many 
rabbis have indeed held that Circumcision gave the Jew 
a place in " Abraham's bosom " which was denied to the 
uncircumcised. They thus made Circumcision equiva- 
lent to Chri.stian baptism. But according to a number of 
imssages in the Talmud, especially in the Tosefta. Cir- 
cumcision was not believed to have power to save a 
sinner from Gehenna. We learn from Luke ii. 21 that 
Jesus was circumcised, and in the Church of England 
and of Rome the event is commemorated on the 1st of 
January. The first mention of the feast by its present 
name is in Canon 17 of a council held at Tours in SfiT 
(Cath. Diet.). It was known also as the " Octave of 
our Lord." 

CISTERCIANS. An order of monks founded at 
Citeaux fl09Rl (Cistercium: whence the name), near 
Dijon, in Burgundy, by St. Robert. Robert became first a 
Benedictine monk. But he wished to introduce a stricter 
observance of the Benedictine rule than that which he 
found to prevail. In 107.5 he retired to the forest of 
Molesme, near Chatillon. and founded a small colony of 
hermits there. But again he became dissatisfied with 
the way in which the rule was observed. He retired 
to Haur, a forest in the neighbourhood, only to be re- 
called by the Bishop of the diocese. In 109S. however, 
with the permission of the papal legate. Archbishop 
Hughes of Lyons, he removed to Citeaux (Cistercium), 
near Diion. Here he formed a community of hermits, 
who undertook to observe strictly the rules of St. Bene- 
dict (.see BENEDICTINES). Then a monastery was 
built, of which Robert became Abbot. But again he was 
recalled, and was obliged to return to Molesme. where in 
1108 he died. The successor of Robert at Citeaux, 
Alberic, succeeded in 1100 in having the monastery placed 
under the direct authority of the Pope. He also drew 
np the Statiita Monachorum Ci^tertiensium, which 
adopted the strict observance of the rule of St. Benedict. 
The habit of the order was changed from grey to white 
(in the choir, but black in the streets). In the time of 
Alberic's successor, the Englishman Stephen Harding 
(t 1134), thirteen new monastries were founded. In 1113 
Bernard, with a number of companions, was admitted 
onto the Monastery of Citeaux. Two years later it 



became necessary to found four new monaisteries, and 
Bernard was sent to found one of them at Clairvaux 
(whence his designation St. Bernard of Clairvauxj. 
Bernard gave a great impetus to the movement. "Led 
by St. Bernard, and following the Pope, the order occu- 
pied one of the very first places in the Christian world. 
It crushed the heretics, Abelard, Arnold of Brescia, the 
Cathari, etc.: it preached the second crusade; it called 
into life the military orders of the Templars, of Cala- 
trava, Alcantara, Montesa, Avis, and Christ. In 1143 
the kingdom of Portugal declared itself a fief of the 
Abbey of Clairvaux; and in 1.57S the abbey actually tried 
to make good its claims " (Schaff-Herzog). After St. 
Bernard the members of the order are sometimes called 
Bemardines. The Cistercians, under the strict observ- 
ance of the rule of St. Benedict, abstained from meat, 
fish, eggs and grease, and usually from milk. They 
fasted from Septemiber 14th to Ea.ster. But after the 
middle of the thirteenth century the discipline of the 
order began to be relaxed, and the order itself began to 
decline. In 1475, by a brief of Pope Sixtus IV., the 
monks of Citeaux were allowed the use of meat. In 
1485, by order of the general chapter, it was allowed in 
all convents on three days in the week. There were 
protests against this which in course of time took the 
form of new congregations (see FEUILLANTS, TRAP- 
PISTS). There were at one time eighteen hundred 
Cistercian abbeys. In England at the time of the dis- 
solution, there were about one hundred houses for monks 
or nuns. See Schaff-Herzog; Benham; the GatU. Diet.: 
Brockhaus. 

CITBOLONTUM. A tribal deity, god of medicine, in 
the religion of the Mayan Indians. 

CITY TEMPLEISM. A name which was given to 
the New Theology ((/.r.), or the teaching of Mr. R. J. 
Campbell, formerly minister of the Cit.v Temple, London. 

CITY, THE. It has been pointed out by L. R. Famell 
and others that in many cases the very origin of the 
poli.^ or city was religious. " We have evidence that 
before the Homeric period the exclusive tribal-religious 
system had been transcended, and that certain tribes 
might share and maintain a common temple; for 
instance, the Delphic Amphiktyony had arisen before 
society had become predominatingly civic. The temple 
would be surrounded with sacrosanct ground, and this 
would serve as a rallying place for commerce and social 
union. Adjacent habitations could naturall.v arise, and 
the settlement could grow into a city, just as. in our 
early Middle Ages, a town might arise under the .shadow 
of a monastery. The name ' Preston ' points to such an 
origin; and names of cities such as ' Athemse* the .settle- 
ments of Athena, Alalkomenai the .settlements of Athena 
Alalkomene, Potniai ' of the mistress,' Megara ' the 
nether shrine of Demeter,' indicate the same process of 
development. In these cases the temple is the nucleus of 
the expanding communit.v. But also when, as perhaps 
happened more frequently, .secular motives such as mili- 
tary security prompted the foundation, the bond that 
holds the city together is none the less religious " (L. R. 
Farnell). See L. R. Pamell, Oreek Religion. 

CIUAPIPILTIN. A name given to certain Mexican 
goddesses, goddesses of the cross-roads, who were 
thought to be the spirits of women who had died in child- 
birth. Since they were supposed to haunt cross-roads, 
temples were built and offerings made there to placate 
them. They were liable to afflict children with various 
diseases. 

CLAIRAUDIENCE. It is well known that Socrates 
believed that a familiar spirit attended him and spoke 
to him sometimes, giving him advice. This advice 
generally took the form of a warning against some 



Clairvoyance 



110 



Coat, The Holy 



approaching danger. It is believed now that this and 
many other instances of the hearing of voices can be 
explained in the light of the modern study of psychic 
phenomena. Socrates, says Mr. Hudson, " was endowed 
with that rare faculty which, in one way or another, 
belongs to all men of true genius, and which enabled 
him to draw from the storehouse of subjective know- 
ledge In his case the threshold of consciousness was so 
easily displaced that his subjective mind was able at 
will to communicate with his objective mind in words 
audible to his senses. This phenomenon is known to 
spiritists as clairaudience." See T. J. Hudson. 

CLAIRVOYANCE. The word has been defined to 
mean "the alleged power of seeing things not present 
to the senses." The power has been claimed as one 
of the phenomena of spiritism, and spiritists profess 
to be able to see things which are happening at a dis- 
tance. T. J. Hudson says that " certainly the great bulk 
of phenomena which are popularly regarded as evincing 
clairvoyant power must now be referred to telepathy. 
It must be said, however, that many phenomena have 
been produced which cannot at present be accounted for 
on any other hypothesis than that of independent clair- 
voyance. Yet it is not impossible that, when the laws 
of telepathy are better understood, all so-called clair- 
voyant phenomena may be referred to that agency." Op. 
TELEPATHY. See T. J. Hudson; Joseph Lapponi, 
Hypnotism and Spiritism, 1907. 

CLAPHAM SECT. A name given by Sydney Smith 
(1771-1845) to a group of Evangelical philanthropists of 
the Church of England. They were so called because 
they lived in Clapham. One of them was the Vicar of 
Clapham, John Venn (1759-1813), a founder of the Church 
Missionary Society. Others were : Henry Thornton 
(1760-1815), first Treasurer of the Society for Missions, 
which became afterwards the Church Missionary 
Society; William Wilberforce (1759-1833), who carried 
the Bill for the abolition of slavery through the House 
of Commons; Granville Sharp (1735-1813), who formu- 
lated the principle " that as soon as any slave sets foot 
upon English territory he becomes free"; Zachary 
Macaulay (1768-18.38), editor of the " Christian Observer," 
which was devoted to tie cause of the abolition 
of the British slave-trade; James Stephen (1758-1832), 
who resigned his seat in the House of Commons because 
the Government refused to support the registration of 
slaves; and John Shore or Baron Teignmouth (1751-1834), 
the first President of the British and Foreign Bible 
Society. " The influence exerted by the co-operation of 
these men, and of the friends who came to visit them — 
men like Simeon and Dean Milner and Clarkson — ^was of 
vast importance in its day. The abolition of the slave 
trade, leading on to the abolition of slavery itself, was 
the work of this coterie. The Evangelical party found 
here their chief rendezvous. They started the Christian 
Observer, the only religious periodical of the day worth 
notice: they were the founders of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society, and of Exeter Hall as a place for religious 
meetings; and they wrought greatly on behalf of Church 
Missions to the heathen " (W. Benham, Dictionarti). 
See Sir James Stephen, JUssaiis in Ecclesiastical 
Biography. 1849; Benham; the D.N.B. 

CLARISSES. The order of the Nuns of St. Clare. 
See POOR CLARES. 

CLEMENT, EPISTLES OF. See APOSTOLIC 
FATHERS. 

CLEWER SISTERHOOD, THE. A Church of Eng- 
land Sisterhood founded at Clewer near Windsor in 
1849. The Sisters are engaged in educational work 
and in the conduct of Penitentiaries, Orphanages, and 
Convalescent Homes. Their Manual " advocates Auri- 



cular Confession, the Real Presence, the Eucharistie 
Sacrifice as a propitiation, and Prayers for the Dead " 
(Walsh). See Walter Walsh, " Sisterhoods, Ritualistic," 
in the Prot. Diet. 

CLINICAL BAPTISM. In the early Christian Church 
persons who received baptism on the sick-bed were called 
clinici (from the Greek kline "a bed "). The.y were of 
course baptised by the sprinkling or pouring of water 
over them, and in their case this form of baptism was con- 
sidered valid. But clinici who recovered were not as a 
rule allowed to be ordained. This was decreed by the 
Council of Neo-Cassarea (314 A.D.). The exceptions were 
to be made only when there was a great want of clergy, 
or when clinici had proved themselves to be particularly 
zealous Christians. See SehafE-Herzog; Benham; the 
Cath. Diet. 

CLUNY, CONGREGATION OF. The Congregation of 
Cluny or Clugny represents a movement for the reform 
of the monastic life towards the end of the ninth century 
A.D. A new monastery was founded by Berno, Abbot 
of Gigny, in 912, at Clugny (Oluniacum) in Burgundy, 
and endowed by William Duke of Aquitaine. The 
reform took the form of a very strict observance of the 
rule of St. Benedict. It met with such favour and 
success that many other monasteries attached themselves 
to it. The rules of the Congregation (Oonsuetudines 
Cluniaeenses) were finally collected by Peter the Vener- 
able, the ninth abbot, whose authority was recognised 
by two thousand convents. The monastery of Cluny 
was the largest in Christendom. Its church, which was 
consecrated in 1131 by Pope Innocent II., " was one of 
the most magnificent built during the Middle Ages, orna- 
mented with wall and glass pictures, and embroidered 
tapestries, and stocked with furniture of gold and 
bronze " (Schaff-Herzog). From the beginning of the 
twelfth century, however, the Congregation had begun to 
decline. In the thirteenth century discipline was greatly 
relaxed. At the Revolution the property of the Con- 
gregation of Cluny was confiscated by the Republican 
Government. The church was sold to the town of Cluny, 
and was then pulled down. In England, at the time of 
the dissolution there were thirty-two Cluniac houses. 
See Schaff-Herzog; Benham; the Cath. Diet. 

COADJUTOR. In ecclesiastical usage, the term Coad- 
jutor denotes " the assistant of an ecclesiastic who by 
sickness or age is prevented from fulfilling the duties 
of his ofl5ce, and may be appointed temporarily or per- 
petually " (Schaff-Herzog). In ancient times it was not 
considered proper to appoint a successor to a bishop 
while the bishop was still alive. In the Church of Eng- 
land it was provided by Act of Parliament in 1869 that 
an Archbishop or Bishop, if incapacitated, might retire 
with a pension. A successor, a C!oadjutor Bishop, is 
then elected and consecrated in the usual way. In the 
Church of Rome the Pope himself decides upon the right 
course of action. It was decreed by the Council of Trent 
that coadjutors " should be appointed at cathedral 
churches and monasteries only in cases of absolute neces- 
sity, and that they should never acquire the right of suc- 
cession, except after a careful investigation of all circum- 
stances by the Pope " (Schaff-Herzog). See Schaff- 
Herzog; Edward L. Cutts; the Cath. Diet. 

COAT, THE HOLY. The relic known as the Holy 
Coat of Treves is preserved in the Cathedral of Treves. 
It has been claimed that it is the seamless coat worn by 
Jesus at the time of his Passion (.lohn xix. 23). Accord- 
ing to the " Gesta Trevirorum," the Empress Helena 
became possessed of it in the Holy Land and sent it 
(about 326 A.D.) to Treves. But there are several trad- 
itions. According to one of the legends it was brought to 
Treves by a maiden, and as she drew near to the city 



Coatlicue 



111 



Code of Holiness, The 



all the bells began to toll. In 1512 the coat was exposed 
for the veneration of the faithful. On the occasion of 
its exposure in 1844, in the presence of eleven bishops 
and more than a million layment, several miraculous 
cures are said to have taken place. This led to a long 
controversy regarding the authenticity of the Coat, and 
to the secession of a number of members of the Church, 
who formed a new body called the " German Catholic 
Church " (Deutschkatholilien). The Coat was exposed 
as recently as 1891. when a number of cures were again 
reported. See William Benham; Schaff-Herzog ; the 
Cath. Diet.; Brockhaus. 

COATLICUE. One of tie deities of the ancient Mexi- 
cans. She was the mother of the War-god Huitzilo- 
pochtli (q.v.), and became, when translated to heaven, 
the Goddess of Flowers. 

COCCEIA^'S. A school of theologians in Holland 
which was led by J. Cocceius (1603-1669). a professor at 
Leiden. In 1669 Cocceius published a Hebrew Lexicon. 
But his peculiar system of theology, the Covenant or 
Federal Theology, was expounded in a work published 
in 1648, " Summa Doctrinae de Foedere et Testamento 
Dei." He develops the idea of two covenants made by 
God with man, the first covenant, or covenant of works, 
made witJi Adam, and the second covenant, or covenant 
of grace, made with Christ. Cocceius " maintained that 
there is a strict unity between the Old and the New 
Testament, that a proper interpretation of the former 
makes it full of evangelical revelations, and that the 
fulness of the Divine Word is such that its language 
must bear many meanings, suited to many times and 
persons. It became a common saying that Cocceius saw 
Christ everywhere in the Old Testament, but that 
Grotius saw him nowhere " (J. H. Blunt). See J. H. 
Blunt; Brockhaus. 

COCIDIUS. Cocidius was one of the names given by 
the ancient Celts to the war-god, a deity corresponding 
to the Roman Mars. Reverence was paid to Cocidius in 
ancient Britain. 

COCK, THE. In China if there has been delav in 
burying a coffin, "it is not unusual to see on the "way 
to the grave a live white cock with its feet tied standing 
upon the catafalque." From ancient times the Chinese 
have regarded the cock as an emblem of the sun. A 
Chinese book says : " The cock is the emblem of the 
accumulated Yang (i.e. the sun) and of the South. 
Etherial things which partake of the character of fire 
and of the Xang element, have the property of flaming 
up; hence, when the Tang rises above the' horizon the 
cock crows, because things of the same nature influence 
each other." The cock seems therefore to be placed 
upon the catafalque liecause it contains Xang matter or 
vital energy. Another reason is that it is supposed to 
keep away spirits of darkness. It is commonly believed, 
moreover, that these cannot withstand daylight, and are 
put to flight every morning by the cock's crowing. To 
impart vitality to a soul-tablet marks are made on it 
with blood taken from the comb of a cock. When per- 
sons are lingering between life and death, or even when 
they are dead, the blood of a cock is supposed to have 
power to revive them. In funeral processions white 
cocks are preferred. In ancient times thev were also 
preferred for exorcising purposes. See f. J. M. de 
Groot, 7?..S'.C. Modem European Jews observe a cere- 
mony in which a cock or hen (preferablv a white one) 
plays a part. The bird serves as a kind of vicarious 
sacrifice on the day before the Day of Atonement. 
Usually a male per.son takes a cock, a female a hen. 
Psalm cvii. 17-20 and Job xxxiii. 23-24 are first recited, 
and then, the right hand resting on the animal's head, 
the bird is swung round the head three times. While 



this is being done, these words are said three times in 
Hebrew : " This be my substitute, my vicarious offer- 
ing, my atonement. This cock [or hen] shall meet 
death, but I shall find a long and pleasant life of peace." 
The bird is afterwards killed and given to the poor; 
or it is eaten and its equivalent in money given to the 
poor. The ceremony bears the Xiddish name " Kap- 
parath-Schlag." See Oesterley and Box. The cock 
api>ears as emblem of the Attis-prie.srt in an inscription 
on an um in the Lateran Museum at Rome. Lucian 
speaks {Surian Goddess, § 48) of " a certain holy cock 
who dwells hard by the lake " (the sacred lake of 
Hierapolis). According to W. G. Wood-Martin, on some 
of the islands off the western coast of Ireland, it is 
the custom on St. Patrick's day to sacrifice a black 
cock in honour of the saint. The Gadbas, a primitive 
tribe belonging to the Vizagapatam District of Madras, 
offer a white cock to tie sun and a red cock to the 
moon. When the Oraons, an important Dravidian tribe 
in India, the members of which work as farmservants 
and labourers, celebrate at the Sarhul festival the mar- 
riage of the sun-god and earth-mother, the former is 
represented by a white cock and the latter by a black 
hen. After the marriage the cock and hen are sacri- 
ficed. The Valans, a fishing caste in Southern India, 
hold a grand festival called Kumbhom Bharani (cock 
festival) in the middle of March, " when Nayars and 
low caste men offer up cocks to Bhagavathi, beseeching 
immunity from diseases during the ensuing year " (E. 
Thurston and K. Rangachari). S. Couling notes that 
in Hongkong the form of oath for Chinese in Court 
was by cutting off a cock's head. 

COCK FESTIVAL. The Nayars, a Dravidian caste 
in Malabar, hold annually at Cranganore a festival In 
which the chief feature is the sacrifice of cocks. It ie 
held in a temple dedicated to the goddess Kali, to which 
many pilgrims resort. The pilgrims take with them 
rice, salt, chillies, curry-stuffs, betel leaves and nuts, 
a little turmeric powder and pepper, and particularly a 
number of cocks. " The popular idea is that the greater 
the number of cocks sacrificed, the greater is the efficacy 
of the pilgrimage. Hence men vie with one another in 
the number of cocks that they carry on the journey. 
The sacrifice is begun, and then there takes place a 
regular scramble for the sanctified spot reserved for 
this butchering ceremony. One man holds a cock by 
the trunk, and another pulls out its neck by the head, 
and, in the twinkling of an eye, by the intervention of 
a sharpened knife, the head is severed from the trunk. 
The blood then gushes forth in forceful and continuous 
jets, and is poured on a piece of granite specially re- 
served. Then another is similarly slaughteretl, and then 
as many as each of the pilgrims can bring. In no length 
of time, the whole of the temple yard is converted into 
one horrible expanse of blood, rendering it too slippery 
to be safely walked over. The piteous cries and death 
throes of the poor devoted creatures greatly intensify 
the horror of the scene. The stench emanating from the 
blood mixing with the nauseating smell of arrack ren- 
ders the occasion all the more revolting " (T. K. Gopal 
Panikkar, Malaiar and its Folk, 1900). The festival is 
known as the Bharani. 

CODDIANI. One of the names given to the Gnostics. 
It is referred to by Epiphanius (Hwr. xxvi. 3) who 
suggests that the name is connected with a Syriac word 
Codda meaning a dainty side-dish. The Gnostics might 
have been so called because they ate apart from others. 
See J. H. Blunt. 

CODE OP HOLINESS, THE. The Code of Holiness 
or the Law of Holiness (commonly represente<l by the 
letter H) is the name given to a priestly document 



Code of Khammurapi 



112 



Columbanus, St., Rule of 



Leviticus xvii.-xxvi.) incorporated in the Hexateueh. 
The book of the prophet Ezekiel is closely connected 
with it, and the booklet has even been ascribed to him. 
Another view is that it is "a codification of more 
ancient laws by Ezekiel prior to the composition of his 
own code." A third theory makes it later than Ezekiel, 
but earlier than the rest of the Priests' Code. C. A. 
Briggs is of opinion that " Ezekiel's resemblance to 
It in many respects implies a knowledge of its legisla- 
tion whether he knew it in its present form of codi- 
fication or not. It is probable that Ezekiel knew of it, 
but it is difficult to prove the existence of the code 
prior to Ezekiel." See C. A. Briggs, Eex. 

CODE OF KHAMMURAPI. A Babylonian code of 
laws, the oldest code in the world, discovered at Susa 
in 1901 by M. J. de Morgan. Khammurapi flourished 
about 2100 B.C. Mr. W. St. Chad Boscawen points out 
that, although this is the oldest code of laws, " other 
tables of morality have existed, such as the Negative 
Confessions in the Egyptian Book of the Dead " (see 
BOOK OP THE DEAD). The following are examples 
of some of the laws (in the rendering of Chilperic 
Edwards) : 109. If rebels meet in the house of a wine- 
seller and she does not seize them and take them to 
the palace, that wine-seller shall be slain. 110. If a 
priestess who has not remained in the sacred building 
shall open a wine-shop, or enter a wine-shop for drink, 
that woman shall be burned. 142. If a woman hate 
her husband, and say " Thou shalt not possess me," 
the reason for her dislike shall be inquired into. If 
she is careful, and has no fault, but her husband takes 
himself away and neglects her; then that woman is not 
to blame. She shall take her dowry and go back to 
her father's house. 143. If she has not been careful, 
but runs out, wastes her house and neglects her hu.s- 
band; then that woman shall be thrown into the water. 
229. If a builder has built a house for a man, and his 
work is not strong, and if the house he has built falls 
In and kills the householder, that builder shall be slain. 
2.50. If a mad bull has rushed upon a man. and gored 
him, and killed him; that case has no remedy. 251. If 
a man's ox is known to be addicted to goring, and he 
has not blunted his horns, nor fastened up his ox : then 
if his ox has gored a free man and killed him, he shall 
give half a mina of silver. See W. St. Chad Boscawen, 
The First of Empires, 1903: Chilperic Edwards, The 
Oldest Laws in the Worlil, 190(i. 

CCENOBITJM. Cu'nobium was the name given to the 
place in which coenobites lived together. Their superior 
was called koinoMarches. As distinguished from an- 
chorites and hermits, cunobites elected to live in com- 
mon. Their name is derived from the Greek words 
koinos hios '• common life." The monastic community 
of a ccr-nobinm differs from that of a laura <q.v.) to the 
extent that the inmates of the latter have separate cells 
and live in solitude five davs of the week. 

COGITO ERGO SUM. This, according to Ren6 Des- 
cartes (1.59C-1C50), the founder of speculative rationalism, 
is the basic principle of all philosophy. If we are to 
find in knowledge anything of abiding value we must 
start, with the first grounds of Reason, and destroy all 
conventional assumptions (De omnibus nobis dubitaudum, 
quae incerta). One thing it is impossible to deny — the 
fact that we exist. " For if I doubt or I deny', that 
means I must think, and the ' I ' who thinks must 
exist " (Butler). " I think, consequently I exist." See 
C. J. Deter; Arthur Butler. 

COOLERS. A sect founded by a man named Sirgood 
at Kirdford in Sussex. They were also called Copiers, 
and were believed to possess a " Book of Cople." They 
were teetotallers, and professed to be sinless. 



COLLEGE. In Roman usage the word Collegium was 
a general term for an association. Political clubs were 
called Colleges. There were many associations or col- 
leges, " which, although not united by any specifically 
religious ob.jects, had a religious c-entre in the worship 
of some deity or other " (Seyffert). Religious societies 
were either established by the State, or formed by 
private individuals. In eitiier case they Had to be 
recognised and controlled by the Government. When 
Christian churches first arose in the Roman Empire 
they were regarded as colleges {collegia) and were con- 
sidered to be illegal associations (collegia illicita). In 
modern times, apart from the ordinary uses of the term 
college, it is used often of that part of a Cathedral 
foundation in which the dean and Chapter reside. See 
O. Seyffert, Diet.: the Cath. Diet.; Smith and Cheetham. 

COLLEGIANTS. The followers in Holland, and 
afterwards in Hanover, of John James, Hadrian, and 
Gisbert van der Kodde. The sect was founded in 1619. 
There was no official ministry. At their prayer meet- 
ings, held t.wic-e a week, any member of the congregation 
was allowed to pray or preach. They practised baptism 
by immersion. For a time a division was caused in 
the sect b.v John Bredenburg who had come under the 
influence of the teaching of Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677), 
but in course of time the breach was healed. See J. 
H. Blunt. 

COLLYRIDIANS. A religious sect in Arabia, re- 
ferred to by Epiphanius. The name is derived from 
the Greek word koUvrides, " cakes," and the sect was 
so called because the women offered cakes or rolls to 
JIarv and then ate them. 

COLOURS, CHRISTIAN SYMBOLISM OF. The 
various colours are used to symbolise states and qual- 
ities. White denotes innocence, purity, virginity, faith, 
joy, life, and light. In ritual it is used on the festivals of 
the Circumcision, the Epiphany, Christmas, and Easter. 
Red denotes divine love, power, regal dignity, war, 
suffering, and especiall.v the Passion of .Tesus and the 
martyrdom of the saints. In ritual it is used on the 
festivals of Pentecost and of the Martyrs. Green de- 
notes life, hope, plenty, mirth, youth, and prosperity. 
In ritual it is used on ordinary Sundays. Violet (or 
Purple) denotes .sorrow, passion, suffering, humility, 
and truth. In ritual it is used during Lent, Holy Week, 
and Advent, as well as on Septuagesima, Quinquagesima, 
and Ash-Wednesday. Mart.vrs are depicted in purple 
garments. Black denotes death, despair, sorrow, humili- 
ation, and mourning. In ritual it is used on Good 
Friday. Blue denotes sincerity, godliness, piety, and 
divine contemplation. Bright yellow denotes brightness, 
goodness, faith, and fruitfulness. Dull Yellow denotes 
faithlessness, deceit, and .iealousy. See Sidney Heatli. 

COLUMBANUS, ST,, RULE OF. Columbanus (about 
54,"-61.5 A.D.) was born in Ijcinster, Ireland, and edu- 
cated at Bangor. In !^U~> he founded a monastery on 
the Irish model in the Vosges, a school for the practice 
of asc-eticism and for sacred study. His work met with 
great success. Later, when he was banished from the 
country, he established himself in an abandoned church 
on the shore of the Lake of Constance. Finally he 
founded a monastery, Bobbio, on the Trebia, south of 
Pa via. This became a centre of learning. The com- 
munity of Columbanus claimed a large measure of in- 
dependence. In many points its leader refused to 
conform to the rites and niles of Rome. The life was 
one of great austerity. The monks had to observe, as 
far as possible, perpetual silence. Only one meal was 
taken, consisting of common vegetables, pulse, dough, 
and a small loaf twice-baked. Mortification had to be 
practiced in thoughts, words and movements. Colum- 



Comaristae 



113 



Communion of Saints, The 



banus is reputed to liave composed two documents con- 
cerning his rule, the Regula Colvmbani and the Regnla 
Canobialis Frutrum de Hibernia. " The former is a 
thoroughly biblical direction towards a Christian life 
in evangelical freedom : the latter orders that he who 
neglects to make the sign of the cross over the spoon 
before eating shall be punished by a sound whipping; 
that he who speaks to a layman shall be punished by 
singing a number of hymns, etc. But while the char- 
acter of the Hegula Columbani corresponds very closely 
with that of Columban's sermons, which are genuine, 
the Liber Pwnitentiaiis Columbani, which corresponds 
to the Regula Coenobialis, is evidently spurious " (Schaflf- 
HerzogJ. See Schaff-Herzog; the Cath. Diet. 

COMARISTAE. A religious sect, the members of 
which held I'elagian views. They were so called after 
Theodore Comartius (d. c. A.D. 1595). Another name 
for them was New Pelagians (q.vA. 

COMMANDMENTS, THE TEN. See DECALOGUE. 

COMMERCE, I'ATRON SAINTS OF. There was a 
widespread detlication during the early Middle Ages of 
churches and fraternities to St. Nicholas of Myra in 
Lycia, and Professor G. Unwin (in the Journal of the 
Manchester Egyptian and Oriental Society, 1916, p. 13 ff.) 
has sought to establish a connection of these on the one 
hand with the spread of commercial usages and gild 
organisations from the I^evant westwards, and on the 
other hand with the simultaneous spread of a particular 
method of city construction and city expansion which 
had been practised from the earliest historic times in 
Mesoi)Otamia. and was especially exemplifle<l in the 
foundation of Baghdad by the Caliph Mansur in 77(i 
A.D. In the second century B.C. Delos was the prin- 
cipal intercontinental market for slaves. " The detli- 
cations to Isis, Hermes, and the Tyrian Hercules of the 
fraternities with clubhouses and chapels of the 
merchants who frequented it, point to their descent as 
institutions from a much earlier time, whilst, on the 
other hand, they were almost identical in their social 
and religious character with the merchant guilds of the 
early Middle Ages. One of the chief patron deities of 
commerce at Delos was naturally Poseidon ; and later, 
in the second century A.D. a gild of merchants dedi- 
cated to Poseidon still existed at Tanais, at the mouth 
of the Don (Minns, Scythians and Greeks). Tanais, 
which had long been under the influence of a cosmo- 
politan Judaism, was a frontier post of that Levantine 
world, whose curious transitional blend of more primi- 
tive custom with Hellenism and with Christianity has 
been interpreted by Sir W. Ramsay and Professor 
Calder. Fraternities, at first Pagan, but afterwards 
Christian, played a large part in that world. The cult 
of Poseidon amongst seafaring merchants was displaa^l 
by the veneration of St. Nicholas of Myra in Lycia 
(Lawton, Modern Greek Folklore) to whom a church was 
dedicated by .Justinian at Constantinople in 530 A.D. 
Until the rise of the Italian republics the Levantine 
region, of which St. Nicholas thus became the tutelary 
genius, remained the seat of acUve commerce in Europe 
and the intermediary through which the products and 
the technique of the more advanced industries of Meso- 
potamia and Central Asia, China and India slowlv 
passed into the civilisation of the West. Greek anil 
Syrian Christians were the first agents of this inter- 
course, as is shown by the earliest dedications of 
Florentine churches (Davidsohn. Gesch. d. Florcnz) to 
St. Miniata, a Greek, in 250 A.D. and to St. Reparata, 
a Syrian, about 400 A.D. ; but after the rise of Islam 
Arabs played a large part, and Offa's gold tribute to 
Rome m the eighth century was paid in Arab dinars 
(Brit, yumis. Journal, vol. v.)." From the ninth to the 



twelfth century the centre of this commerce and cul- 
ture tended to gravitate towards Baghdad. The spread 
of St. Nicholas dedications began at the period of the 
Crusades. " In the last decade of the eleventh century 
Venice and Bari were contending for the possession of 
the saint's body and a large proportion of the churches 
erected at new ports or new markets throughout Nor- 
thern Europe were dedicated to St. Nicholas." Unmis- 
takable instances of the connection between St. Nicholas 
and new settlements of traders are found at Brussels, 
Ghent, Amsterdam, Middleburg, I^vden, Berlin, Ham- 
burg. I..eipzig, Prankfort-on-Maine, Prague, Stockholm, 
Paris, Rouen, Amiens, Chartres, London, Newcastle, 
Durham, Bristol, Liverpool, Yarmouth, Rochester. There 
are 385 dedications to St. Nicholas in England alone, 
many of them being in insignificant villages. The rapid 
spread of the cult of St. Nicholas at ports and markets 
seems to indicate " the activity of Levantine influences 
either through the migration of the traders themselves 
or through the adoption of their methods and traditions 
in the West." 

COMMISSARY. In the Church of England a Com- 
missary commonly denotes a clergyman or a layman 
who acts in England for colonial bishops in matters 
of business. The Cath. Diet, defines a Commissary as 
an ecclesiastic who is delegated by the bishop to exer- 
cise " a iwrtion of the episcopal .iurisdiction in a 
particular part of the diocese, especially with reference 
to licences, institutions, the examination of witnesses, 
etc." 

COMMISSION CREED. THE. A Creed drawn up in 
America in 1883 A.D. by twenty-five commissioners. 
This cree<i, consisting of twelve Articles, is, in the 
opinion of W. A. Curtis, " one of the most successful 
modem Declarations," and has found wide acceptance. 
" It is catholic and evangelical in its doctrine: the 
historic difficulties in Calvinism are passed over; the 
language is simple, vigorous, and ai)propriate; even the 
doctrine of the Church in Art. X. is in such terms as 
would commend it to others than Congregationalists " 
(W. A. Curtis). See William A. Curtis. 

COMMUNION, HOLY', A name given to the Christian 
institution (one of the Sacraments) which commemorates 
the Last Supper of Jesus with his disciples. It is also 
called the Lord's Supper; or the Eucharist, which means 
Thanksgiving, because according to the gospels of St. 
Matthew, St. Mark, and St. Luke, Jesus " gave thanks " 
before he broke and distributed the bread. The name 
Holy Communion emphasises the fact that " the Sacra- 
ment is a means of conuunniou or fellowship with Christ 
Himself, and with all those, whether living or departed, 
who are members of His Body — the Church " (W. R. W. 
Stephens, Book of Common Prayer). It seems to have 
been suggested by the language of I. Corinthians x. 16. 

COMMUNION OF SAINTS, THE. This expression, 
which is a translation of the Latin commviiio sanctorum, 
is the third clause of the third section of the Apostles' 
Creed in its present form, that is to sa.v. of the common 
Creed of Western Christendom. It is not found in any 
Eastern Creed, nor is any allusion made to it in the 
Commentary on the Apostles' Creed by Riiffinus of 
Aquileia in Italy, which was written about 390. The 
first allusion to it seems to have occurred in a baptismal 
Creed of the South-Gallican Church, which is at least 
a century later. According to Heurtley, the clause can 
hardly be regarded as established before the close of the 
eighth century. It was therefore an insertion in the 
original creed. It is not even certain what the clause 
means. The Latin expression may, and has been, trans- 
lated " communion of sacred tihings." The earliest 
comments take sanctorum to refer to persons rather 



Communism, Religious 



114 



Concordat 



than things. The Catechism of the Council of Trent 
takes it to refer to things rather than to persons, that 
is to say to participation in the Sacraments. Calvin 
explains : " Everyone of us must maintain brotherly 
concord with all the sheep of the flock, give due 
authority to the Church, and, in short, conduct ourselves 
as sheep of the flock." According to the Heidelberg 
Catechism, the clause means : " First, that believers, 
all and several, have communion in Christ and all His 
blessings, as His members; then, that each member is 
bound promptly and gladly to contribute the blessings 
he has received to the common good and to the salvation 
of all." It is contended by some of the Catholics of 
the Church of England that belief in the Communion 
of Saints involves prayers for the dead. According to 
the Roman Catechism the clause is an explanation of 
the foregoing vcords, " I believe in the holy Catholic 
Church." The Cath. Did. explains : •' The communion 
of saints consists in the union of the Church on earth, 
and connects the Church on earth vfith the Church 
suffering in Purgatory and triumphant in heaven." See 
the Prot. Diet. 

COMMUNISM, RELIGIOUS. A movement of the 
nature of Religious Communism was promoted by Maz- 
dak, son of Bambad, a Persian of Susiana. According 
to the Arab historian Tabari (83S-923 A.D.), Mazdak 
counselled his followers to possess their estate and 
families in common, as an act of piety acceptable to 
God. God had placed the means of livelihood in the 
world that his servants might freely share them, but 
men had wronged each other and done injury to the 
poor. Mazdak forbade the slaughter of animals for food, 
and was himself an ascetic. He regarded his teaching 
as the revival of true Zoroastrianism. " Whatever the 
excesses of his followers, he appeared to have sincerely 
believed that the triumph of his communistic anarchy 
meant the defeat of the evil powers — the task which 
long ago Zoroaster had set before the nation " (F. W. 
Bussell). 

COMMUNITY OF THE RESURRECTION, THE. An 
Anglican Brotherhood, which was founded in 1892, and 
consists of celibate clergy who live under rule and with 
a common purse, and devote themselves to pastoral, 
evangelistic, literary, and educational works. See 
BROTHERHOODS, MODERN ANGLICAN. 

COMPANIONS OF MUHAMMAD. Muhammad is re- 
ported to have said : " God has chosen my Companions 
before all the worlds, with the exception of the proiiheta 
and the apostles." The Companions rank next after the 
prophets and apostles. Ne.xt come the Followers, men 
" who lived and had intercourse with the Companions 
even if but for a short time." Then come the Followers 
of the Followers; and after these the Khalifs (g.v.). 

COMPITALIA. A popular Roman festival held in 
honour of the " lares compitales," that is to say, of the 
Lares, the good spirits of the departed, regarded as 
tutelary divinities of the cross-ways (cornpita). The 
festival was held four times a year. W. Warde Fowler 
thinks that the Lar was an object of worship on the 
land before it became such in the house. " The oldest 
Lar of whom we know anything was one of a char- 
acteristic Roman group of which the individuals lived 
in the cornpita, i.e. the spots where the land belonging 
to various households met, and where there were chapels 
with as many faces as there were properties, each face 
containing an altar to a Lar, — the presiding spirit of 
that allotment, or rather i^erhaps of the whole of the 
land of the familia, including that on which the house 
stood." The rejoicing, in which the whole familia, both 
bond and free, took part was free and jovial. " Each 
familia sacrificed on its own altar, which was placed 



fifteen feet in front of the compitum, so that the wor- 
shippers might be on their own land; but if, as we may 
suppose, the whole pagus celebrated this rite on the same 
day, there was in this festival, as in others ... a 
social value, a means of widening the outlook of the 
familia and associating it with the needs of others in 
it5 religious duties." At the festival of the Compitalia, 
as at the Paganalia, small images of the human figure 
or round balls were hung on trees or doorways that 
they might swing in the wind. The common name for 
these figures was oscilla, but those of the Compitalia had a 
special name, maniae, of which the meaning has been lost. 
For the meaning of this custom see SWINGING, and cp. 
PAGANALIA. See O. Seyffert, Diet.; W. Warde Fowler. 

COMPLINE. Compline was added by St. Benedict 
in the sixth century to the six Hours of Prayer which 
had previously been observed by devout Christians. See 
further CANONICAL HOURS. 

COMPLUTENSIAN POLYGLOT, THE. An early 
printed edition of the Bible. It derived its name from 
Complutum, the Latin designation of Alcala de Henares, 
a town in Spain. At the University of Alcald Cardinal 
Francis Ximenes de Cisneros (1437-1517), Archbishop of 
Toledo, began in 1502 to prepare an edition of the Bible. 
It was to be a Polyglot, for his idea was to give in the 
Old Testament the Greek and Latin translations by the 
side of the Hebrew text, and in the New Testament the 
Latin translation by the side of the Greek text. The 
New Testament was finished first, and was printed, but 
not published, in 1514. The Old Testament was printed, 
but not published, in 1517. The volumes did not receive 
the approval of Pope Leo X. until March 22, 1520, and 
do not appear to have been in circulation before 1522. 
Dr. C. R. Gregory points out that in reference to the 
Old Testament the editors already reveal a tendency to 
overestimate the Latin Text of the Bible. " For, re- 
ferring to the fact that they had placed the Latin text 
in the middle and the Hebrew and Greek at the sides, 
they said that the Latin text was like Jesus between 
the two thieves." See C. R. Gregory. 

CON. Con or Cun, the " lord " or " father " of the 
mountains is a god of thunder worshipped by the Indians 
of the Andes. In time of drought he is appealed to 
to send rain. His sacred bird is the condor. Since a 
thunderstorm brings fertilising rain, a thunder-god 
comes to be regarded as a god of fertility. See J. G. 
Frazer, The Maqic Art, 1911. 

CONCH-SHELL, THE. Conch-shell trumpets were 
employed in temple services in Crete in Minoan times, 
and have long been in use as sacred instruments among 
the Hindus. Their use has been recorded also among 
the natives of Oceania and America. " The conch, which 
is necessary in every Hindu temple, is loudly sounded 
in the early morning, primarily to wake the deity, and 
secondarily to rouse the villagers. Again, when the 
temple service commences, and when the nivedya or 
offering is carried, the music of the conch is heard from 
the northern side of the temple " (E. Thurston and K. 
Rangachari). Some of the Marans, whose traditional 
occupation is sounding or playing on the sacred instru- 
ments, call themselves Vadakku-purattu, or belonging to 
the northern side. 

CONCLAVE. The assembly of cardinals convened for 
the election of a new Pope, and the place where they 
assemble. 

CONCORDAT. A concordat is defined in the Oath. 
Diet, as " a treaty between the Holy See and a secular 
State touching the conservation and promotion of the 
interests of religion in that State." The more famous 
concordats include that of Worms (1122), between Calixtus 
II. and the Emperor Henry V., which settled the 



Confessio Bohemica 



115 



Coafirmatioa 



question of investiture in such a way aa "to leave intact 
In theory the universal pastorate of the successors of 
Peter":" that of Frankfort or Vienna (1446-S) between 
Popes Eugenius IV.. Nicholas V. and the Emperor 
Frederic III., which agreed " to divide in a particular 
manner the patronage of ecclesiastical dignities in Ger- 
many " ; that of 1515, between Leo X. and Francis I. 
by which the pragmatic sanction of Charles VII. was 
abolished, and the nomination to vacant bishoprics and 
abbeys was resigned to the crown of France; and that 
of ISOl, between Pius VII. and the first Napoleon, by 
which the public practice of their religion was restored 
to the French nation. 

CONFESSIO BOHEMICA. A confession of faith 
prepared for the Bohemian Brethren at Prague (1575) 
by a number of learned divines. The Emperor, Maxi- 
milian II., attended a Diet at which it was presented 
to him. ■' It was a compromise between the teaching 
of Luther, and the teaching of the Brethren. In its 
doctrine of justification by faith it followed the teaching 
of Luther : in its doctrine of the Lord's Supi^er it in- 
clined to the broader evangelical view of the Brethren." 
See J. E. Button, Hist, of the Moravian Church. 1909. 

CONFESSIO HUNGARICA. The Confessio Hungarica 
(1570 A.D.), also called the Confession of Czenger, was 
in the main the work of Peter Melius. W. A. Curtis 
describes it as " the last and most important of a series 
of Synodic Declarations against the Unitarian movement 
in Hungary." 

CONFESSIO HUNGAKORUM. A Hungarian Confes- 
sion of Faith. It was drawn up by Peter Melius, and 
was ratified by Synod. This Confessio Hungarorum 
(1560-62) " is the first general Calvinist Confession of 
the Church dealing with election and other topics, doc- 
trinal and ecclesiastical " (W. A. Curtis). It is also 
called the Confession of Debreczen, or Confessio Agri- 
vallensis, or Confessio Catholica. 

CONFESSION. In the religion of the Mayan Indians 
" confession is made to the cacique, or local chief, if a 
member of the community is seriously ill and the patient 
believes that some sin of his commission may be the 
cause " (T. A. Jovce, M.A.). 

CONFESSION (OF A MARTYR). Confessio or Con- 
fession, used as the equivalent of the Greek term 
marturion, has been applied from early times to the 
tomb of a martyr. " If an altar was erected over the 
grave, then the name ' confession ' was given to the 
tomb, the altar, and the cublculum or subterranean 
chamber, in which they stood " (Cath. Diet.). In the 
Vatican basilica there is a famous " confession " of St. 
Peter. See the Cath. Diet. 

CONFESSION OF SEVEN CHURCHES IN LONDON. 
A Baptist Confession of Faith (1644 A.D.). Baptist 
divines were excluded from the Westminster Assembly 
(g.v.). They therefore published this Confession, in 
fifty-two articles, " for the vindication of the truth and 
information of the ignorant : likewise for the taking off 
of those aspersions which are frequently both In pulpit 
and print unjustly cast upon them." W. A. Curtis de- 
scribes the articles as " Calvlnlstlc throughout, apart 
from the Sacraments and Church polity." 

CONFESSION OP THE AMERICAN FREE-WILL 
BAPTISTS. A Confession of Faith in twenty-one 
chapters. It was revised a third time In 1868. This 
Confession " is the most important and authoritative 
statement of Arminian Baptist views " (W. A. Curtis). 

CONFESSION OF THE FRANKFORT COMMUNITY 
OF FOREIGNERS. A Confession of Faith (1554 A.D.) 
drawn up on behalf of exiles. In 1551 A.D. those who 
had taken refuge in London presented to Edward VI. 
a statement of their beliefs, " Compendium Doctrinae," 



composed by Martin Micron. The Frankfort Confession 
"is a revision of the earlier compendium under the 
influence of John k Lasco, their leader In England, and 
of Calvin " (W. Curtis). 

CONFESSION OF WATERLAND, THE. A Men- 
nonite Confession of Faith (1580 A.D.) drawn up In 
Dutch by De Rles and Gerardl. It Is the most Im- 
portant of the Mennonite Confessions. " It consists of 
forty Articles, which deny the guilt of original or trans- 
mitted sin, affirm the conditional election of all, and 
universal atonement, condemn oaths, war, civil office, 
litigation, revenge, worldly amusements, infant baptism 
as unscriptural ; approve of obedience to civil magistrates 
in all things not contrary to conscience and God's word; 
but on other points conform to the normal tenets of 
Protestantism " (W. A. Curtis). 

CONFESSOR. In ecclesiastical usage the term Con- 
fessor has been used with different shades of meaning. 
In the early Christian Church it denoted at first one 
who confessed Christ by suffering death for him. It 
was thus synonymous with the earlier term Martyr 
(q.i\). In course of time, however, the word martyr 
was reserved for those who suffered death, while con- 
fessor was used of one who had displayed heroic sanctity 
and endured great suffering without dying. The term 
came also to be used of models of Christian piety who 
had not been exposed to great suffering. Thus in the 
calendar of the Anglican Church men like Augustine 
and .Terome are called Confessors. In the Roman Missal 
and Breviary the term Is used of " all male saints who 
do not fall under some special class, such as Martyr, 
Apostle, Evangelist " (Cath. Diet.). The word was 
sometimes used of a singer or chorister, one who con- 
fessed to God with his voice in divine worship, and it 
is still so used in the Roman Catholic office on Good 
Friday. It was used again of one who confessed his 
sins, and so of a monk who devoted himself to a life 
of penitence. Finally, in the Roman Catholic Church 
it is used to denote the priest who hears confessions 
(confe.ssarius). See Eenham; the Cath. Diet. 

CONFIRMATION. The Biblical Feast of Weeks or 
Festival of the First Fruits was transformed by Rab- 
binical .Judaism into a historical feast when it was 
made the memorial day of the giving of the Ten Words 
on Mount Sinai. " The leaders of Reform Judaism 
surrounded the day with new charm by the introduction 
of the confirmation ceremony, thus rendering it a feast 
of consecration of the Jewish youth to the ancient 
covenant, of yearly renewal of loyalty by the rising 
generation to the ancestral faith " (K. Kohler). Kohler 
points out, however, that " Confirmation does not be- 
stow the character of Jew upon the young, any more 
than the former rite of Bar Mlzwah did upon the young 
Israelite who was called up to the reading from the 
Law in his thirteenth year as a form of initiation into 
Jewish life." The Jew becomes a member of the Jewish 
community by right of birth. In the Roman Catholic 
Church, Confirmation, conferred by the bishop, who lays 
his hands on the recipient, is held to be a sacrament : 
" a sacrament of the new law by which grace is con- 
ferred on baptised persons which strengthens them for 
the profession of the Christian faith " (Cath. Diet.). All 
baptised persons are qualified to receive this sacrament, 
and the twelfth year of age is considered the most 
suitable. The candidates are brought to the bishop by 
god-parents. At the time of Confirmation it is usual to 
take another Christian name, but this is not used after- 
wards in signing. In the primitive Church infants were 
confirmed immediately after baptism, and the practice 
still obtains in the Eastern Church. In the Protestant 
Churches, Confirmation is not held to be a sacrament. 



Confucianism 



U6 



Confucianism 



In the Church of England, where, as in the Church of 
Kome the bishop confirms, it 's an ordinance " in which 
persons come to vears of discretion, and previously bap- 
tized as infants, publicly take upon themselves the vows 
and promises made for them in their baptism by their 
godparents, and in which the gift of the Holy Spirit is 
specially sought for to strengthen in their resolutions 
those who submit themselves to the ordinance " (Prot. 
Diet ) It is administered also to persons baptized as 
adults. In the Greek Church the rite may be performed 
by a priest. In the Lutheran churches and in the 
Reformed Church of France, it is i)erformed by pastors. 
CONFUCIANISM. Confucianism, one of the three 
religions of China, owes its name to the great teacher 
Confucius (551-479 B.C.), but in a measure it existed 
before t'onfucius, just as Taoism (q.v.) did before Lao- 
tsze (6th century B.C.), its reputed founder. At the 
time of the birth of Confucius the power of the Emperor 
of China had almost disaprieared. The appanage states 
of the vassal princes had become almost independent. 
Prof. Parker compares the condition of China to the 
state of Pranc-e before the power of the vassal dukes 
and counts had been broken by Louis XI. " Not only 
were the vassal principalities, dukedoms, and c-ounties 
insubordinate in relation to the king, but their own 
counts, barons, and squires were equally presumptuous 
towards themselves; and it was into this chaotic con- 
dition of society and policy, where each clever man was 
fighting for liis own hand alone, that Confucius was 
ushered at his birth." According to later legend, his 
birth was accompanied by a number of marvels, but 
little is really known about his early years. He .soon 
displayed an interest in ritualistic ceremonies; and at 
the age of fifteen he became devoted to study. At the 
age of nineteen he married. Soon afterwards he ac- 
cepted a post as grain distributor. At the age of 
twenty-one he was promoted to be an estate-agent or a 
farm-overseer. When he was twenty-two he was al- 
ready surrounded by a band of earnest students and 
disciples. He now earned his living by teaching philo- 
sophy. For years he taught others, and at the same 
time continued his own studies. He took lessons in 
music from a celebrated music-master. On a visit to 
the Imperial capital, whither he went particularly to 
obtain more exact information about the ancient rites 
and ceremonies, he met and consulted the Taoist 
philosopher Lao-tsze. According to one account Lao-tsze 
addressed him thus : " The bones of the people you 
siieak of have all rotted away, and only their words 
remain. When a man of tir.st rate qualities finds his 
opportunity, he makes his career; if he finds no oppor- 
tunity, he betakes himself off like the grass carried away 
by the storm. I have always understood that a good 
trader keeps back his best wares : in the same way a 
man of first-rate qualities hides his potential virtues 
behind an expressionless face. Get rid of your superior 
airs and your multitudinous requirements, of your 
mannerisms, and your inordinate desires, none of which 
can be of any advantage to your body. This is all I 
have to say to you." Confucius is reported to have 
said to his disciples : " I know the capacity of a bird 
to fly. of a fish to swim, of a beast to get along; the 
last you can trap, the others take with a rod or an 
arrow ; but when it comes to dragons, I am ignorant of 
how they ride the winds and clouds up to heaven. Lao- 
tsze, whom I have seen to-day. would seem to be of 
the dragon kind." In spite of Lao-tsze's reproof, Con- 
fucius' disciples soon numbered three thousand. When 
Confucius was thirty-six he was forc-ed by the outbreak 
of a civil war to remove from Lu to the land of Ts'i. 
He returned after six years, and devoted himself for a 



time to the compilation and editing of the " Book of 
Odes " (q.v.) and the " Book of History " {g.v.). At 
the age of forty-seven, he was made Magistrate or 
Governor of one of the towns of Lu. This gave him an 
opportunity of putting his own principles of government 
into practice, and he met with such success that in 
course of time he was made Minister of Works. 
When the Duke, his master, had asked him' whether 
his rule of government was adapted to the whole State 
he had replied : " Certainly, and not only to the State 
of Lu, but to the whole Empire." But enemies soon 
rose up to frustrate his work. " Honesty, morality and 
funeral etiquette advanced with such strides under the 
premiership of Confucius that neighbouring states began 
to grow uneasy. It was first thought advisable to con- 
ciliate the rising power by a cession of territory; but 
wilier counsels prevailed, and a successful effort was 
made to corrupt the new duke's heart with presents of 
beautiful singing-girls and tine horses. This moral col- 
lapse so distressed the philosopher that he left the 
country " (Parker). This happened in 49t> B.C. Con- 
fucius went forth with his disciples to wander for thir- 
teen years through the various feudal states, seeking, 
as Prof. Legge says, a ruler who would heed his in- 
structions and had the goodness and the wisdom to 
follow them. A long and fruitless quest. The philo- 
sopher was sixty-eight years old when the Duke of 
Lu invited him to return. He accepted the invitation, 
but devoted the remaining five years of his life to the 
completion of his literary labours. His history of his 
own State (see SPRING AND AUTUMN ANNALS) 
begins with the year 722 B.C. and covers about two 
hundred and fifty years. His work as a historian marks 
a turning-point in the study of Chinese history. " All 
Chinese history previous to this date," says Prof. 
Parker, "is as vague and unsatisfactory a.s is our own 
European history previous to the founding of Rome in 
753 B.C." When Confucius felt that he had not much 
longer to live he said : " No intelligent monarch arises; 
there is no ruler in the kingdom who will make me his 
master; my time has come to die." The philosopher 
only claimed to be a man with a divine mission. He 
was first described as " holy " by Mencius (372-2S9 B.C.) 
two hundred years later. Naturally it was reported in 
course of time that he possessed excejitional and extra- 
ordinary knowledge, but he said of himself : " I am 
never tired of learning myself, and never weary of 
teaching others." His mission was to teach men the 
way of jMjrfection. " Self-control, modesty, forbearance, 
patience, kindness, orderliness, absence of effusiveness 
and i«ssion, studiousness, industry, mildness, dutiful- 
ness, neighbourliness, fidelity, uprightness, moderation, 
politeness, ceremoniousness^these were the qualities 
which Confucius consistently practised and taught " 
(Parker). One of his rules was an anticipation of the 
Golden Rule. He said : " What you do not wish others 
to do to you, do not to them." Lao-tsze (see TAOISM) 
went even fartlier than this, for he said that good 
should be returned for evil. Confucius could not rise 
to this height. " What do you say," asked one of his 
disciples, " concerning the principle that injury should 
bo recompensed with kindness? " The philosopher re- 
plied : " With what then will you recompense kindness? 
Recompense injury with justic-e, and rec-ompense kind- 
ness with kindness." Prof. Parker suggests that as a 
practical man interested in good government Confucius 
could not approve of Lao-tsze's maxim. This indeed 
was the great difference between the two men. The one 
was a philosophical radical like Carlyle or Tolstoy; the 
other was a practical ruler and reformer. Confucius 
" probably did in common with the received traditions, 



C ongregationalists 



U7 



Conversion 



more or less vaguely believe in a Supreme Maker, but; 
he did not attempt to define or dogmatize as to what 
that Maker was, or how that Maker created. He pre- 
ferred to discuss the practical character of things before 
his eyes, and was indifferent to the causes of those 
things. He says nothing about the future state, but 
holds that man continues, after what we call death, to 
live on " (Parker). Prof. Giles notes that in the one 
original work by Confucius, the " Spring and Autumn 
Annals " (q.v.) there is no allusion whatever to any 
interjjosition on the part of God in human affairs. It 
has been pointed out also that in the whole of the 
Confucian literature there is no purgatory or hell. 
Confucius shares the sacrifice that is made in China to 
the great men who have departed. Twice a year, in 
Spring and in Autumn, it is the duty of the reigning 
emperor to go to Peking and present offerings before 
the spirit tablets of Confucius. But according to Prof. 
Legge it is only the homage of gratitude that is given, 
and not the worship of adoration. See J. Edkins. Be- 
ligion in China, 1S78; James I>egge, The Religions of 
China, 1880; R. K. Douglas, Confucianism and Taouism; 
H. A. Giles, Religions of Ancient China, 190.5: James 
Legge. " Confucius the Sage and the Religion of China." 
in K.S.W.: E. H. Parker, Studies in Chinese Religion. 
1910; cp. H. A. Giles. '• Confucianism in the Nineteenth 
Century." in Great Religions of the World, 1902 

CONGREGATIOXALISTS. For the origin of the Con- 
gregat.ionaIi.sts or Independents, see BROWNISTS and 
cp. CHRISTIANITY. 

CONSCIENCERS. Consciencers or Men of Conscience 
was the name by which the followers of the German 
wandering scholar Matthias Knutzen (6. 164<5) were 
known. The greater number of his adherents were in 
Jena. Knutzen denied the divine inspiration of the 
Bible, and found a substitute for the sacred book in 
common science (the science common to all) or con- 
science. Conscience was his Bible, an authority superior 
to that of the secular government and the clergy. To 
do evil is to .suffer grievous torture: to do good" is to 
enjoy heaven. The supreme principle of the Consciencers 
was : •• Live justly and honestly, and give everyone his 
due." They denied the existence of God, the devil, and 
a future life; the utility of governments and preachers, 
and the moral necessity of the institution of marriage 

CONSENSUS OF SENDOMIR. A Confession of Faith 
drawn up in Poland in 1.570 A.D. by a joint-Svnod of 
Lutherans. Calvinists. and Brethren. W. A." Curtis 
points out that " a notable feature is the complete 
mutual recognition of the Churches concerned, and the 
practical exhortation to avoid strife and promote fellow- 
ship by every possible means." 

CONSENSUS OF ZURICH. A declaration made in 
1.^49 A.D. and representing the agreement of Bullinger 
and Calvin on the question of the Lord's Supper It 
consists of twenty-six articles. AT. A. Curtis speaks of 
the Consensus as linking together the Churches of Ziirich 
and Geneva and finding acceptance in other countries. 

CONSISTORY. The Roman Emperors had their con- 
sistorium or privy council, and the word consistorv has 
been adopte<l to denote a meeting of official persons to 
transact business, and also the place of meeting. In 
the Church of England every bishop has his Consistorj- 
Court, which is presided over bv his Chancellor or 
Commissory. The London Diocese Book (1912) states 
that the Bishop of London's Consistorv Court " has 
cognisance of all matters which arise locallv within its 
limits, and administers generally all branche"s of Eccles- 
iastical I^w." In the Roman Catholic Church the term 
Consistory is now used almost exclusively of " the 
ecclesiastical senate in which the Pope, presiding over 



the whole body of Cardinals, deliberates upon grave 
ece esiastical affairs, and communicates to his veni>rable 
brethren, and through them to Christendom, the solici- 
tudes and intentions of the vicar of Christ as to the 

^''^l!?''n***.r^°'*'.'^^"^'«" nation, or the definition 
of some Catholic doctrine " (the Catholic Dictionary) 
The ordinary meetings are secret, but from time 
to time public consistories are held, in which the 
decisions of the secret consistories are announced. In 
the Lutheran Churches the Consistory is composed of 
both lay and ecclesiastical officials. It often exercises 
the functions of a bishop. In the Reformed Churches 
It corresponds to the Session of the Presbyterian Church. 
See Schaff-Herzog; Benham; the Cath. Diet 

CONSTITUTIONISTS. A name given to 'those theo 
°5f°« ^??, accepted the papal Bull '• Unigenitus " 
(1.13) which condemned the views of the Jansenist 
leader Pasquier Quesnei (lO-^i-lTW). See JANSEXISTS 

CONSUBSTANTIAL. The Latin term consuhstantialis 
IS used as equivalent to the Greek term hnmoousios 
which IS used in the Nicene Creed to define the relation- 
ship of Jesus Christ the Son to God the Father The 
word was imrposely chosen in order to exclude the Arian 
doctrine. Tlie Son is consubstantial, of the same sub- 
stance, with the Father. Consubstantiality implies 
Ijerfect equality and co-etemitv. Compare SUliST^NCE 

CONSUBSTANTIATION. A technical term for the 
Lutheran doctrine relating to the bread and wine in 
the Lord's Supper or Eucharist. According to this 
doctrine the Bread and Wine are not converted into the 
Body and Blood of Christ (TRANSUBSTANTIATION)- 
•• the bread and wine remain bread and wine though 
after the consec-ration. the real flesh and blood of Christ 
co-exist in and with the natural elements, just as a 
heated iron bar still remains an iron bar, though a new 
element, heat, has come to co-exist in and with it " 
(Schatf-Herzog). The followers of Lutlier, however do 
not recognize a permanent consubstantiation, but confine 
tlie connection of the elements with the body and blood 
of Christ to the act of communion. See K. R Ha^en- 
bach: Schaff-Herzog; W. Benham. 

CONTEMPLATION, CHRISTIAN. A form of Silent 
or Mental Prayer. It differs from Meditation (g.v ) 
because there is a methodical use of the reason. See 

CONTRITION. The Council of Trent defines contri- 
tion as •' grief of mind and detestation of sin committed 
with a purpose of sinning no more." The Cath Diet' 
points out that, thus widely defined. Contrition includes 
Attrition (rj.v.). but that the term has a narrower sense 
being used to denote " that sorrow for sin which arises 
from consideration of God's goodness which sin has 
outraged, and which includes a resolution never to offend 
God (at least mortally) because God so deserves our 
love." See the Prot. Diet.; the Cath. Diet. 

CONVENTUALS. A branch of the Franciscans (g.v.). 
In consequence of the action of Ellas of Cortona. suc- 
cessor of Frauds of A.ssisi as head of the Franciscans, 
in relaxing the strictness of the original rule of the 
Order, the Franciscans became divided into two great 
branches, the Conventuals, the milder partv, and the 
f)bservantines, the severer party. The Conventuals 
decide<l to live in large convents. Efforts to reunite these 
bodies to the parent body only succeeded In the case of 
one of them, the Observantines (g.v.); the Conventuals 
have remainetl separate. 

CONVERSION. In a religious .sense, the term 
means a change of mind in matters of religion. This 
change is often .supposed to come suddenly. Thi.s is the 
interesting question in religion : Is conversion ever really 
sudden? That a person should change from one religion 



Conversion 



118 



Corinthians, First Epistle to the 



to another after deep thought and long study is natural. 
That a person who has lived without religion for some 
vears should suddenly change his mind seems to be 
supernatural. There are many interesting cases of con- 
version. Two of them are very familiar, those of Paul 
the Apostle and the Emperor Constantine the Great. Paul 
was a strict Pharisee and bitterly persecuted the early 
Christians. Suddenly, to all appearances, he changed 
his mind and became a Christian. The story is told in 
the Acts of the Apostles (ix. 1-18). " And Saul, yet 
breathing out threatenings and slaughter against the 
disciples of the Lord, went unto the high priest, and 
desired of him letters to Damascus to the synagogues, 
and that, if he found any of this way. whether they 
were men or women, he might bring them bound unto 
Jerusalem. And as he journeyed, he came near 
Damascus : and suddenly there shined round about him 
a light from heaven : And he fell to the earth, and heard 
a voice saying unto him, Saul, Saul, why persecutest 
thou me? And he said. Who art thou. Lord? And the 
Lord said, I am Jesus, whom thou persecutest : it is 
hard for thee to kick against the pricks. And he, 
trembling and astonished, said. Lord, what wilt thou 
have me to do? And the Lord said unto him. Arise, 
and go into the city, and it shall be told thee what thou 
must do. And the men which journeyed with him stood 
speechless, hearing a voice, but seeing no man. And 
Saul arose from the earth; and when his eyes were 
opened, he saw no man : but they led him by the hand, 
and brought him into Damascus " (vss. 1-7). In the 
first place it should be noticed that, although this con- 
version was no doubt quite unexpected, it was not sudden 
in the sense of being unprepared for. It was no doubt 
the last thing that Saul or Paul expected. But the forti- 
tude and endurance of the Christians had made a great 
impression uix)n him. For a long time there had been 
going on in his subjective mind between two sets of ideas 
a conflict of which he was hardly conscious. On his way 
to Damascus, he fell into a kind of trance. The objec- 
tive mind became dormant. The subjective mind, with 
its vast store of accumulated knowledge and experience, 
became abnormally active. The two sets of ideas 
struggled against one another for the mastery. The 
Christian overcame the Jewish, and, almost against his 
will, Paul became a Christian. This, we believe, is the 
true psychological explanation of all conversions of this 
kind. The hearing of a voice is what is known as clair- 
audience (g.v.). St. Paul's experience was a subjective 
one. Christianity had made already an overpowering 
impression without Paul's being aware of it. In any 
case he would have become a Christian in time. The 
event was hastened, and he was, as he himself described 
himself, " a child untimely bom " {ektroma, I. Corin- 
thians XV. 8). The story of the conversion of the 
Emiieror Constantine on the eve of his great battle with 
Maxentius is not so interesting, and is very likely a 
fiction, though it was suggested by the real occurrence 
of similar experiences. Constantine is supposed to have 
seen suspended in the air a cross together with the motto 
•' Hoc signo vinces " (" By this sign thou shalt 
conquer "). If we accept the story as genuine, here 
again the conversion was already prepared for. Con- 
stantine had had opportunities of noting the virtues of 
the Christians. These had no doubt made a great 
impression upon him. The experience, too, was again 
subjective. The seeing of fiery crosses and other objects 
is a not uncommon experience when the subjective mind 
is abnormally active. Conversion, apparently sudden 
and certainly unexpected, is a very real thing. It is 
useless to soofE at the Idea. The experience may come 
to anyone, even to the agnostic wlio has made up his 



mind that his views are settled once and for all. But 
it has next to be admitted that the experience is not con- 
fined to any one religion. Christians will claim of 
course that the Christian convert experiences a change 
different from that of all other converts. But it may be 
doubted whether there is any difference in the sense of 
relief and happiness felt by the convert to any religion 
at the time of conversion. Compare William James, 
TJie Varieties of Relipiows Experience. 

CONVULSIONAKIES. Convulsionnaires or Convuls- 
ionaries was a name given to the .Tansenists (q.v.) after 
the year 1727. In that year a Jansenist Francois de 
Paris died, and at his tomb miracles are said to have 
taken place. Pilgrimages were made to the cemetery 
in which he was buried, and at the tomb people fell into 
fits of ecstasy and convulsion. 

CORDELIERS. The name given in France to the 
Observantines {(j.v.), one of the two great branches into 
which the Franciscans (g.v.) came to be divided. 

CORINTHIANS, FIRST EPISTLE TO THE. Corinth, 
" the ancient Paris." as it has been called, was one of 
the cities in which the Apostle Paul lived and laboured. 
He resided there in the house of Aquila and Priscilla, 
and with them pursued the trade of tent-making. In 
spite of opposition, Paul's mission to the Corinthians 
was fruitful in so far as he succeeded in establishing a 
Christian Church amongst them. The dangers, how- 
ever, to which a Church planted in such an " intel- 
lectual ■' atmosphere was exposed clearly caused the 
Apostle no little anxiety. None knew better than Paul 
that the claims of the intellect are very powerful until 
their weakness is demonstrated by the overpowering 
sense of divine intuition or inspiration. His own pre- 
sence among the Corinthians was an inspiration. When 
he left them, as he was obliged to do after a time, the 
divine impulse had to be imparted by means of his 
written word and an ambassador (Timothy or Titus). 
Even the spoken word gives but a poor reflection of the 
light which has come by inspiration to a man like Paul. 
The written word probably reflects still less of it. And 
yet on this Paul had to depend largely for the strengthen- 
ing of the faith of his Churches. He had to send letters, 
written in a hurry no doubt and when his mind was 
occupied with a number of different problems. After 
Paul's dei>arture, the Church of Corinth seems to have 
suffered from divisions. It is a human weakness to form 
parties and to become attached to persons rather than 
to principles. In Christianity the essential thing is to 
have the mind of Christ or the Christ mind. " Where- 
fore," Paul has to declare to the Corinthians, " let no 
one glory in men. For all things are yours; whether 
Paul, or ApoUos, or Cephas " (I. C-orinthians iii. 21, 22). 
It would seem that it was at Ephesus, whither Paul had 
journeyed, that the Apostle received news of trouble at 
Corinth. It would also seem that three or four letters 
were sent to Corinth. In I. Corinthians v. 9 we read : 
" I wrote unto you in my epistle to have no company 
with fornicators." This seems to refer to a letter, now 
lost (though II. Corinthians vi. 14-vii. 1 may be a frag- 
ment of it; see next article), which was written before 
the letter now known as I. Corinthians. After this, 
Paul sent Timothy to Corinth. Then on receiving again 
an unsatisfactory report, he sent our I. Corinthians. 
" The genuineness of the Epistle has been almost univers- 
ally admitted; it was regarded as axiomatic by the 
Tubingen school, and is accepted by all but the hyper- 
critics who deny the authenticity of all the Pauline 
Epistles " (A. S. Peake). Internally the Epistle bears 
unmistakable marks of Paul's genius, character, and 
experience. The external evidence is also good. 
Clement of Rome, writing to the Church of Corinth 



Corinthians, Second Epistle to the 



119 



Corpus Christ! 



about 95 A.D. says : "Take up the Epistle of tie blessed 
Apostle Paul. What did he write to you at the beginning 
of the preaching of the gospel? In trutii it was under 
the inspiration of the Spirit that he wrote to you con- 
cerning himself and Cephas and Aj)Ollos, because even 
then ye had formed parties." A verse of the Epistle is 
quoted by Polycarp with the words " as Paul teaches." 
The Epistle seems to have been used also by Ignatius. 
It is included in the list of Irenaeus and in the Mura- 
torian Canon. Origen says that he had never heard of 
tie genuineness of the Epistle being disputed. Clejnent 
of Alexandria refers to Paul's " Former Epistle to the 
Corinthians," and says that it contains the precept. 
" Brethren, be not children in mind." The Epistle 
treats in a very interesting way of a number of impor- 
tant questions, such as the Lord's Supper (xi. 17-34), 
Spiritual Gifts (xii.-xiv.), the Resurrection (xv.). See 
R. J. Knowling, The Witnexs of the Epistles, 1892; J. 
Massie, /. and //. Corinthians, in the "Century Bible"; 
J. A. M-Clymont, 1904; G. Currie Martin; Arthur S. 
Peake; J. Moflfatt. 

CORINTHIANS, SECOND EPISTLE TO THE. The 
Second Epistle to the Corinthians presents a number of 
difficult problems. At the same time the external 
evidence for its genuineness is not so good as for the 
first Epistle. Clement of Rome does not seem to have 
known of its existence. It seems, however, to have been 
used by Polycarp. It is included in the Canon of Mar- 
cion and in the Muratorian Canon. It is quoted by 
Irenaeus. This te.s-t.imony is sufficient. Nor does the 
internal evidence argue against the genuineness of the 
Epistle. All that it militates against is the unity of 
the work. It has been said above (preceding article) 
that our First Corinthians seems to have been preceded 
by another letter. There is reason to believe that the 
same thing happened in the case of our Second Corin- 
thians. In II. Corinthians ii. 4 we read : " For out of 
much affliction and anguish of heart I wrote unto you 
with many tears; not that ye should be made sorry, but 
that ye might know the love which I have more abund- 
antly unto you." Paul, it appears, had written a very 
severe letter to the Corinthians. This can hardly have 
been our First Corinthians. " It is not comparable in 
the sharpness of its tone to the closing portion of II. 
Corinthians itself, which for concentrated and passionate 
invective has no parallel in the Pauline Epistles" (A. 
S. Peake). In the First Epistle Timothy was the mes- 
.senger sent to Corinth. In the Second Epistle no men- 
tion is made of Timothy's visit, but Titus appears as 
Paul's messenger (II. Cor. vii. 5-15). In both Epistles 
there is reference to a person who has committed a grave 
offence, but the offender can hardly be the same. If the 
offender in the two Epistles be identical, as Peake says, 
in the Second Epistle •' the grossness of the offence seems 
to be passed over altogether too lightly." It would 
seem therefore that Second Corinthians was preceded 
by another letter (other than our First Corinthians). 
It is not unlikely, moreover, that this letter was 
preceded by another visit of Paul, " a hasty visit to 
Corinth that he might set things right by a per- 
sonal effort " (Mas.sie). Compare II. Corinthians ii. 1, 
xiii. 1, 2. xii. 14. Now, it has been noticed that chapter 
ix. would be a more appropriate ending to Second 
Corinthians than chapter xiii. ; that the tone of chaps, 
x.-xiii. differs from that of chaps, i.-ix.; and that at 
times chaps, x.-xiii. seem to reflect an earlier situation. 
All this (and more) has suggested that chapters x.-xiii. 
do not really belong to Second Corinthians. It has been 
conjectured further that in these four chapters are to be 
found the letter referred to in II. Cot. ii. 4 (the four- 
chapter letter) or at any rate part of it. Prof. Peake 



cannot help thinking that II. Cor. x.-xiii. formed part 
of the severe letter. " On the one side we have the 
description of a letter in the early chapters of II. Corin- 
thians which it seems impossible to identify with our 
First Epistle; and then as corroborating this we have the 
surprising character of the last four chapters of II. 
(Corinthians as part of the same letter which we find in 
the first nine chapters. It is difficult to believe that the 
two sections of the Epistle hold together. If II. Corin- 
tidans is a unity, we have the following state of things : 
Paul sends a very stem letter to Corinth, and is fiUed 
with regret for the writing of it, and apprehension as 
to its reception. In the joyful reaction caused by the 
good news of Titus, he writes a letter overflowing with 
affection at the beginning, and concluding with a sharp- 
ness of invective to be parallele<l nowhere else in his 
Epistles." It has been said that, to judge by I. Cor. 
v. 9 our First Corinthians would seem to have been pre- 
ceded by another letter. In Second Corinthians there 
is a short section (vi. 14-vii. 1) which does not tit well 
iuto its present context. It interrupts the progress of 
thought. If it is omitted, vi. 13 connects very well with 
vii. 2. The section seems to have been inserted here by 
mistake, and it has been conjectured that it really formed 
part of the letter referred to in I. Cor. v. 9. Bousset 
points out that Second Corinthians is deeply personal. 
" The nervous attractive personality of the Apostle 
speaks throughout it with the most extraordinary 
power." See R. J. Knowling, The Witness of the 
Epistles, 1892; J. Massie, /. & //. Corinthians, in the 
" Centnry Bible"; J. A. M'Clymont; G. Currie Martin; 
Arthur S. Peake; J. Moffatt. 

CORPIANI. One of the names given to the Gnostics. 
The word is probablv corrupt for Scorpiani. 

CORPORATE REUNION. ORDER OP. An order 
founded in 1877 in the Church of England. Those who 
doubted the validity of the Orders of the clergy of the 
Church of England could, by joining the Order of C!or- 
Itorate Reunion, be re-ordainetl by " bishops " who had 
been consecrated by foreign Bishops whose Orders the 
Church of Rome recognised as valid. One of these 
'• bishops " was F. G. Lee ((/. 1902), Vicar of All Saints, 
Ijambeth. After Lee's death the Order ceased to exist. 
See Walter Walsh, " Ritualistic Secret Societies," in 
the Prot. Diet. 

CORPSE-CAKES. Corpse-cakes, according to E. S. 
Hartland (" Religion among the Indians of Guiana " in 
The R.P.A. Annual for 1918), figure in a funeral custom. 
" In the Highlands of Bavaria, when the corpse is placed 
upon the bier, the room is carefully washed out and 
cleaned. Formerly it was the custom for the housewife 
then to prepare the corp.se-cakes. Having kneaded the 
dough, she placed it to rise on the dead body, as it lay 
there enswathed in a linen shroud. When the dough 
had risen the cakes were baked for the expected guests. 
To the cakes so prepared the belief attached that they 
contained the virtues and advantages of the departed, 
and that thus the living strength of the deceased passed 
over, through the medium of the corpse-cakes, into the 
kinsman who consumed them, and so was retained 
within the kindred." 

CORPUS CHRISTI. Corpus Christ! (" the body of 
Christ ") is the name of a festival in the Roman 
Catholic Church, held on the Thursday after Trinity 
Sunday in honour of the transubstantiation. It was 
originally a local festival instituted in 1240 at Li&ge, by 
Robert, Bishop of Li&ge, at the special request of St. 
Juliana, a nun of Liege. Juliana had had a vision in 
which she .seemed to be advised of the festival. In 1264 
Pope Urban IV. published a bull which commanded that 
the festival should be celebrated throughout the Church; 



Couvade, The 



120 



Crextion 



but he died soon afterwards. He seems to Have been 
influenced by anotlier vision seen by a priest of Bolsena 
(the ancient Volsinium). Urban IV.'s decision was con- 
firmed by Clement V., and the celebration of the festival 
was secured by succeeding Popes. It ^s long been 
the custom on Corpus Christi to carry the Blessed Sacra- 
ment about in a magnificent procession. In the Aoglican 
Church the festival was removed from the Calendar at 
the Reformation, but in ritualistic churches its observ- 
ance in some measure has been revived. See Benham ; 
Prot. Diet.; Cath. Diet. 

COUVADE, THE. The name given to a custom 
among primitive folli which requires a husband during 
the pregnancy of his wife or after the birth of the child 
to submit to various restrictions. Sometimes he hajs 
to abstain from all work, sometimes from certain Irinds 
of work. One remarkable example is the case in which 
a husband is confined to his bed, like his wife. The 
custom as practised by the Yerukalas, a vagrant gipsy 
tribe dn India, for instance, is as follows. " Directly 
the woman feels the birth-pangs she informs her hus- 
band, who immediately takes some of her clothes, puts 
tiem on, places on his forehead the mark which the 
women usually place on theirs, retires into a dark room 
where there is only a very dim lamp, and lies down on 
the bed, covering himself up with a long cloth. When 
the child is born, it is washed and placed on the cot 
beside the father. Asafoetida, jaggery and other 
articles are then given, not to the mother, but to the 
father. During the days of ceremonial impurity the 
man is treated as other Hindus treat their women on 
such occasions. He is not allowed to leave his bed, 
but has everything needful brought to him " (John Cain, 
quoted by R. V. Russell and R. B. Hira Lai). Hutton 
Webster (R.D.) suggests that " the practice of the couvade 
appears to be an outgrowth of the idea that under special 
circumstances the close ties uniting husband and wife 
engender a mystic sympathy between them, so that the 
acts of the one affect the welfare of the other." 

COVENANTS. In Arabia when two groups undertook 
to aid each other to the death, or in other words when 
they undertook the duties of a common blood-feud, this 
compact or covenant was solemnized originally by a 
ceremony in which the blood of the two parties was com- 
mingled. At Mecca the form of oath among the group 
of clans afterwards known as " blood-lickers " was that 
" each party dipped their hands in a pan of blood and 
tasted the contents " (Robertson Smith, Kinship). In 
Herodotus (iii. 8) a custom is referred to in which blood 
is drawn and smeared on seven stones. Robertson 
Smith points out that " the later Arabs had substituted 
the blood of a victim for human blood, but they retained 
a feature which Herodotus had missed, they licked the 
blood as well as smeared it on the sacred stones." The 
idea of this ceremony was to unite the contracting parties 
in a bond of brotherhood. The anearing of blood on the 
sacred stones made the god also a party to the cove- 
nant. In old times men of the same stock, who had 
mutual obligations, seem to have borne a tattooed mark 
(sharf). Professor Robertson Smith suggest that the 
mark of Cain was nothing else than " the sUart or tribal 
mark which every man bore on his person, and without 
which the ancient form of blood-feud, as the affair of 
a whole stock, however scattered, and not of near rela- 
tives alone, could hardly have been worked." See W. 
R. Smith, Kinship. 

COVENANT THEOLOGY. A name given to the 
theological teaching of J. Cocceius (1603-1669). See 
COCCBIANS. 

COVBRDALE'S BIBLE. The English translation of 

the Bible made by Miles Coverdale (1535). See BIBLE. 



COWLEY FATHERS, BROTHERHOOD OF THE. 

An Anglican brotherhood inaugurated in 1865. The 
members devote their lives to missionary and educa- 
tional works, upon the principles of poverty, chastity, 
and obedience. See BROTHERHOODS, MODERN 
ANGLICAN. 

COYOTLINAUATL. A Mexican deity, the god of the 
guild of feather-workers. 

COZAH . An Arabian deity. He was an archer-god, 
reference being made to his bolts as lightnings and his 
bow as the rainbow. He was worshipped by the 
Idumseans. In the sanctuary of Mozdalifa burned a 
fire sacred to Cozah . This seems to have been the only 
sanctuary in Arabia which had " a place of burning." 
See W. RolK^rtson Smith, Kinship; and R.Si. 

CRANMER'S BIBLE. Coverdale's Bible corrected 
and with a preface by Archbishop Cranmer (1540). See 
BIBLE. 

CREATION. Since the outbreak of the great War, 
new material has been published in America which 
throws light on the earliest conceptions of creation. The 
bulk of this new material, according to L. W. King 
(Legends of Babylon and Egypt in relation to Hetrew 
Tradition, 1918), is furnished by some early texts, 
Avritten towards the close of the third millennium B.C. 
" They incorporate traditions which extend in unbroken 
outline from their own period into the remote ages of 
the past, and claim to trace the history of man back to 
his creation. They represent the early natiomil trad- 
itions of the Sumerian people, who preceded the Semites 
as the ruling race in IJabylouia ; and incidentally they 
necessitate a revision of current views with regard to 
the cradle of Babylonian civilization. The most reanark- 
able of the new documents is one which relates in poeti- 
cal narrative an account of the Creation, of Antediluvian 
history, and of the Deluge. It thus exhibits a close 
resemblance in structure to the corresponding Hebrew 
traditions, a resemblance that is not shared by the 
Semitic-Babylonian Versions at present knovra. I?ut in 
matter the Sumerian tradition is more primitive than any 
of the Semitic versions. In spite of the fact that the 
text appears to have reached us in a magical setting, 
and to some extent in epitomized form, this early docu- 
ment enables us to tap the stream of tradition at a point 
far above any at which approach has hitherto been poe- 
sible " (King, p. iii.). As regards the Old Testament 
narratives, it is now common knowledge that they pre- 
sent two versions of the story of creation — a primitive 
version (Gen. ii. 4b-25, Jehovistic) and a later version 
(Gen. I. 1-ii. 4a, Priestly). " In spite of the obvious 
differences, the two accounts have important features in 
common. Both show the influence of the ancient trad- 
ition by beginning with a scene of waste desolation; and 
the influence of inspired teaching by the omission of all 
polytheistic ideas. On the other hand the differences 
are also important: the Priestly account is cosmic; it 
deals with earth and heaven and all their hosts, v^ith 
the dry land, and the firmament, and the waters above 
and below the firmament: the Primitive account is local, 
and is only concerned with a garden and its inhabitants, 
and the streams that water it. In the Priestly account 
anthropomorphic language is used as little as possible; 
but in ii. 46-25 Yahweh is frankly spoken of as a man 
might be: He moulds a man out of dust, plants a garden, 
and takes a rib out of the man and builds it up into a 
woman. So far as the creation of the same beings is 
concerned the order is different: especially in ch. ii. the 
woman is formed last, as a kind of afterthought, to be 
the man's companion, and we are not told that Gc6 
breathed into her the breath of life; whereas in c4i. i. 
man and woman are formed by the same creative act 



Creation-Epic, Babylonian 



121 



Criticism, Higher 



in the likeness of God " (W. H. BeJinett. Genesis in the 
•' Century Bible "). In the Sumeiian Version, according 
to L. W. King, the account of Creation is not given in 
full. Only such episodes are included as were directly 
related to the Deluge story. "■ No doubt the selection 
of men and animals was suggested by their subsequent 
rescue from the Flood " (p. 113). No attempt is made 
to explain how the universe itself had come into being. 
No less than four deities, including a goddess, are repre- 
sented as taking part in t±ie Creation, and when the 
deities (Anu, Enlil, Enki, and Ninkharsagga) undertake 
to create man, the existence of the earth is pre-supposed. 
Dr. King iwints out that the idea of a goddess taking 
part in creation is not a new feature in Babylonian 
mythology. " Thus the goddess Aruru, in co-operation 
with Marduk, might be credited with the creation of the 
human race, as she might also be pictured creating on 
her own initiative an individual hero such as Enkidu of 
the Gilgamesh Epic " (p. 111). And, although in the 
Sumerian text Ninkharsagga, the " Lady of the Mount- 
ains," appears for the first time in the charac-ter of 
creatress, " some of the titles we know she enjoyed, 
under her synonyms in the great God List of Babylonia, 
already reflected her cosmic activities" (ibid.). Turn- 
ing to the ancient Egyptians, there is an interesting 
series of sculptures on tie walls of the famous Queen 
Hatshepsut's temple at Deir el-Bahari in which she seeks 
to record her divine origin. " The scene in the series, 
which is of greatest interest in the present connection, 
is that representing Khnum at his work of creation. He 
is seated before a potter's wheel whici he works with his 
foot, and on the revolving table he is fashioning two 
children with his hands, the baby princess and her 
' double." It was always Hatshepsut's desire to be 
represe-nted as a man, and so both the children are boys. 
As yet they are lifele-ss, but the symbol of Life will be 
held to their nostrils by Ileqet, the divine Potter's wife, 
whose frog-head typifies birth and fertilitv" (King, p. 
106). Brinton iK>lnts out (R.P.P., p. 123) that this con- 
ception of the Creator as a moulder or manufacturer 
underlies many Creation myths. " Thus the Australians 
called him Baiame, " the cutter-out.' as one cuts out a 
sandal from a skin, or a figure from hark. The Maya 
Indians used the tvcrm Patol. from the verb pat, to mould, 
as a potter his clay, Bitol, which has the same meaning, 
and Tzaool, the builder, as of a house. With the Dyaks 
of Borneo, the Creator is Tupa, the forger, as one forges 
a spear-blade: and so on." Frazer has shown (Folk-lore 
in the O.T., vol. i.) that the legend of the creation of 
men out of clay is found among the Greeks, the Maoris, 
the Tahitians, the Melanesians, and others. Other con- 
ceptions are equally widespread. " The conception of 
the cosmic egg from which the universe is hatched, the 
heaven-bom twins, the fecund mother of humanity who 
falls from heaven, are found not only in the older 
mythologies of India and China, Egypt and Bab.vlon, but 
also in Scandinavian creation-stor>', Persian cosmogony, 
and the many world-legends of North and .South 
America " (Edwardes and Spence, Diet., p. .39). This is 
regarded as " a .striking testimony to the world-wide 
similarity of the workings of the barbarian human 
mind." But it might also be said to be a remarkable 
demonstration of the diflfuision of culture from a common 
centre. 

CREATION-EPIC, BABYLONIAN. See MARDUK, 
EPIC OP. 

CREDNE. The tutelar god of brasiers in the 
mythology of the Irish Celts. 

CREED. The term Creed denotes in a specific sense 
a brief summary of the articles of Christian faith. The 
earliest designations of such a summary, however, were 



canon of faith or canon of truth (Greek), rule of faith, 
rule of truth, or symbol (Latin). In 1889 Dr. Rendel 
Harris discovered a Syriac translation of the long-lost 
Aiwlogy of Aristides, which represents a text dating 
back to the second century, the Apology itself having 
been written somewhere between A.D. 124 and 140. 
From this document Dr. Harris has restored a part of 
the creed of the Christian Church of that era. It reads : 
•• We believe in one God Almighty. Maker of heaven and 
earth : And in Jesus Christ his Son . . . Born of the 
A'irgin Mary ... He was pierced by the .Tews : He 
died and was buried : The third dav he rose again: He 
ascended into Heaven ... He is about to come to 
.iudge. . ." (see Camden M. Cobem). The three creeds 
in common use in the Christian Church are the Apostles' 
Creed, the Athanasian Creed, and the Nicene Creed 
(qq.v.). The Roman CatJiolic Clmrch uses also the Creed 
of Pius IV., which was published in 15(i4 under the title 
Profession of the Tridentine Faith. " It consists of the 
NiPieno-Constantinopolitan Creed with a summai-j- of the 
Tridentine definitions. It now also contains' a pro- 
fession of belief in the definitions of the Vatican 
Council " (Co*;;. Diet.). 

CREIRWY. A goddess of love in the mythology of 
the British Celts. 

CRESCENT AND THE CROSS, THE. Another name 
for Mohammedanism and Christianity, the crescent being 
the s.vmbol of the Saracens, and the cross the symbol 
of the Christians. 

CRIOBOLIUM. A Roman sacrifice connected with 
the worship of the Asiatic goddess Cybele (q.v.). A ram 
was sacrificed, and, by a form of baptism with its blood, 
the per.son who made the offering was cleansed from 
pollution and bom again (" in setemum renatus "). See 
O. Se.vffert, Diet., s.v. "Rhea"; J. M. Robertson, C.^f. 
CRISPIANS. The followers of Tobias Crisp (IfiOO- 
1643), brother of Sir Nicholas Crisp, who raised a regi- 
ment for Charles I. (1643). Tobias Crisp was a clergy- 
man of the Church of England, and in 1627 became Rector 
of Brinkworth in Wiltshire. His preaching became 
extremely Antinomian, and involved him in controversy 
with the Puritan Divines. After Crisp's death his dis- 
courses were published. But they did not attract much 
attention until they were republished by his son in 1690 
in an edition which was recommended and authorised 
by twelve Independent ministers. In replv to Crisp's 
sermons. Dr. Daniel Williams (1643?-171fi) publish.Hl in 
1692 a book with the title " Gospel Trath Stated and 
Vindicated." He was at the time Lecturer at Painters' 
Hall, Ix>ndon. In consequence of the controversy that 
arose on the publication of his book, he was dismisse<] 
from his lectureship. The Sermons of Tobias Crisp were 
republished in 174.5. See J. H. Blunt: and the D.N.B. 
CRISPINADES. The word Crispinades denotes acts 
of charity done at the expense of another. It is derived 
from Cri.spinus, the name of a saint and martyr. Cris- 
pinus fled from Rome to what is now Soissons. and with 
his brother Crispianus worked there as a shoemaker. 
Tjegend reports that he stole leather in order to make 
.shoes for poor people. The two brothers were martyred 
in the year 287 A.D. 

CRITICISM, HIGHER. Higher Criticism is the 
common, but rather unfoitunate, d&signation of the 
modem critical study of the Bible. " Part of the 
phra.se ' Higher Criticism ' is a mere accident. Crit- 
icism, in its earliest stage, took the form of text-criticism. 
When, at a more advanced stage, it entered upon the 
inner study of Scripture, it called itself ' higher ' in 
order to distinguish itself from the criticism of the text 
as a ' lower,' or preparatory form of study. The ad- 
.iective is the result of a bare historical incident, having 



Criticism, Lower 



122 



Cross 



no merit in itself, deserving to be retained— if retained 
at all— solely on the ground of present convenience" 
(Henry S. Nash). As Prof. Nash says, the term 
'■ higher " offends people by suggesting a kind of supeii- 
ority. Dr. C. A. Briggs (Intr.) explains in a very 
interesting way the questions which the Higher Crit- 
icism has to answer and the scientific principles by whicli 
it determines the questions. The questions are four. (Ij 
As to the integrity of the writings; (2) As to the authen- 
ticity of the writings; (3) As to literary features; (4i 
As to the credibility of the writings. The principles 
are six. (1) The writing must be in accordance with 
its supposed historic position as to time and place and 
circumstances. (2) Differences of style imply differences 
of experience and age of the same author; or, when 
sufficiently great, differences of author and of period of 
comix)Sition. (3) Differences of opinion and conception 
imply differenc-es of author when the.se are sufficiently 
great, and also differences of period of composition. 
(4) Citations show the dependence of the author upon 
the author or authors cited, where these are definite and 
tile identity of the author cited can be clearly estab- 
lished. The other two principles relate to : (51 Positive 
testimony as to the writing in other writings of acknow- 
ledged authority; and ((!) The silence of authorities as 
to the writing in question. As to Silence, there are a 
number of considerations. (a) Silence is a lack of 
evidence when it is clear that the matter in question 
did not come within the .scope of the author's plans and 
purposes. (b) Silence is an evidence that the matter in 
question had certain characteristics which excluded it 
from the author's argument. (c) The matter lies fairly 
within the author's scope, and it was omitted for good 
and sufficient reasons which may be ascertained. (d) 
The silence of the author as to that which was within the 
scope of his argument was unconscious and therefore 
ignorance is implied. (e) When the silence extends 
over a variety of writings of different authors, of 
different classes of writings and different periods of com- 
position, it Implies either some strong and overpowering 
external restraint such as divine interposition, or ecc-les- 
iastical or civil power; or it implies a general and wide- 
spread public ignorance which presents a strong pre- 
sumptive evidence regarding the reality and truthful- 
ness of the .matter in question. See further C. A. 
Briggs, lOOfi. See al.so for the history : C. A. Briggs, 
Hex.; Archibald Duff, Histoni of O.T. Grit., 1910; M. R. 
Vincent, Text. Crit. 

CRITICISM. LOWER. The explanation of the expres- 
sion " Lower Criticism " will be found under CRIT- 
ICISM. TEXTUAL and CRITICISM, HIGHER. 

CRITICISM, TEXTUAL. The critical examination 
of the text of documents. " One of the most necessary 
parts of the investigations of historians is to criticise 
the documents on which their researches are based, in 
order to be certain that the text whicli they are using 
really represents the original writing of the author. This 
criticism is usually known as Tevtval criticism, for the 
obvious reason that it deals with the te,rt as opposed to 
the subject-matter. It is less commonly termetl the 
Lower as opposed to the Higher criticism, which deals 
not with the text as written by the author or editor of 
the document in question, but with the sources and 
methods used by him in making the text. Thus Higher 
critici.=rm approaches the subject at a point higher up 
the stream of its existence" (K. Lake). The critical 
study of manuscripts shows that corruptions have often 
crept into texts. The critic has to try to decide how 
these corruptions have arisen. In .some cases a .scribe 
or copyist has introduced changes on his own account 
through not understanding his copy. In other cases a 



text has been deliberately altered or corrupted because 
it seemed to contain something improper (unorthodox 
or profane). The Jewish scribes did not hesitate to 
make such alterations. In yet other cases corruptions 
are purely the result of accident. A word may be 
written twice over by mistake (dittography). When two 
clau.ses or lines end with the same or similar syllables, 
a copyist's eye may easily pass from the first to the 
second (homoioteleuton). Again, the same word may be 
written ouce when it ought to be written twice (haplo- 
graphy). Textual criticism classifies and compares 
manuscripts, noting their differences. It compares the 
text as quoted by various writers with the text of the 
original document. For instance, the (juotations of the 
Old Testament found in the New Testament are carefully 
compared with the original Hebrew; the quotations of 
the New Testament in the writings of the Fathers of the 
Church are carefully compared with the original Greek. 
Textual criticism also c-ompares the versions or transla- 
tions of a document with the original (or the supposed 
original). In this way it often appears that the trans- 
lator had before him a text different from the supposed 
original, and the true original text can be reconstructed. 
Valuable evidence may also be supplie<l by the examina- 
tion of Lectionaries and Liturgies. In poetical composi- 
tions, textual criticism may attain imix>rtant results by 
a careful study of tlie metre and its requirements (so, 
e.g., in the Book of Isaiah). Something may also be 
gained in prose, as well as in poetical, compositions, by 
studying the ancient system of measuring books by the 
line, and the line by syllables (Stichometry). See F. 
Buhl; M. R. Vincent; K. Lake, The Text of the N.T. 

CROCODILE. One of the sacred animals in ancient 
Egypt. Donald A. Mackenzie (E.M.L.) notes that " even 
the crocodile was associated with the worship of the com 
god ; in one of the myths this reptile recovers the body 
of Osiris from the Nile." 

CROSIER. The crosier or pastoral staff which now 
serves as a bishop's emblem of office or symbol of 
authority may have developed out of an ordinary 
walking-staff'. It may. however, have been suggested 
by the .short hooked staff (littms) which the Roman 
augurs bore. In any case, it did not become prominent 
as the symbol of a bishop until aft.er the tenth century. 
It is like a shepherd's crook, being a long staff with a 
hook at the upper end. For a time it was borne also 
by abbots. A bishop held it, with the crook turned out- 
wards, in his left hand; an abbot held it, with the crook 
turned inwards, in his right hand. The Anglican Prayer 
Book of 1549 directs that whenever the bishop celebrates 
the Holy Communion in the church or executes any other 
public mini.stration he sh.all have his pastoral staff in 
his hand, or else borne or held by his chaplain. The 
l)astoral staff' of an archbishop terminated in a floriated 
cross, instead of in a crook; that of a patriarch in a cross 
with two transverse bars; that of the Pope in a cross 
with three transverse bars. See Benham; Edward L. 
Cutts: the Cath. Diet. 

CROSS. The cross in one form or another has been 
found to have been a wide-spread religious symbol in 
pre-Christian times. It was used, for instance, in 
ancient Egypt, Babylonia and Assyria, Crete, and Greece. 
In the palace of Knossos in Crete Sir Arthur Evans dis- 
covered an equilateral cross in marble, whic^h he calls a 
" fetish cross." This, he thinks, occupied a central 
position in the Cretjin sihrine of the Mother Goddess. 
" A cross of orthodox Greek shape was not only a 
religious symbol of Minoan cult, but seems to be trace- 
able in later off-shoots of the Minoan religion from Gaza 
to Eryx " (quoted by Donald A. Mackenzie, Crete). It 
it found on Babylonian cylinders, and as an amulet on 



Crown of the Law 



123 



Crystal=Gazing 



Assyrian necklaces. Mackenzie notes that the Maltese 
cross first appears on Elauiite ix>ttery of the Neolithic 
age. The " swastika," another form of cross, also 
known as the gammadion or crux gammata has been 
found at Kno.s.sos in Crete, at Tro.v, and at Cyprus: and 
appears on Greek i>ottery about the year 800. lu the 
Christian era it reappears in the «itacombs of Rome and 
elsewhere. It is found frequently, as Reinach says 
(O.) in the Buddliist art of ludia and China. Houssay 
and Elliot Smith think that the figure may have l)eeu 
derived from conventional li zed representations of the 
octopus. The latter points out that a remarkable picture 
of a swastika-like emblem has been found in America. 
" The elephant-headed god sits in the centre and four 
Ijairs of arms radiate from him, each of them equipped 
with definite suckers " (Dr., p. 175). Camden M. Cobern 
notes that among the early Chri.stians a magic power 
came to be ascribed to the cross and other symbols for 
Christ. In a Christian tomb discovered in Palestine in 
1913 " the most prominent features of the decoration 
were a garland of flowers surrounded by a cross and a 
cock." Here " the cross was probably merely an orna- 
ment, but the cock as ' herald of the dawn' almost cer- 
tainly symbolized the hope of a future life." See 
Maurice A. Canney in the Eneycl. BihI.. s.v.; O. Zoeckler, 
The Gross of Christ, 1877; M. Brock. The Cross: Heathen 
and Christian, 1S.S0. 

CROWN OF THE LAW. One of the names given to 
the sacred chest in which in Jewi.sh synagogues the 
Torah (Law) is kept. 

CRUSADES. The wars known as the Cni.sades were 
.so called because the Christians who took jiart in them 
wore the cross as a badge. It was long a popular idea 
that the Crusaders' eagerness to gain possession of the 
Holy I^nd was due purely to an outbreak of religious 
zeal and unselfish chivalry in the twelfth century. But, 
as H. B. Workman points out (Hastings' E.R.E.). the 
conflict was simply a new form of an old struggle between 
East and We.st. " The conflict between Cre.scent and 
Cross was bound to be renewed under a new form, with 
a new champion of Christendom, and in a wider arena, 
no longer as a frontier war, but one of inter-continental 
character." There was of course .at first a Jarge amount 
of religious enthusiasm. But in course of time the enter- 
prise degenerated, first into " a romantic tournament 
between the Christian knight and the Moslem warrior " 
(Schaff-Herzog), and then into what was little more than 
a commercial undertaking. To the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries the East was " what the New World was to the 
Elizabethan sailors " (H. R. Workman). " Motives of 
commerce, wealth, adventure, and religion were united." 
For convenience, the Crusades are nsuallv divided into 
seven. The First Crusade QOOfi-lOft!)) was decided uix)n 
at the Council of Clermont (Nov. 10i).">) under Pope Urban 
II. Before the main exi)editiou was ready, a lawless 
multitude set forth under Peter the Hermit," Walter the 
Penniles.s, and Walter de Pois-sy, and met with disa.ster. 
The main Crusade was led by Godfrey of Bouillon, Hugh 
of Vermandois. Robert of Normandv, Robert of Flanders, 
Raymond of St. Gilles and Toulouse, and others. The 
Crusaders captured Antioch, and eventually Jerusalem 
(.July, 1099). On the 22nd of .July, 1099, Godfrey of 
Bouillon was elected king of Jerusalem or " Advocate 
of the Holy Sepulchre." His death occurred in Julv, 
1100. The Second Crusade (1147) was due to the con- 
quest of Edessa by the Muhammadans under 'Imad-al- 
Din Zengi, or Zanghis (Latinized, Sanguineus. 1127- 
1146). It was inspired by the preaching of St. Bernard 
of Clairveaux in France and Germany, and was led by 
the Emperor Conrad III. of Germany and King Louis 
VII. of France. The Germans under Otto of Freising 



met with disaster near Laodicea, and Louis was routed 
in Phr.vgia. The whole crusade was a failure, and tiie 
feeling again^st St. Bernard was very bitter. " He 
■sjived his fame as an in.spired prophet by declaring the 
crusading armies unworthy of victorv, and the defeat a 
divine punisliment of their .sins" (Schaff-Herzog). The 
Third Crusade was caused by the capture of Jerusalem 
by Kurd Saladin (Salah-al-Diu, 6. 1137), Vizier of Egypt, 
in October 1187. The new crusade was preached" by 
Pope Gregory VIII., and his call to arms was answered 
by Frederick Bartorossa, Emperor of Germany, Philip 
Augustus, King of France, and Richard I. (Coeur-de- 
lA;on), King of England. The French king quarrelled 
with Richard and returned home. Richard I. severely 
defeated Saladin at Arsuf. but never succeeded in captur- 
ing Jeru-salem. Ultimately he made terms with Saladin, 
by which tlie Christians were allowed free access to the 
Holy Sepulchre. Frederic Barlmrossa was drowned 
during the crusade, but after the death of SaLadin 
(March, 1193), the Germans gained a great victory. The 
Fourth Crusade was preached by Pope Innocent III. 
The (^ru.saders assembled at Venice; but Venice, in- 
different to all motives except gain, demanded for their 
transfer to the Holy Land a greater sum than they were 
able to pay. They went therefore first to Dalmatia, and 
then to Cou.stantinople, which they conquered in April, 
1204. Venice had as a matter of fact by treaty with the 
Saltan of Egyi)t undertaken to divert the crusade. In 
1212 I'ope Innocent summoned a new crusade. " He 
was answered by the children." " In France aro.se a 
movement in 1212 which even the government was not 
able to snpijress. Thousands of children, boys and girls, 
often of the tendere.st age, took the cross, and rushed 
in feverish enthusiasm towards the Holy Land. Some 
.swarms reached Italy: and there the.v melted away, by 
hunger and disease, in the waves, and in the slave- 
markets " (Schafi:'-Herzog). The Fifth Crusade was 
preached by Iimocent III. in 1215, and the cross was 
taken b.v Andrew II. of Hungary (1217) and by the 
Emperor Frederick II. (1220). Frederick II. was excom- 
municated by Pope Gregory IX. for delaying to take the 
field, and in con.sequence could not i>revail uiwn the 
Military Orders to fight under him. But he contrived 
to obtain the cession of .Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and 
Nazareth, and in 1229 crowned himself King of Jeru- 
salem. In 12-14. however, the Templars and Hos- 
pitallers were defeated by the Charismians. allies of the 
Sultan of Egypt, and Jerusalem was sacked. The Sixth 
Cru.sade was led by Ijouis IX. of France (124S). who, 
however, never succeeded in reaching Jeru.salem. He 
was defeated and captured ou his way to Cairo. To 
secure his relea.se, France had to pa.y a heavy ransom. 
In spite of this, he (Started on a new crusade, the Seventh 
Crusjide, in 1270. As a preliminary he invaded and 
besieged Tunis. He died in August of the same .vear 
during the siege. Edward of England went to Tunis in 
October of the same year, and .succeeded in saving Acre 
from the Muhammadans. The Crusades led to the insti- 
tution of various orders of military monks. See SchafF- 
Hencog: Hasting.s' E.R.E. 

CRYSTAL-GAZING. What is known as crystal-gazing 
consists in looking fixedly into a crystal, or into a mirror, 
or into water in a vessel or pond. Many persons who 
do this fall into a kind of daze or trance and see visions. 
There are reports of such visions in the Proceedings of 
the Society for P.sychical Research. The phenomenon 
may be explained as due to tlie working of the subcon- 
scious mind. William James mentions the case of a 
lady who had the power of seeing these visions. " Miss 
X. has this susceptibility in a remarkable degree, and 
is, moreover, an unusually intelligent critic. She reports 



Cuchulainn 



124 



Curate 



mauy visions which can only be deiscribed as apparently 
clairvoyant, and others which beautifully fill a vacant 
niche in our knowledge of subconscious mental opera- 
tions. For example, looking into the crystal before 
breakfast one morning she reads in printed chaiacters 
of the death of a lady of her acquaintance, the date and 
other circumstances all duly appearing in type. Startled 
by tiis, sihe looks at the ' Times ' of the previous day 
for verification, and there among the deaths are the 
identical words which she has seen. On the same page 
of the ' Times ' are other items which she remembers 
reading the day before: and the only explanation seems 
to be that her eyes then inattentively observed, so to 
speak, the death-item, which forthwith fell into a .special 
corner of her memory, and came out as a visual hallu- 
cination when the peculiar modification of consciousness 
induced by the crystal-gazing set in." As Andrew Lang 
says, crystal-gazing in one form or another has been 
practised in most countries, and among primitive folk 
has served to increase the influence of priests and 
medicine-men. Where crystal-gazing is not understoo<l, 
the visions seem to be supernatural. See T. J. Hudson: 
William James, The Will to Believe. 1908; Hastings' 
E.R.E. 

CUCHULAINN. The Cuchulainn or CuchuUin who 
figures .so prominently in the legends of ancient Ulster 
would seem to have been originally a solar hero or deity. 
" When in his full strength no one could look him in the 
face without blinking. The heat of his body melted 
.snow and boiled water " (Squire). We are told that 
when he was a child he changed his name from Setanta 
to C\i Chulainn, " Hound of Culann." See Charles 
Squire, Myth. 

CUERAVAHPERI. A Mexican deity, goddess of 
fertility and rain. At an agricultural festival held in 
her honour a vic-tim was flayed, and the priest, arraye<l 
in the skin, performed a ceremonial dance. 

CULDEES. The Culdees appear as a religious order 
in the ancient British Church. They are mentioned 
chiefly in connection with Ireland and Scotland, and are 
not heard of after ].'5.'.2 A.D. Their origin seems in fact 
to have been Irish. Culdees is a popular and later form 
of the original name. It was suggested by Cvildeus, a 
term first used (A.D. 1526) by Hector Boeee. The 
original Irish name seems to have been C^le d^ " com- 
panion or servant of God " (compare Deicola). This 
assumed the Latinized forms Colidiel in Ireland, Calle- 
dfpi and Keledei in Scotland, and Colidei in England. 
Culdees hardly seems to have been a general term for 
anchorites. " At first having the marks of anchorites, 
they gradually take on the appearance of secular 
canons . . . we find them filling a subordinate 
' Levitical ' position in cathedral establishments, chiefly 
engaged in the choral parts of the worship; they became 
esi)ecially associated also with charitable care of the 
sick and poor, and the distribution of alms. The latter 
seems to have been one of (heir earliest and most char- 
acteristic traits '• (T. .Tones Parrr, E.R.E.). T. .Tones 
Parry sees in the Culdees, not the drooping remnant of the 
disappearing Celtic Church, but " a recrudescence, a burst 
into flame of the old Celtic religion, stimulated perhaps 
by conflict with the rival Roman institution." The 
name, he thinks, was given by the people, and implies 
special devotion and piety, "a revival of religion at 
some given period, and not decav." See Schaff-Herzog: 
J. H. Blunt: Hastings, E.R.E. 

CUIiLAVAGGA. A Buddhist sacred book, one of the 
Khandhakas, in the fir.st division of the Canon. See 
CANON, BUDDHIST. 

CULTUS. The term Cultus means veneration or 
worship, or in partiailar that form of public worship 



in which the special character of a religion is manifested 
most clearly. The Christian forms of cultus have been 
most elaborated in the Roman Catholic Church. In the 
more general sense of the term Roman Catholics dis- 
tinguish three kinds of cultus — latria (Gk. latreia), dulia 
(Gk. douleia), and hyperdulia. Latria is the worship 
due to God alone. Dulia is the secondary veneration 
paid to saints and angels. Hyperdulia is that higher 
veneration which is paid " to the Blessed Virgin as the 
most exalted of mere creatures, though of course in- 
finitely inferior to God and incomparably inferior to 
Christ in His human nature " {Oath. Diet.). See the 
Cath. Diet.; Brockhaua. 

CUMBERLAND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. An 
American religious body which arose in Cumberland 
County, Kentucky, as the result of a " revival " under 
.Tames McGready of the American I'resbyterian Church. 
The revival began in 1797, and was so successful that 
more ministers than could be supplied were needed. To 
meet the need the Cumberland Presbytery ordained 
certain persons who had not had the usual education 
and training. This caused dissensions in the synod of 
Kentucky, and in 1806 the presbytery was dissolved. In 
1810 the Cumberland Presbytery was re-organized by 
Finis Ewlng, Samuel King, and Samuel McAdow as an 
independent presbytery. Its theology was mainly Cal- 
vinistic, but the doctrine of election and reprobation was 
rejected. " In the j'ear 1813 the Cumberland Presbytery 
had become so large, that it divided itself into three 
presbyteries, and constituted the Cumberland Synod. 
This synod, at its sessions in 1816, adopted a confession 
of faith, catechism, and system of church order. In con- 
formity with the principles avowed upon the organization 
of the first presbytery. The Confession of Faith is a 
slight modification and abridgment of the Confession of 
Faith of the Presbyterian Church. The Larger Cate- 
chism was omitted, and also some sections of the chapter 
on " God's Eternal Decrees." The form of government 
is Presbyterian " (Schaff-Herzog). In 1826 a College 
was established at Princeton, Kentucky. This was 
transferred in 1842 to Lebanon, Tenn., where a t "umber- 
land University was founded. The University was 
divide<I into four branches, preparatory, academic, law. 
and theological. See Schaff-Herzog; J. H. Blunt. 

CUNNINGHAM LECTURESHIP. A lectureship 
founded in 1862 by William Binny Webister, of Edin- 
burgh, in memory of William Cunningham, D.D., Prin- 
cipal of the Free Church College, Edinburgh, and Pro- 
fessor of Divinity and Church History. The purpose 
was to advance the Theological Literature of Scotland. 
The Ijeoturer has to be a minister or Professor of the 
Free Church of Scotland, but occasionally a minister or 
Professor from other denominations may be appointed. 
He holds the lectureship for not less than two and not 
more than three years. He is at liberty to cioose his 
own subject within the range of Apologetical, Doctrinal. 
Controversial, Exegetical, Pa.storal, or Historical 
Theology, including what bears on Missions, Home and 
Foreign, subject to the consent of the Council. The 
lectures must be delivered publicly at Edinburgh, and 
must not be fewer than six in number. They must be 
printed and published within a year after delivery at 
the risk of the lecturer. 

CURATE. In the Church of England the word Curat* 
originally denoted a clergyman to whom was committed 
the cure of souls, that is to say the charge of a parish. 
The word is so used in the Pra.ver Book and its rubrics. 
In France the term is still so used, the incumbent of a 
parish being the Cur6, while his assistant has the title 
Vicaire. In Ehigland a Curate now means one who is 
licensed to assist the incumbent of a parish. His correct 



Cnria Romana 



125 



Cyrenaics 



deseripUon, however, is Assistant-curate. The incumbent 
is now called the Vicar (q.v.) or Rector (q.v.). The 
term Curate is not much used by Roman Catholics. But 
It is common in Ireland, where it denotes a priest who 
acts under the parish priest. See Benham; the Vath. 
Diet. 

CURIA ROMANA. In its stricter sense the Curia 
denotes " the authorities which administer the Papal 
Primacy "" {Cath. Diet.). In its wider sense, it denotes 
the body of authorities and functionaries who form the 
Papal Court, including the Congregations of Cardinals 
and the Cardinal Secretary of State. See the Cath. 
Diet. 

CDTHBERT GOSPELS. A manuscript of the Gospels 
belonging to Lindisfame and dating from the eighti 
century A.D. St. Cuthbert (d. fi.S7). after being abbot 
of L/indisfame, was made bishop ((iS4). The manu- 
scripts are now in the British Museum. " They are 
written in an Anglo-Saxon script, and contain between 
tlie lines a series of Northumbrian glosses " (C. R. 
GregOTj). 

CUTCHA. Cuycha was one of the deities worshippetl 
by the ancient Peruvians, the rainbow, attendant on 
the sun and moon. 

CYBELE. Cybele was originally a Phrygian deity, a 
goddess of fruitfulness. She was called also Agdistls 
after a sacred rock Agdus on Mount Dindymus, and 
Dindymene after the mountain itself, on which she was 
worshipped. Her priests were eunuchs. The Greeks 
identified her with Rhea, originally a Cretan goddess, 
and gave her Rhea"s title, the " Mother of the Gods." 
As Rhea was accompanied by her Curetes, earth-bom 
demons, so Cybele was attended by her Corybantes, 
priests who went into a frenzy on the festivals of the 
goddess. The Corybantes danced wildly to tie music of 
flutes, horns, drums, and cymbals. Cybele had also mendi- 
cant priests "who roamed from place to place, as inspired 
servants and prophets of the Great Mother " (Seyffert). 
About 204 B.C. the worship of Cybele was brought to 
Rome, where she was called the " Great Mother." Her 
priest were called Galli (emasculated), and the chief of 
ttiem or arch eunuch became known as the Archi-Gallus. 
A temple of the goddess was built on the Vatican Mount. 
Early in the second century A.D. sacrifices called the 
Tanrobolium (q.v.) and the Criobolium (q.v.) were in- 
stituted in connection with the worship of Cybele. The 
offerer was cleansed from pollution and bom again 
through a kind of baptism with the blood of bulls and 
rams. According to Augustine, Cybele was called the 
Virgo Coelestis. She is described also as a Saviour, 
and as healing little children by magical songs. Accord- 
ing to another legend, her father exposed her as an 
infant on the mountain Cybelus, where she was suckled 
bv panthers and other wild beasts. See O. Seyffert, 
Diet.; J. M. Robertson, CM.; P.C. 

CYNICS. The school of Greek philosophers known as 
Cynics was founded by Antisthenes of Athens (444-368 



B.C.), who in later life became a disciple of Socrates. 
He founded his new School after the death of Socrates, 
and taught that as far as i)ossible men should be in- 
dependent of ordinary human needs. His clothing was 
an old cloak; his bed was the bare earti: his furniture 
consisted of a sack, a staff, and a bowl. The name 
Cynic is either derived from Cyuosarges, the gymnasium 
in which Antisthenes taught, or was suggested by the 
mode of life of the Cynics, which, according to their 
opponents befitted a dog (kiion) rather than a man. 
The Cynics claimed to be the true representatives of the 
teaching of Socrates, and thev made a great impression 
on the Stoics (see STOICISM). They have been de- 
scribed as a kind of " mendicant order in philosophy." 
Their doctrines led them to flout and defy the conven- 
tionalities of life, to l)ecome self-sufficient and anti-sodal. 
They wished men to live in accordance with Nature. 
•' They glorified the state of nature with inexhaustible 
eloquence and ingenuity, and they never wearied of 
anathematising the pernicious influence of civilisation " 
(Gomperz, Orrek Thinkers, quoted by W. L. Davidson). 
The ideal man of Antisthenes was Diogenes of Sinope. 
Yet Cynicism at its best has a large element of the finest 
idealism. Anthisthenes teaches that pleasures of the 
world are not real pleasures, and that mere money is 
not real wealth. " You cannot buy uprightness with 
material coin; but you may be wealthy, though poor and 
lacking such coin, in .spiritual riches. ' I hold to the 
belief,' he says, ' that wealth and poverty lie not in 
men's estate but In men's souls,' ' wealth of my sort will 
make you liberal of nature.' The soul is the great 
thing, and its health the first concern ; and tiie discourse 
on this text that he gives is an advocacy of the wisdom, 
for the .soul's sake, of sitting loose to the pleasures of 
the world, of moderating and suppressing one's desires, 
of finding the source of happiness and peace in the mind 
and inward being, not in external circumstances or the 
so-calle<l good things of life, which are variable and 
uncertain and which perish in the using, leaving one 
unsatisfied " (W. L. Davidson). See William L. David- 
son, The Stoic Creed, 1907; C. J. Deter; Max B. Wein- 
stein. Welt- und Lehen-anschauungen , 1910. 

CYRENAICS. A school of Greek philosophers founded 
by ArLstippus the Elder of Cyrene (365 B.C.). The 
philosophy seems to have been systematized by Aristippus 
the Younger, the grandson of Aristippus the Elder, since 
the latter left no writings. It has also been called 
Hedonism. " Its chief points were : (1) that all human 
sensations are either pleasurable or painful, and that 
pleasure and pain are the only criterions of good and 
evil; (2) that pleasure consists in a gentle, and pain in 
a violent motion of the soul; (3) that happiness is simply 
the result of a continuous series of pleasurable sensa- 
tions; (4) that actions are in themselves morally in- 
different, and that men are concerned only with their 
results " (Chamliers's Encycl.). See Chambers; C. J. 
Deter. 



D 



126 



Daleites 



D 



D. God D is a designation used by anthropologists 
for a deity depicted in the MSS. of the Mayan Indians 
of Central America. In his hieroglyph, amongst, other 
things a starry sky is represented by dots: and, like the 
Water-goddess I, he is depicted as wearing the serpent 
head-dress. This suggests that he was a moon-deity. 

DABAIBA. The goddess Dabaiba was one of the 
deities worshipped by the ancient Americans. She was 
feared and propitiated, before the time of the Aztecs, 
as one who had power to control the thunder and light- 
ning. To win her favour human victims were sacrificed. 
After being killed, they were burned " that the savoury 
odours of roasting flesh might be grateful in the nostrils 
of the goddess " (Bancroft). She was. it was said, the 
mother of the Creator. Her son, the Creator, mediated 
between the peojile and his mother. When rain was 
wanted, it was to him that the prayers were made. 
Bancroft mentions that " when the needs of the people 
were very urgent, the chiefs and priests remained in 
the temple, fasting and praying with uplifted liands; 
the people meanwhile observed a four-days" fast, lac-er- 
ating their bodies and wa,shing tlieir faces, which were 
at other times covered with paint. So strict was this 
fast, that no meat or drink was to be touched until the 
fourth dav, and then only a soup made from maize- 
flour." See H. H. Bancroft: .T. M. Robertson, P.O. 

DADt3 PANTHIS. A modem Hindu sect. The 
founder, who flourished about A.D. 1600, was Dadii, a 
disciple of Ramananda : but the religious works of the 
sect are based on the precepts of the great reformer 
Kabir (see KABIR PANTHIS). Monier-Williams de- 
scribes them as being, like the Sikhs (.see SIKHISM), 
Vaishnava Theists. Some of their principles and 
precepts, as given by H. H. Wilson and E. W. Hop- 
kins, are as follows : " He is my God who maketh 
all things perfect. O foolish one, God is not far from 
you. He is near you. God's power is always with you. 
. . . All things are sweet to them that love God. I 
am satisfied with this, that happiness is in proportion 
to devotion. . . . Sit ye with humility at the feet of 
God, and rid yourselves of the sickness of your bodies. 
From the wickedness of the body there is much to fear, 
because all sins enter into it. Therefore let your dwell- 
ing be witli the fearless, and direct yourselves toward 
the light of God. For there neither sword nor jioison 
liave power to destroy, and sin cannot enter." See 
Monier-Williams: E. W. Hopkins: and R. V. Russell. 

DAGABAS. Dagaba is the Piili name for the casket 
in which the Buddhists placed tbe relics of their great 
saints. In course of time the word came to denote not 
only the casket but also the monument (Stupa) in which 
the casket was placed (Pagoda). See STCPAS and 
PAGODAS. 

DAGAN. A Babylonian deity. Dagan appears as one 
of the gods before the time of Hammurapi. Afterwards 
we find the name used as the equivalent of Bel (g.iK). 
Anu and Dagan are sometimes mentioned instead of 
Anu and Bel. Eventually, however, Dagan disappeared 
altogether. It has been suggested that Dagan is the 



same as the Philistine god Dagon. He seems to have been 
regarded as the god of earth. See Morris Jastrow, 
Eel. 

DAGDA. One of the gods worshipped by the ancienli 
Celts in Ireland. It is thought that his name meant 
the " good god." He " played the seasons into being 
with his mystic harp " (Squire). He resembled the god 
Jiath. One of his sons was Angus. See Squire, 
Mythology. 1900. 

DAIKOKU. Daikoku figures in the religion of Japan 
known as Shintoism Uj.r.) as the chief of the household 
gods. His image is to be found in every home. He is 
the leader and guide of all men, to whom oBferings and 
incense are given continually. Those who have to earn 
their own living seek to propitiate him perpetually. " He 
is short and stout, wears a cap like the cap of Liberty, 
is seated on rice-bags, holds a mallet in his right hand, 
and with his left clutches the mouth of a sack which 
he carries over his shoulder " (I. Bishop). See " Shin- 
toism " in K.fi.W. 

DAIRY-TEMPLES. The Todas, a tribe which inhabits 
the Nllgiri plateau in India, have an elaborate dairy 
ritual. In connection with this they have what have 
been described as dairy-temples. " In addition to the 
dairies which in form resemble the dwelling-huts, the 
Todas keep up as dairy-temples certain curious conical 
edifices, of which there are said to be four on the 
Nllgiri plateau, viz., at the Muttanfid mand, near 
Kotagiri, near Sholur, and at Mudimand. . . . The 
edifice at the Muttanfid mand (or Nodrs), at the top of 
the STgur ghat, is known to members of the Ootaeamund 
Hunt as the Toda cathedral. It has a circular stone 
base and a tall conical thatched roof crowned with a 
large flat stone, and is surrounded by a circular stone 
wall. To penetrate within the sacred edifice was for- 
bidden, but we were informed that it contained milking 
ves.sels, dairy apparatus, and a swami in the guise of a 
copper bell (mani). The dairjman is known as the 
varzhal or wur.sol. In front of the cattle-pen of the 
neighbouring mand, I noticed a grass-covered mound, 
which, I was told, is sacred. The mound contains no- 
thing buried within it, but the bodies of the dead are 
placed near it, and earth from the mound is placed on 
the corpse before it is removed to the burning-ground " 
(E. Thurston). 

DALEITES. A religious sect, tbe followers of David 
Dale (1739-1S0(>). David Dale was a weaver by profes- 
sion. In conjunction with Richard Arkwright (1732- 
1792) about 1784 he erected cotton-mills at Ne-vC Lanark, 
and became wealthy. He also became noted for his 
philanthropy. At first his religious views seem largely 
to have been in harmony with those of John Glas 
(1695-1773), who founded a sect of independent Presby- 
terians at Dundee (see GLASSITESi. But he came to 
differ from Glas to some extent, and therefore founded 
a congregation of his own in Glasgow and acted as its 
minister. The Daleites differed from the Glassites 
mainly in matters of discipline. " The Daleites did not 
keep aloof from other Christian bodies with the ex- 



Damianites 



127 



Daniel, Book of 



clusiveness (so distiuctive of petty sects) witb which the 
Glassites regarded them, and they entertained somewhat 
dififerent views resjiecting the office of elders, iiarticularly 
holding that the apostolic description of an office-bearer, 
as being " the husband of one wife," forbade only the 
having more than one wife at the same time, while the 
Glassites generally held that an elder was disqualified 
for office by re-marriage after a first wife's death " (J. 
H. Blunt). Dale's daughter married Robert Owen 
(1771-18.58). See J. H. Blunt: and the D.N.B. 

DAMIANITES. The followers or school of Damianus 
or Damian, the Monopliysite patriarch of Alexandria 
(.570 A.D.). Damianus was ac-cused of being a tetra- 
theist, that is to say a worshipper of four Gods. 
Damianus maintained " that the FatJier is one, the Son 
another, and the Holy Ghost another, but that no one 
of them is God as such : they only possess the subsisting 
divine nature in common, and each is God, in so far as 
he inseparably participates in it " (Hagenbaeh). God 
Himself is the autotlieos. See Hagenbaeh: J. H. Blunt. 

DAMKINA. A Babylonian deity. The goddess Dam- 
kina appears sometimes as the consort of Ea (q.r.). 
The name means " lady of the earth." Ea and Damkina 
are appealed to by king Agumkakrimi and asked lo 
grant him long life. Sargon calls her " Belit iiani," 
the mistress of the gods. See Morris .Tastrow, Rel. 

DAMODAK. One of the names of the Hindu god 
Krishna. 

DAMOXA. One of the deities worshipi)ed by the 
ancient Celts. Damona was the goddess of c-attle. The 
name seems to be connected with a word either for 
"ox" (Irish) or ".sheep" (Welsh): and Anwyl sug- 
gests that it is perhaits that of an ancient totem sheep 
or cow, just as the goddess Epona (rj.v.) was originally 
perhaps a mare. A Celtic goddess is sometimes as- 
sociated with a Celtic god. Whether they are to be 
regarded as mother and son, or as brother and sister, 
or as husband and wife is unc-ertain. The god who is 
paired with Damona is Eor\-o (g.r.). See Anwyl: 
Keinach, O. 

DANCERS. The sect known as the Dancers made its 
first appearance, on the Lower Rhine, in 1374. The 
dancing was in honour of St. John, whose name the 
dancers introfluced into Iheir exclamations. They were 
" a crowd of men and women dancing hand in hand, 
either in pairs or in a circle, on tlie streets, in the 
churches, in private houses, wherever they might be, 
without shame, without rest, hour after hour, until they 
dropped from sheer exhaustion " (Schaff-Herzog). The 
movement spread throughout the Low Country and into 
France. " Children left their parents, and joined the 
wandering, crazy throng; wives forgot their houses, 
maidens their duties; all cla.sses sent recruits." See 
Schaflf-Herz(^. 

DANCING. Dances, or movements allied to dancing, 
have been practised widely in religious rites and cere- 
monies from very early times. Rhythmic movements 
of the body, to the accompaniment of musical instru- 
ments, however .simple, seem to have been regarded as 
the most natural means of expressing both pious joy 
and devout sorrow. It seems also to have been felt that 
such movements sen-e<l to put tlie worshippers in tune 
with the Infinite (to use a modem phrase). In a le.ss 
refined form, as among dancing Dervishes, they have 
as a matter of fact been employed for the purpose of 
producing a frantic religious fervour, a divine ecstasy 
(see ECSTASY). According to a modem view of the 
matter, " the slow, measured, reverential movements 
characterising all religious rites of nearly every creed 
and race, have for their spiritual purpose the cultivation 
of repose and the economlsation of the Infinite Force 



coming through man, so that it shall work the best 
results for him " (Prentice Mulford, The Gift of Under- 
KtatnUny). In early Egypt and Babylonia religion seems 
to have provided the principal occasions for dancing. 
Thus dancing was first developed as an art in the pro- 
cessions of Apis, the black bull. The dancing of the 
Arabs is proverbial. Tristram (Eastern Vustomg) saw 
Mohanimixians " leaping, bounding, swaying their arms 
and whirling round in time to the din of drums, tmmiiets 
and cymbals which followed them." As they danced, 
" the men chanted or rather yelled, verses of the 
Koran." The Circumcision Feast unuzauinn) was an 
occasion for manifesting joy by means of dancing. 
Dances have been a prominent feature in the worship 
of Krishna and Siva in India. This kind of homage 
has been specially paid to iiJiva in his character of lord 
of dancing. " Further, it is well known that in ancient 
times women were detlicated to the service of the 
temples, like the vestal virgins of Europe. They were 
held to be married to the god and had no other duty 
but to dance before his shrine. Hence they were called 
the god's slaves (devaOusl), and were generally patterns 
of piety and propriety " (Monier Williams, " Religious 
Thought and Life in India). Among the Hebrews, 
dancing seems to have been practised in the earliest 
times. It was never entirely abolished. They danced 
in the vineyards on the Day of Atonement. " On the 
Feast of Tabernacles the men performed a torch-dance. 
" They danced with torches, throwing them into the air 
and catching them again, often performing profligies 
with a dexterity acquired by long practice" (Delitzsch, 
Iris). In the Old Testament itself we are told that on 
one occasion " David danced before the Lord with all 
his might" (II. Samuel vi. 14): and a psalmist ex- 
claims. " Let them praise his name in the dance : let 
Ihem sing praises unto him with the timbrel and harp " 
(Psalm C"XLIX. 3). The Greeks devoted themselves to 
the art with peculiar zeal. " A whole world of dreams 
peopled the poetic Greece of long ago. In the hush of 
forests, before .sacred altars, in sun.shine, under star- 
light, bands of maidens crowned with oak-leaves, gar- 
landed with flowers, passed dancing in honour of Pan, 
of Apollo, of Diana, of the Age of Innocence, and of 
chaste wedlock " (G. Vuillier, A Historii of Dancing). 
The Romans followed the example of the Greeks. But 
in ancient times dancing was practi.eed .solely in con- 
nection with religious rites and festivals. " Nemo fere 
saltat sobrius, nisi forte insanit " (Cicero, Pro Miir. 
vi. 13). In China, in ancient times, as in other countries, 
dances were performed during a funeral. It was com- 
manded " that the Officers of the Shields at Great 
Funerals arrange the implements used at the execution 
of dances, and at the interment take them up, to store 
them away in the grave " (Cheu li. quoted by J. J. M. 
de Groot). The prevalence of dancing among primitive 
folk or savages is well known (so in Polynesia: see Gill. 
Fro7n Darkness to Light in Polynesia). See, in addition 
to the works already mentioned, R. Voss, Der Tanz mid 
seine Geschichte, 18fi9; Lilly Grove, Dancing. 1895: 
Encvcl. Bihl. 

DAND DEVI. An Indian deity, the protector of men 
against the attacks of wild beasts, worshipped by the 
Gadbas, a primitive tribe belonging to the Vizagapatam 
District of Madras. 

DANIEL, BOOK OF. Daniel is usually spoken of as 
a prophet, and it might have been expected that the 
Book of Daniel would be found in the second division 
of the Hebrew Canon of the Old Testatoent (q.v.); but 
as a matter of fact the book is include<l among the 
Kethuhim (or Hagiographa). The book is really of a 
peculiar character, compared with the other books of 



Danu 



128 



Dea Domnann 



the Old Testament. It is an example within the Canon 
of a class of literature which l)ecame verj' popular in 
later Judaism, Apocalyptic Literature (q.v.). The second 
part of the book records the visions of Daniel, which 
are supposed to have been seen in the time of Nebuchad- 
nezzar (()05-562 B.C.); the first part consists of ordinary 
narrative. Chapter i. tells how Daniel and his three 
friends were taken to Babylon in the reign of Jehoiakim. 
king of Judah, and were trained by command of 
Nebuchadnezzar in the language and learning of the 
Chaldeans. In chapter ii. we learn how by a kind of 
supernatural wisdom Daniel interpreted a dream which 
troubletl Nebuchadnezzar and baffled his magicians. 
Chapter iii. describes how the three friends of Daniel, 
Hananiah, Misliael, and Azariah were east into a burn- 
ing fiery furnace for refusing to worship the golden 
image set up by Nebuchadnezzar, and how they were 
unharmed. In chapter iv. Daniel again appears as the 
successful interpreter of a dream which could not be 
interpreted by the Chaldeans. Chajiter iv. describes an 
episode which has become proverbial. While Nebuchad- 
nezzar was feasting, some mysterious handwriting ap- 
iseared on the wall of the banqueting-hall, which Daniel 
alone was able to exjjlain. In chapter vi. we learn how 
Daniel fell a victim to a plot devised by the nobles of 
King Darius, and how Daniel was cast into a den of 
lions, but was unharmed. Chapter vii. gives Daniel's 
account of his vision of the " four beasts," which are 
explained to mean four kingdoms. Chapter viii. gives the 
" horn " vision, in which, it is thought, the " little horn " 
represents Antiochus Eiiiphanes. Chapter ix. gives first 
a prayer of Daniel, and then the angel Gabriel's ex- 
planation of the seventy years of desolation predicted 
b.v Jeremiah, which is that they denote seventy " weeks 
of years." The book closes with a revelation concerning 
the future made to Daniel by an angel. Part of the 
Book of Daniel, as we have it, is in Aramaic (chapters 
ii. 4 6 — vii. 28). This has suggested to some scholars 
that originally the whole book was in Aramaic. J. D. 
Prince, on the other hand, thinks that originally the 
whole book was written in Hebrew and translated into 
Aramaic. Then part of the Hebrew original was lost, 
and the gap was filled from the Aramaic translation. 
In any ca.se, the style of the Book of Daniel is late, 
and there are other indications, internal and external, 
of lateness of date. The book uuist have been composed 
some centuries after the time of Nebuchadnezzar (605- 
562 B.C.). " It is practically certain that it was com- 
posed between the years 168 and 165 B.C., to encourage 
the faithful who were suffering in the persecution in- 
augurated by Antiochus Epiphanes " (G. H. Box). A. 
Kamphausen points out (Encycl. Bibl.) that the name 
Daniel is rare in the Old Testament. It is curious that 
in Ezra's time there was a priest named Daniel who 
had as his contemporaries a Mishael, an Azariah, and 
a Hananiah. This is " a coincidence of rare names 
which led Bleek to conjecture that our author had 
thrown back the contemporaries of Ezra by more than 
a century in order that he might represent them as 
living in the time of the ' exile ' at a heathen court, 
and showing an example to his countrymen under the 
oppression of the heathen." See Encycl. BiM.; S. R. 
Driver; C. Comill; G. H. Box; O. C. Whitehouse; and 
the Commentaries by J. D. Prince (1899) and S. R. 
Driver (1900). 

DANXI. Danu or Donu was the name of an ancient 
Celtic deity. The name is the Gaelic equivalent of the 
British D6n (g.v.). 

DARBYITES. The followers of John Nelson Darbv 
(1800-1882). In 1827 Darby became a Plymouth Brother. 
In 1847 he became the leader of a party within the 



community of the Plymouth Brethren. The Darbyites 
have also been called Separatists. See the D.N.B. 

DARU'L HARB. A name given by the Muhammadans 
to any country which belongs to infidels, and has not 
been subdued, or to " a country in which i)eace has not 
yet been proclaimed between Muslims and unl)elieverB." 
The expression means " The Land of Warfare." It is 
distinguished from " The Land of Islam " or Daru'l 
Islam (g.v.). See F. A. Klein. 

DARU'L ISLAM. A name given by the Muhammadans 
to one of the great divisions of the world. The ex- 
pression means " The Land of Isiam." It denotes any 
country which has been subdued by Islam, and in which 
the laws of Islam prevails. The opposite expression is 
'■ The Land of Warfare," or Daru'l Harb (g.v.). P. A. 
Klein explains that in certain circumstances the Land 
of Islam becomes again a Land of Warfare. " (1) When 
the country is governed according to tie laws of un- 
b(^lievers instead of the laws of Islam; (2) when the 
coimtry in question becomes joined to a Land of War- 
fare and no other Muslim country lies between them: 
(;j) when no more protection remains for either Muslim 
or Zimmi, though they had, at first, enjoyed protection 
when the country was conquered by Muslims." On the 
other hand, " the Land of Warfare becomes a Land of 
Isldm when the laws of Islam are promulgated in it 
and it is governed in accordance with the same, so that 
the Friday prayers and Muslim festivals are observed." 
SeeF. A. Klein. 

DaSARIS. a small caste of priests and mendicants 
in India. In the Central Provinces they are identified 
with the Satanis, but elsewhere they are regarded as 
distinct. " The Dasaris wander about, singing hymns 
to a monotonous accompaniment upon a leather instru- 
ment called tappai (perhaps a tabor). They are engaged 
by some Sudra castes to sing tlieir chants in front of 
the corpse at funerals. Others exhibit what is called 
the Panda sewai, that is, they become possessed by the 
deity and beat themselves over the body with a flaming 
torch " (R. V. Russell). 

DASODA. A Hindu goddess, the foster-mother of 
Krishna._ 

DATTaTRBYA. a Hindu deity, one of the two gods 
(the other being Krishna) worshipped by the Manbhaos, 
a caste in India, originally a religious sect or order. 

DAVIDISTS. The followers of David of Dinant in 
the thirteenth century. David of Dinant, of whom little 
is known, has been regarded as a disciple of Amalrich 
(see AMALRICIANS). Erdmann, however, thinks it 
more likely that David " received his inspiration and 
his pantheism from Moorish commentators of Aristotle. 
David's doctrines were condemned, with those of Amal- 
rich, at the Synod of Paris in 1209. He is said to have 
taught that " the materia prima, or the substratum of 
all corporeal things, the wows or the principle of all 
individual souls, and God or the source of the heavenly 
Essences, were one and the same, because they are in- 
distinguishable in being " (Puenjer). See B. Puenjer; 
J. E. Erdmann; J. H. Blunt. 

DAVIDISTS. One of the names of the followers of 
David Joris (or Joriszoon, i.e. Georgeson: c. 1501-1556). 
They were called also Jorists {g.v.). 

DaWAL MaLIK. A Muhammadan saint worshipped 
by the Dhanoje Kunbls. The Kunbis are the great 
agricultural caste of the Maratha country in India. In 
VVardha and Berar tlieir customs have been influenced 
by Islam. 

DAZBOGU. Dazbogu was one of the gods worshipped 
by the ancient Slavs. He was a solar deity. 

DEA DOMNANN. An ancient Irish goddess wor- 
shipped by the Celts or by the pre-Celtie population. 



Dea Gannangabis 



129 



Deluge=Story, Babylonian 



DEA GARMANGABIS. Dea Garmangabis, as appears 
from an inscription, was the name of a goddess wor- 
shipped by some of the Ancient Teutons. 

DEA HARIASA. It would seem from an inscription 
that Dea Hariasa was the name of a goddess worshipped 
by some of the Ancient Teutons. 

DEA HARIMELLA. Dea Harimella seems to have 
been a goddess worshipped by some of the Ancient 
Teutons. The name is found in an inscription. 

DBA VAGDAVEROUSTIS. Dea Vagdavereustis was 
the name of a goddess worshipi>ed by some of the An- 
cient Teutons. The name api>ears in an inscription. 

DBA VERCANA. The name appears in an inscription. 
The goddess, Dea Vercana. was worshipped, it would 
seem, by some of the ancient Teutons. 

DECALOGUE. Literally '• (the) ten words," a (ireek 
expression for the earliest collection of Hebrew laws. 
In Hebrew also they are called " the ten words." In 
English they are commonly known as the Ten Command 
ments. Two versions (Exodus xx. 1-17; Deuteronomy v. 
6-21) or more (Exodus xxxiv. 14-26) are given in the Old 
Testament, which differ from one another in certain 
details. It seems clear that " the fact of these differ- 
ences, if the argument from style were not sufficient to 
show it, points to the Decalogue having originally existed 
in a still shorter form. It argues also the freedom with 
which the compilers, the Elohist and the Deuteronomist. 
the one in the eighth or ninth, the other in the seventh 
century B.C., considered themselves at liberty to vary 
the form in which the fundamental Moral Code was 
transmitted. Both writers have introduced some touches 
of Individual style and colouring into the explanatorj' 
clauses of the longer commandments, e.g. fourth and 
fifth. They have not thereby impaired the substantial 
accuracy of their record; but, by leaving impressed upon 
the Decalogue itself the literary stamp of the age to 
which they respectively belonged, they showed as con- 
clusively as it was possible for them to show, that, in 
their days, the most sacred laws of Israel were not yet 
fenced about with any scrupulous regard for the letter 
apart from the spirit" (H. E. Ryle). W. E. Addis re- 
stores the decalogue of Exodus xx. as follows : 1. Thou 
Shalt have no other gods beside me; 2. Thou shalt not 
make unto thee any (graven) image; ;!. Thou shalt not 
take the name of .Jehovah tby God for a vain end : 4. 
Remember the sabbath day to hallow it; 5. Honour thy 
father and thy mother; 6. Thou shalt do no murder; 7. 
Thou shalt not c-ommit adultery; S. Thou shalt not 
steal; 9. Thou shalt not bear false witness against 
thy neighbour; 10. Thou .shalt not covet thy neigh- 
bour's hou.se. This decalogue belongs to about the 
middle of the eighth century B.C. But it is claime<l 
now that an older decalogue is found imbedded in 
ExoduK xxxiv. 10-2f>. J. Wellhausen has recon- 
structed this decalogue as follows: 1. Tliou shalt wor- 
ship no other god; 2. Thou shalt made thee no molten 
gods; 3. The feast of unleavened bread shalt thou keep: 
4. Rvi'i-y firstling is mine: .5. Thou shalt observe the 
feast of weeks; (i. And the feast of ingathering at the 
year's end; 7. Thou shall not offer the blood of my 
sacrifice with leaven; ,S. The fat of my feast shall not 
be left over till the morning; 9. The best of the first- 
fruits of thy land .shalt thou bring to the house of 
Jehovah thy God; 10. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in 
its mother's milk. See H. E. Ryle; C. A. Briggs, Hpt., 
1897; Encycl. Bibl. 

DECLARATION OF THE CONGREGATIONAL 
UNION OF ENGLAND AND WALES. A Confession 
of Faith which api>eared in 18.3.3 A.D. and sets forth 
the " Faith, Church Order, and Discipline of the Con- 
gregational or Independent Dissenters." The Declara- 



tion has maintained its place as the official manifesto 
of the Union. " It is prefaced by seven preliminary 
notes which disclaim for it technical or critical precision, 
deny the utility of creeds as bonds of union, admit the 
existence of differences of opinion within the Union, but 
claim a greater harmony than among Churches requiring 
subscription " (W. A. Curtis). See William A. Curtis. 

DECLARATION OF THORN. A Confession of Faith 
(1645 A.D.) recognised in Brandenburg and in Poland. 
" It was the Statement of Reformed Doctrine submitted 
to a Conference of Lutheran, Reformed, and Roman 
Catholic representatives, convened by the King of 
Poland, Vladislav IV., himself a Roman Catholic, in hope 
to allay his subjects' religious dissensions " (W. A. 
Curtis). 

DEPIXIONES. Leaden tablets used by the ancient 
Greeks. The tablets were Inscribed with the names of 
persons on whom an injury was invoked. They were 
" deflxed " or bound with a nail. The custom .spread 
to Italy ; and similar tablets have been found in England 
(London, Gloucestershire, Yorkshire). See P. B. Jevone 
in the Trans, of the 2'hird Internnt. Congress for the 
Hist, of Religions, 1908, vol. ii., pp. i:^l-139. 

DEISM. A term which has been used in various senses. 
" The term is now commonly applied to that view of the 
relation of God to the world which, in opposition to 
Atheism, affirms the exl.stence of God, and in opposi- 
tion to Pantheism, affirms the personal, independent, 
extra-mundane existence of God, but which at the same 
time, in opposition to Theism strictly .so called, denies 
the continuous, ever-present action of God upon the 
world and His activity in it " (B. Piinjer). Piinjer 
observes that the roots of Dei.sm, which was prepared for 
in politics by the doctrines of the Ijevellers and in 
philosophy by Francis Bacon, " lay in the sober, practi- 
cal, common-sense character of the English people, and 
its beginnings took their ri.se in the characteristic move- 
ment of tJie English Reformation." J. B. Bury (Hist, 
of Freedom of Thought) speaks of the English deists as 
doing memorable work by their polemic against the 
authority of revealed religion. " The controversy 
tx>tween the deists and their orthodox opix>nents turned 
ou the question whether the Deity of natural religion — 
the God who.se existence, as was thought, could be proved 
by reason — can be identified with the author of the 
Christian revelation. To the deists this seemed impos- 
sible. The nature of the alleged revelation seemed ineon- 
sis-teut with the character of the God to whom reason 
rwinted. The defenders of revelation, at least all the 
most competent, agreed with the deists in making rea.son 
.supreme, and through this reliance on reason some of 
Ihem fell into heresies. Clarke, for instance, one of the 
ablest, was very un.soimd on the dogma of the Trinity. 
It is also to be noticed that with both sections the interest 
of morality was the principal motive. The orthodox 
held that the reveale<l doctrine of future rewards and 
puni.shments is nece.s.sary for morality; the dei.sts. that 
morality depends on reason alone, and that revelation 
contains a great deal that is repugnant to moral ideals." 

DELUGE-STORY, BABYLONIAN. In the Baby- 
lonian Gilgamesh Epic (g.v.) Gilganiesh goes in search 
of Par-(w Ut-)napishtim to find out from him the secret of 
his immortality. Pamapishtim tells him that no man can 
escape death. Thereupon Gilgamesh asks how it is that 
he (Parnapi.shtim) has become immortal. In reply 
Pamapishtim tells him the .story of a flood from which, 
as by a miracle, he was delivered. The city Shurippak 
had become corrupt. The gods determined to bring a 
deluge upon it. Their resolution was procLiimed by 
Anu (<i.v.), Bel (g.v.), Ninib (q.v.). En-nugi. and Ea 
(q.v.). Pamapishtim is advised to build a ship and to 



Demai 



130 



Deuteronomy, Book of 



load it with living tilings of every kind. Ea tells liim 
to explain to the people that he is going to the " deep " 
to dwell with Ea, becaiise Bel. the god of earth, has cast 
him out. As for them, a deluge is oouiiug uixrn them. 
Parnapishtim builds a ship with six stories, and smears 
it without and within with bitumen. He then loads it 
with all that he has, with his family, silver, gold, cattle, 
etc. Wlien the deluge is about to come, he enters and 
shuts the door. Then Ramman ((i-v.) thunders, Dib- 
barra (g.v.), the god of war, lets loose his? forces, Ninib 
works himi5elf up into fury, the Anunnaki (rj.r.) make 
their torches flash. The gods themselves tremble at the 
.success of their activities. Ishtar (q.r.) groans like a 
woman in travail, and reiieuts of the evil that has been 
wrought. The gods weep with her. Not until the 
seventh day does the storm begin to cease. Parnapish- 
tim looks forth and weeps at the li.'ivoc tliat has been 
created, the disappearance of mankind. After a time 
the boat rests on Mount Nisir. Tlien Parnapi.shtim 
sends forth, first a dove, which returns, then a swallow, 
which returns, and finally a raven, which does not 
return. Parnapishtim now leaves the .ship and offers a 
sacrifice to the gods. Bel is not allowed to share in 
it, because he caused the deluge. He, for his part, is 
angry that anyone should have escaiied. He is told by 
Ninib that this is due to Ea. Ea reproves Bel, and 
admits that he saved Parnapishtim tor Adra-Khasis) by 
telling him in a dream the decision of the gods. At 
length Bel ds reconciled. He goes on board the ship 
and blesses Parnapishtim and his wife. He declarer 
that whereas before they were human, now they shall be 
gods. Pamapisbtim's dwelling shall be "at the con- 
fluence of the streams." See Morris Jastrow, Rel.; S. 
Reinaeh, O. 

DEMAI. The name of one of the Jewish treatises or 
tractates which reproduce the oral tradition or unwritten 
law as developed by the second century A.D., and are 
included in the Mishnah ((/.v.). a collection and compila- 
tion completed by Rabbi Judah the Holy, or the Patri- 
arch, about 200 A.D. The sixty-three tractates of the 
Mishnah are divided into six groups or orders (sedarim). 
Demai is the third tractate of the first group, which is 
called Zrrd'im (" Seeds "). 

DEMIURGE. A term used in Gnosticism (q.r.). The 
Demiurge is the creator of the visible universe. For 
this pur]x>se he is formed out of psychical substance by 
Hachamoth (q.v.). See VALENTINIANS. 

DERCBTO. A Syrian fish-goddess. According to 
lyucian, she was worshipped at Hierapolis. She is to be 
identified no doubt witli Atargatis, in whom, according 
to Garstang (The i^iirian Goddess, 1913), we have the 
embodiment of " that local aspect of the great Nature- 
goddess that typified the productive powers of waters 
(in generating fishes, etc.)." Derceto had other famous 
shrines at Camion and Askelon. She resembles the 
Cretan Britomartis. and would seem to have been 
imported from Crete bv the Philistines. 

DERVISHES, WHIRLING. The Mowlawiyeh, one of 
the Dervish orders, have been called the whirling 
derviishes on account of a sacred dance which they 
practice. In Constantinople it is practiised throughout 
the year, but in some places only during certain months. 
" The dancing is said to represent the revolving of the 
spheres as well as the circling movement of the soul 
caused by the vibration of its love to God. The part.ici- 
Iiants wear voluminous l>ell-shape<J skirts. After prayers 
led by the sheikh they file in stately procession before 
their master, reverentially saluting him with a low bow, 
each in turn. This function is repeated several times. 
Then follows the circling. When the dancer glides on to 
the floor his head is inclined and his arms are stretched 



out; the fingers of one hand are raised, those of the 
other are held drooping, symbolical of his being the 
medium of grace, received from heaven to be dispensed 
on earth. During the whirling the eyes are shut. As 
the pace increases the skirts .spread out around the dancer 
like a wheel or disk. When exhausted he takes a rest, 
but, again resuming, glides into the circle for another 
ix)und. On the floor there may be several dancing 
together or not more than one at a time. The dance 
may last, with brief pauses for prayer, for two hours, 
at the close of which the sheikh himself takes part " 
(F. J. Bliss). See T. P. Hughes: P. J. Bliss. 

DERVONNAB. Den'onnae, the oak-spirits, was the 
name given to some goddesses who were worshipi>ed as 
a group by the ancient Celt s. Another group was called 
Proximae^ (q.i-.). 

DESWaLI. a Hindu deity, god of the village, wor- 
.shipiwd by the Mundais (also called Kols or Hos), a large 
tribe in Chota Nagpur, India. 

DETERMINISM. The doctrine of Determinism is 
opposed to that of the Freedom of the Will. " There is 
a dogmatic determinism, which, in order to glorify the 
majesty of God, excludes all other causality from human 
action but God himself (Luther, Dp servo arbitiio); and 
there is a philosophical determinism, whieli explains all 
human actions as results of surrounding circumstances 
(La Mettrie). There is a fatalistic determinism, which 
places God him.self in the grip of an iron necessity (the 
ancient idea of Nemesis, Islam); and there is a pan- 
theistic determinism, which makes even the faintest 
gleam of human freedom vanish into the darkness of a 
natural process (the Hindoos, Stoicism, Spinoza) "— 
Schaff-Herzog. It has been maintained that Determinism 
is not the only alternative. Other alternatives are In- 
determinism (q-v.) and Self-determination (q.v.). See 
Schaff-Herzog; Arthur Butler; William James, The Will- 
to Believe, 1908. 

DEUTEROCANONICAL BOOKS. The Roman Catho- 
lic Church accepts (in accordance with the decrees of 
the Tridentine and Vatican Councils) certain books which 
are commonly regarded as apocryphal by other Christian 
Churches. Among.st these books are ; Tobit, Judith, 
Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus, Banich, I. and II. 
Maccabees. The Old Testament Apocrypha (q.v.) are 
regarded, together with the other books of the Old Testa- 
ment, as authoritative for dogmatic and ethical teaching. 
The Church of England, on the other hand, reads them 
" for example of life and instruction of manners, but yet 
doth it not apply them to establish any doctrine " 
(Article vi.). For convenience, however, since the six- 
teenth century Roman Catholics have used the expression 
" deuterocanonica 1 of certain books (mentioned above) 
which are not included in the Jewish Canon (see 
CANON), and were admitted after the other aiwcryphal 
books into the Canon (as understood by Roman 
Catholics) of the Christian Church. The term " proto- 
canonical " has been used of the books admitted earlier, 
but the use of the term is considered to be misleading 
and mistaken. See W. Sanday, /. 

DBUTERO-ISAIAH. In the Book of Isaiah, chapters 
xl.-lv. differ so considerably in language and style from 
chapters i.-xxxix. and Ivi.-lxvi. that they have been 
.iudged by critics to be of different date and authorship. 
The hi.storic background is also different. Chapters rl.- 
Iv. have therefore been designated Deutero-Isaiah to 
distinguish them from Isaiah (i.-xxxix.) and Trito- 
Isaiah (Ivi.-lxvi.). See ISAIAH, BOOK OF. 

DEUTERONOMY, BOOK OF. The Book of 
Deuteronomy, the fifth book in the first division of the 
Hebrew Canon of the Old Testament (q.i\). derives its 
name from the Septuagint, in which the words in 



Devak 



131 



Diatessaron of Tatian 



fliapter xvii. vs. IS, misliiieh liat-tOrah ha::-z6th, " the- 
copy of this law," are translated to detitrronomioti totito. 
Early Christian writers understood the term to mean 
either supplementary legislation or recapitulation of the 
law. G. P. Moore points out that to modem critics also 
it is the Second Legislation in the sense that it i.s au 
expansion and revi.sion of older c-ollections of laws such 
as the codes presetted in Exo<lus xxi.-xxiii., xxxiv. In 
the Hebrew Bible the book bears the title 'elleh had- 
debiirim (the opening words) or debarim. The book 
discovered in the temple In the eighteenth year of kins 
Josiah (022-t)21 B.C.) was not the whole Pentateuch, as 
nsetl to be thought, but an early edition of the Book of 
Deuteronomy, which did not comprise the whole of the 
present book (see BOOK OF THE LAW). Deuteronomy, 
as we have it, " contains the last injimetions and 
admonitions of Moses, delivered to Israel in the land of 
Moab, aa they were about to cross the Jordan to the 
conquest of Canaan; and with the exception of chaps, 
xxvii.. xxxi.. xxxiv., and a few verses elsewhere, is all 
in the form of address. It is not, however, one c-ou- 
tinuotis discourse, but consists of at least three distinct 
speeches (i.-iv. 40: v.-xxvi.; xxviii.; xxix. f.), together 
with two poems recited by Moses in the hearing of the 
people (xxxii. f.). The narrative chapters record doings 
and sayings of Moses in the last days of his life, 
and are more or less closely connected with the 
speecfhes " (G. P. Moore). Only in a few sections do we 
detect the sources (.TE and P) which have been so largely 
used in the other books of the Hexateuci. Deuteronomy 
has a thought, diction, and style of its own, which 
powerfully influenced a whole school of subsequent 
writers. This influence is manifest in the Books of 
Joshua, Judges, Kings, etc. The many resemblances 
between Deuteronomy and the Book of Jeremiah suggest 
either that the two books were produced at about the 
.same time, or that Jeremiah was familiar with the 
ancient Deuteronomy, or even that he was the author of 
Deuteronomy. According to Moore, evidence of every 
kind " concurs to prove that the primitive Deuteronomy 
was a product of the seventh century." It seems to 
have been written at Jerusalem, both priests and 
prophets co-operating in its production. Moore thinks 
the book "will ever stand as one of the noblest mouu- 
ment.s of the religion of Israel, and as one of the most 
noteworthy attempts in history to regulate the whole life 
of a people by its highest religiotis principles." To P 
(the Priestly Writer) have been assigned i. 3, xxxii. 48-52; 
xxxiv. la, 56, 7-9; to JE earlier fragments, xxvii. 5-"a, 
xxxi. 14, 15, xxxi. 2.3, xxxiii., xxxiv. la, Ib-oo, 6, 10. To 
D (the First Deuteronomic Writer) have been assigned 
i. 1/., i. 4-iii. IS; hi. IS-iv. 2.S; iv. 32-40; v. 1-xxvi. 19; 
xxvii. 9/.; xxviii. 1-xxix. S; xxx. 11-20; xxxi. 1-13: 
xxxi. 24-27; xxxii. 4.5-47; to D^ (Second Deuteronomic 
Writer) iii. 14-17; iv. 29-31: iv. 41-49; xxvii. 1-4; xxvii. 
76-,S; xxvii. 11-26; xxix. 9-28; xxx. 1-10; xxxi. 16-22; 
xxxi. 28-30; xxxiv. 11/. The Second Deuteronomic 
Writer would seem to have followed some time after tie 
First. See Moore in EnciicJ. BihJ.; S. R. Driver, Dent., 
in I.C.C.; J. E. Carpenter and G. Harford-Battersbv, Thv 
Hexateiich. 1900: W. R. Harper, The Pricatly Element in 
the O.T.. 1905; C. P. Kent, Israel's Laws, 1907; G. H. 
Box; O. C. Whitehouse. 

DEVAK. A family god among the Riimosis, a criminal 
tribe of the Bombay Presidency. The Devak is repre- 
sented usually by a tree or a bunch of the leaves of 
.several trees. 

DEVI. A Hindu goddess, the earth-goddess, one of 
the names of the consort of Siva. 

DEWaKI. a Hindu goddess, supposed to have been 
the mother of Kri-shna. 



pHAMIS. A Hindu sect, founded by one Prannath, 
who flourished towards the end of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. The founder's followers are known also as Pran- 
nathi, and as Sathi Bhai, brothers in religion, or Bhai, 
brothers. The name Dhami is derived from dhdtn. a 
monastery. The home of the sect was in the Panna 
State of Bundelkhand. The great object of the founder 
was to amalgamate the two religions of Islam and 
Hinduism. He supplied his followers with a book of 
faith called the Kulzam Sarup. In lhis were collected 
texts from the Koran and the Vedas. The book is sup- 
I>osed to be the only material obiect of wor.ship. It is 
placed in all temples, and round it "a lighted lamp is 
waved in the morning and evening" (Russell and HIra 
L.al). In practice, it is said, they worship the boy 
Krishna. The Dhamis are strict vegetarians. Their 
jiriests are also celibates. The sect has adherents in 
Nepal, where they are known as Pranami or Pamami 
See R. V. Russell, vol. i., 1916. 

DHAMMAI'ADA. A Buddhist sacred book, a kind of 
hymn-book, included in the collection appended to the 
second divi-sion of the Canon. See CANON, BUDDHIST 

DHAMMASAMGANI. A Buddhist sacred book in the 
third division of the Canou. See CANON, BUDDHIST. 

DHARMES. A Hindu deity, the supreme god of the 
Oraons, an important Dravidian tribe in India, the 
members of which work as farm servants and labourers. 
The Oraons sacrifice to him a white cock. " They think 
that god is too good to punish them, and that they are 
not answerable to him in any way for their conduct: 
they believe that everjbody will be treated in the same 
way in the other world. There is no hell for them or 
place of puni.shment, but everybody will go to merkha 
or heaven " (Father P. Dehoii, quoted by R. V. Russell). 

DHARNI, An Indian deity, worshipped aa the 
goddess of good health by the Gadbas, a primitive tribe 
belonging to the Vizagapatam District of Madras. 

DHARTI MaTA. An Indian deity. Mother Earth. 
The Baigas regard her as the wife of Thakur Deo, and 
propitiate her for the sake of the crops. 

DHATUKATHA. A Buddhist sacred book in the third 
division of the Canon. See CANON, BUDDHIST. 

DIANKET. An ancient Irish deity. Dianket or 
Diancecht was the god of medicine. Legend relates 
that he was jealous of his own son and killed him. 
When on his eon's grave there sprang up three hundred 
and sixty-five healing herbs. Dianket spitefullv mixed 
them all up in utter confusion. He seems to have been 
equivalent to the god who was worshipped by the natives 
of Gaul as Apollo. 

DIATESSARON OF TATIAN. Literally "Through 
Four." the Greek name of a Harmonv of the (Jospels 
made by Tatian (second century). The name indicates 
that four Gospels were used. The question has arisen : 
Were they our four canonical (Jospels? The Gospel to 
the Hebrews, for instance, might have been used and 
not the (Jo-spel of John. Dr. C. R. Gregory, however, 
points out that as a matter of fact Tatian begins with 
verses from the Go.spel of .John. The Harmony gave 
the gospel in a very convenient form, and was trans- 
lated into Syriac and other languages. It was widely 
used. Tlieodoret (390-457 A.D.), as quoted bv Gregory, 
refers to it thus : " This one [Tatian] also put together 
the Gospel called Diates.saron. not only cutting away the 
genealogies, but also the other things so far as they show 
that the Lord was bom from the seed of David after the 
flesh. And not only the people of his .society u.sed this, 
but also those who follow the apostolical dogmas, not 
having known the evil tendency of the composition, but 
using it in simplicity as a short book. And I found 
more than two hundred such books held in honour in the 



Dibbarra Epic 



132 



Disciplinarians 



Churches among us, and gathering them aU together I 
put them aside, and introduced instead of them the 
Gospels of the four evangelists." The Diatessaron wa,s 
not in favour with the orthodoi:, because its author 
became a kind of Gnostic. But, as Dr. Gregory says, 
" from Theodoret's description it is perfectly clear that 
only our four Gospels were used in the Diatessaron. He 
would have pounced like a vulture on any sign of an 
apocryphal Gospel in it." The Diatessaron of Tatian, 
which was translated from a Syriac text into Arabic, 
"did a long service, and will certainly not have cor- 
rupted the Christianity of any reader, much as Theodoret 
was exercised about its use in the Churches near him." 
Bphraem the Syrian {d. 373) wrote a commentary on the 
work. .Tames Aphraates, another Syrian writer, who 
lived about the middle of the fourth century, also com- 
mented on it. " As handed down an Arabic, it differs, 
both in text and in arrangement, from the text com- 
mented on by Ephraem; and both of these differ from the 
text commented on by Aphxaates " (E. A. Abbott in 
Encycl. BiM., s.v. " Gospels," § 107). The explanation 
seems to be that "at a very early period the Diatessaron 
was revised in the interests of orthodoxy." See C. R. 
Gregory. 

DIBBARRA EPIC. Dibbarra or more correctly Gir- 
ra is a Babylonian deity. He was a god of war and 
pestilence, a .solar deity who in course of time came to 
be identified with Nergal (q.v.). In the Epic of Dib- 
barra he figures as the warrior, the god of war. He is 
attended by the god Ishum (g.v.). who describes his 
deeds. Dibbara sends a " governor " to attack Babylon. 
He is to kill young and old alike. Through the power 
of Dibbarra great slaughter is executed in the city. The 
blood of the inhabitants, the " servitors of Ann and 
Dagan," flows like water. On another occasion Dib- 
barra afflicts Uruk. The just and the unjust suffer 
alike. Then Ishum proposes a war against the gods, 
and of men against men, a kind of Armageddon (q.v.^. 
Dibbarra consents. Country shall fight against country, 
house against house, man against man, brother against 
brother. Afterwards the Akkadian shall come and con- 
quer all. By the Akkadian Hammurapi seems to be 
meant. After Dibbarra has wrought great havoc, Ishum 
seeks to appease his wrath. His entreaties are success- 
ful, and Dibbarra promises to bless those who acknow- 
ledge his power, praise, and honour him. The Baby- 
lonians seem to have hung an their houses tablets on 
which Dibbarra was glorified. See Morris Jastrow, Rel., 
and cp. Oiv. 

DIDACHE. A shortened form (the first Greek word) 
of the title of " The Teaching of the Ivord by the Twelve 
Apostles to the Gentiles," an early Christian work 
(probably written before 100 A.D.), discovered by Bishop 
Philotheus Brj-ennios in the library of the .Jerusalem 
Monastery of The Most Holy Sepulchre in the Phanar of 
Constantinople. 

DIGAMBARAS. The Digambaras or " sky-attire 
men " are one of the two main bodies into which the 
.Tains (q.i\) have .split up. They were so called because 
on principle they refused to wear any clothing. They 
argued that where there is no sin, there can be no shame. 

DIGHANIKAYA. One of the Buddhist eacred books 
in the second division of the Canon. See CANOX. 
BUDDHIST. 

DIKTYNNA. A Cretan goddess. 

DIMOERITAE. Dimoeritae .seems to have been 
another name for the followers of Apollinarius. 
Epiphanius called the Apollinarians Dimoeritae because. 
of the three parts that constitute perfect humanity 
(soma, psuche, nous), they held that Jesus a«9sumed only 



two (dimoiria). Epiphanius says that "some (heretics) 
denied especially the perfect Incarnation of Christ, some 
asserted Hie Body consnbstantial with His divinity, some 
emphatically denied that He had ever taken a soul ; 
others not less emphatically refu.sed to Him a mind " 
(Haer Ixxvii.). J.